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Sample records for al cr cu

  1. Comparison of the Isothermal Oxidation Behavior of As-Cast Cu-17%Cr and Cu-17%Cr-5%Al. Part 1; Oxidation Kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj. Sai V.

    2008-01-01

    The isothermal oxidation kinetics of as-cast Cu-17%Cr and Cu-17%Cr-5%Al in air were studied between 773 and 1173 K under atmospheric pressure. These observations reveal that Cu- 17%Cr-5%Al oxidizes at significantly slower rates than Cu-17%Cr. The rate constants for the alloys were determined from generalized analyses of the data without an a priori assumption of the nature of the oxidation kinetics. Detailed analyses of the isothermal thermogravimetric weight change data revealed that Cu-17%Cr exhibited parabolic oxidation kinetics with an activation energy of 165.9 +/- 9.5 kJ/mol. In contrast, the oxidation kinetics for the Cu-17%Cr- 5%Al alloy exhibited a parabolic oxidation kinetics during the initial stages followed by a quartic relationship in the later stages of oxidation. Alternatively, the oxidation behavior of Cu-17%CR- 5%Al could be better represented by a logarithmic relationship. The parabolic rate constants and activation energy data for the two alloys are compared with literature data to gain insights on the nature of the oxidation mechanisms dominant in these alloys.

  2. Comparison of the Isothermal Oxidation Behavior of As-Cast Cu-17 Percent Cr and Cu-17 Percent Cr-5 Percent Al. Part 1; Oxidation Kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    The isothermal oxidation kinetics of as-cast Cu-17%Cr and Cu-17%Cr-5%Al in air were studied between 773 and 1173 K under atmospheric pressure. These observations reveal that Cu-17%Cr-5%Al oxidizes at significantly slower rates than Cu-17%Cr. The rate constants for the alloys were determined from generalized analyses of the data without an a priori assumption of the nature of the oxidation kinetics. Detailed analyses of the isothermal thermogravimetric weight change data revealed that Cu-17%Cr exhibited parabolic oxidation kinetics with an activation energy of 165.9+/-9.5 kJ/mol. In contrast, the oxidation kinetics for the Cu-17%Cr-5%Al alloy exhibited a parabolic oxidation kinetics during the initial stages followed by a quartic relationship in the later stages of oxidation. Alternatively, the oxidation behavior of Cu-17%CR-5%Al could be better represented by a logarithmic relationship. The parabolic rate constants and activation energy data for the two alloys are compared with literature data to gain insights on the nature of the oxidation mechanisms dominant in these alloys.

  3. Comparison of the Isothermal Oxidation Behavior of As-Cast Cu-17%Cr and Cu-17%Cr-5%Al. Part 1; Oxidation Kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj. Sai V.

    2008-01-01

    The isothermal oxidation kinetics of as-cast Cu-17%Cr and Cu-17%Cr-5%Al in air were studied between 773 and 1173 K under atmospheric pressure. These observations reveal that Cu- 17%Cr-5%Al oxidizes at significantly slower rates than Cu-17%Cr. The rate constants for the alloys were determined from generalized analyses of the data without an a priori assumption of the nature of the oxidation kinetics. Detailed analyses of the isothermal thermogravimetric weight change data revealed that Cu-17%Cr exhibited parabolic oxidation kinetics with an activation energy of 165.9 9.5 kJ mol-1. In contrast, the oxidation kinetics for the Cu-17%Cr- 5%Al alloy exhibited a parabolic oxidation kinetics during the initial stages followed by a quartic relationship in the later stages of oxidation. Alternatively, the oxidation behavior of Cu-17%CR- 5%Al could be better represented by a logarithmic relationship. The parabolic rate constants and activation energy data for the two alloys are compared with literature data to gain insights on the nature of the oxidation mechanisms dominant in these alloys.

  4. New type of Schottky diode-based Cu-Al-Mn-Cr shape memory material films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksu Canbay, C.; Dere, A.; Mensah-Darkwa, Kwadwo; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed; Karagoz Genç, Z.; Gupta, R. K.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2016-07-01

    Cr-doped CuAlMn shape memory alloys were produced by arc melting method. The effects of Cr content on microstructure and transformation parameters of were investigated. The alloys were characterized by X-ray analysis, optical microscope observations and differential scanning calorimetry measurements. The grain size of the alloys was decreased by the addition of Cr into CuAlMn alloy system. The martensite transformation temperature was shifted both the lower temperature and higher temperature with the addition of chromium. This change was explained on the basis of the change in the thermodynamics such as enthalpy, entropy and activation energy values. The obtained results indicate that the phase transformation temperatures of the CuAlMn alloy system can be controlled by addition of Cr. We fabricated a Schottky barrier diode and observed that ideality factor and barrier height increase with increasing temperature. The diodes exhibited a thermal sensor behavior. This indicates that Schottky diode-based Cu-Al-Mn-Cr shape memory material films can be used as a sensor in high-temperature measurement applications.

  5. Structural and magnetic characterization of the complete delafossite solid solution (CuAlO₂)₁-x(CuCrO₂)x.

    PubMed

    Barton, Phillip T; Seshadri, Ram; Knöller, Andrea; Rosseinsky, Matthew J

    2012-01-11

    We have prepared the complete delafossite solid solution series between diamagnetic CuAlO(2) and the t(2g)(3)frustrated antiferromagnet CuCrO(2). The evolution with composition x in CuAl(1-x)Cr(x)O(2) of the crystal structure and magnetic properties has been studied and is reported here. The room-temperature unit cell parameters follow the Végard law and increase with x as expected. The μ(eff) is equal to the Cr(3+) spin-only S = 3/2 value throughout the entire solid solution. Θ(CW) is negative, indicating that the dominant interactions are antiferromagnetic, and its magnitude increases with Cr substitution. For dilute Cr compositions, the nearest-neighbor exchange coupling constant J(BB) was estimated by mean-field theory to be 3.0 meV. Despite the sizable Θ(CW), long-range antiferromagnetic order does not develop until x is almost 1, and is preceded by glassy behavior. The data presented here, and those on dilute Al substitution from Okuda et al, suggest that the reduction in magnetic frustration due to the presence of non-magnetic Al does not have as dominant an effect on magnetism as chemical disorder and dilution of the magnetic exchange. For all samples, the 5 K isothermal magnetization does not saturate in fields up to 5 T and minimal hysteresis is observed. The presence of antiferromagnetic interactions is clearly evident in the sub-Brillouin behavior with a reduced magnetization per Cr atom. An inspection of the scaled Curie plot reveals that significant short-range antiferromagnetic interactions occur in CuCrO(2) above its Néel temperature, consistent with its magnetic frustration. Uncompensated short-range behavior is present in the Al-substituted samples and is likely a result of chemical disorder. PMID:22133702

  6. Band structure calculations of CuAlO2, CuGaO2, CuInO2, and CuCrO2 by screened exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillen, Roland; Robertson, John

    2011-07-01

    We report density functional theory band structure calculations on the transparent conducting oxides CuAlO2, CuGaO2, CuInO2, and CuCrO2. The use of the hybrid functional screened-exchange local density approximation (sX-LDA) leads to considerably improved electronic properties compared to standard LDA and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) approaches. We show that the resulting electronic band gaps compare well with experimental values and previous quasiparticle calculations, and show the correct trends with respect to the atomic number of the cation (Al, Ga, In). The resulting energetic depths of Cu d and O p levels and the valence-band widths are considerable improvements compared to LDA and GGA and are in good agreement with available x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data. Lastly, we show the calculated imaginary part of the dielectric function for all four systems.

  7. Characterization and CO oxidation activity of Cu/Cr/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Park, P.W.; Ledford, J.S.

    1998-03-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used to characterize a series of Cu/Cr/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts prepared by stepwise incipient wetness impregnation of first chromium followed by copper (designated CuCry). The copper loading was held constant at 8 wt% CuO, and chromium loadings were varied from 0 to 20 wt% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The information obtained from surface and bulk characterization has been correlated with the CO oxidation activity of the catalysts. XPS and XRD results of analogous Cry indicated that the Cr dispersion decreased and the concentration of Cr{sup 3+} species increased with increasing Cr content. The decrease in Cu dispersion of CuCry with increasing Cr content has been attributed to the formation of large crystalline CuO and CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Copper addition decreased the Cr dispersion by reacting selectively with a dispersed Cr{sup 3+} species to form CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} species. However, the Cu addition did not affect the Cr oxidation state distribution compared to that of Cry. For low Cr loading CuCry catalysts (Cr/Al {le} 0.027), the CO oxidation activity increased with increasing Cr content due to the formation of crystalline CuO on the Cr-modified alumina. This has been attributed to the inhibition of Cu ion diffusion into alumina lattice vacancies by highly dispersed chromium species. The CuCry catalyst of Cr/Al = 0.054 showed the highest CO oxidation activity due to the formation of CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} which was more active than the CuO phase. For Cr-rich catalysts (Cr/Al {ge} 0.080), the decrease in CO oxidation activity has been ascribed to the encapsulation of the active site with Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} species.

  8. Comparison of the Isothermal Oxidation Behavior of As-Cast Cu-17 Percent Cr and Cu-17 Percent Cr-5 Percent Al. Part 2; Scale Microstructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    The isothermal oxidation kinetics of as-cast Cu-17%Cr and Cu-17%Cr-5%Al in air were studied between 773 and 1173 K under atmospheric pressure. Details of the oxidation kinetics of these alloys were discussed in Part I. This paper analyzes the microstructures of the scale and its composition in an attempt to elucidate the oxidation mechanisms in these alloys. The scales formed on Cu-17%Cr specimens oxidized between 773 and 973 K consisted of external CuO and subsurface Cu2O layers. The total thickness of these scales varied from about 10 m at 773 K to about 450 m at 973 K. In contrast, thin scales formed on Cu-17%Cr-5%Al alloys oxidized between 773 and 1173 K. The exact nature of these scales could not be determined by x-ray diffraction but energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses were used to construct a scale composition map. Phenomenological oxidation mechanisms are proposed for the two alloys.

  9. Comparison of the Isothermal Oxidation Behavior of As-Cast Cu-17 Percent Cr and Cu-17 Percent Cr-5 Percent Al Part II: Scale Microstructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Sai V.

    2008-01-01

    The isothermal oxidation kinetics of as-cast Cu-17%Cr and Cu-17%Cr-5%Al in air were studied between 773 and 1173 K under atmospheric pressure. Details of the oxidation kinetics of these alloys were discussed in Part I. This paper analyzes the microstructures of the scale and its composition in an attempt to elucidate the oxidation mechanisms in these alloys. The scales formed on Cu-17%Cr specimens oxidized between 773 and 973 K consisted of external CuO and subsurface Cu2O layers. The total thickness of these scales varied from about 10 m at 773 K to about 450 m at 973 K. In contrast, thin scales formed on Cu-17%Cr-5%Al alloys oxidized between 773 and 1173 K. The exact nature of these scales could not be determined by x-ray diffraction but energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses were used to construct a scale composition map. Phenomenological oxidation mechanisms are proposed for the two alloys.

  10. Energetic igniters realized by integrating Al/CuO reactive multilayer films with Cr films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Peng; Shen, Ruiqi; Ye, Yinghua; Zhou, Xiang; Hu, Yan

    2011-10-01

    This paper deals with the energetic igniters realized by integrating Al/CuO reactive multilayer films (RMFs) with Cr Films, which could be used in micro-ignition system. The as-deposited Al/CuO RMFs has been characterized with varied analytical techniques. Results show that distinct Al/CuO RMFs is sputter deposited in a layered geometry, and the Al/CuO RMFs gives a heat of reaction equal to 2760 J/g. The structure of igniter is similar to a capacitor, which may place an electric field across the igniter and allow the instantaneous large-current to drift through the igniter. Firing characteristics of the igniter were accomplished using constant voltage firing set. The experiment shows that the ignition delay time and total released energy of the igniter discharged in 40 V are 0.7 ms and 482.34 mJ, respectively. In addition, the explosion temperature could keep an approximately constant value of 3500 °C for 1.4 ms.

  11. Effect of Cr on Microstructure and Properties of a Series of AlTiCr x FeCoNiCu High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Anmin; Ma, Ding; Zheng, Qifeng

    2014-04-01

    A series of AlTiCr x FeCoNiCu ( x: molar ratio, x = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5) high-entropy alloys (HEAs) were prepared by vacuum arc furnace. These alloys consist of α-phase, β-phase, and γ-phase. These phases are solid solutions. The structure of α-phase and γ-phase is face-centered cubic structure and that of β-phase is body-centered cubic (BCC) structure. There are four typical cast organizations in these alloys such as petal organization (α-phase), chrysanthemum organization (α-phase + β-phase), dendrite (β-phase), and inter-dendrite (γ-phase). The solidification mode of these alloys is affected by Chromium. If γ-phase is not considered, AlTiCr0.5FeCoNiCu and AlTiCrFeCoNiCu belong to hypoeutectic alloys; AlTiCr1.5FeCoNiCu, AlTiCr2.0FeCoNiCu, and AlTiCr2.5FeCoNiCu belong to hypereutectic alloys. The cast organizations of these alloys consist of pro-eutectic phase and eutectic structure (α + β). Compact eutectic structure and a certain amount of fine β-phase with uniform distribution are useful to improve the microhardness of the HEAs. More γ-phase and the microstructure with similar volume ratio values of α-phase and β-phase improve the compressive strength and toughness of these alloys. The compressive fracture of the series of AlTiCr x FeCoNiCu HEAs shows brittle characteristics, suggesting that these HEAs are brittle materials.

  12. Electrochemical deposition and microstructural characterization of AlCrFeMnNi and AlCrCuFeMnNi high entropy alloy thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soare, V.; Burada, M.; Constantin, I.; Mitrică, D.; Bădiliţă, V.; Caragea, A.; Târcolea, M.

    2015-12-01

    Al-Cr-Fe-Mn-Ni and Al-Cr-Cu-Fe-Mn-Ni high entropy alloy thin films were prepared by potentiostatic electrodeposition and the microstructure of the deposits was investigated. The thin films were co-deposited in an electrolyte based on a DMF (N,N-dimethylformamide)-CH3CN (acetonitrile) organic compound. The energy dispersive spectrometry investigation (EDS) indicated that all the five respectively six elements were successfully co-deposited. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that the film consists of compact and uniform particles with particle sizes of 500 nm to 4 μm. The X-ray diffractometry (XRD) patterns indicated that the as-deposited thin films were amorphous. Body-centered-cubic (BCC) structures were identified by XRD after the films were annealed at various temperatures under inert Ar atmosphere. The alloys adhesion on the substrate was determined by the scratch-testing method, with higher values obtained for the Al-Cr-Cu-Fe-Mn-Ni alloy.

  13. The band structure-matched and highly spin-polarized Co{sub 2}CrZ/Cu{sub 2}CrAl Heusler alloys interface

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, V.; Han, G.; Qiu, J.; Feng, Y. P.

    2009-11-16

    Here we present a lattice- and band-matched nonmagnetic L21 Heusler alloy spacer for Co{sub 2}CrZ Heusler alloys where Z=Si or Al. By first principle calculations, we find that the band structure matching is almost perfectly satisfied when they are interfaced with Cu{sub 2}CrAl. Despite the loss of half-metallicity due to interface states, our calculations show that the spin polarization at these band-matched (001) interfaces is higher than 80%. These lattice-matched Co{sub 2}CrZ/Cu{sub 2}CrAl interfaces with excellent band matching and enhanced spin scattering asymmetry are promising for all-metallic current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance device applications.

  14. Characterization of Cold Sprayed CuCrAl-Coated and Uncoated GRCop-84 Substrates for Space Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Karthikeyan, J.; Lerch, B. A.; Barrett, C.; Garlich, R.

    2007-01-01

    A newly developed Cu-23(wt.%)Cr-5%Al (CuCrAl) alloy is currently being considered as a protective coating for GRCop-84 (Cu-8(at.%)Cr-4%Nb). The coating was deposited on GRCop-84 substrates by the cold spray deposition technique. Cyclic oxidation tests conducted in air on both coated and uncoated substrates between 773 and 1073 K revealed that the coating remained intact and protected the substrate up to 1073 K. No significant weight loss of the coated specimens were observed at 773 and 873 K even after a cumulative cyclic time of 500 h. In contrast, the uncoated substrate lost as much as 80% of its original weight under similar test conditions. Low cycle fatigue tests revealed that the fatigue lives of thinly coated GRCop-84 specimens were similar to the uncoated specimens within the limits of experimental scatter. It is concluded that the cold sprayed CuCrAl coating is suitable for protecting GRCop-84 substrates.

  15. Structural and magnetic characterization of the complete delafossite solid solution (CuAlO2)1-x(CuCrO2)x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Phillip T.; Seshadri, Ram; Knöller, Andrea; Rosseinsky, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    We have prepared the complete delafossite solid solution series between diamagnetic CuAlO2 and the t2g3frustrated antiferromagnet CuCrO2. The evolution with composition x in CuAl1-xCrxO2 of the crystal structure and magnetic properties has been studied and is reported here. The room-temperature unit cell parameters follow the Végard law and increase with x as expected. The μeff is equal to the Cr3+ spin-only S = 3/2 value throughout the entire solid solution. ΘCW is negative, indicating that the dominant interactions are antiferromagnetic, and its magnitude increases with Cr substitution. For dilute Cr compositions, the nearest-neighbor exchange coupling constant JBB was estimated by mean-field theory to be 3.0 meV. Despite the sizable ΘCW, long-range antiferromagnetic order does not develop until x is almost 1, and is preceded by glassy behavior. The data presented here, and those on dilute Al substitution from Okuda et al, suggest that the reduction in magnetic frustration due to the presence of non-magnetic Al does not have as dominant an effect on magnetism as chemical disorder and dilution of the magnetic exchange. For all samples, the 5 K isothermal magnetization does not saturate in fields up to 5 T and minimal hysteresis is observed. The presence of antiferromagnetic interactions is clearly evident in the sub-Brillouin behavior with a reduced magnetization per Cr atom. An inspection of the scaled Curie plot reveals that significant short-range antiferromagnetic interactions occur in CuCrO2 above its Néel temperature, consistent with its magnetic frustration. Uncompensated short-range behavior is present in the Al-substituted samples and is likely a result of chemical disorder.

  16. Cyclic Oxidation Behavior of Cold Sprayed CuCrAl-Coated and Uncoated GRCop-84 Substrates for Space Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Barrett, C.; Karthikeyan, J.; Garlick, R.

    2006-01-01

    A newly developed Cu-23 (wt %) Cr-5%Al (CuCrAl) alloy shown to resist hydridation and oxidation in an as-cast form is currently being considered as a protective coating for GRCop-84, which is an advanced copper alloy containing 8 (at.%) Cr and 4 (at.%) Nb. The coating was deposited on GRCop-84 substrates by the cold spray deposition technique. Cyclic oxidation tests conducted in air on both coated and uncoated substrates between 773 and 1073 K revealed that the coating remained intact and protected the substrate up to 1073 K. No significant weight loss of the coated specimens were observed at 773 and 873 K even after a cumulative cyclic time of 500 h. About a 10 percent weight loss observed at 973 and 1073 K was attributed to the excessive oxidation of the uncoated sides. In contrast, the uncoated substrate lost as much as 80 percent of its original weight under similar test conditions. It is concluded that the cold sprayed CuCrAl coating is suitable for protecting GRCop-84 substrates.

  17. Effect of Aluminum Content on Plasma-Nitrided Al x CoCrCuFeNi High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wei-Yeh; Yeh, Jien-Wei

    2009-06-01

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) Al x CoCrCuFeNi with different aluminum contents ( x = 0 to 1.8) were plasma nitrided at 525 °C for 45 hours with an aim to develop wear-resistant structural parts. The nitrided layer comprises a well-nitrided dendrite phase and an un-nitrided Cu-rich interdendrite phase. Surface hardening is a result of the formation of various nitrides in the nitrided dendrite: CrN, Fe4N, and AlN. With increasing aluminum content, the hardness of the nitrided layer increases due to the increased amount of hard AlN phase and the increased volume fraction of bcc phase being harder than the fcc one. The nitrided layer thickness shows an apparent decrease with the increasing aluminum content of the alloy. The present alloy system provides a wide range of substrate hardness from Hv 170 to 560 before nitriding, which even becomes harder by around Hv 30 after nitriding. For Al0.5CoCrCuFeNi alloy having the highest surface hardness of Hv 1300, a layer thickness of 23 μm, and a substrate hardness of Hv 300, an adhesive wear test confirms its superior wear resistance as being 17 times that of the un-nitrided samples.

  18. Structural and magnetic characterization of the complete delafossite solid solution (CuAlO2)1-x(CuCrO2)x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Phillip; Seshadri, Ram; Knöller, Andrea; Rosseinsky, Matthew

    2012-02-01

    We have prepared the complete delafossite solid solution between diamagnetic CuAlO2 and the t2g^3 frustrated antiferromagnet CuCrO2. The crystal structure and magnetism were studied with powder x-ray diffraction and magnetometry. The unit cell parameters follow the V'egard law and μeff is equal to the Cr^3+ spin-only S = 3/2 value. θCW is negative and its magnitude increases with Cr substitution. For dilute Cr compositions, JBB was estimated by mean-field theory to be 3.0,eV. Despite the sizable θCW, long-range antiferromagnetic order does not develop until x is almost 1, and is preceeded by glassy behavior. For all samples, the 5,isothermal magnetization is sub-Brillouin and does not saturate in fields up to 5,. A scaled inverse susceptibility plot reveals that significant short-range antiferromagnetic interactions occur in CuCrO2 above its N'eel temperature. Additionally, the Al-substituted samples exhibit uncompensated short-range behavior and x = 0.75 shows glassy characteristics. It is suggested that reduction in magnetic frustration due to the presence of non-magnetic Al does not have as dominant an effect on magnetism as do chemical disorder and dilution of magnetic exchange.

  19. Impact of CrSiTi and NiSi on the Thermodynamics, Microstructure, and Properties of AlCoCuFe-Based High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Rong; Wang, Zhao-Qin; Lin, Tie-Song; He, Peng; Sekulic, Dusan P.

    2016-05-01

    Aiming to solve the problem of spontaneous combustion on titanium via electrospark deposition (ESD), two AlCoCuFe-based high-entropy alloys (HEAs), AlCoCuFe- x ( x = CrSiTi, NiSi), were produced by vacuum arc melting as electrodes in ESD process. The thermodynamic analysis of AlCoCuFe-based HEAs were carried out using the concept of mixing enthalpy matrix and a powerful thermodynamic calculation toolbox (HEA-Thermo-Calcu). The microstructure and mechanical properties of the two alloys were investigated. The AlCoCuFeCrSiTi alloy contains a body-centered cubic (BCC) phase and a face-centered cubic (FCC) phase. The AlCoCuFeNiSi alloy is composed of two BCC phases and an FCC phase. Addition of CrSiTi and NiSi to AlCoCuFe-based alloys makes the enthalpy of mixing to be sizably more negative than for the other AlCoCuFe-based HEAs. Notwithstanding the fact that the thermodynamic parameters do not agree with Yang's proposition, the two alloys form simple solid solutions. The electronegativity difference (Δ χ) favors a formation of the solid solution when Δχ ≤ 14.2. The hardness of AlCoCuFe- x ( x = CrSiTi, NiSi) alloys reaches 935 HV and 688 HV, respectively. The yield strength, fracture strength, and ultimate strain of AlCoCuFeNiSi are larger, i.e., 29, 30, and 45%, respectively, than those of the AlCoCuFeCrSiTi alloy.

  20. Influence cobalt on microstructural and hardness property of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Fe-Cr-Ni P/ M alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeem, Haider T.; Mohammad, Kahtan S.; Hussin, Kamarudin; Rahmat, Azim; Bashirom, Nurhuda

    2015-05-01

    In this study, influence cobalt additives on the microstructural and hardness properties of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Fe-Cr-Ni PM alloy undergone the retrogression and re-aging treatment were carried out. Green compacts pressed at 370 MPa were then sintered at temperature 650°C in argon atmosphere for two hours. The sintered compacts subjected to a homogenizing treated at 470°C for 1.5 hours then aged at 120°C for 24 hours and retrogressed at 180°C for 30 minutes, and then re-aged at 120°C for 24 hours. Microstructural results of the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Fe-Cr-Ni-Co alloys introduced an intermetallics compound in the matrix of alloy, identified as the Al5Co2, Al70Co20Ni10 and Al4Ni3 phases besides to the MgZn2 and Mg2Zn11 phases which produced of the precipitation hardening during heat treatment. These compounds with precipitates provided strengthening of dispersion that led to improved Vickers's hardness and dinsifications properties of the alloy. The highest Vickers hardness of aluminum alloy containing cobalt was gotten after applying the retrogression and re-aging treatment.

  1. Development of thermally-sprayed Al-Cu-Fe-Cr quasicrystal coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiamarga, Budi Hartono

    A class of quasicrystal alloys that has drawn a lot of attention is aluminum based quasicrystal alloys because they are hard, light weight, wear resistant, and have a non-stick property. Quasicrystalline materials in the form of coatings produced by thermal spray techniques have been developed to utilize their properties. The goal of this research has been to develop the knowledge necessary to produce good thermally sprayed Al-Cu-Fe-Cr quasicrystal coatings. Boron has been found to improve ductility, reduce porosity and increase hardness when added to other thermally sprayed powders, therefore, as part of this research, quasicrystal coatings containing boron will also be produced and evaluated. The first phase of this research utilized a fine QC-1 quasicrystal powder of Alsb{70.5}Cusb{10.1}Fesb{8.8}Crsb{10.6}. The addition of boron was done using mechanical mixing. The addition of boron in fused QC-1 powders shows that boron can reduce porosity and increase hardness. Due to difficulties with thermal spraying the fine QC-1 powder and evaporation of aluminum, a coarser QC-2 powder with similar composition to QC-1 powder was produced. QC-2 and boron modified QC-2 coatings have similar hardness and levels of porosity, around 11%, although boron modified QC-2 coatings proved to be more wear resistant than plain QC-2 coatings. Both coatings demonstrated a weak coating-substrate interface bonding. Laser heat treatment was used to reduce the porosity and strengthen the coating-substrate interface bonding. Laser treatment of QC-2 quasicrystal coatings resulted in harder and lower porosity coatings with better coating-substrate interface bonding. Unfortunately, hot-cracks in the coatings were also produced. Hot-cracks are undesireable because they decrease the coating's corrosion resistance. Thermal spraying using High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) technique was done. It was used on QC-2 powder and QC-3 powder of composition Alsb{68.6}Cusb{10.8}Fesb{8.9}Crsb{9.7}Bsb{2.0}. This

  2. Structural and electrical properties of delafossite CuMO2 (M=Al, Cr, Y) semiconductors and their exploitation for ozone detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zanhong; Fang, Xiaodong; Li, Da; Tao, Ruhua; Dong, Weiwei; Wang, Tao; Zhou, Shu; Meng, Gang; Zhu, Xuebin

    2009-07-01

    Single phase polycrystalline pellets of CuMO2 (M = Al, Cr, Y) semiconductors with delafossite structure were prepared by sol-gel method and solid state reaction, respectively. The XRD results shows that structure can be indexed as 3R-CuAlO2 (JCPDF No. 35-1401), 3R-CuCrO2 (JCPDF No. 89-6744) and 2H-CuYO2 (JCPDF No. 76-1422), respectively. The conductivities of CuMO2 are thermally activated in the measured temperature range with the activation energy EA about 0.24eV, 0.34eV and 0.25eV, respectively. The conductivities of CuMO2 decrease monotonously with the increase of radius of M cation. This phenomenon coincides with the previous theoretical studies that the hole conduction path of CuMO2 was predominantly in the Cu-ions layers, and the Cu-Cu spacing (or α-axis length) was governed by the M cation size, which modifies the wave function overlap between Cu-ions and results in decrease of the conductivities. The room temperature ozone sensing properties of CuMO2 (M = Al, Cr, Y) polycrystalline pellets were studied. Ozone-purified air-ozone circles were used to measure the ozone gas sensing properties of all the specimens, which are similar to the practical measurement environments. The relative humidity of the environment was controlled around 60 RH% +/- 5 RH%. The temperature was controlled around 300K +/- 0.5K. Except for CuYO2 pellets, CuAlO2 and CuCrO2 pellets show reversible responds to ozone gas at room temperature. The room temperature ozone sensing properties of CuCrO2 film prepared by pulsed laser deposition was also studied. The response time of CuCrO2 film is about 3.5 min to 90% of the final value and the recovery time is about 2 min to 10% of the steady state signal under ozone concentration of 600 ppm. Though the performance is not yet sufficiently high for practical use, the delafossites CuMO2 (M = Al and Cr), as parent compounds of room temperature ozone sensing materials, are recommendable for further studies on the improvement of ozone sensing

  3. Effect of Cr, Ti, V, and Zr Micro-additions on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of the Al-Si-Cu-Mg Cast Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaha, S. K.; Czerwinski, F.; Kasprzak, W.; Friedman, J.; Chen, D. L.

    2016-05-01

    Uniaxial static and cyclic tests were used to assess the role of Cr, Ti, V, and Zr additions on properties of the Al-7Si-1Cu-0.5Mg (wt pct) alloy in as-cast and T6 heat-treated conditions. The microstructure of the as-cast alloy consisted of α-Al, eutectic Si, and Cu-, Mg-, and Fe-rich phases Al2.1Cu, Al8.5Si2.4Cu, Al5.2CuMg4Si5.1, and Al14Si7.1FeMg3.3. In addition, the micro-sized Cr/Zr/Ti/V-rich phases Al10.7SiTi3.6, Al6.7Si1.2TiZr1.8, Al21.4Si3.4Ti4.7VZr1.8, Al18.5Si7.3Cr2.6V, Al7.9Si8.5Cr6.8V4.1Ti, Al6.3Si23.2FeCr9.2V1.6Ti1.3, Al92.2Si16.7Fe7.6Cr8.3V1.8, and Al8.2Si30.1Fe1.6Cr18.8V3.3Ti2.9Zr were present. During solution treatment, Cu-rich phases were completely dissolved, while the eutectic silicon, Fe-, and Cr/Zr/Ti/V-rich intermetallics experienced only partial dissolution. Micro-additions of Cr, Zr, Ti, and V positively affected the alloy strength. The modified alloy in the T6 temper during uniaxial tensile tests exhibited yield strength of 289 MPa and ultimate tensile strength of 342 MPa, being significantly higher than that for the Al-Si-Cu-Mg base. Besides, the cyclic yield stress of the modified alloy in the T6 state increased by 23 pct over that of the base alloy. The fatigue life of the modified alloy was substantially longer than that of the base alloy tested using the same parameters. The role of Cr, Ti, V, and Zr containing phases in controlling the alloy fracture during static and cyclic loading is discussed.

  4. A comparative first-principles study on electronic structures and mechanical properties of ternary intermetallic compounds Al8Cr4Y and Al8Cu4Y: Pressure and tension effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenchao; Pang, Mingjun; Tan, Yong; Zhan, Yongzhong

    2016-11-01

    An investigation into the bulk properties, elastic properties and Debye temperature under pressure, and deformation mode under tension of Al8Cu4Y and Al8Cr4Y compounds was investigated by using first principles calculations based on density functional theory. The calculated lattice constants for the ternary compounds (Al8Cu4Y and Al8Cr4Y) are in good agreement with the experimental data. It can be seen from interatomic distances that the bonding between Al1 atom and Cr, Y, and Al2 atoms in Al8Cr4Y are stronger than Al8Cu4Y. The results of cohesive energy show that Al8Cr4Y should be easier to be formed and much stronger chemical bonds than Al8Cu4Y. The bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, Young's modulus E and Poisson's ratio ν can be obtained by using the Voigt-Reuss-Hill averaging scheme. From the results of elastic properties, Al8Cr4Y has the stronger mechanical behavior than Al8Cu4Y. Our calculations also show that pressure has a greater effect on mechanical behavior for both compounds. The ideal tensile strength are obtained by stress-strain relationships under [001](001) uniaxial tensile deformation, which are 15.4 and 23.4 GPa for Al8Cu4Y and Al8Cr4Y, respectively. The total and partial density of states and electron charge density under uniaxial tensile deformations for Al8Cu4Y and Al8Cr4Y compounds are also calculated and discussed in this work.

  5. Development of a CuNiCrAl Bond Coat for Thermal Barrier Coatings in Rocket Combustion Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Torben; Rösler, Joachim; Bäker, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The lifetime of rocket combustion chambers can be increased by applying thermal barrier coatings. The standard coating systems usually used in gas turbines or aero engines will fail at the bond coat/substrate interface due to the chemical difference as well as the different thermal expansion between the copper liner and the applied NiCrAlY bond coat. A new bond coat alloy for rocket engine applications was designed previously with a chemical composition and coefficient of thermal expansion more similar to the copper substrate. Since a comparable material has not been applied by thermal spraying before, coating tests have to be carried out. In this work, the new Ni-30%Cu-6%Al-5%Cr bond coat alloy is applied via high velocity oxygen fuel spraying. In a first step, the influence of different coating parameters on, e.g., porosity, amount of unmolten particles, and coating roughness is investigated and a suitable parameter set for further studies is chosen. In a second step, copper substrates are coated with the chosen parameters to test the feasibility of the process. The high-temperature behavior and adhesion is tested with laser cycling experiments. The new coatings showed good adhesion even at temperatures beyond the maximum test temperatures of the NiCrAlY bond coat in previous studies.

  6. Higher alcohol and oxygenate synthesis over Cs/Cu/ZnO/M sub 2 O sub 3 (M = Al, Cr) catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Nunan, J.G.; Herman, R.G.; Klier, K. )

    1989-03-01

    Surface doping of Cu/ZnO/M{sub 2}O{sub 3} (M = Al, Cr) catalysts prepared from hydrotalcite precursors with cesium (Cs/Cu/ZnO/M{sub 2}O{sub 3}) significantly enhanced to the alcohol synthesis rate under higher alcohol synthesis conditions. With respect to the unsupported Cs/Cu/ZnO catalyst, the product selectivity of the Cs/Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was shifted toward methanol, while the Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst maintained a high selectivity toward C{sub 2}{sup +} alcohols. The presence of cesium in the Cu/ZnO/M{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts inhibited the synthesis of dimethyl ether. Comparison of the product distributions obtained over the Cs/Cu/ZnO/M{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts with those observed over the Cs/Cu/ZnO catalysts indicates that the function of the Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst is similar to that of the Cs/Cu/ZnO in that higher alcohols are synthesized by a stepwise carbon chain growth via a unique aldol coupling with oxygen retention reversal mechanism. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based catalysts undergo complex structural changes that probably cause occlusion of the Cs dopant, thus resulting in low selectivity to higher alcohols while retaining high activity toward methanol. 23 refs.

  7. Tribological Properties of AlCrCuFeNi2 High-Entropy Alloy in Different Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Ma, Shengguo; Gao, Michael C.; Zhang, Chuan; Zhang, Teng; Yang, Huijun; Wang, Zhihua; Qiao, Junwei

    2016-07-01

    In order to understand the environmental effect on the mechanical behavior of high-entropy alloys, the tribological properties of AlCrCuFeNi2 are studied systematically in dry, simulated rainwater, and deionized water conditions against the Si3N4 ceramic ball at a series of different normal loads. The present study shows that both the friction and wear rate in simulated rainwater are the lowest. The simulated rainwater plays a significant role in the tribological behavior with the effect of forming passive film, lubricating, cooling, cleaning, and corrosion. The wear mechanism in simulated rainwater is mainly adhesive wear accompanied by abrasive wear as well as corrosive wear. In contrast, those in dry condition and deionized water are abrasive wear, adhesive wear, and surface plastic deformation. Oxidation contributes to the wear behavior in dry condition but is prevented in liquid condition. In addition, the phase diagram of Al x CrCuFeNi2 is predicted using CALPHAD modeling, which is in good agreement with the literature report and the present study.

  8. The influence of cooling rate and Fe/Cr content on the evolution of Fe-rich compounds in a secondary Al-Si-Cu diecasting alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrizi, A.; Timelli, G.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the morphological evolution of primary α-Al(Fe,Mn,Cr)Si phase in a secondary Al-Si-Cu alloy with respect to the initial Fe and Cr contents as well as to the cooling rate. The solidification experiments have been designed in order to cover a wide range of cooling rates, and the Fe and Cr contents have been varied over two levels. Metallographic and image analysis techniques have been used to quantitatively examine the microstructural changes occurring at different experimental conditions. The morphological evolution of the α-Fe phase has been also analysed by observing deep etched samples. By changing the cooling rate, α-Al15(Fe,Mn,Cr)3Si2 dodecahedron crystals, as well as Chinese- script, branched structures and dendrites form, while primary coarse β-Al5(Fe,Mn)Si needles appear in the alloy with the highest Fe content at low cooling rates.

  9. Visible light CrO4(2-) reduction using the new CuAlO2/CdS hetero-system.

    PubMed

    Brahimi, R; Bessekhouad, Y; Nasrallah, N; Trari, M

    2012-06-15

    In this study, 64% of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) reduction from the initial concentration (10(-4) M) is reported under visible light using the (CuAlO(2)/CdS) hetero-system. In this new hetero-system, low doped CuAlO(2) delafossite, synthesized by sol-gel works as an electrons reservoir with a wide space charge region (440 nm). In this case, the electron transfer to chromate is mediated via the hexagonal CdS variety, whose conduction band level is at -1.08 V with respect to the saturated calomel electrode which is more negative than the CrO(4)(2-)/Cr(3+) level. This high reduction rate is achieved under optimized pH and CuAlO(2) percentage. Moreover, salicylic acid gives the best performance among hole scavengers and CuAlO(2) approaches 100% photostability at pH 7.5. The photo-catalytic process follows a pseudo first order kinetic with a half life of 2h. The reaction products are identified by UV-visible spectrophotometry and linear voltametry at a platinum rotating electrode. The results reveal the presence of Cr(3+) after irradiation. PMID:22503216

  10. Laser surface forming of AlCoCrCuFeNi particle reinforced AZ91D matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Guanghui; Yue, T. M.; Lin, Xin; Yang, Haiou; Xie, Hui; Ding, Xu

    2015-07-01

    Traditionally, the laser melt injection (LMI) technique can only be used for forming ceramic particles reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) for enhancing surface properties of lightweight engineering materials. In this research, the LMI method was employed to form metal particles reinforced MMCs on AZ91D instead. This was viable because of the unique properties of the AlCoCrCuFeNi high-entropy alloy (HEA) metal particles used. The large difference in melting point between the HEA and the substrate material (AZ91D), and the limited reaction and the lack of fusion between the HEA and Mg have made it possible that a metal particles reinforced AZ91D composite material was produced. The reason of limited reaction was considered mainly due to the relatively high mixing enthalpy between the HEA constituent elements and Mg. Although there was some melting occurred at the particles surface with some solute segregation found in the vicinity close to the surface, intermetallic compounds were not observed. With regard to the wear resistance of the MMCs, it was found that when the volume fraction of the reinforcement phase, i.e. the HEA particles, reached about 0.4, the wear volume loss of the coating was only one-seventh of that of the substrate material.

  11. Structural and magnetic characterization of the complete delafossite solid solution (CuAlO[subscript 2])[subscript 1;#8722;x](CuCrO[subscript 2])[subscript x

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Phillip T.; Seshadri, Ram; Knöller, Andrea; Rosseinsky, Matthew J.

    2012-02-07

    We have prepared the complete delafossite solid solution series between diamagnetic CuAlO{sub 2} and the t{sub 2g}{sup 3}frustrated antiferromagnet CuCrO{sub 2}. The evolution with composition x in CuAl{sub 1-x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 2} of the crystal structure and magnetic properties has been studied and is reported here. The room-temperature unit cell parameters follow the Vegard law and increase with x as expected. The {mu}{sub eff} is equal to the Cr{sup 3+} spin-only S = 3/2 value throughout the entire solid solution. {Theta}{sub CW} is negative, indicating that the dominant interactions are antiferromagnetic, and its magnitude increases with Cr substitution. For dilute Cr compositions, the nearest-neighbor exchange coupling constant J{sub BB} was estimated by mean-field theory to be 3.0 meV. Despite the sizable {Theta}{sub CW}, long-range antiferromagnetic order does not develop until x is almost 1, and is preceded by glassy behavior. The data presented here, and those on dilute Al substitution from Okuda et al, suggest that the reduction in magnetic frustration due to the presence of non-magnetic Al does not have as dominant an effect on magnetism as chemical disorder and dilution of the magnetic exchange. For all samples, the 5 K isothermal magnetization does not saturate in fields up to 5 T and minimal hysteresis is observed. The presence of antiferromagnetic interactions is clearly evident in the sub-Brillouin behavior with a reduced magnetization per Cr atom. An inspection of the scaled Curie plot reveals that significant short-range antiferromagnetic interactions occur in CuCrO{sub 2} above its Neel temperature, consistent with its magnetic frustration. Uncompensated short-range behavior is present in the Al-substituted samples and is likely a result of chemical disorder.

  12. Cu-Cr Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Need, Ryan F.

    2012-08-09

    Cu-Cr alloys are part of a class of face-centered cubic (FCC)-body-centered cubic (BCC) composites that includes similar alloys, such as Cu-Nb and Cu-Ta. When heavily deformed, these FCC-BCC materials create 'in situ' composites with a characteristic structure-nanoscale BCC filaments in a ductile FCC matrix. The strength of these composites is vastly greater than predicted by the rule of mixtures, and has been shown to be inversely proportional to the filament spacing. Lower raw materials costs suggest that Cu-Cr alloys may offer more economical solution to high-strength, high-conductivity wire than either their Nb or Ta counterparts. However, Cr is also more brittle and soluble in Cu than Nb or Ta. These qualities necessitate thermal treatments to remove solute atoms from the Cu matrix, improve conductivity, and maintain the ductility of the Cr filaments. Through the use of different thermomechanical processing routes or the addition of select dopants, alloys with strength in excess of 1 GPa at 70% IACS have been achieved. To date, previous research on Cu-Cr alloys has focused on a relatively small number of alloy compositions and processing methods while the effects of dopants and ageing treatments have only been studied independently. Consequently, there remains considerable opportunity for the development and optimization of these alloys as a leading high-strength, high-conductivity material.

  13. Effect of Zr on microstructures and mechanical properties of an Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Cr alloy prepared by low frequency electromagnetic casting

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Yi Cui, Jianzhong; Zhao, Zhihao; He, Lizi

    2014-06-01

    The Al-1.6Mg-1.2Si-1.1Cu-0.15Cr (all in wt. %) alloys with and without Zr addition prepared by low frequency electromagnetic casting process were investigated by using the optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive analytical X-ray. The effects of Al{sub 3}Zr phases on the microstructures and mechanical properties during solidification, homogenization, hot extrusion and solid solution were studied. The results show that Al{sub 3}Zr phases reduce the grain size by ∼ 29% and promote the formation of an equiaxed grain structure during solidification. Numerous spherical Al{sub 3}Zr dispersoids with 35–60 nm in diameters precipitate during homogenization, and these fine dispersoids change little during subsequent hot extrusion and solid solution. Adding 0.15 wt. % Zr results in no recrystallization after hot extrusion and partial recrystallization after solid solution, while the recrystallized grain size is 400–550 μm in extrusion direction in the Zr-free alloy. In addition, adding 0.15 wt. % Zr can obviously promote Q′ phase precipitation, while the β″ phases are predominant in the alloy without Zr. Adding 0.15 wt. % Zr, the ultimate tensile strength of the T6 treated alloy increases by 45 MPa, while the elongation remains about 16.7%. - Highlights: • Minor Zr can refine as-cast grains of the LFEC Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Cr alloy. • L1{sub 2} Al{sub 3}Zr phases with 35–60 nm in diameter precipitate during homogenization. • L1{sub 2} and DO{sub 22} Al{sub 3}Zr phases result in partial recrystallization after solid solution. • Minor Zr can promote the precipitation of Q′ phases. • Mechanical properties of Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Cr-Zr alloy are higher than those of AA7005.

  14. Fabrication of CuAl1-xMxO2 (M = Fe, Cr)/Ni film delafossite compounds using spin coating and their microstructure and dielectric constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diantoro, Markus; Yuwita, Pelangi Eka; Olenka, Desyana; Nasikhudin

    2014-09-01

    The discovery of delafossite compound has encouraged more rapid technological developments particularly in transparent electronic devices. Copper oxide-based transparent thin films delafossite semiconductor recently give much attention in the field of optoelectronic technology, after the discovery of p-type CuAlO2. The potential applications of a p-type semiconductor transparent conductive oxides (TCO) have been applied in broad field of optoelectronics. To explore a broad physical properties interms of magnetic conducting subtitution is understudied. In this work we report the fabrication of delafossite film on Ni substrate and their characterization of CuAl1-xMxO2 delafossite compounds doped with Cr3+ and Fe3+ from the raw material of Cu(NO3)2˙3H2O, Al(NO3)3˙9H2O, Fe(NO3)3˙9H2O and Cr(NO3)3˙9H2O. The films were prepared using spin coating through a sol-gel technique at various concentrations of x = 0, 0.03, 0.04, and 0.05 for chromium and x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, and 0.08 for iron doped. Crystal and microstructure were characterized by means of Cu-Kα Bragg-Brentano X-RD followed by High Score Plus and SEM-EDAX. The dielectric constants of the films were characterized using LCR meter. It was found that the CuAl1-xMxO2/Ni delafossite films were successfully fabricated. The CuAl1-xFexO2 compound crystallized with lattice parameters of a = b ranged from 2.8603 Å to 2.8675 Å and c ranged from 16.9576 to 17.0763 Å. The increase of the dopant give rise to the increase of the lattice parameters. Since iron has bigger ionic radius (69 pm) than original site of Al3+ with radius of 53 pm the crystal volume lattice also increase. Further analyses of increasing volume of the crystal, as expected, affected to the decreasing of its dielectric constant. The similar trends also shown by Cr3+ doped of CuAl1-xCrxO2 films with smaller effects.

  15. Microstructure, Interface Morphology, and Antioxidant Properties of Sn-8.5Zn-0.1Cr-(Nd,Al,Cu) Solders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hongqun; Liu, Moumiao; Ma, Yueyuan; Du, Zaixiang; Zhan, Yongzhong; Yang, Wenchao

    2016-08-01

    The effects of minor alloying element Nd, Al or Cu on the fundamental microstructural properties, interface morphology, and antioxidant properties of Sn-8.5Zn-0.1Cr (SZC) alloy have been investigated. Addition of Nd, Al or Cu element significantly refined the microstructure of SZC alloy, especially promoting disappearance of the stripe Zn-rich phase. Precipitated phases could be found in the β-Sn matrix when the content of each element reached 0.1 wt.%. During soldering, it was found that Nd, Al or Cu element addition did not contribute to intermetallic compound (IMC) formation, as verified by the same IMC phase as at the Sn-8.5Zn/Cu interface and no obvious influence on interface morphology. After 15 days of aging, IMC interface layers increased severely and a wide Zn-poor transition zone formed. The growth rate of IMC was reduced and the transition zone became narrower after microalloying. Meanwhile, addition of Al or Cu element improved the oxidation resistance of the SZC alloy, while Nd-containing alloys oxidized severely. The wettability and microhardness of the SZC-xM alloys were superior to those of SZC alloy.

  16. The Mechanical and Corrosion Behaviors of As-cast and Re-melted AlCrCuFeMnNi Multi-Component High-Entropy Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soare, Vasile; Mitrica, Dumitru; Constantin, Ionut; Popescu, Gabriela; Csaki, Ioana; Tarcolea, Mihai; Carcea, Ioan

    2015-04-01

    A multi-component AlCrCuFeMnNi high-entropy alloy, prepared by vacuum induction melting, was investigated for structural, mechanical, and corrosion characteristics, before and after the re-melting process. Optical microscopy analysis revealed a dendritic solidification behavior. The interdendritic area contains two main phases and occasionally small hard phases. The re-melting process produced a finer dendritic structure, with rounded dendrites and reduced interdendritic hard phases. The SEM-EDAX analysis showed that the dendrite region contains a Widmanstatten type of structure and are composed of Cr-Fe rich phases, whereas the interdendrite region contains Cu and Mn rich phases. XRD analysis revealed two disordered BCC type A2 structures with high Cr and Fe content and an FCC A12 type of structure for the Cu and Mn rich interdendritic phase. The lattice constants, determined by X-ray diffraction, are 2.87 and 2.91 Å for the A2 phases and 3.67 Å for A1 phase. The Vickers micro hardness increased with the homogeneity of the alloy, having a maximum value of 4370 MPa for the re-melted sample. Corrosion tests carried out in 3.5 wt pct sodium chloride aerated solution indicated that the corrosion resistance improved with the re-melting process, being 1.5 to 2 times better than that of 304 stainless steel.

  17. Structural transformation in nano-structured CuAl{sub x}Cr{sub x}Fe{sub 2-2x}O{sub 4} system

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, D. K.; Chhantbar, M. C.; Joshi, H. H.

    2015-06-24

    Polycrystalline spinel ferrite system CuAl{sub x}Cr{sub x}Fe{sub 2-2x}O{sub 4} (x=0.2, 0.6) was synthesized by solid-state reaction route. Nanoparticles of the samples have been prepared by using high energy ball milling technique with different milling durations and characterized by X-ray Diffraction and Tunneling Electron Microscope. It is observed that the structural transformation occurred from Cubic to tetragonal and particle size varied between 29 nm -14 nm with increase of milling time.

  18. Elevated-Temperature Corrosion of CoCrCuFeNiAl0.5Bx High-Entropy Alloys in Simulated Syngas Containing H2S

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Omer N; Nielsen, Benjamin C; Hawk, Jeffrey A

    2013-08-01

    High-entropy alloys are formed by synthesizing five or more principal elements in equimolar or near equimolar concentrations. Microstructure of the CoCrCuFeNiAl{sub 0.5}B{sub x} (x = 0, 0.2, 0.6, 1) high-entropy alloys under investigation is composed of a mixture of disordered bcc and fcc phases and borides. These alloys were tested gravimetrically for their corrosion resistance in simulated syngas containing 0, 0.01, 0.1, and 1 % H{sub 2}S at 500 °C. The exposed coupons were characterized using XRD and SEM. No significant corrosion was detected at 500 °C in syngas containing 0 and 0.01 % H{sub 2}S while significant corrosion was observed in syngas containing 0.1 and 1 % H{sub 2}S. Cu{sub 1.96}S was the primary sulfide in the external corrosion scale on the low-boron high-entropy alloys, whereas FeCo{sub 4}Ni{sub 4}S{sub 8} on the high-boron high-entropy alloys. Multi-phase Cu-rich regions in the low-B high-entropy alloys were vulnerable to corrosive attack.

  19. Effects of temperature on serrated flows of Al0.5CoCrCuFeNi high-entropy alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Shuying; Xie, Xie; Chen, Bilin; Qiao, Junwei; Zhang, Yong; Ren, Yang; Dahmen, Karin A.; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-08-14

    Compression behavior of the Al0.5CoCrCuFeNi high-entropy alloy (HEA) was studied at different temperatures from 673K to 873K at a low strain rate of 5 x 10-5/s to investigate the temperature effect on the mechanical properties and serration behavior. The face-centered cubic (FCC) structure is confirmed at the lower temperature of 673 K and 773 K, and a structure of mixed FCC and body-centered cubic (BCC) is identified at a higher temperature of 873 K after compression tests using high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. As a result, by comparing the stress-strain curves at different temperatures, two opposite directions of serrations types weremore » found, named upward serrations appearing at 673 K and 773 K and downward serrations at 873 K, which may be due to dynamic strain aging.« less

  20. Effects of temperature on serrated flows of Al0.5CoCrCuFeNi high-entropy alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shuying; Xie, Xie; Chen, Bilin; Qiao, Junwei; Zhang, Yong; Ren, Yang; Dahmen, Karin A.; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-08-14

    Compression behavior of the Al0.5CoCrCuFeNi high-entropy alloy (HEA) was studied at different temperatures from 673K to 873K at a low strain rate of 5 x 10-5/s to investigate the temperature effect on the mechanical properties and serration behavior. The face-centered cubic (FCC) structure is confirmed at the lower temperature of 673 K and 773 K, and a structure of mixed FCC and body-centered cubic (BCC) is identified at a higher temperature of 873 K after compression tests using high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. As a result, by comparing the stress-strain curves at different temperatures, two opposite directions of serrations types were found, named upward serrations appearing at 673 K and 773 K and downward serrations at 873 K, which may be due to dynamic strain aging.

  1. Fabrication of CuAl{sub 1−x}M{sub x}O{sub 2} (M = Fe, Cr)/Ni film delafossite compounds using spin coating and their microstructure and dielectric constant

    SciTech Connect

    Diantoro, Markus Yuwita, Pelangi Eka Olenka, Desyana Nasikhudin

    2014-09-25

    The discovery of delafossite compound has encouraged more rapid technological developments particularly in transparent electronic devices. Copper oxide-based transparent thin films delafossite semiconductor recently give much attention in the field of optoelectronic technology, after the discovery of p-type CuAlO{sub 2}. The potential applications of a p-type semiconductor transparent conductive oxides (TCO) have been applied in broad field of optoelectronics. To explore a broad physical properties interms of magnetic conducting subtitution is understudied. In this work we report the fabrication of delafossite film on Ni substrate and their characterization of CuAl{sub 1−x}M{sub x}O{sub 2} delafossite compounds doped with Cr{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 3+} from the raw material of Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}@@‡3H{sub 2}O, Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}@@‡9H{sub 2}O, Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}@@‡9H{sub 2}O and Cr(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}@@‡9H{sub 2}O. The films were prepared using spin coating through a sol-gel technique at various concentrations of x = 0, 0.03, 0.04, and 0.05 for chromium and x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, and 0.08 for iron doped. Crystal and microstructure were characterized by means of Cu-Kα Bragg-Brentano X-RD followed by High Score Plus and SEM-EDAX. The dielectric constants of the films were characterized using LCR meter. It was found that the CuAl{sub 1−x}M{sub x}O{sub 2}/Ni delafossite films were successfully fabricated. The CuAl{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 2} compound crystallized with lattice parameters of a = b ranged from 2.8603 Å to 2.8675 Å and c ranged from 16.9576 to 17.0763 Å. The increase of the dopant give rise to the increase of the lattice parameters. Since iron has bigger ionic radius (69 pm) than original site of Al{sup 3+} with radius of 53 pm the crystal volume lattice also increase. Further analyses of increasing volume of the crystal, as expected, affected to the decreasing of its dielectric constant. The similar trends also shown by Cr{sup 3+} doped of

  2. Annealing effect on the structural and magnetic properties of the CuAl{sub 0.6}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 1.2}O{sub 4} nano-ferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Amer, M.A.; Meaz, T.M.; Mostafa, A.G.; El-Ghazally, H.F.

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Mössbauer spectra of the as-prepared (AP) and annealed CuAl{sub 0.6}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 1.2}O{sub 4} samples. - Highlights: • As-prepared Cu–Al–Cr nano-ferrite samples were annealed at different temperatures T{sub A}. • Sample structure was transformed from cubic to tetragonal by JTE at 1000 °C. • Spontaneous and saturation magnetizations showed similar behavior against T{sub A}. • The deduced parameters showed dependence on T{sub A} and proved their affect by JTE. • Spontaneous magnetization proved dependence on crystallite size. - Abstract: Amounts of the as-synthesized CuAl{sub 0.6}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 1.2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles by the chemical co-precipitation method were annealed for 4 h at one of the temperatures T{sub A} = 300, 500, 600, 800 and 1000 °C for each. The techniques used for characterizing the samples were X-ray diffractions, infrared (IR) and Mössbauer spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. This study proved single-phase cubic structure of the samples annealed at T{sub A} ≤ 800 °C and tetragonal structure of the sample annealed at 1000 °C. The cubic-to-tetragonal structure transformation was attributed to the tetragonal distortion by Jahn–Teller effect (JTE) of Cu{sup 2+} ions. This study revealed that all deduced parameters were affected by JTE, whereas the crystallite size, lattice parameters, strain, threshold frequency, force constants, Debye temperature and stiffness constant were dependent on T{sub A}. IR absorption band positions and intensities were dependent on T{sub A} and proved the existence of Fe{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 4+} and Cr{sup 4+} ions in the crystal sublattices. The spontaneous and saturation magnetization and hyperfine magnetic field of the tetrahedral and octahedral sites were deduced and discussed as functions of T{sub A}.

  3. Magnetic resonance in a Cu-Cr-S structure

    SciTech Connect

    Vorotynov, A. M. Abramova, G. M.; Pankrats, A. I.; Petrakovskii, G. A.; Zharkov, S. M.; Zeer, G. M.; Tugarinov, V. I.; Rautskii, M. V.; Sokolov, V. V.

    2013-11-15

    A layered Cu-Cr-S structure composed of single-crystal CuCrS{sub 2} layers and thin CuCr{sub 2}S{sub 4} plates embedded in them has been investigated by the magnetic resonance and scanning electron microscopy methods. The Curie temperature and saturation magnetization of the spinel phase of the investigated samples have been determined. The thickness of the CuCr{sub 2}S{sub 4} layers has been estimated. The dependence of the growncrystal topology on synthesis conditions has been established. An interpretation of the anomalous behavior of the magnetostatic oscillation intensity is offered.

  4. Features of phase and structure formation in high-entropy alloys of the AlCrFeCoNiCu x system ( x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krapivka, N. A.; Firstov, S. A.; Karpets, M. V.; Myslivchenko, A. N.; Gorban', V. F.

    2015-05-01

    Alloys of the AlCrFeCoNiCu x system ( x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0) were smelted by argon-arc smelting in pure argon. The phase composition and structure of fabricated alloys are investigated and their mechanical properties are determined. The results showed that an increase in the amount of copper in alloys leads to a change in the phase composition from single phase (bcc) to three phase (bcc + fcc1 + fcc2), which is accompanied by the structural change from coarse-grain polygonal structure to complex dendritic structure (primary dendrites (DR) + secondary dendrites (SDR) + interdendrite phase (ID)). The region of electron concentrations of alloys, in which bcc and fcc phases are present simultaneously, is determined. The limiting electron concentration of stability of the bcc lattice is found experimentally. Microhardness is measured and Young moduli of alloys over the entire range of varying the copper concentration are determined.

  5. IR spectroscopic and thermal desorption studies of the interaction of the SO2 + O2 mixture with the 9% Ni-Cu-Cr/2% Ce/(θ + α)-Al2O3 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosumov, K.; Popova, N. M.; Umbetkaliev, A. K.; Brodskii, A. R.; Tungatarova, S. A.; Zheksenbaeva, Z. T.

    2012-10-01

    Data on the formation of surface structures during the adsorption of sulfur dioxide on alumina-supported metal and oxide catalysts in the presence of oxygen were reviewed. The results of our IR spectroscopic and thermal desorption studies of the interaction of the SO2+O2 mixture with the 9% Ni-Cu-Cr/2% Ce/(θ + α)-Al2O3 catalyst are presented. At 673 K chemisorption of SO2 takes place (absorption band 1165 cm-1, T {des/m} = 673 K), and SO2 is oxidized to form sulfate structures (absorption bands 1235, 1140, 1100, 985, and 615 cm-1, T {des/m} = 973 K), which decompose into SO2 and O2 at 973 K and decay when reduced in H2.

  6. Reversion phenomena of Cu-Cr alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, S.; Nagata, K.; Kobayashi, S.

    1985-01-01

    Cu-Cr alloys which were given various aging and reversion treatments were investigated in terms of electrical resistivity and hardness. Transmission electron microscopy was one technique employed. Some results obtained are as follows: the increment of electrical resistivity after the reversion at a constant temperature decreases as the aging temperature rises. In a constant aging condition, the increment of electrical resistivity after the reversion increases, and the time required for a maximum reversion becomes shorter as the reversion temperature rises. The reversion phenomena can be repeated, but its amount decreases rapidly by repetition. At first, the amount of reversion increases with aging time and reaches its maximum, and then tends to decrease again. Hardness changes by the reversion are very small, but the hardness tends to soften slightly. Any changes in transmission electron micrographs by the reversion treatment cannot be detected.

  7. Evaluation of Ti-Cr-Cu alloys for dental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Marie; Okabe, Toru; Itoh, Masayuki; Okuno, Osamu; Kimura, Kohei; Takeda, Osamu; Okabe, Toru H.

    2005-12-01

    This study examined the characteristics of as-cast Ti-Cr(7 19%)-Cu(3 7%) (all percentages in this article are mass%) alloys to evaluate their suitability for dental applications; studies on the alloy structures and mechanical properties, grindability, and corrosion behavior were included in the investigation. The alloys were centrifugally cast and bench-cooled in investment molds. The x-ray diffractometry of the as-cast alloys bench-cooled in the molds indicated the following phases: α+β+ω in the 7% Cr and 7% Cr+3% Cu; β+ω in the 13%Cr; and β in the 13%Cr+3% Cu through the 19%Cr+3% Cu alloys. The strengths of the binary β Ti-Cr and ternary β Ti-Cr-Cu alloys with 13 and 19% Cr were approximately two times higher than those of CP Ti. The alloy ductility was dependent on the chemical composition and thus, the microstructure. The 7% Cr alloys were extremely brittle and hard due to the ω phase, but the ductility was restored in the 13 and 19% Cr alloys. The hardness (HV) of the cast 13 and 19% Cr alloys was approximately 300 350 compared with a value of 200 for CP Ti. The grindability of the cast alloys was examined using a rotating SiC wheel at speeds (circumferential) of 500 and 1250 m/min. At the higher speed, the grindability of the 13 and 19% Cr alloys increased with the Cu content. The grindability of the 13% Cr alloy with 7% Cu was similar to that of CP Ti. Evaluation of the corrosion behavior in an artificial saliva revealed that the alloys are like many other titanium alloys within the normal intraoral oxidation potential. The wear resistance testing of these alloys also showed favorable results.

  8. K-italic-shell ionization cross sections for Al, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Ag by protons and oxygen ions in the energy range 0. 3--6. 4 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Geretschlaeger, M.; Benka, O.

    1986-08-01

    Absolute K-italic-shell ionization cross sections have been measured for thin targets of Al, Ti, and Cu for protons in the energy range 0.3--2.0 MeV and for thin targets of Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Ag for oxygen ions in the energy range 1.36--6.4 Mev. The experimental results are compared to the perturbed-stationary-state (PSS) approximation with energy-loss (E), Coulomb (C), and relativistic (R) corrections, i.e., the ECPSSR approximation (Brandt and Lapicki), to the semiclassical approximation (Laegsgaard, Andersen, and Lund), and to a theory for direct Coulomb ionization of the 1s-italicsigma molecular orbital (Montenegro and Sigaud (MS)). The proton results agree within 3% with empirical reference cross sections. Also, the ECPSSR provides best overall agreement for protons. For oxygen ions, ECPSSR and MS predict experimental results satisfactorily for scaled velocities xi> or =0.4. For lower scaled velocities, the experimental cross sections become considerably higher than theoretical predictions for Coulomb ionization. This deviation increases with increasing Z-italic/sub 1//Z/sub 2/; it cannot be explained by electron transfer to the projectile or by ionization due to target recoil atoms.

  9. Polyoxometalate-supported transition metal complexes and their charge complementarity: synthesis and characterization of [M(OH)6Mo6O18[Cu(Phen)(H2O)2]2][M(OH)6Mo6O18[Cu(Phen)(H2O)Cl]2].5H2O (M = Al(+, Cr3+).

    PubMed

    Shivaiah, Vaddypally; Das, Samar K

    2005-11-28

    Two Anderson-type heteropolyanion-supported copper phenanthroline complexes, [Al(OH)6Mo6O18[Cu(phen)(H2O)2]2]1+ (1c) and [Al(OH)6Mo6O18[Cu(phen)(H2O)Cl]2]1- (1a) complement their charges in one of the title compounds [Al(OH)6Mo6O18[Cu(phen)(H2O)2]2][Al(OH)6Mo6O18[Cu(phen)(H2O)Cl]2].5H2O [1c][1a].5 H2O 1. Similar charge complementarity exists in the chromium analogue, [Cr(OH)6Mo6O18[Cu(phen)(H2O)2]2][Cr(OH)6Mo6O18[Cu(phen)(H2O)Cl]2].5 H2O [2c][2a].5 H2O 2. The chloride coordination to copper centers of 1a and 2a makes the charge difference. In both compounds, the geometries around copper centers are distorted square pyramidal and those around aluminum/chromium centers are distorted octahedral. Three lattice waters, from the formation of intermolecular O-H.....O hydrogen bonds, have been shown to self-assemble into an "acyclic water trimer" in the crystals of both 1 and 2. The title compounds have been synthesized in a simple one pot aqueous wet-synthesis consisting of aluminum/chromium chloride, sodium molybdate, copper nitrate, phenanthroline, and hydrochloric acid, and characterized by elemental analyses, EDAX, IR, diffuse reflectance, EPR, TGA, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds crystallize in the triclinic space group P. Crystal data for 1: a = 10.7618(6), b = 15.0238(8), c = 15.6648(8) angstroms, alpha = 65.4570(10), beta = 83.4420(10), gamma = 71.3230(10), V = 2182.1(2) angstroms3. Crystal data for 2: a = 10.8867(5), b = 15.2504(7), c = 15.7022(7) angstroms, alpha = 64.9850(10), beta = 83.0430(10), gamma = 71.1570(10), V = 2235.47(18) angstroms3. In the electronic reflectance spectra, compounds 1 and 2 exhibit a broad d-d band at approximately 700 nm, which is a considerable shift with respect to the value of 650-660 nm for a square-pyramidal [Cu(phen)2L] complex, indicating the coordination of [M(OH)6Mo6O18]3- POM anions (as a ligand) to the monophenanthroline copper complexes to form POM-supported copper complexes 1c, 1a, 2c, and 2a. The

  10. Mesoporous delafossite CuCrO2 and spinel CuCr2O4: synthesis and catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Shi, Yifeng; Chi, Miaofang; Park, Jung-Nam; Stucky, Galen D.; McFarland, Eric W.; Gao, Lian

    2013-08-01

    Delafossite CuCrO2 and spinel CuCr2O4 with mesoporous structures have been successfully synthesized using nanocasting methods based on a KIT-6 template. The functional activity of the mesoporous materials was evaluated in applications as heterogeneous catalysts. The activity for photocatalytic hydrogen production of the delafossite structures with different morphologies was characterized and the oxidation state changes associated with photocorrosion of Cu+ investigated using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Mg2+ doping was found to facilitate the casting of ordered structures for CuCrO2 and improves the photocorrosion resistance of delafossite structures. The mesoporous spinel CuCr2O4 nanostructures were found to be active for low temperature CO oxidation.

  11. Reaction diffusion in the NiCrAl and CoCrAl systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper assesses the effect of overlay coating and substrate composition on the kinetics of coating depletion by interdiffusion. This is accomplished by examining the constitution, kinetics and activation energies for a series of diffusion couples primarily of the NiCrAl/Ni-10Cr or CoCrAl/Ni-10Cr type annealed at temperatures in the range 1000-1205 C for times up to 500 hr. A general procedure is developed for analyzing diffusion in multicomponent multiphase systems. It is shown that by introducing the concept of beta-source strength, which can be determined from appropriate phase diagrams, the Wagner solution for consumption of a second phase in a semiinfinite couple is successfully applied to the analysis of MCrAl couples. Thus, correlation of beta-recession rate constants with couple composition, total and diffusional activation energies, and interdiffusion coefficients are determined.

  12. Uptake of Al, As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn in native wheatgrasses, wildryes, and bluegrass on three metal-contaminated soils from Montana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the biggest challenges to successfully phytoremediate contaminated mineland soils is the identification of native plants that possess a broad adaptation to ecological sites and either exclude or uptake heavy metals of interest. This study evaluated forage concentrations of aluminum (Al), ars...

  13. Creep and Toughness of Cryomilled NiAl Containing Cr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Aikin, Beverly; Salem, Jon

    2000-01-01

    NiAl-AlN + Cr composites were produced by blending cryomilled NiAl powder with approx. 10 vol % Cr flakes. In comparison to the as-consolidated matrices, hot isostatically pressed Cr-modified materials did not demonstrate any significant improvement in toughness. Hot extruded NiAl-AlN+10.5Cr, however, possessed a toughness twice that determine for the base NiAl-AlN alloy. Measurement of the 1200 to 1400 K plastic flow properties revealed that the strength of the composites was completely controlled by the properties of the NiAl-AlN matrices. This behavior could be successfully modeled by the Rule-of-Mixtures, where load is shed from the weak Cr to the strong matrix.

  14. Thermomechanical Processing and Roll Bonding of Tri-Layered Cu-Ni-Zn/Cu-Cr/Cu-Ni-Zn Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hobyung; Kang, Gyeong Tae; Hong, Sun Ig

    2016-05-01

    Tri-layered Cu-Ni-Zn/Cu-Cr/Cu-Ni-Zn composite was processed by roll bonding and the effect of thermomechanical processing on the mechanical performance and electrical conductivity was studied. Roll-bonded composite exhibited the brief work hardening and subsequent rapid work softening because of the high stored deformation energy, leading to failure at the plastic strain of 8 to 10 pct. The mechanical instability of as-roll-bonded composites was abated by heat treatment (HT) at 723 K (450 °C) and the extended work hardening with enhanced ductility compared to that of the as-roll-bonded composites was observed after HT. The strength and electrical conductivity of clad composite is dependent on the precipitation strengthening of Cu-Cr and recovery softening of Cu-Ni-Zn during post-roll-bonding HT. The increase of roll-bonding temperature enhances the precipitation kinetics and it takes shorter time to reach maximum hardness in Cu-Cr layer during post-roll-bonding HT. The toughness of as-roll-bonded Cu-Ni-Zn/Cu-Cr/Cu-Ni-Zn clad composite at 773 K (500 °C) [42 MJ/mm3] is greater than those at 723 K (450 °C) [24 MJ/mm3] and 823 K (550 °C) [38 MJ/mm3]. The maximum toughness [100 MJ/mm3] with the electrical conductivity of 68 pct IACS was obtained in the Cu-Ni-Zn/Cu-Cr/Cu-Ni-Zn clad composite roll-bonded at 773 K (500 °C) and subsequently heat-treated at 723 K (450 °C).

  15. Cr-Al Diffusion in Chromite Spinel at High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, A.; Yasuda, A.; Ozawa, K.

    2005-12-01

    Compositional zoning in chromite spinel gives us important information to constrain thermal and deformation history of ultramafic-mafic rocks. For the quantitative estimation, diffusivity of elements in spinel is a critical parameter. Although the Mg-Fe2+ interdiffusion coefficient in MgAl2O4 spinel has experimentally studied by Freer & O'Reilly (1980) and Liemann & Ganguly (2002), Cr-Al interdiffusion coefficient has not been determined yet. In this study, we have experimentally determined Cr-Al interdiffusion coefficient in chromite spinel at temperatures ranging 1400-1700 °C and pressures ranging 3-7 GPa, by using diffusion couple of natural single crystals of spinel and chromite. Experiments were carried out with a multi-anvil type (MA-8 type) high-pressure apparatus at the Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo. After experiments, the samples were cut perpendicular to the contact plane and analyzed with EPMA and EBSD. The elemental mapping showed that Cr, Al, Fe3+, Fe2+, and Mg diffused perpendicular to the contact plane. The Cr-Al diffusion profiles are complementary with each other and asymmetric with steeper profile in the spinel side suggesting a compositional dependence of Cr-Al diffusion in spinel. The Cr-Al interdiffusion coefficient was estimated by the Boltzmann-Matano method. The coefficient decreases with Cr# (=Cr/(Cr+Al)) of spinel, which varies more than one order of magnitude as the Cr# changes from 0.1 to 0.85 at 3 GPa and 1600 °C. It is concluded that the self-diffusion coefficient of Al is more than one order of magnitude larger than that of Cr. The Cr-Al interdiffusion coefficient is expressed by D=D0exp(-Q/RT), where D0=2.8×10-2 m2/s and Q=498 kJ/mol at Cr#=0.2. This relation is applicable up to Cr#=0.5. Extrapolation of the self-diffusion coefficient of Cr to the lower temperature shows that Cr is the slowest diffusion species in chromite spinel including oxygen. This extremely slow Cr self-diffusion is consistent with the Cr-Al

  16. Magnetic resonance in a gallium-doped Cu-Cr-S structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorotynov, A. M.; Pankrats, A. I.; Abramova, G. M.; Velikanov, D. A.; Bovina, A. F.; Sokolov, V. V.; Filatova, I. Yu.

    2016-04-01

    A layered Cu-Cr-S structure doped with Ga ions and consisting of single-crystal CuCrS2 layers, embedded with thin plates of spinel phases CuCr2S4 and CuGa x Cr2- x S4, has been studied using the magnetic resonance and magnetic susceptibility methods. The Curie temperature and the saturation magnetization of the spinel phases of the samples have been determined. The spinel phase layer thickness has been estimated.

  17. Thermoelectric Properties of CuAgSe doped with Co, Cr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajka, Peter; Yao, Mengliang; Opeil, Cyril

    Thermoelectric materials represent one way that reliable cooling below the boiling point of nitrogen can be realized. Current materials do not exhibit sufficiently high efficiencies at cryogenic temperatures, but significant progress is being made. One material that has generated significant interest recently is CuAgSe. It has been demonstrated (Ishiwata et al., Nature Mater. 2013) that doping CuAgSe with 10% Ni at the Cu sites increases the material's thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) at 100 K from 0.02 to 0.10. This is intriguing not just because of the dramatic effect that the Ni doping produces, but also because CuAgSe is a semimetal and semimetals are not usually able to exhibit the kind of asymmetric carrier activation necessary for strong thermoelectric performance. In order to further investigate the unusual nature of thermoelectricity in CuAgSe and its strong dependence on chemical composition, we have synthesized and measured the thermoelectric properties of a series of CuAgSe samples doped with Co and Cr. Temperature-dependent magnetic and thermoelectric transport properties of CuAgSe as a function of Co and Cr doping will be discussed. This work is supported by the Department of Defense, AFOSR, MURI Program Contract # FA9550-10-1-0533 and the Trustees of Boston College.

  18. Preparation of Al-Cr-Fe Coatings by Heat Treatment of Electrodeposited Cr/Al Composite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Chang'an; Zhang, Guikai; Rao, Yongchu; Ling, Guoping

    Al-Cr-Fe coatings have been widely used in the surface engineering field of materials, due to their excellent corrosion resistance to water vapor and fused salt deposits. In this study, a new two-step approach was developed to prepare Al-Cr-Fe coatings on surfaces of SUS430 stainless steels. First, the Cr/Al composite coatings were prepared by electrodepositing Cr from aqueous solution then electrodepositing Al from AlCl3-1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride (AlCl3-EMIC) ionic liquid on SUS430 stainless steel substrate. In the second, heat treatment of the Cr/Al composite coatings was carried out to acquire Al-Cr-Fe coatings. Effects of the thickness of Cr/Al composite coatings, the time and temperature of heat treatment on composition and phase structure of alloy layers were studied by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), backscattered electron (BSE), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The structure transformation process and formation mechanism of Al-Cr-Fe coatings were discussed.

  19. Room Temperature Radiolytic Synthesized Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Abedini, Alam; Saion, Elias; Larki, Farhad; Zakaria, Azmi; Noroozi, Monir; Soltani, Nayereh

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared by a gamma irradiation method in an aqueous system in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and isopropanol respectively as a colloidal stabilizer and scavenger of hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals. The gamma irradiation was carried out in a 60Co gamma source chamber with different doses up to 120 kGy. The formation of Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 nanoparticles was observed initially by the change in color of the colloidal samples from colorless to brown. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of bonds between polymer chains and the metal surface at all radiation doses. Results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 nanoparticles are in a core-shell structure. By controlling the absorbed dose and precursor concentration, nanoclusters with different particle sizes were obtained. The average particle diameter increased with increased precursor concentration and decreased with increased dose. This is due to the competition between nucleation, growth, and aggregation processes in the formation of nanoclusters during irradiation. PMID:23109893

  20. Room temperature radiolytic synthesized Cu@CuAlO(2)-Al(2)O(3) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Abedini, Alam; Saion, Elias; Larki, Farhad; Zakaria, Azmi; Noroozi, Monir; Soltani, Nayereh

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal Cu@CuAlO(2)-Al(2)O(3) bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared by a gamma irradiation method in an aqueous system in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and isopropanol respectively as a colloidal stabilizer and scavenger of hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals. The gamma irradiation was carried out in a (60)Co gamma source chamber with different doses up to 120 kGy. The formation of Cu@CuAlO(2)-Al(2)O(3) nanoparticles was observed initially by the change in color of the colloidal samples from colorless to brown. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of bonds between polymer chains and the metal surface at all radiation doses. Results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that Cu@CuAlO(2)-Al(2)O(3) nanoparticles are in a core-shell structure. By controlling the absorbed dose and precursor concentration, nanoclusters with different particle sizes were obtained. The average particle diameter increased with increased precursor concentration and decreased with increased dose. This is due to the competition between nucleation, growth, and aggregation processes in the formation of nanoclusters during irradiation. PMID:23109893

  1. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Two Cu-Cr-Nb Alloys and NARloy-Z

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.; Michal, Gary M.

    1996-01-01

    A series of creep tests were conducted on Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb (Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb), Cu-4 Cr-2 Nb (Cu-4 at.% Cr-2 at% Nb), and NARloy-Z (Cu-3 wt.% Ag-0.5 wt.% Zr) samples to determine their creep properties. In addition, a limited number of low cycle fatigue and thermal conductivity tests were conducted. The Cu-Cr-Nb alloys showed a clear advantage in creep life and sustainable load over the currently used NARloy-Z. Increases in life at a given stress were between 100% and 250% greater for the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys depending on the stress and temperature. For a given life, the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys could support a stress between 60% and 160% greater than NARloy-Z. Low cycle fatigue lives of the Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb alloy were equivalent to NARloy-Z at room temperature. At elevated temperatures (538 C and 650 C), the fatigue lives were 50% to 200% longer than NARloy-Z samples tested at 538 C. The thermal conductivities of the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys remained high, but were lower than NARloy-Z and pure Cu. The Cu-Cr-Nb thermal conductivities were between 72% and 96% that of pure Cu with the Cu-4 Cr-2 Nb alloy having a significant advantage in thermal conductivity over Cu-8 Cr4 Nb. In comparison, stainless steels with equivalent strengths would have thermal conductivities less than 25% the thermal conductivity of pure Cu. The combined results indicate that the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys offer an attractive alternative to current high temperature Cu-based alloys such as NARloy-Z.

  2. High temperature coarsening of Cr2Nb precipitates in Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Kenneth Reed

    1996-01-01

    A new high-temperature-strength, high-conductivity Cu-Cr-Nb alloy with a CrNb ratio of 2:1 was developed to achieve improved performance and durability. The Cu-8 Cr4 Nb alloy studied has demonstrated remarkable thermal and microstructural stability after long exposures at temperatures up to 0.98 T(sub m). This stability was mainly attributed to the slow coarsening kinetics of the Cr2Nb precipitates present in the alloy. At all temperatures, the microstructure consists of a bimodal and sometimes trimodal distribution of strengthening Cr2Nb precipitates, depending on precipitation condition, i.e. from liquid or solid solution, and cooling rates. These precipitates remain in the same size range, i.e. large precipitates of approximately I pm, and small precipitates less dm 300 nm, and effectively pin the grain boundaries thus retaining a fine grain size of 2.7 micro-m after 100 h at 1323 K. (A relatively small number of Cr-rich and Nb-rich particles were also present.) This grain boundary pinning and sluggish coarsening of Cr2Nb particles explain the retention of good mechanical properties after prolonged holding at very high temperatures, e.g., 75% of the original hardness after aging for 100 h at 1273 K. Application of LSW-based coarsening models indicated that the coarsening kinetics of the large precipitates are most likely governed by grain boundary diffsion and, to a lesser extent, volume diffusion mechanisms.

  3. Thermal fatigue damage of Cu-Cr-Zr alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Arya; Mitra, R.; Chakraborty, A. K.; Rotti, C.; Ray, K. K.

    2013-11-01

    The primary aim of this investigation is to examine thermal fatigue damage (TFD) in Cu-Cr-Zr alloys used in High Heat Flux components of Tokamak and its subsystems. Thermal fatigue experiments have been carried out between 290 °C and 30 °C, which is analogous to the condition of service application on two Cu-Cr-Zr alloys having different aging treatments. The extents of TFD have been examined by standard measurements of electrical conductivity, lattice strain, residual stress and dynamic elastic modulus, supplemented by characterizations of microstructure and determination of hardness and tensile properties. The results lead to infer that the relative amounts of damage are different in the two alloys which are further dependent on their aging conditions; the reasons for the observed difference have been explained. The operative mechanisms of TFD are revealed to be as formation and subsequent coalescence of microvoids, and/or initiation and growth of microcracks.

  4. Hot Corrosion Performance of AlO-CrO/NiCoCrAlYTa and AlO/NiCoCrAlYTa Coatings Deposited by Atmospheric Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Chong; Wang, Lei; Cheng, Nailiang; Hu, Hengfa; Liu, Yang; Song, Xiu

    2016-04-01

    AlO-CrO/NiCoCrAlYTa and AlO/NiCoCrAlYTa coatings were deposited on 316L stainless steel substrate using atmospheric plasma spraying, respectively, in order to improve the oxidation and corrosion resistance. The hot corrosion performance of the coatings at 700 and 900 °C were studied, and the detailed microstructures and phase composition of the coatings were analyzed using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer, and transmission electron microscope. The results show that both coatings are structurally featured by slatted layers, consisting of amorphous phase, Cr2O3, Ni3Al, and Al2O3. The hot corrosion resistance of AlO-CrO/NiCoCrAlYTa coating is better than that of AlO/NiCoCrAlYTa coating. This improvement is attributed to lower porosity and more compact Cr2O3 in AlO-CrO/NiCoCrAlYTa coating which performs better than Al2O3 in blocking further inward progress of corrosion and oxidization.

  5. Oxidation of Fe-Cr-Al and Fe-Cr-Al-Y Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabke, H. J.; Siegers, M.; Tolpygo, V. K.

    1995-03-01

    Single crystal samples of the alloy Fe-20%Cr-5%Al with and without Y-doping were used to study the "reactive element" (RE) effect, which causes improved oxidation behaviour and formation of a protective Al2O3 layer on this alloy. The oxidation was followed by AES at 10-7 mbar O2 up to about 1000 °C. Most observations were peculiar for this low pO2 environment, but yttrium clearly favors the formation of Al-oxide and stabilizes it also under these conditions, probably by favoring its nucleation. The oxides formed are surface compounds of about monolayer thickness, not clearly related to bulk oxides. Furthermore, the morphologies of oxide scales were investigated by SEM, after oxidation at 1000°C for 100 h at 133 mbar O2. On Fe-Cr-Al the scale is strongly convoluted and tends to spalling, whereas the presence of Y leads to flat scales which are well adherent. This difference is explained by a change in growth mechanism. The tendency for separation of oxide and metal was highest for the samples with low energy metal surface, i.e. (100) and (110), the scale was better adherent on the (111) oriented surface and on the polycrystalline specimen, since in the latter cases the overall energy for scale/metal separation is higher. All observations, from the low and from the high pO2 experiments, are discussed in relation to the approximately ten mechanisms proposed in the literature for explanation of the RE effects.

  6. Ti-Cr-Al-O Thin Film Resistors

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A F; Hayes, J P

    2002-03-21

    Thin films of Ti-Cr-Al-O are produced for use as an electrical resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O{sub 2}. Vertical resistivity values from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 10} Ohm-cm are measured for Ti-Cr-Al-O films. The film resistivity can be design selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The Ti-Cr-Al-O thin film resistor is found to be thermally stable unlike other metal-oxide films.

  7. Preparation and Performance of Cu-Cr Contact Materials for Vacuum Switches with Low Contact Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yanli; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Zhiming; Zhai, Yuxiang; Wang, Yaping

    2016-11-01

    Insufficient anti-welding properties limit the application of Cu-Cr contact material in vacuum switches with low contact pressure. The CuCr-W-C alloys that are prepared are for decreasing welding tendencies and keeping the voltage withstand by addition of W and C elements. It is found that the average welding force of CuCr-W-C alloys is reduced more than 50% compared with that of the Cu50 Cr50 alloy. Especially for CuCrW3.0C0.3 and CuCrW1.0C0.5, the welding forces reduce to only 10% of Cu50Cr50. Arc erosion areas of CuCr-W-C alloys are enlarged by five times more than that of the Cu50Cr50 alloy in the same arcing conditions. The results of type tests were qualified. The results suggested that the CuCrW2.0C1.0 alloy could be used in vacuum switches with low contact pressure to replace the W-Cu type contacts.

  8. Preparation and Performance of Cu-Cr Contact Materials for Vacuum Switches with Low Contact Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yanli; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Zhiming; Zhai, Yuxiang; Wang, Yaping

    2016-07-01

    Insufficient anti-welding properties limit the application of Cu-Cr contact material in vacuum switches with low contact pressure. The CuCr-W-C alloys that are prepared are for decreasing welding tendencies and keeping the voltage withstand by addition of W and C elements. It is found that the average welding force of CuCr-W-C alloys is reduced more than 50% compared with that of the Cu50 Cr50 alloy. Especially for CuCrW3.0C0.3 and CuCrW1.0C0.5, the welding forces reduce to only 10% of Cu50Cr50. Arc erosion areas of CuCr-W-C alloys are enlarged by five times more than that of the Cu50Cr50 alloy in the same arcing conditions. The results of type tests were qualified. The results suggested that the CuCrW2.0C1.0 alloy could be used in vacuum switches with low contact pressure to replace the W-Cu type contacts.

  9. Effect of mechanical activation on thermal and electrical conductivity of sintered Cu, Cr, and Cu/Cr composite powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogachev, A. S.; Kuskov, K. V.; Moskovskikh, D. O.; Usenko, A. A.; Orlov, A. O.; Shkodich, N. F.; Alymov, M. I.; Mukasyan, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    The results of measurement of electric resistivity and thermal conductivity of materials obtained by spark plasma sintering from powders of Cu, Cr, and their mixtures in the range of 300-600 K are presented. It is shown that the grinding of powders in planetary mills results in a reasonably substantial change in the electric and thermal properties of materials: to increasing electric resistivity and decreasing thermal conductivity and temperature coefficients of electric resistivity. The possible causes of these effects are considered.

  10. Enhanced Magnetization of CuCr2O4 Thin Films by Substrate-Induced Strain

    SciTech Connect

    Iwata, Jodi M.; Chopdekar, Rajesh V.; Wong, Franklin; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany B.; Arenholz, Elke; Suzuki, Yuri

    2008-09-17

    We report the synthesis of epitaxial spinel CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films that display enhanced magnetization in excess of 200% of the bulk values when grown on single-crystal (110) MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} substrates. Bulk CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} is a ferrimagnetic insulator with a net magnetic moment of 0.5 {micro}{sub B} due to its distorted tetragonal unit cell (c/a= 1.29) and frustrated triangular moment configuration. We show that through epitaxial growth and substrate-induced strain, it is possible to tune the magnetic functionality of our films by reducing the tetragonal distortion of the unit cell which effectively decreases the frustration of the magnetic moments allowing for an overall greater net moment.

  11. Stabilization of As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in soil using amendments--a review.

    PubMed

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Lagerkvist, Anders; Maurice, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The spread of contaminants in soil can be hindered by the soil stabilization technique. Contaminant immobilizing amendments decrease trace element leaching and their bioavailability by inducing various sorption processes: adsorption to mineral surfaces, formation of stable complexes with organic ligands, surface precipitation and ion exchange. Precipitation as salts and co-precipitation can also contribute to reducing contaminant mobility. The technique can be used in in situ and ex situ applications to reclaim and re-vegetate industrially devastated areas and mine-spoils, improve soil quality and reduce contaminant mobility by stabilizing agents and a beneficial use of industrial by-products. This study is an overview of data published during the last five years on the immobilization of one metalloid, As, and four heavy metals, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn, in soils. The most extensively studied amendments for As immobilization are Fe containing materials. The immobilization of As occurs through adsorption on Fe oxides by replacing the surface hydroxyl groups with the As ions, as well as by the formation of amorphous Fe(III) arsenates and/or insoluble secondary oxidation minerals. Cr stabilization mainly deals with Cr reduction from its toxic and mobile hexavalent form Cr(VI) to stable in natural environments Cr(III). The reduction is accelerated in soil by the presence of organic matter and divalent iron. Clays, carbonates, phosphates and Fe oxides were the common amendments tested for Cu immobilization. The suggested mechanisms of Cu retention were precipitation of Cu carbonates and oxy-hydroxides, ion exchange and formation of ternary cation-anion complexes on the surface of Fe and Al oxy-hydroxides. Most of the studies on Pb stabilization were performed using various phosphorus-containing amendments, which reduce the Pb mobility by ionic exchange and precipitation of pyromorphite-type minerals. Zn can be successfully immobilized in soil by phosphorus amendments and clays.

  12. TI--CR--AL--O thin film resistors

    DOEpatents

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Schmid, Anthony P.

    2000-01-01

    Thin films of Ti--Cr--Al--O are used as a resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O.sub.2. Resistivity values from 10.sup.4 to 10.sup.10 Ohm-cm have been measured for Ti--Cr--Al--O film <1 .mu.m thick. The film resistivity can be discretely selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The application of Ti--Cr--Al--O as a thin film resistor has been found to be thermodynamically stable, unlike other metal-oxide films. The Ti--Cr--Al--O film can be used as a vertical or lateral resistor, for example, as a layer beneath a field emission cathode in a flat panel display; or used to control surface emissivity, for example, as a coating on an insulating material such as vertical wall supports in flat panel displays.

  13. Fabrication and calibration of integrated Cu-Cr thermocouple gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, T. C.; Flattery, J.; Ghosh, P. K.; Kornreich, P. G.

    1988-10-01

    We report here the design, fabrication, and testing of an integrated thermocouple gauge. The gauge uses a thin-film Cr heater and a thin-film Cu-Cr differential thermocouple on a 5-×3-mm glass substrate. The thermocouple measures the difference between the heater and the substrate temperature. Calibration of the thin-film Cu-Cr thermocouple gauge was done by using a standard K-type thermocouple as reference. At a constant difference temperature the measured power input to the heater is a function of the surrounding vapor pressure. The thermocouple gauge was calibrated using a McLeod gauge with He, Ar, N2, H2O, and CO2 gases. Our measurements show that the range of the gauge can possibly be extended to the μTorr range. This gauge uses a standard thin-film processing technique for fabrication resulting in a lower cost of production. Also, small size makes this gauge versatile and unique in comparison to many commercial gauges.

  14. Fretting Wear of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Lerch, Bradley A.; Draper, Susan L.

    2001-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine the wear behavior of gamma titanium aluminide (Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb in atomic percent) in contact with a typical nickel-base superalloy under repeated microscopic vibratory motion in air at temperatures from 296-823 K. The surface damage observed on the interacting surfaces of both Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb and superalloy consisted of fracture pits, oxides, metallic debris, scratches, craters, plastic deformation, and cracks. The Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb transferred to the superalloy at all fretting conditions and caused scuffing or galling. The increasing rate of oxidation at elevated temperatures led to a drop in Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb wear at 473 K. Mild oxidative wear was observed at 473 K. However, fretting wear increased as the temperature was increased from 473-823 K. At 723 and 823 K, oxide disruption generated cracks, loose wear debris, and pits on the Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb wear surface. Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb wear generally decreased with increasing fretting frequency. Both increasing slip amplitude and increasing load tended to produce more metallic wear debris, causing severe abrasive wear in the contacting metals. Keywords

  15. Elastocaloric effect in CuAlZn and CuAlMn shape memory alloys under compression.

    PubMed

    Qian, Suxin; Geng, Yunlong; Wang, Yi; Pillsbury, Thomas E; Hada, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Fujimoto, Kenjiro; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Cui, Jun; Yuki, Yoji; Toyotake, Koutaro; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2016-08-13

    This paper reports the elastocaloric effect of two Cu-based shape memory alloys: Cu68Al16Zn16 (CuAlZn) and Cu73Al15Mn12 (CuAlMn), under compression at ambient temperature. The compression tests were conducted at two different rates to approach isothermal and adiabatic conditions. Upon unloading at a strain rate of 0.1 s(-1) (adiabatic condition) from 4% strain, the highest adiabatic temperature changes (ΔTad) of 4.0 K for CuAlZn and 3.9 K for CuAlMn were obtained. The maximum stress and hysteresis at each strain were compared. The stress at the maximum recoverable strain of 4.0% for CuAlMn was 120 MPa, which is 70% smaller than that of CuAlZn. A smaller hysteresis for the CuAlMn alloy was also obtained, about 70% less compared with the CuAlZn alloy. The latent heat, determined by differential scanning calorimetry, was 4.3 J g(-1) for the CuAlZn alloy and 5.0 J g(-1) for the CuAlMn alloy. Potential coefficients of performance (COPmat) for these two alloys were calculated based on their physical properties of measured latent heat and hysteresis, and a COPmat of approximately 13.3 for CuAlMn was obtained.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'. PMID:27402936

  16. Elastocaloric effect in CuAlZn and CuAlMn shape memory alloys under compression.

    PubMed

    Qian, Suxin; Geng, Yunlong; Wang, Yi; Pillsbury, Thomas E; Hada, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Fujimoto, Kenjiro; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Cui, Jun; Yuki, Yoji; Toyotake, Koutaro; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2016-08-13

    This paper reports the elastocaloric effect of two Cu-based shape memory alloys: Cu68Al16Zn16 (CuAlZn) and Cu73Al15Mn12 (CuAlMn), under compression at ambient temperature. The compression tests were conducted at two different rates to approach isothermal and adiabatic conditions. Upon unloading at a strain rate of 0.1 s(-1) (adiabatic condition) from 4% strain, the highest adiabatic temperature changes (ΔTad) of 4.0 K for CuAlZn and 3.9 K for CuAlMn were obtained. The maximum stress and hysteresis at each strain were compared. The stress at the maximum recoverable strain of 4.0% for CuAlMn was 120 MPa, which is 70% smaller than that of CuAlZn. A smaller hysteresis for the CuAlMn alloy was also obtained, about 70% less compared with the CuAlZn alloy. The latent heat, determined by differential scanning calorimetry, was 4.3 J g(-1) for the CuAlZn alloy and 5.0 J g(-1) for the CuAlMn alloy. Potential coefficients of performance (COPmat) for these two alloys were calculated based on their physical properties of measured latent heat and hysteresis, and a COPmat of approximately 13.3 for CuAlMn was obtained.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'.

  17. Phase correlations in the CuAlSe2-CuAlTe2 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzun, B. V.; Fadzeyeva, A. A.; Bente, K.; Schmitz, W.; Kommichau, G.

    2005-07-01

    Alloys in the CuAlSe2-CuAlTe2 system were synthesized in BN-crucibles in silica tubes under vacuum to obtain the corresponding phase equilibria. X-ray powder diffraction and thermal analytic data of the T-x phase diagram revealed a complete solid solutions series in the subsolidus region. Within the CuAlSe2xTe2(1-x) system the refined lattice parameters a and c approximately obey the Vegard rule and also the cell volume and the heat of fusion confirm linear correlations with the composition of the mixed crystals. The anion position parameter calculated after S. C. Abrahams & J. L. Bernstein (uAB) and J. E Jaffe & A. Zunger (uJZ) is greater than 0.25 and reveals a linear dependence on composition. The liquidus part of the CuAlSe2xTe2(1-x) system with x < 0.35 exhibits vertical section behaviour with a ternary peritectic followed up by a ternary monotectic whereas the region with x > 0.35 shows quasibinary equilibria.

  18. LiCaAl/sub 6/:Cr/sup 3+/

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, S.A.; Chase, L.L.; Newkirk, H.W.; Smith, L.K.; Krupke, W.F. )

    1988-11-01

    The authors report the discovery of a new laser, LiCaAIF/sub 6/:Cr/sup 3/ (Cr/sup 3+/ :LiCAF). The intrinsic (extrapolated maximum) slope efficiency was found to be 67 percent. For comparison, they also measured the intrinsic slope efficiencies of BeAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/:Cr/sup 3+/ (alexandrite), Na/sub 3/Ga/sub 2/Li/sub 3/F/sub 12/:Cr/sup 3+/, and ScBO/sub 3/:Cr/sup 3+/, and obtained values of 65,28, and 26 percent, respectively. The tuning range of LiCaAIF/sub 6/:Cr/sup 3+/ was determined to be at least 720-840 nm. The conventional spectroscopic properties, such as the absorption, emission, and emission lifetimes as a function of temperature, are reported as well.

  19. Spectroscopic analysis of the open 3d subshell transition metal aluminides: AlV, AlCr, and AlCo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behm, Jane M.; Brugh, Dale J.; Morse, Michael D.

    1994-10-01

    Three open 3d subshell transition metal aluminides, AlV, AlCr, and AlCo, have been investigated by resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy to elucidate the chemical bonding in these diatomic molecules. The open nature of the 3d subshell results in a vast number of excited electronic states in these species, allowing bond strengths to be measured by the observation of abrupt predissociation thresholds in a congested optical spectrum, giving D00(AlV)=1.489±0.010 eV, D00(AlCr)=2.272±0.009 eV, and D00(AlCo)=1.844±0.002 eV. At lower excitation energies the presence of discrete transitions has permitted determinations of the ground state symmetries and bond lengths of AlV and AlCo through rotationally resolved studies, giving r0` (AlV, Ω`=0)=2.620±0.004 Å and r0` (AlCo, Ω`=3)=2.3833±0.0005 Å. Ionization energies were also measured for all three species, yielding IE(AlV)=6.01±0.10 eV, IE(AlCr)=5.96±0.04 eV, and IE(AlCo)=6.99±0.17 eV. A discussion of these results is presented in the context of previous work on AlCu, AlNi, AlCa, and AlZn.

  20. Low voltage tunneling magnetoresistance in CuCrO{sub 2}-based semiconductor heterojunctions at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X. R.; Han, M. J.; Shan, C.; Hu, Z. G. Zhu, Z. Q.; Chu, J. H.; Wu, J. D.

    2014-12-14

    CuCrO{sub 2}-based heterojunction diodes with rectifying characteristics have been fabricated by combining p-type Mg-doped CuCrO{sub 2} and n-type Al-doped ZnO. It was found that the current for the heterojunction in low bias voltage region is dominated by the trap-assisted tunneling mechanism. Positive magnetoresistance (MR) effect for the heterojunction can be observed at room temperature due to the tunneling-induced antiparallel spin polarization near the heterostructure interface. The MR effect becomes enhanced with the magnetic field, and shows the maximum at a bias voltage around 0.5 V. The phenomena indicate that the CuCrO{sub 2}-based heterojunction is a promising candidate for low-power semiconductor spintronic devices.

  1. Intermetallic Phase Formation in Explosively Welded Al/Cu Bimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amani, H.; Soltanieh, M.

    2016-08-01

    Diffusion couples of aluminum and copper were fabricated by explosive welding process. The interface evolution caused by annealing at different temperatures and time durations was investigated by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Annealing in the temperature range of 573 K to 773 K (300 °C to 500 °C) up to 408 hours showed that four types of intermetallic layers have been formed at the interface, namely Al2Cu, AlCu, Al3Cu4, and Al4Cu9. Moreover, it was observed that iron trace in aluminum caused the formation of Fe-bearing intermetallics in Al, which is near the interface of the Al-Cu intermetallic layers. Finally, the activation energies for the growth of Al2Cu, AlCu + Al3Cu4, Al4Cu9, and the total intermetallic layer were calculated to be about 83.3, 112.8, 121.6, and 109.4 kJ/mol, respectively. Considering common welding methods ( i.e., explosive welding, cold rolling, and friction welding), although there is a great difference in welding mechanism, it is found that the total activation energy is approximately the same.

  2. The reaction of vapor-deposited Al with Cu oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.N.; Martin, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Interfaces formed by controlled deposition of Al on Cu oxides at 300K have been characterized using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). When Al is deposited onto a thin oxide grown on Cu(110) by atmospheric exposure, it completely scavenges the oxygen from the substrate material, increasing the O(1s) binding energy by 2.0 eV to give the value found for atmospheric oxidation of a thin Al film. Similar oxygen behavior is seen for Al deposition on sputter-deposited CuO with an enriched oxygen surface region, where multilayers of Al erase the shakeup satellites in the Cu(2p) region of the XPS spectrum to give features like those exhibited by Cu{sub 2}O or metallic Cu. Having calibrated the fluence of the Al source with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, the attenuation of the Cu 2p{sub 1/2} satellite after approximately one monolayer of Al deposition is associated with the removal of oxygen from the top 20 {angstrom} of the CuO. Approximately 7--8 equivalent monolayers of Al are converted to an oxide in the initial rapid reaction process. Further deposition leads to progressive development of the metallic Al signature in both the XPS and AES spectra. These measurements clearly demonstrate the dominant role played by Al, a strong oxide former, when it is placed in intimate contact with the distinctively weaker Cu oxide. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  3. CuCrZr alloy microstructure and mechanical properties after hot isostatic pressing bonding cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frayssines, P.-E.; Gentzbittel, J.-M.; Guilloud, A.; Bucci, P.; Soreau, T.; Francois, N.; Primaux, F.; Heikkinen, S.; Zacchia, F.; Eaton, R.; Barabash, V.; Mitteau, R.

    2014-04-01

    ITER first wall (FW) panels are a layered structure made of the three following materials: 316L(N) austenitic stainless steel, CuCrZr alloy and beryllium. Two hot isostatic pressing (HIP) cycles are included in the reference fabrication route to bond these materials together for the normal heat flux design supplied by the European Union (EU). This reference fabrication route ensures sufficiently good mechanical properties for the materials and joints, which fulfil the ITER mechanical specifications, but often results in a coarse grain size for the CuCrZr alloy, which is not favourable, especially, for the thermal creep properties of the FW panels. To limit the abnormal grain growth of CuCrZr and make the ITER FW fabrication route more reliable, a study began in 2010 in the EU in the frame of an ITER task agreement. Two material fabrication approaches have been investigated. The first one was dedicated to the fabrication of solid CuCrZr alloy in close collaboration with an industrial copper alloys manufacturer. The second approach investigated was the manufacturing of CuCrZr alloy using the powder metallurgy (PM) route and HIP consolidation. This paper presents the main mechanical and microstructural results associated with the two CuCrZr approaches mentioned above. The mechanical properties of solid CuCrZr, PM CuCrZr and joints (solid CuCrZr/solid CuCrZr and solid CuCrZr/316L(N) and PM CuCrZr/316L(N)) are also presented.

  4. Aluminum and silicon diffusion in Fe-Cr-Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Heesemann, A.; Schmidtke, E.; Faupel, F.; Kolb-Telieps, A.; Kloewer, J.

    1999-02-05

    Foils of Fe-Cr-Al alloys containing about 20 wt% Cr, 5 wt% Al and additions of Si and reactive elements like Ce, La, Y, Hf, Zr or Ti are widely used as a substrate in metal-supported automotive catalytic converters. In the present paper the authors report on measurements of Al and Si diffusion in Fe-Cr-Al alloys. Due to a lack of suitable radiotracers concentration profiles were obtained by means of electron microprobe analysis. In connection with data evaluation they present numerical calculations assessing the accuracy of the Matano analysis and the thin-film solution of Fick`s 2nd law as function of the thickness of the initial diffusant layer. The results are of general interest, particularly for the evaluation of diffusion measurements involving industrial specimens with given geometry.

  5. Enhanced dehalogenation of halogenated methanes by bimetallic Cu/Al.

    PubMed

    Lien, Hsing-Lung; Zhang, Weixian

    2002-10-01

    A low-cost and high effective copper/aluminum (Cu/Al) bimetal has been developed for treatments of halogenated methanes, including dichloromethane, in near neutral and high pH aqueous systems. Bimetallic Cu/Al was prepared by a simple two-step synthetic method where Cu was deposited onto the Al surface. The presence of Cu on Al significantly enhanced rates of degradation of halogenated methanes and reduced toxic halogenated intermediates. The stability of Cu/Al was preliminarily studied by a multi-spiking batch experiment where complete degradation of carbon tetrachloride was achieved for seven times although the Cu/Al aging was found. Roles of Cu may involve protecting Al against an undesirable oxidation with water, enhancing reaction rates through the galvanic corrosion, and increasing the selectivity to a benign compound (i.e., methane). Kinetic analyses indicated that the activity of bimetallic Cu/Al was comparable to that of iron-based bimetals (e.g., palladized iron) and zero-valent metals. Bimetallic Cu/Al could be a promising reactive reagent for remediation of halogenated solvents-contaminated groundwater associated with high pH problems.

  6. Influence of FeCrAl Content on Microstructure and Bonding Strength of Plasma-Sprayed FeCrAl/Al2O3 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Liang; Luo, Fa; Zhou, Wancheng; Zhu, Dongmei

    2016-02-01

    Low-power plasma-sprayed FeCrAl/Al2O3 composite coatings with 1.5 mm thickness have been fabricated for radar absorption applications. The effects of FeCrAl content on the coating properties were studied. The FeCrAl presents in the form of a few thin lamellae and numerous particles, demonstrating relatively even distribution in all the coatings. Results show that the micro-hardness and porosity decrease with the increase in FeCrAl content. With FeCrAl content increasing from 28 to 47 wt.%, the bonding strength of the coatings with 1.5 mm thickness increases from 10.5 to 27 MPa, and the failure modes are composed of cohesive and adhesive failure, which are ascribed to the coating microstructure and the residual stress, respectively.

  7. Residual Stresses in Thermal Barrier Coatings for a Cu-8Cr-4Nb Substrate System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Raj, Sai V.

    2002-01-01

    Analytical calculations were conducted to determine the thermal stresses developed in a coated copper-based alloy, Cu-8%(at.%)Cr-4%Nb (designated as GRCop-84), after plasma spraying and during heat-up in a simulated rocket engine environment. Finite element analyses were conducted for two coating systems consisting of a metallic top coat, a pure copper bond coat and the GRCop-84. The through thickness temperature variations were determined as a function of coating thickness for two metallic coatings, a Ni-17%(wt%)Cr-6%Al-0.5%Y alloy and a Ni-50%(at.%)Al alloy. The residual stresses after low-pressure plasma spraying of the NiCrAlY and NiAl coatings on GRCop-84 substrate were also evaluated. These analyses took into consideration a 50.8 mm copper bond coat and the effects of an interface coating roughness. The through the thickness thermal stresses developed in coated liners were also calculated after 15 minutes of exposure in a rocket environment with and without an interfacial roughness.

  8. Facile synthesis of dendritic Cu by electroless reaction of Cu-Al alloys in multiphase solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Liang, Shuhua; Yang, Qing; Wang, Xianhui

    2016-11-01

    Two-dimensional nano- or micro-scale fractal dendritic coppers (FDCs) were synthesized by electroless immersing of Cu-Al alloys in hydrochloric acid solution containing copper chloride without any assistance of template or surfactant. The FDC size increases with the increase of Al content in Cu-Al alloys immersed in CuCl2 + HCl solution. Compared to Cu40Al60 and Cu45Al55 alloys, the FDC shows hierarchical distribution and homogeneous structures using Cu17Al83 alloy as the starting alloy. The growth direction of the FDC is <110>, and all angles between the trunks and branches are 60°. Nanoscale Cu2O was found at the edge of FDC. Interestingly, nanoporous copper (NPC) can also be obtained through Cu17Al83 alloy. Studies showed that the formation of FDC depended on two key factors: the potential difference between CuAl2 intermetallic and α-Al phase of dual-phase Cu-Al alloys; a replacement reaction that usually occurs in multiphase solution. The electrochemical experiment further proved that the multi-branch dendritic structure is very beneficial to the proton transfer in the process of catalyzing methanol.

  9. Intermetallic compound formation at Cu-Al wire bond interface

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, In-Tae; Young Jung, Dae; Chen, William T.; Du Yong

    2012-12-15

    Intermetallic compound (IMC) formation and evolution at Cu-Al wire bond interface were studied using focused ion beam /scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), nano beam electron diffraction (NBED) and structure factor (SF) calculation. It was found that discrete IMC patches were formed at the Cu/Al interface in as-packaged state and they grew toward Al pad after high temperature storage (HTS) environment at 150 Degree-Sign C. TEM/EDS and NBED results combined with SF calculation revealed the evidence of metastable {theta} Prime -CuAl{sub 2} IMC phase (tetragonal, space group: I4m2, a = 0.404 nm, c= 0.580 nm) formed at Cu/Al interfaces in both of the as-packaged and the post-HTS samples. Two feasible mechanisms for the formation of the metastable {theta} Prime -CuAl{sub 2} phase are discussed based on (1) non-equilibrium cooling of wire bond that is attributed to highly short bonding process time and (2) the epitaxial relationships between Cu and {theta} Prime -CuAl{sub 2}, which can minimize lattice mismatch for {theta} Prime -CuAl{sub 2} to grow on Cu.

  10. Cu(Cu0.44Cr4.56)Ge2O12: a close-packed oxide with CuO4 tetrahedra.

    PubMed

    Redhammer, Günther J; Roth, Georg; Amthauer, Georg

    2007-04-01

    The structure of copper(I,II) pentachromium(III) germanate, Cu(Cu(0.44)Cr(4.56))Ge(2)O(12), contains one Cu position (m2m), one Ge position (m) and three Cr positions (2/m, m and 2). The close-packed structure is described in terms of slabs of edge-sharing Cr(3+)O(6) octahedra and isolated CuO(4) and GeO(4) tetrahedra. These slabs are aligned parallel to the bc plane and are separated from each other by GeO(4) tetrahedra along a. The tetrahedral coordination observed for the Cu(+)/Cu(2+) ions represents an unusual feature of the structure. The Cr-O and Cu-O bond lengths are compared with literature data.

  11. The General Isothermal Oxidation Behavior of Cu-8Cr-4Nb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Ogbuji, L. U.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Oxidation kinetics of Cu-8Cr-4Nb was investigated by TGA (thermogravimetric) exposures between 500 and 900-C (at 25-50 C intervals) and the oxide scale morphologies examined by microscopy and micro-analysis. Because Cu-8Cr-4Nb is comprised of fine Cr2Nb precipitates in a Cu matrix, the results were interpreted by comparison with the behavior of copper (OFHC) and 'NARloy-Z' (a rival candidate material for thrust cell liner applications in advanced rocket engines) under the same conditions. While NARloy-Z and Cu exhibited identical oxidation behavior, Cu-8Cr-4Nb differed markedly in several respects: below approx. 700 C its oxidation rates were significantly lower than those of Cu; At higher temperatures its oxidation rates fell into two categories: an initial rate exceeding that of Cu, and a terminal rate comparable to that of Cu. Differences in oxide morphologies paralleled the kinetic differences at higher temperature: While NARloy-Z and Cu produced a uniform oxide scale of Cu2O inner layer and CuO outer layer, the inner (Cu2O) layer on Cu-8Cr-4Nb was stratified, with a highly porous/spongy inner stratum (responsible for the fast initial kinetics) and a dense/blocky outer stratum (corresponding to the slow terminal kinetics). Single and spinel oxides of Nb and Cr were found at the interface between the oxide scale and Cu-8Cr-4Nb substrate and it appears that these oxides were responsible for its suppressed oxidation rates at the intermediate temperatures. No difference was found between Cu-8Cr-4Nb oxidation in air and in oxygen at 1.0 atm.

  12. Electron crystallography applied to the structure determination of Nb(Cu,Al,X) Laves phases.

    PubMed

    Gigla, M; Lelatko, J; Krzelowski, M; Morawiec, H

    2006-09-01

    The presence of primary precipitates of the Laves phases considerably improves the mechanical properties and the resistance to thermal degradation of the high-temperature shape memory Cu-Al-Nb alloys. The structure analysis of the Laves phases was carried out on particles contained in the ternary and quaternary alloys as well on synthesized compounds related to the composition of the Nb(Cu,Al,X)(2) phase, where X = Ni, Co, Cr, Ti and Zr. The precise structure determination of the Laves phases was carried out by the electron crystallography method using the CRISP software.

  13. Selective Detection of NO2 Using Cr-Doped CuO Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kang-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Mook; Kim, Hae-Ryong; Choi, Kwon-Il; Kim, Hyo-Joong; Lee, Jong-Heun

    2012-01-01

    CuO nanosheets, Cr-doped CuO nanosheets, and Cr-doped CuO nanorods were prepared by heating a slurry containing Cu-hydroxide/Cr-hydroxide. Their responses to 100 ppm NO2, C2H5OH, NH3, trimethylamine, C3H8, and CO were measured. For 2.2 at% Cr-doped CuO nanorods, the response (Ra/Rg, Ra: resistance in air, Rg: resistance in gas) to 100 ppm NO2 was 134.2 at 250 °C, which was significantly higher than that of pure CuO nano-sheets (Ra/Rg = 7.5) and 0.76 at% Cr-doped CuO nanosheets (Ra/Rg = 19.9). In addition, the sensitivity for NO2 was also markedly enhanced by Cr doping. Highly sensitive and selective detection of NO2 in 2.2 at% Cr-doped CuO nanorods is explained in relation to Cr-doping induced changes in donor density, morphology, and catalytic effects. PMID:22969384

  14. Vacuum Plasma Spray of Cu-8Cr-4Nb for Advanced Liquid-Fuel Combustion Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, F.; Elam, S.; Ellis, D.; Miller, H.; McKechnie, T.; Hickman, R.

    2001-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spray (VPS) formed Cu-8Cr-4Nb alloy, with low oxygen, exhibits higher strength at room and elevated temperature than material formed by extrusion. The VPS formed material exhibits slightly lower ductility than the extruded material. VPS forming of Cu-8Cr-4Nb can be used to produce near net structures with mechanical properties comparable to current extruded material.

  15. Fate of Cu, Cr, and As during combustion of impregnated wood with and without peat additive

    SciTech Connect

    Karin Lundholm; Dan Bostroem; Anders Nordin; Andrei Shchukarev

    2007-09-15

    The EU Directive on incineration of waste regulates the harmful emissions of particles and twelve toxic elements, including copper, chromium, and arsenic. Using a 15 kW pellets-fueled grate burner, experiments were performed to determine the fate of copper, chromium, and arsenic during combustion of chromate copper arsenate (CCA) preservative wood. The fate and speciation of copper, chromium, and arsenic were determined from analysis of the flue gas particles and the bottom ash using SEM-EDS, XRD, XPS, and ICP-AES. Chemical equilibrium model calculations were performed to interpret the experimental findings. The results revealed that about 5% copper, 15% chromium, and 60% arsenic were volatilized during combustion of pure CCA-wood, which is lower than predicted volatilization from the individual arsenic, chromium, and copper oxides. This is explained by the formation of more stable refractory complex oxide phases for which the stability trends and patterns are presented. When co-combusted with peat, an additional stabilization of these phases was obtained and thus a small but noteworthy decrease in volatilization of all three elements was observed. The major identified phases for all fuels were CuCrO{sub 2}(s), (Fe,Mg,Cu)(Cr,Fe,Al)O{sub 4}(s), Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}(s), and Ca{sub 3}(AsO{sub 4}){sub 2}(s). Arsenic was also identified in the fine particles as KH{sub 2}AsO{sub 4}(s) and As{sub 2}O{sub 3}). A strong indication of hexavalent chromium in the form of K{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} or as a solid solution between K{sub 3}Na(CrO{sub 4}){sub 2} and K{sub 3}Na(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} was found in the fine particles. Good qualitative agreement was observed between experimental data and chemical equilibrium model calculations. 38 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Protection of Advanced Copper Alloys With Lean Cu-Cr Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenbauer-Seng, L. (Technical Monitor); Thomas-Ogbuji, L.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced copper alloys are used as liners of rocket thrusters and nozzle ramps to ensure dissipation of the high thermal load generated during launch, and Cr-lean coatings are preferred for the protection of these liners from the aggressive ambient environment. It is shown that adequate protection can be achieved with thin Cu-Cr coatings containing as little as 17 percent Cr.

  17. Hydrogen permeation characteristics of some Fe-Cr-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Deventer, E. H.; Maroni, V. A.

    1983-01-01

    Hydrogen permeation data are reported for two Fe-Cr-Al alloys, Type-405 SS (Cr 14-A1 0.2) and a member of the Fecralloy family of alloys (Cr 16-A1 5). The hydrogen permeability of each alloy (in a partially oxidized condition) was measured over a period of several weeks at randomly selected temperatures (between 150 and 850°C) and upstream H 2 pressures (between 2 and 1.5 × 10 4 Pa). The permeabilities showed considerable scatter with both time and temperature and were 10 2 to 10 3 times lower than those of pure iron, even in strongly reducing environments. The exponent, n, for the relationship between upstream H 2 pressure, P, and permeability, φ, ( φ ~ Pn) was closer to 0.7 than to the expected 0.5, indicating a process limited by surface effects (e.g., surface oxide films) as opposed to bulk material effects. Comparison of these results with prior permeation measurements on other Fe-Cr-Al alloys, on Fe-Cr alloys, and on pure iron shows that the presence of a few weight percent aluminum offers the best prospects for achieving low tritium permeabilities with martensitic and ferritic steels used in fusion-reactor first wall and blanket applications.

  18. Nucleation and Growth of Cu-Al Intermetallics in Al-Modified Sn-Cu and Sn-Ag-Cu Lead-Free Solder Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeve, Kathlene N.; Anderson, Iver E.; Handwerker, Carol A.

    2015-03-01

    Lead-free solder alloys Sn-Cu (SC) and Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) are widely used by the microelectronics industry, but enhanced control of the microstructure is needed to improve solder performance. For such control, nucleation and stability of Cu-Al intermetallic compound (IMC) solidification catalysts were investigated by variation of the Cu (0.7-3.0 wt.%) and Al (0.0-0.4 wt.%) content of SC + Al and SAC + Al alloys, and of SAC + Al ball-grid array (BGA) solder joints. All of the Al-modified alloys produced Cu-Al IMC particles with different morphologies and phases (occasionally non-equilibrium phases). A trend of increasing Cu-Al IMC volume fraction with increasing Al content was established. Because of solidification of non-equilibrium phases in wire alloy structures, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments revealed delayed, non-equilibrium melting at high temperatures related to quenched-in Cu-Al phases; a final liquidus of 960-1200°C was recorded. During cooling from 1200°C, the DSC samples had the solidification behavior expected from thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. Solidification of the ternary alloys commenced with formation of ternary β and Cu-Al δ phases at 450-550°C; this was followed by β-Sn, and, finally, Cu6Sn5 and Cu-Al γ1. Because of the presence of the retained, high-temperature phases in the alloys, particle size and volume fraction of the room temperature Cu-Al IMC phases were observed to increase when the alloy casting temperature was reduced from 1200°C to 800°C, even though both temperatures are above the calculated liquidus temperature of the alloys. Preliminary electron backscatter diffraction results seemed to show Sn grain refinement in the SAC + Al BGA alloy.

  19. Thermal stability of Al-Cu-Fe icosahedral alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessière, M.; Quivy, A.; Lefebvre, S.; Devaud-Rzepski, J.; Calvayrac, Y.

    1991-12-01

    A stable ideally quasiperiodic phase exists in a small range of concentration, close to the composition Al{62}Cu{25.5}Fe{12.5}. Reducing the iron content, or replacing small amounts of copper by aluminium, lead to icosahedral alloys which exhibit around 650 ^{circ}C structural transformations of unclear nature: in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern, the peak profiles become purely Lorentzian (Al{62.3}Cu{25.3}Fe{12.4}) or diffuse “side-bands” appear in the tails of the Bragg peaks (Al{63}Cu{24.5}Fe{12.5}). In the last case long annealing treatments eventually transform the Bragg peaks into diffuse peaks located at positions clearly off the ideal icosahedral symmetry. Small deviations from this composition range lead to Bragg peaks with shoulders whatever the heat-treatment may be; perfect icosahedral order is never obtained for these compositions (Al{63,25}Cu{24,5}Fe{12,25}, Al{64}Cu{24}Fe{12}, Al{63}Cu{25}Fe{12}). Une phase stable idéalement quasipériodique existe dans un petit domaine de concentration, au voisinage de la composition Al{62}Cu{25,5}Fe{12,5}. La diminution de la teneur en fer, ou le remplacement de faibles quantités de cuivre par de l'aluminium, conduisent à des alliages icosaédriques qui subissent vers 650 ^{circ}C des transformations structurales dont la nature n'est pas clairement identifiée: dans le diagramme de diffraction des rayons X sur poudre, les profils de raies deviennent purement Lorentziens (Al{62,3}Cu{25,3}Fe{12,4}) ou bien des raies diffuses apparaissent dans le pied des pics de Bragg (Al{63}Cu{24,5}Fe{12,5}). Dans ce dernier cas un long traitement de recuit transforme finalement les pics de Bragg en des pics diffus localisés à des positions clairement en dehors de celles correspondant à la symétrie icosaédrique idéale. De faibles écarts à ce domaine de compositions conduisent à des diagrammes de rayons X où les pics de Bragg sont épaulés quel que soit le traitement thermique ; l'ordre icosaédrique parfait n

  20. Some TEM observations of Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J.; Gibala, R.

    1979-01-01

    The microstructural development of Al2O3 scales on NiCrAl alloys has been examined by transmission electron microscopy. Voids were observed within grains in scales formed on a pure NiCrAl alloy. Both voids and oxide grains grew measurably with oxidation time at 1100 C. The size and amount of porosity decreased towards the oxide-metal growth interface. The voids resulted from an excess number of oxygen vacancies near the oxidemetal interface. Short-circuit diffusion paths were discussed in reference to current growth stress models for oxide scales. Transient oxidation of pure, Y-doped, and Zr-doped NiCrAl was also examined. Oriented alpha-(Al, Cr)2O3 and Ni(Al, Cr)2O4 scales often coexisted in layered structures on all three alloys. Close-packed oxygen planes and directions in the corundum and spinel layers were parallel. The close relationship between oxide layers provided a gradual transition from initial transient scales to steady state Al2O3 growth.

  1. A new Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb alloy for high temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, D. L.; Michal, G. M.; Dreshfield, R. L.

    1995-01-01

    Various applications exist where a high conductivity alloy with good strength and creep resistance are required. NASA LeRC has developed a Cu-8 at. percent Cr-4 at. percent Nb (Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb) alloy for these applications. The alloy is designed for use up to 700 C and shows exceptional strength, low cycle fatigue (LCF) resistance, and creep resistance. Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb also has a thermal conductivity of at least 72 percent that of pure Cu. Furthermore, the microstructure and mechanical properties of the alloy are very stable. In addition to the original application in combustion chambers, Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb shows promise for welding electrodes, brazing fixtures, and other applications requiring high conductivity and strength at elevated temperatures.

  2. Composition dependence of superconductivity in YBa2(Cu(3-x)Al(x))Oy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1991-01-01

    Eleven different compositions in the system YBa2(Cu(3-x)Al(x))O(y) (x = 0 to 0.3) have been synthesized and characterized by electrical resistivity measurements, powder x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The superconducting transition temperature T sub c (onset) was almost unaffected by the presence of alumina due to its limited solubility in YBa2Cu3O(7-x). However, T sub c(R = 0) gradually decreased, and the resistive tails became longer with increasing Al2O3 concentration. This was probably due to formation of BaAl2O4 and other impurity phases from chemical decomposition of the superconducting phase by reaction with Al2O3.

  3. Composition dependence of superconductivity in YBa2(Cu(3-x)Al(x))O(y)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, N. P.

    1993-01-01

    Eleven different compositions in the system YBa2(Cu(3-x)Al(x))O(y) (x = 0 to 0.3) have been synthesized and characterized by electrical resistivity measurements, powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The superconducting transition temperature T sub c (onset) was almost unaffected by the presence of alumina due to its limited solubility in YBa2Cu3O(7-x). However, T sub c(R = 0) gradually decreased, and the resistive tails became longer with increasing Al2O3 concentration. This was probably due to formation of BaAl2O4 and other impurity phases from chemical decomposition of the superconducting phase by reaction with Al2O3.

  4. Positron lifetime studies of decomposition in 2024 (Al-Cu-Mg) and 7010 (Al-Zn-Cu-Mg) alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dlubek, G. |; Lademann, P.; Krause, H.; Krause, S.; Unger, R.

    1998-09-04

    In the current paper, the decomposition behavior of the engineering alloys 2024 (Al-Cu-Mg) and 7010 (Al-Zn-Cu-Mg) is studied using positron lifetime measurements. Positrons probe open volume defects such as vacancies and dislocations. However, they may also be used to investigate coherent zones and incoherent precipitates. In order to understand the rather complicated precipitation sequences and the response of positrons to different type of precipitates occurring in 2024 and 7010 alloys, binary and ternary laboratory alloys were also investigated under the same experimental conditions as the engineering alloys. The interpretations of the results are based on experiences of the group from extensive positron studies of laboratory alloys such as Al-Zn, Al-Zn-Mg, Al-Cu, and further Al alloys (see also the review (4)). Their collected results are shown as lifetimes and curve-shape parameters S of the electron-positron momentum distribution curves characteristic for different precipitates in Al alloys.

  5. Interfacial Reaction during Friction Stir Welding of Al and Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genevois, C.; Girard, M.; Huneau, B.; Sauvage, X.; Racineux, G.

    2011-08-01

    Commercially pure copper was joined to a 1050 aluminum alloy by friction stir welding. A specific configuration where the tool pin was fully located in the aluminum plate was chosen. In such a situation, there is no mechanical mixing between the two materials, but frictional heating gives rise to a significant thermally activated interdiffusion at the copper/aluminum interface. This gives rise to the formation of defect-free joints where the bonding is achieved by a very thin intermetallic layer at the Cu/Al interface. Nanoscaled grains within this bonding layer were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Two phases were identified, namely, Al2Cu and Al4Cu9 phases. The nucleation and growth of these two phases are discussed and compared to the standard reactive interdiffusion reactions between Cu and Al.

  6. The structure of rapidly solidified Al- Fe- Cr alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yearim, R.; Shechtman, D.

    1982-11-01

    Four aluminum alloys, designed for use at elevated temperatures, were studied. The alloys were supersaturated with iron and chromium, and one of them contained small amounts of Ti, V, and Zr. The starting materials were alloy powders made by the RSR (Rapid Solidification Rate) centrifugal atomization process. Extrusion bars were made from the four powders. The as-extruded microstructure and the microstructure of the alloys after annealing at 482 °C were investigated by optical and transmission electron microscopy and by X-ray diffraction. The microstructure consists of equiaxed grains of aluminum matrix and two types of precipitates, namely, Al3(Fe ,Cr) and a metastable phase, Al6(Fe,Cr). The precipitates were different in their shape, size, distribution, and location within the grains.

  7. Phase Separation kinetics in an Fe-Cr-Al alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Capdevila, C.; Miller, Michael K; Chao, J.

    2012-01-01

    The {alpha}-{alpha}{prime} phase separation kinetics in a commercial Fe-20 wt.% Cr-6 wt.% Al oxide dispersion-strengthened PM 2000{trademark} steel have been characterized with the complementary techniques atom probe tomography and thermoelectric power measurements during isothermal aging at 673, 708, and 748 K for times up to 3600 h. A progressive decrease in the Al content of the Cr-rich {alpha}{prime} phase was observed at 708 and 748 K with increasing time, but no partitioning was observed at 673 K. The variation in the volume fraction of the {alpha}{prime} phase well inside the coarsening regime, along with the Avrami exponent 1.2 and activation energy 264 kJ mol{sup -1}, obtained after fitting the experimental results to an Austin-Rickett type equation, indicates that phase separation in PM 2000{trademark} is a transient coarsening process with overlapping nucleation, growth, and coarsening stages.

  8. Temporal evolution of ion energy distribution functions and ion charge states of Cr and Cr-Al pulsed arc plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Koichi; Anders, André

    2015-11-15

    To study the temporal evolution of ion energy distribution functions, charge-state-resolved ion energy distribution functions of pulsed arc plasmas from Cr and Cr-Al cathodes were recorded with high time resolution by using direct data acquisition from a combined energy and mass analyzer. The authors find increases in intensities of singly charged ions, which is evidence that charge exchange reactions took place in both Cr and Cr-Al systems. In Cr-Al plasmas, the distributions of high-charge-state ions exhibit high energy tails 50 μs after discharge ignition, but no such tails were observed at 500 μs. The energy ratios of ions of different charge states at the beginning of the pulse, when less neutral atoms were in the space in front of the cathode, suggest that ions are accelerated by an electric field. The situation is not so clear after 50 μs due to particle collisions. The initial mean ion charge state of Cr was about the same in Cr and in Cr-Al plasmas, but it decreased more rapidly in Cr-Al plasmas compared to the decay in Cr plasma. The faster decay of the mean ion charge state and ion energy caused by the addition of Al into a pure Cr cathode suggests that the mean ion charge state is determined not only by ionization processes at the cathode spot but also by inelastic collision between different elements.

  9. Magnetic properties of EuCr2Al20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swatek, Przemysław; Kaczorowski, Dariusz

    2016-10-01

    Polycrystalline sample of EuCr2Al20 was studied by means of x-ray powder diffraction, magnetization, electrical resistivity and heat capacity measurements. The compound was found to order antiferromagnetically at TN = 4.8 K due to the magnetic moments carried on divalent of Eu ions. The experimental findings are supported by the results of ab-initio band structure calculations.

  10. Two-Phase (TiAl+TiCrAl) Coating Alloys for Titanium Aluminides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Michael P. (Inventor); Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Brindley, William J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A coating for protecting titanium aluminide alloys, including the TiAl gamma + Ti3Al (alpha(sub 2)) class, from oxidative attack and interstitial embrittlement at temperatures up to at least 1000 C. is disclosed. This protective coating consists essentially of titanium, aluminum. and chromium in the following approximate atomic ratio: Ti(41.5-34.5)Al(49-53)Cr(9.5-12.5)

  11. Structure and wear behavior of AlCrSiN-based coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yun; Du, Hao; Chen, Ming; Yang, Jun; Xiong, Ji; Zhao, Haibo

    2016-05-01

    AlCrN, AlCrSiCN, AlCrSiN/MoN, and AlCrSiN/NbN coatings have been deposited on high-polished WC-Co cemented carbide substrate and tools by mid-frequency magnetron sputtering in Ar/N2 mixtures. Al0.6Cr0.4, Al0.6Cr0.3Si0.1, and C/Mo/Nb targets were used during the deposition. The microstructure and mechanical properties of as-deposited coatings were investigated. Investigations of the wear behaviors of coated tools were also performed. The results showed that cubic structure was formed in the coatings. Broader CrAlN (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) peaks without SiNx peak were formed in the AlCrSiN/MexN coatings, which showed a nanocomposited structure. Meanwhile, according to SEM micrographs, AlCrN exhibited a columnar structure, while, AlCrSiCN, AlCrSiN/MoN, and AlCrSiN/NbN coatings showed nanocrystalline morphology. The nano-multilayered coatings performed higher hardness, H/E, and H3/E2 ratios compared with AlCrN coating. Through the Rockwell adhesion test, all the coatings exhibited adhesion strength quality HF1. After turning Inconel 718 under dry condition, the nano-multilyered coatings showed better wear resistance than AlCrN coating. Due to the molybdenum and niobium in the coating, AlCrSiN/MoN and AlCrSiN/NbN coatings showed the best wear resistance.

  12. Comparison of AlCrN and AlCrTiSiN coatings deposited on the surface of plasma nitrocarburized high carbon steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wanglin; Zheng, Jie; Lin, Yue; Kwon, Sikchol; Zhang, Shihong

    2015-03-01

    The AlCrN and AlCrTiSiN coatings were produced on the surface of plasma nitrocarburized T10 steels by multi-arc ion plating. The comparison of the microstructures and mechanical properties of the duplex coatings were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope, in association with mechanical property measurement. The results show that the AlCrN coatings with columnar grown are mainly composed of nanocrytalline fcc-(Cr,Al)N phases with {111} preferred orientation, whereas the superlattice and nanocomposite AlCrTiSiN coatings with planar growth mainly consist of nanocrystalline fcc-(Cr,Al)N phases with {100} perfected orientation, hcp-AlN and Si3N4 amorphous phases. The AlCrTiSiN duplex coating with the compound layer reveals higher hardness, adhesion strength, load capacity and lower friction coefficient when compared with the other duplex coatings, which is due to its superlattice and nanocomposite structure. Additionally, these improved properties are related to the appearance of the γ‧-phase which plays the nucleation sites for the coating nitrides and provides a strong supporting effect for the AlCrN and AlCrTiSiN coatings. The main wear mechanism of the duplex coatings without compound layer is spalling and chipping wear as well as tribooxidation wear, whereas the main wear mechanism of the duplex coatings with compound layer is tribooxidation wear.

  13. Synthesis of Nano Sized Cr2AlC Powders by Molten Salt Method.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dan; Zhu, Jianfeng; Wang, Fen; Tang, Yi

    2015-09-01

    Cr2AlC powders were successfully synthesized by molten salt method using Cr, Al and C as starting materials. The effects of the process parameters and amount of Al addition on the purity of the Cr2AlC powders were also investigated in details. The formation mechanism of Cr2AlC powders was investigated by XRD and DSC. The results indicated that intermediates of Cr7C3 and Cr- Al intermetallics, such as CrAl17, Cr2Al, Cr2Al8, were formed by the reactions among the initial elements, then the intermediates gradually transformed to Cr2AlC. From the fixed composition of Cr:Al:C = 2:1.2:1, high purity Cr2AlC powders could be obtained with an inorganic salt KCl as a solvent at 1250 degrees C for 60 min under argon atmosphere which was lower than that (generally 1450 degrees C) of conventional solid state reaction.

  14. Experimental evidence of Cr magnetic moments at low temperature in Cr2A(A=Al, Ge)C.

    PubMed

    Jaouen, M; Bugnet, M; Jaouen, N; Ohresser, P; Mauchamp, V; Cabioc'h, T; Rogalev, A

    2014-04-30

    From x-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments performed at low temperature on Cr2AlC and Cr2GeC thin films, it is evidenced that Cr atoms carry a net magnetic moment in these ternary phases. It is shown that the Cr magnetization of the Al-based compound nearly vanished at 100 K in agreement with what has been recently observed on bulk. X-ray linear dichroism measurements performed at various angles of incidence and temperatures clearly demonstrate the existence of a charge ordering along the c axis of the structure of Cr2AlC. All these experimental observations support, in part, theoretical calculations claiming that Cr dd correlations have to be considered to correctly describe the structure and properties of these Cr-based ternary phases. PMID:24721758

  15. Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ adherence on CoCrAl alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsley, L.M.

    1980-04-01

    Adherence of protective oxides on NiCrAl and CoCrAl superalloys has been promoted by a dispersion of a highly oxygen reactive element or its oxide being produced within the protection system. Two aspects of this subject are investigated here: the use of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ as both the dispersion and protective oxide; and the production of an HfO/sub 2/ dispersion while simultaneously aluminizing the alloy. It was found that an Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ dispersion will act to promote the adherence of an external scale of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ to a degree comparable to previously tested dispersions and an HfO/sub 2/ dispersion comparable to that produced by a Rhines pack treatment is produced during aluminization.

  16. Synthesis of porous Cu from Al-Cu-Co decagonal quasicrystalline alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalai Vani, V.; Kwon, O. J.; Hong, S. M.; Fleury, E.

    2011-07-01

    The formation of a porous Cu structure from cast Al-Cu-Co decagonal quasicrystalline alloys has been studied using a selective corrosion technique. Two alkaline solutions were selected based on the electrochemical properties of the constituent elements. Selective corrosion of Al and Co was achieved by chemical immersion of the cast Al-Cu-Co alloy in both 5 M NaOH and 0.5 M Na2CO3 solutions; values for BET surface-to-weight ratio of up to 30 m2/g could be reached. Microstructural analyses indicated that the architecture of the resulting porous structures was composed of a needle-type phase, remaining from the decagonal phase, in addition to Cu and Cu-Co phases.

  17. Characterization of transparent superconductivity Fe-doped CuCrO2 delafossite oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddee, Chutirat; Kamwanna, Teerasak; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya

    2016-09-01

    Delafossite CuCr1-xFexO2 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15) semiconductors were synthesized using a self-combustion urea nitrate process. The effects of Fe concentration on its microstructural, optical, magnetic, and electrical properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis results revealed the delafossite structure in all the samples. The lattice spacing of CuCr1-xFexO2 slightly increased with increasing substitution of Fe at the Cr sites. The optical properties measured at room temperature using UV-visible spectroscopy showed a weak absorbability in the visible light and near IR regions. The corresponding direct optical band gap was about 3.61 eV, exhibiting transparency in the visible region. The magnetic hysteresis loop measurements showed that the Fe-doped CuCrO2 samples exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. This indicated that the substitution of Fe3+ for Cr3+ produced a mixed effect on the magnetic properties of CuCrO2 delafossite oxide. The temperature dependent resistivity measurements clearly revealed the presence of superconductivity in the CuCr1-xFexO2 with a superconducting transition up to 118 K.

  18. Icosahedral phase stabilities in Al-Cu-Ru alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Shield, J.E.; Hoppe, C.; McCallum, R.W.; Goldman, A.I. ); Kelton, K.F.; Gibbons, P.C. )

    1992-02-01

    By examining a wide region of the Al-Cu-Ru phase diagram, a thorough analysis of the compositional and thermal stability of the icosahedral phase has been completed. The primary solidification product of rapid solidification was a topologically and chemically disordered icosahedral phase with an extensive compositional region. Crystallization through exothermic events of the as-solidified materials produced crystalline phases, without the formation of the face-centered-icosahedral (FCI) phase. However, the FCI phase does form at higher temperatures through an endothermic reaction, indicating that it is a stable phase of the system, but only at elevated temperatures. Of the alloys studied, the FCI phase field was found to encompass Al{sub 65}Cu{sub 23}Ru{sub 12}, Al{sub 65}Cu{sub 20}Ru{sub 15}, Al{sub 70}Cu{sub 20}Ru{sub 10}, and Al{sub 70}Cu{sub 15}Ru{sub 15}. The transformation to the FCI phase involves an intermediate approximant phase that is very similar to the FCI structure. Also, a cubic approximant containing atomic arrangements with local icosahedral symmetry similar to {alpha}-Al Mn Si was determined to exist near the FCI phase field.

  19. Interstitial precipitation in Fe-Cr-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spear, W. S.; Polonis, D. H.

    1994-06-01

    Two separate stages of precipitation have been identified during the aging of ternary Fel8Cr3Al and Fel8Cr5Al alloys at temperatures in the vicinity of 475 °C. The first stage involves the formation of interstitial precipitates resulting from C and N impurities; the second and slower stage is the formation of the Cr-rich α' phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show that carbonitride precipitation occurs preferentially at dislocations, stacking faults, and grain boundaries, and also uniformly through the matrix. Aging for times in excess of 400 hours at 475 °C promotes coarsening of the heterogeneous precipitates and dissolution of the uniformly distributed matrix particles. A resistometric analysis shows that the kinetics of the initial stages of precipitation can be described by a (time)2/3 relation. This kinetic behavior is explained in terms of stress-assisted diffusion in the highly stressed matrix resulting from coherency strains accompanying carbonitride precipitation. Experimental values of the activation energy for the first stage reaction correlate closely with those reported for the interstitial diffusion of C and N in alpha iron.

  20. Temperature dependence diode parameters studies of Al/CuPc/n-Si/Al structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ratnesh; Kaur, Ramneek; Sharma, Mamta; Kaur, Maninder; Tripathi, S. K.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the fabrication of Al/CuPc/n-Si/Al metal-organic-semiconductor diode. The copper phthalocyanine as organic layer is deposited on Si substrate by thermal evaporation technique. The temperature dependent current-voltage measurements are performed on Al/CuPc/n-Si structure. The important diode parameters i.e. the barrier height and ideality factor have been calculated. The temperature dependence of barrier height and ideality factor has been studied.

  1. Importance of doping and frustration in itinerant Fe-doped Cr2Al

    DOE PAGES

    Susner, M. A.; Parker, D. S.; Sefat, A. S.

    2015-05-12

    We performed an experimental and theoretical study comparing the effects of Fe-doping of Cr2Al, an antiferromagnet with a N el temperature of 670 K, with known results on Fe-doping of antiferromagnetic bcc Cr. (Cr1-xFex)2Al materials are found to exhibit a rapid suppression of antiferromagnetic order with the presence of Fe, decreasing TN to 170 K for x=0.10. Antiferromagnetic behavior disappears entirely at x≈0.125 after which point increasing paramagnetic behavior is exhibited. Moreover, this is unlike the effects of Fe doping of bcc antiferromagnetic Cr, in which TN gradually decreases followed by the appearance of a ferromagnetic state. Theoretical calculations explainmore » that the Cr2Al-Fe suppression of magnetic order originates from two effects: the first is band narrowing caused by doping of additional electrons from Fe substitution that weakens itinerant magnetism; the second is magnetic frustration of the Cr itinerant moments in Fe-substituted Cr2Al. In pure-phase Cr2Al, the Cr moments have an antiparallel alignment; however, these are destroyed through Fe substitution and the preference of Fe for parallel alignment with Cr. This is unlike bulk Fe-doped Cr alloys in which the Fe anti-aligns with the Cr atoms, and speaks to the importance of the Al atoms in the magnetic structure of Cr2Al and Fe-doped Cr2Al.« less

  2. Formation Mechanism of CuAlO2 Prepared by Rapid Thermal Annealing of Al2O3/Cu2O/Sapphire Sandwich Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, C. H.; Tseng, B. H.

    Single-phase CuAlO2 films were successfully prepared by thin-film reaction of an Al2O3/Cu2O/sapphire sandwich structure. We found that the processing parameters, such as heating rate, holding temperature and annealing ambient, were all crucial to form CuAlO2 without second phases. Thermal annealing in pure oxygen ambient with a lower temperature ramp rate might result in the formation of CuAl2O4 in addition to CuAlO2, since part of Cu2O was oxidized to form CuO and caused the change in reaction path, i.e. CuO + Al2O3 → CuAl2O4. Typical annealing conditions successful to prepare single-phase CuAlO2 would be to heat the sample with a temperature rampt rate higher than 7.3 °C/sec and hold the temperature at 1100 °C in air ambient. The formation mechanism of CuAlO2 has also been studied by interrupting the reaction after a short period of annealing. TEM observations showed that the top Al2O3 layer with amorphous structure reacted immediately with Cu2O to form CuAlO2 in the early stage and then the remaining Cu2O reacted with the sapphire substrate.

  3. Creep Testing of High-Temperature Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb Alloy Completed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb (Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb) alloy is under development for high-temperature, high heatflux applications, such as actively cooled, hypersonic vehicle heat exchangers and rocket engine combustion chambers. Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb offers a superior combination of strength and conductivity. It has also shown exceptional low-cycle fatigue properties. Following preliminary testing to determine the best processing route, a more detailed testing program was initiated to determine the creep lives and creep rates of Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb alloy specimens produced by extrusion. Testing was conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center with constant-load vacuum creep units. Considering expected operating temperatures and mission lives, we developed a test matrix to accurately determine the creep properties of Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb between 500 and 800 C. Six bars of Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb were extruded. From these bars, 54 creep samples were machined and tested. The figure on the left shows the steady-state, or second-stage, creep rates for the samples. Comparison data for NARloy-Z (Cu-3 wt % Ag-0.5 wt % Zr), the alloy currently used in combustion chamber liners, were not unavailable. Therefore the steady-state creep rates for Cu at similar temperatures are presented. As expected, in comparison to pure Cu, the creep rates for Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb are much lower. The lives of the samples are presented in the figure on the right. As shown, Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb at 800 C is comparable to NARloy-Z at 648 C. At equivalent temperatures, Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb enjoys a 20 to 50 percent advantage in stress for a given life and 1 to 3 orders of magnitude greater life at a given stress. The improved properties allow for design tradeoffs and improvements in new and existing heat exchangers such as the next generation of combustion chamber liners. Average creep rates for Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb and pure Cu are shown. Average creep lives for Cu-8 Cr- 4 Nb and NARloy-Z are also shown. Currently, two companies are interested in the commercial usage of the Cu

  4. Carbon Nanostructures Grown on Fe-Cr-Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čaplovičová, Mária; Čaplovič, Ľubomír; Búc, Dalibor; Vinduška, Peter; Janík, Ján

    2010-11-01

    The morphology and nanostructure of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), synthesized directly on Fe-Cr-Al-based alloy substrate using an alcohol catalytic chemical vapour deposition method (ACCVD), were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The grown CNTs were entangled with chain-like, bamboo-like, and necklace-like morphologies. The CNT morphology was affected by the elemental composition of catalysts and local instability of deposition process. Straight and bended CNTs with bamboo-like nanostructure grew mainly on γ-Fe and Fe3C particles. The synthesis of necklace-like nanostructures was influenced by silicon oxide, and growth of chain-like nanostructures was supported by a catalysts consisting of Fe, Si, oxygen and trace of Cr. Most of nanotubes grew according to base growth mechanism.

  5. Normal and excess nitrogen uptake by iron-based Fe-Cr-Al alloys: the role of the Cr/Al atomic ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, K. S.; Schacherl, R. E.; Bischoff, E.; Mittemeijer, E. J.

    2011-06-01

    Upon nitriding ferritic iron-based Fe-Cr-Al alloys, containing a total of 1.50 at. % (Cr + Al) alloying elements with varying Cr/Al atomic ratio (0.21-2.00), excess nitrogen uptake occurred, i.e. more nitrogen was incorporated in the specimens than compatible with only inner nitride formation and equilibrium nitrogen solubility of the unstrained ferrite matrix. The amount of excess nitrogen increased with decreasing Cr/Al atomic ratio. The microstructure of the nitrided zone was investigated by X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis, transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Metastable, fine platelet-type, mixed Cr1- x Al x N nitride precipitates developed in the nitrided zone for all of the investigated specimens. The degree of coherency of the nitride precipitates with the surrounding ferrite matrix is discussed in view of the anisotropy of the misfit. Analysis of nitrogen-absorption isotherms, recorded after subsequent pre- and de-nitriding treatments, allowed quantitative differentiation of different types of nitrogen taken up. The amounts of the different types of excess nitrogen as function of the Cr/Al atomic ratio are discussed in terms of the nitride/matrix misfit and the different chemical affinities of Cr and Al for N. The strikingly different nitriding behaviors of Fe-Cr-Al and Fe-Cr-Ti alloys could be explained on this basis.

  6. Supercoducting property of Zr-Cu-Al-Ni-Nb alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okai, D.; Motoyama, G.; Kimura, H.; Inoue, A.

    The superconducting property of Zr55Cu(30-X)Al10Ni5NbX alloys prepared by arc melting and liquid quenching methods was investigated by magnetic susceptibility measurements. The crystalline alloys with X = 0∼25 at.% prepared by arc melting method exhibited superconductivity with maximum Tc,on of 10.1 K. The alloys (X = 10∼23 at.%) with crystalline particles embedded in an amorphous structure, which were fabricated by melt spinning method, showed superconductivity with Tc,on of less than 4.0 K. The superconducting property of the Zr-Cu-Al-Ni-Nb alloys was attributed to superconducting phases of Zr2Cu, Zr2Ni, Zr65Al10Nb25 and Zr-Nb contained in the Zr-Cu-Al-Ni-Nb alloys. The melt-spun Zr55Cu(30-X)Al10Ni5NbX (X = 10∼20 at.%) alloys exhibited glass transition at 718∼743 K and were found to be superconducting metallic glasses.

  7. Zener Relaxation Peak in an Fe-Cr-Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zheng-Cun; Cheng, He-Fa; Gong, Chen-Li; Wei, Jian-Ning; Han, Fu-Sheng

    2002-11-01

    We have studied the temperature spectra of internal friction and relative dynamic modulus of the Fe-(25 wt%)Cr-(5 wt%)Al alloy with different grain sizes. It is found that a peak appears in the internal friction versus temperature plot at about 550°C. The peak is of a stable relaxation and is reversible, which occurs not only during heating but also during cooling. Its activation energy is 2.5 (+/- 0.15) eV in terms of the Arrhenius relation. In addition, the peak is not obvious in specimens with a smaller grain size. It is suggested that the peak originates from Zener relaxation.

  8. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Cu-8Cr-4Nb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard; Ellis, David; McKechnie, Timothy; Hickman, Robert

    1997-01-01

    This paper compares the tensile properties of Cu-8Cr-4Nb material produced by VPS to material previously produced by extrusion. The microstructure of the VPS material is also presented. The combustion chamber liner of rocket motors represents an extreme materials application. The liner hot wall is exposed to a 2760 C (5000 F) flame while the cold side is exposed to cryogenic hydrogen liquid. Materials for use in the combustion chamber liner require a combination of high temperature strength, creep resistance, and low cycle fatigue resistance along with high thermal conductivity. The hot side is also subject to localized cycles between reducing and oxidizing environments that degrade the liner by a process called blanching. A new Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at% Nb (Cu-8Cr-4Nb) alloy has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center as a replacement for the currently used alloy, NARloy-z (Cu-3 wt.% Ag-0.5 wt.% Zr). The alloy is strengthened by a fine dispersion of Cr2Nb particles. The alloy has better mechanical properties than NARloy-Z while retaining most of the thermal conductivity of pure copper. The alloy has been successfully consolidated by extrusion and hot isostatic pressing (HIPing). However, vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) offers several advantages over prior consolidation methods. VPS can produce a near net shape piece with the profile of the liner. In addition, oxidation resistant and thermal barrier coatings can be incorporated as an integral part of the liner hot wall during the VPS deposition. The low oxygen VPS Cu-8Cr-4Nb exhibits a higher strength than Cu-8Cr-4Nb produced by extrusion at elevated temperatures and a comparable strength at room temperature. Moduli and ductility were not significantly different. However, the ability to produce parts to near-net shape and maintain the good elevated temperature tensile properties of the extruded Cu-8Cr-4Nb makes VPS an attractive processing method for fabricating rocket engine combustion liners.

  9. Host Atom Diffusion in Ternary Fe-Cr-Al Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrberg, Diana; Spitzer, Karl-Heinz; Dörrer, Lars; Kulińska, Anna J.; Borchardt, Günter; Fraczkiewicz, Anna; Markus, Torsten; Jacobs, Michael H. G.; Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    In the Fe-rich corner of the Fe-Cr-Al ternary phase diagram, both interdiffusion experiments [1048 K to 1573 K (775 °C to 1300 °C)] and 58Fe tracer diffusion experiments [873 K to 1123 K (600 °C to 850 °C)] were performed along the Fe50Cr50-Fe50Al50 section. For the evaluation of the interdiffusion data, a theoretical model was used which directly yields the individual self-diffusion coefficients of the three constituents and the shift of the original interface of the diffusion couple through inverse modeling. The driving chemical potential gradients were derived using a phenomenological Gibbs energy function which was based on thoroughly assessed thermodynamic data. From the comparison of the individual self-diffusivities of Fe as obtained from interdiffusion profiles and independent 58Fe tracer diffusivities, the influence of the B2-A2 order-disorder transition becomes obvious, resulting in a slightly higher activation enthalpy for the bcc-B2 phase and a significantly lower activation entropy for this phase.

  10. Dipole defects in Al2O3:Mg,Cr.

    PubMed

    Blak, A R; Gobbi, V; Ayres, F

    2002-01-01

    In this work, dipole defects are investigated applying the thermally stimulated depolarisation currents (TSDC) technique. The TSDC spectra of Al2O3 doped with Mg and Cr show two bands centred at 230 K and 250 K, respectively. The maximum intensity of the bands increases linearly with the polarisation field, a typical behaviour of defects with dipole origin. An increase of the band at 250 K with gamma irradiation has been observed and a thermal decrease of the bands for heat treatments between 1000 K and 1400 K. Above this temperature the bands are partially recovered. Impurity neutron activation analysis shows that magnesium. chromium and iron content varies from 15 to 60 ppm. Optical absorption (AO) measurements show a broad band centred in 2.6 eV (21000 cm(-1)) associated with trapped holes localised on an O- ion adjacent to a cation site which is deficient in positive charge. It has been assumed that a substitutional Mg2+ ion occupies the cation site near a trapped hole on one of the six oxygen ions surrounding the magnesium impurity giving rise to the dipole responsible for the observed TSDC bands. Calculations carried out through defect simulation methods confirm that the probability of Al3+ being replaced by Mg2+ is higher than Mn2+, Co2+, Fe2+ and Cr2+. PMID:12382829

  11. Oxidation of diesel soot on binary oxide CuCr(Co)-based monoliths.

    PubMed

    Soloviev, Sergiy O; Kapran, Andriy Y; Kurylets, Yaroslava P

    2015-02-01

    Binary oxide systems (CuCr2O4, CuCo2O4), deposited onto cordierite monoliths of honeycomb structure with a second support (finely dispersed Al2O3), were prepared as filters for catalytic combustion of diesel soot using internal combustion engine's gas exhausts (O2, NOx, H2O, CO2) and O3 as oxidizing agents. It is shown that the second support increases soot capacity of aforementioned filters, and causes dispersion of the particles of spinel phases as active components enhancing thereby catalyst activity and selectivity of soot combustion to CO2. Oxidants used can be arranged with reference to decreasing their activity in a following series: O3≫NO2>H2O>NO>O2>CO2. Ozone proved to be the most efficient oxidizing agent: the diesel soot combustion by O3 occurs intensively (in the presence of copper chromite based catalyst) even at closing to ambient temperatures. Results obtained give a basis for the conclusion that using a catalytic coating on soot filters in the form of aforementioned binary oxide systems and ozone as the initiator of the oxidation processes is a promising approach in solving the problem of comprehensive purification of automotive exhaust gases at relatively low temperatures, known as the "cold start" problem. PMID:25662252

  12. Hot corrosion of Co-Cr, Co-Cr-Al, and Ni-Cr alloys in the temperature range of 700-750 deg C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, K. T.; Meier, G. H.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of SO3 pressure in the gas phase on the Na2SO4 induced hot corrosion of Co-Cr, Ni-Cr, and Co-Cr-Al alloys was studied in the temperature range 700 to 750 C. The degradation of the Co-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys was found to be associated with the formation of liquid mixed sulfates (CoSO4-Na2SO4 or NiSO4-Na2SO4) which provided a selective dissolution of the Co or Ni and a subsequent sulfidation oxidation mode of attack which prevented the maintenance of a protective Cr2O3 film. A clear mechanism was not developed for the degradation of Co-Cr-Al alloys. A pitting corrosion morphology was induced by a number of different mechanisms.

  13. Cu-Cr-O Functionalized ETS-2 Nanoparticles for Hot Gas Desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Yazdanbakhsh, Farzad; Alizadehgiashi, Molen; Bläsing, Marc; Müller, Michael; Sawada, James A; Kuznicki, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Engelhard Titanium Silicate-2 (ETS-2), a sodium nanotitanate, was surface functionalized by ion exchanging the solid with copper and chromium ions. The ability of this bi-metallic adsorbent to remove H2S at elevated temperatures was assessed using a dynamic breakthrough system and contrasted against an analogous mixed metal oxide, Cu-Cr-O. Unlike Cu-Cr-O, the H2S capacity for Cu-Cr-ETS-2 remains unchanged from 350 °C up to 950 °C. Using ETS-2 as a support for the metals increased the adsorbents surface area and improved its sulfur capacity from 35 mg H₂S/g for Cu-Cr-O to 61 mg H₂S/g adsorbent for CuCr-ETS-2. The consistent presence of Cu₉S₅ on the sulfided adsorbents suggests that chromium effectively stabilizes the copper against reduction to metallic copper up to temperatures as high as 950 °C.

  14. Effect of hydrogen exposure on a Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.; Misra, Ajay K.; Dreshfield, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    The advanced regeneratively cooled rocket thrust chamber may require new materials to achieve long life and improved performance. Current materials such as NARloy-Z (Cu-3 wt. percent Ag-0.5 wt. percent Zr), while highly conductive, do not have sufficient high temperature strength and creep resistance to meet the projected needs of advanced rocket motors. A Cu-8 at. percent Cr-4 at. percent Nb (Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb) alloy has been identified as a promising material for this application. However, hydrogen embrittlement is a concern given the presence of high pressure, high temperature hydrogen in regeneratively cooled rocket motors. Thermodynamic analysis of the reaction between Cr-rich Cr2Nb and H2 showed that there is a possibility of reaction at temperatures up to 323 K in a 35 MPa H2 environment. Above 323 K the pressure necessary to achieve reaction rapidly increased beyond the range experienced in rocket motors. Tensile specimens exposed in 34.5 MPa H2 at room temperatures and during cycling to 705 C did not show any degradation of properties. No evidence of reaction was observed for Cr2Nb precipitate observed on the fracture surfaces. Based on these results the Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb alloy was judged to be sufficiently stable for use in rocket motors.

  15. Process development for Ni-Cr-ThO2 and Ni-Cr-Al-ThO2 sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, R. C.; Norris, L. F.

    1973-01-01

    A process was developed for the production of thin gauge Ni-Cr-ThO2 sheet. The process was based on the elevated temperature deposition of chromium onto a wrought Ni-2%ThO2 sheet and subsequent high temperature diffusion heat treatments to minimize chromium concentration gradients within the sheet. The mechanical properties of the alloy were found to be critically dependent on those of the Ni-2%ThO2 sheet. A similar process for the production of a Ni-Cr-Al-ThO2 alloy having improved oxidation resistance was investigated but the non-reproducible deposition of aluminum from duplex Cr/Al packs precluded successful scale-up. The mechanical properties of the Ni-Cr-Al-ThO2 alloys were generally equivalent to the best Ni-Cr-ThO2 alloy produced in the programme.

  16. Characterization of Cu-exchanged SSZ-13: a comparative FTIR, UV-Vis, and EPR study with Cu-ZSM-5 and Cu-β with similar Si/Al and Cu/Al ratios.

    PubMed

    Giordanino, Filippo; Vennestrøm, Peter N R; Lundegaard, Lars F; Stappen, Frederick N; Mossin, Susanne; Beato, Pablo; Bordiga, Silvia; Lamberti, Carlo

    2013-09-21

    Cu-SSZ-13 has been characterized by different spectroscopic techniques and compared with Cu-ZSM-5 and Cu-β with similar Si/Al and Cu/Al ratios and prepared by the same ion exchange procedure. On vacuum activated samples, low temperature FTIR spectroscopy allowed us to appreciate a high concentration of reduced copper centres, i.e. isolated Cu(+) ions located in different environments, able to form Cu(+)(N2), Cu(+)(CO)n (n = 1, 2, 3), and Cu(+)(NO)n (n = 1, 2) upon interaction with N2, CO and NO probe molecules, respectively. Low temperature FTIR, DRUV-Vis and EPR analysis on O2 activated samples revealed the presence of different Cu(2+) species. New data and discussion are devoted to (i) [Cu-OH](+) species likely balanced by one framework Al atom; (ii) mono(μ-oxo)dicopper [Cu2(μ-O)](2+) dimers observed in Cu-ZSM-5 and Cu-β, but not in Cu-SSZ-13. UV-Vis-NIR spectra of O2 activated samples reveal an intense and finely structured d-d quadruplet, unique to Cu-SSZ-13, which is persistent under SCR conditions. This differs from the 22,700 cm(-1) band of the mono(μ-oxo)dicopper species of the O2 activated Cu-ZSM-5, which disappears under SCR conditions. The EPR signal intensity sets Cu-β apart from the others. PMID:23842567

  17. Al-augite and Cr-diopside ultramafic xenoliths in basaltic rocks from western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilshire, H.G.; Shervais, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    Ultramafic xenoliths in basalts from the western United States are divided into Al-augite and Cr-diopside groups. The Al-augite group is characterized by Al, Ti-rich augites, comparatively Fe-rich olivine and orthopyroxene, and Al-rich spinel, the Cr-diopside group by Cr-rich clinopyroxene and spinel and by Mg-rich olivine and pyroxenes. Both groups have a wide range of subtypes, but the Al-augite group is dominated by augite-rich varieties, and the Cr-diopside group by olivine-rich lherzolites. ?? 1975.

  18. Cyclic Oxidation of FeCrAlY/Al2O3 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, James A.; Draper, Susan L.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Three-ply FeCrAlY/Al2O3 composites and FeCrAlY matrix-only samples were cyclically oxidized at 1000 C and 1100 C for up to 1000 1-hr cycles. Fiber ends were exposed at the ends of the composite samples. Following cyclic oxidation, cracks running parallel to and perpendicular to the fibers were observed on the large surface of the composite. In addition, there was evidence of increased scale damage and spallation around the exposed fiber ends, particularly around the middle ply fibers. This damage was more pronounced at the higher temperature. The exposed fiber ends showed cracking between fibers in the outer plies, occasionally with Fe and Cr-rich oxides growing out of the cracks. Large gaps developed at the fiber/matrix interface around many of the fibers, especially those in the outer plies. Oxygen penetrated many of these gaps resulting in significant oxide formation at the fiber/matrix interface far within the composite sample. Around several fibers, the matrix was also internally oxidized showing Al2O3 precipitates in a radial band around the fibers. The results show that these composites have poor cyclic oxidation resistance due to the CTE mismatch and inadequate fiber/matrix bond strength at temperatures of 1000 C and above.

  19. Nanoscale Cellular Structures at Phase Boundaries of Ni-Cr-Al-Ti and Ni-Cr-Mo-Al-Ti Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cong; Dunand, David C.

    2015-06-01

    The microstructural evolution of Ni-20 pct Cr wires was studied during pack cementation where Al and Ti, with and without prior cementation with Mo, are deposited to the surface of the Ni-Cr wires and subsequently homogenized in their volumes. Mo deposition promotes the formation of Kirkendall pores and subsequent co-deposition of Al and Ti creates a triple-layered diffusional coating on the wire surface. Subsequent homogenization drives the alloying element to distribute evenly in the wires which upon further heat treatment exhibit the γ + γ' superalloy structure. Unexpectedly, formation of cellular structures is observed at some of the boundaries between primary γ' grains and γ matrix grains. Based on additional features ( i.e., ordered but not perfectly periodic structure, confinement at γ + γ' phase boundaries as a cellular film with ~100 nm width, as well as lack of topologically close-packed phases), and considering that similar, but much larger, microstructures were reported in commercial superalloys, it is concluded that the present cellular structure solidified as a thin film, composed of eutectic γ + γ' and from which the γ' phase was subsequently etched, which was created by incipient melting of a region near the phase boundary with high solute segregation.

  20. Ti3CrCu4: A possible 2-D ferromagnetic spin fluctuating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, S. K.; Provino, A.; Manfrinetti, P.; Kulkarni, R.; Goyal, Neeraj; Paudyal, D.

    2016-05-01

    Ti3CrCu4 is a new ternary compound which crystallizes in the tetragonal Ti3Pd5 structure type. The Cr atoms form square nets in the a-b plane (a = 3.124 Å) which are separated by an unusually large distance c = 11.228 Å along the tetragonal axis, thus forming a -2-D Cr-sublattice. The paramagnetic susceptibility is characterized by a low effective moment, μeff = 1.1 μB, a low paramagnetic Curie temperature θP (below 7 K) and a temperature independent χ0 = 6.7 x 10-4 emu/mol. The magnetization at 1.8 K increases rapidly with field nearly saturating to 0.2 μB/f.u. The zero field heat capacity C/T shows an upturn below 7 K (˜190 mJ/mol K2 at ˜0.1K) which is suppressed in applied magnetic fields and interpreted as suggesting the presence of spin fluctuations. The resistivity at low temperatures shows non-Fermi liquid behavior. Overall, the experimental data thus reveal an unusual magnetic state in Ti3CrCu4, which likely has its origin in the layered nature of the Cr sub-lattice and ferromagnetic spin fluctuations. Density functional theoretical calculations reveal a sharp Cr density of states peak just above the Fermi level, indicating the propensity of Ti3CrCu4 to become magnetic.

  1. Recrystallization Behavior of CoCrCuFeNi High-Entropy Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Nokeun; Watanabe, Ikuto; Terada, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Yoshihiko; Liaw, Peter K.; Tsuji, Nobuhiro

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the recrystallization behavior of a cold-rolled CoCrCuFeNi high-entropy alloy (HEA). Two different face-centered cubic phases having different chemical compositions and lattice constants in the as-cast specimen have different chemical compositions: One phase was the Cu-lean matrix and the other was the Cu-rich second phase. The second phase remained even after a heat treatment at 1373 K (1100 °C) and Cu enriched more in the Cu-rich second phase. The calculated mixing enthalpies of both Cu-lean and Cu-rich phases in the as-cast and heat-treated specimens explained that Cu partitioning during the heat treatment decreased the mixing enthalpy in both phases. In the specimens 90 pct cold rolled and annealed at 923 K, 973 K, and 1073 K (650 °C, 700 °C, and 800 °C), recrystallization proceeded with increasing the annealing temperature, and ultrafine recrystallized grains with grain sizes around 1 μm could be obtained. The microhardness tended to decrease with increasing the fraction recrystallized, but it was found that the microhardness values of partially recrystallized specimens were much higher than those expected by a simple rule of mixture between the initial and cold-rolled specimens. The reason for the higher hardness was discussed based on the ultrafine grain size, sluggish diffusion expected in HEAs, and two-phase structure in the CoCrCuFeNi alloy.

  2. Half-metallic antiferromagnetism in double perovskite BiPbCrCuO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Ke-Chuan; Wang, Y. K.

    2015-05-07

    The electronic structure and magnetic properties of BiPbCrCuO{sub 6} double perovskite are investigated based on first-principles density functional calculations with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA incorporated with Coulomb correlation interaction U (GGA + U). The results suggest the half-metallic (HM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) properties of BiPbCrCuO{sub 6} double perovskite. The HM-AFM property of the double perovskite is caused by the double-exchange mechanism between neighboring Cr{sup 5+}(t{sub 2g}{sup 1}↓) and Cu{sup 2+}(t{sub 2g}{sup 3}↑t{sub 2g}{sup 3}↓e{sub g}{sup 2}↑e{sub g}↓) via the intermediate O{sup 2−}(2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6}) ion.

  3. Transparent ferrimagnetic semiconducting CuCr2O4 thin films by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, T. S.; Yadav, C. S.; Karppinen, M.

    2016-04-01

    We report the magnetic and optical properties of CuCr2O4 thin films fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) from Cu(thd)2, Cr(acac)3, and ozone; we deposit 200 nm thick films and anneal them at 700 °C in oxygen atmosphere to crystallize the spinel phase. A ferrimagnetic transition at 140 K and a direct bandgap of 1.36 eV are determined for the films from magnetic and UV-vis spectrophotometric measurements. Electrical transport measurements confirm the p-type semiconducting behavior of the films. As the ALD technique allows the deposition of conformal pin-hole-free coatings on complex 3D surfaces, our CuCr2O4 films are interesting material candidates for various frontier applications.

  4. Reduced Cu concentration in CuAl-LPE-grown thin Si layers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.H.; Ciszek, T.F.; Asher, S.; Reedy, R.

    1995-08-01

    Cu-Al has been found to be a good solvent system to grow macroscopically smooth Si layers with thicknesses in tens of microns on cast MG-Si substrates by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) at temperatures near 900{degrees}C. This solvent system utilizes Al to ensure good wetting between the solution and substrate by removing silicon native oxides, and employs Cu to control Al doping into the layers. Isotropic growth is achieved because of a high concentration of solute silicon in the solution and the resulting microscopically rough interface. The incorporation of Cu in the Si layers, however, was a concern since Cu is a major solution component and is generally regarded as a bad impurity for silicon devices due to its fast diffusivity and deep energy levels in the band gap. A study by Davis shows that Cu will nonetheless not degrade solar cell performance until above a level of 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}. This threshold is expected to be even higher for thin layer silicon solar cells owing to the less stringent requirement on minority carrier diffusion length. But to ensure long term stability of solar cells, lower Cu concentrations in the thin layers are still preferred.

  5. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of short-range order in Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu50Zr45Al5 metallic glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Yuxiang; Huang, Li; Wang, C. Z.; Kramer, M. J.; Ho, K. M.

    2016-02-01

    Comparative analysis between Zr-rich Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu-rich Cu50Zr45Al5 metallic glasses (MGs) is extensively performed to locate the key structural motifs accounting for their difference of glass forming ability. Here we adopt ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the local atomic structures of Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu50Zr45Al5 MGs. A high content of icosahedral-related (full and distorted) orders was found in both samples, while in the Zr-rich MG full icosahedrons < 0,0,12,0 > is dominant, and in the Cu-rich one the distorted icosahedral orders, especially < 0,2,8,2 > and < 0,2,8,1 >, are prominent. And the < 0,2,8,2 > polyhedra in Cu50Zr45Al5more » MG mainly originate from Al-centered clusters, while the < 0,0,12,0 > in Zr50Cu45Al5 derives from both Cu-centered clusters and Al-centered clusters. These difference may be ascribed to the atomic size difference and chemical property between Cu and Zr atoms. Lastly, the relatively large size of Zr and large negative heat of mixing between Zr and Al atoms, enhancing the packing density and stability of metallic glass system, may be responsible for the higher glass forming ability of Zr50Cu45Al5.« less

  6. Effects of heating rates and alloying elements (Sn, Cu and Cr) on the α → α + β phase transformation of Zr-Sn-Nb-Fe-(Cu, Cr) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, R. S.; Luan, B. F.; Chai, L. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Liu, Q.

    2014-10-01

    In this investigation, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and metallographic experiments supplemented by back-scattered electron imaging (BSEI) and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) techniques were performed to study the effects of heating rates and alloying elements on the α → α + β phase transformation of Zr-Sn-Nb-Fe-(Cu, Cr) alloys. Results show that the α → α + β phase transformation peaks shift to higher temperature with increasing heating rates, indicating that the reactions are thermally activated and kinetically controlled processes. The α → α + β phase transformation temperature (Tα→α+β) are affected by the solid solubility limit as well as the diffusivities of various elements in these alloys. For the zirconium alloys with low Nb contents, the Tα→α+β increases with an increase of Sn content. The addition of Cu in zirconium alloys decrease the Tα→α+β, while the addition of Cr increase it.

  7. Effects of Thermal and Mechanical Processing on Microstructures and Desired Properties of Particle-Strengthened Cu-Cr-Nb Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Kenneth Reed

    2000-01-01

    Ternary Cu-Cr-Nb alloys, particularly Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb (in at.%), have demonstrated good thermal stability as well as high strength and conductivity at elevated temperatures. The initial powder material has a bimodal size distribution of Cr2Nb precipitates. Primary Cr2Nb precipitates are approx. 1 micron, and secondary Cr2Nb particles are 30-200 nm. The particle coarsening was analyzed and found to follow LSW-type behavior, This study provides a detailed examination of the stability and strengthening effects of Cr2Nb particles. This investigation also revealed that the primary particles provide direct grain boundary pinning and indirect grain boundary strengthening but virtually no Orowan strengthening. The secondary particles found within grains do provide Orowan strengthening. For extruded material, grain bound-ary strengthening (Hall-Petch effect) accounts for two-thirds of the strength with Orowan effects contributing the remainder. The proven advantages of Cu-Cr-Nb were the motivation to improve these attributes via microstructural refinement. Mechanical milling (MM) of Cu- 4 Cr-2 Nb and Cu-8 Cr-2 Nb produced an increase in hot pressed Vickers hardness of 122% and 96%, respectively. The increase in hardness was more due to Cu grain-size refinement than to Cr,,Nb refinement. This study also demonstrated enhanced stability of MM Cu-4 Cr-2 Nb. Hot pressed 4 h milled Cu-4 Cr-2 Nb experienced only a 22% drop in hardness when annealed at 1273 K for 50 h versus a 30% drop for extruded Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb. The goal of improving the strength and stability of Cu-4 Cr-2 Nb to better than such properties for as- extruded Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb has been met. In addition, a figure-of-merit (FOM) coupling hardness and thermal conductivity was maximized for the case of 4 h milled Cu-4 Cr-2 Nb material. Overall, Cu-Cr-Nb alloys not only possess high strength, conductivity and thermal stability but also can be further developed to improve strength and stability.

  8. Flux Pinning by Cr Nanoparticles in Cu_{0.5}Tl_{0.5}Ba2Ca2Cu3O_{10-δ } Superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waqee-ur-Rehman, M.; Mumtaz, M.; Qasim, Irfan; Nadeem, K.

    2016-09-01

    Increase in flux pinning strength of Cu_{0.5}Tl_{0.5}Ba2Ca2Cu3O_{10-δ }(CuTl-1223) superconductor has been observed after addition of Cr nanoparticles. We have thoroughly investigated the infield response of Cr nanoparticles-added CuTl-1223 superconductor in an external applied magnetic field in the range of 0-7 T. Solid-state reaction technique has been employed to synthesize (Cr)x-CuTl-1223; x = 0-1.00 wt% nanoparticle-superconductor composites. The flux pinning mechanism has been analyzed on the basis of thermally activated flux flow model in the presence of a small current (10 μ A). The increase in activation energy and decrease in transition width of CuTl-1223 superconducting phase show the enhancement in its flux pinning strength upon the addition of Cr nanoparticles.

  9. Effects of the Formation of Al x Cu y Gradient Interfaces on Mechanical Property of Steel/Al Laminated Sheets by Introducing Cu Binding-Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Aili; Liu, Xinghai; Shi, Quanxin; Liang, Wei

    2015-07-01

    Steel/Cu/Al laminated sheets were fabricated by two-pass hot rolling to improve the mechanical properties of steel/Al sheets. The bonding properties and deformability of the steel/Cu/Al sheets were studied. Steel/Al and steel/Cu/Al samples were rolled at 350°C for 15 min with the first-pass reduction of 40%, and then heated at 600°C for 5 min with different reductions. It was found that the steel/Cu/Al samples rolled by the second-pass reduction of 85% could endure the maximum 90° bend cycle times of 45, exhibiting excellent fatigue resistance as well as deformability. The steel/Al samples could only reach the maximum 90° bend cycle times of 20. Furthermore, the scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive spectrometer, and electron backscattered diffraction results showed that the preferred growth orientations of Cu, Al4Cu9, and Al2Cu on the steel/Cu/Al laminated sheets are {-1, 1, 2} <1, -1, 1>, {1, 0, 0} <0, 1, 0> and {-1, 1, 2} <1, -1, 1> {1, 1, 0} <0, 0, 1>. The orientation relationships between Cu and Al2Cu are {1, 1, 0}(fcc)//{1, 1, 0}(bct) and {1, 1, 1}(fcc)//{1, 1, 1}(bct). The improved bonding property and excellent fatigue resistance as well as deformability were mainly ascribed to the tight combination and consistent deformability across steel, Al, and the transition layers (Cu, Al4Cu9, and Al2Cu).

  10. Intermetallic Formation at Interface of Al/Cu Clad Fabricated by Hydrostatic Extrusion and Its Properties.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongbeom; Jeong, Haguk

    2015-11-01

    Al/Cu clad composed of Al core and Cu sheath has been produced by hydrostatic extrusion at 523 K, at an extrusion rate of 27. The prepared specimen was post-annealed at temperatures of 673 K and 773 K for various time durations, and the effect of annealing conditions have been analyzed. The hardness at the interface between Al and Cu matrix of the Al/Cu bimetal clad increases because of annealing. Results indicate that the hardness is more sensitive to annealing temperature than the annealing time. Three kinds of intermetallic compounds (IMC), namely, CuAl, Cu3Al2, and CuAl2, are formed at the Al-Cu interface, upon annealing at 673 K. On the other hand, four kinds of IMCs, namely, Cu4Al3, CuAl, Cu3Al2, CuAl2, are formed at the annealing temperature of 773 K. The growth of each IMC follows the parabolic law as a function of annealing times at certain annealing temperature. The growth rate of each IMC is limited to its interdiffusion rate constant. The IMC Cu4Al3 appears upon annealing at 773 K, and not during annealing at 673 K, because of the higher value of activation energy associated with its formation, when compared to other IMCs. PMID:26726557

  11. Third element effect in the surface zone of Fe-Cr-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airiskallio, E.; Nurmi, E.; Heinonen, M. H.; Väyrynen, I. J.; Kokko, K.; Ropo, M.; Punkkinen, M. P. J.; Pitkänen, H.; Alatalo, M.; Kollár, J.; Johansson, B.; Vitos, L.

    2010-01-01

    The third element effect to improve the high temperature corrosion resistance of the low-Al Fe-Cr-Al alloys is suggested to involve a mechanism that boosts the recovering of the Al concentration to the required level in the Al-depleted zone beneath the oxide layer. We propose that the key factor in this mechanism is the coexistent Cr depletion that helps to maintain a sufficient Al content in the depleted zone. Several previous experiments related to our study support that conditions for such a mechanism to be functional prevail in real oxidation processes of Fe-Cr-Al alloys.

  12. Chemical separation and mass spectrometry of Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, and Cu in terrestrial and extraterrestrial materials using thermal ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Akane; Yamashita, Katsuyuki; Makishima, Akio; Nakamura, Eizo

    2009-12-01

    A sequential chemical separation technique for Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, and Cu in terrestrial and extraterrestrial silicate rocks was developed for precise and accurate determination of elemental concentration by the isotope dilution method (ID). The technique uses a combination of cation-anion exchange chromatography and Eichrom nickel specific resin. The method was tested using a variety of matrixes including bulk meteorite (Allende), terrestrial peridotite (JP-1), and basalt (JB-1b). Concentrations of each element was determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) using W filaments and a Si-B-Al type activator for Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zn and a Re filament and silicic acid-H3PO4 activator for Cu. The method can be used to precisely determine the concentrations of these elements in very small silicate samples, including meteorites, geochemical reference samples, and mineral standards for microprobe analysis. Furthermore, the Cr mass spectrometry procedure developed in this study can be extended to determine the isotopic ratios of 53Cr/52Cr and 54Cr/52Cr with precision of approximately 0.05epsilon and approximately 0.10epsilon (1epsilon = 0.01%), respectively, enabling cosmochemical applications such as high precision Mn-Cr chronology and investigation of nucleosynthetic isotopic anomalies in meteorites. PMID:19886654

  13. Chemical separation and mass spectrometry of Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, and Cu in terrestrial and extraterrestrial materials using thermal ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Akane; Yamashita, Katsuyuki; Makishima, Akio; Nakamura, Eizo

    2009-12-01

    A sequential chemical separation technique for Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, and Cu in terrestrial and extraterrestrial silicate rocks was developed for precise and accurate determination of elemental concentration by the isotope dilution method (ID). The technique uses a combination of cation-anion exchange chromatography and Eichrom nickel specific resin. The method was tested using a variety of matrixes including bulk meteorite (Allende), terrestrial peridotite (JP-1), and basalt (JB-1b). Concentrations of each element was determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) using W filaments and a Si-B-Al type activator for Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zn and a Re filament and silicic acid-H3PO4 activator for Cu. The method can be used to precisely determine the concentrations of these elements in very small silicate samples, including meteorites, geochemical reference samples, and mineral standards for microprobe analysis. Furthermore, the Cr mass spectrometry procedure developed in this study can be extended to determine the isotopic ratios of 53Cr/52Cr and 54Cr/52Cr with precision of approximately 0.05epsilon and approximately 0.10epsilon (1epsilon = 0.01%), respectively, enabling cosmochemical applications such as high precision Mn-Cr chronology and investigation of nucleosynthetic isotopic anomalies in meteorites.

  14. Revisiting the properties of delafossite CuCrO{sub 2}: A single crystal study

    SciTech Connect

    Poienar, Maria; Hardy, Vincent; Kundys, Bohdan; Singh, Kiran; Maignan, Antoine; Damay, Francoise; Martin, Christine

    2012-01-15

    Platelet-like single-crystals of delafossite CuCrO{sub 2} have been successfully grown and characterised by X-ray diffraction and pole figures, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. Transport measurements reveal that the resistivity is highly anisotropic, with a ratio of about 35 at 300 K between the in- and out-of-plane directions, reflecting the layered crystal structure. The magnetization and specific heat data show that CuCrO{sub 2} undergoes a unique antiferromagnetic transition at T{sub N}=24.0 K, in contrast to a recent report on CuCrO{sub 2} single-crystals showing the existence of two magnetic transitions, T{sub N1}=24.2 K and T{sub N2}=23.6 K, depending on the orientation of the applied magnetic field along and perpendicular to c, respectively. - Graphical abstract: 3R-CuCrO{sub 2} platelet-like single crystals have been successfully grown by the flux method. As revealed by {chi}(T) and C(T) measurements, their properties are characterised by a unique antiferromagnetic transition at T{sub N}=24 K. Interestingly, despite a very small magnetic anisotropy, a large one is evidenced by the resistivity ratio, {rho}{sub c}/{rho}{sub ab}{approx}35, at 300 K. This suggests an easier charge hopping in the [CrO{sub 2}] planes rather than along (Cr-O-Cu) pathways, i.e. along c axis. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer R-CuCrO{sub 2} plate-like single crystals have been synthesised by the flux method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth takes place layer-by-layer and some growth defects have been observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CuCrO{sub 2} single crystals exhibit a unique antiferromagnetic transition at T{sub N}=24 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transport measurements reveal that the resistivity is highly anisotropic.

  15. Optical properties of heusler alloys Co2FeSi, Co2FeAl, Co2CrAl, and Co2CrGa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shreder, E. I.; Svyazhin, A. D.; Belozerova, K. A.

    2013-11-01

    The results of an investigation of optical properties and the calculations of the electronic structure of Co2FeSi, Co2FeAl, Co2CrAl, and Co2CrGa Heusler alloys are presented. The main focus of our attention is the study of the spectral dependence of the real part (ɛ1) and imaginary part (ɛ2) of the dielectric constant in the range of wavelengths λ = 0.3-13 μm using the ellipsometric method. An anomalous behavior of the optical conductivity σ(ω) has been found in the infrared range in the Co2CrAl and Co2CrGa alloys, which differs substantially from that in the Co2FeSi and Co2FeAl alloys. The results obtained are discussed based on the calculations of the electronic structure.

  16. Vacuum Plasma Spray of CuCrNb Alloy for Advanced Liquid - Fuel Combustion Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The copper-8 atomic percent chromium-4 atomic percent niobium (CuCrNb) alloy was developed by Glenn Research Center (formally Lewis Research Center) as an improved alloy for combustion chamber liners. In comparison to NARloy-Z, the baseline (as in Space Shuttle Main Engine) alloy for such liners, CuCrNb demonstrates mechanical and thermophysical properties equivalent to NARloy-Z, but at temperatures 100 C to 150 C (180 F to 270 F) higher. Anticipated materials related benefits include decreasing the thrust cell liner weight 5% to 20%, increasing the service life at least two fold over current combustion chamber design, and increasing the safety margins available to designers. By adding an oxidation and thermal barrier coating to the liner, the combustion chamber can operate at even higher temperatures. For all these benefits, however, this alloy cannot be formed using conventional casting and forging methods because of the levels of chromium and niobium, which exceed their solubility limit in copper. Until recently, the only forming process that maintains the required microstructure of CrNb intermetallics is powder metallurgy formation of a billet from powder stock, followed by extrusion. This severely limits its usefulness in structural applications, particularly the complex shapes required for combustion chamber liners. Vacuum plasma spray (VPS) has been demonstrated as a method to form structural articles including small combustion chambers from the CuCrNb alloy. In addition, an oxidation and thermal barrier layer can be formed integrally on the hot wall of the liner that improve performance and extend service life. This paper discusses the metallurgy and thermomechanical properties of VPS formed CuCrNb versus the baseline powder metallurgy process, and the manufacturing of small combustion chamber liners at Marshall Space Flight Center using the VPS process. The benefits to advanced propulsion initiatives of using VPS to fabricate combustion chamber liners

  17. Production and processing of Cu-Cr-Nb alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.; Michal, Gary M.; Orth, Norman W.

    1990-01-01

    A new Cu-based alloy possessing high strength, high conductivity, and good stability at elevated temperatures was recently produced. This paper details the melting of the master alloys, production of rapidly solidified ribbon, and processing of the ribbon to sheet by hot pressing and hot rolling.

  18. Cu-Zn powders as potential Cr(VI) adsorbents for drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kaprara, E; Seridou, P; Tsiamili, V; Mitrakas, M; Vourlias, G; Tsiaoussis, I; Kaimakamis, G; Pavlidou, E; Andritsos, N; Simeonidis, K

    2013-11-15

    This work examines the possibility of applying CuZn alloys as a reducing medium for the efficient removal of hexavalent chromium from drinking water. In an effort to develop a route for producing powders of CuZn alloys under mild conditions and investigate the optimum composition for such application, a series of alloys in the form of powders were prepared, by a sequence of Cu and Zn ball-milling and low temperature annealing. Batch Cr(VI) removal tests, performed to evaluate and compare the efficiency of the products under typical natural water parameters (pH 7 and natural-like water), indicated that the best performing material have a composition around 50 wt% Cu. The dominant reduction mechanisms are both the corrosion of the alloy surface and the electron transfer to the solution. The behavior of granulated CuZn media was tested in rapid-scale column tests using the commercial KDF which verified the high potential of CuZn alloys in Cr(VI) removal. Nevertheless, Cu and Zn leaching problems should be also considered.

  19. Hydrogen isotope trapping in Al-Cu binary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Paul; Karnesky, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the trapping mechanisms for hydrogen isotopes in Al–X Cu (0.0 at. % < X < 3.5 at. %) alloys were investigated using thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), electrical conductivity, and differential scanning calorimetry. Constant heating rate TDS was used to determine microstructural trap energies and occupancies. In addition to the trapping states in pure Al reported in the literature (interstitial lattice sites, dislocations, and vacancies), a trap site due to Al–Cu intermetallic precipitates is observed. The binding energy of this precipitate trap is (18 ± 3) kJ•mol–1 (0.19 ± 0.03 eV). Typical occupancy of this trap is high; for Al–2.6 at. % Cu (a Cu composition comparable to that in AA2219) charged at 200 °C with 130 MPa D2 for 68 days, there is ca. there is 3.15×10–7 mol D bound to the precipitate trap per mol of Al, accounting for a third of the D in the charged sample.

  20. Hydrogen isotope trapping in Al-Cu binary alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Chao, Paul; Karnesky, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the trapping mechanisms for hydrogen isotopes in Al–X Cu (0.0 at. % < X < 3.5 at. %) alloys were investigated using thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), electrical conductivity, and differential scanning calorimetry. Constant heating rate TDS was used to determine microstructural trap energies and occupancies. In addition to the trapping states in pure Al reported in the literature (interstitial lattice sites, dislocations, and vacancies), a trap site due to Al–Cu intermetallic precipitates is observed. The binding energy of this precipitate trap is (18 ± 3) kJ•mol–1 (0.19 ± 0.03 eV). Typical occupancy of this trap is high;more » for Al–2.6 at. % Cu (a Cu composition comparable to that in AA2219) charged at 200 °C with 130 MPa D2 for 68 days, there is ca. there is 3.15×10–7 mol D bound to the precipitate trap per mol of Al, accounting for a third of the D in the charged sample.« less

  1. Solid state phase equilibria and intermetallic compounds of the Al-Cr-Ho system

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Mingjun; Zhan, Yongzhong; Du, Yong

    2013-02-15

    The solid state phase equilibria of the Al-Cr-Ho ternary system at 500 Degree-Sign C were experimentally investigated. The phase relations at 500 Degree-Sign C are governed by 14 three-phase regions, 29 two-phase regions and 15 single-phase regions. The existences of 10 binary compounds and 2 ternary phases have been confirmed. Al{sub 11}Cr{sub 2}, Al{sub 11}Cr{sub 4} and Al{sub 17}Ho{sub 2} were not found at 500 Degree-Sign C. Crystal structures of Al{sub 9}Cr{sub 4} and Al{sub 8}Cr{sub 4}Ho were determined by the Rietveld X-ray powder data refinement. Al{sub 9}Cr{sub 4} was found to exhibit cubic structure with space group I4-bar 3m (no. 217) and lattice parameters a=0.9107(5) nm. Al{sub 8}Cr{sub 4}Ho crystallizes in ThMn{sub 12} structure type with space group I4/mmm (no. 139) and lattice parameters a=0.8909(4) nm, c=0.5120(5) nm. It is concluded that the obtained Al{sub 4}Cr phase in this work should be {mu}-Al{sub 4}Cr by comparing with XRD pattern of the hexagonal {mu}-Al{sub 4}Mn compound. - Graphical abstract: The solid state phase equilibria of the Al-Cr-Ho ternary system at 500 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-Cr-Ho system has been investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 9}Cr{sub 4} has cubic structure with space group I4-bar 3m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 8}Cr{sub 4}Ho crystallizes in ThMn{sub 12} type with space group I4/mmm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 4}Cr phase is {mu}-type at 500 Degree-Sign C.

  2. Electrokinetic Treatment of Cr-, Cu-, and Zn-Contaminated Sediment: Cathode Modification

    PubMed Central

    Rajić, Ljiljana; Dalmacija, Božo; Perović, Svetlana Ugarčina; Krčmar, Dejan; Rončević, Srđan; Tomašević, Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Enhanced electrokinetic (EK) removal of Cr, Cu, and Zn from sediment by using original and modified integrated ion exchange (IIX™) cathodes was investigated. IIX cathode design and EK device process modifications were made to improve performance: separation of IIX cathode components (IIXS), combination of modified IIX cathode with pulsed electric field (IIXSP), and separation of IIX cathode components with addition of an anion exchange resin compartment (IIXA). After using the IIXSP, overall Cr, Cu, and Zn removal efficacies were significantly improved compared with the other treatments investigated. No improvements in overall Cr, Cu, and Zn removal efficacies were achieved by utilization of IIXA. Nevertheless, significant removal efficacies occurred at the anode region since distribution of the alkaline front was prevented. However, metal accumulation in the cathode region occurred. This was a consequence of metal cation complexation with Cl− released from the anion exchange resin that changed the direction of metal migration. Enhancing EK remediation of Cr-, Cu-, and Zn-contaminated sediment can be achieved by using a modified IIX cathode. PMID:24381480

  3. Electrokinetic Treatment of Cr-, Cu-, and Zn-Contaminated Sediment: Cathode Modification.

    PubMed

    Rajić, Ljiljana; Dalmacija, Božo; Perović, Svetlana Ugarčina; Krčmar, Dejan; Rončević, Srđan; Tomašević, Dragana

    2013-12-01

    Enhanced electrokinetic (EK) removal of Cr, Cu, and Zn from sediment by using original and modified integrated ion exchange (IIX™) cathodes was investigated. IIX cathode design and EK device process modifications were made to improve performance: separation of IIX cathode components (IIXS), combination of modified IIX cathode with pulsed electric field (IIXSP), and separation of IIX cathode components with addition of an anion exchange resin compartment (IIXA). After using the IIXSP, overall Cr, Cu, and Zn removal efficacies were significantly improved compared with the other treatments investigated. No improvements in overall Cr, Cu, and Zn removal efficacies were achieved by utilization of IIXA. Nevertheless, significant removal efficacies occurred at the anode region since distribution of the alkaline front was prevented. However, metal accumulation in the cathode region occurred. This was a consequence of metal cation complexation with Cl(-) released from the anion exchange resin that changed the direction of metal migration. Enhancing EK remediation of Cr-, Cu-, and Zn-contaminated sediment can be achieved by using a modified IIX cathode. PMID:24381480

  4. Microstructural stability of Fe-Cr-Al alloys at 450-550 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejenstam, Jesper; Thuvander, Mattias; Olsson, Pär; Rave, Fernando; Szakalos, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Iron-Chromium-Aluminium (Fe-Cr-Al) alloys have been widely investigated as candidate materials for various nuclear applications. Albeit the excellent corrosion resistance, conventional Fe-Cr-Al alloys suffer from α-α‧ phase separation and embrittlement when subjected to temperatures up to 500 °C, due to their high Cr-content. Low-Cr Fe-Cr-Al alloys are anticipated to be embrittlement resistant and provide adequate oxidation properties, yet long-term aging experiments and simulations are lacking in literature. In this study, Fe-10Cr-(4-8)Al alloys and a Fe-21Cr-5Al were thermally aged in the temperature interval of 450-550 °C for times up to 10,000 h, and the microstructures were evaluated mainly using atom probe tomography. In addition, a Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) model of the Fe-Cr-Al system was developed. No phase separation was observed in the Fe-10Cr-(4-8)Al alloys, and the developed KMC model yielded results in good agreement with the experimental data.

  5. Viscous and acoustic properties of AlCu melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusnutdinoff, R. M.; Mokshin, A. V.; Menshikova, S. G.; Beltyukov, A. L.; Ladyanov, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    The atomic dynamics of the binary Al100- x Cu x system is simulated at a temperature T = 973 K, a pressure p = 1.0 bar, and various copper concentrations x. These conditions (temperature, pressure) make it possible to cover the equilibrium liquid Al100- x Cu x phase at copper concentrations 0 ≤ x ≤ 40% and the supercooled melt in the concentration range 40% ≤ x ≤ 100%. The calculated spectral densities of the time correlation functions of the longitudinal {tilde C_L}( k, ω) and transverse {tilde C_T}( k, ω) currents in the Al100- x Cu x melt at a temperature T = 973 K reveal propagating collective excitations of longitudinal and transverse polarizations in a wide wavenumber range. It is shown that the maximum sound velocity in the v L ( x) concentration dependence takes place for the equilibrium melt at an atomic copper concentration x = 10 ± 5%, whereas the supercooled Al100- x Cu x melt saturated with copper atoms ( x ≥ 40%) is characterized by the minimum sound velocity. In the case of the supercooled melt, the concentration dependence of the kinematic viscosity ν( x) is found to be interpolated by a linear dependence, and a deviation from the linear dependence is observed in the case of equilibrium melt at x < 40%. An insignificant shoulder in the ν( x) dependence is observed at low copper concentrations ( x < 20%), and it is supported by the experimental data. This shoulder is caused by the specific features in the concentration dependence of the density ρ( x).

  6. Indium Helps Strengthen Al/Cu/Li Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Linda B.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments on Al/Cu/Li alloys focus specifically on strengthening effects of minor additions of In and Cd. Indium-bearing alloy combines low density with ability to achieve high strength through heat treatment alone. Tensile tests on peak-aged specimens indicated that alloy achieved yield strength approximately 15 percent higher than baseline alloy. Alloy highly suitable for processing to produce parts of nearly net shape, with particular applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles.

  7. Adhesion promotion of Cu on C by Cr intermediate layers investigated by the SIMS method.

    PubMed

    Mayerhofer, Karl E; Neubauer, Erich; Eisenmenger-Sittner, Christoph; Hutter, Herbert

    2002-10-01

    Copper-carbon composites are candidate materials for heat sinks for high speed/high-performance electronic components. They combine high thermal conductivity with low density and a tailorable coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Because of the low wettability of carbon by copper, a thin layer of chromium can be deposited to promote both the adhesion and the thermal contact of copper with the carbon fibers. Therefore, in a first step layers of Cr and Cu were deposited by magnetron sputtering on plane vitreous carbon substrates (Sigradur G), which serve as a model for carbon fibers. From pull-off-adhesion measurements an interlayer thickness of Cr in the range of 2-10 nm was found to provide the optimal adhesion for 1 micro m thick copper overlayers. To model the later serial fabrication of the composite that involves a hot pressing step following the deposition, the C/Cr/Cu samples were heat treated at 800 degrees C under vacuum for 1 h. Adhesion on the heat-treated samples was superior in comparison to the untreated ones. To obtain information about the adhesion mechanism secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) investigations were done on the depth distribution of the main elements copper, chromium, and carbon. Two samples, one as deposited and one subjected to heat treatment after deposition, were compared in this investigation. We found that heat treatment mainly modifies the distribution of Cr in the C/Cr/Cu system. PMID:12397477

  8. Microstructure/Oxidation/Microhardness Correlations in Gamma-Based and Tau-Based Al-Ti-Cr Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Michael P.; Smialek, J. L.; Humphrey, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    The relationships between alloy microstructure and air oxidation kinetics and alloy microstructure and microhardness in the Al-Ti-Cr system for exposures at 800 C and 1000 C were investigated. The relevant phases were identified as tau (Ll2), gamma (LIO), r-Al2Ti, TiCrAl (laves), and Cr2AI. Protective alumina formation was associated with tau, Al-rich TiCrAl, and gamma/TiCrAl mixtures. Brittleness was associated with the TiCrAl phase and tau decomposition to A12Ti + Cr2AI. It was concluded that two-phase gamma + TiCrAl alloys offer the greatest potential for oxidation resistance and room temperature ductility in the Al-Ti-Cr system.

  9. Corrosion and protection of heterogeneous cast Al-Si (356) and Al-Si-Cu-Fe (380) alloys by chromate adn cerium inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Syadwad

    In this study, the localized corrosion and conversion coating on cast alloys 356 (Al-7.0Si-0.3Mg) and 380 (Al-8.5Si-3.5Cu-1.6Fe) were characterized. The intermetallic phases presence in the permanent mold cast alloy 356 are primary-Si, Al5FeSi, Al8Si6Mg3Fe and Mg2Si. The die cast alloy 380 is rich in Cu and Fe elements. These alloying elements result in formation of the intermetallic phases Al 5FeSi, Al2Cu and Al(FeCuCr) along with primary-Si. The Cu- and Fe-rich IMPS are cathodic with respect to the matrix phase and strongly govern the corrosion behavior of the two cast alloys in an aggressive environment due to formation of local electrochemical cell in their vicinity. Results have shown that corrosion behavior of permanent mould cast alloy 356 is significantly better than the die cast aluminum alloy 380, primarily due to high content of Cu- and Fe-rich phases such as Al2Cu and Al 5FeSi in the latter. The IMPS also alter the protection mechanism of the cast alloys in the presence of inhibitors in an environment. The presence of chromate in the solution results in reduced cathodic activity on all the phases. Chromate provides some anodic inhibition by increasing pitting potentials and altering corrosion potentials for the phases. Results have shown that performance of CCC was much better on 356 than on 380, primarily due to inhomogeneous and incomplete coating deposition on Cu- and Fe- phases present in alloy 380. XPS and Raman were used to characterize coating deposition on intermetallics. Results show evidence of cyanide complex formation on the intermetallic phases. The presence of this complex is speculated to locally suppress CCC formation. Formation and breakdown of cerium conversion coatings on 356 and 380 was also analyzed. Results showed that deposition of cerium hydroxide started with heavy precipitation on intermetallic particles with the coatings growing outwards onto the matrix. Electrochemical analysis of synthesized intermetallics compounds in the

  10. Ideal structure of icosahedral Al-Cu-Li quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Akiji

    1992-03-01

    A structure model for the icosahedral Al-Cu-Li quasicrystal has been derived. This is described in six-dimensional space as a six-dimensional crystal, having four kinds of occupation domains with complicated polyhedral shape. A general structure-factor formula is derived for such polyhedral domains, and a simple description of the structure using the site symmetry is proposed. The model gives R factors of 0.076 and 0.085 for recent x-ray and neutron-single-crystal-diffraction data [Boissieu, Janot, Dubois, Audier, and Dubost, J. Phys. 3, 1 (1991)]. The structure consists of a large number of icosahedral clusters and linking atoms joining them. It leads to an ideal cubic R-Al-Cu-Li structure and a large number of other cubic crystals when appropriate phason strains are taken into account. Two structures, the ideal R-Al-Cu-Li structure and a fictitious structure with a period (1+ √5 )/2 times longer, are shown.

  11. Comparative studies on the thermal stability and corrosion resistance of CrN, CrSiN, and CrSiN/AlN coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Gwang Seok; Kim, Sung Min; Lee, Sang Yul; Lee, Bo Young

    2009-07-15

    In this work, three kinds of Cr-based nitride coatings such as monolithic CrN, CrSiN coatings, and multilayered CrSiN/AlN coating with bilayer period of 3.0 nm were deposited on both Si (100) wafer and AISI H13 steel substrates by unbalanced magnetron sputtering. Thermal stability of these coatings was evaluated by annealing the coatings at temperatures between 600 and 1000 degree sign C for 30 min in air. In addition, the corrosion behaviors of these coatings were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization tests in a deaerated 3.5 wt. % NaCl solution at 40 degree sign C. Results from annealing test show the monolithic CrN and CrSiN coatings were completely oxidized after annealed at 800 and 900 degree sign C, and their cross sectional images and atomic force microscopy showed a loose and very porous morphology due to the oxidation. Also, the hardness values of the monolithic CrN and CrSiN coatings were decreased significantly from 22 and 27 GPa to 8 and 14 GPa, respectively. However, the multilayered CrSiN/AlN coating still exhibited a dense microstructure without visible change after annealed at 1000 degree sign C, and moreover, the relatively high hardness of 25 GPa was maintained. The superior thermal stability of the CrSiN/AlN multilayer coating could be attributed to the formation of the dense and stable oxidation barrier consisted of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and amorphous SiO{sub 2} phases near the surface region, which retard the diffusion of oxygen into the coating. In the potentiodynamic polarization test results, it was found that the significantly improved corrosion resistance of the multilayered CrSiN/AlN coating was observed in comparison with those from the monolithic CrN and CrSiN coatings, and its corrosion current density (i{sub corr}) and protective efficiency were measured to be approximately 4.21 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} and 95%, respectively.

  12. Ar + induced interfacial mixing and phase formation in the Al/Cr system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. K.; Kim, S. O.; Song, J. H.; Kim, K. W.; Woo, J. J.; Whang, C. N.; Smith, R. J.

    1991-07-01

    Evaporated Al/Cr bilayer thin films were irradiated by 80 keV Ar + at doses in the range from 1 × 10 15 to 2 × 10 16 Ar +/cm 2 at room temperature in order to investigate the Ar + induced interfacial mixing behavior and the phase formation and transition by Ar + bombardment. Ion bombardment induces intermixing across the Al/Cr interface and mixing variance increases with increasing ion dose. Cascade and thermal spike models are found to be not adequate for the ion beam mixing mechanism at room temperature in this system. The Al 13Cr 2 phase is formed as an initial phase by ion beam mixing and then transforms into the Al 11Cr 2 or Al 4Cr phases at subsequent ion bombardment. This result is discussed in terms of the enhanced atomic mobility and the thermodynamical driving force by introducing the concept of an effective heat of formation.

  13. Evaluation of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb Under Fretting Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Lerch, Bradley A.; Draper, Susan L.; Raj, Sai V.

    2001-01-01

    The fretting behavior of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb (y-TiAl) in contact with the nickel-base superalloy 718 was examined in air at temperatures from 296 to 823 K (23 to 550 C). The interfacial adhesive bonds between Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb and superalloy 718 were generally stronger than the cohesive bonds within Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb. The failed Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb debris subsequently transferred to the superalloy 718. In reference experiments conducted with Ti-6Al-4V against superalloy 718 under identical fretting conditions, the degree of transfer was greater for Ti-6A1-4V than for Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb. Wear of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb generally decreased with increasing fretting frequency. The increasing rate of oxidation at elevated temperatures led to a drop in wear at 473 K. However, fretting wear increased as the temperature was increased from 473 to 823 K. At 723 and 823 K, oxide film disruption generated cracks, loose wear debris, and pits on the Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb wear surface. Both increasing slip amplitude and increasing load tended to produce more metallic wear debris, causing severe abrasive wear in the contacting metals.

  14. Mixed Cu-simple metal dimers and trimers - CuLi, CuLi2, CuNa, CuK, CuBe, CuBe2, Cu2Be, CuAl, and CuAl2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Partridge, Harry; Walch, Stephen P.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical studies of selected diatomic and triatomic molecules containing copper and the simple metals Li, Na, K, Be, and Al are presented, with emphasis on elucidating the nature of the bonding in mixed transition metal-simple metal systems. Large Gaussian basis sets are used in the diatomic calculations, and are used to calibrate the triatomic calculations, in which somewhat smaller Gaussian basis sets are employed. Electron correlation is incorporated using both the single-reference singles plus doubles configuration interaction and coupled pair functional methods. It is found that alkali atoms form very polar sigma bonds with copper, and that the ionicity increases with the inclusion of higher excitations because they improve the electron affinity of copper, which in turn allows a larger negative charge on copper. Aluminum is found to form stronger bonds than beryllium, since it does not have to undergo sp hybridization. Some of the trimers bond by forming three-center three-electron bonds. These multicenter bonds are quite strong even when compared to the two-electron bonds in the dimers or to other bonding mechanisms in the trimers.

  15. Early stages of superplasticity and positron lifetime spectroscopy in an Al-Mg-Cu alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Ayciriex, M.D.; Romero, R.; Somoza, A.

    1996-07-01

    In the present paper, by using positron lifetime technique, a careful study is carried out to analyze the microstructural changes induced on samples of an Al-based commercial alloy (Al-Mg-Cu-Mn-Cr) by superplastic deformation in the early stages of superplastic behavior of the alloy (strain range from 0.2% to 100%). These results are compared with those obtained on specimens only heat treated at the same temperature and for a time equivalent to the elapsed time during each tensile test, in order to evaluate the thermal contribution to the microstructural changes induced during the superplastic deformation process. Moreover, the positron results were linked with the microstructural evolution of the samples followed by means of optical microscopy and Vickers microhardness technique.

  16. Structural disorder and magnetism in the spin-gapless semiconductor CoFeCrAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Renu; Kharel, Parashu; Valloppilly, Shah R.; Jin, Yunlong; O'Connell, Andrew; Huh, Yung; Gilbert, Simeon; Kashyap, Arti; Sellmyer, D. J.; Skomski, Ralph

    2016-05-01

    Disordered CoFeCrAl and CoFeCrSi0.5Al0.5 alloys have been investigated experimentally and by first-principle calculations. The melt-spun and annealed samples all exhibit Heusler-type superlattice peaks, but the peak intensities indicate a substantial degree of B2-type chemical disorder. Si substitution reduces the degree of this disorder. Our theoretical analysis also considers several types of antisite disorder (Fe-Co, Fe-Cr, Co-Cr) in Y-ordered CoFeCrAl and partial substitution of Si for Al. The substitution transforms the spin-gapless semiconductor CoFeCrAl into a half-metallic ferrimagnet and increases the half-metallic band gap by 0.12 eV. Compared CoFeCrAl, the moment of CoFeCrSi0.5Al0.5 is predicted to increase from 2.01 μB to 2.50 μB per formula unit, in good agreement with experiment.

  17. The photosensitivity of carbon quantum dots/CuAlO2 films composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jiaqi; Sheng, Yingzhuo; Zhang, Jingxiang; Wei, Jumeng; Huang, Peng; Zhang, Xin; Feng, Boxue

    2015-07-01

    Carbon quantum dots/CuAlO2 films were prepared by a simple route through which CuAlO2 films prepared by sol-gel on crystal quartz substrates were composited with carbon quantum dots on their surface. The characterization results indicated that CuAlO2 films were well combined with carbon quantum dots. The photoconductivity of carbon quantum dots/CuAlO2 films was investigated under illumination and darkness switching, and was demonstrated to be significantly enhanced compared with CuAlO2 films. Through analysis, this enhancement of photoconductivity was attributed to the carbon quantum dots with unique up-converted photoluminescence behavior.

  18. The effect of Ti-B on stabilization of Cu-Zn-Al martensite

    SciTech Connect

    Stipcich, M.; Romero, R. |

    1998-10-05

    The application of shape memory effect in devices requires, in many cases, stable and reliable transformation temperatures. However, as a consequence of diffusional processes, in Cu-based shape memory alloys, reverse transformation temperature significantly rises after aging at temperatures above room temperature. This generally unwanted behavior is usually referred to as the stabilization of martensite. Numerous investigations have been carried out on this subject as reviewed by Ahlers and Chandrasekaran et al. Within the Cu-based alloys the Cu-Zn-Al are claimed to be more prone to stabilization than Cu-Al-Ni on aging. It has been proposed that in the Cu-Zn-Al the stabilization is due to the interchange of Cu and Zn atoms assisted by vacancies, changing, consequently, the long range order inherited from the {beta} phase. In the present work, the authors investigate the stabilization behavior of polycrystalline samples of stress induced Cu-Zn-Al and Cu-Zn-Al-B martensite.

  19. Cu-Al spinel oxide as an efficient catalyst for methanol steam reforming.

    PubMed

    Xi, Hongjuan; Hou, Xiaoning; Liu, Yajie; Qing, Shaojun; Gao, Zhixian

    2014-10-27

    Cu-Al spinel oxide, which contains a small portion of the CuO phase, has been successfully used in methanol steam reforming (MSR) without prereduction. The omission of prereduction not only avoids the copper sintering prior to the catalytic reaction, but also slows down the copper-sintering rate in MSR. During this process, the CuO phase can initiate MSR at a lower temperature, and CuAl2O4 releases active copper gradually. The catalyst CA2.5-900, calcined at 900 °C with n(Al)/n(Cu) = 2.5, has a higher CuAl2O4 content, higher BET surface area, and smaller CuAl2O4 crystal size. Its activity first increases and then decreases during MSR. Furthermore, both fresh and regenerated CA2.5-900 showed better catalytic performance than the commercial Cu-Zn-Al catalyst. PMID:25213737

  20. Al-matrix composite materials reinforced by Al-Cu-Fe particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneville, J.; Laplanche, G.; Joulain, A.; Gauthier-Brunet, V.; Dubois, S.

    2010-07-01

    Al-matrix material composites were produced using hot isostatic pressing technique, starting with pure Al and icosahedral (i) Al-Cu-Fe powders. Depending on the processing temperature, the final reinforcement particles are either still of the initial i-phase or transformed into the tetragonal ω-Al00.70Cu0.20Fe0.10 crystalline phase. Compression tests performed in the temperature range 293K - 823K on the two types of composite, i.e. Al/i and Al/ω, indicate that the flow stress of both composites is strongly temperature dependent and exhibit distinct regimes with increasing temperature. Differences exist between the two composites, in particul ar in yield stress values. In the low temperatureregime (T <= 570K), the yield stress of the Al/ω composite is nearly 75% higher than that of the Al/i composite, while for T > 570K both composites exhibit similar yield stress values. The results are interpreted in terms of load transfer contribution between the matrix and the reinforcement particles and elementary dislocation mechanisms in the Al matrix.

  1. Microstructural characterization of Al-rich Ni-Cr-Al cast alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Carrasco, J.L.; Adeva, P.; Cristina, M.C.; Aballe, M. )

    1994-09-01

    Several Ni-Cr-Al alloys, with up to 30 at.% Al, were prepared in an induction furnace and cast under inert atmosphere. All alloys were homogenized for 8 h at 1,473 K under an argon atmosphere, followed by treatments at temperatures between 1,023 and 1,273 K for times up to 180 h. These alloys contain phases that are to a great extent, structurally similar. This is frequently complicated further by their particle size and their degree of order. Their characterization is not always simple and usually must be based on more than one technique. In this work the microstructural evolution was studied by means of light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis, and X-ray diffraction techniques. For completeness, hardness and microhardness tests were performed to evaluate the precipitation phenomenon.

  2. Microstructure evolution during annealing of TiAl/NiCoCrAl multilayer composite prepared by EB-PVD

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Rubing; Zhang, Deming; Chen, Guiqing; Wang, Yuesheng

    2014-07-01

    TiAl/NiCoCrAl laminate composite sheet with a thickness of 0.4–0.6 mm as well as a dimension of 150 mm × 100 mm was fabricated successfully by using electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) method. The annealing treatment was processed at 1123 and 1323 K for 3 h in a high vacuum atmosphere, respectively. The phase composition and microstructure of TiAl/NiCoCrAl microlaminated sheet have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Based on the sheet characterization and results of the microstructure evolution during annealing treatment process, the diffusion mechanism of interfacial reaction in TiAl/NiCoCrAl microlaminate was investigated and discussed.

  3. Irradiation-enhanced α' precipitation in model FeCrAl alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Edmondson, Philip D.; Briggs, Samuel A.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Howard, Richard H.; Sridharan, Kumar; Terrani, Kurt A.; Field, Kevin G.

    2016-02-17

    Model FeCrAl alloys with varying compositions (Fe(10–18)Cr(10–6)Al at.%) have been neutron irradiated at ~ 320 to damage levels of ~ 7 displacements per atom (dpa) to investigate the compositional influence on the formation of irradiation-induced Cr-rich α' precipitates using atom probe tomography. In all alloys, significant number densities of these precipitates were observed. Cluster compositions were investigated and it was found that the average cluster Cr content ranged between 51.1 and 62.5 at.% dependent on initial compositions. This is significantly lower than the Cr-content of α' in binary FeCr alloys. As a result, significant partitioning of the Al from themore » α' precipitates was also observed.« less

  4. Enthalpies of mixing of liquid systems for lead free soldering: Al-Cu-Sn system.

    PubMed

    Flandorfer, Hans; Rechchach, Meryem; Elmahfoudi, A; Bencze, László; Popovič, Arkadij; Ipser, Herbert

    2011-11-01

    The present work refers to high-temperature drop calorimetric measurements on liquid Al-Cu, Al-Sn, and Al-Cu-Sn alloys. The binary systems have been investigated at 973 K, up to 40 at.% Cu in case of Al-Cu, and over the entire concentrational range in case of Al-Sn. Measurements in the ternary Al-Cu-Sn system were performed along the following cross-sections: x(Al)/x(Cu) = 1:1, x(Al)/x(Sn) = 1:1, x(Cu)/x(Sn) = 7:3, x(Cu)/x(Sn) = 1:1, and x(Cu)/x(Sn) = 3:7 at 1273 K. Experimental data were used to find ternary interaction parameters by applying the Redlich-Kister-Muggianu model for substitutional solutions, and a full set of parameters describing the concentration dependence of the enthalpy of mixing was derived. From these, the isoenthalpy curves were constructed for 1273 K. The ternary system shows an exothermic enthalpy minimum of approx. -18,000 J/mol in the Al-Cu binary and a maximum of approx. 4000 J/mol in the Al-Sn binary system. The Al-Cu-Sn system is characterized by considerable repulsive ternary interactions as shown by the positive ternary interaction parameters.

  5. 1100 to 1500 K Slow Plastic Compressive Behavior of NiAl-xCr Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Darolia, Ram

    2003-01-01

    The compressive properties of near <001> and <111> oriented NiAl-2Cr single crystals and near <011> oriented NiAl-6Cr samples have been measured between 1100 and 1500 K. The 2Cr addition produced significant solid solution strengthening in NiAl, and the <111> and <001> single crystals possessed similar strengths. The 6Cr crystals were not stronger than the 2Cr versions. At 1100 and 1200 K plastic flow in all three Cr-modified materials was highly dependent on stress with exponents > 10. The <011> oriented 6Cr alloy exhibited a stress exponent of about 8 at 1400 and 1500 K; whereas both <001> and <111> NiAl-2Cr crystals possessed stress exponents near 3 which is indicative of a viscous dislocation glide creep mechanism. While the Cottrell-Jaswon solute drag model predicted creep rates within a factor of 3 at 1500 K for <001>-oriented NiAl-2Cr; this mechanism greatly over predicted creep rates for other orientations and at 1400 K for <001> crystals.

  6. Diffusional transport during the cyclic oxidation of gamma + beta, Ni-Cr-Al(Y, Zr) alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, J. A.; Heckel, R. W.

    1988-01-01

    The cyclic oxidation behavior of several cast gamma + beta, Ni-Cr-Al(Y, Zr) alloys and one low-pressure plasma spraying gamma + beta, Ni-Co-Cr-Al(Y) alloy was studied. Cyclic oxidation was found to result in a decreasing Al concentration at the oxide-metal interface due to a high rate of Al consumption coupled with oxide scale cracking and spalling. Diffusion paths plotted on the ternary phase diagram showed higher Ni concentrations with increasing cyclic oxidation exposures. The alloy with the highest rate of Al consumption and the highest Al content underwent breakaway oxidation following 500 1-hr cycles at 1200 C.

  7. Growth and oxidation of thin film Al{sub 2}Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Son, K.A.; Missert, N.A.; Barbour, J.C.; Hren, J.J.; Copeland, R.G.; Minor, K.G.

    1999-11-09

    Al{sub 2}Cu thin films ({approximately}382 nm) are fabricated by melting and resolidifying Al/Cu bilayers in the presence of a {approximately}3 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivating layer. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measures a 1.0 eV shift of the Cu2p{sub 3/2} peak and a 1.6 eV shift of the valence band relative to metallic Cu upon Al{sub 2}Cu formation. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction (EBSD) show that the Al{sub 2}Cu film is composed of 30--70 {mu}m wide and 10--25 mm long cellular grains with (110) orientation. The atomic composition of the film as estimated by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) is 67{+-}2% Al and 33{+-}2% Cu. XPS scans of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}Cu taken before and after air exposure indicate that the upper Al{sub 2}Cu layers undergo further oxidation to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} even in the presence of {approximately}5 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The majority of Cu produced from oxidation is believed to migrate below the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers, based upon the lack of evidence for metallic Cu in the XPS scans. In contrast to Al/Cu passivated with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, melting/resolidifying the Al/Cu bilayer without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} results in phase-segregated dendritic film growth.

  8. Comparison in mechanical and tribological properties of CrTiAlMoN and CrTiAlN nano-multilayer coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Guojun; Jiang, Bailing

    2016-02-01

    CrTiAlN and CrTiAlMoN nano-multilayer coatings were deposited by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering. TiMoN and CrTiMoN nano-multilayer coatings with same Mo2N layer thickness were also prepared for comparison. The structure of these coatings is investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mechanical and tribological properties were characterized and compared by nano-indentation and ball-on-disc test. It was found that these coatings were structured by fcc metal nitride phases (including CrN, TiN, AlN and Mo2N) and the preferred orientation changed from (1 1 1) to (2 0 0) with the increase of Mo content. The TEM results showed that the coatings exhibited typical columnar structure and nano-multilayer structure with modulation periods ranged from 3.2 nm to 7.6 nm. Among these coatings, CrTiAlMoN coatings presented the highest hardness, lowest coefficient of friction (COF) and wear rate. The hardness of these nano-multilayer coatings were determined by layer interfaces: TiN/Mo2N and AlN/Mo2N layer interface showed benefit on hardness enhancement while CrN/Mo2N layer interface led to a great hardness decrement. In comparison with the other as-deposited coatings, the low COF of CrTiAlMoN coatings was not only affected by Mo addition but also related to its oxidation behaviors.

  9. Tribological Properties of the Fe-Al-Cr Alloyed Layer by Double Glow Plasma Surface Metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xixi; Yao, Zhengjun; Zhang, Pingze; Zhou, Keyin; Wang, Zhangzhong

    2016-09-01

    A Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer was deposited onto the surface of Q235 low-carbon steel via double glow plasma surface metallurgy (DGPSM) to improve the steel's wear resistance. After the DGPSM treatment, the Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer grown on the Q235 low-carbon steel was homogeneous and compact and had a thickness of 25 µm. The layer was found to be metallurgically adhered to the substrate. The frictional coefficient and specific wear rate of the sample with a Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer (treated sample) were both lower than those of the bare substrate (untreated sample) at the measured temperatures (25, 250 and 450 °C). The results indicated that the substrate and the alloyed layer suffered oxidative wear and abrasive wear, respectively, and that the treated samples exhibited much better tribological properties than did the substrate. The formation of Fe2AlCr, Fe3Al(Cr), FeAl(Cr), Fe(Cr) sosoloid and Cr23C6 phases in the alloyed layer dramatically enhanced the wear resistance of the treated sample. In addition, the alloyed layer's oxidation film exhibited a self-healing capacity with lubrication action that also contributed to the improvement of the wear resistance at high temperature. In particular, at 450 °C, the specific wear rate of treated sample was 2.524 × 10-4 mm3/N m, which was only 45.2% of the untreated sample.

  10. Tribological Properties of the Fe-Al-Cr Alloyed Layer by Double Glow Plasma Surface Metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xixi; Yao, Zhengjun; Zhang, Pingze; Zhou, Keyin; Wang, Zhangzhong

    2016-07-01

    A Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer was deposited onto the surface of Q235 low-carbon steel via double glow plasma surface metallurgy (DGPSM) to improve the steel's wear resistance. After the DGPSM treatment, the Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer grown on the Q235 low-carbon steel was homogeneous and compact and had a thickness of 25 µm. The layer was found to be metallurgically adhered to the substrate. The frictional coefficient and specific wear rate of the sample with a Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer (treated sample) were both lower than those of the bare substrate (untreated sample) at the measured temperatures (25, 250 and 450 °C). The results indicated that the substrate and the alloyed layer suffered oxidative wear and abrasive wear, respectively, and that the treated samples exhibited much better tribological properties than did the substrate. The formation of Fe2AlCr, Fe3Al(Cr), FeAl(Cr), Fe(Cr) sosoloid and Cr23C6 phases in the alloyed layer dramatically enhanced the wear resistance of the treated sample. In addition, the alloyed layer's oxidation film exhibited a self-healing capacity with lubrication action that also contributed to the improvement of the wear resistance at high temperature. In particular, at 450 °C, the specific wear rate of treated sample was 2.524 × 10-4 mm3/N m, which was only 45.2% of the untreated sample.

  11. Solidification behavior and structure of Al-Cu alloy welds

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, J.A.; Li, M.; Yang, N.C.Y.

    1997-09-01

    The microsegregation behavior of electron beam (EB) and gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds of Al-Cu alloys covering a range from 0.19 to 7.74 wt% Cu were characterized for dendrite core concentrations and fraction eutectic solidification. Although a single weld speed of 12.7 mm/sec was used, some differences were observed in the segregation behavior of the two weld types. The microsegregation behavior was also modeled using a finite differences technique considering dendrite tip and eutectic undercooling and solid state diffusion. Fairly good agreement was observed between measured and calculated segregation behavior although differences between the two weld types could not be completely accounted for. The concept of dendrite tip undercooling was used to explain the formation of a single through thickness centerline grain in the higher alloy content GTA welds.

  12. Preparation and thermoelectric properties of ternary superionic conductor CuCrS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yuexing; Zhang Boping; Ge Zhenhua; Shang Pengpeng

    2012-02-15

    Transition metal chalcogenide CuCrS{sub 2} powder was synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) and then consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique at 673-1073 K. The phase structure, microstructure and thermoelectric properties of samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Seebeck coefficient/electrical conductivity measuring system, respectively. All the bulks indicated a single phase CuCrS{sub 2}, while the high relative density over 90% were attained for the samples sintered at 873-1073 K. The electrical conductivity of bulk samples displayed a typical characteristic of semiconductor. With increasing measuring temperature, the conductive behaviour of bulk samples sintered over 973 K showed a semiconductor transformation from n-type to p-type due to the changes of main carrier type. The sample obtained by applying SPS at 873 K got the highest power factor 83.2 {mu}W m{sup -1} K{sup -2}, and the largest ZT value 0.11 at 673 K. - Graphical abstract: The samples sintered above 873 K, both of the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity exhibit an increase tendency with increasing temperature, which is due to the mechanism of mix-conduction for CuCrS{sub 2}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single phase CuCrS{sub 2} powder was synthesized by ball-milling at 425 rpm for 40 h. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dense CuCrS{sub 2} bulks were fabricated using SPS techniques at sintering temperature 873-1073 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Seebeck coefficient of CuCrS{sub 2} samples sintered over 973 K change the signs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highest power factor reached 83.2 {mu}W m{sup -1} K{sup -2} at 673 K for the sample sintered at 873 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZT value was 0.11 at 673 K for the sample sintered at 873 K.

  13. Development of ODS FeCrAl alloys for accident-tolerant fuel cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N.; Hoelzer, David T.; Pint, Bruce A.; Unocic, Kinga A.

    2015-09-18

    FeCrAl alloys are prime candidates for accident-tolerant fuel cladding due to their excellent oxidation resistance up to 1400 C and good mechanical properties at intermediate temperature. Former commercial oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys such as PM2000 exhibit significantly better tensile strength than wrought FeCrAl alloys, which would alloy for the fabrication of a very thin (~250 m) ODS FeCrAl cladding and limit the neutronic penalty from the replacement of Zr-based alloys by Fe-based alloys. Several Fe-12-Cr-5Al ODS alloys where therefore fabricated by ball milling FeCrAl powders with Y2O3 and additional oxides such as TiO2 or ZrO2. The new Fe-12Cr-5Al ODS alloys showed excellent tensile strength up to 800 C but limited ductility. Good oxidation resistance in steam at 1200 and 1400 C was observed except for one ODS FeCrAl alloy containing Ti. Rolling trials were conducted at 300, 600 C and 800 C to simulate the fabrication of thin tube cladding and a plate thickness of ~0.6mm was reached before the formation of multiple edge cracks. Hardness measurements at different stages of the rolling process, before and after annealing for 1h at 1000 C, showed that a thinner plate thickness could likely be achieved by using a multi-step approach combining warm rolling and high temperature annealing. Finally, new Fe-10-12Cr-5.5-6Al-Z gas atomized powders have been purchased to fabricate the second generation of low-Cr ODS FeCrAl alloys. The main goals are to assess the effect of O, C, N and Zr contents on the ODS FeCrAl microstructure and mechanical properties, and to optimize the fabrication process to improve the ductility of the 2nd gen ODS FeCrAl while maintaining good mechanical strength and oxidation resistance.

  14. NMR study of the ternary carbides M2 AlC (M=Ti,V,Cr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, C. S.; Lin, J. Y.; Xie, B. X.

    2006-01-01

    We have performed a systematic study of the layered ternary carbides Ti2AlC , V2AlC , and Cr2AlC using Al27 NMR spectroscopy. The quadrupole splittings, Knight shifts, as well as spin-lattice relaxation times on each material have been identified. The sign of the isotropic Knight shift varies from positive for Ti2AlC and V2AlC to negative for Cr2AlC , attributed to the enhancement of hybridization with increasing valence electron count in the transition metal. Universally long relaxation times are found for these alloys. Results provide a measure of Al-s Fermi-level density of states Ns(EF) for Ti2AlC and V2AlC . In addition, the evidence that Ns(EF) correlates with the transition metal d -electron count has been explored in the present NMR investigation.

  15. Cr-Al coatings on low carbon steel prepared by a mechanical alloying technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hia, A. I. J.; Sudiro, T.; Aryanto, D.; Sebayang, K.

    2016-08-01

    Four different compositions of Cr and Al coatings as Cr10o, Cr87.5Al12.5, Cr5oAl5o, and Al100 have been prepared on the surface of low carbon steel by a mechanical alloying technique. The composition of each powder was milled for 2 hour in a stainless steel crucible with a ball to powder ratio of 10:1. Hereafter, the Cr-Al powder and substrate were mechanical alloyed in air for 1 hour. Heat treatment of coated sample were carried out at 800°C in a vacuum furnace. In order to characterize the phase composition and microstructure of the coating before and after heat treatment, XRD and SEM-EDX were used. The results show that Cr, Cr-Al or Al coatings were formed on the surface of low carbon steel. After heat treatment, new phases and interdiffusion zone were formed in the coating and at the coating/steel interface, depending on the coating composition.

  16. The influence of Cr and Al pack cementation on low carbon steel to improve oxidation resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetya, Didik; Sugiarti, Eni; Destyorini, Fredina; Thosin, Kemas Ahmad Zaini

    2012-06-01

    Pack chromizing and aluminizing has been widely used for many years to improve hot temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance of metals. The coating process involves packing the steel in a powder mixture which contain aluminum and chromium source, and inert filler (usually alumina), and halide activator NH4Cl. Al and Cr were deposited onto carbon steel by pack cementation process using elemental Al and Cr powder as Al and Cr source, whereas NiCo alloys codeposited by electrodeposition. The position of Al and Cr could be under or over Ni-Co alloys deposited. Pack cementation was heated on dry inert gas at temperature 800 °C about 5 hours and 20 minute for Cr and Al respectively. Al and Cr was successfully deposited. Laying down effect of Al and Cr onto carbon steel whether up and down toward NiCo alloys coating have affected to oxidation resistance. The pack aluminizing as top layer given best resitance to restrain excessive oxide scale, in contrast pack chromizing reveal bad oxidation resistance, moreover occured spallation on layer.

  17. Enhanced magnetism of Cu{sub n} clusters capped with N and endohedrally doped with Cr

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Soumendu; Banerjee, Radhashyam; Mookerjee, Abhijit

    2015-01-14

    The focus of our work is on the production of highly magnetic materials out of Cu clusters. We have studied the relative effects of N-capping as well as N mono-doping on the structural stability and electronic properties of the small Cu clusters using first principles density functional theory based electronic structure calculations. We find that the N-capped clusters are more promising in producing giant magnetic moments, such as 14 μ{sub B} for the Cu{sub 6}N{sub 6} cluster and 29 μ{sub B} for the icosahedral Cu{sub 13}N{sub 12} cluster. This is accompanied by a substantial enhancement in their stability. We suggest that these giant magnetic moments of the capped Cu{sub n} clusters have relevance to the observed room temperature ferromagnetism of Cu doped GaN. For cage-like hollow Cu-clusters, an endohedral Cr-doping together with the N-capping appears as the most promising means to produce stable giant magnetic moments in the copper clusters.

  18. CO sub 2 induced inhibition of the localized corrosion of aluminum, Al-0. 5% Cu, and Al-2% Cu in dilute HF solution

    SciTech Connect

    Scully, J.R. . Dept. of Materials Science); Peebles, D.E. )

    1991-01-01

    This study presents work on corrosion of aluminum, Al-.5% Cu, and Al-2% Cu. Electrochemical tests were performed in dilute HF solutions both with and without CO{sub 2} sparging. It is suggested that CO{sub 2} or its reaction products interact with the passive film so that exposure of Cu in the oxide-solution interface is minimized. CO{sub 2} is investigated as a corrosion inhibitor. 4 refs. (JDL)

  19. Solid state reduction of chromium (VI) pollution for Al2O3-Cr metal ceramics application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hekai; Fang, Minghao; Huang, Zhaohui; Liu, Yangai; Tang, Hao; Min, Xin; Wu, Xiaowen

    2016-04-01

    Reduction of chromium (VI) from Na2CrO4 through aluminothermic reaction and fabrication of metal-ceramic materials from the reduction products have been investigated in this study. Na2CrO4 could be successfully reduced into micrometer-sized Cr particles in a flowing Ar atmosphere in presence of Al powder. The conversion ratio of Na2CrO4 to metallic Cr attained 96.16% efficiency. Al2O3-Cr metal-ceramic with different Cr content (5 wt%, 10 wt%, 15 wt%, 20 wt%) were further prepared from the reduction product Al2O3-Cr composite powder, and aluminum oxide nanopowder via pressure-less sintering. The phase composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of metal-ceramic composites were characterized to ensure the potential of the Al2O3-Cr composite powder to form ceramic materials. The highest relative density and bending strength can reach 93.4% and 205 MP, respectively. The results indicated that aluminothermic reduction of chromium (VI) for metal-ceramics application is a potential approach to remove chromium (VI) pollutant from the environment.

  20. Pack cementation Cr-Al coating of steels and Ge-doped silicide coating of Cr-Nb alloy

    SciTech Connect

    He, Y.R.; Zheng, M.H.; Rapp, R.A.

    1995-08-01

    Carbon steels or low-alloy steels used in utility boilers, heat exchangers, petrochemical plants and coal gasification systems are subjected to high temperature corrosion attack such as oxidation, sulfidation and hot corrosion. The pack cementation coating process has proven to be an economical and effective method to enhance the corrosion resistance by modifying the surface composition of steels. With the aid of a computer program, STEPSOL, pack cementation conditions to produce a ferrite Cr-Al diffusion coating on carbon-containing steels by using elemental Cr and Al powders have been calculated and experimentally verified. The cyclic oxidation kinetics for the Cr-Al coated steels are presented. Chromium silicide can maintain high oxidation resistance up to 1100{degrees}C by forming a SiO{sub 2} protective scale. Previous studies at Ohio State University have shown that the cyclic oxidation resistance of MOSi{sub 2} and TiSi{sub 2} can be further improved by Ge addition introduced during coating growth. The halide-activated pack cementation process was modified to produce a Ge-doped silicide diffusion coating in a single processing step for the ORNL-developed Cr-Nb advanced intermetallic alloy. The oxidation behavior of the silicide-coated Cr-Nb alloy was excellent: weight gain of about 1 mg/cm{sup 2} upon oxidation at 1100{degrees}C in air for 100 hours.

  1. Sulfidation resistant coatings for coal gasification process equipment. Final technical report. [FeCrAl and CoCrAl alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, R.A.; Packer, C.M.

    1985-05-01

    This report presents the results of a program of research to develop and evaluate sulfidation resistant coatings for low alloy and stainless steel components of coal gasification process equipment. Furnace fused CoCrAl and FeCrAl coatings were developed for use on 304SS, and laboratory tests indicate good resistance to attack by simulated slagging gasifier atmospheres at 1000 to 1300/sup 0/F (538 to 704/sup 0/C). The CoCrAl coating exhibits the best performance and will protect 304SS at 1000 to 1600/sup 0/F (537 to 871/sup 0/C) for over 1500 hr. These coatings will protect 304SS at 1600/sup 0/F (871/sup 0/C) at the highest level of P/sub S/sub 2// for any level of P/sub O/sub 2// compared with other alloys and surface coatings. Weld parameters were studied for the deposition of FeCrAl clad layers on FeCrAl and Alloy 800 plate and on T-91 steel tube. Crack-free weld deposited layers could not be produced under any conditions for alloys with as little as 4% Al and the technical feasibility of cladding steels with weld deposited FeCrAl is considered to be poor. Similar results were obtained in tests by laser surface fusion of CoCrAl and FeCrAl coatings on 310SS and T-11 steel. The technical feasibility of aluminizing and chromizing low alloy steels by a slip pack diffusion process has been demonstrated. High quality aluminide coatings on T-11 steel resistant to CGA attack at 1000 to 1600/sup 0/F were produced. Performance was equal to or better than that of commercial pack aluminized steels. The process is considered to have the potential for a major improvement in quality and performance of large, complex components aluminized by the pack diffusion process. Development and scale up of the process is recommended. 30 refs., 63 figs., 38 tabs.

  2. Spectroscopic properties of {Cr}^{3+} in the spinel solid solution {ZnAl}_{2-x}{Cr}x{O}_4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verger, Louisiane; Dargaud, Olivier; Rousse, Gwenaelle; Rozsályi, Emese; Juhin, Amélie; Cabaret, Delphine; Cotte, Marine; Glatzel, Pieter; Cormier, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the structural environment of {Cr}{^{3+}} along the solid solution {ZnAl}_{2-x}{Cr}x{O}_4 has been investigated using a multi-analytical approach. X-ray diffraction confirms that the system follows Vegard's law. Diffuse reflectance spectra show a decrease of the crystal field parameter with the Cr content, usually related to the increase of the Cr-O bond length in a point charge model. This interpretation is discussed and compared to the data obtained by first-principle calculations based on density functional theory. X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra at the Cr K-edge show a pronounced evolution in the pre-edge with the Cr content, characterised by the appearance of a third feature. Calculations enable to assign the origin of this feature to Cr neighbours. The colour change from pink to brownish pink and eventually green along the solid solution has also been quantified by calculating the L*, a*, b* and x, y coefficients in the system defined by the International Commission on Illumination.

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of chemical compatibility of several compounds with Fe-Cr-Al alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical compatibility between Fe-19.8Cr-4.8Al (weight percent), which is the base composition for the commercial superalloy MA956, and several carbides, borides, nitrides, oxides, and silicides was analyzed from thermodynamic considerations. The effect of addition of minor alloying elements, such as Ti, Y, and Y2O3, to the Fe-Cr-Al alloy on chemical compatibility between the alloy and various compounds was also analyzed. Several chemically compatible compounds that can be potential reinforcement materials and/or interface coating materials for Fe-Cr-Al based composites were identified.

  4. Oxidation behavior of arc evaporated Al-Cr-Si-N thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Tritremmel, Christian; Daniel, Rostislav; Mitterer, Christian; Mayrhofer, Paul H.; Lechthaler, Markus; Polcik, Peter

    2012-11-15

    The impact of Al and Si on the oxidation behavior of Al-Cr-(Si)-N thin films synthesized by arc evaporation of powder metallurgically prepared Al{sub x}Cr{sub 1-x} targets with x = Al/(Al + Cr) of 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7 and (Al{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}){sub 1-z}Si{sub z} targets with Si contents of z = 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 in N{sub 2} atmosphere was studied in detail by means of differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. Dynamical measurements in synthetic air (up to 1440 Degree-Sign C) revealed the highest onset temperature of pronounced oxidation for nitride coatings prepared from the Al{sub 0.4}Cr{sub 0.4}Si{sub 0.2} target. Isothermal TGA at 1100, 1200, 1250, and 1300 Degree-Sign C highlight the pronounced improvement of the oxidation resistance of Al{sub x}Cr{sub 1-x}N coatings by the addition of Si. The results show that Si promotes the formation of a dense coating morphology as well as a dense oxide scale when exposed to air.

  5. Quasi-one-dimensional antiferromagnetism and multiferroicity in CuCrO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Reinhard K.; Law, J. M.; Reuvekamp, P.; Glaum, R.; Lee, C.; Kang, J.; Whangbo, M.-H.

    2012-02-01

    The bulk magnetic properties of the new quasi-one-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet, CuCrO4, were characterized by magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, optical spectroscopy, EPR and dielectric capacitance measurements and density functional evaluations of the intra- and interchain spin exchange interactions. We found type-II multiferroicity below the N'eel temperature of 8.2(5) K, arising from competing antiferromagnetic nearest-neighbor (Jnn) and next-nearest-neighbor (Jnnn) intra-chain spin exchange interactions. Experimental and theoretical results indicate that the ratio Jnn/Jnnn is close to 2, putting CuCrO4 in the vicinity of the Majumdar-Ghosh point. First low-temperature neutron powder diffraction data are consistent with a canted magnetic structure below ˜8 K.

  6. Quasi-one-dimensional antiferromagnetism and multiferroicity in CuCrO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, J. M.; Reuvekamp, P.; Glaum, R.; Lee, C.; Kang, J.; Whangbo, M.-H.; Kremer, R. K.

    2011-07-01

    The bulk magnetic properties of the new quasi-one-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet, CuCrO4, were characterized by magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, optical spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance and dielectric capacitance measurements, and density functional evaluations of the intrachain and interchain spin-exchange interactions. We found type-II multiferroicity below the Néel temperature of 8.2(5) K, arising from competing antiferromagnetic nearest-neighbor (Jnn) and next-nearest-neighbor (Jnnn) intrachain spin-exchange interactions. Experimental and theoretical results indicate that the ratio Jnn/Jnnn is close to 2, putting CuCrO4 in the vicinity of the Majumdar-Ghosh point.

  7. Magnetic properties of delafossite oxide: CuCr1-xTixO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majee, M. K.; Bhobe, P. A.; Nigam, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    In order to increase the possibility for technological applications of CuCrO2, there have been attempts to introduce ferromagnetic (FM) order by doping at B-site. With this aim, we present here study of polycrystalline CuCr1-xTixO2 with x=0.0, 0.05, 0.1. The samples have been prepared using solid state synthesis method and characterized for its crystal structure and magnetic properties. All the samples crystallize in the 2H delafossite structure with R-3m space group. Ti substitution causes the expansion of unit cell with increase in both the lattice constants. Antiferromagnetic ordering temperature is seen to decrease with increasing Ti. Ferromagnetic-like signature is obtained in one of the compositions at low applied magnetic field of 100 Oe.

  8. Creep of Uncoated and Cu-Cr Coated NARloy-Z

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, R. J.; Chiang, K. T.

    1998-01-01

    Stress rupture creep tests were performed on uncoated and Cu-30vol%Cr coated NARloy-Z copper alloy specimens exposed to air at 482 C to 704 C. The results showed that creep failure in air of unprotected NARloy-Z was precipitated by brittle intergranular surface cracking produced by strain assisted grain boundary oxidation (SAGBO) which in turn caused early onset of tertiary creep. For the protected specimens, the Cu-Cr coating remained adherent throughout the tests and was effective in slowing down the rate of oxygen absorption, particularly at the higher temperatures, by formation of a continuous chromium oxide scale. As the result of reducing oxygen ingress, the coating prevented SAGBO initiated early creep failure, extended creep deformation and increased the creep rupture life of NARloy-Z over the entire 482 C to 704 C test temperature range.

  9. Hot Deformation and Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior of the Cu-Cr-Zr-Y Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Huili, Sun; Volinsky, Alex A.; Tian, Baohong; Chai, Zhe; Liu, Ping; Liu, Yong

    2016-03-01

    To study the workability and to optimize the hot deformation processing parameters of the Cu-Cr-Zr-Y alloy, the strain hardening effect and dynamic softening behavior of the Cu-Cr-Zr-Y alloy were investigated. The flow stress increases with the strain rate and stress decreases with deformation temperature. The critical conditions, including the critical strain and stress for the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization, were determined based on the alloy strain hardening rate. The critical stress related to the onset of dynamic recrystallization decreases with temperature. The evolution of DRX microstructure strongly depends on the deformation temperature and the strain rate. Dynamic recrystallization appears at high temperatures and low strain rates. The addition of Y can refine the grain and effectively accelerate dynamic recrystallization. Dislocation generation and multiplication are the main hot deformation mechanisms for the alloy. The deformation temperature increase and the strain rate decrease can promote dynamic recrystallization of the alloy.

  10. Photocatalytic property and structural stability of CuAl-based layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Ming; Liu, Haiqiang

    2015-07-15

    Three types of CuMAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs, M=Mg, Zn, Ni) were successfully synthesized by coprecipitation. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV–vis) were used to confirm the formation of as-synthesized solids with good crystal structure. The photocatalytic activity of those LDH materials for CO{sub 2} reduction under visible light was investigated. The experimental results show that CuNiAl-LDHs with narrowest band gap and largest surface areas behave highest efficiency for methanol generation under visible light compared with CuMgAl-LDHs and CuZnAl-LDHs. The CuNiAL-LDH showed high yield for methanol production i.e. 0.210 mmol/g h, which was high efficient. In addition, the influence of the different M{sup 2+} on the structures and stability of the CuMAl-LDHs was also investigated by analyzing the geometric parameters, electronic arrangement, charge populations, hydrogen-bonding, and binding energies by density functional theory (DFT) analysis. The theoretical calculation results show that the chemical stability of LDH materials followed the order of CuMgAl-LDHs>CuZnAl-LDHs>CuNiAl-LDHs, which is just opposite with the photocatalytic activity and band gaps of three materials. - Graphical abstract: The host–guest calculation models and XRD patterns of CuMAl-LDHs: CuMgAl-LDHs (a), CuZnAl-LDHs (b) and CuNiAl-LDHs (c). - Highlights: • Three types of CuMAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs, M=Mg, Zn, Ni) has been synthesized. • CuMgNi shows narrower band gap and more excellent textural properties than other LDHs. • The band gap: CuMgAl based on result from UV–vis analysis. • CuMgAl shows the highest stability and lowest photocatalytic activity, while CuNiAl just opposite.

  11. Oxidation behavior of cubic phases formed by alloying Al3Ti with Cr and Mn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parfitt, L. J.; Nic, J. P.; Mikkola, D. E.; Smialek, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    Gravimetric, SEM, and XRD data are presented which document the significant improvement obtainable in the oxidation resistance of Al3Ti-containing alloys through additions of Cr. The L1(2) Al(67)Cr(8)Ti25 alloy exhibited excellent cyclic oxidation resistance at 1473 K, with the primary oxide formed being the ideally protective alpha-Al2O3. The Al(67)Mn(8)Ti(25) alloy also tested for comparison exhibited poor cyclic oxidation resistance, with substantial occurrence of TiO2 in the protective scales. Catastrophic oxidation was also encountered in the quaternary alloy Al(67)Mn(8)Ti(22)V(3).

  12. Structure and optoelectronic properties of spray deposited Mg doped p-CuCrO2 semiconductor oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, A. C.; Lim, S. H.; Desu, S. B.

    2008-07-01

    Transparent p-type Mg doped CuCrO2 wide-band-gap oxide semiconductor thin films were deposited over quartz substrates by chemical spray technique using metallo-organic precursors. Crystalline single phase CuCrO2 delafossite structure was dominant in ≥700 °C argon ambient annealed films but the as-deposited films contained spinel CuCr2O4 mixed phases. X-ray photoelectron Cr 2p spectra show spin-orbit splitting energy ˜9.8 eV consistent with Cr3+ valance state and Cr 2p3/2 resolved peaks show mixed valence state on Cr4+/Cr6+ confirming CuCr0.93Mg0.07O2 compound phase in spray deposited films. The effect of substrate temperature and film thickness on optical, electrical conductivity, and thermoelectric coefficient was investigated. Highly transparent ≥80% CuCr0.93Mg0.07O2 films with direct and indirect optical band gaps of 3.08 and 2.58 eV for 155 nm and 3.14 and 2.79 for 305 nm thin films, respectively, were obtained. Photoluminescence emission bands at 532 and 484 nm interpreted to arise from 3d94s1 and 3d10 Cu+ intraband transitions confirm mixing of Cu 3d, 4s, and 4p with O 2p orbitals necessary for realizing p-type CuCrO2 films. Electrical conductivity of CuCr0.93Mg0.07O2 films ranged 0.6-1 S cm-1 exhibiting activation energies ˜0.11 eV in 300-420 °K and ˜0.23 eV in ≥420 °K regions ascribed to activated conduction and grain boundary trap assisted conduction, respectively. Transparent p-(CuCr1-xMgxO2)/n-(ZnO) heterojunction diodes showing rectifying current-voltage characteristics were fabricated.

  13. Cr Isotopes in Allende Ca-Al-rich Inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanovski, O.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    2002-01-01

    We have determined Cr isotope compositions in minerals from Allende CAI in order to address the initial 53Mn (half-life 3.7 Ma) abundance in the solar system. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Corrosion behavior of Cu and the Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy in simulated uterine fluid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bangyi; Liang, Chenghao; Fu, Daojun; Ren, Deming

    2005-09-01

    Chemical immersion tests, electrochemical methods and atomic absorption spectrometry were employed to investigate the corrosion behavior of Cu and the Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy (SMA) in simulated uterine fluid. The effect of pH on corrosion rate and corrosion potential was also investigated. The results indicated that in the static state in simulated uterine fluid, dealuminumification of the Cu-Zn-Al alloy occurred with Cl- combining with aluminum ions to form hydroxyl aluminum chloride. The hydroxyl aluminum chloride hydrolyzed readily and facilitated further dealuminumification corrosion. The corrosion process of Cu and Cu-Zn-Al SMA in simulated uterine fluid was controlled by cathodic reduction of oxygen. Because the tendency for surface ionization is greater for aluminum than for zinc, a compact protective aluminum layer was formed, which inhibited the cathodic reduction of oxygen. Hence, the corrosion rate of Cu-Zn-Al SMA was smaller than that of Cu in simulated uterine fluid. With increasing pH, the corrosion rate of Cu and Cu-Zn-Al SMA in simulated uterine fluid decreased and the open-circuit potential moved in a positive direction. PMID:16102560

  15. Reduction of Cr (VI) by organic acids in the presence of Al (III).

    PubMed

    Chen, Na; Lan, Yeqing; Wang, Bo; Mao, Jingdong

    2013-09-15

    The effects of Al (III) on the reduction of Cr (VI) by three α-hydroxy acids, tartaric, malic and citric acids, were investigated through batch experiments at pH from 2.5 to 4.0 and temperatures from 25 °C to 35 °C. These reactions could be described as pseudo-zero-order with respect to Cr (VI) when the concentrations of α-hydroxy acids were greatly in excess. The transformation rates of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) in the presence of Al (III) without light were in the decreasing order of tartaric acid>malic acid>citric acid. This order suggested that the two α-hydroxyl groups in tartaric acid could play an important role in the reduction of Cr (VI) by organic acids. The possible mechanism was that the formed complex between organic acids and Al (III) significantly enhanced the reductivity of α-hydroxy acids and further led to the more complicated Cr (VI)-tartaric acid-Al (III) cyclic ester which greatly accelerated the reduction rate. The Cr (VI) reduction reaction rate increased with the decrease of pH but with the increase of Al (III) concentration, tartaric acid concentration, and temperature. As the pH decreased, the increase of [H(+)] led to an increase in {Al(III)H₂Tar₂}(+), the most active species, and thus the enhanced reduction rate.

  16. Viscosities of aluminum-rich Al-Cu liquid alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, S.; Speiser, R.; Poirier, D. R.

    1987-06-01

    Viscosity data for Al-Cu liquid alloys in the ranges of 0≤ C L≤33.1 wt pct Cu and 1173≤ T ≤973 K are reviewed. It was found that Andrade's equation can be used to represent the variation of viscosity with temperature for a given composition, but that each of the two parameters in Andrade's equation shows no systematic variation with composition of the liquid-alloys. Consequently, arithmetic averages of the parameters were used and assumed to apply to all compositions in the range 0≤ C L ≤33.1 wt pct Cu. Such a procedure implies that the viscosity happens to vary with composition solely because the specific volume varies with composition. In order to establish the predictability of extrapolating such simple behavior, a more complex model was considered. The latter model was recently presented by Kucharski and relates viscosity to the structure and thermodynamics of liquid alloys. Viscosities obtained by interpolating Andrade's equation and Kucharski's model compare closely; furthermore, values obtained by extrapolations to lower temperatures also compare favorably. Finally the simpler model was used to calculate the viscosity of the interdendritic liquid during solidification.

  17. Monolithic Cu-Cr-Nb Alloys for High Temperature, High Heat Flux Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.; Locci, Ivan E.; Michal, Gary M.; Humphrey, Derek M.

    1999-01-01

    Work during the prior four years of this grant has resulted in significant advances in the development of Cu-8 Cr4 Nb and related Cu-Cr-Nb alloys. The alloys are nearing commercial use in the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) where they are candidate materials for the thrust cell liners of the aerospike engines being developed by Rocketdyne. During the fifth and final year of the grant, it is proposed to complete development of the design level database of mechanical and thermophysical properties and transfer it to NASA Glenn Research Center and Rocketdyne. The database development work will be divided into three main areas: Thermophysical Database Augmentation, Mechanical Testing and Metallography and Fractography. In addition to the database development, work will continue that is focussed on the production of alternatives to the powder metallurgy alloys currently used. Exploration of alternative alloys will be aimed at both the development of lower cost materials and higher performance materials. A key element of this effort will be the use of Thermo-Calc software to survey the solubility behavior of a wide range of alloying elements in a copper matrix. The ultimate goals would be to define suitable alloy compositions and processing routes to produce thin sheets of the material at either a lower cost, or, with improved mechanical and thermal properties compared to the current Cu-Cr-Nb powder metallurgy alloys.

  18. Thermal, solution and reductive decomposition of Cu-Al layered double hydroxides into oxide products

    SciTech Connect

    Britto, Sylvia; Vishnu Kamath, P.

    2009-05-15

    Cu-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with [Cu]/[Al] ratio 2 adopt a structure with monoclinic symmetry while that with the ratio 0.25 adopt a structure with orthorhombic symmetry. The poor thermodynamic stability of the Cu-Al LDHs is due in part to the low enthalpies of formation of Cu(OH){sub 2} and CuCO{sub 3} and in part to the higher solubility of the LDH. Consequently, the Cu-Al LDH can be decomposed thermally (150 deg. C), hydrothermally (150 deg. C) and reductively (ascorbic acid, ambient temperature) to yield a variety of oxide products. Thermal decomposition at low (400 deg. C) temperature yields an X-ray amorphous residue, which reconstructs back to the LDH on soaking in water or standing in the ambient. Solution decomposition under hydrothermal conditions yields tenorite at 150 deg. C itself. Reductive decomposition yields a composite of Cu{sub 2}O and Al(OH){sub 3}, which on alkali-leaching of the latter, leads to the formation of fine particles of Cu{sub 2}O (<1 {mu}m). - Graphical abstract: SEM image of (a) the Cu{sub 2}O-Al(OH){sub 3} composite obtained on reductive decomposition of CuAl{sub 4}-LDH and (b) Cu{sub 2}O obtained on leaching of Al(OH){sub 3} from (a).

  19. Formation Mechanisms of Alloying Element Nitrides in Recrystallized and Deformed Ferritic Fe-Cr-Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhlaghi, Maryam; Meka, Sai Ramudu; Jägle, Eric A.; Kurz, Silke J. B.; Bischoff, Ewald; Mittemeijer, Eric J.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of the initial microstructure (recrystallized or cold-rolled) on the nitride precipitation process upon gaseous nitriding of ternary Fe-4.3 at. pct Cr-8.1 at. pct Al alloy was investigated at 723 K (450 °C) employing X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atom probe tomography (APT), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). In recrystallized Fe-Cr-Al specimens, one type of nitride develops: ternary, cubic, NaCl-type mixed Cr1- x Al x N. In cold-rolled Fe-Cr-Al specimens, precipitation of two types of nitrides occurs: ternary, cubic, NaCl-type mixed Cr1- x Al x N and binary, cubic, NaCl-type AlN. By theoretical analysis, it was shown that for the recrystallized specimens an energy barrier for the nucleation of mixed Cr1- x Al x N exists, whereas in the cold-rolled specimens no such energy barriers for the development of mixed Cr1- x Al x N and of binary, cubic AlN occur. The additional development of the cubic AlN in the cold-rolled microstructure could be ascribed to the preferred heterogeneous nucleation of cubic AlN on dislocations. The nitrogen concentration-depth profile of the cold-rolled specimen shows a stepped nature upon prolonged nitriding as a consequence of instantaneous nucleation of nitride upon arrival of nitrogen and nitride growth rate-limited by nitrogen transport through the thickening nitrided zone.

  20. Cu-Al-Ni-SMA-Based High-Damping Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Gabriel A.; Barrado, Mariano; San Juan, Jose; Nó, María Luisa

    2009-08-01

    Recently, absorption of vibration energy by mechanical damping has attracted much attention in several fields such as vibration reduction in aircraft and automotive industries, nanoscale vibration isolations in high-precision electronics, building protection in civil engineering, etc. Typically, the most used high-damping materials are based on polymers due to their viscoelastic behavior. However, polymeric materials usually show a low elastic modulus and are not stable at relatively low temperatures (≈323 K). Therefore, alternative materials for damping applications are needed. In particular, shape memory alloys (SMAs), which intrinsically present high-damping capacity thanks to the dissipative hysteretic movement of interfaces under external stresses, are very good candidates for high-damping applications. A completely new approach was applied to produce high-damping composites with relatively high stiffness. Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy powders were embedded with metallic matrices of pure In, a In-10wt.%Sn alloy and In-Sn eutectic alloy. The production methodology is described. The composite microstructures and damping properties were characterized. A good particle distribution of the Cu-Al-Ni particles in the matrices was observed. The composites exhibit very high damping capacities in relatively wide temperature ranges. The methodology introduced provides versatility to control the temperature of maximum damping by adjusting the shape memory alloy composition.

  1. Antiferromagnetic half metallicity in codoped chalcopyrite semiconductors Cu(Al 1 - 2 xAxBx)Se2 (A and B are 3d transition-metal atoms)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahjahan, M.; Oguchi, T.

    2016-06-01

    Electronic structures and magnetic properties of group I-III-VI2 chalcopyrite-type compounds Cu(Al 1 - 2 xAxBx)Se2 are calculated using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green's function method, where A (Ti, V, Cr, Mn) and B (Fe, Co, Ni) are 3d transition metal atoms, and x is atomic concentration. We found that codoping of Cr-Co and V-Ni pairs at Al site of host CuAlSe2 exhibit antiferromagnetic (AF) half metallicity with low Curie temperature (TC). The AF half metallic property is supported by nullified net magnetic moment and compensated density of states in the minority spin direction. On the other hand, codoping of Cr-Ni, Mn-Co, V-Co, and Ti-Co pairs at Al site of host CuAlSe2 manifest ferrimagnetic half metallicity with a small net magnetization and keeping antiparallel local spin moments. In Mn-Co case TC is close to room temperature. Besides, Cr-Fe, V-Fe, and Ti-Ni codoping cases lead to an instable magnetic ordering and therefore obtain a disordered local moment (spin-glass like) state.

  2. Process for producing Ti-Cr-Al-O thin film resistors

    DOEpatents

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Schmid, Anthony P.

    2001-01-01

    Thin films of Ti-Cr-Al-O are used as a resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O.sub.2. Resistivity values from 10.sup.4 to 10.sup.10 Ohm-cm have been measured for Ti-Cr-Al-O film <1 .mu.m thick. The film resistivity can be discretely selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The application of Ti-Cr-Al-O as a thin film resistor has been found to be thermodynamically stable, unlike other metal-oxide films. The Ti-Cr-Al-O film can be used as a vertical or lateral resistor, for example, as a layer beneath a field emission cathode in a flat panel display; or used to control surface emissivity, for example, as a coating on an insulating material such as vertical wall supports in flat panel displays.

  3. Flat panel display using Ti-Cr-Al-O thin film

    DOEpatents

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Schmid, Anthony P.

    2002-01-01

    Thin films of Ti--Cr--Al--O are used as a resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O.sub.2. Resistivity values from 10.sup.4 to 10.sup.10 Ohm-cm have been measured for Ti--Cr--Al--O film <1 .mu.m thick. The film resistivity can be discretely selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The application of Ti--Cr--Al--O as a thin film resistor has been found to be thermodynamically stable, unlike other metal-oxide films. The Ti--Cr--Al--O film can be used as a vertical or lateral resistor, for example, as a layer beneath a field emission cathode in a flat panel display; or used to control surface emissivity, for example, as a coating on an insulating material such as vertical wall supports in flat panel displays.

  4. Al-Cu-Li and Al-Mg-Li alloys: Phase composition, texture, and anisotropy of mechanical properties (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betsofen, S. Ya.; Antipov, V. V.; Knyazev, M. I.

    2016-04-01

    The results of studying the phase transformations, the texture formation, and the anisotropy of the mechanical properties in Al-Cu-Li and Al-Mg-Li alloys are generalized. A technique and equations are developed to calculate the amounts of the S1 (Al2MgLi), T1 (Al2CuLi), and δ' (Al3Li) phases. The fraction of the δ' phase in Al-Cu-Li alloys is shown to be significantly higher than in Al-Mg-Li alloys. Therefore, the role of the T1 phase in the hardening of Al-Cu-Li alloys is thought to be overestimated, especially in alloys with more than 1.5% Li. A new model is proposed to describe the hardening of Al-Cu-Li alloys upon aging, and the results obtained with this model agree well with the experimental data. A texture, which is analogous to that in aluminum alloys, is shown to form in sheets semiproducts made of Al-Cu-Li and Al-Mg-Li alloys. The more pronounced anisotropy of the properties of lithium-containing aluminum alloys is caused by a significant fraction of the ordered coherent δ' phase, the deformation mechanism in which differs radically from that in the solid solution.

  5. Discovery of New Al-Cu-Fe Minerals in the Khatyrka CV3 Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C.; Lin, C.; Bindi, L.; Steinhardt, P. J.

    2016-08-01

    Our nanomineralogy investigation of Khatyrka has revealed two new alloy minerals (AlCu with a Pm-3m CsCl structure and Al3Fe with a C2/m structure) and associated icosahedrite (quasicrystal Al63Cu26Fe11 with a five-fold symmetry) in section 126A of USNM 7908.

  6. Fabrication and electrical properties of p-CuAlO2/(n-, p-)Si heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzhen, Wu; Zanhong, Deng; Weiwei, Dong; Jingzhen, Shao; Xiaodong, Fang

    2014-04-01

    CuAlO2 thin films have been prepared by the chemical solution deposition method on both n-Si and p-Si substrates. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the obtained CuAlO2 films have a single delafossite structure. The current transport properties of the resultant p-CuAlO2/n-Si and p-CuAlO2/p-Si heterojunctions are investigated by current-voltage measurements. The p-CuAlO2/n-Si has a rectifying ratio of ~35 within the applied voltages of -3.0 to +3.0 V, while the p-CuAlO2/p-Si shows Schottky diode-like characteristics, dominated in forward bias by the flow of space-charge-limited current.

  7. Characterization of Al/CuO nanoenergetic multilayer films integrated with semiconductor bridge for initiator applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Peng; Shen, Ruiqi; Ye, Yinghua; Fu, Shuai; Li, Dongle

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the ignition characteristics of Al/CuO nanoenergetic multilayer films (nEMFs) integrated with semiconductor bridge (SCB). The as-deposited Al/CuO nEMFs were identified with SEM and differential scanning calorimetry. Results show that distinct Al/CuO nEMFs are sputter deposited in a layered geometry, and the Al/CuO nEMFs gives a reaction heat equal to 2181 J/g. The firing experiments show that Al/CuO nEMFs have no influence on the electrical properties of SCB. Furthermore, the rapid combustion of Al/CuO nEMFs is able to assist SCB generating high-temperature plasma and products, such that enhance the ignition reliability.

  8. Electronic Structure and Characteristics of Chemical Bonds in CuInSe2, CuGaSe2, and CuAlSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Tsuyoshi; Wada, Takahiro

    2010-04-01

    Electronic structural calculations of chalcopyrite-type CuInSe2 and its related compounds, CuGaSe2 and CuAlSe2, were performed by a recently proposed screened-exchange local density approximation (sX-LDA) method. The theoretical band gaps of CuInSe2, CuGaSe2, and CuAlSe2, obtained by the conventional calculation method using a generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functional, were 0.04, 0.14, and 1.11 eV, respectively. These values were considerably underestimated in comparison with their experimental values of 1.04, 1.68, and 2.67 eV because the exchange-correlation energy was not precisely calculated. Therefore, electronic structural calculations of chalcopyrite-type CuInSe2 and related compounds were performed with an sX-LDA functional to obtain accurate electronic structure. The present sX-LDA calculation successfully reproduced the band gaps of CuInSe2 (0.96 eV), CuGaSe2 (1.36 eV), and CuAlSe2 (2.22 eV). The obtained electronic structures and band gap energies of CuInSe2, CuGaSe2, and CuAlSe2 are discussed on the basis of schematic molecular orbital diagrams of tetrahedral CuSe47-, InSe45-, GaSe45-, and AlSe45- clusters.

  9. Preliminary assessment of metal-porcelain bonding strength of CoCrW alloy after 3wt.% Cu addition.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanjin; Zhao, Chaoqian; Ren, Ling; Guo, Sai; Gan, Yiliang; Yang, Chunguang; Wu, Songquan; Lin, Junjie; Huang, Tingting; Yang, Ke; Lin, Jinxin

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a novel Cu-bearing CoCrW alloy fabricated by selective laser melting for dental application has been studied. For its successful application, the bonding strength of metal-porcelain is essential to be systematically investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the metal-porcelain bonding strength of CoCrWCu alloy by three-point bending test, meanwhile the Ni-free CoCrW alloy was used as control. The oxygen content was investigated by an elemental analyzer; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the surface chemical composition of CoCrW based alloy after preoxidation treatment; the fracture mode was investigated by X-ray energy spectrum analysis (EDS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Result from the oxygen content analysis showed that the content of oxygen dramatically increased after the Cu addition. And the XPS suggested that Co-oxidation, Cr2O3, CrO2, WO3, Cu2O and CuO existed on the preoxidated surface of the CoCrWCu alloy; the three-point bending test showed that the bonding strength of the CoCrWCu alloy was 43.32 MPa, which was lower than that of the CoCrW group of 47.65 MPa. However, the average metal-porcelain bonding strength is significantly higher than the minimum value in the ISO 9693 standard. Results from the SEM images and EDS indicated that the fracture mode of CoCrWCu-porcelain was mixed between cohesive and adhesive. Based on the results obtained in this study, it can be indicated that the Cu-bearing CoCrW alloy fabricated by the selective laser melting is a promising candidate for use in dental application. PMID:27040193

  10. Hydrogen permeation in FeCrAl alloys for LWR cladding application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xunxiang; Terrani, Kurt A.; Wirth, Brian D.; Snead, Lance L.

    2015-06-01

    FeCrAl, an advanced oxidation-resistant iron-based alloy class, is a highly prevalent candidate as an accident-tolerant fuel cladding material. Compared with traditional zirconium alloy fuel cladding, increased tritium permeation through FeCrAl fuel cladding to the primary coolant is expected, raising potential safety concerns. In this study, the hydrogen permeability of several FeCrAl alloys was obtained using a static permeation test station, which was calibrated and validated using 304 stainless steel. The high hydrogen permeability of FeCrAl alloys leads to concerns with respect to potentially significant tritium release when used for fuel cladding in LWRs. The total tritium inventory inside the primary coolant of a light water reactor was quantified by applying a 1-dimensional steady state tritium diffusion model to demonstrate the dependence of tritium inventory on fuel cladding type. Furthermore, potential mitigation strategies for tritium release from FeCrAl fuel cladding were discussed and indicate the potential for application of an alumina layer on the inner clad surface to serve as a tritium barrier. More effort is required to develop a robust, economical mitigation strategy for tritium permeation in reactors using FeCrAl clad fuel assemblies.

  11. Hydrogen permeation in FeCrAl alloys for LWR cladding application

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xunxiang; Terrani, Kurt A.; Wirth, Brian D.; Snead, Lance L.

    2015-03-19

    FeCrAl is an advanced oxidation-resistant iron-based alloy class, is a highly prevalent candidate as an accident-tolerant fuel cladding material. Compared with traditional zirconium alloy fuel cladding, increased tritium permeation through FeCrAl fuel cladding to the primary coolant is expected, raising potential safety concerns. In our study, the hydrogen permeability of several FeCrAl alloys was obtained using a static permeation test station, which was calibrated and validated using 304 stainless steel. The high hydrogen permeability of FeCrAl alloys leads to concerns with respect to potentially significant tritium release when used for fuel cladding in LWRs. Also, the total tritium inventory inside the primary coolant of a light water reactor was quantified by applying a 1-dimensional steady state tritium diffusion model to demonstrate the dependence of tritium inventory on fuel cladding type. Furthermore, potential mitigation strategies for tritium release from FeCrAl fuel cladding were discussed and indicate the potential for application of an alumina layer on the inner clad surface to serve as a tritium barrier. More effort is required to develop a robust, economical mitigation strategy for tritium permeation in reactors using FeCrAl clad fuel assemblies.

  12. Hydrogen permeation in FeCrAl alloys for LWR cladding application

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Xunxiang; Terrani, Kurt A.; Wirth, Brian D.; Snead, Lance L.

    2015-03-19

    FeCrAl is an advanced oxidation-resistant iron-based alloy class, is a highly prevalent candidate as an accident-tolerant fuel cladding material. Compared with traditional zirconium alloy fuel cladding, increased tritium permeation through FeCrAl fuel cladding to the primary coolant is expected, raising potential safety concerns. In our study, the hydrogen permeability of several FeCrAl alloys was obtained using a static permeation test station, which was calibrated and validated using 304 stainless steel. The high hydrogen permeability of FeCrAl alloys leads to concerns with respect to potentially significant tritium release when used for fuel cladding in LWRs. Also, the total tritium inventory insidemore » the primary coolant of a light water reactor was quantified by applying a 1-dimensional steady state tritium diffusion model to demonstrate the dependence of tritium inventory on fuel cladding type. Furthermore, potential mitigation strategies for tritium release from FeCrAl fuel cladding were discussed and indicate the potential for application of an alumina layer on the inner clad surface to serve as a tritium barrier. More effort is required to develop a robust, economical mitigation strategy for tritium permeation in reactors using FeCrAl clad fuel assemblies.« less

  13. First principles study of CuAlO2 doping with S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Haigen; Zhou, Jian; Lu, Minghui

    2010-07-01

    We study the electronic properties of CuAlO2 doped with S by the first principles calculations and find that the band gap of CuAlO2 is reduced after the doping. At the same time, the effective masses are also reduced and the density of states could cross the Fermi level. These results show that the conductivity of CuAlO2 could be enhanced by doping the impurities of S, which needs to be further studied.

  14. Characteristics of Cu stabilized Nb3Al strands with low Cu ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, A.; Yamada, R.; Barzi, E.; Kobayashi, M.; Lamm, M.; Nakagawa, K.; Sasaki, K.; Takeuchi, T.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A.V.; /NIMC, Tsukuba /Fermilab /Hitachi, Tsuchiura Works /KEK, Tsukuba

    2008-12-01

    Characteristics of recently developed F4-Nb{sub 3}Al strand with low Cu ratio are described. The overall J{sub c} of the Nb{sub 3}Al strand could be easily increased by decreasing of the Cu ratio. Although the quench of a pulse-like voltage generation is usually observed in superconducting unstable conductor, the F4 strand with a low Cu ratio of 0.61 exhibited an ordinary critical transition of gradual voltage generation. The F4 strand does not have magnetic instabilities at 4.2 K because of the tantalum interfilament matrix. The overall J{sub c} of the F4 strand achieved was 80-85% of the RRP strand. In the large mechanical stress above 100 MPa, the overall J{sub c} of the F4 strand might be comparable to that of high J{sub c} RRP-Nb{sub 3}Sn strands. The Rutherford cable with a high packing factor of 86.5% has been fabricated using F4 strands. The small racetrack magnet, SR07, was also fabricated by a 14 m F4 cable. The quench current, I{sub q}, of SR07 were obtained 22.4 kA at 4.5 K and 25.2 kA at 2.2 K. The tantalum matrix Nb{sub 3}Al strands are promising for the application of super-cooled high-field magnets as well as 4.2 K operation magnets.

  15. Electrical conductivity studies on CuBr containing Al2O3 particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubec, P. M.; Wagner, J. B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The conductivity of CuBr was studied and the role of a second phase, Al2O3, dispersed in CuBr was tested. CuBr melts at 493 C and exhibits three phases in the solid state. CuBr is a good ionic conductor with a transport number for copper ions of virtually unity with weighed proportions of the appropriate chemicals used. The CuBr materials were heated above melting point of CuBr, and the samples were sandwiched between copper electrodes. The ac conductivity, was determined at 1 kHz between 25 and 440 C depending on the sample. It was shown that at low temperatures, the conductivity for CuBr (Al2O3) increased by as much as 100, whereas in the beta phase the conductivity of CuBr containing Al2O3 decreased. The electrical conductivity studies are in agreement with earlier data.

  16. Synthesis and optical properties of ZnAl2O4:Cr3+, Tb3+ powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi Loan, Trinh; Thi Thuy, Nguyen; Long, Nguyen Ngoc

    2013-10-01

    ZnAl2O4:Cr3+, Tb3+ powders with different dopant contents have been synthesized by sol-gel method using the following precursors: zinc nitrate (Zn(NO3)2), aluminum nitrate (Al(NO3)3), terbium nitrate (Tb(NO3)3), chrome nitrate (Cr(NO3)3), and citric acid. The effect of the Cr3+, Tb3+ concentration and heat-treating temperature on structural and optical properties of the synthesized samples has been studied. International Workshop on Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology 2012 (IWAMN 2012).

  17. Stability comparison of several icosahedral structure units of Al-Cr alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Da; Wang, Renhui; Ye, Yiying

    1991-02-01

    Total energies for three types of icosahedral structure units of Al-Cr alloys have been calculated based on the embedded-atom method. The results show that the most stable structure unit is the small icosahedron with a Cr atom at its center, and the hypothetical structures based on the Mackay icosahedron and Bergman rhombic triacontahedron possess higher energies compared with those of the face-centered-cubic-solid solutions and the mechanical mixtures of pure Al and Cr crystals. These results are found to be consistent with experiment.

  18. Strengthening mechanism of super-hard nanoscale Cu/Al multilayers with negative enthalpy of mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Q.; Li, S.; Huang, P.; Xu, K. W.; Wang, F.; Lu, T. J.

    2016-09-01

    We present unusual high hardness (up to 7.7 GPa) achieved in Cu/Al multilayers relative to monolithic Cu and Al films (˜2 GPa and ˜1 GPa, respectively). Nanotwins and stacking faults (SFs) were proposed to be the main contributors of hardness enhancement, especially when h < 5 nm. Using molecular dynamics simulations of deposition, we demonstrated that intermixing near Cu/Al interface was paramount in stabilizing the SFs in both Cu and Al layers. Our experimental results indicated that the high strength caused by layer intermixing was in sharp contrast to the general belief that only sharp interface structures could strengthen the multilayers.

  19. Assessing the elastic properties and ductility of Fe-Cr-Al alloys from ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurmi, E.; Wang, G.; Kokko, K.; Vitos, L.

    2016-01-01

    Fe-Al is one of the best corrosion resistant alloys at high temperatures. The flip side of Al addition to Fe is the deterioration of the mechanical properties. This problem can be solved by adding a suitable amount of third alloying component. In the present work, we use ab initio calculations based on density functional theory to study the elastic properties of Fe?Cr?Al? alloys for Al and Cr contents up to 20 at.%. We assess the ductility as a function of chemistry by making use of the semi-empirical correlations between the elastic parameters and mechanical properties. In particular, we derive the bulk modulus to shear modulus ratio and the Cauchy pressure and monitor their trends in terms of chemical composition. The present findings are contrasted with the previously established oxidation resistance of Fe-Cr-Al alloys.

  20. Evaluation of tungsten coatings on CuCrZr and W/Cu FGM under high heat flux and HT-7 limiter plasma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, F. L.; Chen, J. L.; Li, J. G.

    2007-06-01

    VPS-W coatings on CuCrZr with W/Cu interlayer and powder metallurgic W/Cu functionally graded material (FGM) were tested under high heat flux with active cooling and plasma irradiation in the HT-7 device. Results showed that after 10 MW/m2 thermal shock experiment, exfoliation and crack appeared, however, the interface was not damaged except a few pores. VPS-W can withstand 150 cycles for 100s pulses under 6 MW/m2. After plasma irradiation, tungsten carbide and tungsten oxide were observed by XPS analysis. Bubbles were observed on the surface of W/Cu FGM. These indicated that VPS-W coatings on CuCrZr with W/Cu interlayer have good thermal performance, and W/Cu interlayer was a better alternative compliant layer which can realize reliable W/CuCrZr joint, and the pore microstructure of VPS-W coating is helpful to inhibit the bubble formation.

  1. Photoelectric phenomena in the Cu (Al, In)/p-CuIn{sub 3}Se{sub 5} Schottky barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Bodnar', I. V. Rud, V. Yu. Rud', Yu. V.

    2007-01-15

    Structures are formed on the p-CuIn{sub 3}Se{sub 5} crystals and photoelectric phenomena in the Cu/p-CuIn{sub 3}Se{sub 5}, Al/p-CuIn{sub 3}Se{sub 5}, and In/p-CuIn{sub 3}Se{sub 5} Schottky barriers are studied. The spectra of quantum efficiency for photoconversion in new structures were obtained for the first time. The characteristics of the interband transitions are discussed, and the CuIn{sub 3}Se{sub 5} band gap is determined. It is concluded that CuIn{sub 3}Se{sub 5} crystals can be used in the fabrication of high-efficiency broadband photoconverters of optical radiation.

  2. Influence of Al/CuO reactive multilayer films additives on exploding foil initiator

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Xiang; Shen Ruiqi; Ye Yinghua; Zhu Peng; Hu Yan; Wu Lizhi

    2011-11-01

    An investigation on the influence of Al/CuO reactive multilayer films (RMFs) additives on exploding foil initiator was performed in this paper. Cu film and Cu/Al/CuO RMFs were produced by using standard microsystem technology and RF magnetron sputtering technology, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy characterization revealed the distinct layer structure of the as-deposited Al/CuO RMFs. Differential scanning calorimetry was employed to ascertain the amount of heat released in the thermite reaction between Al films and CuO films, which was found to be 2024 J/g. Electrical explosion tests showed that 600 V was the most matching voltage for our set of apparatus. The explosion process of two types of films was observed by high speed camera and revealed that compared with Cu film, an extra distinct combustion phenomenon was detected with large numbers of product particles fiercely ejected to a distance of about six millimeters for Cu/Al/CuO RMFs. By using the atomic emission spectroscopy double line technique, the reaction temperature was determined to be about 6000-7000 K and 8000-9000 K for Cu film and Cu/Al/CuO RMFs, respectively. The piezoelectricity of polyvinylidene fluoride film was employed to measure the average velocity of the slapper accelerated by the explosion of the films. The average velocities of the slappers were calculated to be 381 m/s and 326 m/s for Cu film and Cu/Al/CuO RMFs, respectively, and some probable reasons were discussed with a few suggestions put forward for further work.

  3. Concentric nano rings observed on Al-Cu-Fe microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunfei; Wang, Limin; Hampikian, Helen; Bair, Matthew; Baker, Andrew; Hua, Mingjian; Wang, Qiongshu; Li, Dingqiang

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that when particle size is reduced, surface effect becomes important. As a result, micro/nanoparticles tend to have well defined geometric shapes to reduce total surface energy, as opposed to the irregular shapes observed in most bulk materials. The surface of such micro/nanostructures are smooth. Any deviation from a smooth surface implies an increased surface energy which is not energetically favorable. Here, we report an observation of spherical particles in an alloy of Al65Cu20Fe15 nominal composition prepared by arc melting. Such spherical particles stand out from those reported so far due to the decoration of concentric nanorings on the surface. Three models for the formation of these concentric ring patterns are suggested. The most prominent ones assume that the rings are frozen features of liquid motion which could open the door to investigate the kinetics of liquid motion on the micro/nanometer scale.

  4. Microstructure Evolution in Al-Cu-Fe Quasicrystalline Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widjaja, Edy; Marks, Laurence

    2003-03-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was performed to study the microstructure evolution in Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystalline thin films. Thin films were grown by magnetron sputtering on sodium chloride crystals which were subsequently dissolved in water to acquire free-standing films. Nanocrystalline films were found in the as-deposited sample. When annealed at 400oC the films changed to metastable crystalline phases that transformed into icosahedral phases upon further annealing at 500oC. TEM imaging combined with electron diffraction revealed various features associated with the phase evolution in the crystalline-quasicrystalline phase transformation. Some grains in the film functioned as sacrificial grains allowing others to grow into icosahedral phases. Elements near the boundary of the sacrificial grains diffused to form the icosahedral phases, resulting in fragments in the center of the grain. The oxide layer of the film was amorphous aluminum oxide that exhibited poor adhesion to the quasicrystalline films.

  5. Refractive index of the CuAlO2 delafossite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicer-Porres, J.; Segura, A.; Kim, D.

    2009-01-01

    The refractive index of the CuAlO2 delafossite has been determined from interference measurements in single crystals performed in the visible, near and mid infrared regions of the spectrum. The analysis of the refractive index dispersion corresponding to light polarization perpendicular to the c-axis (P ⊥ c) yields a static dielectric constant of epsilon0 = 7.7 ± 0.8 and a low frequency electronic constant epsilon∞ = 5.1 ± 0.1. The relevant infrared active E^{\\uparrow}_u(\\rm TO) mode is found to be at 550 ± 25 cm-1. The electronic contribution can be well described by a Penn gap at 39 000 ± 1000 cm-1. Both the refractive index and its dispersion are found to be smaller for P||c than for P ⊥ c.

  6. Decrease and increase profile of Cu, Cr and Pb during stable phase of removal by duckweed (Lemna minor L.).

    PubMed

    Uçüncü, Esra; Tunca, Evren; Fikirdeşici, Seyda; Altindağ, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The present work details the decrease-increase profiles of Cu, Cr, and Pb by the aquatic plant Lemna minor. A mixture of these metals were utilized at different concentrations. Removal profiles of each metal was determined with water samples taken every 24 h for a 144 h period after the 48 h mark and was examined with correlation analysis. Removal profiles of Cr and Pb by L. minor from the mixture were observed to be highly similar with each other (r = 0.943). High proportion of Cr and Pb were removed compared to Cu and removal equations were defined with the aid of regression analysis.

  7. Temperature effect on ideal shear strength of Al and Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskandarov, Albert M.; Dmitriev, Sergey V.; Umeno, Yoshitaka

    2011-12-01

    According to Frenkel’s estimation, at critical shear stress τc=G/2π, where G is the shear modulus, plastic deformation or fracture is initiated even in defect-free materials. In the past few decades it was realized that, if material strength is probed at the nanometer scale, it can be close to the theoretical limit, τc. The weakening effect of the free surface and other factors has been discussed in the literature, but the effect of temperature on the ideal strength of metals has not been addressed thus far. In the present study, we perform molecular dynamics simulations to estimate the temperature effect on the ideal shear strength of two fcc metals, Al and Cu. Shear parallel to the close-packed (111) plane along the [112¯] direction is studied at temperatures up to 800 K using embedded atom method potentials. At room temperature, the ideal shear strength of Al (Cu) is reduced by 25% (22%) compared to its value at 0 K. For both metals, the shear modulus, G, and the critical shear stress at which the stacking fault is formed, τc, decrease almost linearly with increasing temperature. The ratio G/τc linearly increases with increasing temperature, meaning that τc decreases with temperature faster than G. Critical shear strain, γc, also decreases with temperature, but in a nonlinear fashion. The combination of parameters, Gγc/τc, introduced by Ogata as a generalization of Frenkel’s formula, was found to be almost independent of temperature. We also discuss the simulation cell size effect and compare our results with the results of abinitio calculations and experimental data.

  8. Microstructural refinement and strengthening of Cu-4 Cr-2 Nb alloy by mechanical milling

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.R.; Groza, J.R.; Ulmer, D.G.

    1997-07-15

    Lately, a variety of dispersion strengthened (DS) copper alloys that provide a good combination of thermal/electrical conductivity and mechanical strength have been developed. Strengthening is usually achieved by the introduction of a ceramic, refractory metal or intermetallic secondary phase. Cu-Cr-Nb is one such DS alloy in which strengthening is provided by Cr{sub 2}Nb intermetallic particles. Mechanical milling of as-atomized Cu-4 Cr-2 Nb alloy powders substantially increases the mechanical strength (hardness) of the starting material. This is achieved through a drastic grain size, as well as large precipitate size refinement. A more uniform precipitate distribution is also attained. Whether milling is performed with steel or WC vial and balls the hardness saturates at approximately 100 HRB after about 4 hr milling. However, this benefit of MM was offset by an equally severe decrease in electrical conductivity. This decrease is attributed to impurities/contamination from the milling media introduced into the milled powder, primarily, Fe and C, or, WC and Co.

  9. LPE growth of AlN from Cu-Al-Ti solution under nitrogen atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamei, K.; Inoue, S.; Shirai, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Okada, N.; Yauchi, A.

    2006-05-01

    Synthesis of single crystalline AlN has long been the subjects of intensive studies since it has exceptional properties suitable for the substrate materials for optoelectronic and electronic devices. The solution growth technique has some advantages over the sublimation growth technique. Its growth temperature is generally much lower than that of the sublimation growth. The obtained crystal is believed to show superior crystallinity since it is grown under nearly equilibrium condition. In the present study we have developed a new solution growth technique using Cu and Ti as solvents under atmospheric pressure of nitrogen. By using this solution, we have grown AlN single crystalline layer on 6H-SiC substrate at relatively low growth temperatures such as 1600-1800 °C. The thickness of the grown layer was larger than 30 μm. TEM observation revealed the fairly low dislocation density such as 105/cm2 in the obtained AlN layers.

  10. Manufacturing and High Heat Flux Testing of Brazed Flat-Type W/CuCrZr Plasma Facing Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Youyun; Liu, Xiang; Feng, Fan; Chen, Lei; Cheng, Zhengkui; Wang, Jin; Chen, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Water-cooled flat-type W/CuCrZr plasma facing components with an interlayer of oxygen-free copper (OFC) have been developed by using vacuum brazing route. The OFC layer for the accommodation of thermal stresses was cast onto the surface of W at a temperature range of 1150 °C-1200 °C in a vacuum furnace. The W/OFC cast tiles were vacuum brazed to a CuCrZr heat sink at 940 °C using the silver-free filler material CuMnSiCr. The microstructure, bonding strength, and high heat flux properties of the brazed W/CuCrZr joint samples were investigated. The W/Cu joint exhibits an average tensile strength of 134 MPa, which is about the same strength as pure annealed copper. High heat flux tests were performed in the electron beam facility EMS-60. Experimental results indicated that the brazed W/CuCrZr mock-up experienced screening tests of up to 15 MW/m2 and cyclic tests of 9 MW/m2 for 1000 cycles without visible damage. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11205049) and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2011GB110004)

  11. Band structure, Fermi surface, elastic, thermodynamic, and optical properties of AlZr 3 , AlCu 3 , and AlCu 2 Zr: First-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvin, R.; Parvin, F.; Ali, M. S.; Islam, A. K. M. A.

    2016-08-01

    The electronic properties (Fermi surface, band structure, and density of states (DOS)) of Al-based alloys AlM 3 (M = Zr and Cu) and AlCu2Zr are investigated using the first-principles pseudopotential plane wave method within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The structural parameters and elastic constants are evaluated and compared with other available data. Also, the pressure dependences of mechanical properties of the compounds are studied. The temperature dependence of adiabatic bulk modulus, Debye temperature, specific heat, thermal expansion coefficient, entropy, and internal energy are all obtained for the first time through quasi-harmonic Debye model with phononic effects for T = 0 K-100 K. The parameters of optical properties (dielectric functions, refractive index, extinction coefficient, absorption spectrum, conductivity, energy-loss spectrum, and reflectivity) of the compounds are calculated and discussed for the first time. The reflectivities of the materials are quite high in the IR-visible-UV region up to ˜ 15 eV, showing that they promise to be good coating materials to avoid solar heating. Some of the properties are also compared with those of the Al-based Ni3Al compound.

  12. Band structure, Fermi surface, elastic, thermodynamic, and optical properties of AlZr 3 , AlCu 3 , and AlCu 2 Zr: First-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvin, R.; Parvin, F.; Ali, M. S.; Islam, A. K. M. A.

    2016-08-01

    The electronic properties (Fermi surface, band structure, and density of states (DOS)) of Al-based alloys AlM 3 (M = Zr and Cu) and AlCu2Zr are investigated using the first-principles pseudopotential plane wave method within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The structural parameters and elastic constants are evaluated and compared with other available data. Also, the pressure dependences of mechanical properties of the compounds are studied. The temperature dependence of adiabatic bulk modulus, Debye temperature, specific heat, thermal expansion coefficient, entropy, and internal energy are all obtained for the first time through quasi-harmonic Debye model with phononic effects for T = 0 K–100 K. The parameters of optical properties (dielectric functions, refractive index, extinction coefficient, absorption spectrum, conductivity, energy-loss spectrum, and reflectivity) of the compounds are calculated and discussed for the first time. The reflectivities of the materials are quite high in the IR–visible–UV region up to ∼ 15 eV, showing that they promise to be good coating materials to avoid solar heating. Some of the properties are also compared with those of the Al-based Ni3Al compound.

  13. Thermal stability and thermo-mechanical properties of magnetron sputtered Cr-Al-Y-N coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Rovere, Florian; Mayrhofer, Paul H.

    2008-01-15

    Cr{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N coatings are promising candidates for advanced machining and high temperature applications due to their good mechanical and thermal properties. Recently the authors have shown that reactive magnetron sputtering using Cr-Al targets with Al/Cr ratios of 1.5 and Y contents of 0, 2, 4, and 8 at % results in the formation of stoichiometric (Cr{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}){sub 1-y}Y{sub y}N films with Al/Cr ratios of {approx}1.2 and YN mole fractions of 0%, 2%, 4%, and 8%, respectively. Here, the impact of Y on thermal stability, structural evolution, and thermo-mechanical properties is investigated in detail. Based on in situ stress measurements, thermal analyzing, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy studies the authors conclude that Y effectively retards diffusional processes such as recovery, precipitation of hcp-AlN and fcc-YN, grain growth, and decomposition induced N{sub 2} release. Hence, the onset temperature of the latter shifts from {approx}1010 to 1125 deg. C and the hardness after annealing at T{sub a}=1100 deg. C increases from {approx}32 to 39 GPa with increasing YN mole fraction from 0% to 8%, respectively.

  14. Preliminary Study on Fatigue Strengths of Fretted Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Lerch, Bradley A.; Draper, Susan L.

    2002-01-01

    The fatigue behavior (stress-life curve) of gamma titanium aluminide (Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb, atomic percent) was examined by conducting two tests: first, a fretting wear test with a fatigue specimen in contact with a typical nickel-based superalloy contact pad in air at temperatures of 296 and 823 K and second, a high-cycle fatigue test of the prefretted Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb fatigue specimen at 923 K. Reference high-cycle fatigue tests were also conducted with unfretted Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb specimens at 923 K. All Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb fatigue specimens were machined from cast slabs. The results indicate that the stress-life results for the fretted Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb specimens exhibited a behavior similar to those of the unfretted Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb specimens. The values of maximum stress and life for the fretted specimens were almost the same as those for the unfretted specimens. The resultant stress-life curve for the unfretted fatigue specimens was very flat. The flat appearance in the stress-life curve of the unfretted specimens is attributed to the presence of a high density of casting pores. The fatigue strengths of both the fretted and unfretted specimens can be significantly affected by the presence of this porosity, which can decrease the fatigue life of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb. The presence of the porosity made discerning the effect of fretting damage on fatigue strength and life of the specimens difficult.

  15. Mechanical properties of Al-Cu alloy-SiC composites

    SciTech Connect

    Anggara, B. S.; Handoko, E.; Soegijono, B.

    2014-09-25

    The synthesis of aluminum (Al) alloys, Al-Cu, from mixture 96.2 % Al and 3.8 % Cu has been prepared by melting process at a temperature of 1200°C. The adding 12.5 wt% up to 20 wt% of SiC on Al-Cu alloys samples has been investigated. The structure analyses were examined by X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Moreover, the morphology of Al-Cu alloys has been seen as structure in micrometer range. The hardness was measured by hardness Vickers method. According to the results, it can be assumed that the 15 wt% of SiC content is prefer content to get better quality of back to back hardness Vickers of Al-Cu alloys.

  16. Optoelectronic properties of novel amorphous CuAlO2/ZnO NWs based heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Ian Y. Y.

    2013-08-01

    Amorphous p-type CuAlO2 thin films were grown onto n-type crystalline ZnO NWs forming a heterojunction through the combination of sol-gel process and hydrothermal growth method. The effects of temperature on structure and optoelectronic properties of CuAlO2 thin films were investigated through various measurement techniques. It was found that the derived CuAlO2 is Al-rich with thin film. UV-Vis measurements showed that the deposited CuAlO2 films are semi-transparent with maximum transmittance ∼82% at 500 nm. Electrical characterization and integration into pn junction confirms that the amorphous CuAlO2 is p-type and exhibited photovoltaic behavior.

  17. Feasibility of constructed wetland planted with Leersia hexandra Swartz for removing Cr, Cu and Ni from electroplating wastewater.

    PubMed

    You, Shao-Hong; Zhang, Xue-Hong; Liu, Jie; Zhu, Yi-Nian; Gu, Chen

    2014-01-01

    As a low-cost treatment technology for effluent, the constructed wetlands can be applied to remove the heavy metals from wastewater. Leersia hexandra Swartz is a metal-accumulating hygrophyte with great potential to remove heavy metal from water. In this study, two pilot-scale constructed wetlands planted with L. hexandra (CWL) were set up in greenhouse to treat electroplating wastewater containing Cr, Cu and Ni. The treatment performance of CWL under different hydraulic loading rates (HLR) and initial metal concentrations were also evaluated. The results showed that CWL significantly reduced the concentrations of Cr, Cu and Ni in wastewater by 84.4%, 97.1% and 94.3%, respectively. High HLR decreased the removal efficiencies of Cr, Cu and Ni; however, the heavy metal concentrations in effluent met Emission Standard of Pollutants for Electroplating in China (ESPE) at HLR less than 0.3 m3/m2 d. For the influent of 5 mg/L Cr, 10 mg/L Cu and 8 mg/L Ni, effluent concentrations were below maximum allowable concentrations in ESPE, indicating that the removal of Cr, Cu and Ni by CWL was feasible at considerably high influent metal concentrations. Mass balance showed that the primary sink for the retention of contaminants within the constructed wetland system was the sediment, which accounted for 59.5%, 83.5%, and 73.9% of the Cr, Cu and Ni, respectively. The data from the pilot wetlands support the view that CWL could be used to successfully remove Cr, Cu and Ni from electroplating wastewater.

  18. Effect of the ITER FW Manufacturing Process on the Microstructure and Properties of a CuCrZr Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Danhua; Wang, Pinghuai; Song, Yi; Li, Qian; Chen, Jiming

    2015-10-01

    The first wall (FW) is one of the core components in ITER. As the heat sink material, the CuCrZr alloy shall be properly jointed with beryllium and stainless steel. At present, the grains of CuCrZr are prone to coarsen seriously in the thermal cycle process of FW manufacturing, which has become a critical issue for ITER parties. To investigate the mirostructure and mechanical properties of the optimized CuCrZr alloy in the first wall fabricating thermal cycle, simulative experiments have been done in this study. The alloy ingot was forged and hot rolled into plates, and then solid solution annealed, cold rolled and aged for strengthening. Several heat treatments were done to the CuCrZr samples, and the changes of microstructure, micro-hardness and tensile strength were investigated. The results indicated that the original elongated grains had changed into equiaxed ones, and the vickers hardness had declined to about 60 after experiencing the process of CuCrZr/316L(N) bi-metallic plate manufacturing, either by hot isostatic pressing at a higher temperature or by explosion welding followed by solution annealing. Joining Be/CuCrZr by hot isostatic pressing acts as an aging process for CuCrZr, so after the simulated heat treatment, the hardness of the alloy increased to about 110 HV and the tensile yield strength at 250°C rose to about 170 MPa. Meanwhile, the average grain size was controlled below 200 μm. supported by the International Nuclear Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Specific Program of China (No. 2014GB126000)

  19. Oxidation Resistant Ti-Al-Fe Diffusion Barrier for FeCrAlY Coatings on Titanium Aluminides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Michael P. (Inventor); Smialke, James L. (Inventor); Brindley, William J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A diffusion barrier to help protect titanium aluminide alloys, including the coated alloys of the TiAl gamma + Ti3Al (alpha2) class, from oxidative attack and interstitial embrittlement at temperatures up to at least 1000 C is disclosed. The coating may comprise FeCrAlX alloys. The diffusion barrier comprises titanium, aluminum, and iron in the following approximate atomic percent: Ti-(50-55)Al-(9-20)Fe. This alloy is also suitable as an oxidative or structural coating for such substrates.

  20. Chemical trend of superconducting transition temperature in hole-doped delafossite of CuAlO2, AgAlO2 and AuAlO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Akitaka; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2012-12-01

    We have performed the first-principles calculations about the superconducting transition temperature Tc of hole-doped delafossite CuAlO2, AgAlO2 and AuAlO2. Calculated Tc are about 50 K (CuAlO2), 40 K (AgAlO2) and 3 K(AuAlO2) at maximum in the optimum hole-doping concentration. The low Tc of AuAlO2 is attributed to the weak electron-phonon interaction caused by the low covalency and heavy atomic mass.

  1. Ultrasonic spray-pyrolyzed CuCrO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Alarcón, R. I.; Oropeza-Rosario, G.; Gutierrez-Villalobos, A.; Muro-López, M. A.; Martínez-Martínez, R.; Zaleta-Alejandre, E.; Falcony, C.; Alarcón-Flores, G.; Fragoso, R.; Hernández-Silva, O.; Perez-Cappe, E.; Mosqueda Laffita, Yodalgis; Aguilar-Frutis, M.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper the optical, structural and electrical properties of CuCrO2 thin films deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis at temperatures from 400 to 600 °C in steps of 50 °C are presented. Copper and chromium acetylacetonates were chosen as sources of Cu and Cr, respectively, and N,N-dimethylformamide was used as the solvent. X-ray results confirmed that the films as deposited showed the CuCrO2 phase without any post-deposition thermal annealing. The surface morphology was observed to be mirror like, and as the films were deposited at different temperatures, they gradually revealed the presence of small crystallites. The best film’s optical percentage transmission (in the visible region), about 58%, was obtained in films deposited at 450 °C, and the highest band gap energy (3.17 eV) was measured in films deposited at 400 °C. The electrical properties of the films were obtained by the Hall effect. A hole concentration in the range 1019-1021 cm-3, conductivity as high as 35 S cm-1, and mobility lower than 1 cm2 V-1 s-1 were obtained in the films. p-type conductivity was confirmed using the hot point probe arrangement, and the Seebeck coefficient was estimated. The hole conductivity is thought to be due to excess oxygen in the films. Finally, the minimum energy required to transfer carriers from acceptor level to the valence band in the films was estimated by impedance spectroscopy.

  2. Radiation tolerance of neutron-irradiated model Fe-Cr-Al alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Field, Kevin G.; Hu, Xunxiang; Littrell, Kenneth C.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-07-14

    The Fe Cr Al alloy system has the potential to form an important class of enhanced accident-tolerant cladding materials in the nuclear power industry owing to the alloy system's higher oxidation resistance in high-temperature steam environments compared with traditional zirconium-based alloys. However, radiation tolerance of Fe Cr Al alloys has not been fully established. In this study, a series of Fe Cr Al alloys with 10 18 wt % Cr and 2.9 4.9 wt % Al were neutron irradiated at 382 C to 1.8 dpa to investigate the irradiation-induced microstructural and mechanical property evolution as a function of alloy composition.more » Dislocation loops with Burgers vector of a/2 111 and a 100 were detected and quantified. Results indicate precipitation of Cr-rich is primarily dependent on the bulk chromium composition. Mechanical testing of sub-size-irradiated tensile specimens indicates the hardening response seen after irradiation is dependent on the bulk chromium composition. Furthermore, a structure property relationship was developed; it indicated that the change in yield strength after irradiation is caused by the formation of these radiation-induced defects and is dominated by the large number density of Cr-rich α' precipitates at sufficiently high chromium contents after irradiation.« less

  3. Radiation tolerance of neutron-irradiated model Fe-Cr-Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Hu, Xunxiang; Littrell, Kenneth C.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-07-14

    The Fe Cr Al alloy system has the potential to form an important class of enhanced accident-tolerant cladding materials in the nuclear power industry owing to the alloy system's higher oxidation resistance in high-temperature steam environments compared with traditional zirconium-based alloys. However, radiation tolerance of Fe Cr Al alloys has not been fully established. In this study, a series of Fe Cr Al alloys with 10 18 wt % Cr and 2.9 4.9 wt % Al were neutron irradiated at 382 C to 1.8 dpa to investigate the irradiation-induced microstructural and mechanical property evolution as a function of alloy composition. Dislocation loops with Burgers vector of a/2 111 and a 100 were detected and quantified. Results indicate precipitation of Cr-rich is primarily dependent on the bulk chromium composition. Mechanical testing of sub-size-irradiated tensile specimens indicates the hardening response seen after irradiation is dependent on the bulk chromium composition. Furthermore, a structure property relationship was developed; it indicated that the change in yield strength after irradiation is caused by the formation of these radiation-induced defects and is dominated by the large number density of Cr-rich α' precipitates at sufficiently high chromium contents after irradiation.

  4. Radiation tolerance of neutron-irradiated model Fe-Cr-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Kevin G.; Hu, Xunxiang; Littrell, Kenneth C.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Snead, Lance L.

    2015-10-01

    The Fe-Cr-Al alloy system has the potential to form an important class of enhanced accident-tolerant cladding materials in the nuclear power industry owing to the alloy system's higher oxidation resistance in high-temperature steam environments compared with traditional zirconium-based alloys. However, radiation tolerance of Fe-Cr-Al alloys has not been fully established. In this study, a series of Fe-Cr-Al alloys with 10-18 wt % Cr and 2.9-4.9 wt % Al were neutron irradiated at 382 °C to 1.8 dpa to investigate the irradiation-induced microstructural and mechanical property evolution as a function of alloy composition. Dislocation loops with Burgers vector of a/2<111> and a<100> were detected and quantified. Results indicate precipitation of Cr-rich α‧ is primarily dependent on the bulk chromium composition. Mechanical testing of sub-size-irradiated tensile specimens indicates the hardening response seen after irradiation is dependent on the bulk chromium composition. A structure-property relationship was developed; it indicated that the change in yield strength after irradiation is caused by the formation of these radiation-induced defects and is dominated by the large number density of Cr-rich α‧ precipitates at sufficiently high chromium contents after irradiation.

  5. Refinement and growth enhancement of Al2Cu phase during magnetic field assisting directional solidification of hypereutectic Al-Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiang; Yue, Sheng; Fautrelle, Yves; Lee, Peter D.; Li, Xi; Zhong, Yunbo; Ren, Zhongming

    2016-04-01

    Understanding how the magnetic fields affect the formation of reinforced phase during solidification is crucial to tailor the structure and therefor the performance of metal matrix in situ composites. In this study, a hypereutectic Al-40 wt.%Cu alloy has been directionally solidified under various axial magnetic fields and the morphology of Al2Cu phase was quantified in 3D by means of high resolution synchrotron X-ray tomography. With rising magnetic fields, both increase of Al2Cu phase’s total volume and decrease of each column’s transverse section area were found. These results respectively indicate the growth enhancement and refinement of the primary Al2Cu phase in the magnetic field assisting directional solidification. The thermoelectric magnetic forces (TEMF) causing torque and dislocation multiplication in the faceted primary phases were thought dedicate to respectively the refinement and growth enhancement. To verify this, a real structure based 3D simulation of TEMF in Al2Cu column was carried out, and the dislocations in the Al2Cu phase obtained without and with a 10T high magnetic field were analysed by the transmission electron microscope.

  6. Refinement and growth enhancement of Al2Cu phase during magnetic field assisting directional solidification of hypereutectic Al-Cu alloy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiang; Yue, Sheng; Fautrelle, Yves; Lee, Peter D; Li, Xi; Zhong, Yunbo; Ren, Zhongming

    2016-04-19

    Understanding how the magnetic fields affect the formation of reinforced phase during solidification is crucial to tailor the structure and therefor the performance of metal matrix in situ composites. In this study, a hypereutectic Al-40 wt.%Cu alloy has been directionally solidified under various axial magnetic fields and the morphology of Al2Cu phase was quantified in 3D by means of high resolution synchrotron X-ray tomography. With rising magnetic fields, both increase of Al2Cu phase's total volume and decrease of each column's transverse section area were found. These results respectively indicate the growth enhancement and refinement of the primary Al2Cu phase in the magnetic field assisting directional solidification. The thermoelectric magnetic forces (TEMF) causing torque and dislocation multiplication in the faceted primary phases were thought dedicate to respectively the refinement and growth enhancement. To verify this, a real structure based 3D simulation of TEMF in Al2Cu column was carried out, and the dislocations in the Al2Cu phase obtained without and with a 10T high magnetic field were analysed by the transmission electron microscope.

  7. Refinement and growth enhancement of Al2Cu phase during magnetic field assisting directional solidification of hypereutectic Al-Cu alloy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiang; Yue, Sheng; Fautrelle, Yves; Lee, Peter D; Li, Xi; Zhong, Yunbo; Ren, Zhongming

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how the magnetic fields affect the formation of reinforced phase during solidification is crucial to tailor the structure and therefor the performance of metal matrix in situ composites. In this study, a hypereutectic Al-40 wt.%Cu alloy has been directionally solidified under various axial magnetic fields and the morphology of Al2Cu phase was quantified in 3D by means of high resolution synchrotron X-ray tomography. With rising magnetic fields, both increase of Al2Cu phase's total volume and decrease of each column's transverse section area were found. These results respectively indicate the growth enhancement and refinement of the primary Al2Cu phase in the magnetic field assisting directional solidification. The thermoelectric magnetic forces (TEMF) causing torque and dislocation multiplication in the faceted primary phases were thought dedicate to respectively the refinement and growth enhancement. To verify this, a real structure based 3D simulation of TEMF in Al2Cu column was carried out, and the dislocations in the Al2Cu phase obtained without and with a 10T high magnetic field were analysed by the transmission electron microscope. PMID:27091383

  8. Refinement and growth enhancement of Al2Cu phase during magnetic field assisting directional solidification of hypereutectic Al-Cu alloy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiang; Yue, Sheng; Fautrelle, Yves; Lee, Peter D.; Li, Xi; Zhong, Yunbo; Ren, Zhongming

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how the magnetic fields affect the formation of reinforced phase during solidification is crucial to tailor the structure and therefor the performance of metal matrix in situ composites. In this study, a hypereutectic Al-40 wt.%Cu alloy has been directionally solidified under various axial magnetic fields and the morphology of Al2Cu phase was quantified in 3D by means of high resolution synchrotron X-ray tomography. With rising magnetic fields, both increase of Al2Cu phase’s total volume and decrease of each column’s transverse section area were found. These results respectively indicate the growth enhancement and refinement of the primary Al2Cu phase in the magnetic field assisting directional solidification. The thermoelectric magnetic forces (TEMF) causing torque and dislocation multiplication in the faceted primary phases were thought dedicate to respectively the refinement and growth enhancement. To verify this, a real structure based 3D simulation of TEMF in Al2Cu column was carried out, and the dislocations in the Al2Cu phase obtained without and with a 10T high magnetic field were analysed by the transmission electron microscope. PMID:27091383

  9. Interconnection between microstructure and microhardness of directionally solidified binary Al-6wt.%Cu and multicomponent Al-6wt.%Cu-8wt.%Si alloys.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Angela J; Kikuchi, Rafael H; Barros, André S; Costa, Thiago A; Dias, Marcelino; Moreira, Antonio L; Silva, Adrina P; Rocha, Otávio L

    2016-05-31

    An experimental study has been carried out to evaluate the microstructural and microhardness evolution on the directionally solidified binary Al-Cu and multicomponent Al-Cu-Si alloys and the influence of Si alloying. For this purpose specimens of Al-6wt.%Cu and Al-6wt.%Cu-8wt.%Si alloys were prepared and directionally solidified under transient conditions of heat extraction. A water-cooled horizontal directional solidification device was applied. A comprehensive characterization is performed including experimental dendrite tip growth rates (VL) and cooling rates (TR) by measuring Vickers microhardness (HV), optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with microanalysis performed by energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS). The results show, for both studied alloys, the increasing of TR and VL reduced the primary dendrite arm spacing (l1) increasing the microhardness. Furthermore, the incorporation of Si in Al-6wt.%Cu alloy to form the Al-6wt.%Cu-8wt.%Si alloy influenced significantly the microstructure and consequently the microhardness but did not affect the primary dendritic growth law. An analysis on the formation of the columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) is also performed and the results show that the occurrence of CET is not sharp, i.e., the CET in both cases occurs in a zone rather than in a parallel plane to the chill wall, where both columnar and equiaxed grains are be able to exist.

  10. Interconnection between microstructure and microhardness of directionally solidified binary Al-6wt.%Cu and multicomponent Al-6wt.%Cu-8wt.%Si alloys.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Angela J; Kikuchi, Rafael H; Barros, André S; Costa, Thiago A; Dias, Marcelino; Moreira, Antonio L; Silva, Adrina P; Rocha, Otávio L

    2016-05-31

    An experimental study has been carried out to evaluate the microstructural and microhardness evolution on the directionally solidified binary Al-Cu and multicomponent Al-Cu-Si alloys and the influence of Si alloying. For this purpose specimens of Al-6wt.%Cu and Al-6wt.%Cu-8wt.%Si alloys were prepared and directionally solidified under transient conditions of heat extraction. A water-cooled horizontal directional solidification device was applied. A comprehensive characterization is performed including experimental dendrite tip growth rates (VL) and cooling rates (TR) by measuring Vickers microhardness (HV), optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with microanalysis performed by energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS). The results show, for both studied alloys, the increasing of TR and VL reduced the primary dendrite arm spacing (l1) increasing the microhardness. Furthermore, the incorporation of Si in Al-6wt.%Cu alloy to form the Al-6wt.%Cu-8wt.%Si alloy influenced significantly the microstructure and consequently the microhardness but did not affect the primary dendritic growth law. An analysis on the formation of the columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) is also performed and the results show that the occurrence of CET is not sharp, i.e., the CET in both cases occurs in a zone rather than in a parallel plane to the chill wall, where both columnar and equiaxed grains are be able to exist. PMID:27254454

  11. μSR study on CuCr1-xMgxO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikedo, Yutaka; Sugiyama, Jun; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Mukai, Kazuhiko; Russo, Peter L.; Andreica, Daniel; Amato, Alex; Ono, Yasuhiro; Kajitani, Tsuyoshi

    2009-04-01

    In order to clarify the magnetic nature of a delafossite-type oxide, CuCr1-xMgxO2 ( x=0 and 0.03), we have performed zero field (ZF-) and weak transversal field (wTF-) μ+SR measurements in the temperature range between 1.8 and 50 K using polycrystalline samples. The wTF- μ+SR measurements suggested that both samples undergo a magnetic transition at Tm=26 K, clarifying that Tm is not altered by the Cr substitution with Mg. The ZF- μ+SR measurements indicated the existence of a clear muon-spin precession ( ∼50 MHz at T→0 K) signal for the x=0 sample below Tm, indicating a long-range antiferromagnetic order state, whereas the absence of long-range order for the x=0.03 sample even at 1.8 K.

  12. Structure and superconductivity in Cr-substituted HgBa{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+8}.

    SciTech Connect

    Chmaissem, O.; Jorgensen, J. D.; Hinks, D. G.; Storey, B. G.; Dabrowski, B.; Zhang, H.; Marks, L. D.; Materials Science Divsion - Science Technology Center for Superconductivity; Northwestern Univ.; Northern Illinois Univ.

    1997-05-15

    Chromium-substituted Hg{sub 1-x}Ba{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+{delta}} compounds have been synthesized. Cr can be incorporated into the structure with a solubility limit around x {approx} 0.27. Cr substitutes at the Hg site and is tetrahedrally coordinated to four oxygen atoms. Two of these are apical oxygen atoms that have moved to new positions (O2') and two are in the Hg/Cr plane (O3) at a (x x 0) site. Additional oxygen atoms (O4) in the Hg/Cr plane at (1/2 1/2 0) affect the carrier concentration, as for HgBa{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+{delta}}. In the as-synthesized samples, {Tc} decreases with increasing Cr content. Attempts to adjust the carrier concentration by post annealing in oxygen at low temperature destroy superconductivity because the samples are metastable under ambient conditions.

  13. Effect of pH on corrosion behavior of CuCrZr in solution without and with NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, C. T.; Wong, P. K.; Man, H. C.; Cheng, F. T.

    2009-10-01

    CuCrZr is a high copper alloy widely used as electrical and thermal conducting material, especially in heat exchangers in nuclear reactors. In this respect, the physical and fatigue properties of CuCrZr have been extensively studied. The electrochemical behavior of CuCrZr, on the other hand, has not been adequately investigated. In the present study, the effect of pH on the corrosion behavior of CuCrZr in aqueous solutions without and with chloride (0.6 M NaCl) was studied. The pH of the solutions is found to exert significant influence on the corrosion behavior of CuCrZr. In acidic solutions without chloride, the corrosion of CuCrZr is ascribed to active dissolution with soluble products. In neutral and alkaline solutions without NaCl, the presence of oxides on the surface of CuCrZr leads to a noble shift in corrosion potential and passivation results in increased corrosion resistance. In chloride solutions at various pH values, the chloride ions influence the formation of the surface layers and the anodic dissolution process during polarization. At high pH, CuCrZr shows significant passivity and high corrosion resistance due to the growth of Cu 2O/Cu(OH) film which hinders further dissolution whereas at low pH the corrosion resistance is lowered due to active dissolution of Cu.

  14. Overview spectra and axial distribution of spectral line intensities in a high-current vacuum arc with CuCr electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lisnyak, M.; Pipa, A. V.; Gorchakov, S. E-mail: weltmann@inp-greifswald.de; Iseni, S.; Franke, St.; Khapour, A.; Methling, R.; Weltmann, K.-D. E-mail: weltmann@inp-greifswald.de

    2015-09-28

    Spectroscopic investigations of free-burning vacuum arcs in diffuse mode with CuCr electrodes are presented. The experimental conditions of the investigated arc correspond to the typical system for vacuum circuit breakers. Spectra of six species Cu I, Cu II, Cu III, Cr I, Cr II, and Cr III have been analyzed in the wavelength range 350–810 nm. The axial intensity distributions were found to be strongly dependent on the ionization stage of radiating species. Emission distributions of Cr II and Cu II can be distinguished as well as the distributions of Cr III and Cu III. Information on the axial distribution was used to identify the spectra and for identification of overlapping spectral lines. The overview spectra and some spectral windows recorded with high resolution are presented. Analysis of axial distributions of emitted light, which originates from different ionization states, is presented and discussed.

  15. Effect of magnetic field on thermo emf of Pd + Cr + Os/Cu + Fe thermocouple

    SciTech Connect

    Gololobov, E.M.; Petrashko, V.V.; Semenenko, Yu.A.

    1987-06-01

    The effect of a magnetic field with a strength of up to 46.5 kOe on the thermoemf of a thermocouple of Pd + 0.5 at.% Cr + 0.5 at.% Os/Cu + 0.15 at.% Fe in the temperature range of 4.2-85/sup 0/K is studied. The maximum error of the thermocouple due to the magnetic field for a cold-junction (in same field) temperature of 4.2/sup 0/K is less than or equal to 0.38/sup 0/K over the entire temperature range.

  16. Spin correlated dielectric memory and rejuvenation in multiferroic CuCrS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Karmakar, A.; Dey, K.; Majumdar, S.; Giri, S.; Chatterjee, S.

    2014-02-03

    We report a rare consequence of memory effect in dielectric response (ϵ) and magnetic field induced rejuvenation in a relaxor-type multiferroic chalcogenide, CuCrS{sub 2}. Despite reasonably high conductivity, we are able to detect significant spontaneous polarization using an improvised technique verifying ferroelectric (FE) order. Concomitant appearance of both FE and antiferromagnetic orders authenticates multiferroicity. A smeared out FE transition and strong frequency dependence of the broadened peak in ϵ obeying Dynamical scaling law signify relaxor properties. We discuss the role of geometrical frustration in the antiferromagnetically coupled layered triangular lattice and metal ligand hybridization for these unusual properties.

  17. Morphology of Precipitates in Cu-Cr-Ti Alloys: Spherical or Cubic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianbo; Liu, Yao; Cai, Wei; Wang, Hang

    2016-10-01

    Morphology of precipitates in the Cu-Cr-Ti alloys has been investigated using scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope in the present work. It has been found that there exist precipitates with two different morphology—spherical and cubic. Misfits between matrix and different precipitates have been determined using high resolution transmission electron microscope images. Interfacial energy and elastic strain energy have been calculated quantitatively. Tendency of morphology of precipitates has been explained by comparing the interfacial energy and elastic strain energy.

  18. Nanostructured Cu-Cr alloy with high strength and electrical conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Islamgaliev, R. K. Nesterov, K. M.; Bourgon, J.; Champion, Y.; Valiev, R. Z.

    2014-05-21

    The influence of nanostructuring by high pressure torsion (HPT) on strength and electrical conductivity in the Cu-Cr alloy has been investigated. Microstructure of HPT samples was studied by transmission electron microscopy with special attention on precipitation of small chromium particles after various treatments. Effect of dynamic precipitation leading to enhancement of strength and electrical conductivity was observed. It is shown that nanostructuring leads to combination of high ultimate tensile strength of 790–840 MPa, enhanced electrical conductivity of 81%–85% IACS and thermal stability up to 500 °C. The contributions of grain refinement and precipitation to enhanced properties of nanostructured alloy are discussed.

  19. Pressure-Induced Structural Transition and Enhancement of Energy Gap of CuAlO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Akitaka

    2011-02-01

    By using first-principles calculations, we studied the stable crystal structures and energy gaps of CuAlO2 under high pressure. Our simulation shows that CuAlO2 transforms from a delafossite structure to a leaning delafossite structure. The critical pressure of the transition was determined to be 60 GPa. The energy gap of CuAlO2 increases through the structural transition due to the enhanced covalency of Cu 3d and O 2p states. We found that a chalcopyrite structure does not appear as a stable structure under high pressure.

  20. Infiltration of Saffil alumina fiber with AlCu and AlSi alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Garbellini, O.; Morando, C.; Biloni, H.; Palacio, H. . Inst. de Fisica de Materiales)

    1999-06-18

    Currently there is a considerable scientific and technological interest in the composite materials, which a strong ceramic reinforcement is incorporated into a metal matrix (MMC) to tailor its properties for specific applications. Among the various techniques for fabricating MMC, the liquid metal infiltration process by means of a pressurized gas is an attractive fabrication route for near net shaped metal matrix composite and has been successfully used to fabricate Al, Mg and more recently, Ni and Ni aluminide matrix composites, which can be reinforced by SiC or Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] particles, whiskers, or short fibers. This paper describes the experimental technique used and presents an experimental investigation of the effects of the process parameters employed, such as the preform and melt temperatures, the volume fraction of fibers in the preform and the applied pressure upon the infiltration length of a chopped preform during a unidirectional infiltration aided by gas pressure casting. The experiments of the present work were conducted to provide kinetic data with a view to optimizing the selection of the process initial conditions for infiltration which have an effect on the infiltration length of the molten matrix alloy into a preform and it is a first step in investigating the correlation between the infiltration length (fluidity) of AlCuSi matrix alloys and the microstructure of the composites fabricated by pressure casting. For this purpose, this paper focuses on AlCu and AlSi matrix alloys reinforced by short-fibers [delta]-alumina SAFFIL. The experiments reported here were performed with the fibers initially at a temperature significantly below the metal melting point. This is the case of practical interest for the fabrication of many fiber-reinforced metal components.

  1. Structural and magnetic properties CuAl1-xCrxS2 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega López, C.; Casiano Jiménez, G.; Espitia, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper computational calculations were performed based on the density functional theory DFT, to investigate the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of CuAl1-xCrxS2 (x=0.0, 0.50 and 1.00) alloys. Pseudopotential method was used, as is implemented in the Quantum-Espresso code. We found that the alloys crystallize in a tetragonal structure belonging to space group 122 (I-42d) with lattice constants a=5.290Å, c=10.378Å for x=0.5 and a=5.283Å, c=10.366Å for x=1.00. These values are in good agreement with experimental results. Additionally, we found that the alloys possess an antiferromagnetic behaviour with magnetic moments 4,20μβ/cell and 4,05μβ/cell, respectively. From the analysis of the density of states, it is clear that the alloys have a half-metallic behaviour due to the Cr-d and Cu-d states crossing the Fermi level. This compounds can be used in spintronic.

  2. Oxidation Behavior of GRCop-84 (Cu-8Cr-4Nb) at Intermediate and High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Ogbuji, Linus U.; Humphrey, Donald L.; Greenbauer-Seng, Leslie (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of GRCop-84 (Cu-8 at %Cr-4 at %Nb) has been investigated in air and in oxygen, for durations of 0.5 to 50 hours and temperatures ranging from 500 to 900 C. For comparison, data was also obtained for the oxidation of Cu and NARloy-Z (Cu-3 wt% Ag-0.5 wt% Zr) under the same conditions. Arrhenius plots of those data showed that all three materials had similar oxidation rates at high temperatures (> 750 C). However, at intermediate temperatures (500 to 750 C) GRCop exhibited significantly higher oxidation resistance than Cu and NARloy-Z. The oxidation kinetics of GRCop-84 exhibited a sharp and discontinuous jump between the two regimes. Also, in the high temperature regime GRCop-84 oxidation rate was found to change from a high initial value to a significantly smaller terminal value at each temperature, with progress of oxidation; the two different oxidation rates were found to correlate with a porous intial oxide and a dense final oxide, respectively.

  3. [CuO-Ru/Al2O3 catalytic ozonation of acetophenone in water].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Shi, Rui; Zang, Xing-jie; Tong, Shao-ping; Ma, Chun-an

    2010-03-01

    Two-component CuO-Ru based on active Al2O3 (CuO-Ru/Al2O3) catalyst was prepared by incipient wetness impregnation and used to catalytic ozonation of acetophenone (AP). The results showed that doping Ru could significantly improve the catalytic activity of CuO/Al2O3. For example, the COD removal rates of AP solution after 30 min by ozonation alone, CuO/Al2O3/O3, and CuO-Ru/Al2O3/O3 were 6.3%, 20.0% and 54.0%, respectively. The change of pH almost had no affect on degradation efficiency of AP. However, a comparison of COD removal between ozonation alone and catalytic ozonation indicated that CuO-Ru/Al2O3 catalyst was more suitable for application in neutral or acidic condition. CuO-Ru/Al2O3 catalyst could accelerate decomposition rate of ozone in water, and its decomposition rate constant reached 2.58 x 10(-3) s(-1) while that of ozone alone in double-water was 1.19 x 10(-3) s(-1). The experimental result of t-butanol indicated that CuO-Ru/Al2O3 catalytic ozonation of AP followed a radical-type mechanism. PMID:20358832

  4. The release of As, Cr and Cu from contaminated soil stabilized with APC residues under landfill conditions.

    PubMed

    Travar, I; Kihl, A; Kumpiene, J

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of As, Cr and Cu in contaminated soil treated with air pollution control residues under landfill conditions. The influence of landfill gas and temperature on the release of trace elements from stabilized soil was simulated using a diffusion test. The air pollution control residues immobilized As through the precipitation of Ca-As minerals (calcium arsenate (Ca5H2(AsO4)3 × 5H2O), weilite (CaAsO4) and johnbaumite (Ca5(AsO4)3(OH)), incorporation of As into ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 × 26H2O) and adsorption by calcite (CaCO3). The air pollution control residues generally showed a high resistance to pH reduction, indicating high buffer capacity and stability of immobilized As in a landfill over time. Generation of heat in a landfill might increase the release of trace elements. The release of As from stabilized soil was diffusion-controlled at 60 °C, while surface wash-off, dissolution, and depletion prevailed at 20 °C. The air pollution control residues from the incineration of municipal solid waste immobilized Cr, indicating its stability in a landfill. The treatment of soil with air pollution control residues was not effective in immobilization of Cu. Contaminated soils treated with air pollution control residues will probably have a low impact on overall leachate quality from a landfill. PMID:25528268

  5. Synthesis of TiB2/Fe-Cr-Al nanocomposite powder.

    PubMed

    Sachan, Ritesh; Park, Jong-Woo

    2008-10-01

    In this study, a route for synthesizing TiB2/Fe-Cr-Al nanocomposite is proposed via high energy ball milling by using directly coarse powders of TiB2, Fe, Cr and Al. Various compositions of these powder mixtures are milled up to 48 hrs to investigate the effect of composition on the crystalline refinement. The crystalline size is analyzed by an X-ray diffractometer for powder samples containing 30 to 100 wt% TiB2 (the rest of the powder consists of Fe-20 wt%Cr-5 wt%Al composition). The crystalline size after 48 hrs of ball milling decreases with increasing TiB2, and then again increases after reaching a minimum value of 18 nm at 70% TiB2. By transmission electron microscopic analysis, it is confirmed that particles of TiB2 are significantly reduced and finely dispersed in the Fe-Cr-Al matrix. The particle size of TiB2 is found around 20-25 nm, reinforced in the matrix. Considering the results of this study, the proposed mechanical milling route can be recommended as a promising way for fabrication of TiB2/Fe-Cr-Al nanocomposite powder. PMID:19198473

  6. Optical behavior and structural property of CuAlS₂ and AgAlS₂ wide-bandgap chalcopyrites.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ching-Hwa; Pan, Chia-Chi

    2014-08-01

    Single crystals of CuAlS₂ and AgAlS₂ were grown by chemical vapor transport method using ICl₃ as the transport. The as-grown CuAlS₂ crystals reveal transparent and light-green color. Most of them possess a well-defined (112) surface. The AgAlS₂ crystals essentially show transparent and white color in vacuum. As the AgAlS₂ was put into the atmosphere, the crystal surface gradually darkened and became brownish because of the surface reaction with humidity or hydrogen gas. After a long-term chemical reaction process, the AgAlS₂ will transform into a AgAlO₂ oxide with yellow color. From x-ray diffraction measurements, both CuAlS₂ and AgAlS₂ as-grown crystals show single-phase and isostructural to a chalcopyrite structure. The (112) face is more preferable for the formation of the chalcopyrite crystals. The energies of interband transitions of the CuAlS₂ and AgAlS₂ were determined accurately by thermoreflectance measurements in a wide energy range of 2-6 eV. The valence-band electronic structures of CuAlS₂ and AgAlS₂ have been detailed and characterized using polarized-thermoreflectance measurements in the temperature range between 30 and 300 K. The band-edge transitions belonging to the E(∥) and E(⊥) polarizations have been, respectively, identified. The band edge of AgAlS₂ is near 3.2 eV while that of AgAlS₂ is about 3.5 eV. On the basis of the experimental analyses, optical and sensing behaviors of the chalcopyrite crystals have been realized.

  7. Cu-Cr-Nb-Zr Alloy for Rocket Engines and Other High-Heat- Flux Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Rocket-engine main combustion chamber liners are used to contain the burning of fuel and oxidizer and provide a stream of high-velocity gas for propulsion. The liners in engines such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine are regeneratively cooled by flowing fuel, e.g., cryogenic hydrogen, through cooling channels in the back side of the liner. The heat gained by the liner from the flame and compression of the gas in the throat section is transferred to the fuel by the liner. As a result, the liner must either have a very high thermal conductivity or a very high operating temperature. In addition to the large heat flux (>10 MW/sq m), the liners experience a very large thermal gradient, typically more than 500 C over 1 mm. The gradient produces thermally induced stresses and strains that cause low cycle fatigue (LCF). Typically, a liner will experience a strain differential in excess of 1% between the cooling channel and the hot wall. Each time the engine is fired, the liner undergoes an LCF cycle. The number of cycles can be as few as one for an expendable booster engine, to as many as several thousand for a reusable launch vehicle or reaction control system. Finally, the liners undergo creep and a form of mechanical degradation called thermal ratcheting that results in the bowing out of the cooling channel into the combustion chamber, and eventual failure of the liner. GRCop-84, a Cu-Cr-Nb alloy, is generally recognized as the best liner material available at the time of this reporting. The alloy consists of 14% Cr2Nb precipitates in a pure copper matrix. Through experimental work, it has been established that the Zr will not participate in the formation of Laves phase precipitates with Cr and Nb, but will instead react with Cu to form the desired Cu-Zr compounds. It is believed that significant improvements in the mechanical properties of GRCop-84 will be realized by adding Zr. The innovation is a Cu-Cr-Nb-Zr alloy covering the composition range of 0.8 to 8.1 weight

  8. Energy band engineering and controlled p-type conductivity of CuAlO2 thin films by nonisovalent Cu-O alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Z. Q.; He, B.; Zhang, L.; Zhuang, C. Q.; Ng, T. W.; Liu, S. L.; Vogel, M.; Kumar, A.; Zhang, W. J.; Lee, C. S.; Lee, S. T.; Jiang, X.

    2012-02-01

    The electronic band structure and p-type conductivity of CuAlO2 films were modified via synergistic effects of energy band offset and partial substitution of less-dispersive Cu+ 3d10 with Cu2+ 3d9 orbitals in the valence band maximum by alloying nonisovalent Cu-O with CuAlO2 host. The Cu-O/CuAlO2 alloying films show excellent electronic properties with tunable wide direct bandgaps (˜3.46-3.87 eV); Hall measurements verify the highest hole mobilities (˜11.3-39.5 cm2/Vs) achieved thus far for CuAlO2 thin films and crystals. Top-gate thin film transistors constructed on p-CuAlO2 films were presented, and the devices showed pronounced performance with Ion/Ioff of ˜8.0 × 102 and field effect mobility of 0.97 cm2/Vs.

  9. The photosensitivity of carbon quantum dots/CuAlO2 films composites.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jiaqi; Sheng, Yingzhuo; Zhang, Jingxiang; Wei, Jumeng; Huang, Peng; Zhang, Xin; Feng, Boxue

    2015-07-31

    Carbon quantum dots/CuAlO2 films were prepared by a simple route through which CuAlO2 films prepared by sol-gel on crystal quartz substrates were composited with carbon quantum dots on their surface. The characterization results indicated that CuAlO2 films were well combined with carbon quantum dots. The photoconductivity of carbon quantum dots/CuAlO2 films was investigated under illumination and darkness switching, and was demonstrated to be significantly enhanced compared with CuAlO2 films. Through analysis, this enhancement of photoconductivity was attributed to the carbon quantum dots with unique up-converted photoluminescence behavior. PMID:26150398

  10. Control of p-type conduction in Mg doped monophase CuCrO2 thin layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikoidze, E.; Boshta, M.; Gomaa, M.; Tchelidze, T.; Daraselia, D.; Japaridze, D.; Shengelaya, A.; Dumont, Y.; Neumann-Spallart, M.

    2016-05-01

    This work aims to clarify the origin of hole conduction in undoped and Mg-doped CuCrO2 oxide in order to have the possibility of controlling it by corresponding growth parameters. A chemical spray pyrolysis procedure for the deposition of p-type semiconductor thin films is described. The as-deposited films were amorphous. The formation of highly crystalline CuCrO2 and Mg-doped CuCrO2 films with a single phase delafossite structure was realized by annealing between 600 °C and 960 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere. The carrier concentration and the point defects of the samples are calculated by using the developed Kroger method of quasi-chemical reactions. p-type conductivity was predicted and observed in the undoped and Mg doped CuCrO2 sample, and with n ~ 1018 cm‑3 carrier concentrations for 4%Mg doping. The electrical resistivity for a 4% Mg doped sample was 1.4 Ω·cm with a Seebeck coefficient of  +130 μV K‑1 at 40 °C. By electroparamagnetic resonance spectroscopy Cr3+ and Cu2+ related defects were studied.

  11. Control of p-type conduction in Mg doped monophase CuCrO2 thin layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikoidze, E.; Boshta, M.; Gomaa, M.; Tchelidze, T.; Daraselia, D.; Japaridze, D.; Shengelaya, A.; Dumont, Y.; Neumann-Spallart, M.

    2016-05-01

    This work aims to clarify the origin of hole conduction in undoped and Mg-doped CuCrO2 oxide in order to have the possibility of controlling it by corresponding growth parameters. A chemical spray pyrolysis procedure for the deposition of p-type semiconductor thin films is described. The as-deposited films were amorphous. The formation of highly crystalline CuCrO2 and Mg-doped CuCrO2 films with a single phase delafossite structure was realized by annealing between 600 °C and 960 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere. The carrier concentration and the point defects of the samples are calculated by using the developed Kroger method of quasi-chemical reactions. p-type conductivity was predicted and observed in the undoped and Mg doped CuCrO2 sample, and with n ~ 1018 cm-3 carrier concentrations for 4%Mg doping. The electrical resistivity for a 4% Mg doped sample was 1.4 Ω·cm with a Seebeck coefficient of  +130 μV K-1 at 40 °C. By electroparamagnetic resonance spectroscopy Cr3+ and Cu2+ related defects were studied.

  12. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Properties of Deformation-Processed Cu-7Cr In Situ Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Keming; Jiang, Zhengyi; Zhou, Haitao; Lu, Deping; Atrens, Andrej; Yang, Yanling

    2015-11-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the microstructure, electrical conductivity, and tensile strength of deformation-processed Cu-7Cr in situ composites produced by thermo-mechanical processing was investigated. The Cr fibers in the Cu-7Cr in situ composite underwent coarsening, break-up, and spheroidization after exposure to elevated temperatures. The conductivity and tensile strength of the in situ composite first increased with increasing isochronal heat treatment temperature, reached a peak value, and decreased at higher temperatures. The isothermal heat treatment temperature was determined to be 625 °C. The Z ( Z is an optimization parameter to evaluate the service performance of deformation-processed Cu-based in situ composites) value of the deformation-processed Cu-7Cr in situ composite, at η = 7 ( η is a cumulative cold deformation strain) after the heat treatment at 625 °C for 1 h, reached the peak value of 3.46 × 107 MPa2 % International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS). The isochronal heat treatment time was determined to be 1 h. The following combination of conductivity and tensile strength of the deformation-processed Cu-7Cr in situ composite with a cumulative cold deformation strain of eight after isochronal aging treatments for 1 h could be attained respectively as (i) 76.0% IACS and 889 MPa; (ii) 76.8% IACS and 876 MPa; or (iii) 77.5% IACS and 779 MPa.

  13. Emission properties of an amorphous AlN:Cr3+ thin-film phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, M. L.; Martin, A. L.; Dimitrova, V. I.; Van Patten, P. G.; Kordesch, M. E.; Richardson, H. H.

    2001-02-01

    Chromium-doped aluminum nitride (AlN:Cr) films were grown on p-doped silicon (111) by rf magnetron sputtering in a nitrogen atmosphere at a pressure of 10-4 Torr. Film thickness was typically 200 nm. After growth, the films were "activated" at ˜1300 K for 30 min in a nitrogen atmosphere. Films activated in this manner exhibit intense cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence emission. Spectral evidence demonstrates conclusively that the luminescent centers are Cr3+ ions.

  14. Radial macrosegregation and dendrite clustering in directionally solidified Al-7Si and Al-19Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghods, M.; Johnson, L.; Lauer, M.; Grugel, R. N.; Tewari, S. N.; Poirier, D. R.

    2016-05-01

    Hypoeutectic Al-7 wt% Si and Al-19 wt% Cu alloys were directionally solidified upward in a Bridgman furnace through a range of constant growth speeds and thermal gradients. Though processing is thermo-solutally stable, flow initiated by gravity-independent advection at, slightly leading, central dendrites moves rejected solute out ahead and across the advancing interface. Here any lagging dendrites are further suppressed which promotes a curved solid-liquid interface and the eventual dendrite "clustering" seen in transverse sections (dendrite "steepling" in longitudinal orientations) as well as extensive radial macrosegregation. Both aluminum alloys showed considerable macrosegregation at the low growth speeds (10 and 30 μm s-1) but not at higher speed (72 μm s-1). Distribution of the fraction eutectic-constituent on transverse sections was determined in order to quantitatively describe radial macrosegregation. The convective mechanisms leading to dendrite-steepling were elucidated with numerical simulations, and their results compared with the experimental observations.

  15. Pure CuCr2O4 nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization and their morphological and size effects on the catalytic thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ghorban; Abazari, Reza; Gavi, Azam

    2014-11-01

    In the present paper a pure phase of the copper chromite spinel nanoparticles (CuCr2O4 SNPs) were synthesized via the sol-gel route using citric acid as a complexing agent. Then, the CuCr2O4 SNPs has been characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In the next step, with the addition of Cu-Cr-O nanoparticles (NPs), the effects of different parameters such as Cu-Cr-O particle size and the Cu/Cr molar ratios on the thermal behavior of Cu-Cr-O NPs + AP (ammonium perchlorate) mixtures were investigated. As such, the catalytic effect of the Cu-Cr-O NPs for thermal decomposition of AP was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). TGA/DSC results showed that the samples with different morphologies exhibited different catalytic activity in different stages of thermal decomposition of AP. Also, in the presence of Cu-Cr-O nanocatalysts, all of the exothermic peaks of AP shifted to a lower temperature, indicating the thermal decomposition of AP was enhanced. Moreover, the heat released (ΔH) in the presence of Cu-Cr-O nanocatalysts was increased to 1490 J g-1.

  16. Influence of recrystallization on phase separation kinetics of oxide dispersion strengthened Fe Cr Al alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Capdevila, C.; Miller, Michael K; Pimentel, G.; Chao, J.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different starting microstructures on the kinetics of Fe-rich ({alpha}) and Cr-rich ({alpha}') phase separation during aging of Fe-Cr-Al oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys has been analyzed with a combination of atom probe tomography and thermoelectric power measurements. The results revealed that the high recrystallization temperature necessary to produce a coarse grained microstructure in Fe-base ODS alloys affects the randomness of Cr-atom distributions and defect density, which consequently affect the phase separation kinetics at low annealing temperatures.

  17. Role of Y in the oxidation resistance of CrAlYN coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Meister, S.; El Mrabet, S.; Escobar-Galindo, R.; Mariscal, A.; Jiménez de Haro, M. C.; Justo, A.; Brizuela, M.; Rojas, T. C.; Sánchez-López, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    CrAlYN coatings with different aluminum (4-12 at.%) and yttrium (2-5 at.%) contents are deposited by d.c. reactive magnetron sputtering on silicon and M2 steel substrates using metallic targets and Ar/N2 mixtures. The influence of the nanostructure and chemical elemental distribution on the oxidation resistance after heating in air at 1000 °C is studied by means of cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (X-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GD-OES). The sequential exposure to the metallic targets during the synthesis leads to a multilayer structure where concentration of metallic elements (Cr, Al and Y) is changing periodically. A good oxidation resistance is observed when Al- and Y-rich regions are separated by well-defined CrN layers, maintaining crystalline coherence along the columnar structure. This protective behavior is independent of the type of substrate and corresponds to the formation of a thin mixed (Al, Cr)-oxide scale that protects the film underneath. The GD-OES and XRD analysis have demonstrated that Y acts as a reactive element, blocking the Fe and C atoms diffusion from the steel and favoring higher Al/Cr ratio in the passivation layer after heating. The coating with Y content around 4 at.% exhibited the best performance with a thinner oxide scale, a delay in the CrN decomposition and transformation to Cr2N, and a more effective Fe and C blocking.

  18. Effect of Microstructure on Creep in Directionally Solidified NiAl-31Cr-3Mo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.

    2001-01-01

    The 1200 to 1400 K slow strain rate characteristics of the directionally solidified (DS) eutectic Ni-33Al-31Cr-3 Mo have been determined as a function of growth rate. While differences in the light optical level microstructure were observed in alloys grown at rates ranging from 7.6 to 508 mm/h, compression testing indicated that all had essentially the same strength. The exception was Ni-33Al-31Cr-3Mo DS at 25.4 mm/h which was slightly stronger than the other growth velocities; no microstructural reason could be found for this improvement. Comparison of the approx. 1300 K properties revealed that four different DS NiAl-34(Cr,Mo) alloys have a similar creep resistance which suggests that there is a common, but yet unknown, strengthening mechanism.

  19. Effect of Microstructure on Creep in Directionally Solidified NiAl-31Cr-3Mo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.

    2001-01-01

    The 1200 to 1400 K slow strain rate characteristics of the directionally solidified (DS) eutectic Ni-33Al-31Cr-3 Mo have been determined as a function of growth rate. While differences in the light optical level microstructure were observed in alloys grown at rates ranging from 7.6 to 508 mm/h, compression testing indicated that all had essentially the same strength. The exception was Ni-33 Al-31Cr-3Mo DS at 25.4 mm/h which was slightly stronger than the other growth velocities; no microstructural reason could be found for this improvement. Comparison of the approximately 1300 K properties revealed that four different DS NiAl-34(Cr,Mo) alloys have a similar creep resistance which suggests that there is a common, but yet unknown, strengthening mechanism.

  20. A study of the oxide dispersion and recrystallization in NiCrAl prepared from preoxidized powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, T. K.

    1975-01-01

    The SAP technique of dispersion strengthening (formation of an oxide dispersion by preoxidation of metal powders) was applied to atomized powder of the alloy Ni-17Cr-5Al-0.2 Y. SAP-NiCrAl was worked by extrusion and rod rolling at 1205 C and by swaging at 760 C. A variety of annealing treatments were applied after working to determine the recrystallization response. NiCrAlY, similarly prepared from atomized powder, but without a preoxidation treatment, was examined for comparison. The SAP-NiCrAl of this study exhibited oxide particle size and spacing much larger than that usually observed in oxide dispersion strengthened alloys; nonetheless, it was possible to achieve abnormal (secondary) recrystallization in the SAP-NiCrAl as has been reported for other oxide dispersion strengthened alloys. In contrast, unoxidized NiCrAlY exhibited only primary recrystallization.

  1. Dynamic recrystallization behavior and processing map of the Cu-Cr-Zr-Nd alloy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Huili; Volinsky, Alex A; Tian, Baohong; Song, Kexing; Chai, Zhe; Liu, Ping; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Hot deformation behavior of the Cu-Cr-Zr-Nd alloy was studied by hot compressive tests in the temperature range of 650-950 °C and the strain rate range of 0.001-10 s(-1) using Gleeble-1500D thermo-mechanical simulator. The results showed that the flow stress is strongly dependent on the deformation temperature and the strain rate. With the increase of temperature or the decrease of strain rate, the flow stress significantly decreases. Hot activation energy of the alloy is about 404.84 kJ/mol and the constitutive equation of the alloy based on the hyperbolic-sine equation was established. Based on the dynamic material model, the processing map was established to optimize the deformation parameters. The optimal processing parameters for the Cu-Cr-Zr-Nd alloy hot working are in the temperature range of 900-950 °C and strain rate range of 0.1-1 s(-1). A full dynamic recrystallization structure with fine and homogeneous grain size can be obtained at optimal processing conditions. The microstructure of specimens deformed at different conditions was analyzed and connected with the processing map. The surface fracture was observed to identify instability conditions. PMID:27347462

  2. Hot Deformation Characteristics and Processing Maps of the Cu-Cr-Zr-Ag Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Chai, Zhe; Volinsky, Alex A.; Sun, Huili; Tian, Baohong; Liu, Ping; Liu, Yong

    2016-03-01

    The hot deformation behavior of the Cu-Cr-Zr-Ag alloy has been investigated by hot compressive tests in the 650-950 °C temperature and 0.001-10 s-1 strain rate ranges using Gleeble-1500D thermo-mechanical simulator. The microstructure evolution of the alloy during deformation was characterized using optical and transmission electron microscopy. The flow stress decreases with the deformation temperature and increases with the strain rate. The apparent activation energy for hot deformation of the alloy was 343.23 kJ/mol. The constitutive equation of the alloy based on the hyperbolic-sine equation was established to characterize the flow stress as a function of the strain rate and the deformation temperature. The processing maps were established based on the dynamic material model. The optimal processing parameters for hot deformation of the Cu-Cr-Zr-Ag alloy are 900-950 °C and 0.001-0.1 s-1 strain rate. The evolution of DRX microstructure strongly depends on the deformation temperature and the strain rate.

  3. Dynamic recrystallization behavior and processing map of the Cu-Cr-Zr-Nd alloy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Huili; Volinsky, Alex A; Tian, Baohong; Song, Kexing; Chai, Zhe; Liu, Ping; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Hot deformation behavior of the Cu-Cr-Zr-Nd alloy was studied by hot compressive tests in the temperature range of 650-950 °C and the strain rate range of 0.001-10 s(-1) using Gleeble-1500D thermo-mechanical simulator. The results showed that the flow stress is strongly dependent on the deformation temperature and the strain rate. With the increase of temperature or the decrease of strain rate, the flow stress significantly decreases. Hot activation energy of the alloy is about 404.84 kJ/mol and the constitutive equation of the alloy based on the hyperbolic-sine equation was established. Based on the dynamic material model, the processing map was established to optimize the deformation parameters. The optimal processing parameters for the Cu-Cr-Zr-Nd alloy hot working are in the temperature range of 900-950 °C and strain rate range of 0.1-1 s(-1). A full dynamic recrystallization structure with fine and homogeneous grain size can be obtained at optimal processing conditions. The microstructure of specimens deformed at different conditions was analyzed and connected with the processing map. The surface fracture was observed to identify instability conditions.

  4. Microstructure and mechanical properties of (Ti,Al,Zr)N/(Ti,Al,Zr,Cr)N films on cemented carbide substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shi-lu; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Shuang-hong; Zhang, Zheng-gui

    2014-01-01

    (Ti,Al,Zr)N/(Ti,Al,Zr,Cr)N bilayer films were deposited on cemented carbide (WC-8%Co) substrates by multi-arc ion plating (MAIP) using two Ti-Al-Zr alloy targets and one pure Cr target. To investigate the composition, morphology, and crystalline structure of the bilayer films, a number of complementary methods of elemental and structural analysis were used, namely, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy disperse X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Adhesive strength and mechanical properties of the films were evaluated by scratch testing and Vickers microindentation, respectively. It is shown that the resulting films have a TiN-type face-centered cubic (FCC) structure. The films exhibit fully dense, uniform, and columnar morphology. Furthermore, as the bias voltages vary from -50 to -200 V, the microhardness (max. Hv0.01 4100) and adhesive strength (max. > 200 N) of the bilayer films are superior to those of the (Ti,Al,Zr)N and (Ti,Al,Zr,Cr)N monolayer films.

  5. Direct catalytic oxyamination of benzene to aniline over Cu(II) nanoclusters supported on CuCr2O4 spinel nanoparticles via simultaneous activation of C-H and N-H bonds.

    PubMed

    Acharyya, Shankha S; Ghosh, Shilpi; Bal, Rajaram

    2014-11-11

    We report the facile synthesis of a highly efficient, reusable catalyst comprising Cu(II) nanoclusters supported on CuCr2O4 spinel nanoparticles for the oxyamination of benzene to aniline (H2O2 + NH3) under mild aqueous reaction conditions. The synergy between the Cu(II) nanoclusters and CuCr2O4 spinel nanoparticles plays the most vital role towards its high catalytic activity.

  6. Multiple diffraction in an icosahedral Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, C. Z.; Weber, Th.; Deloudi, S.; Steurer, W.

    2011-07-01

    In order to reveal its influence on quasicrystal structure analysis, multiple diffraction (MD) effects in an icosahedral Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystal have been investigated in-house on an Oxford Diffraction four-circle diffractometer equipped with an Onyx™ CCD area detector and MoKα radiation. For that purpose, an automated approach for Renninger scans (ψ-scans) has been developed. Two weak reflections were chosen as the main reflections (called P) in the present measurements. As is well known for periodic crystals, it is also observed for this quasicrystal that the intensity of the main reflection may significantly increase if the simultaneous (H) and the coupling (P-H) reflections are both strong, while there is no obvious MD effect if one of them is weak. The occurrence of MD events during ψ-scans has been studied based on an ideal structure model and the kinematical MD theory. The reliability of the approach is revealed by the good agreement between simulation and experiment. It shows that the multiple diffraction effect is quite significant.

  7. The effect of yttrium and thorium on the oxidation behavior of Ni-Cr-Al alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, A.; Douglass, D. L.; Nasrallah, M.

    1974-01-01

    The investigation reported included a determination of the optimum composition of a Ni-Cr-Al ternary alloy with respect to oxidation resistance and minimum film-spalling tendencies. Yttrium and thorium in small amounts were added to the ternary alloy and an investigation of the oxidation mechanism and the oxide scale adherence was conducted. It was found that the oxidation mechanism of Ni-Cr-Al ternary alloys depends upon the composition of the alloy as well as the time, oxygen pressure, and temperature of oxidation.

  8. Elastic Modulus Measurement of ORNL ATF FeCrAl Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Zachary T.; Terrani, Kurt A.; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2015-10-01

    Elastic modulus and Poisson’s ratio for a number of wrought FeCrAl alloys, intended for accident tolerant fuel cladding application, are determined via resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy. The results are reported as a function of temperature from room temperature to 850°C. The wrought alloys were in the fully annealed and unirradiated state. The elastic modulus for the wrought FeCrAl alloys is at least twice that of Zr-based alloys over the temperature range of this study. The Poisson’s ratio of the alloys was 0.28 on average and increased very slightly with increasing temperature.

  9. Development and quality assessments of commercial heat production of ATF FeCrAl tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2015-09-01

    Development and quality assessment of the 2nd generation ATF FeCrAl tube production with commercial manufacturers were conducted. The manufacturing partners include Sophisticated Alloys, Inc. (SAI), Butler, PA for FeCrAl alloy casting via vacuum induction melting, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for extrusion process to prepare the master bars/tubes to be tube-drawn, and Rhenium Alloys, Inc. (RAI), North Ridgeville, OH, for tube-drawing process. The masters bars have also been provided to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) who works with Century Tubes, Inc., (CTI), San Diego, CA, as parallel tube production effort under the current program.

  10. SDAS, Si and Cu Content, and the Size of Intermetallics in Al-Si-Cu-Mg-Fe Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivarupan, Tharmalingam; Taylor, John Andrew; Cáceres, Carlos Horacio

    2015-05-01

    Plates of Al-(a)Si-(b)Cu-Mg-(c)Fe alloys with varying content of (mass pct) Si ( a = 3, 4.5, 7.5, 9, 10, or 11), Cu ( b = 0, 1, or 4), and Fe ( c = 0.2, 0.5 or 0.8) were cast in sand molds with a heavy chill at one end to ensure quasi-directional solidification over a wide range of Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing (SDAS). Statistical analysis on the size of the β-Al5FeSi, α-Al8Fe2Si, or Al2Cu intermetallics on Backscattered Electron images showed that a high Si content reduced the size of the β platelets in alloys with up to 0.5 Fe content regardless of the SDAS, whereas at small SDAS the refining effect extended up to 0.8 Fe, and involved α-phase intermetallics which replaced the beta platelets at those concentrations. At low Si contents, a high Cu level appeared to have similar refining effects as increased Si, through the formation of α-phase particles in the post-eutectic stage which agglomerated with the Al2Cu intermetallics. A high content of Si appears to make the overall refining process less critical in terms of SDAS/cooling rate.

  11. The Influence of Tungsten on the Chemical Composition of a Temporally Evolving Nanostructure of a Model Ni-Al-Cr Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudbrack, Chantal K.; Isheim, Dieter; Noebe, Ronald D.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Seidman, David N.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of W on the temporal evolution of gamma' precipitation toward equilibrium in a model Ni-Al-Cr alloy is investigated by three-dimensional atom-probe (3DAP) microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We report on the alloys Ni-10 Al-8.5 Cr (at.%) and Ni-10 Al-8.5 Cr-2 W (at.%), which were aged isothermally in the gamma + gamma' two-phase field at 1073 K, for times ranging from 0.25 to 264 h. Spheroidal-shaped gamma' precipitates, 5-15 nm diameter, form during quenching from above the solvus temperature in both alloys at a high number density (approx. 10(exp 23/cu m). As gamma' precipitates grow with aging at 1073 K, a transition from spheriodal- to cuboidal-shaped precipitates is observed in both alloys. The elemental partitioning and spatially resolved concentration profiles across the gamma' precipitates are obtained as a function of aging time from three-dimensional atom-by-atom reconstructions. Proximity histogram concentration profiles of the quaternary alloy demonstrate that W concentration gradients exist in gamma' precipitates in the as-quenched and 0.25-h aging states, which disappear after 1 h of aging. The diffusion coefficient of W in gamma' is estimated to be 6.2 x 10(exp -20) sq m/s at 1073 K. The W addition decreases the coarsening rate constant, and leads to stronger partitioning of Al to gamma' and Cr to gamma.

  12. The effect of copper, chromium, and zirconium on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, John A.; Shenoy, R. N.

    1991-01-01

    The present study evaluates the effect of the systematic variation of copper, chromium, and zirconium contents on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a 7000-type aluminum alloy. Fracture toughness and tensile properties are evaluated for each alloy in both the peak aging, T8, and the overaging, T73, conditions. Results show that dimpled rupture essentially characterize the fracture process in these alloys. In the T8 condition, a significant loss of toughness is observed for alloys containing 2.5 pct Cu due to the increase in the quantity of Al-Cu-Mg-rich S-phase particles. An examination of T8 alloys at constant Cu levels shows that Zr-bearing alloys exhibit higher strength and toughness than the Cr-bearing alloys. In the T73 condition, Cr-bearing alloys are inherently tougher than Zr-bearing alloys. A void nucleation and growth mechanism accounts for the loss of toughness in these alloys with increasing copper content.

  13. Effect of sintering on the relative density of Cr-coated diamond/Cu composites prepared by spark plasma sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Wei; Xu, Hui; Chen, Jian-hao; Ren, Shu-bin; He, Xin-bo; Qu, Xuan-hui

    2016-06-01

    Cr-coated diamond/Cu composites were prepared by spark plasma sintering. The effects of sintering pressure, sintering temperature, sintering duration, and Cu powder particle size on the relative density and thermal conductivity of the composites were investigated in this paper. The influence of these parameters on the properties and microstructures of the composites was also discussed. The results show that the relative density of Cr-coated diamond/Cu reaches ~100% when the composite is gradually compressed to 30 MPa during the heating process. The densification temperature increases from 880 to 915°C when the diamond content is increased from 45vol% to 60vol%. The densification temperature does not increase further when the content reaches 65vol%. Cu powder particles in larger size are beneficial for increasing the relative density of the composite.

  14. Importance of doping and frustration in itinerant Fe-doped Cr2Al

    SciTech Connect

    Susner, M. A.; Parker, D. S.; Sefat, A. S.

    2015-05-12

    We performed an experimental and theoretical study comparing the effects of Fe-doping of Cr2Al, an antiferromagnet with a N el temperature of 670 K, with known results on Fe-doping of antiferromagnetic bcc Cr. (Cr1-xFex)2Al materials are found to exhibit a rapid suppression of antiferromagnetic order with the presence of Fe, decreasing TN to 170 K for x=0.10. Antiferromagnetic behavior disappears entirely at x≈0.125 after which point increasing paramagnetic behavior is exhibited. Moreover, this is unlike the effects of Fe doping of bcc antiferromagnetic Cr, in which TN gradually decreases followed by the appearance of a ferromagnetic state. Theoretical calculations explain that the Cr2Al-Fe suppression of magnetic order originates from two effects: the first is band narrowing caused by doping of additional electrons from Fe substitution that weakens itinerant magnetism; the second is magnetic frustration of the Cr itinerant moments in Fe-substituted Cr2Al. In pure-phase Cr2Al, the Cr moments have an antiparallel alignment; however, these are destroyed through Fe substitution and the preference of Fe for parallel alignment with Cr. This is unlike bulk Fe-doped Cr alloys in which the Fe anti-aligns with the Cr atoms, and speaks to the importance of the Al atoms in the magnetic structure of Cr2Al and Fe-doped Cr2Al.

  15. Optical properties of undoped and Mg doped CuCrO{sub 2} powders synthesized by sol-gel route

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; Bolloju, Satish

    2014-01-28

    In this work, CuCrO{sub 2} was synthesized by sol-gel method using citric acid as a gelling agent. The different parameters like ratio of citric acid to metal ions, calcination temperature, and duration were studied. A green colored powder with particle size around 300 nm was formed at the calcination temperature of 800 °C for four hours duration. The increase in temperature has a profound impact on crystallite size and in turn effected the optical properties. Band gap of the obtained CuCrO{sub 2} has varied from 2.3 to 1.7 eV by increasing the temperature from 800 °C to 900 °C. Doping studies were performed by introducing Mg{sup 2+} ion to substitute Cr{sup 3+} in CuCrO{sub 2}. X-ray powder diffraction and SEM studies on 2% Mg doped samples indicated a clear formation of side phases. According to the X-ray powder patterns, the reflections from side phases were increasing with the increase in doping concentrations of Mg from 2 to 5%. The side phases were found to be MgCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel and CuO. The band gap has decreased for doped samples in comparison to undoped one. In this paper, sol-gel synthesis and characterization by Xray powder diffraction, SEM studies and UV-Vis-Diffuse Reflectance spectra are presented.

  16. Development of ODS FeCrAl for compatibility in fusion and fission energy applications

    DOE PAGES

    Pint, Bruce A.; Dryepondt, Sebastien N.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Hoelzer, David T.

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys with 12–15% Cr are being evaluated for improved compatibility with Pb-Li for a fusion energy application and with high temperature steam for a more accident-tolerant light water reactor fuel cladding application. A 12% Cr content alloy showed low mass losses in static Pb-Li at 700°C, where a LiAlO2 surface oxide formed and inhibited dissolution into the liquid metal. All the evaluated compositions formed a protective scale in steam at 1200°C, which is not possible with ODS FeCr alloys. However, most of the compositions were not protective at 1400°C, which is amore » general and somewhat surprising problem with ODS FeCrAl alloys that is still being studied. More work is needed to optimize the alloy composition, microstructure and oxide dispersion, but initial promising tensile and creep results have been obtained with mixed oxide additions, i.e. Y2O3 with ZrO2, HfO2 or TiO2.« less

  17. Half-metallicity in highly L21-ordered CoFeCrAl thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Y.; Kharel, P.; Valloppilly, S. R.; Li, X.-Z.; Kim, D. R.; Zhao, G. J.; Chen, T. Y.; Choudhary, R.; Kashyap, A.; Skomski, R.; Sellmyer, D. J.

    2016-10-01

    The structural, magnetic, and electron-transport properties of Heusler-ordered CoFeCrAl thin films are investigated experimentally and theoretically. The films, sputtered onto MgO and having thicknesses of about 100 nm, exhibit virtually perfect single-crystalline epitaxy and a high degree of L21 chemical order. X-ray diffraction and transmission-electron microscopy show that the structure of the films is essentially of the L21 Heusler type. The films are ferrimagnetic, with a Curie temperature of about 390 K, and a net moment of 2 μB per formula unit. The room temperature resistivity is 175 μΩ cm; the carrier concentration and mobility determined from the low temperature (5 K) measurement are 1.2 × 1018 cm-3 and 33 cm2/V s, respectively. In contrast to the well-investigated Heusler alloys such as Co2(Cr1-xFex)Al, the CoFeCrAl system exhibits two main types of weak residual A2 disorder, namely, Co-Cr disorder and Fe-Cr disorder, the latter conserving half-metallicity. Point-contact Andreev reflection yields a lower bound for the spin polarization, 68% at 1.85 K, but our structural and magnetization analyses suggest that the spin polarization at the Fermi level is probably higher than 90%. The high resistivity, spin polarization, and Curie temperature are encouraging in the context of spin electronics.

  18. Development of ODS FeCrAl for Compatibility in Fusion and Fission Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pint, B. A.; Dryepondt, S.; Unocic, K. A.; Hoelzer, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys with 12-15% Cr are being evaluated for improved compatibility with Pb-Li for a fusion energy application and with high temperature steam for a more accident-tolerant light water reactor fuel cladding application. A 12% Cr content alloy showed low mass losses in static Pb-Li at 700°C, where a LiAlO2 surface oxide formed and inhibited dissolution into the liquid metal. All the evaluated compositions formed a protective scale in steam at 1200°C, which is not possible with ODS FeCr alloys. However, most of the compositions were not protective at 1400°C, which is a general and somewhat surprising problem with ODS FeCrAl alloys that is still being studied. More work is needed to optimize the alloy composition, microstructure and oxide dispersion, but initial promising tensile and creep results have been obtained with mixed oxide additions, i.e. Y2O3 with ZrO2, HfO2 or TiO2.

  19. Development of ODS FeCrAl for compatibility in fusion and fission energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, Bruce A.; Dryepondt, Sebastien N.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Hoelzer, David T.

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys with 12–15% Cr are being evaluated for improved compatibility with Pb-Li for a fusion energy application and with high temperature steam for a more accident-tolerant light water reactor fuel cladding application. A 12% Cr content alloy showed low mass losses in static Pb-Li at 700°C, where a LiAlO2 surface oxide formed and inhibited dissolution into the liquid metal. All the evaluated compositions formed a protective scale in steam at 1200°C, which is not possible with ODS FeCr alloys. However, most of the compositions were not protective at 1400°C, which is a general and somewhat surprising problem with ODS FeCrAl alloys that is still being studied. More work is needed to optimize the alloy composition, microstructure and oxide dispersion, but initial promising tensile and creep results have been obtained with mixed oxide additions, i.e. Y2O3 with ZrO2, HfO2 or TiO2.

  20. Characteristics of the Energetic Igniters Through Integrating Al/NiO Nanolaminates on Cr Film Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, YiChao; Shi, Wei; Jiang, HongChuan; Xiong, Jie; Zhang, WanLi; Li, Yanrong

    2015-12-01

    The energetic igniters through integrating Al/NiO nanolaminates on Cr film bridges have been investigated in this study. The microstructures demonstrate well-defined geometry and sharp interfaces. The depth profiles of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of Al/NiO nanolaminates annealed at 550 °C with a bilayer thickness of 250 nm show that the interdiffusion between the Al layer and NiO layer has happened and the annealing temperature cannot provide enough energy to make the diffusion process much more complete. The electrical explosion characteristics employing a capacitor discharge firing set at the optimized charging voltage of 40 V show that the flame duration time is about 700 μs, and an excellent explosion performance is obtained for (Al/NiO)n/Cr igniters with a bilayer thickness of 1000 nm.

  1. Surface structures of Al-Pd-Mn and Al-Cu-Fe icosahedral quasicrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Z.

    1999-02-12

    In this dissertation, the author reports on the surface structure of i-Al-Pd-Mn twofold, threefold, fivefold and i-Al-Cu-Fe fivefold surfaces. The LEED studies indicate the existence of two distinct stages in the regrowth of all four surfaces after Ar{sup +} sputtering. In the first stage, upon annealing at relatively low temperature: 500K--800K (depending on different surfaces), a cubic phase appears. The cubic LEED patterns transform irreversibly to unreconstructed quasicrystalline patterns upon annealing to higher temperatures, indicating that the cubic overlayers are metastable. Based upon the data for three chemically-identical, but symmetrically-inequivalent surfaces, a model is developed for the relation between the cubic overlayers and the quasicrystalline substrate. The model is based upon the related symmetries of cubic close-packed and icosahedral-packed materials. These results may be general among Al-rich, icosahedral materials. STM study of Al-Pd-Mn fivefold surface shows that terrace-step-kink structures start to form on the surface after annealing above 700K. Large, atomic ally-flat terraces were formed after annealing at 900K. Fine structures with fivefold icosahedral symmetry were found on those terraces. Data analysis and comparison of the STM images and structure model of icosahedral Al-Pd-Mn suggest that the fine structures in the STM images may be the pseudo Mackay (PMI) clusters which are the structure units of the structure model. Based upon his results, he can conclude that quasicrystalline structures are the stable structures of quasicrystal surfaces. In other words, quasicrystalline structures extend from the bulk to the surface. As a result of the effort reported in this dissertation, he believes that he has increased his understanding of the surface structure of icosahedral quasicrystals to a new level.

  2. Evaluation of the microstructure of Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg Weldalite (tm) alloys, part 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickens, Joseph R.; Kumar, K. S.; Brown, S. A.; Gayle, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    Weldalite (trademark) 049 is an Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg alloy designed to have ultrahigh strength and to serve in aerospace applications. The alloy displays significantly higher strength than competitive alloys in both naturally aged and artificially aged tempers. The strengthening phases in such tempers have been identified to, in part, explain the mechanical properties attained. In general, the alloy is strengthened by delta prime Al3Li and Guinier-Preston (GP) zones in the naturally aged tempers. In artificially aged tempers in slightly underaged conditions, strengthening is provided by several phases including GP zones, theta prime Al2Cu, S prime Al2CuMg, T(sub 1) Al2CuLi, and possibly a new phase. In the peak strength artificially aged tempers, T(sub 1) is the predominant strengthening phase.

  3. 30 W Cr:LiSrAlF 6 flashlamp-pumped pulsed laser.

    PubMed

    Samad, Ricardo Elgul; Baldochi, Sonia Licia; Calvo Nogueira, Gesse Eduardo; Vieira, Nilson Dias

    2007-01-01

    We report the performance of a flashlamp-pumped Cr:LiSrAlF(6) (Cr:LiSAF) laser developed and built by us. The pumping cavity incorporates filters that select the flashlamps' emission spectrum to match the absorption bands of the gain medium, allowing control of the amount of nonradiactive decay heat contribution of the optical cycle, minimizing thermal effects on the laser operation. The laser generated 2 J pulses at 15 Hz, resulting in 30 W of average power, the highest power extracted from a Cr:LiSAF rod laser to our knowledge. We were able to conclude that the laser efficiency is affected by resonator configuration changes due to thermal lens effects, and not to thermal quenching of the Cr:LiSAF luminescence. PMID:17167580

  4. Hafnium influence on the microstructure of FeCrAl alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geanta, V.; Voiculescu, I.; Stanciu, E.-M.

    2016-06-01

    Due to their special properties at high temperatures, FeCrAl alloys micro-alloyed with Zr can be regarded as potential materials for use at nuclear power plants, generation 4R. These materials are resistant to oxidation at high temperatures, to corrosion, erosion and to the penetrating radiations in liquid metal environments. Also, these are able to form continuously, by the self-generation process of an oxide coating with high adhesive strength. The protective oxide layers must be textured and regenerable, with a good mechanical strength, so that crack and peeling can not appear. To improve the mechanical and chemical characteristics of the oxide layer, we introduced limited quantities of Zr, Ti, Y, Hf, Ce in the range of 1-3%wt in the FeCrAl alloy. These elements, with very high affinity to the oxygen, are capable to stabilize the alumina structure and to improve the oxide adherence to the metallic substrate. FeCrAl alloys microalloyed with Hf were prepared using VAR (Vacuum Arc Remelting) unit, under high argon purity atmosphere. Three different experimental alloys have been prepared using the same metallic matrix of Fe-14Cr-5Al, by adding of 0.5%wt Hf, 1.0%wt Hf and respectively 1.5%wt Hf. The microhardness values for the experimental alloys have been in the range 154 ... 157 HV0.2. EDAX analyses have been performed to determine chemical composition on the oxide layer and in the bulk of sample and SEM analyze has been done to determine the microstructural features. The results have shown the capacity of FeCrAl alloy to form oxide layers, with different texture and rich in elements such as Al and Hf.

  5. Effect of the composition of Al-Li alloys on the quantitative relation between the δ'(Al3Li), S1(Al2MgLi), and T1(Al2CuLi) phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betsofen, S. Ya.; Antipov, V. V.; Grushin, I. A.; Knyazev, M. I.; Khokhlatova, L. B.; Alekseev, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Al-Li alloys are considered. A quantitative approach to the determination of the ratio of the fractions of the binary and ternary intermetallic phases in Al-Mg(Cu)-Li alloys is developed on the basis of chemical and phase composition balance equations and the experimentally measured lattice parameter of the α solid solution. The ratio of the fractions of the δ'(Al3Li) and S1(T1) phases in Al-Mg(Cu)-Li alloys is shown to be determined by the ratio of the mole fractions of Li and Mg(Cu). Equations are proposed for calculating the weight fractions of the S1(Al2MgLi), T1(Al2CuLi) and δ'(Al3Li) phases in domestic and foreign Al-Mg-Li alloys 1420, 1424, 5090 and Al-Cu-Li alloys 1440, 1460, 1461, 1441, 1469, 2090, 2095, 8090, and Weldalite 049.

  6. Microstructural variations in Cu/Nb and Al/Nb nanometallic multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Polyakov, M. N.; Hodge, A. M.; Courtois-Manara, E.; Wang, D.; Kuebel, C.; Chakravadhanula, K.

    2013-06-17

    Miscible (Al/Nb) and immiscible (Cu/Nb) nanometallic multilayer systems were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy techniques, primarily by automated crystallographic orientation mapping, which allows for the resolution of crystal structures and orientations at the nanoscale. By using this technique, distinctive Nb orientations in relation to the crystallographic state of the Al and Cu layer structures can be observed. Specifically, the Al and Cu layers were found to consist of amorphous, semi-amorphous, and crystalline regions, which affect the overall multilayer microstructure.

  7. [Catalytic degradation of naphthalene by CuO (-CeO2)/Al2O3].

    PubMed

    Zha, Jian; Zhou, Hong-Cang; He, Du-Liang; Shan, Long; Zhang, Lu; Xie, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Three catalysts CuO/Al2O3, CeO2/Al2O3 and CuO-CeO2/Al2O3 were prepared by the impregnation method. The textural and structural properties of the synthesized catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, SEM and XRD, and the effect of active ingredients, flow rate and reaction temperature on catalytic degradation of naphthalene (NaP) were investigated in fixed-bed reactor. The experimental results show that the prepared 18% CeO2/Al2O3 has a low catalytic activity of NaP. Nevertheless, both 18% CuO/Al2O3 and 9% CuO-9% CeO2/Al2O3 exhibit high catalytic activity whose removal efficiencies at 300°C can reach 91% and 89%, respectively. Besides, compared with CuO/Al2O3, CuO-CeO2/Al2O3 possesses a higher low-temperature activity. Furthermore, the variation of flow rates has little effect on the performance of two catalysts.

  8. [Catalytic degradation of naphthalene by CuO (-CeO2)/Al2O3].

    PubMed

    Zha, Jian; Zhou, Hong-Cang; He, Du-Liang; Shan, Long; Zhang, Lu; Xie, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Three catalysts CuO/Al2O3, CeO2/Al2O3 and CuO-CeO2/Al2O3 were prepared by the impregnation method. The textural and structural properties of the synthesized catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, SEM and XRD, and the effect of active ingredients, flow rate and reaction temperature on catalytic degradation of naphthalene (NaP) were investigated in fixed-bed reactor. The experimental results show that the prepared 18% CeO2/Al2O3 has a low catalytic activity of NaP. Nevertheless, both 18% CuO/Al2O3 and 9% CuO-9% CeO2/Al2O3 exhibit high catalytic activity whose removal efficiencies at 300°C can reach 91% and 89%, respectively. Besides, compared with CuO/Al2O3, CuO-CeO2/Al2O3 possesses a higher low-temperature activity. Furthermore, the variation of flow rates has little effect on the performance of two catalysts. PMID:25693411

  9. Progress in the material development of LiCaAlF sub 6 :Cr sup 3+ laser crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Michelle D. Shinn.; Chase, L.L.; Caird, J.A.; Payne, S.A.; Atherton, L.J.; Kway, W.L.

    1990-03-01

    High Cr{sup 3+} doping levels, up to 8 mole percent, and low losses have been obtained with the tunable solid-state laser material LiCaAlF{sub 6}:Cr{sup 3+} (Cr:LiCAF). Measurements and calculations show that high pumping and extraction efficiencies are possible with the improved material. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Understanding phase stability of Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni high entropy alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Chuan; Zhang, Fan; Diao, Haoyan; Gao, Michael C.; Tang, Zhi; Poplawsky, Jonathan D.; Liaw, Peter K.

    2016-07-19

    The concept of high entropy alloy (HEA) opens a vast unexplored composition range for alloy design. As a well-studied system, Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni has attracted tremendous amount of attention to develop new-generation low-density structural materials for automobile and aerospace applications. In spite of intensive investigations in the past few years, the phase stability within this HEA system is still poorly understood and needs to be clarified, which poses obstacles to the discovery of promising Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni HEAs. In the present work, the CALPHAD approach is employed to understand the phase stability and explore the phase transformation within the Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni system. As a result,more » the phase-stability mapping coupled with density contours is then constructed within the composition - temperature space, which provides useful guidelines for the design of low-density Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni HEAs with desirable properties.« less

  11. Solute transport during the cyclic oxidation of Ni-Cr-Al alloys. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Important requirements for protective coatings of Ni-Cr-Al alloys for gas turbine superalloys are resistance to oxidation accompanied by thermal cycling, resistance to thermal fatigue cracking. The resistance to oxidation accompanied by thermal cycling is discussed. The resistance to thermal fatigue cracking is also considered.

  12. Mechanical properties of aluminized CoCrAlY coatings in advanced gas turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Kameda, J.; Bloomer, T.E. |; Sugita, Y.; Ito, A.; Sakurai, S.

    1997-07-01

    The microstructure/composition and mechanical properties (22-950 C) in aluminized CoCrAlY coatings of advanced gas turbine blades have been examined using scanning Auger microprobe and a small punch (SP) testing method. Aluminized coatings were made of layered structure divided into four regimes: (1) Al enriched and Cr depleted region, (2) Al and Cr graded region, (3) fine grained microstructure with a mixture of Al and Cr enriched phases and (4) Ni/Co interdiffusion zone adjacent to the interface SP tests demonstrated strong dependence of the deformation and fracture behavior on the various coatings regimes. Coatings 1 and 2 showed higher microhardness and easier formation of brittle cracks in a wide temperature range, compared to coatings 3 and 4. The coating 3 had lower room temperature ductility and conversely higher elevated temperature ductility than the coating 4 due to a precipitous ductility increase above 730 C. The integrity of aluminized coatings while in-service is discussed in light of the variation in the low cycle fatigue life as well as the ductility in the layered structure.

  13. Ion irradiation testing and characterization of FeCrAl candidate alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Anderoglu, Osman; Aydogan, Eda; Maloy, Stuart Andrew; Wang, Yongqiang

    2014-10-29

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program’s Advanced Fuels Campaign has initiated a multifold effort aimed at facilitating development of accident tolerant fuels. This effort involves development of fuel cladding materials that will be resistant to oxidizing environments for extended period of time such as loss of coolant accident. Ferritic FeCrAl alloys are among the promising candidates due to formation of a stable Al₂O₃ oxide scale. In addition to being oxidation resistant, these promising alloys need to be radiation tolerant under LWR conditions (maximum dose of 10-15 dpa at 250 – 350°C). Thus, in addition to a number of commercially available alloys, nuclear grade FeCrAl alloys developed at ORNL were tested using high energy proton irradiations and subsequent characterization of irradiation hardening and damage microstructure. This report summarizes ion irradiation testing and characterization of three nuclear grade FeCrAl cladding materials developed at ORNL and four commercially available Kanthal series FeCrAl alloys in FY14 toward satisfying FCRD campaign goals.

  14. Influence of deposition parameters on hard Cr-Al-N coatings deposited by multi-arc ion plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Shihong; Chen, Zhong; Li, Jinlong; Li, Mingxi

    2012-02-01

    The Cr-Al-N coatings were synthesized at various substrate bias voltages and nitrogen partial pressures by multi-arc ion plating (M-AIP). The relationships between deposition parameters and coating properties were investigated. Morphologies, phase structures, hardness and adhesion strength of the coatings were analyzed by SEM, XRD, XPS, nano-indenter and scratch tester. The results indicated that with the increase of substrate bias voltages, the surface macroparticles and deposition rate reduced mainly for the resputtering phenomenon. The (Cr, Al)N solid-solution phase kept unchanged, but the Cr2N and AlN phases disappeared gradually. Due to the change of phase structures and residual compressive stress, the hardness values decreased and the adhesion strength decreased initially and then increased. Similarly, with the increase of nitrogen partial pressures, the phase structures of CrAlN coatings varied from Cr + Cr2N + (Cr,Al)N to Cr2N + (Cr,Al)N. The surface macroparticles increased due to the decreasing resputtering efficiency, and the deposition rate increased initially and then decreased due to the resputtering phenomenon. With increasing nitrogen partial pressures, adhesion strength decreased initially and then increased. The microhardness increased mainly due to the increase of Cr2N contents and decrease of metal macroparticles.

  15. Study of the effects of implantation on the high Fe-Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-Al alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribarsky, M. W.

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical study of the effects of implantation on the corrosion resistance of Fe-Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-Al alloys was undertaken. The purpose was to elucidate the process by which corrosion scales form on alloy surfaces. The experiments dealt with Ni implanted with Al, exposed to S at high temperatures, and then analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, scanning Auger spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Pair bonding and tight-binding models were developed to study the compositions of the alloys and as a result, a new surface ordering effect was found which may exist in certain real alloys. With these models, the behavior of alloy constituents in the presence of surface concentrations of O or S was also studied. Improvements of the models to take into account the important effects of long- and short-range ordering were considered. The diffusion kinetics of implant profiles at various temperatures were investigated, and it was found that significant non-equilibrium changes in the profiles can take place which may affect the implants' performance in the presence of surface contaminants.

  16. Effect of Aluminum Content on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al x CoCrFeMo0.5Ni High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chin-You; Juan, Chien-Chang; Sheu, Tsing-Shien; Chen, Swe-Kai; Yeh, Jien-Wei

    2013-12-01

    High-entropy alloys Al x CoCrFeMo0.5Ni with varied Al contents ( x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) have been designed based on the Al x CoCrCuFeNi system to improve mechanical properties for room and elevated temperatures. They have been investigated for microstructure and mechanical properties. As the aluminum content increases, the as-cast structure evolves from face-centered cubic dendrite + minor σ-phase interdendrite at x = 0 to B2 dendrite with body-centered cubic (bcc) precipitates + bcc interdendrite with B2 precipitates at x = 2.0. This confirms the strong bcc-forming tendency of Al. The room-temperature Vickers hardness starts from the lowest, HV 220, at x = 0, attains to the maximum, HV 720, at x = 1.0, and then decreases to HV 615 at x = 2.0. Compared with the base alloy system, the current alloy system has a superior combination of hardness and fracture toughness. In addition, Al x CoCrFeMo0.5Ni alloys except x = 0 display a higher hot hardness level than those of Ni-based superalloys, including In 718 and In 718 H, up to 1273 K and show great potential in high-temperature applications.

  17. Creep and Oxidation Behavior of Modified CF8C-Plus with W, Cu, Ni, and Cr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unocic, Kinga A.; Dryepondt, Sebastien; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Maziasz, Philip J.

    2016-04-01

    The microstructures of modified CF8C-Plus (Fe-19Cr-12Ni-0.4W-3.8Mn-0.2Mo-0.6Nb-0.5Si-0.9C) with W and Cu (CF8CPWCu) and CF8CPWCu enhanced with 21Cr + 15Ni or 22Cr + 17.5Ni were characterized in the as-cast condition and after creep testing. When imaged at lower magnifications, the as-cast microstructure was similar among all three alloys as they all contained a Nb-rich interdendritic phase and Mn-based inclusions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed the presence of nanoscale Cu-rich nanoprecipitates distributed uniformly throughout the matrix of CF8CPWCu, whereas in CF8CPWCu22/17, Cu precipitates were found primarily at the grain boundaries. The presence of these nanoscale Cu-rich particles, in addition to W-rich Cr23C6, nanoscale Nb carbides, and Z-phase (Nb2Cr2N2), improved the creep strength of the CF8CPWCu steel. Modification of CF8CPWCu with Cr and Ni contents slightly decreased the creep strength but significantly improved the oxidation behavior at 1073 K (800 °C). In particular, the addition of 22Cr and 17.5Ni strongly enhanced the oxidation resistance of the stainless steel resulting in a 100 degrees or greater temperature improvement, and this composition provided the best balance between improving both mechanical properties and oxidation resistance.

  18. Creep and oxidation behavior of modified CF8C-plus with W, Cu, Ni, and Cr

    DOE PAGES

    Unocic, Kinga A.; Dryepondt, Sebastien N.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Maziasz, Philip J.

    2016-02-01

    Here, the microstructures of modified CF8C-Plus (Fe-19Cr-12Ni-0.4W-3.8Mn-0.2Mo-0.6Nb-0.5Si-0.9C) with W and Cu (CF8CPWCu) and CF8CPWCu enhanced with 21Cr + 15Ni or 22Cr + 17.5Ni were characterized in the as-cast condition and after creep testing. When imaged at lower magnifications, the as-cast microstructure was similar among all three alloys as they all contained a Nb-rich interdendritic phase and Mn-based inclusions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed the presence of nanoscale Cu-rich nanoprecipitates distributed uniformly throughout the matrix of CF8CPWCu, whereas in CF8CPWCu22/17, Cu precipitates were found primarily at the grain boundaries. The presence of these nanoscale Cu-rich particles, in addition to W-richmore » Cr23C6, nanoscale Nb carbides, and Z-phase (Nb2Cr2N2), improved the creep strength of the CF8CPWCu steel. Modification of CF8CPWCu with Cr and Ni contents slightly decreased the creep strength but significantly improved the oxidation behavior at 1073 K (800 °C). In particular, the addition of 22Cr and 17.5Ni strongly enhanced the oxidation resistance of the stainless steel resulting in a 100 degrees or greater temperature improvement, and this composition provided the best balance between improving both mechanical properties and oxidation resistance.« less

  19. IBA analysis and corrosion resistance of TiAlPtN/TiAlN/TiAl multilayer films deposited over a CoCrMo using magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canto, C. E.; Andrade, E.; de Lucio, O.; Cruz, J.; Solís, C.; Rocha, M. F.; Alemón, B.; Flores, M.; Huegel, J. C.

    2016-03-01

    The corrosion resistance and the elemental profile of multilayer coatings of TiAlPtN/TiAlN/TiAl synthesized by Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) reactive magnetron sputtering over a CoCrMo alloy substrate in 10 periods of 30 min each were analyzed and compared to those of the substrate alone and to that of a TiAlPtN single layer coating of the same thickness. The objective of the present work was to create multilayers with different amounts of Pt to enhance the corrosion resistance of a biomedical alloy of CoCrMo. Corrosion tests were performed using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) using potentiodynamic polarization tests at typical body temperature. The elemental composition and thickness of the coatings were evaluated with the combination of two ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques: a Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) with alpha beam and a Nuclear Reaction Analysis with a deuteron beam.

  20. Microstructures, mechanical properties, and electrical resistivity of rapidly quenched Fe-Cr-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naohara, T.; Inoue, A.; Minemura, T.; Masumoto, T.; Kumada, K.

    1982-03-01

    By the rapid quenching technique, ductile supersaturated ferrite solid solution with high hardness and strength as well as unusual electrical properties has been found in Fe-Cr-Al ternary system. This formation range is limited to less than about 35 at. pct Cr and 23 at. pct Al. The ferrite phase has fine grains of about 10 μm in diameter. Their hardness, yield strength, and tensile fracture strength increase with increase in the amounts of chromium and aluminum, and the highest values reach about 290 DPN, 720 MPa, and 740 MPa. These alloys are so ductile that no cracks are observed even after closely contacted bending test. The good strength and ductility remain almost unchanged on tempering for one hour until heated to about 923 K where a large amount of Cr2Al compound begins to precipitate preferentially along the grain boundaries of the ferrite phase. The room-temperature resistivity increases with increasing chromium and aluminum contents and reaches as high as 1.86 μ Ώ m for Fe50Cr30Al20 alloy. Also, the temperature coefficient of resistivity in the temperature range between room temperature and 773 K decreases with increasing chromium and aluminum contents and becomes zero in the vicinity of 20 to 30 at. pct Cr and 15 at. pct Al. Thus, the present alloys may be attractive as fine gauge high-resistance and/or standard-resistance wires and plates because of the unusual electrical properties combined with high strength and good ductility.

  1. Properties and features of structure formation CuCr-contact alloys in electron beam cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Durakov, Vasiliy G.; Dampilon, Bair V. E-mail: gnusov@rambler.ru; Gnyusov, Sergey F. E-mail: gnusov@rambler.ru

    2014-11-14

    The microstructure and properties of the contact CuCr alloy produced by electron-beam cladding have been investigated. The effect of the electron beam cladding parameters and preheating temperature of the base metal on the structure and the properties of the coatings has been determined. The bimodal structure of the cladding coating has been established. The short circuit currents tests have been carried out according to the Weil-Dobke synthetic circuit simulating procedure developed for vacuum circuit breakers (VCB) test in real electric circuits. Test results have shown that the electron beam cladding (EBC) contact material has better breaking capacity than that of commercially fabricated sintered contact material. The application of the technology of electron beam cladding for production of contact material would significantly improve specific characteristics and reliability of vacuum switching equipment.

  2. Energy levels and radiative rates for Cr-like Cu VI and Zn VII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, K. M.; Bogdanovich, P.; Keenan, F. P.; Kisielius, R.

    2016-09-01

    Energy levels and radiative rates (A-values) for transitions in Cr-like Cu VI and Zn VII are reported. These data are determined in the quasi-relativistic approach (QR), by employing a very large configuration interaction (CI) expansion which is highly important for these ions. No radiative rates are available in the literature to compare with our results, but our calculated energies are in close agreement with those compiled by NIST and other available theoretical data, for a majority of the levels. The A-values (and resultant lifetimes) are listed for all significantly contributing E1, E2 and M1 radiative transitions among the energetically lowest 322 levels of each ion.

  3. Energy levels and radiative rates for Cr-like Cu VI and Zn VII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, K. M.; Bogdanovich, P.; Keenan, F. P.; Kisielius, R.

    2016-09-01

    Energy levels and radiative rates (A-values) for transitions in Cr-like Cu VI and Zn VII are reported. These data are determined in the quasi-relativistic approach (QR), by employing a very large configuration interaction (CI) expansion which is highly important for these ions. No radiative rates are available in the literature to compare with our results, but our calculated energies are in close agreement with those compiled by NIST and other available theoretical data, for a majority of the levels. The A-values (and resultant lifetimes) are listed for all significantly contributing E1, E2 and M1 radiative transitions among the energetically lowest 322 levels of each ion.

  4. Advanced ODS FeCrAl alloys for accident-tolerant fuel cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N; Unocic, Kinga A; Hoelzer, David T; Pint, Bruce A

    2014-09-01

    ODS FeCrAl alloys are being developed with optimum composition and properties for accident tolerant fuel cladding. Two oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Fe-15Cr-5Al+Y2O3 alloys were fabricated by ball milling and extrusion of gas atomized metallic powder mixed with Y2O3 powder. To assess the impact of Mo on the alloy mechanical properties, one alloy contained 1%Mo. The hardness and tensile properties of the two alloys were close and higher than the values reported for fine grain PM2000 alloy. This is likely due to the combination of a very fine grain structure and the presence of nano oxide precipitates. The nano oxide dispersion was however not sufficient to prevent grain boundary sliding at 800 C and the creep properties of the alloys were similar or only slightly superior to fine grain PM2000 alloy. Both alloys formed a protective alumina scale at 1200 C in air and steam and the mass gain curves were similar to curves generated with 12Cr-5Al+Y2O3 (+Hf or Zr) ODS alloys fabricated for a different project. To estimate the maximum temperature limit of use for the two alloys in steam, ramp tests at a rate of 5 C/min were carried out in steam. Like other ODS alloys, the two alloys showed a significant increase of the mas gains at T~ 1380 C compared with ~1480 C for wrought alloys of similar composition. The beneficial effect of Yttrium for wrought FeCrAl does not seem effective for most ODS FeCrAl alloys. Characterization of the hardness of annealed specimens revealed that the microstructure of the two alloys was not stable above 1000 C. Concurrent radiation results suggested that Cr levels <15wt% are desirable and the creep and oxidation results from the 12Cr ODS alloys indicate that a lower Cr, high strength ODS alloy with a higher maximum use temperature could be achieved.

  5. The role of copper species on Cu/γ-Al2O3 catalysts for NH3-SCO reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chunxia; Li, Xinyong; Qu, Zhenping; Tade, Moses; Liu, Shaomin

    2012-02-01

    UV-vis spectra, XRD, H2-TPR, TEM and ESR were used to characterize a series of Cu/γ-Al2O3 catalysts, which were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation using copper nitrate, copper acetate or copper sulfate as precursors, to study the role of Cu species on Cu/γ-Al2O3 catalysts for NH3-SCO reaction. It was found that the mixture of CuO phase and CuAl2O4 phase formed on various Cu/γ-Al2O3 catalysts, and the Cu species and dispersion had significant influence on the Cu/γ-Al2O3 activity. Highly dispersed CuO phase on the support would be related with its high activity for the NH3-SCO reaction.

  6. High-Temperature Thermometer Using Cr-Doped GdAlO3 Broadband Luminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey; Chambers, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    A new concept has been developed for a high-temperature luminescence-based optical thermometer that both shows the desired temperature sensitivity in the upper temperature range of present state-of-the-art luminescence thermometers (above 1,300 C), while maintaining substantial stronger luminescence signal intensity that will allow these optical thermometers to operate in the presence of the high thermal background radiation typical of industrial applications. This objective is attained by using a Cr-doped GdAlO3 (Cr:GdAlO3) sensor with an orthorhombic perovskite structure, resulting in broadband luminescence that remains strong at high temperature due to the favorable electron energy level spacing of Cr:GdAlO3. The Cr:GdAlO3 temperature (and pressure) sensor can be incorporated into, or applied onto, a component s surface when a non-contact surface temperature measurement is desired, or alternatively, the temperature sensor can be attached to the end of a fiber-optic probe that can then be positioned at the location where the temperature measurement is desired. In the case of the fiber-optic probe, both the pulsed excitation and the luminescence emission travel through the fiber-optic light guide. In either case, a pulsed light source provides excitation of the luminescence, and the broadband luminescence emission is collected. Real-time temperature measurements are obtain ed using a least-squares fitting algorithm that determines the luminescence decay time, which has a known temperature dependence established by calibration. Due to the broad absorption and emission bands for Cr:GdAlO3, there is considerable flexibility in the choice of excitation wavelength and emission wavelength detection bands. The strategic choice of the GdAlO3 host is based on its high crystal field, phase stability, and distorted symmetry at the Cr3+ occupation sites. The use of the broadband emission for temperature sensing at high temperatures is a key feature of the invention and is

  7. Nucleation Effects in Thermally Managed Graphite Fiber-Reinforced Al-Cu and Al-Si Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, H. G.; Lopez, H. F.; Gajdardziska-Josifovska, M.; Rohatgi, P. K.

    2007-11-01

    The influence of heat extraction through fiber reinforcements on the resultant solidification morphologies was investigated in cast Al-Cu and Al-Si alloy composites reinforced with graphite fibers (GRFs). For this purpose, the GRFs were externally cooled by exposing their ends to ambient air during pressure infiltration. It was found that in the Al-Cu system, heat extraction through the fiber ends promoted the development of single α-Al envelopes around the GRFs. In particular, radial growth of the α envelopes occurred with a planar solid/liquid solidification front as a result of heat extraction. Apparently, the high thermal conductivity of GRFs causes significant heat extraction to enable the development of a positive temperature gradient at the GRF/melt interface. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAD) unveiled the occurrence of (002) α-Al//(0002)GR orientation relationship at α-Al/GRF interfaces. Preferential nucleation of primary Si along the graphite surfaces of the GRF-reinforced Al-Si alloy composite was also promoted by external fiber heat extraction. However, in this case, numerous nucleation events along the fiber interfaces were common, as well as nucleation at active substrates within the constrained melt. Finally, differential thermal analysis (DTA) indicated that the onset temperatures for nucleation shift toward higher values (by 7 °C for the Al-Cu composite and 2 °C for the Al-Si composite) when compared with their corresponding matrix alloys.

  8. Catalytic ozonation of petroleum refinery wastewater utilizing Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O 3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunmao; Yoza, Brandon A; Wang, Yandan; Wang, Ping; Li, Qing X; Guo, Shaohui; Yan, Guangxu

    2015-04-01

    There is of great interest to develop an economic and high-efficient catalytic ozonation system (COS) for the treatment of biologically refractory wastewaters. Applications of COS require options of commercially feasible catalysts. Experiments in the present study were designed to prepare and investigate a novel manganese-iron-copper oxide-supported alumina-assisted COS (Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS) for the pretreatment of petroleum refinery wastewater. The highly dispersed composite metal oxides on the catalyst surface greatly promoted the performance of catalytic ozonation. Hydroxyl radical mediated oxidation is a dominant reaction in Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS. Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS enhanced COD removal by 32.7% compared with a single ozonation system and by 8-16% compared with Mn-Fe/Al2O3-COS, Mn-Cu/Al2O3-COS, and Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS. The O/C and H/C ratios of oxygen-containing polar compounds significantly increased after catalytic ozonation, and the biodegradability of petroleum refinery wastewater was significantly improved. This study illustrates potential applications of Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS for pretreatment of biologically refractory wastewaters.

  9. Catalytic ozonation of petroleum refinery wastewater utilizing Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O 3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunmao; Yoza, Brandon A; Wang, Yandan; Wang, Ping; Li, Qing X; Guo, Shaohui; Yan, Guangxu

    2015-04-01

    There is of great interest to develop an economic and high-efficient catalytic ozonation system (COS) for the treatment of biologically refractory wastewaters. Applications of COS require options of commercially feasible catalysts. Experiments in the present study were designed to prepare and investigate a novel manganese-iron-copper oxide-supported alumina-assisted COS (Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS) for the pretreatment of petroleum refinery wastewater. The highly dispersed composite metal oxides on the catalyst surface greatly promoted the performance of catalytic ozonation. Hydroxyl radical mediated oxidation is a dominant reaction in Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS. Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS enhanced COD removal by 32.7% compared with a single ozonation system and by 8-16% compared with Mn-Fe/Al2O3-COS, Mn-Cu/Al2O3-COS, and Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS. The O/C and H/C ratios of oxygen-containing polar compounds significantly increased after catalytic ozonation, and the biodegradability of petroleum refinery wastewater was significantly improved. This study illustrates potential applications of Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS for pretreatment of biologically refractory wastewaters. PMID:25649390

  10. Evidence of electrochemical resistive switching in the hydrated alumina layers of Cu/CuTCNQ/(native AlOx)/Al junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Nikolaus; Bamedi, Ameneh; Karipidou, Zoi; Wirtz, René; Sarpasan, Mustafa; Rosselli, Silvia; Nelles, Gabriele

    2013-09-01

    We have investigated bipolar resistive switching of Cu/CuTCNQ/Al cross-junctions in both vacuum and different gas environments. While the generally observed S-shaped I-V hysteresis was reproduced in ambient air, it was reversibly suppressed in well-degassed samples in vacuum and in dry N2. The OFF-switching currents in ambient air peaked when approximately +2.6 V was applied to the Al electrode at low voltage sweep rates. OFF-switching at constant bias was accelerated in humid and oxygen-rich atmospheres. For unbiased samples stored in air, ON-state (RON) and OFF-state (ROFF) resistances increased with time, and RON surpassed the initial ROFF after approximately one week. Retention times were enhanced for samples stored in vacuum and those with a larger cross-junction area. We suggest that resistive switching occurs in a hydrated native alumina layer at the CuTCNQ/Al interface that grows in thickness during exposure to ambient humidity: ON-switching by electrochemical metallization of free Al and/or Cu ions and OFF-switching by anodic oxidation of the Al electrode and previously grown metal filaments.

  11. Thermoelectric properties of Ni-doped CuAlO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongcharoen, Ngamnit; Gaewdang, Thitinai

    2009-07-01

    The polycrystalline Ni-doped CuAlO2 were obtained by solid state reaction method. The mixture of high purity grade of CuO, Al2O3 and Ni(NO3)2.6H2O powders was ground and then pressed by using uniaxial pressure. The obtained pellet was sintered in air at 1423 K for 24 h. XRD patterns showed the crystal structure of the as-sintered CuAl1-xNixO2 (0≤x≤0.10) belonging to rhombohedral, space group. No evidence of second phase was observed when Ni doping up to x=0.01. At Ni content x≥0.01 CuAl1-xNixO2 solid solution phase along with the CuO and CuAl2O4 phases were observed. From SEM micrographs, the grain size decreased from 6 to 2 μm when the amount of Ni in CuAl1-xNixO2 samples increased. Hall mobility and hole concentration of the as-sintered samples were obtained from Hall effect measurements at room temperature. The activation energy values deduced from the electrical resistivity measurements as a function of temperature were reported. The variation of Seebeck coefficient and power factor as a function of temperature was also investigated. From the experimental results, the substitution of Ni2+ ion in Cu+ site of CuAl1-xNixO2 material may be drawn.

  12. Finite Element Modeling for the Structural Analysis of Al-Cu Laser Beam Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartel, Udo; Ilin, Alexander; Bantel, Christoph; Gibmeier, Jens; Michailov, Vesselin

    Laser beam welding of aluminum and copper (Al-Cu) materials is a cost efficient joining technology to produce e.g. connector elements for battery modules. Distortion low connections can be achieved, which have electrical favorable properties. Numerical simulation of the laser beam welding process of Al-Cu dissimilar materials can provide further insight into principal process mechanisms and mechanical response of the joint parts. In this paper a methodology is introduced to investigate the structural behavior of Al-Cu joints in overlap joint with respect to welding distortions and residual stresses. First the material model of the homogeneous base materials are validated. Next, a generic material model approach is used to simulate the structural behavior of heterogeneous Al-Cu connections.

  13. Characterization of Ni-20Cr-5Al model alloy in supercritical water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiao; Guzonas, D.

    2014-02-01

    MCrAlY is a class of coating materials that provide corrosion and oxidation resistance to many Ni and Fe based alloys by forming dense alumina layer on the surface. In order to assess its potential as corrosion resistant coatings on components in supercritical water cooled nuclear reactors (SWCR), a Ni-20Cr-5Al model alloy is tested in SCW (500 °C and 25 MPa) for over 6000 h. The long term corrosion behavior of the samples with various surface preparations is evaluated by measuring weight change and examining surface microstructure and oxide formation. The results show that surface preparation alone can lead to changes in weight gain as great as an order of magnitude. Smooth and near stress free surface allows for more oxidation to take place in SCW, hence more weight change. Simple grinding with abrasive paper yields the least and most stable weight change while grit blasting has some effect in reducing weight gain. Comparing to other alloys tested under similar condition, Ni-20Cr-5Al has the lowest weight change. Although not detected, the formation of Al2O3 or an Al modified Cr2O3 superficial layer is likely the reason for such low weight change.

  14. Deformation and fracture of a directionally solidified NiAl-28Cr-6Mo eutectic alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, X. F.; Johnson, D. R.; Noebe, R. D.; Oliver, B. F.

    1995-01-01

    A directionally solidified alloy based on the NiAl-(Cr, Mo) eutectic was examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy to characterize the microstructure and room temperature deformation and fracture behavior. The microstructure consisted of a lamellar morphology with a group of zone axes (111) growth direction for both the NiAl and (Cr, Mo) phases. The interphase boundary between the eutectic phases was semicoherent and composed of a well-defined dislocation network. In addition, a fine array of coherent NiAl precipitates was dispersed throughout the (Cr, Mo) phase. The eutectic morphology was stable at 1300 K with only coarsening of the NiAl precipitates occurring after heat treatment for 1.8 ks (500 h). Fracture of the aligned eutectic is characterized primarily by a crack bridging/renucleation mechanism and is controlled by the strength of the semicoherent interface between the two phases. However, contributions to the toughness of the eutectic may arise from plastic deformation of the NiAl phase and the geometry associated with the fracture surface.

  15. Deformation and fracture of a directionally solidified NiAl-28Cr-6Mo eutectic alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.F.; Johnson, D.R.; Noebe, R.D.; Oliver, B.F.

    1995-05-01

    A directionally solidified alloy based on the NiAl-(Cr, Mo) eutectic was examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy to characterize the microstructure and room temperature deformation and fracture behavior. The microstructure consisted of a lamellar morphology with a group of zone axes (111) growth direction for both the NiAl and (Cr, Mo) phases. The interphase boundary between the eutectic phases was semicoherent and composed of a well-defined dislocation network. In addition, a fine array of coherent NiAl precipitates was dispersed throughout the (Cr, Mo) phase. The eutectic morphology was stable at 1300 K with only coarsening of the NiAl precipitates occurring after heat treatment for 1.8 ks (500 h). Fracture of the aligned eutectic is characterized primarily by a crack bridging/renucleation mechanism and is controlled by the strength of the semicoherent interface between the two phases. However, contributions to the toughness of the eutectic may arise from plastic deformation of the NiAl phase and the geometry associated with the fracture surface.

  16. Tunable Magnetic Properties in CuCr2- x Fe x O4 Ceramics by Doping of Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, C. M.; Wang, L. G.; Bao, D. L. G. C.; Luo, H.; Tian, Z. M.; Yuan, S. L.

    2016-08-01

    CuCr2- x Fe x O4 ceramics have been successfully synthesized using the sol-gel method for the first time. With pure formation, material structure has been characterized by x-ray diffraction. The samples have been identified as having the spinel structure with formulae CuCr2- x Fe x O4. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy show the dense microstructure of the samples. The stoichiometric ratio of the ceramics has been measured through energy dispersive spectra. Magnetic properties of CuCr2- x Fe x O4 ceramics have been discussed. Temperature dependence of magnetization presents the gradually increasing irreversible temperature as the content of Fe element increases from x = 0 to 1. Coercive field ( H C), remanent magnetization ( M r), and saturation magnetization ( M S) respectively display the monotonous variation phenomena with increasing content of Fe. The increasing M r, M S and the decreasing H C can be attributed to the change of magnetic exchange interaction because of the doped Fe. It also proves that the magnetic properties of CuCr2- x Fe x O4 ceramics can be effectively tuned by the doping content of Fe.

  17. Cage Structure Formation of Singly Doped Aluminum Cluster Cations Al n TM + ( TM = Ti, V, Cr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Sandra M.; Claes, Pieterjan; Neukermans, Sven; Janssens, Ewald

    2011-09-01

    Structural information on free transition metal doped aluminum clusters, Al n TM + ( TM = Ti, V, Cr), was obtained by studying their ability for argon physisorption. Systematic size ( n = 5 - 35) and temperature ( T = 145 - 300 K) dependent investigations reveal that bare Al n + clusters are inert toward argon, while Al n TM + clusters attach one argon atom up to a critical cluster size. This size is interpreted as the geometrical transition from surface-located dopant atoms to endohedrally doped aluminum clusters with the transition metal atom residing in an aluminum cage. The critical size, n crit , is found to be surprisingly large, namely n crit = 16 and n crit = 19 - 21 for TM = V, Cr, and TM = Ti, respectively. Experimental cluster-argon bond dissociation energies have been derived as function of cluster size from equilibrium mass spectra and are in the 0.1-0.3 eV range.

  18. Experimental study and thermodynamic modeling of the Al-Co-Cr-Ni system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheno, Thomas; Liu, Xuan L.; Lindwall, Greta; Liu, Zi-Kui; Gleeson, Brian

    2015-10-01

    A thermodynamic database for the Al-Co-Cr-Ni system is built via the Calphad method by extrapolating re-assessed ternary subsystems. A minimum number of quaternary parameters are included, which are optimized using experimental phase equilibrium data obtained by electron probe micro-analysis and x-ray diffraction analysis of NiCoCrAlY alloys spanning a wide compositional range, after annealing at 900 °C, 1100 °C and 1200 °C, and water quenching. These temperatures are relevant to oxidation and corrosion resistant MCrAlY coatings, where M corresponds to some combination of nickel and cobalt. Comparisons of calculated and measured phase compositions show excellent agreement for the β-γ equilibrium, and good agreement for three-phase β-γ-σ and β-γ-α equilibria. An extensive comparison with existing Ni-base databases (TCNI6, TTNI8, NIST) is presented in terms of phase compositions.

  19. Oxide scales formed on Fe-Cr-Al-based model alloys exposed to oxygen containing molten lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisenburger, A.; Jianu, A.; Doyle, S.; Bruns, M.; Fetzer, R.; Heinzel, A.; DelGiacco, M.; An, W.; Müller, G.

    2013-06-01

    Based on the state of the art oxide maps concerning oxidation behavior of Fe-Cr-Al model alloys at 800 and 1000 °C in oxygen atmosphere, ten compositions, belonging to this alloy system, were designed in order to tap the borders of the alumina stability domain, during their exposure to oxygen (10-6 wt.%) containing lead, at 400, 500 and 600 °C. Eight alloys, Fe-6Cr-6Al, Fe-8Cr-6Al, Fe-10Cr-5Al, Fe-14Cr-4Al, Fe-16Cr-4Al, Fe-6Cr-8Al, Fe-10Cr-7Al and Fe-12Cr-5Al, were found to be protected against corrosion in oxygen containing lead, either by a duplex layer (Fe3O4 + (Fe1-x-yCrxAly)3O4) or by (Fe1-x-yCrxAly)3O4, depending on the temperature at which they were exposed. Two alloys namely Fe-12Cr-7Al and Fe-16Cr-6Al were found to form transient aluminas, κ-Al2O3 (at 400 and 500 °C) and θ-Al2O3 (at 600 °C), as protective oxide scale against corrosion in oxygen containing lead. An oxide map illustrating the stability domain of alumina, grown on Fe-Cr-Al alloys when exposed to molten, oxygen containing lead, was drawn. The map includes also additional points, extracted from literature and corresponding to alumina forming alloys, when exposed to HLMs, which fit very well with our findings. Chromium and aluminium contents of 12.5-17 wt.% and 6-7.5 wt.%, respectively, are high enough to obtain thin, stable and protective alumina scales on Fe-Cr-Al-based alloys exposed to oxygen containing lead at 400, 500 and 600 °C. For the temperature range and exposure times used during the current evaluation, the growth rate of the alumina scale was low. No area with detached scale was observed and no trace of α-Al2O3 was detected.

  20. CuO nanoparticles encapsulated inside Al-MCM-41 mesoporous materials via direct synthetic route

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Chengli; Ouyang, Jing; Yang, Huaming

    2014-01-01

    Highly ordered aluminum-containing mesoporous silica (Al-MCM-41) was prepared using attapulgite clay mineral as a Si and Al source. Mesoporous complexes embedded with CuO nanoparticles were subsequently prepared using various copper sources and different copper loadings in a direct synthetic route. The resulting CuO/Al-MCM-41 composite possessed p6mm hexagonally symmetry, well-developed mesoporosity, and relatively high BET surface area. In comparison to pure silica, these mesoporous materials embedded with CuO nanoparticles exhibited smaller pore diameter, thicker pore wall, and enhanced thermal stability. Long-range order in the aforementioned samples was observed for copper weight percentages as high as 30%. Furthermore, a significant blue shift of the absorption edge for the samples was observed when compared with that of bulk CuO. H2-TPR measurements showed that the direct-synthesized CuO/Al-MCM-41 exhibited remarkable redox properties compared to the post-synthesized samples, and most of the CuO nanoparticles were encapsulated within the mesoporous structures. The possible interaction between CuO and Al-MCM-41 was also investigated. PMID:24419589

  1. Solidification of hypereutectic Al-38 wt pct Cu alloy in microgravity and in unit gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, H.; Tandon, K.N.; Cahoon, J.R.

    1997-05-01

    Solidification in microgravity aboard the space shuttle Endeavour resulted in a dramatic change in the morphology of the primary Al{sub 2}Cu phase compared to ground-based solidification in unit gravity. An Al-38 wt pct Cu ingot directionally solidified at a rate of 0.015 mm/s with a temperature gradient of 1.69 K/mm exhibited large, well-formed dendrites of primary Al{sub 2}Cu phase. Ingots solidified under similar conditions in unit gravity contained primary Al{sub 2}Cu phase with smooth, faceted surfaces. The primary Al{sub 2}Cu phase spacing in the microgravity ingot was much greater than that in the unit gravity ingot, 670 {micro}m compared to 171 {micro}m. It is suggested that thermosolutal mixing in the unit gravity ingot reduces the buildup of an Al-rich layer at the solid/liquid interface, which increases the stability of the interface resulting in smooth, faceted particles of Al{sub 2}Cu phase. It is also suggested that the large difference in primary phase spacings is due mostly to the difference in morphology rather than changes in parameters that might influence dendrite ripening mechanisms. The presence or absence of gravity had no effect on the interlamellar spacing of the inter-Al{sub 2}Cu phase eutectic. The ingot solidified in microgravity exhibited almost no longitudinal macrosegregation, in agreement with the theory of inverse segregation in the absence of thermosolutal convection. The ingot solidified in unit gravity exhibited considerable longitudinal macrosegregation, with the chilled end having about 6 wt pct more Cu than the average composition. It is not clear whether the segregation results from thermosolutal convection during solidification or from sedimentation during melting.

  2. Effects of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn) on fish glutathione metabolism.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, A; Dogan, Z; Kanak, E G; Atli, G; Canli, M

    2015-03-01

    The glutathione metabolism contains crucial antioxidant molecules to defend the organisms against oxidants. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the response of the glutathione metabolism in the liver of freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus exposed to metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn) in different periods. Fish were exposed to metals (as 1 μg/mL) individually for 1, 7, and 14 days and subsequently antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, GPX; glutathione reductase, GR and glutathione S-transferase, GST) and glutathione levels (total glutathione, tGSH; reduced glutathione, rGSH; oxidized glutathione, GSSG and GSH/GSSG ratios) in the liver were measured. There was no fish mortality during the experiments, except Cu exposure. The antioxidant enzymes responded differently to metal exposures depending on metal types and exposure durations. GPX activity increased only after Cd exposure, while GST activity increased following 7 days of all metal exposures. However, GR activity did not alter in most cases. Total GSH and GSH/GSSG levels generally decreased, especially after 7 days. Data showed that metal exposures significantly altered the response of antioxidant system parameters, particularly at day 7 and some recovery occurred after 14 days. This study suggests that the response of antioxidant system could help to predict metal toxicity in the aquatic environments and be useful as an "early warning tool" in natural monitoring studies.

  3. A new mercury-based superconductor: (Hg, Cr)Sr 2CuO y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoyama, J.; Hahakura, S.; Kitazawa, K.; Yamafuji, K.; Kishio, K.

    1994-04-01

    A new mercury-based cuprate superconductor, (Hg 1- xCr x)Sr 2CuO y (0⩽ x⩽0.8), having Tc of 58 K ( x=0.3 has been synthesized. While a chromium-free sample ( x=0) was multi-phased and the superconducting volume fraction was less than 1%, samples for x=0.3 and 0.4 were of nearly single phase and their superconducting shielding volume fraction reached 100% of perfect diamagnetism. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that its crystal symmetry was tetragonal with lattice parameters a0=3.840-3.854 Å and c0=8.639-8.705 Å which slightly varied with x. The observed c0 value, corresponding to the interlayer distance of superconducting CuO 2 planes, was found to be the shortest among all the known mercury-based “12( n-1) n” superconductors. Compared to the barium-containing compounds, the present barium-free materials have been found to be insensitive to the ambient air atmosphere during the synthesis and also to be quite stable after storage in air.

  4. Cu-doped AlN: A possible spinaligner at room-temperature grown by molecular beam epitaxy?

    SciTech Connect

    Ganz, P. R.; Schaadt, D. M.

    2011-12-23

    Cu-doped AlN was prepared by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on C-plane sapphire substrates. The growth conditions were investigated for different Cu to Al flux ratios from 1.0% to 4.0%. The formation of Cu-Al alloys on the surface was observed for all doping level. In contrast to Cu-doped GaN, all samples showed diamagnetic behavior determined by SQUID measurements.

  5. Microstructure and Erosion Resistance Performance of ZrAlN/Cu Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jun; Zhu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Ping; Cai, Zhihai

    ZrAlN/Cu coating has been deposited onto Ti-6Al-4 V substrate by reactive magnetron sputtering in order to improve its erosion resistance. The morphology and microstructure were studied combined with Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscrope(FSEM), X-ray Diffraction(XRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy(XPS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy(TEM). Coatings hardness and toughness were measured by nano-indentation method and Vicker indentation method respectively. It has been found that Zr0.79Al0.19Cu0.02N coating possess dense columnar structure with 20∼40 nm columnar grains exbibiting (100) preferential orientation. XRD reflection peaks slightly shifts to higher angle, showing some of 19at%Al and 2at%Cu substitutely dissolves into face-centered cubic(FCC) ZrN lattice, XPS proves the existence of AlN and Cu phase in coating. Zr0.79Al0.19Cu0.02N coating demonstrates best erosion resistance at 15°∼90° impingement angle compared with Ti6Al4 V substrate, ZrN and Zr0.80Al0.20N coating, attributing to combination of high hardness(40.7 GPa) and good toughness.

  6. Investigation of thermal, mechanical and magnetic behaviors of the Cu-11%Al alloy with Ag and Mn additions

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, R.A.G.; Paganotti, A.; Gama, S.; Adorno, A.T.; Carvalho, T.M.; Santos, C.M.A.

    2013-01-15

    The investigation of thermal, mechanical and magnetic behaviors of the Cu-11%Al, Cu-11%Al-3%Ag, Cu-11%Al-10%Mn and Cu-11%Al-10%Mn-3%Ag alloys was made using microhardness measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy and magnetic moment change with applied field measurement. The results indicated that the Mn addition changes the phase stability range, the microhardness values and makes undetectable the eutectoid reaction in annealed Cu-11%Al and Cu-11%Al-3%Ag alloys while the presence of Ag does not modify the phase transformation sequence neither microhardness values of the annealed Cu-11%Al and Cu-11%Al-10%Mn alloys, but it increases the magnetic moment of this latter at about 2.7 times and decreases the rates of eutectoid and peritectoid reactions of the former. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microstructure of Cu-Al alloy is modified in the Ag presence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ({alpha} + {gamma}) phase is stabilized down to room temperature when Ag is added to Cu-Al alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag-rich phase modifies the magnetic characteristics of Cu-Al-Mn alloy.

  7. β-Cyclodextrin assisted solubilization of Cu and Cr complexes of flavonoids in aqueous medium: A DNA-interaction study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabeen, Erum; Janjua, Naveed Kausar; Hameed, Shahid

    2014-07-01

    Cu and Cr complexes of three flavonoids (morin, quercetin and 6-hydroxyflavone) were synthesized and included in beta-cyclodextrin (βCD) with the objective of improving their pharmacokinetic profiles. Then binding with ds.DNA was studied to monitor their interactive tendencies at physiological conditions. The binding constants and other thermodynamic data from UV-vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry revealed Cr-flavonoid-βCD to interact with ds.DNA at pH-7.4 through electrostatic mode of binding while Cu-flavonoid-βCD can intercalate into DNA. The strong binding propensity of Cu-flavonoid-βCD with ds.DNA encourages their application as anticancerous agent.

  8. Formation of CuAlO2 Film by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iping, S.; Lockman, Zainovia; Hutagalung, S. D.; Kamsul, A.; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2011-10-01

    Smooth, crack free and homogenous CuAlO2 film was produced by chemical solution deposition process via spray pyrolysis technique on a cleaned Si substrate. The precursor solution used was comprised of a mixture of 45.87 mmol Cu(NO3)2.3H2O and 90 mmol Al(NO3)3.9H2O at ratio of Cu:Al = 1.2:1. The precursor solution was placed in a mist chamber and was atomized by a nebulizer to produce precursor mist. The precursor mist was then carried out by Ar gas and was sprayed onto a heated Si. Two main parameters were studied: the distance between the nozzle of the precursor mist chamber and the Si and the temperature of the Si substrate. It appears that from the XRD data, CuAlO2 can be detected for samples prepared by spraying the precursor mist at temperature of > 550 °C with distance between the nozzle and the substrate of 3cm. Reaction of the Cu and Al ions in the mist near the substrate may have promoted the crystallisation of CuAlO2.

  9. Dissolution of Precipitates During Solution Treatment of Al-Mg-Si-Cu Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xukai; Guo, Mingxing; Zhang, Jishan; Zhuang, Linzhong

    2016-02-01

    A model combining classical diffusion-controlled dissolution equation for a single spherical particle and Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-like equation is used to deal with dissolution process for different kinds of precipitations (Si, Mg2Si, Q(Al1.9Mg4.1Si3.3Cu)) in Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys. The results reveal that the dissolution time of precipitates increases with increasing their sizes and solute concentrations in the alloy matrix; for the same size and concentration, their dissolution times follow Si > Q(Al1.9Mg4.1Si3.3Cu) > Mg2Si. Two precipitates (Mg2Si and Al1.9Mg4.1Si3.3Cu) with a size of about 700 nm were obtained in a cold rolled Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Zn alloy, and the complete dissolution time is about 15 seconds, which is basically the same as the calculated time by the developed model. The theoretical prediction of dissolution time can be greatly used to design solution treatment and thermomechanical processing parameters of Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys.

  10. Catalytic role of Cu(II) in the reduction of Cr(VI) by citric acid under an irradiation of simulated solar light.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Jing; Lan, Yeqing

    2015-05-01

    The catalytic role of Cu(II) in the reduction of Cr(VI) by citric acid with simulated solar light was investigated. The results demonstrated that Cu(II) could significantly accelerate Cr(VI) reduction and the reaction obeyed to pseudo zero-order kinetics with respect to Cr(VI). The removal of Cr(VI) was related to the initial concentrations of Cu(II), citric acid, and the types of organic acids. The optimal removal of Cr(VI) was achieved at pH 4, and the rates of Cu(II) photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) by organic acids were in the order: tartaric acid (two α-OH groups, two -COOH groups)>citric acid (one α-OH group, three -COOH groups)>malic acid (one α-OH group, two -COOH groups)>lactic acid (one α-OH group, one -COOH group)≫succinic acid (two -COOH groups), suggesting that the number of α-OH was the key factor for the reaction, followed by the number of -COOH. The formation of Cu(II)-citric acid complex could generate Cu(I) and radicals through a pathway of metal-ligand-electron transfer, promoting the reduction of Cr(VI). This study is helpful to fully understanding the conversion of Cr(VI) in the existence of both organic acids and Cu(II) with solar light in aquatic environments.

  11. Effect of surface roughness on the development of protective Al 2O 3 on Fe-10Al (at.%) alloys containing 0-10 at.% Cr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. G.; Hou, P. Y.; Gesmundo, F.; Niu, Y.

    2006-11-01

    The effect of alloy surface roughness, achieved by different degrees of surface polishing, on the development of protective alumina layer on Fe-10 at.% Al alloys containing 0, 5, and 10 at.% Cr was investigated during oxidation at 1000 °C in 0.1 MPa oxygen. For alloys that are not strong Al 2O 3 formers (Fe-10Al and Fe-5Cr-10Al), the rougher surfaces increased Fe incorporation into the overall surface layer. On the Fe-10Al, more iron oxides were formed in a uniform layer of mixed aluminum- and iron-oxides since the layer was thicker. On the Fe-5Cr-10Al, more iron-rich nodules developed on an otherwise thin Al 2O 3 surface layer. These nodules nucleated preferentially along surface scratch marks but not on alloy grain boundaries. For the strong Al 2O 3-forming Fe-10Cr-10Al alloy, protective alumina surface layers were observed regardless of the surface roughness. These results indicate that the formation of a protective Al 2O 3 layer on Fe-Cr-Al surfaces is not dictated by Al diffusion to the surface. More cold-worked surfaces caused an enhanced Fe diffusion, hence produced more Fe-rich oxides during the early stage of oxidation.

  12. Electronic, Magnetic, and Redox Properties of [MFe(3)S(4)] Clusters (M = Cd, Cu, Cr) in Pyrococcus furiosus Ferredoxin.

    PubMed

    Staples, Christopher R.; Dhawan, Ish K.; Finnegan, Michael G.; Dwinell, Derek A.; Zhou, Zhi Hao; Huang, Heshu; Verhagen, Marc F. J. M.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Johnson, Michael K.

    1997-12-01

    The ground- and excited-state properties of heterometallic [CuFe(3)S(4)](2+,+), [CdFe(3)S(4)](2+,+), and [CrFe(3)S(4)](2+,+) cubane clusters assembled in Pyrococcus furiosus ferredoxin have been investigated by the combination of EPR and variable-temperature/variable-field magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) studies. The results indicate Cd(2+) incorporation into [Fe(3)S(4)](0,-) cluster fragments to yield S = 2 [CdFe(3)S(4)](2+) and S = (5)/(2) [CdFe(3)S(4)](+) clusters and Cu(+) incorporation into [Fe(3)S(4)](+,0) cluster fragments to yield S = (1)/(2) [CuFe(3)S(4)](2+) and S = 2 [CuFe(3)S(4)](+) clusters. This is the first report of the preparation of cubane type [CrFe(3)S(4)](2+,+) clusters, and the combination of EPR and MCD results indicates S = 0 and S = (3)/(2) ground states for the oxidized and reduced forms, respectively. Midpoint potentials for the [CdFe(3)S(4)](2+,+), [CrFe(3)S(4)](2+,+), and [CuFe(3)S(4)](2+,+) couples, E(m) = -470 +/- 15, -440 +/- 10, and +190 +/- 10 mV (vs NHE), respectively, were determined by EPR-monitored redox titrations or direct electrochemistry at a glassy carbon electrode. The trends in redox potential, ground-state spin, and electron delocalization of [MFe(3)S(4)](2+,+) clusters in P. furiosus ferredoxin are discussed as a function of heterometal (M = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Tl).

  13. Influence of Al Contents on the Microstructure, Mechanical, and Wear properties of Magnetron Sputtered CrAlN Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Hetal N.; Jayaganthan, R.

    2012-09-01

    CrAlN (0 < x < 0.1) coatings were deposited on SA304 substrate by a reactive magnetron sputtering. The microstructure and composition of the as-deposited coatings were systematically characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy/EDS and atomic force microscopy, and the phase formation by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The hardness of the coatings was investigated using nanoindentation, while wear properties were investigated using pin-on-disk tribometer. XRD study reveals that the deposited CrAlN coatings crystallized in the cubic B1 NaCl structure. The minimum and maximum hardness of the coatings are found to be 15.28 and 18.81 GPa, respectively. The COF and wear rate are found to be 0.48 and 2.25 × 10-5 mm3/N · m, which is lower than the CrN coatings deposited and characterized under the same environment (0.63 and 2.25 × 10-5 mm3/Nm).

  14. Cr diffusion in MgAl2O4 synthetic spinels: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freda, C.; Celata, B.; Andreozzi, G.; Perinelli, C.; Misiti, V.

    2012-04-01

    Chromian spinel is an accessory phase common in crustal and mantle rocks, including peridotites, gabbros and basalts. Spinel, it has been identified as one of the most effective, sensible, and versatile petrogenetic indicator in mafic and ultramafic rock systems due to the strict interdependence between its physico-chemical properties (chemical composition, cation configuration etc.) and genetic conditions (temperature, pressure, and chemical characteristics of the system). In particular, studies on intra- and inter-crystalline Mg-Fe2+, Cr-Al exchange demonstrated the close relationship between spinel composition and both degree of partial melting and equilibrium temperature of spinel-peridotites. Moreover, studies focused on the chemical zoning of Mg-Fe2+ and/or Cr-Al components in spinel have been used, combined with a diffusion model, to provide quantitative information on peridotites and gabbros pressure-temperature paths and on deformation mechanisms. Although these potentials, most of the experimental studies have been performed on spinels hosting a limited content of divalent iron (sensu stricto, MgAl2O4), whereas the scarce studies on Cr-Al inter-diffusion coefficient have been performed at 3-7 GPa as pressure boundary condition. In order to contribute to the understanding of processes occurring in the lithospheric mantle, we have initiated an experimental research project aiming at determining the Cr-Al inter-diffusion in spinel at 2 GPa pressure and temperature ranging from 1100 to 1250 °C. The experiments were performed in a end-loaded piston cylinder by using a 19 mm assembly and graphite-Pt double capsules. As starting materials we used synthetic Mg-Al spinel (200-300 μm in size) and Cr2O3 powder. Microanalyses of experimental charge were performed on polished carbon-coated mounts by electronic microprobe. Line elemental analyses were made perpendicular to the contact surface between Cr2O3 powder and spinel, at interval of 2 μm. By processing these

  15. Effect of delayed aging on mechanical properties of an Al-Cu-Mg alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindranathan, S.P.; Kashyap, K.T.; Kumar, S.R.; Ramachandra, C.; Chatterji, B.

    2000-02-01

    The effect of delayed aging on mechanical properties is characteristically found in Al-Mg-Si alloys. Delayed aging refers to the time elapsed between solutionizing and artificial aging. Delayed aging leads to inferior properties. This effect was investigated in an Al-Cu-Mg alloy (AU2GN) of nominal composition Al-2Cu-1.5Mg-1Fe-1Ni as a function of delay. This alloy also showed a drop in mechanical properties with delay. The results are explained on the basis of Pashley's kinetic model to qualitatively explain the evolution of a coarse precipitate structure with delay. It is found that all the results of delayed aging in the Al-Cu-Mg alloys are similar to those found in Al-Mg-Si alloys.

  16. Overaluminizing of a CoNiCrAlY Coating by Inward and Outward Diffusion Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bababdani, Samira Mohseni; Nogorani, Farhad Shahriari

    2014-04-01

    Overaluminizing is a commercially accepted treatment to enhance high temperature oxidation resistance of MCrAlY overlay coatings. In the current investigation, a low pressure plasma-sprayed CoNiCrAlY coating was aluminized by two different growth modes: outward growth and inward growth. The resultant microstructures were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The results showed that the final microstructure of both types of overaluminized coatings was similar and included Al-rich NiAl and Ni-rich NiAl zones from the top to the bottom. The details of the microstructures are discussed and compared with the results of simple aluminizing of the nickel-based substrate.

  17. New type of Al-based decagonal quasicrystal in Al60Cr20Fe10Si10 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhanbing; Ma, Haikun; Li, Hua; Li, Xingzhong; Ma, Xiuliang

    2016-03-01

    A new kind of decagonal quasicrystal (DQC) with a periodicity of 1.23 nm was observed in the as-cast quaternary Al60Cr20Fe10Si10 alloy. The intensity distribution of some spots in the selected-area electron diffraction pattern along the tenfold zone axis was found to be different from other Al-based DQCs. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy was adopted to reveal the structural features at an atomic level. Both the tenfold symmetry and symmetry-broken decagonal (D) clusters of 1.91 nm in diameter were found, but with structural characteristics different from the corresponding D clusters in the other Al-based DQCs. The neighboring D clusters are connected by sharing one edge rather than covering, suggesting the tiling model is better than the covering model for structural description.

  18. Wear Behavior of High Velocity Arc Spraying FeNiCrAlBRE/Ni95Al Composite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, H. L.; Wei, S. C.; Chen, Y. X.; Tong, H.; Liu, Y.; Xu, B. S.

    Wear-resistant FeNiCrAlBRE/Ni95Al composite coatings were deposited on carbon steel plate by high velocity arc spraying. Adhesive strength of the composite coating was improved by spraying Ni95Al cored wires as transition layer between working coating and substrate. Scanning electron microscopy and Vickers hardness testing were used to evaluate coatings structure and mechanical properties. For quantitative investigation of porosity, a computer image analyzer was used. The forming, the wear resistance and its mechanism of the coatings were studied. The results show that coating has relatively high average hardness about 550 HV0.1 and adhesive strength is 47 MPa. The worn surface characterized shallow grooves and few of debris on the coating manifested that the coating has better wear resistance under dry sliding conditions.

  19. New type of Al-based decagonal quasicrystal in Al60Cr20Fe10Si10 alloy

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhanbing; Ma, Haikun; Li, Hua; Li, Xingzhong; Ma, Xiuliang

    2016-01-01

    A new kind of decagonal quasicrystal (DQC) with a periodicity of 1.23 nm was observed in the as-cast quaternary Al60Cr20Fe10Si10 alloy. The intensity distribution of some spots in the selected-area electron diffraction pattern along the tenfold zone axis was found to be different from other Al-based DQCs. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy was adopted to reveal the structural features at an atomic level. Both the tenfold symmetry and symmetry-broken decagonal (D) clusters of 1.91 nm in diameter were found, but with structural characteristics different from the corresponding D clusters in the other Al-based DQCs. The neighboring D clusters are connected by sharing one edge rather than covering, suggesting the tiling model is better than the covering model for structural description. PMID:26928759

  20. Properties of Cr:LiSrAlF[sub 6] crystals for laser operation

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, B.H.T. ); Payne, S.A.; Smith, L.K.; Beach, R.J.; Tassano, J.H.; DeLoach, L.D.; Kway, W.L.; Solarz, R.W.; Krupke, W.F. )

    1994-08-20

    We have performed several physical and optical measurements on the Cr:LiSAF (LiSrAlF[sub 6]) laser material that are relevant to its laser performance, including thermal and mechanical properties, water durabilities, and Auger upconversion constants. The expansion coefficient, Young's modulus, fracture toughness, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity are all used to determine an overall thermomechanical figure of merit for the crystal. An investigation of the water durability suggests that the cooling solution should be maintained at pH = 7 to ameliorate problems associated with water dissolution. The Auger constant was found to become much more significant at higher Cr doping, in which excited-state migration leads to a substantial increase in the upconversion rate. We propose a design for a 50-W Cr:LiSAF laser system that is based on a detailed knowledge of all the relevant material parameters.

  1. Optical and physical properties of the LiSrAlF[sub 6]:Cr laser crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.K.; Payne, S.A.; Tassano, J.B.; DeLoach, L.D.; Kway, W.L.; Krupke, W.F.

    1993-05-18

    We have measured several of the physical and optical parameters of the LiSrAlF[sub 6]:Cr or Cr:LiSAF laser material that are important to its laser performance, including the thermomechanical properties, water durabilities and Auger upconversion constants. A thermomechanical figure-of-merit has been determined from measurements of the fracture toughness, expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, Young's modulus, and heat capacity. Tests of water durability suggest that a neutral pH of 7 is optimum to minimize water dissolution. The Auger effect was found to be a significant factor at higher Cr concentration, where excited-state migration leads to an increase in the upconversion rate. 17 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs.

  2. Optical and physical properties of the LiSrAlF{sub 6}:Cr laser crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.K.; Payne, S.A.; Tassano, J.B.; DeLoach, L.D.; Kway, W.L.; Krupke, W.F.

    1993-05-18

    We have measured several of the physical and optical parameters of the LiSrAlF{sub 6}:Cr or Cr:LiSAF laser material that are important to its laser performance, including the thermomechanical properties, water durabilities and Auger upconversion constants. A thermomechanical figure-of-merit has been determined from measurements of the fracture toughness, expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, Young`s modulus, and heat capacity. Tests of water durability suggest that a neutral pH of 7 is optimum to minimize water dissolution. The Auger effect was found to be a significant factor at higher Cr concentration, where excited-state migration leads to an increase in the upconversion rate. 17 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs.

  3. Comparison of GRCop-84 to Other Cu Alloys with High Thermal Conductivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Ellis, David L.; Loewenthal, William S.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical properties of six highly conductive copper alloys, GRCop-84, AMZIRC, GlidCop Al-15, Cu-1Cr-0.1Zr, Cu-0.9Cr, and NARloy-Z were compared. Tests were done on as-received hard drawn material, and after a heat treatment designed to simulate a brazing operation at 935 C. In the as-received condition AMZIRC, GlidCop Al-15, Cu- 1Cr-0.1Zr and Cu-0.9Cr had excellent strengths at temperatures below 500 C. However, the brazing heat treatment substantially decreased the mechanical properties of AMZIRC, Cu-1Cr-0.1Zr, Cu-0.9Cr, and NARloy-Z. The properties of GlidCop Al-15 and GRCop-84 were not significantly affected by the heat treatment. Thus there appear to be advantages to GRCop-84 over AMZIRC, Cu-1Cr-0.1Zr, Cu-0.9Cr, and NARloy-Z if use or processing temperatures greater than 500 C are expected. Ductility was lowest in GlidCop Al-15 and Cu-0.9Cr; reduction in area was particularly low in GlidCop Al-15 above 500 C, and as- received Cu-0.9Cr was brittle between 500 and 650 C. Tensile creep tests were done at 500 and 650 C; the creep properties of GRCop-84 were superior to those of brazed AMZIRC, Cu-1Cr- 0.1Zr, Cu-0.9Cr, and NARloy-Z. In the brazed condition, GRCop-84 was superior to the other alloys due to its greater strength and creep resistance (compared to AMZIRC, Cu-1Cr-0.1Zr, Cu-0.9Cr, and NARloy-Z) and ductility (compared to GlidCop Al-15).

  4. First-principles study of nitrogen-doped CuAlO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ying; Ao, Zhi Min; Yuan, Ding Wang

    2012-08-01

    The electronic structure and formation energies of N-doped CuAlO2 are studied using first-principles calculations. It is found that, when a N atom is doped into CuAlO2, the N atom prefers to substitute an O atom rather than to occupy an interstitial site of the Cu layer. The NO acts as a shallow accepter while the Ni acts as a deep accepter. The results of the electronic structure show that the N-doping doesn't alter the band gap of CuAlO2 for the both cases. In the substitutional case, the N impurity states occur at the top of valance band maximum (VBM), which provides holes and increases the p-type conductivity. However, in the interstitial case, the N impurity states occur in the middle of the band gap, which are more localized and this indicates that it is not good for p-type conductivity.

  5. Relative phase and physical properties of CrN/AlN multilayer: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudris, E. F.; Díaz F, J. H.; Espita R, M. J.

    2016-08-01

    Using first principles total-energy calculations within the framework of density functional theory, we studied the relative stability and the structural and electronic properties of multilayer CrN/AlN in the sodium chloride (NaCl), cesium chloride (CsCl), nickel arsenide (NiAs), zinc-blende, and wurtzite structures. The calculations were carried out using the method based on pseudopotentials, employed exactly as implemented in Quantum-ESPRESSO code. Based on total energy minimization, we found that the minimum global energy of CrN/AlN is obtained for the zincblende structure. Additionally, at high pressure our calculations show the possibility of a phase transition from the zincblende to NaCl structure. For the zincblende phase, the density of states analysis reveals that the multilayer exhibits a half-metallic behavior with a magnetic moment of 3.0^p/Cr-atom. These properties come essentially from the polarization of Cr-d and N-p states that cross the Fermi level. Due to these properties, the multilayer can potentially be used in the field of spintronics or spin injectors.

  6. 1300 K Compressive Properties of Directionally Solidified Ni-33Al-33Cr-1Mo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Raj, S. V.; Locci, Ivan E.

    2000-01-01

    The Ni-33Al-33Cr-1Mo eutectic has been directionally solidified by a modified Bridgeman technique at growth rates ranging from 7.6 to 508 mm/h to produce grain/cellular microstructures, containing alternating plates of NiAl and Cr alloyed with Mo. The grains had sharp boundaries for slower growth rates (< 12.7 mm/h), while faster growth rates (> 25.4 mm/h) lead to cells bounded by intercellular regions. Compressive testing at 1300 K indicated that alloys DS'ed at rates between 25.4 to 254 mm/h possessed the best strengths which exceed that for the as-cast alloy.

  7. Fuel Performance Calculations for FeCrAl Cladding in BWRs

    SciTech Connect

    George, Nathan; Sweet, Ryan; Maldonado, G. Ivan; Wirth, Brian D.; Powers, Jeffrey J.; Worrall, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This study expands upon previous neutronics analyses of the reactivity impact of alternate cladding concepts in boiling water reactor (BWR) cores and directs focus toward contrasting fuel performance characteristics of FeCrAl cladding against those of traditional Zircaloy. Using neutronics results from a modern version of the 3D nodal simulator NESTLE, linear power histories were generated and supplied to the BISON-CASL code for fuel performance evaluations. BISON-CASL (formerly Peregrine) expands on material libraries implemented in the BISON fuel performance code and the MOOSE framework by providing proprietary material data. By creating material libraries for Zircaloy and FeCrAl cladding, the thermomechanical behavior of the fuel rod (e.g., strains, centerline fuel temperature, and time to gap closure) were investigated and contrasted.

  8. Creep behavior of commercial FeCrAl foils: beneficial and detrimental effect of oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N; Pint, Bruce A; Lara-Curzio, Edgar

    2012-01-01

    Creep tests were performed at 875 and 1050 C on commercially available FeCrAl foils (~50 m, 2 mil thickness) over a wide range of stress and duration to characterize their creep behavior. The oxide scales formed on the creep specimens were analyzed and compared to those that formed on unstressed specimens to assess the effect of stress and strain on oxide growth mechanisms. Below a specific stress threshold, creep rate and lifetime become independent of the applied load and rupture occurs due to the onset of breakaway oxidation. A creep rate model based on the strengthening of the FeCrAl foils due to load-bearing by the thermally-grown alumina scale was observed to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  9. The Temporal Evolution of the Nanostructure of a Model Ni-Al-Cr Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudbrack, Chantal K.; Yoon, Kevin E.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Seidman, David N.

    2004-01-01

    The early to the later stages of precipitation of ordered gamma'-precipitates (L1(sub 2)) in Ni-5.2 Al-14.2 Cr (at.%) are studied at 873 K. Precipitates with radii as small as 0.45 nm are characterized fully by three-dimensional atom-probe (3DAP) microscopy. Contrary to what is often assumed by theory or in models, the average precipitate composition is shown to evolve with time, such that solute concentrations decrease toward an equilibrium value given by the solvus lines. Power-law time dependencies of the number density, mean radius, and supersaturations of Al and Cr are discussed in light of theoretical predictions for Ostwald ripening.

  10. An experimental and thermodynamic equilibrium investigation of the Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn and Ni partitioning during sewage sludge incineration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingyong; Fu, Jiewen; Ning, Xun'an; Sun, Shuiyu; Wang, Yujie; Xie, Wuming; Huang, Shaosong; Zhong, Sheng

    2015-09-01

    The effects of different chlorides and operational conditions on the distribution and speciation of six heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn and Ni) during sludge incineration were investigated using a simulated laboratory tubular-furnace reactor. A thermodynamic equilibrium investigation using the FactSage software was performed to compare the experimental results. The results indicate that the volatility of the target metals was enhanced as the chlorine concentration increased. Inorganic-Cl influenced the volatilization of heavy metals in the order of Pb>Zn>Cr>Cu>Mn>Ni. However, the effects of organic-Cl on the volatility of Mn, Pb and Cu were greater than the effects on Zn, Cr and Ni. With increasing combustion temperature, the presence of organic-Cl (PVC) and inorganic-Cl (NaCl) improved the transfer of Pb and Zn from bottom ash to fly ash or fuse gas. However, the presence of chloride had no obvious influence on Mn, Cu and Ni. Increased retention time could increase the volatilization rate of heavy metals; however, this effect was insignificant. During the incineration process, Pb readily formed PbSiO4 and remained in the bottom ash. Different Pb compounds, primarily the volatile PbCl2, were found in the gas phase after the addition of NaCl; the dominant Pb compounds in the gas phase after the addition of PVC were PbCl2, Pb(ClO4)2 and PbCl2O4.

  11. Effects of ruthenium on phase separation in a model Ni-Al-Cr-Ru superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yang; Isheim, Dieter; Hsieh, Gillian; Noebe, Ronald D.; Seidman, David N.

    2013-04-01

    The temporal evolution of a Ni-10.0Al-8.5Cr-2.0Ru (at.%) alloy aged at 1073 K was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom-probe tomography. The γ‧(L12)-precipitate morphology is spheroidal through 256 h of ageing as a result of adding Ru, which decreases the lattice parameter misfit between the γ‧(L12)- and γ(f.c.c.)-phases. The addition of Ru accelerates the compositional evolution of the γ‧(L12)- and γ(f.c.c.)-phases, which achieve their equilibrium compositions after 0.25 h. Initially, Ru accelerates the partitioning of Ni and Cr to the γ(f.c.c.)-phase, and the partitioning of Al to the γ‧(L12)-phase, but after 0.25 h, Ru, which partitions to the γ(f.c.c.)-phase, decreases the partitioning of Ni and increases the partitioning of Al and Cr. The temporal evolution of the average radius, ⟨R(t)⟩, number density, volume fraction of the γ‧(L12)-precipitates, and the supersaturations of Ni, Al, Cr, and Ru in the γ(f.c.c.)- and γ‧(L12)-phases are compared in detail with predictions of coarsening models and PrecipiCalc simulations. Based on a spline function fitting procedure of the concentration profiles between the γ‧(L12)- and γ(f.c.c.)-phases, it is demonstrated that the temporal evolution of the normalized interfacial width, δ/⟨R(t)⟩ vs. ⟨R(t)⟩, of each element, decreases with increasing ageing time: δ is the interfacial width.

  12. Effect of creep stress on microstructure of a Ni-Cr-W-Al-Ti superalloy

    SciTech Connect

    Doh, J.M.; Yoo, K.K.; Choi, J.; Hur, S.K.; Baik, H.K.

    1996-02-15

    Creep stress changes the morphology and distribution of the precipitates in the precipitation-hardened alloys. It leads to the formation of precipitate free zones (PFZs) near the grain boundaries. From the microstructural observation of the creep tested specimens of a Ni-Cr-W-Al-Ti superalloy, the relation between PFZs and the amount of plastic deformation in the creep-ruptured specimen is established and the validity of the existing model is discussed based upon the experimental results.

  13. The effect of zirconium on the cyclic oxidation of NiCrAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, C. A.; Khan, A. S.; Lowell, C. E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines results with cyclic oxidation tests of Ni(9-20) Cr(15-30) Al-(x)Zr alloys carried out at 1100 C and 1200 C in static air. The concentration of zirconium varies from 0 to 0.63 atomic percent. Significant aluminum penetration is found in metallographic and electron microscopic examination of oxidized surfaces. Small amounts of zirconium lead to minimal penetration, and with increased zirconium content pronounced oxide penetration is observed.

  14. Analysis of the FeCrAl Accident Tolerant Fuel Concept Benefits during BWR Station Blackout Accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    Iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys are being considered for fuel concepts with enhanced accident tolerance. FeCrAl alloys have very slow oxidation kinetics and good strength at high temperatures. FeCrAl could be used for fuel cladding in light water reactors and/or as channel box material in boiling water reactors (BWRs). To estimate the potential safety gains afforded by the FeCrAl concept, the MELCOR code was used to analyze a range of postulated station blackout severe accident scenarios in a BWR/4 reactor employing FeCrAl. The simulations utilize the most recently known thermophysical properties and oxidation kinetics for FeCrAl. Overall, when compared to the traditional Zircaloy-based cladding and channel box, the FeCrAl concept provides a few extra hours of time for operators to take mitigating actions and/or for evacuations to take place. A coolable core geometry is retained longer, enhancing the ability to stabilize an accident. Finally, due to the slower oxidation kinetics, substantially less hydrogen is generated, and the generation is delayed in time. This decreases the amount of non-condensable gases in containment and the potential for deflagrations to inhibit the accident response.

  15. Processing and microstructural characterization of Al-Cu alloys produced from rapidly solidified powders

    SciTech Connect

    Conlon, K.T.; Maire, E.; Wilkinson, D.S.; Henein, H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper concerns the processing of Al-Cu alloys via a novel powder-metallurgy route. The specific technique used for powder processing involves the rapid solidification of coarse, molten droplets following impulse atomization. This produces a fine, homogeneous, dendritic microstructure within the alloy granules. Following consolidation via hot pressing, the microstructure consists mostly of an Al matrix with fine CuAl{sub 2} particles and partially recrystallized dendrites. Further heat treatment and/or thermomechanical processing completes the spheroidization process in the CuAl{sub 2} phase. Blending powders with different Cu has been used to make materials with a bimodal distribution of the local particle-volume-fraction content. The high temperature (773 K) strength of these materials decreases with increasing CuAl{sub 2} content. This can be explained using a flow model based on superplastic deformation, controlled by diffusion-accommodated sliding at Al grain boundaries. This mechanism may also explain the deformation-enhanced particle coarsening observed during channel-die forging operations.

  16. Effects of C and Cr content on high-temperature microstructures of Fe-9Al-30Mn-xC-yCr alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, May-Show; Cheng, Hsin-Chung; Huang, Chiung-Fang; Chao, Chih-Yeh; Ou, Keng-Liang; Yu, Chih-Hua

    2010-02-15

    This investigation elucidated the effects of C and Cr content on the high-temperature microstructures of Fe-9Al-30Mn-xC-yCr alloys by means of optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. With increasing Cr content, the phase transition sequence within the {alpha} phase was found to be {alpha} + B2 {yields} {alpha} + B2 + DO{sub 3} {yields} {alpha} + DO{sub 3}. And with increasing C content, a {gamma} {yields} ({gamma} + {kappa}) phase transition was observed within the {gamma} phase. The {kappa} phase carbides ((Fe,Mn){sub 3}AlC{sub x}) had an ordered L'1{sub 2}-type structure with lattice parameter a = 0.368 nm and were formed by a spinodal decomposition during quenching. The amounts of Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} increased with the C and Cr content. Moreover, the Al and Mn content played important roles in expanding the ({alpha} + {gamma}) region. These features have not been previously reported in the Fe-Al-Mn-C-Cr alloy system.

  17. STM study of the atomic structure of the icosahedral Al-Cu-Fe fivefold surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, T.; Fournée, V.; Lograsso, T.; Ross, A.; Thiel, P. A.

    2002-04-01

    We use scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to investigate the atomic structure of the icosahedral (i-) Al-Cu-Fe fivefold surface in ultra high vacuum (UHV). Studies show that large, atomically flat terraces feature many ten-petal ``flowers'' with internal structure. The observed flower patterns can be associated with features on Al rich dense atomic planes generated from two-dimensional cuts of bulk models based on x-ray and neutron diffraction experiments. The results confirm that the fivefold surface of i-Al-Cu-Fe corresponds to a bulk-terminated plane.

  18. Effects of Solute Concentrations on Kinetic Pathways in Ni-Al-Cr Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth-Morrison, Christopher; Weninger, Jessica; Sudbrack, Chantal K.; Mao, Zugang; Seidman, David N.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2008-01-01

    The kinetic pathways resulting from the formation of coherent gamma'-precipitates from the gamma-matrix are studied for two Ni-Al-Cr alloys with similar gamma'-precipitate volume fractions at 873 K. The details of the phase decompositions of Ni-7.5Al-8.5Cr at.% and Ni-5.2Al-14.2Cr at.% for aging times from 1/6 to 1024 h are investigated by atom-probe tomography, and are found to differ significantly from a mean-field description of coarsening. The morphologies of the gamma'-precipitates of the alloys are similar, though the degrees of gamma'-precipitate coagulation and coalescence differ. Quantification within the framework of classical nucleation theory reveals that differences in the chemical driving forces for phase decomposition result in differences in the nucleation behavior of the two alloys. The temporal evolution of the gamma'-precipitate average radii and the gamma-matrix supersaturations follow the predictions of classical coarsening models. The compositional trajectories of the gamma-matrix phases of the alloys are found to follow approximately the equilibrium tie-lines, while the trajectories of the gamma'-precipitates do not, resulting in significant differences in the partitioning ratios of the solute elements.

  19. Structural and magnetic properties of Co 2CrAl Heusler alloys prepared by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakimi, M.; Kameli, P.; Salamati, H.

    2010-11-01

    Mechanical alloying has been used to produce nanocrystalline samples of Co 2CrAl Heusler alloys. The samples were characterized by using different methods. The results indicate that, it is possible to produce L2 1-Co 2CrAl powders after 15 h of ball-milling. The grain size of 15 h ball milled L2 1-Co 2CrAl Heusler phase, calculated by analyzing the XRD peak broadening using Williamson and Hall approach was 14 nm. The estimated magnetic moment per formula unit is ˜2 μ B. The obtained magnetic moment is significantly smaller than the theoretical value of 2.96 μ B for L2 1 structure. It seems that an atomic disorder from the crystalline L2 1-type ordered state and two-phase separation depresses the ferromagnetic ordering in alloy. Also, the effect of annealing on the structural and magnetic properties of ball milled powders was investigated. Two structures were identified for annealed sample, namely L2 1 and B2. The obtained value for magnetic moment of annealed sample is smaller than the as-milled sample due to the presence of disordered B2 phase and improvement of phase separation.

  20. Fe-Cr-Al containing oxide semiconductors as potential solar water-splitting materials.

    PubMed

    Sliozberg, Kirill; Stein, Helge S; Khare, Chinmay; Parkinson, Bruce A; Ludwig, Alfred; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    A high-throughput thin film materials library for Fe-Cr-Al-O was obtained by reactive magnetron cosputtering and analyzed with automated EDX and XRD to elucidate compositional and structural properties. An automated optical scanning droplet cell was then used to perform photoelectrochemical measurements of 289 compositions on the library, including electrochemical stability, potentiodynamic photocurrents and photocurrent spectroscopy. The photocurrent onset and open circuit potentials of two semiconductor compositions (n-type semiconducting: Fe51Cr47Al2Ox, p-type semiconducting Fe36.5Cr55.5Al8Ox) are favorable for water splitting. Cathodic photocurrents are observed at 1.0 V vs RHE for the p-type material exhibiting an open circuit potential of 0.85 V vs RHE. The n-type material shows an onset of photocurrents at 0.75 V and an open circuit potential of 0.6 V. The p-type material showed a bandgap of 1.55 eV, while the n-type material showed a bandgap of 1.97 eV. PMID:25650842

  1. Fe-Cr-Al containing oxide semiconductors as potential solar water-splitting materials.

    PubMed

    Sliozberg, Kirill; Stein, Helge S; Khare, Chinmay; Parkinson, Bruce A; Ludwig, Alfred; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    A high-throughput thin film materials library for Fe-Cr-Al-O was obtained by reactive magnetron cosputtering and analyzed with automated EDX and XRD to elucidate compositional and structural properties. An automated optical scanning droplet cell was then used to perform photoelectrochemical measurements of 289 compositions on the library, including electrochemical stability, potentiodynamic photocurrents and photocurrent spectroscopy. The photocurrent onset and open circuit potentials of two semiconductor compositions (n-type semiconducting: Fe51Cr47Al2Ox, p-type semiconducting Fe36.5Cr55.5Al8Ox) are favorable for water splitting. Cathodic photocurrents are observed at 1.0 V vs RHE for the p-type material exhibiting an open circuit potential of 0.85 V vs RHE. The n-type material shows an onset of photocurrents at 0.75 V and an open circuit potential of 0.6 V. The p-type material showed a bandgap of 1.55 eV, while the n-type material showed a bandgap of 1.97 eV.

  2. Oxidation and Hot Corrosion Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed MCrAlY-Cr2O3 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tiantian; Huang, Chuanbing; Lan, Hao; Du, Lingzhong; Zhang, Weigang

    2016-08-01

    The oxidation and hot corrosion behavior of two atmospheric plasma-sprayed NiCoCrAlY-Cr2O3 and CoNiCrAlY-Cr2O3 coatings, which are primarily designed for wear applications at high temperature, were investigated in this study. The two coatings were exposed to air and molten salt (75%Na2SO4-25%NaCl) environment at 800 °C under cyclic conditions. Oxidation and hot corrosion kinetic curves were obtained by thermogravimetric technique. X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry were employed to characterize the coatings' microstructure, surface oxides, and composition. The results showed that both coatings provided the necessary oxidation resistance with oxidation rates of about 1.03 × 10-2 and 1.36 × 10-2 mg/cm2 h, respectively. The excellent oxidation behavior of these two coatings is attributed to formation of protective (Ni,Co)Cr2O4 spinel on the surface, while as-deposited Cr2O3 in the coatings also acted as a barrier to diffusion of oxidative and corrosive substances. The greater presence of Co in the CoNiCrAlY-Cr2O3 coating restrained internal diffusion of sulfur and slowed down the coating's degradation. Thus, the CoNiCrAlY-Cr2O3 coating was found to be more protective than the NiCoCrAlY-Cr2O3 coating under hot corrosion condition.

  3. Tuning the formation of p-type defects by peroxidation of CuAlO{sub 2} films

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Jie; Lin, Yow-Jon; Yang, Yao-Wei; Hung, Hao-Che; Liu, Chia-Jyi

    2013-07-21

    p-type conduction of CuAlO{sub 2} thin films was realized by the rf sputtering method. Combining with Hall, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, and X-ray diffraction results, a direct link between the hole concentration, Cu vacancy (V{sub Cu}), and interstitial oxygen (O{sub i}) was established. It is shown that peroxidation of CuAlO{sub 2} films may lead to the increased formation probability of acceptors (V{sub Cu} and O{sub i}), thus, increasing the hole concentration. The dependence of the V{sub Cu} density on growth conditions was identified for providing a guide to tune the formation of p-type defects in CuAlO{sub 2}. Understanding the defect-related p-type conductivity of CuAlO{sub 2} is essential for designing optoelectronic devices and improving their performance.

  4. Analysis of the microstructure of Cr-Ni surface layers deposited on Fe{sub 3}Al by TIG

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Haijun . E-mail: hjma123@mail.sdu.edu.cn; Li Yajiang; Wang Juan

    2006-12-15

    A series of Cr-Ni alloys were overlaid on a Fe{sub 3}Al surface by tungsten inert gas arc welding (TIG) technology. The microstructure of the Cr-Ni surface layers were analysed by means of optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated that when the appropriate TIG parameters were used and Cr25-Ni13 and Cr25-Ni20 alloys were used for the overlaid materials, the Cr-Ni surface layers were crack-free. The matrix of the surface layer was austenite (A), pro-eutectoid ferrite (PF), acicular ferrite (AF), carbide-free bainite (CFB) and lath martensite (LM), distributed on the austenitic grain boundaries as well as inside the grains. The phase constituents of the Cr25-Ni13 surface layer were {gamma}-Fe, Fe{sub 3}Al, FeAl, NiAl, an Fe-C compound and an Fe-C-Cr compound. The microhardness of the fusion zone was lower than that of the Fe{sub 3}Al base metal and Cr25-Ni13 surface layer.

  5. Effect of Ag Addition on the Electrochemical Performance of Cu10Al in Artificial Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Salgado-Salgado, R. J.; Sotelo-Mazon, O.; Rodriguez-Diaz, R. A.; Salinas-Solano, G.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we proposed to evaluate the corrosion resistance of four different alloys by electrochemical techniques, a binary alloy Cu10Al, and three ternary alloys Cu10Al-xAg (x = 5, 10, and 15 wt.%) to be used like biomaterials in dental application. Biomaterials proposed were tested in artificial saliva at 37°C for 48 h. In addition, pure metals Cu, Al, Ag, and Ti as reference materials were evaluated. In general the short time tests indicated that the Ag addition increases the corrosion resistance and reduces the extent of localized attack of the binary alloy. Moreover, tests for 48 hours showed that the Ag addition increases the stability of the passive layer, thereby reducing the corrosion rate of the binary alloy. SEM analysis showed that Cu10Al alloy was preferably corroded by grain boundaries, and the Ag addition modified the form of attack of the binary alloy. Cu-rich phases reacted with SCN− anions forming a film of CuSCN, and the Ag-rich phase is prone to react with SCN− anions forming AgSCN. Thus, binary and ternary alloys are susceptible to tarnish in the presence of thiocyanate ions. PMID:27660601

  6. Effect of Ag Addition on the Electrochemical Performance of Cu10Al in Artificial Saliva.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Salgado, R J; Porcayo-Calderon, J; Sotelo-Mazon, O; Rodriguez-Diaz, R A; Salinas-Solano, G; Salinas-Bravo, V M; Martinez-Gomez, L

    2016-01-01

    In this work we proposed to evaluate the corrosion resistance of four different alloys by electrochemical techniques, a binary alloy Cu10Al, and three ternary alloys Cu10Al-xAg (x = 5, 10, and 15 wt.%) to be used like biomaterials in dental application. Biomaterials proposed were tested in artificial saliva at 37°C for 48 h. In addition, pure metals Cu, Al, Ag, and Ti as reference materials were evaluated. In general the short time tests indicated that the Ag addition increases the corrosion resistance and reduces the extent of localized attack of the binary alloy. Moreover, tests for 48 hours showed that the Ag addition increases the stability of the passive layer, thereby reducing the corrosion rate of the binary alloy. SEM analysis showed that Cu10Al alloy was preferably corroded by grain boundaries, and the Ag addition modified the form of attack of the binary alloy. Cu-rich phases reacted with SCN(-) anions forming a film of CuSCN, and the Ag-rich phase is prone to react with SCN(-) anions forming AgSCN. Thus, binary and ternary alloys are susceptible to tarnish in the presence of thiocyanate ions. PMID:27660601

  7. Effect of Ag Addition on the Electrochemical Performance of Cu10Al in Artificial Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Salgado-Salgado, R. J.; Sotelo-Mazon, O.; Rodriguez-Diaz, R. A.; Salinas-Solano, G.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we proposed to evaluate the corrosion resistance of four different alloys by electrochemical techniques, a binary alloy Cu10Al, and three ternary alloys Cu10Al-xAg (x = 5, 10, and 15 wt.%) to be used like biomaterials in dental application. Biomaterials proposed were tested in artificial saliva at 37°C for 48 h. In addition, pure metals Cu, Al, Ag, and Ti as reference materials were evaluated. In general the short time tests indicated that the Ag addition increases the corrosion resistance and reduces the extent of localized attack of the binary alloy. Moreover, tests for 48 hours showed that the Ag addition increases the stability of the passive layer, thereby reducing the corrosion rate of the binary alloy. SEM analysis showed that Cu10Al alloy was preferably corroded by grain boundaries, and the Ag addition modified the form of attack of the binary alloy. Cu-rich phases reacted with SCN− anions forming a film of CuSCN, and the Ag-rich phase is prone to react with SCN− anions forming AgSCN. Thus, binary and ternary alloys are susceptible to tarnish in the presence of thiocyanate ions.

  8. Effect of Ag Addition on the Electrochemical Performance of Cu10Al in Artificial Saliva.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Salgado, R J; Porcayo-Calderon, J; Sotelo-Mazon, O; Rodriguez-Diaz, R A; Salinas-Solano, G; Salinas-Bravo, V M; Martinez-Gomez, L

    2016-01-01

    In this work we proposed to evaluate the corrosion resistance of four different alloys by electrochemical techniques, a binary alloy Cu10Al, and three ternary alloys Cu10Al-xAg (x = 5, 10, and 15 wt.%) to be used like biomaterials in dental application. Biomaterials proposed were tested in artificial saliva at 37°C for 48 h. In addition, pure metals Cu, Al, Ag, and Ti as reference materials were evaluated. In general the short time tests indicated that the Ag addition increases the corrosion resistance and reduces the extent of localized attack of the binary alloy. Moreover, tests for 48 hours showed that the Ag addition increases the stability of the passive layer, thereby reducing the corrosion rate of the binary alloy. SEM analysis showed that Cu10Al alloy was preferably corroded by grain boundaries, and the Ag addition modified the form of attack of the binary alloy. Cu-rich phases reacted with SCN(-) anions forming a film of CuSCN, and the Ag-rich phase is prone to react with SCN(-) anions forming AgSCN. Thus, binary and ternary alloys are susceptible to tarnish in the presence of thiocyanate ions.

  9. High field magnetotransport and point contact Andreev reflection measurements on CuCr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} and CuCr{sub 2}Se{sub 3}Br—Degenerate magnetic semiconductor single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Borisov, K. Coey, J. M. D.; Stamenov, P.; Alaria, J.

    2014-05-07

    Single crystals of the metallically degenerate fully magnetic semiconductors CuCr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} and CuCr{sub 2}Se{sub 3}Br have been prepared by the Chemical Vapour Transport method, using either Se or Br as transport agents. The high-quality, millimetre-sized, octahedrally faceted, needle- and platelet-shaped crystals are characterised by means of high field magnetotransport (μ{sub 0}H≤ 14 T) and Point Contact Andreev Reflection. The relatively high spin polarisation observed |P|>0.56, together with the relatively low minority carrier effective mass of 0.25 m{sub e}, and long scattering time  10{sup −13} s, could poise these materials for integration in low- and close-to-room temperature minority injection bipolar heterojunction transistor demonstrations.

  10. [Cr(III)8M(II)6](12+) Coordination Cubes (M(II)=Cu, Co).

    PubMed

    Sanz, Sergio; O'Connor, Helen M; Pineda, Eufemio Moreno; Pedersen, Kasper S; Nichol, Gary S; Mønsted, Ole; Weihe, Høgni; Piligkos, Stergios; McInnes, Eric J L; Lusby, Paul J; Brechin, Euan K

    2015-06-01

    [Cr(III)8M(II)6](12+) (M(II) =Cu, Co) coordination cubes were constructed from a simple [Cr(III) L3 ] metalloligand and a "naked" M(II) salt. The flexibility in the design proffers the potential to tune the physical properties, as all the constituent parts of the cage can be changed without structural alteration. Computational techniques (known in theoretical nuclear physics as statistical spectroscopy) in tandem with EPR spectroscopy are used to interpret the magnetic behavior.

  11. Spatially resolved quantitative magnetic order measurement in spinel CuCr{sub 2}S{sub 4} nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Negi, D. S.; Loukya, B.; Datta, R.; Ramasamy, K.; Gupta, A.

    2015-05-04

    We have utilized spatially resolved high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy to quantify the relative percentage of ferromagnetic order in the core and the surface regions of CuCr{sub 2}S{sub 4} nanoparticles with nanocube and nanocluster morphology. The organic capping layer is found to play a significant role in restoring magnetic order at the surface. The technique is based on recording the fine features of the Cr L{sub 3} absorption edge and matching them with the theoretical spectra. The nanoscale probing technique we have developed is quite versatile and can be extended to understand magnetic ordering in a number of nanodimensional magnetic materials.

  12. Formation of α-alumina scales in the Fe-Al(Cr) diffusion coating on China low activation martensitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Qin; Zhao, Weiwei; Yang, Hongguang; Hatano, Yuji; Yuan, Xiaoming; Nozaki, Teo; Zhu, Xinxin

    2015-09-01

    To study the formation mechanism of stable α-Al2O3 scales, the oxidation behavior of Fe-Al(Cr) diffusion coating on China low activation martensitic steel has been investigated under the oxygen partial pressure ranging from 1 to 20,000 Pa at 1253 K. A single, continuous Al2O3 scale with the maximum thickness of about 2000 nm was formed on the Fe-Al(Cr) diffusion layer. The phase transformation of alumina scales on the surface of Fe-Al(Cr) layer was studied at different oxidation times ranging from 3 to 180 min. With the increase in oxygen partial pressure, the phase transformation time of α-Al2O3 is decreased. The metastable γ-Al2O3 and transition α-(Al0.948Cr0.052)2O3 phases were formed in the earlier oxidation process and finally transformed to the stable α-Al2O3 phase, which were detected by grazing incidence angle X-ray diffraction and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. This implies that Cr shows the third element effect and serves as a template for the nucleation of the stable α-Al2O3.

  13. Adhesion strength and nucleation thermodynamics of four metals (Al, Cu, Ti, Zr) on AlN substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yuan; Ke, Genshui; Xie, Yan; Chen, Yigang; Shi, Siqi; Guo, Haibo

    2015-12-01

    Devices based on AlN generally require adherent and strong interfaces between AlN and other materials, whereas most metals are known to be nonwetting to AlN and form relatively weak interfaces with AlN. In this study, we selected four representative metals (Al, Cu, Ti, and Zr) to study the adhesion strength of the AlN/metal interfaces. Mathematical models were constructed between the adhesion strength and enthalpy of formation of Al-metal solid solutions, the surface energies of the metals, and the lattice mismatch between the metals and AlN, based on thermodynamic parameters calculated using density functional theory. It appears that the adhesion strength is mainly determined by the lattice mismatch, and is in no linear correlation with either the Al-metal solution's formation enthalpies or the metals' surface energies. We also investigated the nucleation thermodynamics of the four metals on AlN substrates. It was found that Ti forms the strongest interface with AlN, and has the largest driving force for nucleation on AlN substrates among the four metals.

  14. Assessment of Post-eutectic Reactions in Multicomponent Al-Si Foundry Alloys Containing Cu, Mg, and Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidani, Mousa; Larouche, Daniel; Grant Chen, X.

    2015-07-01

    Post-eutectic reactions occurring in Al-Si hypoeutectic alloys containing different proportions of Cu, Mg, and Fe were thoroughly investigated in the current study. As-cast microstructures were initially studied by optical and electron microscopy to investigate the microconstituents of each alloy. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was then used to examine the phase transformations occurring during the heating and cooling processes. Thermodynamic calculations were carried out to assess the phase formation under equilibrium and in nonequilibrium conditions. The Q-Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 phase was predicted to precipitate from the liquid phase, either at the same temperature or earlier than the θ-Al2Cu phase depending on the Cu content of the alloy. The AlCuFe-intermetallic, which was hardly observed in the as-cast microstructure, significantly increased after the solution heat treatment in the alloys containing high Cu and Fe contents following a solid-state transformation of the β-Al5FeSi phase. After the solution heat treatment, the AlCuFe-intermetallics were mostly identified with the stoichiometry of the Al7Cu2Fe phase. Thermodynamic calculations and microstructure analysis helped in determining the DSC peak corresponding to the melting temperature of the N-Al7Cu2Fe phase. The effect of Cu content on the formation temperature of π-Al8Mg3FeSi6 is also discussed.

  15. Plasma-Sprayed High Entropy Alloys: Microstructure and Properties of AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, Andrew Siao Ming; Berndt, Christopher C.; Sesso, Mitchell L.; Anupam, Ameey; S, Praveen; Kottada, Ravi Sankar; Murty, B. S.

    2015-02-01

    High entropy alloys (HEAs) represent a new class of materials that present novel phase structures and properties. Apart from bulk material consolidation methods such as casting and sintering, HEAs can also be deposited as a surface coating. In this work, thermal sprayed HEA coatings are investigated that may be used as an alternative bond coat material for a thermal barrier coating system. Nanostructured HEAs that were based on AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi were prepared by ball milling and then plasma sprayed. Splat studies were assessed to optimise the appropriate thermal spray parameters and spray deposits were prepared. After mechanical alloying, aluminum-based and manganese-based HEA powders revealed contrary prominences of BCC and FCC phases in their X-ray diffraction patterns. However, FCC phase was observed as the major phase present in both of the plasma-sprayed AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi coatings. There were also minor oxide peaks detected, which can be attributed to the high temperature processing. The measured porosity levels for AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi coatings were 9.5 ± 2.3 and 7.4 ± 1.3 pct, respectively. Three distinct phase contrasts, dark gray, light gray and white, were observed in the SEM images, with the white regions corresponding to retained multicomponent HEAs. The Vickers hardness (HV0.3kgf) was 4.13 ± 0.43 and 4.42 ± 0.60 GPa for AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi, respectively. Both type of HEAs coatings exhibited anisotropic mechanical behavior due to their lamellar, composite-type microstructure.

  16. Microstructural changes to AlCu6Ni1 alloy after prolonged annealing at elevated temperature.

    PubMed

    Wierzbińska, M; Sieniawski, J

    2010-03-01

    This work presents results of microstructure examination of AlCu(6)Ni(1) aluminium alloy. The commercial AlCu(4)Ni(2)Mg(2) (M-309) alloy is widely used for elements of aircraft and automotive engines. Modification its chemical composition was aimed at improving the stability of mechanical properties of the alloy subjected to long-term exposure to high temperature. The alloy after standard T6 heat treatment (solution heat treated at 818 K/10 h/water quenched followed by ageing at 498 K/8 h/air cooled) was annealed for 150 h at elevated temperature of 573 K corresponding to the maximum value at which structural elements of jet piston engines made of aluminium alloys operate. It was found that applied heat treatment caused an increasing in the particles of hardening phase (theta'-Al(2)Cu) size. The significant growth of the length of theta'-Al(2)Cu precipitations was observed in particularly. Nevertheless, it did not strongly result in change of its shape - the 'crystallites' and 'rods' were still characteristic of hardening phase morphology. The phenomena of the growth of theta'-Al(2)Cu precipitates caused decreasing the mechanical properties of the alloy, what is the subject of further investigations by the authors.

  17. Electroless Cu Plating on Anodized Al Substrate for High Power LED.

    PubMed

    Rha, Sa-Kyun; Lee, Youn-Seoung

    2015-03-01

    Area-selective copper deposition on screen printed Ag pattern/anodized Al/Al substrate was attempted using a neutral electroless plating processes for printed circuit boards (PCBs), according to a range of variation of pH 6.5-pH 8 at 70 °C. The utilized basic electroless solution consisted of copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate, sodium phosphinate monohydrate, sodium citrate tribasic dihydrate, ammonium chloride, and nickel(II) sulfate hexahydrate. The pH of the copper plating solutions was adjusted from pH 6.5 to pH 8 using NH4OH. Using electroless plating in pH 6.5 and pH 7 baths, surface damage to the anodized Al layer hardly occurred; the structure of the plated Cu-rich films was a typical fcc-Cu, but a small Ni component was co-deposited. In electroless plating at pH 8, the surface of the anodized Al layer was damaged and the Cu film was composed of a lot of Ni and P which were co-deposited with Cu. Finally, in a pH 7 bath, we can make a selectively electroless plated Cu film on a PCB without any lithography and without surface damage to the anodized Al layer. PMID:26413680

  18. Microstructural changes to AlCu6Ni1 alloy after prolonged annealing at elevated temperature.

    PubMed

    Wierzbińska, M; Sieniawski, J

    2010-03-01

    This work presents results of microstructure examination of AlCu(6)Ni(1) aluminium alloy. The commercial AlCu(4)Ni(2)Mg(2) (M-309) alloy is widely used for elements of aircraft and automotive engines. Modification its chemical composition was aimed at improving the stability of mechanical properties of the alloy subjected to long-term exposure to high temperature. The alloy after standard T6 heat treatment (solution heat treated at 818 K/10 h/water quenched followed by ageing at 498 K/8 h/air cooled) was annealed for 150 h at elevated temperature of 573 K corresponding to the maximum value at which structural elements of jet piston engines made of aluminium alloys operate. It was found that applied heat treatment caused an increasing in the particles of hardening phase (theta'-Al(2)Cu) size. The significant growth of the length of theta'-Al(2)Cu precipitations was observed in particularly. Nevertheless, it did not strongly result in change of its shape - the 'crystallites' and 'rods' were still characteristic of hardening phase morphology. The phenomena of the growth of theta'-Al(2)Cu precipitates caused decreasing the mechanical properties of the alloy, what is the subject of further investigations by the authors. PMID:20500428

  19. CuAl{sub 2} revisited: Composition, crystal structure, chemical bonding, compressibility and Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Grin, Yuri . E-mail: grin@cpfs.mpg.de; Wagner, Frank R.; Armbruester, Marc; Kohout, Miroslav; Leithe-Jasper, Andreas; Schwarz, Ulrich; Wedig, Ulrich; Georg von Schnering, Hans

    2006-06-15

    The structure of CuAl{sub 2} is usually described as a framework of base condensed tetragonal antiprisms [CuAl{sub 8/4}]. The appropriate symmetry governed periodic nodal surface (PNS) divides the space of the structure into two labyrinths. All atoms are located in one labyrinth, whereas the second labyrinth seems to be 'empty'. The bonding of the CuAl{sub 2} structure was analyzed by the electron localization function (ELF), crystal orbital Hamiltonian population (COHP) analysis and Raman spectroscopy. From the ELF representation it is seen, that the 'empty' labyrinth is in fact the place of important covalent interactions. ELF, COHP in combination with high-pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy show that the CuAl{sub 2} structure is described best as a network built of interpenetrating graphite-like nets of three-bonded aluminum atoms with the copper atoms inside the tetragonal-antiprismatic cavities. - Graphical abstract: Atomic interactions in the crystal structure of the intermetallic compound CuAl{sub 2}: Three-bonded aluminum atoms form interpenetrating graphite-like nets. The copper atoms are located in the channels of aluminum network by means of three-center bonds. The bonding model is in agreement with the result of polarized Raman spectroscopy and high-pressure X-ray powder diffraction.

  20. [delta] precipitation in an Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, K.S.; Mukhopadhyay, A.K.; Gokhale, A.A.; Banerjee, D. ); Goel, D.B. Univ. of Roorkee . Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering)

    1994-05-15

    AlLi based [delta] phase has an NaTl structure (i.e., a diamond cubic) with a = 0.637nm and is an equilibrium phase in the binary Al-Li system. In heat treated binary Al-Li alloys of appropriate compositions, [delta] phase can format grain boundaries as well as within the grains. In commercially heat treated Al-Li-Cu alloys of 2090 specification, the grain boundary precipitate [delta] of the binary Al-Li system is replaced by a combination of T[sub 2](Al[sub 6]CuLi[sub 3]), R(Al[sub 5]CuLi[sub 3]) and T[sub 1](Al[sub 2]CuLi) phases. In similarly treated Al-Li-Cu-Mg alloys of 8090 specification, the copper rich T[sub 2] phase, present in the form of Al[sub 6]CuLi[sub 3[minus]x]Mg[sub x], is known to be the major coarse g.b. precipitate. The presence of an Al-Li-Cu-Mg based C phase at the grain boundaries of the commercially heat treated 8090 alloys has also been documented. No detailed study has yet been carried out to verify whether the [delta] phase can be present at the grain boundaries of the commercially heat treated 8090 alloys. Given the correlations between the g.b. phase morphology, g.b. phase chemistry, and the stress corrosion cracking resistance of these alloys, it is important that the g.b. precipitates be examined and identified. In this paper results using TEM are presented to show that the [delta] phase can be present in varying amounts at the grain boundaries in an 8090 alloy when heat treated in the temperature range of 170--350 C. An examination is also made of the [delta] precipitation within the grain to establish that the T[sub 2]/[alpha]-Al interface is the dominant nucleation site for the noncoherent [delta] phase.

  1. Two-step reset in the resistance switching of the Al/TiOx/Cu structure.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xing L; Zhao, Jin S; Zhang, Kai L; Chen, Ran; Sun, Kuo; Chen, Chang J; Liu, Kai; Zhou, Li W; Wang, Jian Y; Ma, Chen M; Yoon, Kyung J; Hwang, Cheol S

    2013-11-13

    Two-step reset behaviors in the resistance switching properties of the top Al/TiOx/bottom Cu structure were studied. During the electroforming and set steps, two types of conducting filaments composed of Cu and oxygen vacancies (Cu-CF and V(O)-CF) were simultaneously (or sequentially) formed when Al was negatively biased. In the subsequent reset step with the opposite bias polarity, the Cu-CFs ruptured first at ~0.5 V, and formed an intermediate state. The trap-filled V(O)-CFs were transformed into a trap-empty state, resulting in a high-resistance state at ~1 V. Matrix phase in the electrochemical metallization cell can play an active role in resistance switching. PMID:24099490

  2. High resolution electron microscopy study of a high Cu variant of Weldalite (tm) 049 and a high strength Al-Cu-Ag-Mg-Zr alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, R. A.; Gayle, Frank W.; Pickens, Joseph R.

    1991-01-01

    Weldalite (trademark) 049 is an Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg alloy that is strengthened in artificially aged tempers primarily by very thin plate-like precipitates lying on the set of (111) matrix planes. This precipitate might be expected to be the T(sub 1) phase, Al2CuLi, which has been observed in Al-Cu-Li alloys. However, in several ways this precipitate is similar to the omega phase which also appears as the set of (111) planes plates and is found in Al-Cu-Ag-Mg alloys. The study was undertaken to identify the set of (111) planes precipitate or precipitates in Weldalite (trademark) 049 in the T8 (stretched and artificially aged) temper, and to determine whether T(sub 1), omega, or some other phase is primarily responsible for the high strength (i.e., 700 MPa tensile strength) in this Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg alloy.

  3. Influences of film thickness on the structural, electrical and optical properties of CuAlO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Guobo; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Mei; Li, Yingzi; Gao, Fangyuan; Yan, Hui; Diao, Xungang

    2014-07-01

    CuAlO2 films with different thickness were prepared by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique. The structural, electrical and optical properties of CuAlO2 were studied by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope, UV-Vis double-beam spectrophotometer and Hall measurements. The results indicate that the single phase hexagonal CuAlO2 is formed and the average grain size of CuAlO2 films increases with increasing film thickness. The results also exhibit that the lowering of bandgap and the increase of electrical conductivity of CuAlO2 films with the increase of their thickness, which are attributed to the improvement of the grain size and the anisotropic electrical property. According to the electrical and optical properties, the biggest figure of merit is achieved for the CuAlO2 film with the appropriate thickness of 165 nm.

  4. Low temperature spin dynamics in Cr7Ni-Cu-Cr7Ni coupled molecular rings

    SciTech Connect

    Bordonali, L; Furukawa, Y; Mariani, M; Sabareesh, K P; Garlatti, E; Carretta, S; Lascialfari, A; Timco, G; Winpenny, R E; Borsa, F

    2014-05-07

    Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxation measurements have been performed down to very low temperature (50 mK) to determine the effect of coupling two Cr7 Ni molecular rings via a Cu2+ ion. No difference in the spin dynamics was found from nuclear spin lattice relaxation down to 1.5 K. At lower temperature, the 1H-NMR line broadens dramatically indicating spin freezing. From the plot of the line width vs. magnetization, it is found that the freezing temperature is higher (260 mK) in the coupled ring with respect to the single Cr7 Ni ring (140 mK).

  5. The Property Research on High-entropy Alloy AlxFeCoNiCuCr Coating by Laser Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xiaoyang; Ma, Mingxing; Cao, Yangxiaolu; Liu, Wenjin; Ye, Xiaohui; Gu, Yu

    High-entropy alloys have been found to have novel microstructures and unique properties. The main method of manufacturing is vacuum arc remelting. As in situ cladding laser cladding has capability of achieving a controllable dilution ratio, fabricating highentropy alloy by laser cladding is of great significance and potential for extensive use. In this study, a novel AlxFeCoNiCuCr high-entropy alloy system was manufactured as the thin layer of the substrate by laser cladding; also high temperature hardness, abrasion performance, corrosion nature of the AlxFeCoNiCuCr high-entropy alloy were tested under the different ratio of aluminum. This study shows higher aluminum clad exhibit higher hardness, better abrasion resistance and corrosion resistance.

  6. Effects of Electron Beam Welding on Microstructure, Microhardness, and Electrical Conductivity of Cu-Cr-Zr Alloy Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanigalpula, P. K. C.; Chatterjee, Arya; Pratihar, D. K.; Jha, M. N.; Derose, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the effects of electron beam welding on the microstructure, microhardness, and electrical conductivity of precipitation-hardened Cu-0.804%Cr-0.063%Zr (wt.%) alloy plates were investigated. Experiments were carried out following a central composite design of experiments. Five welding schedules yielding the higher hardness were chosen and then were subjected to standard metallographic and various microscopy techniques to reveal the type, morphology, and distribution of the precipitates and to obtain the sub-structural information from the weld zone. X-ray diffraction studies revealed predominant formation of intermetallic phases in the welded zones of some of the samples, which could have resulted in higher hardness and better electrical conductivity compared to those of other ones. Microhardness values in the fusion zone and heat-affected zone were found to be less than that of the parent material. The mechanism of damage in Cu-Cr-Zr plates due to welding was also explained.

  7. Effect of the Cu and Ni content on the crystallization temperature and crystallization mechanism of La-Al-Cu(Ni) metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peiyou

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the Cu and Ni content on the crystallization mechanism and the crystallization temperatures of La-Al-Cu(Ni) metallic glasses (MGs) was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The experimental results have shown that the DSC curves obtained for the La-Al-Cu and La-Al-Ni MGs exhibit two and three crystallization temperatures, respectively. The crystallization temperatures of the La-Al-Cu and La-Al-Ni MGs result from the merging and splitting of thermal events related to the corresponding eutectic atomic pairs in the La72Cu28 and La81.6Al18.4 MGs, and La72Ni28 and La81.6Al18.4 MGs, respectively. In addition, Al- and Ni-containing clusters with weak or strong atomic interaction in the Al-Ni atomic pairs strongly affect the crystallization mechanism and thus the crystallization temperature of La-Al-Ni MGs. This study provides a novel understanding of the relation between the crystallization temperature and the underlying crystallization mechanisms in La-Al-Cu(Ni) MGs.

  8. Chemical Trend of Superconducting Critical Temperatures in Hole-Doped CuBO2, CuAlO2, CuGaO2, and CuInO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Akitaka; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shimizu, Katsuya

    2016-09-01

    We calculated the superconducting critical temperature (Tc) for hole-doped CuXO2 (X = B, Al, Ga, and In) compounds using first-principles calculations based on rigid band model. The compounds with X = Al, Ga, and In have delafosite-type structures and take maximum Tc values at 0.2-0.3 with respect to the number of holes (Nh) in the unit-cell: 50 K for CuAlO2, 10 K for CuGaO2, and 1 K for CuInO2. The decrease of Tc for this change in X is involved by covalency reduction and lattice softening associated with the increase of ionic mass and radius. For CuBO2 which is a lighter compound than CuAlO2, the delafosite structure is unstable and a body-centered tetragonal structure emerges as the most stable structure. As the results, the electron-phonon interaction is decreased and Tc is lower by approximately 43 K than that of CuAlO2 at the hole-doping conditions of Nh = 0.2-0.3.

  9. Phase composition and structure of aluminum Al-Cu-Si-Sn-Pb alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, N. A.; Stolyarova, O. O.; Murav'eva, T. I.; Zagorskii, D. L.

    2016-06-01

    The structure and phase composition of cast and heat treated Al-Cu-Si-Sn-Pb alloys containing 6 wt % Sn, 2 wt % Pb, 0-4 wt % Cu, 0-10 wt % Si have been studied using calculations and experimental methods. Polythermal and isothermal sections are reported, which indicate the existence of two liquid phases. It was found that the low-melting phase is inhomogeneous and consists of individual leadand tin-based particles.

  10. Surface tension of liquid Al-Cu and wetting at the Cu/Sapphire solid-liquid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, J.; Brillo, J.; Egry, I.

    2014-02-01

    For the study of the interaction of a liquid alloy with differently oriented single crystalline sapphire surfaces precise surface tension data of the liquid are fundamental. We measured the surface tension of liquid Al-Cu contactlessly on electromagnetically levitated samples using the oscillating drop technique. Data were obtained for samples covering the entire range of composition and in a broad temperature range. The surface tensions can be described as linear functions of temperature with negative slopes. Moreover, they decrease monotonically with an increase of aluminium concentration. The observed behaviour with respect to both temperature and concentration is in agreement with a thermodynamic model calculation using the regular solution approximation. Surface tensions were used to calculate interfacial energies from the contact angles of liquid Cu droplets, deposited on the C(0001), A(11-20), R(1-102) surfaces of an α-Al2O3 substrate. The contact angles were measured by means of the sessile drop method at 1380 K. In the Cu/α-Al2O3 system, no anisotropy is evident neither for the contact angles nor for the interfacial energies of different surfaces. The work of adhesion of this system is isotropic, too.

  11. Simultaneous extraction of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) from humic acid with new synthesized EDTA derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Wu, Ying-Xin; Huang, Xiong-Fei; Liu, Jun-Min; Xia, Bing; Zhang, Wei-Hua; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2012-07-01

    Soil washing is one of the few permanent treatment alternatives for removing metal contaminants. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and its salts (EDTA) is very effective at removing cationic metals and has been utilized globally. However it is ineffective for anionic metal contaminants or metals bound to soil organic matter. The simultaneous removal of cationic and anionic metal contaminants by soil washing is difficult due to differences in their properties. The present study evaluated the potential of a washing process using two synthesized EDTA-derivatives, C(6)HEDTA (2,2'-((2-((carboxymethyl)(2-(hexanoyloxy)ethyl)amino)ethyl)azanediyl)diacetic acid) and C(12)HEDTA (2,2'-((2-((carboxymethyl) (2-(dodecanoyloxy)ethyl)amino)ethyl)azanediyl)diacetic acid), which consist of a hydrophilic polycarboxylic moiety and a hydrophobic moiety with a monoalkyl ester group. A series of equilibrium batch experiments at room temperature were conducted to investigate the efficacy of C(6)HEDTA and C(12)HEDTA as extractants for both oxyanion Cr(VI) and cationic Cu(II). Results showed that either C(6)HEDTA or C(12)HEDTA can extract both Cr(VI) and Cu(II) from humic acid simultaneously. However, C(6)HEDTA was less effective for Cr(VI) probably because it has no surface activities to increase solubility of humic acid, like C(12)HEDTA. Extraction of Cr(VI) was mainly attributed to the decreased surface tension and enhanced solubility of organic matter. Extraction of Cu(II) was attributed to both the Cu(II) chelation and enhanced solubility of humic acid. It was demonstrated that the hydrophilic polycarboxylic moiety of C(12)HEDTA chelates cations while the monoalkyl ester group produces surface active properties that enhance the solubility of humic acid.

  12. Amorphous structure and properties in laser-clad Ni-Cr-Al coating on Al-Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Gongying; Wong, T. T.; Su, J. Y.; Woo, C. H.

    1999-09-01

    A Ni-Cr-Al coating was clad by a 5 kW CO2 laser with different laser power on Al-Si alloy. Using transmission electron microscopy, a mixing microstructure containing Ni- based amorphous structures was observed in the laser clad zones. As the uniformity of chemical composition and temperature is poor in the laser cladding, the amorphous structure with some Ni3Al crystals coexisted in the cladding. According to the morphologies of Ni-based amorphous structures, the amorphous structure existed not only in the net-like boundaries surrounding the granular structure but also in the granular structure. The microhardness of the mixture amorphous structure is between HV 600 - 800, which is lower than that of crystal phases in the coating. A differential thermal analysis showed that Ni- based amorphous structure exhibits a higher initial crystallizing temperature (about 588 degree(s)C), which is slightly higher than that of the eutectic temperature of Al- Si alloy. The wear experimental results showed that some amorphous structure exist in the laser cladding can reduce the peeling of the granular phases from matrix, and improve the its wear resistance.

  13. HIGH TEMPERATURE BRAZING ALLOY FOR JOINT Fe-Cr-Al MATERIALS AND AUSTENITIC AND FERRITIC STAINLESS STEELS

    DOEpatents

    Cost, R.C.

    1958-07-15

    A new high temperature brazing alloy is described that is particularly suitable for brazing iron-chromiumaluminum alloys. It consists of approximately 20% Cr, 6% Al, 10% Si, and from 1.5 to 5% phosphorus, the balance being iron.

  14. Electronic and magnetic properties of Cr-Mn-Ni-Al compound with LiMgPdSb-type structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. Y.; Wang, X. T.; Guo, R. K.; Lin, T. T.; Liu, G. D.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of Cr-Mn-Ni-Al compound with a LiMgPdSn-type structure in three different atomic arrangement configurations (AAC) by using the first-principles calculations. It was found that Cr-Mn-Ni-Al compound with type I AAC exhibits a spin-gapless semiconductive characteristic. The type II AAC is the most stable one and exhibits an especial band structure where the Fermi level slightly crosses the top of the valence bands in spin-up channel and the bottom of conductive bands in spin-down channel, which leads to the electronic transport with the spin-resolved carrier type. The Cr-Mn-Ni-Al compound shows an ordinary metallic behavior in type III AAC. The three nonequivalent atomic arrangement configurations of Cr-Mn-Ni-Al are all in ferromagnetic ground state under their equilibrium lattice parameters.

  15. Raman scattering measurements of phonon anharmonicity in CuAlO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manoj K.; Dussan, S.; Sharma, Ganpat L.; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2008-12-01

    CuAlO2 thin films were grown on single crystalline sapphire substrates with c-axis orientation by rf sputtering method. The x-ray diffraction data indicate the formation of delafossite structure and tend to be oriented along (001). Temperature dependent Raman spectra of CuAlO2 thin films were measured from 80 to 1273 K, and we observed two optical modes at Eg (˜418 cm-1) and A1g(˜767 cm-1) showing anomalous frequency and linewidth shifts with temperature, which were interpreted as an experimental evidence of combined effect of lattice expansion and anharmonic phonon-phonon interaction in CuAlO2. At high temperature, polaronic state and change in effective mass due to lattice expansion also affect the frequency shift and the linewidth of the observed Raman modes.

  16. Optical and electrical properties of mechanochemically synthesized nanocrystalline delafossite CuAlO2.

    PubMed

    Prakash, T; Prasad, K Padma; Ramasamy, S; Murty, B S

    2008-08-01

    Nanocrystalline p-type semiconductor copper aluminum oxide (CuAlO2) has been synthesized by mechanical alloying using freshly prepared Cu2O and alpha-AlO2O3 nanocrystals in toluene medium. A study on structural property performed with different alloying and post annealing durations, by X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals the formation of single phase with average crystallite size approximately 45 nm. Optical absorbance onset at 364.5 nm confirms its wide band gap nature (E(g) = 3.4 eV) and the fluorescence emission behaviour (390 nm) confirms its direct band type transition. The activation energy for electrical conduction has been calculated by Arrhenius plots using impedance measurement. Both grain and grain boundary conductivity takes place with almost equal activation energies of approximately 0.45 eV. The paper discusses synthesis, structural, optical and electrical properties of delafossite CuAlO2 in detail. PMID:19049217

  17. Thermo-mechanical processing (TMP) of Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr based alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, G.E.

    1995-02-01

    The effects of heat treatment and deformation processing on the microstructures and properties of {gamma}-TiAl based alloys produced by ingot metallurgy (I/M) and powder metallurgy (P/M) techniques were examined. The alloy selected for this work is the second generation {gamma}-TiAl based alloy -- Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr (at %). Homogenization of I/M samples was performed at a variety of temperatures, followed by hot working by isothermal forging. P/M samples were prepared from gas atomized powders, consolidated by both HIP and extrusion and some of the HIPed material was then hot worked by isothermal forging. The effects of processing, heat treatment and hot working on the microstructures and properties will be discussed.

  18. Optoelectronic properties of delafossite structure CuCr0.93Mg0.07O2 sputter deposited coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hui; Arab Pour Yazdi, Mohammad; Sanchette, Frederic; Billard, Alain

    2016-05-01

    CuCr0.93Mg0.07O2 thin films with improved optoelectronic properties were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering on fused quartz substrates. The influence of annealing temperature under vacuum on optoelectronic properties of the films was investigated. The amorphous films annealed under vacuum at temperatures higher than 923 K are single-phased delafossite structure, while impurity phases like CuCr2O4 that affect the optoelectronic properties of the films are detected below 873 K. c-axis orientation is observed for CuCr0.93Mg0.07O2 layers and the annealing temperature window in which the films are single-phased delafossite is much larger with Mg doping (923 K  →  1073 K) than that for undoped films (~953 K). The optical and electrical behaviours of the films are enhanced by Mg substitution and their direct band gap energy of about 3.12-3.14 eV is measured. The film possesses the optimum properties after annealing under vacuum at about 1023 K its average transmittance in the visible region can reach 54.23% while the film’s conductivity is about 0.27 S cm-1.

  19. Optoelectronic properties of delafossite structure CuCr0.93Mg0.07O2 sputter deposited coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hui; Arab Pour Yazdi, Mohammad; Sanchette, Frederic; Billard, Alain

    2016-05-01

    CuCr0.93Mg0.07O2 thin films with improved optoelectronic properties were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering on fused quartz substrates. The influence of annealing temperature under vacuum on optoelectronic properties of the films was investigated. The amorphous films annealed under vacuum at temperatures higher than 923 K are single-phased delafossite structure, while impurity phases like CuCr2O4 that affect the optoelectronic properties of the films are detected below 873 K. c-axis orientation is observed for CuCr0.93Mg0.07O2 layers and the annealing temperature window in which the films are single-phased delafossite is much larger with Mg doping (923 K  →  1073 K) than that for undoped films (~953 K). The optical and electrical behaviours of the films are enhanced by Mg substitution and their direct band gap energy of about 3.12–3.14 eV is measured. The film possesses the optimum properties after annealing under vacuum at about 1023 K its average transmittance in the visible region can reach 54.23% while the film’s conductivity is about 0.27 S cm‑1.

  20. Sol-gel production of Cu/Al co-doped zinc oxide: Effect of Al co-doping concentration on its structure and optoelectronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Ian Yi-Yu

    2014-12-01

    Sol-gel deposition of ZnO:Cu:Al thin films were co-doped different Cu:Al ratio. The optoelectronic and structural properties of the resultant film were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and UV-VIS spectroscopy. It was found that the Al content leads to narrowing of the band gap and that excessive Al doping concentration greater than 5 at% degrade the film's properties.

  1. Structure of multilayered Cr(Al)N/SiOx nanocomposite coatings fabricated by differential pumping co-sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nose, Masateru; Onishi, Ichiro; Shiojiri, Makoto

    2013-11-01

    A Cr(Al)N/38 vol. % SiOx hard coating was prepared on a (001) Si substrate at 250 °C in a differential pumping co-sputtering system, which has two chambers for radio frequency (RF) sputtering and a substrate holder rotating on the chambers. The composite coating was grown by alternate sputter-depositions from CrAl and SiO2 targets with flows of N2+Ar and Ar at RF powers of 200 and 75 W, respectively, on transition layers grown on the substrate. Analytical electron microscopy reveled that the Cr(Al)N/SiOx coating had a multilayered structure of Cr(Al)N crystal layers ˜1.6 nm thick and two-dimensionally dispersed amorphous silicon oxide (a-SiOx) particles with sizes of ˜1 nm or less. The a-SiOx particles were enclosed with the Cr(Al)N layers. The coating had a low indentation hardness of ˜25 GPa at room temperature, due to a high oxide fraction of 38 vol. % and a low substrate rotational speed of 1 rpm. Faster rotation and lower oxide fraction would make a-SiOx particles smaller, resulting in the formation of Cr(Al)N crystal including the very fine a-SiOx particles with small number density. They would work as obstacles for the lattice deformation of the Cr(Al)N crystals. We have fabricated a superhard coating of Cr(Al)N/17 vol. % SiOx with a hardness of 46 GPa prepared at 12 rpm.

  2. Partition coefficients for Al, Ca, Ti, Cr, and Ni in olivine obtained by melting experiment on an LL6 chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyamoto, M.; Mikouchi, T.; Mckay, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    We report the partition coefficients for Ca, Al, Ti, Cr, and Ni in olivine obtained through a series of melting experiments on an LL6 chondrite under varying conditions of temperature and oxygen fugacity. It is necessary to examine the variation of partition coefficients up to extremely reducing conditions in order to study meteoritic olivines. For Ca, Al, and Cr, the partition coefficients tend to decrease as temperature increases, but do not change even under extremely reducing conditions.

  3. Structure of multilayered Cr(Al)N/SiO{sub x} nanocomposite coatings fabricated by differential pumping co-sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nose, Masateru; Onishi, Ichiro; Shiojiri, Makoto

    2013-11-11

    A Cr(Al)N/38 vol. % SiO{sub x} hard coating was prepared on a (001) Si substrate at 250 °C in a differential pumping co-sputtering system, which has two chambers for radio frequency (RF) sputtering and a substrate holder rotating on the chambers. The composite coating was grown by alternate sputter-depositions from CrAl and SiO{sub 2} targets with flows of N{sub 2}+Ar and Ar at RF powers of 200 and 75 W, respectively, on transition layers grown on the substrate. Analytical electron microscopy reveled that the Cr(Al)N/SiO{sub x} coating had a multilayered structure of Cr(Al)N crystal layers ∼1.6 nm thick and two-dimensionally dispersed amorphous silicon oxide (a-SiO{sub x}) particles with sizes of ∼1 nm or less. The a-SiO{sub x} particles were enclosed with the Cr(Al)N layers. The coating had a low indentation hardness of ∼25 GPa at room temperature, due to a high oxide fraction of 38 vol. % and a low substrate rotational speed of 1 rpm. Faster rotation and lower oxide fraction would make a-SiO{sub x} particles smaller, resulting in the formation of Cr(Al)N crystal including the very fine a-SiO{sub x} particles with small number density. They would work as obstacles for the lattice deformation of the Cr(Al)N crystals. We have fabricated a superhard coating of Cr(Al)N/17 vol. % SiO{sub x} with a hardness of 46 GPa prepared at 12 rpm.

  4. Structure and composition of higher-rhenium-content superalloy based on La-alloyed Ni-Al-Cr

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, Eduard V.; Koneva, Nina A.; Nikonenko, Elena L.; Popova, Natalya A.; Fedorischeva, Marina V.

    2015-10-27

    The paper presents the transmission and scanning electronic microscope investigations of Ni-Al-Cr superalloy alloyed with additional Re and La elements. This superalloy is obtained by a directional solidification method. It is shown that such additional elements as Re and La result in formation of new phases in Ni-Al-Cr accompanied by considerable modifications of quasi-cuboid structure in its γ’-phase.

  5. Theoretical Study of Electronic Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of Doped CuAlO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poopanya, P.; Yangthaisong, A.; Rattanapun, C.; Wichainchai, A.

    2011-05-01

    The doping level dependence of thermoelectric properties of delafossite CuAlO2 has been investigated in the constant scattering time ( τ) approximation, starting from the first principles of electronic structure. In particular, the lattice parameters and the energy band structure were calculated using the total energy plane-wave pseudopotential method. It was found that the lattice parameters of CuAlO2 are a = 2.802 Å and c = 16.704 Å, and the internal parameter is u = 0.1097. CuAlO2 has an indirect band gap of 2.17 eV and a direct gap of 3.31 eV. The calculated energy band structures were then used to calculate the electrical transport coefficients of CuAlO2. By considering the effects of doping level and temperature, it was found that the Seebeck coefficient S( T) increases with increasing acceptor doping ( A d) level. The values of S( T) in our experiments correspond to an A d level at 0.262 eV, which is identified as the Fermi level of CuAlO2. Based on our experimental Seebeck coefficient and the electrical conductivity, the constant relaxation time is estimated to be 1 × 10-16 s. The power factor is large for a low A d level and increases with temperature. It is suggested that delafossite CuAlO2 can be considered as a promising thermoelectric oxide material at high doping and high temperature.

  6. Improvement of the shape memory characteristics of a Cu-Zn-Al alloy with manganese and zirconium addition

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, W.H.; Lam, C.W.H.; Chung, C.Y.; Lai, J.K.L.

    1997-04-15

    Cu-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) possess good shape memory effect (SME) and have the advantage of lower price than Ti-Ni SMA. However, there are still some problems which should be solved before they can be used widely. Addition of suitable alloying elements can improve the mechanical properties, stabilization of martensitic transformations and also the SME of Cu-based SMAs significantly. Cu-Zn-Al is an important Cu-based SMA that suffers from the martensite stabilization and intergranular cracking in the processing procedures and service. As a modification of Cu-Zn-Al SMAs, the effects of Mn and Zr addition on the structure and martensite transformation behavior of different heat treated Cu-21Zn-6Al-1Mn-0.5Zr (wt%) SMA have been studied and compared to that of Cu-21Zn-6Al (wt%) SMA in the present paper.

  7. High hardness and superlative oxidation resistance in a pseudo-icosahehdral Cr-Al binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonson, J. W.; Rosa, R.; Antonacci, A. K.; He, H.; Bender, A. D.; Pabla, J.; Adrip, W.; McNally, D. E.; Zebro, A.; Kamenov, P.; Geschwind, G.; Ghose, S.; Dooryhee, E.; Ibrahim, A.; Aronson, M. C.

    Improving the efficiency of fossil fuel plants is a practical option for decreasing carbon dioxide emissions from electrical power generation. Present limits on the operating temperatures of exposed steel components, however, restrict steam temperatures and therefore energy efficiency. Even as a new generation of creep-resistant, high strength steels retain long term structural stability to temperatures as high as ~ 973 K, the low Cr-content of these alloys hinders their oxidation resistance, necessitating the development of new corrosion resistant coatings. We report here the nearly ideal properties of potential coating material Cr55Al229, which exhibits high hardness at room temperature as well as low thermal conductivity and superlative oxidation resistance at 973 K, with an oxidation rate at least three times smaller than those of benchmark materials. These properties originate from a pseudo-icosahedral crystal structure, suggesting new criteria for future research.

  8. Al, Ti, and Cr: Complex Zoning in Synthetic and Natural Nakhlite Pyroxenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, G.; Le, L.; Mikouchi, T.

    2007-01-01

    Nakhlites are olivine-bearing clinopyroxene cumulates. The cumulus pyroxenes have cores that are relatively homogeneous in Fe, Mg, and Ca, but show complex zoning of minor elements, especially Al, Ti, and Cr. Zoning patterns contain information about crystallization history parent magma compositions. But it has proven difficult to decipher this information and translate the zoning patterns into petrogenetic processes. This abstract reports results of high-precision Electron Probe MicroAnalysis (EPMA) analysis of synthetic nakhlite pyroxenes run at fO2 from IW to QFM. It compares these with concurrent analyses of natural nakhlite MIL03346 (MIL), and with standardprecision analyses of Y000593 (Y593) collected earlier. Results suggest that (1) different processes are responsible for the zoning of MIL and other more slowly-cooled nakhlites such as Y593, and (2) changes in oxidation conditions during MIL crystallization are not responsible for the unusual Cr zoning pattern

  9. Cyclic Corrosion and Chlorination of an FeCrAl Alloy in the Presence of KCl

    DOE PAGES

    Israelsson, Niklas; Unocic, Kinga A.; Hellström, K.; Svensson, J-E; Johansson, L-G

    2015-05-30

    The KCl-induced corrosion of the FeCrAl alloy Kanthal® APMT in an O2 + N2 + H2O environment was studied at 600 °C. The samples were pre-oxidized prior to exposure in order to investigate the protective nature of alumina scales in the present environment. The microstructure and composition of the corroded surface was investigated in detail. Corrosion started at flaws in the pre-formed α-alumina scales, i.e. α-alumina was protective in itself. Consequently, KCl-induced corrosion started locally and, subsequently, spread laterally. An electrochemical mechanism is proposed here by which a transition metal chloride forms in the alloy and K2CrO4 forms at themore » scale/gas interface. Scale de-cohesion is attributed to the formation of a sub-scale transition metal chloride.« less

  10. Chemical zoning and diffusion of Ca, Al, Mn, and Cr in olivine of springwater pallasite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Y.; Steele, Ian M.

    1993-01-01

    The pallasites, consisting mainly of Fe-Ni metal and olivine, are thought to represent the interior of a planetary body which slowly cooled from high temperature. Although the olivines are nearly homogeneous, ion microprobe studies revealed variations of Ca, Ti, Co, Cr, and Ni near grain edges. These variations were thought to represent diffusion in response to falling temperature of the parent body. Pallasite cooling rates have been estimated based on kamacite taenite textures but results differ by x100. In principle elemental profiles in olivine can allow estimates of cooling rate if diffusion coefficients are known; in addition, given a cooling rate, diffusion coefficients could be derived. Data are presented which show that apparent diffusion profiles can be measured for Al, Ca, Cr, and Mn which qualitatively agree with expected diffusion rates and have the potential of providing independent estimates of pallasite cooling rates.

  11. Precipitation strengthened high strength, high conductivity Cu-Cr-Nb alloys produced by chill block melt spinning. Final Report Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.; Michal, Gary M.

    1989-01-01

    A series of Cu-based alloys containing 2 to 10 a/o Cr and 1 to 5 a/o Nb were produced by chill block melt spinning (CBMS). The melt spun ribbons were consolidated and hot rolled to sheet to produce a supersaturated Cu-Cr-Nb solid solution from which the high melting point intermetallic compound Cr2Nb could be precipitated to strengthen the Cu matrix. The results show that the materials possess electrical conductivities in excess of 90 percent that of pure Cu at 200 C and above. The strengths of the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys were much greater than Cu, Cu-0.6 Cr, NARloy-A, and NARloy-Z in the as-melt spun condition. The strengths of the consolidated materials were less than Cu-Cr and Cu-Cr-Zr below 500 C and 600 C respectively, but were significantly better above these temperatures. The strengths of the consolidated materials were greater than NARloy-Z, at all temperatures. The GLIDCOP possessed similar strength levels up to 750 C when the strength of the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys begins to degrade. The long term stability of the Cu-Cr-Nb alloys was measured by the microhardness of aged samples and the growth of precipitates. The microhardness measurements indicate that the alloys overage rapidly, but do not suffer much loss in strength between 10 and 100 hours which confirms the results of the electrical resistivity measurements taken during the aging of the alloys at 500 C. The loss in strength from peak strength levels is significant, but the strength remains exceptionally good. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the as-melt spun samples revealed that Cr2Nb precipitates formed in the liquid Cu during the chill block melt spinning, indicating a very strong driving force for the formation of the precipitates. The TEM of the aged and consolidated materials indicates that the precipitates coarsen considerably, but remain in the submicron range.

  12. Electronic structure of p-type transparent conducting oxide CuAlO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Sung-Kwan; Yoon, Joonseok; Liu, Xiaosong; Yang, Wanli; Mun, Bongjin; Ju, Honglyoul

    2014-03-01

    CuAlO2 is a prototypical p-type transparent conducting oxide. Despite its importance for potential applications and number of studies on its band structure and gap characteristics, experimental study on the momentum-resolved electronic structure has been lacking. We present angle-resolved photoemission data on single crystalline CuAlO2 using synchrotron light source to reveal complete band structure. Complemented by the x-ray absorption and emission spectra, we also study band gap characteristics and compare them with theory.

  13. A study of the oxide dispersion and recrystallization in NiCrAl prepared from preoxidized powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, T. K.

    1975-01-01

    The sintered aluminum powder (SAP) technique of dispersion strengthening (formation of an oxide dispersion by preoxidation of metal powders) was applied to atomized powder of a nickel alloy containing, by weight, 17% Cr, 5% Al, and 0.2% Y. The SAP-NiCrAl alloy (without the ytterbium removed by oxdation) was worked by extrusion and rod rolling at 1205 C and by swaging at 760 C. Annealing treatments were applied after working to determine the recrystallization response. The NiCrAlY alloy, similarly prepared from atomized powder, but without a preoxidation treatment, was examined for comparison. The SAP-NiCrAl alloy exhibited oxide particle size and spacing much larger than that usually observed in oxide dispersion strengthened alloys; nonetheless, it was possible to achieve abnormal (secondary) recrystallization in the SAP-NiCrAl alloy as has been reported for other oxide dispersion strengthened alloys. In contrast, the unoxidized NiCrAlY alloy exhibited only primary recrystallization.

  14. Characterization of Al-Cu-Mg-Ag Alloy RX226-T8 Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lach, Cynthia L.; Domack, Marcia S.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminum-copper-magnesium-silver (Al-Cu-Mg-Ag) alloys that were developed for thermal stability also offer attractive ambient temperature strength-toughness combinations, and therefore, can be considered for a broad range of airframe structural applications. The current study evaluated Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloy RX226-T8 in plate gages and compared performance with sheet gage alloys of similar composition. Uniaxial tensile properties, plane strain initiation fracture toughness, and plane stress tearing resistance of RX226-T8 were examined at ambient temperature as a function of orientation and thickness location in the plate. Properties were measured near the surface and at the mid-plane of the plate. Tensile strengths were essentially isotropic, with variations in yield and ultimate tensile strengths of less than 2% as a function of orientation and through-thickness location. However, ductility varied by more than 15% with orientation. Fracture toughness was generally higher at the mid-plane and greater for the L-T orientation, although the differences were small near the surface of the plate. Metallurgical analysis indicated that the microstructure was primarily recrystallized with weak texture and was uniform through the plate with the exception of a fine-grained layer near the surface of the plate. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed Al-Cu-Mg second phase particles which varied in composition and were primarily located on grain boundaries parallel to the rolling direction. Fractography of toughness specimens for both plate locations and orientations revealed that fracture occurred predominantly by transgranular microvoid coalescence. Introduction High-strength, low-density Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys were initially developed to replace conventional 2000 (Al-Cu-Mg) and 7000 (Al-Zn-Cu-Mg) series aluminum alloys for aircraft structural applications [1]. During the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) program, improvements in thermal stability were demonstrated for candidate

  15. On the Early Stage Isothermal Oxidation of APS CoNiCrAlY Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Girolamo, G.; Alfano, M.; Pagnotta, L.; Taurino, A.; Zekonyte, J.; Wood, R. J. K.

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the evolution of microstructural and room temperature mechanical properties of air plasma sprayed (APS) CoNiCrAlY coatings before and after early stage high-temperature oxidation. To this purpose, selected samples were isothermally heat treated at 1110 °C for different durations. Phase analysis and oxide scale characterization were performed using x-ray diffraction. Morphological and microstructural features of as-sprayed and oxidized CoNiCrAlY coatings were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. After heat treatment, a duplex oxide scale, composed of an inner α-Al2O3 layer and an outer spinel-type oxide layer, was observed on coating top-surface. The nanoindentation technique was employed to study the evolution of the mechanical properties. An increase in Young's modulus and hardness with increasing the aging time was observed, this effect was mainly addressed to the partial densification of coating microstructure.

  16. Effect of thermally stable Cu- and Mg-rich aluminides on the high temperature strength of an AlSi12CuMgNi alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Asghar, Z.

    2014-02-15

    The internal architecture of an AlSi12CuMgNi piston alloy, revealed by synchrotron tomography, consists of three dimensional interconnected hybrid networks of Cu-rich aluminides, Mg-rich aluminides and eutectic/primary Si embedded in an α-Al matrix. The strength at room temperature and at 300°C is studied as a function of solution treatment time at 490°C and compared with results previously reported for an AlSi12Ni alloy. The addition of 1 wt% Cu and 1 wt% Mg to AlSi12CuMgNi increases the room temperature strength by precipitation hardening while the strength at 300°C is similar for both alloys in as-cast condition. The strength of AlSi12CuMgNi decreases with solution treatment time and stabilizes at 4 h solution treatment. The effect of solution treatment time on the strength of the AlSi12CuMgNi alloy is less pronounced than for the AlSi12Ni alloy both at room temperature and at 300°C. - Highlights: • The 3D microstructure of AlSi12CuMgNi is revealed by synchrotron tomography. • An imaging analysis procedure to segment phases with similar contrasts is presented. • 1 wt% Cu and Mg results in the formation of 3D networks of rigid phases. • AlSi12CuMgNi is stronger than AlSi12Ni owing to the stability of the 3D networks.

  17. The determination of interfacial structure and phase transitions in Al/Cu and Al/Ni interfaces by means of surface extended x-ray absorption fine structure

    SciTech Connect

    Barrera, E.V. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science); Heald, S.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Surface extended x-ray absorption fine structure (SEXAFS) was used to investigate the interfacial conditions of Al/Cu and Al/Ni shallow buried interfaces. Previous studies using glancing angle extended x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray reflectivity, photoemission, and SEXAFS produced conflicting results as to whether or not the interfaces between Al and Cu and Al and Ni were reacted upon room temperature deposition. In this study polycrystalline bilayers of Al/Cu and Al/Ni and trilayers of Al/Cu/Al and Al/Ni/Al were deposited on tantalum foil at room temperature in ultra high vacuum and analyzed to evaluate the reactivity of these systems on a nanometer scale. It become overwhelming apparent that the interfacial phase reactions were a function of the vacuum conditions. Samples deposited with the optimum vacuum conditions showed reaction products upon deposition at room temperature which were characterized by comparisons to standards and by least squares fitting the be CuAl{sub 2} and NiAl{sub 3} respectively. The results of this study that the reacted zone thicknesses were readily dependent on the deposition parameters. For both Al on Cu and Al on Ni as well as the metal on Al conditions 10{Angstrom} reaction zones were observed. These reaction zones were smaller than that observed for bilayers of Al on Cu (30{Angstrom}) and Al on Ni (60{Angstrom}) where deposition rates were much higher and samples were much thicker. The reaction species are evident by SEXAFS, where the previous photoemission studies only indicated that changes had occurred. Improved vacuum conditions as compared to the earlier experiments is primarily the reason reactions on deposition were seen in this study as compared to the earlier SEXAFS studies.

  18. The determination of interfacial structure and phase transitions in Al/Cu and Al/Ni interfaces by means of surface extended x-ray absorption fine structure

    SciTech Connect

    Barrera, E.V.; Heald, S.M.

    1991-12-31

    Surface extended x-ray absorption fine structure (SEXAFS) was used to investigate the interfacial conditions of Al/Cu and Al/Ni shallow buried interfaces. Previous studies using glancing angle extended x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray reflectivity, photoemission, and SEXAFS produced conflicting results as to whether or not the interfaces between Al and Cu and Al and Ni were reacted upon room temperature deposition. In this study polycrystalline bilayers of Al/Cu and Al/Ni and trilayers of Al/Cu/Al and Al/Ni/Al were deposited on tantalum foil at room temperature in ultra high vacuum and analyzed to evaluate the reactivity of these systems on a nanometer scale. It become overwhelming apparent that the interfacial phase reactions were a function of the vacuum conditions. Samples deposited with the optimum vacuum conditions showed reaction products upon deposition at room temperature which were characterized by comparisons to standards and by least squares fitting the be CuAl{sub 2} and NiAl{sub 3} respectively. The results of this study that the reacted zone thicknesses were readily dependent on the deposition parameters. For both Al on Cu and Al on Ni as well as the metal on Al conditions 10{Angstrom} reaction zones were observed. These reaction zones were smaller than that observed for bilayers of Al on Cu (30{Angstrom}) and Al on Ni (60{Angstrom}) where deposition rates were much higher and samples were much thicker. The reaction species are evident by SEXAFS, where the previous photoemission studies only indicated that changes had occurred. Improved vacuum conditions as compared to the earlier experiments is primarily the reason reactions on deposition were seen in this study as compared to the earlier SEXAFS studies.

  19. A study of the semiconductor compound СuAlO2 by the method of nuclear quadrupole resonance of Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matukhin, V. L.; Khabibulin, I. Kh.; Shul'gin, D. A.; Smidt, S. V.

    2012-07-01

    The method of nuclear quadrupole resonance of Cu (NQR Cu) is used to study the samples of a semiconductor compound CuAlO2. The crystal structure of CuAlO2 belongs to the family of delafossite - the mineral of a basic CuFeO2 structure. Transparent semiconductor oxides, such as CuAlO2, have attracted recent attention as promising thermoelectric materials.

  20. Novel Preparation of Nano-Composite CuO-Cr2O3 Using Ctab-Template Method and Efficient for Hydrogenation of Biomass-Derived Furfural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Kai; Wu, Xu; An, Xia; Xie, Xianmei

    2013-02-01

    A simple route to fabricate nano-composite oxides CuO-Cr2O3 using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-templated Cu-Cr hydrotalcite as the precursor is presented. This novel method is based on CTAB-templating effect for mesostructure directing and using the cheap metal nitrate, followed by removal of CTAB. It was indicated that the nano-composite CuO-Cr2O3 was formed during the removal of CTAB. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transitional electronic microscopy (TEM) revealed nice nano-composite oxides CuO-Cr2O3 were formed with high crystallinity. N2 adsorption and desorption indicated that a high surface area of 170.5 m2/g with a pore size of 2.7 nm of the nano-composite CuO-Cr2O3 was facilely resulted. The as-synthesized nano-composite oxides CuO-Cr2O3 display good catalytic activities for hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol, whereas 86% selectivity was achieved at 75% conversion of furfural.

  1. Effects of Cr/Zn Substitutions on Dielectric Properties of CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12}(CCTO) Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Rajmi, R.; Yahya, A. K.; Deni, M. S. M.

    2010-07-07

    Effects of Zn and Cr substitutions on dielectric properties of CaCu{sub 3-x}Zn{sub x}Ti{sub 4-y}Cr{sub y}O{sub 12} ceramics are reported. Dielectric measurements at room temperature for un-substituted CaCu{sub 3-x}Zn{sub x}Ti{sub 4-y}Cr{sub y}O{sub 12}(x = 0, y = 0) between 10{sup 2}-10{sup 6} Hz showed dielectric constant of 2.7x10{sup 4} at 10{sup 2} Hz. Substitution of Zn for Cu in CaCu{sub 3-x}Zn{sub xTi{sub 4{sub -{sub yCr{sub yO{sub 1{sub 2}}}}}}}(y = 0, x = 0.10, 0.50)caused dielectric constant to drop with increasing x. Cr substitution at Ti-site in CaCu{sub 3-x}Zn{sub xTi{sub 4{sub -{sub yCr{sub yO{sub 1{sub 2}}}}}}}(x = 0, x = 0,) also caused decrease in dielectric constant. However, at x = 0.50, the dielectric constant at low frequency was enhanced compared to the un-substituted sample. Our results indicate that Cu and Ti sites play an important role in the formation of Internal Barrier Layer Capacitance (IBLC) in CCTO.

  2. Simultaneous aluminizing and chromizing of steels to form (Fe,Cr){sub 3}Al coatings and Ge-doped silicide coatings of Cr-Zr base alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, M.; He, Y.R.; Rapp, R.A.

    1997-12-01

    A halide-activated cementation pack involving elemental Al and Cr powders has been used to achieve surface compositions of approximately Fe{sub 3}Al plus several percent Cr for low alloy steels (T11, T2 and T22) and medium carbon steel (1045 steel). A two-step treatment at 925 C and 1150 C yields the codeposition and diffusion of aluminum and chromium to form dense and uniform ferrite coatings of about 400 {micro}m thickness, while preventing the formation of a blocking chromium carbide at the substrate surfaces. Upon cyclic oxidation in air at 700 C, the coated steel exhibits a negligible 0.085 mg/cm{sup 2} weight gain for 1900 one-hour cycles. Virtually no attack was observed on coated steels tested at ABB in simulated boiler atmospheres at 500 C for 500 hours. But coatings with a surface composition of only 8 wt% Al and 6 wt% Cr suffered some sulfidation attack in simulated boiler atmospheres at temperatures higher than 500 C for 1000 hours. Two developmental Cr-Zr based Laves phase alloys (CN129-2 and CN117(Z)) were silicide/germanide coated. The cross-sections of the Ge-doped silicide coatings closely mimicked the microstructure of the substrate alloys. Cyclic oxidation in air at 1100 C showed that the Ge-doped silicide coating greatly improved the oxidation resistance of the Cr-Zr based alloys.

  3. Dissolution of Cu/Mg Bearing Intermetallics in Al-Si Foundry Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidani, Mousa; Larouche, Daniel; Grant Chen, X.

    2016-08-01

    Evolutions of the Cu/Mg bearing intermetallics were thoroughly investigated in four Al-Si hypoeutectic alloys containing various Cu (1 and 1.6 wt pct) and Mg (0.4 and 0.8 wt pct) contents. The area fractions of Cu/Mg bearing phases before and after solution heat treatment (SHT) were quantified to evaluate the solubility/stability of the phases. Two Mg-bearing intermetallics (Q-Al5Cu2Mg8Si6, π-Al8FeMg3Si6) which appear as gray color under optical microscope were discriminated by the developed etchant. Moreover, the concentrations of the elements (Cu, Mg, and Si) in α-Al were analyzed. The results illustrated that in the alloys containing ~0.4 pct Mg, Q-Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 phase was dissolved after 6 hours of SHT at 778 K (505 °C); but containing in the alloys ~0.8 pct Mg, it was insoluble/ partially soluble. Furthermore, after SHT at 778 K (505 °C), Mg2Si was partially substituted by Q-phase. Applying a two-step SHT [6 hours@778 K (505 °C) + 8 hours@798 K (525 °C)] in the alloys containing ~0.4 pct Mg helped to further dissolve the remaining Mg bearing intermetallics and further modified the microstructure, but in the alloys containing ~0.8 pct Mg, it caused partial melting of Q-phase. Thermodynamic calculations were carried out to assess the phase formation in equilibrium and in non-equilibrium conditions. There was an excellent agreement between the experimental results and the predicted results.

  4. Dissolution of Cu/Mg Bearing Intermetallics in Al-Si Foundry Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidani, Mousa; Larouche, Daniel; Grant Chen, X.

    2016-10-01

    Evolutions of the Cu/Mg bearing intermetallics were thoroughly investigated in four Al-Si hypoeutectic alloys containing various Cu (1 and 1.6 wt pct) and Mg (0.4 and 0.8 wt pct) contents. The area fractions of Cu/Mg bearing phases before and after solution heat treatment (SHT) were quantified to evaluate the solubility/stability of the phases. Two Mg-bearing intermetallics (Q-Al5Cu2Mg8Si6, π-Al8FeMg3Si6) which appear as gray color under optical microscope were discriminated by the developed etchant. Moreover, the concentrations of the elements (Cu, Mg, and Si) in α-Al were analyzed. The results illustrated that in the alloys containing ~0.4 pct Mg, Q-Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 phase was dissolved after 6 hours of SHT at 778 K (505 °C); but containing in the alloys ~0.8 pct Mg, it was insoluble/ partially soluble. Furthermore, after SHT at 778 K (505 °C), Mg2Si was partially substituted by Q-phase. Applying a two-step SHT [6 hours@778 K (505 °C) + 8 hours@798 K (525 °C)] in the alloys containing ~0.4 pct Mg helped to further dissolve the remaining Mg bearing intermetallics and further modified the microstructure, but in the alloys containing ~0.8 pct Mg, it caused partial melting of Q-phase. Thermodynamic calculations were carried out to assess the phase formation in equilibrium and in non-equilibrium conditions. There was an excellent agreement between the experimental results and the predicted results.

  5. Thermodynamic Calibration of Cr-Al Exchange Equilibria for Garnet and Spinel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamecher, E. A.; Antoshechkina, P. M.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Asimow, P. D.

    2009-12-01

    xMELTS is a new thermodynamic model of igneous phase equilibria (Ghiorso et al., 2007, Eos 88, V31C-0608) that extends MELTS (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995, CMP 119, 197-212) and pMELTS (Ghiorso et al., 2002, G3, 10.1029/2001GC000217) to a broader range of bulk compositions and to pressure and temperature conditions spanning from the shallow crust to the top of Earth’s lower mantle. To complete xMELTS, comprehensive garnet and pyroxene solid solution models that include Cr and other minor components must be developed. Garnet is an important phase involved in partial melting of the upper mantle because it controls partitioning of major and minor elements at pressures greater than 3 GPa. Chromium is a minor but significant component of mantle rocks as its presence increases the stability of spinel relative to plagioclase at low pressure and to garnet at high pressure. Thermodynamic models incorporating Cr into garnet solid solutions have been absent from the MELTS packages, motivating simulations for Cr-free bulk compositions and preventing accurate modeling of the spinel-garnet phase transition. The extension of the garnet model to include energetics of mixing on the Y-site is the first step in a planned calibration that will also include the majorite component needed for transition zone garnets. Initially, standard state properties and phase equilibria experiments for a Cr-bearing garnet endmember were compiled. Internally consistent thermodynamic properties of the endmember species were found by examination of reversal experiments on pure systems. We used the reversal experiments of Klemme (2004, Lithos 77, 639-646) to fix the enthalpy and entropy of knorringite (Mg3Cr2Si3O12), but were unable to fit the reversals using the standard state values given by Klemme and instead re-optimized these parameters. Although a Cr-bearing garnet model is included in the PERPLEX package (Connolly, 1990, AJS 290, 666-718; Connolly and Petrini, 2002, J.Met.Pet. 20, 697-708), the Y

  6. Atomic-scale microstructure underneath nanoindentation in Al-Cr-N ceramic films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Chunqiang Li, Zhipeng; Lin, Songsheng

    2015-12-15

    In this work, Al-Cr-N ceramic films deformed by nanoindentation were peeled off from silicon substrates and their atomic-scale microstructures underneath the indenter were investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM). Dislocations were formed underneath the indenter and they accumulated along nano-grain boundaries. The accumulative dislocations triggered the crack initiation along grain boundaries, and further resulted in the crack propagation. Dislocations were also observed in nano-grains on the lateral contact area. A model was proposed to describe the variation of microstructures under nanoindentation.

  7. High-temperature relaxation in a Fe-Cr-Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z. C.; Han, F. S.

    2003-09-01

    Two relaxational internal friction peaks were found in a (wt%)Fe-25Cr-5Al alloy. The low-temperature peak is related to Zener relaxation and the high-temperature one to grain-boundary relaxation. Their activation energy values are 2.55 (+/-0.14) eV for the Zener peak and 4.07(+/-0.15) eV for the grain-boundary relaxation peak, respectively. Grain-boundary relaxation strength remarkably increases with decreasing grain size, while the Zener peak is independent of the grain size. (

  8. Investigation on the suitability of plasma sprayed Fe Cr Al coatings as tritium permeation barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, C.; Stein-Fechner, K.; Serra, E.; Glasbrenner, H.; Benamati, G.

    1999-08-01

    Results on the fabrication of a tritium permeation barrier by spraying Fe-Cr-Al powders are described. The sprayed coatings were deposited at temperatures below the Ac1 temperature of the ferritic-martensitic steel substrate and no post-deposition heat treatment was applied. The aim of the investigation was the determination of the efficiency of the coatings to act as tritium permeation barrier. Metallurgical investigations as well as hydrogen isotope permeation measurements were carried out onto the produced coatings. The depositions were performed on ferritic-martensitic steels by means of three types of spray techniques: high velocity oxy fuel, air plasma spray and vacuum plasma spray.

  9. Thermophysical properties of Ti-5Al-5V-5Mo-3Cr-1Zr titanium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, V. A.; Kulikova, T. V.; Vedmid', L. B.; Fishman, A. Ya.; Shunyaev, K. Yu.; Tarenkova, N. Yu.

    2014-07-01

    The thermophysical properties of the Ti-5Al-5V-5Mo-3Cr-1Zr titanium alloy in a wide range of temperatures from room temperature to 1000°C have been studied by the methods of differential scanning calorimetry, the laser flash method, and dilatometry. The obtained data on heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, and thermal expansion have been used for calculating coefficient of thermal conductivity. The sequence and temperatures of structural transformations during heating of the alloy have been established. It has been shown that the studied alloy possesses a coefficient of thermal conductivity that is 3.5-4 times smaller than that of pure titanium.

  10. Microstructural evolution in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sc-Zr alloys during short-time homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; He, Chun-nian; Li, Gen; Meng, Xin; Shi, Chun-sheng; Zhao, Nai-qin

    2015-05-01

    Microstructural evolution in a new kind of aluminum (Al) alloy with the chemical composition of Al-8.82Zn-2.08Mg-0.80Cu-0.31Sc-0.3Zr was investigated. It is found that the secondary phase MgZn2 is completely dissolved into the matrix during a short homogenization treatment (470°C, 1 h), while the primary phase Al3(Sc,Zr) remains stable. This is due to Sc and Zr additions into the Al alloy, high Zn/Mg mass ratio, and low Cu content. The experimental findings fit well with the results calculated by the homogenization diffusion kinetics equation. The alloy shows an excellent mechanical performance after the short homogenization process followed by hot-extrusion and T6 treatment. Consequently, a good combination of low energy consumption and favorable mechanical properties is obtained.

  11. EPR and optical investigations of LaMgAl{sub 11}O{sub 19}:Cr{sup 3+} phosphor

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Vijay; Sivaramaiah, G.; Rao, J.L.; Kim, S.H.

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The EPR spectrum of as-prepared LaMgAl{sub 11}O{sub 19}:Cr{sup 3+} phosphor at 110 K. - Highlights: • Using the combustion synthesis, LaMgAl{sub 11}O{sub 19}:Cr{sup 3+} phosphor has been prepared in a few minutes. • Optical investigation indicates that Cr{sup 3+} ions are present in octahedral symmetry. • The EPR signals indicate that exchange coupled Cr{sup 3+}–Cr{sup 3+} ion pairs in weakly distorted sites. - Abstract: The LaMgAl{sub 11}O{sub 19}:Cr{sup 3+} phosphor has been prepared by a low-temperature combustion synthesis method. As-prepared combustion synthesized powder was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance (DRS), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and photoluminescence (PL) studies. The X-ray diffraction pattern reveals crystalline hexagonal phases. The UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrum exhibits three broad bands characteristic of Cr{sup 3+} ions in octahedral symmetry. The EPR spectrum exhibits several resonance signals. The signals with the effective g values at g = 4.84, 3.64 and 2.26 have been attributed to the isolated Cr{sup 3+} ions. The signal with the effective g value at g = 1.94 has been attributed to exchange coupled Cr{sup 3+}–Cr{sup 3+} ion pairs. The PL studies exhibit several bands characteristic of Cr{sup 3+} ions in octahedral symmetry.

  12. The Electronic Structure and Formation Energies of Ni-doped CuAlO2 by Density Functional Theory Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ying; Li, Fei; Sheng, Wei; Nie, Guo-Zheng; Yuan, Ding-Wang

    2014-03-01

    The electronic structure and formation energies of Ni-doped CuAlO2 are calculated by first-principles calculations. Our results show that Ni is good for p-type doping in CuAlO2. When Ni is doped into CuAlO2, it prefers to substitute Al-site. NiAl is a shallow acceptor, while NiCu is a deep acceptor and its formation energy is high. Further electronic structure calculations show that strong hybridization happens between Ni-3d and O-2p states for Ni substituting Al-site, while localized Ni-3d states are found for Ni substituting Cu-site.

  13. Iron-base superalloys - A phase analysis of the multicomponent system (Fe-Mn-Cr-Mo-Nb-Al-Si-C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, H.; Nowotny, H.; Lemkey, F. D.

    1988-01-01

    In the course of studies on the iron-rich multicomponent system Fe-Mn-Cr-Mo-Nb-Al-Si-C, work was concentrated on pertinent quinary and six-component combinations namely Fe-Mn-Al-Si-C, Fe-Cr-Al-Si-C and Fe-Mn-Cr-Al-Si-C which had been elaborated at 65, 72, and 80 wt pct Fe. Manganese acts as a strong stabilizer for the cementite carbide. Chromium seems to stabilize the iron aluminide Fe2Al5 which forms in a considerable amount within an alloy of nominal composition Fe(65)Mn(15)Cr(12)Al(5)Si(2)C(1) (percent by weight). Although the Mn3AlC carbide is, like Fe3AlC, a perovskite carbide, manganese does not appear to favor the formation of the perovskite carbide. Because of the relatively low sintering temperature (700 C), for al large portion of the samples equilibria conditions are not always reached.

  14. Spin-orbit torque in Cr/CoFeAl/MgO and Ru/CoFeAl/MgO epitaxial magnetic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Zhenchao; Kim, Junyeon; Sukegawa, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Masamitsu; Mitani, Seiji

    2016-05-01

    We study the spin-orbit torque (SOT) effective fields in Cr/CoFeAl/MgO and Ru/CoFeAl/MgO magnetic heterostructures using the adiabatic harmonic Hall measurement. High-quality perpendicular-magnetic-anisotropy CoFeAl layers were grown on Cr and Ru layers. The magnitudes of the SOT effective fields were found to significantly depend on the underlayer material (Cr or Ru) as well as their thicknesses. The damping-like longitudinal effective field (ΔHL) increases with increasing underlayer thickness for all heterostructures. In contrast, the field-like transverse effective field (ΔHT) increases with increasing Ru thickness while it is almost constant or slightly decreases with increasing Cr thickness. The sign of ΔHL observed in the Cr-underlayer devices is opposite from that in the Ru-underlayer devices while ΔHT shows the same sign with a small magnitude. The opposite directions of ΔHL indicate that the signs of spin Hall angle in Cr and Ru are opposite, which are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. These results show sizable contribution from SOT even for elements with small spin orbit coupling such as 3d Cr and 4d Ru.

  15. Electronic structure, magnetism, and antisite disorder in CoFeCrGe and CoMnCrAl quaternary Heusler alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Enamullah, .; Venkateswara, Y.; Gupta, Sachin; Varma, Manoj Raama; Singh, Prashant; Suresh, K. G.; Alam, Aftab

    2015-12-10

    In this study, we present a combined theoretical and experimental study of two quaternary Heusler alloys CoFeCrGe (CFCG) and CoMnCrAl (CMCA), promising candidates for spintronics applications. Magnetization measurement shows the saturation magnetization and transition temperature to be 3 μB, 866 K and 0.9 μB, 358 K for CFCG and CMCA respectively. The magnetization values agree fairly well with our theoretical results and also obey the Slater-Pauling rule, a prerequisite for half metallicity. A striking difference between the two systems is their structure; CFCG crystallizes in fully ordered Y-type structure while CMCA has L21 disordered structure. The antisite disorder adds amore » somewhat unique property to the second compound, which arises due to the probabilistic mutual exchange of Al positions with Cr/Mn and such an effect is possibly expected due to comparable electronegativities of Al and Cr/Mn. Ab initio simulation predicted a unique transition from half metallic ferromagnet to metallic antiferromagnet beyond a critical excess concentration of Al in the alloy.« less

  16. Electronic structure, magnetism, and antisite disorder in CoFeCrGe and CoMnCrAl quaternary Heusler alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Enamullah, .; Venkateswara, Y.; Gupta, Sachin; Varma, Manoj Raama; Singh, Prashant; Suresh, K. G.; Alam, Aftab

    2015-12-10

    In this study, we present a combined theoretical and experimental study of two quaternary Heusler alloys CoFeCrGe (CFCG) and CoMnCrAl (CMCA), promising candidates for spintronics applications. Magnetization measurement shows the saturation magnetization and transition temperature to be 3 μB, 866 K and 0.9 μB, 358 K for CFCG and CMCA respectively. The magnetization values agree fairly well with our theoretical results and also obey the Slater-Pauling rule, a prerequisite for half metallicity. A striking difference between the two systems is their structure; CFCG crystallizes in fully ordered Y-type structure while CMCA has L21 disordered structure. The antisite disorder adds a somewhat unique property to the second compound, which arises due to the probabilistic mutual exchange of Al positions with Cr/Mn and such an effect is possibly expected due to comparable electronegativities of Al and Cr/Mn. Ab initio simulation predicted a unique transition from half metallic ferromagnet to metallic antiferromagnet beyond a critical excess concentration of Al in the alloy.

  17. A multireference configuration interaction study of CuB and CuAl molecular constants and photoionization spectra.

    PubMed

    Ferrão, Luiz F A; Spada, Rene F K; Roberto-Neto, Orlando; Machado, Francisco B C

    2013-09-28

    Accurate potential energy curves and molecular constants for the low-lying electronic states of CuX(y) (X = B, Al; y = 0, +1) were investigated using the complete active space self-consistent field/multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) methodology with aug-cc-pV5Z basis set. The photoionization spectra of CuX were computed, showing electron detachment in the region of far ultraviolet. The results complement the previous theoretical characterizations and the few experimental studies. A comparative analysis was carried out concerning the different choices of reference configuration state functions in the MRCI calculations with and without the contribution of scalar relativistic effects. The results obtained with a small reference set adequately constructed are competitive to those using a much larger number of configuration state functions, and also the scalar relativistic effects improve significantly the molecular constants in this kind of system containing a 3d metal atom.

  18. Microstructural characteristics and aging response of Zn-containing Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yuan-hua; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Ji-shan

    2013-07-01

    Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys with and without Zn addition were fabricated by conventional ingot metallurgy method. The microstructures and properties were investigated using optical microscopy (OM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), tensile test, hardness test, and electrical conductivity measurement. It is found that the as-cast Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Zn alloy is composed of coarse dendritic grains, long needle-like β/δ-AlFeSi white intermetallics, and Chinese script-like α-AlFeSi compounds. During high temperature homogenization treatment, only harmful needle-like β-AlFeSi phase undergoes fragmentation and spheroidizing at its tips, and the destructive needle-like δ-phase does not show any morphological and size changes. Phase transitions from β-AlFeSi to α-AlFeSi and from δ-AlFeSi to β-AlFeSi are also not found. Zn addition improves the aging hardening response during the former aging stage and postpones the peak-aged hardness to a long aging time. In T4 condition, Zn addition does not obviously increase the yield strength and decrease the elongation, but it markedly improves paint-bake hardening response during paint-bake cycle. The addition of 0.5wt% Zn can lead to an increment of 99 MPa in yield strength compared with the value of 69 MPa for the alloy without Zn after paint-bake cycle.

  19. Plasticity-improved Zr-Cu-Al bulk metallic glass matrix composites containing martensite phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y. F.; Wei, B. C.; Wang, Y. R.; Li, W. H.; Cheung, T. L.; Shek, C. H.

    2005-08-01

    Zr48.5Cu46.5Al5 bulk metallic glass matrix composites with diameters of 3 and 4mm were produced through water-cooled copper mold casting. Micrometer-sized bcc based B2 structured CuZr phase containing martensite plate, together with some densely distributed nanocrystalline Zr2Cu and plate-like Cu10Zr7 compound, was found embedded in a glassy matrix. The microstructure formation strongly depends on the composition and cooling rate. Room temperature compression tests reveal significant strain hardening and plastic strains of 7.7% and 6.4% before failure are obtained for the 3-mm- and 4-mm-diam samples, respectively. The formation of the martensite phase is proposed to contribute to the strain hardening and plastic deformation of the materials.

  20. Plasticity-improved Zr-Cu-Al bulk metallic glass matrix composites containing martensite phase

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.F.; Wei, B.C.; Wang, Y.R.; Li, W.H.; Cheung, T.L.; Shek, C.H.

    2005-08-01

    Zr{sub 48.5}Cu{sub 46.5}Al{sub 5} bulk metallic glass matrix composites with diameters of 3 and 4 mm were produced through water-cooled copper mold casting. Micrometer-sized bcc based B2 structured CuZr phase containing martensite plate, together with some densely distributed nanocrystalline Zr{sub 2}Cu and plate-like Cu{sub 10}Zr{sub 7} compound, was found embedded in a glassy matrix. The microstructure formation strongly depends on the composition and cooling rate. Room temperature compression tests reveal significant strain hardening and plastic strains of 7.7% and 6.4% before failure are obtained for the 3-mm- and 4-mm-diam samples, respectively. The formation of the martensite phase is proposed to contribute to the strain hardening and plastic deformation of the materials.

  1. A Study of Pack Aluminizing Process for NiCrAlY Coatings Using Response Surface Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Feng; Huang, Xiao; Liu, Rong; Yang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Aluminizing process is widely used to provide additional Al deposition onto superalloy surface for enhanced oxidation and corrosion resistance. In this research, an aluminizing process—pack cementation process, is used to deposit Al onto the surface of NiCrAlY coatings for increasing environmental protection. The experiment is designed using Box-Behnken approach, in which three parameters, the Al content, Ni content of the pack powder, and the temperature of the process, are selected as factors; and the thickness and Al/Ni ratio of the coatings are selected as responses. The effects of the factors on the responses are analyzed and modeled empirically. It is found that these empirical models correlate well with the results from additional sets of experiment. These models can be used to produce aluminized NiCrAlY coatings with specific thicknesses and Al/Ni ratios.

  2. Diamond growth on Fe-Cr-Al alloy by H2-plasma enhanced graphite etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. S.; Hirose, A.

    2007-04-01

    Without intermediate layer and surface pretreatment, adherent diamond films with high initial nucleation density have been deposited on Fe-15Cr-5Al (wt. %) alloy substrate. The deposition was performed using microwave hydrogen plasma enhanced graphite etching in a wide temperature range from 370to740°C. The high nucleation density and growth rate of diamond are primarily attributed to the unique precursors used (hydrogen plasma etched graphite) and the chemical nature of the substrate. The improvement in diamond adhesion to steel alloys is ascribed to the important role played by Al, mitigation of the catalytic function of iron by suppressing the preferential formation of loose graphite intermediate phase on steel surface.

  3. Synthesis of CORONA 5 (Ti-4.5Al-5Mo-1.5Cr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froes, F. H.; Highberger, W. T.

    1980-05-01

    The synthesis of CORONA 5 (Ti-4.5Al-5Mo-1.5Cr) is described from the viewpoints of alloy chemistry and microstructure. Lenticular alpha is shown to maximize fracture resistance parameters, while a globular alpha optimizes hightemperature flow characteristics. The processing and application of CORONA 5 as forging, plate, sheet and powder metallurgy products are presented. The weldability of the alloy is described and potential use of the alloy for engine applications discussed. The improved mechanical property behavior over the "workhorse" Ti-6Al-4V alloy combined with cost-effective production should result in use of CORONA 5 in many applications. Future developments for CORONA 5 are suggested both in terms of further mechanical property optimization and in light of the economics of producing the alloy.

  4. Surface Hardening and Nitride Precipitation in the Nitriding of Fe-M1-M2 Ternary Alloys Containing Al, V, or Cr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Goro; Suetsugu, Shotaro; Shinbo, Kunio; Furuhara, Tadashi

    2015-11-01

    Nitride precipitation and resultant surface hardening in nitrided Fe-M1-M2 ternary alloys containing Cr, Al, or V were investigated using transmission electron microscopy and three-dimensional atom probe tomography. The (Al, Cr) and (Cr, V) mixed nitrides are formed by the co-precipitation of these elements during the nitriding of Fe-Al-Cr or Fe-Cr-V alloys. However, the precipitation of V nitrides precedes Al nitride precipitation during the nitriding of the Fe-Al-V alloy, which results in two-step hardening behavior. The addition of Cr or V to the Fe-Al alloy accelerates the precipitation kinetics of Al nitrides by promoting the nucleation of Al nitrides, which leads to substantial surface hardening.

  5. Chemical reactions and morphological stability at the Cu/Al2O3 interface.

    PubMed

    Scheu, C; Klein, S; Tomsia, A P; Rühle, M

    2002-10-01

    The microstructures of diffusion-bonded Cu/(0001)Al2O3 bicrystals annealed at 1000 degrees C at oxygen partial pressures of 0.02 or 32 Pa have been studied with various microscopy techniques ranging from optical microscopy to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The studies revealed that for both oxygen partial pressures a 20-35 nm thick interfacial CuAlO2 layer formed, which crystallises in the rhombohedral structure. However, the CuAlO2 layer is not continuous, but interrupted by many pores. In the samples annealed in the higher oxygen partial pressure an additional reaction phase with a needle-like structure was observed. The needles are several millimetres long, approximately 10 microm wide and approximately 1 microm thick. They consist of CuAlO2 with alternating rhombohedral and hexagonal structures. Solid-state contact angle measurements were performed to derive values for the work of adhesion. The results show that the adhesion is twice as good for the annealed specimen compared to the as-bonded sample. PMID:12366593

  6. Influence of temperature on AC conductivity of nanocrystalline CuAlO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, T.

    2012-07-01

    Nanocrystalline CuAlO2 was synthesized by mechanical alloying of Cu2O and α-Al2O3 powders in the molar ratio of 1:1 for 20 h in toluene medium with tungsten carbide balls and vials using planetary ball mill. The ball milling was carried out at 300 rpm with a ball to powder weight ratio of 10:1 and then annealed at 1373 K in a platinum crucible for 20 h to get CuAlO2 phase with average crystallite size 45 nm. Complex impedance spectroscopic measurement in the frequency region 1 Hz to 10 MHz between the temperatures 333 to 473 K was carried out for nanocrystalline CuAlO2 sample. The obtained complex impedance data was analyzed for AC conductivities, DC and AC conductivities correlations and crossover frequencies ( f co ). The BNN (Barton, Nakajima and Namikawa) relation was applied to understand the correlation between DC and AC conductivities. The observed experimental results were discussed in the paper.

  7. Production of Cu-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloys by Mechanical Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Goegebakan, Musa; Soguksu, Ali Kemal; Uzun, Orhan; Dogan, Ali

    2007-04-23

    The mechanical alloying technique has been used to produce shape memory Cu83Al13Ni4 alloy. The structure and thermal properties were examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The morphology of the surface suggests the presence of martensite.

  8. X-ray imaging and controlled solidification of Al-Cu alloys toward microstructures by design

    DOE PAGES

    Clarke, Amy J.; Tourret, Damien; Imhoff, Seth D.; Gibbs, Paul J.; Fezzaa, Kamel; Cooley, Jason C.; Lee, Wah -Keat; Deriy, Alex; Patterson, Brian M.; Papin, Pallas A.; et al

    2015-01-30

    X-ray imaging, which permits the microscopic visualization of metal alloy solidification dynamics, can be coupled with controlled solidification to create microstructures by design. This x-ray image shows a process-derived composite microstructure being made from a eutectic Al-17.1 at.%Cu alloy by successive solidification and remelting steps.

  9. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of spray-deposited Al-Cu-Mg(-Ag-Mn) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Castillo, L.; Lavernia, E. J.

    2000-09-01

    The effect of alloy composition on the microstructure and mechanical behavior of four spray-deposited Al-Cu-Mg(-Ag-Mn) alloys was investigated. Precipitation kinetics for the alloys was determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and artificial aging studies coupled with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. DSC/TEM analysis revealed that the spray-deposited alloys displayed similar precipitation behavior to that found in previously published studies on ingot alloys, with the Ag containing alloys exhibiting the presence of two peaks corresponding to precipitation of both Ω-Al2Cu and θ'-Al2Cu and the Ag-free alloy exhibiting only one peak for precipitation of θ'. The TEM analysis of each of the Ag-containing alloys revealed increasing amounts of Al20Mn3Cu2 with increasing Mn. In the peak and over-aged conditions, Ag-containing alloys revealed the presence of Ω, with some precipitation of θ' for alloys 248 and 251. Tensile tests on each of the alloys in the peak-aged and overaged (1000 hours at 160 °C) conditions were performed at both room and elevated temperatures. These tests revealed that the peak-aged alloys exhibited relatively high stability up to 160 °C, with greater reductions in strength being observed at 200 °C (especially for the high Mn, low Cu/Mg ratio (6.7) alloy 251). The greatest stability of tensile strength following extended exposure at 160 °C was exhibited by the high Cu/Mg ratio (14) alloy 248, which revealed reductions in yield strength of about 2.5 pct, with respect to the peak-aged condition, for the alloys tested at both room temperature and 160 °C.

  10. Influence of temperature on Al/p-CuInAlSe2 thin-film Schottky diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parihar, Usha; Ray, Jaymin; Panchal, C. J.; Padha, Naresh

    2016-06-01

    Al/p-CuInAlSe2 Schottky diodes were fabricated using the optimized thin layers of CuInAlSe2 semiconductor. These diodes were used to study their temperature-dependent current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) analysis over a wide range of 233-353 K. Based on these measurements, diode parameters such as ideality factor ( η), barrier height (ϕbo) and series resistance ( R s) were determined from the downward curvature of I-V characteristics using Cheung and Cheung method. The extracted parameters were found to be strongly temperature dependent; ϕbo increases, while η and R s decrease with increasing temperature. This behavior of ϕbo and η with change in temperature has been explained on the basis of barrier inhomogeneities over the MS interface by assuming a Gaussian distribution (GD) of the ϕbo at the interface. GD of barrier height (BH) was confirmed from apparent BH (ϕap) versus q/2 kT plot, and the values of the mean BH and standard deviation (σs) obtained from this plot at zero bias were found to be 1.02 and 0.14 eV, respectively. Also, a modified ln ( {J_{{s}} /T2 } ) - q2 σ_{{s}}2 /2k2 T2 versus q/ kT plot for Al/p-CuInAlSe2 Schottky diodes according to the GD gives ϕbo and Richardson constant ( A ** ) as 1.01 eV and 26 Acm-2 K-2, respectively. The Richardson constant value of 26 Acm-2 K-2 is very close to the theoretical value of 30 Acm-2 K-2. The discrepancy between BHs obtained from I-V and C-V measurements has also been interpreted.

  11. A DFT study on CO oxidation catalyzed by subnanometer AlCu n ( n = 1-3) clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiaona; Guo, Ling; Wen, Caixia; Ren, Ningning; Niu, Shuangshu

    2014-07-01

    Through the first-principle density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, we have made an exhaustive study of the mechanism of CO oxidation catalyzed by AlCu n ( n = 1-3) clusters on gas phase. It is shown that mixing two different metals (Al and Cu) can have beneficial effects on the catalytic activity than monometallic Cu n + 1 ( n = 1-3) cluster toward the reaction of CO oxidation and the alloyed AlCu3 cluster is proposed as the best effective nanocatalysts.

  12. A basin-hopping Monte Carlo investigation of the structural and energetic properties of 55- and 561-atom bimetallic nanoclusters: the examples of the ZrCu, ZrAl, and CuAl systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Souza, Douglas G.; Cezar, Henrique M.; Rondina, Gustavo G.; de Oliveira, Marcelo F.; Da Silva, Juarez L. F.

    2016-05-01

    We report a basin-hopping Monte Carlo investigation within the embedded-atom method of the structural and energetic properties of bimetallic ZrCu, ZrAl, and CuAl nanoclusters with 55 and 561 atoms. We found that unary Zr55, Zr561, Cu55, Cu561, Al55, and Al561 systems adopt the well known compact icosahedron (ICO) structure. The excess energy is negative for all systems and compositions, which indicates an energetic preference for the mixing of both chemical species. The ICO structure is preserved if a few atoms of the host system are replaced by different species, however, the composition limit in which the ICO structure is preserved depends on both the host and new chemical species. Using several structural analyses, three classes of structures, namely ideal ICO, nearly ICO, and distorted ICO structures, were identified. As the amounts of both chemical species change towards a more balanced composition, configurations far from the ICO structure arise and the dominant structures are nearly spherical, which indicates a strong minimization of the surface energy by decreasing the number of atoms with lower coordination on the surface. The average bond lengths follow Vegard’s law almost exactly for ZrCu and ZrAl, however, this is not the case for CuAl. Furthermore, the radial distribution allowed us to identify the presence of an onion-like behavior in the surface of the 561-atom CuAl nanocluster with the Al atoms located in the outermost surface shell, which can be explained by the lower surface energies of the Al surfaces compared with the Cu surfaces. In ZrCu and ZrAl the radial distribution indicates a nearly homogeneous distribution for the chemical species, however, with a slightly higher concentration of Al atoms on the ZrAl surface, which can also be explained by the lower surface energy.

  13. A basin-hopping Monte Carlo investigation of the structural and energetic properties of 55- and 561-atom bimetallic nanoclusters: the examples of the ZrCu, ZrAl, and CuAl systems.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Douglas G; Cezar, Henrique M; Rondina, Gustavo G; de Oliveira, Marcelo F; Da Silva, Juarez L F

    2016-05-01

    We report a basin-hopping Monte Carlo investigation within the embedded-atom method of the structural and energetic properties of bimetallic ZrCu, ZrAl, and CuAl nanoclusters with 55 and 561 atoms. We found that unary Zr55, Zr561, Cu55, Cu561, Al55, and Al561 systems adopt the well known compact icosahedron (ICO) structure. The excess energy is negative for all systems and compositions, which indicates an energetic preference for the mixing of both chemical species. The ICO structure is preserved if a few atoms of the host system are replaced by different species, however, the composition limit in which the ICO structure is preserved depends on both the host and new chemical species. Using several structural analyses, three classes of structures, namely ideal ICO, nearly ICO, and distorted ICO structures, were identified. As the amounts of both chemical species change towards a more balanced composition, configurations far from the ICO structure arise and the dominant structures are nearly spherical, which indicates a strong minimization of the surface energy by decreasing the number of atoms with lower coordination on the surface. The average bond lengths follow Vegard's law almost exactly for ZrCu and ZrAl, however, this is not the case for CuAl. Furthermore, the radial distribution allowed us to identify the presence of an onion-like behavior in the surface of the 561-atom CuAl nanocluster with the Al atoms located in the outermost surface shell, which can be explained by the lower surface energies of the Al surfaces compared with the Cu surfaces. In ZrCu and ZrAl the radial distribution indicates a nearly homogeneous distribution for the chemical species, however, with a slightly higher concentration of Al atoms on the ZrAl surface, which can also be explained by the lower surface energy.

  14. Solidification Paths and Phase Components at High Temperatures of High-Zn Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloys with Different Mg and Cu Contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, W. X.; Hou, L. G.; Liu, J. C.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, F.; Liu, J. T.; Zhuang, L. Z.; Zhang, J. S.

    2015-11-01

    Studies were carried out systematically on a series of Al-8.5 wt pct Zn- xMg- yCu alloys ( x is about 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 wt pct, and y is about 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 2.9 wt pct). The effects of alloying elements Mg and Cu on the microstructures of as-cast and homogenized alloys were investigated using the computational/experimental approach. It shows that Mg(Zn,Al,Cu)2 ( σ) phase can exist in all the as-cast alloys without any observable Mg32(Al,Zn)49/Al2Mg3Zn3 ( T) or Al2CuMg ( S) phase, whereas Al2Cu ( θ) phase is prone to exist in the alloys with low Mg and high Cu contents. Thermodynamic calculation shows that the real solidification paths of the designed alloys fall in between the Scheil and the equilibrium conditions, and close to the former. After the long-time homogenization [733 K (460 °C)/168 hours] and the two-step homogenization [733 K (460 °C)/24 hours + 748 K (475 °C)/24 hours], the phase components of the designed alloys are generally consistent with the calculated phase diagrams. At 733 K (460 °C), the phase components in the thermodynamic equilibrium state are greatly influenced by Mg content, and the alloys with low Mg content are more likely to be in single-Al phase field even if the alloys contain high Cu content. At 748 K (475 °C), the dissolution of the second phases is more effective, and the phase components in the thermodynamic equilibrium state are dominated primarily by (Mg + Cu) content, except the alloys with (Mg + Cu) ≳ 4.35 wt pct, all designed alloys are in single-Al phase field.

  15. Interfacial chemistry in Al/CuO reactive nanomaterial and its role in exothermic reaction.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jinhee; Ducéré, Jean Marie; Alphonse, Pierre; Bahrami, Mehdi; Petrantoni, Marine; Veyan, Jean-Francois; Tenailleau, Christophe; Estève, Alain; Rossi, Carole; Chabal, Yves J

    2013-02-01

    Interface layers between reactive and energetic materials in nanolaminates or nanoenergetic materials are believed to play a crucial role in the properties of nanoenergetic systems. Typically, in the case of Metastable Interstitial Composite nanolaminates, the interface layer between the metal and oxide controls the onset reaction temperature, reaction kinetics, and stability at low temperature. So far, the formation of these interfacial layers is not well understood for lack of in situ characterization, leading to a poor control of important properties. We have combined in situ infrared spectroscopy and ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy, in conjunction with first-principles calculations to identify the stable configurations that can occur at the interface and determine the kinetic barriers for their formation. We find that (i) an interface layer formed during physical deposition of aluminum is composed of a mixture of Cu, O, and Al through Al penetration into CuO and constitutes a poor diffusion barrier (i.e., with spurious exothermic reactions at lower temperature), and in contrast, (ii) atomic layer deposition (ALD) of alumina layers using trimethylaluminum (TMA) produces a conformal coating that effectively prevents Al diffusion even for ultrathin layer thicknesses (∼0.5 nm), resulting in better stability at low temperature and reduced reactivity. Importantly, the initial reaction of TMA with CuO leads to the extraction of oxygen from CuO to form an amorphous interfacial layer that is an important component for superior protection properties of the interface and is responsible for the high system stability. Thus, while Al e-beam evaporation and ALD growth of an alumina layer on CuO both lead to CuO reduction, the mechanism for oxygen removal is different, directly affecting the resistance to Al diffusion. This work reveals that it is the nature of the monolayer

  16. Studies on the Sliding Wear Performance of Plasma Spray Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Maninder; Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Balraj; Singh, Bhupinder

    2010-01-01

    Two metallic powders namely Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al were coated on AISI 309 SS steel by shrouded plasma spray process. The wear behavior of the bare, Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al-coated AISI 309 SS steel was investigated according to ASTM Standard G99-03 on a Pin-on-Disc Wear Test Rig. The wear tests were carried out at normal loads of 30 and 50 N with a sliding velocity of 1 m/s. Cumulative wear rate and coefficient of friction (μ) were calculated for all the cases. The worn-out surfaces were then examined by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Both the as-sprayed coatings exhibited typical splat morphology. The XRD analysis indicated the formation of Ni phase for the Ni-20Cr coating and Ni3Al phase for the Ni3Al coating. It has been concluded that the plasma-sprayed Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al coatings can be useful to reduce the wear rate of AISI 309 SS steel. The coatings were found to be adherent to the substrate steel during the wear tests. The plasma-sprayed Ni3Al coating has been recommended as a better choice to reduce the wear of AISI 309 SS steel, in comparison with the Ni-20Cr coating.

  17. Degradation of a TBC with HVOF-CoNiCrAlY Bond Coat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weijie R.

    2014-06-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) provide both thermal insulation and oxidation and corrosion protection to the substrate metal, and their durability is influenced by delamination near the interface between the ceramic topcoat and the metallic bond coat, where a layer of thermally grown oxide (TGO) forms during service exposure. In the present work, the degradation process of a TBC with an air-plasma-spray ZrO2-8 wt.%Y2O3 topcoat and a high-velocity oxy-fuel CoNiCrAlY bond coat was studied, in terms of TGO growth kinetics and aluminum depletion in the bond coat, as well as cracking behavior. The results show that the TGO growth kinetics can be described by a transient oxidation stage with δ3 = k 1 t followed by a steady-state oxidation stage with δ2 = c + k 2 t. Significant aluminum depletion was observed in the bond coat after extended thermal exposure; however, chemical failure of the bond coat did not occur even after the aluminum content near the TGO/CoNiCrAlY interface decreased to 4.5 at.%. A power-law relationship between the maximum crack length in the TBC and the TGO thickness was observed, which may serve as the basis for TBC life prediction.

  18. Deposition and Oxidation of Oxide-Dispersed CoNiCrAlY Bondcoats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Mitsutoshi; Vassen, Robert; Karger, Matthias; Sebold, Doris; Mack, Daniel; Jarligo, Maria Ophelia; Bozza, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    CoNiCrAlY powder and nano-size alumina powder were milled by a high-energy-attrition ball-mill, and an oxide-dispersed powder was produced with a mixed structure of metal and alumina in each particle. The oxide-dispersed bond coat powder was deposited by HVOF. Pores, however, were observed in the coating since the alumina was deposited without sufficient melting. Isothermal oxidation tests were carried out for the bond coat specimens at a temperature of 1373 K up to 1000 h in air. As a result, oxidation proceeded inside the coating, since oxygen penetrated through pores formed in the dispersed alumina. However, the authors find that another deposition using higher power levels led to a bond coat without pores. A commercially available oxide-dispersed CoNiCrAlY powder was also deposited by HVOF and VPS, and isothermal oxidation tests were performed. The analysis clarifies that the HVOF bond coat exhibited the thinnest thermally grown oxide than those of the VPS bond coat and conventional metallic bond coat. Furnace cycling tests were conducted using the specimens with an additional ceramic thermal-barrier coating. The specimen with the bond coat sprayed by VPS using commercial oxide-dispersed powder showed almost same number of cycles to delamination compared with the specimen with the conventional metal bond coat.

  19. On the heat capacities of M2AlC (M=Ti,V,Cr) ternary carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drulis, Monika K.; Drulis, H.; Gupta, S.; Barsoum, M. W.; El-Raghy, T.

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we report on the heat capacities cp of bulk polycrystalline samples of Ti2AlC, V2AlC, and Cr2AlC in the 3-260 K temperature range. Given the structural and chemical similarities of these compounds it is not surprising that the cp's and their temperature dependencies were quite similar. Nevertheless, at all temperatures the heat capacity of Cr2AlC was higher than the other two. The density of states at the Fermi level were 3.9, 7.5, and 14.6 (eV unit cell)-1 for Ti2AlC, V2AlC, and Cr2AlC, respectively. The results obtained are analyzed using the Debye and Einstein model approximations for cp. Good description of cp is obtained if one assumes that nine phonon modes vibrate according to the Debye model approximation whereas the remaining 3 of 12 modes expected for M2AlC formula unit fulfill an Einstein-like phonon vibration pattern. Debye temperatures θD describing acoustic phonon and Einstein temperature θE describing optical phonon contributions have been estimated for the studied compounds. The Debye temperatures are reasonably high and fall in the range of 600-700 K. A linear dependence was found between the number of d electrons along the row Ti, V, and Cr and the density of states at the Fermi level.

  20. Stepwise Depletion of Coating Elements as a Result of Hot Corrosion of NiCrAlY Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Nidhi; Jayaganthan, R.; Prakash, Satya

    2013-11-01

    Present investigation deals with the hot corrosion behaviour of the NiCrAlY coatings deposited by HVOF technique on Superni76 under cyclic conditions at 900 °C in the presence of Na2SO4 + 60% V2O5 salt. The weight change behaviour of the coatings was followed with time up to 200 cycles and K p value was calculated for the hot corrosion process. Surface and cross-section of the corroded samples were examined by FESEM/EDS and XRD to follow the progress of corrosion up to 200 cycles. In earlier cycles, the corrosive species oxidised top surface of the coatings. With increasing number of cycles, oxidation of the coatings occurred up to 40-μm depth. A Cr-depleted band was seen below the oxide scale. Further increase in number of cycles led to migration and oxidation of Al to form Al2O3 sublayer at coating/scale interface, thereby leading to formation of Al-depleted zone in the coating below the Al2O3 sublayer. The corrosion resistance of the NiCrAlY coatings is attributed to the formation of the continuous and dense Al2O3 sublayer at the coating/scale interface, which acts as barrier to the migration of Cr to the surface. The appearance of Al3Y after 100 and 200 cycles also contributes to the increased corrosion resistance of coatings after 100 and 200 cycles.