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Sample records for al cu zn

  1. Interfacial Phenomena in Al/Al, Al/Cu, and Cu/Cu Joints Soldered Using an Al-Zn Alloy with Ag or Cu Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pstruś, Janusz; Gancarz, Tomasz

    2014-05-01

    The studies of soldered joints were carried out in systems: Al/solder/Al, Al/solder/Cu, Cu/solder/Cu, where the solder was (Al-Zn)EUT, (Al-Zn)EUT with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at.% of Ag and (Al-Zn)EUT with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at.% of Cu addition. Brazing was performed at 500 °C for 3 min. The EDS analysis indicated that the composition of the layers starting from the Cu pad was CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4, respectively. Wetting tests were performed at 500 °C for 3, 8, 15, and 30 min, respectively. Thickness of the layers and their kinetics of growth were measured based on the SEM micrographs. The formation of interlayers was not observed from the side of Al pads. On the contrary, dissolution of the Al substrate and migration of Al-rich particles into the bulk of the solder were observed.

  2. Elastocaloric effect in CuAlZn and CuAlMn shape memory alloys under compression.

    PubMed

    Qian, Suxin; Geng, Yunlong; Wang, Yi; Pillsbury, Thomas E; Hada, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Fujimoto, Kenjiro; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Cui, Jun; Yuki, Yoji; Toyotake, Koutaro; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2016-08-13

    This paper reports the elastocaloric effect of two Cu-based shape memory alloys: Cu68Al16Zn16 (CuAlZn) and Cu73Al15Mn12 (CuAlMn), under compression at ambient temperature. The compression tests were conducted at two different rates to approach isothermal and adiabatic conditions. Upon unloading at a strain rate of 0.1 s(-1) (adiabatic condition) from 4% strain, the highest adiabatic temperature changes (ΔTad) of 4.0 K for CuAlZn and 3.9 K for CuAlMn were obtained. The maximum stress and hysteresis at each strain were compared. The stress at the maximum recoverable strain of 4.0% for CuAlMn was 120 MPa, which is 70% smaller than that of CuAlZn. A smaller hysteresis for the CuAlMn alloy was also obtained, about 70% less compared with the CuAlZn alloy. The latent heat, determined by differential scanning calorimetry, was 4.3 J g(-1) for the CuAlZn alloy and 5.0 J g(-1) for the CuAlMn alloy. Potential coefficients of performance (COPmat) for these two alloys were calculated based on their physical properties of measured latent heat and hysteresis, and a COPmat of approximately 13.3 for CuAlMn was obtained.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'. PMID:27402936

  3. Wetting and Interfacial Chemistry of SnZnCu Alloys with Cu and Al Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fima, Przemysław; Pstruś, Janusz; Gancarz, Tomasz

    2014-05-01

    Wetting of Cu and Al pads by Sn-Zn eutectic-based alloys with 0.5, 1, and 1.5 wt.% of Cu was studied at 250 °C, in the presence of ALU33® flux, with wetting times of 15, 30, 60, and 180 s, respectively. With increasing wetting time the wetting angle decreases only slightly and the angles on Cu pads are higher than those on Al pads. Selected, solidified solder-pad couples were cross-sectioned and subjected to SEM-EDS study of the interfacial microstructure. The results revealed that the microstructure of the SnZnCu/Cu interface is much different from SnZnCu/Al interface. In the first case continuous interlayers are observed while in the latter case there is no interlayer but the alloy dissolves the substrate along grain boundaries.

  4. Positron lifetime studies of decomposition in 2024 (Al-Cu-Mg) and 7010 (Al-Zn-Cu-Mg) alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dlubek, G. |; Lademann, P.; Krause, H.; Krause, S.; Unger, R.

    1998-09-04

    In the current paper, the decomposition behavior of the engineering alloys 2024 (Al-Cu-Mg) and 7010 (Al-Zn-Cu-Mg) is studied using positron lifetime measurements. Positrons probe open volume defects such as vacancies and dislocations. However, they may also be used to investigate coherent zones and incoherent precipitates. In order to understand the rather complicated precipitation sequences and the response of positrons to different type of precipitates occurring in 2024 and 7010 alloys, binary and ternary laboratory alloys were also investigated under the same experimental conditions as the engineering alloys. The interpretations of the results are based on experiences of the group from extensive positron studies of laboratory alloys such as Al-Zn, Al-Zn-Mg, Al-Cu, and further Al alloys (see also the review (4)). Their collected results are shown as lifetimes and curve-shape parameters S of the electron-positron momentum distribution curves characteristic for different precipitates in Al alloys.

  5. Ferromagnetism studies of Cu-doped and (Cu, Al) co-doped ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S. Z.; Yang, H. L.; Xu, X. G.; Miao, J.; Jiang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the room temperature ferromagnetism (FM) in Cu-doped and (Cu, Al) co-doped ZnO thin films which were grown on quartz substrates by chemical method based on a sol-gel process combining with spin-coating technology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns demonstrate that both the Cu-doped and (Cu, Al) co-doped ZnO films have the hexagonal wurtzite structure with c-axis orientation. Alternating Gradient Magnetometer (AGM) measurements confirm that all the doped ZnO samples are ferromagnetic at room temperature. When the doped Cu content is 1 %, the Cu-doped ZnO film has the strongest FM. The FM significantly decreases in the (Cu, Al) co-doped ZnO films. The doping of Al ions suppresses the FM induced by the doped Cu ions.

  6. Effect of Zn Content on the Microstructure and Properties of Super-High Strength Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ziyong; Mo, Yuanke; Nie, Zuoren

    2013-08-01

    The microstructure and properties of three different Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys with high Zn content (9 wt pct, 10 wt pct, and 11 wt pct, marked as 9Zn, 10Zn, and 11Zn, respectively) were investigated. The strength of alloys increases as the Zn content increases from 9 wt pct to 10 wt pct, while it does not increase any more as the Zn content increases continuously from 10 wt pct to 11 wt pct. The stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance decreases as the Zn content increases from 9 wt pct to 10 wt pct, while it changes unobviously as the Zn content increases continuously from 10 wt pct to 11 wt pct. The elongation and fracture toughness of alloys decrease as the Zn content increases in these Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys. The Zn content has little effect on the precipitation reaction of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys that contain the mixture of GP zones, and η' are the main Matrix Precipitates (MPt) in the peak-aging state, and the mixture of η' and η are the main MPt in the over-aging state. The amount of MPt and coarse T (AlZnMgCu) phases are shown to increase with the increasing Zn content in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys. The coarse T phases hardly dissolve into the matrix and are the source for the crack initiation, which may be the responsibility for the negative effect on the properties of high Zn content Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys.

  7. Lattice Changes in Shape Memory CuZnAl Alloys on Aging at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakmak, Seyfettýn; Artunç, Ekrem; Kayali, Nejdet; Adigüzel, Osman

    2001-09-01

    The aging behavior of CuZnAl martensites (Cu-21.62 wt.% Zn-5.68 wt.% Al and Cu-24.98 wt.% Zn-4.43 wt.% Al) at about 297 K was studied by analyzing diffraction line profiles obtained by X-ray diffractometry. For the alloys, the change of the lattice parameters and the tetragonality associated with the aging time at room temperature were investigated. The habit planes versus the aging time at room temperature were calculated using the De Vos-Aernoundt-Delaey model, based on the crystallographic theory of Wechsler-Lieberman-Read(WLR), and from the DO3→ 18R martensite transformation theory.

  8. Corrosion behavior of Cu and the Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy in simulated uterine fluid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bangyi; Liang, Chenghao; Fu, Daojun; Ren, Deming

    2005-09-01

    Chemical immersion tests, electrochemical methods and atomic absorption spectrometry were employed to investigate the corrosion behavior of Cu and the Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy (SMA) in simulated uterine fluid. The effect of pH on corrosion rate and corrosion potential was also investigated. The results indicated that in the static state in simulated uterine fluid, dealuminumification of the Cu-Zn-Al alloy occurred with Cl- combining with aluminum ions to form hydroxyl aluminum chloride. The hydroxyl aluminum chloride hydrolyzed readily and facilitated further dealuminumification corrosion. The corrosion process of Cu and Cu-Zn-Al SMA in simulated uterine fluid was controlled by cathodic reduction of oxygen. Because the tendency for surface ionization is greater for aluminum than for zinc, a compact protective aluminum layer was formed, which inhibited the cathodic reduction of oxygen. Hence, the corrosion rate of Cu-Zn-Al SMA was smaller than that of Cu in simulated uterine fluid. With increasing pH, the corrosion rate of Cu and Cu-Zn-Al SMA in simulated uterine fluid decreased and the open-circuit potential moved in a positive direction. PMID:16102560

  9. Nanostructured Al-ZnO/CdSe/Cu2O ETA solar cells on Al-ZnO film/quartz glass templates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The quartz/Al-ZnO film/nanostructured Al-ZnO/CdSe/Cu2O extremely thin absorber solar cell has been successfully realized. The Al-doped ZnO one-dimensional nanostructures on quartz templates covered by a sputtering Al-doped ZnO film was used as the n-type electrode. A 19- to 35-nm-thin layer of CdSe absorber was deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering, coating the ZnO nanostructures. The voids between the Al-ZnO/CdSe nanostructures were filled with p-type Cu2O, and therefore, the entire assembly formed a p-i-n junction. The cell shows the energy conversion efficiency as high as 3.16%, which is an interesting option for developing new solar cell devices. PACS: 88.40.jp; 73.40.Lq; 73.50.Pz. PMID:22136081

  10. Nanostructured Al-ZnO/CdSe/Cu2O ETA solar cells on Al-ZnO film/quartz glass templates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianghu; Li, Rongbin; Fan, Donghua

    2011-01-01

    The quartz/Al-ZnO film/nanostructured Al-ZnO/CdSe/Cu2O extremely thin absorber solar cell has been successfully realized. The Al-doped ZnO one-dimensional nanostructures on quartz templates covered by a sputtering Al-doped ZnO film was used as the n-type electrode. A 19- to 35-nm-thin layer of CdSe absorber was deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering, coating the ZnO nanostructures. The voids between the Al-ZnO/CdSe nanostructures were filled with p-type Cu2O, and therefore, the entire assembly formed a p-i-n junction. The cell shows the energy conversion efficiency as high as 3.16%, which is an interesting option for developing new solar cell devices.PACS: 88.40.jp; 73.40.Lq; 73.50.Pz. PMID:22136081

  11. Nanostructured Al-ZnO/CdSe/Cu2O ETA solar cells on Al-ZnO film/quartz glass templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianghu; Li, Rongbin; Fan, Donghua

    2011-12-01

    The quartz/Al-ZnO film/nanostructured Al-ZnO/CdSe/Cu2O extremely thin absorber solar cell has been successfully realized. The Al-doped ZnO one-dimensional nanostructures on quartz templates covered by a sputtering Al-doped ZnO film was used as the n-type electrode. A 19- to 35-nm-thin layer of CdSe absorber was deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering, coating the ZnO nanostructures. The voids between the Al-ZnO/CdSe nanostructures were filled with p-type Cu2O, and therefore, the entire assembly formed a p-i-n junction. The cell shows the energy conversion efficiency as high as 3.16%, which is an interesting option for developing new solar cell devices. PACS: 88.40.jp; 73.40.Lq; 73.50.Pz.

  12. Mechanical Properties and Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of Al/Sn-9Zn- xAg/Cu Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, M. L.; Huang, Y. Z.; Ma, H. T.; Zhao, J.

    2011-03-01

    The effect of Ag content on the wetting behavior of Sn-9Zn- xAg on aluminum and copper substrates during soldering, as well as the mechanical properties and electrochemical corrosion behavior of Al/Sn-9Zn- xAg/Cu solder joints, were investigated in the present work. Tiny Zn and coarsened dendritic AgZn3 regions were distributed in the Sn matrix in the bulk Sn-9Zn- xAg solders, and the amount of Zn decreased while that of AgZn3 increased with increasing Ag content. The wettability of Sn-9Zn-1.5Ag solder on Cu substrate was better than those of the other Sn-9Zn- xAg solders but worse than that of Sn-9Zn solder. The wettability of Sn-9Zn-1.5Ag on the Al substrate was also better than those of the other Sn-9Zn- xAg solders, and even better than that of Sn-9Zn solder. The Al/Sn-9Zn/Cu joint had the highest shear strength, and the shear strength of the Al/Sn-9Zn- xAg/Cu ( x = 0 wt.% to 3 wt.%) joints gradually decreased with increasing Ag content. The corrosion resistance of the Sn-9Zn- xAg solders in Al/Sn-9Zn- xAg/Cu joints in 5% NaCl solution was improved compared with that of Sn-9Zn. The corrosion potential of Sn-9Zn- xAg solders continuously increased with increasing Ag content from 0 wt.% to 2 wt.% but then decreased for Sn-9Zn-3Ag. The addition of Ag resulted in the formation of the AgZn3 phase and in a reduction of the amount of the eutectic Zn phase in the solder matrix; therefore, the corrosion resistance of the Al/Sn-9Zn- xAg/Cu joints was improved.

  13. Microstructural evolution in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sc-Zr alloys during short-time homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; He, Chun-nian; Li, Gen; Meng, Xin; Shi, Chun-sheng; Zhao, Nai-qin

    2015-05-01

    Microstructural evolution in a new kind of aluminum (Al) alloy with the chemical composition of Al-8.82Zn-2.08Mg-0.80Cu-0.31Sc-0.3Zr was investigated. It is found that the secondary phase MgZn2 is completely dissolved into the matrix during a short homogenization treatment (470°C, 1 h), while the primary phase Al3(Sc,Zr) remains stable. This is due to Sc and Zr additions into the Al alloy, high Zn/Mg mass ratio, and low Cu content. The experimental findings fit well with the results calculated by the homogenization diffusion kinetics equation. The alloy shows an excellent mechanical performance after the short homogenization process followed by hot-extrusion and T6 treatment. Consequently, a good combination of low energy consumption and favorable mechanical properties is obtained.

  14. The effect of Cu/Zn molar ratio on CO2 hydrogenation over Cu/ZnO/ZrO2/Al2O3 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaharun, Salina; Shaharun, Maizatul S.; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Taha, Mohd F.

    2014-10-01

    Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon dioxide (CO2) to methanol is an attractive way to recycle and utilize CO2. A series of Cu / ZnO / Al2O3/ZrO2 catalysts (CZAZ) containing different molar ratios of Cu/Zn were prepared by the co-precipitation method and investigated in a stirred slurry autoclave system. The catalysts were characterized by temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), field emission scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive analysis (FESEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and N2 adsorption-desorption. Higher surface area, SABET values (42.6-59.9 m2/g) are recorded at low (1) and high (5) Cu/Zn ratios with the minimum value of 35.71 m2/g found for a Cu/Zn of 3. The reducibility of the metal oxides formed after calcination of catalyst samples was also affected due to change in metal-support interaction. At a low reaction temperature of 443 K, total gas pressure of 3.0 MPa and 0.1 g/mL of the CZAZ catalyst, the selectivity to methanol decreased as the Cu/Zn molar ratio increased, and the maximum selectivity of 67.73 was achieved at Cu/Zn molar ratio of 1. With a reaction time of 3h, the best performing catalyst was CZAZ75 with Cu/Zn molar ratio of 5 giving methanol yield of 79.30%.

  15. Solidification Paths and Phase Components at High Temperatures of High-Zn Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloys with Different Mg and Cu Contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, W. X.; Hou, L. G.; Liu, J. C.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, F.; Liu, J. T.; Zhuang, L. Z.; Zhang, J. S.

    2015-11-01

    Studies were carried out systematically on a series of Al-8.5 wt pct Zn- xMg- yCu alloys ( x is about 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 wt pct, and y is about 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 2.9 wt pct). The effects of alloying elements Mg and Cu on the microstructures of as-cast and homogenized alloys were investigated using the computational/experimental approach. It shows that Mg(Zn,Al,Cu)2 ( σ) phase can exist in all the as-cast alloys without any observable Mg32(Al,Zn)49/Al2Mg3Zn3 ( T) or Al2CuMg ( S) phase, whereas Al2Cu ( θ) phase is prone to exist in the alloys with low Mg and high Cu contents. Thermodynamic calculation shows that the real solidification paths of the designed alloys fall in between the Scheil and the equilibrium conditions, and close to the former. After the long-time homogenization [733 K (460 °C)/168 hours] and the two-step homogenization [733 K (460 °C)/24 hours + 748 K (475 °C)/24 hours], the phase components of the designed alloys are generally consistent with the calculated phase diagrams. At 733 K (460 °C), the phase components in the thermodynamic equilibrium state are greatly influenced by Mg content, and the alloys with low Mg content are more likely to be in single-Al phase field even if the alloys contain high Cu content. At 748 K (475 °C), the dissolution of the second phases is more effective, and the phase components in the thermodynamic equilibrium state are dominated primarily by (Mg + Cu) content, except the alloys with (Mg + Cu) ≳ 4.35 wt pct, all designed alloys are in single-Al phase field.

  16. An analytical electron microscopic investigation of precipitation in an Al-Cu-Zn-Mg-Ag alloy.

    PubMed

    Hasan, F; Lorimer, G W

    1993-03-01

    The distribution, morphology, chemistry, and crystallography of the precipitates formed during aging of an Al-Cu-Zn-Mg-Ag alloy have been studied using analytical transmission electron microscopy. The first precipitates to appear during aging at 150 degrees C were thin hexagonal-shaped plate-like precipitates which formed on the (111)Al planes. These precipitates had a face-centred orthorhombic crystal structure and their composition was essentially CuAl2 although they contained a trace of silver. At peak hardness the microstructure consisted of the plate-like precipitates on (111)Al planes and theta' precipitates on (100)Al planes. Overaging resulted in the precipitation of equilibrium theta, CuAl2, which exhibited a lath morphology and an orientation-relationship with the matrix (210)Al magnitude of (110)gamma; (001)Al misoriented from (001)gamma by approximately 6 degrees. Prolonged overaging at 250 degrees C resulted in the formation of cuboid-shaped Al5(Cu,Zn)6Mg2 precipitates which had a cubic crystal structure and a cube:cube orientation-relationship with the matrix. PMID:8513176

  17. Formation of a ZnO overlayer in industrial Cu/ZnO/Al2 O3 catalysts induced by strong metal-support interactions.

    PubMed

    Lunkenbein, Thomas; Schumann, Julia; Behrens, Malte; Schlögl, Robert; Willinger, Marc G

    2015-04-01

    In industrially relevant Cu/ZnO/Al2 O3 catalysts for methanol synthesis, the strong metal support interaction between Cu and ZnO is known to play a key role. Here we report a detailed chemical transmission electron microscopy study on the nanostructural consequences of the strong metal support interaction in an activated high-performance catalyst. For the first time, clear evidence for the formation of metastable "graphite-like" ZnO layers during reductive activation is provided. The description of this metastable layer might contribute to the understanding of synergistic effects between the components of the Cu/ZnO/Al2 O3 catalysts. PMID:25683230

  18. Stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Song, R.G.; Dietzel, W.; Zhang, B.J.; Liu, W.J.; Tseng, M.K.; Atrens, A

    2004-09-20

    The age hardening, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu 7175 alloy were investigated experimentally. There were two peak-aged states during ageing. For ageing at 413 K, the strength of the second peak-aged state was slightly higher than that of the first one, whereas the SCC susceptibility was lower, indicating that it is possible to heat treat 7175 to high strength and simultaneously to have high SCC resistance. The SCC susceptibility increased with increasing Mg segregation at the grain boundaries. Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) increased with increased hydrogen charging and decreased with increasing ageing time for the same hydrogen charging conditions. Computer simulations were carried out of (a) the Mg grain boundary segregation using the embedded atom method and (b) the effect of Mg and H segregation on the grain boundary strength using a quasi-chemical approach. The simulations showed that (a) Mg grain boundary segregation in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys is spontaneous, (b) Mg segregation decreases the grain boundary strength, and (c) H embrittles the grain boundary more seriously than does Mg. Therefore, the SCC mechanism of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys is attributed to the combination of HE and Mg segregation induced grain boundary embrittlement.

  19. Microstructural evolution of Al-8.59Zn-2.00Mg-2.44Cu during homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Wen-xiang; Liu, Jun-cheng; Hou, Long-gang; Cui, Hua; Liu, Jun-tao; Zhang, Ji-shan

    2014-12-01

    The microstructural evolution and phase transformations of a high-alloyed Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (Al-8.59Zn-2.00Mg-2.44Cu, wt%) during homogenization were investigated. The results show that the as-cast microstructure mainly contains dendritic α(Al), non-equilibrium eutectics (α(Al) + Mg(Zn,Al,Cu)2), and the θ (Al2Cu) phase. Neither the T (Al2Mg3Zn3) phase nor the S (Al2CuMg) phase was found in the as-cast alloy. The calculated phase components according to the Scheil model are in agreement with experimental results. During homogenization at 460°C, all of the θ phase and most of the Mg(Zn,Al,Cu)2 phase were dissolved, whereas a portion of the Mg(Zn,Al,Cu)2 phase was transformed into the S phase. The type and amount of residual phases remaining after homogenization at 460°C for 168 h and by a two-step homogenization process conducted at 460°C for 24 h and 475°C for 24 h (460°C/24 h + 475°C/24 h) are in good accord with the calculated phase diagrams. It is concluded that the Al-8.59Zn-2.00Mg-2.44Cu alloy can be homogenized adequately under the 460°C/24 h + 475°C/24 h treatment.

  20. Influence of Li Addition to Zn-Al Alloys on Cu Substrate During Spreading Test and After Aging Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gancarz, Tomasz; Pstrus, Janusz; Cempura, Grzegorz; Berent, Katarzyna

    2016-08-01

    The spreading of Zn-Al eutectic-based alloys with 0.05 wt.%, 0.1 wt.%, and 0.2 wt.% Li on Cu substrate has been studied using the sessile drop method in presence of QJ201 flux. Wetting tests were performed after 1 min, 3 min, 8 min, 15 min, 30 min, and 60 min of contact at temperatures of 475°C, 500°C, 525°C, and 550°C. Samples after spreading at 500°C for 1 min were subjected to aging for 1 day, 10 days, and 30 days at temperature of 120°C, 170°C, and 250°C. The spreadability of eutectic Zn-5.3Al alloy with different Li contents on Cu substrate was determined in accordance with ISO 9455-10:2013-03. Selected solidified solder-substrate couples were, after spreading and aging tests, cross-sectioned and subjected to scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the interfacial microstructure. An experiment was designed to demonstrate the effect of Li addition on the kinetics of the formation and growth of CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4 intermetallic compound (IMC) phases, during spreading and aging. The IMC layers formed at the interface were identified using XRD and EDS analyses. Increasing addition of Li to Zn-Al alloy caused a reduction in the thickness of the IMC layer at the interface during spreading, and an increase during aging. The activation energy was calculated, being found to increase for the Cu5Zn8 phase but decrease for the CuZn and CuZn4 phases with increasing Li content in the Zn-Al-Li alloys. The highest value of 142 kJ mol-1 was obtained for Zn-Al with 1.0 Li during spreading and 69.2 kJ mol-1 for Zn-Al with 0.05 Li during aging. Aging at 250°C caused an increase in only the Cu5Zn8 layer, which has the lowest Gibbs energy in the Cu-Zn system. This result is connected to the high diffusion of Cu from the substrate to the solder.

  1. Environmental Fatigue-Crack Surface Crystallography for Al-Zn-Cu-Mg-Mn/Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ro, Yunjo; Agnew, Sean R.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    2008-06-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM)-based electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD)/stereology technique quantitatively establishes distributions of the crystallographic characteristics of environmental-fatigue crack features for slightly overaged Al-Zn-Cu-Mg-X (X = Zr or Mn) alloys stressed in the low-growth-rate regime. Results for these homogeneous slip alloys conform to a substantial companion study of planar slip-prone Al-Cu-Mg/Li. Transgranular-crack characteristics are similar for the Mn and Zr variants, independent of grain size and recrystallization. Two morphologies of facetlike features exhibit a wide range of crystallographic orientations, change character at grain boundaries indicating an important role of grain orientation, and form in highly tensile-stressed spatial orientations about a crack tip. Similar characteristics for Al-Zn and Al-Cu suggest a common damage mechanism, speculatively attributed to hydrogen-environment embrittlement by decohesion. Slip-deformation band cracking resulting in facets near {111}, stimulated by H-enhanced localized plasticity, is not a viable mechanism for environmental fatigue. Repetitively stepped facets with surface curvature may involve H-enhanced cleavage along {100} or {110} planes subsequently distorted by plasticity. Broad-flat facets speculatively result from tensile stress-based cracking through dislocation cell structure, evolved by cyclic plasticity and containing trapped H.

  2. Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol to Propylene Glycol on Nanosized Cu-Zn-Al Catalysts Prepared Using Microwave Process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Won; Ha, Sang Ho; Moon, Myung Jun; Lim, Kwon Taek; Ryu, Young Bok; Lee, Sun Do; Lee, Man Sig; Hong, Seong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Cu-Zn-Al catalysts were prepared using microwave-assisted process and co-precipitation methods. The prepared catalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, XPS and TPD of ammonia and their catalytic activity for the hydrogenolysis of glycerol to propylene glycol was also examined. The XRD patterns of Cu/Zn/Al mixed catalysts show CuO and ZnO crystalline phase regardless of preparation method. The highest glycerol hydrogenolysis conversion is obtained with the catalyst having a Cu/Zn/Al ratio of 2:2:1. Hydrogen pre-reduction of catalysts significantly enhanced both glycerol conversions and selectivity to propylene glycol. The glycerol conversion increased with an increase of reaction temperature. However, the selectivity to propylene glycol increased with an increase of temperature, and then declined to 30.5% at 523 K. PMID:26328420

  3. Deep-cryogenic-treatment-induced phase transformation in the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-mei; Cheng, Nan-pu; Chen, Zhi-qian; Guo, Ning; Zeng, Su-min

    2015-01-01

    An aluminum alloy (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) subjected to deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) was systematically investigated. The results show that a DCT-induced phase transformation varies the microstructures and affects the mechanical properties of the Al alloy. Both Guinier-Preston (GP) zones and a metastable η' phase were observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The phenomenon of the second precipitation of the GP zones in samples subjected to DCT after being aged was observed. The viability of this phase transformation was also demonstrated by first-principles calculations.

  4. Cu-based catalyst resulting from a Cu,Zn,Al hydrotalcite-like compound: a microstructural, thermoanalytical, and in situ XAS study.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Stefanie; Tarasov, Andrey; Zander, Stefan; Kasatkin, Igor; Behrens, Malte

    2014-03-24

    A Cu-based methanol synthesis catalyst was obtained from a phase pure Cu,Zn,Al hydrotalcite-like precursor, which was prepared by co-precipitation. This sample was intrinsically more active than a conventionally prepared Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. Upon thermal decomposition in air, the [(Cu0.5Zn0.17Al0.33)(OH)2(CO3)0.17]⋅mH2O precursor is transferred into a carbonate-modified, amorphous mixed oxide. The calcined catalyst can be described as well-dispersed "CuO" within ZnAl2 O4 still containing stabilizing carbonate with a strong interaction of Cu(2+) ions with the Zn-Al matrix. The reduction of this material was carefully analyzed by complementary temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) measurements. The results fully describe the reduction mechanism with a kinetic model that can be used to predict the oxidation state of Cu at given reduction conditions. The reaction proceeds in two steps through a kinetically stabilized Cu(I) intermediate. With reduction, a nanostructured catalyst evolves with metallic Cu particles dispersed in a ZnAl2 O4 spinel-like matrix. Due to the strong interaction of Cu and the oxide matrix, the small Cu particles (7 nm) of this catalyst are partially embedded leading to lower absolute activity in comparison with a catalyst comprised of less-embedded particles. Interestingly, the exposed Cu surface area exhibits a superior intrinsic activity, which is related to a positive effect of the interface contact of Cu and its surroundings. PMID:24615857

  5. Factors Affecting the Hydrogen Environment Assisted Cracking Resistance of an AL-Zn-Mg-(Cu) Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Young, G A; Scully, J R

    2002-04-09

    Precipitation hardenable Al-Zn-Mg alloys are susceptible to hydrogen environment assisted cracking (HEAC) when exposed to aqueous environments. In Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, overaged tempers are used to increase HEAC resistance at the expense of strength but overaging has little benefit in low copper alloys. However, the mechanism or mechanisms by which overaging imparts HEAC resistance is poorly understood. The present research investigated hydrogen uptake, diffusion, and crack growth rate in 90% relative humidity (RH) air for both a commercial copper bearing Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (AA 7050) and a low copper variant of this alloy in order to better understand the factors which affect HEAC resistance. Experimental methods used to evaluate hydrogen concentrations local to a surface and near a crack tip include nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), focused ion beam, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (FIB/SIMS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Results show that overaging the copper bearing alloys both inhibits hydrogen ingress from oxide covered surfaces and decreases the apparent hydrogen diffusion rates in the metal.

  6. Thermal and Microstructure Characterization of Zn-Al-Si Alloys and Chemical Reaction with Cu Substrate During Spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berent, Katarzyna; Pstruś, Janusz; Gancarz, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    The problems associated with the corrosion of aluminum connections, the low mechanical properties of Al/Cu connections, and the introduction of EU directives have forced the potential of new materials to be investigated. Alloys based on eutectic Zn-Al are proposed, because they have a higher melting temperature (381 °C), good corrosion resistance, and high mechanical strength. The Zn-Al-Si cast alloys were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements, which were performed to determine the melting temperatures of the alloys. Thermal linear expansion and electrical resistivity measurements were performed at temperature ranges of -50 to 250 °C and 25 to 300 °C, respectively. The addition of Si to eutectic Zn-Al alloys not only limits the growth of phases at the interface of liquid solder and Cu substrate but also raises the mechanical properties of the solder. Spreading test on Cu substrate using eutectic Zn-Al alloys with 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 wt.% of Si was studied using the sessile drop method in the presence of QJ201 flux. Spreading tests were performed with contact times of 1, 8, 15, 30, and 60 min, and at temperatures of 475, 500, 525, and 550 °C. After cleaning the flux residue from solidified samples, the spreadability of Zn-Al-Si on Cu was determined. Selected, solidified solder/substrate couples were cross-sectioned, and the interfacial microstructures were studied using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The growth of the intermetallic phase layer was studied at the solder/substrate interface, and the activation energy of growth of Cu5Zn8, CuZn4, and CuZn phases were determined.

  7. Effect of homogenization process on the hardness of Zn-Al-Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas-Cardenas, Jose D.; Saucedo-Muñoz, Maribel L.; Lopez-Hirata, Victor M.; De Ita-De la Torre, Antonio; Avila-Davila, Erika O.; Gonzalez-Velazquez, Jorge Luis

    2015-10-01

    The effect of a homogenizing treatment on the hardness of as-cast Zn-Al-Cu alloys was investigated. Eight alloy compositions were prepared and homogenized at 350 °C for 180 h, and their Rockwell "B" hardness was subsequently measured. All the specimens were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and metallographically prepared for observation by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results of the present work indicated that the hardness of both alloys (as-cast and homogenized) increased with increasing Al and Cu contents; this increased hardness is likely related to the presence of the θ and τ' phases. A regression equation was obtained to determine the hardness of the homogenized alloys as a function of their chemical composition and processing parameters, such as homogenization time and temperature, used in their preparation.

  8. Hydrothermal growth and conductivity enhancement of (Al, Cu) co-doped ZnO nanorods thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Mohua; Mahapatra, Preetilata; Thangavel, R.

    2016-05-01

    The incorporation of Al, Cu co-doping in ZnO host lattice plays an important role in modification of structural, optical and electrical properties in optoelectronic devices. In the present work, we were grown one dimensional ZnO nanorods (NRs) doped with different concentration of Al (0%~5%) and Cu was kept 20 M% on ITO glass substrates using a facile hydrothermal method, and investigated the effect of the codoping on the surface morphology and the electrical and optical performances of the doped ZnO NRs as photo anodes for solar water splitting applications. The crystallite size of NRs shows tuning in the band gap between 3.194 (Zn0.79Al0.01Cu0.2O) to 3.212 eV (Zn0.75Al0.05Cu0.2O) with Aluminium doping concentration and a remarkable improvement in current density (J) from 0.05 mA/cm2 to 4.98 mA/cm2 was achieved by incorporating Al and Cu has a critical effect of ZnO nanorods.

  9. Stress Corrosion Cracking in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Aluminum Alloys in Saline Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holroyd, N. J. Henry; Scamans, G. M.

    2013-03-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu (AA7xxx) aluminum alloys exposed to saline environments at temperatures ranging from 293 K to 353 K (20 °C to 80 °C) has been reviewed with particular attention to the influences of alloy composition and temper, and bulk and local environmental conditions. Stress corrosion crack (SCC) growth rates at room temperature for peak- and over-aged tempers in saline environments are minimized for Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys containing less than ~8 wt pct Zn when Zn/Mg ratios are ranging from 2 to 3, excess magnesium levels are less than 1 wt pct, and copper content is either less than ~0.2 wt pct or ranging from 1.3 to 2 wt pct. A minimum chloride ion concentration of ~0.01 M is required for crack growth rates to exceed those in distilled water, which insures that the local solution pH in crack-tip regions can be maintained at less than 4. Crack growth rates in saline solution without other additions gradually increase with bulk chloride ion concentrations up to around 0.6 M NaCl, whereas in solutions with sufficiently low dichromate (or chromate), inhibitor additions are insensitive to the bulk chloride concentration and are typically at least double those observed without the additions. DCB specimens, fatigue pre-cracked in air before immersion in a saline environment, show an initial period with no detectible crack growth, followed by crack growth at the distilled water rate, and then transition to a higher crack growth rate typical of region 2 crack growth in the saline environment. Time spent in each stage depends on the type of pre-crack ("pop-in" vs fatigue), applied stress intensity factor, alloy chemistry, bulk environment, and, if applied, the external polarization. Apparent activation energies ( E a) for SCC growth in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys exposed to 0.6 M NaCl over the temperatures ranging from 293 K to 353 K (20 °C to 80 °C) for under-, peak-, and over-aged low-copper-containing alloys (<0.2 wt pct) are typically ranging from

  10. High Resolution Characterization of the Precipitation Behavior of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yi-Yun; Kovarik, Libor; Phillips, Patrick J.; Hsu, Yung-Fu; Wang, Wen-Hsiung; Mills, Michael J.

    2012-04-01

    The metastable particles in an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy have been examined at atomic-resolution using high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging. In underaged conditions, thin {eta}' plates were formed with a thickness of 7 atomic planes parallel to the {l_brace}111{r_brace}Al planes. The five inner planes of the {eta}' phase appear to be alternatively enriched in Mg and Zn, with two outer planes forming distinct Zn-rich interfacial planes. Similar Zn rich interfacial enrichment has also been identified for the {eta} phase, which is a minimum 11-planes thick structure. In rare instances, particles less than 7 planes were found indicating a very early preference for 7-layer particle formation. Throughout the aging, the plate thickness appears constant, while the plate radius increases and no particles between 7 and 11 planes were observed. Based on the HAADF contrast, our observations do not support the {eta}' models previously set forth by other authors. Clear structural similarities between {eta}' and {eta} were observed, suggesting that drawing distinctions between {eta}' and {eta} phases may not be necessary or useful.

  11. Comparison of Magnetic Property of Cu-, Al-, and Li-DOPED ZnO Dilute Magnetic Semiconductor Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van, L. H.; Ding, J.; Hong, M. H.; Fan, Z. C.; Wang, L.

    The properties of Cu-, Al-, and Li-doped ZnO dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) have been analyzed and compared. Zincite with wurtzite structures have been synthesized successfully on SiO2 (101) and SiO2 (110) substrates in both the Cu-ZnO and Li-ZnO DMS. The highly textured ZnO (002) peaks were able to form in the Cu-ZnO system at 400°C. However, it formed at even much lower temperature in the Li-ZnO system, that is only 25°C. ZnO (002) peaks in both systems were formed without any impurity phases. However, no crystalline structure is synthesized in the Al-ZnO system. The thin films formed are amorphous. The structural and related magnetic properties of the films were analyzed by XRD, AFM, and VSM. The films were found to be at their highest magnetism at the value of 3.1 emu/cm3 for Co-ZnO and 2.5 emu/cm3 for Li-ZnO, synthesized at 400°C, and under 1 × 10-4 Torr oxygen partial pressure.

  12. Precipitation of a new platelet phase during the quenching of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Weyland, Matthew; Milkereit, Benjamin; Reich, Michael; Rometsch, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    A previously undescribed high aspect ratio strengthening platelet phase, herein named the Y-phase, has been identified in a commercial Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. Differential scanning calorimetry indicates that this phase only precipitates at temperature and cooling rate of about 150–250 °C and 0.05–300 K/s, respectively. This precipitate is shown to be responsible for a noticeable improvement in mechanical properties. Aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy demonstrates the minimal thickness (~1.4 nm) precipitate plates are isostructural to those of the T1 (Al2CuLi) phase observed in Al-Cu-Li alloys. Low voltage chemical analysis by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy gives evidence of the spatial partitioning of the Al, Cu and Zn within the Y-phase, as well as demonstrating the incorporation of a small amount of Mg. PMID:26979123

  13. Precipitation of a new platelet phase during the quenching of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Weyland, Matthew; Milkereit, Benjamin; Reich, Michael; Rometsch, Paul A.

    2016-03-01

    A previously undescribed high aspect ratio strengthening platelet phase, herein named the Y-phase, has been identified in a commercial Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. Differential scanning calorimetry indicates that this phase only precipitates at temperature and cooling rate of about 150–250 °C and 0.05–300 K/s, respectively. This precipitate is shown to be responsible for a noticeable improvement in mechanical properties. Aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy demonstrates the minimal thickness (~1.4 nm) precipitate plates are isostructural to those of the T1 (Al2CuLi) phase observed in Al-Cu-Li alloys. Low voltage chemical analysis by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy gives evidence of the spatial partitioning of the Al, Cu and Zn within the Y-phase, as well as demonstrating the incorporation of a small amount of Mg.

  14. Interfacial Reactions of Zn-Al Alloys with Na Addition on Cu Substrate During Spreading Test and After Aging Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gancarz, Tomasz; Pstruś, Janusz; Berent, Katarzyna

    2016-04-01

    Spreading tests for Cu substrate with Zn-Al eutectic-based alloys with 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 wt.% of Na were studied using the sessile drop method in the presence of QJ201 flux. Spreading tests were performed for 1, 3, 8, 15, 30, and 60 min of contact, at the temperatures of 475, 500, 525, and 550 °C. After cleaning the flux residue from solidified samples, the spreading area of Zn-Al + Na on Cu was determined in accordance with ISO 9455-10:2013-03. Selected, solidified solder-substrate couples were cross-sectioned and subjected to scanning electron microscopy of the interfacial microstructure. The experiment was designed to demonstrate the effect of Na addition on the kinetics of formation and growth of CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4 phases, which were identified using x-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis. The addition of Na to eutectic Zn-Al caused the spreading area to decrease and the thickness of intermetallic compound layers at the interface to reduce. Samples after the spreading test at 500 °C for 1 min were subjected to aging for 1, 10, and 30 days at 120,170, and 250 °C. The greater thicknesses of IMC layers were obtained for a temperature of 250 °C. With increasing Na content in Zn-Al + Na alloys, the thickness reduced, which correlates to the highest value of activation energy for Zn-Al with 1% Na.

  15. Photoconversion in n-ZnO:Al/PdPc/p-CuIn{sub 3}Se{sub 5} Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bodnar', I.V.; Dmitrieva, E.S.; Nikitin, S.E.; Rud', Yu.V.; Terukov, E.I.; Rud', V.Yu.

    2005-04-01

    n-ZnO:Al/PdPc/p-CuIn{sub 3}Se{sub 5} photosensitive structures have been proposed and fabricated for the first time by vacuum sublimation of palladium phthalocyanine on the surface of wafers of the ternary semiconductor compound CuIn{sub 3}Se{sub 5} and by magnetron sputtering of n-ZnO:Al films on the surface of palladium phthalocyanine films. The current-voltage characteristics and spectra of the photoconversion quantum efficiency of the obtained structures are investigated. It is shown that these structures can be used as multiband white-light converters.

  16. Factors Affecting the Hydrogen Environment Assisted Cracking Resistance of an Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Young; J.R. Scully

    2001-09-12

    It is well established that Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) aluminum alloys are susceptible to hydrogen environment assisted cracking (HEAC) when exposed to aqueous environments. In Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, overaged tempers are commonly used to increase HEAC resistance at the expense of strength. Overaging has little benefit in low copper alloys. However, the mechanism or mechanisms by which overaging imparts HEAC resistance is poorly understood. The present research investigated hydrogen uptake, diffusion, and crack growth rate in 90% relative humidity (RH) air for both a commercial copper bearing Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (AA 7050) and a low copper variant of this alloy in order to better understand the factors which affect HEAC resistance. Experimental methods used to evaluate hydrogen concentrations local to a surface and near a crack tip include nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), focused ion beam, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (FIB/SIMS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). When freshly bared coupons of AA 7050 are exposed to 90 C, 90% RH air, hydrogen ingress follows inverse-logarithmic-type kinetics and is equivalent for underaged (HEAC susceptible) and overaged (HEAC resistant) tempers. However, when the native oxide is allowed to form (24 hrs in 25 C, 40% RH lab air) prior to exposure to 90 C, 90% RH air, underaged alloy shows significantly greater hydrogen ingress than the overaged alloy. Humid air is a very aggressive environment producing local ({approx}1{micro}m) hydrogen concentrations in excess of 10,000 wt. ppm at 90 C. In the copper bearing alloy, overaging also effects the apparent diffusivity of hydrogen. As AA 7050 is aged from underaged {yields} peak aged {yields} overaged, the activation energy for hydrogen diffusion increases and the apparent diffusivity for hydrogen decreases, In the low copper alloy, overaging has little effect on hydrogen diffusion. Comparison of the apparent activation energies for hydrogen diffusion and for K independent (stage II) crack growth

  17. Comment on "Molecular controls on Cu and Zn isotopic fractionation in Fe-Mn crusts" by Little et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manceau, Alain; Nagy, Kathryn L.

    2015-02-01

    Isotopic fractionation of metals between seawater and ferromanganese deposits in marine sediments is determined at equilibrium at least in part by the strength of the chemical bonding of the metals in the two environments. A generally accepted rule is that heavy isotopes are concentrated in constituents that form the stiffest bonds with these elements, where greater stiffness empirically corresponds to shorter and stronger bonds, as is the case for lower coordination numbers (Schauble, 2004). Correlatively, light isotopes are depleted. Fe-Mn oxides are enriched in heavy Zn isotope (66Zn) compared to seawater (at ∼ 1.0 ‰ vs. ∼ 0.5 ‰) and also in light Cu isotope (63Cu, at ∼ 0.4 ‰ vs. 0.9‰) (Albarède, 2004; Little et al., 2014a; Maréchal et al., 2000), which suggests that the two elements may be coordinated differently in the Zn- and Cu-bearing oxide phases.

  18. Experimental examination of strain field within GP zone in an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, P. C.; Liu, F.; Hou, X. H.; Zhao, C. W.; Xing, Y. M.

    2012-11-01

    The strain field of GP zone plays a very important role in strengthening of the precipitation-hardened aluminum alloys by prohibiting movement of dislocations; however, quantitative analysis about the strain field of the GP zone in the aluminum alloys has been seldom reported elsewhere. In this paper, the microstructure of GP zone in an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy was explored by using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and the displacement field of lattice planes within the GP zone was experimentally measured by geometric phase analysis (GPA) technique; then, the quantitative results about strains of the distorted lattice planes within the GP zone were also obtained. It is found that the GP zone core is convergence region of the strains, and the maximum value of the compressive strains within the GP zone is about 7.6%.

  19. EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS AL, CD, CU, FE(II), NI, AND ZN ON PB IMMOBILIZATION BY HYDROXYAPATITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of aqueous Al, Cd, Cu, Fe(II), Ni, or Zn on Pb immobilization by hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4),(OH)2) were studied. ead was removed mainly via hydroxyapatite dissolution and hydroxypyromorphite (Pb10(PO4)6(OH)2) precipitation in the presence of these metals with a Pb remo...

  20. The synthesis and electrical characterization of Cu2O/Al:ZnO radial p-n junction nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Chien-Lin; Wang, Ruey-Chi; Huang, Jow-Lay; Liu, Chuan-Pu; Wang, Chun-Kai; Chang, Sheng-Po; Chu, Wen-Huei; Wang, Chao-Hung; Tu, Chia-hao

    2009-09-01

    Vertically aligned large-area p-Cu2O/n-AZO (Al-doped ZnO) radial heterojunction nanowire arrays were synthesized on silicon without using catalysts in thermal chemical vapor deposition followed by e-beam evaporation. Scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy results show that poly-crystalline Cu2O nano-shells with thicknesses around 10 nm conformably formed on the entire periphery of pre-grown Al:ZnO single-crystalline nanowires. The Al doping concentration in the Al:ZnO nanowires with diameters around 50 nm were determined to be around 1.19 at.% by electron energy loss spectroscopy. Room-temperature photoluminescence spectra show that the broad green bands of pristine ZnO nanowires were eliminated by capping with Cu2O nano-shells. The current-voltage (I-V) measurements show that the p-Cu2O/n-AZO nanodiodes have well-defined current rectifying behavior. This paper provides a simple method to fabricate superior p-n radial nanowire arrays for developing nano-pixel optoelectronic devices and solar cells.

  1. The synthesis and electrical characterization of Cu2O/Al:ZnO radial p-n junction nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chien-Lin; Wang, Ruey-Chi; Huang, Jow-Lay; Liu, Chuan-Pu; Wang, Chun-Kai; Chang, Sheng-Po; Chu, Wen-Huei; Wang, Chao-Hung; Tu, Chia-Hao

    2009-09-01

    Vertically aligned large-area p-Cu(2)O/n-AZO (Al-doped ZnO) radial heterojunction nanowire arrays were synthesized on silicon without using catalysts in thermal chemical vapor deposition followed by e-beam evaporation. Scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy results show that poly-crystalline Cu(2)O nano-shells with thicknesses around 10 nm conformably formed on the entire periphery of pre-grown Al:ZnO single-crystalline nanowires. The Al doping concentration in the Al:ZnO nanowires with diameters around 50 nm were determined to be around 1.19 at.% by electron energy loss spectroscopy. Room-temperature photoluminescence spectra show that the broad green bands of pristine ZnO nanowires were eliminated by capping with Cu(2)O nano-shells. The current-voltage (I-V) measurements show that the p-Cu(2)O/n-AZO nanodiodes have well-defined current rectifying behavior. This paper provides a simple method to fabricate superior p-n radial nanowire arrays for developing nano-pixel optoelectronic devices and solar cells. PMID:19687549

  2. A new family of wurtzite-phase Cu2ZnAS4-x and CuZn2AS4 (A = Al, Ga, In) nanocrystals for solar energy conversion applications.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anima; Palchoudhury, Soubantika; Thangavel, Rajalingam; Zhou, Ziyou; Naghibolashrafi, Nariman; Ramasamy, Karthik; Gupta, Arunava

    2016-01-01

    A new family of quaternary semiconductors Cu2ZnAS4-x and CuZn2AS4 (A = Al, Ga, In) has been synthesized in the form of wurtzite phase nanocrystals for the first time. The nanocrystals can be converted to the stannite phase via thermal annealing under a N2 atmosphere. A direct band gap in the visible wavelength region combined with a high absorption cross-section makes these materials promising for solar energy conversion applications. PMID:26466863

  3. Influence cobalt on microstructural and hardness property of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Fe-Cr-Ni P/ M alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeem, Haider T.; Mohammad, Kahtan S.; Hussin, Kamarudin; Rahmat, Azim; Bashirom, Nurhuda

    2015-05-01

    In this study, influence cobalt additives on the microstructural and hardness properties of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Fe-Cr-Ni PM alloy undergone the retrogression and re-aging treatment were carried out. Green compacts pressed at 370 MPa were then sintered at temperature 650°C in argon atmosphere for two hours. The sintered compacts subjected to a homogenizing treated at 470°C for 1.5 hours then aged at 120°C for 24 hours and retrogressed at 180°C for 30 minutes, and then re-aged at 120°C for 24 hours. Microstructural results of the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Fe-Cr-Ni-Co alloys introduced an intermetallics compound in the matrix of alloy, identified as the Al5Co2, Al70Co20Ni10 and Al4Ni3 phases besides to the MgZn2 and Mg2Zn11 phases which produced of the precipitation hardening during heat treatment. These compounds with precipitates provided strengthening of dispersion that led to improved Vickers's hardness and dinsifications properties of the alloy. The highest Vickers hardness of aluminum alloy containing cobalt was gotten after applying the retrogression and re-aging treatment.

  4. Organic Position-Sensitive Detectors Based on ZnO:Al and CuPc:C60.

    PubMed

    Morimune, Taichiro; Kajii, Hirotake; Nishimaru, Hiroki; Ono, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    Organic position-sensitive detector (OPSD) based on copper phthalocyanine CuPc:fullerene C60 bulk-heterojunction with an inverted structure have been fabricated using aluminum doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) as a resistive layer, which is prepared by sol-gel method. The resistance length of the one-dimensional PSD is fixed at 5 mm, and the Ag common electrode is fabricated by vacuum evaporation within the 100-µm width. The current density-voltage characteristics with different structures of photodetector, the influence of ZnO:Al resistivity on the thickness and the position characteristics of PSDs are investigated. The experimental results indicate that the architecture, which uses an inverted structure, increases sensitivity under red light illumination compared to the conventional structure. In addition, the thickness of the ZnO:Al has influence on the position characteristics. The resistivity of ZnO:A film with Al doping concentration of 2 mol% prepared in this study is around 150 Ωcm and it increases from less than approximately 400 nm-thickness. These characteristics seem to be correlated with the properties of ZnO:AI resistive layer. For a device with a 620 nm-thick ZnO:Al layer, the measured position values obtained from the output photocurrent agree with the actual position values under red laser light illumination. CuPc:C60 OPSD with an inverted structure exhibits red light sensitivity, high incident-photon-to-current conversion efficiency of above 80% at -3 V and linearity error of 5.9% at -2 V. PMID:27451643

  5. Quantitative evaluation of precipitates in an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy after isothermal aging

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Z.W. . E-mail: zhiweidu110@sohu.com; Sun, Z.M.; Shao, B.L.; Zhou, T.T.; Chen, C.Q.

    2006-03-15

    The evolution of microstructure parameters (precipitate size and volume fraction) for an Al-8.0 Zn-2.05 Mg-1.76 Cu alloy during isothermal ageing has been studied by synchrotron-radiation small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) combining transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the precipitates are only a few nanometers even at higher temperature 160 deg. C up to 72 h (5.82 nm). The precipitate volume fraction reaches a plateau except ageing at 120 deg. C and the maximum is about 0.052-0.054 in the range 140-160 deg. C. Models describing the evolution of these two parameters with ageing temperature and time have been constructed for our further predicting the precipitate hardening. The coarsening of precipitate is consistent with LSW (Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner) model even in the initial stage where volume fraction is still varying. The activation energy of coarsening regime has been determined to be about 1.25 {+-} 0.02 eV.

  6. Phase transformations in the system Cu-Zn-Al under conditions far from equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klopotov, Anatolii; Ivanov, Yuri; Vlasov, Viktor; Dedov, Nikolai; Loskutov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that the alloy Cu-Zn-Al is a multiphase material. Under equilibrium conditions this alloy can form an α-phase (FCC crystalline lattice) and a β-phase (simple cubic crystalline lattice) based on copper. The possibility of formation of a γ-phase due to a three-component alloy composition is revealed. It is established that different chemical composition of the copper-based solid solution (alloys with zinc or alloys with aluminum), different concentration of the second element in a solid solution leads to the fact that within the same type of the crystalline lattice there is a certain amount of α- and γ-phases, differing in the parameter value of the crystalline lattice. The possibility of formation of powder alloys with an x-ray amorphous and a nanocrystalline structure using the plasma chemical synthesis methods is demonstrated. A wide variety of binary phases, each with different concentrations of zinc and aluminum in a solid copper-based solution is revealed. These results indicate that plasma-chemical synthesis of metal alloy powders is accompanied by separation of elements. Powders of the ternary composition are not detected.

  7. Aging kinetics of a silicon carbide reinforced Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, C.H.J.; Raghunathan, N.; Sheppard, T.

    1994-01-01

    The aging kinetics of a composite of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu powder (CW67) combined with a varied volume fraction of a particulate silicon carbide were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). DSC revealed that the maximum rate of precipitation of the metastable {eta}{prime} phase was substantially lower for CW67/SiC/20p than for the unreinforced alloy or CW67/SiC/10p. TEM of isothermally aged material revealed differences between the unreinforced alloy and composites in respect of precipitate size and morphology. The authors conclude that SiC additions, by dint of additional dislocations generated during quenching, can affect the aging of CW67 either by accelerating the nucleation of precipitates or by accelerating precipitate growth. The aging rate of CW67/SiC/20p was increased by accelerating both the nucleation of precipitates and growth, whereas the aging in CW67/SiC10p was enhanced by accelerating precipitate growth only.

  8. Physically Based Model of the Yield Strength for an Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Zn Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini-Benhangi, Pooya; Mazinani, Mohammad; Haddad-Sabzevar, Mohsen

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work is to implement recently developed modeling approaches to predict the mechanical behavior of a precipitation-hardened Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Zn alloy. Assuming that precipitates act as weak or strong obstacles to dislocation motion, a yield strength model, originally introduced for AA6111 alloy, is used to derive the precipitate strengthening formulations. The application of the model provides accurate predictions for the evolution of yield strength of the alloy during artificial aging. The transition point, at which shearable precipitates become non-shearable ones, has been identified directly from the result of tensile tests of AA6011(m) samples at different stages of artificial aging using work-hardening rate model. The linear/non-linear behavior of work-hardening rate of AA6011(m) samples at different stages of artificial aging is also studied. It is explained that high dynamic recovery rate in presence of non-shearable precipitates causes the non-linear work-hardening behavior of massively overaged sample. The modeling results for underaged samples show better agreement with measured values of yield strength when the weak obstacle model has been implemented, while strong obstacle model shows relatively good agreement between the experimental and calculated results for the peak-aged and overaged samples.

  9. Softening Behavior of a New Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy Due to TIG Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Li, Xiaoyan; Nie, Zuoren; Huang, Hui; Sun, Jiantong

    2016-05-01

    A new Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy with T6 temper was welded by TIG welding, and the softening behavior of the joint was evaluated. Results show that the ultimate tensile strength of the joint is 436.2 ± 26.4 MPa which is about 64.5% of that of the base metal (BM). Fusion zone (FZ) is the weakest region even though its microhardness increases from 107.6 to 131.3 HV within 90 days after welding. Microhardness of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) adjacent to FZ increases from 125.2 to 162.3 HV within 90 days. However, a valley value of microhardness appears in the rest of the HAZ that increases from 112.1 to 128.1 HV within 90 days. The variation of grain size and precipitates is regarded as the main cause of softening in both FZ and HAZ. The grain size of FZ is about 33.9 μm, whereas 8.7 and 8.4 μm for HAZ and BM, respectively. A large number of η' phases distribute dispersively in BM, whereas precipitates in FZ identified as GPI zones are finer and fewer. Besides, precipitates in HAZ adjacent to FZ are also GPI zones. Precipitates in HAZ far away from FZ are coarser and fewer than those in BM and η phases begin to emerge.

  10. Highly Efficient Synthesis of Clean Biofuels from Biomass Using FeCuZnAlK Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Song-bai; Xu, Yong; Ye, Tong-qi; Gong, Fei-yan; Yang, Zhi; Yamamoto, Mitsuo; Liu, Yong; Li, Quan-xin

    2011-12-01

    Highly efficient synthesis of clean biofuels using the bio-syngas obtained from biomass gasification was performed over Fe1.5Cu1Zn1Al1K0.117 catalyst. The maximum biofuel yield from the bio-syngas reaches about 1.59 kg biofuels/(kgcatal·h) with a contribution of 0.57 kg alcohols/(kgcatal·h) and 1.02 kg liquid hydrocarbons/(kgcatal·h). The alcohol products in the resulting biofuels were dominated by the C2+ alcohols (mainly C2—C6 alcohols) with a content of 73.55%-89.98%. The selectivity of the liquid hydrocarbons (C5+) in the hydrocarbon products ranges from 60.37% to 70.94%. The synthesis biofuels also possess a higher heat value of 40.53-41.49 MJ/kg. The effects of the synthesis conditions, including temperature, pressure, and gas hourly space velocity, on the biofuel synthesis were investigated in detail. The catalyst features were characterized by inductively coupled plasma and atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, temperature programmed reduction, and the N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms measurements. The present biofuel synthesis with a higher biofuel yield and a higher selectivity of liquid hydrocarbons and C2+ alcohols may be a potentially useful route to produce clean biofuels and chemicals from biomass.

  11. Improved Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistance and Strength of a Two-Step Aged Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy Using Taguchi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lianghua; Liu, Zhiyi; Ying, Puyou; Liu, Meng

    2015-12-01

    Multi-step heat treatment effectively enhances the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance but usually degrades the mechanical properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys. With the aim to enhance SCC resistance as well as strength of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, we have optimized the process parameters during two-step aging of Al-6.1Zn-2.8Mg-1.9Cu alloy by Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array. In this work, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to find out the significant heat treatment parameters. The slow strain rate testing combined with scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope was employed to study the SCC behaviors of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. Results showed that the contour map produced by ANOVA offered a reliable reference for selection of optimum heat treatment parameters. By using this method, a desired combination of mechanical performances and SCC resistance was obtained.

  12. Photovoltaic Conversion Enhancement of a Carbon Quantum Dots/p-Type CuAlO2/n-Type ZnO Photoelectric Device.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jiaqi; Sheng, Yingzhuo; Zhang, Jingxiang; Huang, Peng; Zhang, Xin; Feng, Boxue

    2015-04-22

    Carbon quantum dots (C QDs)/p-type CuAlO2/n-type ZnO photoelectric bilayer film composites were prepared by a simple route, through which ZnO films were sputtered on crystal quartz substrates and CuAlO2 films were prepared by sol-gel on ZnO films and then these bilayer films were composited with C QDs on their surface. The characterization results indicated that C QDs were well combined with the surface of the CuAlO2 films. The photovoltage and photocurrent of these bilayer film composites were investigated under illumination and darkness switching, which demonstrated to be significantly enhanced compared with those of the CuAlO2/ZnO bilayer films. Through analysis, this enhancement of the photoconductivity was mainly attributed to C QDs with unique up-converted photoluminescence behavior. PMID:25822085

  13. Fine precipitation scenarios of AlZnMg(Cu) alloys revealed by advanced atomic-resolution electron microscopy study Part I: Structure determination of the precipitates in AlZnMg(Cu) alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.Z.; Chen, J.H.; Yuan, D.W.; Wu, C.L.; Zhu, J.; Cheng, Z.Y.

    2015-01-15

    Although they are among the most important precipitation-hardened materials for industry applications, the high-strength AlZnMg(Cu) alloys have thus far not yet been understood adequately about their underlying precipitation scenarios in relation with the properties. This is partly due to the fact that the structures of a number of different precipitates involved in electron microscopy in association with quantitative image simulations have to be employed; a systematic study of these hardening precipitates in different alloys is also necessary. In Part I of the present study, it is shown that there are five types of structurally different precipitates including the equilibrium η-phase precipitate. Using two state-of-the-art atomic-resolution imaging techniques in electron microscopy in association with quantitative image simulations, we have determined and clarified all the unknown precipitate structures. It is demonstrated that atomic-resolution imaging can directly suggest approximate structure models, whereas quantitative image analysis can refine the structure details that are much smaller than the resolution of the microscope. This combination is crucially important for solving the difficult structure problems of the strengthening precipitates in AlZnMg(Cu) alloys. - Highlights: Part I: • We determine and verify all the key precipitate structures in AlMgZn(Cu) alloys. • We employ aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). • We use aberration-corrected high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) for the investigations. • We obtain atomic-resolution images of the precipitates and model their structures. • We refine all precipitate structures with quantitative image simulation analysis. Part II: • The hardening precipitates in AlZnMg alloys shall be classified into two groups. • Two precipitation scenarios coexist in the alloys. • The precipitation behavior of such an alloy depends on the alloy's composition. • Very detailed phase

  14. Effect of Sc on Aging Kinetics in a Direct Chill Cast Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senkov, O. N.; Senkova, S. V.; Shagiev, M. R.

    2008-05-01

    The effect of Sc additions on precipitation strengthening in a direct chill (DC) cast Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy was studied after natural and artificial aging. The microhardness, room temperature (RT) mechanical properties, and phase composition of the alloys were determined after different steps of aging. The strengthening mechanisms were discussed. It was shown that minor additions of Sc increased the strength of the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy after casting and solution heat treatment, due to the precipitation of fine coherent Al3(Sc,Zr) particles. An analysis of the aging kinetics revealed that Sc had no effect on the natural aging, which was controlled by the formation and growth of Guinier-Preston (GP) I zones. On the other hand, the Sc additions accelerated the aging process at 120 °C and 150 °C within a period of time of the formation and growth of GP II zones and η' particles. It was concluded that the presence of Sc accelerated the formation and growth of GP II zones in the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, which led to the earlier precipitation of the η' phase. However, at longer aging times at 120 °C and 150 °C, the aging response of the Sc-containing alloys slowed down, due to faster coarsening of the η' particles and their transformation into η particles. A model of the formation of vacancy-rich clusters (VRCs), precursors to GP zones, in the Al-Zn-Mg-based alloys was proposed. According to this model, the observed effects of Sc on aging are the result of the Sc-induced increase in the number density of the GP II clusters and the concentration of quenched-in solute-bound excess vacancies.

  15. Characterization of ZrO 2-promoted Cu/ZnO/nano-Al 2O 3 methanol steam reforming catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Samuel D.; Neal, Luke M.; Everett, Michael L.; Hoflund, Gar B.; Hagelin-Weaver, Helena E.

    2010-10-01

    Three Cu/ZnO/ZrO 2/Al 2O 3 methanol reforming catalysts were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The catalysts which contained ZrO 2 from a monoclinic nanoparticle ZrO 2 precursor exhibit both a higher activity toward the methanol steam reforming reaction and a lower CO production rate compared to catalysts composed of an XRD-amorphous ZrO 2 produced by impregnation using a Zr(NO 3) 2 precursor. The presence of a monoclinic phase appears to result in an increased charge transfer between the Zr and Cu species, as evidenced by a relatively electron-rich ZrO 2 phase and a partially oxidized Cu species on reduced catalysts. This electron deficient Cu species is more reactive toward the methanol reforming reaction and partially suppresses CO formation through the reverse water gas shift or methanol decomposition reactions.

  16. The effect of coarse second phase particles on fatigue crack propagation of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Guerbuez, R.; Alpay, S.P. . Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering)

    1994-06-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the role of the most commonly observed coarse second phase particles; Al[sub 7]Cu[sub 2]Fe, Mg[sub 2]Si and CuAl[sub 2]Mg on the Stage 2 fatigue crack propagation of a 7050 aluminum alloy. The differences in the composition of this alloy when compared to the conventional 7075 alloy are: (1) increased Cu content for additional strengthening during aging and for increasing the temperature range of GP zone stability; (2) replacement of Cr by Zr to reduce quench sensitivity; (3) reduced Fe and Si contents to improve fracture toughness which, however, decreases fatigue crack growth threshold, [Delta]K[sub th], slightly; and (4) increased Zn content for strengthening.

  17. Influence of pH and TOC concentration on Cu, Zn, Cd, and Al speciation in rivers.

    PubMed

    Gundersen, Pål; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2003-01-01

    Dissolved ( < approximately 4 nm, dialysis in situ), colloidal ( < 0.45 microm filtered, minus dissolved) and particulate (total, minus < 0.45 microm filtered) concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, (Al) in eight (three) mining polluted rivers were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (flame and graphite furnace). The metal size distribution in the rivers was compared to pH, Ca concentration, alkalinity, conductivity, and total organic carbon (TOC). Data plots based on the present and other studies also yielded information about the interrelations between TOC, pH and metal adsorption in rivers and lakes. Less than 10% of Cu, Zn, and Cd were sorbed on particles or colloids in two rivers with average pH at 3.1 and 5.1, whereas 46%, 21%, and 21% of Cu, Zn, and Cd, respectively, occurred in sorbed form in six pH neutral rivers. In three pH neutral rivers, on average 55% of Al was in colloidal form, whereas the dissolved and particulate fractions were 21% and 23%, respectively. Our data combined with data from similar studies support conclusions from other research suggesting that the percent fraction of metals adsorbed on particles rises steeply from almost zero to nearly 100% within a narrow and element specific pH range. Changes in TOC concentration seem capable of shifting the pH to % metal absorption curves in the order of one pH unit. PMID:12502060

  18. Characterization by X-Ray Absorption, X-Ray Powder Diffraction, and Magnetic Susceptibility of Cu Zn Co Al Containing Hydroxycarbonates, Oxycarbonates, Oxides, and Their Products of Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porta, Piero; Morpurgo, Simone; Pettiti, Ida

    1996-02-01

    Copper-zinc-cobalt-aluminium-containing crystalline hydroxycarbonates having hydrotalcite structure have been prepared by coprecipitation. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), magnetic susceptibility, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) indicate that Cu2+, Zn2+, and Co2+are present in an octahedral environment. Calcination of the hydroxycarbonates at 723 K produces quasi-amorphous oxycarbonates where Cu2+and Co2+still retain octahedral coordination and cobalt is almost completely oxidized to Co3+. The coordination of Zn2+, at this stage, is intermediate between the octahedral one of the precursors and the tetrahedral one of ZnO and Zn-based spinels. Further calcination at 973 K produces a mixture of crystalline oxides such as CuO, ZnO, CuAl2O4, ZnAl2O4, and ZnCo2O4. EXAFS analysis of these samples indicates that copper is mainly in a fourfold coordination (although two longer Cu-O distances are also detected), zinc is tetrahedral, and cobalt (as Co3+) is essentially octahedral. EXAFS and XANES investigations performed afterin situreduction (10% H2/N2, at 523 and 623 K) on the oxycarbonates and oxides reveal that the total Cu2+→ Cu0reduction occurs only at 623 K in both series of samples, Co3+is reduced to Co2+only at 623 K in the oxycarbonates, and Zn2+is never reduced.

  19. Methanol Synthesis over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3: The Active Site in Industrial Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, Malte

    2012-03-28

    Unlike homogeneous catalysts, heterogeneous catalysts that have been optimized through decades are typically so complex and hard to characterize that the nature of the catalytically active site is not known. This is one of the main stumbling blocks in developing rational catalyst design strategies in heterogeneous catalysis. We show here how to identify the crucial atomic structure motif for the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} methanol synthesis catalyst. Using a combination of experimental evidence from bulk-, surface-sensitive and imaging methods collected on real high-performance catalytic systems in combination with DFT calculations. We show that the active site consists of Cu steps peppered with Zn atoms, all stabilized by a series of well defined bulk defects and surface species that need jointly to be present for the system to work.

  20. Segregation of solute elements at grain boundaries in an ultrafine grained Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy.

    PubMed

    Sha, Gang; Yao, Lan; Liao, Xiaozhou; Ringer, Simon P; Chao Duan, Zhi; Langdon, Terence G

    2011-05-01

    The solute segregation at grain boundaries (GBs) of an ultrafine grained (UFG) Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 200 °C was characterised using three-dimensional atom probe. Mg and Cu segregate strongly to the grain boundaries. In contrast, Zn does not always show clear segregation and may even show depletion near the grain boundaries. Trace element Si selectively segregates at some GBs. An increase in the number of ECAP passes leads to a decrease in the grain size but an increase in solute segregation at the boundaries. The significant segregation of alloying elements at the boundaries of ultrafine-grained alloys implies that less solutes will be available in the matrix for precipitation with a decrease in the average grain size. PMID:21159437

  1. Selective recovery of dissolved Fe, Al, Cu, and Zn in acid mine drainage based on modeling to predict precipitation pH.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Min; Yoo, Jong-Chan; Ji, Sang-Woo; Yang, Jung-Seok; Baek, Kitae

    2015-02-01

    Mining activities have caused serious environmental problems including acid mine drainage (AMD), the dispersion of mine tailings and dust, and extensive mine waste. In particular, AMD contaminates soil and water downstream of mines and generally contains mainly valuable metals such as Cu, Zn, and Ni as well as Fe and Al. In this study, we investigated the selective recovery of Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, and Ni from AMD. First, the speciation of Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, and Ni as a function of the equilibrium solution pH was simulated by Visual MINTEQ. Based on the simulation results, the predicted pHs for the selective precipitation of Fe, Al, Cu, and Zn/Ni were determined. And recovery yield of metals using simulation is over 99 %. Experiments using artificial AMD based on the simulation results confirmed the selective recovery of Fe, Al, Cu, and Zn/Ni, and the recovery yields of Fe/Al/Cu/Zn and Fe/Al/Cu/Ni mixtures using Na2CO3 were 99.6/86.8/71.9/77.0 % and 99.2/85.7/73.3/86.1 %, respectively. After then, the simulation results were applied to an actual AMD for the selective recovery of metals, and the recovery yields of Fe, Al, Cu, and Zn using NaOH were 97.2, 74.9, 66.9, and 89.7 %, respectively. Based on the results, it was concluded that selective recovery of dissolved metals from AMD is possible by adjusting the solution pH using NaOH or Na2CO3 as neutralizing agents. PMID:25231736

  2. Cryogenic and elevated temperature strengths of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy modified with Sc and Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senkova, S. V.; Senkov, O. N.; Miracle, D. B.

    2006-12-01

    The effect of minor additions of Sc and Zr on tensile properties of two developmental Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys was studied in the temperature range -196°C to 300°C. Due to the presence of Sc and Zr in a fine dispersoid form, both low-temperature and elevated temperature strengths of these alloys are much higher than those of similar 7000 series alloys that do not contain these elements. After short holding times (up to 10 hours) at 205°C, the strength of these alloys is higher than those of high-temperature Al alloys 2219-T6 and 2618-T6; however, the latter alloys show better strength after longer holding times. It is suggested that additional alloying of the Sc-containing Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys with other dispersoid-forming elements, such as Ni, Fe, Mn, and Si, with a respective decrease in the amounts of Zn and Mg may further improve the elevated temperature strength and decrease the loss of strength with extended elevated temperature exposure.

  3. Structural investigation of precipitates with Cu and Zn atomic columns in Al-Mg-Si alloys by aberration-corrected HAADF-STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Takeshi; Marioara, Calin D.; Andersen, Sigmund J.; Lefebvre, Williams; Holmestad, Randi

    2014-06-01

    Precipitates in Al-Mg-Si alloys with Cu addition (~0.1 wt%) and Zn addition (~1 wt%) were investigated by aberration corrected high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). Most precipitates had no overall unit cell but contained ordered network of Si atomic columns for both the Cu and the Zn containing precipitates. It was found that both Cu and Zn atomic columns are located at specific sites and producing characteristic local configurations on the Si atomic columns.

  4. [Effect of heat treatment on the structure of a Cu-Zn-Al-Ni system dental alloy].

    PubMed

    Guastaldi, A C; Adorno, A T; Beatrice, C R; Mondelli, J; Ishikiriama, A; Lacefield, W

    1990-01-01

    This article characterizes the structural phases present in the copper-based metallic alloy system "Cu-Zn-Al-Ni" developed for dental use, and relates those phases to other properties. The characterization was obtained after casting (using the lost wax process), and after heat treatment. In order to obtain better corrosion resistance by changing the microstructure, the castings were submitted to 30, 45 and 60 minutes of heat treatment at the following temperatures: 750 degrees C, 800 degrees C, and 850 degrees C. The various phases were analyzed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results after heat treatment showed a phase (probably Cu3Al), that could be responsible for the improvement in the alloy's resistance to corrosion as compared to the as-cast structure. PMID:2135444

  5. The effect of Cu/Zn molar ratio on CO{sub 2} hydrogenation over Cu/ZnO/ZrO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Shaharun, Salina E-mail: maizats@petronas.com.my; Shaharun, Maizatul S. E-mail: maizats@petronas.com.my; Taha, Mohd F.; Mohamad, Dasmawati

    2014-10-24

    Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to methanol is an attractive way to recycle and utilize CO{sub 2}. A series of Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2} catalysts (CZAZ) containing different molar ratios of Cu/Zn were prepared by the co-precipitation method and investigated in a stirred slurry autoclave system. The catalysts were characterized by temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), field emission scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive analysis (FESEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption. Higher surface area, SA{sub BET} values (42.6–59.9 m{sup 2}/g) are recorded at low (1) and high (5) Cu/Zn ratios with the minimum value of 35.71 m{sup 2}/g found for a Cu/Zn of 3. The reducibility of the metal oxides formed after calcination of catalyst samples was also affected due to change in metal-support interaction. At a low reaction temperature of 443 K, total gas pressure of 3.0 MPa and 0.1 g/mL of the CZAZ catalyst, the selectivity to methanol decreased as the Cu/Zn molar ratio increased, and the maximum selectivity of 67.73 was achieved at Cu/Zn molar ratio of 1. With a reaction time of 3h, the best performing catalyst was CZAZ75 with Cu/Zn molar ratio of 5 giving methanol yield of 79.30%.

  6. Mechanical Property and Intergranular Corrosion Sensitivity of Zn-Free and Zn-Microalloyed Al-2.7Cu-1.7Li-0.3Mg Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin-feng; Xu, Long; Cai, Chao; Chen, Yong-lai; Zhang, Xu-hu; Zheng, Zi-qiao

    2014-11-01

    The influence of 0.72 pct Zn addition on the tensile properties of Al-2.7Cu-1.7Li-0.3Mg alloys was investigated. Their intergranular corrosion (IGC) dependence on aging [T6 type at 423 K (150 °C) and 448 K (175 °C) and T8 type at 423 K (150 °C)] time was studied. An IGC diagram associated with aging process was established. The addition of 0.72 pct Zn enhanced the strength of the Al-Li alloy with T6 type aging at 448 K (175 °C). With aging process, the corrosion mode of the T6-aged Al-Li alloys was changed in the following order: pitting and local IGC (initial aging stage), general IGC (underaging stage), local IGC (near peak-aging stage), and pitting (overaging stage) again. The IGC depth was increased first and then decreased with aging time extension. The corrosion potential change of grains and the microstructure variation were used to explain the IGC sensitivity of the Al-Li alloy with different tempers. Meanwhile, 0.72 pct Zn addition decreased the IGC sensitivity of the Al-Li alloy, especially the T6-aged Al-Li alloy.

  7. Mechanical Property and Intergranular Corrosion Sensitivity of Zn-Free and Zn-Microalloyed Al-2.7Cu-1.7Li-0.3Mg Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin-feng; Xu, Long; Cai, Chao; Chen, Yong-lai; Zhang, Xu-hu; Zheng, Zi-qiao

    2014-09-01

    The influence of 0.72 pct Zn addition on the tensile properties of Al-2.7Cu-1.7Li-0.3Mg alloys was investigated. Their intergranular corrosion (IGC) dependence on aging [T6 type at 423 K (150 °C) and 448 K (175 °C) and T8 type at 423 K (150 °C)] time was studied. An IGC diagram associated with aging process was established. The addition of 0.72 pct Zn enhanced the strength of the Al-Li alloy with T6 type aging at 448 K (175 °C). With aging process, the corrosion mode of the T6-aged Al-Li alloys was changed in the following order: pitting and local IGC (initial aging stage), general IGC (underaging stage), local IGC (near peak-aging stage), and pitting (overaging stage) again. The IGC depth was increased first and then decreased with aging time extension. The corrosion potential change of grains and the microstructure variation were used to explain the IGC sensitivity of the Al-Li alloy with different tempers. Meanwhile, 0.72 pct Zn addition decreased the IGC sensitivity of the Al-Li alloy, especially the T6-aged Al-Li alloy.

  8. Effects of additions of small amounts of fourth elements on structure, crystal structure and shape recovery of Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M.R. |; Yang, D.Z.; Tadaki, T.; Hirotsu, Y.

    1997-01-15

    Cu-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) are particularly interesting, compared to Ni-Ti SMAs because of their low cost and relatively ease process. However, there are important problems to be solved, such as intergranular fracture due to large grain size, stabilization of martensite, etc. In the present work, the influences of additions only less than 1 mass% of several fourth elements, such as Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Y, to two kinds of Cu-Zn-Al SMAs, i.e., Cu-30Zn-4Al and Cu-25Zn-7Al on their structure, crystal structure and shape recovery have been examined in order to know what elements are the most effective for the thermal stability of the parent and martensite phases and the shape memory capacity.

  9. Effects of Severe Cold Rolling on Exfoliation Corrosion Behavior of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Cr Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lianghua; Liu, Zhiyi; Li, Yao; Han, Xiangnan; Chen, Xu

    2012-06-01

    The exfoliation corrosion (EXCO) behavior of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Cr alloy after severe cold rolling was investigated by optical microscope, transmission electron microscope, and electrochemical technique. The results show that the EXCO resistance decreased with increasing cold rolling reduction because of the grain boundaries which were decorated with the continuously distributed particles . After the solution treatment, the samples with different reductions retained the fibrous grains, and the elongated grains accelerated the growth of the corrosion cracks according to crack propagation analysis. Furthermore, the increase of deformation enhanced the degree of recrystallization, while the number of corrosion cells increased greatly when in the electrolyte, which tended to reduce the resistance to EXCO.

  10. Preparation of HZSM-5 membrane packed CuO-ZnO-Al2O3 nanoparticles for catalysing carbon dioxide hydrogenation to dimethyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rong; Tian, Haifeng; Yang, Aimei; Zha, Fei; Ding, Jian; Chang, Yue

    2015-08-01

    Spherical carbons were prepared successfully from aqueous glucose using hydrothermal method. After covered with aqueous Cu2+, Zn2+ and Al3+ ions during the co-precipitation treatment, carbons were removed via calcination to yield CuO-ZnO-Al2O3 nanoparticles. HZSM-5 membrane, which was synthesized using tetrapropylammonium hydroxide as templating agent, was packed onto CuO-ZnO-Al2O3 nanoparticles hydrothermally to form HZSM-5 packed CuO-ZnO-Al2O3 nanoparticles. It was characterized by the method of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and nitrogen sorption measurement. HZSM-5 packed CuO-ZnO-Al2O3 nanoparticles were used as catalysts for the CO2 hydrogenation to dimethyl ether. The catalyst activity was investigated in a fixed-bed reactor. Under the reaction conditions of pressure at 3.0 MPa, space velocity (SV) of 1800 mL gcat-1 h-1, volume ratio of CO2/H2 to 1:3 and temperature at 270 °C, the conversion of CO2 could reach to 48.3%, with a dimethyl ether yield and selectivity of 23.4% and 48.5%, respectively.

  11. Microwave-hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of nanostructured copper substituted ZnM2O4 (M = Al, Ga) spinels as precursors for thermally stable Cu catalysts.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Franziska; Massue, Cyriac; Kühl, Stefanie; Kunkes, Edward; Girgsdies, Frank; Kasatkin, Igor; Zhang, Bingsen; Friedrich, Matthias; Luo, Yuan; Armbrüster, Marc; Patzke, Greta R; Behrens, Malte

    2012-03-21

    Nanostructured Cu(x)Zn(1-x)Al(2)O(4) with a Cu:Zn ratio of ¼:¾ has been prepared by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis at 150 °C and used as a precursor for Cu/ZnO/Al(2)O(3)-based catalysts. The spinel nanoparticles exhibit an average size of approximately 5 nm and a high specific surface area (above 250 m(2) g(-1)). Cu nanoparticles of an average size of 3.3 nm can be formed by reduction of the spinel precursor in hydrogen and the accessible metallic Cu(0) surface area of the reduced catalyst was 8 m(2) g(-1). The catalytic performance of the material in CO(2) hydrogenation and methanol steam reforming was compared with conventionally prepared Cu/ZnO/Al(2)O(3) reference catalysts. The observed lower performance of the spinel-based samples is attributed to a lack of synergetic interaction of the Cu nanoparticles with ZnO due to the incorporation of Zn(2+) in the stable spinel lattice. Despite its lower performance, however, the nanostructured nature of the spinel catalyst was stable after thermal treatment up to 500 °C in contrast to other Cu-based catalysts. Furthermore, a large fraction of the re-oxidized copper migrates back into the spinel upon calcination of the reduced catalyst, thereby enabling a regeneration of sintered catalysts after prolonged usage at high temperatures. Similarly prepared samples with Ga instead of Al exhibit a more crystalline catalyst with a spinel particle size around 20 nm. The slightly decreased Cu(0) surface area of 3.2 m(2) g(-1) due to less copper incorporation is not a significant drawback for the methanol steam reforming. PMID:22327266

  12. Early-stage precipitation in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (7050)

    SciTech Connect

    Sha Gang; Cerezo, Alfred

    2004-09-06

    GP zone and metastable {eta}{sup '} formation during the early-stage precipitation of a 7050 Al alloy aged at 121 deg. C has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy, together with 3-dimensional atom probe analysis (of the chemistry and morphology) of individual precipitates. Small Mg-rich clusters (GPI zones) are found in the alloy after short ageing times at 121 deg. C, together with larger GPI zones (Zn/Mg=1.0). Zn-rich {eta}{sup '} platelets are seen to form mainly between 30 and 240 min ageing, coexisting with larger GPI zones. A significant fraction of <1 1 0> elongated clusters have also been observed over this period of ageing. The dominant mechanism for {eta}{sup '} formation at this stage is shown to be by transformation of small GPI zones, via these elongated clusters and not by nucleation on larger zones.

  13. Clathrates with Me = Mg, Pd, Ni, Au, Ag, Cu, Zn, Al, Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunderlich, Wilfried; Amano, Mao; Matsumura, Yoshihito

    2014-06-01

    Clathrate materials of AlSi, CuSi or NiSi type consisting of abundant elements have a realistic chance of becoming useful thermoelectrics in the near future, because the rattling effect due to their crystal cage structure provides a large figure of merit ZT even in experiments measured under large temperature gradients. In the search for better thermoelectrics, new element combinations in the clathrate type I structure with cubic space group Pm3n were calculated using VASP ab initio software. Predictions of the Seebeck coefficient were made by checking the electronic band structure and density of states for a large variety of input data. For x values around 4 to 6 in the structural formula Ba8Me x Si46- x the substituents Cu, Au, and Ag are best for good thermoelectric behavior, which is discussed in this paper as a result of the low electron-phonon interaction parameter.

  14. Electronic state and superconductivity of YBa2Cu3-xO7-y (M=Al,Zn and Sn) systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, Q. R.; Zhang, H.

    1990-01-01

    A series of YBa2Cu(3-x)MxO(7-y) (M=Al,Zn and Sn) single phase samples were prepared, and the measurements of the crystal structure, oxygen content, electric resistivity, thermoelectric power, Mossbauer spectrum, XPS and superconductivity were performed. The experimental results of X ray powder diffraction, Mossbauer spectrum and oxygen content show that the Zn(2+) and the Al(3+) occupy the Cu(2) site in Cu-O planes and the Cu(1) site in Cu-O chains respectively, but the Sn(4+) occupies both the Cu(1) sites. As regards the properties in superconducting state, both the Zn(2+) and the Al(3+) depress T(sub c) strongly, but the Sn(4+) does not. As for the electronic transport properties in normal state, the system doped by Al(3+) displays a rapid increase of resistivity and some electron localization-like effects, and the thermoelectric power enhances obviously; the series contained Zn(2+) almost shows no changes of electric resistivity but the sign of the thermoelectric power is reversed. Other results are given and briefly discussed.

  15. Microstructure and properties of cast ingots of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys modified with Sc and Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senkov, O. N.; Bhat, R. B.; Senkova, S. V.; Schloz, J. D.

    2005-08-01

    The effect of combined additions of Sc and Zr on the microstructure and tensile properties of the direct chill (DC) cast ingots of developmental Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys has been evaluated in this work. The properties in both the longitudinal and transverse directions were determined in as-cast and cast-plus-heat-treated conditions, at room temperature (RT) and cryogenic temperature (CT). Extensive microstructural evaluation was carried out using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, including orientation image microscopy (OIM) by the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. The Sc-containing developmental cast alloys showed the tensile properties, which are much better than the properties of commercial cast Al alloys and are similar or even superior to the properties of 7075-T6 alloy forgings. The microstructural evolution, the strengthening mechanisms, the optimum content of the dispersoid-forming elements, and the processing-structure-property correlations are discussed.

  16. Effect of aging on the fatigue crack growth kinetics of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy in two directions

    SciTech Connect

    Alpay, S.P.; Guerbuez, R. . Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering)

    1994-02-15

    There have been investigations discussing the effect of aging condition, and thereby the microstructure, on the fatigue crack growth characteristics of precipitation hardening alloys. Lindigkeit et al.., testing an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy of composition corresponding to the commercial alloy 7075 concluded that the crack propagation resistance of underaged microstructures with shearable precipitates is significantly higher than overaged samples of same strength containing non-shearable particles. They reported that this behavior cannot be explained on the basis of slip reversibility alone. A similar conclusion is drawn by Zaiken and Ritchie from investigations on the effect of microstructure on the fatigue crack growth rate of an 7150 aluminum alloy, which is a somewhat high-purity version of the alloy 7050, with lower Fe and Si contents. It is also interesting that aging conditions showing high resistance to fatigue crack growth at low [Delta]K regimes, do not necessarily retain their superiority at medium and high stress intensity ranges.

  17. Stable and Flexible CuInS2/ZnS:Al-TiO2 Film for Solar-Light-Driven Photodegradation of Soil Fumigant.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lili; Li, Zhichun; Sun, Mingxing; Shen, Guoqing; Li, Liang

    2016-08-10

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are suitable light absorbers for photocatalysis because of their unique properties. However, QDs generally suffer from poor photochemical stability against air, limiting their applications in photocatalysis. In this study, a stable solar-light-driven QDs-containing photocatalytic film was developed to facilitate photocatalytic degradation of the soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D). Highly stable CuInS2/ZnS:Al core/shell QDs (CIS/ZnS:Al QDs) were synthesized by doping Al into the ZnS shell and controlling ZnS:Al shell thickness; the CIS/ZnS:Al QDs were subsequently combined with TiO2 to form a CIS/ZnS:Al-TiO2 photocatalyst. The optimized ZnS:Al shell thickness for 1,3-D photodegradation was approximately 1.3 nm, which guaranteed and balanced the good photocatalytic activity and stability of the CIS/ZnS:Al-TiO2 photocatalyst. The photodegradation efficiency of 1,3-D can be maintained up to more than 80% after five cycles during recycling experiment. When CIS/ZnS:Al-TiO2 was deposited as photocatalytic film on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate, over 99% of cis-1,3-D and 98% of trans-1,3-D were depleted as they passed through the film during 15 h of irradiation under natural solar light. This study demonstrated that the stable CIS/ZnS:Al-TiO2 photocatalyst both in powder and film form is a promising agent for photodegradation and emission reduction of soil fumigants. PMID:27414776

  18. Fine precipitation scenarios of AlZnMg(Cu) alloys revealed by advanced atomic-resolution electron microscopy study Part II: Fine precipitation scenarios in AlZnMg(Cu) alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.Z.; Chen, J.H.; Liu, Z.R.; Wu, C.L.

    2015-01-15

    Although they are among the most important precipitation-hardened materials for industry applications, the high-strength AlZnMg(Cu) alloys have thus far not yet been understood adequately about their underlying precipitation scenarios in relation with the properties. This is partly due to the fact that the structures of a number of different precipitates involved in the alloys are unknown, and partly due to the complexity that the precipitation behaviors of the alloys may be closely related to the alloy's composition. In Part I of the present study, we have determined all the unknown precipitate structures in the alloys. Here in Part II, using atomic-resolution electron microscopy in association with the first principles energy calculations, we further studied and correlated the phase/structure transformation/evolution among these hardening precipitates in relation with the alloy's composition. It is shown that there are actually two coexisting classes of hardening precipitates in these alloys: the first class includes the η′-precipitates and their early-stage Guinier–Preston (GP-η′) zones; the second class includes the precursors of the equilibrium η-phase (referred to η{sub p}, or η-precursor) and their early-stage Guinier–Preston (GP-η{sub p}) zones. The two coexisting classes of precipitates correspond to two precipitation scenarios. - Highlights: • We determine and verify all the key precipitate structures in AlMgZn(Cu) alloys. • We employ aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). • We use aberration-corrected high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) for the investigations. • We obtain atomic-resolution images of the precipitates and model their structures. • We refine all precipitate structures with quantitative image simulation analysis. • The hardening precipitates in AlZnMg alloys shall be classified into two groups. • Two precipitation scenarios coexist in the alloys. • The precipitation behavior of such an

  19. Highly stable CuInS2@ZnS:Al core@shell quantum dots: the role of aluminium self-passivation.

    PubMed

    Rao, Pinhua; Yao, Wei; Li, Zhichun; Kong, Long; Zhang, Wenqi; Li, Liang

    2015-05-25

    A simple approach was introduced to enhance the photostability of CuInS2@ZnS core@shell quantum dots (QDs) by doping aluminium into the ZnS shell. Aluminium in the as-prepared QDs was oxidized to Al2O3, which formed a passivation oxide layer that effectively prevents photo-degradation of QDs during long-term light irradiation. PMID:25913396

  20. Regulation Mechanism of Novel Thermomechanical Treatment on Microstructure and Properties in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiguo; Ren, Jieke; Zhang, Jishuai; Chen, Jiqiang; Fang, Liang

    2016-02-01

    Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, tensile test, exfoliation corrosion test, and slow strain rate tensile test were applied to investigate the properties and microstructure of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy processed by final thermomechanical treatment, retrogression reaging, and novel thermomechanical treatment (a combination of retrogression reaging with cold or warm rolling). The results indicate that in comparison with conventional heat treatment, the novel thermomechanical treatment reduces the stress corrosion susceptibility. A good combination of mechanical properties, stress corrosion resistance, and exfoliation corrosion resistance can be obtained by combining retrogression reaging with warm rolling. The mechanism of the novel thermomechanical treatment is the synergistic effect of composite microstructure such as grain morphology, dislocation substructures, as well as the morphology and distribution of primary phases and precipitations.

  1. Effect of electromagnetic vibration on the microstructure of direct chill cast Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Y.; Fu, X.; Zhu, Q.; Li, L.; Wang, P.; Cui, J.

    2016-03-01

    An electromagnetic vibration was achieved by the combined application of an alternating magnetic field and a stationary magnetic field during direct chill (DC) casting process. The ingots with 200 mm in diameter were prepared under the influence of electromagnetic vibration. The effect of electromagnetic vibration on the microstructure of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy was studied. The results showed that electromagnetic vibration has a significant effect on the solidification behaviour, under the influence of electromagnetic vibration during DC casting process, the microstructure is significantly refined and the uniformity of microstructure is evidently improved. This paper introduces the DC casting technology with the application of electromagnetic vibration, presents these results and gives corresponding discussions.

  2. Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) and Its Application to Grain Refinement of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekeli, Süleyman; Güral, Ahmet

    2011-12-01

    Microstructure of a metal can be considerably changed by severe plastic deformation techniques such as high pressure torsion, extrusion and equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP). Among these methods, ECAP is particularly attractive because it has a potential for introducing significant grain refinement and homogeneous microstructure into bulk materials. Typically, it reduces the grain size to the submicrometer level or even nanometer range and thus produces materials that are capable of exhibiting unusual mechanical properties. In the present study, a test unites for equal channel angular pressing was constructed and this system was used for Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. After the optimization tests, it was seen that the most effective lubricant for the dies was MoS2, the pressing pressure was around 25-35 ton and the pressing speed was 2 mm/s. By using these parameters, the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy was successfully ECAPed up to 14 passes at 200 °C using route C. After ECAP tests, the specimens were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), hardness and macrostructural investigations. It was seen that the plastic deformation in the ECAPed specimens occurred from edge to the centre like whirlpool. In addition, the deformation intensity increased with increasing pass number. The grain size of the specimens effectively also decreased with increasing pass number. That is, while the grain size of unECAPed specimen was 10 μm, this value decreased to 300 nm after 14 passes. At the beginning, while there was a banding tendency in the grains toward deformation direction, homogeneous and equiaxed grains were formed with increasing pass number. This grain refinement was as a result of an interaction between shear strain and thermal recovery during ECAP processing. Hardness measurements showed that the hardness values increased up to 4 passes, decreased effectively at 6th pass, again increased at 8th pass and after this pass, the hardness again decreased due to dynamic

  3. Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) and Its Application to Grain Refinement of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Tekeli, Sueleyman; Gueral, Ahmet

    2011-12-10

    Microstructure of a metal can be considerably changed by severe plastic deformation techniques such as high pressure torsion, extrusion and equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP). Among these methods, ECAP is particularly attractive because it has a potential for introducing significant grain refinement and homogeneous microstructure into bulk materials. Typically, it reduces the grain size to the submicrometer level or even nanometer range and thus produces materials that are capable of exhibiting unusual mechanical properties. In the present study, a test unites for equal channel angular pressing was constructed and this system was used for Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. After the optimization tests, it was seen that the most effective lubricant for the dies was MoS{sub 2}, the pressing pressure was around 25-35 ton and the pressing speed was 2 mm/s. By using these parameters, the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy was successfully ECAPed up to 14 passes at 200 deg. C using route C. After ECAP tests, the specimens were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), hardness and macrostructural investigations. It was seen that the plastic deformation in the ECAPed specimens occurred from edge to the centre like whirlpool. In addition, the deformation intensity increased with increasing pass number. The grain size of the specimens effectively also decreased with increasing pass number. That is, while the grain size of unECAPed specimen was 10 {mu}m, this value decreased to 300 nm after 14 passes. At the beginning, while there was a banding tendency in the grains toward deformation direction, homogeneous and equiaxed grains were formed with increasing pass number. This grain refinement was as a result of an interaction between shear strain and thermal recovery during ECAP processing. Hardness measurements showed that the hardness values increased up to 4 passes, decreased effectively at 6th pass, again increased at 8th pass and after this pass, the hardness again decreased due to

  4. Assessment of retrogression and re-aging treatment on microstructural and mechanical properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu P/M alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Naeem, Haider T.; Mohammad, Kahtan S.; Hussin, Kamarudin; Tan, T. Qing; Idris, M. Sobri

    2015-05-15

    In order to understand the importance of the retrogression and re-aging as a heat treatment for improving microstructural and mechanical properties of the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu powder metallurgy alloys, Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Fe-Cr alloys were fabricated from the elemental powders. Green compacts are compressed under compaction pressure about 370 MPa. The sintering process carried out for the samples of aluminum alloys at temperature was 650°C under argon atmosphere for two hours. The sintered compacts were subjected into homogenizing condition at 470°C for 1.5 hours and then aged at 120°C for 24 hours (T6 temper) after that it carried out the retrogressed at 180°C for 30 min., and then re-aged at 120°C for 24 hours (RRA). Observations microstructures were examined using optical, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Density and porosity content was conducted for the samples of alloys. The result showing that the highest Vickers hardness exhibited for an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy after underwent the retrogression and reaging treatment. Increasing in hardness was because of the precipitation hardening through precipitate the (Mg Zn) and (Mg{sub 2}Zn{sub 11}) phases during matrix of aluminum-alloy.

  5. Assessment of retrogression and re-aging treatment on microstructural and mechanical properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu P/M alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeem, Haider T.; Mohammad, Kahtan S.; Hussin, Kamarudin; Tan, T. Qing; Idris, M. Sobri

    2015-05-01

    In order to understand the importance of the retrogression and re-aging as a heat treatment for improving microstructural and mechanical properties of the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu powder metallurgy alloys, Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Fe-Cr alloys were fabricated from the elemental powders. Green compacts are compressed under compaction pressure about 370 MPa. The sintering process carried out for the samples of aluminum alloys at temperature was 650°C under argon atmosphere for two hours. The sintered compacts were subjected into homogenizing condition at 470°C for 1.5 hours and then aged at 120°C for 24 hours (T6 temper) after that it carried out the retrogressed at 180°C for 30 min., and then re-aged at 120°C for 24 hours (RRA). Observations microstructures were examined using optical, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Density and porosity content was conducted for the samples of alloys. The result showing that the highest Vickers hardness exhibited for an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy after underwent the retrogression and reaging treatment. Increasing in hardness was because of the precipitation hardening through precipitate the (Mg Zn) and (Mg2Zn11) phases during matrix of aluminum-alloy.

  6. Tunable Photoluminescent Core/Shell Cu(+)-Doped ZnSe/ZnS Quantum Dots Codoped with Al(3+), Ga(3+), or In(3+).

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jason K; Gul, Sheraz; Lindley, Sarah A; Yano, Junko; Zhang, Jin Z

    2015-05-13

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) with stable, oxidation resistant, and tunable photoluminescence (PL) are highly desired for various applications including solid-state lighting and biological labeling. However, many current systems for visible light emission involve the use of toxic Cd. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of a series of codoped core/shell ZnSe/ZnS QDs with tunable PL maxima spanning 430-570 nm (average full width at half-maximum of 80 nm) and broad emission extending to 700 nm, through the use of Cu(+) as the primary dopant and trivalent cations (Al(3+), Ga(3+), and In(3+)) as codopants. Furthermore, we developed a unique thiol-based bidentate ligand that significantly improved PL intensity, long-term stability, and resilience to postsynthetic processing. Through comprehensive experimental and computational studies based on steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and density functional theory (DFT), we show that the tunable PL of this system is the result of energy level modification to donor and/or acceptor recombination pathways. By incorporating these findings with local structure information obtained from extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) studies, we generate a complete energetic model accounting for the photophysical processes in these unique QDs. With the understanding of optical, structural, and electronic properties we gain in this study, this successful codoping strategy may be applied to other QD or related systems to tune the optical properties of semiconductors while maintaining low toxicity. PMID:25893312

  7. Performance improvement of nanocatalysts by promoter-induced defects in the support material: methanol synthesis over Cu/ZnO:Al.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Malte; Zander, Stefan; Kurr, Patrick; Jacobsen, Nikolas; Senker, Jürgen; Koch, Gregor; Ressler, Thorsten; Fischer, Richard W; Schlögl, Robert

    2013-04-24

    Addition of small amounts of promoters to solid catalysts can cause pronounced improvement in the catalytic properties. For the complex catalysts employed in industrial processes, the fate and mode of operation of promoters is often not well understood, which hinders a more rational optimization of these important materials. Herein we show for the example of the industrial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst for methanol synthesis how structure-performance relationships can deliver such insights and shed light on the role of the Al promoter in this system. We were able to discriminate a structural effect and an electronic promoting effect, identify the relevant Al species as a dopant in ZnO, and determine the optimal Al content of improved Cu/ZnO:Al catalysts. By analogy to Ga- and Cr-promoted samples, we conclude that there is a general effect of promoter-induced defects in ZnO on the metal-support interactions and propose the relevance of this promotion mechanism for other metal/oxide catalysts also. PMID:23488720

  8. Hole mobility enhancement of Cu-deficient Cu{sub 1.75}Zn(Sn{sub 1−x}Al{sub x})Se{sub 4} bulks

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Dong-Hau Tsega, Moges

    2013-10-15

    Cu-deficient Cu{sub 1.75}ZnSn{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}Se{sub 4} (x=0–0.6) bulks were prepared by a liquid-phase reactive sintering method at 600 {sup °}C with soluble sintering aids of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and Te. Defect chemistry was studied by measuring electrical properties of Al-doped CZTSe as a function of dopant concentration. Al-CZTSe pellets at x=0.4 with electrical conductivity of 57.2 S cm{sup −1} showed the highest hole mobility of 32.5 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}. The high mobility is mainly contributed from the low atomic scattering factor of Al. The high carrier concentration and slightly changed lattice parameter of Al-CZTSe are related to the types of its defects. - Graphical abstract: The controls in electrical properties and the changes in lattice parameters of Cu-deficient Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} by doping Al{sup 3+} on the Sn{sup 4+} site. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Cu-deficient Cu{sub 1.75}Zn(Sn{sub 1−x}Al{sub x})Se{sub 4} was prepared by liquid-phase sintering at 600 °C. • Sintering aids of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and Te were used for reactive sintering. • Al-CZTSe at x=0.4 showed the extremely high mobility of 32.5 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}. • Al-CZTSe reached large grains of 2−3 μm, while it was <1.0 μm for the undoped. • Electrical properties of Al-CZTSe pellets changed with the Al content.

  9. Accumulation of Al, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb by the bryophyte Scapania undulata in three upland waters of different pH.

    PubMed

    Vincent, C D; Lawlor, A J; Tipping, E

    2001-01-01

    Measurements were made of the contents of Al, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in Scapania undulata in three streams (D2, D5, D11) in the English Lake District. The stream waters had average pH values of 5.35 (D2), 5.81 (D5) and 7.26 (D11), the main differences in other major chemical components being in Mg, Al, Ca and alkalinity. There was generally more metal accumulation in the older parts of the plants, but this was not significant in all cases. Extents of accumulation varied with stream pH and dissolved metal concentration. For Al, accumulation was greatest in streams D2 and D5. Mn accumulated most in D5 and Fe was without preference. Cu, Zn and Cd accumulated mostly in the plants in stream D11 and Pb accumulated more in D5 and D11. In terms of enrichment factors (amount of metal in the plants divided by stream water concentration) the sequence was Zn < Cd < Cu < Mn < Pb < Al < Fe. Laboratory experiments supported the findings of the field data, providing evidence that uptake increases with pH at constant total metal concentration. The results are interpreted qualitatively in terms of the chemical speciation of the metals in the stream water and competition between metal ions and protons at the plant-water interface. It is suggested that Al, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb behave according to chemical complexation, whereas redox processes and/or colloidal interactions may be significant for Mn and Fe. PMID:11444010

  10. The Effect of Rra on the Microstructure and Properties of a Novel Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Zr Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiwu; Xiong, Baiqing; Zhang, Yongan; Zhu, Baohong; Liu, Hongwei; Li, Zhihui

    A novel Al-7.5Zn-1.6Mg-1.4Cu-0.12Zr alloy was subjected to the retrogression and re-ageing (RRA) treatments at a lower range of retrogression temperatures from 170 to 200°C. The effect of RRA on the mechanical properties, electrical conductivity and the microstructure of the alloy has been investigated. The results indicate that an increase in the yield strength of the alloy can be achieved after RRA treatment. With increase of the retrogression temperature, the retrogression time for keeping the strength levels similar to T6 temper decreases rapidly. When submitted to RRA at 170°C for 90-120 min, the alloy can obtain a good performance on both SCC and mechanical strength; the electrical conductivity was above 40%IACS, reaching values typical for T76 condition and the tensile yield strength values were 552-570 MPa which is higher than that of the T6 temper. The microstructure is a very fine distribution of GP zones and η‧ precipitates inside grains, similar to T6 condition and η precipitates on grain boundaries distributed similarly to T7 temper.

  11. Cooling rate effects on the structure and transformation behavior of Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohan, Nicoleta-Monica; Suru, Marius-Gabriel; Pricop, Bogdan; Bujoreanu, Leandru-Gheorghe

    2014-11-01

    Different fragments of a hot-rolled and homogenized Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy (SMA) were subjected to thermal cycling by means of a differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) device. During thermal cycling, heating was performed at the same constant rate of increasing temperature while cooling was carried out at different rates of decreasing temperature. For each cooling rate, the temperature decreased in the same thermal interval. During each cooling stage, an exothermic peak (maximum) was observed on the DSC thermogram. This peak was associated with forward martensitic transformation. The DSC thermograms were analyzed with PROTEUS software: the critical martensitic transformation start (Ms) and finish (Mf) temperatures were determined by means of integral and tangent methods, and the dissipated heat was evaluated by the area between the corresponding maximum plot and a sigmoid baseline. The effects of the increase in cooling rate, assessed from a calorimetric viewpoint, consisted in the augmentation of the exothermic peak and the delay of direct martensitic transformation. The latter had the tendency to move to lower critical transformation temperatures. The martensite plates changed in morphology by becoming more oriented and by an augmenting in surface relief, which corresponded with the increase in cooling rate as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  12. Lattice image studies on the intervariant boundary structure and substructure of Cu-Zn-Al 18R martensite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Kenji; Perkins, Jeff

    1985-09-01

    The boundaries between 18R martensite plates in a Cu-Zn-Al alloy, which join martensite variani each plate group and are designated as the A:C and A:D type intervariant boundaries, have been studied in a lattice imaging mode. The details of the atomic configurations across these interfaces are discussed. It is found that the A:C boundary is a straight coherent twin boundary matching exactly the (128)18R planes of the adjoining martensite variant plates. The A:D boundary, although generally planar, does not match a particular crystallographic plane of a variant plate, but rather has a tendency to wander and form curved segments, except in the regions where occasional 2H structural faults internal to one of the variants, meet the 18R structure in the variant on the other side of the boundary Nonbasal stacking faults are observed as well, with a faulting plane, (128), which is crys tallographically equivalent to the A:C type intervariant plane. This nonbasal faulting is considered to be a consequence of cross-slipping of partial dislocations related to the basal plane faults.

  13. Formation of mixed Al-Fe colloidal sorbent and dissolved-colloidal partitioning of Cu and Zn in the Cement Creek - Animas River Confluence, Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, L.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Runkel, R.L.; Cox, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Transport and chemical transformations of dissolved and colloidal Al, Fe, Cu and Zn were studied by detailed sampling in the mixing zone downstream from the confluence of Cement Creek (pH 4.1) with the Animas River (pH 7.6). Complete mixing resulted in circumneutral pH in the downstream reach of the 1300 m study area. All four metals were transported through this mixing zone without significant losses to the streambed, and they exhibited transformations from dissolved to colloidal forms to varying degrees during the mixing process. Nearly all of the Al formed colloidal hydrous Al oxides (HAO) as pH increased (4.8-6.5), whereas colloidal hydrous Fe oxides (HFO) were supplied by Cement Creek as well as formed in the mixing zone primarily at higher pH (>6.5). The short travel time through the mixing zone (approx. 40 min) and pH limited the formation of HFO from dissolved Fe2+ supplied by Cement Creek. Although the proportions of HAO and HFO varied as the streams mixed, the colloidal sorbent typically was enriched in HAO relative to HFO by a factor of 1.5-2.1 (by mole) in the pH range where dissolved-to-colloidal partitioning of Cu and Zn was observed. Model simulations of sorption by HFO (alone) greatly underestimated the dissolved-to-colloidal partitioning of Zn. Previous studies have shown that HAO-HFO mixtures can sorb greater amounts of Zn than HFO alone, but the high Zn-to-sorbent ratio in this mixing zone could also account for greater partitioning. In contrast to Zn, comparisons with model simulations did not show that Cu sorption was greater than that for HFO alone, and also indicated that sorption was possibly less than what would be expected for a non-interactive mixture of these two sorbents. These field results for Cu, however, might be influenced by (organic) complexation or other factors in this natural system. Laboratory mixing experiments using natural source waters (upstream of the confluence) showed that the presence of HFO in the mixed sorbent

  14. In-situ activation of CuO/ZnO/Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 catalysts in the liquid phase

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Dennis M.; Hsiung, Thomas H.; Rao, Pradip; Roberts, George W.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of activation of a CuO/ZnO/Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 catalyst slurried in a chemically inert liquid. Successful activation of the catalyst requires the use of a process in which the temperature of the system at any time is not allowed to exceed a certain critical value, which is a function of the specific hydrogen uptake of the catalyst at that same time. This process is especially critical for activating highly concentrated catalyst slurries, typically 25 to 50 wt %. Activation of slurries of CuO/ZnO/Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 catalyst is useful in carrying out the liquid phase methanol or the liquid phase shift reactions.

  15. Synthesis and luminescence properties of polymeric complexes of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Al(III) with 8-hydroxyquinoline side group-containing polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Baojiao; Wei, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Yanyan

    2013-01-01

    Three kinds of metalloquinolate-containing polystyrene were prepared via a polymer reaction and a coordination reaction. 5-Chloromethyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (CHQ) was first prepared through the chloromethylation reaction of 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) with 1,4-bichloromethoxy-butane as chloromethylation reagent. A polymer reaction, Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction, was carried out between polystyrene (PS) and CHQ in the presence of Lewis catalyst, and HQ was bonded onto the side chains of PS, obtaining 8-hydroxyquinoline-functionalized Polystyrene, HQ-PS. And then, by using one-pot method with two-stage procedures, the coordination reaction of HQ-PS and small molecule HQ with metal ions including Al(III), Zn(II) and Cu(II) ions, was allowed to be carried out, and three polymeric metalloquinolates, AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, were successfully prepared, respectively. In the chemical structures of these polymeric metalloquinolates, metalloquinolates were chemically attached onto the side chains of PS. HQ-PS and three polymeric metalloquinolates were fully characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR and TGA. The luminescence properties of the three polymeric metalloquinolates were mainly investigated by UV/Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence emission spectra in solutions and in solid film states. When excited by the ray at about 365 nm, the three polymeric metalloquinolates have blue-green luminescence, and the main emission peaks in the DMF solutions are located at 490, 482 and 502 nm for AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, respectively. As compared with their emissions in solutions, the emissions in solid film states are red-shifted to some extent, and the main emission peaks are located at 500, 488 and 510 nm for AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, respectively. Besides, these polymeric metalloquinolates have higher thermal stability than PS as polymeric skeleton.

  16. Avalanche correlations in the martensitic transition of a Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy: analysis of acoustic emission and calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Baró, Jordi; Martín-Olalla, José-María; Romero, Francisco Javier; Gallardo, María Carmen; Salje, Ekhard K H; Vives, Eduard; Planes, Antoni

    2014-03-26

    The existence of temporal correlations during the intermittent dynamics of a thermally driven structural phase transition is studied in a Cu-Zn-Al alloy. The sequence of avalanches is observed by means of two techniques: acoustic emission and high sensitivity calorimetry. Both methods reveal the existence of event clustering in a way that is equivalent to the Omori correlations between aftershocks in earthquakes as are commonly used in seismology. PMID:24599153

  17. The mechanical and electronic properties of Al/TiC interfaces alloyed by Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe and Ti: First-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ting; Wu, Xiaozhi; Li, Weiguo; Wang, Rui

    2015-03-01

    The adhesion and ductility of (100) and (110) Al/TiC interfaces alloyed by Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ti have been investigated using first-principles methods. Fe and Ti can enhance the adhesion of (100) and (110) interfaces. Mg and Zn have the opposite effect. Interfacial electronic structures have been created to analyze the changes of the work of adhesion. It is found that more charge is accumulated at interfaces alloyed by Fe and Ti compared with pure Al/TiC. There is also an obvious downward shift in the Fermi energy of Fe, Ti at the interface. Furthermore, the unstable stacking fault energies of the interfaces are calculated; the results demonstrate that the preferred slip direction is the < 110> direction for (100) and (110) Al/TiC. Based on the Rice criterion of ductility, the results predict that Mg, Fe, and Ti are promising candidates for improving the ductility of Al/TiC interfaces.

  18. Resistive switching characteristics of Cu/ZnO0.4S0.6/Al devices constructed on plastic substrates.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong; Cho, Kyoungah; Kim, Sangsig

    2012-07-01

    In this study, Cu/ZnO0.4S0.6Al devices are fabricated on plastic substrates using the sputtering method at room temperature. The ratio of O/S in the zinc oxysulfide thin film is confirmed to be 0.4/0.6 from the Auger depth profiling. The Cu/ZnO0.4S0.6/Al devices show unipolar resistive switching behaviors and the ratio of the measured resistance in the low-resistance state (LRS) to that in the high-resistance state (HRS) is above 10(4). The conduction mechanism of the LRS is governed by Ohm's law. On the other hand, in the HRS, the conduction mechanism at low voltages is controlled by Ohm's law, but that at high voltages results from the Poole-Frenkel emission mechanism. The Ohmic and Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanisms observed in the LRS and HRS support the filament model of unipolar resistive switching. The memory characteristics of the Cu/ZnO0.4S0.6/Al devices are retained for 10(4) sec without any change. PMID:22966644

  19. Luminescence, magnetic and vibrational properties of novel heterometallic niccolites [(CH3)2NH2][CrIIIMII(HCOO)6] (MII=Zn, Ni, Cu) and [(CH3)2NH2][AlIIIZnII(HCOO)6]:Cr3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mączka, Mirosław; Pietraszko, Adam; Pikul, Adam; Hermanowicz, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    We report synthesis of three novel heterometallic MOFs, [(CH3)2NH2][CrIIIMII(HCOO)6] with M=Zn (DMCrZn), Ni (DMCrNi) and Cu (DMCrCu), crystallizing in the niccolite type structure. We also successfully synthesized [(CH3)2NH2][AlCu(HCOO)6] (DMAlCu) and [(CH3)2NH2][AlZn(HCOO)6] doped with 5.8 mol% of Cr3+ (DMAlZn: Cr). X-ray diffraction shows that DMCrZn, DMCrNi and DMAlZn: Cr3+ crystallize in the trigonal structure (space group P 3 bar1c) while DMCrCu and DMAlCu crystallize in the monoclinic structure (space group C2/c). Magnetic investigation of the chromium-based niccolites reveals no magnetic order in DMCrZn and ferromagnetic order in DMCrNi and DMCrCu below 23 and 11 K, respectively. Optical studies show that DMCrZn and DMAlZn: Cr samples exhibit efficient emission typical for chromium ions located at sites of strong crystal field with the Dq/B values 2.62 and 2.67, respectively. We also discuss role of geometrical parameters in stability of the perovskite and niccolite structures.

  20. Electroluminescent layers based on ZnS:Cu deposited into matrices of porous anodic Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeev, R. G.; Petukhov, D. I.; Chukavin, A. I.; Bel'tyukov, A. N.

    2016-02-01

    It is suggested to use a new nanocomposite material—nanostructures of copper-doped zinc sulfide in a matrix of porous aluminum oxide—as a light-emitting layer of electroluminescent sources of light. The material was deposited by thermal evaporation in a vacuum. The microstructure of the layers, impurity distribution in the electroluminescent-phosphor layer, and electroluminescence spectra at various copper concentrations in ZnS:Cu were studied.

  1. Effects of Bonding Conditions on Bondability Using Zn/Al/Zn Clad Solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Ikeda, O.; Oda, Y.; Hata, S.; Kuroki, K.; Kuroda, H.; Hirose, A.

    2015-12-01

    Three-layer Zn/Al/Zn clad solders have been developed for high-temperature die attachment. The clad structure is used to improve the wettability and bondability of Zn-Al eutectic solder by preventing Al oxidation. The effects of the bonding conditions on the bondability with Zn/Al/Zn clad solder were investigated. Bonding was achieved in the temperature range from 385°C to 420°C under N2 atmosphere with oxygen concentration below 100 ppm. However, the bonding strength of the joint formed under N2 + 4% H2 atmosphere was almost 0 MPa, and stripe defects and air gaps remained in the bond layer. To improve the bondability under N2 + 4% H2 and expand the application range, a five-layer Cu/Zn/Al/Zn/Cu clad solder was developed in an attempt to prevent the Zn layers from being oxidized by the outer Cu layers. Cross-sectional observation of the Cu/Zn/Al/Zn/Cu clad solder revealed that the surface was covered by a Cu layer, and that Cu5Zn8 layers grew between the Cu and Zn layers. This clad solder exhibited high shear strength of over 80 MPa when formed under N2 + 4% H2 atmosphere, and no stripe defects or air gaps were observed in the bond layer.

  2. High-effective approach from amino acid esters to chiral amino alcohols over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst and its catalytic reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuangshuang; Yu, Jun; Li, Huiying; Mao, Dongsen; Lu, Guanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Developing the high-efficient and green synthetic method for chiral amino alcohols is an intriguing target. We have developed the Mg(2+)-doped Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst for hydrogenation of L-phenylalanine methyl ester to chiral L-phenylalaninol without racemization. The effect of different L-phenylalanine esters on this title reaction was studied, verifying that Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 is an excellent catalyst for the hydrogenation of amino acid esters to chiral amino alcohols. DFT calculation was used to study the adsorption of substrate on the catalyst, and showed that the substrate adsorbs on the surface active sites mainly by amino group (-NH2) absorbed on Al2O3, and carbonyl (C=O) and alkoxy (RO-) group oxygen absorbed on the boundary of Cu and Al2O3. This catalytic hydrogenation undergoes the formation of a hemiacetal intermediate and the cleavage of the C-O bond (rate-determining step) by reacting with dissociated H to obtain amino aldehyde and methanol ad-species. The former is further hydrogenated to amino alcohols, and the latter desorbs from the catalyst surface. PMID:27619990

  3. Mechanical properties and 95 C aging characteristics of zircon-reinforced Zn-4Al-3Cu alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, B.J.; Chao, C.G.

    1996-03-01

    A process for preparing zinc alloy castings containing dispersions of zircon particles is described. Composites were prepared by stirring zircon particles in Zn-4Al-3Cu (ZAS) alloy melts and subsequently casting these melts in permanent molds. It was found that additions of zircon resulted in an increase in the sliding wear resistance and in the proportional limit in compression. The aging characteristics of the ZAS alloy have also been investigated by hardness tests, dilatometry technique, and transmission electron microscopy observations. There are two kinds of precipitates that occur during the aging process. The {alpha}-phase precipitates form the {eta} phase in the early stage of aging and the copper-rich {var_epsilon}-phase precipitates from the {eta} phase in the later stage of aging. Therefore, there are two peaks in the hardening curve caused by both {alpha}-phase and {var_epsilon}-phase precipitation. The {alpha}-phase precipitation induces the dimensional shrinkage, and the copper-rich {var_epsilon} phase precipitation results in dimensional expansion. Zircon particles existing in ZAS alloy reduce the maximum shrinkage from 353 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} for the monolith to 167 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} for the composite. Two groups of parallel {alpha}-phase plates had formed within the {eta} dendrite during aging at 95 C. The orientation relationship between the {alpha} phase and matrix was determined as [{bar 1}101]{sub {eta}}{parallel}[1{bar 1}0]{sub {alpha}}, (11{bar 2}0){sub {eta}}{parallel}(111){sub {alpha}}.

  4. Global mapping of Al, Cu, Fe, and Zn in-use stocks and in-ground resources

    PubMed Central

    Rauch, Jason N.

    2009-01-01

    Human activity has become a significant geomorphic force in modern times, resulting in unprecedented movements of material around Earth. An essential constituent of this material movement, the major industrial metals aluminium, copper, iron, and zinc in the human-built environment are mapped globally at 1-km nominal resolution for the year 2000 and compared with the locations of present-day in-ground resources. While the maps of in-ground resources generated essentially combine available databases, the mapping methodology of in-use stocks relies on the linear regression between gross domestic product and both in-use stock estimates and the Nighttime Lights of the World dataset. As the first global maps of in-use metal stocks, they reveal that a full 25% of the world's Fe, Al, Cu, and Zn in-use deposits are concentrated in three bands: (i) the Eastern seaboard from Washington, D.C. to Boston in the United States, (ii) England, Benelux into Germany and Northern Italy, and (iii) South Korea and Japan. This pattern is consistent across all metals investigated. In contrast, the global maps of primary metal resources reveal these deposits are more evenly distributed between the developed and developing worlds, with the distribution pattern differing depending on the metal. This analysis highlights the magnitude at which in-ground metal resources have been translocated to in-use stocks, largely from highly concentrated but globally dispersed in-ground deposits to more diffuse in-use stocks located primarily in developed urban regions. PMID:19858486

  5. The effect of dopant concentration on properties of transparent conducting Al-doped ZnO thin films for efficient Cu2ZnSnS4 thin-film solar cells prepared by electrodeposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkawi, E. M.; Ibrahim, K.; Ali, M. K. M.; Farrukh, M. A.; Mohamed, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were potentiostatically deposited on indium tin oxide substrates. The influence of the doping level of the ZnO:Al films was investigated. The results of the X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the structural properties of the AZO films were found polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite-type structure along the (002) plane. The grain size of the AZO films was observed as approximately 3 μm in the film doping with 4 mol% ZnO:Al concentration. The thin films also exhibited an optical transmittance as high as 90 % in the wavelength range of 100-1,000 nm. The optical band gap increased from 3.33 to 3.45 eV. Based on the Hall studies, the lowest resistivity (4.78 × 10-3 Ω cm) was observed in the film doping with 3 mol% ZnO:Al concentration. The sheet resistant, carrier concentration and Hall mobility values were found as 10.78 Ω/ square, 9.03 × 1018 cm-3 and 22.01 cm2/v s, respectively, which showed improvements in the properties of AZO thin films. The ZnO:Al thin films were used as a buffer layer in thin-film solar cells with the structure of soda-lime glass/Mo/Cu2ZnSnS4/ZnS/ZnO/Al grid. The best solar cell efficiency was 2.3 % with V OC of 0.430 V, J SC of 8.24 mA cm-2 and FF of 68.1 %.

  6. The effect of non-magnetic Al3+ ions on the structure and electromagnetic properties of MgCuZn ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahiraei, Hamed; Shoushtari, Morteza Zargar; Gheisari, Khalil; Ong, C. K.

    2014-12-01

    A series of Al substituted MgCuZn ferrite powders with composition Mg0.3Cu0.2Zn0.52AlxFe1.98-xO3.99 (0.00≤x≤0.06) have been synthesized with nano-sized precursor powders through the nitrate-citrate auto-combustion route. These powders were calcined, compacted and sintered at 900 °C for 4 h. X-ray diffraction patterns show the formation of cubic spinel structure. Infrared spectra indicate two fundamental absorption bands corresponding to the tetrahedral and octahedral complexes, respectively. A significant increase in density and grain size is observed with increasing Al content. The room temperature saturation magnetization increases for x=0.015 and then decreases for further increase in Al substitution. The initial permeability increases with the Al content attributed to the increase in the grain size and density. Curie temperature is found to be dependent on the Al concentration and it decreases due to decrease in the number of super-exchange interactions between Fe3+ ions in the tetrahedral and octahedral sites.

  7. A Study on Cavitation Erosion and Corrosion Behavior of Al-, Zn-, Cu-, and Fe-Based Coatings Prepared by Arc Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Hong; Lee, Myeong-Hoon

    2010-12-01

    Investigation to find a suitable coating material for a rudder application has been carried out in this study. Ten different coatings were prepared by arc spraying with Al-, Zn-, Cu-, and Fe-based wire feedstock. Both the cavitation erosion and marine corrosion behavior of the arc-sprayed coatings were evaluated, and compared with the conventional anti-corrosion paint. In terms of marine corrosion resistance, aluminum coating was the best among the tested coating systems while stainless steel coating showed the highest resistance against cavitation erosion. In addition, the effects of both the Si composition in Al-based coatings and the Ni composition in Cu- and Fe- based coatings were discussed in this study.

  8. Improvement of performance in low temperature solid oxide fuel cells operated on ethanol and air mixtures using Cu-ZnO-Al2O3 catalyst layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, M.; Espiell, F.; Segarra, M.

    2015-10-01

    Anode-supported single-chamber solid oxide fuel cells with and without Cu-ZnO-Al2O3 catalyst layers deposited on the anode support have been operated on ethanol and air mixtures. The cells consist of gadolinia-doped ceria electrolyte, Ni-doped ceria anode, and La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-δ-doped ceria cathode. Catalyst layers with different Cu-ZnO-Al2O3 ratios are deposited and sintered at several temperatures. Since the performance of single-chamber fuel cells strongly depends on catalytic properties of electrodes for partial oxidation of ethanol, the cells are electrochemically characterized as a function of the temperature, ethanol-air molar ratio and gas flow rate. In addition, catalytic activities of supported anode, catalytic layer-supported anode and cathode for partial oxidation of ethanol are analysed. Afterwards, the effect of composition and sintering temperature of catalyst layer on the cell performance are determined. The results indicate that the cell performance can be significantly enhanced using catalyst layers of 30:35:35 and 40:30:30 wt.% Cu-ZnO-Al2O3 sintered at 1100 °C, achieving power densities above 50 mW cm-2 under 0.45 ethanol-air ratio at temperatures as low as 450 °C. After testing for 15 h, all cells present a gradual loss of power density, without carbon deposition, which is mainly attributed to the partial re-oxidation of Ni at the anode.

  9. Localized surface plasmon induced enhancement of electron-hole generation with silver metal island at n-Al:ZnO/p-Cu{sub 2}O heterojunction

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Gurpreet Yadav, K. L.; Mitra, Anirban

    2015-08-03

    Localized surface plasmon induced generation of electron-hole pairs with inclusion of metal islands of noble metal like Ag can enhance the photocurrent. A heterostructure of n-Al:ZnO/p-Cu{sub 2}O with inclusion of Ag metalislands at the junction has been fabricated. I-V characteristic curve of these heterostructures shows a significant enhancement of photocurrent under the illumination (1.5 AMU). This enhancement of photocurrent is attributed to the supply of hot electrons generated in silver metal nanoislands. It has also been shown that inclusion of metal islands increases the absorption of solar spectrum in visible region at 500 nm. Enhancement of photocurrent may also be due to the direct resonance energy transfer from Localized Surface Plasmons of metal islands to Cu{sub 2}O.

  10. A micromechanical modelling of the hysteretic behavior in thermally induced martensitic phase transitions: Application to Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Agouram, S.; Bensalah, M.O.; Ghazali, A.

    1998-12-11

    The hysteretic behavior of Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys (SMAs) in thermally induced martensitic phase transition is dealt with. The problem is studied by means of a kinematic analysis where the internal variables describing the material`s microstructure are regarded as implicit functions of the applied thermomechanical loading parameters ({Sigma}{sub ij}, {Tau}). On the other hand, a thermodynamic approach is used in which the local balance formalism is based on the thermoelastic equilibrium concept. Considering that thermoelastic equilibrium temperatures between phases, in the forward and reverse transformation, are dependent on the location in the transformation path enables the hysteretic behavior to be determined. Hence, a set of non-linear equations is deduced simulating the complete and partial cycles. Results obtained in this way, in the thermally induced phase transition with no applied stress, are in good agreement with experimental observations performed on Cu-based SMAs.

  11. Localized surface plasmon induced enhancement of electron-hole generation with silver metal island at n-Al:ZnO/p-Cu2O heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Yadav, K. L.; Mitra, Anirban

    2015-08-01

    Localized surface plasmon induced generation of electron-hole pairs with inclusion of metal islands of noble metal like Ag can enhance the photocurrent. A heterostructure of n-Al:ZnO/p-Cu2O with inclusion of Ag metalislands at the junction has been fabricated. I-V characteristic curve of these heterostructures shows a significant enhancement of photocurrent under the illumination (1.5 AMU). This enhancement of photocurrent is attributed to the supply of hot electrons generated in silver metal nanoislands. It has also been shown that inclusion of metal islands increases the absorption of solar spectrum in visible region at 500 nm. Enhancement of photocurrent may also be due to the direct resonance energy transfer from Localized Surface Plasmons of metal islands to Cu2O.

  12. Thickness Effect of Al-Doped ZnO Window Layer on Damp-Heat Stability of CuInGaSe2 Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F. J.; Mansfield, L.; DeHart, C.; Glick, S. H.; Yan, F.; Noufi, R.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the damp heat (DH) stability of CuInGaSe{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells as a function of thickness of the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) window layer from the 'standard' 0.12 {micro}m to a modest 0.50 {micro}m over an underlying 0.10-{micro}m intrinsic ZnO buffer layer. The CIGS cells were prepared with external electrical contact using fine Au wire to the tiny 'standard' Ni/Al (0.05 {micro}m/3 {micro}m) metal grid contact pads. Bare cell coupons and sample sets encapsulated in a specially designed, Al-frame test structure with an opening for moisture ingress control using a TPT backsheet were exposed to DH at 85 C and 85% relative humidity, and characterized by current-voltage (I-V), quantum efficiency (QE), and (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (ECIS). The results show that bare cells exhibited rapid degradation within 50-100 h, accompanied by film wrinkling and delamination and corrosion of Mo and AlNi grid, regardless of AZO thickness. In contrast, the encapsulated cells did not show film wrinkling, delamination, and Mo corrosion after 168 h DH exposure; but the trend of efficiency degradation rate showed a weak correlation to the AZO thickness.

  13. Thickness Effect of Al-Doped ZnO Window Layer on Damp Heat Stability of CuInGaSe2 Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F. J.; Mansfield, L.; DeHart, C.; Glick, S. H.; Yan, F.; Noufi, R.

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the damp heat (DH) stability of CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells as a function of thickness of the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) window layer from the 'standard' 0.12 μm to a modest 0.50 μm over an underlying 0.10-μm intrinsic ZnO buffer layer. The CIGS cells were prepared with external electrical contact using fine Au wire to the tiny 'standard' Ni/Al (0.05 μm/3 μm) metal grid contact pads. Bare cell coupons and sample sets encapsulated in a specially designed, Al-frame test structure with an opening for moisture ingress control using a TPT backsheet were exposed to DH at 85oC and 85% relative humidity, and characterized by current-voltage (I-V), quantum efficiency (QE), and (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (ECIS). The results show that bare cells exhibited rapid degradation within 50-100 h, accompanied by film wrinkling and delamination and corrosion of Mo and AlNi grid, regardless of AZO thickness. In contrast, the encapsulated cells did not show film wrinkling, delamination, and Mo corrosion after 168 h DH exposure; but the trend of efficiency degradation rate showed a weak correlation to the AZO thickness.

  14. Pressure effects on resistive transition in (Cu,M)Ba{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Cu{sub 4}O{sub y} (M = C,Al,Tl,Mg,Zn) superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Tokiwa, K.; Kunugi, C.; Kashiwagi, H.

    1999-11-01

    Single phase samples with the composition of (Cu,M)Ba{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Cu{sub 4}O{sub y}(CuM-1234; M = C,Al,Tl,Mg,Zn) have been synthesized using high pressure technique. The authors have measured the pressure dependence of superconducting transition temperature ({Tc}) through in situ resistivity measurements up to 8 GPa for these samples, reproducibly. These samples indicated almost the same {Tc}-enhancement by applied pressure, in spite of their different ambient {Tc} values. The enhancement values of 8--10 K at 8 GPa pressure for these samples are found to be comparable to those of Hg-system and (B,C)-system.

  15. The effect of copper, chromium, and zirconium on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, John A.; Shenoy, R. N.

    1991-01-01

    The present study evaluates the effect of the systematic variation of copper, chromium, and zirconium contents on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a 7000-type aluminum alloy. Fracture toughness and tensile properties are evaluated for each alloy in both the peak aging, T8, and the overaging, T73, conditions. Results show that dimpled rupture essentially characterize the fracture process in these alloys. In the T8 condition, a significant loss of toughness is observed for alloys containing 2.5 pct Cu due to the increase in the quantity of Al-Cu-Mg-rich S-phase particles. An examination of T8 alloys at constant Cu levels shows that Zr-bearing alloys exhibit higher strength and toughness than the Cr-bearing alloys. In the T73 condition, Cr-bearing alloys are inherently tougher than Zr-bearing alloys. A void nucleation and growth mechanism accounts for the loss of toughness in these alloys with increasing copper content.

  16. Modeling of circular piezoelectric micro ultrasonic transducer using CuAl10Ni5Fe4 on ZnO film for sonar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaacob, M. I. H.; Arshad, M. R.; Manaf, A. Abd.

    2011-03-01

    Modeling and theoretical characterization of piezoelectric micro ultrasonic transducer ( pMUT) using ZnO film sandwiched between nickel aluminum bronze (CuAl10Ni5Fe4) electrodes was reported in this paper. The transducer is targeted to be utilized in sonar applications. Analyses on the model were carried out using finite element method. Model's dimensional parameters were optimized for desired performance. Simplified technique was proposed to determine transmit and receive sensitivities of the model. As the result, micro ultrasonic transducer model with resonance frequency of 40 kHz was proposed with estimated receive and transmit sensitivities of -93 dB re 1 V/μPa and 137 dB re 1 μPa/V, respectively. Further model validations require actual device fabrication and this will be included in our future works.

  17. Theoretical discussion of the effect of a low-frequency electromagnetic vibrating field on the as-cast microstructures of DC Al Zn Mg Cu Zr ingots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Dong; Jianzhong, Cui; Wenjiang, Ding

    2006-10-01

    Within the framework of classical solidification theories, the effect of a low-frequency electromagnetic vibrating field on the as-cast microstructures of direct chilling (DC) casting Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Zr ingots was discussed. In comparison with the conventional DC ingots, the microstructures of the low-frequency electromagnetic vibrating casting (LFEVC) ingots are gradually refined with increasing electromagnetic intensity. The increased number of nuclei is likely to be as a result of electromagnetic undercooling and forced convection. Grains were assumed to grow first into a global morphology and then into a dendritic one after exceeding a critical size. The unstable wavelength of a growing global grain was deduced to evaluate this transition from a global grain to a dendritic grain. Decreasing the electromagnetic frequency and/or increasing of electromagnetic intensity lead to a longer wavelength and therefore are suitable for less dendritic or net-global grains.

  18. Evaluation of diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) for measuring Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn in Amazonian rivers.

    PubMed

    Yabuki, Lauren Nozomi Marques; Colaço, Camila Destro; Menegário, Amauri Antonio; Domingos, Roberto Naves; Kiang, Chang Hung; Pascoaloto, Domitila

    2014-02-01

    Studies concerning the lability and bioavailability of trace metals have played a prominent role in the search for contamination of water resources. This work describes the first application yet of the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) to the determination of the fraction of free plus labile metals in waters from the Amazon Basin. Due to the complexity of the use of DGT for samples with low ionic strength and high organic matter content (characteristic of Amazonian rivers), a new analytical procedure was developed. The method is based on the determinations of apparent diffusion coefficients (Dap) in the laboratory, by performing deployments in samples collected in the corresponding sites of study. The Dap thereby determined is then used for in situ measurements. The suitability of the proposed approach for determination of labile Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn in the Amazon River and Rio Negro (English: Black River) was evaluated. Except for Co, Mn (in a deployment at Rio Negro), Ni and Zn (in a deployment at Amazon River), labile in situ measurements were lower or similar to dissolved concentrations, indicating suitability of the proposed approach. PMID:24052239

  19. Multi-minimum adiabatic potential in the single crystal normal spinel ZnAl(2)O(4), doped by Cu(2+) ions.

    PubMed

    Shapovalov, V A; Zhitlukhina, E S; Lamonova, K V; Shapovalov, V V; Rafailovich, M; Schwarz, S A; Jahoda, R; Reidy, V J; Orel, S M; Pashkevich, Yu G

    2010-06-23

    Spectroscopic investigations of a ZnAl(2)O(4) spinel doped with bivalent copper ions of 0.05% concentration have been carried out in the temperature range 4.2-290 K using a 3 cm(-1) range electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer having an operational frequency f = (9.241 ± 0.001) GHz. The spectrum can be represented as a superposition of two components: a low-temperature (LT) and a high-temperature (HT) one. Redistribution of integrated intensity between HT and LT components of the spectra occurs with temperature change that is typical of systems with multi-minimum adiabatic potential. Spectra observed are explained within the modified theory of crystalline field (MTCF). The electron levels of a Cu(2+) ion placed in an octahedral coordination center with trigonal distortion [CuO(6)](10-) have been calculated. The influence of possible types of oxygen octahedron distortions and possible displacement of copper ions from the symmetry center on the electron spectrum, as well as the shape of the adiabatic potential, has been analyzed. It is shown that in the low-temperature phase the multiple minima of the adiabatic potential occur due to tetragonal distortions while the depth of a minimum is determined by the degree of trigonal octahedron distortions. Tetragonal distortion values and multi-minimum potential barrier heights have been determined. PMID:21393785

  20. Hydrogenolysis of cellulose to C4-C7 alcohols over bi-functional CuO-MO/Al2O3 (M=Ce, Mg, Mn, Ni, Zn) catalysts coupled with methanol reforming reaction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanhua; Gu, Fangna; Xu, Guangwen; Zhong, Ziyi; Su, Fabing

    2013-06-01

    This work demonstrates the efficient hydrogenolysis of cellulose to C4-C7 alcohols and gas products (reaction 1) by coupling it with the reforming reaction of methanol (reaction 2) over bi-functional CuO-based catalysts. In this process, the CuO-based catalysts catalyze both the reactions 1 and 2, and the in situ regenerated H2 in the reaction 2 is used for the reaction 1. A series of CuO-MO/Al2O3 (M=Ce, Mg, Mn, Ni, Zn) catalysts were prepared by the co-precipitation method. Among these catalysts, CuO-ZnO/Al2O3 exhibited the highest activity to generate a high cellulose conversion of 88% and a high C4-C7 alcohols content above 95% in the liquid products. The CuO-ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was stable under the reaction conditions and reusable after 4 runs. This work provides a cost-effective route to convert abundant renewable cellulose to liquid fuels. PMID:23591118

  1. Ultrasound assisted co-precipitation of nanostructured CuO-ZnO-Al2O3 over HZSM-5: effect of precursor and irradiation power on nanocatalyst properties and catalytic performance for direct syngas to DME.

    PubMed

    Allahyari, Somaiyeh; Haghighi, Mohammad; Ebadi, Amanollah; Hosseinzadeh, Shahin

    2014-03-01

    Nanostructured CuO-ZnO-Al2O3/HZSM-5 was synthesized from nitrate and acetate precursors using ultrasound assisted co-precipitation method under different irradiation powers. The CuO-ZnO-Al2O3/HZSM-5 nanocatalysts were characterized using XRD, FESEM, BET, FTIR and EDX Dot-mapping analyses. The results indicated precursor type and irradiation power have significant influences on phase structure, morphology, surface area and functional groups. It was observed that the acetate formulated CuO-ZnO-Al2O3/HZSM-5 nanocatalyst have smaller CuO crystals with better dispersion and stronger interaction between components in comparison to nitrate based nanocatalysts. Ultrasound assisted co-precipitation synthesis method resulted in nanocatalyst with more uniform morphology compared to conventional method and increasing irradiation power yields smaller particles with better dispersion and higher surface area. Additionally the crystallinity of CuO is lower at high irradiation powers leading to stronger interaction between metal oxides. The nanocatalysts performance were tested at 200-300 °C, 10-40 bar and space velocity of 18,000-36,000 cm(3)/g h with the inlet gas composition of H2/CO = 2/1 in a stainless steel autoclave reactor. The acetate based nanocatalysts irradiated with higher levels of power exhibited better reactivity in terms of CO conversion and DME yield. While there is an optimal temperature for CO conversion and DME yield in direct synthesis of DME, CO conversion and DME yield both increase with the pressure increase. Furthermore ultrasound assisted co-precipitation method yields more stable CuO-ZnO-Al2O3/HZSM-5 nanocatalyst while conventional precipitated nanocatalyst lost their activity ca. 18% and 58% in terms of CO conversion and DME yield respectively in 24 h time on stream test. PMID:24409466

  2. Influence of Processing Severity During Equal-Channel Angular Pressing on the Microstructure of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepeda-Jiménez, Carmen M.; García-Infanta, Juan M.; Rauch, Edgar F.; Blandin, Jean J.; Ruano, Oscar A.; Carreño, Fernando

    2012-11-01

    A commercial Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy, Al 7075, was overaged at 553 K (280 °C) for 5 hours and processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) using route BC. Different temperatures and number of passes, which determine the processing severity, were considered. The processing severity has been estimated by the maximum stress ( σ Proc) recorded during each ECAP pass. The higher the number of passes or the lower the processing temperature, i.e., the higher is the processing severity, the finer the (sub)grain size is obtained. A minimum ultrafine (sub)grain size of approximately 150 nm after three passes at 353 K (80 °C) or eight passes at 403 K (130 °C) was obtained. The microhardness exhibited an instant increase from 76 HV for the overaged initial state to 115 HV after only the first pass. The coarsened precipitates in the overaged alloy lead to larger structural refinement than in pure aluminum.

  3. Cyclotron production of {sup 61}Cu using natural Zn and enriched {sup 64}Zn targets

    SciTech Connect

    Asad, A. H.; Smith, S. V.; Chan, S.; Jeffery, C. M.; Morandeau, L.; Price, R. I.

    2012-12-19

    Copper-61 ({sup 61}Cu) shares with {sup 64}Cu certain advantages for PET diagnostic imaging, but has a shorter half-life (3.4hr vs. 12.7hr) and a greater probability of positron production per disintegration (61% vs. 17.9%). One important application is for in vivo imaging of hypoxic tissue. In this study {sup 61}Cu was produced using the {sup 64}Zn(p,{alpha}){sup 61}Cu reaction on natural Zn or enriched {sup 64}Zn targets. The enriched {sup 64}Zn (99.82%) was electroplated onto high purity gold or silver foils or onto thin Al discs. A typical target bombardment used 30{mu}A; at 11.7, 14.5 or 17.6MeV over 30-60min. The {sup 61}Cu (radiochemical purity of >95%) was separated using a combination of cation and anion exchange columns. The {sup 64}Zn target material was recovered after each run, for re-use. In a direct comparison with enriched {sup 64}Zn-target results, {sup 61}Cu production using the cheaper {sup nat}Zn target proved to be an effective alternative.

  4. Steam reforming of methanol over a Cu/ZnO/Al 2O 3 catalyst: a kinetic analysis and strategies for suppression of CO formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrell, Johan; Birgersson, Henrik; Boutonnet, Magali

    Steam reforming of methanol (CH 3OH+H 2O→CO 2+3H 2) was studied over a commercial Cu/ZnO/Al 2O 3 catalyst for production of hydrogen onboard proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell vehicles. A simple power-law rate expression was fitted to experimental data in order to predict the rates of CO 2 and H 2 formation under various reaction conditions. The apparent activation energy ( Ea) was estimated to be 100.9 kJ mol -1, in good agreement with values reported in the literature. Appreciable amounts of CO by-product were formed in the reforming process at low contact times and high methanol conversions. Being a catalyst poison that deactivates the electrocatalyst at the fuel cell anode at concentrations exceeding a few ppm, special attention was paid to the pathways for CO formation and strategies for its suppression. It was found that increasing the steam-methanol ratio effectively decreases CO formation. Likewise, addition of oxygen or air to the steam-methanol mixture minimises the production of CO. By shortening the contact time and lowering the maximum temperature in the reactor, CO production can be further decreased by suppressing the reverse water-gas shift reaction.

  5. Effect of Cr Addition on Wetting Behavior Between Cu and High-Temperature Zn-25Sn-0.15Al-0.1Ga- xCr Pb-Free Solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chin-Wei; Lin, Kwang-Lung

    2014-12-01

    In this study the effect of Cr content (0.02 wt.% to 0.2 wt.%) on the wetting interaction between high-temperature Zn-25Sn-0.15Al-0.1Ga- xCr Pb-free solders and Cu has been investigated using the wetting balance method. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) investigation showed that Cr addition reduces the liquidus temperature slightly while raising the solidus temperature. Flux-assisted wetting experiments were carried out at an immersion rate of 15 mm/s at 435°C. The results show that the shortest wetting time of around 0.7 s was achieved when 0.1 wt.% Cr was added, but the wetting force tends to decrease with the Cr content. Cr addition enhances the formation of interfacial Cu5Zn8 intermetallic compound (IMC) during air cooling, but the opposite effect was observed for water cooling. The results suggest that Cr addition depresses the formation of the Cu5Zn8 layer in liquid/solid reaction, but enhances the formation of the Cu5Zn8 layer in solid/solid reaction.

  6. Microstructure and Solderability of Zn-6Al- xSn Solders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaojun; Hu, Wei; Yan, Xin; Lei, Yongping

    2015-04-01

    The eutectic point of Zn-6Al alloy is 381°C, and the peritectic reaction of Zn-Al-Sn alloy occurs at 280°C. In order to find an alloy with an appropriate melting point between 280°C and 340°C, Zn-6Al-5Sn, Zn-6Al-10Sn, Zn-6Al-15Sn, and Zn-6Al-20Sn alloys were prepared. The microstructure, melting behavior, and wettability of the Zn-6Al- xSn solder alloys were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and the sessile drop method. The results show that the alloys were composed of Zn-rich phase, Zn-Al structure, Sn-Zn-Al peritectic structure, and Sn-Zn eutectic structure. The progressive decrease of the liquidus temperature of the Zn-6Al- xSn solders was confirmed by the DSC results in the order: Zn-6Al-5Sn, Zn-6Al-10Sn, Zn-6Al-15Sn, Zn-6Al-20Sn. A decrease of the wetting angle, selected for evaluation of the solderability of the Zn-6Al- xSn solders, was observed in the same order. The cross-section of a solder joint on a Cu substrate was examined by SEM coupled with energy-dispersive x-ray (EDS) analysis.

  7. Low resistivity p-type Zn{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}O:Cu{sub 2}O composite transparent conducting oxide thin film fabricated by sol–gel method

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, K.N.; Hui, K.S.; Li, Lei; Cho, Y.R.; Singh, Jai

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Cu{sub 2}O doped p-type AZO films was first prepared by sol–gel method. ► AZO:Cu{sub 2}O films showed a polycrystalline Cu{sub 2}O (1 1 0) and Cu (2 0 0) phases. ► p-Type conductivity was achieved by annealing in N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} forming gas at 400 °C. ► p–n junction (ITO/AZO:Cu{sub 2}O) revealed rectifying I–V characteristics. ► The mean optical transmittance of AZO:Cu{sub 2}Ofilms was >90%. -- Abstract: Highly transparent Cu{sub 2}O-doped p-type Zn{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}O (AZO; Al/Zn = 1.5 at%) conducting oxide films were synthesized on glass substrates using a cost effective low temperature sol–gel method. X-ray diffraction of the Cu{sub 2}O-doped AZO (AZO:Cu{sub 2}O) films revealed a polycrystalline Cu{sub 2}O (1 1 0) peak. The I–V measurements of the p–n junction (ITO/AZO:Cu{sub 2}O) revealed rectifying I–V characteristics, showing that these AZO:Cu{sub 2}O films exhibit p-type conductivity. p-Type conductivity was achieved by annealing the AZO:Cu{sub 2}O films in N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} forming gas at 400 °C. The hole concentration, hole mobility and resistivity of the 0.5–2 mol% AZO:Cu{sub 2}O films were 5.41 × 10{sup 18} to 1.99 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}, 8.36–21.6 cm{sup 2}/V s and 1.66 × 10{sup −2} to 6.94 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm, respectively. These results show that post-annealing in a forming gas is effective and practicable in producing p-type AZO.

  8. Abundance of CuZn + SnZn and 2CuZn + SnZn defect clusters in kesterite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shiyou; Wang, Lin-Wang; Walsh, Aron; Gong, X. G.; Wei, Su-Huai

    2012-11-01

    Kesterite solar cells show the highest efficiency when the absorber layers (Cu2ZnSnS4 [CZTS], Cu2ZnSnSe4 [CZTSe] and their alloys) are non-stoichiometric with Cu/(Zn+Sn)≈0.8 and Zn/Sn≈1.2. The fundamental cause is so far not understood. Using a first-principles theory, we show that passivated defect clusters such as CuZn+SnZn and 2CuZn+SnZn have high concentrations even in stoichiometric samples with Cu/(Zn+Sn) and Zn/Sn ratios near 1. The partially passivated CuZn+SnZn cluster produces a deep donor level in the band gap of CZTS, and the fully passivated 2CuZn+SnZn cluster causes a significant band gap decrease. Both effects are detrimental to photovoltaic performance, so Zn-rich and Cu, Sn-poor conditions are required to prevent their formation and increase the efficiency. The donor level is relatively shallower in CZTSe than in CZTS, which gives an explanation to the higher efficiency obtained in Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) cells with high Se content.

  9. Unravelling the composition of the surface layers formed on Cu, Cu-Ni, Cu-Zn and Cu-Ni-Zn in clean and polluted environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Nasser K.; Ashour, E. A.; Allam, Nageh K.

    2015-08-01

    The performance of copper and copper-based alloys in working environments is controlled by the composition of the layers formed on their surfaces. Herein, we report the detailed structural and compositional analyses of the layers formed on the surface of Cu, Cu-Ni, Cu-Zn and Cu-Ni-Zn upon their use in both NaCl and Na2S-polluted NaCl solutions. In clean NaCl environments, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed that Cu2O is the major compound formed over the surfaces of pure Cu and Cu-Ni, whereas mixed oxides/hydroxides were detected over the surfaces of Cu-Zn (Cu2O and ZnO) and Cu-Ni-Zn alloy (CuO, ZnO, Cu(OH)2 and Ni(OH)2). However, in Na2S- polluted NaCl environments, sulphide compounds (such as Cu2S) were detected on the surfaces of Cu-Ni and Cu-Zn. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the XPS findings, where Cu2O was confirmed in case of Cu and CuO in case of Cu-Ni-Zn in pure NaCl solutions. However, in sulphide-polluted media, compounds such as Cu4(S2)2(CuS)2 were identified in case of Cu-Ni, and CuS in case of Cu-Zn. Further, the morphology of the surface of Cu-Ni-Zn tested in Na2S-polluted NaCl solution looks compact and has a wide band gap (4.47 eV) as revealed from the UV-vis absorption measurements. Therefore, the formation of mixed oxides/hydroxides and/or sulphides on the surface of Cu-Ni-Zn alloy is ultimately responsible for the enhancement of its dissolution resistance.

  10. Cu2ZnSiS4

    PubMed Central

    Rosmus, Kimberly A.; Aitken, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Single crystals of Cu2ZnSiS4, dicopper(I) zinc silicon tetrasulfide, have been prepared via high-temperature solid-state synthesis. Cu2ZnSiS4 was found to have the wurtz-stannite structure type, like that of Li2CdGeS4, Li2CdSnS4, and Cu2CdSiS4. Each sulfur anion is tetra­hedrally coordinated by two Cu cations, one Si cation, and one Zn cation, forming a three-dimensional honeycomb structure. When viewed along the c axis, the atoms are aligned in rows in which each cation alternates with the sulfur anions. PMID:21753925

  11. Electrodeposition and properties of Zn, Cu, and Cu1-x Znx thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Rasim; Karahan, İsmail Hakkı

    2014-11-01

    The electrodeposition of Cu, Zn and Cu-Zn deposits from the non-cyanide Zn sulphate and Cu sulphate reduced by citrate at constant stirring speed has been investigated. The composition of the Cu-Zn bath was shown to influence the morphology, electrical resistivity, phase composition, and Cu and Zn content of the Cu-Zn deposits. Their structural and electrical properties have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), cyclic voltammeter (CV) and current-voltage measurements against the temperature for electrical resistivity, respectively. XRD shows that Cu-Zn samples are polycrystalline phase. Resistivity results show that the copper film exhibits bigger residual resistivity than both the zinc and the Cu-Zn alloy. Theoretical calculations of the XRD peaks demonstrate that the average crystallite size of the Cu-Zn alloy decreased and microstrain increased when the Cu alloyed with zinc.

  12. Al-doped ZnO nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, Pratibha; Agashe, Chitra; Mahamuni, Shailaja

    2008-11-01

    Al3+-doped ZnO nanocrystals were differently obtained by wet chemical and an electrochemical route. An increase in forbidden gap due to change in crystal size and also due to Al3+ doping in ZnO is critically analyzed. The Moss-Burstein type shift in Al3+-doped ZnO nanocrystals provides an evidence of successful Al3+ doping in ZnO nanocrystals. The possibility of varying the carrier concentration in ZnO nanocrystals is the indirect implication of the present investigations.

  13. Doping effect on the structural properties of Cu1-x(Ni, Zn, Al and Fe)xO samples (0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, J. B.; Araujo, R. M.; Pedra, P. P.; Meneses, C. T.; Duque, J. G. S.; dos S. Rezende, M. V.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the effect of insertion of transition metal, TM (=Ni, Zn, Al and Fe), ions in Cu1-xTMxO samples (0Zn-doped samples show a small amount of spurious phases for concentrations above x=0.05. Based on these results, a defect disorder study for using atomistic computational simulations which is based on the lattice energy minimization technique is employed to predict the location of the dopant ions in the structure. In agreement with XRD data, our computational results indicate that the trivalent (Al and Fe ions) are more favorable to be incorporated into CuO matrix than the divalent (Ni and Zn ions).

  14. A novel process for the preparation of Cu/ZnO and Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ultrafine catalyst: Structure, surface properties, and activity for methanol synthesis from CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Qi; Zhang, Yu-Long; Chen, Hai-Ying

    1997-04-01

    Cu/ZnO and Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ultrafine particle catalysts have been prepared by a novel oxalate gel coprecipitation method. XRD, TEM, TG/DTG, and EXAFS were used to characterize the phases, morphology, and particle sizes of the precursors of the catalysts and reduced catalysts. The results showed that isomorphous substitution took place between copper and zinc in the precipitates. The addition of Al to the binary system made the copper and zinc in the catalyst exist in much smaller crystallites and exhibit an amorphous-like structure. The effects of composition, structure, and surface property of the catalysts as well as the reaction condition on the activity and selectivity to methanol for methanol synthesis from CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2} were investigated. The activity was found to increase with the in- crease of surface area of metallic copper in the range of 10-60% of copper content, but it decreased as the copper content exceeded 60%, although the metallic copper surface area was higher. This was explained by the strong synergy between copper and zinc oxide. The effect of contact time on the relative selectivity ({gamma} = S{sub CH3OH}/S{sub CO}) and selectivity of methanol was also investigated. The results indicated that methanol was formed directly from hydrogenation of CO{sub 2}.

  15. Thermomechanical Processing and Roll Bonding of Tri-Layered Cu-Ni-Zn/Cu-Cr/Cu-Ni-Zn Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hobyung; Kang, Gyeong Tae; Hong, Sun Ig

    2016-05-01

    Tri-layered Cu-Ni-Zn/Cu-Cr/Cu-Ni-Zn composite was processed by roll bonding and the effect of thermomechanical processing on the mechanical performance and electrical conductivity was studied. Roll-bonded composite exhibited the brief work hardening and subsequent rapid work softening because of the high stored deformation energy, leading to failure at the plastic strain of 8 to 10 pct. The mechanical instability of as-roll-bonded composites was abated by heat treatment (HT) at 723 K (450 °C) and the extended work hardening with enhanced ductility compared to that of the as-roll-bonded composites was observed after HT. The strength and electrical conductivity of clad composite is dependent on the precipitation strengthening of Cu-Cr and recovery softening of Cu-Ni-Zn during post-roll-bonding HT. The increase of roll-bonding temperature enhances the precipitation kinetics and it takes shorter time to reach maximum hardness in Cu-Cr layer during post-roll-bonding HT. The toughness of as-roll-bonded Cu-Ni-Zn/Cu-Cr/Cu-Ni-Zn clad composite at 773 K (500 °C) [42 MJ/mm3] is greater than those at 723 K (450 °C) [24 MJ/mm3] and 823 K (550 °C) [38 MJ/mm3]. The maximum toughness [100 MJ/mm3] with the electrical conductivity of 68 pct IACS was obtained in the Cu-Ni-Zn/Cu-Cr/Cu-Ni-Zn clad composite roll-bonded at 773 K (500 °C) and subsequently heat-treated at 723 K (450 °C).

  16. Microstructural changes in a mechanically alloyed Al-6.2Zn-2.5Mg-1.7Cu alloy (7010) with and without particulate SiC reinforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaduri, A.; Gopinathan, V.; Ramakrishnan, P.; Miodownik, A.P.

    1996-11-01

    Elemental powders of Al, Zn, Mg, and Cu (corresponding to the composition of 7010 aluminium alloy) were milled in a high-energy attritor with and without additions of SiC particulates. The microstructural changes taking place in the milled powders (which eventually lead to mechanical alloying) are found to be retarded by SiC additions. High-resolution techniques such as electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and transmission electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (TEM/EDX) revealed the presence of localized solute-rich regions long after the diffraction line from these solutes had ceased to appear in the X-ray diffractograms. Zinc appears to be more difficult to be mechanically alloyed into aluminum than either Cu or Mg in spite of its comparatively larger diffusivity in aluminum.

  17. Selective recovery of Cu, Zn, and Ni from acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Min; Yoo, Jong-Chan; Ji, Sang-Woo; Yang, Jung-Seok; Baek, Kitae

    2013-12-01

    In Korea, the heavy metal pollution from about 1,000 abandoned mines has been a serious environmental issue. Especially, the surface waters, groundwaters, and soils around mines have been contaminated by heavy metals originating from acid mine drainage (AMD) and mine tailings. So far, AMD was considered as a waste stream to be treated to prevent environmental pollutions; however, the stream contains mainly Fe and Al and valuable metals such as Ni, Zn, and Cu. In this study, Visual MINTEQ simulation was carried out to investigate the speciation of heavy metals as functions of pH and neutralizing agents. Based on the simulation, selective pH values were determined to form hydroxide or carbonate precipitates of Cu, Zn, and Ni. Experiments based on the simulation results show that the recovery yield of Zn and Cu were 91 and 94 %, respectively, in a binary mixture of Cu and Zn, while 95 % of Cu and 94 % of Ni were recovered in a binary mixture of Cu and Ni. However, the recovery yield and purity of Zn and Ni were very low because of similar characteristics of Zn and Ni. Therefore, the mixture of Cu and Zn or Cu and Ni could be recovered by selective precipitation via pH adjustment; however, it is impossible to recover selectively Zn and Ni in the mixture of them. PMID:23754100

  18. Photocatalytic property and structural stability of CuAl-based layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Ming; Liu, Haiqiang

    2015-07-15

    Three types of CuMAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs, M=Mg, Zn, Ni) were successfully synthesized by coprecipitation. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV–vis) were used to confirm the formation of as-synthesized solids with good crystal structure. The photocatalytic activity of those LDH materials for CO{sub 2} reduction under visible light was investigated. The experimental results show that CuNiAl-LDHs with narrowest band gap and largest surface areas behave highest efficiency for methanol generation under visible light compared with CuMgAl-LDHs and CuZnAl-LDHs. The CuNiAL-LDH showed high yield for methanol production i.e. 0.210 mmol/g h, which was high efficient. In addition, the influence of the different M{sup 2+} on the structures and stability of the CuMAl-LDHs was also investigated by analyzing the geometric parameters, electronic arrangement, charge populations, hydrogen-bonding, and binding energies by density functional theory (DFT) analysis. The theoretical calculation results show that the chemical stability of LDH materials followed the order of CuMgAl-LDHs>CuZnAl-LDHs>CuNiAl-LDHs, which is just opposite with the photocatalytic activity and band gaps of three materials. - Graphical abstract: The host–guest calculation models and XRD patterns of CuMAl-LDHs: CuMgAl-LDHs (a), CuZnAl-LDHs (b) and CuNiAl-LDHs (c). - Highlights: • Three types of CuMAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs, M=Mg, Zn, Ni) has been synthesized. • CuMgNi shows narrower band gap and more excellent textural properties than other LDHs. • The band gap: CuMgAl based on result from UV–vis analysis. • CuMgAl shows the highest stability and lowest photocatalytic activity, while CuNiAl just opposite.

  19. Interfacial Reactions in the Ni/Sn- xZn/Cu Sandwich Couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Yee-Wen; Lin, Chung-Yung; Lai, Mei-Ting; Chen, Wan-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The interfacial reactions in Ni/Sn- xZn/Cu sandwich couples which were reflowed at 270°C for 1 h and then aged at 160°C for 1-1000 h were investigated. When the 1000- μm-thick Sn-Zn alloy reacted with Ni and Cu in this couple, the results indicated that the (Ni, Cu)3Sn4, (Ni, Cu)5Zn21, and Ni5Zn21 phases were formed at Sn-1Zn/Ni, Sn-5Zn/Ni, and Sn-9Zn/Ni interfaces for 1 h reflowing, respectively. After 1000 h aging, each intermetallic compound (IMC) was converted to (Cu, Ni, Zn)6Sn5, (Ni, Cu, Sn)5Zn21/Ni5Zn21, and Ni5Zn21 (two layers) phases in the related couples. On the Cu side, the Cu6Sn5 phase in the Sn-1Zn/Cu interface and the Cu5Zn8 phase in the Sn-5Zn/Cu and Sn-9Zn/Cu interfaces were observed when the couple was reflowed at 270°C for 1 h. After 100 h aging, the (Cu, Ni, Zn)6Sn5, Cu5Zn8/(Cu, Zn)6Sn5, and Cu5Zn8 phases were formed at the Sn-1Zn/Cu, Sn-5Zn/Cu and Sn-9Zn/Cu interfaces. When the Sn-Zn alloy thickness was decreased to 500 μm, the (Cu, Ni, Zn)6Sn5 phase at the Sn-1Zn/Ni interface and the (Ni, Cu, Sn)5Zn21 phase at the Sn-5Zn/Ni and Sn-9Zn/Ni interfaces were observed after 1 h reflowing. When the couple was aged at 160°C for 1000 h, each IMC was converted to (Cu, Ni, Zn)6Sn5 and Cu5Zn8/(Cu, Ni, Sn)Zn/Ni5Zn21 phases at the Sn-1Zn/Ni and Sn-(5, 9)Zn/Ni interfaces. (Cu, Ni, Zn)6Sn5 and Cu5Zn8 were, respectively, formed at the Sn-1Zn/Cu and Sn-(5, 9)Zn/Cu interfaces for 1 h reflowing. After 100 h aging, the IMCs were converted to (Cu, Ni, Zn)6Sn5 and Cu5Zn8/(Cu, Zn)6Sn5 phases. This current study reveals that the IMC formation in Ni/(Sn- xZn)/Cu sandwich couples are very sensitive to the Zn concentration and thickness in Sn- xZn alloys.

  20. The synthesis of methanol and the reverse water-gas shift reaction over Zn-deposited Cu(100) and Cu(110) surfaces: comparison with Zn/Cu(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, I.; Fujitani, T.; Uchijima, T.; Nakamura, J.

    1998-03-01

    The catalytic activity of Zn vapor-deposited Cu(100) and Cu(110) surfaces for methanol synthesis by the hydrogenation of CO 2 and the reverse water-gas shift reaction were studied using an XPS apparatus combined with a high-pressure flow reactor (18 atm). At a reaction temperature of 523 K, no promotional effect of Zn was observed for the methanol synthesis on both Zn/Cu(100) and Zn/Cu(110). The results were quite different from those for Zn/Cu(111), on which a significant promotion of methanol synthesis activity appeared to be due to the deposition of Zn, indicating that the promotional effect of Zn was sensitive to the surface structure of Cu. However, hysteresis was observed in the catalytic activity for methanol synthesis over the Zn/Cu(110) surface upon heating above 543 K in the reaction mixture. The activity became twice that measured before heating, which was close to the methanol synthesis activity of Zn/Cu(111) at the same Zn coverage. On the other hand, no such hysteresis was observed for the reverse water-gas shift reaction on Zn/Cu(110), indicating that the active site for methanol synthesis was not identical to that for the reverse water-gas shift reaction. In the post-reaction surface analysis, formate species was detected on both Zn/Cu(100) and Zn/Cu(110), whose coverage increased with increasing Zn coverage at 0< ΘZn<0.2. No correlation between the formate coverage and the methanol synthesis activity was obtained, which was in contrast to the results for Zn/Cu(111). Thus, the structure sensitivity observed in the catalytic activity of methanol synthesis over Zn-deposited Cu surfaces is ascribed to the significant difference in the reactivity of the formate intermediate.

  1. Cu-Al spinel oxide as an efficient catalyst for methanol steam reforming.

    PubMed

    Xi, Hongjuan; Hou, Xiaoning; Liu, Yajie; Qing, Shaojun; Gao, Zhixian

    2014-10-27

    Cu-Al spinel oxide, which contains a small portion of the CuO phase, has been successfully used in methanol steam reforming (MSR) without prereduction. The omission of prereduction not only avoids the copper sintering prior to the catalytic reaction, but also slows down the copper-sintering rate in MSR. During this process, the CuO phase can initiate MSR at a lower temperature, and CuAl2O4 releases active copper gradually. The catalyst CA2.5-900, calcined at 900 °C with n(Al)/n(Cu) = 2.5, has a higher CuAl2O4 content, higher BET surface area, and smaller CuAl2O4 crystal size. Its activity first increases and then decreases during MSR. Furthermore, both fresh and regenerated CA2.5-900 showed better catalytic performance than the commercial Cu-Zn-Al catalyst. PMID:25213737

  2. Catalytic behaviour and copper leaching of Cu0.10Zn0.90Al1.90Fe0.10O4 spinel for catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol.

    PubMed

    Xu, Aihua; Sun, Chenglin

    2012-06-01

    A Cu0.10Zn0.90Al1.90Fe0.10O4 spinel catalyst prepared by the sol-gel method was tested for catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of phenol. The catalyst showed high activity for phenol degradation. During successive test at 170 degrees C, 100% phenol conversion and 95% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were observed. Results from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the catalyst structure remained unchanged during reaction. From the analysis of temperature programmed reduction (TPR), diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectra (DR UV-Vis) and activity assay at basic solution pH, it can be suggested that the highly dispersed copper ions on the catalyst surface were almost completely dissolved into the reaction solution, whereas the tetra-coordinated copper ions were not only stable against leaching but also active towards phenol degradation. PMID:22856307

  3. The Effects of Test Temperature, Temper, and Alloyed Copper on the Hydrogen-Controlled Crack Growth Rate of an Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Young, Jr.; J.R. Scully

    2000-09-17

    The hydrogen embrittlement controlled stage II crack growth rate of AA 7050 (6.09 wt.% Zn, 2.14 wt% Mg, 2.19 wt.% Cu) was investigated as a function of temper and alloyed copper level in a humid air environment at various temperatures. Three tempers representing the underaged, peak aged, and overaged conditions were tested in 90% relative humidity (RH) air at temperatures between 25 and 90 C. At all test temperatures, an increased degree of aging (from underaged to overaged) produced slower stage II crack growth rates. The stage II crack growth rate of each alloy and temper displayed Arrhenius-type temperature dependence with activation energies between 58 and 99 kJ/mol. For both the normal copper and low copper alloys, the fracture path was predominantly intergranular at all test temperatures (25-90 C) in each temper investigated. Comparison of the stage II crack growth rates for normal (2.19 wt.%) and low (0.06 wt.%) copper alloys in the peak aged and overaged tempers showed the beneficial effect of copper additions on stage II crack growth rate in humid air. In the 2.19 wt.% copper alloy, the significant decrease ({approx} 10 times at 25 C) in stage II crack growth rate upon overaging is attributed to an increase in the apparent activation energy for crack growth. IN the 0.06 wt.% copper alloy, overaging did not increase the activation energy for crack growth but did lower the pre-exponential factor, {nu}{sub 0}, resulting in a modest ({approx} 2.5 times at 25 C) decrease in crack growth rate. These results indicate that alloyed copper and thermal aging affect the kinetic factors that govern stage II crack growth rate. Overaged, copper bearing alloys are not intrinsically immune to hydrogen environment assisted cracking but are more resistant due to an increased apparent activation energy for stage II crack growth.

  4. N2 Laser Induced Photoluminescence Emission in (ZnS: ZnO):Cu Phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraleedharan, R.; Khokhar, M. S. K.; Namboodiri, V. P.; Girijavallabhan, C. P.

    Nitrogen laser induced photoluminescence (PL) emissions from (ZnS: ZnO):Cu powder phosphors have been carried out under varying conditions of sample preparation. The conditions for optimum efficiency of PL emission in (ZnS: ZnO):Cu phosphors and their spectral characteristics have been investigated. The emission peak in the PL spectra was found to shift towards longer wavelengths side as the concentrations of ZnO in (ZnS: ZnO) mixture was varied from 0% to 100%. The mechanism of PL emission in the above phosphor is explained on the basis of classical “Schon-Klassen” model.

  5. Tuning of properties of sprayed CuZnS films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreejith, M. S.; Deepu, D. R.; Kartha, C. Sudha; Vijayakumar, K. P.

    2014-04-01

    CuZnS is an alloy having mixed structure of CuxS and ZnS. Here we studied the structural, optical, compositional and electrical properties of CuZnS films prepared using chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP). Just by varying ratio of Cu to Zn was observed that material can be changed from P type to N type and electrical conductivity can be increased by 4 orders. Increase in concentration of Cu leads to decrease bandgap to 1.8 eV from 3.4 eV. CuZnS films having high concentration of copper can be used as good absorber and weakly doped films as buffer / window layers in solar cells.

  6. Photocatalytic property and structural stability of CuAl-based layered double hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Ming; Liu, Haiqiang

    2015-07-01

    Three types of CuMAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs, M=Mg, Zn, Ni) were successfully synthesized by coprecipitation. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV-vis) were used to confirm the formation of as-synthesized solids with good crystal structure. The photocatalytic activity of those LDH materials for CO2 reduction under visible light was investigated. The experimental results show that CuNiAl-LDHs with narrowest band gap and largest surface areas behave highest efficiency for methanol generation under visible light compared with CuMgAl-LDHs and CuZnAl-LDHs. The CuNiAL-LDH showed high yield for methanol production i.e. 0.210 mmol/g h, which was high efficient. In addition, the influence of the different M2+ on the structures and stability of the CuMAl-LDHs was also investigated by analyzing the geometric parameters, electronic arrangement, charge populations, hydrogen-bonding, and binding energies by density functional theory (DFT) analysis. The theoretical calculation results show that the chemical stability of LDH materials followed the order of CuMgAl-LDHs>CuZnAl-LDHs>CuNiAl-LDHs, which is just opposite with the photocatalytic activity and band gaps of three materials.

  7. A kinetic study of methanol synthesis in a slurry reactor using a CuO/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Adwani, H.A.

    1992-05-01

    A kinetic model that describes the methanol production rate over a CuO/ZnO/AI{sub 2}0{sub 3} catalyst (United Catalyst L-951) at typical industrial operating conditions is developed using a slurry reactor. Different experiments are conducted in which the H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio is equal to 2, 1, and 0.5, respectively, while the CO/CO{sub 2} ratio is held constant at 9. At each H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio the space velocity is set at four different values in the range of 3000-13,000 1/hr kg{sub cat}. The effect of H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio and space velocity on methanol production rate, conversions, and product composition is further investigated. The results indicate that the highest methanol production rate can be achieved at H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio of 1 followed by H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio of 0.5 and 2 respectively. The hydrogen and carbon monoxide conversions decrease with increasing space velocity for all H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratios tested. Carbon monoxide hydrogenation appears to be the main route to methanol at H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio of 0.5 and 2. On the other hand, carbon dioxide hydrogenation appears to be the main route to methanol at H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio of 1. At all H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratios, the extent of the reverse water gas shift reaction decreases with increasing space velocity. The effect of temperature on the kinetics is examined by using the same experimental approach at 508 K. It is found that a different reaction sequence takes place at each temperature. Also, a time on stream study is conducted simultaneously in order to investigate the characteristic of catalyst deactivation with time on stream. During the first 150 hours of time on stream, the catalyst loses approximately 2/3 of its initial activity before reaching a steady state activity.

  8. A kinetic study of methanol synthesis in a slurry reactor using a CuO/ZnO/Al sub 2 O sub 3 catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Adwani, H.A.

    1992-05-01

    A kinetic model that describes the methanol production rate over a CuO/ZnO/AI{sub 2}0{sub 3} catalyst (United Catalyst L-951) at typical industrial operating conditions is developed using a slurry reactor. Different experiments are conducted in which the H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio is equal to 2, 1, and 0.5, respectively, while the CO/CO{sub 2} ratio is held constant at 9. At each H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio the space velocity is set at four different values in the range of 3000-13,000 1/hr kg{sub cat}. The effect of H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio and space velocity on methanol production rate, conversions, and product composition is further investigated. The results indicate that the highest methanol production rate can be achieved at H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio of 1 followed by H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio of 0.5 and 2 respectively. The hydrogen and carbon monoxide conversions decrease with increasing space velocity for all H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratios tested. Carbon monoxide hydrogenation appears to be the main route to methanol at H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio of 0.5 and 2. On the other hand, carbon dioxide hydrogenation appears to be the main route to methanol at H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio of 1. At all H{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratios, the extent of the reverse water gas shift reaction decreases with increasing space velocity. The effect of temperature on the kinetics is examined by using the same experimental approach at 508 K. It is found that a different reaction sequence takes place at each temperature. Also, a time on stream study is conducted simultaneously in order to investigate the characteristic of catalyst deactivation with time on stream. During the first 150 hours of time on stream, the catalyst loses approximately 2/3 of its initial activity before reaching a steady state activity.

  9. Preparation and catalytic performance of CuO-znO-AlO3/clinoptilolite nanocatalyst for single-step synthesis of dimethyl ether from syngas as a green fuel.

    PubMed

    Khoshbin, Reza; Haghighi, Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    Direct conversion of syngas to dimethyl ether was successfully carried out over a clinoptilolite supported nanocatalyst modified by NH4Cl. A series of bifunctional nanocatalysts, CuO-ZnO-Al2O3 (CZA) over Clinoptilolite with different loading of CZA, were prepared via coprecipitation method and their catalytic performance were compared in a fixed-bed high pressure reactor. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, FESEM, FTIR and TPD-NH3 techniques. The physicochemical analysis showed that with NH4CI treatment, the specific surface area of clinoptilolite increased obviously, while its crystallinity decreased slightly. It was found that the crystallinity of clinoptilolite was dramatically changed, whereas crystallinity of CuO has not been influenced significantly by the increase of CZA content. Moreover, with increasing the CZA/Clinoptilolite ratio, the specific surface area of nanocatalysts decreased. It is shown that the CZA particle size is distributed between 30.5-131.2 nm with an average size of 70.6 nm in which 77.8% of the particles are in the range of below 100 nm. The TPD-NH3 patterns showed that the number of the acid sites of the nanocatalysts decreased with the increase the CZA content. The influence of reaction pressure was investigated, confirming that the optimal reaction pressure for this catalyst was 40 bar. The catalytic performance is shown that the CZA/Clinoptilolite = 2 nanocatalyst had higher activity, selectivity due to its higher acidic sites. PMID:23901522

  10. Effects of Cu5Zn3 addition on the thermoelectric properties of Zn4Sb3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, J. L.; Fu, H.; Mao, L. D.; Chen, D. Y.; Liu, X. L.

    2009-07-01

    The structures and thermoelectric properties of mCu5Zn3ṡnZn4Sb3 with multiphase coexistence are reported. Rietveld analysis reveals that at least 92.3% wt % β-Zn4Sb3 phase can be obtained with only small quantities of ZnSb and Cu5Zn8 phases precipitated after proper Cu5Zn3 addition. Measurements indicate that although the β-Zn4Sb3 phase plays a determining role in controlling the transport properties involving the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity, the impurity phases Cu5Zn8 and ZnSb with a crooked riverlike and intertwined tree stump morphologies, respectively, are still of great significance to tune the thermoelectric performance. The highest ZT value of 0.84 can be obtained for the alloy mCu5Zn3ṡnZn4Sb3 (m /n=1/200) at 631 K, approximately 1.8 times that of undoped β-Zn4Sb3, proving that a good combination between the transports of carriers and phonons can be achieved if a proper dopant is introduced in the Zn4Sb3 matrix.

  11. Photoelectrochemical properties of ZnO nanorods decorated with Cu and Cu2O nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakehal, Sihem; Achour, Slaymane; Ferrari, Claudio; Buffagni, Elisa; Rossi, Francesca; Fabbri, Filippo

    2014-08-01

    Cu2O and Cu nanoparticles (NPs) on ZnO nanorods (NRs) were fabricated by two-step process using efficient hydrothermal technique to deposit ZnO nanorods and microwave-irradiation method under ambient conditions to prepare Cu and Cu2O NPs dispersed in Diethyleneglycole. The structure and the morphology of these films were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). The optical property was investigated by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and Cathodoluminescence (CL) techniques. Cu2O NPs/ZnO NRs heterojunction were produced by depositing Cu&Cu2O NPs on as-prepared ZnO NRs using spin-coating method. By changing the drying temperature the Cu metal reduce to Cu2O. In these kinds of heterojunctions, an n-type ZnO layer acts both as a host that chemically binds to the p-type Cu2O which could help in efficient electron-hole separation. The number of Cu2O NPs loaded onto the n-type ZnO layer increases the sensitivity in the visible region. The prepared heterojunctions show improved photocurrent with respect to bare ZnO NRs.

  12. Chemical Synthesis of ZnS:Cu Nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodo, Bhaskarjyoti; Kalita, P. K.

    2010-10-01

    ZnS thin films are synthesized through chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique from aqueous solution of ZnSO4 and thiourea mixing in equal volume and equimolar ratio. A 1% CuSO4 solution is mixed with the ZnSO4 solution for doping before the final chemical reaction. SEM image shows the formation of mainly nanosheets, teeth and comb like structures. Absorption studies show red shift of enhanced band gap on Cu doping. Photoluminescence of ZnS:Cu reveals the enhancement of blue luminescence at 468 nm and low intensity green emission at 493 nm which is attributed to more Cu2+ lying in the interstices. XRD shows that the prepared ZnS nanophosphors possess cubic zinc blende structures.

  13. Vibrational spectroscopic study of the sulphate mineral glaucocerinite (Zn,Cu)10Al6(SO4)3(OH)32ṡ18H2O - A natural layered double hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; Theiss, Frederick L.; López, Andrés; Scholz, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    We have studied the molecular structure of the mineral glaucocerinite (Zn,Cu)5Al3(SO4)1.5(OH)16ṡ9(H2O) using a combination of Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The mineral is one of the hydrotalcite supergroup of natural layered double hydroxides. The Raman spectrum is characterised by an intense Raman band at 982 cm-1 with a low intensity band at 1083 cm-1. These bands are attributed to the sulphate symmetric and antisymmetric stretching mode. The infrared spectrum is quite broad with a peak at 1020 cm-1. A series of Raman bands at 546, 584, 602, 625 and 651 cm-1 are assigned to the ν4 (SO4)2- bending modes. The observation of multiple bands provides evidence for the reduction in symmetry of the sulphate anion from Td to C2v or even lower symmetry. The Raman band at 762 cm-1 is attributed to a hydroxyl deformation mode associated with AlOH units. Vibrational spectroscopy enables aspects of the molecular structure of glaucocerinite to be determined.

  14. Influence of precursor thin films stacking order on the properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films fabricated by electrochemical deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkawi, E. M.; Ibrahim, K.; Ali, M. K. M.; Farrukh, M. A.; Allam, Nageh K.

    2014-12-01

    We fabricated Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films by electrochemically depositing precursor stacks on Mo-coated glass in a variety of orders: Cu/Sn/Cu/Zn, Cu/Zn/Cu/Sn, Zn/Cu/Sn/Cu, and Sn/Cu/Zn/Cu. Using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, we found that for all stacking orders the annealed film was composed of a single CZTS phase with good crystallinity and strong (1 1 2) orientation. For the Cu/Sn/Cu/Zn stack, field-emission scanning electron microscopy revealed a homogeneous, compact surface morphology and large columnar grains. This stack also had an optical absorption coefficient of >104 cm-1 and an optical band gap of 1.51 eV. We fabricated a solar cell with the structure SLG substrate/Mo/Cu2ZnSnS4/CdS/i-ZnO Al:ZnO/Al, which achieved a conversion efficiency of 2.3%.

  15. Heteroepitaxial growth of nonpolar Cu-doped ZnO thin film on MnS-buffered (100) Si substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Tatsuru; Nguyen, Nam; Nagata, Takahiro; Takahashi, Kenichiro; Ri, Sung-Gi; Ishibashi, Keiji; Suzuki, Setsu; Chikyow, Toyohiro

    2015-06-01

    The preparation of nonpolar ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO thin films on Si substrates was studied for the application to the fabrication of green-light-emitting diodes. The use of rocksalt MnS and wurtzite AlN as buffer layers is a key technology for achieving the heteroepitaxial growth of nonpolar ZnO thin film on a (100) Si substrate. X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements revealed that deposition under a high oxygen partial pressure (∼1 Torr) can enhance the nonpolar crystallization of undoped ZnO, and can simultaneously suppress the formation of defects such as oxygen vacancies. These techniques can be also applied to the growth of Cu-doped ZnO. A room-temperature photoluminescence study revealed that nonpolar [11\\bar{2}0]-oriented Cu-doped ZnO film exhibits enhanced green emission owing to the doped Cu ions.

  16. The interfacial amorphous double layer and the homogeneous nucleation in reflow of a Sn-Zn solder on Cu substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Chien-Cheng; Lin, Kwang-Lung

    2011-05-15

    To illustrate the interfacial reaction mechanism, the Sn-Zn[Sn-8.5Zn-0.5Ag-0.01Al-0.1Ga (wt%)] solder was reflowed on Cu substrate at 250 deg. C for 15 s followed by immediate quench in liquid nitrogen. The frozen interfacial microstructure was investigated with high resolution transmission electron microscope. An amorphous double layer was formed at the interface which consists of a 5 nm pure Cu region and a Cu-Zn diffusion region. Nanocrystalline intermetallic compound (IMC) Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} were observed in the Cu-Zn diffusion region. These nanocrystalline IMCs are suggested to form via a homogeneous nucleation process.

  17. The interfacial amorphous double layer and the homogeneous nucleation in reflow of a Sn-Zn solder on Cu substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Chien-Cheng; Lin, Kwang-Lung

    2011-05-01

    To illustrate the interfacial reaction mechanism, the Sn-Zn[Sn-8.5Zn-0.5Ag-0.01Al-0.1Ga (wt%)] solder was reflowed on Cu substrate at 250 °C for 15 s followed by immediate quench in liquid nitrogen. The frozen interfacial microstructure was investigated with high resolution transmission electron microscope. An amorphous double layer was formed at the interface which consists of a 5 nm pure Cu region and a Cu-Zn diffusion region. Nanocrystalline intermetallic compound (IMC) Cu5Zn8 were observed in the Cu-Zn diffusion region. These nanocrystalline IMCs are suggested to form via a homogeneous nucleation process.

  18. Characterization of ZnO/Cu/ZnO multilayers structure for solar cell devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasheed, Hiba S.; Hassan, Z.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Sabah, Fayroz A.; Azzez, Shrook A.; Al-Hazim, Nabeel Z.

    2016-07-01

    A series of ZnO/Cu/ZnO multilayer films has been fabricated from zinc and copper metallic targets by simultaneous RF and DC magnetron sputtering. The influences of the ZnO and Cu layer thicknesses, and Ar flow rate on the optical, electrical and structural properties of the films were investigated. The optical and electrical properties of the multilayers were studied by optical spectrometry and four point probe measurements, respectively. The thickness of the ZnO layers were varied between 20 and 60 nm and the Cu layers were between 5 and 15 nm, the optimum thin film structures were deposited under 12 sccm Ar flow rate. Low sheet resistance and high transmittance were obtained when the film was prepared using thickness of ZnO (60 nm)/Cu (15 nm)/ZnO (60 nm).

  19. Highly efficient and selective adsorption of In3+ on pristine Zn/Al layered double hydroxide (Zn/Al-LDH) from aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnabas, Mary Jenisha; Parambadath, Surendran; Mathew, Aneesh; Park, Sung Soo; Vinu, Ajayan; Ha, Chang-Sik

    2016-01-01

    A pristine Zn/Al-layered double hydroxide (Zn/Al-LDH) showed excellent adsorption ability and selectivity towards In3+ ions from aqueous solutions. The adsorption behaviour as a function of the contact time, solution pH, ionic strength, and amount of adsorbent under ambient conditions revealed a strong dependency on the pH and ionic strength over In3+ intake. The structure and properties of Zn/Al-LDH and In3+ adsorbed Zn/Al-LDH (In-Zn/Al-LDH) were examined carefully by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, N2-sorption/desorption, UV-vis spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The adsorbent had a sufficient number of active sites that were responsible for the In3+ adsorption and quite stable even after the adsorption process. The selective adsorption of In3+ on Zn/Al-LDH was also observed even from a mixture containing competing ions, such as Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, and Cu2+. The adsorption experiments showed that Zn/Al-LDH is a promising material for the pre-concentration and selective removal of In3+ from large volumes of aqueous solutions.

  20. First principles study of Cu on Zn(0001): Resolution of the (√3x√3)-R30^o -- Cu/ZnO(0001) surface phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuasiripattana, Katawut; Warschkow, Oliver; Delley, Bernard; Stampfl, Cathy

    2009-03-01

    The Cu/ZnO system is a well known catalyst for methanol synthesis as well as hydrogen production from methanol by the reverse water gas-shift reaction. Despite many years of effort to clarify the characterization and the synergetic mechanisms between Cu and ZnO, there still exists considerable controversy such as the active phase of this combination catalyst. Recently, a (√3x√3)-R30^o phase has been reported on the Cu/ZnO(0001) surface (Dulub et. al., Topics in Catalysis, 36, 65 (2005)). This reconstruction appears in the LEED pattern after annealing the pre-deposited Cu-clusters on the ZnO(0001) surface at 350 ^oC in a 10-6 mbar O2 environment for 10 minutes. In this work, we perform first-principles total- energy calculations within the framework of ab initio atomistic thermodynamics to investigate the atomic geometry and relative stability of this structure. We have extensively surveyed many possible atomic geometries, from which we are able to we propose the atomic structure of this (√3x√3)-R30^ o phase. To provide an overall understanding of this system, we also construct a two-dimensional phase diagram as a function of the Cu and O chemical potential, thus displaying the most stable surface structures.

  1. Cu-Doping of ZnO by Nuclear Transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Selim, F. A.; Tarun, M. C.; Wall, D. E.; Boatner, Lynn A; McCluskey, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide single crystals were doped with copper acceptors by means of the nuclear transmutation doping (NTD) method, which gives highly uniform dopant distributions and has a much higher probability of controlling the dopant locations in the lattice. The Cu doping was confirmed by the infrared absorption signature of Cu2+ at 5780 cm-1. Hall-effect measurements were performed to study the effect of CuZn on the electrical properties of ZnO. These measurements indicated that the Cu acceptor level lies 0.126 eV below the conduction-band minimum.

  2. Chitosan film loaded with silver nanoparticles-sorbent for solid phase extraction of Al(III), Cd(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II).

    PubMed

    Djerahov, Lubomir; Vasileva, Penka; Karadjova, Irina; Kurakalva, Rama Mohan; Aradhi, Keshav Krishna

    2016-08-20

    The present study describes the ecofriendly method for the preparation of chitosan film loaded with silver nanoparticles (CS-AgNPs) and application of this film as efficient sorbent for separation and enrichment of Al(III), Cd(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II). The stable CS-AgNPs colloid was prepared by dispersing the AgNPs sol in chitosan solution at appropriate ratio and further used to obtain a cast film with very good stability under storage and good mechanical strength for easy handling in aqueous medium. The incorporation of AgNPs in the structure of CS film and interaction between the polymer matrix and nanoparticles were confirmed by UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The homogeneously embedded AgNPs (average diameter 29nm, TEM analysis) were clearly observed throughout the film by SEM. The CS-AgNPs nanocomposite film shows high sorption activity toward trace metals under optimized chemical conditions. The results suggest that the CS-AgNPs nanocomposite film can be feasibly used as a novel sorbent material for solid-phase extraction of metal pollutants from surface waters. PMID:27178907

  3. Influence of hot isostatic pressing on the structure and properties of an innovative low-alloy high-strength aluminum cast alloy based on the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Ni-Fe system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akopyan, T. K.; Padalko, A. G.; Belov, N. A.

    2015-11-01

    Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is applied for treatment of castings of innovative low-ally high-strength aluminum alloy, nikalin ATs6N0.5Zh based on the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Ni-Fe system. The influence of HIP on the structure and properties of castings is studied by means of three regimes of barometric treatment with different temperatures of isometric holding: t 1 = 505 ± 2°C, p 1 = 100 MPa, τ1 = 3 h (HIP1); t 2 = 525 ± 2°C, p 2 = 100 MPa, τ2 = 3 h (HIP2); and t 3 = 545 ± 2°C, p 3 = 100 MPa, τ3 = 3 h (HIP3). It is established that high-temperature HIP leads to actually complete elimination of porosity and additional improvement of the morphology of second phases. Improved structure after HIP provides improvement properties, especially of plasticity. In particular, after heat treatment according of regime HIP2 + T4 (T4 is natural aging), the alloy plasticity is improved by about two times in comparison with the initial state (from ~6 to 12%). While applying regime HIP3 + T6 (T6 is artificial aging for reaching the maximum strength), the plasticity has improved by more than three times in comparison with the initial state, as after treatment according to regimes HIP1 + T6 and HIP2 + T6 (from ~1.2 to ~5.0%), which are characterized by a lower HIP temperature.

  4. Evidences for Cu and Zn Isotope Fractionation in Sediments and Particulate Suspended Matter of the Scheldt Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, J.; Mattielli, N.; de Jong, J.; Chou, L.

    2004-05-01

    observed. Results show that variations in Cu and Zn isotopic composition are smaller in SPM (δ 66Zn varying from 0.35 to 0.17 and δ 65Cu from -0.13 to 0.18) than in sediments. Cu and Zn isotopic signatures of sediments show a clear trend of lighter isotopes removal from the MTZ seaward with δ 66Zn varying from 0.21 at 2 psu to 1.11 per mil at 33 psu (and δ 65Cu = -0.37 to 0.24). In contrast, Zn isotopic compositions in SPM are more homogeneous with average δ 66Zn of 0.24 ± 0.18 over all the transect. Cu isotopic composition in SPM are very constant downstream of the MTZ with average δ 65Cu =-0.06 ± 0.08 but become more scattered within MTZ (varying from -0.04 to 0.18). These preliminary results pinpoint important variations in Cu and Zn isotopic compositions within estuarine systems and contrasted isotopic signatures in Cu and Zn between SPM and sediments. Results suggest the important role of early diagenesis in the isotope geochemistry of heavy metals in estuarine environment. This study provides a stepping stone for further investigation of interacting processes involved in controlling the cycling of metals in the Scheldt estuary. (1) Zhu et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 200 (2002), 47-62 (2) Pichat et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 6598 (2003), 1-12 (3) Maréchal et al., Geochem. Geophys. Geosyt., 1 (2000), GC000029

  5. Classification of lattice defects in the kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 earth-abundant solar cell absorbers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiyou; Walsh, Aron; Gong, Xin-Gao; Wei, Su-Huai

    2013-03-20

    The kesterite-structured semiconductors Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 are drawing considerable attention recently as the active layers in earth-abundant low-cost thin-film solar cells. The additional number of elements in these quaternary compounds, relative to binary and ternary semiconductors, results in increased flexibility in the material properties. Conversely, a large variety of intrinsic lattice defects can also be formed, which have important influence on their optical and electrical properties, and hence their photovoltaic performance. Experimental identification of these defects is currently limited due to poor sample quality. Here recent theoretical research on defect formation and ionization in kesterite materials is reviewed based on new systematic calculations, and compared with the better studied chalcopyrite materials CuGaSe2 and CuInSe2 . Four features are revealed and highlighted: (i) the strong phase-competition between the kesterites and the coexisting secondary compounds; (ii) the intrinsic p-type conductivity determined by the high population of acceptor CuZn antisites and Cu vacancies, and their dependence on the Cu/(Zn+Sn) and Zn/Sn ratio; (iii) the role of charge-compensated defect clusters such as [2CuZn +SnZn ], [VCu +ZnCu ] and [ZnSn +2ZnCu ] and their contribution to non-stoichiometry; (iv) the electron-trapping effect of the abundant [2CuZn +SnZn ] clusters, especially in Cu2ZnSnS4. The calculated properties explain the experimental observation that Cu poor and Zn rich conditions (Cu/(Zn+Sn) ≈ 0.8 and Zn/Sn ≈ 1.2) result in the highest solar cell efficiency, as well as suggesting an efficiency limitation in Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 cells when the S composition is high. PMID:23401176

  6. Quantum chemical study of ZnO, Cu/ZnO, Cu/sub 2/O, and CuO clusters and CO chemisorption on ZnO(0001), CuZnO(0001), and Cu/ZnO(0001) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.A.; Campbell, C.T.

    1987-12-31

    Copper/zinc oxide mixtures show strong synergistic effects when used together as catalysts, particularly in methanol synthesis and water-gas-shift reactions. The authors have employed semiempirical quantum-mechanical calculations (INDO) to study the electronic properties of ZnO, CuO, and CuO/sub 2/ clusters (less than or equal to 26 atoms), of Cu absorbed on or substituted in these ZnO clusters, and of CO chemisorbed on ZnO(0001) and Cu/ZnO clusters. The results are discussed in light of models previously proposed to explain the unique properties of Cu/ZnO catalysts, which often involve Cu/sup +/ impurities in (on) the ZnO lattice. They use mainly the calculated charge on the Cu atom and its interaction with CO to address the electronic properties of Cu substituted in and adsorbed on ZnO clusters. Their results for neutral clusters indicate that, with respect to atomic charge, this Cu is quite similar in nature to the Cu atoms of bulk CuO or the Zn atoms of ZnO, where the metal has a formal oxidation state of +2. The Cu site in these ZnO clusters shows unique electron affinity properties, accepting a major fraction of the added electron density for anionic clusters. The mechanisms of CO chemisorptive bond formation on Cu(100), ZnO(0001), and Cu-doped ZnO are compared and contrasted based on the present results and those in the literature.

  7. Emission of Cu-related complexes in ZnO:Cu nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torchynska, T. V.; El Filali, B.; Ballardo Rodríguez, I. Ch.

    2016-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL), its temperature dependence, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and X ray diffraction (XRD) have been applied for the comparative study of varying the emission, morphology and crystal structure of ZnO and ZnO:Cu nanocrystals (NCs) versus technological routines, as well as the dependence of ZnO:Cu NC parameters on the Cu concentration. A set of ZnO and ZnO Cu NCs was prepared by the electrochemical (anodization) method at a permanent voltage and different etching durations with follows thermal annealing at 400 °C for 2 h in ambient air. The size of ZnO NCs decreases from 300 nm×540 nm down to 200 nm×320 nm with etching duration increasing. XRD study has confirmed that thermal annealing stimulates the ZnO oxidation and crystallization with the formation of wurtzite ZnO crystal lattice. XRD method has been used for monitoring the lattice parameters and for confirming the Cu doping of ZnO Cu NCs. In ZnO Cu NCs four defect related PL bands are detected with the PL peaks at 1.95-2.00 eV (A), 2.15-2.23 eV (B), 2.43-2.50 eV (C) and 2.61-2.69 eV (D). Highest PL intensities of orange, yellow and green emissions have been obtained in ZnO Cu NCs with the Cu concentration of 2.28 at%. At Cu concentration increasing (≥2.28 at%) the PL intensities of the bands A, B, C decrease and the new PL band peaked at 2.61-2.69 eV at 10 K appears in the PL spectrum. The variation of PL intensities for all PL bands versus temperature has been studied and the corresponding activation energies of PL thermal decay have been estimated. The type of Cu-related complexes is discussed using the correlation between the PL spectrum transformation and the variation of XRD parameters in ZnO Cu NCs.

  8. Hydrogen production from steam reforming of acetic acid over Cu-Zn supported calcium aluminate.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Pravakar; Patel, Madhumita; Pant, Kamal K

    2012-11-01

    Hydrogen can be produced by catalytic steam reforming (CSR) of biomass-derived oil. Typically bio oil contains 12-14% acetic acid; therefore, this acid was chosen as model compound for reforming of biooil with the help of a Cu-Zn/Ca-Al catalyst for high yield of H(2) with low CH(4) and CO content. Calcium aluminate support was prepared by solid-solid reaction at 1350°C. X-ray diffraction indicates 12CaO·7Al(2)O(3) as major, CaA(l4)O(7) and Ca(5)A(l6)O(14) as minor phases. Cu and Zn were loaded onto the support by wet-impregnation at 10 and 1wt.%, respectively. The catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy TEM and the surface area for both support and Cu-Zn were 10.5 and 5.8m(2)/g, respectively. CSR was carried out in a tubular fixed bed reactor (I.D.=19mm) at temperatures between 600 and 800°C with 3-g loadings and (H(2)O/acetic acid) wt. ratio of 9:1. Significantly high (80%) yield of hydrogen was obtained over Cu-Zn/Ca-Al catalyst, as incorporation of Zn enhanced the H(2) yield by reducing deactivation of the catalyst. The coke formation on the support (Ca-12/Al-7) surface was negligible due to the presence of excess oxygen in the 12CaO·7Al(2)O(3) phase. PMID:22944490

  9. CuZnSOD and MnSOD immunoreactivity in brain stem motor neurons from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Brooks, B R; Taniguchi, N; Hartmann, H A

    1998-01-01

    Motor neurons from the brain stems of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and control patients were examined with immunoantibodies to CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). We found that there was a marked staining for CuZnSOD in all the motor nuclei, the hypoglossus, ambiguus, facialis and trigeminus from the ALS patients, but not in the controls. The same neurons from the ALS patients also stained very intensely for MnSOD, whereas the neurons from the control patients stained weakly or not at all. Loss of neurons was also a very consistent finding and was noted in all the motor nuclei from the ALS patients. There was a proliferation of glial cells which stained strongly both for CuZnSOD and for MnSOD accompanying the loss of the neurons. These results indicated that there was an apparent increase of superoxide dismutase immunoreactivity in motor neurons of ALS patients. We conclude that CuZnSOD and MnSOD immunoreactivity is increased in motor neurons and glia in the brain stems of patients with ALS, specific for the terminal phase of this disease. PMID:9452823

  10. Uptake of Al, As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn in native wheatgrasses, wildryes, and bluegrass on three metal-contaminated soils from Montana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the biggest challenges to successfully phytoremediate contaminated mineland soils is the identification of native plants that possess a broad adaptation to ecological sites and either exclude or uptake heavy metals of interest. This study evaluated forage concentrations of aluminum (Al), ars...

  11. Phase Stability and Electronic Structure of In-Free Photovoltaic Materials: Cu2ZnSiSe4, Cu2ZnGeSe4, and Cu2ZnSnSe4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Satoshi; Maeda, Tsuyoshi; Wada, Takahiro

    2010-12-01

    We have theoretically evaluated phase stability and electronic structure of Cu2ZnSiSe4 and Cu2ZnGeSe4 and compared the results with those of Cu2ZnSnSe4. The enthalpies of formation for kesterite (KS), stannite (ST), and wurtz-stannite (WST) phases of Cu2ZnSiSe4, Cu2ZnGeSe4, and Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) were calculated by first-principles calculations. In these three compounds, the KS phase is more stable than the ST and WST phases. The theoretical band gaps of KS-type Cu2ZnSiSe4 (1.48 eV) and Cu2ZnGeSe4 (1.10 eV) are wider than that of KS-type Cu2ZnSnSe4 (0.63 eV). The valence band maximum (VBM) of KS-type Cu2ZnIVSe4 consists of antibonding orbital of Cu 3d and Se 4p, while the conduction band minimum (CBM) consist of antibonding orbital of IV ns and Se 4p. The VBMs of Cu 3d + Se 4p in Cu2ZnSiSe4 and Cu2ZnGeSe4 are similar to that in Cu2ZnSnSe4. Therefore, the energy levels of VBMs in Cu2ZnIVSe4 (IV = Si, Ge) do not change so much compared with that of CZTSe. On the other hand, the energy levels of CBMs of IV ns + Se 4p in Cu2ZnSiSe4 and Cu2ZnGeSe4 become higher than that in Cu2ZnSnSe4. These trends in the electronic structures are explained by the schematic molecular orbital diagrams of tetrahedral CuSe47-, ZnSe46-, and IVSe44- (IV = Si, Ge, Sn) clusters.

  12. Pulse Electrodeposition of Cu-ZnO and Mn-Cu-ZnO Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Mayank; Pinisetty, D.; Flake, John C.; Spivey, James J.

    2010-07-09

    Cu–ZnO and Mn–Cu–ZnO nanowires are attractive catalysts for alcohol synthesis from CO hydrogenation reactions. Nanowire alloys are pulse electrodeposited into track etched polycarbonate membranes using aqueous electrolytes including Mn(NO3)2, Cu(NO3)2, Zn(NO3)2, and NH4 NO3. Pulse waveforms with a cathodic current density of 50.7mAcm -2 for 50 ms (on-time), with varying off-times (400, 500, and 600 ms), are used to fabricate nanowire arrays (400 nm diameter, 25μm long, and pore density of 1.5×108pores cm-2 ). Pulse waveforms allow significantly higher copper concentrations and better control of zinc and manganese concentrations within nanowires. X-ray diffraction results show preferential growth in the (111) direction and crystallite size increases with an increase in off-time. Waveforms with longer off-times (500 and 600 ms) resulted in nanowires with relatively higher copper concentrations due to improved copper transport in nanopores. The nanowire surface has no manganese; however, the core shows manganese, which increases with the decrease in off-time. The effect of deposition conditions and electrolyte composition on nanowire properties are explained and discussed.

  13. Grain refinement in a AlZnMgCuTi alloy by intensive melt shearing: A multi-step nucleation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. T.; Xia, M.; Jarry, Ph.; Scamans, G. M.; Fan, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Direct chill (DC) cast ingots of wrought Al alloys conventionally require the deliberate addition of a grain refiner to provide a uniform as-cast microstructure for the optimisation of both mechanical properties and processability. Grain refiner additions have been in widespread industrial use for more than half a century. Intensive melt shearing can provide grain refinement without the need for a specific grain refiner addition for both magnesium and aluminium based alloys. In this paper we present experimental evidence of the grain refinement in an experimental wrought aluminium alloy achieved by intensive melt shearing in the liquid state prior to solidification. The mechanisms for high shear induced grain refinement are correlated with the evolution of oxides in alloys. The oxides present in liquid aluminium alloys, normally as oxide films and clusters, can be effectively dispersed by intensive shearing and then provide effective sites for the heterogeneous nucleation of Al 3Ti phase. As a result, Al 3Ti particles with a narrower size distribution and hence improved efficiency as active nucleation sites of α-aluminium grains are responsible for the achieved significant grain refinement. This is termed a multi-step nucleation mechanism.

  14. Research Update: Stable single-phase Zn-rich Cu2ZnSnSe4 through In doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnauer, Stefan; Körbel, Sabine; Marques, Miguel A. L.; Botti, Silvana; Pistor, Paul; Scheer, Roland

    2016-07-01

    Alloying in the system Cu2ZnSnSe4-CuInSe2-ZnSe (CZTISe) is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The goal is to distinguish single-phase and multi-phase regions within the Cu2ZnSnSe4-2CuInSe2-4ZnSe pseudo-ternary phase diagram. CZTISe thin films are prepared by co-evaporation of the chemical elements and are investigated in real-time during growth using in situ angle dispersive X-ray diffraction. The focus is mainly on thin films along the Cu2ZnSnSe4-2CuInSe2 isopleth with small ZnSe addition as well as on films along the Cu2ZnSnSe4-4ZnSe isopleth with small CuInSe2 addition. For both cases, ab initio calculations with density-functional theory are performed to estimate the stability of the alloy with respect to the formation of secondary phases. Both in experiment and calculation, we find a surprisingly large single-phase region in the Cu2ZnSnSe4 corner of the pseudo-ternary phase diagram slightly off the Cu2ZnSnSe4-4ZnSe isopleth. This may help avoiding secondary phase formation under Zn-rich conditions and open up new possibilities for the application of CZTISe thin films in solar cells.

  15. Accumulation of Zn, Cu and Cd by crabs and barnacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainbow, P. S.

    1985-11-01

    The crab Carcinus maenas (L.) and the barnacle Elminius modestus Darwin were exposed to a range of dissolved concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd for 21 days in artificial seawater. Accumulation of Zn and Cu by crabs has been interpreted in terms of the presence of a regulation mechanism to maintain constant body concentrations (83·2 ± 19·4 μg Zn g -1 dry wt.; 39·8 ± 9·8 μg Cu g -1 dry wt.) under varying external dissolved metal levels, until a threshold dissolved metal concentration ( c. 400 μg Zn l -1; c. 170 μg Cu l -1) beyond which net accumulation of metal begins. Cadium appears to be accumulated by C. maenas at all exposures with no evidence for regulation of body cadmium concentrations. Exposure of E. modestus to Zn, Cu or Cd caused net accumulation of the respective metal in the bodies of the barnacles, with no evidence for regulation of body metal concentrations.

  16. The electrochemical behaviors of Zn-Al-La-hydrotalcite in Zn-Ni secondary cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xinming; Yang, Zhanhong; Xie, Xiaoe; Long, Wei; Wang, Ruijuan; Hou, Zhilin

    2013-11-01

    Zn-Al-La-CO3 layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are prepared by the constant pH co-precipitation method and proposed as a novel anodic material in Zinc-Nickel secondary cells. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images reveal that the as-prepared samples are well-crystallized and hexagon layer structure. Electrochemical performances of Zn-Al-La-hydrotalcites with different Zn/Al/La molar ratios are investigated by galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements, cyclic voltammograms (CV) and Tafel polarization curves. In comparison with the Zn-Al-hydrotalcite, Zn-Al-La-hydrotalcites with different Zn/Al/La molar ratios have more stable cycling performance. After 400 cell cycles, Zn-Al-La-LDH with Zn/Al/La = 3:0.8:0.2 retains specific discharge capacity of 297 mAh g-1 with a retention rate of 79.0%, which is much superior to that of 205 mAh g-1 with a retention rate of 53.5% for the Zn-Al-La-LDH with Zn/Al/La = 3:0.9:0.1 and 241 mAh g-1 with a retention rate of 69.0% for the Zn-Al-La-LDH with Zn/Al/La = 3:0.6:0.4. The results demonstrate that the Zn-Al-La-LDH with Zn/Al/La = 3:0.8:0.2 has the best reversible cycling behavior. The CV exhibits well reversibility and the Tafel polarization curves reveal more positive corrosion potential for Zn-Al-La-hydrotalcite.

  17. Zn, Cu, and Mn levels in the liver of the dogfish exposed to Zn

    SciTech Connect

    Sanpera, C.; Vallribera, M.; Crespo, S.

    1983-10-01

    To investigate the effects of Zn contamination on the hepatic distribution of these trace elements, Zn, Cu, and Mn levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the liver of the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula exposed to 80 and 10 ppm of zinc.

  18. Colloidal synthesis of Cu-ZnO and Cu@CuNi-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals with controlled morphologies and multifunctional properties.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Deqian; Gong, Pingyun; Chen, Yuanzhi; Zhang, Qinfu; Xie, Qingshui; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2016-06-01

    Metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals have received extensive attention owing to their multiple functionalities which can find wide technological applications. The utilization of low-cost non-noble metals to construct novel metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals is important and meaningful for their large-scale applications. In this study, a facile solution approach is developed for the synthesis of Cu-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals with well-controlled morphologies, including nanomultipods, core-shell nanoparticles, nanopyramids and core-shell nanowires. In the synthetic strategy, Cu nanocrystals formed in situ serve as seeds for the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of ZnO, and it eventually forms various Cu-ZnO hetero-nanostructures under different reaction conditions. These hybrid nanocrystals possess well-defined and stable heterostructure junctions. The ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectra reveal morphology-dependent surface plasmon resonance absorption of Cu and the band gap absorption of ZnO. Furthermore, we construct a novel Cu@CuNi-ZnO ternary hetero-nanostructure by incorporating the magnetic metal Ni into the pre-synthesized colloidal Cu nanocrystals. Such hybrid nanocrystals possess a magnetic Cu-Ni intermediate layer between the ZnO shell and the Cu core, and exhibit ferromagnetic/superparamagnetic properties which expand their functionalities. Finally, enhanced photocatalytic activities are observed in the as-prepared non-noble metal-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals. This study not only provides an economical way to prepare high-quality morphology-controlled Cu-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals for potential applications in the fields of photocatalysis and photovoltaic devices, but also opens up new opportunities in designing ternary non-noble metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals with multifunctionalities. PMID:27216552

  19. Comment on 'The diatomic dication CuZn{sup 2+} in the gas phase' [J. Chem. Phys. 135, 034306 (2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Fiser, Jiri; Diez, Reinaldo Pis; Franzreb, Klaus; Alonso, Julio A.

    2013-02-21

    In this Comment, the density functional theory (DFT) calculations carried out by Diez et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 135, 034306 (2011)] are revised within the framework of the coupled-cluster single double triple method. These more sophisticated calculations allow us to show that the {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +} electronic ground state of CuZn{sup 2+}, characterized as the metastable ground state by DFT calculations, is a repulsive state instead. The {sup 2}{Delta} and {sup 2}{Pi} metastable states of CuZn{sup 2+}, on the other hand, should be responsible for the formation mechanism of the dication through the near-resonant electron transfer CuZn{sup +}+ Ar{sup +}{yields} CuZn{sup 2+}+ Ar reaction.

  20. Punicalagin Green Functionalized Cu/Cu2O/ZnO/CuO Nanocomposite for Potential Electrochemical Transducer and Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Fuku, X; Kaviyarasu, K; Matinise, N; Maaza, M

    2016-12-01

    A novel ternary Punica granatum L-Cu/Cu2O/CuO/ZnO nanocomposite was successfully synthesised via green route. In this work, we demonstrate that the green synthesis of metal oxides is more viable and facile compare to other methods, i.e., physical and chemical routes while presenting a potential electrode for energy applications. The prepared nanocomposite was characterised by both microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques revealed different transitional phases with an average nanocrystallite size of 29-20 mm. It was observed that the nanocomposites changed from amorphous-slightly crystalline Cu/Cu2O to polycrystalline Cu/Cu2O/CuO/ZnO at different calcination temperatures (room temperature-RT- 600 °C). The Cu/Cu2O/ZnO/CuO metal oxides proved to be highly crystalline and showed irregularly distributed particles with different sizes. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the purity while together with ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy proved the proposed mechanism of the synthesised nanocomposite. UV-Vis showed improved catalytic activity of the prepared metal oxides, evident by narrow band gap energy. The redox and electrochemical properties of the prepared nanocomposite were achieved by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD). The maximum specific capacitance (C s) was calculated to be 241 F g(-1) at 50 mV s(-1) for Cu/Cu2O/CuO/ZnO nanoplatelets structured electrode. Moreover, all the CuO nanostructures reveal better power performance, excellent rate as well as long term cycling stability. Such a study will encourages a new design for a wide spectrum of materials for smart electronic device applications. PMID:27596839

  1. Precisely Controlled Synthesis of High Quality Kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Film via Co-Electrodeposited CuZnSn Alloy Film.

    PubMed

    Hreid, Tubshin; Tiong, Vincent Tiing; Cai, Molang; Wang, Hongxia; Will, Geoffrey

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a facile co-electrodeposition method was used to fabricate CuZnSn alloy films where the content of copper, zinc and tin could be precisely controlled through manipulating the mass transfer process in the electrochemical deposition. By finely tuning the concentration of the cations of Cu2+, Zn2+ and Sn2+ in the electrochemical bath solution, uniform CuZnSn film with desired composition of copper poor and zinc rich was made. Sulphurisation of the CuZnSn alloy film led to the formation of compact and large grains Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film absorber with an optimum composition of Cu/(Zn+Sn) ≈ 0.8, Zn/Sn ≈ 1.2. Both SEM morphology and EDS mapping results confirmed the uniformity of the CuZnSn and Cu2ZnSnS4 films and the homogeneous distribution of Cu, Zn, Sn and S elements in the bulk films. The XRD and Raman measurements indicated that the synthesized Cu2ZnSnS4 film was kesterite phase without impurities detected. Photoelectrochemical tests were carried out to evaluate the CZTS film's photocurrent response under illumination of green light. PMID:27427618

  2. Room Temperature Radiolytic Synthesized Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Abedini, Alam; Saion, Elias; Larki, Farhad; Zakaria, Azmi; Noroozi, Monir; Soltani, Nayereh

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared by a gamma irradiation method in an aqueous system in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and isopropanol respectively as a colloidal stabilizer and scavenger of hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals. The gamma irradiation was carried out in a 60Co gamma source chamber with different doses up to 120 kGy. The formation of Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 nanoparticles was observed initially by the change in color of the colloidal samples from colorless to brown. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of bonds between polymer chains and the metal surface at all radiation doses. Results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 nanoparticles are in a core-shell structure. By controlling the absorbed dose and precursor concentration, nanoclusters with different particle sizes were obtained. The average particle diameter increased with increased precursor concentration and decreased with increased dose. This is due to the competition between nucleation, growth, and aggregation processes in the formation of nanoclusters during irradiation. PMID:23109893

  3. First Principles Calculations of Defect Formation in In-Free Photovoltaic Semiconductors Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Satoshi; Wada, Takahiro

    2011-04-01

    To quantitatively evaluate the formation energies of Cu, Zn, Sn, and S vacancies in kesterite-type Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS), first-principles pseudopotential calculations using plane-wave basis functions were performed. The formation energies of neutral Cu, Zn, Sn, and S vacancies were calculated as a function of the atomic chemical potentials of constituent elements. We compared the vacancy formation in the In-free photovoltaic semiconductor CZTS with those of Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) and CuInSe2 (CIS). The obtained results were as follows. (1) Under the Cu-poor and Zn-rich condition, the formation energy of the Cu vacancy was generally smaller than those of the Zn, Sn and S vacancies in CZTS, as is the case for CZTSe. (2) The formation energies of Cu, Zn, and Sn vacancies in CZTS were larger than those in CZTSe. On the other hand, the formation energy of the S vacancy is smaller than that of the Se vacancy in CZTSe. (3) Under the Cu-poor and Zn-rich condition, the formation energies of the Cu vacancy in CZTS and CZTSe are much larger than that in CIS. These results indicate that in kesterite-type CZTS and CZTSe, the Cu vacancy is easily formed under Cu-poor, Zn-rich, and S(Se)-rich condition, but it is more difficult than that in CIS.

  4. Recovery of Cu and Zn from Complex Sulphide Ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talapaneni, Trinath; Sarkar, S.; Yedla, N.; Reddy, P. L. N., Dr

    2015-02-01

    Complex Sulphide Ores are often found to be a close mutual association with each other and with the nonmetallic gangue. The beneficiation experiments showed that it would be very difficult to recover Cu and Zn from the lean complex Sulphide ores using traditional ore beneficiation methods. In the present work, leaching of complex sulfide ores in sulfuric acid was investigated by the Electro hydrometallurgy process. The lab-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the influences of pulp-density, electrolyte concentration, particle size, current density and time on recovery of Cu and Zn. The leach liquor obtained after electrolysis was subjected to Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy analysis for the recovery of minerals.

  5. A density functional study on properties of a Cu3Zn material and CO adsorption onto its surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qian-Lin; Duan, Xiao-Xuan; Liu, Bei; Wei, An-Qing; Liu, Sheng-Long; Wang, Qi; Liang, Yan-Ping; Ma, Xiao-Hua

    2016-02-01

    Prior experimental and theoretical efforts have provided strong evidence that the formation of α-brass such as Cu3Zn alloys in Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 CO2/CO hydrogenation catalysts enhances dramatically the catalytic activity toward methanol synthesis. In this work, a density functional theory (DFT) slab model has been adopted to get information concerning the bulk and surface properties of DO23-like Cu3Zn and to explore CO molecular adsorption, which will help pave the way to future rationalization of the impact of surface alloying on Cu/ZnO-based catalysis for CO2 and CO hydrogenations. Our calculations imply that the bulk modulus and cohesive energy of the binary solid solution lie between the corresponding ones for the individual components, but only the former quantity equals its composition weighted average. From the DFT-computed surface energies, the stability of Cu3Zn surfaces was predicted to be reinforced in the sequence (1 1 0) < (1 0 1) < (1 1 1) < (1 0 0) = (0 0 1) < (2 1 4) < (1 1 4), which can be interpreted as sensitive to the density change of surface dangling bonds. The downward shifts in the C-O stretch frequency measured experimentally over methanol synthesis catalysts at successively elevated reduction temperatures were correctly reproduced by the present simulation for the adsorption of CO to take place at Cu3Zn(1 1 4), Cu3Zn(2 1 4) and, as a reference, Cu(1 1 1). This agreement confirms the total energy results that indicate that the flat (1 1 4) and stepped (2 1 4) facets are the most stable and abundant ones in the Cu3Zn particles formed. It was found that a subtle compromise between the cost of fragment distortions and the large stabilization due to molecule-surface interaction is the way to control and optimize the reactivity of the Cu-based alloy to CO chemisorption. Intriguingly, electronic structure evaluation reveals that as far as all the alloy surfaces under scrutiny are concerned, a layer of CO brought a decrease, not an increase, in work

  6. Optical Properties of Cu-Doped ZnO Films Prepared by Cu Solution Coating.

    PubMed

    Allabergenov, Bunyod; Chung, Seok-Hwan; Kim, Sungjin; Choi, Byeongdae

    2015-10-01

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of Cu-doped ZnO films by Cu solution coating method. Cu ink was spin coated on ZnO thin films prepared by e-beam deposition. After curing and annealing at high temperatures, structural, morphological and optical properties of the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and spectrofluorometer, respectively. The XRD results showed that ZnO films formed polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure, and the grain size increased with increasing the annealing temperature from 500 to 850 °C. The changes in lattice parameters were caused by grain size, strain, and residual stress. Morphological analysis have revealed that the Cu-doped ZnO film after annealing at 500 °C has flat surface with uniformly distributed grain size, which became porous after higher temperature annealing process. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and photoluminescence spectras have shown the presence of Zn, Cu, and O elements, and combined violet, blue, green and weak red emissions between 350 and 650 nm in the ZnO films, respectively. PMID:26726392

  7. Abnormalities in Cu and Zn levels in acute hepatitis of different etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Papanikolopoulos, K; Alexopoulou, A; Dona, A; Hadziyanni, E; Vasilieva, L; Dourakis, S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) are essential trace elements which play an important role in various biological processes. Zn deficiency is common in liver diseases while Cu deficiency is rarely reported. To determine whether serum Cu and Zn concentrations differed in acute hepatitis, compared to controls and investigate possible correlations of Cu and Zn values with etiology and severity of liver diseases. Methods: Serum Cu and Zn concentrations were determined by air acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrometer in 40 patients (acute hepatitis A, B, C, autoimmune and drug induced hepatitis) and 150 healthy controls. Results: Compared to healthy controls, significantly higher Zn levels were found in patients (106.5 μg/dl, P <0.01). Abnormal levels of either Cu and/or Zn were found in 48% of patients vs 23.3% of the controls (P =0.01). Ten patients had abnormal Zn and fourteen had abnormal Cu levels. There was a trend for the severe hepatitis cases to have abnormal Cu values and in this subgroup Cu and Zn were positively correlated with prothrombin time and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, respectively. Cu and Zn levels did not differ statistically across groups of different etiologies. Conclusions: Abnormalities in Cu and Zn concentrations are common in acute hepatitis. Cu and Zn exhibited positive correlations with prothrombin time and ALT respectively, in severe cases. PMID:25336878

  8. High-pressure modifications of CaZn{sub 2}, SrZn{sub 2}, SrAl{sub 2}, and BaAl{sub 2}: Implications for Laves phase structural trends

    SciTech Connect

    Kal, Subhadeep; Stoyanov, Emil; Belieres, Jean-Philippe; Groy, Thomas L.; Norrestam, Rolf; Haeussermann, Ulrich

    2008-11-15

    High-pressure forms of intermetallic compounds with the composition CaZn{sub 2}, SrZn{sub 2}, SrAl{sub 2}, and BaAl{sub 2} were synthesized from CeCu{sub 2}-type precursors (CaZn{sub 2}, SrZn{sub 2}, SrAl{sub 2}) and Ba{sub 21}Al{sub 40} by multi-anvil techniques and investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (SrAl{sub 2} and BaAl{sub 2}), X-ray single-crystal diffraction (CaZn{sub 2}), and electron microscopy (SrZn{sub 2}). Their structures correspond to that of Laves phases. Whereas the dialuminides crystallize in the cubic MgCu{sub 2} (C15) structure, the dizincides adopt the hexagonal MgZn{sub 2} (C14) structure. This trend is in agreement with the structural relationship displayed by sp bonded Laves phase systems at ambient conditions. - Graphical abstract: CeCu{sub 2}-type polar intermetallics can be transformed to Laves phases upon simultaneous application of pressure and temperature. The observed structures are controlled by the valence electron concentration.

  9. Conduction behavior conversion for Cu-doped ZnS/n-type Si devices with different Cu contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Wei-Shih; Lin, Yow-Jon

    2015-06-01

    Currents through Cu-doped ZnS (ZnCuS)/n-type Si structures were studied. The electrical conduction investigations suggest that the carrier transport behavior is governed by the Poole-Frenkel emission for ZnCuS/n-type Si devices having the low Cu concentration. However, the carrier transport behavior is governed by the thermionic emission for ZnCuS/n-type Si devices having the high Cu concentration. The photoluminescence result revealed that sulfur vacancy ( V S) is the origin of conduction behavior conversion. It is shown that the increased Cu concentration leads to the reduced formation probability of V S. The dependence of V S on the film composition was identified for providing a guide to control the current transport behavior of ZnCuS/n-type Si devices.

  10. Bandgap- and Radial-Position-Dependent Mn-Doped Zn-Cu-In-S/ZnS Core/Shell Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lucheng; Huang, Keke; Zhang, Zhuolei; Zhang, Ying; Shi, Zhan; Xie, Renguo; Yang, Wensheng

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a mechanistic study on the doping of Zn-Cu-In-S/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) with Mn by changing the Zn-Cu-In-S QD bandgap and dopant position inside the samples (Zn-Cu-In-S core and ZnS shell). Results show that for the Mn:Zn-Cu-In-S/ZnS system, a Mn-doped emission can be obtained when the bandgap value of the QDs is larger than the energy of Mn-doped emission. Conversely, a bandgap emission is only observed for the doped system when the bandgap value of QDs is smaller than the energy gap of the Mn-doped emission. In the Zn-Cu-In-S/Mn:ZnS systems, doped QDs show dual emissions, consisting of bandgap and Mn dopant emissions, instead of one emission band when the value of the host bandgap is larger than the energy of the Mn-doped emission. These findings indicate that the emission from Mn-doped Zn-Cu-In-S/ZnS core/shell QDs depends on the bandgap of the QDs and the dopant position inside the core/shell material. The critical bandgap of the host materials is estimated to have the same value as the energy of the Mn d-d transition. Subsequently, the mechanism of photoluminescence properties of the Mn:Zn-Cu-In-S/ZnS and Zn-Cu-In-S/Mn:ZnS core/shell QD systems is proposed. Control experiments are then carried out by preparing Mn-doped Zn(Cu)-In-S QDs with various bandgaps, and the results confirm the reliability of the suggested mechanism. Therefore, the proposed mechanism can aid the design and synthesis of novel host materials in fabricating doped QDs. PMID:26419419

  11. Tuning the emission of aqueous Cu:ZnSe quantum dots to yellow light window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunlei; Hu, Zhiyang; Xu, Shuhong; Wang, Yanbin; Zhao, Zengxia; Wang, Zhuyuan; Cui, Yiping

    2015-07-01

    Synthesis of internally doped Cu:ZnSe QDs in an aqueous solution still suffers from narrow tunable emissions from the blue to green light window. In this work, we extended the emission window of aqueous Cu:ZnSe QDs to the yellow light window. Our results show that high solution pH, multiple injections of Zn precursors, and nucleation doping strategy are three key factors for preparing yellow emitted Cu:ZnSe QDs. All these factors can depress the reactivity of CuSe nuclei and Zn monomers, promoting ZnSe growth outside CuSe nuclei rather than form ZnSe nuclei separately. With increased ZnSe QD size, the conduction band and nearby trap state energy levels shift to higher energy sites, causing Cu:ZnSe QDs to have a much longer emission.

  12. The electrochemical performances of Zn-Sn-Al-hydrotalcites in Zn-Ni secondary cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tingting; Yang, Zhanhong; Yang, Bin; Wang, Ruijuan; Huang, Jianhang

    2014-07-01

    Zn-Sn-Al-hydrotalcites (LDHs) have been successfully prepared by hydrothermal method and applied as a novel anodic active material in Zn-Ni secondary batteries. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and FT-IR tests are performed to investigate the morphology and microstructure of Zn-Sn-Al-hydrotalcites. Electrochemical performances of Zn-Sn-Al-hydrotalcites with different Zn/Sn/Al molar ratios are investigated through galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements, cyclic voltammograms (CV) and Tafel polarization curves. Compared with Zn-Al-LDH without Sn addition, Zn-Sn-Al-LDHs still present hexagon layer structure, and present more excellent electrochemical performance. And Zn-Sn-Al-LDH with the molar ratio of 2.8:0.2:1 shows a better cycle stability than the other samples. The results demonstrate that Sn addition can help to perfect the electrochemical performance of zinc electrode with Zn-Sn-Al-LDHs. At the same time, CV tests indicate well reversibility and Tafel curves reveal more positive corrosion potential for Zn-Sn-Al-LDHs.

  13. Preparation of high-permeability NiCuZn ferrite*

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jun; Yan, Mi

    2005-01-01

    Appropriate addition of CuO/V2O5 and the reduction of the granularity of the raw materials particle decrease the sintering temperature of NiZn ferrite from 1200 °C to 930 °C. Furthermore, the magnetic properties of the NiZn ferrite prepared at low temperature of 930 °C is superior to that of the NiZn ferrite prepared by sintering at high temperature of 1200 °C because the microstructure of the NiZn ferrite sintered at 930 °C is more uniform and compact than that of the NiZn ferrite sintered at 1200 °C. The high permeability of 1700 and relative loss coefficient tanδ/μi of 9.0×10−6 at 100 kHz was achieved in the (Ni0.17Zn0.63Cu0.20)Fe1.915O4 ferrite. PMID:15909348

  14. Extremely High Phosphate Sorption Capacity in Cu-Pb-Zn Mine Tailings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Longbin; Li, Xiaofang; Nguyen, Tuan A H

    2015-01-01

    Elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in pore water of amended tailings under direct revegetation may cause toxicity in some native woody species but not native forbs or herb species, all of which are key constituents in target native plant communities for phytostabilizing base metal mine tailings. As a result, Pi sorption capacity has been quantified by a conventional batch procedure in three types of base metal mine tailings sampled from two copper (Cu)-lead (Pb)-zinc (Zn) mines, as the basis for Pi-fertiliser addition. It was found that the Pi-sorption capacity in the tailings and local soil was extremely high, far higher than highly weathered agricultural soils in literature, but similar to those of volcanic ash soils. The Langmuir P-sorption maximum was up to 7.72, 4.12, 4.02 and 3.62 mg P g-1 tailings, in the fresh tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD7), the weathered tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD5), EHM-TD (fresh Cu-stream, high magnetite content) and local soil (weathered shale and schist), respectively. Physicochemical factors highly correlated with the high Pi-sorption in the tailings were fine particle distribution, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate extractable Fe (FeO and Fed), oxalate-extractable Al and Mn, and the levels of soluble Cd and Zn, and total S and Fe. Large amounts of amorphous Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides may have been formed from the oxidation of pyritic materials and redox cycles of Fe-minerals (such as pyrite (FeS2), ankerite (Ca(Fe Mg)(CO3)2 and siderite (FeCO3), as indicated by the extractable FeO values. The likely formation of sparingly soluble Zn-phosphate in the Pb-Zn tailings containing high levels of Zn (from sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S, ZnS, (Zn,Cd)S)) may substantially lower soluble Zn levels in the tailings through high rates of Pi-fertiliser addition. As a result, the possibility of P-toxicity in native plant species caused by the addition of soluble phosphate fertilizers would be minimal. PMID

  15. Extremely High Phosphate Sorption Capacity in Cu-Pb-Zn Mine Tailings

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Longbin; Li, Xiaofang; Nguyen, Tuan A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in pore water of amended tailings under direct revegetation may cause toxicity in some native woody species but not native forbs or herb species, all of which are key constituents in target native plant communities for phytostabilizing base metal mine tailings. As a result, Pi sorption capacity has been quantified by a conventional batch procedure in three types of base metal mine tailings sampled from two copper (Cu)-lead (Pb)-zinc (Zn) mines, as the basis for Pi-fertiliser addition. It was found that the Pi-sorption capacity in the tailings and local soil was extremely high, far higher than highly weathered agricultural soils in literature, but similar to those of volcanic ash soils. The Langmuir P-sorption maximum was up to 7.72, 4.12, 4.02 and 3.62 mg P g-1 tailings, in the fresh tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD7), the weathered tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD5), EHM-TD (fresh Cu-stream, high magnetite content) and local soil (weathered shale and schist), respectively. Physicochemical factors highly correlated with the high Pi-sorption in the tailings were fine particle distribution, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate extractable Fe (FeO and Fed), oxalate-extractable Al and Mn, and the levels of soluble Cd and Zn, and total S and Fe. Large amounts of amorphous Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides may have been formed from the oxidation of pyritic materials and redox cycles of Fe-minerals (such as pyrite (FeS2), ankerite (Ca(Fe Mg)(CO3)2 and siderite (FeCO3), as indicated by the extractable FeO values. The likely formation of sparingly soluble Zn-phosphate in the Pb-Zn tailings containing high levels of Zn (from sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S, ZnS, (Zn,Cd)S)) may substantially lower soluble Zn levels in the tailings through high rates of Pi-fertiliser addition. As a result, the possibility of P-toxicity in native plant species caused by the addition of soluble phosphate fertilizers would be minimal. PMID

  16. Behavior of Cu and Zn Impurities on GaAs Wafer Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibaya, Hiroshi

    1995-08-01

    Surface Cu and Zn contamination levels of intentionally contaminated GaAs wafers were measured by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). Cu and Zn are both major metallic impurities on GaAs wafer surfaces, but their adsorption behaviors in an organic base solution were quite different. Surface concentration of Cu was much higher than that of Zn when concentrations of Cu and Zn in the organic base solution were the same. Cleaning effects of running deionized water rinse in an ultrasonic bath (U-RDIW) were also studied. Surface concentrations of Cu and Zn were drastically reduced by U-RDIW rinse.

  17. Spray pyrolysis deposition of Cu-ZnO and Zn-SnO2 solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khelfane, A.; Tarzalt, H.; Sebboua, B.; Zerrouki, H.; Kesri, N.

    2015-12-01

    Large-gap metal oxides, such as titanium, tin, and zinc oxides, have attracted great interest because of their remarkable potential in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) and their low cost and simple preparation procedure. In this work, we investigated several Zn-SnO2 and Cu-ZnO thin films that were sprayed under different experimental conditions. We varied [Zn/[Sn] and [Cu/[Zn] ratios, calculated on atomic percent in the starting solution. We report some structural results of the films using X-ray diffraction. Optical reflection and transmission spectra investigated by an UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer permit the determination of optical constants. The direct band gap was deduced from the photon energy dependence of the absorption coefficient.

  18. Colloidal synthesis of Cu-ZnO and Cu@CuNi-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals with controlled morphologies and multifunctional properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Deqian; Gong, Pingyun; Chen, Yuanzhi; Zhang, Qinfu; Xie, Qingshui; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2016-06-01

    Metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals have received extensive attention owing to their multiple functionalities which can find wide technological applications. The utilization of low-cost non-noble metals to construct novel metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals is important and meaningful for their large-scale applications. In this study, a facile solution approach is developed for the synthesis of Cu-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals with well-controlled morphologies, including nanomultipods, core-shell nanoparticles, nanopyramids and core-shell nanowires. In the synthetic strategy, Cu nanocrystals formed in situ serve as seeds for the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of ZnO, and it eventually forms various Cu-ZnO hetero-nanostructures under different reaction conditions. These hybrid nanocrystals possess well-defined and stable heterostructure junctions. The ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectra reveal morphology-dependent surface plasmon resonance absorption of Cu and the band gap absorption of ZnO. Furthermore, we construct a novel Cu@CuNi-ZnO ternary hetero-nanostructure by incorporating the magnetic metal Ni into the pre-synthesized colloidal Cu nanocrystals. Such hybrid nanocrystals possess a magnetic Cu-Ni intermediate layer between the ZnO shell and the Cu core, and exhibit ferromagnetic/superparamagnetic properties which expand their functionalities. Finally, enhanced photocatalytic activities are observed in the as-prepared non-noble metal-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals. This study not only provides an economical way to prepare high-quality morphology-controlled Cu-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals for potential applications in the fields of photocatalysis and photovoltaic devices, but also opens up new opportunities in designing ternary non-noble metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals with multifunctionalities.Metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals have received extensive attention owing to their multiple functionalities which can find wide technological applications

  19. Colloidal synthesis of Cu-ZnO and Cu@CuNi-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals with controlled morphologies and multifunctional properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Deqian; Gong, Pingyun; Chen, Yuanzhi; Zhang, Qinfu; Xie, Qingshui; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2016-06-01

    Metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals have received extensive attention owing to their multiple functionalities which can find wide technological applications. The utilization of low-cost non-noble metals to construct novel metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals is important and meaningful for their large-scale applications. In this study, a facile solution approach is developed for the synthesis of Cu-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals with well-controlled morphologies, including nanomultipods, core-shell nanoparticles, nanopyramids and core-shell nanowires. In the synthetic strategy, Cu nanocrystals formed in situ serve as seeds for the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of ZnO, and it eventually forms various Cu-ZnO hetero-nanostructures under different reaction conditions. These hybrid nanocrystals possess well-defined and stable heterostructure junctions. The ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectra reveal morphology-dependent surface plasmon resonance absorption of Cu and the band gap absorption of ZnO. Furthermore, we construct a novel Cu@CuNi-ZnO ternary hetero-nanostructure by incorporating the magnetic metal Ni into the pre-synthesized colloidal Cu nanocrystals. Such hybrid nanocrystals possess a magnetic Cu-Ni intermediate layer between the ZnO shell and the Cu core, and exhibit ferromagnetic/superparamagnetic properties which expand their functionalities. Finally, enhanced photocatalytic activities are observed in the as-prepared non-noble metal-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals. This study not only provides an economical way to prepare high-quality morphology-controlled Cu-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals for potential applications in the fields of photocatalysis and photovoltaic devices, but also opens up new opportunities in designing ternary non-noble metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals with multifunctionalities.Metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals have received extensive attention owing to their multiple functionalities which can find wide technological applications

  20. Mechanism of Corrosion in Al-Si-Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayasaka, Nobuo; Koga, Yuri; Shimomura, Koji; Yoshida, Yukimasa; Okano, Haruo

    1991-07-01

    An Al-Cu local cell was formed between the Cu precipitation and adjacent Al in an Al-Si-Cu alloy when Cu was added in excess to the alloy. Once an Al-Cu local cell was formed, corrosion took place simply by dipping the alloy in deionized water without any contamination. Furthermore, it was found that corrosion was enhanced at the Al-Si-Cu lines in contact with the p+-n junction of Si. The reason for this is that holes are injected into Al-Si-Cu from p+-Si due to electromotive force produced by light irradiation and an external circuit connecting the alloy and n-Si formed by the adsorption of moisture on the surface. Furthermore, it was found that the irradiation of light with a wavelength between 320 to 380 nm was most effective in enhancing the corrosion reaction.

  1. Electron paramagnetic resonance in Cu-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchheit, R.; Acosta-Humánez, F.; Almanza, O.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles (Zn1‑xCuxO, x = 3%), with a calcination temperature of 500∘C were synthesized using the sol-gel method. The particles were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at X-band, measurement in a temperature range from 90 K to room temperature. AAS confirmed a good correspondence between the experimental doping concentration and the theoretical value. XRD reveals the presence of ZnO phase in hexagonal wurtzite structure and a nanoparticle size for the samples synthesized. EPR spectroscopy shows the presence of point defects in both samples with g-values of g = 1.959 for shallow donors and g = 2.004 for ionized vacancies. It is important when these materials are required have been used as catalysts, as suggested that it is not necessary prepare them at higher temperature. A simulation of the Cu EPR signal using an anisotropic spin Hamiltonian was performed and showed good coincidence with the experimental spectra. It was shown that Cu2+ ions enter interstitial octahedral sites of orthorhombic symmetry in the wurtzite crystal structure. Temperature dependence of the EPR linewidth and signal intensity shows a paramagnetic behavior of the sample in the measurement range. A Néel temperature TN = 78 ± 19 K was determined.

  2. Zn ion post-implantation-driven synthesis of CuZn alloy nanoparticles in Cu-preimplanted silica and their thermal evolution.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guangyi; Xu, Rong; Mu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Changlong

    2013-12-26

    Cu nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated in silica by 45 keV Cu ion implantation at a fluence of 1.0 × 10(17) cm(-2) and were then subjected to implantation of 50 keV Zn ions at fluences of 1.0 × 10(16), 5.0 × 10(16), and 10.0 × 10(16) cm(-2), respectively. Our results clearly show that post Zn ion implantation could significantly modify structures and components of the preformed Cu NPs and thus the corresponding surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption can be modulated in a wide range. In particular, CuZn alloy NPs with unique SPR absorption were synthesized in Cu-implanted silica followed by Zn ion implantation at a fluence of 5.0 × 10(16) cm(-2). During subsequent annealing, two distinguished processes concerning CuZn alloy NPs (i.e., realloying and dealloying) were found that directly result from thermally driven diffusion of Zn atoms. Moreover, owing to Zn diffusion, lots of core-shell nanostructures consisting of Zn-related compound shells around Cu cores were observed after annealing at 500 °C and higher. The underlying mechanism concerning the formation and decomposition of CuZn alloy NPs is discussed and presented. PMID:24283510

  3. Effect of scandium doping on the oxidation resistance of Zn5Al and Zn55Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obidov, Z. R.; Amonova, A. V.; Ganiev, I. N.

    2013-04-01

    The influence of scandium on the oxidation kinetics of Zn5Al and Zn55Al alloys is studied. It is observed that small additions (0.005-0.05 wt %) of Sc substantially improve the oxidation resistance of zincaluminium alloys.

  4. Two fluorescent Schiff base sensors for Zn(2+): the Zn(2+)/Cu(2+) ion interference.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Sánchez, Arturo; Ortíz, Benjamín; Ortiz Navarrete, Vianney; Farfán, Norberto; Santillan, Rosa

    2015-09-01

    Two simple and low cost 2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-[(1-hydroxycyclohexylmethylimino)methyl]phenol (L1) and 2-[{(1-hydroxycyclohexyl)methylimino}methyl]phenol (L2) Schiff base sensors exhibiting selectivity for Zn(2+) in water:methanol (95:5, v/v, 10 mM HEPES) are described. L1 and L2 display an "off-on" fluorescence effect forming the L1·Zn and L2·Zn complexes, respectively. In the case of L1·Zn, the emission response is quenched by the addition of Cu(2+) forming the respective L1·Cu complex; in spite of that, the fluorescence signal can be completely restored only by the addition of tartrate anions (C4H4O6(2-)) forming again L1·Znvia the "off-on" displacement approach. However, in the case of L2·Zn no Cu(2+) interference is observed, which is a typical problem for Zn(2+) sensors. Here we describe that a very subtle structural change in the ligand during transition from the enol-imine tautomer in L1 to the keto-enamine tautomer in L2 is enough to modulate the Zn(2+)/Cu(2+) selectivity. Also, the Zn(2+)vs. Cd(2+) discrimination for L1 and L2 is proved. Moreover, we found that the interaction between both L·Zn complexes and tartrate anions completely restored the free ligands by the ligand substitution mechanism even in a more efficient association than phosphate anions. Further, a second colorimetric response channel upon addition of Fe(2+) was observed for L1 and L2. Then, TD-DFT theoretical calculations were conducted in order to study the efficiency of the sensors to give different responses in the presence of such metal ions. Finally, the L2 sensor successfully detects Zn(2+) in Jurkat cells cultured with and without Zn(2+) enriched medium. PMID:26192046

  5. Phase correlations in the CuAlSe2-CuAlTe2 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzun, B. V.; Fadzeyeva, A. A.; Bente, K.; Schmitz, W.; Kommichau, G.

    2005-07-01

    Alloys in the CuAlSe2-CuAlTe2 system were synthesized in BN-crucibles in silica tubes under vacuum to obtain the corresponding phase equilibria. X-ray powder diffraction and thermal analytic data of the T-x phase diagram revealed a complete solid solutions series in the subsolidus region. Within the CuAlSe2xTe2(1-x) system the refined lattice parameters a and c approximately obey the Vegard rule and also the cell volume and the heat of fusion confirm linear correlations with the composition of the mixed crystals. The anion position parameter calculated after S. C. Abrahams & J. L. Bernstein (uAB) and J. E Jaffe & A. Zunger (uJZ) is greater than 0.25 and reveals a linear dependence on composition. The liquidus part of the CuAlSe2xTe2(1-x) system with x < 0.35 exhibits vertical section behaviour with a ternary peritectic followed up by a ternary monotectic whereas the region with x > 0.35 shows quasibinary equilibria.

  6. Incorporation of Cu Acceptors in ZnO Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Oo, W.M.H.; Mccluskey, Matthew D.; Huso, Jesse; Morrison, J.; Bergman, Leah; Engelhard, Mark H.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.

    2010-09-16

    Doping of semiconductor nanocrystals is an important problem in nanomaterials research. Using infrared (IR) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we have observed Cu acceptor dopants that were intentionally introduced into ZnO nanocrystals. The incorporation of Cu2+ dopants increased as the diameter of the nanocrystals was increased from ~3 to 5 nm. Etching the nanocrystals with acetic acid revealed a core-shell structure, where a 2-nm lightly doped core is surrounded by a heavily doped shell. These observations are consistent with the trapped dopant model, in which dopant atoms stick to the surface of the core and are overgrown by the nanocrystal material.

  7. Chemical fractionation of Cu and Zn in stormwater, roadway dust and stormwater pond sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camponelli, Kimberly M.; Lev, Steven M.; Snodgrass, Joel W.; Landa, Edward R.; Casey, Ryan E.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the chemical fractionation of Cu and Zn from source to deposition in a stormwater system. Cu and Zn concentrations and chemical fractionation were determined for roadway dust, roadway runoff and pond sediments. Stormwater Cu and Zn concentrations were used to generate cumulative frequency distributions to characterize potential exposure to pond-dwelling organisms. Dissolved stormwater Zn exceeded USEPA acute and chronic water quality criteria in approximately 20% of storm samples and 20% of the storm duration sampled. Dissolved Cu exceeded the previously published chronic criterion in 75% of storm samples and duration and exceeded the acute criterion in 45% of samples and duration. The majority of sediment Cu (92–98%) occurred in the most recalcitrant phase, suggesting low bioavailability; Zn was substantially more available (39–62% recalcitrant). Most sediment concentrations for Cu and Zn exceeded published threshold effect concentrations and Zn often exceeded probable effect concentrations in surface sediments.

  8. Intermetallic Phase Formation in Explosively Welded Al/Cu Bimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amani, H.; Soltanieh, M.

    2016-05-01

    Diffusion couples of aluminum and copper were fabricated by explosive welding process. The interface evolution caused by annealing at different temperatures and time durations was investigated by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Annealing in the temperature range of 573 K to 773 K (300 °C to 500 °C) up to 408 hours showed that four types of intermetallic layers have been formed at the interface, namely Al2Cu, AlCu, Al3Cu4, and Al4Cu9. Moreover, it was observed that iron trace in aluminum caused the formation of Fe-bearing intermetallics in Al, which is near the interface of the Al-Cu intermetallic layers. Finally, the activation energies for the growth of Al2Cu, AlCu + Al3Cu4, Al4Cu9, and the total intermetallic layer were calculated to be about 83.3, 112.8, 121.6, and 109.4 kJ/mol, respectively. Considering common welding methods (i.e., explosive welding, cold rolling, and friction welding), although there is a great difference in welding mechanism, it is found that the total activation energy is approximately the same.

  9. Intermetallic Phase Formation in Explosively Welded Al/Cu Bimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amani, H.; Soltanieh, M.

    2016-08-01

    Diffusion couples of aluminum and copper were fabricated by explosive welding process. The interface evolution caused by annealing at different temperatures and time durations was investigated by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Annealing in the temperature range of 573 K to 773 K (300 °C to 500 °C) up to 408 hours showed that four types of intermetallic layers have been formed at the interface, namely Al2Cu, AlCu, Al3Cu4, and Al4Cu9. Moreover, it was observed that iron trace in aluminum caused the formation of Fe-bearing intermetallics in Al, which is near the interface of the Al-Cu intermetallic layers. Finally, the activation energies for the growth of Al2Cu, AlCu + Al3Cu4, Al4Cu9, and the total intermetallic layer were calculated to be about 83.3, 112.8, 121.6, and 109.4 kJ/mol, respectively. Considering common welding methods ( i.e., explosive welding, cold rolling, and friction welding), although there is a great difference in welding mechanism, it is found that the total activation energy is approximately the same.

  10. Microstructural characterization of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells fabricated from nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yiwen; Suyama, Naoki; Goto, Masanori; Kuwana, Jun; Sugimoto, Kanta; Satake, Tetsuo; Kurokawa, Yasuyoshi; Yin, Ming; Yamada, Akira

    2015-08-01

    We characterized the microstructure of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) solar cells fabricated from Cu-poor, Zn-rich Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) nanoparticles. Various sintering atmospheres of sulfur and selenium led to different microstructural properties. For the samples sintered under sulfur atmosphere, a large number of ZnS secondary phases were observed and the Zn/Sn ratio of the grains was significantly lower than 1. Regions of the ZnS secondary phases showed a dark contrast in electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) images, indicating that the existence of the ZnS phases reduced the minority carrier collection efficiency. In contrast, for the samples sintered under selenium atmosphere, Cu was found to accumulate near the grain boundaries to form the Cu-rich CZTSe phases and only a small number of ZnSe secondary phases were detected.

  11. Cu and Zn adsorption to a heterogeneous natural sediment: Influence of leached cations and natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Fisher-Power, Leanne M; Cheng, Tao; Rastghalam, Zahra Sadat

    2016-02-01

    Adsorption of heavy metals by natural sediments has important implications to the fate and transport of contaminants in subsurface environments. Although the importance of major multivalent cations and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in heavy metal adsorption had been previously demonstrated, the leaching of major cations and DOM from sediments and its influence on heavy metal adsorption have not been fully examined. In this study, the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, and natural organic matter that leached from a natural sediment in Cu and Zn adsorption experiments were measured and used in surface complexation models to elucidate their effects on Cu and Zn adsorption. Experimental results showed that the leaching of cations and DOM was substantial and pH-dependent. The leached concentrations of Ca and Mg were reasonably simulated based on BaCl2 extractable Ca and Mg at pH < 5, and Al and Fe activities were accurately predicted for specific pH ranges by assuming solubility control by Al(OH)3 and Fe(OH)3. Visual MINTEQ simulations showed that the leached cations markedly decreased Cu adsorption at pH < 6 and Zn adsorption at pH 3-8. Due to varying affinity for DOM between Cu and Zn, DOM was found to decrease Cu adsorption at pH > 6 due to formation of Cu-DOM aqueous complexes, but increase Zn adsorption at pH 4-7 due to formation of aqueous complexes between DOM and major cations, which reduced competition from these cations against Zn for binding sites on the sediment. PMID:26547878

  12. Atomic layer deposition of ZnO on Cu-nanoclusters for methanol synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Ziyu; Patterson, Matthew; Ren Maoming; Wang Ying; Flake, John C.; Sprunger, Phillip T.; Kurtz, Richard L.

    2013-01-15

    The properties of ALD-grown ZnO thin films on Cu clusters supported on ZnO(1010) have been studied with scanning tunneling and scanning electron microscopy in combination with angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Deposition at room temperature of two monolayers of Cu on ZnO(1010) results in metallic Cu{sup 0} clusters {approx}8 nm wide by 1.4 nm high. Higher coverages of 15 ML results in a similar morphology, with slightly larger cluster sizes. Following air-exposure and ALD-growth of two cycles of ZnO, the Cu exhibits Cu{sup +} species characteristic of Cu{sub 2}O and the thin ZnO coating is hydroxylated. Electrochemical studies of ALD ZnO coatings on Cu suggest that they are more active for CO{sub 2} reduction.

  13. First-Principles Study on Cd Doping in Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Satoshi; Wada, Takahiro

    2012-10-01

    To quantitatively evaluate the substitution energies of Cd atom for Cu, Zn, or Sn atom in indium-free photovoltaic semiconductors Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe), first-principles pseudopotential calculations using plane-wave basis functions were performed. The substitution energies of Cd atom in kesterite-type CZTS and CZTSe were calculated in consideration of the atomic chemical potentials of the constituent elements of Cu, Zn, Sn, and the doping atom of Cd. During the chemical bath deposition (CBD) of the CdS layer on the CZTS or CZTSe layer, Cu, Zn, and Cd atoms dissolved in the ammonia aqueous solution and formed [Cu(NH3)2]+, [Zn(NH3)4]2+, and [Cd(NH3)4]2+ complex ions. Therefore, the chemical potentials of Cu, Zn, and Cd atoms in [Cu(NH3)2]+, [Zn(NH3)4]2+, and [Cd(NH3)4]2+ complex ions were calculated. We found that the substitution energies of n-type CdCu and charge-neutral CdZn in CZTS and CZTSe are smaller than that of p-type CdSn. The substitution energies of CdCu in CZTS and CZTSe are smaller than that in chalcopyrite-type CuInSe2 (CIS). However, the substitution energies of CdCu, CdZn, and CdSn are positive values. The formation energy of charge-neutral Cd doping with the Cu vacancy (CdCu + VCu) pair is a negative value and greatly smaller than those of donor-type CdCu and neutral CdZn in CZTS and CZTSe. These results indicate that the charge-neutral (CdCu + VCu) vacancy pair is easily formed during the CBD of the CdS layer on the CZTS or CZTSe layer. A small amount of n-type CdCu and neutral CdZn would also be formed.

  14. Methotrexate intercalated ZnAl-layered double hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Manjusha; Dasgupta, Sudip; Soundrapandian, Chidambaram; Chakraborty, Jui; Ghosh, Swapankumar; Mitra, Manoj K.; Basu, Debabrata

    2011-09-15

    The anticancerous drug methotrexate (MTX) has been intercalated into an ZnAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) using an anion exchange technique to produce LDH-MTX hybrids having particle sizes in the range of 100-300 nm. X-ray diffraction studies revealed increases in the basal spacings of ZnAl-LDH-MTX hybrid on MTX intercalation. This was corroborated by the transmission electron micrographs, which showed an increase in average interlayer spacing from 8.9 A in pristine LDH to 21.3 A in LDH-MTX hybrid. Thermogravimetric analyses showed an increase in the decomposition temperature for the MTX molecule in the LDH-MTX hybrid indicating enhanced thermal stability of the drug molecule in the LDH nanovehicle. The cumulative release profile of MTX from ZnAl-LDH-MTX hybrids in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at pH 7.4 was successfully sustained for 48 h following Rigter-Peppas model release kinetics via diffusion. - Graphical abstract: ZnAl-layered double hydroxide intercalated with methotrexate ({approx}34% loading) promises the possibility of use of ZnAl-LDH material as drug carrier and in controlled delivery. Highlights: > ZnAl-layered double hydroxide methotrexate nanohybrid has been synthesized. > XRD and TEM studies on nanohybrid revealed successful intercalation of methotrexate. > TG and CHN analyses showed {approx}34 wt% of methotrexate loading into the nanohybrid. > Possibility of use of ZnAl-LDH material as drug carrier and in delivery.

  15. The effect of sarafloxacin on Cu/ZnSOD structure and activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhaozhen; Liu, Rutao; Dong, Ziliang; Yang, Xinping; Chen, Yadong

    2015-02-01

    The effect of sarafloxacin to Cu/ZnSOD was evaluated via investigating the change in Cu/ZnSOD structure and the structure basis activity upon sarafloxacin binding. Multi-spectroscopic methods, isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC) and molecular docking method were adopted in this study. Sarafloxacin binds to Cu/ZnSOD mainly through hydrophobic and hydrogen bond forces and tends to be saturated as the molar ratio of sarafloxacin to Cu/ZnSOD reaches 4. The binding changed the microenvironment around Tyr and the secondary structure of Cu/ZnSOD but did not affect the activity of Cu/ZnSOD. Molecular docking study revealed that sarafloxacin binds into a hydrophobic area with possibility to form hydrogen bonds with Tyr 108, Asp 25, Pro 100 and Ser 103 of Cu/ZnSOD. The binding area locates on the surface of β-barrel close to the second Greek key loop (GK2) and V-loop but far away from the active site and active site channel of Cu/ZnSOD. These promoted the understanding of the experiment phenomenons. The binding of sarafloxacin does not affect the activity of Cu/ZnSOD should attribute to the binding not to change the microenvironment of Cu/ZnSOD active site and active site channel.

  16. The effect of sarafloxacin on Cu/ZnSOD structure and activity.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhaozhen; Liu, Rutao; Dong, Ziliang; Yang, Xinping; Chen, Yadong

    2015-02-01

    The effect of sarafloxacin to Cu/ZnSOD was evaluated via investigating the change in Cu/ZnSOD structure and the structure basis activity upon sarafloxacin binding. Multi-spectroscopic methods, isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC) and molecular docking method were adopted in this study. Sarafloxacin binds to Cu/ZnSOD mainly through hydrophobic and hydrogen bond forces and tends to be saturated as the molar ratio of sarafloxacin to Cu/ZnSOD reaches 4. The binding changed the microenvironment around Tyr and the secondary structure of Cu/ZnSOD but did not affect the activity of Cu/ZnSOD. Molecular docking study revealed that sarafloxacin binds into a hydrophobic area with possibility to form hydrogen bonds with Tyr 108, Asp 25, Pro 100 and Ser 103 of Cu/ZnSOD. The binding area locates on the surface of β-barrel close to the second Greek key loop (GK2) and V-loop but far away from the active site and active site channel of Cu/ZnSOD. These promoted the understanding of the experiment phenomenons. The binding of sarafloxacin does not affect the activity of Cu/ZnSOD should attribute to the binding not to change the microenvironment of Cu/ZnSOD active site and active site channel. PMID:25448960

  17. Dissolution of Precipitates During Solution Treatment of Al-Mg-Si-Cu Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xukai; Guo, Mingxing; Zhang, Jishan; Zhuang, Linzhong

    2016-02-01

    A model combining classical diffusion-controlled dissolution equation for a single spherical particle and Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-like equation is used to deal with dissolution process for different kinds of precipitations (Si, Mg2Si, Q(Al1.9Mg4.1Si3.3Cu)) in Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys. The results reveal that the dissolution time of precipitates increases with increasing their sizes and solute concentrations in the alloy matrix; for the same size and concentration, their dissolution times follow Si > Q(Al1.9Mg4.1Si3.3Cu) > Mg2Si. Two precipitates (Mg2Si and Al1.9Mg4.1Si3.3Cu) with a size of about 700 nm were obtained in a cold rolled Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Zn alloy, and the complete dissolution time is about 15 seconds, which is basically the same as the calculated time by the developed model. The theoretical prediction of dissolution time can be greatly used to design solution treatment and thermomechanical processing parameters of Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys.

  18. Phosphate-free synthesis, optical absorption and photoelectric properties of Cu2ZnGeS4 and Cu2ZnGeSe4 uniform nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liang; Yin, Peiqun

    2013-10-01

    Copper-based quaternary chalcogenide semiconductor Cu2ZnGeS4 and Cu2ZnGeSe4 nanocrystals have been synthesized successfully via a simple and convenient one-pot phosphine-free solution approach. Oleylamine was used as both the solvent and reductant for Se or S and benefited the formation of homogeneous quaternary nanocrystals. Scanning transmission electron microscopy-EDS elemental mapping confirms the uniform spatial distribution of four elements in nanocrystals. UV-Vis absorption spectra of Cu2ZnGeS4 and Cu2ZnGeSe4 nanocrystals show strong photon absorption in the entire visible range. The photoresponsive behavior indicates the potential application of Cu2ZnGeSe4 nanocrystals in solar energy conversion systems. PMID:23900582

  19. ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 solar cells prepared by vapor phase Zn doping

    DOEpatents

    Ramanathan, Kannan; Hasoon, Falah S.; Asher, Sarah E.; Dolan, James; Keane, James C.

    2007-02-20

    A process for making a thin film ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 solar cell without depositing a buffer layer and by Zn doping from a vapor phase, comprising: depositing Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 layer on a metal back contact deposited on a glass substrate; heating the Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 layer on the metal back contact on the glass substrate to a temperature range between about 100.degree. C. to about 250.degree. C.; subjecting the heated layer of Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 to an evaporant species from a Zn compound; and sputter depositing ZnO on the Zn compound evaporant species treated layer of Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2.

  20. Synthesis, Structure, and Physical Properties of Ln(Cu,Al,Ga)13-x (Ln = La-Pr, and Eu) and Eu(Cu,Al)13-x

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, W Adam; Kangas, Michael J; McCandless, Gregory T; Drake, Brenton L; Haldolaarachchige, Neel; Zhao, Liang L; Wang, Jiakui K; Wang, Xiaoping P; Young, David P; Morosan, Emilia; Hoffmann, Christina; Chan, Julia Y

    2012-09-10

    Ln(Cu,Al,Ga)13–x (Ln = La–Pr, and Eu; x ~ 0.2) were synthesized by a combined Al/Ga flux. Single crystal X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments revealed that these compounds crystallize in the NaZn13 structure-type (space group Fm3⁻c) with lattice parameters of a ~ 12 Å, V ~ 1600 Å, and Z ~ 8. Our final neutron models led us to conclude that Cu is occupationally disordered on the 8b Wyckoff site while Cu, Al, and Ga are substitutionally disordered on the 96i Wyckoff site of this well-known structure-type. The magnetic susceptibility data show that Ce(Cu,Al,Ga)13–x and Pr(Cu,Al,Ga)13–x exhibit paramagnetic behavior down to the lowest temperatures measured while Eu(Cu,Al,Ga)13–x displays ferromagnetic behavior below 6 K. Eu(Cu,Al)13–x was prepared via arc-melting and orders ferromagnetically below 8 K. The magnetocaloric properties of Eu(Cu,Al,Ga)13–x and Eu(Cu,Al)13–x were measured and compared. Additionally, an enhanced value of the Sommerfeld coefficient (γ = 356 mJ/mol-K2) was determined for Pr(Cu,Al,Ga)13–x. Herein, we present the synthesis, structural refinement details, and physical properties of Ln(Cu,Al,Ga)13–x (Ln = La–Pr, and Eu) and Eu(Cu,Al)13–x.

  1. Facile synthesis of dendritic Cu by electroless reaction of Cu-Al alloys in multiphase solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Liang, Shuhua; Yang, Qing; Wang, Xianhui

    2016-11-01

    Two-dimensional nano- or micro-scale fractal dendritic coppers (FDCs) were synthesized by electroless immersing of Cu-Al alloys in hydrochloric acid solution containing copper chloride without any assistance of template or surfactant. The FDC size increases with the increase of Al content in Cu-Al alloys immersed in CuCl2 + HCl solution. Compared to Cu40Al60 and Cu45Al55 alloys, the FDC shows hierarchical distribution and homogeneous structures using Cu17Al83 alloy as the starting alloy. The growth direction of the FDC is <110>, and all angles between the trunks and branches are 60°. Nanoscale Cu2O was found at the edge of FDC. Interestingly, nanoporous copper (NPC) can also be obtained through Cu17Al83 alloy. Studies showed that the formation of FDC depended on two key factors: the potential difference between CuAl2 intermetallic and α-Al phase of dual-phase Cu-Al alloys; a replacement reaction that usually occurs in multiphase solution. The electrochemical experiment further proved that the multi-branch dendritic structure is very beneficial to the proton transfer in the process of catalyzing methanol.

  2. Intermetallic compound formation at Cu-Al wire bond interface

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, In-Tae; Young Jung, Dae; Chen, William T.; Du Yong

    2012-12-15

    Intermetallic compound (IMC) formation and evolution at Cu-Al wire bond interface were studied using focused ion beam /scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), nano beam electron diffraction (NBED) and structure factor (SF) calculation. It was found that discrete IMC patches were formed at the Cu/Al interface in as-packaged state and they grew toward Al pad after high temperature storage (HTS) environment at 150 Degree-Sign C. TEM/EDS and NBED results combined with SF calculation revealed the evidence of metastable {theta} Prime -CuAl{sub 2} IMC phase (tetragonal, space group: I4m2, a = 0.404 nm, c= 0.580 nm) formed at Cu/Al interfaces in both of the as-packaged and the post-HTS samples. Two feasible mechanisms for the formation of the metastable {theta} Prime -CuAl{sub 2} phase are discussed based on (1) non-equilibrium cooling of wire bond that is attributed to highly short bonding process time and (2) the epitaxial relationships between Cu and {theta} Prime -CuAl{sub 2}, which can minimize lattice mismatch for {theta} Prime -CuAl{sub 2} to grow on Cu.

  3. New Highly Mixed Phases in Ball-Milled Cu/ZnO Catalysts as Established by EXAFS and XANES

    SciTech Connect

    Grandjean, Didier; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; Castricum, Hessel L.; Heuvel, Johannes C. van den

    2007-02-02

    AnXAFS investigation at both the Cu and Zn K-edge has allowed to unravel new highly mixed phases in Cu/ZnO catalysts prepared by ball-milling mixtures of Cu2O and ZnO under 3 different atmospheres of synthetic air (SA), SA+CO2 and CO2. The system milled in CO2 shows the disproportionation of Cu2O into Cu0, Cu1+ (cuprite Cu2O-type phase) and Cu2+ (tenorite CuO-type phase), while most of the Zn2+ is transformed into a nanocrystalline / amorphous ZnO-type zincite that forms a superficial mixture of oxide and carbonate phases. When synthetic air is added to the CO2 atmosphere, ball-milling results in the oxidation of part of the Cu1+ into Cu2+ with no Cu metal formed. In SA, a significant amount of Cu2+- and Zn2+-based phases react to form a nanocrystalline / amorphous Cu1-xZnxO solid solution that was never reported before. This distorted rock salt-like solid solution, in which Zn and Cu feature different octahedral environments, is formed by incorporation of Zn2+ in the Cu2O matrix and the concomitant oxidation of Cu1+ into Cu2+ and results from strong Cu/Zn interactions in the Cu/ZnO system.

  4. Atmospheric corrosion of Cu, Zn, and Cu-Zn alloys protected by self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinpour, Saman; Forslund, Mattias; Johnson, C. Magnus; Pan, Jinshan; Leygraf, Christofer

    2016-06-01

    In this article results from earlier studies have been compiled in order to compare the protection efficiency of self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of alkanethiols for copper, zinc, and copper-zinc alloys exposed to accelerated indoor atmospheric corrosion conditions. The results are based on a combination of surface spectroscopy and microscopy techniques. The protection efficiency of investigated SAMs increases with chain length which is attributed to transport hindrance of the corrosion stimulators in the atmospheric environment, water, oxygen and formic acid, towards the copper surface. The transport hindrance is selective and results in different corrosion products on bare and on protected copper. Initially the molecular structure of SAMs on copper is well ordered, but the ordering is reduced with exposure time. Octadecanethiol (ODT), the longest alkanethiol investigated, protects copper significantly better than zinc, which may be attributed to the higher bond strength of Cu-S than of Zn-S. Despite these differences, the corrosion protection efficiency of ODT for the single phase Cu20Zn brass alloy is equally efficient as for copper, but significantly less for the heterogeneous double phase Cu40Zn brass alloy.

  5. Synthesis and luminescence properties of ZnS and metal (Mn, Cu)-doped-ZnS ceramic powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ummartyotin, S.; Bunnak, N.; Juntaro, J.; Sain, M.; Manuspiya, H.

    2012-03-01

    ZnS and metal (Mn, Cu)-doped-ZnS were successfully prepared by wet chemical synthetic route. The understanding of substituted metal ions (Mn, Cu) into ZnS leads to transfer the luminescent centre by small amount of metal dopant (Mn, Cu). Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction were used to determine chemical bonding and crystal structure, respectively. It showed that small amount of metal (Mn, Cu) can be completely substituted into ZnS lattice. X-ray fluorescence was used to confirm the existence of metal-doped ZnS. Scanning electron microscope revealed that their particles exhibits blocky particle with irregular sharp. Laser confocal microscope and photoluminescence spectroscopy showed that ZnS and metal-doped-ZnS exhibited intense, stable, and tunable emission covering the blue to red end of the visible spectrum. ZnS, Mn-doped-ZnS and Cu-doped-ZnS generated blue, yellow and green color, respectively.

  6. Growth and characterization of p-ZnO:Cu thin film and its homojunction application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saritha, A. C.; Shijeesh, M. R.; Vikas, L. S.; Prabhu, Rajeev R.; Jayaraj, M. K.

    2016-07-01

    Copper doped ZnO films (CZO) with p-type semiconducting behaviour and an average transparency of 50% in the visible region were deposited on glass substrates at room temperature by RF magnetron co-sputtering. The high resolution x-ray photoelectron spectrum of Cu 2p core level indicates that the Cu ions in the film are in a bivalent state of  +1 and  +2. Both Cu1+ and Cu2+ are found to contribute to the p-type conductivity of the film via different means. Room temperature PL measurement shows a red shift of excitonic emission and an increase in the visible emission with Cu doping. p-ZnO:Cu/i-ZnO/n-ZnO homojunction with a turn on voltage of 2.7 V and an ideality factor of 8 was fabricated with the device structure Au/Ti/n-ZnO/i-ZnO/p-CZO/Au.

  7. CuZn dendritic alloys: their template-free electrochemical preparation and morphology-dependent wettability.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Ru; Yin, Qiaoqiao; Qiu, Ri; Zhu, Lanlan; Fu, Jianong; Zhang, Xiao Li

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we report a preparation of CuZn dendritic microstructures through a tunable template-free electrochemical approach. By simply tunning the applied depositing current, the morphology of the product can be well controlled. The growth mechanism of CuZn dendritic alloys was also verified. The experimental results suggest that the growth of the grass-like structures obtained at 5 mA is driven by diffusion limited aggregation, while the driving force of the formation of CuZn dendrites obtained at 10 mA and 15 mA is gas bubbling worked as the dynamic template. The contact angle test shows the modified CuZn dendritic products possess superhydrophobic property. Additionally, through annealing of CuZn alloys in argon as the protective gas, derivative Cu/ZnO composite materials can be produced. PMID:23862481

  8. Cu isotope variability in Bavariás largest Cu-Zn deposit in Kupferberg (NE Bavaria, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhn, Stefan; Frimmel, Hartwig E.; Debaille, Vinciane; Debouge, Wendy

    2016-04-01

    Kupferberg, a small town c. 15 km northeast of Kulmbach, owns its existence to Bavaria's largest Cu-Zn deposit, which was mined intermittently from the 13th to the 19th century. The deposit is located in the Saxothuringian Zone of the Variscan basement in northeastern Bavaria. It is positioned between the allochthonous Münchberg metamorphic complex in the east and a major northwest-southeast tending regional fault zone, the "Franconian Lineament", in the west. The deposit is hosted by an Early Palaeozoic volcano-sedimentary succession of the Randschiefer Formation (RF) and consists of a northwest-southeast directed string of several stratiform, sulfide-rich ore lenses. These lenses show a remarkably simple mineralogy dominated by quartz, carbonate, pyrite and chalcopyrite with minor amounts of sphalerite and chlorite. The genesis of the Cu-Zn mineralization has remained speculative. A purely syngenetic model, supported by the generally laminated appearance of the ore, has to be questioned because of the ore lenses occurring in different tectonic units. Urban & Vaché (1972) proposed supergene enrichment between the Cretaceous and the Tertiary as most critical. To test such a supergene versus hypogene Cu-mineralization, we investigated the Cu isotopic composition of primary and secondary Cu phases as well as the trace element distribution in three pyrite generations. The pyrite generation that is coeval with the principal Cu-mineralization in the form of chalcopyrite has Co/Ni ratios (on average 35) typical of hydrothermal, possibly metamorphic, formation. Chalcopyrite, present at highly variable modal proportions, yielded a narrow range in δ65Cu from -0.26 to 0.36 ‰Ḃoth the absolute values and the narrow range are similar to the δ65Cu range known for hydrothermal chalcopyrite in crustal rocks (Markl et al. 2006). Metamorphism has been shown to further restrict the range in δ65Cu (Ikehata et al. 2011) - an effect that might be applicable to Kupferberg. In

  9. Impact of the Stack Order in Cu-Zn-Sn Metal Precursors on the Properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Abusnina, Mohamed; Matin, Mohammad; Moutinho, Helio; Al-Jassim, Mowafak

    2015-06-14

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films were grown by the annealing of metallic precursors with different stack orders in sulfur atmosphere. The sequential deposition of the metal layers from single Cu, Zn, and Sn targets on Mo-coated soda-lime glass substrates was carried out using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. In this work, we investigated the effect of the sequence of metal layers on the chemical, structural, and morphological properties of the final CZTS films using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman scattering spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The realized stack sequences were Mo/Sn/Zn/Cu, Mo/Sn/Cu/Zn, Mo/Cu/Zn/Sn, Mo/Cu/Sn/Zn, and Mo/Zn/Cu/Sn. XRF measurements revealed notable impact of the metal layers' stacking order in the precursor on the chemical composition. It also showed Sn loss and high Zn concentration in all sulfurized films; however, having Cu on the Sn or Zn/Sn layer showed some minimization of the Sn loss. XRD showed CZTS films with good crystallinity and no evidence of the presence of secondary phases. Changing the precursor stack order did not show any influence on the films' crystallinity or texture. Raman spectroscopy, in contrast, indicated the presence of ZnS phase beside the main CZTS phase. The morphology study showed significant effect on the structure of the final CZTS films depending on the used stack order. Generally, the films that originated from precursors having a Zn layer deposited directly on Mo or as the second layer exhibited better adhesion to the Mo layer and showed fewer or even no voids compared to the other films.

  10. Sources of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in rainwater at a subtropical islet offshore northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Miao-Ching; You, Chen-Feng; Lin, Fei-Jan; Huang, Kuo-Fang; Chung, Chuan-Hsiung

    2011-02-01

    Pollutants derived from long-range transport and local emission impact significantly of heavy metal compositions in rainwater and aerosols. To identify their sources and relative contributions in rainwater, 47 monthly rainwater samples from January 1998 to December 2001, collected at Peng Chia Yu (PCY), a non-residential islet offshore Taiwan, were analyzed for heavy metals (i.e. Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) and Pb isotopic compositions. The dissolved metals concentrations of Al, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Ba, and Pb in PCY rains are high in spring and winter, but low in summer. This can be understood in terms of pollutant source changes due to wind direction shifted seasonally. The average EF crust and EF seawater values calculated for Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb are far greater than 1500, suggesting their strong anthropogenic sources, also supported by the PCA results. The pollutants derived from long-range transport are the predominated heavy metals sources during the winter monsoon season, whereas local traffic emissions play the most important role during the summer monsoon period. Unique Pb isotopic fingerprints, similar to those of iron ore sinter dusts and oil combustion dusts from Shanghai and the traffic emissions from Taiwan were identified in PCY rainwater. A mixing model based on three typical end-member Pb isotopic compositions derived from Taiwan and China was applied to evaluate the pollutant sources variations.

  11. Adsorption and desorption of Zn, Cu, and Cr by sediments from the Raisi River (Michigan)

    SciTech Connect

    Young, T.C.; DePinto, J.V.; Kipp, T.W.

    1987-01-01

    Metal adsorption by Raisin River sediments in vitro depended linearly on soluble metal concentration to adsorption densities of 6,000-9,000 microg/g with 48 hr partition coefficients of approximately 50, 30, and 25 L/g for Cu, Cr, and Zn, respectively. Partition coefficients computed from field data spanned a comparatively wider range of values in a manner consistent with the often reported adsorbent concentration effect, but other factors likely contributed, too. Desorption of Zn was complete and rapid (24-48 hr) in contrast to Cr, which was incomplete and much slower; Cu desorption was intermediate to Zn and Cr. A reversible-resistant equilibrium model (DiToro et al. 1986) could not describe the observations as Cu and Cr had not reached metastable desorption equilibria after 24 days. Metal desorption, however, could be described kinetically by distributing sorbed cations between either of two classes; rapidly desorbing and slowly desorbing cations. Sequential and simultaneous desorption models gave similar predictions. Aqueous chemical considerations suggested precipitated as well as adsorbed species could give rise to the observations, but available data did not permit adequate tests of this hypothesis. The extent to which kinetic constraints rather than irreversible reactions account for the desorption-resistant binding signifies a potentially greater metal mobility or bioavailability than would otherwise be assumed.

  12. Optical and Electrical Properties of TTF-MPcs (M = Cu, Zn) Interfaces for Optoelectronic Applications.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Vergara, María Elena; Leyva-Esqueda, Mariel; Alvárez-Bada, José Ramón; García-Montalvo, Verónica; Rojas-Montoya, Iván Darío; Jiménez-Sandoval, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Sandwich structures were fabricated by a vacuum deposition method using MPc (M = Cu, Zn), with a Tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivative, and Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) and aluminum electrodes. The structure and morphology of the deposited films were studied by IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The absorption spectra of TTF derivative-MPc (M = Cu, Zn) thin films deposited at room temperature were recorded in the spectral range 200-1000 nm. The optical band gap of the thin films was determined from the (αhν)(1/2) vs. hν plot. The direct-current (DC) electrical properties of the glass/ITO/TTFderiv-MPc (M = Cu, Zn)/Al structures were also investigated. Changes in conductivity of the derivative-TTF-enriched Pc compounds suggest the formation of alternative paths for carrier conduction. At low voltages, forward current density obeys an ohmic I-V relationship; at higher voltages, conduction is mostly due to a space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC) mechanism. PMID:26610466

  13. Unidirectional solidification of Zn-rich Zn-Cu peritectic alloys -- 2. Microstructural length scales

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, D.; Li, Y.; Ng, S.C.; Jones, H.

    2000-05-11

    Experimental results are presented of solidification microstructure length scale including {eta}-phase cell spacing, primary {epsilon} secondary dendrite arm spacing, size of nonaligned dendrite of primary {epsilon}, and volume fraction of primary {epsilon}, as functions of alloy concentration (containing up to 7.37 wt% Cu) and growth velocity (ranging from 0.02 to 4.82 mm/s) in the unidirectional solidification of Zn-rich Zn-Cu peritectic alloys. Intercellular spacing ({lambda}) of two-phase cellular structure decreases with increasing growth velocity (V) such that {lambda}V{sup 1/2} is constant at a fixed alloy concentration in parametric agreement with the KGT and Hunt-Lu models. The value of {lambda}V{sup 1/2} varies from 216 {+-} 10 to 316 {+-} 55 {micro}m{sup 3/2}/s{sup 1/2} with decrease in alloy concentration from 4.94 to 2.17 wt% Cu. These values are much greater than for normal eutectic systems but comparable with monotectic alloys. Dendritic secondary arm spacing ({lambda}{sub 2}) of primary {epsilon} decreases with increasing V such that {lambda}{sub 2}V{sup 1/3} is constant ranging 14.9 {+-} 0.9 to 75.6 {+-} 8.1 {micro}m{sup 4/3}/s{sup 1/3} with increase in alloy concentration (C{sub 0}) from 2.17 to 7.37 wt% Cu, which is in parametric agreement with predictions of arm-coarsening theory. The volume fraction (f{sub e}) of primary {epsilon} increases with increasing V for Zn-rich Zn-3.37, 4.94 and 7.37 wt% Cu hyperperitectic alloys. Predictions of the Scheil and Sarreal-Abbaschian models show good agreement with the observed f{sub {epsilon}} for Zn-4.94 wt% Cu at moderate V from 0.19 to 2.64 mm/s, but fail at low V of less than 0.16 mm/s and at high V of greater than 3.54 mm/s. The measured average size, {Lambda}V{sup 1/2} is constant for a given alloy, increasing from (0.98 {+-} 0.04) x 10{sup 3} to (7.2 {+-} 0.7) x 10{sup 3} {micro}m{sup 3/2}/s{sup 1/2} with increase in alloy concentration from 2.17 to 4.94 wt% Cu.

  14. Detection of Cu2Zn5SnSe8 and Cu2Zn6SnSe9 phases in co-evaporated Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin-films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Torsten; Marques, Miguel A. L.; Botti, Silvana; Mousel, Marina; Redinger, Alex; Siebentritt, Susanne; Cojocaru-Mirédin, Oana; Raabe, Dierk; Choi, Pyuck-Pa

    2015-10-01

    Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin-films for photovoltaic applications are investigated using combined atom probe tomography and ab initio density functional theory. The atom probe studies reveal nano-sized grains of Cu2Zn5SnSe8 and Cu2Zn6SnSe9 composition, which cannot be assigned to any known phase reported in the literature. Both phases are considered to be metastable, as density functional theory calculations yield positive energy differences with respect to the decomposition into Cu2ZnSnSe4 and ZnSe. Among the conceivable crystal structures for both phases, a distorted zinc-blende structure shows the lowest energy, which is a few tens of meV below the energy of a wurtzite structure. A band gap of 1.1 eV is calculated for both the Cu2Zn5SnSe8 and Cu2Zn6SnSe9 phases. Possible effects of these phases on solar cell performance are discussed.

  15. Incorporation of trace elements in Portland cement clinker: Thresholds limits for Cu, Ni, Sn or Zn

    SciTech Connect

    Gineys, N.; Aouad, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Damidot, D.

    2011-11-15

    This paper aims at defining precisely, the threshold limits for several trace elements (Cu, Ni, Sn or Zn) which correspond to the maximum amount that could be incorporated into a standard clinker whilst reaching the limit of solid solution of its four major phases (C{sub 3}S, C{sub 2}S, C{sub 3}A and C{sub 4}AF). These threshold limits were investigated through laboratory synthesised clinkers that were mainly studied by X-ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The reference clinker was close to a typical Portland clinker (65% C{sub 3}S, 18% C{sub 2}S, 8% C{sub 3}A and 8% C{sub 4}AF). The threshold limits for Cu, Ni, Zn and Sn are quite high with respect to the current contents in clinker and were respectively equal to 0.35, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 wt.%. It appeared that beyond the defined threshold limits, trace elements had different behaviours. Ni was associated with Mg as a magnesium nickel oxide (MgNiO{sub 2}) and Sn reacted with lime to form a calcium stannate (Ca{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}). Cu changed the crystallisation process and affected therefore the formation of C{sub 3}S. Indeed a high content of Cu in clinker led to the decomposition of C{sub 3}S into C{sub 2}S and of free lime. Zn, in turn, affected the formation of C{sub 3}A. Ca{sub 6}Zn{sub 3}Al{sub 4}O{sub 15} was formed whilst a tremendous reduction of C{sub 3}A content was identified. The reactivity of cements made with the clinkers at the threshold limits was followed by calorimetry and compressive strength measurements on cement paste. The results revealed that the doped cements were at least as reactive as the reference cement.

  16. First-principles study for ferromagnetism of Cu-doped ZnO with carrier doping

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Byung-Sub; Kim, Kyeong-Sup; Yu, Seong-Cho; Chae, Heejoon

    2013-02-15

    We studied the effects on the ferromagnetism of carrier doping in Zn{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O with x=0.0277-0.0833 by using the first-principles calculations. The total magnetic moment of Cu is about 1, 2, and 3 {mu}{sub B}/cell at the concentration of 2.77%, 5.55%, and 8.33%, respectively. For Zn{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 1-y}N{sub y}, we obtained the ferromagnetic and half-metallic ground state. The Cu magnetic moment in low Cu concentration is increased by the N-doping. However, for the F-doping it decreases. The ferromagnetism in Cu-doped ZnO is controllable by changing the carrier density. The N 2p states hybridize well with Cu 3d states instead of the O 2p states. Due to the hybridization between N 2p and Cu 3d states, the holes are itinerant with keeping its 3d states. For (Cu,N)-codoped ZnO, it is recognized that the width of 3d states is larger than that of (Cu,F)-codoped ZnO. - Graphical abstract: Considered clean wurtzite ZnO structure, the Cu magnetic moments for Zn{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 1-y}N{sub y} or Zn{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 1-y}F{sub y} of the ferromagnetic state (left), and the charge density difference of Zn{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O (x=0.0277) (right). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ferromagnetism of Cu-doped ZnO is controllable by N or F carrier density. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Cu magnetic moment in low Cu concentration is increased by hole doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The N 2p states hybridize well with the Cu 3d states instead of the O 2p states. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For (Cu,F)-codoped ZnO, the Cu 3d band is narrower than that for (Cu,N)-codoped ZnO.

  17. Room temperature ferromagnetism and photoluminescence in Cu-doped ZnO nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Kong, Liming; Yu, Bin; Xu, Xiaoyong; Pan, Jing; Su, Yuanchang; Hu, Jingguo

    2014-08-01

    The Zn(1-x)Cu(x)O (x = 0.0-3.5%) nanocrystals have been synthesized by a simple sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction, optical absorption and photoluminescence measurements were employed to validate consistently the incorporation of Cu ions into the ZnO wurtzite lattice without formation of secondary phases for Zn(1-x)Cu(x)O (x < 2.0%). Meanwhile, it was found that the substituted Cu-doping leads to the reduction of the band gap and the appearance of the structured green emission. Magnetization measurement showed that the low Cu-doping (x < 1.0%) develops the ferromagnetism, but the high Cu-doping destroys sharply the ferromagnetism due to the formation of the antiferromagnetic coupling among the neighboring Cu ions. It is indicated that the rational Cu-doping can tune optical and magnetic properties in ZnO. PMID:25936047

  18. Fundamental studies of methanol synthesis from CO(2) hydrogenation on Cu(111), Cu clusters, and Cu/ZnO(0001).

    PubMed

    Yang, Yixiong; Evans, Jaime; Rodriguez, Jose A; White, Michael G; Liu, Ping

    2010-09-01

    A combination of experimental and theoretical methods were employed to investigate the synthesis of methanol via CO(2) hydrogenation (CO(2) + 3H(2)--> CH(3)OH + H(2)O) on Cu(111) and Cu nanoparticle surfaces. High pressure reactivity studies show that Cu nanoparticles supported on a ZnO(0001[combining macron]) single crystal exhibit a higher catalytic activity than the Cu(111) planar surface. Complementary density functional theory (DFT) calculations of methanol synthesis were also performed for a Cu(111) surface and unsupported Cu(29) nanoparticles, and the results support a higher activity for Cu nanoparticles. The DFT calculations show that methanol synthesis on Cu surfaces proceeds through a formate intermediate and the overall reaction rate is limited by both formate and dioxomethylene hydrogenation. Moreover, the superior activity of the nanoparticle is associated with its fluxionality and the presence of low-coordinated Cu sites, which stabilize the key intermediates, e.g. formate and dioxomethylene, and lower the barrier for the rate-limiting hydrogenation process. The reverse water-gas-shift (RWGS) reaction (CO(2) + H(2)--> CO + H(2)O) was experimentally observed to compete with methanol synthesis and was also considered in our DFT calculations. In agreement with experiment, the rate of the RWGS reaction on Cu nanoparticles is estimated to be approximately 2 orders of magnitude faster than methanol synthesis at T = 573 K. The experiments and calculations also indicate that CO produced by the fast RWGS reaction does not undergo subsequent hydrogenation to methanol, but instead simply accumulates as a product. Methanol production from CO hydrogenation via the RWGS pathway is hindered by the first hydrogenation of CO to formyl, which is not stable and prefers to dissociate into CO and H atoms on Cu. Our calculated results suggest that the methanol yield over Cu-based catalysts could be improved by adding dopants or promoters which are able to stabilize formyl

  19. ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS Quantum Dot-Based Downconversion Light-Emitting Diodes and Their Thermal Effect

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Wenyan; Zhang, Yu; Ruan, Cheng; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Tieqiang; Feng, Yi; Gao, Wenzhu; Yin, Jingzhi; Wang, Yiding; Riley, Alexis P.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The quantum dot-based light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs) were fabricated using blue GaN chips and red-, yellow-, and green-emitting ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS QDs. The power efficiencies were measured as 14.0 lm/W for red, 47.1 lm/W for yellow, and 62.4 lm/W for green LEDs at 2.6 V. The temperature effect of ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS QDs on these LEDs was investigated using CIE chromaticity coordinates, spectral wavelength, full width at half maximum (FWHM), and power efficiency (PE). The thermal quenching induced by the increased surface temperature of the device was confirmed to be one of the important factors to decrease power efficiencies while the CIE chromaticity coordinates changed little due to themore » low emission temperature coefficients of 0.022, 0.050, and 0.068 nm/°C for red-, yellow-, and green-emitting ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS QDs. These indicate that ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS QDs are more suitable for downconversion LEDs compared to CdSe QDs.« less

  20. The stability domain of the selenide kesterite photovoltaic materials and NMR investigation of the Cu/Zn disorder in Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe).

    PubMed

    Choubrac, Léo; Lafond, Alain; Paris, Michaël; Guillot-Deudon, Catherine; Jobic, Stéphane

    2015-06-21

    Bulk compounds, prepared via the ceramic route, related to Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe), a material considered for use in photovoltaic devices, were investigated using NMR spectroscopy, electron-probe microanalyses and X-ray diffraction. These materials adopt the kesterite structure regardless of the Cu and Zn contents. It is also shown that the stability domain of the copper-poor quaternary phases is wider for selenide derivatives than for sulphides. Finally, the Cu/Zn disorder level in CZTSe is found to be higher when the samples are quenched, which is reminiscent of the behaviour of the parent sulphide compounds CZTS. PMID:25990030

  1. μSR investigation of a new diluted magnetic semiconductor Li(Zn,Mn,Cu)As with Mn and Cu codoping at the same Zn sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, S. L.; Zhao, Y.; Man, H. Y.; Ding, C.; Gong, X.; Zhi, G. X.; Fu, L. C.; Gu, Y. L.; Frandsen, B. A.; Liu, L.; Cheung, S. C.; Munsie, T. J.; Wilson, M. N.; Cai, Y. P.; Luke, G. M.; Uemura, Y. J.; Ning, F. L.

    2016-09-01

    We report the successful synthesis and characterization of a new type I–II–V bulk form diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) Li(Zn,Mn,Cu)As, in which charge and spin doping are decoupled via (Cu,Zn) and (Mn,Zn) substitution at the same Zn sites. Ferromagnetic transition temperature up to  ∼33 K has been observed with a coercive field  ∼40 Oe for the 12.5% doping level. μSR measurements confirmed that the magnetic volume fraction reaches nearly 100% at 2 K, and the mechanism responsible for the ferromagnetic interaction in this system is the same as other bulk form DMSs.

  2. Effects of metals Cu, Fe, Ni, V, and Zn on rat lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Riley, Mark R; Boesewetter, Dianne E; Kim, Aana M; Sirvent, Francisco P

    2003-08-28

    Inhalation of combustion-derived particulate matter can have a variety of negative impacts on human health. Metals are known to play a substantial role in these effects, however, the interactions between cellular responses caused by multiple metals is not well understood. The impact of metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, V, and Fe) individually and in combination on a rat lung epithelial cell line (RLE-6TN) was evaluated. Quantifications involved measurement of inhibition of cell culture metabolism (mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity), cell death, mechanisms of cell death, and cytokine secretion. The ranking of metal toxicity based on TC(50) values is V>Zn>Cu>Ni>Fe. Interactions were observed for exposures containing multiple metals: Zn+V, Zn+Cu, Zn+Fe, and Zn+Ni. Zn appears to diminish the negative impact of V and Cu; has an additive effect with Ni, and has no substantial effect on Fe toxicity. PMID:12927373

  3. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of ultra-high aspect ratio ZnO nanowires due to Cu induced defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasupathi Sugavaneshwar, Ramu; Duy Dao, Thang; Nanda, Karuna Kar; Nagao, Tadaaki; Hishita, Shunichi; Sakaguchi, Isao

    2015-12-01

    We report the synthesis of ZnO nanowires in ambient air at 650°C by a single-step vapor transport method using two different sources Zn (ZnO nanowires-I) and Zn:Cu (ZnO nanowires-II). The Zn:Cu mixed source co-vaporize Zn with a small amount of Cu at temperatures where elemental Cu source does not vaporize. This method provides us a facile route for Cu doping into ZnO. The aspect ratio of the grown ZnO nanowires-II was found to be higher by more than five times compared ZnO nanowires-I. Photocatalytic activity was measured by using a solar simulator and its ultraviolet-filtered light. The ZnO nanowires-II shows higher catalytic activity due to increased aspect ratio and higher content of surface defects because of incorporation of Cu impurities.

  4. Facile synthesis and photocatalytic activity of bi-phase dispersible Cu-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao; Liu, HongLing; Zhang, WenXing; Li, XueMei; Fang, Ning; Wang, XianHong; Wu, JunHua

    2015-04-01

    Bi-phase dispersible Cu-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles were synthesized by one-pot non-aqueous nanoemulsion with the use of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEO-PPO-PEO) as the surfactant. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) show high crystallinity of the Cu-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles and an average particle size of ~19.4 nm. The ultraviolet-visible light absorbance spectrometry (UV-vis) and photoluminescence spectrophotometry (PL) demonstrate well dispersibility and excellent optical performance of Cu-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles both in organic and aqueous solvent. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms Cu1+ and Cu2+ in ZnO. The observation using Sudan red (III) as probe molecule reveals that the Cu-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles possess enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability which are promising for potential applications in photocatalysis.

  5. The Effects of Sputtering Target Preparation and Deposition Temperature on ZnTe:Cu Film Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Faulkner, Brooke R.; Ohno, T. R.; Burst, James M.; Duenow, Joel N.; Perkins, Craig L.; To, Bobby; Gessert, Timothy A.

    2015-06-14

    A back contact containing a sputtered ZnTe:Cu interface layer can produce high-performing thin-film CdS/CdTe photovoltaic devices. We have found that varying the ZnTe:Cu sputtering target fabrication processes and deposition temperature can affect material properties of the ZnTe:Cu films and the resulting device performance. Two different target 'recipes' with various copper contents were used to study changes in the compositional, structural, optical, and electrical properties of ZnTe:Cu films. Substrate temperature during deposition was also varied to investigate the temperature dependence of the films. It was found that the target recipe, Cu concentration in the target, and deposition temperature affect the composition of the ZnTe:Cu films, which impacts their structural, optical, and electrical properties.

  6. Mechanical Properties of a Partially Solidified Cu-Zn Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuya, Naoki; Nakazawa, Tomoaki; Matsushita, Akira; Okane, Toshimitsu; Yoshida, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    For predicting solidification cracking by thermal stress analysis, the mechanical properties in the partially solidified state based on the experimental results are the best hope. However, the Young's modulus has never been investigated for copper alloys. In this study, stress-strain curves of a Cu-Zn alloy in the partially solidified state for various solid fractions were obtained using a specially developed horizontal tensile test device. Furthermore, by removing the load during the tensile test, the spring-back (elastic behavior) was observed and the Young's modulus was obtained.

  7. Creep behaviour of Cu-30 percent Zn at intermediate temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.

    1991-01-01

    The present, intermediate-temperature (573-823 K) range investigation of creep properties for single-phase Cu-30 percent Zn alpha-brass observed inverse, linear, and sigmoidal primary-creep transients above 573 K under stresses that yield minimum creep rates in the 10 to the -7th to 2 x 10 to the -4th range; normal primary creep occurred in all other conditions. In conjunction with a review of the pertinent literature, a detailed analysis of these data suggests that no clearly defined, classes M-to-A-to-M transition exists in this alloy notwithstanding the presence of both classes' characteristics under nominally similar stresses and temperatures.

  8. Corrosion resistance of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets with intergranular addition of Cu 60Zn 40 powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yeren; Ni, Junjie; Ma, Tianyu; Yan, Mi

    2010-08-01

    Cu 60Zn 40 powders, as grain boundary modifiers, were added into Nd 28.2Dy 2.0Fe balAl 0.1Nb 0.2Ga 0.11B 0.96 sintered magnets to improve the corrosion resistance of magnets. The corrosion resistance of magnets was investigated by polarization curve measurements in 3.5 wt% NaCl and 3.0 wt% NaOH solutions. It was found that the Cu 60Zn 40-added magnets had more positive corrosion potential Ecorr and much lower corrosion current density icorr than the Cu 60Zn 40-free one in both solutions, indicating the improvement of the corrosion resistance by Cu 60Zn 40 intergranular addition. Promotion of the electrochemical potential of the intergranular phase, formation of the Nd (Fe, Cu) 2 phase, the uniform distribution of the Nd-rich phase and increase of the magnet density were found to be responsible for the improvement of the corrosion resistance.

  9. The effect of ZnO surface conditions on the electronic structure of the ZnO/CuPc interface

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang Han; Kim, Hyo Jin; Cho, Mann-Ho; Yi, Yeonjin; Cho, Sang Wan; Yang, Jaehyun; Kim, Hyoungsub

    2011-02-21

    The interfacial electronic structures of zinc oxide (ZnO)/copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc) were investigated by in situ x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) to determine the effects of air contamination on the ZnO substrate. UPS spectra showed that the 0.2 eV of the interface dipole is generated at the interface of the air exposed ZnO/CuPc while the interface of the annealed ZnO/CuPc generated -0.2 eV. In both cases, no band bending was observed. On the other hand, band bending at 0.3 eV and an interface dipole of 0.2 eV were observed at the interface of the sputter cleaned ZnO/CuPc. The energy offset between the conduction band maximum of ZnO and the highest occupied molecular orbital of CuPc was determined to be 0.6-0.7 eV for the contaminated ZnO interface while the offset was 1.0 eV for the cleaned ZnO interface. Contaminating moisture has little effect on the offset while the charge transfer was blocked and the offset was decreased in the presence of hydrocarbons.

  10. Interplay of Cu and oxygen vacancy in optical transitions and screening of excitons in ZnO:Cu films

    SciTech Connect

    Darma, Yudi; Rusydi, Andrivo; Seng Herng, Tun; Marlina, Resti; Fauziah, Resti; Ding, Jun

    2014-02-24

    We study room temperature optics and electronic structures of ZnO:Cu films as a function of Cu concentration using a combination of spectroscopic ellipsometry, photoluminescence, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. Mid-gap optical states, interband transitions, and excitons are observed and distinguishable. We argue that the mid-gap states are originated from interactions of Cu and oxygen vacancy (Vo). They are located below conduction band (Zn4s) and above valence band (O2p) promoting strong green emission and narrowing optical band gap. Excitonic states are screened and its intensities decrease upon Cu doping. Our results show the importance of Cu and Vo driving the electronic structures and optical transitions in ZnO:Cu films.

  11. Structural, chemical and optical evaluation of Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by an aqueous solution method

    SciTech Connect

    Iribarren, A.; Hernández-Rodríguez, E.; Maqueira, L.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles obtained by chemical synthesis. • Substitutional or interstitial Cu into ZnO lead specific structural, chemical, and optical changes. • Incorporation efficiency of Cu atoms in ZnO as a function of the Cu concentration in the precursor dissolution. - Abstract: In this work a study of ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles obtained by chemical synthesis in aqueous media was carried out. Structural analysis gave the dominant presence of wurtzite ZnO phase forming a solid solution Zn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}O. For high Cu doping CuO phase is also present. For low Cu concentration the lattice shrinks due to Cu atoms substitute Zn atoms. For high Cu concentration the lattice enlarges due to predominance of interstitial Cu. From elemental analysis we determined and analyzed the incorporation efficiency of Cu atoms in Zn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}O as a function of the Cu concentration in the precursor dissolution. Combining structural and chemical results we described the Cu/Zn precursor concentrations r{sub w} in which the solid solution of Cu in ZnO is predominant. In the region located at r{sub w} ≈ 0.2–0.3 it is no longer valid. For Cu/Zn precursor concentration r{sub w} > 0.3 interstitial Cu dominates, and some amount of copper oxide appears. As the Cu concentration increases, the effective size of nanoparticles decreases. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements of the Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles were carried out and analyzed.

  12. Nucleation and Growth of Cu-Al Intermetallics in Al-Modified Sn-Cu and Sn-Ag-Cu Lead-Free Solder Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeve, Kathlene N.; Anderson, Iver E.; Handwerker, Carol A.

    2015-03-01

    Lead-free solder alloys Sn-Cu (SC) and Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) are widely used by the microelectronics industry, but enhanced control of the microstructure is needed to improve solder performance. For such control, nucleation and stability of Cu-Al intermetallic compound (IMC) solidification catalysts were investigated by variation of the Cu (0.7-3.0 wt.%) and Al (0.0-0.4 wt.%) content of SC + Al and SAC + Al alloys, and of SAC + Al ball-grid array (BGA) solder joints. All of the Al-modified alloys produced Cu-Al IMC particles with different morphologies and phases (occasionally non-equilibrium phases). A trend of increasing Cu-Al IMC volume fraction with increasing Al content was established. Because of solidification of non-equilibrium phases in wire alloy structures, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments revealed delayed, non-equilibrium melting at high temperatures related to quenched-in Cu-Al phases; a final liquidus of 960-1200°C was recorded. During cooling from 1200°C, the DSC samples had the solidification behavior expected from thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. Solidification of the ternary alloys commenced with formation of ternary β and Cu-Al δ phases at 450-550°C; this was followed by β-Sn, and, finally, Cu6Sn5 and Cu-Al γ1. Because of the presence of the retained, high-temperature phases in the alloys, particle size and volume fraction of the room temperature Cu-Al IMC phases were observed to increase when the alloy casting temperature was reduced from 1200°C to 800°C, even though both temperatures are above the calculated liquidus temperature of the alloys. Preliminary electron backscatter diffraction results seemed to show Sn grain refinement in the SAC + Al BGA alloy.

  13. Effect of the addition of industrial by-products on Cu, Zn, Pb and As leachability in a mine sediment.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Jordá, M Paz; Garrido, Fernando; García-González, M Teresa

    2012-04-30

    A series of incubation and leaching experiments were performed to assess the feasibility of three industrial by-products (red gypsum (RG), sugar foam (SF) and ashes from the combustion of biomass (ACB)) to reduce the leachability of Cu, Pb, Zn and As in a sediment of São Domingos mine (Portugal). The changes in the element solid phase speciation were also evaluated by applying a sequential extraction procedure. All amendments significantly reduced the leachability of Zn and Cu, whereas the treatment with RG+SF+ACB also decreased the mobility of As. The reduction in Cu leachability was especially remarkable. This could be due to the great affinity of carbonates (included in SF and SF+ACB amendments) to precipitate with Cu, and maghemite and rutile (RG amendment) for acting as relevant sorbents for Cu. Pb was the least mobile element in the sediment and none of the treatments reduced its mobility. The sequential extraction reveals that the amendments induced a significant decrease in the concentration of elements associated with the residual fraction. Cu, Pb and As are redistributed from the residual fraction to the Al, Fe, and Mn hydr(oxides) fraction and Zn from the residual fraction to the water/acid soluble, exchangeable and bound to carbonates pool. PMID:22341746

  14. Polarized Raman spectroscopy of Cu-poor and Zn-rich single-crystal Cu2ZnSnSe4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Dahyun; Kim, Jungcheol; Lee, Jae-Ung; Nagaoka, Akira; Yoshino, Kenji; Cha, Wonsuk; Kim, Hyunjung; Hwang, In Chul; Yoon, Kyung Byung; Cheong, Hyeonsik

    2014-10-01

    Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) is a p-type semiconductor which has been developed as an absorber layer of polycrystalline thin film solar cells. Generally, Cu-poor and Zn-rich compositions tend to give the highest solar conversion efficiencies. Raman spectroscopy has been used to detect secondary phases such as ZnSe and Cu2SnSe3 in CZTSe thin films. However, the fundamental phonon modes in single-crystal CZTSe with a composition matching that of high-efficiency thin film solar cells have not yet been fully understood. We performed polarized Raman measurements on Cu-poor and Zn-rich single-crystal CZTSe and identified 12 peaks, including two low-frequency peaks. By comparing the polarization dependence of the Raman peaks with a group theoretical analysis, we concluded that the crystal structure of CZTSe single-crystal is kesterite and made appropriate peak assignments.

  15. Absolute densities of Cu, Zn, Sn, and S atoms in magnetron sputtering plasmas employing a Cu2ZnSnS4 target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafarizal, Nayan; Sasaki, Koichi

    2016-07-01

    Absolute densities of Cu, Zn, Sn, and S atoms in magnetron sputtering plasmas were measured by ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy and vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy. A stoichiometric Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) target was used in this work. It was found that, at various Ar pressures, the S density ranged between (2–8) × 1010 cm‑3, the Cu and Sn densities ranged between (0.6–3) × 1010 cm‑3, and the Zn density ranged between (2–3) × 109 cm‑3. The effective depositing flux, which was evaluated from the absolute densities and the sticking probabilities, was comparable with that evaluated from the deposition rate of the CZTS film. However, the composition ratio of Cu, Zn, Sn, and S in the gas phase deviated from the ideal stoichiometry of CZTS. We discussed the possible mechanisms for the difference among the element compositions of the target, the deposited film, and the gas-phase densities.

  16. Vibrational spectra and lattice thermal conductivity of kesterite-structured Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skelton, Jonathan M.; Jackson, Adam J.; Dimitrievska, Mirjana; Wallace, Suzanne K.; Walsh, Aron

    2015-04-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising material for photovoltaic and thermoelectric applications. Issues with quaternary semiconductors include chemical disorder (e.g., Cu-Zn antisites) and disproportionation into secondary phases (e.g., ZnS and Cu2SnS3). To provide a reference for the pure kesterite structure, we report the vibrational spectra—including both infra-red and Raman intensities—from lattice-dynamics calculations using first-principles force constants. Three-phonon interactions are used to estimate phonon lifetimes (spectral linewidths) and thermal conductivity. CZTS exhibits a remarkably low lattice thermal conductivity, competitive with high-performance thermoelectric materials. Transition from the sulfide to selenide (Cu2ZnSnSe4) results in softening of the phonon modes and an increase in phonon lifetimes.

  17. (Zn,H)-codoped copper oxide nanoparticles via pulsed laser ablation on Cu-Zn alloy in water

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Nanosized (5 to 10 nm) amorphous and crystalline nanocondensates, i.e., metallic α-phase of Zn-Cu alloy in face-centered cubic structure and (Zn,H)-codoped cuprite (Cu2O) with high-pressure-favored close-packed sublattice, were formed by pulsed laser ablation on bulk Cu65Zn35 in water and characterized by X-ray/electron diffractions and optical spectroscopy. The as-fabricated hybrid nanocondensates are darkish and showed photoluminescence in the whole visible region. Further dwelling of such nanocondensates in water caused progressive formation of a rice-like assembly of (Zn,H)-codoped tenorite (CuO) nanoparticles with (001), (100), and {111} preferred orientations, (111) tilt boundary, yellowish color, and minimum bandgap narrowing down to ca. 2.7 eV for potential photocatalytic applications. PMID:22647312

  18. (Zn,H)-codoped copper oxide nanoparticles via pulsed laser ablation on Cu-Zn alloy in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bo-Cheng; Chen, Shuei-Yuan; Shen, Pouyan

    2012-05-01

    Nanosized (5 to 10 nm) amorphous and crystalline nanocondensates, i.e., metallic α-phase of Zn-Cu alloy in face-centered cubic structure and (Zn,H)-codoped cuprite (Cu2O) with high-pressure-favored close-packed sublattice, were formed by pulsed laser ablation on bulk Cu65Zn35 in water and characterized by X-ray/electron diffractions and optical spectroscopy. The as-fabricated hybrid nanocondensates are darkish and showed photoluminescence in the whole visible region. Further dwelling of such nanocondensates in water caused progressive formation of a rice-like assembly of (Zn,H)-codoped tenorite (CuO) nanoparticles with (001), (100), and {111} preferred orientations, (111) tilt boundary, yellowish color, and minimum bandgap narrowing down to ca. 2.7 eV for potential photocatalytic applications.

  19. Growth mechanism of CuZnInSe2 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Ya Hsin; Yang, Chu Shou; Wu, Chia Hsing; Chiu, Jai Wei; Yang, Min De; Wu, Chih-Hung

    2013-09-01

    CuZnInSe2 (CZIS) has potential application in solar cell for absorption layer, and give an advantage to change the band gap from CuInSe2 (1.02 eV) to ZnSe (2.67 eV). Using molecular beam epitaxy technology, the CZIS thin films were grown via CuInSe (CIS) and ZnSe base. In the case of CIS, thin films were grown on Mo-coated soda lime glass with various zinc flux. CIS was transformed into chalcopyrite and sphalerite coexisting CZIS easily but it is difficult to transform into the pure sphalerite CZIS. Zn/(Zn+In+Cu) ratio has limited to approximate 36 at% and the excess-Zn played a catalyst role. In the case of ZnSe base, which was grown on GaAs (001), various In and Cu flux defined as the TIn series and TCu series, respectively. There are four types of compound in the TIn series and TCu series, including ZnSe, InxSey, ZnIn2Se4 (ZIS) and CZIS. In the TIn series under the lowest In and Cu flux, selenium (Se) were randomly combined with cations to form the CZIS. When TIn is increased in this moment, the CZIS was transformed into ZIS. In the TCu series, CZIS demonstrated via In-rich ZIS (Zn(In, Cu)Se) and InxSey base ((Zn, Cu)InSe). It is chalcopyrite and sphalerite coexisting structure in the medium TCu region. In the high TCu region, it is transformed into the Zn-poor and Cu-rich CZIS.

  20. Mercury embrittlement of Cu-Al alloys under cyclic loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, T. M.; Stoloff, N. S.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of mercury on the room temperature, high cycle fatigue properties of three alloys: Cu-5.5 pct Al, Cu-7.3 pct Al, and Cu-6.3 pct Al-2.5 pct Fe has been determined. Severe embrittlement under cyclic loading in mercury is associated with rapid crack propagation in the presence of the liquid metal. A pronounced grain size effect is noted under mercury, while fatigue properties in air are insensitive to grain size. The fatigue results are discussed in relation to theories of adsorption-induced liquid metal embrittlement.

  1. The design of Cu-doped ZnO thermoelectric module (simulation study)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadi, Syamsul; Suratwan, Agus; Kurniawan, Agus; Budiana, Eko Prasetya; Suyitno

    2016-03-01

    The p-type semiconductor of Cu-doped ZnO-based thermoelectric material has already been synthesized and studied as an energy harvester. The next challenge is manufacturing the thermoelectric module in the development of thermoelectric as an eco-friendly material in the future. This research aims to investigate the effect of thermoelectric geometric design on the electrical output power and voltage and to recommend the most appropriate thermoelectric geometric design. The design of thermoelectric generator (TEG) includes the determinations of dimension (width, length, and height), number of modules, and semiconductor materials. The simulation used the coupled-field analysis of ANSYS APDL 14.5 in the steady state condition. The p- and n- type thermoelectric material used Cu-doped ZnO and Al-doped ZnO, respectively. The width of element and the number of thermoelectric module were varied to obtain a thermoelectric design, which produces the largest current, power, and voltage. The result of research shows that the t hermoelectric generator with the element widths of 0.94 mm, 1.125 mm, 1.05 mm, and 1.2 mm generates the largest power output and voltage, namely: 0.32 W and 0.89 V, 0.38 W and 0.98 V, 0.45 W and 1.06 V, and 0.52 W and 1.13 V, respectively.

  2. Effects of Cu Dopant on Lattice and Optical Properties of ZnS Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Shuhua, Lu; Aiji, Wang; Tingfang, Chen; Yinshu, Wang

    2016-04-01

    Doped and undoped ZnS colloidal nanocrystals have drawn much attention due to their versatile applications in the fields of optoelectronics and biotechnology. In this paper, Cu doped ZnS quantum dots were synthesized via the simple thermolysis of ethylxanthate salts. The lattice and optical properties of the nanocrystals were then studied in detail. The quantum dot lattice contracted linearly between Cu concentrations of 0.2-2%, while it continued to contract more gradually as Cu concentrations were further increased from 4 to 6%, due in part to the Cu ions located on the surface of the ZnS lattice. Cu incorporation induces a long tail in absorption at long wavelengths. The PL spectrum shows a red shift at first, and then a blue shift with increases in Cu concentration. Cu doped at low concentrations (0.2-1%) enhanced the emission, while high Cu concentrations (2-6%) quenched emissions. PMID:27451716

  3. Reversible switching of ferromagnetism in ZnCuO nanorods by electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Changwei Wang, Hongjun; Liang, Feng; Shao, Lexi

    2015-04-06

    The reproducible switching of ferromagnetism in ZnCuO nanorods by applying a reversible electric field has been realized. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images showed a hexagonal wurtzite structure with no detectable trace of secondary phase or precipitation of Cu impurity in the ZnCuO nanorods. The Cu concentrations in the ZnCuO nanorods were tested by energy dispersive spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and found to be about 2.7 at. %. The switching mechanism is confirmed in terms of the formation and rupture of conductive filaments, with oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}) localized mainly on surface of the ZnCuO nanorods. Subsequently, the variation of V{sub O} concentration during the resistive switching process modulates the ferromagnetism of the ZnCuO nanorods. The saturation magnetization at low resistance state is apparently 6.4 times larger than that at high resistance state for an Au/ZnCuO/ITO structure. An indirect double-exchange model has been used to explain the ferromagnetism in ZnCuO nanorods.

  4. Molecular distortion and charge transfer effects in ZnPc/Cu(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, B.; Nazir, S.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2013-04-01

    The adsorption geometry and electronic properties of a zinc-phthalocyanine molecule on a Cu(111) substrate are studied by density functional theory. In agreement with experiment, we find remarkable distortions of the molecule, mainly as the central Zn atom tends towards the substrate to minimize the Zn-Cu distance. As a consequence, the Zn-N chemical bonding and energy levels of the molecule are significantly modified. However, charge transfer induces metallic states on the molecule and therefore is more important for the ZnPc/Cu(111) system than the structural distortions.

  5. Molecular distortion and charge transfer effects in ZnPc/Cu(111)

    PubMed Central

    Amin, B.; Nazir, S.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption geometry and electronic properties of a zinc-phthalocyanine molecule on a Cu(111) substrate are studied by density functional theory. In agreement with experiment, we find remarkable distortions of the molecule, mainly as the central Zn atom tends towards the substrate to minimize the Zn-Cu distance. As a consequence, the Zn-N chemical bonding and energy levels of the molecule are significantly modified. However, charge transfer induces metallic states on the molecule and therefore is more important for the ZnPc/Cu(111) system than the structural distortions.

  6. Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase is a Peroxisomal Enzyme in Human Fibroblast and Hepatoma Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Gilbert-Andre; Warner, Thomas G.; Steimer, Kathelyn S.; Hallewell, Robert A.

    1991-08-01

    The intracellular localization of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (superoxide:superoxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.15.1.1) has been examined by immunofluorescence using four monoclonal anti-Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase antibodies raised against a recombinant human Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase derivative produced and purified from Escherichia coli. Colocalization with catalase, a peroxisomal matrix enzyme, was used to demonstrate the peroxisomal localization of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase in human fibroblasts and hepatoma cells. In the fibroblasts of Zellweger syndrome patients, the enzyme is not transported to the peroxisomal ghosts but, like catalase, remains in the cytoplasm. In addition, immunocryoelectron microscopy of yeast cells expressing human Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase showed that the enzyme is translocated to the peroxisomes.

  7. Optical and phonon properties of ZnO:CuO mixed nanocomposite

    SciTech Connect

    Udayabhaskar, R.; Karthikeyan, B.

    2014-04-21

    Optical and phonon properties of ZnO:CuO nanocrystals which are prepared through sol-gel method are reported here. From X-ray diffraction studies, observed that Cu doping replaces the Zn and also forms secondary phase. Optical absorption spectral studies shows that the exciton and plasmon related bands of ZnO and CuO phase, respectively. Fluorescence studies of the prepared samples shows that green emission from ZnO is completely depleted and the same is attributed to CuO Plasmon. Raman spectral studies reveal that secondary phase (impurity) induced profile changes in 1LO and E{sub 2High} modes. Asymmetry in peak shape is analyzed using Fano profile with the combination of Lorentzian profile. Moreover, the monotonic increase of Fano factor and full width at half maxima is hopefully attributed to the continuum arises by the plasmons of Cu-O phase in ZnO nanosystem.

  8. Optical and phonon properties of ZnO:CuO mixed nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udayabhaskar, R.; Karthikeyan, B.

    2014-04-01

    Optical and phonon properties of ZnO:CuO nanocrystals which are prepared through sol-gel method are reported here. From X-ray diffraction studies, observed that Cu doping replaces the Zn and also forms secondary phase. Optical absorption spectral studies shows that the exciton and plasmon related bands of ZnO and CuO phase, respectively. Fluorescence studies of the prepared samples shows that green emission from ZnO is completely depleted and the same is attributed to CuO Plasmon. Raman spectral studies reveal that secondary phase (impurity) induced profile changes in 1LO and E2High modes. Asymmetry in peak shape is analyzed using Fano profile with the combination of Lorentzian profile. Moreover, the monotonic increase of Fano factor and full width at half maxima is hopefully attributed to the continuum arises by the plasmons of Cu-O phase in ZnO nanosystem.

  9. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase in yeast mitochondria - a general phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Nedeva, Trayana S; Petrova, Ventzislava Y; Zamfirova, Daniela R; Stephanova, Elena V; Kujumdzieva, Anna V

    2004-01-15

    Fermentative and respiratory yeast strains of genera Saccharomyces, Kluyveromyces, Pichia, Candida and Hansenula have been investigated for mitochondrial localization of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD). Pure mitochondrial fractions were obtained and the specific activities of Cu/Zn and Mn SODs were measured in comparison with those in the corresponding cell-free extracts. The Cu/Zn SOD: Mn SOD ratio in mitochondria and crude extracts was calculated and was considered a specific characteristic of all tested strains. Electrophoretical visualization of SOD patterns provided evidence for possible migration of cytosolic Cu/Zn SOD to mitochondria. The characteristic Cu/Zn SOD profile in mitochondria of all tested strains suggested its ubiquity within the fermentative and respiratory yeasts. PMID:14734161

  10. Influence of Cu ion implantation on the microstructure and cathodoluminescence of ZnS nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, L. Y.; Zhang, D.; Liu, B. Y.

    2016-07-01

    The microstructure and optical properties of as-synthesized and Cu ion implanted ZnS nanostructures with branched edges are studied by using high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) and spatially-resolved cathodoluminescence measurement. Obvious crystalline deterioration has been observed in Cu-doped ZnS nanostructures due to the invasion of Cu ions into ZnS lattice. It was found that the optical emissions of ZnS nanostructures can be selectively modified through the control of Cu ion dose and subsequent heat treatment. An increase of Cu dopant content will lead to an apparent red-shift of the intrinsic band-gap emission in the UV range and the broadening of defect-related emission in visible range. The influences of Cu ion implantation on the microstructure and related optical properties were discussed.

  11. Degradation and local distortions in electroluminescent ZnS:Cu,Cl phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, F.; Medling, S.; Balaban, B.; Carter, S. A.

    2010-11-01

    We present time-lapsed microscopy and EXAFS/XANES data on size selected ground ZnS:Cu,Cl and ZnS:Cu,Mn,Cl phosphors to probe long standing problems in using these phosphors in high brightness applications. The time-lapsed study shows that many of the individual emission centers on each particle degrade via large step decreases while < 50% have a monotonic decrease. These large steps suggest a break-up of Cu aggregate centers and this degradation mechanism is likely irreversible. The Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and X-ray Absorption near Edge Structure (XANES) studies show that during grinding, the CuS precipitates within the ZnS host become highly disordered yet the host material shows no disorder, suggesting that the ZnS:Cu,Cl materials cleave through the CuS precipitates during grinding.

  12. Synthesis and spectroscopic investigations of Cu- and Pb-doped colloidal ZnS nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Oliver; Osvet, Andres; Batentschuk, Miroslaw; Winnacker, Albrecht; Nann, Thomas

    2006-11-23

    A novel organometallic synthesis method for the preparation of colloidal ZnS nanoparticles is presented. This method enables the synthesis of undoped ZnS nanocrystals as well as doping with Cu, Pb, or both. The particles can be covered with an undoped layer of ZnS, forming core/shell-type particles with the ZnS:Pb, ZnS:Cu, or ZnS:Cu,Pb cores. The particles were characterized via TEM, XRD, dynamic light scattering, and optical spectroscopy. We investigated the extrinsic surface defects and their coverage with an additional ZnS layer in detail by temperature-dependent luminescence and luminescence lifetime spectroscopy. PMID:17107162

  13. Interfacial Reaction during Friction Stir Welding of Al and Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genevois, C.; Girard, M.; Huneau, B.; Sauvage, X.; Racineux, G.

    2011-08-01

    Commercially pure copper was joined to a 1050 aluminum alloy by friction stir welding. A specific configuration where the tool pin was fully located in the aluminum plate was chosen. In such a situation, there is no mechanical mixing between the two materials, but frictional heating gives rise to a significant thermally activated interdiffusion at the copper/aluminum interface. This gives rise to the formation of defect-free joints where the bonding is achieved by a very thin intermetallic layer at the Cu/Al interface. Nanoscaled grains within this bonding layer were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Two phases were identified, namely, Al2Cu and Al4Cu9 phases. The nucleation and growth of these two phases are discussed and compared to the standard reactive interdiffusion reactions between Cu and Al.

  14. Three series of quaternary rare-earth transition-metal pnictides with CaAl2Si2-type structures: RECuZnAs2, REAgZnP2, and REAgZnAs2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyko, Stanislav S.; Ramachandran, Krishna K.; Blanchard, Peter E. R.; Rosmus, Kimberly A.; Aitken, Jennifer A.; Mar, Arthur

    2014-05-01

    Three series of quaternary rare-earth transition-metal pnictides REMM‧Pn2 (M=Cu, Ag; M‧=Zn; Pn=P, As) have been prepared by reaction of the elements at 800 °C, with crystal growth promoted through the addition of iodine. The extent of RE substitution is broad in these series: RECuZnAs2 (RE=Y, Lasbnd Nd, Sm, Gd-Lu), REAgZnP2 (RE=La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Dy), and REAgZnAs2 (RE=Lasbnd Nd, Sm, Gdsbnd Dy). Powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that they adopt the trigonal CaAl2Si2-type structure (space group P3barm1, Z=1), in which Cu or Ag atoms are disordered with Zn atoms over the unique tetrahedrally coordinated transition-metal site. Magnetic measurements indicated Curie-Weiss behavior for several members of the RECuZnAs2 and REAgZnP2 series. Core-line X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) collected on some RECuZnAs2 members corroborate the charge assignment deduced by the Zintl concept for these compounds, (RE3+)(M1+)(Zn2+)(Pn3-)2. Optical diffuse reflectance spectra and valence band XPS spectra established that these compounds are small band-gap semiconductors (up to ~0.8 eV in REAgZnP2) or semimetals (RECuZnAs2). Band structure calculations also support this electronic structure and indicate that the band gap can be narrowed through appropriate chemical substitution (RE=smaller atoms, M=Cu, and Pn=As).

  15. Preparation and characterization of a (Cu,Zn)-pMMO from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Li; Chen, Kelvin H-C; Ke, Shyue-Chu; Yu, Steve S-F; Chan, Sunney I

    2004-12-01

    We report the preparation of a (Cu,Zn)-particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) in which the bulk of the copper ions of the electron-transfer clusters (E-clusters) has been replaced by divalent Zn ions. The Cu and Zn contents in the (Cu,Zn)-pMMO were determined by both inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption K-edge spectroscopy. Further characterization of the (Cu,Zn)-pMMO was provided by pMMO-activity assays as well as low-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy following reductive titration and incubation in air or air/propylene mixtures. The pMMO-activity assays indicated that the (Cu,Zn)-pMMO was no longer capable of supporting catalytic turnover of hydrocarbon substrates. However, the EPR studies revealed that the catalytic cluster (C-cluster) copper ions in the (Cu,Zn)-pMMO were still capable of supporting the activation of dioxygen when reduced, and that the 14N-superhyperfine features associated with one of the type 2 Cu(II) centers in the hydroxylation C-cluster remained unperturbed. The replacement of the E-cluster copper ions by Zn ions did compromise the ability of the protein to mediate the transfer of reducing equivalents from exogenous reductants to the C-clusters. These observations provide strong support for the electron transfer and catalytic roles for the E-cluster and C-cluster copper ions, respectively. PMID:15541502

  16. Calculation and measurement of helium generation and solid transmutations in Cu-Zn-Ni alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, L.R.; Oliver, B.M.; Garner, F.A.; Muroga, T.

    1998-03-01

    A method was recently proposed by Garner and Greenwood that would allow the separation of the effects of solid and gaseous transmutation for Cu-Zn-Ni alloys. Pure copper produces zinc and nickel during neutron irradiation. {sup 63}Cu transmutes to {sup 64}Ni and {sup 64}Zn, in about a 2-to-1 ratio, and {sup 65}Cu transmutes to {sup 66}Zn. The {sup 64}Zn further transmutes to {sup 65}Zn which has been shown to have a high thermal neutron (n,{alpha}) cross-section. Since a three-step reaction sequence is required for natural copper, the amount of helium produced is much smaller than would be produced for the two-step, well-known {sup 58}Ni (n,{gamma}) {sup 59}Ni (n,{alpha}) reaction sequence. The addition of natural Zn and Ni to copper leads to greatly increased helium production in neutron spectra with a significant thermal component. Using a suitable Cu-Zn-Ni alloy matrix and comparative irradiation of thermal neutron-shielded and unshielded specimens, it should be possible to distinguish the separate influences of the solid and gaseous transmutants. Whereas helium generation rates have been previously measured for natural nickel and copper, they have not been measured for natural Zn or Cu-Ni-Zn alloys. The (N,{alpha}) cross section for {sup 65}Zn was inferred from helium measurements made with natural copper. By comparing helium production in Cu and Cu-Zn alloys, this cross section can be determined more accurately. In the current study, both the solid and helium transmutants were measured for Cu, Cu-5Ni, Cu-3.5Zn and Cu-5Ni-2Zn, irradiated in each of two positions in the HFIR JP-23 test. Highly accurate helium measurements were performed on these materials by isotope dilution mass spectrometry using a facility that was recently moved from Rockwell International to PNNL. It is shown that both the helium and solid transmutants for Cu-zn-Ni alloys can be calculated with reasonable certainty, allowing the development of a transmutation experiment as proposed by

  17. Synthesis of Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn brass alloy nanoparticles from metal amidinate precursors in ionic liquids or propylene carbonate with relevance to methanol synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütte, Kai; Meyer, Hajo; Gemel, Christian; Barthel, Juri; Fischer, Roland A.; Janiak, Christoph

    2014-02-01

    Microwave-induced decomposition of the transition metal amidinates {[Me(C(NiPr)2)]Cu}2 (1) and [Me(C(NiPr)2)]2Zn (2) in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIm][BF4]) or in propylene carbonate (PC) gives copper and zinc nanoparticles which are stable in the absence of capping ligands (surfactants) for more than six weeks. Co-decomposition of 1 and 2 yields the intermetallic nano-brass phases β-CuZn and γ-Cu3Zn depending on the chosen molar ratios of the precursors. Nanoparticles were characterized by high-angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), dynamic light scattering and powder X-ray diffractometry. Microstructure characterizations were complemented by STEM with spatially resolved energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Synthesis in ILs yields significantly smaller nanoparticles than in PC. β-CuZn alloy nanoparticles are precursors to catalysts for methanol synthesis from the synthesis gas H2/CO/CO2 with a productivity of 10.7 mol(MeOH) (kg(Cu) h)-1.Microwave-induced decomposition of the transition metal amidinates {[Me(C(NiPr)2)]Cu}2 (1) and [Me(C(NiPr)2)]2Zn (2) in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIm][BF4]) or in propylene carbonate (PC) gives copper and zinc nanoparticles which are stable in the absence of capping ligands (surfactants) for more than six weeks. Co-decomposition of 1 and 2 yields the intermetallic nano-brass phases β-CuZn and γ-Cu3Zn depending on the chosen molar ratios of the precursors. Nanoparticles were characterized by high-angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), dynamic light scattering and powder X-ray diffractometry. Microstructure characterizations were complemented by STEM with spatially resolved energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Synthesis in ILs yields significantly smaller nanoparticles than in PC. β-CuZn

  18. Preparation, structural and optical characterization of ZnO, ZnO: Al nanopowder

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, R. Raj; Rajendran, K.; Sambath, K.

    2014-01-28

    In this paper, ZnO and ZnO:Al nanopowders have been synthesized by low cost hydrothermal method. Zinc nitrate, hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and aluminium nitrate are used as precursors for ZnO and AZO with different molar ratios. The structural and optical characterization of doped and un-doped ZnO powders have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), photoluminescence (PL) and ultra violet visible (UV-Vis) absorption studies. The SEM results show that the hydrothermal synthesis can be used to obtain nanoparticles with different morphology. It is observed that the grain size of the AZO nanoparticles increased with increasing of Al concentration. The PL measurement of AZO shows that broad range of green emission around 550nm with high intensity. The green emission resulted mainly because of intrinsic defects.

  19. Multinuclear (67Zn, 119Sn and 65Cu) NMR spectroscopy--an ideal technique to probe the cationic ordering in Cu2ZnSnS4 photovoltaic materials.

    PubMed

    Choubrac, Léo; Paris, Michaël; Lafond, Alain; Guillot-Deudon, Catherine; Rocquefelte, Xavier; Jobic, Stéphane

    2013-07-14

    For the very first time, (67)Zn, (119)Sn and (65)Cu NMR investigations have been carried out on Cu2ZnSnS4 derivatives (CZTS) for photovoltaic applications. NMR spectroscopy is shown to be sensitive enough to probe the Cu/Zn disorder within the kesterite structure of the studied compounds. In addition, reference spectra of Cu2ZnSnS4 are provided, and experimental (67)Zn and (65)Cu parameters are compared with ab initio calculations. PMID:23728239

  20. CuO-ZnO heterometallic hollow spheres: Morphology and defect structure

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Xuemin; Yang Xuzhuang; Gu Xiaojun; Su Haiquan

    2012-02-15

    The Cu-ZnO hollow spheres, where CuO nanocrystals were dispersed in the shell of ZnO nanoparticals, were synthesized by using highly uniform and monodispersed Cu-embedded carbon spheres as sacrificial templates via a simple route under hydrothermal conditions. The morphology and structure of the spheres were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption. It was suggested that the OH and C=O groups in the surface of the Cu-embedded carbon spheres facilitated the adsorption of Zn{sup 2+} in the aqueous solution, giving rise to the final CuO-ZnO hollow structure after these Zn{sup 2+}-adsorbed spheres were calcined in air. Moreover, the photoluminescence (PL) study showed that the as-prepared CuO-ZnO hollow spheres and the annealed counterpart exhibited strong and dramatically weakened emissions, respectively. This remarkably different photoluminescent behavior afforded the evidence regarding the oxygen vacancy defects in the CuO-ZnO hollow spheres. - Graphical abstract: CuO-ZnO hollow spheres were obtained using Cu-embedded carbon spheres as template, and the photoluminescent spectra afforded the evidence regarding the oxygen vacancies in the hollow spheres. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A approach was presented to prepare carbon spheres in a high yield. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fabrication of CuO-ZnO hollow spheres was a simple route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photoluminescence afforded the evidence of the oxygen vacancies in the hollows. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthetic approach might be applicable to preparing other hollow structures.

  1. Pb, Cu, and Zn distributions at humic acid-coated metal-oxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yingge; Michel, F. Marc; Choi, Yongseong; Eng, Peter J.; Levard, Clement; Siebner, Hagar; Gu, Baohua; Bargar, John R.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2016-09-01

    Mineral surfaces are often coated by natural organic matter (NOM), which has a major influence on metal-ion sorption and sequestration because of the abundance of binding sites in such coatings and the changes they cause in local nanoscale environments. The effects of NOM coatings on mineral surfaces are, however, still poorly understood at the molecular level due to the complexity of these systems. In this study, we have applied long-period X-ray standing wave-fluorescence yield (LP-XSW-FY) spectroscopy to measure the partitioning of naturally present Cu(II) (0.0226%), Zn(II) (0.009%), and Pb(II) (∼0.0004%) between Elliott Soil Humic Acid (ESHA) coatings and three model single-crystal metal-oxide substrates: α-Al2O3 (0 0 0 1), α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2), and α-Fe2O3 (0 0 0 1). The competitive sorption effects among these metal ions for binding sites in the ESHA coatings and on the metal-oxide surfaces were investigated as a function of reaction time, calcium content, and solution pH. Pb(II) ions present in the ESHA coatings were found to redistribute to reactive α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) and α-Fe2O3 (0 0 0 1) surfaces after 3 h of reaction (pH = 6.0, [Ca(II)] = 2 mM). Pb(II) partitioning onto these reactive metal-oxide surfaces increased with increasing reaction time (up to 7 d). In addition, the partitioning of Cu(II) and Zn(II) from the ESHA coating to the α-Fe2O3 (0 0 0 1) substrate increased slightly with reaction time (2.4% and 3.7% for Cu(II) and Zn(II), respectively, after 3 h and 6.4% and 7.7% for Cu(II) and Zn(II), respectively, after 72 h of reaction time). However, no changes in the partitioning of Cu(II) and Zn(II) onto the α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) surface were observed with increasing reaction time, suggesting that these ions strongly complex with functional groups in the ESHA coatings. Similar results were obtained for Cu(II) and Zn(II) on the ESHA-coated α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) surfaces in samples without the addition of calcium. However, the amounts of Pb

  2. Electrical Transport Properties of Liquid Al-Cu Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakore, B. Y.; Khambholja, S. G.; Suthar, P. H.; Jani, A. R.

    2010-06-01

    Electrical transport properties viz. electrical resistivity, thermoelectric power and thermal conductivity of liquid Al-Cu alloys as a function of Cu concentration have been studied in the present paper. Ashcroft empty core model potential has been used to incorporate the ion-electron interaction. To incorporate the exchange and correlation effects, five different forms of local field correction functions viz. Hartree, Taylor, Ichimaru et al., Farid et al. and Sarkar et al. have been used. The transport properties of binary system have been studied using Faber-Ziman formulation combined with Ashcroft-Langreth (AL) partial structure factor. The computed values of electrical resistivity are compared with experimental data and for low Cu concentration, good agreement has been observed. Further, thermoelectric power and thermal conductivity have also been predicted.

  3. Enhancing the Reactivity of Al/CuO Nanolaminates by Cu Incorporation at the Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Marín, Lorena; Nanayakkara, Charith E; Veyan, Jean-Francois; Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte; Joulie, Sébastien; Estève, Alain; Tenailleau, Christophe; Chabal, Yves J; Rossi, Carole

    2015-06-10

    In situ deposition of a thin (∼5 nm) layer of copper between Al and CuO layers is shown to increase the overall nanolaminate material reactivity. A combination of transmission electron microscopy imaging, in situ infrared spectroscopy, low energy ion scattering measurements, and first-principles calculations reveals that copper spontaneously diffuses into aluminum layers (substantially less in CuO layers). The formation of an interfacial Al:Cu alloy with melting temperature lower than pure Al metal is responsible for the enhanced reactivity, opening a route to controlling the stochiometry of the aluminum layer and increasing the reactivity of the nanoenergetic multilayer systems in general. PMID:25988997

  4. Interfacial reaction of intermetallic compounds of ultrasonic-assisted brazed joints between dissimilar alloys of Ti6Al4V and Al4Cu1Mg.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhipeng; Zhao, Weiwei; Yan, Jiuchun; Li, Dacheng

    2011-09-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted brazing of Al4Cu1Mg and Ti6Al4V using Zn-based filler metal (without and with Si) has been investigated. Before brazing, the Ti6Al4V samples were pre-treated by hot-dip aluminizing and ultrasonic dipping in a molten filler metal bath in order to control the formation of intermetallic compounds between the Ti6Al4V samples and the filler metal. The results show that the TiAl(3) phase was formed in the interface between the Ti6Al4V substrate and the aluminized coating. For the Zn-based filler metal without Si, the Ti6Al4V interfacial area of the brazed joint did not change under the effect of the ultrasonic wave, and only consisted of the TiAl(3) phase. For the Zn-based filler metal with Si, the TiAl(3) phase disappeared and a Ti(7)Al(5)Si(12) phase was formed at the interfacial area of the brazed joints under the effect of the ultrasonic wave. Due to the TiAl(3) phase completely changing to a Ti(7)Al(5)Si(12) phase, the morphology of the intermetallic compounds changed from a block-like shape into a lamellar-like structure. The highest shear strength of 138MPa was obtained from the brazed joint free of the block-like TiAl(3) phase. PMID:21489846

  5. Thermal hysteresis of permeability and transport properties of Mn substituted Mg Cu Zn ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjurul Haque, M.; Huq, M.; Hakim, M. A.

    2008-03-01

    Mn substituted Mg-Cu-Zn ferrites of composition Mg0.35Cu0.20Zn0.45O(Fe2-xMnx O3)0.97 have been prepared by the standard double sintering ceramic technique. X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples showed single phase cubic spinel structure without any detectable impurity phases. The lattice constant is found to increase linearly with increase in Mn3+ ion concentration obeying Vegard's law. The initial permeability (μi) of the Mg-Cu-Zn ferrites exhibits thermal hysteresis when the temperature is cycled from above the Curie temperature TC to below. The sharp decrease of μi at T = TC indicates that the samples have high homogeneity according to Globus et al. The Curie temperature TC of the studied ferrite system was determined from the μi-T curves where the Hopkinson type of effect at the TC has been observed with the manifestation of a sharp fall in permeability. The Curie temperature TC is found to increase with increasing Mn content. Dc electrical resistivity increases significantly with the increase in Mn content. The ac resistivity (ρac) and dielectric constant (ɛ') of the samples are found to decrease with increase in frequency, exhibiting normal ferrimagnetic behaviour. Dielectric relaxation peaks were observed for the frequency dependence of dielectric loss tangent curves. ɛ' increases as the temperature increases, which is the normal dielectric behaviour of the magnetic semiconductor ferrite. The observed variation of electrical and dielectric properties are explained on the basis of Fe2+/Fe3+ ionic concentration as well as the electronic hopping frequency between Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions in the present samples.

  6. Photoluminescence of Cu:ZnS, Ag:ZnS, and Au:ZnS nanoparticles applied in Bio-LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kuan Bo; Su, Yen Hsun

    2013-12-01

    In this work, transition elements, including Cu2+, Ag+, and Au3+, were used to dope in zinc sulfide (ZnS) by chemical solution synthesis to prepare Cu:ZnS, Ag:ZnS, and Au:ZnS nanoparticles, respectively. Transition elements doping ZnS nanoparticles form the electronic energy level between the conduction band and valance band, which will result in the green light emission. There is a zinc sulfide emission shift from blue (~3.01 eV) to green light (~2.15 eV). We also found that Au:ZnS nanoparticles will emit a green light (~2.3 eV) and a blue light (~2.92 eV) at the same time because the mechanism of blue light emission was not broken after Au element had been doped. Furthermore, we used sodium chlorophyllin copper salt to simulate chlorophyll in biological light emission devices (Bio-LED). We combined copper chlorophyll with Cu:ZnS, Ag:ZnS, and Au:ZnS nanoparticles by a self-assembly method. Then, we measured its photoluminescence spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to study its emission spectrum and bonding mode. We found that Au:ZnS nanoparticles are able to emit green and blue light to excite the red light emission of copper chlorophyll, which is a potential application of Bio-LED.

  7. Reply to comment on "Molecular controls on Cu and Zn isotopic fractionation in Fe-Mn crusts"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, David M.; Little, Susan H.; Vance, Derek

    2015-02-01

    In our paper "Molecular controls on Cu and Zn isotopic fractionation in Fe-Mn crusts", we present an explanation for the observed isotopic fractionations of Cu and Zn in seawater. We hypothesise that the isotopic fractionation of Cu and Zn is driven by the scavenging of these metals by particulate Fe-Mn oxides as reflected in the isotopic composition of Zn and Cu in marine ferromanganese crusts. Zn sorbed to ferromanganese crusts is isotopically heavier than dissolved Zn in seawater by 0.5‰. EXAFS spectra show that Zn in ferromanganese crusts is sorbed to birnessite and in tetrahedral coordination. Dissolved inorganic Zn in seawater, however, is primarily octahedrally coordinated as Zn(H2O)+26. The difference in the Zn coordination environment gives a qualitative explanation for the sorption (scavenging) of isotopically heavy Zn by ferromanganese crusts (predominantly birnessite).

  8. Performance of a 62Zn/62Cu Microgenerator in Kit-Based Synthesis and Delivery of [62Cu]Cu-ETS for PET Perfusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Yen; Lacy, Jeffrey L.; Fletcher, James W.; Green, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of a commercially produced 62Zn/62Cu microgenerator system, and an associated kit-based radiopharmaceutical synthesis method, was evaluated for clinical site production of [62Cu]Cu-ETS (ethylglyoxal bis(thiosemicarbazonato)copper(II)), an investigational agent for PET perfusion imaging. Using 37 generators, containing 1.84 ± 0.23 GBq 62Zn at 9:00 AM on the day of clinical use, a total of 45 patient doses of [62Cu]Cu-ETS (672 ± 172 MBq) were delivered without difficulty. 62Cu elution yields were high (approximately 90%), accompanied by extremely low 62Zn breakthrough (<0.001%). Radiopharmaceutical preparation, from the start-of-elution to time-of-injection, consumed less than five minutes. The 62Zn/62Cu microgenerator was a dependable source of short-lived positron-emitting 62Cu, and the kit-based synthesis proved to be rapid, robust, and highly reliable for “on-demand” delivery of [62Cu]Cu-ETS for PET perfusion imaging. PMID:24886964

  9. Synthesis of Mn0.04Cu0.05Zn0.91O nanorod and its application in optoelectronic switching device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layek, Animesh; Middya, Somnath

    2016-05-01

    The optical absorption of ZnO nanorod had been reduced by introducing Mn as doping element. In this present study the optical absorption of ZnO nanorod has been improved by simultaneous doping of the element Mn and Cu. The hydrothermal reaction was adopted for the synthesis. The electrical conductivity and the optical band gap of the Mn0.04Cu0.05Zn0.91O were measured as 1.16 × 10-3Scm-1 and 3.07eV respectively, assigned the semiconductor behavior. The light induced rectification in time dependent current response characteristic of Al/ Mn0.04Cu0.05Zn0.91O/ITO was investigated to check the performance of the composite in opto-electronic switching device.

  10. Adhesion enhancement of ion beam mixed Cu/Al/polyimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, G. S.; Jung, S. M.; Lee, Y. S.; Choi, I. S.; Whang, C. N.; Woo, J. J.; Lee, Y. P.

    1997-01-01

    Cu (400 Å)/polyimide was mixed with 80 keV Ar+ and N2+ from 1.0×1015 to 2.0×1016 ions/cm2. The same processes were repeated for the Cu (400 Å)/Al (50 Å)/polyimide system which has Al as a buffer layer. The quantitative adhesion strength was measured by a standard scratch test. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was employed to investigate the change in the chemical bonds of the ion beam mixed polyimide substrate and the intermediate effects for the adhesion enhancement in Cu/Al/polyimide. Two distinct tendencies are observed in the adhesion strength: Cu/Al/polyimide is more adhesive than Cu/polyimide after ion beam mixing, and N2+ ions are more effective in the adhesion enhancement than Ar+. The formation of an interlayer compound of CuAl2O4 accounts for the former, while the latter is understood by the fact that N2+ ions produce more pyridinelike moiety, amide group and tertiary amine moiety which are known as adhesion promoters.

  11. High-Efficiency Oxide Solar Cells with ZnO/Cu2O Heterojunction Fabricated on Thermally Oxidized Cu2O Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Nishi, Yuki; Miyata, Toshihiro; Nomoto, Jun-ichi

    2011-06-01

    High conversion efficiencies were achieved in low cost n-p heterojunction oxide solar cells with an Al-doped ZnO (AZO)/non-doped ZnO (ZO)/Cu2O structure. This achievement was made possible by the formation of an n-ZO thin-film layer, prepared with an appropriate thickness by low damage deposition, on high quality Cu2O sheets produced by the thermal oxidization of copper sheets: n-ZO thin film optimal thickness ranges from 30 to 50 nm. Photovoltaic characteristics such as an open circuit voltage of 0.69 V, a fill factor of 0.55 and a conversion efficiency of 3.83% were attained under simulated AM1.5G solar illumination.

  12. A Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase from Jatropha curcas enhances salt tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z B; Zhang, W J; Gong, X D; Zhang, Q; Zhou, L R

    2015-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are involved in protecting plants against diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, a novel Cu/Zn-SOD gene (JcCu/Zn-SOD) was cloned from Jatropha curcas L. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that JcCu/Zn-SOD is constitutively expressed in different tissues of J. curcas and induced under NaCl treatment. To characterize the function of this gene with respect to salt tolerance, the construct p35S:JcCu/Zn-SOD was developed and transformed into Arabidopsis using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Compared with wild-type, transgenic plants over-expressing JcCu/Zn-SOD showed enhanced tolerance to salt stress during germination, seedling establishment, and growth in terms of longer root, larger rosette area, and a larger number of leaves in addition to higher SOD activity levels under NaCl stress. In addition, over-expression of JcCu/Zn-SOD resulted in lower monodialdehyde content in transgenic Arabidopsis compared to wild-type plants under the same NaCl stress. Therefore, JcCu/Zn-SOD can increase a plant salt stress tolerance potentially by reducing oxidant injury. PMID:25867355

  13. Analyzing Particle Size Effects in ZnS:Cu using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medling, Scott; Kozina, M.; Jiang, Y.; Balaban, B.; Bridges, F.; Carter, S.

    2009-11-01

    We report XAS measurements on ZnS:Cu,Mn phosphor materials of various particle sizes, 1-25μm. These materials exhibit electroluminescence (EL) at AC voltages of order 100V for ˜25μm particles, but only from small points associated with CuS nanoprecipitates (which form along the 111 plane in ZnS); here the local electric fields are enhanced by a factor of about 100. To enable lower-voltage applications, it is desirable to make smaller particles so devices can be thinner. We investigated the local structure for smaller particles produced by mill-grinding to determine why grinding leads to reduced AC EL. The K-edge EXAFS data show a decreased Cu-S first peak amplitude for the ground particle samples, but little change for Mn-S or Zn-S peaks. The XANES data show a large change in the structure of the Cu K-edge for smaller particles but not for either the host Zn or Mn dopant edges. Clearly grinding affects the environment about Cu, in the CuS precipitates, much more than the ZnS host lattice. Possibly the ZnS particles fracture preferentially through the CuS precipitates or the ZnS particles are partially sheared along the 111 plane.

  14. Synthesis of porous Cu from Al-Cu-Co decagonal quasicrystalline alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalai Vani, V.; Kwon, O. J.; Hong, S. M.; Fleury, E.

    2011-07-01

    The formation of a porous Cu structure from cast Al-Cu-Co decagonal quasicrystalline alloys has been studied using a selective corrosion technique. Two alkaline solutions were selected based on the electrochemical properties of the constituent elements. Selective corrosion of Al and Co was achieved by chemical immersion of the cast Al-Cu-Co alloy in both 5 M NaOH and 0.5 M Na2CO3 solutions; values for BET surface-to-weight ratio of up to 30 m2/g could be reached. Microstructural analyses indicated that the architecture of the resulting porous structures was composed of a needle-type phase, remaining from the decagonal phase, in addition to Cu and Cu-Co phases.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of Cu-doped ZnO nanorods chemically grown on flexible substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabannia, R.

    2016-08-01

    Vertically aligned undoped and Cu-doped ZnO nanorods array were successfully grown on flexible substrate by chemical bath deposition method at a low 0074emperature. The fabricated materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. XRD analysis showed that Cu doping improves the crystallinity of the fabricated ZnO nanorods. The mean diameter and bending of the ZnO nanorods increase with an increase of Cu doping, but the density of Cu-doped ZnO nanorods almost unchanged. Room temperature PL measurement displayed increased intensity in UV peak and decreased visible peak after Cu doping.

  16. Corrosion Behavior of Al-Al3Ni and Al-Al2Cu Functionally Graded Materials Fabricated by a Centrifugal Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Kazuhiko; Miyahara, Keita; Watanabe, Yoshimi

    2008-02-01

    Intermetallic compounds, such as Al3Ni and Al2Cu, are effective for enhancing the mechanical properties of an alloy. Al-Al3Ni and Al-Al2Cu functionally graded materials (FGMs) might be attractive materials for advanced materials. Al-Al3Ni and Al-Al2Cu FGMs were fabricated by a centrifugal method; the centrifugal method is an extremely effective method for fabricating FGMs. Al-Al3Ni and Al-Al2Cu FGMs that had a graded distribution of intermetallic compounds could be produced by this in-situ centrifugal method. Particle size, particle shape and the distribution of intermetallic compounds were controlled by varying the content of the alloy element (Ni, Cu) in the master alloy, the cooling rate in casting and the gravity number. The casting mechanism is explained in terms of the microstructures of the Al-Al3Ni and Al-Al2Cu FGMs fabricated by this method. The corrosion behavior of the FGMs was investigated by electrochemical analysis. Polarization curves of the FGMs in a borate solution were measured by a potentiodynamic method. The presence of Al2Cu exerted a larger effect on the corrosion behavior of the FGMs than Al3Ni. Analysis of the polarization curve parameters was effective for evaluating the corrosion resistance of the FGMs.

  17. Performance evaluation of ZnO–CuO hetero junction solid state room temperature ethanol sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Ming-Ru; Suyambrakasam, Gobalakrishnan; Wu, Ren-Jang; Chavali, Murthy

    2012-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Sensor response (resistance) curves of time were changed from 150 ppm to 250 ppm alcohol concentration of ZnO–CuO 1:1. The response and recovery times were measured to be 62 and 83 s, respectively. The sensing material ZnO–CuO is a high potential alcohol sensor which provides a simple, rapid and highly sensitive alcohol gas sensor operating at room temperature. Highlights: ► The main advantages of the ethanol sensor are as followings. ► Novel materials ZnO–CuO ethanol sensor. ► The optimized ZnO–CuO hetero contact system. ► A good sensor response and room working temperature (save energy). -- Abstract: A semiconductor ethanol sensor was developed using ZnO–CuO and its performance was evaluated at room temperature. Hetero-junction sensor was made of ZnO–CuO nanoparticles for sensing alcohol at room temperature. Nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method and optimized with different weight ratios. Sensor characteristics were linear for the concentration range of 150–250 ppm. Composite materials of ZnO–CuO were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). ZnO–CuO (1:1) material showed maximum sensor response (S = R{sub air}/R{sub alcohol}) of 3.32 ± 0.1 toward 200 ppm of alcohol vapor at room temperature. The response and recovery times were measured to be 62 and 83 s, respectively. The linearity R{sup 2} of the sensor response was 0.9026. The sensing materials ZnO–CuO (1:1) provide a simple, rapid and highly sensitive alcohol gas sensor operating at room temperature.

  18. Tracing contamination sources in soils with Cu and Zn isotopic ratios.

    PubMed

    Fekiacova, Z; Cornu, S; Pichat, S

    2015-06-01

    Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are naturally present and ubiquitous in soils and are important micronutrients. Human activities contribute to the input of these metals to soils in different chemical forms, which can sometimes reach a toxic level for soil organisms and plants. Isotopic signatures could be used to trace sources of anthropogenic Cu and Zn pollution. The aim of this paper is to determine whether it is possible to identify (i) Cu and Zn contamination in soils and their sources, on the basis of their isotopic signatures, and (ii) situations that are a priori favorable or not for tracing Cu and Zn pollution using the isotopic approach. Therefore, we compiled data from the literature on Cu and Zn isotopes in soils, rocks and pollutants and added to this database the results of our own research. As only a few studies have dealt with agricultural contamination, we also studied a soil toposequence from Brittany, France, that experienced spreading of pig slurry for tens of years. In the surface horizons of the natural soils, the δ(65)Cu values vary from -0.15 to 0.44‰ and the δ(66)Zn from -0.03 to 0.43‰. Furthermore, vertical variations along soil profiles range from -0.95 to 0.44‰ for δ(65)Cu and from -0.53 to 0.64‰ for δ(66)Zn values. We concluded that pedogenetic processes can produce isotopic fractionation, yet, it is not always discernible and can be overprinted by an exogenous isotopic signature. Furthermore, some contaminants are enriched in heavy Cu or in light Zn compared to the rock or soil, but no generalization can be made. The anthropogenic inputs can be identified based on stable Cu and Zn isotope ratios if the isotope ratios of the sources are different from those of the soil, which needs to be tested for each individual case. PMID:25723961

  19. Dielectric behaviour of Zn substituted Cu nano-ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parashar, Jyoti; Saxena, V. K.; Jyoti; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Sharma, K. B.

    2015-11-01

    Herein, the dielectric properties such as permittivity (real part ε‧ and imaginary part ε‧‧) and dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) are reported for Zn substituted Cu ferrites (Cu1-xZnxFe2O4; 0≤x≤1) composite using the sol-gel auto-combustion method. The variations of real and imaginary part of dielectric constant, tan δ and AC conductivity (σac) are studied at room temperature in the frequency range of 100 Hz-120 MHz. The real part of dielectric constant decrease with increasing frequency and the imaginary part (ε‧‧) varies with frequency showing the characteristic peak for each sample. The relation of tan δ with frequency shows relaxation spectra. Further, the σac tended to increase with increase in frequency. The variation in dielectric constant may be explained on the basis of space charge polarization, according to Maxwell and Wagner two-layer model. The dielectric constant and tan δ as a function of temperature are also studied with different temperatures ranging from 323 K to 583 K.

  20. Stabilization of As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in soil using amendments--a review.

    PubMed

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Lagerkvist, Anders; Maurice, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The spread of contaminants in soil can be hindered by the soil stabilization technique. Contaminant immobilizing amendments decrease trace element leaching and their bioavailability by inducing various sorption processes: adsorption to mineral surfaces, formation of stable complexes with organic ligands, surface precipitation and ion exchange. Precipitation as salts and co-precipitation can also contribute to reducing contaminant mobility. The technique can be used in in situ and ex situ applications to reclaim and re-vegetate industrially devastated areas and mine-spoils, improve soil quality and reduce contaminant mobility by stabilizing agents and a beneficial use of industrial by-products. This study is an overview of data published during the last five years on the immobilization of one metalloid, As, and four heavy metals, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn, in soils. The most extensively studied amendments for As immobilization are Fe containing materials. The immobilization of As occurs through adsorption on Fe oxides by replacing the surface hydroxyl groups with the As ions, as well as by the formation of amorphous Fe(III) arsenates and/or insoluble secondary oxidation minerals. Cr stabilization mainly deals with Cr reduction from its toxic and mobile hexavalent form Cr(VI) to stable in natural environments Cr(III). The reduction is accelerated in soil by the presence of organic matter and divalent iron. Clays, carbonates, phosphates and Fe oxides were the common amendments tested for Cu immobilization. The suggested mechanisms of Cu retention were precipitation of Cu carbonates and oxy-hydroxides, ion exchange and formation of ternary cation-anion complexes on the surface of Fe and Al oxy-hydroxides. Most of the studies on Pb stabilization were performed using various phosphorus-containing amendments, which reduce the Pb mobility by ionic exchange and precipitation of pyromorphite-type minerals. Zn can be successfully immobilized in soil by phosphorus amendments and clays

  1. Doping Zn(2+) in CuS Nanoflowers into Chemically Homogeneous Zn0.49Cu0.50S1.01 Superlattice Crystal Structure as High-Efficiency n-Type Photoelectric Semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peipei; Gao, Yuanhao; Li, Pinjiang; Zhang, Xiaofei; Niu, Helin; Zheng, Zhi

    2016-06-22

    Doping Zn(2+) in CuS nanoflower into chemically homogeneous superlattice crystal structure is proposed to convert p-type CuS semiconductor to an n-type CuS semiconductor for significantly enhanced photoelectric response performance. In this study, the chemically homogeneous Zn-doped CuS nanoflowers (Zn0.06Cu0.94S, Zn0.26Cu0.73S1.01, Zn0.36Cu0.62S1.02, Zn0.49Cu0.50S1.01, Zn0.58Cu0.40S1.02) are synthesized by reacting appropriate amounts of CuCl and Zn(Ac)2·2H2O with sulfur powders in ethanol solvothermal process. By tuning the Zn/Cu atomic ratios to ∼1:1, the chemically homogeneous Zn-doped CuS nanoflowers could be converted to the perfect Zn0.49Cu0.50S1.01 superlattice structure, corresponding to the periodic Cu-S-Zn atom arrangements in the entire crystal lattice, which can induce an effective built-in electric field with n-type semiconductor characteristics to significantly improve the photoelectric response performance, such as the lifetime of photogenerated charge carriers up to 6 × 10(-8)-6 × 10(-4) s with the transient photovoltage (TPV) response intensity to ∼44 mV. This study reveals that the Zn(2+) doping in CuS nanoflowers is a key factor in determining the superlattice structure, semiconductor type, and the dynamic behaviors of charge carriers. PMID:27300016

  2. Temperature dependence diode parameters studies of Al/CuPc/n-Si/Al structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ratnesh; Kaur, Ramneek; Sharma, Mamta; Kaur, Maninder; Tripathi, S. K.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the fabrication of Al/CuPc/n-Si/Al metal-organic-semiconductor diode. The copper phthalocyanine as organic layer is deposited on Si substrate by thermal evaporation technique. The temperature dependent current-voltage measurements are performed on Al/CuPc/n-Si structure. The important diode parameters i.e. the barrier height and ideality factor have been calculated. The temperature dependence of barrier height and ideality factor has been studied.

  3. Formation Mechanism of CuAlO2 Prepared by Rapid Thermal Annealing of Al2O3/Cu2O/Sapphire Sandwich Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, C. H.; Tseng, B. H.

    Single-phase CuAlO2 films were successfully prepared by thin-film reaction of an Al2O3/Cu2O/sapphire sandwich structure. We found that the processing parameters, such as heating rate, holding temperature and annealing ambient, were all crucial to form CuAlO2 without second phases. Thermal annealing in pure oxygen ambient with a lower temperature ramp rate might result in the formation of CuAl2O4 in addition to CuAlO2, since part of Cu2O was oxidized to form CuO and caused the change in reaction path, i.e. CuO + Al2O3 → CuAl2O4. Typical annealing conditions successful to prepare single-phase CuAlO2 would be to heat the sample with a temperature rampt rate higher than 7.3 °C/sec and hold the temperature at 1100 °C in air ambient. The formation mechanism of CuAlO2 has also been studied by interrupting the reaction after a short period of annealing. TEM observations showed that the top Al2O3 layer with amorphous structure reacted immediately with Cu2O to form CuAlO2 in the early stage and then the remaining Cu2O reacted with the sapphire substrate.

  4. The chemical fractionation and potential source identification of Cu, Zn and Cd on urban watershed.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Hua, Pei; Krebs, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study showcases the chemical fractionation and primary source identification of Cu, Zn and Cd in road-deposited sediment. Results show that Zn and Cd were identified as easily mobilised and biologically available metals that pose high risks to the receiving aquatic environments. However, Cu was released in substantial amounts only under relatively extreme conditions. With the assistance of principal component analysis and chemical fractionation, two primary contributors to heavy metals in road-deposited sediment were tentatively identified as vehicle-related sources (especially, auto brake pad erosion for Cu and tyre debris for Zn) and atmospheric deposition (especially for Cd). PMID:26465315

  5. Phosphorescence quenching by mechanical stimulus in CaZnOS:Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Dong; Kamimura, Sunao; Xu, Chao-Nan; Fujio, Yuki; Sakata, Yoshitaro; Ueno, Naohiro

    2014-07-07

    We have found that phosphorescence intensity of CaZnOS:Cu decreased visibly under an applied load. This mechanical quenching (MQ) of phosphorescence in CaZnOS:Cu corresponded to the mechanical stimuli. We have thus demonstrated that the MQ of CaZnOS:Cu could be used for visualizing stress distributions in practical applications. We propose that MQ arises from non-radiative recombination due to electron-transfer from trap levels to non-radiative centers as a result of the mechanical load.

  6. Interdiffusion in. beta. phase Cu--Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Romig, A.D. Jr.

    1983-06-01

    The diffusion behavior of ..beta.. phase Cu--Al has been studied at 800, 850, and 950 /sup 0/C using the experimental approach and analysis scheme of Kirkendall and Darken. Diffusion couples were made using the window frame technique and concentration profiles were determined by electron probe microanalysis. The chemical diffusion coefficient, D was found to be D = 0.65 exp(-42200/RT) cm/sup 2//s. The diffusivity was observed to be independent of composition over the range 11--13 wt. % Al. The self-diffusion coefficients D/sub Cu/ and D/sub Al/ were determined to be D/sub Al/ = 0.13 exp(-38900/RT) cm/sup 2//s and D/sub Cu/ = 2.2 exp(-43400/RT) cm/sup 2//s. All activation energies are in calories/mole.

  7. Molecular adsorption and methanol synthesis on the oxidized Cu/ZnO(0001) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyle, Matthew J.; Warschkow, Oliver; Delley, Bernard; Stampfl, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Cu/ZnO is an important catalyst used in the industrial synthesis of methanol from syngas. Many aspects of the functional synergy between the Cu and ZnO components in this system require further understanding. This work uses density functional theory calculations to examine the adsorption of various reactants of methanol synthesis to a recently proposed copper-oxide overlayer reconstruction on the ZnO(0001) surface. We identify the preferred binding configurations as a function of adsorbate coverage and compare the energetics of adsorption to that on the clean ZnO(0001) surface. The relevance of our results to methanol synthesis is discussed.

  8. Properties of a Cu2ZnSnS4 absorber layer fabricated by dip coating with a sulfurized Cu, Zn, Sn precursor and annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Mau Tuan; Muslih, Ersan Y.; Kim, Kyoo Ho

    2015-09-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films were prepared on soda lime glass by dip coating with sulfurized Cu, Zn, Sn precursors, N2 gas jet flattening, and annealing under an Ar+H2S atmosphere, which is a simple and inexpensive process for large-area thin-film preparation, and the influence of the Cu/(Zn+Sn) ratio on the properties of the film were investigated. Copper (II) acetate monohydrate, zinc (II) acetate dihydrate, tin (II) chloride dihydrate and thiourea dissolved in an ethanol solution were used for the preparation of the sulfurized Cu, Zn and Sn precursors as a low-cost raw materials for chemical bath deposition, and dip coating of the precursors and annealing under an Ar+H2S atmosphere were applied to prepare kesterite CZTS films on substrates. Sulfurization under an Ar+H2S atmosphere enhanced CZTS formation with no zinc oxide and adhesion on the soda lime glass. As the Cu/(Zn+Sn) ratio was increased in the film,the grain size and the film density increased whereas the band gap energy and the resistivity decreased. All films exhibited a p-type semi-conductivity with a high carrier concentration.

  9. Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films prepared by selenization of one-step electrochemically deposited Cu-Zn-Sn-Se precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Mingming; Wan, Lei; Zou, Peng; Miao, Shiding; Xu, Jinzhang

    2013-05-01

    In this research a non-vacuum strategy was reported in facile preparation of kesterite-type Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin films via selenization of one-step electrochemically prepared Cu-Zn-Sn-Se precursors. The Cu-Zn-Sn-Se precursor films were prepared by electrochemical deposition from electrolytes containing CuSO4, ZnSO4, SnCl4 and H2SeO3, and the substrate is a Mo coated soda-lime glass. The CZTSe thin films were obtained by annealing the electrochemically deposited films in the selenium vapors at the temperature of 550 °C. The crystal phases, micro-structures, chemical compositions and optical properties of CZTSe films have been studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), Raman scattering spectrum, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopic means. The results revealed that the electrolytes with Cu:Zn:Sn:Se molar ratio of 3:70:20:3 yields nearly pure phase of kesterite, and a band gap of 0.94 eV was determined by spectroscopic measurements.

  10. Comparative Study of CuO Species on CuO/Al2O3, CuO/CeO2-Al2O3 and CuO/La2O-Al2O3 Catalysts for CO Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Ling-yun; He, Mai; Lu, Ji-qing; Luo, Meng-fei; Fang, Ping; Xie, Yun-long

    2007-10-01

    CuO/Al2O3, CuO/CeO2-Al2O3, and CuO/La2O3-Al2O3 (denoted as Cu/Al, Cu/CeAl, and Cu/LaAl) catalysts were prepared by an impregnation method. CuO species and CuO/Al2O3 thermal solid-solid interaction were characterized by in situ XRD, Raman spectroscopy and H2-TPR techniques. For the Cu/Al catalyst, a CuAl2O4 phase exists between the CuO and Al2O3 layer and the CuO phase exists on the surface in both highly dispersed and bulk forms. For the Cu/CeAl catalyst, there is highly dispersed and bulk CuO on the surface, but most of the CuO has transferred into the internal layer of CeO2 as bulk CuO and CuAl2O4. For the Cu/LaAl catalyst, only bulk CuO is present on the surface of the catalyst and no CuAl2O4 is formed. The catalytic activity order for CO oxidation is Cu/CeAl>Cu/Al>Cu/LaAl. The highly dispersed CuO on the catalyst surface may be the active phase for CO oxidation. The results show that the addition of CeO2 not only promotes both the transference of CuO and the formation of CuAl2O4 but also favors the CO oxidation due to the association of highly dispersed CuO with CeO2, while La2O3 hinders the transference of CuO and the formation of CuAl2O4.

  11. Single Crystal NMR Study of Frustrated Spin-Liquid in S = 1/2 Kagome Lattice ZnCu3(OD)6Cl2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Mingxuan; Torchetti, David. A.; Imai, Takashi; Han, Tianheng; Lee, Young. S.

    2012-02-01

    Herbertsmithite ZnCu3(OD)6Cl2 is one of the most promising examples for a quantum spin liquid state. Despite the remarkable absence of long range magnetic order down to at least 50mK, understanding the magnetic properties of ZnCu3(OD)6Cl2 remains a challenge. This is mainly due to the difficulty in locating the defects, and in understanding the possible role of defects in the physical properties of this material. We have investigated the local magnetic and lattice environment of ZnCu3(OD)6Cl2 single crystalsootnotetextT. H. Han et al., Phys. Rev. B 83, 100402(R) (2011) using NMR techniquesootnotetextT. Imai et al., Phys. Rev. B 84, 020411(R) (2011); see also Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 077203 (2008). With successful identification of ^2D NMR signals arising from the nearest neighbors of Cu^2+ defects substituting Zn, we find that 14(2)% of Zn sites are occupied by these weakly interacting Cu^2+ defect spins, which contribute to the large Curie-Weiss enhancement of bulk susceptibility at low temperatures. We then discuss the key aspects of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 measured near the defect and intrinsic sites.

  12. Electrodeposited ZnS Precursor Layer with Improved Electrooptical Properties for Efficient Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin-Film Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkawi, E. M.; Ibrahim, K.; Ali, M. K. M.; Farrukh, M. A.; Mohamed, A. S.

    2015-10-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films were prepared on indium tin oxide-coated glass by electrodeposition using aqueous zinc sulfate, thiourea, and ammonia solutions at 80°C. The effects of sulfurization at temperatures of 350°C, 400°C, 450°C, and 500°C on the morphological, structural, optical, and electrical properties of the ZnS thin films were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the ZnS thin films exhibited cubic zincblende structure with preferred (111) orientation. The film crystallization improved with increasing annealing temperature. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy images showed that the film morphology became more compact and uniform with increasing annealing temperature. The percentage of sulfur in the ZnS thin films increased after sulfurization until a stoichiometric S/Zn ratio was achieved at 500°C. The annealed films showed good adhesion to the glass substrates, with moderate transmittance (85%) in the visible region. Based on absorption measurements, the direct bandgap increased from 3.71 eV to 3.79 eV with annealing temperature, which is attributed to the change of the buffer material composition and suitable crystal surface properties for effective p- n junction formation. The ZnS thin films were used as a buffer layer in thin-film solar cells with the structure of soda-lime glass/Mo/Cu2ZnSnS4/ZnS/ZnO/Al grid. The best solar cell efficiency was 1.86%.

  13. Charge superstructures in Zn-doped La2-xSrxCuO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. C.; Rusydi, A.; Smadici, S.; Wang, S.; Abbamonte, P.; Enoki, M.; Fujita, M.; Ruebhausen, M.; Yamada, K.

    2008-03-01

    We have observed valence band charge order in both twinned and untwinned samples of La1.95Sr0.05Cu0.95Zn0.05O4 with resonant soft x-ray scattering. In the untwinned sample the order was observed to be mainly electronic and centered at the (0,0.084,2)o position in reciprocal space, indicating diagonal charge order with period 12 ao, where ao is the orthorhombic lattice parameter. This order has approximately half the wavelength of the magnetic order previsouly observed with neutron scattering* in this system, suggesting a stripe interpretation. Preliminary measurements on a twinned sample revealed four satellites at (0,K,2)o, where K takes on integer multiples of the value 0.011. Relationships between these effects and the crystal structure of La1.95Sr0.05Cu0.95Zn0.05O4 will be discussed. *M. Matsuda, et. al., Phys. Rev. B 73, 140503(R) (2006)

  14. CuInSe2/ZnSe solar cells using reactively sputter-deposited ZnSe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nouhi, A.; Stirn, R. J.; Hermann, A.

    1987-01-01

    Results on CuInSe2/ZnSe thin-film heterojunction photovoltaic devices are presented. By the use of reactive magnetron cosputtering of Zn and In dopant in Ar/H2Se, ZnSe thin films have been deposited on glass and conducting SnO2-coated glass substrates with resistivity as low as 20 ohm-cm at deposition temperatures as low as 120 C. Preliminary ZnSe depositions onto CuInSe2 films supplied by industrial laboratories are encouraging. Reactive-sputter-deposition parameters for ZnSe have yet to be optimized for CuInSe2 substrates; however, open-circuit voltages as high as 430 mV were obtained. The highest short-circuit current density, as determined by spectral response weighted for AM1.5 global insulation, was 37.4 mA/sq cm. In all cases, a highly conductive ZnO film was overcoated onto the ZnSe to reduce the overall sheet resistance.

  15. Environmental levels of Zn do not protect embryos from Cu toxicity in three species of amphibians.

    PubMed

    Weir, Scott M; Flynn, R Wesley; Scott, David E; Yu, Shuangying; Lance, Stacey L

    2016-07-01

    Contaminants often occur as mixtures in the environment, but investigations into toxicity usually employ a single chemical. Metal contaminant mixtures from anthropogenic activities such as mining and coal combustion energy are widespread, yet relatively little research has been performed on effects of these mixtures on amphibians. Considering that amphibians tend to be highly sensitive to copper (Cu) and that metal contaminants often occur as mixtures in the environment, it is important to understand the interactive effects that may result from multiple metals. Interactive effects of Cu and zinc (Zn) on amphibians have been reported as antagonistic and, conversely, synergistic. The goal of our study was to investigate the role of Zn in Cu toxicity to amphibians throughout the embryonic developmental period. We also considered maternal effects and population differences by collecting multiple egg masses from contaminated and reference areas for use in four experiments across three species. We performed acute toxicity experiments with Cu concentrations that cause toxicity (10-200 μg/L) in the absence of other contaminants combined with sublethal concentrations of Zn (100 and 1000 μg/L). Our results suggest very few effects of Zn on Cu toxicity at these concentrations of Zn. As has been previously reported, we found that maternal effects and population history had significant influence on Cu toxicity. The explanation for a lack of interaction between Cu and Zn in this experiment is unknown but may be due to the use of sublethal Zn concentrations when previous experiments have used Zn concentrations associated with acute toxicity. Understanding the inconsistency of amphibian Cu/Zn mixture toxicity studies is an important research direction in order to create generalities that can be used to understand risk of contaminant mixtures in the environment. PMID:27086071

  16. Supercoducting property of Zr-Cu-Al-Ni-Nb alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okai, D.; Motoyama, G.; Kimura, H.; Inoue, A.

    The superconducting property of Zr55Cu(30-X)Al10Ni5NbX alloys prepared by arc melting and liquid quenching methods was investigated by magnetic susceptibility measurements. The crystalline alloys with X = 0∼25 at.% prepared by arc melting method exhibited superconductivity with maximum Tc,on of 10.1 K. The alloys (X = 10∼23 at.%) with crystalline particles embedded in an amorphous structure, which were fabricated by melt spinning method, showed superconductivity with Tc,on of less than 4.0 K. The superconducting property of the Zr-Cu-Al-Ni-Nb alloys was attributed to superconducting phases of Zr2Cu, Zr2Ni, Zr65Al10Nb25 and Zr-Nb contained in the Zr-Cu-Al-Ni-Nb alloys. The melt-spun Zr55Cu(30-X)Al10Ni5NbX (X = 10∼20 at.%) alloys exhibited glass transition at 718∼743 K and were found to be superconducting metallic glasses.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of Al-Zn/Al2O3 nano-powder composites.

    PubMed

    Durai, T G; Das, Karabi; Das, Siddhartha

    2007-06-01

    Composites consisting of Al-Zn/Al2O3 have been synthesized using high energy mechanical milling. High energy ball milling increases the sintering rate of the composite powder due to increased diffusion rate. Owing to the finer microstructure, the hardness of the sintered composite produced by using the mechanically milled nanocomposite powder is significantly higher than that of the sintered composite produced by using the as-mixed powder. The mean crystallite size of the matrix has been determined to be 27 nm by Scherrer equation using X-ray diffraction data. The powders have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The effect of high-energy ball milling and subsequent annealing on a mixture of Al and ZnO has also been investigated. DTA result show that the reaction temperature of Al-ZnO decreases with the increase in the ball milling time. PMID:17654976

  18. Photoluminescence properties of ZnS nanoparticles co-doped with Pb 2+ and Cu 2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping; Lü, Mengkai; Xü, Dong; Yuan, Duolong; Zhou, Guangjun

    2001-03-01

    Nanometer-scale ZnS, ZnS:Cu, ZnS:Pb, and ZnS co-doped with Cu 2+ and Pb 2+ have been synthesized using a chemical precipitation method. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the diameter of the particles is 2-4 nm. These nanocrystals can be doped with copper and lead during the synthesis without altering the X-ray diffraction pattern. However, doping has shifted the luminescence to 530 nm (Cu 2+-doped) and 500-550 nm (co-doped with Cu 2+ and Pb 2+). In the case of ZnS:Pb nanocrystals, a relatively broad emission band (color range from blue to yellow) has been observed and its excitation wavelength shows a red shift. The photoluminescence intensity increases as the ZnS nanoparticles co-doped with Pb 2+ and Cu 2+. The results strongly suggest that doped ZnS nanocrystals, especially two kinds of metals activated ZnS nanocrystals, form a new class of luminescent materials.

  19. Facile synthesis of Zn doped CuO hierarchical nanostructures: Structural, optical and antibacterial properties

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, Javed E-mail: javed.suggau@iiu.edu.pk; Jan, Tariq E-mail: javed.suggau@iiu.edu.pk; Ul-Hassan, Sibt; Umair Ali, M.; Abbas, Fazal; Ahmed, Ishaq; Mansoor, Qaisar; Ismail, Muhammad

    2015-12-15

    Zn{sub x}Cu{sub 1−x}O (where x= 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 mol%) hierarchical nanostructures have been prepared via soft chemical route. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results of the synthesized samples reveal the monoclinic structure of CuO without any impurity related phases. The micro-structural parameters such as crystallite size and microstrain have been strongly influenced by Zn doping. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses depict the formation of hierarchical nanostructures having average particle size in the range of 26-43 nm. The surface area of CuO nanostructures has been reduced systematically with the increase in Zn content which is linked with the variations in particle size. An obvious decrease in the optical band gap energy of the synthesized CuO hierarchical nanostructures has been observed with Zn doping which is assigned to the formation of shallow levels in the band gap of CuO and combined transition from oxygen 2p states to d sates of Cu and Zn ions. The bactericidal potency of the CuO hierarchical nanostructures have been found to be enhanced remarkably with Zn doping.

  20. Large-scale growth of Cu2ZnSnSe4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4/Cu2ZnSnS4 core/shell nanowires.

    PubMed

    Li, Z Q; Shi, J H; Liu, Q Q; Chen, Y W; Sun, Z; Yang, Z; Huang, S M

    2011-07-01

    We present a fast and simple protocol for large-scale preparation of quaternary Cu(2)ZnSnSe(4) (CZTSe), as well as CZTSe/Cu(2)ZnSnS(4) (CZTS) core/shell nanowires using CuSe nanowire bundles as self-sacrificial templates. CuSe nanowire bundles were synthesized by reacting Cu(2 - x)Se nanowire bundles with sodium citrate solution. CZTSe nanowires were prepared by reacting CuSe nanowire bundles with Zn(CH(3)COO)(2) and SnCl(2) in triethylene glycol. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction studies show that stannite CZTSe is formed. The formed CZTSe nanowire bundles have diameters of 200-400 nm and lengths of up to hundreds of micrometers. CZTSe/CZTS nanocable bundles with similar morphologies were grown by the addition of some elemental sulfur to the reaction system for growth of CZTSe bundles. The stannite CZTSe/kesterite CZTS core/shell structure of the grown nanocables was confirmed by XRD and high-resolution transmission electron microscope investigation. The influence of S/Se molar ratio in the reaction system on the crystallographic structures and optical properties of CZTSe/CZTS nanocables was studied. The obtained CZTSe/CZTS core/shell nanocable bundles show broad and enhanced optical absorption over the visible and near-infrared region, which is promising for use in photovoltaic applications. PMID:21586809

  1. Large-scale growth of Cu2ZnSnSe4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4/Cu2ZnSnS4 core/shell nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. Q.; Shi, J. H.; Liu, Q. Q.; Chen, Y. W.; Sun, Z.; Yang, Z.; Huang, S. M.

    2011-07-01

    We present a fast and simple protocol for large-scale preparation of quaternary Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe), as well as CZTSe/Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) core/shell nanowires using CuSe nanowire bundles as self-sacrificial templates. CuSe nanowire bundles were synthesized by reacting Cu2 - xSe nanowire bundles with sodium citrate solution. CZTSe nanowires were prepared by reacting CuSe nanowire bundles with Zn(CH3COO)2 and SnCl2 in triethylene glycol. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction studies show that stannite CZTSe is formed. The formed CZTSe nanowire bundles have diameters of 200-400 nm and lengths of up to hundreds of micrometers. CZTSe/CZTS nanocable bundles with similar morphologies were grown by the addition of some elemental sulfur to the reaction system for growth of CZTSe bundles. The stannite CZTSe/kesterite CZTS core/shell structure of the grown nanocables was confirmed by XRD and high-resolution transmission electron microscope investigation. The influence of S/Se molar ratio in the reaction system on the crystallographic structures and optical properties of CZTSe/CZTS nanocables was studied. The obtained CZTSe/CZTS core/shell nanocable bundles show broad and enhanced optical absorption over the visible and near-infrared region, which is promising for use in photovoltaic applications.

  2. Solid-state NMR and Raman spectroscopy to address the local structure of defects and the tricky issue of the Cu/Zn disorder in Cu-poor, Zn-rich CZTS materials.

    PubMed

    Paris, Michaël; Choubrac, Léo; Lafond, Alain; Guillot-Deudon, Catherine; Jobic, Stéphane

    2014-08-18

    The material Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTS) offers a promising indium-free alternative to Cu(In,Ga)Se2 for the absorber layer in thin-film solar cells. It is known that the highest solar energy conversion efficiencies are reached for Cu-poor, Zn-rich CZTS compositions and that too much disorder at the Cu and Zn sites can have a negative impact on the device performance. In this article, we investigate the structures of [VCu + ZnCu] A-type and [2ZnCu + ZnSn] B-type defect complexes and their impact on the long-range Cu/Zn disorder. To that end, we use (119)Sn, (65)Cu, and (67)Zn solid-state NMR and Raman spectroscopy to characterize powdered CZTS samples. For both A- and B-type substitutions, our NMR investigations demonstrate the clustering of the complexes. Moreover, we show that (A+B)-type compounds should be considered as A-type and B-type compounds, since no interaction seems to exist between [VCu + ZnCu] and [2ZnCu + ZnSn] defect complexes. In addition, it is worth noting that [2ZnCu + ZnSn] complexes have only a minor impact on the level of disorder at the Cu and Zn sites. In contrast, [VCu + ZnCu] complexes seem to restrain the random distribution of Cu at the Zn site and of Zn at the Cu site; i.e., the long-range Cu/Zn disorder. Raman characterization of the CZTS samples was also conducted. The Q = I287/I303 and the newly introduced Q' = I338/(I366 + I374) ratios determined from Raman spectra collected at 785 nm turn out to be very sensitive to the level of Cu/Zn disorder. Moreover, they can be used to differentiate the nature of the substitution in slow-cooled materials. PMID:25069473

  3. Microstructural Development and Possible Whiskering Behavior of Thin Sn Films Electrodeposited on Cu(Zn) Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, J.; Tineo, C. A. Cordova; Welzel, U.; Huegel, W.; Mittemeijer, E. J.

    2015-03-01

    The aging behavior at room temperature of thin Sn films, electrodeposited on top of Cu(Zn) substrates containing 15 wt.% and 36 wt.% Zn, was investigated, using focused ion beam microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis to evaluate the microstructural and (residual) stress development in the specimens. For comparison, parallel experiments and similar analyses were performed with Sn films electrodeposited on pure Cu substrates. Whereas Sn whiskering was observed for the Sn films deposited on the Cu substrates, such whiskering was not observed for the Sn films deposited on the Cu(Zn) substrates. It was found that alloying the Cu substrates with Zn strongly slows down the formation rate of the intermetallic compound Cu6Sn5 at the Sn/Cu(alloy) interface. The Sn films on the Cu(Zn) substrates remained whisker free for the entire time of investigation even though an overall compressive state of stress has developed after several weeks of aging. It was concluded that a homogeneous, compressive stress in the Sn film does not lead to whisker formation: the presence of negative stress gradients is essential for Sn whisker growth.

  4. Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase and copper deprivation and toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Greco, M A; Hrab, D I; Magner, W; Kosman, D J

    1990-01-01

    A wild-type strain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown at a medium [Cu] of less than or equal to 50 nM contained less Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) mRNA (60%), protein (50%), and activity (50%) in comparison with control cultures grown in normal synthetic dextrose medium ([Cu] approximately 150 nM). A compensating increase in the activity of MnSOD was observed, as well as a smaller increase in MnSOD mRNA. These medium [Cu]-dependent differences were observed in cultures under N2 as well. Addition of Cu2+ (100 microM) to Cu-depleted cultures resulted in a rapid (30 min) increase in Cu,ZnSOD mRNA (2.5-fold), protein (3.5-fold), and activity (4-fold). Ethidium bromide (200 micrograms/ml of culture) inhibited by 50% the increase in Cu,ZnSOD mRNA, while cycloheximide (100 micrograms/ml of culture) inhibited completely the increase in protein and activity. Addition of Cu2+ to greater than or equal to 100 microM caused no further increase in these parameters but did result in a loss of total cellular RNA and translatable RNA, a decline in the population of specific mRNAs, a decrease in total soluble protein and the activity of specific enzymes, and an inhibition of incorporation of [3H]uracil and [3H]leucine into trichloroacetic acid-insoluble material. Cu,ZnSOD mRNA, protein, and activity appeared relatively more resistant to these effects of Cu toxicity than did the other cellular constituents examined. When evaluated in cultures under N2, the cellular response to [Cu] of greater than or equal to 100 microM was limited to the inhibition of radiolabel incorporation into trichloroacetic acid-insoluble material. All other effects were absent in the absence of O2. The data indicated that medium (cellular) Cu alters the steady-state level of Cu, ZnSOD. This regulation may be at the level of transcription. In addition, Cu,ZnSOD exhibits the characteristics of Cu-stress protein in that it and its mRNA are enhanced relative to other cellular species under conditions

  5. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of ZnO microspheres via hybridization with CuInSe₂ and CuInS₂ nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fengyu; Que, Wenxiu; He, Yucheng; Yuan, Yuan; Yin, Xingtian; Wang, Gangfeng

    2012-08-01

    ZnO microspheres sensitized by CuInSe(2) and CuInS(2) nanoparticles, which were synthesized by a solvothermal method and have a size about 20 and 3.5 nm, respectively, were used to a photodegradation of rhodamine B under an irradiation of mercury lamp. Results show that the photocatalytic activities of the ZnO/CuInSe(2) and the ZnO/CuInS(2) are much higher than that of the ZnO microspheres because of a formation of the heterojunction in two systems. It is also noted that the ZnO/CuInS(2) exhibits a higher photocatalytic activity than the ZnO/CuInSe(2), which is probably related to more suitable band gap to sunlight for CuInS(2) nanocrystals and the larger specific surface due to a small size. Particularly, the ZnO/CuInSe(2)/CuInS(2) shows the highest photocatalytic activities in all measured photocatalysts, which should be attributed to the formation of double heterojunctions among ZnO, CuInSe(2), and CuInS(2). PMID:22774978

  6. Cu2ZnSnS4 absorption layers with controlled phase purity

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chia-Ying; -Yen Chiu, Chiu; Ting, Jyh-Ming

    2015-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) with controlled phase purity. The precursor was first prepared using sequential electrodeposition of Cu, Zn, and Sn in different orders. The Cu/(Sn+Zn) ratio in each stacking order was also varied. The precursor was subjected to annealing at 200°C and sulfurization at 500°C in a 5%-H2S/Ar atmosphere for the formation of CZTS. The phase evolutions during the electrodeposition and annealing stages, and the final phase formation at the sulfurization stage were examined using both x-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy, both of which are shown to be complimentary tools for phase identification. Detailed growth path is therefore reported. We also demonstrate by controlling the stacking order and the Cu/(Sn+Zn) ratio, CZTS with a phase purity as high as 93% is obtained. PMID:25801219

  7. Cu2ZnSnS4 absorption layers with controlled phase purity.

    PubMed

    Su, Chia-Ying; Chiu, Chiu-Yen; Ting, Jyh-Ming

    2015-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) with controlled phase purity. The precursor was first prepared using sequential electrodeposition of Cu, Zn, and Sn in different orders. The Cu/(Sn+Zn) ratio in each stacking order was also varied. The precursor was subjected to annealing at 200°C and sulfurization at 500°C in a 5%-H2S/Ar atmosphere for the formation of CZTS. The phase evolutions during the electrodeposition and annealing stages, and the final phase formation at the sulfurization stage were examined using both x-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy, both of which are shown to be complimentary tools for phase identification. Detailed growth path is therefore reported. We also demonstrate by controlling the stacking order and the Cu/(Sn+Zn) ratio, CZTS with a phase purity as high as 93% is obtained. PMID:25801219

  8. Molecular cloning of superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) from aquatic molluscs.

    PubMed

    Geret, F; Manduzio, H; Company, R; Leboulenger, F; Bebianno, M J; Danger, J M

    2004-01-01

    The potential of the first line of the active oxygen-scavenging system, partial cDNA encoding Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) was isolated in three aquatic mollusc species: Ruditapes decussatus (marine clam), Dreissena polymorpha (continental water mussel) and Bathymodiolus azoricus (hydrothermal vent mussel). These SOD cDNA fragments were amplified by PCR with degenerate oligonucleotide primers derived from the amino acid sequence conserved in the Cu/Zn-SOD from several other organisms. A partial cDNA of CuZn-SOD was obtained for R. decussates (510 bp), D. polymorpha (510 bp) and B. azoricus (195 bp). The deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity among the three mollusc species (57-63%) and among other species (50-65%). The residues involved in coordinating copper (His-47, 49, 64, 121) and zinc (His-64, 72, 81 and Asp-84) were well conserved among the three Cu/Zn-SOD sequences. PMID:15178089

  9. Cu2ZnSnS4 absorption layers with controlled phase purity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chia-Ying; -Yen Chiu, Chiu; Ting, Jyh-Ming

    2015-03-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) with controlled phase purity. The precursor was first prepared using sequential electrodeposition of Cu, Zn, and Sn in different orders. The Cu/(Sn+Zn) ratio in each stacking order was also varied. The precursor was subjected to annealing at 200°C and sulfurization at 500°C in a 5%-H2S/Ar atmosphere for the formation of CZTS. The phase evolutions during the electrodeposition and annealing stages, and the final phase formation at the sulfurization stage were examined using both x-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy, both of which are shown to be complimentary tools for phase identification. Detailed growth path is therefore reported. We also demonstrate by controlling the stacking order and the Cu/(Sn+Zn) ratio, CZTS with a phase purity as high as 93% is obtained.

  10. Enhanced photoluminescence and Raman properties of Al-Doped ZnO nanostructures prepared using thermal chemical vapor deposition of methanol assisted with heated brass.

    PubMed

    Thandavan, Tamil Many K; Gani, Siti Meriam Abdul; San Wong, Chiow; Md Nor, Roslan

    2015-01-01

    Vapor phase transport (VPT) assisted by mixture of methanol and acetone via thermal evaporation of brass (CuZn) was used to prepare un-doped and Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures (NSs). The structure and morphology were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Photoluminescence (PL) properties of un-doped and Al-doped ZnO showed significant changes in the optical properties providing evidence for several types of defects such as zinc interstitials (Zni), oxygen interstitials (Oi), zinc vacancy (Vzn), singly charged zinc vacancy (VZn-), oxygen vacancy (Vo), singly charged oxygen vacancy (Vo+) and oxygen anti-site defects (OZn) in the grown NSs. The Al-doped ZnO NSs have exhibited shifted PL peaks at near band edge (NBE) and red luminescence compared to the un-doped ZnO. The Raman scattering results provided evidence of Al doping into the ZnO NSs due to peak shift from 145 cm-1 to an anomalous peak at 138 cm-1. Presence of enhanced Raman signal at around 274 and 743 cm-1 further confirmed Al in ZnO NSs. The enhanced D and G band in all Al-doped ZnO NSs shows possible functionalization and doping process in ZnO NSs. PMID:25756598

  11. Enhanced Photoluminescence and Raman Properties of Al-Doped ZnO Nanostructures Prepared Using Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition of Methanol Assisted with Heated Brass

    PubMed Central

    Thandavan, Tamil Many K.; Gani, Siti Meriam Abdul; San Wong, Chiow; Md. Nor, Roslan

    2015-01-01

    Vapor phase transport (VPT) assisted by mixture of methanol and acetone via thermal evaporation of brass (CuZn) was used to prepare un-doped and Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures (NSs). The structure and morphology were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Photoluminescence (PL) properties of un-doped and Al-doped ZnO showed significant changes in the optical properties providing evidence for several types of defects such as zinc interstitials (Zni), oxygen interstitials (Oi), zinc vacancy (Vzn), singly charged zinc vacancy (VZn-), oxygen vacancy (Vo), singly charged oxygen vacancy (Vo+) and oxygen anti-site defects (OZn) in the grown NSs. The Al-doped ZnO NSs have exhibited shifted PL peaks at near band edge (NBE) and red luminescence compared to the un-doped ZnO. The Raman scattering results provided evidence of Al doping into the ZnO NSs due to peak shift from 145 cm-1 to an anomalous peak at 138 cm-1. Presence of enhanced Raman signal at around 274 and 743 cm-1 further confirmed Al in ZnO NSs. The enhanced D and G band in all Al-doped ZnO NSs shows possible functionalization and doping process in ZnO NSs. PMID:25756598

  12. Semiconducting properties of Al doped ZnO thin films.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A; Al-Hartomy, Omar A; El Okr, M; Nawar, A M; El-Gazzar, S; El-Tantawy, Farid; Yakuphanoglu, F

    2014-10-15

    Aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were successfully deposited via spin coating technique onto glass substrates. Structural properties of the films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction results reveal that all the films are polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure with a preferential orientation according to the direction (002) plane. The crystallite size of ZnO and AZO films was determined from Scherrer's formula and Williamson-Hall analysis. The lattice parameters of the AZO films were found to decrease with increasing Al content. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) results indicate that Zn, Al and O elements are present in the AZO thin films. The electrical conductivity, mobility carriers and carrier concentration of the films are increased with increasing Al doping concentration. The optical band gap (Eg) of the films is increased with increasing Al concentration. The AZO thin films indicate a high transparency in the visible region with an average value of 86%. These transparent AZO films may be open a new avenue for optoelectronic and photonic devices applications in near future. PMID:24840493

  13. Characterization of Cu-Zn Alloy Nanocrystalline Powders Prepared by Wire Electrical Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qun, Wang; Hai-Bin, Yang; Wei-Li, Guo; Guang-Tian, Zou

    2000-02-01

    Nanocrystalline powders of Cu-Zn alloy in size ranging from 10 to 140 nm was prepared from α-Cu-Zn alloy wire containing 39.8 at.% Zn by an electrical explosion method. The particles are identified from x-ray diffraction as a mixture of the α, β, γ, and ɛ phases of Cu-Zn alloy. Most of the particles are hexagonal in shape, with only a small part being spherical and cubic. The composition of Zn in the explosion products varied from 6.9 to 45.2 at.% in different particles as determined by energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer. A possible mechanism for the formation of the alloy nanocrystalline powders is proposed, in which a redistribution process occurred caused by strong collision and diffusion between the two kinds of atoms during the powder formation.

  14. Quantifying the promotion of Cu catalysts by ZnO for methanol synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kuld, Sebastian; Thorhauge, Max; Falsig, Hanne; Elkjær, Christian F; Helveg, Stig; Chorkendorff, Ib; Sehested, Jens

    2016-05-20

    Promoter elements enhance the activity and selectivity of heterogeneous catalysts. Here, we show how methanol synthesis from synthesis gas over copper (Cu) nanoparticles is boosted by zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles. By combining surface area titration, electron microscopy, activity measurement, density functional theory calculations, and modeling, we show that the promotion is related to Zn atoms migrating in the Cu surface. The Zn coverage is quantitatively described as a function of the methanol synthesis conditions and of the size-dependent thermodynamic activities of the Cu and ZnO nanoparticles. Moreover, experimental data reveal a strong interdependency of the methanol synthesis activity and the Zn coverage. These results demonstrate the size-dependent activities of nanoparticles as a general means to design synergetic functionality in binary nanoparticle systems. PMID:27199425

  15. μSR investigation of a new diluted magnetic semiconductor Li(Zn,Mn,Cu)As with Mn and Cu codoping at the same Zn sites.

    PubMed

    Guo, S L; Zhao, Y; Man, H Y; Ding, C; Gong, X; Zhi, G X; Fu, L C; Gu, Y L; Frandsen, B A; Liu, L; Cheung, S C; Munsie, T J; Wilson, M N; Cai, Y P; Luke, G M; Uemura, Y J; Ning, F L

    2016-09-14

    We report the successful synthesis and characterization of a new type I-II-V bulk form diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) Li(Zn,Mn,Cu)As, in which charge and spin doping are decoupled via (Cu,Zn) and (Mn,Zn) substitution at the same Zn sites. Ferromagnetic transition temperature up to  ∼33 K has been observed with a coercive field  ∼40 Oe for the 12.5% doping level. μSR measurements confirmed that the magnetic volume fraction reaches nearly 100% at 2 K, and the mechanism responsible for the ferromagnetic interaction in this system is the same as other bulk form DMSs. PMID:27401041

  16. Spray pyrolysis deposition of Cu-ZnO and Zn-SnO{sub 2} solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Khelfane, A.; Tarzalt, H.; Sebboua, B.; Zerrouki, H.; Kesri, N.

    2015-12-31

    Large-gap metal oxides, such as titanium, tin, and zinc oxides, have attracted great interest because of their remarkable potential in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) and their low cost and simple preparation procedure. In this work, we investigated several Zn-SnO{sub 2} and Cu-ZnO thin films that were sprayed under different experimental conditions. We varied [Zn/[Sn] and [Cu/[Zn] ratios, calculated on atomic percent in the starting solution. We report some structural results of the films using X-ray diffraction. Optical reflection and transmission spectra investigated by an UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer permit the determination of optical constants. The direct band gap was deduced from the photon energy dependence of the absorption coefficient.

  17. In Vitro Degradation Behavior of Ternary Mg-Zn-Se and Mg-Zn-Cu Alloys as Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Persaud-Sharma, Dharam; Budiansky, Noah

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the corrosion behavior of Mg-Zn-Se and Mg-Zn-Cu alloys was investigated to evaluate their corrosion behavior related to use as implantable biomaterials. The corrosion behavior of these alloys and a commercially available Mg-Zn alloy were examined using static solution electrochemical testing, dynamic solution gravimetric testing, ion leaching testing, and microscopic evaluation. Fluctuations in the pH of the Dulbecco’s Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM) used for the gravimetric and ion leaching immersion testing were also recorded over the 30-day duration to assess whether the media conditions induced by the alloy degradation would permit for cellular survival. Weight loss experimentation and electrochemical tests revealed the Mg-Zn-Cu alloy to have the greatest corrosion rate. PMID:24465245

  18. Controlling Bulk Cu6Sn5 Nucleation in Sn0.7Cu/Cu Joints with Al Micro-alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, J. W.; Belyakov, S. A.; Gourlay, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    We show that dilute Al additions can control the size of primary Cu6Sn5 rods in Sn-0.7Cu/Cu ball grid array joints. In Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Al/Cu joints, the number of primary Cu6Sn5 per mm2 is ˜7 times higher and the mean three-dimensional length of rods is ˜4 times smaller than in Al-free Sn-0.7Cu/Cu joints, while the area fraction of primary Cu6Sn5 is similar. It is shown that epitaxial nucleation of primary Cu6Sn5 occurs on δ-Cu33Al17 or γ 1-Cu9Al4 particles, which are stable in the Sn-0.7Cu-0.05Al melt during holding at 250°C. The observed facet relationships agree well with previously determined orientation relationships between δ-Cu33Al17 and Cu6Sn5 in hypereutectic Sn-Cu-Al alloys and result in a good lattice match with <˜2.5% lattice mismatch on two different interfacial planes.

  19. Enhanced UV Photocatalytic Performance of Magnetic Fe3O4/CuO/ZnO/NGP Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tju, Hendry; Taufik, Ardiansyah; Saleh, Rosari

    2016-04-01

    Fe3O4/CuO/ZnO/nanographene platelets (Fe3O4/CuO/ZnO/NGP) with varied ZnO loadings have been synthesized using a sol-gel method followed by hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) confirmed the formation of the Fe3O4/CuO/ZnO/NGP composites. All of the samples showed the presence of graphene nanoplatelets incorporating Fe3O4, CuO and ZnO structures and exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. The composites showed photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation, which was used to affect the degradation of methylene blue. The Fe3O4/CuO/ZnO/NGP composites showed superior photocatalytic activity than the Fe3O4/CuO/ZnO materials.

  20. Thin-film polycrystalline n-ZnO/p-CuO heterojunction

    SciTech Connect

    Lisitski, O. L.; Kumekov, M. E.; Kumekov, S. E. Terukov, E. I.

    2009-06-15

    Results of X-ray diffraction and spectral-optical studies of n-ZnO and p-CuO films deposited by gas-discharge sputtering with subsequent annealing are presented. It is shown that, despite the difference in the crystal systems, the polycrystallinity of n-ZnO and p-CuO films enables fabrication of a heterojunction from this pair of materials.

  1. Non-blinking (Zn)CuInS/ZnS Quantum Dots Prepared by In Situ Interfacial Alloying Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Aidi; Dong, Chaoqing; Li, Liang; Yin, Jinjin; Liu, Heng; Huang, Xiangyi; Ren, Jicun

    2015-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are very important optical nanomaterials with a wide range of potential applications. However, blinking behavior of single QD is an intrinsic drawback for some biological and photoelectric applications based on single-particle emission. Herein we present a rational strategy for fabrication of non-blinking (Zn)CuInS/ZnS QDs in organic phase through in situ interfacial alloying approach. This new strategy includes three steps: synthesis of CuInS QDs, eliminating the interior traps of QDs by forming graded (Zn)CuInS alloyed QDs, modifying the surface traps of QDs by introducing ZnS shells onto (Zn)CuInS QDs using alkylthiols as sulfur source and surface ligands. The suppressed blinking mechanism was mainly attributed to modifying QDs traps from interior to exterior via a step-by-step modification. Non-blinking QDs show high quantum yield, symmetric emission spectra and excellent crystallinity, and will enable applications from biology to optoelectronics that were previously hindered by blinking behavior of traditional QDs. PMID:26458511

  2. Non-blinking (Zn)CuInS/ZnS Quantum Dots Prepared by In Situ Interfacial Alloying Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aidi; Dong, Chaoqing; Li, Liang; Yin, Jinjin; Liu, Heng; Huang, Xiangyi; Ren, Jicun

    2015-10-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are very important optical nanomaterials with a wide range of potential applications. However, blinking behavior of single QD is an intrinsic drawback for some biological and photoelectric applications based on single-particle emission. Herein we present a rational strategy for fabrication of non-blinking (Zn)CuInS/ZnS QDs in organic phase through in situ interfacial alloying approach. This new strategy includes three steps: synthesis of CuInS QDs, eliminating the interior traps of QDs by forming graded (Zn)CuInS alloyed QDs, modifying the surface traps of QDs by introducing ZnS shells onto (Zn)CuInS QDs using alkylthiols as sulfur source and surface ligands. The suppressed blinking mechanism was mainly attributed to modifying QDs traps from interior to exterior via a step-by-step modification. Non-blinking QDs show high quantum yield, symmetric emission spectra and excellent crystallinity, and will enable applications from biology to optoelectronics that were previously hindered by blinking behavior of traditional QDs.

  3. Solution-processed highly efficient Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film solar cells by dissolution of elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, and Se powders.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanchun; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Wangen; Tian, Qingwen; Huang, Lijian; Pan, Daocheng

    2015-01-14

    Solution deposition approaches play an important role in reducing the manufacturing cost of Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin film solar cells. Here, we present a novel precursor-based solution approach to fabricate highly efficient CZTSe solar cells. In this approach, low-cost elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, and Se powders were simultaneously dissolved in the solution of thioglycolic acid and ethanolamine, forming a homogeneous CZTSe precursor solution to deposit CZTSe nanocrystal thin films. Based on high-quality CZTSe absorber layer, pure selenide CZTSe solar cell with a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 8.02% has been achieved without antireflection coating. PMID:25494493

  4. Cu(2)ZnSnS(4)-Pt and Cu(2)ZnSnS(4)-Au heterostructured nanoparticles for photocatalytic water splitting and pollutant degradation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuelian; Shavel, Alexey; An, Xiaoqiang; Luo, Zhishan; Ibáñez, Maria; Cabot, Andreu

    2014-07-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4, based on abundant and environmental friendly elements and with a direct band gap of 1.5 eV, is a main candidate material for solar energy conversion through both photovoltaics and photocatalysis. We detail here the synthesis of quasi-spherical Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles with unprecedented narrow size distributions. We further detail their use as seeds to produce CZTS-Au and CZTS-Pt heterostructured nanoparticles. Such heterostructured nanoparticles are shown to have excellent photocatalytic properties toward degradation of Rhodamine B and hydrogen generation by water splitting. PMID:24946131

  5. Double junction photoelectrochemical solar cells based on Cu2ZnSnS4/Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film as composite photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Qiang, Y. H.; Zhao, Y. L.; Gu, X. Q.

    2014-02-01

    A solvothermal method was used to synthesize Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) nanoparticles. CZTS/CZTSe bilayer films have been fabricated via a layer-by-layer blade coating process on the fluorine dope tin oxide (FTO) substrates. We converted conventional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) into double junction photoelectrochemical solar cells with the replacement of the Pt-coated counter electrode with the as-prepared films as composite photocathodes. Compared with conventional DSSCs, the cells show an increased short circuit current and power conversion efficiency.

  6. Synthesis of Zn:Cu2O thin films using a single step electrodeposition for photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Changqiong; Panzer, Matthew J

    2015-03-18

    Zinc-doped cuprous oxide (Zn:Cu2O) thin films have been prepared via single step electrodeposition from an aqueous solution containing sodium perchlorate. The Zn/Cu molar ratio in the Zn:Cu2O films can be tuned between 0.006 and 0.236 by adjusting the magnitude of the applied potential and the sodium perchlorate concentration. Electrical characterization reveals that zinc dopants increase the Fermi level in Zn:Cu2O films, enabling a 3-fold improvement in the power conversion efficiency of a fully electrodeposited Cu2O homojunction photovoltaic device. PMID:25741876

  7. Characterization of Al-Cu-Mg-Ag Alloy RX226-T8 Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lach, Cynthia L.; Domack, Marcia S.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminum-copper-magnesium-silver (Al-Cu-Mg-Ag) alloys that were developed for thermal stability also offer attractive ambient temperature strength-toughness combinations, and therefore, can be considered for a broad range of airframe structural applications. The current study evaluated Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloy RX226-T8 in plate gages and compared performance with sheet gage alloys of similar composition. Uniaxial tensile properties, plane strain initiation fracture toughness, and plane stress tearing resistance of RX226-T8 were examined at ambient temperature as a function of orientation and thickness location in the plate. Properties were measured near the surface and at the mid-plane of the plate. Tensile strengths were essentially isotropic, with variations in yield and ultimate tensile strengths of less than 2% as a function of orientation and through-thickness location. However, ductility varied by more than 15% with orientation. Fracture toughness was generally higher at the mid-plane and greater for the L-T orientation, although the differences were small near the surface of the plate. Metallurgical analysis indicated that the microstructure was primarily recrystallized with weak texture and was uniform through the plate with the exception of a fine-grained layer near the surface of the plate. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed Al-Cu-Mg second phase particles which varied in composition and were primarily located on grain boundaries parallel to the rolling direction. Fractography of toughness specimens for both plate locations and orientations revealed that fracture occurred predominantly by transgranular microvoid coalescence. Introduction High-strength, low-density Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys were initially developed to replace conventional 2000 (Al-Cu-Mg) and 7000 (Al-Zn-Cu-Mg) series aluminum alloys for aircraft structural applications [1]. During the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) program, improvements in thermal stability were demonstrated for candidate

  8. Synthesis of Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn brass alloy nanoparticles from metal amidinate precursors in ionic liquids or propylene carbonate with relevance to methanol synthesis.

    PubMed

    Schütte, Kai; Meyer, Hajo; Gemel, Christian; Barthel, Juri; Fischer, Roland A; Janiak, Christoph

    2014-03-21

    Microwave-induced decomposition of the transition metal amidinates {[Me(C(N(i)Pr)2)]Cu}2 (1) and [Me(C(N(i)Pr)2)]2Zn (2) in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIm][BF4]) or in propylene carbonate (PC) gives copper and zinc nanoparticles which are stable in the absence of capping ligands (surfactants) for more than six weeks. Co-decomposition of 1 and 2 yields the intermetallic nano-brass phases β-CuZn and γ-Cu3Zn depending on the chosen molar ratios of the precursors. Nanoparticles were characterized by high-angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), dynamic light scattering and powder X-ray diffractometry. Microstructure characterizations were complemented by STEM with spatially resolved energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Synthesis in ILs yields significantly smaller nanoparticles than in PC. β-CuZn alloy nanoparticles are precursors to catalysts for methanol synthesis from the synthesis gas H2/CO/CO2 with a productivity of 10.7 mol(MeOH) (kg(Cu) h)(-1). PMID:24492885

  9. Microstructure, wettability and electrical properties of n-ZnO/ZnO-SL/p-Cu2O heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Min; Cao, Li; Sun, Yue; Lv, Jianguo; Shang, Fengjiao; Mao, Sicong; Jiang, Yaoyao; Xu, Jinhua; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Zhitao; Wei, Yiyong; He, Gang; Zhang, Miao; Song, Xueping; Sun, Zhaoqi

    2015-07-01

    ZnO/ZnO-SL/Cu2O heterojunction was successfully fabricated on Cu foil by hydrothermal and sol-gel method. Crystalline phase, surface morphology and photoluminescence spectrum of the heterojunction were measured by X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy and fluorescence spectrometer, respectively. Contact angles of ZnO thin films were measured using a contact angle apparatus. The current-voltage characteristics of heterojunction in dark were investigated at room temperature. The results indicated that the heterojunction was composed of Cu2O phase and ZnO phase. The post-heat temperature of 250 °C was beneficial to preferred growth of ZnO thin film along the c-axis direction. The Sample 2 was composed of the uniform, compact and vertically aligned ZnO nanorods and has the most obvious hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic transition. The transport characteristics of the Sample 2 may be related to the space-charge-limited current in region II and a trapped-charge-limited current in region III.

  10. Isolation and characterization of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase in Fasciola gigantica.

    PubMed

    Lalrinkima, H; Raina, O K; Chandra, Dinesh; Jacob, Siju Susan; Bauri, R K; Chandra, Subhash; Yadav, H S; Singh, M N; Rialch, A; Varghese, A; Banerjee, P S; Kaur, Navneet; Sharma, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    A full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase was isolated from Fasciola gigantica that on nucleotide sequencing showed a close homology (98.9%) with Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) of the temperate liver fluke, F. hepatica. Expression of the gene was found in all the three developmental stages of the parasite viz. adult, newly excysted juvenile and metacercaria at transcriptional level by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and at the protein level by Western blotting. F. gigantica Cu/Zn-SOD cDNA was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Enzyme activity of the recombinant protein was determined by nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and this activity was inactivated by hydrogen peroxide but not by sodium azide, indicating that the recombinant protein is Cu/Zn-SOD. The enzyme activity was relatively stable at a broad pH range of pH 4.0-10.0. Native Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase protein was detected in the somatic extract and excretory-secretory products of the adult F. gigantica by Western blotting. NBT-PAGE showed a single Cu/Zn-SOD present in the somatic extract while three SODs are released ex vivo by the adult parasite. The recombinant superoxide dismutase did not react with the serum from buffaloes infected with F. gigantica. The role of this enzyme in defense by the parasite against the host reactive oxygen species is discussed. PMID:25655406

  11. Modification and inactivation of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase by the lipid peroxidation product, acrolein

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Acrolein is the most reactive aldehydic product of lipid peroxidation and is found to be elevated in the brain when oxidative stress is high. The effects of acrolein on the structure and function of human Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) were examined. When Cu,Zn-SOD was incubated with acrolein, the covalent crosslinking of the protein was increased, and the loss of enzymatic activity was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers and copper chelators inhibited the acrolein-mediated Cu,Zn-SOD modification and the formation of carbonyl compound. The present study shows that ROS may play a critical role in acrolein-induced Cu,Zn-SOD modification and inactivation. When Cu,Zn-SOD that has been exposed to acrolein was subsequently analyzed by amino acid analysis, serine, histidine, arginine, threonine and lysine residues were particularly sensitive. It is suggested that the modification and inactivation of Cu,Zn-SOD by acrolein could be produced by more oxidative cell environments. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(11): 555-560] PMID:24152914

  12. ZnO-CuO composite matrix based reagentless biosensor for detection of total cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Batra, Neha; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay

    2015-05-15

    An efficient reagentless biosensor for determination of free cholesterol and total cholesterol has been realized using a ZnO-CuO composite matrix grown onto ITO coated corning glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The inclusion of CuO in ZnO matrix successfully introduces redox property and provides enhanced electron communication features. The optimized ZnO-CuO composite matrix has been used for development of ChOx/(ZnO-CuO)/ITO/glass and (ChEt-ChOx)/(ZnO-CuO)/ITO/glass bioelectrodes used for selective detection of free and total cholesterol respectively in the range of 0.12-12.93 mM and 0.5-12 mM without using any external mediator. The fabricated biosensors exhibit high sensitivity of about 680 µA mM(-1) cm(-2) and 760 µA mM(-1) cm(-2) towards free cholesterol and total cholesterol respectively with response time of 5 s, along with high shelf life. The results are encouraging and show the promising application of the ZnO-CuO composite matrix for the realization of reagentless integrated implantable biosensor. PMID:25168284

  13. Phenotypic rescue by a bovine transgene in a Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase-null mutant of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Reveillaud, I.; Kongpachith, A.; Fleming, J.E.

    1994-02-01

    Null mutants for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) in Drosophila melanogaster are male sterile, have a greatly reduced adult life span, and are hypersensitive to paraquat. We have introduced a synthetic bovine CuZnSOD transgene under the transcriptional control of the D. melanogaster 5C actin promoter into a CuZnSOD-null mutant of D. melanogaster. This was carried out by P-element-mediated transformation of the Drosophila-bovine CuZnSOD transgene into a CuZnSOD{sup +} recipient strain followed by genetic crossing of the transgene into a strain carrying the CuZnSOD-null mutation, cSOD{sup n108}. The resulting transformants express bovine CuZnSOD exclusively to about 30% of normal Drosophila CuZnSOD levels. Expression of the Drosophila-bovine CuZnSOD transgene in the CuZnSOD-null mutant rescues male fertility and resistance to paraquat to apparently normal levels. However, adult life span is restored to only 30% of normal, and resistance to hyperoxia is 90% of that found in control flies. This striking differential restoration of pleiotropic phenotypes could be the result of a threshold of CuZnSOD expression necessary for normal male fertility and resistance to the toxicity of paraquat or hyperoxia which is lower than the threshold required to sustain a normal adult life span. Alternatively, the differential rescue of fertility, resistance to active oxygen, and life span might indicate different cell-specific transcriptional requirements for these functions which are normally provided by the control elements of the native CuZnSOD gene but are only partly compensated for by the transcriptional control elements of the actin 5C promoter. 29 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Ecotoxicity of nanoparticles of CuO and ZnO in natural water.

    PubMed

    Blinova, I; Ivask, A; Heinlaan, M; Mortimer, M; Kahru, A

    2010-01-01

    The acute toxicity of CuO and ZnO nanoparticles in artificial freshwater (AFW) and in natural waters to crustaceans Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus and protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila was compared. The L(E)C(50) values of nanoCuO for both crustaceans in natural water ranged from 90 to 224 mg Cu/l and were about 10-fold lower than L(E)C(50) values of bulk CuO. In all test media, the L(E)C(50) values for both bulk and nanoZnO (1.1-16 mg Zn/l) were considerably lower than those of nanoCuO. The natural waters remarkably (up to 140-fold) decreased the toxicity of nanoCuO (but not that of nanoZnO) to crustaceans depending mainly on the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The toxicity of both nanoCuO and nanoZnO was mostly due to the solubilised ions as determined by specific metal-sensing bacteria. PMID:19800155

  15. Facile synthesis of Zn doped CuO hierarchical nanostructures: Structural, optical and antibacterial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Javed; Jan, Tariq; Ul-Hassan, Sibt; Ahmed, Ishaq; Mansoor, Qaisar; Umair Ali, M.; Abbas, Fazal; Ismail, Muhammad

    2015-12-01

    ZnxCu1-xO (where x= 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 mol%) hierarchical nanostructures have been prepared via soft chemical route. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results of the synthesized samples reveal the monoclinic structure of CuO without any impurity related phases. The micro-structural parameters such as crystallite size and microstrain have been strongly influenced by Zn doping. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses depict the formation of hierarchical nanostructures having average particle size in the range of 26-43 nm. The surface area of CuO nanostructures has been reduced systematically with the increase in Zn content which is linked with the variations in particle size. An obvious decrease in the optical band gap energy of the synthesized CuO hierarchical nanostructures has been observed with Zn doping which is assigned to the formation of shallow levels in the band gap of CuO and combined transition from oxygen 2p states to d sates of Cu and Zn ions. The bactericidal potency of the CuO hierarchical nanostructures have been found to be enhanced remarkably with Zn doping.

  16. Laser Weldability of High-Strength Al-Zn Alloys and Its Improvement by the Use of an Appropriate Filler Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enz, Josephin; Riekehr, Stefan; Ventzke, Volker; Huber, Norbert; Kashaev, Nikolai

    2016-06-01

    Heat-treatable Al-Zn alloys are promising candidates for use as structural lightweight materials in automotive and aircraft applications. This is mainly due to their high strength-to-density ratio in comparison to conventionally employed Al alloys. Laser beam welding is an efficient method for producing joints with high weld quality and has been established in the industry for many years. However, it is well known that aluminum alloys with a high Zn content or, more precisely, with a high (Zn + Mg + Cu) content are difficult to fusion weld due to the formation of porosity and hot cracks. The present study concerns the laser weldability of these hard-to-weld Al-Zn alloys. In order to improve weldability, it was first necessary to understand the reasons for weldability problems and to identify crucial influencing factors. Based on this knowledge, it was finally possible to develop an appropriate approach. For this purpose, vanadium was selected as additional filler material. Vanadium exhibits favorable thermophysical properties and, thereby, can improve the weldability of Al-Zn alloys. The effectiveness of the approach was verified by its application to several Al-Zn alloys with differing amounts of (Zn + Mg + Cu).

  17. Laser Weldability of High-Strength Al-Zn Alloys and Its Improvement by the Use of an Appropriate Filler Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enz, Josephin; Riekehr, Stefan; Ventzke, Volker; Huber, Norbert; Kashaev, Nikolai

    2016-04-01

    Heat-treatable Al-Zn alloys are promising candidates for use as structural lightweight materials in automotive and aircraft applications. This is mainly due to their high strength-to-density ratio in comparison to conventionally employed Al alloys. Laser beam welding is an efficient method for producing joints with high weld quality and has been established in the industry for many years. However, it is well known that aluminum alloys with a high Zn content or, more precisely, with a high (Zn + Mg + Cu) content are difficult to fusion weld due to the formation of porosity and hot cracks. The present study concerns the laser weldability of these hard-to-weld Al-Zn alloys. In order to improve weldability, it was first necessary to understand the reasons for weldability problems and to identify crucial influencing factors. Based on this knowledge, it was finally possible to develop an appropriate approach. For this purpose, vanadium was selected as additional filler material. Vanadium exhibits favorable thermophysical properties and, thereby, can improve the weldability of Al-Zn alloys. The effectiveness of the approach was verified by its application to several Al-Zn alloys with differing amounts of (Zn + Mg + Cu).

  18. Methotrexate intercalated ZnAl-layered double hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Manjusha; Dasgupta, Sudip; Soundrapandian, Chidambaram; Chakraborty, Jui; Ghosh, Swapankumar; Mitra, Manoj K.; Basu, Debabrata

    2011-09-01

    The anticancerous drug methotrexate (MTX) has been intercalated into an ZnAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) using an anion exchange technique to produce LDH-MTX hybrids having particle sizes in the range of 100-300 nm. X-ray diffraction studies revealed increases in the basal spacings of ZnAl-LDH-MTX hybrid on MTX intercalation. This was corroborated by the transmission electron micrographs, which showed an increase in average interlayer spacing from 8.9 Å in pristine LDH to 21.3 Å in LDH-MTX hybrid. Thermogravimetric analyses showed an increase in the decomposition temperature for the MTX molecule in the LDH-MTX hybrid indicating enhanced thermal stability of the drug molecule in the LDH nanovehicle. The cumulative release profile of MTX from ZnAl-LDH-MTX hybrids in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at pH 7.4 was successfully sustained for 48 h following Rigter-Peppas model release kinetics via diffusion.

  19. Pharmocokinetical study of Al- and Zn-sulphonated phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazachkina, Natalia I.; Zharkova, Natalia N.; Fomina, Galina I.; Yakubovskaya, Raisa I.; Sokolov, Victor V.; Lukyanets, Eugeny A.

    1996-12-01

    The comparative pharmacokinetical study of Al- and Zn- sulphonated phthalocyanines (AlPcS and ZnPcS, respectively) is the aim of the present work. Mice bearing solid Ehrlich tumor were used in this study. AlPcS (sodium salt) and ZnPcS (ammonium and sodium salts were used as photosensitizers. The photosensitizers were injected i/v in various doses. The exogenous fluorescence of tissues (tumor, liver, spleen, kidneys, muscles, skin) was measured dynamically after sensitization. It was shown that all of the photosensitizers under study had similar distribution pattern in organisms of mice and were selectively accumulated in the Ehrlich tumor tissue. The exogenous fluorescence intensity of tissues and it tumor:normal muscle ratio (Cs) depended on the dosage of the preparation, on the time, which had passed after drug injection, and on the stage of tumor growth. It was also shown that the kinetics of the tissue uptake of the studied sensitizers varied to some extent. Thus, the obtained data may be interesting for deeper understanding of the interaction of the dye with malignant tissues.

  20. Electrical and optical properties of Al-doped ZnO and ZnAl2O4 films prepared by atomic layer deposition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    ZnO/Al2O3 multilayers were prepared by alternating atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 150°C using diethylzinc, trimethylaluminum, and water. The growth process, crystallinity, and electrical and optical properties of the multilayers were studied with a variety of the cycle ratios of ZnO and Al2O3 sublayers. Transparent conductive Al-doped ZnO films were prepared with the minimum resistivity of 2.4 × 10−3 Ω·cm at a low Al doping concentration of 2.26%. Photoluminescence spectroscopy in conjunction with X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the thickness of ZnO sublayers plays an important role on the priority for selective crystallization of ZnAl2O4 and ZnO phases during high-temperature annealing ZnO/Al2O3 multilayers. It was found that pure ZnAl2O4 film was synthesized by annealing the specific composite film containing alternative monocycle of ZnO and Al2O3 sublayers, which could only be deposited precisely by utilizing ALD technology. PMID:23537274

  1. Optical properties of diluted magnetic semiconductor Cu:ZnS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imam, N. G.; Bakr Mohamed, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Herein quantum dots (QDs) of diluted magnetic semiconductor Cu:ZnS have been synthesized via a simple chemical synthesis method. A single phase solid solution is formed up to x = 0.1 which confirmed by using X-ray diffraction. Crystal structure and microstructure analyses were performed by Rietveld refinement. Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra were recorded for pure and Cu doped ZnS QDs excited at 268 and 228 nm respectively. PL emission and excitation spectra were investigated in different wavelength regions within the range of 200-900 nm. PL results in the range of 220-300 nm emission band reveals that the band gap of pure ZnS QDs is about 4.43 eV which greater than that of bulk ZnS (3.7 eV). The band gap of Cu:ZnS QDs is tunable with Cu content (x) as well as the crystalline size, and it is peaked around 4.47 eV. PL emission in the range of 350-650 nm exhibits a green fluorescence band peaking around 552 nm for pure ZnS QDs, which confirms the characteristic feature of Zn2+ as luminescent centers in the lattice, while blue emission bands peaked around 471 nm for Cu:ZnS QDs that is attributed to the transition of electrons from conduction band of ZnS to the Cu impurity level. The blue shift of the absorption peak directly reflects the effect of quantum confinement. The PL results have been supported by X-ray phase analysis, high-resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM and SEM), compositional evaluation (EDX) and magnetic measurements (VSM).

  2. Improved photoluminescence property of CTAB assisted polyaniline-AlZnO nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Mousumi; Kargupta, Kajari; Ganguly, Saibal; Banerjee, Dipali

    2015-06-01

    Polyaniline-Al doped ZnO ((PANI-AlZnO:: 70:30) nanocomposite was prepared via in situ chemical oxidative polymerization, while the hexagonal powder of AlZnO was synthesized via sol-gel technique, using Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a capping agent. The prepared nanocomposite was characterized by High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), EDAX, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectra. The optical property of the nanomaterials is examined by photoluminescence (PL) spectra analysis. The XRD pattern confirms the formation of Al doped ZnO as well as PANI. The HRTEM images of the composite showed the formation of hexagonal AlZnO embedded in polyaniline matrix. EDAX spectrum shows the compositional analysis of the nanocomposite. FTIR spectra confirm the formation of nanocomposite of PANI and hexagonal AlZnO. The PL intensity of the nanocomposite is improved as compared to pure AlZnO.

  3. Improved photoluminescence property of CTAB assisted polyaniline-AlZnO nanocomposite

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, Mousumi; Banerjee, Dipali; Kargupta, Kajari; Ganguly, Saibal

    2015-06-24

    Polyaniline-Al doped ZnO ((PANI-AlZnO:: 70:30) nanocomposite was prepared via in situ chemical oxidative polymerization, while the hexagonal powder of AlZnO was synthesized via sol-gel technique, using Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a capping agent. The prepared nanocomposite was characterized by High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), EDAX, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectra. The optical property of the nanomaterials is examined by photoluminescence (PL) spectra analysis. The XRD pattern confirms the formation of Al doped ZnO as well as PANI. The HRTEM images of the composite showed the formation of hexagonal AlZnO embedded in polyaniline matrix. EDAX spectrum shows the compositional analysis of the nanocomposite. FTIR spectra confirm the formation of nanocomposite of PANI and hexagonal AlZnO. The PL intensity of the nanocomposite is improved as compared to pure AlZnO.

  4. Can methanol be synthesized from CO by direct hydrogenation over Cu/ZnO catalysts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Zhi-Jun; Han, Pei-De; Li, Zhe; Hu, Jian-Shui; Huang, Wei

    2012-11-01

    Methanol synthesis from CO by direct hydrogenation has been studied using the density-functional theory (DFT). The charge of Cu has been found to be transferred to the ZnO carrier having low Cu cover. Due to the electron-charge transfer between the metallic Cu and the ZnO carrier, the Cu valency is greater than zero and less than one. Consideration of the water-gas-shift reaction and hydrogenation of CO2 to CHOO and COOH, the result shows that the active sites for the synthesis of methanol from CO2 and CO are different. Methanol is synthesized from CO by direct hydrogenation over Cuδ+ (0 < δ < 1) species through the intermediates CHO, CH2O, and CH3O, and the rate-limiting step is the hydrogenation of CHO, indicating that the Cuδ+ (0 < δ < 1) species comprise the active sites for the synthesis of methanol from CO by direct hydrogenation.

  5. Composition and Structure Control of Cu-Al-O Films Prepared by Reactive Sputtering and Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Nozomu; Itoh, Yuji; Ogata, Junya; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Shimizu, Hidehiko; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao

    2007-01-01

    Cu-Al-O films were prepared on quartz glass substrates at 500-700 °C by sputtering the Cu and Al targets alternately on atomic-layer scale under an Ar-diluted O2 (5-20%) gas atmosphere, and then annealed at 1050 °C under a nitrogen atmosphere. The [Cu]/[Al] ratio was controlled by changing the Cu and Al deposition periods. The composition of as-deposited films corresponded to the slightly oxygen-rich region of the CuO-CuAl2O4-Al2O3 system. Films as-deposited at 500 °C had an amorphous structure, while films as-deposited at 700 °C had CuAl2O4 and CuO phases. After thermal annealing in a nitrogen atmosphere, the composition of the films approached that of the Cu2O-CuAlO2-Al2O3 system line, causing a noticeable appearance of the CuAlO2 phase along with the disappearance of the CuAl2O4 and CuO phases. Cu- and Al-rich annealed films had in addition a Cu2O phase and an amorphous Al2O3 phase, respectively. All annealed films exhibited p-type conductivity. The annealed films with [Cu]/[Al]≈ 1 had an absorption edge corresponding to the energy gap of CuAlO2. These results indicate that the change in the Cu ion from divalent to monovalent through nitrogen annealing results in the preparation of transparent conductive films dominated by CuAlO2.

  6. In situ investigation of spinodal decomposition in hypermonotectic Al Bi and Al Bi Zn alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, P. L.; Mathiesen, R. H.; Arnberg, L.; Di Sabatino, M.; Snigirev, A.

    2008-05-01

    Spinodal decomposition of hypermonotectic Al-6 wt.%Bi, Al-8 wt.%Bi and Al-6 wt.%Bi-8 wt.%Zn alloys has been investigated using synchrotron radiography. In the case of the 6 and 8 wt.%Bi binary alloys undercoolings of 70 and 110 K, respectively, were required to initiate the L→L1+L2 reaction, which appeared to occur very close to the monotectic reaction temperature. The nucleated L2 droplets were set in collective size-dependent motion by forces coupled to external fields (gravity and imposed temperature gradient) as well as forces arising due to internal fluctuations of the system. With experimental conditions similar to those realized during strip casting of the same materials, it was found that the size-dependant droplet velocity field combined with Stokes drag at the L1-L2 interfaces as well as attractive and repulsive diffusion-coupling between adjacent L2 droplets, yield complex meso- to microscale hydrodynamics. The hydrodynamics are the dominating mechanisms for L2 droplet coagulation, and are accordingly decisive for the final size distribution and geometrical dispersion of the soft Bi-rich component in the cast material. A different decomposition mode was observed in the Al-6 wt.%Bi-8 wt.%Zn ternary alloy, with the L2 droplets undergoing an immiscible-miscible-immiscible transition. In contrast to what was found for the binaries, L2 domains formed at relatively small undercoolings, and very little droplet motion was observed, as all L2 domains nucleated and remained on the crucible walls until they encroached on the monotectic front. At small distances from the monotectic front a Zn-rich solute boundary layer preceding the α-Al, caused the L2 domains to dissolve as Bi-Zn-Al regains complete miscibility upon reaching a critical Zn-concentration. In the shallow mush region behind the monotectic reaction, a high Zn solid solubility and a relatively fast diffusion of Zn in α-Al combine to cause a rapid diminishing Zn concentration in the mush liquid

  7. Optical and structural characterization of CdS/ZnS and CdS:Cu(2+) /ZnS core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Murugadoss, G; Kumar, M Rajesh

    2014-09-01

    Core-shell CdS/ZnS (Zn 0.025-0.125 M) and CdS:Cu(2+) (1%)/ZnS nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using a chemical method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR TEM), photoluminescence (PL) and UV/Visible (UV/Vis) techniques were used to characterize the novel CdS/ZnS and CdS:Cu(2+) /ZnS core-shell nanoparticles. All absorption peaks of the synthesized samples were highly blue-shifted from the bulk CdS and ZnS. Very narrow and symmetric PL emission was observed in the yellow region for core-shell CdS/ZnS. Furthermore, the PL emission of CdS/ZnS was tuned into orange region by incorporate the Cu ion into the core CdS lattice. PMID:24254232

  8. Comparative Study of the Defect Point Physics and Luminescence of the Kesterites Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 and Chalcopyrite Cu(In,Ga)Se2: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, M. J.; Repins, I.; Teeter, G.; Contreras, M.; Al-Jassim, M.; Noufi, R.

    2012-08-01

    In this contribution, we present a comparative study of the luminescence of the kesterites Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) and their related chalcopyrite Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe). Luminescence spectroscopy suggests that the electronic properties of Zn-rich, Cu-poor kesterites (both CZTS and CZTSe) and Cu-poor CIGSe are dictated by fluctuations of the electrostatic and chemical potentials. The large redshift in the luminescence of grain boundaries in CIGSe, associated with the formation of a neutral barrier is clearly observed in CZTSe, and, to some extent, in CZTS. Kesterites can therefore replicate the fundamental electronic properties of CIGSe.

  9. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of short-range order in Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu50Zr45Al5 metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuxiang; Huang, Li; Wang, C Z; Kramer, M J; Ho, K M

    2016-03-01

    Comparative analysis between Zr-rich Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu-rich Cu50Zr45Al5 metallic glasses (MGs) is extensively performed to locate the key structural motifs accounting for their difference of glass forming ability. Here we adopt ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the local atomic structures of Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu50Zr45Al5 MGs. A high content of icosahedral-related (full and distorted) orders was found in both samples, while in the Zr-rich MG full icosahedrons [Formula: see text] is dominant, and in the Cu-rich one the distorted icosahedral orders, especially [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], are prominent. And the [Formula: see text] polyhedra in Cu50Zr45Al5 MG mainly originate from Al-centered clusters, while the [Formula: see text] in Zr50Cu45Al5 derives from both Cu-centered clusters and Al-centered clusters. These difference may be ascribed to the atomic size difference and chemical property between Cu and Zr atoms. The relatively large size of Zr and large negative heat of mixing between Zr and Al atoms, enhancing the packing density and stability of metallic glass system, may be responsible for the higher glass forming ability of Zr50Cu45Al5. PMID:26828778

  10. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of short-range order in Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu50Zr45Al5 metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuxiang; Huang, Li; Wang, C. Z.; Kramer, M. J.; Ho, K. M.

    2016-03-01

    Comparative analysis between Zr-rich Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu-rich Cu50Zr45Al5 metallic glasses (MGs) is extensively performed to locate the key structural motifs accounting for their difference of glass forming ability. Here we adopt ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the local atomic structures of Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu50Zr45Al5 MGs. A high content of icosahedral-related (full and distorted) orders was found in both samples, while in the Zr-rich MG full icosahedrons < 0,0,12,0> is dominant, and in the Cu-rich one the distorted icosahedral orders, especially < 0,2,8,2> and < 0,2,8,1> , are prominent. And the < 0,2,8,2> polyhedra in Cu50Zr45Al5 MG mainly originate from Al-centered clusters, while the < 0,0,12,0> in Zr50Cu45Al5 derives from both Cu-centered clusters and Al-centered clusters. These difference may be ascribed to the atomic size difference and chemical property between Cu and Zr atoms. The relatively large size of Zr and large negative heat of mixing between Zr and Al atoms, enhancing the packing density and stability of metallic glass system, may be responsible for the higher glass forming ability of Zr50Cu45Al5.

  11. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of short-range order in Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu50Zr45Al5 metallic glasses

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, Yuxiang; Huang, Li; Wang, C. Z.; Kramer, M. J.; Ho, K. M.

    2016-02-01

    Comparative analysis between Zr-rich Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu-rich Cu50Zr45Al5 metallic glasses (MGs) is extensively performed to locate the key structural motifs accounting for their difference of glass forming ability. Here we adopt ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the local atomic structures of Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu50Zr45Al5 MGs. A high content of icosahedral-related (full and distorted) orders was found in both samples, while in the Zr-rich MG full icosahedrons < 0,0,12,0 > is dominant, and in the Cu-rich one the distorted icosahedral orders, especially < 0,2,8,2 > and < 0,2,8,1 >, are prominent. And the < 0,2,8,2 > polyhedra in Cu50Zr45Al5more » MG mainly originate from Al-centered clusters, while the < 0,0,12,0 > in Zr50Cu45Al5 derives from both Cu-centered clusters and Al-centered clusters. These difference may be ascribed to the atomic size difference and chemical property between Cu and Zr atoms. Lastly, the relatively large size of Zr and large negative heat of mixing between Zr and Al atoms, enhancing the packing density and stability of metallic glass system, may be responsible for the higher glass forming ability of Zr50Cu45Al5.« less

  12. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of short-range order in Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu50Zr45Al5 metallic glasses

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, Yuxiang; Huang, Li; Wang, C. Z.; Kramer, M. J.; Ho, K. M.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, comparative analysis between Zr-rich Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu-rich Cu50Zr45Al5 metallic glasses (MGs) is extensively performed to locate the key structural motifs accounting for their difference of glass forming ability. Here we adopt ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the local atomic structures of Zr50Cu45Al5 and Cu50Zr45Al5 MGs. A high content of icosahedral-related (full and distorted) orders was found in both samples, while in the Zr-rich MG full icosahedrons <0,0,12,0> is dominant, and in the Cu-rich one the distorted icosahedral orders, especially <0,2,8,2> and <0,2,8,1>, are prominent. And the <0,2,8,2> polyhedra in Cu50Zr45Al5 MG mainly originate from Al-centeredmore » clusters, while the <0,0,12,0> in Zr50Cu45Al5 derives from both Cu-centered clusters and Al-centered clusters. These difference may be ascribed to the atomic size difference and chemical property between Cu and Zr atoms. The relatively large size of Zr and large negative heat of mixing between Zr and Al atoms, enhancing the packing density and stability of metallic glass system, may be responsible for the higher glass forming ability of Zr50Cu45Al5.« less

  13. Speciation and mobility of Zn, Cu and Pb in a truck farming soil contaminated by sewage irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirpichtchikova, T.; Manceau, A.; Lanson, B.; Marcus, M. A.; Jacquet, T.

    2003-05-01

    The forrns and mobility of Cu (290 mg/kg), Zn (1103 mg/kg), and Pb (535 mg/kg) in a soil used for intensive truck farining from the Region Ile-de-France, and which has been irrigated for more than a century with sewage water ftom the city of Paris, have been studied by chemical treatments and advanced x-ray techniques. Elemental associations and forms of metals were determined qualitatively and quantitatively by a combination of physical techniques, including μPIXE (Cu, Zn, Pb), μSXRF (Cu, Zn), μEXAFS (Zn) and powder EXAFS (Zn). The nature, number, and relative proportion of Zn species were obtained by principal component analysis and decomposition of Zn K-edge EXAFS spectra. These data collectively indicate that Cu is associated mainly with organic matter, and that Zn and Pb are bound essentially to mineral constituents. Four Zn-containing species were positively identified: Zn-phosphate and phyllosilicate as dominant species, and Zn-Fe oxyhydroxide and willemite (Zn2SiO4) as minor species. Studies are underway to determine the structural forms of Cu and Pb. Depending on the chemical treatment, up to 70% Cu, ~50% Zn, and ~85% Pb can be removed in a few days with citrate and EDTA. Citrate is generally at least as efficient as EDTA, and it has the advantage ofbeing easily biodegradable and, hence, less harmful to ecosystems.

  14. Effect of cation substitution at the B site on the oxygen semi-permeation flux in La0.5Ba0.5Fe0.7B0.3O3-δ dense perovskite membranes with B = Al, Co, Cu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Sn, Ti and Zn (part II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichmann, M.; Geffroy, P.-M.; Fouletier, J.; Richet, N.; Del Gallo, P.; Chartier, T.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide insight into the effect of cation substitution at the B site on the oxygen semi-permeation performances. Particular attention is given here to identify the impact of cation substitution at the B site on oxygen diffusion and oxygen surface-exchange kinetics in the La0.5Ba0.5Fe0.7B0.3O3-δ perovskite membrane series with B = Al, Co, Cu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Sn, Ti and Zn. This study clearly shows that the prediction of the oxygen semi-permeation performances of membrane materials from the nature of cation at the A or B sites in perovskite structure is quite complex. The cation substitution at the B-site has a low impact on the nature of rate-determining step and a significant impact on oxygen semi-permeation performances, contrary to the cation substitution at A-site. Unfortunately, it is not possible to establish a relevant trend about the effect of the nature of cation in the A or B sites in perovskite structure on oxygen diffusion and the oxygen surface-exchange kinetics.

  15. Design of a highly photocatalytically active ZnO/CuWO4 nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Mavrič, T; Valant, M; Forster, M; Cowan, A J; Lavrenčič, U; Emin, S

    2016-12-01

    Here we report the synthesis, photocatalytic activity and mechanistic study of a novel charge separation heterostructure (HTS). A ZnO/CuWO4 HTS material is reported for the first time. The nanocomposite (NC) consist of CuWO4 nanoparticles (ca. 200-400nm) decorated with ZnO nanorods (ca. 30nm, 100nm length) and is shown to be a highly active photocatalyst for the decomposition of model contaminants including methyl orange (MO) and terephthalic acid (TPA). The ZnO/CuWO4 interface is shown to be key in controlling the enhanced activity of the composite material. Transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy studies demonstrate that photoinduced charge transfer across the ZnO/CuWO4 interface increases electron-hole lifetimes by 3 orders of magnitude, from <20μs in ZnO to 30ms in the ZnO/CuWO4 NC sample. Our findings show that through interface design efficient HTS materials can be prepared for a wide range of photocatalytic applications. PMID:27552417

  16. ZnO/Cu nanocomposite: a platform for direct electrochemistry of enzymes and biosensing applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chi; Xu, Chunxiang; Wang, Xuemei

    2012-03-01

    Unique structured nanomaterials can facilitate the direct electron transfer between redox proteins and the electrodes. Here, in situ directed growth on an electrode of a ZnO/Cu nanocomposite was prepared by a simple corrosion approach, which enables robust mechanical adhesion and electrical contact between the nanostructured ZnO and the electrodes. This is great help to realize the direct electron transfer between the electrode surface and the redox protein. SEM images demonstrate that the morphology of the ZnO/Cu nanocomposite has a large specific surface area, which is favorable to immobilize the biomolecules and construct biosensors. Using glucose oxidase (GOx) as a model, this ZnO/Cu nanocomposite is employed for immobilization of GOx and the construction of the glucose biosensor. Direct electron transfer of GOx is achieved at ZnO/Cu nanocomposite with a high heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant of 0.67 ± 0.06 s(-1). Such ZnO/Cu nanocomposite provides a good matrix for direct electrochemistry of enzymes and mediator-free enzymatic biosensors. PMID:22309190

  17. Facile synthesis of ZnO/CuInS2 nanorod arrays for photocatalytic pollutants degradation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yawei; Que, Wenxiu; Zhang, Xinyu; Xing, Yonglei; Yin, Xingtian; Du, Yaping

    2016-11-01

    Vertically-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on a fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate were homogeneously coated with visible light active CuInS2 quantum dots by using a controllable electrophoretic deposition strategy. Compared with the pure ZnO nanorod arrays, the formation of high-quality ZnO/CuInS2 heterojunction with well-matched band energy alignment expanded the light absorption from ultraviolet to visible region and facilitated efficient charge separation and transportation, thus yielding remarkable enhanced photoelectrochemical performance and photocatalytic activities for methyl orange and 4-chlorophenol degradation. The ZnO/CuInS2 film with the deposition duration of 80min showed the highest degradation rate and photocurrent density (0.95mA/cm(2)), which was almost 6.33 times higher than that of the pure ZnO nanorod arrays film. The CuInS2 QDs sensitized ZnO nanorod arrays film was proved to be a superior structure for photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic applications due to the optimized CuInS2 loading and well-maintained one-dimensional nanostructure. PMID:27322900

  18. Research on a Zn-Cu alloy as a biodegradable material for potential vascular stents application.

    PubMed

    Niu, Jialin; Tang, Zibo; Huang, Hua; Pei, Jia; Zhang, Hua; Yuan, Guangyin; Ding, Wenjiang

    2016-12-01

    Zn-based alloys have been viewed as new potential materials for biodegradable implants, such as cardiovascular stents, mainly in consideration of their lower corrosion rate when compared with that of Mg alloys. In this study we developed a new Zinc-4wt.%Copper (Zn-4Cu) alloy as a biodegradable material. Hot extrusion was applied to Zn-4Cu to refine the microstructure and consequently improve its mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. After extrusion, dendritic CuZn5 phases were broken and distributed along the extrusion direction. The grains were refined obviously due to dynamical recrystallization. The yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation of the as-extruded alloy are 250±10MPa, 270±10MPa and 51±2%, respectively. The corrosion rate of the as-extruded alloy in Hank's solution is about 9.41(±1.34)μmyear(-1). In vitro evaluation shows that Zn-4Cu presents acceptable toxicity to human endothelial cells, and could effectively inhibit bacteria adhesion and biofilm formation. The present study indicates that the as-extruded Zn-4Cu alloy exhibits excellent strength and ductility, uniform and slow degradation, good biocompatibility and significant antibacterial effect, which make it an excellent candidate material for biodegradable implants, especially for cardiovascular stents application. PMID:27612729

  19. Reduced Cu concentration in CuAl-LPE-grown thin Si layers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.H.; Ciszek, T.F.; Asher, S.; Reedy, R.

    1995-08-01

    Cu-Al has been found to be a good solvent system to grow macroscopically smooth Si layers with thicknesses in tens of microns on cast MG-Si substrates by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) at temperatures near 900{degrees}C. This solvent system utilizes Al to ensure good wetting between the solution and substrate by removing silicon native oxides, and employs Cu to control Al doping into the layers. Isotropic growth is achieved because of a high concentration of solute silicon in the solution and the resulting microscopically rough interface. The incorporation of Cu in the Si layers, however, was a concern since Cu is a major solution component and is generally regarded as a bad impurity for silicon devices due to its fast diffusivity and deep energy levels in the band gap. A study by Davis shows that Cu will nonetheless not degrade solar cell performance until above a level of 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}. This threshold is expected to be even higher for thin layer silicon solar cells owing to the less stringent requirement on minority carrier diffusion length. But to ensure long term stability of solar cells, lower Cu concentrations in the thin layers are still preferred.

  20. Fabrication and Characterization of ZnO/Cu2O Solar Cells Prepared by Electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Kazuya; Oku, Takeo; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi

    2013-08-01

    Cuprous oxide (Cu2O)-based solar cells containing zinc oxide (ZnO) were fabricated on F-doped tin oxide (FTO) by electrodeposition. Cu2O layers were deposited from a pH-adjusted electrolyte consisting of LiOH, NaOH or KOH. A photovoltaic device based on a FTO/ZnO/Cu2O/Au heterojunction structure was prepared using LiOH, and it gave a power conversion efficiency of 1.43% under air mass 1.5 illumination.

  1. Ratio of Cu, Zn, Sn and S densities in magnetron sputtering plasmas employing a stoichiometric Cu2ZnSnS4 target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafarizal, Nayan; Sasaki, Koichi

    2015-09-01

    Recently, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) has drawn wide attention as a highly potential material for the next-generation thin film solar cells. In order to optimize CZTS thin films for solar cells, it is essential to understand their deposition mechanism. Especially since it consists of four elements, it is difficult to control the stoichiometric properties. In the present work, we measured the absolute ground-state densities of Cu, Zn, Sn, and S atoms released from a stoichiometric CZTS target in magnetron sputtering plasmas. The absolute atom densities were evaluated by ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy. Magnetron sputtering plasmas were produced using a pulsed-modulated rf power supply and the temporal variations of atom densities were measured in the afterglow. The absolute Cu, Zn, Sn and S densities in the discharge phase were evaluated by the extrapolations of the temporal variations. It has been observed that the absolute Cu, Zn, Sn and S densities in the gas phase were not in agreement with the stoichiometry of the target as well as that of the deposited film. The results suggest possibilities of unconventional sputtering and deposition processes in the compound sputter deposition.

  2. Syntheses of Cu2SnS3 and Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles with tunable Zn/Sn ratios under multibubble sonoluminescence conditions.

    PubMed

    Park, Jongpil; Song, Miyeon; Jung, Won Mok; Lee, Won Young; Kim, Hanggeun; Kim, Youngkwon; Hwang, Chahwan; Shim, Il-Wun

    2013-08-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticles were synthesized by sonochemical reactions under multibubble sonoluminescence (MBSL) conditions. First, Cu2SnS3 (CTS) nanoparticles were synthesized by the sonochemical method with a 91.3% yield. Second, ZnS was coated on Cu2SnS3 nanoparticles by the same method. Then, they were transformed into CZTS nanoparticles of 90-300 nm diameter by heating them at 450 °C for 1 hour. The ratios between Zn and Sn could be controlled from 0.20 to 1.32 by adjusting the relative concentrations of Cu2SnS3 and ZnCl2. With relatively lower Zn : Sn ratios (0.20-0.41), there was a mixture of CTS and CZTS nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles show different band gaps from 1.19 to 1.52 eV depending on the zinc to tin ratio. In this sonochemical method without using any toxic or high temperature solvents, the specific stoichiometric element ratios in CZTS were controllable on demand and their experimental results were always reproducible in separate syntheses. The CZTS nanoparticles were investigated by using X-ray diffraction, a UV-Vis spectrophotometer, a scanning electron microscope, Raman spectroscopy, and a high resolution-transmission electron microscope. PMID:23759949

  3. Solution-based synthesis of wurtzite Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoleaves introduced by α-Cu2S nanocrystals as a catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhai, Lanlan; He, Na; Zou, Chao; Geng, Xiaozhen; Cheng, Lujun; Dong, Youqing; Huang, Shaoming

    2013-08-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 is a promising solar absorbing material in solar cells due to its high absorption coefficient and abundance on earth. We have demonstrated that wurtzite Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoleaves could be synthesized through a facile solution-based method. Detailed investigation of the growth process indicates that α-Cu2S nanocrystals are first formed and then serve as a catalyst to introduce the Cu, Zn, and Sn species into the nanoleaf growth for fast ionic conduction. The structure of the as-synthesized nanoleaves is characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, fast Fourier transform, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping. Photoresponses of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoleaves are evaluated by I-V curves of a Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoleaf film. It is believed that the enhancement of the photoresponse current of the Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoleaf film can be attributed to fast carrier transport due to the single crystalline nature and enhanced light absorption resulting from larger absorption areas of the Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoleaves.Cu2ZnSnS4 is a promising solar absorbing material in solar cells due to its high absorption coefficient and abundance on earth. We have demonstrated that wurtzite Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoleaves could be synthesized through a facile solution-based method. Detailed investigation of the growth process indicates that α-Cu2S nanocrystals are first formed and then serve as a catalyst to introduce the Cu, Zn, and Sn species into the nanoleaf growth for fast ionic conduction. The structure of the as-synthesized nanoleaves is characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, fast Fourier transform, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping. Photoresponses of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoleaves are evaluated by I-V curves of a Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoleaf film. It is believed that the enhancement of the photoresponse current of the Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoleaf film can be attributed to fast carrier transport due to the single crystalline

  4. Retardation of the Cu5Zn8 Phase Fracture and Improvement of Shear Strength of the Sn-9 wt pct Zn/Cu Interface by Inserting an Electroless Palladium Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Po-Hsun; Lin, Chi-Pu; Chen, Chih-Ming

    2013-01-01

    A uniform layer of the Cu5Zn8 phase is formed at the Sn-9 wt pct Zn (Sn-9Zn)/Cu interface after reflow at 503 K (230 °C) but fractures very severely during subsequent solid-state aging at 443 K (170 °C). Such a severe fracture of an interfacial intermetallic compound deteriorates the integrity of joint interface and leads to excessive atomic interdiffusion as well as intermetallic compound growth. In the current study, it was observed that by inserting an electroless palladium (Pd) layer at the Sn-9Zn/Cu interface, a Pd2Zn9 phase is formed between Cu5Zn8 and Sn-9Zn solders. This Pd2Zn9 phase exhibits higher microstructural stability at the interface during solid-state aging and effectively retards the fracture of the Cu5Zn8 phase. The integrity of the Sn-9Zn/Cu interface is improved remarkably. Mechanical tests reveal that the shear strength of the Sn-9Zn/Cu joint is enhanced by inserting an electroless Pd layer at the interface.

  5. Accumulation of Cu and Zn in discarded antifouling paint particles by the marine gastropod, Littorina littorea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammon, Melanie; Turner, Andrew; Brown, Murray T.

    2009-10-01

    The short-term (5 day) accumulation of Cu and Zn in different tissues of the marine gastropod, Littorina littorea, has been studied in the presence of ˜10 mg l -1 of antifouling paint particles and pre- or simultaneously contaminated algal food ( Ulva lactuca). Accumulation of Cu was observed in the head-foot, digestive gland-gonad complex and gills to extents dependent on how and when food was contaminated and administered. However, retention of Zn was only observed in the gills and only when L. littorea and U. lactuca were simultaneously exposed to paint particles. Relative to the alga, faecal material was highly enriched in Zn, suggesting that the animal is able to rapidly eliminate this metal, most likely through the formation and egestion of insoluble phosphate granules. Thus, L. littorea is a useful biomonitor of marine contamination by antifouling applications in respect of Cu but not Zn.

  6. Luminescence properties of ZnS:Cu, Eu semiconductor nanocrystals synthesized by a hydrothermal process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Mei; Hu, Li-Zhong

    2013-08-01

    ZnS:Cu, Eu nanocrystals with an average diameter of ~ 80 nm are synthesized using a hydrothermal approach at 200 °C. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of the ZnS:Cu, Eu nanocrystals before and after annealing, as well as the doping form of Eu, are studied. The as-synthesized samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, and the excitation and emission spectra (PL). The results show that both Cu and Eu are indeed incorporated into the ZnS matrix. Compared with the PL spectrum of the Cu mono-doped sample, the PL emission intensity of the Cu and Eu-codoped sample increases and a peak appears at 516 nm, indicating that Eu3+ ions, which act as an impurity compensator and activator, are incorporated into the ZnS matrix, forming a donor level. Compared with the unannealed sample, the annealed one has an increased PL emission intensity and the peak position has a blue shift of 56 nm from 516 nm to 460 nm, which means that Eu3+ ions reduce to Eu2+ ions, thereby leading to the appearance of Eu2+ characteristic emission and generating effective host-to-Eu2+ energy transfer. The results indicate the potential applications of ZnS:Cu, Eu nanoparticles in optoelectronic devices.

  7. A facile green antisolvent approach to Cu2+-doped ZnO nanocrystals with visible-light-responsive photoactivities.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Wei-Hao; Yang, Chao-Yao; Chiu, Yi-Hsuan; Pu, Ying-Chih; Lee, Min-Han; Tseng, Yuan-Chieh; Hsu, Yung-Jung

    2014-08-01

    An environmentally benign antisolvent method has been developed to prepare Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals with controllable dopant concentrations. A room temperature ionic liquid, known as a deep eutectic solvent (DES), was used as the solvent to dissolve ZnO powders. Upon the introduction of the ZnO-containing DES into a bad solvent which shows no solvation to ZnO, ZnO was precipitated and grown due to the dramatic decrease of solubility. By adding Cu(2+) ions to the bad solvent, the growth of ZnO from the antisolvent process was accompanied by Cu(2+) introduction, resulting in the formation of Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The as-prepared Cu(2+)-doped ZnO showed an additional absorption band in the visible range (400-800 nm), which conduced to an improvement in the overall photon harvesting efficiency. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectra, together with the photovoltage information, suggested that the doped Cu(2+) may otherwise trap photoexcited electrons during the charge transfer process, inevitably depressing the photoconversion efficiency. The photoactivity of Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals for photoelectrochemical water oxidation was effectively enhanced in the visible region, which achieved the highest at 2.0 at% of Cu(2+). A further increase in the Cu(2+) concentration however led to a decrease in the photocatalytic performance, which was ascribed to the significant carrier trapping caused by the increased states given by excessive Cu(2+). The photocurrent action spectra illustrated that the enhanced photoactivity of the Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals was mainly due to the improved visible photon harvesting achieved by Cu(2+) doping. These results may facilitate the use of transition metal ion-doped ZnO in other photoconversion applications, such as ZnO based dye-sensitized solar cells and magnetism-assisted photocatalytic systems. PMID:24954742

  8. Characterization and photocatalytic activity of (ZnO–CuO)/SBA-15 nanocomposites synthesized by two-solvent method

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Peng; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Gongtuo; Li, Guang; Sun, Zhaoqi; Liu, Xiansong; Wu, Mingzai

    2014-08-15

    Schematic between charge genenration and transfer for methylene orange degradation simulated by light. - Highlights: • Two-solvent method is used to prepare ZnO–CuO particles embedded in porous SBA-15. • The absorption edge of (ZnO–CuO)/SBA-15 composite is in the visible light regime. • The absorption intensity of the composite in visible light regime is enhanced. • The (ZnO–CuO)/SBA-15 composite has higher photocatalytic ability than Degussa P-25. - Abstract: Two-solvent method was employed to prepare ZnO–CuO nanoparticles embedded in mesoporous silica SBA-15 ((ZnO–CuO)/SBA-15). The as-obtained (ZnO–CuO)/SBA-15 nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption porosimetry, and diffusive reflective UV–vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of (ZnO–CuO)/SBA-15 nanocomposites toward methylene orange was investigated under simulated solar light irradiation, and the measurement results indicated that (ZnO–CuO)/SBA-15 nanocomposites exhibit higher photodegradation activity toward methylene orange than commercial TiO{sub 2} P-25. The photocatalytic activity of (ZnO–CuO)/SBA-15 nanocomposites were found to be dependent on both the adsorption ability of the nanocomposites and the loading dosage of ZnO–CuO nanoparticles in SBA-15. The optimal loading dosage of ZnO–CuO nanoparticles was determined. Too high or too low loading will lower the photodegradation ability of (ZnO–CuO)/SBA-15 nanocomposites.

  9. Effects of the Formation of Al x Cu y Gradient Interfaces on Mechanical Property of Steel/Al Laminated Sheets by Introducing Cu Binding-Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Aili; Liu, Xinghai; Shi, Quanxin; Liang, Wei

    2015-07-01

    Steel/Cu/Al laminated sheets were fabricated by two-pass hot rolling to improve the mechanical properties of steel/Al sheets. The bonding properties and deformability of the steel/Cu/Al sheets were studied. Steel/Al and steel/Cu/Al samples were rolled at 350°C for 15 min with the first-pass reduction of 40%, and then heated at 600°C for 5 min with different reductions. It was found that the steel/Cu/Al samples rolled by the second-pass reduction of 85% could endure the maximum 90° bend cycle times of 45, exhibiting excellent fatigue resistance as well as deformability. The steel/Al samples could only reach the maximum 90° bend cycle times of 20. Furthermore, the scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive spectrometer, and electron backscattered diffraction results showed that the preferred growth orientations of Cu, Al4Cu9, and Al2Cu on the steel/Cu/Al laminated sheets are {-1, 1, 2} <1, -1, 1>, {1, 0, 0} <0, 1, 0> and {-1, 1, 2} <1, -1, 1> {1, 1, 0} <0, 0, 1>. The orientation relationships between Cu and Al2Cu are {1, 1, 0}(fcc)//{1, 1, 0}(bct) and {1, 1, 1}(fcc)//{1, 1, 1}(bct). The improved bonding property and excellent fatigue resistance as well as deformability were mainly ascribed to the tight combination and consistent deformability across steel, Al, and the transition layers (Cu, Al4Cu9, and Al2Cu).

  10. Intermetallic Formation at Interface of Al/Cu Clad Fabricated by Hydrostatic Extrusion and Its Properties.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongbeom; Jeong, Haguk

    2015-11-01

    Al/Cu clad composed of Al core and Cu sheath has been produced by hydrostatic extrusion at 523 K, at an extrusion rate of 27. The prepared specimen was post-annealed at temperatures of 673 K and 773 K for various time durations, and the effect of annealing conditions have been analyzed. The hardness at the interface between Al and Cu matrix of the Al/Cu bimetal clad increases because of annealing. Results indicate that the hardness is more sensitive to annealing temperature than the annealing time. Three kinds of intermetallic compounds (IMC), namely, CuAl, Cu3Al2, and CuAl2, are formed at the Al-Cu interface, upon annealing at 673 K. On the other hand, four kinds of IMCs, namely, Cu4Al3, CuAl, Cu3Al2, CuAl2, are formed at the annealing temperature of 773 K. The growth of each IMC follows the parabolic law as a function of annealing times at certain annealing temperature. The growth rate of each IMC is limited to its interdiffusion rate constant. The IMC Cu4Al3 appears upon annealing at 773 K, and not during annealing at 673 K, because of the higher value of activation energy associated with its formation, when compared to other IMCs. PMID:26726557

  11. Fabrication of tunable hydrophobic surface of ZnO nanorods with Cu doping

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Mohua; Thangavel, R.

    2015-08-28

    In this work, tunable wettability of the Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanorod surface with Cu doping prepared by a hydrothermal method. These grown samples were characterized by XRD, FESEM, AFM and water contact angle measurements. The wettability of the ZnO nanorods surface area was controlled and tuned by different concentration of copper doping. It was found that the hydrophobic surface of doped ZnO Nanorods shows a maximum and minimum contact angle of about 156.60° and 136.36° was achieved with doping concentration of 10 and 20 M % respectively. Further, the surface properties such as surface energy and work of adhesion were calculated for undoped and Cu doped ZnO nanostructure surfaces. These nanosructures can be potentially applicable to enlarge time honoured application of ZnO based electronic devices.

  12. Solution-processed Cu2ZnSnS4 superstrate solar cell using vertically aligned ZnO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongwook; Yong, Kijung

    2014-02-14

    One-dimensional (1D) zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are considered to be promising materials for use in thin film solar cells because of their high light harvesting and charge collection efficiencies. We firstly report enhanced photovoltaic performances in Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin film solar cells prepared using ZnO nanostructures. A CdS-coated, vertically well-aligned ZnO nanorod (NR) array was prepared via a hydrothermal reaction and nanocrystal layer deposition (NCLD) and was used as a transparent window/buffer layer in a CZTS thin film photovoltaic. A light absorber CZTS thin film was prepared on the CdS/ZnO NRs in air by depositing a non-toxic precursor solution that was annealed in two steps at temperatures up to 250 °C. The crystallized CZTS phase completely infiltrated the CdS/ZnO NR array. The nanostructured ZnO array provided improved light harvesting behavior compared to a thin film configuration by measuring UV-vis transmittance spectroscopy. The prepared CZTS/CdS/ZnO NR device exhibited a solar energy conversion efficiency of 1.2%, which is the highest efficiency yet reported for nanostructured superstrate CZTS solar cells. PMID:24434835

  13. Relationships involving process, microstructure, and properties of weldments of Al-Cu and Al-Cu-Li alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Martukanitz, R.P.; Howell, P.R.

    1996-12-31

    The evolution of microstructure within the heat affected zone for Al-Cu and Al-Cu-Li alloys is qualitatively described in terms of diffusion controlled modifications that result in the minimization of chemical free energy. Coarsening of strengthening precipitate is anticipated at relatively low peak temperatures; whereas, dissolution is expected to dominate the microstructural modifications within the heat affected zone for these alloys. Transmission electron microscopy of alloy 2195-T8 was performed to validate the analysis. Dissolution of {theta}{prime} (Al{sub 2}Cu) was seen to occur within the heat affected zone at temperatures below 220 C. The primary strengthening phase, T{sub 1} (Al{sub 2}CuLi), exhibited partial dissolution at peak temperatures of 320 C. Peak temperatures up to 500 C resulted in partial dissolution of T{sub 1} during heating and growth upon cooling. Positions near the fusion zone interface resulted in complete dissolution of strengthening precipitate and re-precipitation of copper-rich zones upon cooling. The effect of microstructural modifications within the heat affected zone on mechanical properties is discussed in terms of strengthening mechanisms.

  14. Evaluating the Combined Toxicity of Cu and ZnO Nanoparticles: Utility of the Concept of Additivity and a Nested Experimental Design.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Baas, Jan; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Vijver, Martina G

    2016-05-17

    Little is understood regarding the effects of mixtures of different metal-based nanoparticles (NPs). Using concentration-addition (CA) and independent-action (IA) models, we evaluated the combined toxicity of Cu and ZnO NPs based on five nested combinations, i.e., Cu(NO3)2-CuNPs, Zn(NO3)2-ZnONPs, Cu(NO3)2-ZnONPs, Zn(NO3)2-CuNPs, and CuNPs-ZnONPs on root elongation of Lactuca sativa L. The CA and IA models performed equally well in estimating the toxicity of mixtures of Cu(NO3)2-CuNPs, Zn(NO3)2-ZnONPs, and Zn(NO3)2-CuNPs, whereas the IA model was significantly better for fitting the data of Cu(NO3)2-ZnONPs and CuNPs-ZnONPs mixtures. Dissolved Cu proved to be the most toxic metal species to lettuce roots in the tests, followed by Cu NPs, dissolved Zn, and ZnO NPs, respectively. An antagonistic effect was observed for ZnO NPs on the toxicity of Cu NPs. This antagonistic effect is expected to be the result of interactions between dissolved Cu and dissolved Zn, particulate Zn and dissolved Zn, particulate Cu and dissolved Zn, and between particulate Zn and dissolved Cu. In general terms, assuming additivity gives a first indication of the combined toxicity with soluble and insoluble metal particles, both being important in driving the toxicity of metal-based NPs to higher plants. PMID:27070131

  15. Morphology, electrical, and optical properties of heavily doped ZnTe:Cu thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Akkad, Fikry; Abdulraheem, Yaser

    2013-11-01

    We report on a study of the physical properties of ZnTe:Cu films with Cu content up to ˜12 at. % prepared using rf magnetron sputtering. The composition and lateral homogeneities are studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Atomic force microscopy measurements on films deposited at different substrate temperatures (up to 325 °C) yielded activation energy of 12 kJ/mole for the grains growth. The results of XPS and electrical and optical measurements provide evidence for the formation of the ternary zinc copper telluride alloy in films containing Cu concentration above ˜4 at. %. The XPS results suggest that copper is incorporated in the alloy with oxidation state Cu1+ so that the alloy formula can be written Zn1-yCuy Te with y = 2-x, where x is a parameter measuring the stoichiometry in the Cu site. The formation of this alloy causes appreciable shift in the binding energies of the XPS peaks besides an IR shift in the energy band gap. Detailed analysis of the optical absorption data revealed the presence of two additional transitions, besides the band gap one, originating from the Γ8 and Γ7 (spin-orbit) valence bands to a donor level at ˜0.34 eV below the Γ6 conduction band. This interpretation yields a value for the valence band splitting energy Δ ≅ 0.87 eV independent of copper concentration. On the other hand, the mechanism of formation of the alloy is tentatively explained in terms of a point defect reaction in which substitutional Cu defect CuZn is also created. Assuming that substitutional Cu is the dominant acceptor in the Zn rich alloy as in ZnTe, its formation energy was determined to be 1.7 eV close to the theoretical value (1.41 eV) in ZnTe.

  16. Catalytic and photoelectrochemical performances of Cu-Zn-Sn-Se thin films prepared using selenization of electrodeposited Cu-Zn-Sn metal precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Pin-Wen; Li, Chun-Ting; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Cheng, Kong-Wei

    2015-07-01

    In this study, Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) films are deposited onto the fluorine-doped-tin-oxide-coated glass substrate via the selenization of electrodeposited Cu-Zn-Sn metal precursors in an acidic solution with the applied potential of -0.9 V vs. an Ag/AgCl electrode. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the samples are the quaternary tetragonal CZTSe phase. The thicknesses and direct band gaps of the samples are in the ranges of 2.3 to 2.7 μm and 0.95 to 1.02 eV, respectively. All samples are p-type semiconductors with carrier density, mobility and flat-band potential in the ranges of 3.88 × 1017 to 1.37 × 1018 cm-3, 10.31 to 12.6 cm2 V-1 s-1 and -0.01 V to -0.08 V vs. Ag/AgCl reference electrode, respectively. The sample with [Cu]/[Zn + Sn] and [Zn]/[Sn] molar ratios of 0.87 and 0.66, respectively, has a maximum photo-enhanced current density of 0.41 mA cm-2 at an applied bias of -0.5 V vs. an Ag/AgCl electrode in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution under illumination. The best photo-conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using CZTSe with [Cu]/[Zn + Sn] and [Zn]/[Sn] molar ratios of 0.87 and 0.66, respectively, as the counter electrode was 7.98%. The results show the high quality CZTSe films have potentials in applications of photoelectrochemical water splitting and dye-sensitized solar cells.

  17. Valorization of a treated soil via amendments: fractionation and oral bioaccessibility of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn.

    PubMed

    Zagury, Gerald J; Rincon Bello, Jhony A; Guney, Mert

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to transform a treated soil (TS) into a more desirable resource by modifying physico-chemical properties via amendments while reducing toxic metals' mobility and oral bioaccessibility. A hydrocarbon-contaminated soil submitted to treatment (TS) but still containing elevated concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn has been amended with compost, sand, and Al2(SO4)3 to render it usable for horticulture. Characterization and sequential extraction were performed for TS and four amended mixtures (AM1-4). P and K availability and metal bioaccessibility were investigated in TS and AM2. Amendment improved soil properties for all mixtures and yielded a usable product (AM2 20 % TS, 49 % compost, 30 % sand, 1 % Al2(SO4)3) satisfying regulatory requirements except for Pb content. In particular, AM2 had improved organic matter (OM) and cation exchange capacity (CEC), highly increased P and K availability, and reduced total metal concentrations. Furthermore, amendment decreased metal mobile fraction likely to be plant-available (in mg kg(-1), assumed as soluble/exchangeable + carbonates fractions). For AM2, estimated Pb bioavailability decreased from 1.50 × 10(3) mg kg(-1) (TS) to 238 mg kg(-1) (52.4 % (TS) to 34.2 %). Bioaccessible concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Zn (mg kg(-1)) were lower in AM2 than in TS, but there was no significant decrease for Pb. The results suggest that amendment improved soil by modifying its chemistry, resulting in lower metal mobile fraction (in %, for Cu and Zn) and bioaccessibility (in %, for Cu only). Amending soils having residual metal contamination can be an efficient valorization method, indicating potential for reducing treatment cost and environmental burden by rendering disposal/additional treatment unnecessary. Further studies including plant bioavailability are recommended to confirm results. PMID:26969154

  18. Surface science studies of catalyzed methanol synthesis on model copper and Cu-Zn-O surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Sabrina Su-Bin . Dept. of Chemistry Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1991-06-01

    Cu-Zn-O surfaces that are catalysts for methanol synthesis from CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} modeled using zinc oxide overlayers on copper single crystals. These studies were performed in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) utilizing Temperature Programmed Desorption, Auger Electron Spectroscopy, and Low Energy Electron Diffraction techniques. The chemisorption of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and D{sub 2} were compared on a stepped on Cu(311), and a flat Cu(110). At low pressures ({approximately}10{sup {minus}6} Torr), Cu(311) was found to be much more reactive than Cu(110) for the dissociative adsorption of CO{sub 2} and D{sub 2}, and the formation of CO{sub 2} from surface oxygen and CO. Since these reactions are important in methanol synthesis, these results suggest that methanol synthesis over copper may be a structure sensitive reaction. The interaction of copper, zinc, and oxygen were examined by the deposition of submonolayers to multilayers of zinc and oxygen in UHV on Cu(110). The interaction of methanol with these model Cu-Zn-O surfaces was also studied. Oxygen was adsorbed onto these exposed copper part of the surface to form ZnO{sub x}/y ML O/Cu(110) surfaces. The roles of ZnO{sub x} islands and chemisorbed oxygen on copper were investigated by monitoring methanol decomposition, into surface formate and methoxy species, on these ZnO{sub x}/y ML O/Cu(11) surfaces.

  19. A facile phosphine-free colloidal synthesis of Cu2SnS3 and Cu2ZnSnS4 nanorods with a controllable aspect ratio.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Jun; Liu, Pai; Ryan, Kevin M

    2015-09-18

    Cu2SnS3 (CTS) nanorods were synthesized with a controllable aspect ratio via a facile phosphine-free colloidal synthesis. This synthesis can be readily extended to obtain Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanorods with tunable Zn content. PMID:26235602

  20. The kinetics and mechanism of methanol synthesis by hydrogenation of CO 2 over a Zn-deposited Cu(111) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujitani, T.; Nakamura, I.; Uchijima, T.; Nakamura, J.

    1997-07-01

    The hydrogenation of CO 2 over a Zn-deposited Cu(111) surface has been studied using an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) apparatus combined with a high-pressure flow reactor. It was shown that the turnover frequency (TOF) for methanol formation linearly increased with Zn coverage below ϑZn=0.19 and decreased above ϑZn=0.20. The optimum TOF obtained at ϑZn=0.19 was thirteen-fold larger than that of the Zn-free Cu(111) surface. On the other hand, the TOF for CO formation started to decrease at ϑZn=0.10 and approached zero at ϑZn=0.5. No promotional effect of Zn was thus observed for the reverse water-gas shift (RWGS) reaction on Cu(111). Post-reaction surface analysis by XPS showed the formation of formate species (HCOO a) on the Cu(111) surfaces. The formate coverage linearly increased with the Zn coverage below ϑZn=0.15, suggesting that the formation of the formate species was stabilized by the Zn species. The relation between ϑHCOO and ϑZn is similar to that between TOF and ϑZn; thus, the formate species is considered to be the reaction intermediates during methanol formation, and the amount of the formate species should determine the rate of the reaction. It was found that the surface chemistry of the Zn-deposited Cu surface drastically changed at ϑZn=0.15. At higher Zn coverages ( ϑZn>0.15), Zn on Cu(111) was readily oxidized to ZnO during the CO 2 hydrogenation reaction. On the other hand, at low Zn coverages below ϑZn=0.15, Zn was partially oxidized in the absence of oxygen in ZnO or O a on the Cu surface under the reaction conditions. It was suggested that the Zn on Cu(111) was directly bound to the oxygen in the surface formate species as the role of the active sites.

  1. Charge Compensated (Al, N) Co-Doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Films for Photlelectrochemical Application

    SciTech Connect

    Shet, S.

    2012-01-01

    ZnO thin films with significantly reduced bandgaps were synthesized by doping N and co-doping Al and N at 100oC. All the films were synthesized by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering on F-doped tin-oxide-coated glass. We found that co-doped ZnO:(Al,N) thin films exhibited significantly enhanced crystallinity as compared to ZnO doped solely with N, ZnO:N, at the same growth conditions. Furthermore, annealed ZnO:(Al,N) thin films exhibited enhanced N incorporation over ZnO:N films. As a result, ZnO:(Al,N) films exhibited improved photocurrents than ZnO:N films grown with pure N doping, suggesting that charge-compensated donor-acceptor co-doping could be a potential method for bandgap reduction of wide-bandgap oxide materials to improve their photoelectrochemical performance.

  2. ZnO/Al:ZnO Transparent Resistive Switching Devices Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition for Memristor Applications.

    PubMed

    Mundle, Rajeh; Carvajal, Christian; Pradhan, Aswini K

    2016-05-17

    ZnO has intrinsic semiconductor conductivity because of an unintentional doping mechanism resulting from the growth process that is mainly attributable to oxygen vacancies (VO) positioned in the bandgap. ZnO has multiple electronic states that depend on the number of vacancies and the charge state of each vacancy. In addition to the individual electron states, the vacancies have different vibrational states. We developed a high-temperature precursor vapor mask technique using Al2O3 to pattern the atomic layer deposition of ZnO and Al:ZnO layers on ZnO-based substrates. This technique was used to create a memristor device based on Al:ZnO thin films having metallic and semiconducting and insulating transport properties ZnO. We demonstrated that adding combination of Al2O3 and TiO2 barrier layers improved the resistive switching behavior. The change in the resistance between the high- and low-resistivity states of the memristor with a combination of Al2O3 and TiO2 was approximately 157%. The devices were exposed to laser light from three different laser diodes. The 450 nm laser diode noticeably affected the combined Al2O3 and TiO2 barrier, creating a high-resistivity state with a 2.9% shift under illumination. The high-resistivity state shift under laser illumination indicates defect shifts and the thermodynamic transition of ZnO defects. PMID:27124366

  3. Inorganic Solar Cells Based on Electrospun ZnO Nanofibrous Networks and Electrodeposited Cu2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Luming; Sun, Huaquan; Xie, Lai; Lu, Jinnan; Zhang, Luyong; Wu, Sujuan; Gao, Xingsen; Lu, Xubing; Li, Jinhua; Liu, Jun-Ming

    2015-12-01

    The nanostructured ZnO/copper oxide (Cu2O) photovoltaic devices based on electrospun ZnO nanofibrous network and electrodeposited Cu2O layer have been fabricated. The effects of the pH value of electrodeposition solution and the Cu2O layer thickness on the photovoltaic performances have been investigated. It is revealed that the pH value influences the morphology and structure of the Cu2O layer and thus the device performances. The Cu2O layer with an appropriate thickness benefits to charge transfer and light absorption. The device prepared at the optimal conditions shows the lowest recombination rate and exhibits a power conversion efficiency of ~0.77 %.

  4. Inorganic Solar Cells Based on Electrospun ZnO Nanofibrous Networks and Electrodeposited Cu2O.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luming; Sun, Huaquan; Xie, Lai; Lu, Jinnan; Zhang, Luyong; Wu, Sujuan; Gao, Xingsen; Lu, Xubing; Li, Jinhua; Liu, Jun-Ming

    2015-12-01

    The nanostructured ZnO/copper oxide (Cu2O) photovoltaic devices based on electrospun ZnO nanofibrous network and electrodeposited Cu2O layer have been fabricated. The effects of the pH value of electrodeposition solution and the Cu2O layer thickness on the photovoltaic performances have been investigated. It is revealed that the pH value influences the morphology and structure of the Cu2O layer and thus the device performances. The Cu2O layer with an appropriate thickness benefits to charge transfer and light absorption. The device prepared at the optimal conditions shows the lowest recombination rate and exhibits a power conversion efficiency of ~0.77 %. PMID:26625889

  5. Aquatic acute species sensitivity distributions of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Adam, Nathalie; Schmitt, Claudia; De Bruyn, Luc; Knapen, Dries; Blust, Ronny

    2015-09-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles are increasingly being produced and will inevitably end up in the aquatic environment. Up till now, most papers have studied individual nanoparticle effects. However, the implementation of these data into a risk assessment tool, needed to characterise their risk to the aquatic environment, is still largely lacking. Therefore, aquatic species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were constructed for ZnO and CuO nanoparticles and 5% hazard concentrations (HC5) were calculated in this study. The effect of individual nanoparticles on these SSDs was estimated by comparison with bulk SSDs. Additionally, the effect of nanoparticle dynamics (aggregation and dissolution) was considered by evaluating the effect of aggregate size on the toxicity, by estimation of the dissolved fraction and comparison with SSDs for ZnCl2 and CuCl2 inorganic salt. Bacteria, protozoa, yeast, rotifera, algae, nematoda, crustacea, hexapoda, fish and amphibia species were included in the analysis. The results show that algae (Zn) and crustacea (Zn, Cu) are the most sensitive species when exposed to the chemicals. Similar acute sensitivity distributions were obtained for ZnO nanoparticles (HC5: 0.06 with 90% confidence interval: 0.03-0.15 mg Zn/l; 43 data points), bulk ZnO (HC5: 0.06 with CI: 0.03-0.20 mg Zn/l; 23 dps) and ZnCl2 (HC5: 0.03 with CI: 0.02-0.05 mg Zn/l; 261 dps). CuO nanoparticles (HC5: 0.15 with CI: 0.05-0.47 mg Cu/l; 43 dps) are more toxic than the bulk materials (HC5: 6.19 with CI: 2.15-38.11 mg Cu/l; 12 dps) but less toxic than CuCl2 (HC5: 0.009 with CI: 0.007-0.012 mg Cu/l; 594 dps) to aquatic species. However, the combined dissolution and SSD results indicate that the toxicity of these nanoparticles is mainly caused by dissolved metal ions. Based on the available information, no current risk of these nanoparticles to the aquatic environment is expected. PMID:25933293

  6. Unexpected magnetization enhancement in hydrogen plasma treated ferromagnetic (Zn,Cu)O film

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Liang; Zhu, Liping E-mail: hphe@zju.edu.cn; He, Haiping E-mail: hphe@zju.edu.cn; Ye, Zhizhen

    2014-08-18

    The effects of H{sup +} incorporation on oxygen vacancies (H{sub O}{sup +}) on the giant ferromagnetic behavior (moment up to 3.26 μ{sub B}/Cu) in ZnO:Cu polycrystalline films have been closely examined using different microstructural and magnetic characterization tools. Fine thermal stability (up to 450 °C) and low resistivity demonstrate a significant correlation between Cu 3d-states and H{sub O}{sup +} donor defects in H plasma treated ZnO:Cu films, analogous to dual-donor (V{sub O} and Zn{sub i}) defects mediated case. These H{sub O}{sup +} donors can delocalize their electrons to the orbits of Cu atoms and contribute to a stronger spin-orbit coupling interaction. Suitable H{sub O}{sup +} defect concentration and matched proportion between Cu{sup 2+} and Cu{sup +} species ensure that orbital momentum shall not be quenched. Hence, unexpected moment enhancement, less than spin-orbit coupling upper limit (3.55 μ{sub B}/Cu), can be also expected in this scenario. The manipulation from spin-only to spin-orbit coupling mode, using a facile thermally-mediated H plasma exposure way, will allow achieving spin transport based diluted magnetic semiconductor device.

  7. Direct preparation of Cu2ZnSnSe4 films by microwave irradiation and its dependence on the Sn/(Sn + Zn) ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaigawa, Ryuji; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Irago, Tomoki; Klenk, Reiner

    2015-08-01

    Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) films with various Sn/(Sn + Zn) ratios were directly prepared on metallic Ti foils by microwave irradiation and their properties were investigated. The Sn/(Sn + Zn) ratio and Cu/(Sn + Zn) ratio of the precursor could be preserved by using a sealed container filled with 0.15 atm of Ar. Single-phase CZTSe crystals with a kesterite (stannite) structure and without by-products were observed with Sn/(Sn + Zn) ratios between 0.4 and 0.6. The hole densities of the Cu-Zn-Sn-Se films are minimal (<1017/cm3) with Sn/(Sn + Zn) ratios ranging from 0.5 to 0.6.

  8. Electrical Characterization of Cu Composition Effects in CdS/CdTe Thin-Film Solar Cells with a ZnTe:Cu Back Contact: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J. V.; Duenow, J. N.; Kuciauskas, D.; Kanevce, A.; Dhere, R. G.; Young, M. R.; Levi, D. H.

    2012-07-01

    We study the effects of Cu composition on the CdTe/ZnTe:Cu back contact and the bulk CdTe. For the back contact, its potential barrier decreases with Cu concentration while its saturation current density increases. For the bulk CdTe, the hole density increases with Cu concentration. We identify a Cu-related deep level at {approx}0.55 eV whose concentration is significant when the Cu concentration is high. The device performance, which initially increases with Cu concentration then decreases, reflects the interplay between the positive influences and negative influences (increasing deep levels in CdTe) of Cu.

  9. Intrinsic point defects and complexes in the quaternary kesterite semiconductor Cu2ZnSnS4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shiyou; Yang, Ji-Hui; Gong, X. G.; Walsh, Aron; Wei, Su-Huai

    2010-06-01

    Current knowledge of the intrinsic defect properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is limited, which is hindering further improvement of the performance of CZTS-based solar cells. Here, we have performed first-principles calculations for a series of intrinsic defects and defect complexes in CZTS, from which we have the following observations. (i) It is important to control the elemental chemical potentials during crystal growth to avoid the formation of secondary phases such as ZnS, CuS, and Cu2SnS3 . (ii) The intrinsic p -type conductivity is attributed to the CuZn antisite which has a lower formation energy and relatively deeper acceptor level compared to the Cu vacancy. (iii) The low formation energy of many of the acceptor defects will lead to the intrinsic p -type character, i.e., n -type doping is very difficult in this system. (iv) The role of electrically neutral defect complexes is predicted to be important, because they have remarkably low formation energies and electronically passivate deep levels in the band gap. For example, [CuZn-+ZnCu+] , [VCu-+ZnCu+] , and [ZnSn2-+2ZnCu+] may form easily in nonstoichiometric samples. The band alignment between Cu2ZnSnS4 , CuInSe2 and the solar-cell window layer CdS has also been calculated, revealing that a type-II band alignment exists for the CdS/Cu2ZnSnS4 heterojunction. The fundamental differences between CZTS and CuInSe2 for use in thin-film photovoltaics are discussed. The results are expected to be relevant to other I2-II-IV-VI4 semiconductors.

  10. Selective precipitation of Cu from Zn in a pS controlled continuously stirred tank reactor.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, R M M; Timmers, R A; Xu, Y; Keesman, K J; Lens, P N L

    2009-06-15

    Copper was continuously and selectively precipitated with Na(2)S to concentrations below 0.3 ppb from water containing around 600 ppm of both Cu and Zn in a Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor. The pH was controlled at 3 and the pS at 25 (pS=-log(S(2-))) by means of an Ag(2)S sulfide selective electrode. Copper's recovery and purity were about 100%, whereas the total soluble sulfide concentration was below 0.02 ppm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that copper precipitated as hexagonal CuS (covellite). The mode of the particle size distribution (PSD) of the CuS precipitates was around 36 microm. The PSD increased by high pS values and by the presence of Zn. Depending on the turbulence, the CuS precipitates can grow up to 200 microm or fragment in particles smaller than 3 microm in a few seconds. Zn precipitation with Na(2)S at pH 3 and 4, in batch, always lead to Zn concentrations above 1 ppm. Zn precipitated as cubic ZnS (spharelite). PMID:19019537

  11. Toxicity and accumulation of Cu and ZnO nanoparticles in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yinlong; Vijver, Martina G; Chen, Guangchao; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2015-04-01

    There is increasing recognition that the wide use of nanoparticles, such as Cu (CuNPs) and ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs), may pose risks to the environment. Currently there is insufficient insight in the contribution of metal-based nanoparticles and their dissolved ions to the overall toxicity and accumulation. To fill in this gap, we combined the fate assessment of CuNPs and ZnONPs in aquatic test media with the assessment of toxicity and accumulation of ions and particles present in the suspensions. It was found that at the LC50 level of Daphnia magna exposed to the nanoparticle suspensions, the relative contributions of ions released from CuNPs and ZnONPs to toxicity were around 26% and 31%, respectively, indicating that particles rather than the dissolved ions were the major source of toxicity. It was additionally found that at the low exposure concentrations of CuNPs and ZnONPs (below 0.05 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively) the dissolved ions were predominantly accumulated, whereas at the high exposure concentrations (above 0.1 mg/L and 1 mg/L, respectively), particles rather than the released ions played a dominant role in the accumulation process. Our results thus suggest that consideration on the contribution of dissolved ions to nanoparticle toxicity needs to be interpreted with care. PMID:25785366

  12. Speciation of Cu and Zn during composting of pig manure amended with rock phosphate.

    PubMed

    Lu, Duian; Wang, Lixia; Yan, Baixing; Ou, Yang; Guan, Jiunian; Bian, Yu; Zhang, Yubin

    2014-08-01

    Pig manure usually contains a large amount of metals, especially Cu and Zn, which may limit its land application. Rock phosphate has been shown to be effective for immobilizing toxic metals in toxic metals contaminated soils. The aim of this study work was to investigate the effect of rock phosphate on the speciation of Cu and Zn during co-composting of pig manure with rice straw. The results showed that composting process and rock phosphate addition significantly affected the changes of metal species. During co-composting, the exchangeable and reducible fractions of Cu were transformed to organic and residue fractions, thus the bioavailable Cu fractions were decreased. The rock phosphate addition enhanced the metal transformation depending on the level of rock phosphate amendment. Zinc was found in the exchangeable and reducible fractions in the compost. The bioavailable Zn fraction changed a little during the composting process. The composting process converted the exchangeable Zn fraction into reducible fraction. Addition of an appropriate amount (5.0%) of rock phosphate could advance the conversion. Rock phosphate could reduce metal availability through adsorption and complexation of the metal ions on inorganic components. The increase in pH and organic matter degradation could be responsible for the reduction in exchangeable and bioavailable Cu fractions and exchangeable Zn fraction in rock phosphate amended compost. PMID:24785363

  13. Salts affect the interaction of ZnO or CuO nanoparticles with wheat.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jacob; Hansen, Trevor; McLean, Joan E; McManus, Paul; Das, Siddhartha; Britt, David W; Anderson, Anne J; Dimkpa, Christian O

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) that release metals with potential phytotoxicity could pose problems in agriculture. The authors of the present study used growth in a model growth matrix, sand, to examine the influence of 5 mmol/kg of Na, K, or Ca (added as Cl salts) and root exudates on transformation and changes to the bioactivity of copper(II) oxide (CuO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs on wheat. These salt levels are found in saline agricultural soils. After 14 d of seedling growth, particles with crystallinity typical of CuO or ZnO remained in the aqueous fraction from the sand; particles had negative surface charges that differed with NP type and salt, but salt did not alter particle agglomeration. Reduction in shoot and root elongation and lateral root induction by ZnO NPs were mitigated by all salts. However, whereas Na and K promoted Zn loading into shoots, Ca reduced loading, suggesting that competition with Zn ions for uptake occurred. With CuO NPs, plant growth and loading was modified equally by all salts, consistent with major interaction with the plant with CuO rather than Cu ions. Thus, for both NPs, loading into plant tissues was not solely dependent on ion solubility. These findings indicated that salts in agricultural soils could modify the phytotoxicity of NPs. PMID:25917258

  14. Lubrication performance and mechanisms of Mg/Al-, Zn/Al-, and Zn/Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide nanoparticles as lubricant additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuo; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-08-01

    Solid lubricant particles are commonly used as oil additives for low friction and wear. Mg/Al-, Zn/Al-, and Zn/Mg/Al-layered double hydroxides (LDH) were synthesized by coprecipitation method. The benefits of LDH nanoparticles are that they can be synthesized using chemical methods where size and shape can be controlled, and can be modified organically to allow dispersal in fluids. The LDH nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry. A pin-on-disk friction and wear tester was used for evaluating the friction and wear properties of LDH nanoparticles as lubricant additives. LDH nanoparticles have friction-reducing and anti-wear properties compared to oil without LDHs. Mg/Al-LDH has the best lubrication, possibly due to better thermal stability in severe conditions.

  15. Co and Cu co-doped ZnO epitaxial films—A magnetically soft nano-composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ney, V.; Venkataraman, V.; Henne, B.; Ollefs, K.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.; Ney, A.

    2016-04-01

    A series of Co/Cu co-doped ZnO epitaxial films has been grown on sapphire substrates to investigate the possibilities of tailoring the magnetic properties in functional ZnO-Co/Cu nano-composites. The growth was performed using reactive magnetron sputtering varying the oxygen partial pressure to tune the incorporation of the dopants and the resulting valence state. At high oxygen pressures, Co2+ is formed and the resulting magnetic properties are very similar to phase pure paramagnetic Co-doped ZnO samples. However, the formation of a secondary CuO phase reduces the overall structural quality of the layers and virtually no substitutional incorporation of Cu2+ in ZnO could be evidenced. At low oxygen pressures, a significant fraction of metallic Co and Cu forming nanometer-sized superparamagnetic precipitates of a Co/Cu alloy can be evidenced which are embedded in a ZnO host matrix.

  16. Acute toxicity of binary and ternary mixtures of Cd, Cu, and Zn to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Joseph S; Ranville, James F; Pontasch, Mandee; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Adams, William J

    2015-04-01

    Standard static-exposure acute lethality tests were conducted with Daphnia magna neonates exposed to binary or ternary mixtures of Cd, Cu, and Zn in moderately hard reconstituted water that contained 3 mg dissolved organic carbon/L added as Suwannee River fulvic acid. These experiments were conducted to test for additive toxicity (i.e., the response to the mixture can be predicted by combining the responses obtained in single-metal toxicity tests) or nonadditive toxicity (i.e., the response is less than or greater than additive). Based on total metal concentrations (>90% dissolved) the toxicity of the tested metal mixtures could be categorized into all 3 possible additivity categories: less-than-additive toxicity (e.g., Cd-Zn and Cd-Cu-Zn mixtures and Cd-Cu mixtures when Cu was titrated into Cd-containing waters), additive toxicity (e.g., some Cu-Zn mixtures), or more-than-additive toxicity (some Cu-Zn mixtures and Cd-Cu mixtures when Cd was titrated into Cu-containing waters). Exposing the organisms to a range of sublethal to supralethal concentrations of the titrated metal was especially helpful in identifying nonadditive interactions. Geochemical processes (e.g., metal-metal competition for binding to dissolved organic matter and/or the biotic ligand, and possibly supersaturation of exposure waters with the metals in some high-concentration exposures) can explain much of the observed metal-metal interactions. Therefore, bioavailability models that incorporate those geochemical (and possibly some physiological) processes might be able to predict metal mixture toxicity accurately. PMID:25336231

  17. Changes in urinary Cu, Zn, and Se levels in cancer patients after treatment with Sha Shen Mai Men Dong Tang.

    PubMed

    Lai, Tung-Yuan; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2016-04-01

    Sha Shen Mai Men Dong Tang (SMD-2; shā shēn mài dōng tāng) is a Chinese medicinal herb (CMH; zhōng cǎo yào) used to treat symptoms associated with cancer therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of SMD-2 on the levels of urinary copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) in lung cancer patients and head and neck cancer patients receiving chemoradiotherapy. Forty-two head and neck cancer patients and 10 lung cancer patients participated in our clinical trial. Each patient received chemoradiotherapy for 4 weeks. In addition, each patient was treated with SMD-2 for 8 weeks, including 2 weeks prior to and after the chemoradiotherapy treatment. Comparison of urinary Cu, Zn, and Se levels and the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu at three time points in the two types of cancer were assessed using the generalized estimating equations (GEEs). After the patients received chemoradiotherapy for 4 weeks, SMD-2 treatment was found to be associated with a significant decrease in urinary Cu levels, whereas urinary Zn and Se levels increased significantly. In addition, the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu in the urine samples of these patients also increased significantly. Both the urinary Zn levels and the ratio of Zn to Cu in head and neck cancer patients were significantly higher than in lung cancer patients. Urinary Zn and Se levels and the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu, but not urinary Cu levels, increased significantly during and after treatment when assessed using the GEE model. The SMD-2 treatments significantly increased Zn and Se levels in the urine of head and neck cancer patients. Increased Zn and Se levels in urine strengthened immune system. PMID:27114935

  18. Changes in urinary Cu, Zn, and Se levels in cancer patients after treatment with Sha Shen Mai Men Dong Tang

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tung-Yuan; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Sha Shen Mai Men Dong Tang (SMD-2; 沙參麥冬湯 shā shēn mài dōng tāng) is a Chinese medicinal herb (CMH; 中草藥 zhōng cǎo yào) used to treat symptoms associated with cancer therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of SMD-2 on the levels of urinary copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) in lung cancer patients and head and neck cancer patients receiving chemoradiotherapy. Forty-two head and neck cancer patients and 10 lung cancer patients participated in our clinical trial. Each patient received chemoradiotherapy for 4 weeks. In addition, each patient was treated with SMD-2 for 8 weeks, including 2 weeks prior to and after the chemoradiotherapy treatment. Comparison of urinary Cu, Zn, and Se levels and the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu at three time points in the two types of cancer were assessed using the generalized estimating equations (GEEs). After the patients received chemoradiotherapy for 4 weeks, SMD-2 treatment was found to be associated with a significant decrease in urinary Cu levels, whereas urinary Zn and Se levels increased significantly. In addition, the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu in the urine samples of these patients also increased significantly. Both the urinary Zn levels and the ratio of Zn to Cu in head and neck cancer patients were significantly higher than in lung cancer patients. Urinary Zn and Se levels and the ratios of Zn to Cu and Se to Cu, but not urinary Cu levels, increased significantly during and after treatment when assessed using the GEE model. The SMD-2 treatments significantly increased Zn and Se levels in the urine of head and neck cancer patients. Increased Zn and Se levels in urine strengthened immune system. PMID:27114935

  19. Hydrogen isotope trapping in Al-Cu binary alloys

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chao, Paul; Karnesky, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the trapping mechanisms for hydrogen isotopes in Al–X Cu (0.0 at. % < X < 3.5 at. %) alloys were investigated using thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), electrical conductivity, and differential scanning calorimetry. Constant heating rate TDS was used to determine microstructural trap energies and occupancies. In addition to the trapping states in pure Al reported in the literature (interstitial lattice sites, dislocations, and vacancies), a trap site due to Al–Cu intermetallic precipitates is observed. The binding energy of this precipitate trap is (18 ± 3) kJ•mol–1 (0.19 ± 0.03 eV). Typical occupancy of this trap is high;more » for Al–2.6 at. % Cu (a Cu composition comparable to that in AA2219) charged at 200 °C with 130 MPa D2 for 68 days, there is ca. there is 3.15×10–7 mol D bound to the precipitate trap per mol of Al, accounting for a third of the D in the charged sample.« less

  20. Hydrogen isotope trapping in Al-Cu binary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Paul; Karnesky, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the trapping mechanisms for hydrogen isotopes in Al–X Cu (0.0 at. % < X < 3.5 at. %) alloys were investigated using thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), electrical conductivity, and differential scanning calorimetry. Constant heating rate TDS was used to determine microstructural trap energies and occupancies. In addition to the trapping states in pure Al reported in the literature (interstitial lattice sites, dislocations, and vacancies), a trap site due to Al–Cu intermetallic precipitates is observed. The binding energy of this precipitate trap is (18 ± 3) kJ•mol–1 (0.19 ± 0.03 eV). Typical occupancy of this trap is high; for Al–2.6 at. % Cu (a Cu composition comparable to that in AA2219) charged at 200 °C with 130 MPa D2 for 68 days, there is ca. there is 3.15×10–7 mol D bound to the precipitate trap per mol of Al, accounting for a third of the D in the charged sample.

  1. Dendrite coherency of Al-Si-Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldman, Natalia L. M.; Dahle, Arne K.; Stjohn, David H.; Arnberg, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The dendrite coherency point of Al-Si-Cu alloys was determined by thermal analysis and rheological measurement methods by performing parallel measurements at two cooling rates for aluminum alloys across a wide range of silicon and copper contents. Contrary to previous findings, the two methods yield significantly different values for the fraction solid at the dendrite coherency point. This disparity is greatest for alloys of low solute concentration. The results from this study also contradict previously reported trends in the effect of cooling rate on the dendritic coherency point. Consideration of the results shows that thermal analysis is not a valid technique for the measurement of coherency. Analysis of the results from rheological testing indicates that silicon concentration has a dominant effect on grain size and dendritic morphology, independent of cooling rate and copper content, and thus is the factor that determines the fraction solid at dendrite coherency for Al-Si-Cu alloys.

  2. The Zeno Line for Al, Cu, and U.

    PubMed

    Apfelbaum, E M; Vorob'ev, V S

    2016-06-01

    We show that the property of linearity for a line of unit compressibility factor (Zeno line) can be confirmed for metals (Al, Cu, and U) in liquid phase. The embedded atom potentials (EAM) have been used to describe the interaction between the particles. The numerical simulations within Monte Carlo (MC) technique with the EAM potential have resulted in the straight Zeno-line for considered metals and have allowed us to define the Zeno line parameters. The similarity relations between the critical and the Zeno line parameters, which were observed previously for nonmetallic substances, have appeared to be valid for Al and Cu as well. For uranium there is a contradiction between the calculated and experimental data, indicating the limitation for these similarities. PMID:27158747

  3. Molecular controls on Cu and Zn isotopic fractionation in Fe-Mn crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, S. H.; Sherman, D. M.; Vance, D.; Hein, J. R.

    2014-06-01

    The isotopic systems of the transition metals are increasingly being developed as oceanic tracers, due to their tendency to be fractionated by biological and/or redox-related processes. However, for many of these promising isotope systems the molecular level controls on their isotopic fractionations are only just beginning to be explored. Here we investigate the relative roles of abiotic and biotic fractionation processes in controlling modern seawater Cu and Zn isotopic compositions. Scavenging to Fe-Mn oxides represents the principal output for Cu and Zn to sediments deposited under normal marine (oxic) conditions. Using Fe-Mn crusts as an analogue for these dispersed phases, we investigate the phase association and crystal chemistry of Cu and Zn in such sediments. We present the results of an EXAFS study that demonstrate unequivocally that Cu and Zn are predominantly associated with the birnessite (δ-MnO2) phase in Fe-Mn crusts, as previously predicted from sequential leaching experiments (e.g., Koschinsky and Hein, 2003). The crystal chemistry of Cu and Zn in the crusts implies a reduction in coordination number in the sorbed phase relative to the free metal ion in seawater. Thus, theory would predict equilibrium fractionations that enrich the heavy isotope in the sorbed phase (e.g., Schauble, 2004). In natural samples, Fe-Mn crusts and nodules are indeed isotopically heavy in Zn isotopes (at ∼1‰) compared to deep seawater (at ∼0.5‰), consistent with the predicted direction of equilibrium isotopic fractionation based on our observations of the coordination environment of sorbed Zn. Further, ∼50% of inorganic Zn‧ is chloro-complexed (the other ∼50% is present as the free Zn2+ ion), and complexation by Cl- is also predicted to favour equilibrium partitioning of light Zn isotopes into the dissolved phase. The heavy Zn isotopic composition of Fe-Mn crusts and nodules relative to seawater can therefore be explained by an inorganic fractionation during

  4. Investigation of new type Cu-Hf-Al bulk glassy alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, E.; Rontó, V.; Sólyom, J.; Roósz, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the last years new type Cu-Hf-Al ternary alloys were developed with high glass forming ability and ductility. The addition of Al to Cu-Hf alloys results in improvements in glass formation, thermal stability and mechanical properties of these alloys. We have investigated new Cu-based bulk amorphous alloys in Cu-Hf-Al ternary system. The alloys with Cu49Hf42Al9, Cu46Hf45Al9, Cu50Hf42.5Al7.5 and Cu50Hf45Al5 compositions were prepared by arc melting. The samples were made by centrifugal casting and were investigated by X-ray diffraction method. Thermodynamic properties were examined by differential scanning calorimetry and the structure of the crystallising phases by scanning electron microscopy. The determination of liquidus temperatures of alloys were measured by differential thermal analysis.

  5. Experimental study of thermal oxidation of nanoscale alloys of aluminium and zinc (nAlZn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, Fahad; Wen, Dongsheng

    2015-10-01

    Aluminium-based alloys have wide applications but little is known about the thermal-chemical kinetics of nanoalloys. This work investigated the thermal oxidation of Zn and Al nanoalloys (nAlZn) with a BET equivalent diameter of 141 nm through the simultaneous TGA/DSC method. The thermal analysis was combined with elemental, morphology and crystalline structure analysis to elucidate the reaction mechanisms. It was found that the complete oxidation of nAlZn in air can be characterised by a three-stage process, including two endothermic and three exothermic reactions. With the help of ex-situ XRD, different reaction pathways were proposed for different stages, forming the end products of ZnO and ZnAl2O4. The reactivity comparison between Al and nAlZn suggested that different criteria should be used for different applications.

  6. Indium Helps Strengthen Al/Cu/Li Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Linda B.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments on Al/Cu/Li alloys focus specifically on strengthening effects of minor additions of In and Cd. Indium-bearing alloy combines low density with ability to achieve high strength through heat treatment alone. Tensile tests on peak-aged specimens indicated that alloy achieved yield strength approximately 15 percent higher than baseline alloy. Alloy highly suitable for processing to produce parts of nearly net shape, with particular applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles.

  7. Viscous and acoustic properties of AlCu melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusnutdinoff, R. M.; Mokshin, A. V.; Menshikova, S. G.; Beltyukov, A. L.; Ladyanov, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    The atomic dynamics of the binary Al100- x Cu x system is simulated at a temperature T = 973 K, a pressure p = 1.0 bar, and various copper concentrations x. These conditions (temperature, pressure) make it possible to cover the equilibrium liquid Al100- x Cu x phase at copper concentrations 0 ≤ x ≤ 40% and the supercooled melt in the concentration range 40% ≤ x ≤ 100%. The calculated spectral densities of the time correlation functions of the longitudinal {tilde C_L}( k, ω) and transverse {tilde C_T}( k, ω) currents in the Al100- x Cu x melt at a temperature T = 973 K reveal propagating collective excitations of longitudinal and transverse polarizations in a wide wavenumber range. It is shown that the maximum sound velocity in the v L ( x) concentration dependence takes place for the equilibrium melt at an atomic copper concentration x = 10 ± 5%, whereas the supercooled Al100- x Cu x melt saturated with copper atoms ( x ≥ 40%) is characterized by the minimum sound velocity. In the case of the supercooled melt, the concentration dependence of the kinematic viscosity ν( x) is found to be interpolated by a linear dependence, and a deviation from the linear dependence is observed in the case of equilibrium melt at x < 40%. An insignificant shoulder in the ν( x) dependence is observed at low copper concentrations ( x < 20%), and it is supported by the experimental data. This shoulder is caused by the specific features in the concentration dependence of the density ρ( x).

  8. Article expression, purification, and characterization of Cu/ZnSOD from Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dayong; Liu, Shichao; Wang, Kai; Huang, Lihong; Zhao, Jisheng

    2014-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) has a strong antioxidant effect, but the traditional SOD extraction method is not the most efficient method of SOD amplification. In this study, we report the cloning of the Cu/ZnSOD gene from Panax ginseng into a temperature-regulated expression plasmid, pBV220. Cu/ZnSOD inclusion bodies were expressed in E. coli at a high level. Then, the inclusion bodies were purified by ion-exchange chromatography and molecular sieve chromatography. Finally, we obtained stable SOD in the bacterial broth, with a protein content of 965 mg/L and enzyme specific activity of 9389.96 U/mg. These results provide a foundation for future studies on the antioxidant mechanisms of ginseng and the development and application of ginseng Cu/ZnSOD. PMID:24936711

  9. The band gap of Cu2ZnSnSe4: Effect of order-disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, G.; Redinger, A.; Sendler, J.; Weiss, T. P.; Thevenin, M.; Guennou, M.; El Adib, B.; Siebentritt, S.

    2014-09-01

    The order-disorder transition in kesterite Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe), an interesting material for solar cell, has been investigated by spectrophotometry, photoluminescence (PL), and Raman spectroscopy. Like Cu2ZnSnS4, CZTSe is prone to disorder by Cu-Zn exchanges depending on temperature. Absorption measurements have been used to monitor the changes in band gap energy (Eg) of solar cell grade thin films as a function of the annealing temperature. We show that ordering can increase Eg by 110 meV as compared to fully disordered material. Kinetics simulations show that Eg can be used as an order parameter and the critical temperature for the CZTSe order-disorder transition is 200 ± 20 °C. On the one hand, ordering was found to increase the correlation length of the crystal. But on the other hand, except the change in Eg, ordering did not influence the PL signal of the CZTSe.

  10. In Vitro Evaluation of Cu, Fe, and Zn Bioaccessibility in the Presence of Babassu Mesocarp.

    PubMed

    Fioroto, Alexandre Minami; Nascimento, Angerson Nogueria; Oliveira, Pedro Vitoriano

    2015-07-22

    In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of babassu mesocarp in the absence and presence of milk and lignin was performed to evaluate the bioaccessibility of Cu, Fe, and Zn. Extractions using NaOH solutions (pH 7 and 12) were carried out to evaluate the interactions of Cu(II), Fe(III), and Zn(II) with the extracted compounds and with the washed mesocarp. Studies using reference solutions showed a decrease in the free concentration of the elements in the presence of mesocarp. Phytate, a component present in the mesocarp, can be the main compound responsible for the elements' interactions with mesocarp. Lignin increases the elements' soluble fractions; however, the elements' concentrations in the dialyzed fractions, representing the bioaccessible portion, were very low. On the other hand, Cu, Fe, and Zn bioaccessibility in milk was not influenced by the mesocarp. PMID:26134249

  11. Transmittance Spectra of Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnar, I. V.; Telesh, E. V.; Gurieva, G.; Schorr, S.

    2015-10-01

    Thin films of the quaternary compound semiconductor Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) were produced by ion beam sputtering at substrate temperatures of 323 K, 423 K, and 573 K. The chemical and structural properties of the thin films were studied by electron microprobe analysis and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. It was shown that, similarly to the corresponding crystals, the main phase in the thin films was Cu2ZnSnS4 with a tetragonal lattice and the space group . The transmittance spectra near the fundamental absorption edge were used to establish the energies and nature of optical transitions. The energies of crystal-field splitting (Δcr) and spin-orbit splitting (Δso) of the valence band of the Cu2ZnSnS4 quaternary compound were calculated on the basis of the Hopfield quasi-cubic model.

  12. Cu and Zn uptake by Halimione portulacoides (L. ) Aellen. A long-term accumulation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Reboredo, F. )

    1991-03-01

    Coastal areas and plant species colonizing salt-marshes are often exposed to a large diversity of pollutants, with emphasis on heavy metals. The important role of marsh vegetation in the accumulation of metals has been shown. Halimione portulacoides is one of the most representative halophytes of the salt-marshes of the river Sado estuary. In order to study the uptake and pattern of accumulation of Cu and Zn by the roots, stems and leaves of Halimione, plants were cultivated in vitro and treated daily with solutions containing 5, 25 and 50ppm Cu (as CuCl{sub 2}) and 50, 100 and 150ppm Zn (as ZnCl{sub 2}).

  13. Purification and partial characterization of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase from Kluyveromyces marxianus yeast.

    PubMed

    Nedeva, Trayana; Dolashka-Angelova, Pavlina; Moshtanska, Vesela; Voelter, Wolfgang; Petrova, Ventzislava; Kujumdzieva, Anna

    2009-11-01

    A new thermostable Cu/Zn SOD from a thermotolerant yeast strain Kluyveromyces marxianus NBIMCC 1984 has been purified and characterized. The purification procedure comprises thermal treatment and dialysis, ion-exchange chromatography and chromatofocusing. The methodology is a rapid, efficient and highly specific, generating pure preparation (specific activity 996 U mg of protein(-1)) with a yield of 53%. The purified enzyme is a homodimer with Mw of 34,034 Da and has high N-terminal homology with other yeasts' Cu/Zn SOD enzymes. The protein is characterized with some unique features such as-thermostability (t(1/2) at 70 degrees C=30 min), pH stability in the alkaline range (7.5-8.5) and resistance to inhibitors and variety of chemicals. These characteristics reveal possibilities for wide practical application of K. marxianus Cu/Zn SOD enzyme. PMID:19758847

  14. Synthesis of methanol and dimethyl ether from syngas over Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Lebarbier, Vanessa M.; Dagle, Robert A.; Kovarik, Libor; Lizarazo-Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    A Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was developed for the synthesis of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas. Studied were temperatures of operation ranging from 250°C to 380°C. High temperatures (e.g. 380°C) are necessary when combining methanol and DME synthesis with a methanol to gasoline (MTG) process in a single reactor bed. A commercial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst, utilized industrially for the synthesis of methanol at 220-280°C, suffers from a rapid deactivation when the reaction is conducted at high temperature (>320°C). On the contrary, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be highly stable for methanol and DME synthesis at 380°C. The Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was thus further investigated for methanol and DME synthesis at P=34-69 bars, T= 250-380°C, GHSV= 5 000-18 000 h-1, and molar feeds H2/CO= 1, 2, and 3. Selectivity to DME increased with decreasing operating temperature, and increasing operating pressure. Increased GHSV’s and H2/CO syngas feed ratios also enhanced DME selectivity. Undesirable CH4 formation was observed, however, can be minimized through choice of process conditions and by catalyst design. By studying the effect of the Pd loading and the Pd:Zn molar ratio the formulation of the Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was optimized. A catalyst with 5% Pd and a Pd:Zn molar ratio of 0.25:1 has been identified as the preferred catalyst. Results indicate that PdZn particles are more active than Pdº particles for the synthesis of methanol and less active for CH4 formation. A correlation between DME selectivity and the concentration of acid sites of the catalysts has been established. Hence, two types of sites are required for the direct conversion of syngas to DME: 1) PdZn particles are active for the synthesis of methanol from syngas, and 2) acid sites which are active for the conversion of methanol to DME. Additionally, CO2 formation was problematic as PdZn was found to be active for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction, under all the conditions evaluated.

  15. Bioavailability of sediment-associated Cu and Zn to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Gillis, P L; Wood, C M; Ranville, J F; Chow-Fraser, P

    2006-05-25

    Exposures to mining-impacted, field-collected sediment (Clear Creek, CO, USA) contaminated with Cu (2.4 mg/g) and Zn (5.2 mg/g) were acutely toxic to juvenile Daphnia magna. Dissolved Cu and Zn in the overlying water (sediment+reference water) were at levels that could cause acute toxicity. To reduce dissolved metals below toxic levels, the sediment was repeatedly rinsed to remove any easily mobilized metals. Washing the sediment reduced dissolved Cu by 60% and Zn by 80%. D. magna exposed to washed sediment experienced higher survival (95%) compared to those exposed to the original sediment (<50%). Cu and Zn that remained associated with suspended sediment after washing were not bioavailable, since survival and tissue metal concentrations in D. magna exposed to both filtered (>0.45 microm) and unfiltered overlying water were statistically similar. Multiple regression analysis indicated that only dissolved Cu significantly contributed to mortality of D. magna whereas particulate Cu, particulate Zn, and dissolved Zn did not. Regression analysis on a combined dataset from all Clear Creek exposures (washed and unwashed), revealed a significant (p < 0.0001, r(2) = 0.76) relationship between the concentration of dissolved copper in the overlying water and the mortality of exposed Daphnia, yielding an estimated LC50 of 26 microg/L dissolved copper (hardness approximately 140 mg/L). The results of this study indicate that if the sediment of Clear Creek was subjected to a resuspension event that there would be a significant efflux of metals from the sediment into the water column, resulting in potentially toxic levels in the water column. PMID:16488492

  16. Molecular Cloning and Expression of Cu/Zn-Containing Superoxide Dismutase from Fasciola hepatica

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tong-Soo; Jung, Younghun; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Kim, Ki-Sun; Chung, Pyung-Rim

    2000-01-01

    The cytosolic superoxide dismutase (SOD) of Fasciola hepatica, a causative agent of fascioliasis, was purified and characterized. The enzyme consists of two identical subunits, each with an apparent molecular mass of 17.5 kDa. An analysis of the enzyme's primary structure and inhibition studies revealed that the enzyme is a copper/zinc-containing SOD (Cu/Zn-SOD). The enzyme activity was relatively stable in a broad pH range, from pH 7.0 to 10.0, and the enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 7.5. This enzyme also displayed strong antigenicity against sera of bovine and human subjects with fascioliasis. The SOD gene fragment was amplified by PCR with degenerate oligonucleotide primers derived from amino acid sequences conserved in the Cu/Zn-SODs of other organisms. An F. hepatica cDNA library was screened with the SOD gene fragment as a probe. As a result, a complete gene encoding the Cu/Zn-SOD was identified, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The gene had an open reading frame of 438 bp and 146 deduced amino acids. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme with previously reported Cu/Zn-SOD amino acid sequences revealed considerably high homologies. The coding region of the F. hepatica Cu/Zn-SOD was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Staining of native polyacrylamide gel for SOD activity of the expressed protein revealed SOD activity that was inactivated by potassium cyanide and hydrogen peroxide but not by sodium azide. This means that the presence of the recombinant fusion protein is indicative of Cu/Zn-SOD. The expressed protein also reacted with sera of bovine and human subjects with fascioliasis, but it did not react with sera of uninfected bovine and human subjects. PMID:10858207

  17. Chemical behavior of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in a eutrophic reservoir: speciation and complexation capacity.

    PubMed

    Tonietto, Alessandra Emanuele; Lombardi, Ana Teresa; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; Vieira, Armando Augusto Henriques

    2015-10-01

    This research aimed at evaluating cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) speciation in water samples as well as determining water quality parameters (alkalinity, chlorophyll a, chloride, conductivity, dissolved organic carbon, dissolved oxygen, inorganic carbon, nitrate, pH, total suspended solids, and water temperature) in a eutrophic reservoir. This was performed through calculation of free metal ions using the chemical equilibrium software MINEQL+ 4.61, determination of labile, dissolved, and total metal concentrations via differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, and determination of complexed metal by the difference between the total concentration of dissolved and labile metal. Additionally, ligand complexation capacities (CC), such as the strength of the association of metals-ligands (logK'ML) and ligand concentrations (C L) were calculated via Ruzic's linearization method. Water samples were taken in winter and summer, and the results showed that for total and dissolved metals, Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd concentration. In general, higher concentrations of Cu and Zn remained complexed with the dissolved fraction, while Pb was mostly complexed with particulate materials. Chemical equilibrium modeling (MINEQL+) showed that Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) dominated the labile species, while Cu and Pb were complexed with carbonates. Zinc was a unique metal for which a direct relation between dissolved species with labile and complexed forms was obtained. The CC for ligands indicated a higher C L for Cu, followed by Pb, Zn, and Cd in decreasing amounts. Nevertheless, the strength of the association of all metals and their respective ligands was similar. Factor analysis with principal component analysis as the extraction procedure confirmed seasonal effects on water quality parameters and metal speciation. Total, dissolved, and complexed Cu and total, dissolved, complexed, and labile Pb species were all higher in winter, whereas in summer, Zn was mostly present in the

  18. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structure of a 1D thiocyanato bridged [Cu(en)2Zn(NCS)4]ṡH2O. Comparison of the three structures with the same [Cu(en)2Zn(NCS)4] unit - different in structural terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrzeszcz, Grzegorz; Muzioł, Tadeusz M.; Tereba, Natalia

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we report the synthesis method and the structure of a one-dimensional thiocyanato bridged heterometallic compound, [Cu(en)2Zn(NCS)4]ṡH2O (1). Moreover, we compare the structure of (1) with the previously described structures of [Cu(en)2Zn(NCS)4]ṡ0.5H2O (2) and [Cu(en)2Zn(NCS)4]ṡCH3CN (3) Pryma et al. (2003) [7]. The compound (1) has been characterized by thermal decomposition, IR, Vis and EPR spectra, and magnetic studies. Structure has been determined by X-ray analysis. Described coordination polymer crystallizes in the orthorhombic Cmcm space group with a = 12.414(2), b = 10.3276(14), c = 14.967(2) Å, α = β = γ = 90°, V = 1918.8(5) Å3 and Z = 4. Each distorted tetrahedral zinc(II) centre (with N-bonded NCS-) links two tetragonally distorted octahedral copper(II) centres by two end-to-end thiocyanato bridges and vice versa forming a zigzag type of CuZn chain. The structures of (1), (2) and (3) differ in crystallographic system, space group and/or CuZn chain type as well as in details. Variable temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements show very weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the paramagnetic copper(II) ions for compound (1).

  19. Posttranslational Modifications in Cu,Zn-Superoxide Dismutase and Mutations Associated with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    FURUKAWA, YOSHIAKI

    2006-01-01

    Activation of the enzyme Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) involves several posttranslational modifications including copper and zinc binding, as well as formation of the intramolecular disulfide bond. The copper chaperone for SOD1, CCS, is responsible for intracellular copper loading in SOD1 under most physiological conditions. Recent in vitro and in vivo assays reveal that CCS not only delivers copper to SOD1 under stringent copper limitation, but it also facilitates the stepwise conversion of the disulfide-reduced immature SOD1 to the active disulfide-containing enzyme. The two new functions attributed to CCS, (i.e., O2-dependent sulfhydryl oxidase- and disulfide isomerase-like activities) indicate that this protein has attributes of the larger class of molecular chaperones. The CCS-dependent activation of SOD1 is dependent upon oxygen availability, suggesting that the cell only loads copper and activates this enzyme when O2-based oxidative stress is present. Thiol/disulfide status as well as metallation state of SOD1 significantly affects its structure and protein aggregation, which are relevant in pathologies of a neurodegenerative disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The authors review here a mechanism for posttranslational activation of SOD1 and discuss models for ALS in which the most immature forms of the SOD1 polypeptide exhibits propensity to form toxic aggregates. PMID:16771675

  20. Zn and Cu isotopes as tracers of anthropogenic contamination in a sediment core from an Urban Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thapalia, A.; Borrok, D.M.; Van Metre, P.C.; Musgrove, M.; Landa, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we use stable Zn and Cu isotopes to identify the sources and timing of the deposition of these metals in a sediment core from Lake Ballinger near Seattle, Washington, USA. The base of the Lake Ballinger core predates settlement in the region, while the upper sections record the effects of atmospheric emissions from a nearby smelter and rapid urbanization of the watershed. ??66Zn and ??65Cu varied by 0.50% and 0.29%, respectively, over the 500 year core record. Isotopic changes were correlated with the presmelter period (~1450 to 1900 with ??66Zn = +0.39% ?? 0.09% and ??65Cu = +0.77% ?? 0.06%), period of smelter operation (1900 to 1985 with ??66Zn = +0.14 ?? 0.06% and ??65Cu = +0.94 ?? 0.10%), and postsmelting/stable urban land use period (post 1985 with ??66Zn = 0.00 ?? 0.10% and ??65Cu = +0.82% ?? 0.12%). Rapid early urbanization during the post World War II era increased metal loading to the lake but did not significantly alter the ??66Zn and ??65Cu, suggesting that increased metal loads during this time were derived mainly from mobilization of historically contaminated soils. Urban sources of Cu and Zn were dominant since the smelter closed in the 1980s, and the (??66Zn measured in tire samples suggests tire wear is a likely source of Zn. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  1. Unexpected observation of splitting of skyrmion phase in Zn doped Cu2OSeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hung-Duen; Wu, Hung-Cheng; Chandrasekhar, Kakala-Devi; Wei, Tien-Yu; Chen, Ta-Ye; Berger, Helmuth

    Polycrystalline (Cu1-xZnx)2 OSeO3 (0 <= x <= 0.2) samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The effect of Zn doping upon saturation magnetization (MS) indicates that the Zn favors to occupying Cu(II) square pyramid crystallographic site. The Zn doping concentration is found to greatly affect the M- T and χ'ac - T. The skyrmion phase has been inferred from the χ'ac -H data, and then indicated within the H- T phase diagrams for various Zn doping concentrations. The striking and unexpected observation is that the skyrmion phase region becomes split upon Zn doping concentration. Interestingly, second conical boundary accompanied by second skyrmion phase was also observed from d χ'ac /dH vs. H curves. Atomic site disorder created by the chemical doping modulates the delicate magnetic interactions via changes in the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) vector of distorted Cu(II) square pyramid, thereby splitting of skyrmion phase might occurred. These findings illustrate the potential of using chemical and atomic modification for tuning the temperature and field dependence of skyrmion phase of Cu2OSeO3.

  2. Investigations on structural, vibrational and dielectric properties of nanosized Cu doped Mg-Zn ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Anand; Rajpoot, Rambabu; Dar, M. A.; Varshney, Dinesh

    2016-05-01

    Transition metal Cu2+ doped Mg-Zn ferrite [Mg0.5Zn0.5-xCuxFe2O4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5)] were prepared by sol gel auto combustion (SGAC) method to probe the structural, vibrational and electrical properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern reveals a single-phase cubic spinel structure without the presence of any secondary phase corresponding to other structure. The average particle size of the parent Mg0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 is found to be ~29.8 nm and is found to increase with Cu2+ doping. Progressive reduction in lattice parameter of Mg0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 has been observed due to difference in ionic radii of cations with improved Cu doping. Spinel cubic structure is further confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Small shift in Raman modes towards higher wave number has been observed in doped Mg-Zn ferrites. The permittivity and dielectric loss decreases at lower doping and increases at higher order doping of Cu2+.

  3. Unexpected observation of splitting of skyrmion phase in Zn doped Cu2OSeO3

    PubMed Central

    Wu, H. C.; Wei, T. Y.; Chandrasekhar, K. D.; Chen, T. Y.; Berger, H.; Yang, H. D.

    2015-01-01

    Polycrystalline (Cu1−xZnx)2OSeO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) samples were synthesized using solid-state reaction and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of Zn doping upon saturation magnetization (MS) indicates that the Zn favors to occupying Cu(II) square pyramidal crystallographic site. The AC susceptibility (χ′ac) was measured at various temperatures (χ′ac–T) and magnetic field strengths (χ′ac–H). The Zn doping concentration is found to affect greatly the M-T and χ′ac-T. The skyrmion phase has been inferred from the χ′ac-H data, and then indicated within the H-T phase diagrams for various Zn doping concentrations. The striking and unexpected observation is that the skyrmion phase region becomes split upon Zn doping concentration. Interestingly, second conical boundary accompanied by second skyrmion phase was also observed from dχ′ac/dH vs. H curves. Atomic site disorder created by the chemical doping modulates the delicate magnetic interactions via change in the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) vector of distorted Cu(II) square pyramidal, thereby splitting of skyrmion phase might occur. These findings illustrate the potential of using chemical and atomic modification for tuning the temperature and field dependence of skyrmion phase of Cu2OSeO3. PMID:26350508

  4. Structural, electronic and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnO: experimental and theoretical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horzum, S.; Torun, E.; Serin, T.; Peeters, F. M.

    2016-06-01

    Experiments are supplemented with ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations in order to investigate how the structural, electronic and optical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films are modified upon Cu doping. Changes in characteristic properties of doped thin films, that are deposited on a glass substrate by sol-gel dip coating technique, are monitored using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV measurements. Our ab initio calculations show that the electronic structure of ZnO can be well described by DFT+U/? method and we find that Cu atom substitutional doping in ZnO is the most favourable case. Our XRD measurements reveal that the crystallite size of the films decrease with increasing Cu doping. Moreover, we determine the optical constants such as refractive index, extinction coefficient, optical dielectric function and optical energy band gap values of the films by means of UV-Vis transmittance spectra. The optical band gap of ZnO the thin film linearly decreases from 3.25 to 3.20 eV at 5% doping. In addition, our calculations reveal that the electronic defect states that stem from Cu atoms are not optically active and the optical band gap is determined by the ZnO band edges. Experimentally observed structural and optical results are in good agreement with our theoretical results.

  5. Unexpected observation of splitting of skyrmion phase in Zn doped Cu2OSeO3.

    PubMed

    Wu, H C; Wei, T Y; Chandrasekhar, K D; Chen, T Y; Berger, H; Yang, H D

    2015-01-01

    Polycrystalline (Cu1-xZnx)2OSeO3 (0≤x≤0.2) samples were synthesized using solid-state reaction and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of Zn doping upon saturation magnetization (MS) indicates that the Zn favors to occupying Cu(II) square pyramidal crystallographic site. The AC susceptibility (χ'ac) was measured at various temperatures (χ'ac-T) and magnetic field strengths (χ'ac-H). The Zn doping concentration is found to affect greatly the M-T and χ'ac-T. The skyrmion phase has been inferred from the χ'ac-H data, and then indicated within the H-T phase diagrams for various Zn doping concentrations. The striking and unexpected observation is that the skyrmion phase region becomes split upon Zn doping concentration. Interestingly, second conical boundary accompanied by second skyrmion phase was also observed from dχ'ac/dH vs. H curves. Atomic site disorder created by the chemical doping modulates the delicate magnetic interactions via change in the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) vector of distorted Cu(II) square pyramidal, thereby splitting of skyrmion phase might occur. These findings illustrate the potential of using chemical and atomic modification for tuning the temperature and field dependence of skyrmion phase of Cu2OSeO3. PMID:26350508

  6. Fabrication and photoresponse of ZnO nanowires/CuO coaxial heterojunction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The fabrication and properties of n-ZnO nanowires/p-CuO coaxial heterojunction (CH) with a photoresist (PR) blocking layer are reported. In our study, c-plane wurtzite ZnO nanowires were grown by aqueous chemical method, and monoclinic CuO (111) was then coated on the ZnO nanowires by electrochemical deposition to form CH. To improve the device performance, a PR layer was inserted between the ZnO buffer layer and the CuO film to serve as a blocking layer to block the leakage current. Structural investigations of the CH indicate that the sample has good crystalline quality. It was found that our refined structure possesses a better rectifying ratio and smaller reverse leakage current. As there is a large on/off ratio between light on and off and the major light response is centered at around 424 nm, the experimental results suggest that the PR-inserted ZnO/CuO CH can be used as a good narrow-band blue light detector. PMID:24044381

  7. Microscopy and microanalysis of complex nanosized strengthening precipitates in new generation commercial Al-Cu-Li alloys.

    PubMed

    Guinel, M J-F; Brodusch, N; Sha, G; Shandiz, M A; Demers, H; Trudeau, M; Ringer, S P; Gauvin, R

    2014-09-01

    Precipitates (ppts) in new generation aluminum-lithium alloys (AA2099 and AA2199) were characterised using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. Results obtained on the following ppts are reported: Guinier-Preston zones, T1 (Al2 CuLi), β' (Al3 Zr) and δ' (Al3 Li). The focus was placed on their composition and the presence of minor elements. X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry in the electron microscopes and mass spectrometry in the atom probe microscope showed that T1 ppts were enriched in zinc (Zn) and magnesium up to about 1.9 and 3.5 at.%, respectively. A concentration of 2.5 at.% Zn in the δ' ppts was also measured. Unlike Li and copper, Zn in the T1 ppts could not be detected using electron energy-loss spectroscopy in the transmission electron microscope because of its too low concentration and the small sizes of these ppts. Indeed, Monte Carlo simulations of EEL spectra for the Zn L2,3 edge showed that the signal-to-noise ratio was not high enough and that the detection limit was at least 2.5 at.%, depending on the probe current. Also, the simulation of X-ray spectra confirmed that the detection limit was exceeded for the Zn Kα X-ray line because the signal-to-noise ratio was high enough in that case, which is in agreement with our observations. PMID:24894808

  8. Field application of selective precipitation for recovering Cu and Zn in drainage discharged from an operating mine.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chamteut; Han, Young-Soo; Park, Jin Hee; Bok, Songmin; Cheong, Youngwook; Yim, Giljae; Ji, Sangwoo

    2016-07-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) generated from mining activities has been recognized as a serious problem due to its increased acidity and high concentration of heavy metals. In this research, a feasibility test of the selective precipitation (SP) process was performed using AMD discharged from a currently operating mine in Korea for the purpose of minimizing the environmental impact of AMD. For the SP process, a pilot scale equipment (100L reaction tank) was used in field and among various metals, Cu and Zn were the target metals. Through the research, it was confirmed that AMD from an operating mine has two disadvantages of being applied to the SP: altering water quality and unexpected inclusion of clay debris. Despite unfavorable conditions, Cu and Zn precipitate of 80% purity with 90% precipitation rate was able to be obtained from 1.4L/min (2.0tons/day) AMD. The recovered precipitates were identified as amorphous CuS and ZnS with small amounts of impurities (Si minerals, CuFeS2, and Fe/Al hydroxide). The strategies to reduce these impurities were also discussed. Recovery rate, which is the amount of precipitate collected per unit volume of AMD, was proposed as an indicator to evaluate the working efficiency of the SP process. It was confirmed that the recovery rate was strongly dependent on flow rate and dose of coagulant. The results of this study may be helpful in reducing the potential complications which occurs when SP is applied on field. PMID:26994808

  9. Regulation of Cu,Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Galiazzo, F; Labbe-Bois, R

    1993-01-01

    The regulation of Cu,Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutases (SOD) was investigated by Northern blotting and gene fusions of SOD1 and SOD2 promoters with the beta-galactosidase reporter gene. Cu,ZnSOD expression was increased 3-fold under glucose derepressing conditions, and decreased 4- to 6-fold by oxygen or heme deficiency. MnSOD expression was increased 5-fold by glucose derepression, and decreased 8- to 10-fold by anaerobiosis and 4- to 5-fold by heme deficiency. Induction by paraquat was modest, about 50% for SOD1 and 100% for SOD2; it was apparently independent of the respiratory chain function. PMID:8417979

  10. Microstructures and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnO films prepared by radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ligang; Ma, Shuyi; Chen, Haixia; Ai, Xiaoqian; Huang, Xinli

    2011-09-01

    Pure and Cu-doped ZnO (ZnO:Cu) thin films were deposited on glass substrates using radio frequency (RF) reactive magnetron sputtering. The effect of substrate temperature on the crystallization behavior and optical properties of the ZnO:Cu films have been studied. The crystal structures, surface morphology and optical properties of the films were systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. The results indicated that ZnO films showed a stronger preferred orientation toward the c-axis and a more uniform grain size after Cu-doping. As for ZnO:Cu films, the full width at half maxima (FWHM) of (0 0 2) diffraction peaks decreased first and then increased, reaching a minimum of about 0.42° at 350 °C and the compressive stress of ZnO:Cu decreased gradually with the increase of substrate temperature. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra measured at room temperature revealed two blue and two green emissions. Intense blue-green luminescence was obtained from the sample deposited at higher substrate temperature. Finally, we discussed the influence of annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties of ZnO:Cu films. The quality of ZnO:Cu film was markedly improved and the intensity of blue peak (∼485 nm) and green peak (∼527 nm) increased noticeably after annealing. The origin of these emissions was discussed.

  11. Fabrication of Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1 - x)4 solar cells by ethanol-ammonium solution process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Cong; Li, Jianmin; Wang, Yaguang; Jiang, Guoshun; Weifeng, Liu; Zhu, Changfei

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1 - x)4 precursor films were produced by doctor blade process from SnS-Cu2O-ZnS slurry. To prepare the slurry, SnS, ZnS and Cu2O precipitates, which are outgrowths of stacked layer ZnS/Cu/SnS by CBD (chemical bath deposition)-annealing route, were dissolved in the mixture solvent of ethanol and NH3·H2O. Synthesized precursor films were then annealed at different conditions. The post-annealed films were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman measurements and UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. SEM studies reveal that the rough and relatively compact absorber thin films are obtained via the sulfidation and sulfidation-selenization processes. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrum results verify that the obtained films are composed of Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 phases, which have high absorbance in visible range and direct band gap energy of 1.01-1.47 eV. The best devices yield total area power conversion efficiency of 1.99% and 2.95% corresponding to Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1 - x)4 thin film solar cells under AM1.5 illumination without any anti-reflection layer.

  12. Cu(II) and Zn(II) adsorption capacity of three different clay liner materials.

    PubMed

    Musso, T B; Parolo, M E; Pettinari, G; Francisca, F M

    2014-12-15

    Sorption of Cu(II) and Zn(II) on three natural clays meeting the international requirements for use as liners was evaluated by means of batch tests. The purpose of this research was to determine the retention capacities of the clays for metal cations commonly present in urban solid waste leachates. The pH and ionic strength conditions were set at values frequently found in real leachates. The changes observed in the XRD patterns and FTIR spectra upon adsorption can be considered an evidence of clay-metal electrostatic interaction. The Langmuir model was found to best describe the sorption processes, offering maximum sorption capacities from 8.16 to 56.89 mg/g for Cu(II) and from 49.59 to 103.83 mg/g for Zn(II). All samples remove more Zn(II) than Cu(II), which may be related to the different geometry of the hydrated Cu(II) cation. The total amount of metal sorption was strongly influenced by the total specific surface area, the presence of carbonates and the smectite content of the clays. In addition to their known quality as physical barriers, the adsorbed amounts obtained indicate the suitability of the tested clays to contribute to the retardation of Cu(II) and Zn(II) transport through clay liners. PMID:25156265

  13. A Comparable Study on Structural and Optical Properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 Nanocrystallines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xiuquan; Zhang, Shuang; Zhao, Yulong; Zhu, Lei; Qiang, Yinghuai

    2014-10-01

    In this study, single-kesterite-phase Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) nanocrystallines have been synthesized by a simple solvothermal route. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorbance and Raman scattering spectroscopy were used to characterize the optical and micro-structure properties of the as-synthesized samples. The bandgap of CZTS could be tuned in a large range by incorporating a few Se atoms. Both the CZTS and CZTSe exhibited the similar temperature dependence of the Raman "A" modes, including a monotonic redshift in peak position and an irregular variation in peak linewidth. Such a behavior might be due to the cumulative effect of thermal expansion and small crystalline sizes.

  14. Solution-Processed Cu2ZnSn(S,Se) 4 Thin-Film Solar Cells Using Elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, S, and Se Powders as Source.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Pei, Yingli; Zhou, Zhengji; Zhou, Wenhui; Kou, Dongxing; Wu, Sixin

    2015-12-01

    Solution-processed approach for the deposition of Cu2ZnSn (S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) absorbing layer offers a route for fabricating thin film solar cell that is appealing because of simplified and low-cost manufacturing, large-area coverage, and better compatibility with flexible substrates. In this work, we present a simple solution-based approach for simultaneously dissolving the low-cost elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, S, and Se powder, forming a homogeneous CZTSSe precursor solution in a short time. Dense and compact kesterite CZTSSe thin film with high crystallinity and uniform composition was obtained by selenizing the low-temperature annealed spin-coated precursor film. Standard CZTSSe thin film solar cell based on the selenized CZTSSe thin film was fabricated and an efficiency of 6.4 % was achieved. PMID:26293494

  15. Solution-Processed Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 Thin-Film Solar Cells Using Elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, S, and Se Powders as Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jing; Pei, Yingli; Zhou, Zhengji; Zhou, Wenhui; Kou, Dongxing; Wu, Sixin

    2015-08-01

    Solution-processed approach for the deposition of Cu2ZnSn (S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) absorbing layer offers a route for fabricating thin film solar cell that is appealing because of simplified and low-cost manufacturing, large-area coverage, and better compatibility with flexible substrates. In this work, we present a simple solution-based approach for simultaneously dissolving the low-cost elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, S, and Se powder, forming a homogeneous CZTSSe precursor solution in a short time. Dense and compact kesterite CZTSSe thin film with high crystallinity and uniform composition was obtained by selenizing the low-temperature annealed spin-coated precursor film. Standard CZTSSe thin film solar cell based on the selenized CZTSSe thin film was fabricated and an efficiency of 6.4 % was achieved.

  16. Ab initio investigation on hydrogen adsorption capability in Zn and Cu-based metal organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanuwijaya, V. V.; Hidayat, N. N.; Agusta, M. K.; Dipojono, H. K.

    2015-09-01

    One of the biggest challenge in material technology for hydrogen storage application is to increase hydrogen uptake in room temperature and pressure. As a class of highly porous material, Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOF) holds great potential with its tunable structure. However, little is known about the effect of metal cluster to its hydrogen storage capability. Investigation on this matter has been carried out carefully on small cluster of Zn and Cu-based MOF using first principles method. The calculation of two distinct building units of MOFs, namely octahedral and paddle-wheel models, have been done with B3LYP density functional method using 6-31G(d,p) and LANL2DZ basis sets. From geometry optimization of Zn-based MOF linked by benzene-dicarboxylate (MOF-5), it is found that hydrogen tends to keep distance from metal cluster group and stays above benzene ring. In the other hand, hydrogen molecule prefers to stay atop of the exposed Cu atom in Cu-based MOF system linked by the same linker group (Cu-bdc). Calculated hydrogen binding enthalpies for Zn and Cu octahedral cages at ZnO3 sites are 1.64kJ/mol and 2.73kJ/mol respectively, while hydrogen binding enthalpies for Zn and Cu paddle-wheel cages calculated on top of metal atoms are found to be at 6.05kJ/mol and 6.10kJ/mol respectively. Major difference between Zn-MOF-5 and Cu-bdc hydrogen uptake performance might be caused by unsaturated metal sites present in Cu-bdc system and the influence of their geometric structures, although a small difference on binding energy in the type of transition metal used is also observed. The comparison between Zn and Cu-based MOF may contribute to a comprehensive understanding of metal clusters and the importance of selecting best transition metal for design and synthesis of metal-organic frameworks.

  17. Ab initio investigation on hydrogen adsorption capability in Zn and Cu-based metal organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Tanuwijaya, V. V.; Hidayat, N. N. Agusta, M. K. Dipojono, H. K.

    2015-09-30

    One of the biggest challenge in material technology for hydrogen storage application is to increase hydrogen uptake in room temperature and pressure. As a class of highly porous material, Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOF) holds great potential with its tunable structure. However, little is known about the effect of metal cluster to its hydrogen storage capability. Investigation on this matter has been carried out carefully on small cluster of Zn and Cu-based MOF using first principles method. The calculation of two distinct building units of MOFs, namely octahedral and paddle-wheel models, have been done with B3LYP density functional method using 6-31G(d,p) and LANL2DZ basis sets. From geometry optimization of Zn-based MOF linked by benzene-dicarboxylate (MOF-5), it is found that hydrogen tends to keep distance from metal cluster group and stays above benzene ring. In the other hand, hydrogen molecule prefers to stay atop of the exposed Cu atom in Cu-based MOF system linked by the same linker group (Cu-bdc). Calculated hydrogen binding enthalpies for Zn and Cu octahedral cages at ZnO{sub 3} sites are 1.64kJ/mol and 2.73kJ/mol respectively, while hydrogen binding enthalpies for Zn and Cu paddle-wheel cages calculated on top of metal atoms are found to be at 6.05kJ/mol and 6.10kJ/mol respectively. Major difference between Zn-MOF-5 and Cu-bdc hydrogen uptake performance might be caused by unsaturated metal sites present in Cu-bdc system and the influence of their geometric structures, although a small difference on binding energy in the type of transition metal used is also observed. The comparison between Zn and Cu-based MOF may contribute to a comprehensive understanding of metal clusters and the importance of selecting best transition metal for design and synthesis of metal-organic frameworks.

  18. A series of M(II)Cu(II)3 stars (M = Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn) exhibiting unusual magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Suraj; Mandal, Shuvankar; Carrella, Luca; Jana, Arpita; Fleck, Michel; Köhn, Andreas; Rentschler, Eva; Mohanta, Sasankasekhar

    2015-01-01

    The work in this report describes the syntheses, electrospray ionization mass spectromtery, structures, and experimental and density functional theoretical (DFT) magnetic properties of four tetrametallic stars of composition [M(II)(Cu(II)L)3](ClO4)2 (1, M = Mn; 2, M = Ni; 3, M = Cu; 4, M = Zn) derived from a single-compartment Schiff base ligand, N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,4-butanediamine (H2L), which is the [2 + 1] condensation product of salicylaldehyde and 1,4-diaminobutane. The central metal ion (Mn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), or Zn(II)) is linked with two μ2-phenoxo bridges of each of the three [Cu(II)L] moieties, and thus the central metal ion is encapsulated in between three [Cu(II)L] units. The title compounds are rare or sole examples of stars having these metal-ion combinations. In the cases of 1, 3, and 4, the four metal ions form a centered isosceles triangle, while the four metal ions in 2 form a centered equilateral triangle. Both the variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility and variable-field magnetization (at 2-10 K) of 1-3 have been measured and simulated contemporaneously. While the Mn(II)Cu(II)3 compound 1 exhibits ferromagnetic interaction with J = 1.02 cm(-1), the Ni(II)Cu(II)3 compound 2 and Cu(II)Cu(II)3 compound 3 exhibit antiferromagnetic interaction with J = -3.53 and -35.5 cm(-1), respectively. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility data of the Zn(II)Cu(II)3 compound 4 indicate very weak antiferromagnetic interaction of -1.4 cm(-1), as expected. On the basis of known correlations, the magnetic properties of 1-3 are unusual; it seems that ferromagnetic interaction in 1 and weak/moderate antiferromagnetic interaction in 2 and 3 are possibly related to the distorted coordination environment of the peripheral copper(II) centers (intermediate between square-planar and tetrahedral). DFT calculations have been done to elucidate the magnetic properties. The DFT-computed J values are quantitatively (for 1) or qualitatively (for 2 and 3) matched

  19. HNO/NO Conversion Mechanisms of Cu-Based HNO Probes with Implications for Cu,Zn-SOD

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    HNO has broad biological effects and pharmacological activities. Direct HNO probes for in vivo applications were recently reported, which are CuII-based complexes having fluorescence reporters with reaction to HNO resulting in CuI systems and the release of NO. Their coordination environments are similar to that in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), which plays a significant role in cellular HNO/NO conversion. However, none of these conversion mechanisms are known. A quantum chemical investigation was performed here to provide structural, energetic, and electronic profiles of HNO/NO conversion pathways via the first CuII-based direct HNO probe. Results not only are consistent with experimental observations but also provide numerous structural and mechanistic details unknown before. Results also suggest the first HNO/NO conversion mechanism for Cu,Zn-SOD, as well as useful guidelines for future design of metal-based HNO probes. These results shall facilitate development of direct HNO probes and studies of HNO/NO conversions via metal complexes and metalloproteins. PMID:24803995

  20. A novel pyrazole biscoumarin based chemosensors for the selective detection of Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandasamy, Karthikeyan; Ganesabaskaran, Sivaprasad; Pachamuthu, Muthusamy Poomalai; Ramanathan, Anand

    2015-09-01

    A novel chemosensor based on pyrazole biscoumarin molecule "4-hydroxy-3-((4-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)methyl)-2H-chromen-2-one" (PBC) was synthesized by a simple method. The chemosensing properties of PBC towards transition metal ions like Cu2+ and Zn2+ by naked eye, UV-Visible and fluorescence spectroscopic methods were described. The PBC solution with Cu2+ and Zn2+ ion showed brown and blue colour respectively. The UV-Visible spectra of PBC with Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions exposed their corresponding absorption maxima. Further, the Job's plot method confirmed the 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometry of the complex formation between the PBC with Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions respectively. The fluorescence enhancement of PBC on binding with Cu2+ and Zn2+ is due to the inhibition of photo induced electron transfer mechanism.

  1. EXAFS analysis of a human Cu,Zn SOD isoform focused using non-denaturing gel electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevreux, Sylviane; Solari, Pier Lorenzo; Roudeau, Stéphane; Deves, Guillaume; Alliot, Isabelle; Testemale, Denis; Hazemann, Jean Louis; Ortega, Richard

    2009-11-01

    Isoelectric point isoforms of a metalloprotein, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), separated on electrophoresis gels were analyzed using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. Mutations of this protein are involved in familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The toxicity of mutants could be relied to defects in the metallation state. Our purpose is to establish analytical protocols to study metallation state of protein isoforms such as those from CuZnSOD. We previously highlighted differences in the copper oxidation state between CuZnSOD isoforms using XANES. Here, we present the first results for EXAFS analyses performed at Cu and Zn K-edge on the majoritary expressed isoform of human CuZnSOD separated on electrophoresis gels.

  2. Corrosion and runoff rates of Cu and three Cu-alloys in marine environments with increasing chloride deposition rate.

    PubMed

    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Zhang, Xian; Goidanich, Sara; Le Bozec, Nathalie; Herting, Gunilla; Leygraf, Christofer

    2014-02-15

    Bare copper sheet and three commercial Cu-based alloys, Cu15Zn, Cu4Sn and Cu5Al5Zn, have been exposed to four test sites in Brest, France, with strongly varying chloride deposition rates. The corrosion rates of all four materials decrease continuously with distance from the coast, i.e. with decreasing chloride load, and in the following order: Cu4Sn>Cu sheet>Cu15Zn>Cu5Al5Zn. The patina on all materials was composed of two main layers, Cu2O as the inner layer and Cu2(OH)3Cl as the outer layer, and with a discontinuous presence of CuCl in between. Additional minor patina constituents are SnO2 (Cu4Sn), Zn5(OH)6(CO3)2 (Cu15Zn and Cu5Al5Zn) and Zn6Al2(OH)16CO3·4H2O/Zn2Al(OH)6Cl·2H2O/Zn5Cl2(OH)8·H2O and Al2O3 (Cu5Al5Zn). The observed Zn- and Zn/Al-containing corrosion products might be important factors for the lower sensitivity of Cu15Zn and Cu5Al5Zn against chloride-induced atmospheric corrosion compared with Cu sheet and Cu4Sn. Decreasing corrosion rates with exposure time were observed for all materials and chloride loads and attributed to an improved adherence with time of the outer patina to the underlying inner oxide. Flaking of the outer patina layer was mainly observed on Cu4Sn and Cu sheet and associated with the gradual transformation of CuCl to Cu2(OH)3Cl of larger volume. After three years only Cu5Al5Zn remains lustrous because of a patina compared with the other materials that appeared brownish-reddish. Significantly lower release rates of metals compared with corresponding corrosion rates were observed for all materials. Very similar release rates of copper from all four materials were observed during the fifth year of marine exposure due to an outer surface patina that with time revealed similar constituents and solubility properties. PMID:24321319

  3. Microstructural Evolution of the 55 Wt Pct Al-Zn Coating During Press Hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang Wook; De Cooman, Bruno Charles

    2014-09-01

    Press hardening is increasingly being used to produce ultra-high strength steel parts for passenger cars. Al-Si, Zn, and Zn-alloy coatings have been used to provide corrosion protection to press hardening steel grades. The use of coatings has drawbacks such as coating delamination or liquid metal-induced embrittlement. In the present work, the microstructural evolution of Al-Zn coating during press hardening was studied. The 55 wt pct Al-Zn coating can in principle provide both Al barrier protection and Zn cathodic protection to press hardened steel. During the heat treatment associated with the press hardening, the 55 wt pct Al-Zn alloy coating is converted to an intermetallic surface layer of Fe2Al5 and a FeAl intermetallic diffusion layer. The Zn is separated from both intermetallic compounds and accumulates at grain boundaries and at the surface. This Zn separation process is beneficial in terms of providing cathodic protection to Al-Zn coated press hardening steel.

  4. Cu2ZnSnSe4 Thin Films by Selenization of Simultaneously Evaporated Sn-Zn-Cu Metallic Lays for Photovoltaic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Lexi; Zhang, Jun; Zou, Changwei; Xie, Wei

    Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin films were prepared by selenization of simultaneously evaporated metallic Cu-Zn-Sn on soda lime glass (SLG) substrates. The selenization were performed in elemental selenium vapor ambient at 450 °C for 1.5 h using Argon as the carrier gas. The compositions and structural properties of the films were characterized by using EDS, XRD, and Raman, respectively. The results show that the synthesized CZTSe thin films are nearly stoichiometric and single-phase with a kesterite structure. The measurement for electrical and optical properties indicated that a high absorption coefficient of 104 cm-1 and a low resistivity of 30 Ωcm are obtained. The optical band-gap energy of the CZTSe thin film can be fitted to be as 1.52 eV, which closes to the optimum value for solar cell absorber. The preparation processing for CZTSe developed in this woek is more attractive than others reported in the industrialization applications because the atomic ratio of Cu:Sn:Zn in the precursor can be easily controlled by adjusting the ratio of the evaporation sources, meanwhile, it is more suitable for large-scale production.

  5. The impact of oxygen incorporation during intrinsic ZnO sputtering on the performance of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin film solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kkotnim; Ok, Eun-A; Park, Jong-Keuk; Kim, Won Mok; Baik, Young-Joon; Jeong, Jeung-hyun; Kim, Donghwan

    2014-08-25

    We investigated the impact of incorporating 2% oxygen during intrinsic ZnO sputtering on the efficiency of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells. The added oxygen not only reduced the optical absorption loss of the Al-doped ZnO overlaying layer but also improved the electronic properties of the underlying CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} by increasing carrier density, lowering defect level, and increasing diffusion length, eventually enhancing J{sub SC}, V{sub OC}, and fill factor. It was found that the Na doping concentration was significantly increased around the CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} junction due to the plasma-activated oxygen. The improved electronic properties are better explained by the increased Na concentration than simply the oxygen-related defect passivation.

  6. Investigation of polycrystalline thin-film CuInSe{sub 2} solar cells based on ZnSe and ZnO buffer layers. Final report, February 16, 1992--November 15, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, L C

    1996-06-01

    The major objective of this program was to determine the potential of ZnSe and ZnO buffer layers in solar cells based on CuInSe{sub 2} and related alloys. Experimental studies were carried out with CIS and CIGSS substrates. ZnSe films were deposited by a CVD process which involved the reaction of a zinc adduct and H{sub 2}Se. Al/ZnSe/CIS test cells were used for process development. Test cell performance aided in determining the optimum thickness for ZnSe buffer layers to be in the range of 150 {angstrom} to 200 {angstrom} for Siemens CIS material, and between 80 {angstrom} and 120 {angstrom} for the graded absorber material. If the buffer layers exceeded these values significantly, the short-circuit current would be reduced to zero. The best efficiency achieved for a ZnSe/CIS cell was an active area value of 9.2%. In general, deposition of a conductive ZnO film on top of a ZnSe/CIS structure resulted in either shunted or inflected I-V characteristics. Two approaches were investigated for depositing ZnO buffer layers, namely, chemical bath deposition and CVD. CVD ZnO buffer layers are grown by reacting a zinc adduct with tetrahydrofuran. Best results were obtained for ZnO buffer layers grown with a substrate temperature ca. 225--250 C. These studies concentrated on Siemens graded absorber material (CIGSS). ZnO/CIS solar cells have been fabricated by first depositing a ZnO buffer layer, followed by deposition of a low resistivity ZnO top contact layer and an Al/Ag collector grid. Several cells were fabricated with an area of 0.44 cm{sup 2} that have total area efficiencies greater than 11%. To date, the best performing ZnO/CIS cell had a total area efficiency of 11.3%. In general, the authors find that ZnO buffer layers should have a resistivity > 1,000 ohm-cm and have a thickness from 200 {angstrom} to 600 {angstrom}. CIS cells studies with ZnO buffer layers grown by CBD also show promise. Finally, simulation studies were carried out using the 1-D code, PC-1D.

  7. ZnO:Al Doping Level and Hydrogen Growth Ambient Effects on CIGS Solar Cell Performance: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Duenow, J. N.; Gessert, T. A.; Wood, D. M.; Egaas, B.; Noufi, R.; Coutts,T. J.

    2008-05-01

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) photovoltaic (PV) cells require a highly conducting and transparent electrode for optimum device performance. ZnO:Al films grown from targets containing 2.0 wt.% Al2O3 are commonly used for this purpose. Maximum carrier mobilities of these films grown at room temperature are ~20-25 cm2V-1s-1. Therefore, relatively high carrier concentrations are required to achieve the desired conductivity, which leads to free carrier absorption in the near infrared (IR). Lightly doped films (0.05 - 0.2 wt.% Al2O3), which show less IR absorption, reach mobility values greater than 50 cm2V-1s-1 when deposited in H2 partial pressure. We incorporate these lightly doped ZnO:Al layers into CIGS PV cells produced at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Preliminary results show quantum efficiency values of these cells rival those of a past world-record cell produced at NREL that used 2.0 wt.% Al-doped ZnO films. The highest cell efficiency obtained in this trial was 18.1%.

  8. Intrinsically radioactive [64Cu]CuInS/ZnS quantum dots for PET and optical imaging: improved radiochemical stability and controllable Cerenkov luminescence.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weisheng; Sun, Xiaolian; Jacobson, Orit; Yan, Xuefeng; Min, Kyunghyun; Srivatsan, Avinash; Niu, Gang; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Chang, Jin; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-27

    Functionalized quantum dots (QDs) have been widely explored for multimodality bioimaging and proven to be versatile agents. Attaching positron-emitting radioisotopes onto QDs not only endows their positron emission tomography (PET) functionality, but also results in self-illuminating QDs, with no need for an external light source, by Cerenkov resonance energy transfer (CRET). Traditional chelation methods have been used to incorporate the radionuclide, but these methods are compromised by the potential for loss of radionuclide due to cleavage of the linker between particle and chelator, decomplexation of the metal, and possible altered pharmacokinetics of nanomaterials. Herein, we described a straightforward synthesis of intrinsically radioactive [(64)Cu]CuInS/ZnS QDs by directly incorporating (64)Cu into CuInS/ZnS nanostructure with (64)CuCl2 as synthesis precursor. The [(64)Cu]CuInS/ZnS QDs demonstrated excellent radiochemical stability with less than 3% free (64)Cu detected even after exposure to serum containing EDTA (5 mM) for 24 h. PEGylation can be achieved in situ during synthesis, and the PEGylated radioactive QDs showed high tumor uptake (10.8% ID/g) in a U87MG mouse xenograft model. CRET efficiency was studied as a function of concentration and (64)Cu radioactivity concentration. These [(64)Cu]CuInS/ZnS QDs were successfully applied as an efficient PET/self-illuminating luminescence in vivo imaging agents. PMID:25549258

  9. Solid Liquid Interdiffusion Bonding of Zn4Sb3 Thermoelectric Material with Cu Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y. C.; Lee, K. T.; Hwang, J. D.; Chu, H. S.; Hsu, C. C.; Chen, S. C.; Chuang, T. H.

    2016-06-01

    The ZnSb intermetallic compound may have thermoelectric applications because it is low in cost and environmentally friendly. In this study, a Zn4Sb3 thermoelectric element coated with a Ni barrier layer and a Ag reaction layer was bonded with a Ag-coated Cu electrode using a Ag/Sn/Ag solid-liquid interdiffusion bonding process. The results indicated that a Ni5Zn21 intermetallic phase formed easily at the Zn4Sb3/Ni interface, leading to sound adhesion. In addition, Sn film was found to react completely with the Ag layer to form a Ag3Sn intermetallic layer having a melting point of 480°C. The resulting Zn4Sb3 thermoelectric module can be applied at the optimized operation temperature (400°C) of Zn4Sb3 material as a thermoelectric element. The bonding strengths ranged from 14.9 MPa to 25.0 MPa, and shear tests revealed that the Zn4Sb3/Cu-joints fractured through the interior of the thermoelectric elements.

  10. Electrokinetic remediation of a Cu-Zn contaminated red soil by controlling the voltage and conditioning catholyte pH.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dong-Mei; Deng, Chang-Fen; Cang, Long; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

    2005-10-01

    Electrokinetics is an innovative technique for treating heavy metals contaminated soil, especially low pH soils such as the Chinese red soil (Udic Ferrisols). In this paper, a Cu-Zn contaminated red soil is treated by electrokinetics. When the Cu-Zn contaminated red soil was treated without control of catholyte pH during the electrokinetic treatment, the soil pH in the soil sections near cathode after the experiment was high above 6, which resulted in accumulation of large amounts of Cu and Zn in the soil sections with such high pH values. Compared to soil Cu, soil Zn was more efficiently removed from the soil by a controlled electrokinetic method. Application of lactic acid as catholyte pH conditioning solution caused an efficient removal of Cu and Zn from the soil. Increasing the electrolyte strength (salt concentration) of the conditioning solution further increased Cu removal, but did not cause a significant improvement for soil Zn. Soil Cu and Zn fractions after the electrokinetic treatments were analyzed using sequential extraction method, which indicated that Cu and Zn precipitation in the soil section closest to the cathode in the treatments without catholyte pH control limited their removal from the soil column. When the catholyte pH was controlled by lactic acid and CaCl(2), the soil Cu and Zn removal percentage after 554 h running reached 63% and 65%, respectively. Moreover, both the residual soil Cu and Zn concentrations were lower than 100 mg kg(-1), which is adequate and meets the requirement of the Chinese soil environmental quality standards. PMID:16202805

  11. Sensitive Room Temperature Photoluminescence-Based Sensing of H2S with Novel CuO-ZnO Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Du, Baosheng; Sun, Ye; Yu, Miao; Yin, Yongqi; Tang, Wei; Chen, Chong; Sun, Lei; Yang, Bin; Cao, Wenwu; Ashfold, Michael N R

    2016-06-29

    Novel CuO nanoparticle-capped ZnO nanorods have been produced using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. These nanorods are shown to grow by a CuO-nanoparticle-assisted vapor-solid-solid (V-S-S) mechanism. The photoluminescence (PL) accompanying ultraviolet illumination of these capped nanorod samples shows large variations upon exposure to trace quantities of H2S gas. The present data suggest that both the Cu-doped ZnO stem and the CuO capping nanoparticle contribute to optical H2S sensing with these CuO-ZnO nanorods. This study represents the first demonstration of PL-based H2S gas sensing, at room temperature, with sub-ppm sensitivity. It also opens the way to producing CuO-ZnO nanorods by a V-S-S mechanism using gas-phase methods other than PLD. PMID:27258907

  12. Atom probe tomography study of internal interfaces in Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin-films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, T.; Cojocaru-Mirédin, O.; Choi, P.; Mousel, M.; Redinger, A.; Siebentritt, S.; Raabe, D.

    2015-09-01

    We report on atom probe tomography studies of the composition at internal interfaces in Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin-films. For Cu2ZnSnSe4 precursors, which are deposited at 320 °C under Zn-rich conditions, grain boundaries are found to be enriched with Cu irrespective of whether Cu-poor or Cu-rich growth conditions are chosen. Cu2ZnSnSe4 grains are found to be Cu-poor and excess Cu atoms are found to be accumulated at grain boundaries. In addition, nanometer-sized ZnSe grains are detected at or near grain boundaries. The compositions at grain boundaries show different trends after annealing at 500 °C. Grain boundaries in the annealed absorber films, which are free of impurities, are Cu-, Sn-, and Se-depleted and Zn-enriched. This is attributed to dissolution of ZnSe at the Cu-enriched grain boundaries during annealing. Furthermore, some of the grain boundaries of the absorbers are enriched with Na and K atoms, stemming from the soda-lime glass substrate. Such grain boundaries show no or only small changes in composition of the matrix elements. Na and K impurities are also partly segregated at some of the Cu2ZnSnSe4/ZnSe interfaces in the absorber, whereas for the precursors, only Na was detected at such phase boundaries possibly due to a higher diffusivity of Na compared to K. Possible effects of the detected compositional fluctuations on cell performance are discussed.

  13. Study of alternative back contacts for thin film Cu2ZnSnSe4-based solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oueslati, Souhaib; Brammertz, Guy; Buffière, Marie; ElAnzeery, Hossam; Mangin, Denis; ElDaif, Ounsi; Touayar, Oualid; Köble, Christine; Meuris, Marc; Poortmans, Jef

    2015-01-01

    Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film solar cells are usually fabricated on a soda lime glass substrate with a molybdenum (Mo) back contact. It is suspected that degradation in electrical performance occurs due to the formation of a barrier between the absorber and Mo back contact. To overcome such degradation, Titanium Nitride (TiN), Titanium Tungsten (TiW), Chromium (Cr), Titanium (Ti) and Aluminum (Al) deposited on Mo-coated glass substrates are investigated as alternative back contact materials. Physical and electrical characterization as well as photoluminescence measurements are performed. Compositional analysis of the absorber layer on the metallized substrates identifies Mo, TiN and TiW as being the most inert during the formation of Cu2ZnSnSe4. On the other hand, Ti and Cr reacted with Se during selenization, thereby affecting the growth of the absorber, leading to low conversion efficiency. For Al, the absorber layer was etched after the standard potassium cyanide etch, hence, cannot be used as a back contact. The best device efficiencies obtained are 8.8% on TiN, 7.5% on Mo and 5.9% on TiW, respectively. The TiN back contact provides the lowest barrier value of about 15 meV which could be considered as a good ohmic contact.

  14. Fabrication and Electrical Characterization of the Si/ZnO/ZnO:Al Structure Deposited by RF-Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaya, A.; Djessas, K.; El Mir, L.; Khirouni, K.

    2016-06-01

    The electrical transport properties of the structures of Si(p)/ZnO(i)/ZnO: Al(3%) and Si(p)/PS/ZnO(i)/ZnO: Al(3%) deposited by radio-frequency-magnetron sputtering were investigated and compared by using current-voltage and impedance spectroscopy measurements in a wide temperature range of 80-300 K. Aluminum-doped ZnO is considered to be one of the most important transparent conducting oxide materials due to its high conductivity, good transparency and low cost. From the current-voltage-temperature (I-V-T) characteristics, it was found that both structures had a good rectifying behavior. This behavior decreases according to the porous silicon layer. The variation of the conductance with frequency indicates the semiconducting behavior and superposition of different conduction mechanisms. The insertion of the porous silicon layer results in a decrease of conductivity, which is attributed to reduced conductivity of defect-rich porous silicon.

  15. Solidification behavior and structure of Al-Cu alloy welds

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, J.A.; Li, M.; Yang, N.C.Y.

    1997-09-01

    The microsegregation behavior of electron beam (EB) and gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds of Al-Cu alloys covering a range from 0.19 to 7.74 wt% Cu were characterized for dendrite core concentrations and fraction eutectic solidification. Although a single weld speed of 12.7 mm/sec was used, some differences were observed in the segregation behavior of the two weld types. The microsegregation behavior was also modeled using a finite differences technique considering dendrite tip and eutectic undercooling and solid state diffusion. Fairly good agreement was observed between measured and calculated segregation behavior although differences between the two weld types could not be completely accounted for. The concept of dendrite tip undercooling was used to explain the formation of a single through thickness centerline grain in the higher alloy content GTA welds.

  16. Electrochemical synthesis of p-Cu2O/n-ZnO nanorods hetero-junction for photovoltaic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokade, A. V.; Rondiya, S. R.; Jadhavar, A. A.; Pandharkar, S. M.; Karpe, S. D.; Diwate, K. D.; Jadkar, S. R.

    2016-04-01

    Development of high performance visible light responsive solar cell materials has attracted wide interest due to their potential applications in the energy industries. In this work, ZnO nanorods films were successfully prepared on the ITO coated glass substrates via simple three electrode electrochemical deposition route. The Cu2O nanoparticles were then electrodeposited on the surface of ZnO nanorods to form p-Cu2O/n-ZnO core-shell hetero-structure. The synthesized ZnO, Cu2O films and p-Cu2O/n-ZnO hetero-structure were characterized by low angle x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Due to the hierarchical morphologies and core-shell structure, p-Cu2O/n-ZnO hetero-structure shows a prominent visible-light-driven photocatalytic performance under the low intensity light irradiation. The obtained results suggest that it is possible to synthesize ZnO nanorods, Cu2O films and p-Cu2O/n-ZnO core-shell hetero-structure by a simple, cost effective and environment friendly electrodeposition process which can be useful for water splitting and solar cell device fabrication.

  17. CeCu sub 4 A ell and CeCu sub 2 Zn sub 2 A ell : Very heavy fermion systems in high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Andraka, B.; Kim, J.S. . Dept. of Physics); Stewart, G.R. . Dept. of Physics Augsburg Univ. ); Fisk, Z. )

    1990-01-01

    CeCu{sub 4}A{ell} and CeCu{sub 2}Zn{sub 2}A{ell} are heavy fermion systems with extremely enhanced C/T (specific heat divided by temperature) values of 2.3 and 1.8 J/K{sup 2} respectively as T {yields} 0 K. The field dependence of the low temperature specific heat is also extreme; 11 T reduces C of CeCu{sub 4}A{ell} by more than a factor of five, 12.5 T suppresses C of CeCu{sub 2}Zn{sub 2}A{ell} about seven times. Magnetic field caused changes of the specific heat of CeCu{sub 4}A{ell} are consistent with a single ion Kondo model. Magnetic correlations are at least partially responsible for the enhanced low temperature specific heat of CeCu{sub 2}Zn{sub 2}A{ell}.

  18. Morphology, electrical, and optical properties of heavily doped ZnTe:Cu thin films

    SciTech Connect

    El Akkad, Fikry; Abdulraheem, Yaser

    2013-11-14

    We report on a study of the physical properties of ZnTe:Cu films with Cu content up to ∼12 at. % prepared using rf magnetron sputtering. The composition and lateral homogeneities are studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Atomic force microscopy measurements on films deposited at different substrate temperatures (up to 325 °C) yielded activation energy of 12 kJ/mole for the grains growth. The results of XPS and electrical and optical measurements provide evidence for the formation of the ternary zinc copper telluride alloy in films containing Cu concentration above ∼4 at. %. The XPS results suggest that copper is incorporated in the alloy with oxidation state Cu{sup 1+} so that the alloy formula can be written Zn{sub 1−y}Cu{sub y} Te with y = 2−x, where x is a parameter measuring the stoichiometry in the Cu site. The formation of this alloy causes appreciable shift in the binding energies of the XPS peaks besides an IR shift in the energy band gap. Detailed analysis of the optical absorption data revealed the presence of two additional transitions, besides the band gap one, originating from the Γ{sub 8} and Γ{sub 7} (spin-orbit) valence bands to a donor level at ∼0.34 eV below the Γ{sub 6} conduction band. This interpretation yields a value for the valence band splitting energy Δ≅ 0.87 eV independent of copper concentration. On the other hand, the mechanism of formation of the alloy is tentatively explained in terms of a point defect reaction in which substitutional Cu defect Cu{sub Zn} is also created. Assuming that substitutional Cu is the dominant acceptor in the Zn rich alloy as in ZnTe, its formation energy was determined to be 1.7 eV close to the theoretical value (1.41 eV) in ZnTe.

  19. Mono-disperse spherical Cu-Zn powder fabricated via the low wettability of liquid/solid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Chenglong; Huang, Haifu; Cheng, Zhenzhi; Tang, Shaolong; Du, Youwei

    2015-12-01

    Spherical Cu-Zn alloy powders were fabricated by combining the surface tension of a molten metal with the de-wetting of a metal droplet on a graphite surface. The effect that the gas pressure had on the surface morphology and composition was studied. The Zn concentration can be maintained at 20.18 wt.%, 15.5 wt.% and 12.08 wt.% using 0.22 MPa, 0.10 MPa, and 0.04 MPa, respectively, from a commercially available Cu-38 wt.%Zn raw material. The gas pressure was adjusted to control the surface volatility of Zn without affecting the spherical morphology, and higher gas pressure yielded less volatile Zn. The Cu-Zn alloy powders were perfectly spherical, even at a negative pressure of 0.04 MPa. The spherical Cu-Zn alloy particles hardly changed and were fully dense up to Cu-50 wt.%Zn, which allowed high-quality spherical Cu-Zn alloy powders to potentially serve a large composition range.

  20. Kinetics of the Oxidation of Reduced Cu,Zn-Superoxide Dismutase by Peroxymonocarbonate

    PubMed Central

    Ranguelova, Kalina; Ganini, Douglas; Bonini, Marcelo G.; London, Robert E.; Mason, Ronald P.

    2012-01-01

    Kinetic evidence is reported for the role of the peroxymonocarbonate, HOOCO2−, as an oxidant for reduced Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase-Cu(I) (SOD1) during the peroxidase activity of the enzyme. The formation of this reactive oxygen species results from the equilibrium between hydrogen peroxide and bicarbonate. Recently, peroxymonocarbonate has been proposed to be a key substrate for reduced SOD1 and has been shown to oxidize SOD1-Cu(I) to SOD1-Cu(II) much faster than H2O2. We have reinvestigated the kinetics of the reaction between SOD1-Cu(I) and HOOCO2− by using conventional stopped-flow spectrophotometry and obtained a second-order rate constant of k = 1600 ± 100 M−1s−1 for SOD1-Cu(I) oxidation by HOOCO2−. Our results demonstrate that peroxymonocarbonate oxidizes SOD1-Cu(I) to SOD1-Cu(II) and is in turn reduced to the carbonate anion radical. It is proposed that the dissociation of His61 from the active site Cu(I) in SOD-Cu(I) contributes to this chemistry by facilitating the binding of larger anions, such as peroxymonocarbonate. PMID:22569304

  1. The influence of Cu /Al ratio on properties of chemical-vapor-deposition-grown p-type Cu-Al-O transparent semiconducting films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jianling; Gong, Hao

    2005-08-01

    Transparent p-type copper aluminum oxide (Cu-Al-O) semiconducting thin films, with Cu /Al atomic ratios ranging from 1.0 to 4.3, were deposited by plasma-enhanced metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition. The films were grown on z-cut single-crystal quartz substrates, at a substrate temperature of 450°C. Crystalline CuAlO2 was found dominant in the films, including small amounts of CuAl2O4, Al2O3, and amorphous Cu2O. The effect of varying Cu /Al ratio on the structural, electrical, and optical properties of the films were studied by x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and Seebeck technique, and discussed. We were able to optimize the Cu /Al ratio for the p-type conductivity and transmittance in copper aluminum oxide thin films, and the best conductive film, with a room-temperature conductivity of 0.289Scm-1 and a transparency of 80%, was found to have a Cu /Al ratio of 1.4±0.3. In addition, the mechanism of the p-type conduction of copper aluminum oxide was discussed.

  2. Frustrated magnetism in doped quasi-triangular lattice materials, Cu2(1-x)Zn2x(OH)3NO3/(C7H15COO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Werner, Fletcher; Gangopadhyay, Anup K.; Solin, S. A.

    2010-03-01

    We have performed DC and AC magnetic susceptibility measurements on the spin S=1/2 quasi-triangular lattice materials Cu2(1-x)Zn2x(OH)3NO3/(C7H15COO). The X-ray diffraction experiments reveal that this class of materials has a crystal structure in P21/m space group, in which Cu^2+ and Zn^2+ ions are arranged on a slightly distorted triangular lattice [1]. Cu2(1-)Zn2x(OH)3NO3 with a short inorganic intercalation NO3 group, have a long-range antiferromagnetic order at low temperature. The Neel temperature TN decreases from 11K to 5.6K while the Curie-Weiss temperature increases from -5.1K to +2.8K as the Zn concentration increases from 0 to 65%. After a longer alkanecarboxylate C7H15COO group was introduced into the interlayer space, a spin-glass like behavior in magnetic properties was observed [2]. The value |θcw /TN| is approximately 20, indicating the materials are in a medium level frustrated state. The onset of a ferromagnetic correlation was found in both DC and AC susceptibility data. The interplay of geometrical frustration and the coexistence of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic couplings has driven the materials into a glassy ground state. [1] G. Linder, et al., Journal of Solid State Chemistry (1995) [2] M. A. Girtu et al, Phys Rev B 61,4117(2000).

  3. Three series of quaternary rare-earth transition-metal pnictides with CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type structures: RECuZnAs{sub 2}, REAgZnP{sub 2}, and REAgZnAs{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyko, Stanislav S.; Ramachandran, Krishna K.; Blanchard, Peter E.R.; Rosmus, Kimberly A.; Aitken, Jennifer A.; Mar, Arthur

    2014-05-01

    Three series of quaternary rare-earth transition-metal pnictides REMM′Pn{sub 2} (M=Cu, Ag; M′=Zn; Pn=P, As) have been prepared by reaction of the elements at 800 °C, with crystal growth promoted through the addition of iodine. The extent of RE substitution is broad in these series: RECuZnAs{sub 2} (RE=Y, La-Nd, Sm, Gd–Lu), REAgZnP{sub 2} (RE=La–Nd, Sm, Gd–Dy), and REAgZnAs{sub 2} (RE=La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Dy). Powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that they adopt the trigonal CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type structure (space group P3{sup ¯}m1, Z=1), in which Cu or Ag atoms are disordered with Zn atoms over the unique tetrahedrally coordinated transition-metal site. Magnetic measurements indicated Curie–Weiss behavior for several members of the RECuZnAs{sub 2} and REAgZnP{sub 2} series. Core-line X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) collected on some RECuZnAs{sub 2} members corroborate the charge assignment deduced by the Zintl concept for these compounds, (RE{sup 3+})(M{sup 1+})(Zn{sup 2+})(Pn{sup 3−}){sub 2}. Optical diffuse reflectance spectra and valence band XPS spectra established that these compounds are small band-gap semiconductors (up to ∼0.8 eV in REAgZnP{sub 2}) or semimetals (RECuZnAs{sub 2}). Band structure calculations also support this electronic structure and indicate that the band gap can be narrowed through appropriate chemical substitution (RE=smaller atoms, M=Cu, and Pn=As). - Graphical abstract: Cu or Ag atoms are disordered with Zn atoms over the tetrahedral site within relatively rigid [M{sub 2}Pn{sub 2}] slabs in three series of quaternary pnictides adopting the CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type structure. - Highlights: • Three series (comprising 25 compounds) of pnictides REMM'Pn{sub 2} were prepared. • Cu or Ag atoms are disordered with Zn atoms within relatively rigid [M{sub 2}Pn{sub 2}] slabs. • They are semimetals or small band-gap semiconductors. • RECuZnAs{sub 2} and REAgZnP{sub 2} are generally paramagnetic.

  4. CO sub 2 induced inhibition of the localized corrosion of aluminum, Al-0. 5% Cu, and Al-2% Cu in dilute HF solution

    SciTech Connect

    Scully, J.R. . Dept. of Materials Science); Peebles, D.E. )

    1991-01-01

    This study presents work on corrosion of aluminum, Al-.5% Cu, and Al-2% Cu. Electrochemical tests were performed in dilute HF solutions both with and without CO{sub 2} sparging. It is suggested that CO{sub 2} or its reaction products interact with the passive film so that exposure of Cu in the oxide-solution interface is minimized. CO{sub 2} is investigated as a corrosion inhibitor. 4 refs. (JDL)

  5. Improved sensitivity of polychlorinated-biphenyl-orientated porous-ZnO surface photovoltage sensors from chemisorption-formed ZnO-CuPc composites.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingtao; Meng, Guowen; Huang, Qing; Zhang, Shile

    2014-01-01

    We report a new mechanism for the enhancement of porous-ZnO surface photovoltage (SPV) response to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, a notorious class of persistent organic pollutants as global environmental hazard) based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) chemisorptive bonding on porous-ZnO. A new ZnO-CuPc composite is formed on the porous-ZnO surface due to the interaction between the surface ZnO and CuPc, with its valence band (VB) energy level being higher than that of the pristine porous-ZnO. So that the efficiency of the photogenerated-electron transfer from the composite VB to the adjacent ZnO's surface states is drastically increased due to the reduced energy gap between the transition states. As a result, the sensitivity of the PCB-orientated SPV sensor is much improved by showing amplified variation of the SPV-signals perturbed by PCBs adsorbed on the ZnO-CuPc@porous-ZnO sensitive material. PMID:24594662

  6. Improved sensitivity of polychlorinated-biphenyl-orientated porous-ZnO surface photovoltage sensors from chemisorption-formed ZnO-CuPc composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingtao; Meng, Guowen; Huang, Qing; Zhang, Shile

    2014-03-01

    We report a new mechanism for the enhancement of porous-ZnO surface photovoltage (SPV) response to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, a notorious class of persistent organic pollutants as global environmental hazard) based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) chemisorptive bonding on porous-ZnO. A new ZnO-CuPc composite is formed on the porous-ZnO surface due to the interaction between the surface ZnO and CuPc, with its valence band (VB) energy level being higher than that of the pristine porous-ZnO. So that the efficiency of the photogenerated-electron transfer from the composite VB to the adjacent ZnO's surface states is drastically increased due to the reduced energy gap between the transition states. As a result, the sensitivity of the PCB-orientated SPV sensor is much improved by showing amplified variation of the SPV-signals perturbed by PCBs adsorbed on the ZnO-CuPc@porous-ZnO sensitive material.

  7. Improved sensitivity of polychlorinated-biphenyl-orientated porous-ZnO surface photovoltage sensors from chemisorption-formed ZnO-CuPc composites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingtao; Meng, Guowen; Huang, Qing; Zhang, Shile

    2014-01-01

    We report a new mechanism for the enhancement of porous-ZnO surface photovoltage (SPV) response to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, a notorious class of persistent organic pollutants as global environmental hazard) based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) chemisorptive bonding on porous-ZnO. A new ZnO-CuPc composite is formed on the porous-ZnO surface due to the interaction between the surface ZnO and CuPc, with its valence band (VB) energy level being higher than that of the pristine porous-ZnO. So that the efficiency of the photogenerated-electron transfer from the composite VB to the adjacent ZnO's surface states is drastically increased due to the reduced energy gap between the transition states. As a result, the sensitivity of the PCB-orientated SPV sensor is much improved by showing amplified variation of the SPV-signals perturbed by PCBs adsorbed on the ZnO-CuPc@porous-ZnO sensitive material. PMID:24594662

  8. Copper doping of ZnO crystals by transmutation of {sup 64}Zn to {sup 65}Cu: An electron paramagnetic resonance and gamma spectroscopy study

    SciTech Connect

    Recker, M. C.; McClory, J. W. Holston, M. S.; Golden, E. M.; Giles, N. C.; Halliburton, L. E.

    2014-06-28

    Transmutation of {sup 64}Zn to {sup 65}Cu has been observed in a ZnO crystal irradiated with neutrons. The crystal was characterized with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) before and after the irradiation and with gamma spectroscopy after the irradiation. Major features in the gamma spectrum of the neutron-irradiated crystal included the primary 1115.5 keV gamma ray from the {sup 65}Zn decay and the positron annihilation peak at 511 keV. Their presence confirmed the successful transmutation of {sup 64}Zn nuclei to {sup 65}Cu. Additional direct evidence for transmutation was obtained from the EPR of Cu{sup 2+} ions (where {sup 63}Cu and {sup 65}Cu hyperfine lines are easily resolved). A spectrum from isolated Cu{sup 2+} (3d{sup 9}) ions acquired after the neutron irradiation showed only hyperfine lines from {sup 65}Cu nuclei. The absence of {sup 63}Cu lines in this Cu{sup 2+} spectrum left no doubt that the observed {sup 65}Cu signals were due to transmuted {sup 65}Cu nuclei created as a result of the neutron irradiation. Small concentrations of copper, in the form of Cu{sup +}-H complexes, were inadvertently present in our as-grown ZnO crystal. These Cu{sup +}-H complexes are not affected by the neutron irradiation, but they dissociate when a crystal is heated to 900 °C. This behavior allowed EPR to distinguish between the copper initially in the crystal and the copper subsequently produced by the neutron irradiation. In addition to transmutation, a second major effect of the neutron irradiation was the formation of zinc and oxygen vacancies by displacement. These vacancies were observed with EPR.

  9. First-principles study of defect formation in the photovoltaic semiconductor Cu2SnS3 for comparison with Cu2ZnSnS4 and CuInSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, Hironori; Maeda, Tsuyoshi; Shigemi, Akio; Wada, Takahiro

    2016-04-01

    The formation energies of neutral Cu, Sn, and S vacancies in monoclinic Cu2SnS3 were calculated by first-principles pseudopotential calculations using plane-wave basis functions in typical points in a schematic ternary phase diagram of a Cu-Sn-S system. The formation energy of a Cu atom vacancy in Cu2SnS3 under the Cu-poor condition has been calculated to be 0.23 eV, which is considerably smaller than those of Sn and S vacancies in Cu2SnS3. The results have been compared with those in Cu2SnZnS4 and CuInSe2 calculated with the same version of program code. The formation energy of a Cu atom vacancy in Cu2SnS3 under the Cu-poor condition is smaller than those for Cu2SnZnS4 (0.40 eV) and CuInSe2 (0.50 eV). The results indicate that Cu vacancies are easily formed in Cu2SnS3 under the Cu-poor condition as is the case with Cu2ZnSnS4 and CuInSe2. In this respect, Cu2SnS3 has the appropriate character of a light-absorbing material for thin-film solar cells, as is the case with Cu2ZnSnS4 and CuInSe2.

  10. Growth of Cu2ZnSnSe4 Film under Controllable Se Vapor Composition and Impact of Low Cu Content on Solar Cell Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianjun; Wang, Hongxia; Wu, Li; Chen, Cheng; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Liu, Fangfang; Sun, Yun; Han, Junbo; Zhang, Yi

    2016-04-27

    It is a challenge to fabricate high quality Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) film with low Cu content (Cu/(Zn + Sn) < 0.8). In this work, the growth mechanisms of CZTSe films under different Se vapor composition are investigated by DC-sputtering and a postselenization approach. The composition of Se vapor has important influence on the compactability of the films and the diffusion of elements in the CZTSe films. By adjusting the composition of Se vapor during the selenization process, an optimized two step selenization process is proposed and highly crystallized CZTSe film with low Cu content (Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 0.75) is obtained. Further study of the effect of Cu content on the morphology and photovoltaic performance of the corresponding CZTSe solar cells has shown that the roughness of the CZTSe absorber film increases when Cu content decreases. As a consequence, the reflection loss of CZTSe solar cells reduces dramatically and the short circuit current density of the cells improve from 34.7 mA/cm(2) for Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 0.88 to 38.5 mA/cm(2) for Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 0.75. In addition, the CZTSe solar cells with low Cu content show longer minority carrier lifetime and higher open circuit voltage than the high Cu content devices. A champion performance CZTSe solar cell with 10.4% efficiency is fabricated with Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 0.75 in the CZTSe film without antireflection coating. PMID:27058738

  11. New influence factor inducing difficulty in selective flotation separation of Cu-Zn mixed sulfide minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jiu-shuai; Mao, Ying-bo; Wen, Shu-ming; Liu, Jian; Xian, Yong-jun; Feng, Qi-cheng

    2015-02-01

    Selective flotation separation of Cu-Zn mixed sulfides has been proven to be difficult. Thus far, researchers have found no satisfactory way to separate Cu-Zn mixed sulfides by selective flotation, mainly because of the complex surface and interface interaction mechanisms in the flotation solution. Undesired activation occurs between copper ions and the sphalerite surfaces. In addition to recycled water and mineral dissolution, ancient fluids in the minerals are observed to be a new source of metal ions. In this study, significant amounts of ancient fluids were found to exist in Cu-Zn sulfide and gangue minerals, mostly as gas-liquid fluid inclusions. The concentration of copper ions released from the ancient fluids reached 1.02 × 10-6 mol/L, whereas, in the cases of sphalerite and quartz, this concentration was 0.62 × 10-6 mol/L and 0.44 × 10-6 mol/L, respectively. As a result, the ancient fluid is a significant source of copper ions compared to mineral dissolution under the same experimental conditions, which promotes the unwanted activation of sphalerite. Therefore, the ancient fluid is considered to be a new factor that affects the selective flotation separation of Cu-Zn mixed sulfide ores.

  12. Behaviors of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in soil amended with composts.

    PubMed

    Gusiatin, Zygmunt Mariusz; Kulikowska, Dorota

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated how amendment with sewage sludge compost of different maturation times (3, 6, 12 months) affected metal (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) bioavailability, fractionation and redistribution in highly contaminated sandy clay soil. Metal transformations during long-term soil stabilization (35 months) were determined. In the contaminated soil, Cd, Ni and Zn were predominately in the exchangeable and reducible fractions, Pb in the reducible fraction and Cu in the reducible, exchangeable and oxidizable fractions. All composts decreased the bioavailability of Cd, Ni and Zn for up to 24 months, which indicates that cyclic amendment with compost is necessary. The bioavailability of Pb and Cu was not affected by compost amendment. Based on the reduced partition index (IR), metal stability in amended soil after 35 months of stabilization was in the following order: Cu > Ni = Pb > Zn > Cd. All composts were more effective in decreasing Cd, Ni and Zn bioavailability than in redistributing the metals, and increasing Cu redistribution more than that of Pb. Thus, sewage sludge compost of as little as 3 months maturation can be used for cyclic amendment of multi-metal-contaminated soil. PMID:26853755

  13. ZnO-(Cu/Ag)TCNQ heterostructure network over flexible platform for enhanced cold cathode application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Shreyasi; Maiti, Soumen; Narayan Maiti, Uday; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Multistage field emitters consisting of organic/inorganic hybrid nanostructures with branched geometry are designed via a two-step protocol: a simple wet chemical method followed by a vapor-solid-phase technique. (Cu/Ag)TCNQ (copper/silver-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane) nanowires (NWs) were grown hierarchically on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) to form ZnO-(Cu/Ag)TCNQ heterostructure assemblies. By monitoring the metallic Cu and Ag coating thickness on ZnO NRs, precise control over the morphology and orientations of the secondary organic NWs is achieved. In-depth analysis of electron field emission (FE) behavior of the ZnO-(Cu/Ag)TCNQ-based hierarchy suggests highest emission performance with low turn-on as well as threshold fields of 1.15 and 3.75 V μm‑1 respectively from the morphology-optimized hierarchy. Beneficial orientation of the branched organic NWs ensures sequential electric field enhancement in the consecutive stem and branches whereas its low work function eases electron emission; these aspects combined together render an overall enhancement in the emission behavior of the hybrid system. As compared to individual building units, the heterostructures show improved field electron emission. Additionally, successful construction of this novel hybrid over a fabric platform displays great potential in opening up new pathways in the highly-anticipated field of flexible electronics.

  14. p-Cu2O/n-ZnO heterojunction fabricated by hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Wei; Dong, Hailiang; Zhao, Junfu; Dang, Suihu; Zhang, Zhuxia; Li, Tianbao; Liu, Xuguang; Xu, Bingshe

    2012-11-01

    The heterojunction composed of p-type Cu2O film and n-type ZnO nanorod arrays was fabricated by using hydrothermal method. The Cu2O film with a thickness of 1.5 μm and a preferential (111) orientation grew on the ZnO nanorod arrays with length of around 1 μm. The hydrothermal growth approach of Cu2O/ZnO heterojunction was analyzed by characterizing the samples prepared with different aging times. Typical solar cell behavior of the Cu2O/ZnO heterojunction was evaluated, with the short circuit current density ( J sc) of 7.8~mA/cm2, the open circuit voltage ( V oc) of 0.36 V, and the fill factor (FF) of 0.31. Owing to the large J sc of the heterojunction cell, its photovoltaic conversion efficiency (PCE) was found to be 0.86 %. This study demonstrates that the hydrothermal method is a promising technique for a large-scale fabrication of low-cost heterojunction, which is expected to have wide application in solar energy field.

  15. Scaling behavior of ZnPc thin films grown on CuI interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jinho; Jin, Sung-Il; Park, Chan Ryang; Yim, Sanggyu

    2015-01-01

    The growth behavior and consequent surface morphology evolution of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) thin films deposited on a CuI interlayer were studied using atomic force microscopy and height difference correlation function (HDCF) analysis. The planar phthalocyanine thin films grown on non-interacting substrates have previously been reported to show anomalous scaling behavior such as large growth exponents, ß, sometimes larger than 0.5, and small anomaly values, ρ, typically smaller than 0.6. In contrast, ZnPc thin films on a CuI interlayer (CuI/ ZnPc) in this work showed conventional scaling behavior with a ß value of 0.26 ± 0.05 and a ρ value of 0.91. The HDCF analyses and x-ray diffraction results indicate that the expected interdigitated electron donor-acceptor interface was hardly formed for the CuI/ZnPc thin film system due to the lack of surface-parallel crystallites with high step edge barriers.

  16. Study on structure and properties of CuZn40Pb alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achiţei, D. C.; Minciună, M. G.; Vizureanu, P.; Sandu, A. V.; Cimpoeşu, R.; Istrate, B.

    2016-06-01

    The paper shows aspects about the behavior of Cu-Zn-Pb alloys a subjected to the temperatures variation and corrosion resistance in saline medium (sea water). The chemical composition was determined by spectral analysis on optical spectrometer, type Foundry Masters. The experiments are completed by a microstructure analysis made on scanning electronic microscope.

  17. Wetting and Interfacial Chemistry of Sn-Zn-Ga Alloys with Cu Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gancarz, Tomasz; Fima, Przemyslaw

    2016-04-01

    Wetting of Cu pads by Sn-Zn eutectic-based alloys with 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 wt.% of Ga was studied using the sessile drop method in the presence of ALU33® flux. Wetting tests were performed at 250 °C after 60, 180, 480, 900, 1800, and 3600 s of contact, and at 230, 280, 320 °C for a contact time of 480 s. After cleaning the flux residue from solidified samples, the spreadability of Sn-Zn-Ga on Cu was determined in accordance with ISO 9455-10:2013-03. Selected, solidified solder-pad couples were cross-sectioned and subjected to scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction study of the interfacial microstructure. Growth of the intermetallic Cu5Zn8 and CuZn4 phase layers was studied at the solder-pad interface. Samples after spreading test at 250 °C for 60 s were subjected to aging for 1, 10, and 30 days at 170 °C.

  18. Band Alignment Engineering at Cu2O/ZnO Heterointerfaces.

    PubMed

    Siol, Sebastian; Hellmann, Jan C; Tilley, S David; Graetzel, Michael; Morasch, Jan; Deuermeier, Jonas; Jaegermann, Wolfram; Klein, Andreas

    2016-08-24

    Energy band alignments at heterointerfaces play a crucial role in defining the functionality of semiconductor devices, yet the search for material combinations with suitable band alignments remains a challenge for numerous applications. In this work, we demonstrate how changes in deposition conditions can dramatically influence the functional properties of an interface, even within the same material system. The energy band alignment at the heterointerface between Cu2O and ZnO was studied using photoelectron spectroscopy with stepwise deposition of ZnO onto Cu2O and vice versa. A large variation of energy band alignment depending on the deposition conditions of the