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Sample records for al electrolytic workers

  1. [Alteration of neurobehavioral and autonomic nervous function in aluminum electrolytic workers].

    PubMed

    He, Shuchang; Zhang, Aimin; Niu, Qiao; Wang, Sheng; Chen, Yilan

    2003-05-01

    In order to explore the impairment of Aluminum on the neurobehavioral, autonomic nervous function. Neurobehavioral test battery (NCTB) recommended by WHO and autonomic nervous system (ANS) function test recommended by Ewing DJ were conducted in 32 Al electrolytic workers and 34 controls. Results showed that the scores of confusion-bewilderment and tension-anxious in Al exposed workers were higher than that of control group, while the scores of POMSA, POMSD, POMSF and POMSV in Al-exposed group had no obvious change. The scores of DSY, PA and PAC were lower than that of control group. The scores of DSPF, DDSPB, DSP, SANN, SANP and BVR had no significant alteration. R-R interval variability of maximin ratio of immediate standing up, which reflects parasympathetic nervous modification ability in aluminum electrolytic workers, was lower than that of the control group. This implied that Al exposure had adverse impact on workers' mood state, neurobehavioral and parasympathetic nervous function.

  2. Neurobehavioral, autonomic nervous function and lymphocyte subsets among aluminum electrolytic workers.

    PubMed

    He, S C; Qiao, N; Sheng, W

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to determine the alteration of neurobehavioral parameters, autonomic nervous function and lymphocyte subsets in aluminum electrolytic workers of long-term aluminum exposure. 33 men who were 35.16 +/- 2.95 (mean +/- S.D) years old occupationally exposed to aluminum for 14.91 +/- 6.31 (mean +/- S.D) years. Air Al level and urinary aluminum concentration was measured by means of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Normal reference group were selected from a flour plant. Neurobehavioral core test battery (NCTB) recommended by WHO was utilized. Autonomic nervous function test battery recommended by Ewing DJ was conducted on subjects. FAC SCAN was used to measure the lymphocyte subsets of peripheral blood. The mean air aluminum level in the workshop was 6.36 mg/m3, ranged from 2.90 to 11.38 mg/m3. Urinary aluminum of the Al electrolytic workers (40.08 +/- 9.36 microgram/mg.cre) was obviously higher than that of control group (26.84 +/- 8.93 m/mg.cre). Neurobehavioral results showed that the scores of DSY, PAC and PA in Al electrolytic workers were significantly lower than those of control group, The score of POMSC, POMSF and SRT among Al exposed workers were significantly augmented in relation to those of control group. Autonomic nervous function test results showed that R-R interval variability of maximum ratio of immediately standing up in Al electrolytic workers were decreased compare with the control group, while the BP-IS, HR-V, HR-DB, R30:15 had no significant change. Peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets test showed that CD4-CD8+ T lymphocyte in Al electrolytic workers increased. This study suggests that Al exposure exerts adverse effects on neurobehavioral performance, especially movement coordination and negative mood, and parasympathetic nervous function; moreover it increase CD4-CD8+ T lymphocyte subsets.

  3. [Working conditions and occupational pathology in electrolytic nickel refinery workers].

    PubMed

    Siurin, S A; Burakova, O A

    2012-01-01

    The working conditions during electrolytic nickel refinery correspond to Class 3, Grade 3-4, which may give rise to health problems in workers of all occupations employed in this production. Their risk and prevalence are significantly higher in the most exposed occupational group, such as electrolysis workers (40.1% of all cases). The structure of occupational diseases is dominated by respiratory diseases (68.8%), mainly due to exposure to aerosols of nickel compounds. It is concluded that working conditions and medical prevention interventions should be improved for this group of workers. PMID:22834262

  4. A Rechargeable Al/S Battery with an Ionic-Liquid Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tao; Li, Xiaogang; Wang, Xiwen; Hu, Junkai; Han, Fudong; Fan, Xiulin; Suo, Liumin; Pearse, Alex J; Lee, Sang Bok; Rubloff, Gary W; Gaskell, Karen J; Noked, Malachi; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-08-16

    Aluminum metal is a promising anode material for next generation rechargeable batteries owing to its abundance, potentially dendrite-free deposition, and high capacity. The rechargeable aluminum/sulfur (Al/S) battery is of great interest owing to its high energy density (1340 Wh kg(-1) ) and low cost. However, Al/S chemistry suffers poor reversibility owing to the difficulty of oxidizing AlSx . Herein, we demonstrate the first reversible Al/S battery in ionic-liquid electrolyte with an activated carbon cloth/sulfur composite cathode. Electrochemical, spectroscopic, and microscopic results suggest that sulfur undergoes a solid-state conversion reaction in the electrolyte. Kinetics analysis identifies that the slow solid-state sulfur conversion reaction causes large voltage hysteresis and limits the energy efficiency of the system.

  5. A Rechargeable Al/S Battery with an Ionic-Liquid Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tao; Li, Xiaogang; Wang, Xiwen; Hu, Junkai; Han, Fudong; Fan, Xiulin; Suo, Liumin; Pearse, Alex J; Lee, Sang Bok; Rubloff, Gary W; Gaskell, Karen J; Noked, Malachi; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-08-16

    Aluminum metal is a promising anode material for next generation rechargeable batteries owing to its abundance, potentially dendrite-free deposition, and high capacity. The rechargeable aluminum/sulfur (Al/S) battery is of great interest owing to its high energy density (1340 Wh kg(-1) ) and low cost. However, Al/S chemistry suffers poor reversibility owing to the difficulty of oxidizing AlSx . Herein, we demonstrate the first reversible Al/S battery in ionic-liquid electrolyte with an activated carbon cloth/sulfur composite cathode. Electrochemical, spectroscopic, and microscopic results suggest that sulfur undergoes a solid-state conversion reaction in the electrolyte. Kinetics analysis identifies that the slow solid-state sulfur conversion reaction causes large voltage hysteresis and limits the energy efficiency of the system. PMID:27417442

  6. Rechargeable Al/Cl2 battery with molten AlCl4/-/ electrolyte.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G. L.; Giner, J.; Burrows, B.

    1972-01-01

    A molten salt system based on Al- and Cl2 carbon electrodes, with an AlCl3 alkali chloride eutectic as electrolyte, offers promise as a rechargeable, high energy density battery which can operate at a relatively low temperature. Electrode kinetic studies showed that the electrode reactions at the Al anode were rapid and that the observed passivation phenomena were due to the formation at the electrode surface of a solid salt layer resulting from concentration changes on anodic or cathodic current flow. It was established that carbon electrodes were intrinsically active for chlorine reduction in AlCl3-alkali chloride melts. By means of a rotating vitreous carbon disk electrode, the kinetic parameters were determined.

  7. All-solid-state Al-air batteries with polymer alkaline gel electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhao; Zuo, Chuncheng; Liu, Zihui; Yu, Ying; Zuo, Yuxin; Song, Yu

    2014-04-01

    Aluminum-air (Al-air) battery is one of the most promising candidates for next-generation energy storage systems because of its high capacity and energy density, and abundance. The polyacrylic acid (PAA)-based alkaline gel electrolyte is used in all-solid-state Al-air batteries instead of aqueous electrolytes to prevent leakage. The optimal gel electrolyte exhibits an ionic conductivity of 460 mS cm-1, which is close to that of aqueous electrolytes. The Al-air battery peak capacity and energy density considering only Al can reach 1166 mAh g-1-Al and 1230 mWh g-1-Al, respectively, during constant current discharge. The battery prototype also exhibits a high power density of 91.13 mW cm-2. For the battery is a laminated structure, area densities of 29.2 mAh cm-2 and 30.8 mWh cm-2 are presented to appraise the performance of the whole cell. A novel design to inhibit anodic corrosion is proposed by separating the Al anode from the gel electrolyte when not in use, thereby effectively maintaining the available capacity of the battery.

  8. Electrolytes

    MedlinePlus

    ... body fluids that carry an electric charge. Electrolytes affect how your body functions in many ways, including: The amount of water in your body The acidity of your blood (pH) Your muscle function Other important processes You lose ...

  9. The Interplay of Al and Mg Speciation in Advanced Mg Battery Electrolyte Solutions.

    PubMed

    See, Kimberly A; Chapman, Karena W; Zhu, Lingyang; Wiaderek, Kamila M; Borkiewicz, Olaf J; Barile, Christopher J; Chupas, Peter J; Gewirth, Andrew A

    2016-01-13

    Mg batteries are an attractive alternative to Li-based energy storage due to the possibility of higher volumetric capacities with the added advantage of using sustainable materials. A promising emerging electrolyte for Mg batteries is the magnesium aluminum chloride complex (MACC) which shows high Mg electrodeposition and stripping efficiencies and relatively high anodic stabilities. As prepared, MACC is inactive with respect to Mg deposition; however, efficient Mg electrodeposition can be achieved following an electrolytic conditioning process. Through the use of Raman spectroscopy, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, (27)Al and (35)Cl nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and pair distribution function analysis, we explore the active vs inactive complexes in the MACC electrolyte and demonstrate the codependence of Al and Mg speciation. These techniques report on significant changes occurring in the bulk speciation of the conditioned electrolyte relative to the as-prepared solution. Analysis shows that the active Mg complex in conditioned MACC is very likely the [Mg2(μ-Cl)3·6THF](+) complex that is observed in the solid state structure. Additionally, conditioning creates free Cl(-) in the electrolyte solution, and we suggest the free Cl(-) adsorbs at the electrode surface to enhance Mg electrodeposition.

  10. Plasma electrolytic oxidation coating of synthetic Al-Mg binary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Tarakci, Mehmet

    2011-12-15

    The binary Al-Mg synthetic alloys were prepared in a vacuum/atmosphere controlled furnace with the addition of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 7, and 15 wt.% pure Mg into pure aluminum as substrate material. The surfaces of the Al-Mg alloys and pure aluminum were coated for 120 min by plasma electrolytic oxidation in the same electrolyte of 12 g/L sodium silicate and 2 g/L KOH in distilled water. The coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, profilometry and Vickers microhardness measurements. There regions of loose outer layer, dense inner layer with precipitate like particles of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and a thin transition layer were identified for the coated samples. The coating thickness increases from 85 to 150 {mu}m with Mg contents in the alloys. The surface morphology becomes more porous and consequently surface roughness tends to increase with plasma electrolytic oxidation treatment and further with Mg content. The increase in magnesium content reduces the formation of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and crystalline mullite phases in the coating and decreases microhardness of coating. The Mg concentration is constant throughout the other loose and dense regions of coating though it gradually decreases in the thin inner region. - Research Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The average thickness of PEO coating of Al-Mg alloys increases with Mg content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The addition of Mg reduces and prevents the formation of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and mullite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface roughness increases with Mg content in the Al-Mg alloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hardness values of the coating decreases with the Mg amount in the substrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Mg concentration is constant throughout the main regions of coating.

  11. Ion conduction and relaxation in PEO-LiTFSI-Al2O3 polymer nanocomposite electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S.; Ghosh, A.

    2015-05-01

    Ion conduction and relaxation in PEO-LiTFSI-Al2O3 polymer nanocomposite electrolytes have been studied for different concentrations of Al2O3 nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetric studies show that the maximum amorphous phase of PEO is observed for PEO-LiTFSI embedded with 5 wt. % Al2O3. The maximum ionic conductivity ˜3.3 × 10-4 S cm-1 has been obtained for this composition. The transmission electron microscopic image shows a distribution of Al2O3 nanoparticles in all compositions with size of <50 nm. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity follows Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher nature, indicating a strong coupling between ionic and polymer chain segmental motions. The scaling of the ac conductivity implies that relaxation dynamics follows a common mechanism for different temperatures and Al2O3 concentrations. The imaginary modulus spectra are asymmetric and skewed toward the high frequency sides of the maxima and analyzed using Havriliak-Negami formalism. The temperature dependence of the relaxation time obtained from modulus spectra also exhibits Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher nature. The values of the stretched exponent obtained from Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts fit to the modulus data are fairly low, suggesting highly non-exponential relaxation for all concentrations of Al2O3 in these electrolytes.

  12. Polystyrene-Al2O3 composite solid polymer electrolyte for lithium secondary battery.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yu-Jeong; An, Yu-Ha; Jo, Nam-Ju

    2012-01-05

    In a common salt-in-polymer electrolyte, a polymer which has polar groups in the molecular chain is necessary because the polar groups dissolve lithium salt and coordinate cations. Based on the above point of view, polystyrene [PS] that has nonpolar groups is not suitable for the polymer matrix. However, in this PS-based composite polymer-in-salt system, the transport of cations is not by segmental motion but by ion-hopping through a lithium percolation path made of high content lithium salt. Moreover, Al2O3 can dissolve salt, instead of polar groups of polymer matrix, by the Lewis acid-base interactions between the surface group of Al2O3 and salt. Notably, the maximum enhancement of ionic conductivity is found in acidic Al2O3 compared with neutral and basic Al2O3 arising from the increase of free ion fraction by dissociation of salt. It was revealed that PS-Al2O3 composite solid polymer electrolyte containing 70 wt.% salt and 10 wt.% acidic Al2O3 showed the highest ionic conductivity of 9.78 × 10-5 Scm-1 at room temperature.

  13. Influence of Al2O3 on the ionic conductivity of plasticized PVC-PEG blend polymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravindran, D.; Vickraman, P.

    2016-05-01

    Polymer electrolytes with PVC-PEG blend as host matrix and LiClO4 as dopant salt was prepared through conventional solution casting method. To enhance the conductivity propylene carbonate (PC) was used as plasticizer. The influence of ceramic filler Al2O3 on the conductivity of the electrolyte films were studied by varying the (PVC: Al2O3) ratio. The films were subjected to XRD, complex impedance analysis and SEM analysis. The XRD studies reveal a marginal increase in the amorphous phase of the electrolyte films due to the incorporation of filler. The AC impedance analysis shows the dependency of ionic conductivity on the content (wt %) of filler and exhibit a maximum at 4 wt% filler. The SEM analysis depicts the occurrence of phase separation in electrolyte which is attributed to the poor solubility of polymer PVC in the liquid electrolyte.

  14. Liquid electrolyte-free cylindrical Al polymer capacitor review: Materials and characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Jeeyoung; Kim, Jaegun; Kim, Youn Sang

    2015-06-01

    The manufacturing methods for liquid electrolyte-free Al polymer capacitors are introduced by using new materials like novel oxidants, separators and negative current collectors. The Al polymer capacitor is constructed by an Al foil as an anode, Al2O3 as a dielectric, and poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as a cathode. There are also various synthetic methods of 3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) and the chemical polymerization of PEDOT from EDOT using iron benzenesulfonate as a new oxidant and dopant. Furthermore, various cathodic current collectors such as conventional Al foils, carbon and titanium dioxide deposited on Al foils or substrates, as well as various separators with manila-esparto paper and synthetic fibers (series of acryl, PET, etc.) are studied. The Al polymer capacitors with the newly introduced oxidant (iron benzenesulfonate), separator (aramid based synthetic fibers) and current collector (TiO2) exhibit considerably enhanced capacitance values and the extremely low resistance (7 mΩ), so there is low power consumption and high reliability. Additionally, the newly developed Al polymer capacitor is guaranteed for 5,000 h at 125 °C, which means there is a long life time operation over ∼ 5 × 106 h at 65 °C.

  15. Violence against Primary Health Care Workers in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; El-Wehady, Adel; Amr, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    This self-report questionnaire study was carried out in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia to highlight the magnitude, predictors, and circumstances of workplace violence against primary health care (PHC) workers. A total of 1,091 workers completed a self-administered questionnaire. About 28% were exposed to at least one violent event during the past year.…

  16. Treatment of electrochemical cell components with lithium tetrachloroaluminate (LiAlCl.sub.4) to promote electrolyte wetting

    DOEpatents

    Eberhart, James G.; Battles, James E.

    1980-01-01

    Electrochemical cell components such as interelectrode separators, retaining screens and current collectors are contacted with lithium tetrachloroaluminate prior to contact with molten electrolytic salt to improve electrolyte wetting. The LiAlCl.sub.4 can be applied in powdered, molten or solution form but, since this material has a lower melting point than the electrolytic salt used in high-temperature cells, the powdered LiAlCl.sub.4 forms a molten flux prior to contact by the molten electrolyte when both materials are initially provided in solid form. Components of materials such as boron nitride and other materials which are difficult to wet with molten salts are advantageously treated by this process.

  17. Modification of LiCl-LiBr-KBr electrolyte for LiAl/FeS{sub 2} batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kaun, T.D.; Jansen, A.N.; Henriksen, G.L.; Vissers, D.R.

    1996-06-01

    The bipolar LiAl/FeS{sub 2} battery is being developed to achieve the high performance and long cycle life needed for electric vehicle application. The molten-salt (400 to 440 C operation) electrolyte composition for this battery has evolved to support these objectives. An earlier change to LiCl-LiBr-KBr electrolyte is responsible for significantly increased cycle life (up to 1,000 cycles). Recent electrolyte modification has significantly improved cell performance; approximately 50% increased power, with increased high rate capacity utilization. Results are based on power-demanding EV driving profile test at 600 W/kg. The effects of adding small amounts (1--5 mol%) of LiF and LiI to LiCl-LiBr-KBr electrolyte are discussed. By cyclic voltammetry, the modified electrolytes exhibit improved FeS{sub 2} electrochemistry. Electrolyte conductivity is little changed, but high current density (200 mA/cm{sup 2}) performance improved by approximately 50%. A specific feature of the LiI addition is an enhanced cell overcharge tolerance rate from 2.5 to 5 mA/cm{sup 2}. The rate of overcharge tolerance is related to electrolyte properties and negative electrode lithium activity. As a result, the charge balancing of a bipolar battery configuration with molten-salt electrolyte is improved to accept greater cell-to-cell deviations.

  18. The effect of grain size on aluminum anodes for Al-air batteries in alkaline electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Liang; Lu, Huimin

    2015-06-01

    Aluminum is an ideal material for metallic fuel cells. In this research, different grain sizes of aluminum anodes are prepared by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) at room temperature. Microstructure of the anodes is examined by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in scanning electron microscope (SEM). Hydrogen corrosion rates of the Al anodes in 4 mol L-1 NaOH are determined by hydrogen collection method. The electrochemical properties of the aluminum anodes are investigated in the same electrolyte using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization curves. Battery performance is also tested by constant current discharge at different current densities. Results confirm that the electrochemical properties of the aluminum anodes are related to grain size. Finer grain size anode restrains hydrogen evolution, improves electrochemical activity and increases anodic utilization rate. The proposed method is shown to effectively improve the performance of Al-air batteries.

  19. Influence of AL2O3 Nanoparticles on the Phase Matrix of Polyethylene Oxide - Silver Triflate Polymer Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suthanthiraraj, S. Austin; Sheeba, D. Joice

    2006-06-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes comprising polyethylene oxide (PEO), silver triflate (AgCF3SO3) and varying weight percentage of Al2O3 (0, 2, 5, 10, 15) nanoparticles, were prepared by solution casting technique using acetonitrile as the common solvent. These polymer electrolytes were formed as very thin films of large surface area and the thickness of these films was measured using Air-Wedge technique. Typical values for the thickness of these films ranged from 30 to 100 μm. The effect of the dispersion of various amounts of Al2O3 nanoparticles in polyethylene oxide - silver triflate polymer electrolytes was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Wagner's polarization techniques. The X-ray diffraction pattern, indicated the amorphous nature of the polymer electrolyte. The DSC traces showed slight change in the glass transition temperature (Tg), whereas the degree of crystallization (Xc) decreased from 99.2%(pure PEO) to 27.3% for the nano - Al2O3 blended polymer electrolytes. The total ionic transference number (tion) calculated by wagner's polarization technique was found to be approximately unity, reveling that the significant contribution to electrical conduction was due to ions.

  20. In situ fabrication of blue ceramic coatings on wrought Al Alloy 2024 by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhijiang; Nie Xueyuan; Hu, Henry; Hussein, Riyad O.

    2012-03-15

    In situ formation of ceramic coatings on 2024 Al alloy with a blue color was successfully achieved using a plasma electrolytic oxidation process working at atmospheric pressure. This novel blue ceramic coating overcomes the shortcomings of surface treatments resulting from conventional dyeing processes by depositing organic dyes into the porous structure of anodic film, which has poor resistance to abrasion and rapid fading when exposed to sunlight. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy were employed to characterize the microstructure of the blue ceramic coating. The fabricated ceramic coating was composed of CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3.} By controlling the working parameters, the distribution of the CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase on the surface can be adjusted, and plays a key role in the appearance of the coating. Electrochemical testing, thermal cycling method, and pin-on-disk sliding wear testing were employed to evaluate corrosion, thermal cycling, and wear resistance of the ceramic coatings. The results indicate that the blue ceramic coating has a similar polarization resistance to that of conventional anodic film and can significantly enhance the corrosion resistance of aluminum alloy. There are no destructive horizontal cracks observed within the blue ceramic coating when subjected to 120 times of thermal cycling, which heats the samples up to 573 K and followed by submersion in water at room temperature for 10 min. Compared with the aluminum substrate as well as a conventional anodic film coated aluminum sample, the wear resistance of the blue ceramic coating coated sample was significantly increased while the coefficient of friction was decreased from 0.34 to 0.14.

  1. Enhanced lithium battery with polyethylene oxide-based electrolyte containing silane-Al2 O3 ceramic filler.

    PubMed

    Zewde, Berhanu W; Admassie, Shimelis; Zimmermann, Jutta; Isfort, Christian Schulze; Scrosati, Bruno; Hassoun, Jusef

    2013-08-01

    A solid polymer electrolyte prepared by using a solvent-free, scalable technique is reported. The membrane is formed by low-energy ball milling followed by hot-pressing of dry powdered polyethylene oxide polymer, LiCF3 SO3 salt, and silane-treated Al2 O3 (Al2 O3 -ST) ceramic filler. The effects of the ceramic fillers on the properties of the ionically conducting solid electrolyte membrane are characterized by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, XRD, differential scanning calorimeter, SEM, and galvanostatic cycling in lithium cells with a LiFePO4 cathode. We demonstrate that the membrane containing Al2 O3 -ST ceramic filler performs well in terms of ionic conductivity, thermal properties, and lithium transference number. Furthermore, we show that the lithium cells, which use the new electrolyte together with the LiFePO4 electrode, operate within 65 and 90 °C with high efficiency and long cycle life. Hence, the Al2 O3 -ST ceramic can be efficiently used as a ceramic filler to enhance the performance of solid polymer electrolytes in lithium batteries.

  2. Corrosion and wear properties of PEO coatings formed on AM60B alloy in NaAlO 2 electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xijin; Liu, XingYang; Luan, Ben Li

    2011-08-01

    Coatings with a thickness of 22-32 μm were formed on an AM60B magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in electrolytes containing 12.0-24.0 g/l NaAlO 2 and other additives. SEM analyses of the coated samples showed that the coatings were compact with relatively low porosity. X-ray diffraction revealed that the coatings consisted of mainly MgAl 2O 4 and MgO phases. The relative amount of MgAl 2O 4 in the coating increased with increasing NaAlO 2 concentration. The relatively compact and thick coatings provide good corrosion protection for magnesium, as indicated by the results of potentiodynamic polarization tests. In addition, the PEO treatment also significantly improved the wear resistance of the alloy. Pin-on-disk wear tests showed that the PEO treatment reduced the wear volume loss by a factor of 10.

  3. Matrix of rectangular pores obtained by AFM nanoindentation and electrolytic oxidation of Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belca, I. D.; Petkovic, M.; Stojadinovic, S.; Kasalica, B.; Belca, J. S.; Zekovic, Lj. D.

    2011-07-01

    AFM nanoindentation is used for pretexturing of Al sample intended for anodic oxidation in porous film-forming electrolytes. The rectangular quadratic and non-quadratic matrices of nanoindents were made by means of an AFM with diamond tip. The period of the 2D array of nanoindented concaves ranged from ˜50 to ˜370 nm. The pitch of the holes ranged from 13 to 170 nm. After anodization in water solutions of three different acids (0.3 M sulfuric, 0.3 M oxalic and 0.3 M phosphoric) at voltages chosen according to matrix period (20, 30 and 160 V), the well-arranged matrices of rectangular pores were obtained. The rectangular symmetry of the pretextured Al surface almost ideally transferred on porous alumina matrix, maintaining the highly ordered arrangement of the pores and rectangular cross section trough the whole film thickness with high pore depth to aperture size aspect ratio. During prolonged anodization in phosphoric acid, standard cells on the boundary of nanoindented area disturbed the arrangement and shape of quadratic cells.

  4. Electrolytic LiCl precipitation from LiCl-KCl melt in porous Li-Al anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Vallet, C.E.; Heatherly, D.E.; Heatherly, L. Jr.; Braunstein, J.

    1983-12-01

    Composition gradients such as those predicted to occur during discharge of porous Li-Al negative electrodes of Li/S batteries with LiCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte were generated and measured in the LiCl-KCl anolyte of an electrolysis cell with Li-Al electrodes. Precipitation of lithium chloride during electrolysis was observed by two-dimensional scanning of electrolyte composition in the front part of quenched porous Li-Al anode sections using SEM/EDX. The distribution of sites of increased or decreased LiCl concentration, LiCl saturation and precipitation was mapped. Cathodic regions were observed near the cell walls. Preliminary results of analysis by Auger spectroscopy confirm LiCl precipitation in the porous anode. 16 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  5. Electrolytic LiCl precipitation from LiCl-KCl melt in porous Li-Al anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallet, C. E.; Heatherly, D. E.; Heatherly, L., Jr.; Braunstein, J.

    1983-12-01

    Composition gradients such as those predicted to occur during discharge of porous Li-Al negative electrodes of Li/S batteries with LiCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte were generated and measured in the LiCl-KCl anolyte of an electrolysis cell with Li-Al electrodes. Precipitation of lithium chloride during electrolysis was observed by two-dimensional scanning of electrolyte composition in the front part of quenched porous Li-Al anode sections using SEM/EDX. The distribution of sites of increased or decreased LiCl concentration, LiCl saturation and precipitation was mapped. Cathodic regions were observed near the cell walls. Preliminary results of analysis by Auger spectroscopy confirm LiCl precipitation in the porous anode.

  6. A LiAl/Cl2 battery with a four-component alkali-metal chloride electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Daniel L.; Bennion, Douglas N.

    1989-12-01

    A LiAl/Cl2 cell operating at 280 C was investigated. This electrolyte is a mixture of LiC, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl with a eutectic melting point of 258 C. The positive electrode is a gas-diffusion electrode formed by coating one side of a porous carbon electrode with PTCE. The limiting discharge current of the cell was controlled by solid-state diffusion of Li in the LiAl alloy. Polarization of Cl2 electrode was caused by the low cross-sectional area of the electrolyte film compared with the pore cross-sectional area. Deactivation of the positive electrode was caused by impurities, such as Cu(+), in the electrolyte. Mathematical models of the negative and positive electrodes in a LiAl/Cl2 cell with a gas diffusion Cl2 electrode have been formulated. A thin film gas diffusion electrode model was used for the positive electrode, while solid-state diffusion of Li-in alpha-LiAl was assumed to limit the negative electrode and the cell current. Comparison of the experimental results with the model indicate that the diffusivity of Li in alpha-LiAl is of the order of 10 to the -12 sq cm/sec.

  7. Tribological Study on Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Treatment in Al-Si Alloys for Engine Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiliat, Hoda

    Automotive industry strives to reach an optimum level of fuel economy. This can be achieved by overcoming two impacting factors on fuel consumption: weight and friction force. This research contributes to reduce both. The proposed surface treatment can replace cylinder liners of hypoeutectic aluminum silicon alloy engine blocks with a thin layer of ceramic oxide composed of alpha and gamma phases of Al2O3 and mullite. The coatings are achieved in an aqueous electrolytic bath with current densities of 0.1 to 0.2 A/cm2. Coatings produced in silicate based solutions have shown good adaptability to the counter surface with an average 0.12 coefficient of friction. Coatings produced in phosphate and aluminate solution have shown signs of delamination, and excessive porosity and roughness respectively. Coatings produced under Bipolar Pulsed Direct Current mode has up to 12% higher hardness values compared to unipolar coatings. For each increment of 0.2 A/cm2 current density, there is a 30% of increase in coating growth rate. Higher pH values of the solution creates faster growth rate up to 1.5 mu/min. These coatings are 20% more susceptible to wear. Samples treated in MoS2 solution showed 22% lower average roughness values and 37% of reduction in coefficient of friction. Mild wear scars on the piston rings were detected for the optimized coatings.

  8. Composite plasma electrolytic oxidation to improve the thermal radiation performance and corrosion resistance on an Al substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Donghyun; Sung, Dahye; Lee, Junghoon; Kim, Yonghwan; Chung, Wonsub

    2015-12-01

    A composite plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) was performed for enhancing the thermal radiation performance and corrosion resistance on an Al alloy by dispersing cupric oxide (CuO) particles in a conventional PEO electrolyte. Cu-based oxides (CuO and Cu2O) formed by composite PEO increased the emissivity of the substrate to 0.892, and made the surface being dark color, similar to a black body, i.e., an ideal radiator. In addition, the corrosion resistance was analyzed using potentio-dynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests in 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution. An optimum condition of 10 ampere per square decimeter (ASD) current density and 30 min processing time produced appropriate surface morphologies and coating thicknesses, as well as dense Cu- and Al-based oxides that constituted the coating layers.

  9. A LiAl/Cl sub 2 battery with a four-component alkali-metal chloride electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.L. ); Bennion, D.N. )

    1989-01-01

    A LiAl/Cl{sub 2} cell operating at 280{degrees}C was investigated. The electrolyte is a mixture of LiCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl with a eutectic melting point of 258 {degrees}C. The positive electrode is a gas-diffusion electrode formed by coating one side of a porous carbon electrode with PTFE. The limiting discharge current of the cell was controlled by solid-state diffusion of Li in the LiA1 alloy. Polarization of the Cl{sub 2} electrode was caused by the low cross-sectional area of the electrolyte film compared with the pore cross-sectional area. Deactivation of the positive electrode was caused by impurities, such as Cu{sup +}, in the electrolyte. Mathematical models of the negative and positive electrodes in a LiAl/Cl{sub 2} cell with a gas diffusion Cl{sub 2} electrode have been formulated. A thin film gas diffusion electrode model was used for the positive electrode, while solid-state diffusion of Li in {alpha}-LiAl was assumed to limit the negative electrode and the cell current. The thin film is liquid salt on the porous electrode walls through which chlorine diffuses.

  10. LiAl/Cl/sub 2/ battery with a four-component alkali-metal chloride electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    A LiAl/Cl/sub 2/ cell operating at 280/sup 0/ was demonstrated. The electrolyte is a mixture of LiCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCL with a eutectic melting point of 258/sup 0/C. Physical properties of the melt and the Cl/sub 2/-melt system were measured. Two types of Cl/sub 2/ electrodes were tested. The discharge current in the flow-through Cl/sub 2/ electrode was limited by the high viscosity of the electrolyte (40 cP), which limited the flow rate and Cl/sub 2/ supply through the graphite cloth electrode. Currents as high as 50 mA/cm/sup 2/ were observed with the gas-diffusion Cl/sub 2/ electrode. The capacity of the cell was limited by the LiAl electrode. The gas-diffusion electrode reaction volume was modeled as a meniscus film in a cylindrical pore. The model indicates that high polarization of the positive electrode is caused by the small ratio of film cross-sectional area to pore cross-sectional area, necessitating high film currents to support modest bulk electrolyte currents. Modeling indicated that the negative electrode rate was limited by solid-state diffusion of Li through the LiAl.

  11. Porous α-Al2O3 thermal barrier coatings with dispersed Pt particles prepared by cathode plasma electrolytic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; He, Ye-dong; Deng, Shun-jie; Zhang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Porous α-Al2O3 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) containing dispersed Pt particles were prepared by cathode plasma electrolytic deposition (CPED). The influence of the Pt particles on the microstructure of the coatings and the CPED process were studied. The prepared coatings were mainly composed of α-Al2O3. The average thickness of the coatings was approximately 100 μm. Such single-layer TBCs exhibited not only excellent high-temperature cyclic oxidation and spallation resistance, but also good thermal insulation properties. Porous α-Al2O3 TBCs inhibit further oxidation of alloy substrates because of their extremely low oxygen diffusion rate, provide good thermal insulation because of their porous structure, and exhibit excellent mechanical properties because of the toughening effect of the Pt particles and because of stress relaxation induced by deformation of the porous structure.

  12. Ion conduction and relaxation in PEO-LiTFSI-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} polymer nanocomposite electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.; Ghosh, A.

    2015-05-07

    Ion conduction and relaxation in PEO-LiTFSI-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} polymer nanocomposite electrolytes have been studied for different concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetric studies show that the maximum amorphous phase of PEO is observed for PEO-LiTFSI embedded with 5 wt. % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The maximum ionic conductivity ∼3.3 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} has been obtained for this composition. The transmission electron microscopic image shows a distribution of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles in all compositions with size of <50 nm. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity follows Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher nature, indicating a strong coupling between ionic and polymer chain segmental motions. The scaling of the ac conductivity implies that relaxation dynamics follows a common mechanism for different temperatures and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations. The imaginary modulus spectra are asymmetric and skewed toward the high frequency sides of the maxima and analyzed using Havriliak-Negami formalism. The temperature dependence of the relaxation time obtained from modulus spectra also exhibits Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher nature. The values of the stretched exponent obtained from Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts fit to the modulus data are fairly low, suggesting highly non-exponential relaxation for all concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in these electrolytes.

  13. Plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings on γTiAl alloy for potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Lara Rodriguez, L; Sundaram, P A; Rosim-Fachini, E; Padovani, A M; Diffoot-Carlo, N

    2014-07-01

    In an attempt to enhance the potential of gamma titanium aluminide intermetallic alloy as a biomaterial, its surface characteristics were successfully modified using a calcium and phosphorous rich electrolyte through the application of plasma electrolytic oxidation. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to characterize the morphology and topographical features of the resulting coating while X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to determine the surface oxide composition. The mechanical properties of the surface coating were characterized by nanoindentation studies. The results observed show the formation of a submicron scale porous structure and a concomitant increase in the surface roughness. The surface oxide was composed of rutile and anatase phases. Composition gradients of Ca and P were also present which can possibly enhance the biomaterial application potential of this treated surface. Nanoindentation measurements indicate the formation of a fairly compact oxide during the process. PMID:24259371

  14. Microstructures and Properties of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidized Ti Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) for Bio-implant Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Renu; Blawert, Carsten; Majumdar, J. Dutta

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of Ti6Al4V has been performed in an electrolyte containing 20 g/L of Na2SiO3, 10 g/L of Na3PO4, 2 g/L of KOH, and 5 g/L of hydroxyapatite at an optimum constant potential of 430 V for 10 minutes. Followed by PEO treatment, surface roughness was measured using non-contact optical profilometer. A detailed characterization of microstructure, composition and phase analysis was carried out using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis, Fourier-transform infrared, and X-ray diffraction study. The mechanical properties of the surface have been evaluated by measuring nano-hardness and wear resistance. The effect of surface modification on corrosion resistance property has also been evaluated in Hank's solution. Finally, wettability and bioactivity test have been also performed. PEO developed a thick (150 μm) porous (35 pct) oxide film on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V consisting of anatase, rutile, and SiO2. The nano-hardness of the PEO-treated surface is increased to 8 ± 0.5 GPa as compared to 2 ± 0.4 GPa of the as-received Ti-6Al-4V. Wear and corrosion resistance were improved following oxidation. There is an improvement in wettability in terms of decrease in contact angle from 60 ± 1.5 to 45 ± 1 deg. Total surface energy and its polar component were also increased significantly on PEO-treated surface as compared to the as-received Ti6Al4V.

  15. Electrolyte loss in corrosion of 30Cr-45Ni-1Al-0.03 Y-Fe alloy for MCFC separator

    SciTech Connect

    Masamura, Katsumi; Ohe, Koichiro; Takemura, Masahiro

    1996-12-31

    To establish high performance of MCFC, a new high corrosion resistant alloy (30%Cr-45%Ni-1 %Al-0.03%Y-Fe) for MCFC separator has been developed. The developed alloy has good corrosion resistance for both anode and cathode environments. On the other hand, one of the main factors to determine the life time of MCFC stack is electrolyte loss. A potential danger of electrolyte loss cased by corrosion of metal components is pointed out. Basic mechanism of electrolyte loss is proposed according to following reactions. High Cr content alloy such as type 310S(25%Cr-20%Ni) has disadvantages in view of electrolyte loss in spite of high corrosion resistance. It is said that the dissolution of Cr ion into electrolyte is detrimental for electrolyte loss, because a mole of CrO{sub 4}{sup 2+} ion combines 2 moles of K{sup +} ions as K{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}, while a mole of Fe{sup 3+} ion combine a mole of Li{sup +} ion as LiFeO{sub 2}. To understand the mechanism of electrolyte loss due to corrosion of metal component, the distribution of metal ions in oxide and molten salt were studied.

  16. Preparation of biomedical Ag incorporated hydroxyapatite/titania coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lan; Lü, Guo-Hua; Mao, Fei-Fei; Yang, Si-Ze

    2014-03-01

    Nano-Ag incorporated hydroxyapatite/titania (HA/TiO2) coatings were deposited on Ti6Al4V substrates by the plasma electrolytic oxidation process. Compared with the substrate, the deposited coatings display attractive mechanical and biomedical properties. First, the coatings have stronger wear resistance and corrosion resistance. Second, they show a strong antibacterial ability. The mean vitality of the P. gingivalis on the coating surfaces is reduced to about 21%. Third, the coatings have good biocompatibility. The mean viability of the fibroblast cells on the coating surface is increased to about 130%. With these attractive properties, Ag incorporated HA/TiO2 coatings may be useful in the biomedical field.

  17. Structural and Electrochemical Consequences of Al and Ga Cosubstitution in Li7La3Zr2O12 Solid Electrolytes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Several “Beyond Li-Ion Battery” concepts such as all solid-state batteries and hybrid liquid/solid systems envision the use of a solid electrolyte to protect Li-metal anodes. These configurations are very attractive due to the possibility of exceptionally high energy densities and high (dis)charge rates, but they are far from being realized practically due to a number of issues including high interfacial resistance and difficulties associated with fabrication. One of the most promising solid electrolyte systems for these applications is Al or Ga stabilized Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) based on high ionic conductivities and apparent stability against reduction by Li metal. Nevertheless, the fabrication of dense LLZO membranes with high ionic conductivity and low interfacial resistances remains challenging; it definitely requires a better understanding of the structural and electrochemical properties. In this study, the phase transition from garnet (Ia3̅d, No. 230) to “non-garnet” (I4̅3d, No. 220) space group as a function of composition and the different sintering behavior of Ga and Al stabilized LLZO are identified as important factors in determining the electrochemical properties. The phase transition was located at an Al:Ga substitution ratio of 0.05:0.15 and is accompanied by a significant lowering of the activation energy for Li-ion transport to 0.26 eV. The phase transition combined with microstructural changes concomitant with an increase of the Ga/Al ratio continuously improves the Li-ion conductivity from 2.6 × 10–4 S cm–1 to 1.2 × 10–3 S cm–1, which is close to the calculated maximum for garnet-type materials. The increase in Ga content is also associated with better densification and smaller grains and is accompanied by a change in the area specific resistance (ASR) from 78 to 24 Ω cm2, the lowest reported value for LLZO so far. These results illustrate that understanding the structure–properties relationships in this class of materials

  18. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonate polystyrene-lignosulfonate-alumina (SPS-LS-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) polyblends as electrolyte membranes for fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Gonggo, Siang Tandi

    2015-09-30

    The new type of electrolyte membrane materials has been prepared by blend sulfonated polystyrene (SPS), lignosulfonate (LS), and alumina (SPS-LS-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) by casting polymer solution. The resulting polymer electrolyte membranes were then characterized by functional groups analysis, mechanical properties, water uptake, ion exchange capacity, and proton conductivity. SPS-LS-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membranes with alumina composition various have been proven qualitatively by analysis of functional groups. Increasing the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio resulted in higher ion exchange capacity (IEC), mechanical strength and proton conductivity, but water uptake decreased. The SPS-LS-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} blend showed higher proton conductivity than Nafion 117.

  19. Deposition of duplex Al 2O 3/aluminum coatings on steel using a combined technique of arc spraying and plasma electrolytic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Weichao; Shen, Dejiu; Wang, Yulin; Chen, Guangliang; Feng, Wenran; Zhang, Guling; Fan, Songhua; Liu, Chizi; Yang, Size

    2006-02-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a cost-effective technique that can be used to prepare ceramic coatings on metals such as Ti, Al, Mg, Nb, etc., and their alloys, but this promising technique cannot be used to modify the surface properties of steels, which are the most widely used materials in engineering. In order to prepare metallurgically bonded ceramic coatings on steels, a combined technique of arc spraying and plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) was adopted. In this work, metallurgically bonded ceramic coatings on steels were obtained using this method. We firstly prepared aluminum coatings on steels by arc spraying, and then obtained the metallurgically bonded ceramic coatings on aluminum coatings by PEO. The characteristics of duplex coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion and wear resistance of the ceramic coatings were also studied. The results show that, duplex Al 2O 3/aluminum coatings have been deposited on steel substrate after the combined treatment. The ceramic coatings are mainly composed of α-Al 2O 3, γ-Al 2O 3, θ-Al 2O 3 and some amorphous phase. The duplex coatings show favorable corrosion and wear resistance properties. The investigations indicate that the combination of arc spraying and plasma electrolytic oxidation proves a promising technique for surface modification of steels for protective purposes.

  20. The formation of tungsten doped Al2O3/ZnO coatings on aluminum by plasma electrolytic oxidation and their application in photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojadinović, Stevan; Vasilić, Rastko; Radić, Nenad; Tadić, Nenad; Stefanov, Plamen; Grbić, Boško

    2016-07-01

    Tungsten doped Al2O3/ZnO coatings are formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation of aluminum substrate in supporting electrolyte (0.1 M boric acid + 0.05 M borax + 2 g/L ZnO) with addition of different concentrations of Na2WO4·2H2O. The morphology, crystal structure, chemical composition, and light absorption characteristics of formed surface coatings are investigated. The X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate that formed surface coatings consist of alpha and gamma phase of Al2O3, ZnO, metallic tungsten and WO3. Obtained results showed that incorporated tungsten does not have any influence on the absorption spectra of Al2O3/ZnO coatings, which showed invariable band edge at about 385 nm. The photocatalytic activity of undoped and tungsten doped Al2O3/ZnO coatings is estimated by the photodegradation of methyl orange. The photocatalytic activity of tungsten doped Al2O3/ZnO coatings is higher thanof undoped Al2O3/ZnO coatings; the best photocatalytic activity is ascribed to coatings formed in supporting electrolyte with addition of 0.3 g/L Na2WO4·2H2O. Tungsten in Al2O3/ZnO coatings acts as a charge trap, thus reducing the recombination rate of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The results of PL measurements are in agreement with photocatalytic activity. Declining PL intensity corresponds to increasing photocatalytic activity of the coatings, indicating slower recombination of electron-hole pairs.

  1. Influence of Na2SiO3 addition on surface microstructure and cavitation damage characteristics for plasma electrolytic oxidation of Al-Mg alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Hyung; Son, Chang-Ryeon; Kim, Seong-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Recently, plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) has emerged as a promising surface modification technique to improve surface properties of Al alloys. In this study, PEO coating process for Al-Mg alloy was conducted with two different electrolyte solutions under the same electrical parameters: one was potassium hydroxide (KOH) aqueous solution, and the other involved potassium hydroxide aqueous solution with sodium silicate (Na2SiO3). The surface morphology was observed with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and elemental compositions were identified with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The chemical structures of PEO coatings were identified by X-ray diffraction analysis. Cavitation experiment was performed using ultrasonic vibratory cavitation erosion testing apparatus. Cavitation damage of PEO coatings was characterized using SEM and three-dimensional (3D) microscope. The result indicated that the surface of Al-Mg alloy were successfully modified having complete different surface morphologies by changing electrolyte composition. It was found that the surface morphology had a great influence on the cavitation damage behavior of PEO coating.

  2. Thermomechanical and electrophysical properties of a solid electrolyte based on Na-β"-Al2O3 with t-ZrO2 additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnikov, A. I.; Tel'nova, G. B.; Baikin, A. S.; Solntsev, K. A.

    2016-04-01

    The strength, the fracture toughness, the thermal shock resistance, and the electrical conductivity of a ceramic Na-β"-Al2O3 solid electrolyte modified by t-ZrO2 additions are studied. The influence of the reverse t-ZrO2 → m-ZrO2 transformation on the mechanical and functional properties of the ceramics is discussed. The ZrO2 addition concentration is found to affect the sodium-ion conductivity of the solid electrolyte and its activation energy. The degree of defect accumulation in the ceramics modified by 8.5 wt % t-ZrO2 is shown to decrease during a thermal shock.

  3. Influence of microstructure and AlPO4 secondary-phase on the ionic conductivity of Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 solid-state electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shicheng; Mertens, Andreas; Gao, Xin; Gunduz, Deniz Cihan; Schierholz, Roland; Benning, Svenja; Hausen, Florian; Mertens, Josef; Kungl, Hans; Tempel, Hermann; Eichel, Rüdiger-A.

    2016-09-01

    A ceramic solid-state electrolyte of lithium aluminum titanium phosphate with the composition of Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 (LATP) was synthesized by a sol-gel method using a pre-dissolved Ti-source. The annealed LATP powders were subsequently processed in a binder-free dry forming method and sintered under air for the pellet preparation. Phase purity, density, microstructure as well as ionic conductivity of the specimen were characterized. The highest density (2.77gṡcm‑3) with an ionic conductivity of 1.88×10‑4 Sṡcm‑1 (at 30∘C) was reached at a sintering temperature of 1100∘C. Conductivity of LATP ceramic electrolyte is believed to be significantly affected by both, the AlPO4 secondary phase content and the ceramic electrolyte microstructure. It has been found that with increasing sintering temperature, the secondary-phase content of AlPO4 increased. For sintering temperatures above 1000∘C, the secondary phase has only a minor impact, and the ionic conductivity is predominantly determined by the microstructure of the pellet, i.e. the correlation between density, porosity and particle size. In that respect, it has been demonstrated, that the conductivity increases with increasing particle size in this temperature range and density.

  4. Phosphate adsorption ability of biochar/Mg-Al assembled nanocomposites prepared by aluminum-electrode based electro-assisted modification method with MgCl₂ as electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Jeong, Tae-Un; Hwang, Min-Jin; Kim, Kipal; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the textural properties and phosphate adsorption capability of modified-biochar containing Mg-Al assembled nanocomposites prepared by an effective electro-assisted modification method with MgCl2 as an electrolyte have been determined. Structure and chemical analyses of the modified-biochar showed that nano-sized stonelike or flowerlike Mg-Al assembled composites, MgO, spinel MgAl2O4, AlOOH, and Al2O3, were densely grown and uniformly dispersed on the biochar surface. The adsorption isotherm and kinetics data suggested that the biochar/Mg-Al assembled nanocomposites have an energetically heterogeneous surface and that phosphate adsorption could be controlled by multiple processes. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity was as high as 887 mg g(-1), as fitted by the Langmuir-Freundlich model, and is the highest value ever reported. It was concluded that this novel electro-assisted modification is a very attractive method and the biochar/Mg-Al assembled nanocomposites provide an excellent adsorbent that can effectively remove phosphate from aqueous solutions. PMID:26433157

  5. Dendrite-Free Aluminum Electrodeposition from AlCl3-1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Chloride Ionic Liquid Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Debabrata; Reddy, Ramana G.

    2012-06-01

    A novel, dendrite-free electrorefining of aluminum scrap alloys (A360) was investigated by using a low-temperature AlCl3-1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquid electrolyte on copper/aluminum cathodes. The bulk electrodeposition of aluminum was carried out at a fixed voltage of 1.5 V, temperatures 323 K to 383 K (50 °C to 110 °C), stirring rate (0 to 120 rpm), concentration (molar ratio AlCl3:EMIC = 1.25 to 2.0), and electrode surface modification (modified/unmodified). The study investigated the effect of electrode surface modification, cathode materials, temperature, stirring rate, electrolyte concentration, and deposition time on the deposit morphology of aluminum, cathode current density, and their role in production of dendrite-free aluminum deposit, which is essential for decreasing the production cost. The deposits were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was shown that electrode surface modification, cathode overpotential, and stirring rate play an important role in dendrite-free deposit. Modified electrodes and stirring (60 rpm) eliminate dendritic deposition by reducing cathode overpotential below critical overpotential ( η_{{crt}} ≈ - 0.53V ) for dendrite formation. Pure aluminum (>99 pct) was deposited for all experiments with a current efficiency of 84 to 99 pct and energy consumption of 4.51 to 5.32 kWh/kg Al.

  6. 76 FR 21034 - Dex One, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ...-75,172E). The notice was published in the Federal Register on March 10, 2011 (76 FR 13228). At the... for Worker Adjustment Assistance TA-W-75,172 Dex One, Formerly Known as RH Donnelly and/or Dex Media..., FL TA-W-75,172A Dex One, Formerly Known as RH Donnelly and/or Dex Media LLC, East Division,...

  7. Analysis of the co-deposition of Al2O3 particles with nickel by an electrolytic route: The influence of organic additives presence and Al2O3 concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temam, H. B.; Temam, E. G.

    2016-04-01

    Alloy coatings were prepared by co-deposition of Al2O3 particles in Ni matrix on carbon steel substrate from nickel chloride bath in which metallic powders were held in suspension. The influence of metal powder amount in the bath on chemical composition, morphology, thickness, microhardness and corrosion behavior of obtained coatings, has been investigated. It was shown that the presence of Al2O3 particles in deposit greatly improves the hardness and the wear resistance of alloy coatings. Characterization by microanalysis (EDX) of the various deposits elaborated confirms that the rate of particles incorporated increases as the concentration of solid particles increasing. The results showed that the presence of organic additives in Ni-Al2O3 electrolyte deposition led to an increase in the hardness and corrosion resistance of the deposits.

  8. A growth mechanism of porous film formed on Al in 0.6 M oxalic acid electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Han, Seong Ho; Kim, Hyoung Chan

    2012-04-01

    Understanding of mechanism of porous film formation is of fundamental importance for anodizing in general because, the onset of pore initiation terminates the barrier film growth process over the macroscopic metal surface. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain pore formation. They include direct injection of aluminum ions into electrolyte and a field-assisted dissolution mechanism. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy of anodized surfaces and direct TEM of ion beam thinned films and ultrarmicrotomed film sections have been employed to gain further insight into the mechanism of initial porous film growth in 0.6 M oxalic acid. From detailed examination of the behavior of the xenon-tagged layer in the film during pore initiation and development in oxalic acid, the film structure of the barrier layer is found to be unstable during pore initiation and the instability of the film structure is possibly related to the field-assisted structure modification process.

  9. On the chemical stability of post-lithiated garnet Al-stabilized Li7La3Zr2O12 solid state electrolyte thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlence, Michael; Garbayo, Inigo; Buecheler, Stephan; Rupp, J. L. M.

    2016-08-01

    Garnet-based Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 has the potential to be used as a solid state electrolyte for future lithium microbattery architectures, due to its relatively high Li+ conductivity and stability against Li. Through this work, a model experiment is presented in which the effect of post-lithiation on phase formation and chemical stability is studied for pulsed laser deposited Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 thin films on MgO substrates. We report the implications of the newly suggested post-lithiation route for films with thicknesses between 90 and 380 nm. The phase changes from cubic, to a mix of cubic and tetragonal Li7La3Zr2O12, to a cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 and La2Zr2O7 containing film is accompanied by a reduction in the degree of de-wetting as the thickness increases. This study reveals that the thicker, dense, and continuous films remain predominantly in a mixed phase containing cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 and the lithium free La2Zr2O7 phase whereas the thinner, de-wetted films exhibit improved lithium incorporation resulting in the absence of the lithium free phase. For tuning the electrical conductivity and effective use of these structures in future batteries, understanding this material system is of great importance as the chemical stability of the cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 phase in the thin film system will control its effective use. We report a conductivity of 1.2 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 325 °C for a 380 nm thick solid state electrolyte film on MgO for potential operation in future all solid state battery assemblies.Garnet-based Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 has the potential to be used as a solid state electrolyte for future lithium microbattery architectures, due to its relatively high Li+ conductivity and stability against Li. Through this work, a model experiment is presented in which the effect of post-lithiation on phase formation and chemical stability is studied for pulsed laser deposited Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 thin films on MgO substrates. We report the implications of the newly

  10. On the chemical stability of post-lithiated garnet Al-stabilized Li7La3Zr2O12 solid state electrolyte thin films.

    PubMed

    Rawlence, Michael; Garbayo, Inigo; Buecheler, Stephan; Rupp, J L M

    2016-08-21

    Garnet-based Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 has the potential to be used as a solid state electrolyte for future lithium microbattery architectures, due to its relatively high Li(+) conductivity and stability against Li. Through this work, a model experiment is presented in which the effect of post-lithiation on phase formation and chemical stability is studied for pulsed laser deposited Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 thin films on MgO substrates. We report the implications of the newly suggested post-lithiation route for films with thicknesses between 90 and 380 nm. The phase changes from cubic, to a mix of cubic and tetragonal Li7La3Zr2O12, to a cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 and La2Zr2O7 containing film is accompanied by a reduction in the degree of de-wetting as the thickness increases. This study reveals that the thicker, dense, and continuous films remain predominantly in a mixed phase containing cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 and the lithium free La2Zr2O7 phase whereas the thinner, de-wetted films exhibit improved lithium incorporation resulting in the absence of the lithium free phase. For tuning the electrical conductivity and effective use of these structures in future batteries, understanding this material system is of great importance as the chemical stability of the cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 phase in the thin film system will control its effective use. We report a conductivity of 1.2 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at 325 °C for a 380 nm thick solid state electrolyte film on MgO for potential operation in future all solid state battery assemblies. PMID:27455404

  11. Interrelationships among Grain Size, Surface Composition, Air Stability, and Interfacial Resistance of Al-Substituted Li7La3Zr2O12 Solid Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lei; Wu, Cheng Hao; Jarry, Angelique; Chen, Wei; Ye, Yifan; Zhu, Junfa; Kostecki, Robert; Persson, Kristin; Guo, Jinghua; Salmeron, Miquel; Chen, Guoying; Doeff, Marca

    2015-08-19

    The interfacial resistances of symmetrical lithium cells containing Al-substituted Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) solid electrolytes are sensitive to their microstructures and histories of exposure to air. Air exposure of LLZO samples with large grain sizes (∼150 μm) results in dramatically increased interfacial impedances in cells containing them, compared to those with pristine large-grained samples. In contrast, a much smaller difference is seen between cells with small-grained (∼20 μm) pristine and air-exposed LLZO samples. A combination of soft X-ray absorption (sXAS) and Raman spectroscopy, with probing depths ranging from nanometer to micrometer scales, revealed that the small-grained LLZO pellets are more air-stable than large-grained ones, forming far less surface Li2CO3 under both short- and long-term exposure conditions. Surface sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicates that the better chemical stability of the small-grained LLZO is related to differences in the distribution of Al and Li at sample surfaces. Density functional theory calculations show that LLZO can react via two different pathways to form Li2CO3. The first, more rapid, pathway involves a reaction with moisture in air to form LiOH, which subsequently absorbs CO2 to form Li2CO3. The second, slower, pathway involves direct reaction with CO2 and is favored when surface lithium contents are lower, as with the small-grained samples. These observations have important implications for the operation of solid-state lithium batteries containing LLZO because the results suggest that the interfacial impedances of these devices is critically dependent upon specific characteristics of the solid electrolyte and how it is prepared.

  12. Electrolytes Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... include other tests such as BUN , creatinine , and glucose . Electrolyte measurements may be used to help investigate conditions that cause electrolyte imbalances such as dehydration , kidney disease , lung diseases , or heart conditions . Repeat testing may then ...

  13. Preparation and Electrochemical Characterization of Aluminium Liquid Battery Cells With Two Different Electrolytes (NaCl-BaCl2-AlF3-NaF and LiF-AlF3-BaF2).

    PubMed

    Napast, Viktor; Moškon, Jože; Homšak, Marko; Petek, Aljana; Gaberšček, Miran

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of preparation of operating rechargeable liquid battery cells based on aluminium and its alloys is systematically checked. In all cases we started from aluminium as the negative electrode whereas as the positive electrode three different metals were tested: Pb, Bi and Sn. Two types of electrolytes were selected: Na(3)AlF(6) -AlF(3) - BaCl(2) - NaCl and Li(3)AlF(3) - BaF(2). We show that some of these combinations allowed efficient separation of individual liquid layers. The cells exhibited expected voltages, relatively high current densities and could be charged and discharged several times. The capacities were relatively low (120 mAh in the case of Al-Pb system), mostly due to unoptimised cell construction. Improvements in various directions are possible, especially by hermetically sealing the cells thus preventing salt evaporation. Similarly, solubility of aluminium in alloys can be increased by optimising the composition of positive electrode. PMID:26680707

  14. Preparation and Electrochemical Characterization of Aluminium Liquid Battery Cells With Two Different Electrolytes (NaCl-BaCl2-AlF3-NaF and LiF-AlF3-BaF2).

    PubMed

    Napast, Viktor; Moškon, Jože; Homšak, Marko; Petek, Aljana; Gaberšček, Miran

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of preparation of operating rechargeable liquid battery cells based on aluminium and its alloys is systematically checked. In all cases we started from aluminium as the negative electrode whereas as the positive electrode three different metals were tested: Pb, Bi and Sn. Two types of electrolytes were selected: Na(3)AlF(6) -AlF(3) - BaCl(2) - NaCl and Li(3)AlF(3) - BaF(2). We show that some of these combinations allowed efficient separation of individual liquid layers. The cells exhibited expected voltages, relatively high current densities and could be charged and discharged several times. The capacities were relatively low (120 mAh in the case of Al-Pb system), mostly due to unoptimised cell construction. Improvements in various directions are possible, especially by hermetically sealing the cells thus preventing salt evaporation. Similarly, solubility of aluminium in alloys can be increased by optimising the composition of positive electrode.

  15. Mechanical properties of Ti(C 0.7N 0.3) film produced by plasma electrolytic carbonitriding of Ti6Al4V alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin-Mei; Han, Yong

    2008-08-01

    Porous nanocrystalline Ti(C 0.7N 0.3) film on Ti6Al4V substrate was prepared by plasma electrolytic carbonitriding (PECN). The film was characterized and analyzed by using a variety of analytical techniques, such as XRD, SEM, EDX, TEM, FESEM, Rockwell C indenter, scratch tester, Vickers microhardness tester and ring-on-block tribometer. The results showed that the film was about 15 μm thick and its hardness was Hv 2369 at a load of 0.2 N. The adhesion of the film was characterized by Lc and Pc value, and was found to be about 42 N and more than 800 N, respectively. The friction coefficients and wear volume loss of the PECN-treated samples sliding against a steel counterpart were much less than those of the untreated Ti6Al4V. The film possessed a good wear-resistance and antifriction under oil-lubricated condition due to its high hardness, adhesion and fracture toughness. Also, the porous surface morphology of the Ti(C 0.7N 0.3) film contributed to the enhanced tribological resistance by promoting the formation of lubricant film and entrapping wear debris.

  16. Performance Testing of Yardney MCMB-LiNiCoAlO2 Lithium-ion Cells Possessing Electrolytes with Improved Safety Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Whitcanack, Larry D.; Krause, Frederick C.; Hwang, Constanza; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Santee, Stuart; Puglia, Frank J.; Gitzendanner, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Many future NASA missions aimed at exploring the Moon and Mars require high specific energy rechargeable batteries that possess enhanced safety characteristics. There is also a strong desire to develop Li-ion batteries with improved safety characteristics for terrestrial applications, most notably for HEV and PHEV automotive applications. In previous work focused upon evaluating various potential flame retardant additives1, triphenyl phosphate (TPP)2 was observed to have the most desirable attributes, including good life characteristics and resilience to high voltage operation. We have employed a number of approaches in the design of promising TPP-based electrolytes with improved safety, including: (a) varying the flame retardant additive (FRA) content (from 5 to 15%), (b) the use of fluorinated co-solvents, (c) the use of additives to improve compatibility, and (c) the use of ester co-solvents to decrease the viscosity and increase the conductivity. In recent work, we have demonstrated a number of these electrolyte formulations to be compatible with a number of chemistries, including: MCMB carbon-LiNi0.8Co0.2O2, graphite-LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2, Li-Li(Li0.17Ni 0.25 Mn 0.58 )O2, Li-LiNiCoMnO2 and graphite- LiNiCoMnO2.3,4 In the current study, we have demonstrated the performance of a number of TPP-containing electrolytes in 7 Ah prototype MCMB-LiNiCoO2 cells. We will describe the results of a number of performance tests, including: a) 100% DOD cycle life testing at various temperatures, b) discharge rate characterization as a function of temperature, c) charge rate characterization as a function of temperature, and d) impedance as a function of temperature. In addition to displaying good life characteristics, being comparable to baseline chemistries, a number of cells were observed to provide good performance over a wide temperature range.

  17. Re: Madsen et al. "Unnecessary work tasks and mental health: a prospective analysis of Danish human service workers".

    PubMed

    Durand-Moreau, Quentin; Loddé, Brice; Dewitte, Jean-Dominique

    2015-03-01

    Madsen et al (1) recently published a secondary analysis on data provided by the Project on Burnout, Motivation and Job Satisfaction (PUMA). The aim of their study, published in the Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health was to examine the associations between unnecessary work tasks and a decreased level of mental health. Though the topic was quite novel, reading this work proved disturbing and raised issues. Based on the results of this study, the authors stated that there is an association between unnecessary work tasks (assessed by a single question) and a decreased level of mental health, idem [assessed by the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5)], in the specific population included in this PUMA survey. The authors point out a limitation of the study, namely that unnecessary work tasks were evaluated using one single question: "Do you sometimes have to do things in your job which appear to be unnecessary?". Semmer defines unnecessary work task as "tasks that should not be carried out at all because they do not make sense or because they could have been avoided, or could be carried out with less effort if things were organized more efficiently" (2). De facto, qualifying what an unnecessary task is requires stating or explaining whether the task makes sense. Making sense or not is not an objective notion. It is very difficult for either a manager or an employee to say if a task is necessary or not. Most important is that it makes sense from the worker's point of view. Making sense and being necessary are not synonyms. Some tasks do not make sense but are economically necessary (eg, when, as physicians, we are reporting our activity using ICD-10 on computers instead of being at patients' bedsides or reading this journal). Thus, there is a wide gap between Semmer's definition and the question used by the authors to evaluate his concept. A secondary analysis based on a single question is not adequate to evaluate unnecessary tasks. Nowadays, the general trend

  18. Re: Madsen et al. "Unnecessary work tasks and mental health: a prospective analysis of Danish human service workers".

    PubMed

    Durand-Moreau, Quentin; Loddé, Brice; Dewitte, Jean-Dominique

    2015-03-01

    Madsen et al (1) recently published a secondary analysis on data provided by the Project on Burnout, Motivation and Job Satisfaction (PUMA). The aim of their study, published in the Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health was to examine the associations between unnecessary work tasks and a decreased level of mental health. Though the topic was quite novel, reading this work proved disturbing and raised issues. Based on the results of this study, the authors stated that there is an association between unnecessary work tasks (assessed by a single question) and a decreased level of mental health, idem [assessed by the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5)], in the specific population included in this PUMA survey. The authors point out a limitation of the study, namely that unnecessary work tasks were evaluated using one single question: "Do you sometimes have to do things in your job which appear to be unnecessary?". Semmer defines unnecessary work task as "tasks that should not be carried out at all because they do not make sense or because they could have been avoided, or could be carried out with less effort if things were organized more efficiently" (2). De facto, qualifying what an unnecessary task is requires stating or explaining whether the task makes sense. Making sense or not is not an objective notion. It is very difficult for either a manager or an employee to say if a task is necessary or not. Most important is that it makes sense from the worker's point of view. Making sense and being necessary are not synonyms. Some tasks do not make sense but are economically necessary (eg, when, as physicians, we are reporting our activity using ICD-10 on computers instead of being at patients' bedsides or reading this journal). Thus, there is a wide gap between Semmer's definition and the question used by the authors to evaluate his concept. A secondary analysis based on a single question is not adequate to evaluate unnecessary tasks. Nowadays, the general trend

  19. Electrolytic cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, J. S.; Hale, B. D.

    1984-09-01

    An apparatus is described for the separation of the anolyte and the catholyte during electrolysis. The electrolyte flows through an electrolytic cell between the oppositely charged electrodes. The cell is equipped with a wedge-shaped device, the tapered end is located between the electrodes on the effluent side of the cell. The wedge diverts the flow of the electrolyte to either side of the wedge, substantially separating the anolyte and the catholyte.

  20. Electrolytic dissolver

    DOEpatents

    Wheelwright, E.J.; Fox, R.D.

    1975-08-26

    This patent related to an electrolytic dissolver wherein dissolution occurs by solution contact including a vessel of electrically insulative material, a fixed first electrode, a movable second electrode, means for insulating the electrodes from the material to be dissolved while permitting a free flow of electrolyte therebetween, means for passing a direct current between the electrodes and means for circulating electrolyte through the dissolver. (auth)

  1. Glass electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-25

    The objective of this research is a glass electrolyte for use in sodium/sulfur batteries that has a low resistivity (100 ohm-cm at 300/sup 0/C) and is stable in the cell environment. Experiments in this program are focussed on glasses in the quaternary system: soda, alumina, zirconia and silica. The FY 1983 research on glass analogs of NASICON, parallel thermodynamic calculations, and a review of the literature in the areas of glass conductivity and corrosion resistance led to selection of this system for more detailed investigation. The main program elements are: (1) conductivity measurements at 300 to 500/sup 0/C; (2) differential thermal analysis for determination of glass-transition and crystallization temperatures; (3) static corrosion tests at 400/sup 0/C using Na, Na/sub 2/S/sub 4/, and S; (4) mechanical strength and fracture toughness measurements; and (5) sodium/sulfur cell tests at 350/sup 0/C. Elements (1) and (2) are nearly completed; element (3) is being initiated using the glasses prepared for (1) and (2), and elements (4) and (5) will begin in the first and second quarters of FY 1985, respectively. Fourteen quaternary glasses having a broad range of compositions have been made. The resistivities of these glasses at 300/sup 0/C extended from 130 to 3704 ohm-cm; the activation energies for conduction extended from 0.488 to 0.684 eV, and the glass transition temperatures extended from 397 to 685/sup 0/C. Through a multiple linear regression analysis of these data response surfaces were generated for resistivity, activation energy for conduction, and glass transition temperature over the composition region within the quaternary system that is bounded by SiO/sub 2/, Na/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Na/sub 2/AlO/sub 4/ and Na/sub 2/ZrO/sub 3/. These response surfaces indicated a new region of high conductivity and high glass transition temperature in the neighborhood of 42% soda, 31% silica and 27% alumina plus zirconia.

  2. Organic electrolytes for sodium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestergaard, B.

    1992-09-01

    A summary of earlier given status reports in connection with the project on organic electrolytes for sodium batteries is presented. The aim of the investigations was to develop new room temperature molten salts electrolytes mainly with radical substituted heterocyclic organic chlorides mixed with aluminum chloride. The new electrolytes should have an ionic conductivity comparable with MEIC1:AlCl3 or better. A computer model program MOPAC (Molecular Orbital Package) was to be included to calculate theoretically reduction potentials for a variety of organic cations. Furthermore, MOPAC could be utilized to predict the electron densities, and then give a prediction of the stability of the organic cation.

  3. Al2O3 Disk Supported Si3N4 Hydrogen Purification Membrane for Low Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoteng; Christensen, Paul A; Kelly, Stephen M; Rocher, Vincent; Scott, Keith

    2013-12-05

    Reformate gas, a commonly employed fuel for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), contains carbon monoxide, which poisons Pt-containing anodes in such devices. A novel, low-cost mesoporous Si3N4 selective gas separation material was tested as a hydrogen clean-up membrane to remove CO from simulated feed gas to single-cell PEMFC, employing Nafion as the polymer electrolyte membrane. Polarization and power density measurements and gas chromatography showed a clear effect of separating the CO from the gas mixture; the performance and durability of the fuel cell was thereby significantly improved.

  4. Electrolyte Racers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellie, Shawn; Kellie, Tonya; Corbin-Tipton, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    A fast way to teach investigative skills in science is to tie them to NASCAR using Hot Wheels Formula Fuelers Race Cars. These inexpensive toy cars travel different distances based on the strength of the "electrolyte" (a substance that conducts electricity when dissolved in water) in their "fuel" tanks. Advertisements for these race cars urge kids…

  5. Solid electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  6. Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai

    2012-10-09

    Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

  7. Characterization of thin films of the solid electrolyte Li(x)Mg(1-2x)Al(2+x)O4 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.15, 0.25).

    PubMed

    Put, Brecht; Vereecken, Philippe M; Mees, Maarten J; Rosciano, Fabio; Radu, Iuliana P; Stesmans, Andre

    2015-11-21

    RF-sputtered thin films of spinel Li(x)Mg(1-2x)Al(2+x)O4 were investigated for use as solid electrolyte. The usage of this material can enable the fabrication of a lattice matched battery stack, which is predicted to lead to superior battery performance. Spinel Li(x)Mg(1-2x)Al(2+x)O4 thin films, with stoichiometry (x) ranging between 0 and 0.25, were formed after a crystallization anneal as shown by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The stoichiometry of the films was evaluated by elastic recoil detection and Rutherford backscattering and found to be slightly aluminum rich. The excellent electronic insulation properties were confirmed by both current-voltage measurements as well as by copper plating tests. The electrochemical stability window of the material was probed using cyclic voltammetry. Lithium plating and stripping was observed together with the formation of a Li-Pt alloy, indicating that Li-ions passed through the film. This observation contradicted with impedance measurements at open circuit potential, which showed no apparent Li-ion conductivity of the film. Impedance spectroscopy as a function of potential showed the occurrence of Li-ion intercalation into the Li(x)Mg(1-2x)Al(2+x)O4 layers. When incorporating Li-ions in the material the ionic conductivity can be increased by 3 orders of magnitude. Therefore it is anticipated that the response of Li(x)Mg(1-2x)Al(2+x)O4 is more adequate for a buffer layer than as the solid electrolyte.

  8. Electrolytic fixer.

    PubMed

    Stevens

    1982-12-01

    Interest in the recovery of silver from radiographic film generates a need to understand the operating procedures of recovery units utilizing the electrolytic fixer principle. Tailing or terminal units and recirculation units using electrolysis are evaluated. Difficulties encountered in the number of Coulombs applied to a specific amount of fixer are discussed. Reduction of sulfiding as a result of electrolysis and variations in film volumes are noted. The quantity and quality of silver collected can be improved by being aware of alterations in chemical activity used in a silver recovery program.

  9. Glass electrolyte composition

    DOEpatents

    Kucera, Gene H.; Roche, Michael F.

    1985-01-01

    An ionically conductive glass is disclosed for use as electrolyte in a high temperature electrochemical cell, particularly a cell with sodium anode and sulfur cathode. The glass includes the constituents Na.sub.2 O, ZrO.sub.2, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and SiO.sub.2 in selected proportions to be a single phase solid solution substantially free of crystalline regions and undissolved constituents. Other advantageous properties are an ionic conductivity in excess of 2.times.10.sup.-3 (ohm-cm).sup.-1 at 300.degree. C. and a glass transition temperature in excess of 500.degree. C.

  10. Glass electrolyte composition

    DOEpatents

    Kucera, G.H.; Roche, M.F.

    1985-01-08

    An ionically conductive glass is disclosed for use as electrolyte in a high temperature electrochemical cell, particularly a cell with sodium anode and sulfur cathode. The glass includes the constituents Na/sub 2/O, ZrO/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and SiO/sub 2/ in selected proportions to be a single phase solid solution substantially free of crystalline regions and undissolved constituents. Other advantageous properties are an ionic conductivity in excess of 2 x 10/sup -3/ (ohm-cm)/sup -1/ at 300/sup 0/C and a glass transition temperature in excess of 500/sup 0/C.

  11. Approaches for predicting long-term sickness absence. Re: Schouten et al. "Screening manual and office workers for risk of long-term sickness absence: cut-off points for the Work Ability Index".

    PubMed

    van Amelsvoort, Ludovic Gpm; Jansen, Nicole W H; Kant, I Jmert

    2015-05-01

    We read with much interest the article of Schouten et al (1) on identifying workers with a high risk for future long-term sickness absence using the Work Ability Index (WAI). The ability to identify high-risk workers might facilitate targeted interventions for such workers and, consequently, can reduce sickness absence levels and improve workers' health. Earlier studies by both Tamela et al (2), Kant et al (3), and Lexis et al (4) have demonstrated that such an approach, based on the identification of high-risk workers and a subsequent intervention, can be effectively applied in practice to reduce sickness absence significantly. The reason for our letter on Schouten et al's article is twofold. First, by including workers already on sick leave in a study predicting long-term sick leave will result in an overestimation of the predictive properties of the instrument and biased predictors, especially when also the outcome of interest is included as a factor in the prediction model. Second, we object to the use of the term "screening" when subjects with the condition screened for are included in the study. Reinforced by the inclusion of sickness absence in the prediction model, including workers already on sick leave will shift the focus of the study findings towards the prediction of (re)current sickness absence and workers with a below-average return-to-work rate, rather than the identification of workers at high risk for the onset of future long-term sickness absence. The possibilities for prevention will shift from pure secondary prevention to a mix of secondary and tertiary prevention. As a consequence, the predictors of the model presented in the Schouten et al article can be used as a basis for tailoring neither preventive measures nor interventions. Moreover, including the outcome (sickness absence) as a predictor in the model, especially in a mixed population including workers with and without the condition (on sick leave), will result in biased predictors and

  12. Modeling of polymer electrolyte fuel cell performance with reformate fuel feed streams

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, T.E.; Zawodzinski, T.A.; Gottesfeld, S.

    1997-05-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning of polymer electrolyte fuel cell anodes is a key problem to be overcome when operating on reformed fuels. CO adsorbs on the precious metal surface leading to substantial performance losses. Much recent work has explored this problem, using various Pt alloys in attempts to overcome the performance loss. In their studies of hydrogen oxidation on Pt and Pt alloy (Pt/Sn, Pt/Ru) electrodes exposed to H2/CO mixtures, Gasteiger et al. (1, 2) showed that a small oxidation current is observed before the onset of CO oxidative stripping (ca. 0.4 V) on Pt/Ru. However, these workers concluded that the observed current was

  13. Forming solid electrolyte interphase in situ in an ionic conducting Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3-polypropylene (PP) based separator for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao-Yang, Wu; Shi-Gang, Ling; Qi, Yang; Hong, Li; Xiao-Xiong, Xu; Li-Quan, Chen

    2016-07-01

    A new concept of forming solid electrolyte interphases (SEI) in situ in an ionic conducting Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3-polypropylene (LAGP-PP) based separator during charging and discharging is proposed and demonstrated. This unique structure shows a high ionic conductivity, low interface resistance with electrode, and can suppress the growth of lithium dendrite. The features of forming the SEI in situ are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results confirm that SEI films mainly consist of lithium fluoride and carbonates with various alkyl contents. The cell assembled by using the LAGP-coated separator demonstrates a good cycling performance even at high charging rates, and the lithium dendrites were not observed on the lithium metal electrode. Therefore, the SEI-LAGP-PP separator can be used as a promising flexible solid electrolyte for solid state lithium batteries. Project supported by the Beijing Science and Technology Project, China (Grant No. Z13111000340000), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB932900), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51325206 and 51421002).

  14. Effect of sol-gel process parameters on the properties of a Li1.3Ti1.7Al0.3(PO4)3 solid electrolyte for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seoung Soo; Lee, Jing; Jung, Yeon-Gil; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Kim, Youngsik

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the influence of the processing parameters, such as the synthesis temperature and the lithium sources on the structure, particle size, morphology and ionic conductivity of Li1+ x Ti2- x Al x (PO4)3 (LTAPO) was investigated. LiNO3, LiCl, and Li acetate were employed as lithium sources for investigating the effects of Li sources on the properties of the solid electrolyte. The morphologies and the particle size distribution of the prepared LTAPO samples were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a laser particle size analyzer. Their crystallinities were measured by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD). An increase in the synthesis temperature caused a pronounced growth in the particle size without any impurities, especially at temperatures above 700 °C. In addition, LiCl lithium sources showed the highest particles size. The effect of the processing parameters on the ionic conductivity of the prepared LTAPO was investigated by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The ionic conductivities of the LTAPO prepared by using an optimized synthesis temperature with different lithium sources were 8.36 × 10-4, 5.73 × 10-4, and 7.18 × 10-4 S/cm for C-LTAPO, A-LTAPO, and N-LTAPO, respectively. The properties of the ceramic solid electrolyte were shown to be affected by the choice of the synthesis temperature and the Li source material.

  15. Structure and electrical conductivity of a novel inorganic solid electrolyte: Na 14.5[Al(PO 4) 2F 2] 2.5[Ti(PO 4) 2F 2] 0.5 (NATP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Tian, Peng; Sun, Zhengang; Liu, Ziyu; Zhang, Yangyang; Qu, Lihong; Sang, Shiyun; Liu, Zhongmin

    2007-02-01

    A novel inorganic solid electrolyte with a layered framework structure stable up to 1043 K, Na 14.5[Al(PO 4) 2F 2] 2.5[Ti(PO 4) 2F 2] 0.5 (NATP), has been hydrothermally prepared and characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction techniques, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis, IR spectroscopic measurement, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA and DTA). NATP crystallizes in the acentric hexagonal space group P3 with a=10.448(2), b=10.448(2), c=6.589(3) Å, Z=1, containing a large number of Na + cations in the interlamellar space and the cavities of its framework. There are six different crystallographic Na + cationic sites, in which 8% Na(5) and 12% Na(6) sites are vacant. Electrical conductivity measurements show that Na + cations exhibit a high mobility with two domains for the electrical conductivity versus temperature.

  16. Solid state electrolyte systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R.

    1997-12-01

    Lanthanum gallates are a new family of solid electrolytes that exhibit high ionic conductivity and are stable to high temperatures. Compositions have been developed that are as much as a factor of two more conductive than yttria-stabilized zirconia at a given temperature, through partial replacement of lanthanum by calcium, strontium, and/or barium and through partial replacement of gallium by magnesium. Oxide powders were prepared using combustion synthesis techniques developed in this laboratory; these were sintered to >95% of theoretical density and consisted of a single crystalline phase. Electrical conductivities, electron and ion transference numbers, thermal expansion, and phase behavior were evaluated as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. A key advantage of the use of lanthanum gallate electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells is that the temperature of operation may be lowered to perhaps 800 C, yet provide approximately the same power density as zirconia-based cells operating at 1000 C. Ceramic electrolytes that conduct both oxygen ions and electrons are potentially useful to passively separate pure oxygen from an air source at low cost. In such materials, an oxygen ion flux in one direction is charge-compensated by an opposing electron flux. The authors have examined a wide range of mixed ion and electron conducting perovskite ceramics in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, where M = Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N = Pr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, as well as mixed conducting brownmillerite ceramics, and have characterized oxygen permeation behavior, defect chemistry, structural and phase stability, and performance as cathodes.

  17. A Fe3O4/FeAl2O4 composite coating via plasma electrolytic oxidation on Q235 carbon steel for Fenton-like degradation of phenol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiankang; Yao, Zhongping; Yang, Min; Wang, Yajing; Xia, Qixing; Jiang, Zhaohua

    2016-08-01

    The Fe3O4/FeAl2O4 composite coatings were successfully fabricated on Q235 carbon steel by plasma electrolytic oxidation technique and used to degrade phenol by Fenton-like system. XRD, SEM, and XPS indicated that Fe3O4 and FeAl2O4 composite coating had a hierarchical porous structure. The effects of various parameters such as pH, phenol concentration, and H2O2 dosage on catalytic activity were investigated. The results indicated that with increasing of pH and phenol content, the phenol degradation efficiency was reduced significantly. However, the degradation rate was improved with the addition of H2O2, but dropped with further increasing of H2O2. Moreover, 100 % removal efficiency with 35 mg/L phenol was obtained within 60 min at 303 K and pH 4.0 with 6.0 mmol/L H2O2 on 6-cm(2) iron oxide coating. The degradation process consisted of induction period and rapid degradation period; both of them followed pseudo-first-order reaction. Hydroxyl radicals were the mainly oxidizing species during phenol degradation by using n-butanol as hydroxyl radical scavenger. Based on Fe leaching and the reaction kinetics, a possible phenol degradation mechanism was proposed. The catalyst exhibited excellent stability. PMID:27074928

  18. A Fe3O4/FeAl2O4 composite coating via plasma electrolytic oxidation on Q235 carbon steel for Fenton-like degradation of phenol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiankang; Yao, Zhongping; Yang, Min; Wang, Yajing; Xia, Qixing; Jiang, Zhaohua

    2016-08-01

    The Fe3O4/FeAl2O4 composite coatings were successfully fabricated on Q235 carbon steel by plasma electrolytic oxidation technique and used to degrade phenol by Fenton-like system. XRD, SEM, and XPS indicated that Fe3O4 and FeAl2O4 composite coating had a hierarchical porous structure. The effects of various parameters such as pH, phenol concentration, and H2O2 dosage on catalytic activity were investigated. The results indicated that with increasing of pH and phenol content, the phenol degradation efficiency was reduced significantly. However, the degradation rate was improved with the addition of H2O2, but dropped with further increasing of H2O2. Moreover, 100 % removal efficiency with 35 mg/L phenol was obtained within 60 min at 303 K and pH 4.0 with 6.0 mmol/L H2O2 on 6-cm(2) iron oxide coating. The degradation process consisted of induction period and rapid degradation period; both of them followed pseudo-first-order reaction. Hydroxyl radicals were the mainly oxidizing species during phenol degradation by using n-butanol as hydroxyl radical scavenger. Based on Fe leaching and the reaction kinetics, a possible phenol degradation mechanism was proposed. The catalyst exhibited excellent stability.

  19. Fuel cell having electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Maynard K.

    1989-01-01

    A fuel cell having an electrolyte control volume includes a pair of porous opposed electrodes. A maxtrix is positioned between the pair of electrodes for containing an electrolyte. A first layer of backing paper is positioned adjacent to one of the electrodes. A portion of the paper is substantially previous to the acceptance of the electrolyte so as to absorb electrolyte when there is an excess in the matrix and to desorb electrolyte when there is a shortage in the matrix. A second layer of backing paper is positioned adjacent to the first layer of paper and is substantially impervious to the acceptance of electrolyte.

  20. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

  1. Solid polymer electrolyte compositions

    DOEpatents

    Garbe, James E.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Hamrock, Steven J.; Le, Dinh Ba

    2001-01-01

    An electrolyte composition is featured that includes a solid, ionically conductive polymer, organically modified oxide particles that include organic groups covalently bonded to the oxide particles, and an alkali metal salt. The electrolyte composition is free of lithiated zeolite. The invention also features cells that incorporate the electrolyte composition.

  2. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles Austen; Liu, Changle; Xu, Kang; Skotheim, Terje A.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  3. Fe sub 3 Al-type iron aluminides: Aqueous corrosion properties in a range of electrolytes and slow-strain-rate ductilities during aqueous corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, R.A.; Kim, J.G. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1992-08-01

    The Fe{sub 3}Al-type iron aluminides have undergone continued development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for enhancement of mechanical and corrosion properties. Improved alloys and thermomechanical processing methods have evolved. The overall purpose of the project herein described was to evaluate the aqueous corrosion properties of the most recent alloy compositions in a wide range of possibly-aggressive solutions and under several different types of corrosion-test conditions. The work supplements previous aqueous-corrosion studies on iron aluminides by the present authors. Four stages of this one-year aqueous-corrosion investigation are described. First the corrosion properties of selected iron aluminides were evaluated by means of electrochemical tests and longer-time immersion tests in a range of acidic, basic and chloride solutions. Theses tests were performed under non-crevice conditions, i.e. the specimens were not designed to contain crevice geometries. Second, the iron-aluminide alloy that proved most resistance to chloride-induced localized corrosion under non-crevice conditions was further evaluated under more-severe crevice conditions by electrochemical and immersion testing. Third, in order to study the relative roles of Fe, Al, Cr and Mo in the formation of passive films, the chemical compositions of passive films were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). And fourth, in order to study aqueous-corrosion effects on the ductilities of iron aluminides as related to hydrogen embrittlement and/or stress-corrosion cracking, slow-strain-rate corrosion (SSRC) tests were conducted over a range of electrochemical potentials.

  4. Fe{sub 3}Al-type iron aluminides: Aqueous corrosion properties in a range of electrolytes and slow-strain-rate ductilities during aqueous corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, R.A.; Kim, J.G.

    1992-08-01

    The Fe{sub 3}Al-type iron aluminides have undergone continued development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for enhancement of mechanical and corrosion properties. Improved alloys and thermomechanical processing methods have evolved. The overall purpose of the project herein described was to evaluate the aqueous corrosion properties of the most recent alloy compositions in a wide range of possibly-aggressive solutions and under several different types of corrosion-test conditions. The work supplements previous aqueous-corrosion studies on iron aluminides by the present authors. Four stages of this one-year aqueous-corrosion investigation are described. First the corrosion properties of selected iron aluminides were evaluated by means of electrochemical tests and longer-time immersion tests in a range of acidic, basic and chloride solutions. Theses tests were performed under non-crevice conditions, i.e. the specimens were not designed to contain crevice geometries. Second, the iron-aluminide alloy that proved most resistance to chloride-induced localized corrosion under non-crevice conditions was further evaluated under more-severe crevice conditions by electrochemical and immersion testing. Third, in order to study the relative roles of Fe, Al, Cr and Mo in the formation of passive films, the chemical compositions of passive films were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). And fourth, in order to study aqueous-corrosion effects on the ductilities of iron aluminides as related to hydrogen embrittlement and/or stress-corrosion cracking, slow-strain-rate corrosion (SSRC) tests were conducted over a range of electrochemical potentials.

  5. Nanoporous polymer electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Brian; Nguyen, Vinh

    2012-04-24

    A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

  6. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOEpatents

    Sederquist, Richard A.; Szydlowski, Donald F.; Sawyer, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well.

  7. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOEpatents

    Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

    1983-02-08

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

  8. Ceramic electrolyte coating methods

    DOEpatents

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Swartz, Scott L.; Dawson, William J.; McCormick, Buddy E.

    2004-10-12

    Processes for preparing aqueous suspensions of a nanoscale ceramic electrolyte material such as yttrium-stabilized zirconia. The invention also includes a process for preparing an aqueous coating slurry of a nanoscale ceramic electrolyte material. The invention further includes a process for depositing an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material on pre-sintered, partially sintered, and unsintered ceramic substrates and products made by this process.

  9. Electrolytic purification of metals

    DOEpatents

    Bowman, Kenneth A.

    1980-01-01

    A method of electrolytically separating metal from impurities comprises providing the metal and impurities in a molten state in a container having a porous membrane therein, the membrane having a thickness in the range of about 0.01 to 0.1 inch, being capable of containing the molten metal in the container, and being permeable by a molten electrolyte. The metal is electrolytically transferred through the membrane to a cathode in the presence of the electrolyte for purposes of separating or removing impurities from the metal.

  10. Charge regulation at semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces.

    PubMed

    Fleharty, Mark E; van Swol, Frank; Petsev, Dimiter N

    2015-07-01

    The interface between a semiconductor material and an electrolyte solution has interesting and complex electrostatic properties. Its behavior will depend on the density of mobile charge carriers that are present in both phases as well as on the surface chemistry at the interface through local charge regulation. The latter is driven by chemical equilibria involving the immobile surface groups and the potential determining ions in the electrolyte solution. All these lead to an electrostatic potential distribution that propagate such that the electrolyte and the semiconductor are dependent on each other. Hence, any variation in the charge density in one phase will lead to a response in the other. This has significant implications on the physical properties of single semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces and on the electrostatic interactions between semiconductor particles suspended in electrolyte solutions. The present paper expands on our previous publication (Fleharty et al., 2014) and offers new results on the electrostatics of single semiconductor interfaces as well as on the interaction of charged semiconductor colloids suspended in electrolyte solution.

  11. All fluorine-free lithium battery electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheers, Johan; Lim, Du-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Paillard, Elie; Henderson, Wesley A.; Johansson, Patrik; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon; Jacobsson, Per

    2014-04-01

    Fluorine-free lithium battery electrolytes have been prepared from lithium salts with nitrile based anions, LiB(CN)4 or LiDCTA, dissolved in PEGDME or PC. After soaked into electrospun PAN membranes the resulting electrolytes were tested for physical and electrochemical properties and compared with reference PAN electrolytes containing LiPF6 or LiTFSI. The fluorine-free electrolytes were successfully cycled in Li/LiFePO4 cells at room temperature with up to 98% Coulombic efficiency. Small and qualitatively different effects were observed with the addition of Al2O3 particles to the PAN membranes, which could be of importance for long-term performance. However, for fluorine-free electrolytes to be truly competitive, the relatively low anodic stability and elevated temperature performance must first of all be improved by a change of solvent - or addition of co-solvents. Further work in this direction is encouraged by the strong influence of the solvent (PC or PEGDME) on the properties of the LiDCTA electrolytes demonstrated in this work.

  12. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-09

    The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

  13. Electrical and structural properties of Ce{sub 0.8}(Sm{sub 0.5−x}Y{sub 0.5}Al{sub x}){sub 0.2}O{sub 2−δ} ceramics as an electrolyte for SOFC

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Hong-Ki; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Sung-Gap; Lee, Young-Hie

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Effect of Al doping on electrical and structural properties was investigated. • According to the contents of Al, the samples show each electrical property. • When Al is 0.4, the sample shows highest electrical properties. - Abstract: The effects of various contents of alumina co-doping on a ceria-based electrolyte were investigated. All samples were sintered at 1500 °C for 10 h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed a fluorite cubic structure. To investigate the surfaces of the Ce{sub 0.8}(Sm{sub 0.5−x}Y{sub 0.5}Al{sub x}){sub 0.2}O{sub 2−δ} (CSYA) ceramics by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the electrical properties of the CSYA ceramics were measured by AC impedance. The optimal values of ionic conductivity and activation energy were reached at x = 0.4 measured at 600 °C. This result indicated that the alumina co-doping improved the electrical and microstructural properties of the ceria-based electrolyte.

  14. Worker Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yiziang, Zeng; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes worker education in China as an important part of the national educational plan and an indispensible foundation for the work of developing enterprisers. Basic tasks are the development of the mind, preparation of specialists, improving workers, and modernization of socialist enterprises. (JOW)

  15. Electrolytic cell stack with molten electrolyte migration control

    DOEpatents

    Kunz, H.R.; Guthrie, R.J.; Katz, M.

    1987-03-17

    An electrolytic cell stack includes inactive electrolyte reservoirs at the upper and lower end portions thereof. The reservoirs are separated from the stack of the complete cells by impermeable, electrically conductive separators. Reservoirs at the negative end are initially low in electrolyte and the reservoirs at the positive end are high in electrolyte fill. During stack operation electrolyte migration from the positive to the negative end will be offset by the inactive reservoir capacity. In combination with the inactive reservoirs, a sealing member of high porosity and low electrolyte retention is employed to limit the electrolyte migration rate. 5 figs.

  16. Electrolytic cell stack with molten electrolyte migration control

    DOEpatents

    Kunz, H. Russell; Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray

    1988-08-02

    An electrolytic cell stack includes inactive electrolyte reservoirs at the upper and lower end portions thereof. The reservoirs are separated from the stack of the complete cells by impermeable, electrically conductive separators. Reservoirs at the negative end are initially low in electrolyte and the reservoirs at the positive end are high in electrolyte fill. During stack operation electrolyte migration from the positive to the negative end will be offset by the inactive reservoir capacity. In combination with the inactive reservoirs, a sealing member of high porosity and low electrolyte retention is employed to limit the electrolyte migration rate.

  17. Electrochemically stable electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles Austen; Zhang, Sheng-Shui; Xu, Kang

    1999-01-01

    This invention relates generally to inorganic ionic liquids which function as electrolytes and do not crystallize at ambient temperature. More specifically, this invention is directed to quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquids which comprise the reaction product of a strong Lewis acid with an inorganic halide-donating molecule. This invention is further directed to quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquid mixtures which comprise combinations of electrolyte additives and quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquids. These quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquid mixtures are useful electrolytes.

  18. Electrochemically stable electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Zhang, S.S.; Xu, K.

    1999-01-05

    This invention relates generally to inorganic ionic liquids which function as electrolytes and do not crystallize at ambient temperature. More specifically, this invention is directed to quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquids which comprise the reaction product of a strong Lewis acid with an inorganic halide-donating molecule. This invention is further directed to quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquid mixtures which comprise combinations of electrolyte additives and quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquids. These quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquid mixtures are useful electrolytes. 16 figs.

  19. Inorganic-organic composite solid polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, K.M.; Koch, V.R.; Blakley, T.J.

    2000-04-01

    Inorganic-organic composite solid polymer electrolytes (CSPEs) have been prepared from the poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-like electrolytes of the general formula polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP)-PEO{sub n}-LiX and Li{sup +}-conducting ceramic powders. In the PEO-like electrolytes, PVdF-HFP is the copolymer of PVdF and HFP, PEO{sub n} is a nonvolatile oligomeric polyethylene oxide of {approximately}400 g/mol molecular weight, and LiX is lithium bis(trifluoroethylsulfonyl)imide. Two types of inorganic oxide ceramic powders were used: a highly Li{sup +}-conducting material of the composition 14 mol % Li{sub 2}O-9Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-38TiO{sub 2}-39P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and the poorly Li{sup +}-conducting Li-silicates Li{sub 4{minus}x}M{sub x}SiO{sub 4} where M is Ca or Mg and x is 0 or 0.05. The composite electrolytes can be prepared as thin membranes in which the Li{sup +} conductivity and good mechanical strength of the Li{sup +}-conducting inorganic ceramics are complemented by the structural flexibility and high conductivity of organic polymer electrolytes. Excellent electrochemical and thermal stabilities have been demonstrated for the electrolyte films. Li//composite electrolyte//LiCoO{sub 2} rechargeable cells have been fabricated and cycled at room temperature and 50 C.

  20. Polymer Electrolytes:. Problems, Prospects, and Promises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasubramanian, G.; Doughty, D. H.

    2002-12-01

    In 1975 P. V. Wright observed ionic conduction at elevated temperatures in polyethylene oxide (PEO) thin film electrolyte containing sodium salt. This seminal research generated wide spread interest in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries. Armand took the cue from this observation and demonstrated the use of PEO/salt complex as electrolyte in lithium batteries. Soon after this a number of researchers have followed suit and studied the physical, electrical and transport properties of thin film PEO electrolyte. These studies have clearly identified the limitations of the PEO electrolyte. Chief among the limitations are a low cation transport number (t+), high glass transition temperature (Tg), and segmental motion of the polymer chain, which carries the cation through the bulk electrolyte. While low t+ leads to cell polarization and increase in cell resistance high Tg reduces conductivity at and around room temperature. For example, the conductivity of PEO electrolyte containing lithium salt is ~10-8 S/cm at room temperature. Attempts have been made to reduce Tg of PEO polymer by attaching PEO macromolecules to polyphosphazene (N=P) inorganic backbone, which is very flexible. Another material that has been investigated as a backbone material consists of Si-O chain. These two polymers exhibit a lower Tg and higher room temperature conductivity than the unmodified PEO. For example, the room temperature conductivity of the two polymers is around 10-5 S/cm - a 3 orders of magnitude increase in conductivity compared to unmodified PEO at around room temperature. Although this approach has yielded polymers with lower Tg, the t+ is still very low - ~0.25 - for lithium ion. Nano-ceramic particles of Al2O3, TiO2 etc. mechanically mixed with PEO electrolyte seem to increase t+. This approach also has inherent limitations regarding phase separation. The latest approach appears to involve integrating nano domains of inorganic moieties such as Si-O as part of the polymer

  1. Electrolytic oxidation of anthracite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Patton, K.M.; Heard, I.

    1981-01-01

    An anthracite slurry can be oxidized only with difficulty by electrolytic methods in which aqueous electrolytes are used if the slurry is confined to the region of the anode by a porous pot or diaphragm. However, it can be easily oxidized if the anthracite itself is used as the anode. No porous pot or diaphragm is needed. Oxidative consumption of the coal to alkali-soluble compounds is found to proceed preferentially at the edges of the aromatic planes. An oxidation model is proposed in which the chief oxidants are molecular and radical species formed by the electrolytic decomposition of water at the coal surface-electrolyte interface. The oxidation reactions proposed account for the opening of the aromatic rings and the subsequent formation of carboxylic acids. The model also explains the observed anisotropic oxidation and the need for the porous pot or diaphragm used in previous studies of the oxidation of coal slurries. ?? 1981.

  2. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik

    2015-06-02

    Anion exchange polymer electrolytes that include guanidinium functionalized polymers may be used as membranes and binders for electrocatalysts in preparation of anodes for electrochemical cells such as solid alkaline fuel cells.

  3. Aluminum oxyhydroxide based separator/electrolyte and battery system, and a method of making the same

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald, II; Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2011-02-15

    The instant invention relates a solid-state electrochemical cell and a novel separator/electrolyte incorporated therein. The invented electrochemical cell generally comprising: a unique metal oxyhydroxide based (i.e. AlOOH) separator/electrolyte membrane sandwiched between a first electrode and a second electrode. The novel separator/electrolyte comprises a nanoparticulate metal oxyhydroxide, preferably AlOOH and a salt which are mixed and then pressed together to form a monolithic metal oxyhydroxide-salt membrane.

  4. Solid electrolyte cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, R. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A solid electrolyte cell including a body of solid ionized gas-conductive electrolyte having mutually spaced surfaces and on which is deposited a multiplicity of mutually spaced electrodes is described. Strips and of bare substances are interposed between electrodes, so that currents of ionic gas may be established between the electrodes via the bare strips, whereby electrical resistance for the cells is lowered and the gas conductivity is enhanced.

  5. Combination for electrolytic reduction of alumina

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Craig W.; Brooks, Richard J.; Frizzle, Patrick B.; Juric, Drago D.

    2002-04-30

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound is, a fluoride; oxide, or carbonate. The metal is nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath is employed in a combination including a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the instant bath during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum improves the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode.

  6. Effect upon biocompatibility and biocorrosion properties of plasma electrolytic oxidation in trisodium phosphate electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Kyoung; Park, Il-Song; Lee, Kwang-Bok; Bae, Tae-Sung; Jang, Yong-Seok; Oh, Young-Min; Lee, Min-Ho

    2016-03-01

    Surface modification to improve the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of the Mg-Al-Zn-Ca alloy was conducted via plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in an electrolyte that included phosphate. Calcium phosphate can be easily induced on the surface of a PEO coating that includes phosphate in a physiological environment because Ca(2+) ions in body fluids can be combined with PO4 (3-). Cytotoxicity of the PEO coating formed in electrolytes with various amounts of Na3PO4 was identified. In particular, the effects that PEO films have upon oxidative stress and differentiation of osteoblast activity were studied. As the concentration of Na3PO4 in the electrolyte increased, the oxide layer was found to become thicker, which increased corrosion resistance. However, the PEO coating formed in electrolytes with over 0.2 M of added Na3PO4 exhibited more microcracks and larger pores than those formed in smaller Na3PO4 concentrations owing to a large spark discharge. A nonuniform oxide film that included more phosphate caused more cytotoxicity and oxidative stress, and overabundant phosphate content in the oxide layer interrupted the differentiation of osteoblasts. The corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy and the thickness of the oxide layer were increased by the addition of Na3PO4 in the electrolyte for PEO treatment. However, excessive phosphate content in the oxide layer led to oxidative stress, which resulted in reduced cell viability and activity. PMID:26829967

  7. Effect upon biocompatibility and biocorrosion properties of plasma electrolytic oxidation in trisodium phosphate electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Kyoung; Park, Il-Song; Lee, Kwang-Bok; Bae, Tae-Sung; Jang, Yong-Seok; Oh, Young-Min; Lee, Min-Ho

    2016-03-01

    Surface modification to improve the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of the Mg-Al-Zn-Ca alloy was conducted via plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in an electrolyte that included phosphate. Calcium phosphate can be easily induced on the surface of a PEO coating that includes phosphate in a physiological environment because Ca(2+) ions in body fluids can be combined with PO4 (3-). Cytotoxicity of the PEO coating formed in electrolytes with various amounts of Na3PO4 was identified. In particular, the effects that PEO films have upon oxidative stress and differentiation of osteoblast activity were studied. As the concentration of Na3PO4 in the electrolyte increased, the oxide layer was found to become thicker, which increased corrosion resistance. However, the PEO coating formed in electrolytes with over 0.2 M of added Na3PO4 exhibited more microcracks and larger pores than those formed in smaller Na3PO4 concentrations owing to a large spark discharge. A nonuniform oxide film that included more phosphate caused more cytotoxicity and oxidative stress, and overabundant phosphate content in the oxide layer interrupted the differentiation of osteoblasts. The corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy and the thickness of the oxide layer were increased by the addition of Na3PO4 in the electrolyte for PEO treatment. However, excessive phosphate content in the oxide layer led to oxidative stress, which resulted in reduced cell viability and activity.

  8. Composite Solid Electrolyte for Li Battery Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, G.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.; Peled, E.

    1993-01-01

    The electrochemical, bulk and interfacial properties of the polyethylene oxide (PEO) based composite solid electrolyte (CSE) comprising LiI, PEO, and Al2O3 have been evaluated for Li battery applications. The bulk interfacial and transport properties of the CSEs seem to strongly depend on the alumina particle size. For the CSE films with 0.05 micron alumina while the bulk conductivity is around 10(exp -4) (mho/cm) at 103 C, the Li ion transport number seems to be close to unity at the same temperature. Compared to the PEO electrolyte this polymer composite electrolyte seems to exhibit robust mechanical and interfacial properties. We have studied three different films with three different alumina sizes in the range 0.01-0.3 micron. Effects of Al2O3 particle size on the electrochemical performance of polymer composite electrolyte is discussed. With TiS2 as cathode a 10 mAh small capacity cell was charged and discharged at C/40 and C/20 rates respectively.

  9. MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se -Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland; Liu, Ping

    2015-07-28

    A lithium metal thin-film battery composite structure is provided that includes a combination of a thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18] such as Lipon, designed in use to be in contact with a lithium metal anode layer; and a rapid-deposit solid electrolyte layer [16] such as LiAlF.sub.4 in contact with the thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18]. Batteries made up of or containing these structures are more efficient to produce than other lithium metal batteries that use only a single solid electrolyte. They are also more resistant to stress and strain than batteries made using layers of only the stable, solid electrolyte materials. Furthermore, lithium anode batteries as disclosed herein are useful as rechargeable batteries.

  10. H+ diffusion and electrochemical stability of Li1+x+yAlxTi2-xSiyP3-yO12 glass in aqueous Li/air battery electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Fei; Xu, Wu; Shao, Yuyan; Chen, Xilin; Wang, Zhiguo; Gao, Fei; Liu, Xingjiang; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2012-09-01

    It is well known that LATP (Li1+x+yAlxTi2-xSiyP3-yO12) glass is a good lithium ion conductor. However, the interaction between LATP glass and H+ ions (including its diffusion and surface adsorption) needs to be well understood before the long-term application of LATP glass in an aqueous electrolyte based Li-air batteries where H+ always present. In this work, we investigate the H+ ion diffusion properties in LATP glass and their surface interactions using both experimental and modeling approaches. Our analysis indicates that the apparent H+ related current observed in the initial cyclic voltammetry scan should be attributed to the adsorption of H+ ions on the LATP glass rather than the bulk diffusion of H+ ions in the glass. Furthermore, the density functional theory calculations indicate that the H+ ion diffusion energy barrier (3.21 eV) is much higher than that of Li+ ion (0.79 eV) and Na+ ion (0.79 eV) in NASICON type LiTi2(PO4)3 material. As a result, the H+ ion conductivity in LATP glass is negligible at room temperature. However, significant surface corrosion was found after the LATP glass was soaked in strong alkaline electrolyte for extended time. Therefore, appropriate electrolytes have to be developed to prevent the corrosion of LATP glass before its practical application for Li-air batteries using aqueous electrolyte.

  11. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of AMCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, R.; Sieber, M.; Lampke, T.

    2016-03-01

    Aluminum Matrix Composites (AMCs) consisting of high-strength alloys and ceramic reinforcement phases exhibit a high potential for security relevant lightweight components due to their high specific mechanical properties. However, their application as tribologically stressed components is limited because of their susceptibility against fatigue wear and delamination wear. Oxide ceramic protective coatings produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) can solve these problems and extend the possible applications of AMCs. The substrate material was powder metallurgically processed using alloy EN AW 2017 and SiC or Al2O3 particles. The influence of material properties like particle type, size and volume fraction on coating characteristics is clarified within this work. An alkaline silicate electrolyte was used to produce PEO coatings with technically relevant thicknesses under bipolar-pulsed current conditions. Coating properties were evaluated with regard to morphology, chemical composition, hardness and wear resistance. The particle type proved to have the most significant effect on the coating properties. Whereas compactness and thickness are not deteriorated by the incorporation of thermodynamically stable alumina particles, the decomposition of silica particles during the PEO processes causes an increase of the porosity. The higher silica particle content decreases also the coating thickness and hardness, which leads in particular to reduction of the wear resistance of the PEO coatings. Finally, different approaches for the reduction of the coating porosity of silica reinforced AMCs are discussed.

  12. Polyaniline secondary cells with ambient temperature molten salt electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Koura, Nobuyuki; Ejiri, Hirokazu; Takeishi, Kazuyuki )

    1993-03-01

    An Al/polyaniline (PAn) powder secondary cell with an AlCl[sub 3]-1-butylpyridinium chloride (BPC) or an AlCl[sub 3]-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMIC) electrolyte has been investigated. The configuration of the Al/PAn secondary cell with an acidic AlCl[sub 3]-EMIC electrolyte was: open-circuit voltage (OCV) = 1.7 V, discharge capacity = 42 Ah, charge/discharge efficiency = 90%. A 24% increase in the discharge capacity over a BPC system electrolyte is obtained. The difference was attributed to the electrolyte properties, i.e., conductivity and viscosity. In the basic EMIC system bath of 44.4 m/o AlCl[sub 3], the redox potential of PAn was less noble and the reaction current was large. A PAn/PAn secondary cell with the acidic AlCl[sub 3]-EMIC catholyte and the basic anolyte was proposed. The OCV showed 1.0 V and the PAn/PAn secondary cell was promising. A PAn prepared from a nonaqueous BPC system bath was more electrochemically active than that prepared from an aqueous bath. The optimum OCV, discharge capacity, and charge/discharge efficiency of the Al/PAn (from the BPC bath) were 1.6 V, 68 Ah/kg-PAn, and 99%, respectively.

  13. Stretching short DNAs in electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jizeng; Fan, Xiaojun; Gao, Huajian

    2006-03-01

    This paper is aimed at a combined theoretical and numerical study of the force-extension relation of a short DNA molecule stretched in an electrolyte. A theoretical formula based on a recent discrete wormlike chain (WLC) model of Kierfeld et al. (Eur Phys. J. E, Vol. 14, pp.17-34, 2004) and the classical OSF mean-field theory on electrostatic stiffening of a charged polymer is numerically verified by a set of Brownian dynamics simulations based on a generalized bead-rod (GBR) model incorporating long-ranged electrostatic interactions via the Debye-Hueckel potential (DH). The analysis indicates that the stretching of a short DNA can be well described as a WLC with a constant effective persistent length. This contrasts the behavior of long DNA chains that are known to exhibit variable persistent lengths depending on the ion concentration levels and force magnitudes. PMID:16711068

  14. Electrolytes in the Aging

    PubMed Central

    Schlanger, Lynn E.; Bailey, James Lynch; Sands, Jeff M.

    2010-01-01

    The elderly population in the United States continues to grow and is expected to double by 2050. With aging there are degenerative changes in many organs and the kidney is no exception. After age forty there is an increase in cortical glomerulosclerosis and a decline in both glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow. These changes may be associated with an inability to excrete a concentrated or a dilute urine, ammonium, sodium, or potassium. Hypernatremia and hyponatremia are the most common electrolyte abnormalities found in the elderly and both are associated with a high mortality. Under normal conditions the elderly are able to maintain water and electrolyte balance but this may be jeopardized by an illness, a decline in cognitive ability, and with certain medications. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the potential electrolyte abnormalities in the elderly that can arise under these various conditions in order to prevent adverse outcomes. PMID:20610358

  15. Solid electrolyte battery

    SciTech Connect

    Cipriano, R.A.; Snelgrove, R.V.; McCullough, F.P. Jr.

    1990-08-28

    This patent describes a primary rechargeable electrical storage device, a housing, at least one cell position in the housing, each cell comprising an anode consisting of a metal selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth metal, alkaline earth metal alloy, alkali metal, alkali metal alloy and alkali metal eutectic mixtures, a separator surrounding the anode. The separator being capable of transporting or passing ionic species and electrically isolating the anode, a cathode, and an electrolyte associated with the cathode. The electrolyte comprising a membrane of a non-porous solid polymeric material containing a sulfonic acid group.

  16. Improved electrolytes for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gard, G.L.; Roe, D.K.

    1991-06-01

    Present day fuel cells based upon hydrogen and oxygen have limited performance due to the use of phosphoric acid as an electrolyte. Improved performance is desirable in electrolyte conductivity, electrolyte management, oxygen solubility, and the kinetics of the reduction of oxygen. Attention has turned to fluorosulfonic acids as additives or substitute electrolytes to improve fuel cell performance. The purpose of this project is to synthesize and electrochemically evaluate new fluorosulfonic acids as superior alternatives to phosphoric acid in fuel cells. (VC)

  17. Batteries using molten salt electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Guidotti, Ronald A.

    2003-04-08

    An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

  18. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

    MedlinePlus

    ... the foods you eat and the fluids you drink. Levels of electrolytes in your body can become too low or too high. That can happen when the amount of water in your body changes, causing dehydration or overhydration. Causes include some medicines, vomiting, diarrhea, ...

  19. Spin coating of electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Stetter, Joseph R.; Maclay, G. Jordan

    1989-01-01

    Methods for spin coating electrolytic materials onto substrates are disclosed. More particularly, methods for depositing solid coatings of ion-conducting material onto planar substrates and onto electrodes are disclosed. These spin coating methods are employed to fabricate electrochemical sensors for use in measuring, detecting and quantifying gases and liquids.

  20. Solid electrolyte structure

    DOEpatents

    Fraioli, Anthony V.

    1984-01-01

    A solid electrolyte structure for fuel cells and other electrochemical devices providing oxygen ion transfer by a multiplicity of exposed internal surfaces made of a composition containing an oxide of a multivalent transition metal and forming small pore-like passages sized to permit oxygen ion transfer while limiting the transfer of oxygen gas.

  1. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    DOEpatents

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  2. Reference electrode for electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Kessie, R.W.

    1988-07-28

    A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane. 4 figs.

  3. Electrolytic cell with reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kessie, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane.

  4. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of Titanium Aluminides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, R.; Sieber, M.; Grund, T.; Lampke, T.; Wielage, B.

    2016-03-01

    Due to their outstanding specific mechanical and high-temperature properties, titanium aluminides exhibit a high potential for lightweight components exposed to high temperatures. However, their application is limited through their low wear resistance and the increasing high-temperature oxidation starting from about 750 °C. By the use of oxide ceramic coatings, these constraints can be set aside and the possible applications of titanium aluminides can be extended. The plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) represents a process for the generation of oxide ceramic conversion coatings with high thickness. The current work aims at the clarification of different electrolyte components’ influences on the oxide layer evolution on alloy TNM-B1 (Ti43.5Al4Nb1Mo0.1B) and the creation of compact and wear resistant coatings. Model experiments were applied using a ramp-wise increase of the anodic potential in order to show the influence of electrolyte components on the discharge initiation and the early stage of the oxide layer growth. The production of PEO layers with technically relevant thicknesses close to 100 μm was conducted in alkaline electrolytes with varying amounts of Na2SiO3·5H2O and K4P2O7 under symmetrically pulsed current conditions. Coating properties were evaluated with regard to morphology, chemical composition, hardness and wear resistance. The addition of phosphates and silicates leads to an increasing substrate passivation and the growth of compact oxide layers with higher thicknesses. Optimal electrolyte compositions for maximum coating hardness and thickness were identified by statistical analysis. Under these conditions, a homogeneous inner layer with low porosity can be achieved. The frictional wear behavior of the compact coating layer is superior to a hard anodized layer on aluminum.

  5. Charge neutrality breakdown in confined aqueous electrolytes: Theory and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colla, Thiago; Girotto, Matheus; dos Santos, Alexandre P.; Levin, Yan

    2016-09-01

    We study, using Density Functional theory (DFT) and Monte Carlo simulations, aqueous electrolyte solutions between charged infinite planar surfaces, in contact with a bulk salt reservoir. In agreement with recent experimental observations [Z. Luo et al., Nat. Commun. 6, 6358 (2015)], we find that the confined electrolyte lacks local charge neutrality. We show that a DFT based on a bulk-HNC expansion properly accounts for strong electrostatic correlations and allows us to accurately calculate the ionic density profiles between the charged surfaces, even for electrolytes containing trivalent counterions. The DFT allows us to explore the degree of local charge neutrality violation, as a function of plate separation and bulk electrolyte concentration, and to accurately calculate the interaction force between the charged surfaces.

  6. Charge neutrality breakdown in confined aqueous electrolytes: Theory and simulation.

    PubMed

    Colla, Thiago; Girotto, Matheus; Dos Santos, Alexandre P; Levin, Yan

    2016-09-01

    We study, using Density Functional theory (DFT) and Monte Carlo simulations, aqueous electrolyte solutions between charged infinite planar surfaces, in contact with a bulk salt reservoir. In agreement with recent experimental observations [Z. Luo et al., Nat. Commun. 6, 6358 (2015)], we find that the confined electrolyte lacks local charge neutrality. We show that a DFT based on a bulk-HNC expansion properly accounts for strong electrostatic correlations and allows us to accurately calculate the ionic density profiles between the charged surfaces, even for electrolytes containing trivalent counterions. The DFT allows us to explore the degree of local charge neutrality violation, as a function of plate separation and bulk electrolyte concentration, and to accurately calculate the interaction force between the charged surfaces. PMID:27609007

  7. Charge neutrality breakdown in confined aqueous electrolytes: Theory and simulation.

    PubMed

    Colla, Thiago; Girotto, Matheus; Dos Santos, Alexandre P; Levin, Yan

    2016-09-01

    We study, using Density Functional theory (DFT) and Monte Carlo simulations, aqueous electrolyte solutions between charged infinite planar surfaces, in contact with a bulk salt reservoir. In agreement with recent experimental observations [Z. Luo et al., Nat. Commun. 6, 6358 (2015)], we find that the confined electrolyte lacks local charge neutrality. We show that a DFT based on a bulk-HNC expansion properly accounts for strong electrostatic correlations and allows us to accurately calculate the ionic density profiles between the charged surfaces, even for electrolytes containing trivalent counterions. The DFT allows us to explore the degree of local charge neutrality violation, as a function of plate separation and bulk electrolyte concentration, and to accurately calculate the interaction force between the charged surfaces.

  8. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.

    1992-12-31

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  9. Electrolyte Concentrates Treat Dehydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Wellness Brands Inc. of Boulder, Colorado, exclusively licensed a unique electrolyte concentrate formula developed by Ames Research Center to treat and prevent dehydration in astronauts returning to Earth. Marketed as The Right Stuff, the company's NASA-derived formula is an ideal measure for athletes looking to combat dehydration and boost performance. Wellness Brands also plans to expand with products that make use of the formula's effective hydration properties to help treat conditions including heat stroke, altitude sickness, jet lag, and disease.

  10. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, K.M.; Alamgir, M.; Choe, H.S.

    1995-12-12

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li{sup +}) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}, LiAsF{sub 6}, and LiClO{sub 4}. 2 figs.

  11. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Glenn, David F.; Suciu, Dan F.; Harris, Taryl L.; Ingram, Jani C.

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  12. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.

    1993-04-06

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  13. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  14. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  15. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  16. Electrolyte materials - Issues and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Balbuena, Perla B.

    2014-06-16

    Electrolytes are vital components of an electrochemical energy storage device. They are usually composed of a solvent or mixture of solvents and a salt or a mixture of salts which provide the appropriate environment for ionic conduction. One of the main issues associated with the selection of a proper electrolyte is that its electronic properties have to be such that allow a wide electrochemical window - defined as the voltage range in which the electrolyte is not oxidized or reduced - suitable to the battery operating voltage. In addition, electrolytes must have high ionic conductivity and negligible electronic conductivity, be chemically stable with respect to the other battery components, have low flammability, and low cost. Weak stability of the electrolyte against oxidation or reduction leads to the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer at the surface of the cathode and anode respectively. Depending on the materials of the electrolyte and those of the electrode, the SEI layer may be composed by combinations of organic and inorganic species, and it may exert a passivating role. In this paper we discuss the current status of knowledge about electrolyte materials, including non-aqueous liquids, ionic liquids, solid ceramic and polymer electrolytes. We also review the basic knowledge about the SEI layer formation, and challenges for a rational design of stable electrolytes.

  17. Neuropsychological deficit among elderly workers in aluminum production.

    PubMed

    Bast-Pettersen, R; Drabløs, P A; Goffeng, L O; Thomassen, Y; Torres, C G

    1994-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted at a Norwegian primary aluminum plant. All workers aged 61-66 years were offered early retirement benefits. Among the workers, 47 met the study criteria and 38 (81%), comprising 14 potroom workers, 8 foundry workers, and 16 controls, volunteered to participate. They were tested with a neuropsychological test battery. Workers in potrooms with Søderberg electrolytic cells were found to show signs of impairment of the nervous system. A test for tremor discriminated significantly between the potroom group and the controls. There was a suggestion of increased risk of impaired visuospatial organization and a tendency to a decline in psychomotor tempo in the potroom workers. We suggest that the above findings may be related to long-term occupational exposure in the potroom, and further to chronic low-dose exposure to aluminum.

  18. Enhancing the High-Voltage Cycling Performance of LiNi(0.5)Mn(0.3)Co(0.2)O2 by Retarding Its Interfacial Reaction with an Electrolyte by Atomic-Layer-Deposited Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Su, Yantao; Cui, Suihan; Zhuo, Zengqing; Yang, Wanli; Wang, Xinwei; Pan, Feng

    2015-11-18

    High-voltage (>4.3 V) operation of LiNi(x)Mn(y)Co(z)O2 (NMC; 0 ≤ x, y, z < 1) for high capacity has become a new challenge for next-generation lithium-ion batteries because of the rapid capacity degradation over cycling. In this work, we investigate the performance of LiNi(0.5)Mn(0.3)Co(0.2)O2 (NMC532) electrodes with and without an atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) Al2O3 layer for charging/discharging in the range from 3.0 to 4.5 V (high voltage). The results of the electrochemical measurements show that the cells with ALD Al2O3-coated NMC532 electrodes have much enhanced cycling stability. The mechanism was investigated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and electrochemical methods. We find that the ultrathin ALD Al2O3 film can reduce the interface resistance of lithium-ion diffusion and enhance the surface stability of NMC532 by retarding the reactions at NMC532/electrolyte interfaces for preventing the formation of a new microstructure rock-salt phase NiO around the NMC532 surfaces.

  19. Honeycomb-alumina supported garnet membrane: Composite electrolyte with low resistance and high strength for lithium metal batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai; Wang, Chang-An

    2015-05-01

    Li-ion ceramic electrolyte material is considered the key for advanced lithium metal batteries, and garnet-type oxides are promising ceramic electrolyte materials. To disentangle the thinness-strength dilemma in garnet-type Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 (LLZTO) electrolyte, we designed and successfully synthesized a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte, i.e. a honeycomb-Al2O3 pellet supported LLZTO membrane. The honeycomb-Al2O3 pellet acts as a supporter to the thin LLZTO membrane and makes the whole composite electrolyte strong enough, while the straight holes in the Al2O3 supporter can be filled with liquid electrolyte and acts as channels for Li+ transportation. Such a composite design eliminates the concern over the LLZTO membrane's fragility, and keeps its good electrical property.

  20. Ceramic electrolyte coating and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Swartz, Scott L.; Dawson, William J.; McCormick, Buddy E.

    2007-08-28

    Aqueous coating slurries useful in depositing a dense coating of a ceramic electrolyte material (e.g., yttrium-stabilized zirconia) onto a porous substrate of a ceramic electrode material (e.g., lanthanum strontium manganite or nickel/zirconia) and processes for preparing an aqueous suspension of a ceramic electrolyte material and an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material. The invention also includes processes for depositing an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material onto pre-sintered, partially sintered, and unsintered ceramic substrates and products made by this process.

  1. Imprintable, bendable, and shape-conformable polymer electrolytes for versatile-shaped lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Kil, Eun-Hye; Choi, Keun-Ho; Ha, Hyo-Jeong; Xu, Sheng; Rogers, John A; Kim, Mi Ri; Lee, Young-Gi; Kim, Kwang Man; Cho, Kuk Young; Lee, Sang-Young

    2013-03-13

    A class of imprintable, bendable, and shape-conformable polymer electrolyte with excellent electrochemical performance in a lithium battery system is reported. The material consists of a UV-cured polymer matrix, high-boiling point liquid electrolyte, and Al2 O3 nanoparticles, formulated for use in lithium-ion batteries with 3D-structured electrodes or flexible characteristics. The unique structural design and well-tuned rheological characteristics of the UV-curable electrolyte mixture, in combination with direct UV-assisted nanoimprint lithography, allow the successful fabrication of polymer electrolytes in geometries not accessible with conventional materials.

  2. Electrolytic oxide reduction system

    DOEpatents

    Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Barnes, Laurel A; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L; Berger, John F

    2015-04-28

    An electrolytic oxide reduction system according to a non-limiting embodiment of the present invention may include a plurality of anode assemblies, a plurality of cathode assemblies, and a lift system configured to engage the anode and cathode assemblies. The cathode assemblies may be alternately arranged with the anode assemblies such that each cathode assembly is flanked by two anode assemblies. The lift system may be configured to selectively engage the anode and cathode assemblies so as to allow the simultaneous lifting of any combination of the anode and cathode assemblies (whether adjacent or non-adjacent).

  3. Electrolyte creepage barrier for liquid electrolyte fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Li, Jian; Farooque, Mohammad; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2008-01-22

    A dielectric assembly for electrically insulating a manifold or other component from a liquid electrolyte fuel cell stack wherein the dielectric assembly includes a substantially impermeable dielectric member over which electrolyte is able to flow and a barrier adjacent the dielectric member and having a porosity of less than 50% and greater than 10% so that the barrier is able to measurably absorb and chemically react with the liquid electrolyte flowing on the dielectric member to form solid products which are stable in the liquid electrolyte. In this way, the barrier inhibits flow or creepage of electrolyte from the dielectric member to the manifold or component to be electrically insulated from the fuel cell stack by the dielectric assembly.

  4. Electrolytes - Technology review

    SciTech Connect

    Meutzner, Falk; Ureña de Vivanco, Mateo

    2014-06-16

    Safety, lifetime, energy density, and costs are the key factors for battery development. This generates the need for improved cell chemistries and new, advanced battery materials. The components of an electrolyte are the solvent, in which a conducting salt and additives are dissolved. Each of them plays a specific role in the overall mechanism of a cell: the solvent provides the host medium for ionic conductivity, which originates in the conductive salt. Furthermore, additives can be used to optimize safety, performance, and cyclability. By understanding the tasks of the individual components and their optimum conditions of operation, the functionality of cells can be improved from a holistic point of view. This paper will present the most important technological features and requirements for electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries. The state-of-the-art chemistry of each component is presented, as well as different approaches for their modification. Finally, a comparison of Li-cells with lithium-based technologies currently under development is conducted.

  5. Low electrolytic conductivity standards

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.C.; Berezansky, P.A.

    1995-09-01

    The monitoring and control of the quality of feedwater and boiler water are necessary for power plants. The generation of steam at high temperature and pressure requires that contaminants be strictly limited to very low levels to prevent corrosion and scaling. Standards of low electrolytic conductivity were developed to satisfy the demands of the US Navy and American industry for the measurement of high quality water. The criteria for the selection of appropriate solvent and solutes, based on the principles of equivalent conductivity and Onsager`s limiting law, are described. Dilute solutions of potassium chloride and benzoic acid in 30% n-propanol-water have been chosen as standards. The electrolytic conductivity of both sets of these solutions as a function of molality was determined. Solutions of potassium chloride and of benzoic acid are recommended for use as 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 {micro}S/cm conductivity standards. Solutions prepared from potassium chloride in 30% n-propanol-water have been certified as Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). SRM 3198 and SRM 3199 are certified nominally at 5 and 15 {micro}S/cm, respectively, at 25.000 C.

  6. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  7. Reducing workers' compensation costs.

    PubMed

    Killian, M J

    1994-01-01

    Employers can reduce their workers' compensation costs by encouraging internal communication and education before and after injuries occur. Comprehensive workers' compensation programs can be developed by integrating the management of employee benefits and workers' compensation claims. PMID:10133659

  8. Performance of ferrite fillers on electrical behavior of polymer nanocomposite electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Kamlesh; Mauli Dwivedi, Mrigank; Singh, Markandey; Agrawal, S. L.

    2011-04-01

    Dispersal of nanofillers in polymer electrolytes have shown to improve the ionic properties of Polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based polymer electrolytes in recent times. The effects of different nanoferrite fillers (i.e., Al-Zn ferrite, Mg-Zn ferrite, and Zn ferrite) on the electrical transport properties have been studied here on the composite polymer electrolyte system. The interaction of salt/filler with electrolyte has been investigated by XRD studies. SEM image and infrared spectral studies give an indication of nanocomposite formation. In conductivity studies, all electrolyte systems are seen to follow universal power law. Composition dependence (with ferrite filler) gives the maximum conductivity in [93PEO-7NH4SCN]: X ferrite (where X = 2% in Al-Zn ferrite, 1% Mg-Zn ferrite, and 1% Zn ferrite) system.

  9. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Derzon, Dora K.; Arnold, Jr., Charles; Delnick, Frank M.

    1996-01-01

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities .apprxeq.10.sup.-3 .OMEGA..sup.-1 cm.sup.-1 are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  10. Application of Organic Solid Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekido, S.

    1982-01-01

    If ions are considered to be solid material which transport electric charges, polymer materials can then be considered as organic solid electrolytes. The role of these electrolytes is discussed for (1) ion concentration sensors; (2) batteries using lithium as the cathode and a charge complex of organic material and iodine in the anode; and (3) elements applying electrical double layer capability.

  11. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Derzon, D.K.; Arnold, C. Jr.; Delnick, F.M.

    1996-12-31

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolytes, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities {approx_equal}10{sup {minus}3}{Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. 1 fig.

  12. Electrolyte treatment for aluminum reduction

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Craig W.; Brooks, Richard J.; Frizzle, Patrick B.; Juric, Drago D.

    2002-01-01

    A method of treating an electrolyte for use in the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum employing an anode and a cathode, the alumina dissolved in the electrolyte, the treating improving wetting of the cathode with molten aluminum during electrolysis. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten electrolyte comprised of ALF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF and LiF, and treating the electrolyte by providing therein 0.004 to 0.2 wt. % of a transition metal or transition metal compound for improved wettability of the cathode with molten aluminum during subsequent electrolysis to reduce alumina to aluminum.

  13. Method for treating electrolyte to remove Li{sub 2}O

    DOEpatents

    Tomczuk, Z.; Miller, W.E.; Johnson, G.K.; Willit, J.L.

    1998-01-20

    A method is described for removing Li{sub 2}O present in an electrolyte predominantly of LiCl and KCl. The electrolyte is heated to a temperature not less than about 500 C and then Al is introduced into the electrolyte in an amount in excess of the stoichiometric amount needed to convert the Li{sub 2}O to a Li-Al alloy and lithium aluminate salt. The salt and aluminum are maintained in contact with agitation for a time sufficient to convert the Li{sub 2}O.

  14. Method for treating electrolyte to remove Li.sub.2 O

    DOEpatents

    Tomczuk, Zygmunt; Miller, William E.; Johnson, Gerald K.; Willit, James L.

    1998-01-01

    A method of removing Li.sub.2 O present in an electrolyte predominantly of LiCl and KCl. The electrolyte is heated to a temperature not less than about 500.degree. C. and then Al is introduced into the electrolyte in an amount in excess of the stoichiometric amount needed to convert the Li.sub.2 O to a Li-Al alloy and lithium aluminate salt. The salt and aluminum are maintained in contact with agitation for a time sufficient to convert the Li.sub.2 O.

  15. Aluminum oxyhydroxide based separator/electrolyte and battery system, and a method making the same

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2011-03-08

    The instant invention relates a solid-state electrochemical cell and a novel separator/electrolyte incorporated therein. A preferred embodiment of the invented electrochemical cell generally comprises a unique metal oxyhydroxide based (i.e. AlOOH) separator/electrolyte membrane sandwiched between a first electrode and a second electrode. A preferred novel separator/electrolyte comprises a nanoparticulate metal oxyhydroxide, preferably AlOOH and a salt which are mixed and then pressed together to form a monolithic metal oxyhydroxide-salt membrane.

  16. Polymeric electrolytic hygrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An improved flow-through electrolytic hygrometer is described which utilizes a long lasting oxidation-resistant, hollow fiber formed from persulfonic acid substituted polytetrafluoroethylene having closely spaced noble metal electrodes in contact with the inner and outer surfaces of the fiber. The fiber is disposed within a chamber so that the moisture-bearing gas passes in contact with at least one surface of the fiber. The electrodes are connected in series to a dc voltage supply and an ammeter. As the gas passes through the chamber, moisture absorbed into the wall of the fiber is electrolyzed to hydrogen and oxygen by the closely spaced electrodes. The amount of electricity required for electrolysis is proportional to the absorbed moisture and is observed on the ammeter.

  17. Electrolytes and thermoregulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, B.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of ions on temperature is studied for cases where the changes in ionic concentrations are induced by direct infusion or injection of electrolyte solutions into the cerebral ventricles or into specific areas of brain tissue; intravenous infusion or injection; eating food or drinking solutions of different ionic composition; and heat or exercise dehydration. It is shown that introduction of Na(+) and Ca(++) into the cerebral ventricles or into the venous system affects temperature regulation. It appears that the specific action of these ions is different from their osmotic effects. It is unlikely that their action is localized to the thermoregulatory centers in the brain. The infusion experiments demonstrate that the changes in sodium balance occurring during exercise and heat stress are large enough to affect sweat gland function and vasomotor activity.

  18. Byssinosis among jute mill workers.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Bhaskar P; Saiyed, Habibullah N; Mukherjee, Ashit K

    2003-07-01

    Although byssinosis in jute mill workers remains controversial, studies in a few jute mills in West-Bengal, India, revealed typical byssinotic syndrome associated with acute changes in FEV1 on the first working day after rest. The present study on 148 jute mill workers is reported to confirm the occurrence of byssinosis in jute mill workers. Work related respiratory symptoms; acute and chronic pulmonary function changes among exposed workers were studied on the basis of standard questionnaire and spirometric method along with dust level, particle mass size distributions and gram-negative bacterial endotoxins. The pulmonary function test (PFT) changes were defined as per the recommendation of World Health Organization and of Bouhys et al. Total dust in jute mill air were monitored by high volume sampling, technique (Staplex, USA), Andersen cascade impactor was used for particle size distribution and personal exposure level was determined by personal sampler (Casella, London). Endotoxin in airborne jute dust was analysed by Lymulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) "Gel Clot" technique. Batching is the dustiest process in the mill. Size distribution showed that about 70-80% dust in diameter of < 10 microm, 40-50%, < 5 microm and 10-20%, < 2 microm. Mean endotoxin levels found in hatching, spinning and weaving, and beaming were 2.319 microg/m3, 0.956 microg/ m3, 0.041 microg/m3 respectively and are comparable to the values obtained up to date in Indian cotton mills. Respiratory morbidity study reported typical byssinotic symptoms along with acute post shift FEV1 changes (31.8%) and chronic changes in FEV1 (43.2%) among exposed workers. The group with higher exposure showed significantly lower FVC, FEV1, PEFR and FEF25-75% values. The study confirmed the findings of the earlier studies and clearly indicated that the Indian jute mill workers are also suffering from byssinosis as observed in cotton, flask and hemp workers.

  19. Electrospun nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte for secondary lithium battery applications

    SciTech Connect

    Padmaraj, O.; Rao, B. Nageswara; Jena, Paramananda; Satyanarayana, N.; Venkateswarlu, M.

    2014-04-24

    Hybrid nanocomposite [poly(vinylidene fluoride -co- hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-co-HFP)/magnesium aluminate (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4})] fibrous polymer membranes were prepared by electrospinning method. The prepared pure and nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membranes were soaked into the liquid electrolyte 1M LiPF{sub 6} in EC: DEC (1:1,v/v). XRD and SEM are used to study the structural and morphological studies of nanocomposite electrospun fibrous polymer membranes. The nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane with 5 wt.% of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibits high ionic conductivity of 2.80 × 10{sup −3} S/cm at room temperature. The charge-discharge capacity of Li/LiCoO{sub 2} coin cells composed of the newly prepared nanocomposite [(16 wt.%) PVdF-co-HFP+(5 wt.%) MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}] fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane was also studied and compared with commercial Celgard separator.

  20. Electrolyte composition for electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt; Anderson, Karl E.; Roche, Michael F.

    1979-01-01

    A high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell that employs FeS as the positive electrode reactant and lithium or lithium alloy as the negative electrode reactant includes an improved electrolyte composition. The electrolyte comprises about 60-70 mole percent LiCl and 30-40 percent mole percent KCl which includes LiCl in excess of the eutectic composition. The use of this electrolyte suppresses formation of the J phase and thereby improves the utilization of positive electrode active material during cell cycling.

  1. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Xu, Kang; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  2. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  3. Non-aqueous electrolytes for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Dong, Jian; Amine, Khalil

    2016-06-14

    An electrolyte electrochemical device includes an anodic material and an electrolyte, the electrolyte including an organosilicon solvent, a salt, and a hybrid additiving having a first and a second compound, the hybrid additive configured to form a solid electrolyte interphase film on the anodic material upon application of a potential to the electrochemical device.

  4. Composite Solid Electrolyte For Lithium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peled, Emmanuel; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Halpert, Gerald; Attia, Alan I.

    1994-01-01

    Composite solid electrolyte material consists of very small particles, each coated with thin layer of Lil, bonded together with polymer electrolyte or other organic binder. Material offers significant advantages over other solid electrolytes in lithium cells and batteries. Features include high ionic conductivity and strength. Composite solid electrolyte expected to exhibit flexibility of polymeric electrolytes. Polymer in composite solid electrolyte serves two purposes: used as binder alone, conduction taking place only in AI2O3 particles coated with solid Lil; or used as both binder and polymeric electrolyte, providing ionic conductivity between solid particles that it binds together.

  5. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-11-28

    Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

  6. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOEpatents

    Formato, Richard M.; Kovar, Robert F.; Osenar, Paul; Landrau, Nelson; Rubin, Leslie S.

    2001-06-19

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  7. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Ingersoll, David

    1995-01-01

    Electrolyte salts for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts.

  8. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  9. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  10. High cation transport polymer electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Klingler, Robert J.

    2007-06-05

    A solid state ion conducting electrolyte and a battery incorporating same. The electrolyte includes a polymer matrix with an alkali metal salt dissolved therein, the salt having an anion with a long or branched chain having not less than 5 carbon or silicon atoms therein. The polymer is preferably a polyether and the salt anion is preferably an alkyl or silyl moiety of from 5 to about 150 carbon/silicon atoms.

  11. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  12. A Key concept in Magnesium Secondary Battery Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Bertasi, Federico; Hettige, Chaminda; Sepehr, Fatemeh; Bogle, Xavier; Pagot, Gioele; Vezzù, Keti; Negro, Enrico; Paddison, Stephen J; Greenbaum, Steve G; Vittadello, Michele; Di Noto, Vito

    2015-09-21

    A critical roadblock toward practical Mg-based energy storage technologies is the lack of reversible electrolytes that are safe and electrochemically stable. Here, we report on high-performance electrolytes based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) doped with AlCl3 and highly amorphous δ-MgCl2 . The phase diagram of the electrolytes reveals the presence of four thermal transitions that strongly depend on salt content. High-level density functional theory (DFT)-based electronic structure calculations substantiate the structural and vibrational assignment of the coordination complexes. A 3D chloride-concatenated dynamic network model accounts for the outstanding redox behaviour and the electric and magnetic properties, providing insight into the conduction mechanism of the electrolytes. Mg anode cells assembled using the electrolytes were cyclically discharged at a high rate (35 mA g(-1) ), exhibiting an initial capacity of 80 mA h g(-1) and a steady-state voltage of 2.3 V.

  13. Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Craig W.; Brooks, Richard J.; Frizzle, Patrick B.; Juric, Drago D.

    2001-07-10

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode.

  14. Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Craig W.; Brooks, Richard J.; Frizzle, Patrick B.; Juric, Drago D.

    2002-11-26

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode. Removing sulfur from the bath can also minimize cathode deposits. Aluminum formed on the cathode can be removed directly from the cathode.

  15. [Iatrogenic electrolyte disorders].

    PubMed

    Kettritz, R; Luft, F C

    2015-07-01

    The maintenance of water and electrolyte homeostasis is of enormous importance for the functioning of cells and tissues. A number of therapeutic procedures intentionally or unintentionally influence important regulatory mechanisms of these interdependent balanced systems. Excessive salt intake doesn't only expand the extracellular volume; it can also cause a considerable increase in tonicity. Owing to its insulin-dependent duality of action, glucose can represent an effective or an ineffective osmolyte. This fact has to be considered in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. Diuretics reduce the volume expansion via renal excretion of sodium (and water); however, in addition to hypokalemia, diuretics can also cause severe alkalosis. Nowadays, hemodialysis is a routine procedure-but even routine procedures can deliver undesirable surprises. Can dialysis cause an increase in calcium levels, or does the procedure remove therapeutically administered radioactive iodine? The current article presents a series of cases we have come across in recent years. These case reports illustrate common, but also rare iatrogenic situations. The discussion of these cases is aimed at raising awareness of the issues involved in a pathophysiological approach to clinical problems. PMID:26036655

  16. Interface Engineering of Garnet Solid Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lei

    Solid lithium ion conductors represent a promising class of materials for next generation high energy density batteries, with the potential for enabling use of high capacity Li metal anodes and providing opportunities for novel lithium-free cathode materials. However, highly resistive interfaces stymie their practical use. This urgent scientific challenge requires mechanistic understanding of ion transport at interfaces, as well as development of novel processes to achieve low interfacial resistances. The goal of this PhD dissertation was to generate fundamental understandings of garnet-structured Al substituted Li7La3Zr2O 12 (LLZO) electrolyte surfaces and interfaces with lithium metal electrodes. Specifically in this research, the topmost surface microstructure, local chemical environment, and surface chemistry were carefully studied. The ceramic processing of garnet is discussed and ways to control the sintering behavior and microstructures were explored and successfully demonstrated. Factors contributing to high interfacial resistance were systematically studied. The source of the high interfacial impedance has been traced to the presence of Li2CO 3 on pellet surfaces resulting from air exposure after processing. In addition, it was discovered that surface grain boundaries are surprisingly fast ion transport pathways and surface microstructure is critically important to lithium ion transport at interfaces. Complex homo- and heterostructured LLZO solid electrolytes with controllable surface and bulk microstructures were successfully fabricated, which allowed the comparison and separation of the contribution from the surface and the bulk. Engineered pellet surfaces allowed us to achieve the lowest interfacial resistance ever reported for this composition, resulting in significantly improved cycling behavior. Lastly, it was found that LLZO surfaces can be effectively stabilized under air exposure conditions, preventing Li2CO3 formation and maintaining low

  17. Insights on the fundamental lithium storage behavior of all-solid-state lithium batteries containing the LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathode and sulfide electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Gang; Yao, Xiayin; Wan, Hongli; Huang, Bingxin; Yin, Jingyun; Ding, Fei; Xu, Xiaoxiong

    2016-03-01

    An insightful study on the fundamental lithium storage behavior of all-solid-state lithium battery with a structure of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA)/Li10GeP2S12/Li-In is carried out in this work. The relationship between electrochemical performances and particle size, surface impurities and defects of the NCA positive material is systematically investigated. It is found that a ball-milling technique can decrease the particle size and remove surface impurities of the NCA cathode while also give rise to surface defects which could be recovered by a post-annealing process. The results indicate that the interfacial resistance between the NCA and Li10GeP2S12 is obviously decreased during the ball-milling followed by a post-annealing. Consequently, the discharge capacity of NCA in the NCA/Li10GeP2S12/Li-In solid-state battery is significantly enhanced, which exhibits a discharge capacity of 146 mAh g-1 at 25 °C.

  18. Fluid and Electrolyte Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Smith, Scott M.; Leach, Carolyn S.; Rice, Barbara L.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis have been completed since the early human space flight programs, with comprehensive research completed on the Spacelab Life Sciences missions SLS-1 and SLS-2 flights, and more recently on the Mir 18 mission. This work documented the known shifts in fluids, the decrease in total blood volume, and indications of reduced thirst. Data from these flights was used to evaluate the nutritional needs for water, sodium, and potassium. Interpretations of the data are confounded by the inadequate energy intakes routinely observed during space flight. This in turn results in reduced fluid intake, as food provides approximately 70% water intake. Subsequently, body weight, lean body mass, total body water, and total body potassium may decrease. Given these issues, there is evidence to support a minimum required water intake of 2 L per day. Data from previous Shuttle flights indicated that water intake is 2285 +/- 715 ml/day (mean +/- SD, n=26). There are no indications that sodium intake or homeostasis is compromised during space flight. The normal or low aldosterone and urinary sodium levels suggest adequate sodium intake (4047 +/- 902 mg/day, n=26). Because excessive sodium intake is associated with hypercalciuria, the recommended maximum amount of sodium intake during flight is 3500 mg/day (i.e., similar to the Recommended Dietary Allowance, RDA). Potassium metabolism appears to be more complex. Data indicate loss of body potassium related to muscle atrophy and low dietary intake (2407 +/- 548 mg/day, n=26). Although possibly related to measurement error, the elevations in blood potassium suggest alterations in potassium homeostasis. The space RDA for minimum potassium intake is 3500 mg/day. With the documented inadequate intakes, efforts are being made to increase dietary consumption of potassium.

  19. Worker-to-Worker Violence in Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hamblin, Lydia E.; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Ager, Joel; Upfal, Mark; Luborsky, Mark; Russell, Jim; Arnetz, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Worker-to-worker (Type III) violence is prevalent in health care settings and has potential adverse consequences for employees and organizations. Little research has examined perpetrator characteristics of this type of violence. The current study is a descriptive examination of the common demographic and work-related characteristics of perpetrators of Type III workplace violence among hospital workers. Analysis was based on documented incidents of Type III violence reported within a large hospital system from 2010 to 2012. Nurses were involved as either the perpetrator or target in the five most common perpetrator–target dyads. Incidence rate ratios revealed that patient care associates and nurses were significantly more likely to be perpetrators than other job titles. By examining characteristics of perpetrators and common worker dyads involved in Type III workplace violence, hospital stakeholders and unit supervisors have a starting point to develop strategies for reducing conflict between workers. PMID:26450899

  20. Electrokinetic Characteristics of Calcined Kaolinite in Aqueous Electrolytic Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tianxing; Zhao, Yunliang; Li, Hongliang; Liu, Jia; Song, Shaoxian

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the electrokinetic characteristics of calcined kaolinite in aqueous solutions has been studied in the presence of the electrolytes of NaCl, KCl, NH4Cl, NaNO3, MgCl2, CaCl2 and AlCl3, through electrophoretic measurement. The experimental results have shown that the zeta potential was closely dependent on the valence and concentration of the electrolytic cations, but not on the type of the cations. The higher the valence and the concentration were, the stronger the impact to the zeta potential was. Al3+ could reverse the potential sign from negative to positive. In addition, it was found that the monovalent anions of Cl- and NO3- made a big difference to the zeta potential at the same dosage.

  1. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik; Lee, Kwan-Soo

    2013-07-23

    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes and compositions comprising chemical compounds comprising a polymeric core, a spacer A, and a guanidine base, wherein said chemical compound is uniformly dispersed in a suitable solvent and has the structure: ##STR00001## wherein: i) A is a spacer having the structure O, S, SO.sub.2, --NH--, --N(CH.sub.2).sub.n, wherein n=1-10, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.sub.3--, wherein n=1-10, SO.sub.2-Ph, CO-Ph, ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.5, R.sub.6, R.sub.7 and R.sub.8 each are independently --H, --NH.sub.2, F, Cl, Br, CN, or a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl group, or any combination of thereof; ii) R.sub.9, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12, or R.sub.13 each independently are --H, --CH.sub.3, --NH.sub.2, --NO, --CH.sub.nCH.sub.3 where n=1-6, HC.dbd.O--, NH.sub.2C.dbd.O--, --CH.sub.nCOOH where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--C(NH.sub.2)--COOH where n=1-6, --CH--(COOH)--CH.sub.2--COOH, --CH.sub.2--CH(O--CH.sub.2CH.sub.3).sub.2, --(C.dbd.S)--NH.sub.2, --(C.dbd.NH)--N--(CH.sub.2).sub.nCH.sub.3, where n=0-6, --NH--(C.dbd.S)--SH, --CH.sub.2--(C.dbd.O)--O--C(CH.sub.3).sub.3, --O--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--(NH.sub.2)--COOH, where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.dbd.CH wherein n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--CN wherein n=1-6, an aromatic group such as a phenyl, benzyl, phenoxy, methylbenzyl, nitrogen-substituted benzyl or phenyl groups, a halide, or halide-substituted methyl groups; and iii) wherein the composition is suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly.

  2. Non-consumable anode and lining for aluminum electrolytic reduction cell

    DOEpatents

    Beck, Theodore R.; Brooks, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    An oxidation resistant, non-consumable anode, for use in the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum, has a composition comprising copper, nickel and iron. The anode is part of an electrolytic reduction cell comprising a vessel having an interior lined with metal which has the same composition as the anode. The electrolyte is preferably composed of a eutectic of AlF.sub.3 and either (a) NaF or (b) primarily NaF with some of the NaF replaced by an equivalent molar amount of KF or KF and LiF.

  3. Direct ethanol fuel cell using hydrotalcite clay as a hydroxide ion conductive electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Tadanaga, Kiyoharu; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2010-10-15

    An alkaline-type direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) using a natural clay electrolyte with non-platinum catalysts is proposed. So-called hydrotalcite clay, Mg–Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with CO₃²⁻, is shown to be a hydroxide ion conductor. An alkaline-type DEFC using this natural clay as the electrolyte and aqueous solution of ethanol and potassium hydroxide as a source of fuel exhibits excellent electrochemical performance from room temperature to 80 °C.

  4. Lithium Polymer Electrolytes and Solid State NMR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkeley, Emily R.

    2004-01-01

    participation on a variety of other projects, including aero-gels and carbon graphite mat en als. The goals of the polymer electrolyte research are to improve the physical properties of the polymers. This includes improving conductivity, durability, and expanding the temperature range over which it is effective. Currently, good conductivity is only present at high temperatures. My goals are to experiment with different arrangements of rods and coils to achieve these desirable properties. Some of my experiments include changing the number of repeat units in the polymer, the size of the diamines, and the types of coil. Analysis of these new polymers indicates improvement in some properties, such as lower glass transition temperature; however, they are not as flexible as desired. With further research we hope to produce polymers that encompass all of these properties to a high degree.

  5. High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gomez, Enrique Daniel

    2013-10-22

    A polymer that combines high ionic conductivity with the structural properties required for Li electrode stability is useful as a solid phase electrolyte for high energy density, high cycle life batteries that do not suffer from failures due to side reactions and dendrite growth on the Li electrodes, and other potential applications. The polymer electrolyte includes a linear block copolymer having a conductive linear polymer block with a molecular weight of at least 5000 Daltons, a structural linear polymer block with an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.7 Pa and an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm.sup.-1. The electrolyte is made under dry conditions to achieve the noted characteristics.

  6. Towards Prognostics of Electrolytic Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celaya, Jose R.; Kulkarni, Chetan; Biswas, Gautam; Goegel, Kai

    2011-01-01

    A remaining useful life prediction algorithm and degradation model for electrolytic capacitors is presented. Electrolytic capacitors are used in several applications ranging from power supplies on critical avionics equipment to power drivers for electro-mechanical actuators. These devices are known for their low reliability and given their criticality in electronics subsystems they are a good candidate for component level prognostics and health management research. Prognostics provides a way to assess remaining useful life of a capacitor based on its current state of health and its anticipated future usage and operational conditions. In particular, experimental results of an accelerated aging test under electrical stresses are presented. The capacitors used in this test form the basis for a remaining life prediction algorithm where a model of the degradation process is suggested. This preliminary remaining life prediction algorithm serves as a demonstration of how prognostics methodologies could be used for electrolytic capacitors.

  7. Diabetes mellitus and electrolyte disorders

    PubMed Central

    Liamis, George; Liberopoulos, Evangelos; Barkas, Fotios; Elisaf, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic patients frequently develop a constellation of electrolyte disorders. These disturbances are particularly common in decompensated diabetics, especially in the context of diabetic ketoacidosis or nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome. These patients are markedly potassium-, magnesium- and phosphate-depleted. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is linked to both hypo- and hyper-natremia reflecting the coexistence of hyperglycemia-related mechanisms, which tend to change serum sodium to opposite directions. The most important causal factor of chronic hyperkalemia in diabetic individuals is the syndrome of hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism. Impaired renal function, potassium-sparing drugs, hypertonicity and insulin deficiency are also involved in the development of hyperkalemia. This article provides an overview of the electrolyte disturbances occurring in DM and describes the underlying mechanisms. This insight should pave the way for pathophysiology-directed therapy, thus contributing to the avoidance of the several deleterious effects associated with electrolyte disorders and their treatment. PMID:25325058

  8. Thermoelectricity in Confined Liquid Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Dietzel, Mathias; Hardt, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    The electric field in an extended phase of a liquid electrolyte exposed to a temperature gradient is attributed to different thermophoretic mobilities of the ion species. As shown herein, such Soret-type ion thermodiffusion is not required to induce thermoelectricity even in the simplest electrolyte if it is confined between charged walls. The space charge of the electric double layer leads to selective ion diffusion driven by a temperature-dependent electrophoretic ion mobility, which-for narrow channels-may cause thermovoltages larger in magnitude than for the classical Soret equilibrium. PMID:27314730

  9. 23. CORE WORKER OPERATING A COREBLOWER THAT PNEUMATICALLY FILLED CORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. CORE WORKER OPERATING A CORE-BLOWER THAT PNEUMATICALLY FILLED CORE BOXES WITH RESIGN IMPREGNATED SAND AND CREATED A CORE THAT THEN REQUIRED BAKING, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  10. 24. A CORE WORKER DISPLAYS THE CORE BOX AND CORES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. A CORE WORKER DISPLAYS THE CORE BOX AND CORES FOR A BRASS GATE VALVE BODY MADE ON A CORE BOX, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  11. INTERIOR VIEW, PREPARING LARGE MOLD IN BOX FLOOR AREA. WORKERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, PREPARING LARGE MOLD IN BOX FLOOR AREA. WORKERS JUST FILLED THE FLASK WITH SAND FROM A HIGH VELOCITY MECHANICAL SAND THRUSTER. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Ductile Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  12. AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH FORMER TCIUS STEEL WORKER HOUSES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH FORMER TCI-US STEEL WORKER HOUSES ALONG AVENUES G, H, I AND J AND MORGAN ROAD (BOTTOM, RUNNING LEFT TO RIGHT). - Muscoda Red Ore Mining Community, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  13. WORKER REMOVING SLAG FROM THE MOLTEN METAL BATH IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WORKER REMOVING SLAG FROM THE MOLTEN METAL BATH IN THE ELECTRIC FURNACE AFTER ADDING A CHEMICAL COAGULANT TO FORCE IT TO THE SURFACE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Melting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  14. SHAKE OUT WORKER DUMPING COOLED MOLDS ONTO THE VIBRATING CONVEYOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SHAKE OUT WORKER DUMPING COOLED MOLDS ONTO THE VIBRATING CONVEYOR THAT TRANSPORTS SAND AND CASTINGS TO THE SEPARATION SCREEN. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Centerville Foundry, 101 Airport Road, Centreville, Bibb County, AL

  15. LOWER TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYTE AND ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Keqin Huang

    2003-04-30

    A thorough literature survey on low-temperature electrolyte and electrode materials for SOFC is given in this report. Thermodynamic stability of selected electrolyte and its chemical compatibility with cathode substrate were evaluated. Preliminary electrochemical characterizations were conducted on symmetrical cells consisting of the selected electrolyte and various electrode materials. Feasibility of plasma spraying new electrolyte material thin-film on cathode substrate was explored.

  16. Mortality among rubber workers: VII. Aerospace workers.

    PubMed

    Delzell, E; Monson, R R

    1984-01-01

    This study evaluated cause-specific mortality among 3,161 men who were employed in the aerospace division of a rubber manufacturing company. Compared to other production workers at the plant, aerospace workers in deicer and fuel cell manufacturing jobs experienced a 60% excess of deaths from lung cancer. Deicer and fuel cell workers who were under 65 years of age had lung cancer rates that were approximately twice those of other rubber workers of comparable age. Aerospace division employees also had elevated rates of bladder cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. However, detailed analyses suggested that, with the exception of lung cancer, these cancer excesses were not likely to be attributable to employment in the aerospace division.

  17. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  18. Solid polymer electrolyte photovoltaic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Skotheim, T.; Lundstrom, I.

    1982-04-01

    Solid photoelectrochemical cells are described based on PEO-KI/I/sub 2/ electrolytes, n-Si/Pt/PPy photoanodes, and conductive tin-oxide glass counter electrodes. The performance of the present devices is limited by a high series resistance in the polymer film. 22 refs.

  19. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  20. Rechargeable solid polymer electrolyte battery cell

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terji

    1985-01-01

    A rechargeable battery cell comprising first and second electrodes sandwiching a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a layer of a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said polymer blend and a layer of dry solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said layer of polymer blend and said second electrode.

  1. Developing New Electrolytes for Advanced Li-ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McOwen, Dennis Wayne

    electrode of the concentrated electrolytes are significantly higher. Most striking, however, was the suppression of Al corrosion by the concentrated carbonate-LiTFSI electrolytes, despite the fact that Al corrosion of more dilute carbonate-LiTFSI electrolytes has consistently been attributed to the TFSI- anion in the literature. These results, explained by crystalline solvate analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations, could change the way Li-ion battery electrolytes are designed.

  2. Electrolyte measurement device and measurement procedure

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Kevin R.; Scribner, Louie L.

    2010-01-26

    A method and apparatus for measuring the through-thickness resistance or conductance of a thin electrolyte is provided. The method and apparatus includes positioning a first source electrode on a first side of an electrolyte to be tested, positioning a second source electrode on a second side of the electrolyte, positioning a first sense electrode on the second side of the electrolyte, and positioning a second sense electrode on the first side of the electrolyte. current is then passed between the first and second source electrodes and the voltage between the first and second sense electrodes is measured.

  3. Fuel cell with electrolyte feed system

    DOEpatents

    Feigenbaum, Haim

    1984-01-01

    A fuel cell having a pair of electrodes at the sites of electrochemical reactions of hydrogen and oxygen and a phosphoric acid electrolyte provided with an electrolyte supporting structure in the form of a laminated matrix assembly disposed between the electrodes. The matrix assembly is formed of a central layer disposed between two outer layers, each being permeable to the flow of the electrolyte. The central layer is provided with relatively large pores while the outer layers are provided with relatively small pores. An external reservoir supplies electrolyte via a feed means to the central layer to compensate for changes in electrolyte volume in the matrix assembly during the operation of fuel cell.

  4. Reactivity of nonaqueous organic electrolytes towards lithium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, D. H.; Subbarao, S.; Deligiannis, F.; Huang, C.-K.; Halpert, G.

    1990-01-01

    The successful operation of an ambient temperature secondary lithium cell is primarily dependent on the stability of the electrolyte towards lithium. The lithium electrode on open circuit must be inert towards the electrolyte to achieve a long shelf life. The reactivity of tetrahydrofuran and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran based electrolytes with additives such as 2-methylfuran, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, and 3-methylsulfolane was investigated by microcalorimetry and ac impedance spectroscopy techniques. Also the stability of electrolytes by open circuit stand tests was studied. Addition of ethylene carbonate and 2-methylfuran additives was found to improve the stability of tetrahydrofuran and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran based electrolytes. Long term microcalorimetry and ac impedance data clearly confirmed the higher stability of ethylene carbonate/2-methyltetrahydrofuran electrolyte compared to the 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and propylene carbonate/2-methyltetrahydrofuran electrolytes.

  5. Electrolytic production of neodymium metal from a molten chloride electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, M.F.; Murphy, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted experiments on electrowinning of neodymium metal by using a molten-metal cathode at 650{degrees} C and an electrolyte of 50 mol pet NdCl, (neodymium chloride) and 50 mol pet KCl (potassium chloride). The molten-metal cathodes were alloys of magnesium and zinc or magnesium and cadmium. Current efficiencies were 90 pct with a Mg-Zn cathode and 80 pct with a Mg-Cd cathode. The Mg-Cd cathode was easily separated from the electrolyte. In contrast, the Mg-Zn cathode tended to mix with the electrolyte, making separation difficult. The cathode metals were separated from the neodymium by distillation at 1,100{degrees} C under a vacuum of 10{sup {minus}4} torr. Neodymium metal of 99.9 + purity was recovered from the Mg-Cd alloy cathode after 30 min distillation time. The neodymium recovered from the Mg-Zn system contained almost 2 pct Zn after vacuum distillation. Continuous operation using the Mg-Cd alloy cathode was demonstrated.

  6. Electromotive force measurements on cells involving beta-alumina solid electrolyte

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, N.

    1973-01-01

    Open circuit emf measurements have been made to demonstrate that a two-phase, polycrystalline mixture of beta- alumina and alpha-alumina could be used as a solid electrolyte in galvanic cells with reversible electrodes fixing oxygen or aluminum chemical potentials. These measurements indicate that such a two phase solid electrolyte can be used to monitor oxygen chemical potentials as low as that corresponding to Al, Al2O3 coexistence. The activity of Na2O in beta-alumina in coexistence with alpha-alumina was also determined by emf measurements.

  7. Electromotive force measurements on cells involving beta-alumina solid electrolyte

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, N. S.

    1973-01-01

    Open-circuit emf measurements have been made to demonstrate that a two-phase, polycrystalline mixture of beta-alumina and alpha-alumina could be used as a solid electrolyte in galvanic cells with reversible electrodes fixing oxygen or aluminum chemical potentials. These measurements indicate that such a two-phase solid electrolyte may be used to monitor oxygen chemical potentials as low as that corresponding to Al and Al2O3 coexistence (potentials of about 10 to the minus 47th power atm at 1000 K). The activity of Na2O in beta-alumina in coexistence with alpha-alumina was also determined by emf measurements.

  8. Novel ternary molten salt electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-12-01

    The sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is operated at relatively high temperature (250-350 °C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150200 °C can not only lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature-related degradations, but also allow the use of lower cost materials for construction. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures, reduction in ohmic losses is required, including the reduced ohmic resistance of β″-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point secondary electrolytes. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin BASE (600 μm) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salts used as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replacement of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of these ternary molten salts demonstrated improved ionic conductivity and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175 °C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. The cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150 °C.

  9. Novel ternary molten salt electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-12-15

    The sodium–nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is operated at relatively high temperature (250–350 °C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150200 °C can not only lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature-related degradations, but also allow the use of lower cost materials for construction. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures, reduction in ohmic losses is required, including the reduced ohmic resistance of β"-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point secondary electrolytes. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin BASE (600 μm) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salts used as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replacement of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of these ternary molten salts demonstrated improved ionic conductivity and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175 °C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. Finally, the cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150 °C.

  10. Exposure to soluble nickel in electrolytic nickel refining.

    PubMed

    Kiilunen, M; Utela, J; Rantanen, T; Norppa, H; Tossavainen, A; Koponen, M; Paakkulainen, H; Aitio, A

    1997-04-01

    Past and present exposure to nickel was studied in an electrolytic nickel refinery, where an increased incidence of nasal cancer had been reported, using nickel analyses in air, blood and urine. Genotoxic effects were studied using analysis of micronuclei from acridine orange-stained smears from the buccal mucosa of the workers. Workers used respirators or masks in tasks where the exposure was expected to be high. Inside the mask, nickel concentrations were 0.9-2.4 micrograms m-3 in such tasks. In those tasks where masks were not used, nickel concentrations in the breathing zone were 1.3-21 micrograms m-3. Air-borne nickel concentrations (stationary sampling) varied between 230 and 800 micrograms m-3 in 1966-1988 with no systematic change; thereafter lower concentrations (170-460 micrograms m-3) have been observed. After-shift urinary concentrations of nickel were 0.1-2 mumol l-1; they showed no correlation with nickel concentrations in the air. Concentrations of nickel in the urine were still elevated after a 2-4 week vacation. The frequency of micronucleated epithelial cells in the buccal mucosa of nickel refinery workers was not significantly elevated by comparison with referents. No relationship was observed between micronucleus frequencies and levels of nickel in air, urine or blood. PMID:9155238

  11. Electrochromic Device with Polymer Electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyev, Andrey A.; Zakharov, Alexander N.; Rabotkin, Sergey V.; Kovsharov, Nikolay F.

    2016-08-01

    In this study a solid-state electrochromic device (ECD) comprised of a WO3 and Prussian blue (Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3) thin film couple with a Li+-conducting solid polymer electrolyte is discussed. WO3 was deposited on K-Glass substrate by magnetron sputtering method, while Prussian blue layer was formed on the same substrate by electrodeposition method. The parameters of the electrochromic device K-Glass/WO3/Li+-electrolyte/PB/K-Glass, such as change of transmittance, response time and stability were successfully tested using coupled optoelectrochemical methods. The device was colored or bleached by the application of +2 V or -2 V, respectively. Light modulation with transmittance variation of up to 59% and coloration efficiency of 43 cm2/C at a wavelength of 550 nm were obtained. Numerous switching of the ECD over 1200 cycles without the observation of significant degradation has been demonstrated.

  12. Monolithic solid electrolyte oxygen pump

    DOEpatents

    Fee, Darrell C.; Poeppel, Roger B.; Easler, Timothy E.; Dees, Dennis W.

    1989-01-01

    A multi-layer oxygen pump having a one-piece, monolithic ceramic structure affords high oxygen production per unit weight and volume and is thus particularly adapted for use as a portable oxygen supply. The oxygen pump is comprised of a large number of small cells on the order of 1-2 millimeters in diameter which form the walls of the pump and which are comprised of thin, i.e., 25-50 micrometers, ceramic layers of cell components. The cell components include an air electrode, an oxygen electrode, an electrolyte and interconnection materials. The cell walls form the passages for input air and for exhausting the oxygen which is transferred from a relatively dilute gaseous mixture to a higher concentration by applying a DC voltage across the electrodes so as to ionize the oxygen at the air electrode, whereupon the ionized oxygen travels through the electrolyte and is converted to oxygen gas at the oxygen electrode.

  13. New Polymer Electrolyte Cell Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyrl, William H.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent; Pappenfus, T.; Henderson, W.

    2004-01-01

    PAPERS PUBLISHED: 1. Pappenfus, Ted M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; Smyrl, William H. Complexes of Lithium Imide Salts with Tetraglyme and Their Polyelectrolyte Composite Materials. Journal of the Electrochemical Society (2004), 15 1 (2), A209-A2 15. 2. Pappenfus, Ted M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; Smyrl, William H. Ionic-liquidlpolymer electrolyte composite materials for electrochemical device applications. Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering (2003), 88 302. 3. Pappenfus, Ted R.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; and Smyrl, William H. Ionic Conductivity of a poly(vinylpyridinium)/Silver Iodide Solid Polymer Electrolyte System. Solid State Ionics (in press 2004). 4. Pappenfus Ted M.; Mann, Kent R; Smyrl, William H. Polyelectrolyte Composite Materials with LiPFs and Tetraglyme. Electrochemical and Solid State Letters, (2004), 7(8), A254.

  14. Improved Electrolytic Hydrogen Peroxide Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Patrick I.

    2005-01-01

    An improved apparatus for the electrolytic generation of hydrogen peroxide dissolved in water has been developed. The apparatus is a prototype of H2O2 generators for the safe and effective sterilization of water, sterilization of equipment in contact with water, and other applications in which there is need for hydrogen peroxide at low concentration as an oxidant. Potential applications for electrolytic H2O2 generators include purification of water for drinking and for use in industrial processes, sanitation for hospitals and biotechnological industries, inhibition and removal of biofouling in heat exchangers, cooling towers, filtration units, and the treatment of wastewater by use of advanced oxidation processes that are promoted by H2O2.

  15. Composite electrode/electrolyte structure

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2004-01-27

    Provided is an electrode fabricated from highly electronically conductive materials such as metals, metal alloys, or electronically conductive ceramics. The electronic conductivity of the electrode substrate is maximized. Onto this electrode in the green state, a green ionic (e.g., electrolyte) film is deposited and the assembly is co-fired at a temperature suitable to fully densify the film while the substrate retains porosity. Subsequently, a catalytic material is added to the electrode structure by infiltration of a metal salt and subsequent low temperature firing. The invention allows for an electrode with high electronic conductivity and sufficient catalytic activity to achieve high power density in ionic (electrochemical) devices such as fuel cells and electrolytic gas separation systems.

  16. Cerium ion conducting solid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Yasunori; Imanaka, Nobuhito; Adachi, Gin-ya

    2003-02-01

    A cerium ion conducting solid electrolyte, (Ce xZr 1- x) 4/4- xNb(PO 4) 3, was successfully realized with the NASICON-type structure which possesses a three-dimensional network, especially suitable for bulky ion migration. The cerium ion conductivity exceeds approximately one order of magnitude in comparison to that of the rare-earth ion conducting R2(WO 4) 3 and R1/3Zr 2(PO 4) 3 ( R=Sc, Y, Eu-Lu) series and the value is in the range between typical oxide anion conductors of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and calcia stabilized zirconia (CSZ). Since cerium ion has been demonstrated to be another migrating ion species in solid electrolyte field, a promising application for various functional materials is greatly expected.

  17. Anion Solvation in Carbonate Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2015-11-16

    With the correlation between Li+ solvation and interphasial chemistry on anodes firmly established in Li-ion batteries, the effect of cation–solvent interaction has gone beyond bulk thermodynamic and transport properties and become an essential element that determines the reversibility of electrochemistry and kinetics of Li-ion intercalation chemistries. As of now, most studies are dedicated to the solvation of Li+, and the solvation of anions in carbonate-based electrolytes and its possible effect on the electrochemical stability of such electrolytes remains little understood. As a mirror effort to prior Li+ solvation studies, this work focuses on the interactions between carbonate-based solvents and two anions (hexafluorophosphate, PF6–, and tetrafluoroborate, BF4–) that are most frequently used in Li-ion batteries. The possible correlation between such interaction and the interphasial chemistry on cathode surface is also explored.

  18. Development of a new electrolyte matrix for MCFC

    SciTech Connect

    Nagashima, I.; Higaki, K.; Terada, S.; Suemitsu, T.

    1996-12-31

    To prolong the life of cell is one of the most important issues for MCFC to be brought into actual application. In this respect, investigators have been proposing the addition of tungstate salt such as K2WO4 into MCFC electrolyte, which is supposed effectively to reduce the sintering of anode probably by precipitates formed through the reduction of tungstate with dissolved hydrogen near the anode surface. In this research, such effect upon sintering of anode was quantitatively examined by out-of-cell tests and the validity of above assumption for the mechanism was confirmed. Also other effects of tungstate salt addition into electrolyte, such upon corrosion of separator, solubility of cathode, stability of matrix substrates (LiAlO{sub 2}) were investigated.

  19. Use of Thermodynamic Modeling for Selection of Electrolyte for Electrorefining of Magnesium from Aluminum Alloy Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesing, Adam J.; Das, Subodh K.

    2016-06-01

    With United States Department of Energy Advanced Research Project Agency funding, experimental proof-of-concept was demonstrated for RE-12TM electrorefining process of extraction of desired amount of Mg from recycled scrap secondary Al molten alloys. The key enabling technology for this process was the selection of the suitable electrolyte composition and operating temperature. The selection was made using the FactSage thermodynamic modeling software and the light metal, molten salt, and oxide thermodynamic databases. Modeling allowed prediction of the chemical equilibria, impurity contents in both anode and cathode products, and in the electrolyte. FactSage also provided data on the physical properties of the electrolyte and the molten metal phases including electrical conductivity and density of the molten phases. Further modeling permitted selection of electrode and cell construction materials chemically compatible with the combination of molten metals and the electrolyte.

  20. Formation of a Spinel Coating on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieber, Maximilian; Simchen, Frank; Scharf, Ingolf; Lampke, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a common means for the surface modification of light metals. However, PEO of magnesium substrates in dilute electrolytes generally leads to the formation of coatings consisting of unfavorable MgO magnesium oxide. By incorporation of electrolyte components, the phase constitution of the oxide coatings can be modified. Coatings consisting exclusively of MgAl2O4 magnesium-aluminum spinel are produced by PEO in an electrolyte containing hydroxide, aluminate, and phosphate anions. The hardness of the coatings is 3.5 GPa on Martens scale on average. Compared to the bare substrate, the coatings reduce the corrosion current density in dilute sodium chloride solution by approx. one order of magnitude and slightly shift the corrosion potential toward more noble values.

  1. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  2. Perovskite solid electrolytes for SOFC

    SciTech Connect

    Sammells, A.F.

    1992-09-01

    Selected perovskite solid electrolytes incorporated into research size fuel cells have shown stability for > 4000 hours at 600{degrees}C. Perovskite lattice requirements which favor low E{sub a} for ionic conduction include (i) that the perovskite lattice possess a moderate enthalpy of formation, (ii) perovskite lattice possess large free volumes, (iii) that the lattice minimally polarizes the mobile ion and (iv) that the crystallographic saddle point r{sub c} for ionic conduction is {approx_equal} 1.

  3. Perovskite solid electrolytes for SOFC

    SciTech Connect

    Sammells, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    Selected perovskite solid electrolytes incorporated into research size fuel cells have shown stability for > 4000 hours at 600{degrees}C. Perovskite lattice requirements which favor low E{sub a} for ionic conduction include (i) that the perovskite lattice possess a moderate enthalpy of formation, (ii) perovskite lattice possess large free volumes, (iii) that the lattice minimally polarizes the mobile ion and (iv) that the crystallographic saddle point r{sub c} for ionic conduction is {approx equal} 1.

  4. Solid electrolyte oxygen regeneration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumar, J. W.; See, G. G.; Schubert, F. H.; Powell, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    A program to design, develop, fabricate and assemble a one-man, self-contained, solid electrolyte oxygen regeneration system (SX-1) incorporating solid electrolyte electrolyzer drums was completed. The SX-1 is a preprototype engineering model designed to produce 0.952 kg (2.1 lb)/day of breathable oxygen (O2) from the electrolysis of metabolic carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor. The CO2 supply rate was established based on the metabolic CO2 generation rate for one man of 0.998 kg (2.2 lb)/day. The water supply rate (0.254 kg (0.56 lb)/day) was designed to be sufficient to make up the difference between the 0.952 kg (2.1 lb)/day O2 generation specification and the O2 available through CO2 electrolysis, 0.726 kg (1.6 lb)/day. The SX-1 was successfully designed, fabricated and assembled. Design verification tests (DVT) or the CO Disproportionators, H2 separators, control instrumentation, monitor instrumentation, water feed mechanism were successfully completed. The erratic occurrence of electrolyzer drum leakage prevented the completion of the CO2 electrolyzer module and water electrolyzer module DVT's and also prevented the performance of SX-1 integrated testing. Further development work is required to improve the solid electrolyte cell high temperature seals.

  5. Germany's Guest Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupte, Pranay

    1984-01-01

    In wake of a recent recession, Turkish "guest workers" are beginning to feel less welcome in West Germany. Many have accepted government cash incentives to return to Turkey, but others have prospered and wish to stay. The Germans themselves are split over whether the Turks threaten job opportunities for native workers or provide crucial support to…

  6. Workers Kaleidoscope: 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.

    This manual was prepared to provide union leaders, organizers, and local officers with information about the experiences of Asian-American, Black, Hispanic-American, female, and part-time workers. The Asian-American workers section includes information on Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, Koreans, Asian-Indians, Southeast Asians, and Pacific Islanders…

  7. Migrant Farm Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

    This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

  8. Oligo(ethylene glycol)-functionalized disiloxanes as electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Dong, Jian; West, Robert; Amine, Khalil

    Functionalized disiloxane compounds were synthesized by attaching oligo(ethylene glycol) chains, -(CH 2CH 2O)- n, n = 2-7, via hydrosilation, dehydrocoupling, and nucleophilic substitution reactions and were examined as non-aqueous electrolyte solvents in lithium-ion cells. The compounds were fully characterized by 1H, 13C, and 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Upon doping with lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) or LiPF 6, the disiloxane electrolytes showed conductivities up to 6.2 × 10 -4 S cm -1 at room temperature. The thermal behavior of the electrolytes was studied by differential scanning calorimetry, which revealed very low glass transition temperatures before and after LiBOB doping and much higher thermal stability compared to organic carbonate electrolytes. Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed that disiloxane-based electrolytes with 0.8 M LiBOB salt concentration are stable to 4.7 V. The LiBOB/disiloxane combinations were found to be good electrolytes for lithium-ion cells; unlike LiPF 6, LiBOB can provide a good passivation film on the graphite anode. The LiPF 6/disiloxane electrolyte was enabled in lithium-ion cells by adding 1 wt% vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC). Full cell performance tests with LiNi 0.80Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2 as the cathode and mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) graphite as the anode show stable cyclability. The results demonstrate that disiloxane-based electrolytes have considerable potential as electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Thermoelectric Powers of Cells With NaF-AlF3-Al2O3 Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flem, Belinda E.; Xu, Qian; Kjelstrup, Signe; Sterten, Åsmund

    2001-07-01

    A thermodynamic description of the Peltier heat at the aluminum and the oxygen electrode in the system NaF-AlF3-Al2O3 is given. The thermoelectric power in melts with molar ratios n NaF/n AlF3 from 3.0 to 1.0, saturated with alumina are measured. Seebeck coefficients for molten fluoride electrolytes saturated with alumina, electrolytes that are relevant for aluminum electrowinning electrolysis cells, are reported. The results allow determinations of Peltier heats of aluminum, oxygen and carbon electrodes in NaF-AlF3 electrolytes saturated with alumina. For molar ratios of n NaF/n AlF3 between 2.6 and 1.2, there is a Peltier heating of the aluminum cathode. This heating is in the same order of magnitude as the electrolyte Joule heat, when the current density is 0.7 A cm-2. For molar ratio n NaF/n AlF3 equal to 1.0 the Peltier effect at the aluminum electrode approaches zero. From theoretical considerations we expect a drop also for molar ratio 3.0. For the anode we report a Peltier cooling that is larger than the heat produced by the anodic overvoltage, in melts with NaF/AlF3 molar ratio between 2.6 and 1.2 saturated with alumina.

  10. Nanocomposite polymer electrolyte for rechargeable magnesium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yuyan; Rajput, Nav Nidhi; Hu, Jian Z.; Hu, Mary Y.; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Wei, Zhehao; Gu, Meng; Deng, Xuchu; Xu, Suochang; Han, Kee Sung; Wang, Jiulin; Nie, Zimin; Li, Guosheng; Zavadil, K.; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Mueller, Karl T.; Persson, Kristin A.; Liu, Jun

    2014-12-28

    Nanocomposite polymer electrolytes present new opportunities for rechargeable magnesium batteries. However, few polymer electrolytes have demonstrated reversible Mg deposition/dissolution and those that have still contain volatile liquids such as tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this work, we report a nanocomposite polymer electrolyte based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), Mg(BH4)2 and MgO nanoparticles for rechargeable Mg batteries. Cells with this electrolyte have a high coulombic efficiency of 98% for Mg plating/stripping and a high cycling stability. Through combined experiment-modeling investigations, a correlation between improved solvation of the salt and solvent chain length, chelation and oxygen denticity is established. Following the same trend, the nanocomposite polymer electrolyte is inferred to enhance the dissociation of the salt Mg(BH4)2 and thus improve the electrochemical performance. The insights and design metrics thus obtained may be used in nanocomposite electrolytes for other multivalent systems.

  11. Metal-gas cell with electrolyte reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.E.; Carr, D.D.

    1984-10-16

    A metal-gas electrochemical cell is disclosed wherein electrolyte is progressively supplied from a reservoir into the electrode or cell stack as needed, so as to maintain each stack component with adequate electrolyte, as the plates ''grow'' and absorb electrolyte with repeated cycling. The reservoir preferably is a compressible bladder positioned between on end of the plate stack and a retaining plate. As the plate stack ''grows'' with repeated cycling, the bladder is slowly compressed, forcing electrolyte from the bladder through an electrolyte distribution tube located within the plate stack. One end of the electrolyte distribution tube is fixed to an end plate of the plate stack and the second end of the distribution tube may be connected to a Belleville washer or other spring which acts through the distribution tube to compress the plate stack. The elasticity of the spring permits the stack to expand as the electrodes grow.

  12. Resident Transitions to Assisted Living: A Role for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Noelle LeCrone; Koenig, Terry; Dabelko-Schoeny, Holly

    2012-01-01

    This study explored key aspects of resident transitions to assisted living (AL), including the frequency and importance of preadmission resident education and the potential role of social workers in this setting. To examine the factors that may help or hinder resident transitions to AL, a written survey was administered to a statewide,…

  13. [An alternative to alcohol at the work site. General practice test of an electrolyte beverage in hot work environments].

    PubMed

    Rieder, A; Schoberberger, R; Maruna, H; Troll, M; Winkler, N; Kunze, M

    1992-01-01

    A survey was performed in 1989 by the Institute of Social Medicine and the Austrian Workers Compensation Board(AUVA) to investigated the alcohol problem in 277 factories in which the workers were exposed to hot and dusty atmospheres. As a result of the findings, a further study was undertaken by the same research team to investigate one possible solution to the problem of alcohol consumption at work in a paper-producing factory, predominantly under hot and dusty conditions. The study was well prepared by many activities in the field of health promotion. In this trial, an electrolyte drink especially suited for heat-burdened work places, was introduced for three months as alternative drink to alcohol. Before and after this period the employees answered a questionnaire regarding their alcohol consumption and any changes in consumption habits. One of the main results of the study was the significant increase in electrolyte drink consumption and decrease in wine consumption although that of beer remained practically unchanged. The offered electrolyte drink was accepted as alternative drink by many workers and represents a practical example of health promotion at the place of work. This study should encourage other factories and businesses to experiment with electrolyte drinks especially suited to their particular conditions in an attempt to overcome the problem of alcohol consumption during working hours. PMID:1475975

  14. Aluminium Electroplating on Steel from a Fused Bromide Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhat Tripathy; Laura Wurth; Eric Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven Frank; Guy Fredrickson; J Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBr-KBr-CsBr-AlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminium on steel substrates. The electrolyte was prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBr-KBr-CsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminium coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminium coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggest that the coatings did display good corrosion-resistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminium coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminium coating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  15. Investigation of electrolyte electric discharge characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirko, D. L.; Savjolov, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    The most important electrical characteristics of electrolyte electric discharge were investigated. The electric burning discharge was obtained with the help of different electrolytes. The spectral composition of the electric discharge electromagnetic radiation was determined, the plasma temperature was determined. The spectrum of the electric discharge high-frequency oscillations was calculated in the region v=10 kHz-80 MHz. The most appropriate modes of the electric burning discharge in different electrolytes were proposed.

  16. Fuel cell assembly with electrolyte transport

    DOEpatents

    Chi, Chang V.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell assembly wherein electrolyte for filling the fuel cell matrix is carried via a transport system comprising a first passage means for conveying electrolyte through a first plate and communicating with a groove in a second plate at a first point, the first and second plates together sandwiching the matrix, and second passage means acting to carry electrolyte exclusively through the second plate and communicating with the groove at a second point exclusive of the first point.

  17. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, Brett L.

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  18. Solid-oxide fuel cell electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, I.D.; Hash, M.C.; Krumpelt, M.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a solid-oxide electrolyte operable at between 600{degrees}C and 800{degrees}C and a method of producing the solid-oxide electrolyte. The solid-oxide electrolyte comprises a combination of a compound having a weak metal-oxygen interactions with a compound having stronger metal-oxygen interactions whereby the resulting combination has both strong and weak metal-oxygen interaction properties.

  19. Polymeric electrolytes based on hydrosilyation reactions

    DOEpatents

    Kerr, John Borland; Wang, Shanger; Hou, Jun; Sloop, Steven Edward; Han, Yong Bong; Liu, Gao

    2006-09-05

    New polymer electrolytes were prepared by in situ cross-linking of allyl functional polymers based on hydrosilation reaction using a multifunctional silane cross-linker and an organoplatinum catalyst. The new cross-linked electrolytes are insoluble in organic solvent and show much better mechanical strength. In addition, the processability of the polymer electrolyte is maintained since the casting is finished well before the gel formation.

  20. Solid-oxide fuel cell electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Bloom, Ira D.; Hash, Mark C.; Krumpelt, Michael

    1993-01-01

    A solid-oxide electrolyte operable at between 600.degree. C. and 800.degree. C. and a method of producing the solid-oxide electrolyte are provided. The solid-oxide electrolyte comprises a combination of a compound having weak metal-oxygen interactions with a compound having stronger metal-oxygen interactions whereby the resulting combination has both strong and weak metal-oxygen interaction properties.

  1. Electrolytic cell. [For separating anolyte and catholyte

    DOEpatents

    Bullock, J.S.; Hale, B.D.

    1984-09-14

    An apparatus is described for the separation of the anolyte and the catholyte during electrolysis. The electrolyte flows through an electrolytic cell between the oppositely charged electrodes. The cell is equipped with a wedge-shaped device, the tapered end being located between the electrodes on the effluent side of the cell. The wedge diverts the flow of the electrolyte to either side of the wedge, substantially separating the anolyte and the catholyte.

  2. Polymer gel electrolytes for lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskakova, Yu V.; Yarmolenko, Ol'ga V.; Efimov, Oleg N.

    2012-04-01

    The data on the most promising polymer gel electrolytes for lithium batteries published in the past decade are surveyed and described systematically. Gel electrolytes with matrices of polyethylene oxide, poly(vinylidene fluoride) and its copolymer with hexafluoropropylene, poly(methyl methacrylate), polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride) and polyacrylates are discussed. A special section is devoted to gel electrolytes with ionic liquids as the solvents. The bibliography includes 160 references.

  3. Conductivity of electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, J. T.; Wilkinson, D. P.; Thomas, G.; Levae, R.; Woo, S.

    1991-06-01

    The conductivity of 150 nonaqueous electrolytes for rechargeable Li batteries between -60 and 80 C is reported. A wide range of solvents including esters, ethers, aromatics, chlorinated solvents, etc., and mixtures thereof, were studied. Results for five electrolyte salts which have some promise for rechargeable Li cells are presented. Several of the trends in the data are discussed, and the importance of solvent viscosity in determining electrolyte conductivity is shown.

  4. Electrolytic process for preparing uranium metal

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Paul A.

    1990-01-01

    An electrolytic process for making uranium from uranium oxide using Cl.sub.2 anode product from an electrolytic cell to react with UO.sub.2 to form uranium chlorides. The chlorides are used in low concentrations in a melt comprising fluorides and chlorides of potassium, sodium and barium in the electrolytic cell. The electrolysis produces Cl.sub.2 at the anode that reacts with UO.sub.2 in the feed reactor to form soluble UCl.sub.4, available for a continuous process in the electrolytic cell, rather than having insoluble UO.sub.2 fouling the cell.

  5. Electrochemical cell with high conductivity glass electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Paul A.; Bloom, Ira D.; Roche, Michael F.

    1987-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell with sodium-sulfur or other molten reactants is provided with a ionically conductive glass electrolyte. The cell is contained within an electrically conductive housing with a first portion at negative potential and a second portion insulated therefrom at positive electrode potential. The glass electrolyte is formed into a plurality of elongated tubes and placed lengthwise within the housing. The positive electrode material, for instance sulfur, is sealed into the glass electrolyte tubes and is provided with an elongated axial current collector. The glass electrolyte tubes are protected by shield tubes or sheets that also define narrow annuli for wicking of the molten negative electrode material.

  6. Electrochemical cell with high conductivity glass electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, P.A.; Bloom, I.D.; Roche, M.F.

    1986-04-17

    A secondary electrochemical cell with sodium-sulfur or other molten reactants is provided with an ionically conductive glass electrolyte. The cell is contained within an electrically conductive housing with a first portion at negative potential and a second portion insulated therefrom at positive electrode potential. The glass electrolyte is formed into a plurality of elongated tubes and placed lengthwise within the housing. The positive electrode material, for instance sulfur, is sealed into the glass electrolyte tubes and is provided with an elongated axial current collector. The glass electrolyte tubes are protected by shield tubes or sheets that also define narrow annuli for wicking of the molten negative electrode material.

  7. Electrochemical cell with high conductivity glass electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, P.A.; Bloom, I.D.; Roche, M.F.

    1987-04-21

    A secondary electrochemical cell with sodium-sulfur or other molten reactants is provided with a ionically conductive glass electrolyte. The cell is contained within an electrically conductive housing with a first portion at negative potential and a second portion insulated therefrom at positive electrode potential. The glass electrolyte is formed into a plurality of elongated tubes and placed lengthwise within the housing. The positive electrode material, for instance sulfur, is sealed into the glass electrolyte tubes and is provided with an elongated axial current collector. The glass electrolyte tubes are protected by shield tubes or sheets that also define narrow annuli for wicking of the molten negative electrode material. 6 figs.

  8. Rebalancing electrolytes in redox flow battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, On Kok; Pham, Ai Quoc

    2014-12-23

    Embodiments of redox flow battery rebalancing systems include a system for reacting an unbalanced flow battery electrolyte with a rebalance electrolyte in a first reaction cell. In some embodiments, the rebalance electrolyte may contain ferrous iron (Fe.sup.2+) which may be oxidized to ferric iron (Fe.sup.3+) in the first reaction cell. The reducing ability of the rebalance reactant may be restored in a second rebalance cell that is configured to reduce the ferric iron in the rebalance electrolyte back into ferrous iron through a reaction with metallic iron.

  9. Photocured Gelled Electrolytes For Secondary Li Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

    1994-01-01

    Class of photocured polymers exhibiting lithium-ion conductivities greater than those of well-studied polymers based on polyethylene oxide (PEO) show promise as polymeric electrolytes in rechargeable lithium cells. Increase in conductivity occasioned by use of electrolytes, coupled with amenability of electrolytes to formation into uniform thin (less than 25 micrometers thick), wide films, expected to result in cells with power densities greater than 100 W h/kg and charge/discharge rates exceeding currents equal, in amperes, to ampere-hour ratings. All-solid-state lithium batteries containing these electrolytes used as high-power, high-rate rechargeable power sources in commercial and aerospace applications.

  10. [Indian workers in Oman].

    PubMed

    Longuenesse, E

    1985-01-01

    Until recently Oman was a country of emigration, but by 1980 an estimated 200,000 foreign workers were in the country due to the petroleum boom. Almost 1/3 of the estimated 300,000 Indian workers in the Gulf states were in Oman, a country whose colonial heritage was closely tied to that of India and many of whose inhabitants still speak Urdu. The number of work permits granted to Indians working in the private sector in Oman increased from 47,928 in 1976 to 80,787 in 1980. An estimated 110,000 Indians were working in Oman in 1982, the great majority in the construction and public works sector. A few hundred Indian women were employed by the government of Oman, as domestics, or in other capacities. No accurate data is available on the qualifications of Indian workers in Oman, but a 1979 survey suggested a relatively low illiteracy rate among them. 60-75% of Indians in Oman are from the state of Kerala, followed by workers from the Punjab and the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Bombay. Indian workers are recruited by specialized agencies or by friends or relatives already employed in Oman. Employers in Oman prefer to recruit through agencies because the preselection process minimizes hiring of workers unqualified for their posts. Officially, expenses of transportation, visas, and other needs are shared by the worker and the employer, but the demand for jobs is so strong that the workers are obliged to pay commissions which amount to considerable sums for stable and well paying jobs. Wages in Oman are however 2 to 5 times the level in India. Numerous abuses have been reported in recruitment practices and in failure of employers in Oman to pay the promised wages, but Indian workers have little recourse. At the same level of qualifications, Indians are paid less then non-Omani Arabs, who in turn receive less than Oman nationals. Indians who remain in Oman long enough nevertheless are able to support families at home and to accumulate considerable

  11. Interfacial behavior of polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, John; Kerr, John B.; Han, Yong Bong; Liu, Gao; Reeder, Craig; Xie, Jiangbing; Sun, Xiaoguang

    2003-06-03

    Evidence is presented concerning the effect of surfaces on the segmental motion of PEO-based polymer electrolytes in lithium batteries. For dry systems with no moisture the effect of surfaces of nano-particle fillers is to inhibit the segmental motion and to reduce the lithium ion transport. These effects also occur at the surfaces in composite electrodes that contain considerable quantities of carbon black nano-particles for electronic connection. The problem of reduced polymer mobility is compounded by the generation of salt concentration gradients within the composite electrode. Highly concentrated polymer electrolytes have reduced transport properties due to the increased ionic cross-linking. Combined with the interfacial interactions this leads to the generation of low mobility electrolyte layers within the electrode and to loss of capacity and power capability. It is shown that even with planar lithium metal electrodes the concentration gradients can significantly impact the interfacial impedance. The interfacial impedance of lithium/PEO-LiTFSI cells varies depending upon the time elapsed since current was turned off after polarization. The behavior is consistent with relaxation of the salt concentration gradients and indicates that a portion of the interfacial impedance usually attributed to the SEI layer is due to concentrated salt solutions next to the electrode surfaces that are very resistive. These resistive layers may undergo actual phase changes in a non-uniform manner and the possible role of the reduced mobility polymer layers in dendrite initiation and growth is also explored. It is concluded that PEO and ethylene oxide-based polymers are less than ideal with respect to this interfacial behavior.

  12. Performance of commercial aluminium alloys as anodes in gelled electrolyte aluminium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, M.; Chacón, J.; Fatás, E.; Ocón, P.

    2015-12-01

    The evaluation of commercial aluminium alloys, namely, Al2024, Al7475 and Al1085, for Al-air batteries is performed. Pure Al cladded Al2024 and Al7475 are also evaluated. Current rates from 0.8 mA cm-2 to 8.6 mA cm-2 are measured in a gel Al-air cell composed of the commercial alloy sample, a commercial air-cathode and an easily synthesizable gelled alkaline electrolyte. The influence of the alloying elements and the addition to the electrolyte of ZnO and ZnCl2, as corrosion inhibitors is studied and analysed via EDX/SEM. Specific capacities of up to 426 mAh/g are obtained with notably flat potential discharges of 1.3-1.4 V. The competition between self-corrosion and oxidation reactions is also discussed, as well as the influence of the current applied on that process. Al7475 is determined to have the best behaviour as anode in Al-air primary batteries, and cladding process is found to be an extra protection against corrosion at low current discharges. Conversely, Al1085 provided worse results because of an unfavourable metallic composition.

  13. High performance electrolytes for MCFC

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.; Roche, M.F.

    1999-08-24

    A carbonate electrolyte of the Li/Na or CaBaLiNa system is described. The Li/Na carbonate has a composition displaced from the eutectic composition to diminish segregation effects in a molten carbonate fuel cell. The CaBaLiNa system includes relatively small amounts of Ca{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and BaCO{sub 3}, and preferably of equimolar amounts. The presence of both Ca and BaCO{sub 3} enables lower temperature fuel cell operation. 15 figs.

  14. High performance electrolytes for MCFC

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Roche, Michael F.

    1999-01-01

    A carbonate electrolyte of the Li/Na or CaBaLiNa system. The Li/Na carbonate has a composition displaced from the eutectic composition to diminish segregation effects in a molten carbonate fuel cell. The CaBaLiNa system includes relatively small amounts of Ca.sub.2 CO.sub.3 and BaCO.sub.3, and preferably of equimolar amounts. The presence of both Ca and BaCO.sub.3 enables lower temperature fuel cell operation.

  15. ELECTROLYTIC PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Lofthouse, E.

    1954-08-31

    This patent relates to electrolytic methods for the production of uranium tetrafluoride. According to the present invention a process for the production of uranium tetrafluoride comprises submitting to electrolysis an aqueous solution of uranyl fluoride containing free hydrofluoric acid. Advantageously the aqueous solution of uranyl fluoride is obtained by dissolving uranium hexafluoride in water. On electrolysis, the uranyl ions are reduced to uranous tons at the cathode and immediately combine with the fluoride ions in solution to form the insoluble uranium tetrafluoride which is precipitated.

  16. Evaluation of tremor in aluminum production workers.

    PubMed

    Dick, R B; Krieg, E F; Sim, M A; Bernard, B P; Taylor, B T

    1997-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 63 current and former aluminum potroom workers and 37 comparison workers was conducted to evaluate for evidence of neurological dysfunction, including tremor from long-term exposures to aluminum using sensitive quantitative measures of arm/hand and leg tremor. Signs of upper extremity tremor were also evaluated by neurological examination and compared with the quantitative measures of arm/hand tremor. Both arm/hand and leg tremor were measured using fatiguing test conditions, but no statistically significant differences due to exposure to aluminum were present between the potroom workers and the comparison workers. The neurological examination also showed no statistically significant differences between the groups on the evaluation of signs of tremor. These results do not support the findings of Best-Pettersen et al., who reported evidence of increased tremor in aluminum workers using the static steadiness test in the Halstead-Reitan battery. Differences between the studies that may have contributed to the contrasting results are discussed. In addition, techniques are presented for using microcomputer-controlled devices to evaluate tremor in both the visible (1-6 Hz) and nonvisible (7-18 Hz) frequencies of the tremor spectrum.

  17. Glass electrolytes for sodium/sulfur cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, M. F.; Kucera, G. H.

    A glass electrolyte for use in sodium/sulfur batteries that has a low resistivity (100 ohm-cm at 300 (0)C) ans is stable in the cell environment was investigated. Glasses in the quaternary system: soda, alumina, zirconia and silica were studied. The main program elements are: (1) conductivity measurements at 300 to 500(0)C; (2) differential thermal analysis for determination of glass transition and crystallization temperatures; (3) static corrosion tests at 400(0)C using Na, Na2S4, and S; (4) mechanical strength and fracture toughness measurements; and (5) sodium/sulfur cell tests at 350(0)C. Fourteen quaternary glasses with a broad range of compositions were made. The resistivities of these glasses at 300(0)C extended from 130 to 3704 ohm-cm; the activation energies for conduction extended from 0.48 to 0.684 eV, and the glass transition temperatures extended from 397 to 685(0)C. Through a multiple linear regression analysis of these data response surfaces were generated for resistivity, activation energy for conduction, and glass transition temperture over the composition region within the quaternary system that is bounded by SiO2, Na2O3, Na2AlO4 and Na2ZrO3. The response surfaces indicate a new region of high conductivity and high glass transition temperature in the neighborhood of 42% soda, 31% silica and 27% alumina plus zirconia.

  18. Electrolytic production of metals using a resistant anode

    DOEpatents

    Tarcy, Gary P.; Gavasto, Thomas M.; Ray, Siba P.

    1986-01-01

    An electrolytic process comprising evolving oxygen on an anode in a molten salt, the anode comprising an alloy comprising a first metal and a second metal, both metals forming oxides, the oxide of the first metal being more resistant than the second metal to attack by the molten salt, the oxide of the second metal being more resistant than the first metal to the diffusion of oxygen. The electrode may also be formed of CuAlO.sub.2 and/or Cu.sub.2 O.

  19. Electrolytic production of metals using a resistant anode

    DOEpatents

    Tarcy, G.P.; Gavasto, T.M.; Ray, S.P.

    1986-11-04

    An electrolytic process is described comprising evolving oxygen on an anode in a molten salt, the anode comprising an alloy comprising a first metal and a second metal, both metals forming oxides, the oxide of the first metal being more resistant than the second metal to attack by the molten salt, the oxide of the second metal being more resistant than the first metal to the diffusion of oxygen. The electrode may also be formed of CuAlO[sub 2] and/or Cu[sub 2]O. 2 figs.

  20. Report of the electrolytic industries for the year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, G.; Chen, C.P.

    1996-10-01

    This report, sponsored by the Industrial Electrolysis and Electrochemical Engineering Division of The Electrochemical Society, summarizes published information on production, plant capacities, consumption, demand, trends, prices, raw materials, new technology, and environmental issues in the electrolytic and related industries. The material presented in this report was obtained form many sources and does not necessarily represent the opinion of the authors or their employers. The raw materials covered include Al, Be, Cr, Cu, Li, Mg, Mn, Ni, Ti, and Zn. The paper also covers batteries and electric vehicles, the electric utility industry, fuel cells, and environmental applications of electrochemistry. 239 refs.

  1. Stabilization of the high-temperature phases in ceramic coatings on zirconium alloy produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apelfeld, A. V.; Betsofen, S. Y.; Borisov, A. M.; Vladimirov, B. V.; Savushkina, S. V.; Knyazev, E. V.

    2016-09-01

    The composition and structure of ceramic coatings obtained on Zr-1%Nb alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in aqueous electrolyte comprising 2 g/L KOH, 6 g/L NaAlO2 and 2 g/L Na2SiO3 with addition of yttria nanopowder, have been studied. The PEO coatings of thickness ∼⃒20 μm were studied using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis and X-ray phase analysis. Additives in the electrolyte of yttria nanopowder allowed stabilizing the high-temperature tetragonal and cubic zirconia in the coating.

  2. Telecommuting: The Wired Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilles, Jack M.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the use of home computers and how they allow the worker to work at home rather than commuting. Discusses the growing trend of telecommuting, cost of operation, how it will affect company structure, and productivity. (CT)

  3. Atrial natriuretic peptide: water and electrolyte homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, C J; Jardine, A G

    1989-08-01

    In the few years since its identification, a clear role for ANP in the regulation of water and electrolyte balance has emerged (Figure 3). The peptide is released in response to blood volume expansion, both acutely and gradually during changes in dietary sodium intake. Similarly, plasma levels are elevated in pathophysiological conditions such as cardiac and renal failure. It has become apparent that ANP has natriuretic, diuretic and vasorelaxant properties. Many of the original studies employed what we now know to be pharmacological doses of the peptide. However, recent reports have confirmed that small, sustained elevations in plasma ANP within or marginally above the 'normal' physiological range produce similar effects. A number of recent studies have tried to specifically address the physiological relevance of ANP. Although undoubtedly release by atrial distension and effective when infused to similar concentrations, atrial distension also has other effects via neural pathways. Thus, the demonstration that excretion of saline is impaired by atrial appendectomy (Benjamin et al, 1988) does not imply that this is only due to the absence of an atrial hormone. Goetz et al (1986) demonstrated that in the denervated heart, although ANP is still released, the excretion of a saline load is impaired. Similarly, in man, Richards et al (1988a) needed to infuse ANP to much higher plasma levels than those achieved by a saline load in order to reproduce the natriuresis. Although these experiments can be criticized, they confirm that ANP is not the sole mechanism for excreting a volume load, or for the natriuresis following atrial distension, but that these effects are likely to reflect the balance between ANP, AVP, the renin-angiotensin and autonomic nervous systems. In rats immunized against ANP (Greenwald et al, 1988), although the ability to excrete an acute saline load was impaired, long-term sodium balance was normal, suggesting that the rats were able to compensate for

  4. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  5. Polymer gel electrolytes for application in aluminum deposition and rechargeable aluminum ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiao -Guang; Fang, Youxing; Jiang, Xueguang; Yoshii, Kazuki; Tsuda, Tetsuya; Dai, Sheng

    2015-10-22

    Polymer gel electrolyte using AlCl3 complexed acrylamide as functional monomer and ionic liquids based on acidic mixture of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) and AlCl3 as plasticizer has been successfully prepared for the first time by free radical polymerization. Aluminum deposition is successfully obtained with a polymer gel membrane contianing 80 wt% ionic liquid. As a result, the polymer gel membranes are also good candidates for rechargeable aluminum ion batteries.

  6. Polymer gel electrolytes for application in aluminum deposition and rechargeable aluminum ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Xiao -Guang; Fang, Youxing; Jiang, Xueguang; Yoshii, Kazuki; Tsuda, Tetsuya; Dai, Sheng

    2015-10-22

    Polymer gel electrolyte using AlCl3 complexed acrylamide as functional monomer and ionic liquids based on acidic mixture of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) and AlCl3 as plasticizer has been successfully prepared for the first time by free radical polymerization. Aluminum deposition is successfully obtained with a polymer gel membrane contianing 80 wt% ionic liquid. As a result, the polymer gel membranes are also good candidates for rechargeable aluminum ion batteries.

  7. Fundamental Aspects of Ion Transport in Solid Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Narayanan, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    Solid electrolytes (also termed as superionic solids or fast ion conductors) are characterized by high electrical conductivity, comparable to concentrated liquid electrolytes or even molten salt electrolytes, made possible by rapid transport of ions in the crystalline lattice.

  8. ALS Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... toward a world without ALS! Walk to Defeat ALS® Walk to Defeat ALS® draws people of all ... We need your help. I Will Advocate National ALS Registry The National ALS Registry is a congressionally ...

  9. Al/Cl2 molten salt battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giner, J.

    1972-01-01

    Molten salt battery has been developed with theoretical energy density of 5.2 j/kg (650 W-h/lb). Battery, which operates at 150 C, can be used in primary mode or as rechargeable battery. Battery has aluminum anode and chlorine cathode. Electrolyte is mixture of AlCl3, NaCl, and some alkali metal halide such as KCl.

  10. Wide Operating Temperature Range Electrolytes for High Voltage and High Specific Energy Li-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Hwang, C.; Krause, F. C.; Soler, J.; West, W. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Amine, K.

    2012-01-01

    A number of electrolyte formulations that have been designed to operate over a wide temperature range have been investigated in conjunction with layered-layered metal oxide cathode materials developed at Argonne. In this study, we have evaluated a number of electrolytes in Li-ion cells consisting of Conoco Phillips A12 graphite anodes and Toda HE5050 Li(1.2)Ni(0.15)Co(0.10)Mn(0.55)O2 cathodes. The electrolytes studied consisted of LiPF6 in carbonate-based electrolytes that contain ester co-solvents with various solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) promoting additives, many of which have been demonstrated to perform well in 4V systems. More specifically, we have investigated the performance of a number of methyl butyrate (MB) containing electrolytes (i.e., LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC) + ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) + MB (20:20:60 v/v %) that contain various additives, including vinylene carbonate, lithium oxalate, and lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB). When these systems were evaluated at various rates at low temperatures, the methyl butyrate-based electrolytes resulted in improved rate capability compared to cells with all carbonate-based formulations. It was also ascertained that the slow cathode kinetics govern the generally poor rate capability at low temperature in contrast to traditionally used LiNi(0.80)Co(0.15)Al(0.05)O2-based systems, rather than being influenced strongly by the electrolyte type.

  11. Fabrication of large ceramic electrolyte disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ring, S. A.

    1972-01-01

    Process for sintering compressed ceramic powders produces large ceramic disks for use as electrolytes in high-temperature electrolytic cells. Thin, strain-free uniformly dense disks as large as 30 cm squared have been fabricated by slicing ceramic slugs produced by this technique.

  12. Evaluation of Electrochemical Methods for Electrolyte Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidersbach, Robert H.

    2001-01-01

    This report documents summer research efforts in an attempt to develop an electrochemical method of characterizing electrolytes. The ultimate objective of the characterization would be to determine the composition and corrosivity of Martian soil. Results are presented using potentiodynamic scans, Tafel extrapolations, and resistivity tests in a variety of water-based electrolytes.

  13. Colloidal Electrolytes and the Critical Micelle Concentration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, L. G.

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods for determining the Critical Micelle Concentration of Colloidal Electrolytes; methods described are: (1) methods based on Colligative Properties, (2) methods based on the Electrical Conductivity of Colloidal Electrolytic Solutions, (3) Dye Method, (4) Dye Solubilization Method, and (5) Surface Tension Method. (BR)

  14. Polymeric electrolytes for ambient temperature lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrington, G. C.

    1987-09-01

    During this reporting period a number of novel solid polymer electrolytes formed by salts of multivalent cations and polyethylene oxide (PEO) have been prepared and characterized. These materials are of interest not only because of their potential ionic conductivities, but also because some of them may have electronic conductivity and oxidizing power which would be useful for novel electrode materials in all-solid-state batteries. Two broad classes of materials were investigated: PEO solutions of Zn(2), Cd(2), and Pb(2), all of which are potential electrolytes for solid-state batteries, and PEO solutions of transition metal salts, which are of interest as possible cathode materials. Mixed compositions containing both divalent cations and lithium ions were also prepared. Electrolytes formed with small, highly-polarizing ions, such as Mg(2) and Ca(2), are essentially pure anion conductors. Electrolytes containing Zn(2) behave similarly, unless they are hydrated, in which case the Zn(2) ions are quite mobile. Electrolytes formed with larger, more polarizable cations, such as Pb(2) and Cd(2), conduct both anions and cations. Solutions of salts of transition metal cations form a third group of electrolytes. Of the electrolytes investigated so far, those formed with Ni(++) salts are the most unusual. It appears as if the transport number of Ni(2) and the electrolyte conductivity can be greatly enhanced by controlling the hydration and dehydration of the polymer.

  15. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kumar, Binod; Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G.

    2000-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  16. Hexagonal NiS nanobelts as advanced cathode materials for rechargeable Al-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhijing; Kang, Zepeng; Hu, Zongqian; Lu, Jianhong; Zhou, Zhigang; Jiao, Shuqiang

    2016-08-16

    Hexagonal NiS nanobelts served as novel cathode materials for rechargeable Al-ion batteries based on an AlCl3/[EMIm]Cl ionic liquid electrolyte system. The nano-banded structure of the materials can facilitate the electrolyte immersion and enhance Al(3+) diffusion. The hexagonal NiS nanobelt based cathodes exhibit high storage capacity, good cyclability and low overpotential. PMID:27487940

  17. Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan

    SciTech Connect

    Fauzi, Iqbal Arcana, I Made

    2014-03-24

    Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the component’s composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of it’s characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 × 10{sup −6} S/cm up to 6.01 × 10{sup −4} S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 × 10{sup −3} S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

  18. Mg(PF6)2-Based Electrolyte Systems: Understanding Electrolyte-Electrode Interactions for the Development of Mg-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Keyzer, Evan N; Glass, Hugh F J; Liu, Zigeng; Bayley, Paul M; Dutton, Siân E; Grey, Clare P; Wright, Dominic S

    2016-07-20

    Mg(PF6)2-based electrolytes for Mg-ion batteries have not received the same attention as the analogous LiPF6-based electrolytes used in most Li-ion cells owing to the perception that the PF6(-) anion decomposes on and passivates Mg electrodes. No synthesis of the Mg(PF6)2 salt has been reported, nor have its solutions been studied electrochemically. Here, we report the synthesis of the complex Mg(PF6)2(CH3CN)6 and its solution-state electrochemistry. Solutions of Mg(PF6)2(CH3CN)6 in CH3CN and CH3CN/THF mixtures exhibit high conductivities (up to 28 mS·cm(-1)) and electrochemical stability up to at least 4 V vs Mg on Al electrodes. Contrary to established perceptions, Mg electrodes are observed to remain electrochemically active when cycled in the presence of these Mg(PF6)2-based electrolytes, with no fluoride (i.e., MgF2) formed on the Mg surface. Stainless steel electrodes are found to corrode when cycled in the presence of Mg(PF6)2 solutions, but Al electrodes are passivated. The electrolytes have been used in a prototype Mg battery with a Mg anode and Chevrel (Mo3S4)-phase cathode.

  19. Mg(PF6)2-Based Electrolyte Systems: Understanding Electrolyte-Electrode Interactions for the Development of Mg-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Keyzer, Evan N; Glass, Hugh F J; Liu, Zigeng; Bayley, Paul M; Dutton, Siân E; Grey, Clare P; Wright, Dominic S

    2016-07-20

    Mg(PF6)2-based electrolytes for Mg-ion batteries have not received the same attention as the analogous LiPF6-based electrolytes used in most Li-ion cells owing to the perception that the PF6(-) anion decomposes on and passivates Mg electrodes. No synthesis of the Mg(PF6)2 salt has been reported, nor have its solutions been studied electrochemically. Here, we report the synthesis of the complex Mg(PF6)2(CH3CN)6 and its solution-state electrochemistry. Solutions of Mg(PF6)2(CH3CN)6 in CH3CN and CH3CN/THF mixtures exhibit high conductivities (up to 28 mS·cm(-1)) and electrochemical stability up to at least 4 V vs Mg on Al electrodes. Contrary to established perceptions, Mg electrodes are observed to remain electrochemically active when cycled in the presence of these Mg(PF6)2-based electrolytes, with no fluoride (i.e., MgF2) formed on the Mg surface. Stainless steel electrodes are found to corrode when cycled in the presence of Mg(PF6)2 solutions, but Al electrodes are passivated. The electrolytes have been used in a prototype Mg battery with a Mg anode and Chevrel (Mo3S4)-phase cathode. PMID:27359196

  20. Electrolyte for an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.

    1997-01-28

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making the same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between {minus}15 C and 150 C. 9 figs.

  1. Electrolytes near structured dielectric interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huanxin; Jing, Yufei; Solis, Francisco; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica; Luijten, Erik

    2015-03-01

    The ion distribution in an electrolyte near a dielectric interface has important consequences for numerous applications. To date, most studies have focused on planar interfaces, where, e.g., simulations can take advantage of the image-charge method. However, for surfaces that display structure on the nanoscale, dielectric effects may be significantly different. Here, we investigate such interfaces via a combination of computer simulations and Poisson-Boltzmann theory. We demonstrate how, even for systems with piecewise uniform dielectric constant, surface structure affects the induced polarization charge as well as the ion distribution near the interface, in particular for asymmetric salts. We explore the role of ion concentration, dielectric mismatch and characteristic length scale of the surface structure.

  2. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    SciTech Connect

    Harlan U. Anderson

    2000-03-31

    This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and Testing of Planar Single Cells. During this time period substantial progress has been made in developing low temperature deposition techniques to produce dense, nanocrystalline yttrium-stabilized zirconia films on both dense oxide and polymer substrates. Progress has been made in the preparation and characterization of thin electrolytes and porous LSM substrates. Both of these tasks are essentially on or ahead of schedule. In our proposal, we suggested that the ZrO{sub 2}/Sc system needed to be considered as a candidate as a thin electrolyte. This was because microcrystalline ZrO{sub 2}/Sc has a significantly higher ionic conductivity than YSZ, particularly at the lower temperatures. As a result, some 0.5 micron thick film of ZrO{sub 2}/16% Sc on an alumina substrate (grain size 20nm) was prepared and the electrical conductivity measured as a function of temperature and oxygen activity. The Sc doped ZrO{sub 2} certainly has a higher conductivity that either 20nm or 2400nm YSZ, however, electronic conductivity dominates the conductivity for oxygen activities below 10{sup -15}. Whereas for YSZ, electronic conductivity is not a problem until the oxygen activity decreases below 10{sup -25}. These initial results show that the ionic conductivity of 20nm YSZ and 20nm ZrO{sub 2}/16% Sc are essentially the same and the enhanced conductivity which is observed for Sc doping in microcrystalline specimens is not observed for the same composition when it is nanocrystalline. In addition they show that the electronic conductivity of Sc doped ZrO{sub 2} is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that observed for YSZ. The conclusion one reaches is that for 0.5 to 1 micron thick nanocrystalline films, Sc doping of ZrO{sub 2} has no benefits compared to YSZ. As a result, electrolyte films of ZrO{sub 2}/Sc should not be considered as candidates

  3. Electrolyte for an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.; Dudney, Nancy J.

    1997-01-01

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

  4. A fundamental study on the [(μ-Cl)3 Mg2 (THF)6 ]+ dimer electrolytes for rechargeable Mg batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Tianbiao; Cox, Jonathan T.; Hu, Dehong; Deng, Xuchu; Hu, Jianzhi; Hu, Mary Y.; Xiao, Jie; Shao, Yuyan; Tang, Keqi; Liu, Jun

    2015-01-05

    We present a fundamental study on [(μ-Cl)3 Mg2 (THF)6 ]+ dimer electrolytes using various physical methods including Subambient Pressure Ionization with Nanoelectrospray Mass spectrometry (SPIN-MS), Raman spectroscopy, 25Mg{1H} NMR, 27Al{1H} NMR and electrochemical analysis. For the first time, long time sought THF solvated [MgCl]+ species was experimentally characterized by SPIN mass spectrometry in the solution of the Mgdimer containing electrolyte, confirming the mono-Cl- abstraction reaction between MgCl2 and an Al Lewis acid. Solvated MgCl2 in the electrolyte was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results establish the previously proposed dimerization equilibrium of solvated [MgCl]+ and MgCl2 with [(μ-Cl)3Mg2(THF)6]+.more » 25Mg{1H} NMR, 27Al{1H} NMR and electrochemical analysis on chloration reaction of [(μ-Cl)3Mg2(THF)6]AlPh3Cl with external Cl- led to further insights on the coordination chemistry of the dimer electrolyte. Finally, a comprehensive mechanism is proposed for the reversible electrochemical Mg deposition and stripping and Mg2+ and Cl- ion transports of the Mg dimer electrolytes in rechargeable Mg batteries.« less

  5. New electrolytes and electrolyte additives to improve the low temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2008-08-31

    In this program, two different approaches were undertaken to improve the role of electrolyte at low temperature performance - through the improvement in (i) ionic conductivity and (ii) interfacial behavior. Several different types of electrolytes were prepared to examine the feasibil.ity of using these new electrolytes in rechargeable lithium-ion cells in the temperature range of +40°C to -40°C. The feasibility studies include (a) conductivity measurements of the electrolytes, (b) impedance measurements of lithium-ion cells using the screened electrolytes with di.fferent electrochemical history such as [(i) fresh cells prior to formation cycles, (ii) after first charge, and (iii) after first discharge], (c) electrical performance of the cells at room temperatures, and (d) charge discharge behavior at various low temperatures. Among the different types of electrolytes investigated in Phase I and Phase II of this SBIR project, carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes with the proposed additives and the low viscous ester as a third component to the carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes show promising results at low temperatures. The latter electrolytes deliver over 80% of room temperature capacity at -20{degrees}C when the lithium-ion cells containing these electrolytes were charged at -20 °C. Also, there was no lithium plating when the lithium­-ion cells using C-C composite anode and LiPF{sub 6} in EC/EMC/MP electrolyte were charged at -20{degrees}C at C/5 rate. The studies of ionic conductivity and AC impedance of these new electrolytes, as well as the charge discharge characteristics of lithium-ion cells using these new electrolytes at various low temperatures provide new findings: The reduced capacity and power capability, as well as the problem of lithium plating at low temperatures charging of lithium-ion cells are primarily due to slow the lithium-ion intercalation/de-intercalation kinetics in the carbon structure.

  6. Rechargable molten-electrolyte lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaun, T. D.

    1989-10-01

    Lithium-alloy/metal sulfide cells with on molten-halide electrolytes, which are operated in a temperature range of 375 to 474 C, have undergone many improvements in recent years. Cycle life now exceeds 1000 cycles. The Li-alloy/LiCl-LiBr-KBr eutectic (25:37:38 mol percent)/upper-plateau (U.P.) FeS2 cell operated at 400 C has shown excellence performance prospects: 200 Wh/kg specific energy and 200-W/kg specific power. Electrolyte composition has played a dominant role in attaining long-term stable electrochemical performance. A modified LiCl-LiBr-KBr composition (34:32.5:33.5 mol percent) was found to exhibit 25 percent increased ionic conductivity over that of the eutectic. This higher-conductivity electrolyte approximately compensates for the reduced electrolyte content of the electrolyte-starved FeS2 cell. Such a cell has attained of 95 percent utilization of U.P. FeS2 electrode capacity at a comparable cell impedance (0.8 to 1.0 ohm sq cm) to that of an electrolyte-flooded cell. Advancements in cell design and materials application have reduced materials costs and increased battery durability. Both FeS and FeS2 cell tests have demonstrated overcharge tolerance (3 to 5 mA/sq cm) for electrolyte-starved operation with MgO powder separators.

  7. A study of electrolytes for lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perron, Gerald; Desnoyers, J. E.; Rheault, F.; Gagnon, R.; Quirion, F.; Camire, C.; Ledoux, J.

    1989-05-01

    The main objective of the work described here was to develop a fast and efficient method to optimize the electrolytic medium in primary and secondary high density Li/SO2 batteries over a wide range of temperatures. Mixed aprotic solvents are frequently used in batteries to optimize their performance. In the work described here, combinations of five solvents (acetonitrile, gamma butyrolacetone, 1,3- dimethoxyethane, 1,3- dioxolane and sulfolane), three electrolytes (LiBr, LiClO4, and LiAsF6), and SO2 were studied. The liquid-solid phase diagrams at 25 C were correlated with the viscosity, conductivity, density, and in some cases heat capacity of the mixture. Five types of material combinations were analyzed. These combinations included: (1) aprotic solvents + aprotic solvents, (2) electrolytes + aprotic solvents, (3) electrolytes + mixtures of aprotic solvents, (4) aprotic solvents + SO2, and (5) electrolytes + solvents + SO2. Mixed solvent plus electrolyte conductivities were up to 50 percent greater than the best conductivity observed when a single solvent was combined with an electrolyte. In addition the conductivity of the lithium salts in mixtures of aprotic solvents with SO2 at minus 15 C were measured. In this case, the specific conductivity maximized in the region corresponding to the SO2 rich eutectic for all mixtures studied. The study showed a correlation between the liquid solids equilibrium properties for the mixtures and their physico-chemical properties in solution, even at temperatures far above the solid liquid equilibrium point.

  8. [Worker's Health Surveillance

    PubMed

    Machado

    1997-01-01

    This paper is part of a broader discussion on the need for more in-depth study of workers' health surveillance practices, which are most often developed empirically, without well-defined theoretical or technical foundations. The paper presents a concept of surveillance in workers' health as a fulcrum for actions in the relationship between the work process and health. It emphasizes the exposure-based perspective involved in the epidemiological approach. Risk situations and effects are placed in spatial and technological context. The model provides an interdisciplinary approach with a technological, social, and epidemiological basis in a three-dimensional structure. A matrix for planning actions in workers' health surveillance is also presented, focusing on the connections between effects, risks, territory, and activities.

  9. [Worker's Health Surveillance

    PubMed

    Machado

    1997-01-01

    This paper is part of a broader discussion on the need for more in-depth study of workers' health surveillance practices, which are most often developed empirically, without well-defined theoretical or technical foundations. The paper presents a concept of surveillance in workers' health as a fulcrum for actions in the relationship between the work process and health. It emphasizes the exposure-based perspective involved in the epidemiological approach. Risk situations and effects are placed in spatial and technological context. The model provides an interdisciplinary approach with a technological, social, and epidemiological basis in a three-dimensional structure. A matrix for planning actions in workers' health surveillance is also presented, focusing on the connections between effects, risks, territory, and activities. PMID:10886936

  10. Migration of health workers.

    PubMed

    Buchan, James

    2008-01-01

    The discussion and debate stimulated by these papers focused across a range of issues but there were four main areas of questioning: "measuring" and monitoring migration (issues related to comparability, completeness and accuracy of data sets on human resources); the impact of migration of health workers on health systems; the motivations of individual health workers to migrate (the "push" and "pull" factors) and the effect of policies designed either to reduce migration (e.g "self ufficiency") or to stimulate it (e.g active international recruitment). It was recognised that there was a critical need to examine migratory flows within the broader context of all health care labour market dynamics within a country, that increasing migration of health workers was an inevitable consequence of globalisation, and that there was a critical need to improve monitoring so as to better inform policy formulation and policy testing in this area. PMID:18561695

  11. Migration of health workers.

    PubMed

    Buchan, James

    2008-01-01

    The discussion and debate stimulated by these papers focused across a range of issues but there were four main areas of questioning: "measuring" and monitoring migration (issues related to comparability, completeness and accuracy of data sets on human resources); the impact of migration of health workers on health systems; the motivations of individual health workers to migrate (the "push" and "pull" factors) and the effect of policies designed either to reduce migration (e.g "self ufficiency") or to stimulate it (e.g active international recruitment). It was recognised that there was a critical need to examine migratory flows within the broader context of all health care labour market dynamics within a country, that increasing migration of health workers was an inevitable consequence of globalisation, and that there was a critical need to improve monitoring so as to better inform policy formulation and policy testing in this area.

  12. Covering anodized aluminum with electropolymerized polypyrrole via manganese oxide layer and application to solid electrolytic capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudoh, Yasuo; Kojima, Toshikuni; Fukuyama, Masao; Tsuchiya, Sohji; Yoshimura, Susumu

    A new technology for covering an etched and anodized aluminum (Al) foil with polypyrrole (PPy) was developed. PPy was electropolymerized from an external electrode via an extremely thin semiconducting manganese oxide layer prepared on the etched and anodized Al foil in advance. Pyrolytic and reduced manganese oxide could be used with little difference in the performance of the PPy layer growth. To obtain a high coverage ratio, the optimal starting materials were manganese nitrate for the pyrolysis process and sodium permanganate for the reduction process. On the basis of the technology, two kinds of Al solid electrolytic capacitors, in which the PPy layers are used as electrolytes, were produced and characterized. These capacitors showed almost equal ideal impedance-frequency characteristics, excellent temperature characteristics and environmental stability, and independence of the manganese oxide synthesis route.

  13. The older worker.

    PubMed

    Fulks, J S; Fallon, L F

    2001-01-01

    About one person in eight remains employed past 65, the average age for retirement in the U.S. These persons tend to be highly reliable. They can adapt and learn new technology, but may require extra time to do so. Older workers have particular needs in the workplace due to physiological changes that accompany aging. They may require more lighting, and they may have decreased mobility, physical strength, and dexterity. These factors often have no impact on their ability to accomplish job duties. This chapter underscores the significant contributions that older workers often provide, and also addresses retirement planning.

  14. Apparatus for the electrolytic production of metals

    DOEpatents

    Sadoway, Donald R.

    1993-01-01

    Improved electrolytic cells for producing metals by the electrolytic reduction of a compound dissolved in a molten electrolyte are disclosed. In the improved cells, at least one electrode includes a protective layer comprising an oxide of the cell product metal formed upon an alloy of the cell product metal and a more noble metal. In the case of an aluminum reduction cell, the electrode can comprise an alloy of aluminum with copper, nickel, iron, or combinations thereof, upon which is formed an aluminum oxide protective layer.

  15. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles Austen [Mesa, AZ; Xu, Wu [Tempe, AZ

    2009-05-05

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  16. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles Austen; Xu, Wu

    2008-01-01

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  17. Mixtures of protic ionic liquids and propylene carbonate as advanced electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Vogl, T; Menne, S; Balducci, A

    2014-12-01

    In this study we investigated the chemical-physical properties of mixtures containing the protic ionic liquid (PIL) N-butyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYRH4TFSI), propylene carbonate (PC) and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in view of their use as electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). We showed that these electrolytic solutions might display conductivity and viscosity comparable to those of conventional electrolytes. Depending on the amount of PIL present inside the mixtures, such mixtures might also display the ability to suppress the anodic dissolution of Al. Furthermore, we showed that the coordination of lithium ions by TFSI in PIL-PC mixtures appears to be different than the one observed for mixtures of PC and aprotic ionic liquids (AILs). When used in combination with a battery electrode, e.g. lithium iron phosphate (LFP), these mixtures allow the achievement of high performance also at a very high C-rate.

  18. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Electrochemical Properties of a Simple Magnesium Electrolyte for Magnesium/Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanfei; Cheng, Shuang; Wang, Jian; Qiu, Yongcai; Zheng, Zhaozhao; Lin, Hongzhen; Nanda, Sanjay; Ma, Qian; Xu, Yan; Ye, Fangmin; Liu, Meinan; Zhou, Lisha; Zhang, Yuegang

    2016-05-23

    Most simple magnesium salts tend to passivate the Mg metal surface too quickly to function as electrolytes for Mg batteries. In the present work, an electroactive salt [Mg(THF)6 ][AlCl4 ]2 was synthesized and structurally characterized. The Mg electrolyte based on this simple mononuclear salt showed a high Mg cycling efficiency, good anodic stability (2.5 V vs. Mg), and high ionic conductivity (8.5 mS cm(-1) ). Magnesium/sulfur cells employing the as-prepared electrolyte exhibited good cycling performance over 20 cycles in the range of 0.3-2.6 V, thus indicating an electrochemically reversible conversion of S to MgS without severe passivation of the Mg metal electrode surface. PMID:27094220

  19. Li-Ion Cells Employing Electrolytes With Methyl Propionate and Ethyl Butyrate Co-Solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2011-01-01

    temperature range in MCMB-LiNiCoAlO2 and Li4Ti5O12-LiNi-CoAlO2 prototype cells. These electrolytes have enabled high rate performance at low temperature (i.e., up to 2.0C rates at -50 C and 5.0C rates at -40 C), and good cycling performance over a wide temperature range (i.e., from -40 to +70 C). Current efforts are focused upon improving the high temperature resilience of the methyl propionatebased system through the use of electrolyte additives, which are envisioned to improve the nature of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layers.

  20. High conductivity electrolyte solutions and rechargeable cells incorporating such solutions

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles Austen; Zhang, Sheng-Shui; Xu, Kang

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates generally to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery polymer electrolyte solutions as are used, for example, in electrochemical devices. More specifically, this invention relates to sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solvents and sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents.

  1. High conductivity electrolyte solutions and rechargeable cells incorporating such solutions

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Zhang, S.S.; Xu, K.

    1998-10-20

    This invention relates generally to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery polymer electrolyte solutions as are used, for example, in electrochemical devices. More specifically, this invention relates to sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solvents and sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents. 9 figs.

  2. Training "Expendable" Workers: Temporary Foreign Workers in Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Alison; Foster, Jason; Cambre, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the experiences of Temporary Foreign Workers in health care in Alberta, Canada. In 2007-2008, one of the regional health authorities in the province responded to a shortage of workers by recruiting 510 health-care workers internationally; most were trained as Registered Nurses (RNs) in the Philippines.…

  3. Business and Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This study updates a 1985 study which examined the perceptions, policies, and practices of American business regarding older workers, and placed them in the context of larger economic, demographic, and social trends shaping the business climate. The new survey was conducted in July 1989 among a random sample of 400 companies, with 100 each in 4…

  4. Doctoring the Knowledge Worker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Mark

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I examine the impact of the new 'knowledge economy' on contemporary doctoral education. I argue that the knowledge economy promotes a view of knowledge and knowledge workers that fundamentally challenges the idea of a university as a community of autonomous scholars transmitting and adding to society's 'stock of knowledge'. The paper…

  5. Worker-Directed Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Stacey

    2001-01-01

    Describes the training at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the foremost nuclear energy and environmental laboratory in the United States. Suggests that the key to assurance is getting workers, most of whom are unionized, involved in their own safety training. (JOW)

  6. NURSERY WORKER, TEACHERS COPY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FITTS, JAMES; JOHNSON, JOHNNY

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST IN THE PREPARATION OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE EDUCATION STUDENTS OVER 16 YEARS OF AGE AS NURSERY WORKERS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A COMMITTEE OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS WITH ASSISTANCE FROM SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS. UNITS ARE (1) INTRODUCTION TO HORTICULTURE, (2) CONSTRUCTING, MAINTAINING,…

  7. Why Public Workers Stay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Charles; Haskew, Barbara

    1976-01-01

    This study of state employees pursues the hypothesis that inertia accounts for most workers' continuing employment. (Available from Public Personnel Management, Room 240, 1313 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637; $15.00 annually, $3.00 single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  8. Geriatric Service Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seton Hill Coll., Greensburg, PA.

    This curriculum for training geriatric service workers is designed to incorporate additional communication and group skills along with the basic knowledge and skills necessary to work with older adults. The curriculum is organized in four modules. Each module is assigned a time frame and a credit unit base. The modules are divided into four major…

  9. Educating the Knowledge Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leddick, Susan; Gharajedaghi, Jamshid

    2001-01-01

    In the new economy, knowledge (not labor, raw material, or capital) is the key resource to be converted to goods and services. Public schools will have to educate three tiers of knowledge workers (doers, problem solvers, and designers) using differentiated assessment, curricula, and instruction. Organizational action, not mantras, is needed. (MLH)

  10. Residential Workers' Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, Alan, Ed.

    The packet of information is intended to help residential workers with disturbed children in the United Kingdom. The first section on theory contains two papers: "Which Children Come Into Residential Care?" (Robin Benians); and "Models of Treatment: Behavioral, Psychodynamic, Cognitive" (Daphne Lennox). The next section contains practical guidance…

  11. The Tree Worker's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithyman, S. J.

    This manual is designed to prepare students for entry-level positions as tree care professionals. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: the tree service industry; clothing, eqiupment, and tools; tree workers; basic tree anatomy; techniques of pruning; procedures for climbing and working in the tree; aerial…

  12. Perspectives about Social Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Mark E.; And Others

    Previous research has shown that career preferences are dependent upon the words and images that individuals associate with various occupations. The present study sought to identify differences and similarities between college students' and social workers' views toward social work. College students majoring in psychology (N=25) and social workers…

  13. Dislocated Worker Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1988

    Due to the severe economic decline in the automobile manufacturing industry in southeastern Michigan, a Dislocated Workers Program has been developed through the partnership of the Flint Area Chamber of Commerce, three community colleges, the National Center for Research in Vocational Education, the Michigan State Department of Education, the…

  14. Curbing Workers' Comp Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeb, William S.

    1998-01-01

    An actuarial study revealed that Pasadena Schools had an unfunded worker's compensation liability of over $10 million and 400 open claims. Advised to implement strong cost-containment measures (an early return-to-work program) and equally strong accountability measures (strict performance guides and safe work practices), the district achieved…

  15. Dissimilar Crystal Dependence of Vanadium Oxide Cathodes in Organic Carbonate and Safe Ionic Liquid Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Tartaj, Pedro; Amarilla, Jose M; Morales, Enrique; Vazquez-Santos, Maria B

    2016-01-27

    Advances in Li metal anode stabilization, solid-state electrolytes, and capabilities to insert a variety of active ions (Li(+), Na(+), Mg(2+), and Al(3+)) have renewed the interest in layered vanadium oxides. Here we show that crystal characteristics such as size and crystallinity are fundamental variables that control the dissimilar electrochemical capabilities of 1D vanadium oxides immersed in different electrolytes (organic carbonates and safe electrolytes containing 80% of ionic liquid). We show that this opposite behavior can be understood in terms of a subtle interplay between crystal characteristics (size and crystallinity), electrolyte degradability, and the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte. Thus, through this control we are able to obtain pure 1D vanadium oxides that show reversibility in carbonate electrolytes at a cutoff voltage of 1.5 V (voltage region where insertion of more than two lithium ions is possible). Furthermore, these materials are able to uptake ca. 1.0 mol of Li at a rate of 20C (1C = 295 mAh/g) and retain excellent capabilities (Coulombic efficiency of 98% after 200 cycles at a rate of 5C). Finally, what, to our knowledge, is really remarkable is that this optimization allows building vanadium oxide electrodes with an excellent electrochemical response in a safe electrolyte composition (80% of ionic liquid). Specifically, we reach uptakes also at a cutoff voltage of 1.5 V of ca. 1.0 mol of Li after 200 cycles at 5C (charge/discharge) with Coulombic efficiencies higher than 99.5%. PMID:26743032

  16. Dissimilar Crystal Dependence of Vanadium Oxide Cathodes in Organic Carbonate and Safe Ionic Liquid Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Tartaj, Pedro; Amarilla, Jose M; Morales, Enrique; Vazquez-Santos, Maria B

    2016-01-27

    Advances in Li metal anode stabilization, solid-state electrolytes, and capabilities to insert a variety of active ions (Li(+), Na(+), Mg(2+), and Al(3+)) have renewed the interest in layered vanadium oxides. Here we show that crystal characteristics such as size and crystallinity are fundamental variables that control the dissimilar electrochemical capabilities of 1D vanadium oxides immersed in different electrolytes (organic carbonates and safe electrolytes containing 80% of ionic liquid). We show that this opposite behavior can be understood in terms of a subtle interplay between crystal characteristics (size and crystallinity), electrolyte degradability, and the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte. Thus, through this control we are able to obtain pure 1D vanadium oxides that show reversibility in carbonate electrolytes at a cutoff voltage of 1.5 V (voltage region where insertion of more than two lithium ions is possible). Furthermore, these materials are able to uptake ca. 1.0 mol of Li at a rate of 20C (1C = 295 mAh/g) and retain excellent capabilities (Coulombic efficiency of 98% after 200 cycles at a rate of 5C). Finally, what, to our knowledge, is really remarkable is that this optimization allows building vanadium oxide electrodes with an excellent electrochemical response in a safe electrolyte composition (80% of ionic liquid). Specifically, we reach uptakes also at a cutoff voltage of 1.5 V of ca. 1.0 mol of Li after 200 cycles at 5C (charge/discharge) with Coulombic efficiencies higher than 99.5%.

  17. Electrolytic silver ion cell sterilizes water supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, C. F.; Gillerman, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Electrolytic water sterilizer controls microbial contamination in manned spacecraft. Individual sterilizer cells are self-contained and require no external power or control. The sterilizer generates silver ions which do not impart an unpleasant taste to water.

  18. Self-doped molecular composite battery electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K.; Wertsching, Alan K.; Stewart, Frederick F.

    2003-04-08

    This invention is in solid polymer-based electrolytes for battery applications. It uses molecular composite technology, coupled with unique preparation techniques to render a self-doped, stabilized electrolyte material suitable for inclusion in both primary and secondary batteries. In particular, a salt is incorporated in a nano-composite material formed by the in situ catalyzed condensation of a ceramic precursor in the presence of a solvated polymer material, utilizing a condensation agent comprised of at least one cation amenable to SPE applications. As such, the counterion in the condensation agent used in the formation of the molecular composite is already present as the electrolyte matrix develops. This procedure effectively decouples the cation loading levels required for maximum ionic conductivity from electrolyte physical properties associated with condensation agent loading levels by utilizing the inverse relationship discovered between condensation agent loading and the time domain of the aging step.

  19. Galvanic cell with tin fluoborate electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Ruben, S.

    1984-12-11

    The invention is the utilization of an aqueous solution of tin fluoborate as the electrolyte in galvanic cells. It is particularly useful in primary galvanic cells employing permanganate depolarizers.

  20. Innovative Older-Worker Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessup, Denise; Greenberg, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    Describes program innovations to keep older workers employed: retraining, job sharing, flexible working hours, job redesign, and phased retirement. Addresses costs and savings, disincentives for workers and employers, and future trends. (SK)

  1. New Dimensions of Workers' Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, John R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The author suggests that labor education, by its organization through trade unions, is clearly distinguished from general adult education activities, although workers obviously participate in adult education. He discusses various ILO workers' education programs around the world. (MF)

  2. Operating mechanisms of electrolytes in magnesium ion batteries: chemical equilibrium, magnesium deposition, and electrolyte oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Young; Lim, Younhee; Roy, Basab; Ryu, Young-Gyoon; Lee, Seok-Soo

    2014-12-21

    Since the early nineties there have been a number of reports on the experimental development of Mg electrolytes based on organo/amide-magnesium chlorides and their transmetalations. However, there are no theoretical papers describing the underlying operating mechanisms of Mg electrolytes, and there is no clear understanding of these mechanisms. We have therefore attempted to clarify the operating mechanisms of Mg electrolytes by studying the characteristics of Mg complexes, solvation, chemical equilibrium, Mg-deposition processes, electrolyte-oxidation processes, and oxidative degradation mechanism of RMgCl-based electrolytes, using ab initio calculations. The formation and solvation energies of Mg complexes highly depend on the characteristics of R groups. Thus, changes in R groups of RMgCl lead to changes in the equilibrium position and the electrochemical reduction and oxidation pathways and energies. We first provide a methodological scheme for calculating Mg reduction potential values in non-aqueous electrolytes and electrochemical windows. We also describe a strategy for designing Mg electrolytes to maximize the electrochemical windows and oxidative stabilities. These results will be useful not only for designing improved Mg electrolytes, but also for developing new electrolytes in the future.

  3. Improving sulfolane-based electrolyte for high voltage Li-ion cells with electrolyte additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jian; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-08-01

    An electrolyte mixture containing 1 M LiPF6 in sulfolane:ethylmethyl carbonate 3:7 with vinylene carbonate and other electrolyte additives exhibited promising cycling and storage performance in high voltage Li(Ni0·4Mn0·4Co0.2)O2/graphite pouch type Li-ion cells tested to 4.5 V. Voltage drop during storage, coulombic efficiency, charge endpoint capacity slippage during ultra high precision cycling, charge-transfer resistance after storage or cycling, gas evolution during storage and cycling as well as capacity retention during long-term cycling were examined. The results for cells with sulfolane-based electrolytes were compared with those for cells with ethylene carbonate-based electrolytes containing state-of-the-art electrolyte additives. This survey showed that the combination of vinylene carbonate and triallyl phosphate as electrolyte additives in sulfolane:ethylmethyl carbonate electrolyte yielded cells capable of better performance during tests to 4.5 V than cells with ethylene carbonate-based electrolytes. These results suggest that sulfolane-based electrolytes may be promising for high voltage Li-ion cells.

  4. Highly Quantitative Electrochemical Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrolytes & Solid Electrolyte Interphases

    SciTech Connect

    Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Mason K. Harrup; Harry W. Rollins

    2012-10-01

    The methods to measure solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) electrochemical properties and SEI formation capability of non-aqueous electrolyte solutions are not adequately addressed in the literature. And yet, there is a strong demand in new electrolyte generations that promote stabilized SEIs and have an influence to resolve safety, calendar life and other limitations of Li-ion batteries. To fill this gap, in situ electrochemical approach with new descriptive criteria for highly quantitative characterization of SEI and electrolytes is proposed. These criteria are: SEI formation capacity, SEI corrosion rate, SEI maintenance rate, and SEI kinetic stability. These criteria are associated with battery parameters like irreversible capacity, self-discharge, shelf-life, power, etc. Therefore, they are especially useful for electrolyte development and standard fast screening, allowing a skillful approach to narrow down the search for the best electrolyte. The characterization protocol also allows retrieving information on interfacial resistance for SEI layers and the electrochemical window of electrolytes, the other important metrics of characterization. The method validation was done on electrolyte blends containing phosphazenes, developed at Idaho National Laboratory, as 1.2M LiPF6 [80 % EC-MEC (2:8) (v/v) + 20% Phosphazene variety] (v/v), which were targeted for safer electrolyte variations.

  5. Improving sulfolane-based electrolyte for high voltage Li-ion cells with electrolyte additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jian; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-08-01

    An electrolyte mixture containing 1 M LiPF6 in sulfolane:ethylmethyl carbonate 3:7 with vinylene carbonate and other electrolyte additives exhibited promising cycling and storage performance in high voltage Li(Ni0·4Mn0·4Co0.2)O2/graphite pouch type Li-ion cells tested to 4.5 V. Voltage drop during storage, coulombic efficiency, charge endpoint capacity slippage during ultra high precision cycling, charge-transfer resistance after storage or cycling, gas evolution during storage and cycling as well as capacity retention during long-term cycling were examined. The results for cells with sulfolane-based electrolytes were compared with those for cells with ethylene carbonate-based electrolytes containing state-of-the-art electrolyte additives. This survey showed that the combination of vinylene carbonate and triallyl phosphate as electrolyte additives in sulfolane:ethylmethyl carbonate electrolyte yielded cells capable of better performance during tests to 4.5 V than cells with ethylene carbonate-based electrolytes. These results suggest that sulfolane-based electrolytes may be promising for high voltage Li-ion cells.

  6. ALS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Registry -- ...

  7. Ionic conduction in polymer composite electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dam, Tapabrata; Tripathy, Satya N.; Paluch, M.; Jena, S.; Pradhan, D. K.

    2016-05-01

    Conductivity and structural relaxation has been explored from modulus and dielectric loss formalisms respectively for a series of polymer composite electrolytes with zirconia as filler. The temperature dependence of conductivity followed Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher (VTF) behavior, which suggested a close correlation between conductivity and the segmental relaxation process in polymer electrolytes. Vogel temperature (T0) plays significant role in ion conduction process in these kind of materials.

  8. Portable electrophoresis apparatus using minimum electrolyte

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, M. R.; Vickers, J. M. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An electrophoresis unit for use in conducting electrophoretic analysis of specimens is described. The unit includes a sealable container in which a substrate mounted specimen is suspended in an electrolytic vapor. A heating unit is employed to heat a supply of electrolyte to produce the vapor. The substrate is suspended within the container by being attached between a pair of clips which also serve as electrodes to which a direct current power source may be connected.

  9. Fuel cell with electrolyte matrix assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kaufman, Arthur; Pudick, Sheldon; Wang, Chiu L.

    1988-01-01

    This invention is directed to a fuel cell employing a substantially immobilized electrolyte imbedded therein and having a laminated matrix assembly disposed between the electrodes of the cell for holding and distributing the electrolyte. The matrix assembly comprises a non-conducting fibrous material such as silicon carbide whiskers having a relatively large void-fraction and a layer of material having a relatively small void-fraction.

  10. Elastic Properties of the Solid Electrolyte Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO)

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Seungho; Schmidt, Robert D.; Garcia-mendez, Regina; Herbert, Erik G.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Wolfenstine, Jeff; Sakamoto, Jeff; Seigel, Donald

    2015-12-16

    The oxide known as LLZO, with nominal composition Li7La3Zr2O12, is a promising solid electrolyte for Li-based batteries due to its high Li-ion conductivity and chemical stability with respect to lithium. Solid electrolytes may also enable the use of metallic Li anodes by serving as a physical barrier that suppresses dendrite initiation and propagation during cycling. Prior linear elasticity models of the Li electrode/solid electrolyte interface suggest that the stability of this interface is highly dependent on the elastic properties of the solid separator. For example, dendritic suppression is predicted to be enhanced as the electrolyte s shear modulus increases. In the present study a combination of first-principles calculations, acoustic impulse excitation measurements, and nanoindentation experiments are used to determine the elastic constants and moduli for highconductivity LLZO compositions based on Al and Ta doping. The calculated and measured isotropic shear moduli are in good agreement and fall within the range of 56-61 GPa. These values are an order of magnitude larger than that for Li metal and far exceed the minimum value ( 8.5 GPa) believed to be necessary to suppress dendrite initiation. These data suggest that LLZO exhibits sufficient stiffness to warrant additional development as a solid electrolyte for Li batteries.

  11. Elastic Properties of the Solid Electrolyte Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO)

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, Seungho; Schmidt, Robert D.; Garcia-mendez, Regina; Herbert, Erik G.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Wolfenstine, Jeff; Sakamoto, Jeff; Seigel, Donald

    2015-12-16

    The oxide known as LLZO, with nominal composition Li7La3Zr2O12, is a promising solid electrolyte for Li-based batteries due to its high Li-ion conductivity and chemical stability with respect to lithium. Solid electrolytes may also enable the use of metallic Li anodes by serving as a physical barrier that suppresses dendrite initiation and propagation during cycling. Prior linear elasticity models of the Li electrode/solid electrolyte interface suggest that the stability of this interface is highly dependent on the elastic properties of the solid separator. For example, dendritic suppression is predicted to be enhanced as the electrolyte s shear modulus increases. Inmore » the present study a combination of first-principles calculations, acoustic impulse excitation measurements, and nanoindentation experiments are used to determine the elastic constants and moduli for highconductivity LLZO compositions based on Al and Ta doping. The calculated and measured isotropic shear moduli are in good agreement and fall within the range of 56-61 GPa. These values are an order of magnitude larger than that for Li metal and far exceed the minimum value ( 8.5 GPa) believed to be necessary to suppress dendrite initiation. These data suggest that LLZO exhibits sufficient stiffness to warrant additional development as a solid electrolyte for Li batteries.« less

  12. Superior Conductive Solid-like Electrolytes: Nanoconfining Liquids within the Hollow Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jinshui; Bai, Ying; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Li, Yunchao; Guo, Bingkun; Chen, Jihua; Veith, Gabriel M; Hensley, Dale K; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Goodenough, John B; Dai, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The growth and proliferation of lithium (Li) dendrites during cell recharge is unavoidable, which seriously hinders the development and application of rechargeable Li metal batteries. Solid electrolytes with robust mechanical modulus are regarded as a promising approach to overcome the dendrite problems. However, their room-temperature ionic conductivities are usually too low to reach the level required for normal battery operation. Here, a class of novel solid electrolytes with liquid-like room-temperature ionic conductivities (> 1 mS cm-1) has been successfully synthesized by taking advantage of the unique nanoarchitectures of hollow silica (HS) spheres to confine liquid electrolytes in hollow space to afford high conductivities. In a symmetric lithium/lithium cell, such kind of solid-like electrolytes demonstrates a robust performance against Li dendrite problems, well stabilizing the cell system from short circuiting in a long-time operation at current densities ranging from 0.16 to 0.32 mA cm-2. Moreover, the high flexibility and compatibility of HS nanoarchitectures, in principle, enables broad tunability to choose desired liquids for the fabrication of other kinds of solid-like electrolytes, such as those containing Na+, Mg2+ or Al3+ as conductive media, providing a useful alternative strategy for the development of next generation rechargeable batteries.

  13. Superior Conductive Solid-like Electrolytes: Nanoconfining Liquids within the Hollow Structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinshui; Bai, Ying; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Li, Yunchao; Guo, Bingkun; Chen, Jihua; Veith, Gabriel M; Hensley, Dale K; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Goodenough, John B; Dai, Sheng

    2015-05-13

    The growth and proliferation of lithium (Li) dendrites during cell recharge are currently unavoidable, which seriously hinders the development and application of rechargeable Li metal batteries. Solid electrolytes with robust mechanical modulus are regarded as a promising approach to overcome the dendrite problems. However, their room-temperature ionic conductivities are usually too low to reach the level required for normal battery operation. Here, a class of novel solid electrolytes with liquid-like room-temperature ionic conductivities (>1 mS cm(-1)) has been successfully synthesized by taking advantage of the unique nanoarchitectures of hollow silica (HS) spheres to confine liquid electrolytes in hollow space to afford high conductivities (2.5 mS cm(-1)). In a symmetric lithium/lithium cell, the solid-like electrolytes demonstrate a robust performance against the Li dendrite problem, preventing the cell from short circuiting at current densities ranging from 0.16 to 0.32 mA cm(-2) over an extended period of time. Moreover, the high flexibility and compatibility of HS nanoarchitectures, in principle, enables broad tunability to choose desired liquids for the fabrication of other kinds of solid-like electrolytes, such as those containing Na(+), Mg(2+), or Al(3+) as conductive media, providing a useful alternative strategy for the development of next generation rechargeable batteries. PMID:25844598

  14. [Extreme results in electrolyte determination].

    PubMed

    Vogt, W; Oesterle, B

    1992-01-01

    Besides statistical quality control, quality control based on patient specimens is an important tool for quality enhancement and thus for an increased diagnostic certainty in laboratory medicine. One of three possibilities of plausibility judgement is the control of extreme results, that is alert and absurd value check. The aim of our study was to look for extremely high or low findings of the most frequently examined clinical-chemical parameters, to scrutinize their validity according to clearly defined criteria and to find out the underlying actual clinical situations and diseases. In this publication only the results for the electrolytes are discussed. Retrospectively the most extreme values of all results for serum sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations of a 21-month interval were extracted in a large university hospital. The clinical situation was then evaluated by reading the medical reports of these patients. The validity of the findings was judged by previously defined criteria and rated as confirmed, questionable and not confirmed. In all cases the survival time was determined. The most extreme confirmed results were for sodium 191 and 100 mmol/l, for potassium 9.0 and 1.3 mmol/l and for chloride 138 and 65 mmol/l. All these findings were compatible with life, at least for several hours. Even if it is probably impossible to give generally valid extreme ranges. Nevertheless our results should certainly have practical importance in absurd and alert value check. PMID:1502820

  15. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    SciTech Connect

    Harlan U. Anderson; Fatih Dogan; Vladimir Petrovsky

    2003-03-31

    This report represents a summary of the work carried out on this project which started October 1999 and ended March 2003. A list of the publications resulting from the work are contained in Appendix A. The most significant achievements are: (1) Dense nanocrystalline zirconia and ceria films were obtained at temperatures < 400 C. (2) Nanocrystalline films of both ceria and zirconia were characterized. (3) We showed that under anodic conditions 0.5 to 1 micron thick nanocrystalline films of Sc doped zirconia have sufficient electronic conductivity to prevent them from being useful as an electrolyte. (4) We have developed a process by which dense 0.5 to 5 micron thick dense films of either YSZ or ceria can be deposited on sintered porous substrates which serve as either the cathode or anode at temperatures as low as 400 C. (5) The program has provided the research to produce two PhD thesis for students, one is now working in the solid oxide fuel cell field. (6) The results of the research have resulted in 69 papers published, 3 papers submitted or being prepared for publication, 50 oral presentations and 3 patent disclosures.

  16. Electrolytic recovery of reactor metal fuel

    DOEpatents

    Miller, W.E.; Tomczuk, Z.

    1994-09-20

    A new electrolytic process and apparatus are provided using sodium, cerium or a similar metal in alloy or within a sodium beta or beta[double prime]-alumina sodium ion conductor to electrolytically displace each of the spent fuel metals except for cesium and strontium on a selective basis from the electrolyte to an inert metal cathode. Each of the metals can be deposited separately. An electrolytic transfer of spent fuel into the electrolyte includes a sodium or cerium salt in the electrolyte with sodium or cerium alloy being deposited on the cathode during the transfer of the metals from the spent fuel. The cathode with the deposit of sodium or cerium alloy is then shunted to an anode and the reverse transfer is carried out on a selective basis with each metal being deposited separately at the cathode. The result is that the sodium or cerium needed for the process is regenerated in the first step and no additional source of these reactants is required. 2 figs.

  17. Electrolytic recovery of reactor metal fuel

    DOEpatents

    Miller, William E.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1994-01-01

    A new electrolytic process and apparatus are provided using sodium, cerium or a similar metal in alloy or within a sodium beta or beta"-alumina sodium ion conductor to electrolytically displace each of the spent fuel metals except for cesium and strontium on a selective basis from the electrolyte to an inert metal cathode. Each of the metals can be deposited separately. An electrolytic transfer of spent fuel into the electrolyte includes a sodium or cerium salt in the electrolyte with sodium or cerium alloy being deposited on the cathode during the transfer of the metals from the spent fuel. The cathode with the deposit of sodium or cerium alloy is then chanted to an anode and the reverse transfer is carried out on a selective basis with each metal being deposited separately at the cathode. The result is that the sodium or cerium needed for the process is regenerated in the first step and no additional source of these reactants is required.

  18. Nonaqueous electrolyte for electrical storage devices

    DOEpatents

    McEwen, Alan B.; Yair, Ein-Eli

    1999-01-01

    Improved nonaqueous electrolytes for application in electrical storage devices such as electrochemical capacitors or batteries are disclosed. The electrolytes of the invention contain salts consisting of alkyl substituted, cyclic delocalized aromatic cations, and their perfluoro derivatives, and certain polyatomic anions having a van der Waals volume less than or equal to 100 .ANG..sup.3, preferably inorganic perfluoride anions and most preferably PF.sub.6.sup.-, the salts being dissolved in organic liquids, and preferably alkyl carbonate solvents, or liquid sulfur dioxide or combinations thereof, at a concentration of greater than 0.5M and preferably greater than 1.0M. Exemplary electrolytes comprise 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate dissolved in a cyclic or acylic alkyl carbonate, or methyl formate, or a combination therof. These improved electrolytes have useful characteristics such as higher conductivity, higher concentration, higher energy storage capabilities, and higher power characteristics compared to prior art electrolytes. Stacked capacitor cells using electrolytes of the invention permit high energy, high voltage storage.

  19. Electrolytic recovery of reactor metal fuel

    DOEpatents

    Miller, W.E.; Tomczuk, Z.

    1993-02-03

    This invention is comprised of a new electrolytic process and apparatus using sodium, cerium or a similar metal in an alloy or within a sodium beta or beta-alumina sodium ion conductor to electrolytically displace each of the spent fuel metals except for Cesium and strontium on a selective basis from the electrolyte to an inert metal cathode. Each of the metals can be deposited separately. An electrolytic transfer of spent fuel into the electrolyte includes a sodium or cerium salt in the electrolyte with sodium or cerium alloy being deposited on the cathode during the transfer of the metals from the spent fuel. The cathode with the deposit of sodium or cerium alloy is then changed to an anode and the reverse transfer is carried out on a selective basis with each metal being deposited separately at the cathode. The result is that the sodium or cerium needed for the process is regenerated in the first step and no additional source of these reactants is required.

  20. Safer Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kejha, Joe; Smith, Novis; McCloseky, Joel

    2004-01-01

    A number of nonvolatile, low-flammability liquid oligomers and polymers based on aliphatic organic carbonate molecular structures have been found to be suitable to be blended with ethylene carbonate to make electrolytes for lithium-ion electrochemical cells. Heretofore, such electrolytes have often been made by blending ethylene carbonate with volatile, flammable organic carbonates. The present nonvolatile electrolytes have been found to have adequate conductivity (about 2 mS/cm) for lithium ions and to remain liquid at temperatures down to -5 C. At normal charge and discharge rates, lithiumion cells containing these nonvolatile electrolytes but otherwise of standard design have been found to operate at current and energy densities comparable to those of cells now in common use. They do not perform well at high charge and discharge rates -- an effect probably attributable to electrolyte viscosity. Cells containing the nonvolatile electrolytes have also been found to be, variously, nonflammable or at least self-extinguishing. Hence, there appears to be a basis for the development of safer high-performance lithium-ion cells.

  1. Lithium-Air Batteries with Hybrid Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Jie; Zhou, Haoshen

    2016-04-01

    During the past decade, Li-air batteries with hybrid electrolytes have attracted a great deal of attention because of their exceptionally high capacity. Introducing aqueous solutions and ceramic lithium superionic conductors to Li-air batteries can circumvent some of the drawbacks of conventional Li-O2 batteries such as decomposition of organic electrolytes, corrosion of Li metal from humidity, and insoluble discharge product blocking the air electrode. The performance of this smart design battery depends essentially on the property and structure of the cell components (i.e., hybrid electrolyte, Li anode, and air cathode). In recent years, extensive efforts toward aqueous electrolyte-based Li-air batteries have been dedicated to developing the high catalytic activity of the cathode as well as enhancing the conductivity and stability of the hybrid electrolyte. Herein, the progress of all aspects of Li-air batteries with hybrid electrolytes is reviewed. Moreover, some suggestions and concepts for tailored design that are expected to promote research in this field are provided. PMID:26977713

  2. Polymer electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Meyer, W H

    1998-04-01

    The motivation for lithium battery development and a discussion of ion conducting polymers as separators begin this review, which includes a short history of polymer electrolyte research, a summary of the major parameters that determine lithium ion transport in polymer matrices, and consequences for solid polymer electrolyte development. Two major strategies for the application of ion conducting polymers as separators in lithium batteries are identified: One is the development of highly conductive materials via the crosslinking of mobile chains to form networks, which are then swollen by lithium salt solutions ("gel electrolytes"). The other is the construction of solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) with supramolecular architectures, which intrinsically give rise to much enhanced mechanical strength. These materials as yet exhibit relatively common conductivity levels but may be applied as very thin films. Molecular composites based on poly(p-phenylene)- (PPP)-reinforced SPEs are a striking example of this direction. Neither strategy has as yet led to a "breakthrough" with respect to technical application, at least not for electrically powered vehicles. Before being used as separators, the gel electrolytes must be strengthened, while the molecularly reinforced solid polymer electrolytes must demonstrate improved conductivity.

  3. Lithium-Air Batteries with Hybrid Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Jie; Zhou, Haoshen

    2016-04-01

    During the past decade, Li-air batteries with hybrid electrolytes have attracted a great deal of attention because of their exceptionally high capacity. Introducing aqueous solutions and ceramic lithium superionic conductors to Li-air batteries can circumvent some of the drawbacks of conventional Li-O2 batteries such as decomposition of organic electrolytes, corrosion of Li metal from humidity, and insoluble discharge product blocking the air electrode. The performance of this smart design battery depends essentially on the property and structure of the cell components (i.e., hybrid electrolyte, Li anode, and air cathode). In recent years, extensive efforts toward aqueous electrolyte-based Li-air batteries have been dedicated to developing the high catalytic activity of the cathode as well as enhancing the conductivity and stability of the hybrid electrolyte. Herein, the progress of all aspects of Li-air batteries with hybrid electrolytes is reviewed. Moreover, some suggestions and concepts for tailored design that are expected to promote research in this field are provided.

  4. Self-doped microphase separated block copolymer electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Mayes, Anne M.; Sadoway, Donald R.; Banerjee, Pallab; Soo, Philip; Huang, Biying

    2002-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte includes a self-doped microphase separated block copolymer including at least one ionically conductive block and at least one second block that is immiscible in the ionically conductive block, an anion immobilized on the polymer electrolyte and a cationic species. The ionically conductive block provides a continuous ionically conductive pathway through the electrolyte. The electrolyte may be used as an electrolyte in an electrochemical cell.

  5. How To Train Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    Because of the aging of the labor force and legislation designed to keep older workers on the job, employers will have to deal with increasing numbers of older workers. For this transition to be as smooth as possible, employers must first overcome age-related stereotypes that have taken hold since the 1930s. Dealing with older workers involves two…

  6. Office Workers Stress Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Occupational Safety and Health Project, Durham.

    A survey of office workers employed by North Carolina telephone companies was conducted to determine the extent and types of health problems experienced by office workers who use video display terminals (VDTs). Data were gathered by questionnaires mailed to 2,478 office workers, with 966 responses. Questions concerning a wide range of health…

  7. Dual intercalating molten electrolyte batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Carlin, R.T.; De Long, H.C.; Fuller, J.; Trulove, P.C. . Frank J. Seiler Research Lab.)

    1994-07-01

    The reductive and oxidative intercalation of ions into graphite from room-temperature and low temperature molten salts is demonstrated. For this investigation, the molten salts use 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (EMI[sup +]) or 1,2-dimethyl-3-propylimidazolium (DMPI[sup +]) as the cation and AlCl[sup [minus

  8. First-principles material modeling of solid-state electrolytes with the spinel structure.

    PubMed

    Mees, Maarten J; Pourtois, Geoffrey; Rosciano, Fabio; Put, Brecht; Vereecken, Philippe M; Stesmans, André

    2014-03-21

    Ionic diffusion through the novel (AlxMg1-2xLix)Al2O4 spinel electrolyte is investigated using first-principles calculations, combined with the Kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm. We observe that the ionic diffusion increases with the lithium content x. Furthermore, the structural parameters, formation enthalpies and electronic structures of (AlxMg1-2xLix)Al2O4 are calculated for various stoichiometries. The overall results indicate the (AlxMg1-2xLix)Al2O4 stoichiometries x = 0.2…0.3 as most promising. The (AlxMg1-2xLix)Al2O4 electrolyte is a potential candidate for the all-spinel solid-state battery stack, with the material epitaxially grown between well-known spinel electrodes, such as LiyMn2O4 and Li4+3yTi5O12 (y = 0…1). Due to their identical crystal structure, a good electrolyte-electrode interface is expected.

  9. A shuttle mechanism for molten-electrolyte lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kaun, T.D.; Nelson, P.A.

    1993-11-01

    The lithium-transport rates arising from a lithium shuttle mechanism (LSM) were examined by potentiometric control of a lithium-alloy electrode in a temperature range of 400 to 515{degrees}C in three electrolytes: LiCl-KCl, LiCl-LiBr-KBr, and LiF-LiCl-LiBr. Lithium transport in Li/FeS{sub x} cells by LSM was found to occur by diffusion of reduced lithium species across the separator layer, which was controlled by the Li-activity of the Li-alloy electrode. Solubility of lithium was strongly affected by electrolyte composition, especially K{sup +} content, which in turn regulated the lithium transport rate. As evidenced by LSM rates, the solubilized lithium would appear to form dimers (e.g. Li{sub 2}{sup +} or LiK{sup +}). The half-cell self-discharge rates, which were measured, correlate well with self-discharge rates in developmental cells ranging from 0.1 to 10 mA/cm{sup 2}. Innovative application of the LSM has led to the development of overcharge tolerant Li/FeS{sub x} cells. A bimodal self-discharge characteristic (a 20-fold increase toward the end of charge) results from a 150-250 mV step increase in lithium activity of a two-phase Li-alloy electrode (Li-Al plus Li-Al{sub 5}Fe{sub 2}). Three versions of the battery cell (100 cm{sup 2} separator area) have been demonstrated: LiAl+Li{sub 5}Al{sub 5}Fe{sub 2}(10% of capacity)/LiCl-LiBr-KBr(MgO)/FeS{sub 2}, as well as a FeS-type, (both operated at 400{degrees}C) and LiAl+Li{sub 5}Al{sub 5}Fe{sub 2}(10% of capacity)/LiF-LiCl-LiBr(MgO)/FeS (operated at 475{degrees}C). These cells exhibit a unique combination of overcharge capacity and extended trickle-charge tolerance at 2-5 mA/cm{sup 2}. Additionally, Li/FeS{sub 2} cells having overcharge tolerance have operated with stable performance for greater than 500 cycles. The overcharge tolerance rates are sufficient for battery cells to exhibit built-in charge/equalization capability by way of full-battery trickle charging.

  10. Theoretical analysis of solid oxide fuel cells with two-layer, composite electrolytes - Electrolyte stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virkar, Anil V.

    1991-05-01

    Theoretical analysis of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) using two-layer, composite electrolytes consisting of a solid electrolyte of a significantly higher conductivity compared to zirconia (such as ceria or bismuth oxide) with a thin layer of zirconia or thoria on the fuel side is presented. Electrochemical transport in the two-layer composite electrolytes is examined by taking both ionic and electronic fluxes into account. Similar to most electrochemical transport phenomena, it is assumed that local equilibrium prevails. An equivalent circuit approach is used to estimate the partial pressure of oxygen at the interface. It is shown that thermodynamic stability of the electrolyte (ceria or bismuth oxide) depends upon the transport characteristics of the composite electrolyte, in particular the electronic conductivity of the air-side part of the electrolyte. The analysis shows that it would be advantageous to use composite electrolytes instead of all-zirconia electrolytes, thus making low-temperature (about 600-800 C) SOFCs feasible. Implications of the analysis from the standpoint of the desired characteristics of SOFC components are discussed.

  11. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Worker Respiratory Health.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Diane; Arteaga, Veronica; Armitage, Tracey; Mitloehner, Frank; Tancredi, Daniel; Kenyon, Nicholas; Schenker, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare respiratory health of poultry workers in conventional cage, enriched cage and aviary layer housing on a single commercial facility, motivated by changing requirements for humane housing of hens. Three workers were randomly assigned daily, one to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary housing in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods (for a total of 123 worker-days, eight different workers). Workers' exposure to particles were assessed (Arteaga et al. J Agromedicine. 2015;20:this issue) and spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, respiratory symptoms, and questionnaires were conducted pre- and post-shift. Personal exposures to particles and endotoxin were significantly higher in the aviary than the other housings (Arteaga et al., 2015). The use of respiratory protection was high; the median usage was 70% of the shift. Mixed-effects multivariate regression models of respiratory cross-shift changes were marginally significant, but the aviary system consistently posted the highest decrements for forced expiratory volume in 1 and 6 seconds (FEV1 and FEV6) compared with the enriched or conventional housing. The adjusted mean difference in FEV1 aviary - enriched cage housing was -47 mL/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): (-99 to 4.9), P = .07. Similarly, for FEV6, aviary - conventional housing adjusted mean difference was -52.9 mL/6 s, 95% CI: (-108 to 2.4), P = .06. Workers adopting greater than median use of respiratory protection were less likely to exhibit negative cross-shift pulmonary function changes. Although aviary housing exposed workers to significantly higher respiratory exposures, cross-shift pulmonary function changes did not differ significantly between houses. Higher levels of mask use were protective; poultry workers should wear respiratory protection as appropriate to avoid health decrements. PMID:26237715

  12. Cage Versus Noncage Laying-Hen Housings: Worker Respiratory Health.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Diane; Arteaga, Veronica; Armitage, Tracey; Mitloehner, Frank; Tancredi, Daniel; Kenyon, Nicholas; Schenker, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare respiratory health of poultry workers in conventional cage, enriched cage and aviary layer housing on a single commercial facility, motivated by changing requirements for humane housing of hens. Three workers were randomly assigned daily, one to each of conventional cage, enriched cage, and aviary housing in a crossover repeated-measures design for three observation periods (for a total of 123 worker-days, eight different workers). Workers' exposure to particles were assessed (Arteaga et al. J Agromedicine. 2015;20:this issue) and spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, respiratory symptoms, and questionnaires were conducted pre- and post-shift. Personal exposures to particles and endotoxin were significantly higher in the aviary than the other housings (Arteaga et al., 2015). The use of respiratory protection was high; the median usage was 70% of the shift. Mixed-effects multivariate regression models of respiratory cross-shift changes were marginally significant, but the aviary system consistently posted the highest decrements for forced expiratory volume in 1 and 6 seconds (FEV1 and FEV6) compared with the enriched or conventional housing. The adjusted mean difference in FEV1 aviary - enriched cage housing was -47 mL/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): (-99 to 4.9), P = .07. Similarly, for FEV6, aviary - conventional housing adjusted mean difference was -52.9 mL/6 s, 95% CI: (-108 to 2.4), P = .06. Workers adopting greater than median use of respiratory protection were less likely to exhibit negative cross-shift pulmonary function changes. Although aviary housing exposed workers to significantly higher respiratory exposures, cross-shift pulmonary function changes did not differ significantly between houses. Higher levels of mask use were protective; poultry workers should wear respiratory protection as appropriate to avoid health decrements.

  13. [Old age workers].

    PubMed

    Izmerov, N F

    2012-01-01

    The author demonstrates that in conditions of demographic aging an important contribution in solving the task set in "Strategy 2020" on more efficient usage of working resources could be involvement of occupational potential of old age workers, e.g. through changeable working schedules, outwork and distance work. With that, employment level at old age should consider performance level, health state and psycho-physiologic potential of the certain age group.

  14. Influence of aluminum salt addition on in situ sintering of electrolyte matrices for molten carbonate fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Insung; Kim, Wonsun; Moon, Youngjoon; Lim, Heechun; Lee, Dokyol

    Three aluminum salts are investigated as a sintering aid for the in situ sintering of electrolyte matrices for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs). Only aluminum acetylacetonate shows a potential. At or above 420°C, aluminum acetylacetonate changes to Al 2O 3 and reacts with Li 2CO 3 in the electrolyte to produce γ-LiAlO 2. This reaction product forms necks between matrix particles. Necks grow with increasing sintering time and correspondingly, the mechanical strength of the electrolyte matrix shows an abrupt increase, starting at a sintering time of about 100 h until it levels off at about 250 h. The porosity of the matrices fabricated with aluminum acetylacetonate is in the range acceptable for use in MCFCs.

  15. Understanding Burnout in Child and Youth Care Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barford, Sean W.; Whelton, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Burnout is a major concern in human service occupations as it has been linked to turnover, absenteeism, a reduction in the quality of services, numerous physical and psychological disorders, and a disruption in interpersonal relations (Maslach et al. "2001"). Child and youth care workers are especially susceptible to burnout as the inherent…

  16. 13. THESE STOCKHAM WORKERS FROM THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY TYPIFIED THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. THESE STOCKHAM WORKERS FROM THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY TYPIFIED THE RACIAL SEPARATIONS WITHIN THE COMPANY WHERE AFRICAN-AMERICANS FILLED THE VAST MAJORITY OF LABOR-INTENSIVE POSITIONS WITHOUT BEING REPRESENTED IN WHITE COLLAR JOBS CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  17. 17. CUPOLA TENDERS FILLED THE LARGE LADLES WORKERS USED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. CUPOLA TENDERS FILLED THE LARGE LADLES WORKERS USED TO POUR MOLDS ON THE CONVEYORS FROM BULL LADLES THAT WERE USED TO STORE BATCH QUANTITIES OF IRON TAPPED FROM THE CUPOLA, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  18. A Facile Approach Using MgCl2 to Formulate High Performance Mg2+ Electrolytes for Rechargeable Mg Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tianbiao L.; Shao, Yuyan; Li, Guosheng; Gu, Meng; Hu, Jian Z.; Xu, Suochang; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Xilin; Wang, Chong M.; Liu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Rechargeable Mg batteries have been regarded as a viable battery technology for grid scale energy storage and transportation applications. However, the limited performance of Mg2+ electrolytes has been a primary technical hurdle to develop high energy density rechargeable Mg batteries. In this study, MgCl2 is demonstrated as a non-nucleophilic and cheap Mg2+ source in combining with Al Lewis acids (AlCl3, AlPh3 and AlEtCl2) to formulate a series of Mg2+ electrolytes characteristic of high oxidation stability (up to 3.4 V vs Mg), sulfur compatibility and electrochemical reversibility (up to 100% coulombic efficiency). Three electrolyte systems (MgCl2-AlCl3, MgCl2-AlPh3, and MgCl2-AlEtCl2) were prepared free of purification and fully characterized by multinuclear NMR (27Al{1H} and 25Mg{1H}) spectroscopies, single crystal X-ray diffraction, and electrochemical analysis. The reaction mechanism of MgCl2 and the Al Lewis acids in THF is discussed to highlight the formation of the electrochemically active [(µ-Cl)3Mg2(THF)6]+ monocation in these electrolytes. We are grateful for the financial support from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)-Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program for developing magnesium battery technology. The XRD and SEM data were collected at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at PNNL. PNNL is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Battelle Memorial Institute for the Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830.

  19. Novel Nonflammable Electrolytes for Secondary Magnesium Batteries and High Voltage Electrolytes for Electrochemcial Supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Brian

    2008-12-30

    Magnesium has been used successfully in primary batteries, but its use in rechargeable cells has been stymied by the lack of suitable non-aqueous electrolyte that can conduct Mg+2 species, combined with poor stripping and plating properties. The development of a suitable cathode material for rechargeable magnesium batteries has also been a roadblock, but a nonflammable electrolyte is key. Likewise, the development of safe high voltage electrochemical supercapaitors has been stymied by the use of flammable solvents in the liquid electrolyte; to wit, acetonitrile. The purpose of the research conducted in this effort was to identify useful compositions of magnesium salts and polyphosphate solvents that would enable magnesium ions to be cycled within a secondary battery design. The polyphosphate solvents would provide the solvent for the magnesium salts while preventing the electrolyte from being flammable. This would enable these novel electrolytes to be considered as an alternative to THF-based electrolytes. In addition, we explored several of these solvents together with lithium slats for use as high voltage electrolytes for carbon-based electrochemical supercapacitors. The research was successful in that: 1) Magnesium imide dissolved in a phosphate ester solvent that contains a halogented phosphate ester appears to be the preferred electrolyte for a rechargeable Mg cell. 2) A combination of B-doped CNTs and vanadium phosphate appear to be the cathode of choice for a rechargeable Mg cell by virtue of higher voltage and better reversibility. 3) Magnesium alloys appear to perform better than pure magnesium when used in combination with the novel polyphosphate electrolytes. Also, this effort has established that Phoenix Innovation's family of phosphonate/phosphate electrolytes together with specific lithium slats can be used in supercapacitor systems at voltages of greater than 10V.

  20. Effect of background electrolytes on gypsum dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos-Cara, Alejandro; Putnis, Christine; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of the dissolution behaviour of gypsum (CaSO4· 2H2O) in aqueous solutions is of primary importance in many natural and technological processes (Pachon-Rodriguez and Colombani, 2007), including the weathering of rocks and gypsum karst formations, deformation of gypsum-bearing rocks, the quality of drinking water, amelioration of soil acidity, scale formation in the oil and gas industry or measurement of water motion in oceanography. Specific ions in aqueous solutions can play important but very different roles on mineral dissolution. For example, the dissolution rates and the morphology of dissolution features may be considerably modified by the presence of the foreign ions in the solution, which adsorb at the surface and hinder the detachment of the ions building the crystal. Dissolution processes in the aqueous environment are closely related to the rearrangement of water molecules around solute ions and the interaction between the solvent molecules themselves. The rearrangement of water molecules with respect to solute species has been recognized as the main kinetic barrier for crystal dissolution in many systems (Davis, 2000; De Yoreo and Dove 2004; Wasylenki et al. 2005). Current research suggest that the control that electrolytes exert on water structure is limited to the local environment surrounding the ions and is not related to long-range electric fields emanating from the ions but results from effects associated with the hydration shell(s) of the ions (Collins et al. 2007) and the ions' capacity to break or structure water (i.e. chaotropic and kosmotropic ions, respectively). These effects will ultimately affect the kinetics of crystal dissolution, and could be correlated with the water affinity of the respective background ions following a trend known as the lyotropic or Hofmeister series (Kunz et al. 2004; Dove and Craven, 2005). In situ macroscopic and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) flow-through dissolution experiments were conducted at a

  1. Examining of the segmented electrode use from the viewpoint of the electrolyte volatilizing in molten carbonate fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Kimihiko; Yamauchi, Makoto; Soga, Masatsugu; Tanimoto, Kazumi

    Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) have entered the pre-commercialization phase, and have been experimentally demonstrated in real world applications, including beer brewery, etc. However, though MCFCs have a high potential and an enough operating experience as an energy supply system, they are not explosively widespread. One of these reasons is cost of cell components. Because the thickness of both electrodes is 0.8 mm and both electrodes are made of porous plates of 1 m 2 of the electrode area, they are often broken by a thermal stress in the sintering process of an electrode and by a worker's carelessness at the cell assembly process. Generally, because these cracking electrodes can potentially cause electrolyte leakage and gas crossover, they are not used to a MCFC stack and are disposed of. Therefore, it made the cost of MCFC be raised. The performance of a cell that uses a mosaic electrode has been evaluated. However, the causal relation between the cracking of an electrode and an electrolyte-leakage has not been yet confirmed. If this causal relationship is elucidated, a cracking electrode or a mosaic electrode can be used to MCFC, such that the cost of MCFC systems would consequently decrease. Therefore, we studied the causal relation between the cracking of an electrode and electrolyte leakage and gas crossover using a visualization technique. In the case of an anode electrode where the centre section of a cell has crack of about 1 mm, the electrolyte leakage from this crack could not be observed by the visualization technique. Moreover, the gas crossover could not be also observed by the visualization technique, and nitrogen in the anode exhaust gas was not detected by a gas chromatography. However, the electrolyte leakage observed from the wet-seal section though the gap between the separator and the electrode was always 1 mm or less. Therefore, electrolyte leakage hardly occurs, even if a cracked anode electrode is installed into the centre section of

  2. Acute Symptomatic Seizures Caused by Electrolyte Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Nardone, Raffaele; Brigo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In this narrative review we focus on acute symptomatic seizures occurring in subjects with electrolyte disturbances. Quite surprisingly, despite its clinical relevance, this issue has received very little attention in the scientific literature. Electrolyte abnormalities are commonly encountered in clinical daily practice, and their diagnosis relies on routine laboratory findings. Acute and severe electrolyte imbalances can manifest with seizures, which may be the sole presenting symptom. Seizures are more frequently observed in patients with sodium disorders (especially hyponatremia), hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia. They do not entail a diagnosis of epilepsy, but are classified as acute symptomatic seizures. EEG has little specificity in differentiating between various electrolyte disturbances. The prominent EEG feature is slowing of the normal background activity, although other EEG findings, including various epileptiform abnormalities may occur. An accurate and prompt diagnosis should be established for a successful management of seizures, as rapid identification and correction of the underlying electrolyte disturbance (rather than an antiepileptic treatment) are of crucial importance in the control of seizures and prevention of permanent brain damage. PMID:26754778

  3. The buffer effect in neutral electrolyte supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vindt, Steffen T.; Skou, Eivind M.

    2016-02-01

    The observation that double-layer capacitors based on neutral aqueous electrolytes can have significantly wider usable potential windows than those based on acidic or alkaline electrolytes is studied. This effect is explained by a local pH change taking place at the electrode surfaces, leading to a change in the redox potential of water in opposite directions on the two electrodes, resulting in the wider stability window. The magnitude of this effect is suggested to be dependent on the buffer capacity, rather than the intrinsic pH value of the electrolyte. This is confirmed by studying the impact of addition of a buffer to such systems. It is shown that a 56 % higher dynamic storage capacity may be achieved, simply by controlling the buffer capacity of the electrolyte. The model system used, is based on a well-known commercial activated carbon (NORIT™ A SUPRA) as the electrode material, aqueous potassium nitrate as the electrolyte and potassium phosphates as the buffer system.

  4. Acute Symptomatic Seizures Caused by Electrolyte Disturbances.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    In this narrative review we focus on acute symptomatic seizures occurring in subjects with electrolyte disturbances. Quite surprisingly, despite its clinical relevance, this issue has received very little attention in the scientific literature. Electrolyte abnormalities are commonly encountered in clinical daily practice, and their diagnosis relies on routine laboratory findings. Acute and severe electrolyte imbalances can manifest with seizures, which may be the sole presenting symptom. Seizures are more frequently observed in patients with sodium disorders (especially hyponatremia), hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia. They do not entail a diagnosis of epilepsy, but are classified as acute symptomatic seizures. EEG has little specificity in differentiating between various electrolyte disturbances. The prominent EEG feature is slowing of the normal background activity, although other EEG findings, including various epileptiform abnormalities may occur. An accurate and prompt diagnosis should be established for a successful management of seizures, as rapid identification and correction of the underlying electrolyte disturbance (rather than an antiepileptic treatment) are of crucial importance in the control of seizures and prevention of permanent brain damage. PMID:26754778

  5. Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum Employing Planar Anodes.

    DOEpatents

    Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.; Bradford, Donald R

    2004-10-05

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising providing a molten salt electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell. A plurality of anodes and cathodes having planar surfaces are disposed in a generally vertical orientation in the electrolyte, the anodes and cathodes arranged in alternating or interleaving relationship to provide anode planar surfaces disposed opposite cathode planar surfaces, the anode comprised of carbon. Electric current is passed through anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes depositing aluminum at the cathodes and forming carbon containing gas at the anodes.

  6. Theoretical and experimental study of mixed solvent electrolytes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    P.T. Cummings; J.P. O'Connell

    1995-01-31

    The goals of the research program evolved into six areas: Molecular simulation of phase equilibria in aqueous and mixed solvent electrolyte solutions. Molecular simulation of solvation and structure in supercritical aqueous systems. Extension of experimental database on mixed solvent electrolytes. Analysis of the thermodynamic properties of mixed solvent electrolyte solutions and mixed electrolyte solutions using fluctuation solution theory. Development of analytic expressions for thermodynamic properties of mixed solvent electrolyte solutions using analytically solved integral equation approximations. Fundamental modeling of mixed solvent electrolytes using numerically solved integral equation approximation theories.

  7. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1989-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  8. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  9. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1991-06-18

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figures.

  10. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1989-11-07

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figs.

  11. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1991-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  12. Highly Active Electrolytes for Rechargeable Mg Batteries Based on [Mg2(μ-Cl)2]2+ Cation Complex in Dimethoxyethane

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Yingwen; Stolley, Ryan M.; Han, Kee Sung; Shao, Yuyan; Arey, Bruce W.; Washton, Nancy M.; Mueller, Karl T.; Helm, Monte L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun; Li, Guosheng

    2015-01-01

    Highly active electrolytes based on a novel [Mg2(μ-Cl)2]2+ cation complex for reversible Mg deposition were developed and analyzed in this work. These electrolytes were formulated in dimethoxyethane through dehalodimerization of non-nucleophilic MgCl2 by reacting with either Mg salts (such as Mg(TFSI)2, TFSI= bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonylimide) or Lewis acid salts (such as AlEtCl2 or AlCl3). The cation complex was identified for the first time as [Mg2(μ-Cl)2(DME)4]2+ (DME=dimethoxyethane) and its molecular structure was characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and NMR. The electrolyte synthesis process was studied and rational approaches for formulating highly active electrolytes were proposed. Through control of the anions, electrolytes with efficiency close to 100%, wide electrochemical window (up to 3.5V) and high ionic conductivity (> 6 mS/cm) were obtained. The electrolyte synthesis and understandings developed in this work could bring significant opportunities for rational formulation of electrolytes with the general formula [Mg2(μ-Cl)2(DME)4][anion]x for practical Mg batteries.

  13. No facultative worker policing in the honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loope, Kevin J.; Seeley, Thomas D.; Mattila, Heather R.

    2013-05-01

    Kin selection theory predicts that in colonies of social Hymenoptera with multiply mated queens, workers should mutually inhibit ("police") worker reproduction, but that in colonies with singly mated queens, workers should favor rearing workers' sons instead of queens' sons. In line with these predictions, Mattila et al. (Curr Biol 22:2027-2031, 2012) documented increased ovary development among workers in colonies of honey bees with singly mated queens, suggesting that workers can detect and respond adaptively to queen mating frequency and raising the possibility that they facultative police. In a follow-up experiment, we test and reject the hypothesis that workers in single-patriline colonies prefer worker-derived males and are able to reproduce directly; we show that their eggs are policed as strongly as those of workers in colonies with multiply mated queens. Evidently, workers do not respond facultatively to a kin structure that favors relaxed policing and increased direct reproduction. These workers may instead be responding to a poor queen or preparing for possible queen loss.

  14. Current-induced composition gradients in molten LiCl-KCl battery electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Braustein, J.; Cantor, S.; Vallet, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Current induced composition gradients were demonstrated in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic mixture, the electrolyte of a LiAl/LiCl-KCl/FeS/sub x/ battery. Analysis of composition profiles in quenched samples was by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA), which gave good precision, and by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy in a scanning electron microscope (SEM/EDX), which gave good distance resolution. 5 refs.

  15. Plasma electrolytic oxidation coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy modified by neodymium and its corrosion resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y. L.; Liu, Y. H.; Yu, S. R.; Zhu, X. Y.; Wang, Q.

    2008-03-01

    Ceramic coatings on the surfaces of Mg-9Al-1Zn (AZ91) magnesium alloy and Mg-9Al-1Zn-1Nd magnesium alloy (AZ91 magnesium alloy modified by neodymium, named as AZ91Nd in this paper) are synthesized in aluminate electrolyte by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process, respectively. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses show the PEO coating on the Mg-9Al-1Zn-1Nd alloy comprises not only MgO and Al 2O 3, which are found in the coating on the AZ91 alloy, but also a trace amount of Nd 2O 3. Microstructure observations indicate the addition of Nd can decrease the sizes of β phases and form Al 2Nd intermetallics in the AZ91 alloy. The fine β phases can effectively restrain the formation of unclosed-holes and greatly decrease the sizes of pores in the coating during the PEO process. In addition, the Al 2Nd intermetallics can be completely covered due to the lateral growth of the PEO coatings formed on the α and β phases. As a result, the coating on the AZ91Nd alloy possesses a dense microstructure compared with that on the AZ91 alloy. The following corrosion tests indicate the corrosion resistance of the PEO coating on the AZ91Nd alloy is evidently higher than that of the PEO coating on the AZ91 alloy.

  16. Composite Solid Electrolyte Containing Li+- Conducting Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, A. John; Wang, Chunsheng; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2006-01-01

    Improved composite solid polymer electrolytes (CSPEs) are being developed for use in lithium-ion power cells. The matrix components of these composites, like those of some prior CSPEs, are high-molecular-weight dielectric polymers [generally based on polyethylene oxide (PEO)]. The filler components of these composites are continuous, highly-Li(+)-conductive, inorganic fibers. PEO-based polymers alone would be suitable for use as solid electrolytes, were it not for the fact that their room-temperature Li(+)-ion conductivities lie in the range between 10(exp -6) and 10(exp -8) S/cm, too low for practical applications. In a prior approach to formulating a CSPE, one utilizes nonconductive nanoscale inorganic filler particles to increase the interfacial stability of the conductive phase. The filler particles also trap some electrolyte impurities. The achievable increase in conductivity is limited by the nonconductive nature of the filler particles.

  17. Alkylated imidazolium salt electrolyte for lithium cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Katsuya; Nemoto, Yasue; Akuto, Keiji; Sakurai, Yoji

    The use of a nonflammable electrolyte in a lithium secondary battery will greatly improve battery safety. Therefore, we focused on the nonflammability of ionic liquids and investigated these liquids as possible electrolyte solvents. In this study, we synthesized 1,2-diethyl-3,4(5)-dimethyl imidazolium (DEDMI) cations with imido anions. DEDMI cations with bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imido anions (DEDMI-TFSI) showed a lower solidification point of -35 °C, and higher specific conductivity than DEDMI cations with BF4 -. We prepared an electrolyte consisting of DEDMI-TFSI with LiTFSI, and applied it to a Li/LiCoO 2 cell. The cell was capable of charge-discharge cycling with LiCoO 2 cathode material showing a specific capacity of about 100 mAh g-1.

  18. High-Energy-Density Electrolytic Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Lewis, Carol R.

    1993-01-01

    Reductions in weight and volume make new application possible. Supercapacitors and improved ultracapacitors advanced electrolytic capacitors developed for use as electric-load-leveling devices in such applications as electric vehicle propulsion systems, portable power tools, and low-voltage pulsed power supplies. One primary advantage: offer power densities much higher than storage batteries. Capacitors used in pulse mode, with short charge and discharge times. Derived from commercially available ultracapacitors. Made of lightweight materials; incorporate electrode/electrolyte material systems capable of operation at voltages higher than previous electrode/electrolyte systems. By use of innovative designs and manufacturing processes, made in wide range of rated capacitances and in rated operating potentials ranging from few to several hundred volts.

  19. Method of fabrication of electrodes and electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2004-01-06

    Fuel cell stacks contain an electrolyte layer surrounded on top and bottom by an electrode layer. Porous electrodes are prepared which enable fuel and oxidant to easily flow to the respective electrode-electrolyte interface without the need for high temperatures or pressures to assist the flow. Rigid, inert microspheres in combination with thin-film metal deposition techniques are used to fabricate porous anodes, cathodes, and electrolytes. Microshperes contained in a liquid are randomly dispersed onto a host structure and dried such that the microsperes remain in position. A thin-film deposition technique is subsequently employed to deposit a metal layer onto the microsperes. After such metal layer deposition, the microspheres are removed leaving voids, i.e. pores, in the metal layer, thus forming a porous electrode. Successive repetitions of the fabrication process result in the formation of a continuous fuel cell stack. Such stacks may produce power outputs ranging from about 0.1 Watt to about 50 Watts.

  20. Secondary calcium solid electrolyte high temperature battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammells, A. F.; Schumacher, B.

    1986-01-01

    The application of polycrystalline Ca(2+) conducting beta-double prime alumina solid electrolytes to a new type of high temperature battery is investigated, experimentally. The negative electrode in the battery consisted of a calcium-silicon alloy whose redox electrochemistry was mediated by the solid electrolyte via molten salt eutectic CaCl2 (51.4 m/o), and CaI2 (mp 550 C). The molten salt and the calcium alloy material were separated from the positive active material via the Ca2 Ca(2+) conducting polycrystalline electrolyte. The positive electrode consisted of a solid-state matrix having related crystallographic structure. The electrochemical reversibility of the cells was measured at 580 C. The charge-discharge characteristics of the cells are plotted vs. time in a graph.

  1. Polyethylene imine-metal salt solid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, G. T.; Chiang, C. K.; Takahashi, T.

    1985-02-01

    This research pertains to the development of new solid battery electrolytes. An object of this invention is to provide polymeric electrolytes using a wider variety of metal salts. These and other objects of this invention are accomplished by providing: (1) a solid polymer electrolyte comprising: a matrix of linear poly(ethylene amine) having the formula (-CH2CH2NH-)n; and (2) a metal salt which is LiI, LiClO4, NaI, NaBr, KI, CsSCN, AgNO3, CuCl1, CoCl2, or Mg(ClO4)2, wherein the salt is dissolved in and distributed throughout the poly(ethylene amine) matrix and from more than zero to 0.10 moles of salt are used per mole of monomer repeat unit, (-CH2CH2NH-).

  2. Electrodeposition of aluminium and aluminium-copper alloys from a room temperature ionic liquid electrolyte containing aluminium chloride and triethylamine hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suneesh, P. V.; Satheesh Babu, T. G.; Ramachandran, T.

    2013-09-01

    The electrodeposition of Al and Al-Cu binary alloys on to gold substrates from a room temperature ionic liquid electrolyte containing AlCl3-Et3NHCl was studied. The electrochemical behavior of the electrolyte and the mechanism of deposition were investigated through cyclic voltammetry (CV), and the properties of deposits obtained were assessed by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Al of 70 μm in thickness and an Al-Cu alloy of 30 μm in thickness with 8at% copper were deposited from the electrolyte. SEM images of the deposits indicate that the Al deposit was smooth and uniform, whereas the Al-Cu deposit was nodular. The average crystalline size, as determined by XRD patterns, was found to be (30 ± 5) and (29 ± 5) nm, respectively, for Al and Al-Cu alloys. Potentiodynamic polarization (Tafel plots) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) measurements showed that Al-Cu alloys are more corrosion resistant than Al.

  3. Glass transition and relaxation processes of nanocomposite polymer electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Money, Benson K; Hariharan, K; Swenson, Jan

    2012-07-01

    This study focus on the effect of δ-Al(2)O(3) nanofillers on the dc-conductivity, glass transition, and dielectric relaxations in the polymer electrolyte (PEO)(4):LiClO(4). The results show that there are three dielectric relaxation processes, α, β, and γ, in the systems, although the structural α-relaxation is hidden in the strong conductivity contribution and could therefore not be directly observed. However, by comparing an enhanced dc-conductivity, by approximately 2 orders of magnitude with 4 wt % δ-Al(2)O(3) added, with a decrease in calorimetric glass transition temperature, we are able to conclude that the dc-conductivity is directly coupled to the hidden α-relaxation, even in the presence of nanofillers (at least in the case of δ-Al(2)O(3) nanofillers at concentrations up to 4 wt %). This filler induced speeding up of the segmental polymer dynamics, i.e., the α-relaxation, can be explained by the nonattractive nature of the polymer-filler interactions, which enhance the "free volume" and mobility of polymer segments in the vicinity of filler surfaces. PMID:22686254

  4. High Aspect Ratio Nanofillers for Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapatibhotla, Lalitha; Maranas, Janna

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we explore high aspect ratio nanofillers as additives that enhance solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) conductivity at battery working temperatures.SPEs are the key to light-weight and energy-dense lithium ion batteries but suffer from low room temperature ion conductivities.Spherical ceramic fillers are known to improve SPE conductivity and mechanical properties.Our experiments on spherical Al2O3 particle filled SPEs indicate highest conductivity enhancement at eutectic composition and temperature.A new mechanism, via stabilization of alternating layers of PEO and highly conducting PEO6:LiClO4 tunnels at the filler surface, was suggested by us.More such structures would be stabilized at a filler surface with high aspect ratio.Consistent with this hypothesis, γ-Al2O3 nanowhiskers intensify the effect of γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles.Increase in conductivity at eutectic composition, and decrease at non-eutectic compositions is more than the nanoparticles.Diameters of the two fillers are similar, but the change in aspect ratio (1to100) improves conductivity by a factor of 5. The influence of morphology and PEO dynamics on conductivity enhancement will be presented.All measurements are performed at a series of Li compositions, temperatures and nanowhisker loadings. The authors acknowledge funding from NSF DMR Polymers 0907128

  5. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy and investigation on microstructure and wear behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidi, Mehdi; Fadaee, Hossein

    2013-12-01

    In this study, plasma electrolytic oxidation has been used to improve wear resistance of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy. An electrolyte containing available and inexpensive constituents was used. A conventional DC source with low applied voltage was employed. It was found that with increase in oxidation treatment time the micro-hardness of the coating were decreased while the friction coefficient increased. It was seen that deposition at optimum treatment time of 10 min resulted in the highest micro-hardness and lowest friction coefficient and weight loss. The surface and cross-sectional morphology indicated that the coatings have a dense structure with low porosity and without any cracking. Also, the presence of wear scars on the worn surface morphology demonstrates that the three-body rolling was the main wear mechanism for coated specimen. The phase analysis of the coating indicated that the coating was formed mainly from α-Al2O3, ɤ-Al2O3, Al3.21Si0.47 and small amounts of amorphous phases. The presence of glycerin in the electrolyte composition resulted in not only stabilizing the solution but also achieving of a dense and uniform coating without any cracking.

  6. Radiological worker training

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance.

  7. Theory of electrohydrodynamic instabilities in electrolytic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruinsma, R.; Alexander, S.

    1990-01-01

    The paper develops the theory of the hydrodynamic stability of an electrolytic cell as a function of the imposed electric current. A new electrohydrodynamic instability is encountered when the current is forced to exceed the Nernst limit. The convection is driven by the volume force exerted by the electric field on space charges in the electrolyte. This intrinsic instability is found to be easily masked by extrinsic convection sources such as gravity or stirring. A linear stability analysis is performed and a dimensionless number Le is derived whose value determines the convection pattern.

  8. Solid electrolytes strengthened by metal dispersions

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Morgan, Chester S.

    1983-01-01

    An improvement in solid electrolytes of advanced secondary batteries of the sodium-sulfur, sodium-halogen, and like combinations is achieved by providing said battery with a cermet electrolyte containing a metal dispersion ranging from 0.1 to 10.0 vol. % of a substantially nonreactive metal selected from the group consisting essentially of Pt, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Nb, their alloys, and their physical mixtures in the elemental or uncombined state, the remainder of said cermet being an ion-conductive ceramic material.

  9. Solid electrolytes strengthened by metal dispersions

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; Morgan, C.S.

    1981-10-05

    An improvement in solid electrolytes of advanced secondary batteries of the sodium-sulfur, sodium-halogen, and like combinations is achieved by providing said battery with a cermet electrolyte containing a metal dispersion ranging from 0.1 to 10.0 vol. % of a substantially nonreactive metal selected from the group consisting essentially of Pt, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Nb, their alloys, and their physical mixtures in the elemental or uncombined state, the remainder of said cermet being an ion-conductive ceramic material.

  10. Small domain-size multiblock copolymer electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Pistorino, Jonathan; Eitouni, Hany Basam

    2016-09-20

    New block polymer electrolytes have been developed which have higher conductivities than previously reported for other block copolymer electrolytes. The new materials are constructed of multiple blocks (>5) of relatively low domain size. The small domain size provides greater protection against formation of dendrites during cycling against lithium in an electrochemical cell, while the large total molecular weight insures poor long range alignment, which leads to higher conductivity. In addition to higher conductivity, these materials can be more easily synthesized because of reduced requirements on the purity level of the reagents.

  11. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kumar, Binod; Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G.

    2001-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte containing poly(ethylene oxide), lithium tetrafluoroborate and titanium dioxide is provided in the form of an annealed film having a room temperature conductivity of from 10.sup.-5 S cm.sup.-1 to 10.sup.-3 S cm.sup.-1 and an activation energy of about 0.5 eV.

  12. Structural and electrical properties of NASICON type solid electrolyte nanoscaled glass-ceramic powder by mechanical milling for thin film batteries.

    PubMed

    Patil, Vaishali; Patil, Arun; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Choi, Ji-Won

    2013-05-01

    During last two decades, lithium-based glasses have been studied extensively as electrolytes for solid-state secondary batteries. For practical use, solid electrolyte must have high ionic conductivity as well as chemical, thermal and electrochemical stability. Recent progresses have focused on glass electrolytes due to advantages over crystalline solid. Glass electrolytes are generally classified into two types oxide glass and sulfide glass. Oxide glasses do not react with electrode materials and this chemical inertness is advantageous for cycle performances of battery. In this study, major effort has been focused on the improvement of the ion conductivity of nanosized LiAlTi(PO4)3 oxide electrolyte prepared by mechanical milling (MM) method. After heating at 1000 degrees C the material shows good crystallinity and ionic conductivity with low electronic conductivity. In LiTi2(PO4)3, Ti4+ ions are partially substituted by Al3+ ions by heat-treatment of Li20-Al2O3-TiO2-P2O5 glasses at 1000 degrees C for 10 h. The conductivity of this material is 1.09 x 10(-3) S/cm at room temp. The glass-ceramics show fast ion conduction and low E(a) value. It is suggested that high conductivity, easy fabrication and low cost make this glass-ceramics promising to be used as inorganic solid electrolyte for all-solid-state Li rechargeable batteries.

  13. Effect of cycling on the lithium/electrolyte interface in organic electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Shen, D. H.; Huang, C.-K.; Narayanan, S. R.; Attia, A.; Halpert, G.; Peled, E.

    1993-01-01

    Nondestructive methods such as ac impedance spectroscopy and microcalorimetry are used to study the effect of cell cycling on the lithium/electrolyte interface. The reactivity of both uncycled and cycled lithium towards various electrolytes is examined by measuring the heat evolved from the cells under open-circuit conditions at 25 C by microcalorimetry. Cycled cells at the end of charge/discharge exhibited considerably higher heat output compared with the uncycled cells. After 30 d of storage, the heat output of the cycled cells is similar to that of the uncycled cells. The cell internal resistance increases with cycling, and this is attributed to the degradation of the electrolyte with cycling.

  14. Older Workers' Perspectives on Training and Retention of Older Workers: Victorian Aged Care Workers Survey. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, David; Marshallsay, Zariah

    2007-01-01

    Older workers' perspectives are examined in a national survey of the finance sector and case studies of aged care and construction workers. The majority of older workers intend to work beyond retirement age, to achieve a better lifestyle. With training, older workers could mentor younger workers. This support document includes a national survey of…

  15. Older Workers' Perspectives on Training and Retention of Older Workers: South Australian Aged Care Workers Study. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, David; Marshallsay, Zariah

    2007-01-01

    Older workers' perspectives are examined in a national survey of the finance sector and case studies of aged care and construction workers. The majority of older workers intend to work beyond retirement age, to achieve a better lifestyle. With training, older workers could mentor younger workers. This support document includes a national survey of…

  16. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    SciTech Connect

    Harlan U. Anderson; Wayne Huebner; Igor Kosacki

    2001-09-30

    This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and testing of Planar Single Cells. In this portion of study we have focused on producing YSZ films on porous LSM substrates. When using the polymer precursor there are a number of obstacles to overcome in order to form dense electrolyte layers on porous substrates (cathode or anode). Probably the most difficult problems are: (1) Extreme penetration of the polymer into the substrate must be prevented. (2) Shrinkage cracking must be avoided. (3) Film thickness in the 1 to 5{micro}m range must be achieved. We have demonstrated that cracking due to shrinkage involved during the elimination of solvents and organic matter and densification of the remaining oxide is not a problem as long as the resulting oxide film is < {approx} 0.15 {micro}m in thickness. We have also shown that we can make thicker films by making multiple depositions if the substrate is smooth (roughness {le} 0.1 {micro}m) and contains no surface pores > 0.2 {micro}m. The penetration of the polymer into the porous substrate can be minimized by increasing the viscosity of the polymer and reducing the largest pore at the surface of the substrate to {le} 0.2 {micro}m. We have shown that this can be done, but we have also shown that it is difficult to make dense films that are defect free with areas > 1 cm{sup 2}. This is because of the roughness of the substrate and the difficulty in making a substrate which does not have surface voids > 0.2 {micro}m. Thus the process works well for dense, smooth substrates for films < 1 {micro}m thick, but is difficult to apply to rough, porous surfaces and to make film thickness > 1 {micro}m. As a result of these problems, we have been addressing the issue of how to make dense films in the thickness range of 1 to 5 {micro}m on sintered porous substrates without introducing cracks and holes due to shrinkage and surface voids? These

  17. Ethical issues in worker productivity.

    PubMed

    Forst, Linda; Levenstein, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Occupational health has always operated at the intersection of corporate economic concerns and worker health. Conflicting demands on the loyalty of occupational health professionals by the interests of labor and industry have made negotiating this minefield an essential part of the practice of occupational medicine. In recent years, occupational health professionals have found themselves increasingly required to rationalize worker health measures with economic arguments. This has led to physician engagement in the realm of defining and measuring worker productivity. Ethical guidelines that hold worker health as a top priority are critical in preserving the responsibility of occupational physicians to their patients.

  18. Lead, cadmium and aluminum in Canadian infant formulae, oral electrolytes and glucose solutions

    PubMed Central

    Dabeka, Robert; Fouquet, Andre; Belisle, Stephane; Turcotte, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and aluminum (Al) were determined in 437 individual samples of infant formulae, oral electrolytes and 5% glucose solutions available in Canada. In the electrolytes, Cd and Pb concentrations were all below 0.01 and 0.041 ng g−1, respectively. In the 5% glucose solutions, Pb and Cd levels averaged 0.01 and 0.09 ng g−1, respectively. Reported on an as-consumed basis, Pb levels in milk- and soya-based formulae averaged 0.90 and 1.45 ng g−1, respectively, while Cd levels averaged 0.23 and 1.18 ng g−1, respectively Average Al levels on an as-consumed basis were 440 ng g−1 (range 10–3400 ng g−1) in milk-based formulae and 730 ng g−1 (range 230–1100 ng g−1) in soy-based formulae. Al concentrations increased in the following order: plain formula < low-iron formula < iron-supplemented formula < casein hydrolysate formula ≈ premature formula ≤ soy formula. For example, in the powdered formulae, average Al concentrations were 18 ng g−1 for plain milk-based, 37 ng g−1 for low-iron, 128 ng g−1 for iron supplemented, 462 ng g−1 for lactose-free, 518 ng g−1 for hypoallergenic and 619 ng g−1 for soy-based formula. Al concentrations, as-consumed, increased with decreasing levels of concentration: powder < concentrated liquid < ready-to-use. Formulae stored in glass bottles contained between 100 and 300 ng g−1 more Al than the same formulae stored in cans. The source of the increased Al did not appear to be the glass itself, because most electrolytes and glucose solutions, also stored in glass, contained less than 8 ng g−1 Al. Corresponding differences in Pb and Cd levels were not observed. Al concentrations varied substantially among manufacturers; however, all manufacturers were able to produce plain milk-based formulae containing less than 50 ng g−1 Al, i.e. within the range of Al concentrations found in human milk. Next to soya-based and hypoallergenic formulae, premature formulae contained among the highest

  19. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  20. Electrolytes: transport properties and non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.G.

    1980-12-01

    This paper presents a review on the application of non-equilibrium thermodynamics to transport in electrolyte solutions, and some recent experimental work and results for mutual diffusion in electrolyte solutions.

  1. Novel reversible and switchable electrolytes based on magneto-rheology

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jie; Peng, Gangrou; Shu, Kewei; Wang, Caiyun; Tian, Tongfei; Yang, Wenrong; Zhang, Yuanchao; Wallace, Gordon G.; Li, Weihua

    2015-01-01

    Replacing organic liquid electrolytes with solid electrolytes has led to a new perspective on batteries, enabling high-energy battery chemistry with intrinsically safe cell designs. However, most solid/gel electrolytes are easily deformed; under extreme deformation, leakage and/or short-circuiting can occur. Here, we report a novel magneto-rheological electrolyte (MR electrolyte) that responds to changes in an external magnetic field; the electrolyte exhibits low viscosity in the absence of a magnetic field and increased viscosity or a solid-like phase in the presence of a magnetic field. This change from a liquid to solid does not significantly change the conductivity of the MR electrolyte. This work introduces a new class of magnetically sensitive solid electrolytes that can enhance impact resistance and prevent leakage from electronic devices through reversible active switching of their mechanical properties. PMID:26493967

  2. Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES)

    MedlinePlus

    Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES) is used to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) before a ... Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES) comes as a powder to mix with water and take by ...

  3. Performance comparison: Aluminum electrolytic and solid tantalum capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawthornthwaite, B. G.; Piper, J.; Holland, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    Several key electrical and environmental parameters of latest technology aluminum electrolytic and solid tantalum capacitors were evaluated in terms of price fluctuations of tantalum metal. Performance differences between solid tantalums and aluminum electrolytics are examined.

  4. Wide electrochemical window solvents for use in electrochemical devices and electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles Austen; Zhang, Sheng-Shui; Xu, Kang

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery electrolyte solutions. Specifically, this invention is directed to boron-containing electrolyte solvents and boron-containing electrolyte solutions.

  5. [Tuberculosis in healthcare workers].

    PubMed

    Nienhaus, A

    2009-01-01

    Perception and knowledge of the TB-infection risk in healthcare workers (HCWs) changed profoundly in Germany during the past few years. Molecular-epidemiological studies and a comprehensive review of the existing evidence concerning the infection risk for HCWs lead to the conclusion that TB in HCWs is often caused by infection at the workplace. In the Hamburg Fingerprint Study, 80 % of the TB cases in HCWs were caused by infections at the workplace. In a similar Dutch study 43 % of all cases were work-related. Besides of the well-known risks in TB wards and laboratories, an increased risk for infection should be assumed for paramedics, in emergency rooms, for HCWs caring for the elderly or for workers with close contact to high-risk groups (homeless people, i. v. drug users, migrants from high-incidence countries). TB in a HCW working in these fields can be recognised as an occupational disease (OD) without identifying a particular source of infection. For all other HCWs, the German occupational disease law requires the identification of a source case before TB in an HCW can be accepted as an OD. Even though the proportion of work-related TB in HCWs is higher than was assumed before previously, the prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) is lower than expected. In an ongoing evaluation study of the interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) LTBI prevalence in HCWs is 10 %. Prevention strategies in Germany should be reconsidered in the light of these new findings.

  6. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Judson Hedgehock

    2001-03-16

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify

  7. Synthesis of and characterization of lithium ceramic electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan

    The depleting fossil fuel reserves, rising oil prices and the need for reduction in CO2 emissions have created an unprecedented impetus for vehicle electrification. Lithium batteries have the highest energy density of the various available battery technologies. They are the most promising battery candidate to enable Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs). However, current Li-ion current battery technology is costly and requires a significant increase in energy density to achieve range comparable to conventional gasoline-powered vehicles. Advanced lithium battery technologies such as Li-S and Li-O2 could potentially offer significant improvements in energy density to address the limitations with current Li-ion technology. The implementation of these advanced battery technologies, however, has been limited by the lack of electrolyte technology to enable the use of metallic lithium anodes. Thus, there is a clear and compelling need to develop new electrolyte materials that exhibit the unique combination of fast ion conductivity, stability against lithium, air and moisture. Lithium Lanthanum Titanium Oxide (LLTO) and Lithium Lanthanum Zirconium Oxide (LLZO) have been identified as viable candidates for the advanced battery technologies. However, issues concerning phase purity and densification warrant developing new and novel synthetic techniques. A single step procedure has been developed for the synthesis of Lithium Lanthanum Titanium Oxide (LLTO) membranes. The single step procedure combines phase formation and densification of the ceramic electrolyte in a hot pressing technique. The effect of synthetic technique on relative density, grain structure and ionic conductivity of the LLTO membranes has been explored in detail. The critical step of synthesizing cubic Lithium Lanthanum Zirconium Oxide (LLZO) has been systematically studied through the controlled doping of Al, using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. Effects of Li and Al

  8. Electrocatalysis of fuel cell reactions: Investigation of alternate electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, D. T.; Hsueh, K. L.; Chang, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    Oxygen reduction and transport properties of the electrolyte in the phosphoric acid fuel cell are studied. A theoretical expression for the rotating ring-disk electrode technique; the intermediate reaction rate constants for oxygen reduction on platinum in phosphoric acid electrolyte; oxygen reduction mechanism in trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA), considered as an alternate electrolyte for the acid fuel cells; and transport properties of the phosphoric acid electrolyte at high concentrations and temperatures are covered.

  9. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Ruka, Roswell J.; Zymboly, Gregory E.

    1985-01-01

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  10. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1986-01-01

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  11. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1987-01-01

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  12. A Comparison of Workers Employed in Hazardous Jobs in Terms of Job Satisfaction, Perceived Job Risk and Stress: Turkish Jean Sandblasting Workers, Dock Workers, Factory Workers and Miners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Ayda Buyuksahin; Sunal, Onur; Yasin, Fatma

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare job satisfaction, perception of job risk, stress symptoms and vulnerability to stress of miners, dock workers, jean sandblasting workers and factory workers. A job satisfaction scale and stress audit scale were applied to 220 workers. Results revealed that dock and jean sandblasting workers perceived their…

  13. Do hornets have zombie workers?

    PubMed

    Foster, K R; Ratnieks, F L; Raybould, A F

    2000-06-01

    Colonies of the European hornet, Vespa crabro, are typically founded by a single queen mated to a single male. From the resulting colony relatedness pattern we predicted strong worker-queen conflict over male production where both the workers and the queen attempt to produce the colony's males. To test for this conflict, male production was studied in 15 hornet nests using a combination of DNA microsatellite analysis (282 males), worker ovary dissections (500 workers from eight nests) and 50 h of observation (four nests). In contrast to our prediction, the data show that hornet males are queens' sons, that workers never attempt to lay eggs, rarely have activated ovaries, and that there is no direct aggression between the queen and the workers. This contrasts with other data for vespine wasps, which support relatedness predictions. Dolichovespula arenaria has the same kin structure as V. crabro and workers produce males in many colonies. The similarity between these two species makes it difficult to explain why workers do not reproduce in V. crabro. Self-restraint is expected if worker reproduction significantly reduces colony productivity but there is no obvious reason why this should be important to V. crabro but not to D. arenaria. Alternatively, queen control may be important. The absence of expressed queen-worker conflict rules out physical control. Indirect pheromonal control is a possibility and is supported by the occurrence of royal courts and queen pheromone in Vespa but not Dolichovespula. Pheromonal queen control is considered evolutionarily unstable, but could result from a queen-worker arms race over reproductive control in which the queen is ahead. The genetic data also revealed diploid males in one colony, the first example in the vespine wasps, and two colonies with double matrilines, suggesting that occasional usurpation by spring queens occurs. PMID:10849289

  14. Polarization of ferroelectric films through electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Toss, Henrik; Sani, Negar; Fabiano, Simone; Simon, Daniel T; Forchheimer, Robert; Berggren, Magnus

    2016-03-16

    A simplified model is developed to understand the field and potential distribution through devices based on a ferroelectric film in direct contact with an electrolyte. Devices based on the ferroelectric polymer polyvinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) were produced--in metal-ferroelectric-metal, metal-ferroelectric-dielectric-metal, and metal-ferroelectric-electrolyte-metal architectures--and used to test the model, and simulations based on the model and these fabricated devices were performed. From these simulations we find indication of progressive polarization of the films. Furthermore, the model implies that there is a relation between the separation of charge within the devices and the observed open circuit voltage. This relation is confirmed experimentally. The ability to polarize ferroelectric polymer films through aqueous electrolytes, combined with the strong correlation between the properties of the electrolyte double layer and the device potential, opens the door to a variety of new applications for ferroelectric technologies, e.g. regulation of cell culture growth and release, steering molecular self-assembly, or other large area applications requiring aqueous environments.

  15. Ionic liquid electrolytes for reversible magnesium electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Kar, Mega; Ma, Zheng; Azofra, Luis Miguel; Chen, Kun; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R

    2016-03-14

    Mg has great potential as the basis for a safe, low cost energy storage technology, however, cycling of magnesium is difficult to achieve in most electrolytes. We demonstrate cycling of Mg from a novel alkoxyammonium ionic liquid. DFT calculations highlight the role that Mg coordination with [BH4](-) ions plays in the mechanism.

  16. Ultrasonic hydrometer. [Specific gravity of electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Swoboda, C.A.

    1982-03-09

    The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time t between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance d between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time t, the sonic velocity V is calculated with the equation V = 2d/t. The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0 and 40/sup 0/C and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation.

  17. LOWER TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYTE AND ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Keqin Huang

    2001-04-30

    A thorough literature survey on low-temperature electrolyte and electrode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is presented. Preliminary results of co-sintering LaGaO{sub 3} (LSGM) film on the cathode substrate were also reported. The chemical stability of LSGM in various SOFC environments was thermodynamically assessed and verified by the molten-salt technique.

  18. EFFECT OF LITHIUM ON SERUM ELECTROLYTES

    PubMed Central

    Geetha, P.R.; Channabasavanna, S.M.; Rama Rao, B.S. Sridhara

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY 26 patients diagnosed as manic depressive psychosis were treated with lithium for three months and serum levels of calcium, magnesium, phosphates and proteins were estimated repeatedly. There were no significant changes in the levels of these electrolytes and proteins during the three months of study period. PMID:21847255

  19. Macroscopic Modeling of Polymer-Electrolyte Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, A.Z.; Newman, J.

    2007-04-01

    In this chapter, the various approaches for the macroscopic modeling of transport phenomena in polymer-electrolyte membranes are discussed. This includes general background and modeling methodologies, as well as exploration of the governing equations and some membrane-related topic of interest.

  20. Properties of polypyrrole-electrolyte-polypyrrole cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, A.; Inganas, O.; Lundstrom, I.

    1986-05-01

    The charging and discharging characteristics of polypyrrole-electrolyte-polypyrrole cells were studied. It was found that 'secondary' batteries could be formed in this way with rather large coulombic efficiencies, but poor charge-retention properties. The coulombic capacity varied strongly with the total charge used during the production of the polypyrrole films, probably due to the morphology of the films.

  1. Anhydrous hydrogen fluoride electrolyte battery. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1972-06-26

    It is an object of the invention to provide a primary cell or battery using ammonium fluoride--anhydrous hydrogen fluoride electrolyte having improved current and power production capabilities at low temperatures. It is operable at temperatures substantially above the boiling point of hydrogen fluoride. (GRA)

  2. Miniaturized Amperometric Solid Electrolyte Carbon Dioxide Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Xu, J. C.; Liu, C. C.; Hammond, J. W.; Ward, B.; Lukco, D.; Lampard, P.; Artale, M.; Androjna, D.

    2006-01-01

    A miniaturized electrochemical carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor using Na3Z r2Si2PO12 (NASICON) as a solid electrolyte has been fabricated and de monstrated. Microfabrication techniques were used for sensor fabricat ion to yield a sensing area around 1.0 mm x 1.1 mm. The NASICON solid electrolyte and the Na2CO3/BaCO3 (1:1.7 molar ratio) auxiliary elect rolyte were deposited by sputtering in between and on top of the inte rdigitated finger-shaped platinum electrodes. This structure maximize s the length of the three-phase boundary (electrode, solid electrolyt e, and auxiliary electrolyte), which is critical for gas sensing. The robust CO2 sensor operated up to 600 C in an amperometric mode and a ttempts were made to optimize sensor operating parameters. Concentrat ions of CO2 between 0.02% and 4% were detected and the overall sensor performance was evaluated. Linear response of sensor current output to ln[CO2 concentration] ranging from 0.02% to 1% was achieved.

  3. Secondary calcium solid electrolyte high temperature battery

    SciTech Connect

    Sammells, A.F.; Schumacher, B.

    1986-01-01

    The authors report on recent work directed towards determining the viability of polycrystalline Ca/sup 2 +/ conducting ..beta..''-alumina solid electrolytes as the basis for a new type of high temperature battery. In this battery system the negative electrode consisted of a calcium-silicon alloy whose redox electro-chemistry was mediated to the calcium conducting solid electrolyte via the use of the molten salt eutectic CaCl/sub 2/ (51.4/sup M//0), CaI/sub 2/ (mp 550/sup 0/C). Both the molten salt and the calcium-alloy negative active material were separated from the positive active material via the Ca/sup 2 +/ conducting polycrystalline solid electrolyte. The positive electrode consisted of a solid-state matrix having a somewhat related crystallographic structure to Ca/sup 2 +/ ..beta..''-alumina, but where a significant fraction of the A1/sup 3 +/ sites located within this solid electrolyte's spinel block were replaced by immobile transition metal species. These species were available for participating in solid-state redox electrochemistry upon electrochemical cell cycling.

  4. Energetics of the Semiconductor-Electrolyte Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, John A.

    1983-01-01

    The use of semiconductors as electrodes for electrochemistry requires an understanding of both solid-state physics and electrochemistry, since phenomena associated with both disciplines are seen in semiconductor/electrolyte systems. The interfacial energetics of these systems are discussed. (JN)

  5. Polymeric Electrolytic Hygrometer For Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Daniel D.; Shakkottai, Parthasarathy; Venkateshan, Shakkottai P.

    1989-01-01

    Design of polymeric electrolytic hygrometer improved to meet need for reliable measurements of relative humidity in harsh environments of pulpmills and papermills. Redesigned sensor head features shorter, more-rigidly-held sensing element, less vulnerable than previous version to swell and loss of electrical contact. Useful for control of batch dryers in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  6. Polarization of ferroelectric films through electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Toss, Henrik; Sani, Negar; Fabiano, Simone; Simon, Daniel T; Forchheimer, Robert; Berggren, Magnus

    2016-03-16

    A simplified model is developed to understand the field and potential distribution through devices based on a ferroelectric film in direct contact with an electrolyte. Devices based on the ferroelectric polymer polyvinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) were produced--in metal-ferroelectric-metal, metal-ferroelectric-dielectric-metal, and metal-ferroelectric-electrolyte-metal architectures--and used to test the model, and simulations based on the model and these fabricated devices were performed. From these simulations we find indication of progressive polarization of the films. Furthermore, the model implies that there is a relation between the separation of charge within the devices and the observed open circuit voltage. This relation is confirmed experimentally. The ability to polarize ferroelectric polymer films through aqueous electrolytes, combined with the strong correlation between the properties of the electrolyte double layer and the device potential, opens the door to a variety of new applications for ferroelectric technologies, e.g. regulation of cell culture growth and release, steering molecular self-assembly, or other large area applications requiring aqueous environments. PMID:26885704

  7. Polarization of ferroelectric films through electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toss, Henrik; Sani, Negar; Fabiano, Simone; Simon, Daniel T.; Forchheimer, Robert; Berggren, Magnus

    2016-03-01

    A simplified model is developed to understand the field and potential distribution through devices based on a ferroelectric film in direct contact with an electrolyte. Devices based on the ferroelectric polymer polyvinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) were produced—in metal-ferroelectric-metal, metal-ferroelectric-dielectric-metal, and metal-ferroelectric-electrolyte-metal architectures—and used to test the model, and simulations based on the model and these fabricated devices were performed. From these simulations we find indication of progressive polarization of the films. Furthermore, the model implies that there is a relation between the separation of charge within the devices and the observed open circuit voltage. This relation is confirmed experimentally. The ability to polarize ferroelectric polymer films through aqueous electrolytes, combined with the strong correlation between the properties of the electrolyte double layer and the device potential, opens the door to a variety of new applications for ferroelectric technologies, e.g. regulation of cell culture growth and release, steering molecular self-assembly, or other large area applications requiring aqueous environments.

  8. Physical properties of molten carbonate electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, T.; Yanagida, M.; Tanimoto, K.

    1996-12-31

    Recently many kinds of compositions of molten carbonate electrolyte have been applied to molten carbonate fuel cell in order to avoid the several problems such as corrosion of separator plate and NiO cathode dissolution. Many researchers recognize that the addition of alkaline earth (Ca, Sr, and Ba) carbonate to Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} eutectic electrolytes is effective to avoid these problems. On the other hand, one of the corrosion products, CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ion is found to dissolve into electrolyte and accumulated during the long-term MCFC operations. This would affect the performance of MCFC. There, however, are little known data of physical properties of molten carbonate containing alkaline earth carbonates and CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. We report the measured and accumulated data for these molten carbonate of electrical conductivity and surface tension to select favorable composition of molten carbonate electrolytes.

  9. Process for electrolytically preparing uranium metal

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    A process for making uranium metal from uranium oxide by first fluorinating uranium oxide to form uranium tetrafluoride and next electrolytically reducing the uranium tetrafluoride with a carbon anode to form uranium metal and CF.sub.4. The CF.sub.4 is reused in the fluorination reaction rather than being disposed of as a hazardous waste.

  10. Process for electrolytically preparing uranium metal

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Paul A.

    1989-08-01

    A process for making uranium metal from uranium oxide by first fluorinating uranium oxide to form uranium tetrafluoride and next electrolytically reducing the uranium tetrafluoride with a carbon anode to form uranium metal and CF.sub.4. The CF.sub.4 is reused in the fluorination reaction rather than being disposed of as a hazardous waste.

  11. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    DOEpatents

    Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

    2012-12-04

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  12. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    DOEpatents

    Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

    2010-11-23

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  13. Ionometry in the analysis of electrolyte solutions (review)

    SciTech Connect

    Petrukhin, O.M.; Rogatinskaya, S.L.; Shipulo, E.V.

    1995-04-01

    The potential usefulness of ionometry in the analytical control of plating electrolytes, etching solutions, and waste effluents has been considered. Complete ionometric analysis of plating electrolytes and determination of metal cyanide complexes have been presented as examples. Ion-selective field-effect transistors (IEFT), semiconductor electrodes, and ISE pairs have been shown to have potential usefulness for the potentiometric titration of plating electrolytes.

  14. Electrolytes for Wide Operating Temperature Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Provided herein are electrolytes for lithium-ion electrochemical cells, electrochemical cells employing the electrolytes, methods of making the electrochemical cells and methods of using the electrochemical cells over a wide temperature range. Included are electrolyte compositions comprising a lithium salt, a cyclic carbonate, a non-cyclic carbonate, and a linear ester and optionally comprising one or more additives.

  15. Electrode electrolyte interlayers containing cerium oxide for electrochemical fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Borglum, Brian P.; Bessette, Norman F.

    2000-01-01

    An electrochemical cell is made having a porous fuel electrode (16) and a porous air electrode (13), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) therebetween, where the air electrode surface opposing the electrolyte has a separate, attached, dense, continuous layer (14) of a material containing cerium oxide, and where electrolyte (16) contacts the continuous oxide layer (14), without contacting the air electrode (13).

  16. Battery electrolytes. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, C. G.

    1980-05-01

    Many types of solid, liquid and gaseous battery electrolytes are described and analyzed in the cited abstracts. Battery design, construction, and use, employing the listed electrolytes, are discussed. Battery design, construction, and use, employing the listed electrolytes, are discussed. Battery life, efficiency, and maintenance characteristics are also delineated. Included are 196 citations.

  17. Superacid-Based Lithium Salts For Polymer Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Prakash, Surya; Shen, David H.; Surampudi, Subbarao; Olah, George

    1995-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes exhibiting high lithium-ion conductivities made by incorporating salts of superacids into thin films of polyethylene oxide (PEO). These and other solid-polymer electrolytes candidates for use in rechargeable lithium-based electrochemical cells. Increases in room-temperature lithium-ion conductivities of solid electrolytes desirable because they increase achievable power and energy densities.

  18. Effect of electrolyte conductance on current distribution in porous zinc electrode in KOH electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, M.B.; Cook, G.M.; Yao, N.P.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of the current distributions in porous zinc electrodes is presented which indicates that the current distributions are indeed controlled by the conductivity of the electrolyte within the porous structure. (WHK)

  19. Purely electronic mechanism of electrolyte gating of indium tin oxide thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Leng, X.; Bozovic, I.; Bollinger, A. T.

    2016-08-10

    Epitaxial indium tin oxide films have been grown on both LaAlO3 and yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates using RF magnetron sputtering. Electrolyte gating causes a large change in the film resistance that occurs immediately after the gate voltage is applied, and shows no hysteresis during the charging/discharging processes. When two devices are patterned next to one another and the first one gated through an electrolyte, the second one shows no changes in conductance, in contrast to what happens in materials (like tungsten oxide) susceptible to ionic electromigration and intercalation. These findings indicate that electrolyte gating in indium tin oxide triggers a puremore » electronic process (electron depletion or accumulation, depending on the polarity of the gate voltage), with no electrochemical reactions involved. Electron accumulation occurs in a very thin layer near the film surface, which becomes highly conductive. These results contribute to our understanding of the electrolyte gating mechanism in complex oxides and may be relevant for applications of electric double layer transistor devices.« less

  20. Purely electronic mechanism of electrolyte gating of indium tin oxide thin films

    PubMed Central

    Leng, X.; Bollinger, A. T.; Božović, I.

    2016-01-01

    Epitaxial indium tin oxide films have been grown on both LaAlO3 and yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates using RF magnetron sputtering. Electrolyte gating causes a large change in the film resistance that occurs immediately after the gate voltage is applied, and shows no hysteresis during the charging/discharging processes. When two devices are patterned next to one another and the first one gated through an electrolyte, the second one shows no changes in conductance, in contrast to what happens in materials (like tungsten oxide) susceptible to ionic electromigration and intercalation. These findings indicate that electrolyte gating in indium tin oxide triggers a pure electronic process (electron depletion or accumulation, depending on the polarity of the gate voltage), with no electrochemical reactions involved. Electron accumulation occurs in a very thin layer near the film surface, which becomes highly conductive. These results contribute to our understanding of the electrolyte gating mechanism in complex oxides and may be relevant for applications of electric double layer transistor devices. PMID:27506371

  1. Evaluation of LiCl-LiBr-KBr electrolyte for Li-alloy/metal disulfide cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kaun, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    The physical properties of a new molten salt electrolyte for lithium-alloy/metal disulfide cells, 25 mol % LiCl-37 mol % LiBr-38 mol % KBr, were investigated. Cyclic voltammetry of FeS/sub 2/ in the new molten salt at 375 to 425/sup 0/C indicated improved electrochemistry and stability of the reaction on the upper voltage plateau (1.75 V vs. LiAl). The new electrolyte provides an opportunity to operate an upper-plateau (UP) FeS/sub 2/ electrode at a lower temperature, 400/sup 0/C, and with a higher activity of lithium ion in the electrolyte. The broad liquidus of this molten salt at 400/sup 0/C also supports operation at high current density. Testing of 24- to 48-Ah cells indicated greater than 50% improved energy and power density over the conventional two-plateau FeS/sub 2/ cell with LiCl-KCl electrolyte. The conventional FeS/sub 2/ cells would lose 50% of their upper-plateau capacity within 200 cycles. The elimination of this capacity decline problem was demonstrated by 400 cycles and 5400 h of stable operation with a dense UP FeS/sub 2/ electrode cell, which maintained 89% utilization of theoretical capacity throughout the test.

  2. Purely electronic mechanism of electrolyte gating of indium tin oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, X.; Bollinger, A. T.; Božović, I.

    2016-08-01

    Epitaxial indium tin oxide films have been grown on both LaAlO3 and yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates using RF magnetron sputtering. Electrolyte gating causes a large change in the film resistance that occurs immediately after the gate voltage is applied, and shows no hysteresis during the charging/discharging processes. When two devices are patterned next to one another and the first one gated through an electrolyte, the second one shows no changes in conductance, in contrast to what happens in materials (like tungsten oxide) susceptible to ionic electromigration and intercalation. These findings indicate that electrolyte gating in indium tin oxide triggers a pure electronic process (electron depletion or accumulation, depending on the polarity of the gate voltage), with no electrochemical reactions involved. Electron accumulation occurs in a very thin layer near the film surface, which becomes highly conductive. These results contribute to our understanding of the electrolyte gating mechanism in complex oxides and may be relevant for applications of electric double layer transistor devices.

  3. Purely electronic mechanism of electrolyte gating of indium tin oxide thin films.

    PubMed

    Leng, X; Bollinger, A T; Božović, I

    2016-01-01

    Epitaxial indium tin oxide films have been grown on both LaAlO3 and yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates using RF magnetron sputtering. Electrolyte gating causes a large change in the film resistance that occurs immediately after the gate voltage is applied, and shows no hysteresis during the charging/discharging processes. When two devices are patterned next to one another and the first one gated through an electrolyte, the second one shows no changes in conductance, in contrast to what happens in materials (like tungsten oxide) susceptible to ionic electromigration and intercalation. These findings indicate that electrolyte gating in indium tin oxide triggers a pure electronic process (electron depletion or accumulation, depending on the polarity of the gate voltage), with no electrochemical reactions involved. Electron accumulation occurs in a very thin layer near the film surface, which becomes highly conductive. These results contribute to our understanding of the electrolyte gating mechanism in complex oxides and may be relevant for applications of electric double layer transistor devices. PMID:27506371

  4. The Solubility of Aluminum in Cryolite-Based Electrolyte-Containing KF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Yu, Jiangyu; Gao, Bingliang; Liu, Yibai; Hu, Xianwei; Shi, Zhongning; Wang, Zhaowen

    2016-04-01

    The solubility of aluminum in NaF-AlF3-CaF2-KF-A12O3 electrolyte system at 1253 K (980 °C) has been measured by the analysis of quenched samples saturated with aluminum. The content of the dissolved metal in the quenched melt was determined by collecting the volume of hydrogen gas when a finely crushed sample is treated with HCl. Addition of 0 to 5 pct KF has no obvious effect on the solubility of aluminum in cryolite-based melts with molar ratio of NaF/AlF3 (cryolite ratio) ranging from 2.2 to 3.0. The solubility of aluminum increases from 0.015 to 0.026 wt pct with cryolite ratio increases from 2.2 to 4.0 in the NaF-AlF3-5 wt pct CaF2-3 wt pct A12O3 electrolyte at 1253 K (980 °C). Aluminum solubility was affected by both chemical replacement reaction of Al + 3NaF = AlF3 + 3Na and physical dissolution.

  5. Maintaining molten salt electrolyte concentration in aluminum-producing electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.; Bradford, Donald R

    2005-01-04

    A method of maintaining molten salt concentration in a low temperature electrolytic cell used for production of aluminum from alumina dissolved in a molten salt electrolyte contained in a cell free of frozen crust wherein volatile material is vented from the cell and contacted and captured on alumina being added to the cell. The captured volatile material is returned with alumina to cell to maintain the concentration of the molten salt.

  6. Preliminary Evaluations of Polymer-based Lithium Battery Electrolytes Under Development for the Polymer Electrolyte Rechargeable Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Bennett, William R.

    2003-01-01

    A component screening facility has been established at The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to evaluate candidate materials for next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. Procedures have been implemented to provide standardized measurements of critical electrolyte properties. These include ionic conductivity, electronic resistivity, electrochemical stability window, cation transference number, salt diffusion coefficient and lithium plating efficiency. Preliminary results for poly(ethy1ene oxide)-based polymer electrolyte and commercial liquid electrolyte are presented.

  7. Supersaturated Electrolyte Solutions: Theory and Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izmailov, Alexander F.; Myerson, Allan S.; Na, Han-Soo

    1995-01-01

    Highly supersaturated electrolyte solutions can be prepared and studied employing an electrodynamic levitator trap (ELT) technique. The ELT technique involves containerless suspension of a microdroplet thus eliminating dust, dirt, and container walls which normally cause heterogeneous nucleation. This allows very high supersaturations to be achieved. A theoretical study of the experimental results obtained for the water activity in microdroplets of various electrolyte solutions is based on the development of the Cahn-Hilliard formalism for electrolyte solutions. In the approach suggested the metastable state for electrolyte solutions is described in terms of the conserved order parameter omega(r,t) associated with fluctuations of the mean solute concentration n(sub 0). Parameters of the corresponding Ginzburg-Landau free energy functional which defines the dynamics of metastable state relaxation are determined and expressed through the experimentally measured quantities. A correspondence of 96-99 % between theory and experiment for all solutions studied was achieved and allowed the determination of an analytical expression for the spinodal concentration n(sub spin), and its calculation for various electrolyte solutions at 298 K. The assumption that subcritical solute clusters consist of the electrically neutral Bjerrum pairs has allowed both analytical and numerical investigation of the number-size N(sub c) of nucleation monomers (aggregates of the Bjerrum pairs) which are elementary units of the solute critical clusters. This has also allowed estimations for the surface tension Alpha, and equilibrium bulk energy Beta per solute molecule in the nucleation monomers. The dependence of these properties on the temperature T and on the solute concentration n(sub 0) through the entire metastable zone (from saturation concentration n(sub sat) to spinodal n(sub spin) is examined. It has been demonstrated that there are the following asymptotics: N(sub c), = I at spinodal

  8. Retraining Displaced Workers. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaLonde, Robert; Sullivan, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Robert LaLonde of the University of Chicago and Daniel Sullivan of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago suggest that retraining through our nation's community colleges is a way to reduce the skills gaps of at least some of these displaced workers and increase their reemployment earnings. Although workers may still experience significant earnings…

  9. Workers' Education and the ILO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guigui, Albert

    1970-01-01

    In its concern to eliminate the imbalance between social and economic development, the International Labour Organisation has two objectives in its workers' education activities: to help workers protect themselves against the harmful effects of our technological society; and to strengthen their ability to discharge their social responsibilities.…

  10. Developing Good Workers. Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Robert M.

    Developing the productive capacities of students is a valid function of schooling and is not in conflict or competition with other educational purposes, such as academic excellence. Employers and young workers in the San Francisco Bay area noted attributes that workers need for success in entry-level unskilled or junior professional jobs. These…

  11. Followership and the Federal Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, G. Ronald; Hyde, Albert C.

    1988-01-01

    Defines followership in the workplace. Focuses on federal workers and how they compare to workers in other governmental and private sector settings. Identifies eight dimensions of followership: (1) partnership; (2) motivation; (3) competence; (4) sense of humor; (5) dependability; (6) positive working relations; (7) speaking up; and (8) proper…

  12. Personal Epistemologies and Older Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; van Woerkom, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the need and prospects for older workers to develop and deploy effective and critical personal epistemologies in order to maintain workplace competence, successfully negotiate work transitions and secure ontological security in their working life. Furthermore, it addresses different ways of reflecting by workers, which types…

  13. How To Manage Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    Most older workers continue to work hard and perform well; those who do not often perceive that their opportunities for promotion and increased earnings are limited. Six principles of management particularly apply to older workers: (1) recognize that needs can be powerful motivators; (2) link need satisfaction to job performance; (3) set specific,…

  14. Workers' Education Methods and Techniques for Rural Workers and Their Organisations: Summary of Views Expressed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Several issues concerning rural workers' organizations and workers' education are discussed: motivation for self-organization, workers' education needs of rural workers, workers' education methods and techniques, training institutions and training personnel, financial resources, and the role of the International Labor Organization workers'…

  15. Silicosis in jade workers.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, T P; Allan, W G; Tsin, T W; O'Kelly, F J

    1985-01-01

    The recent finding of cases of silicosis among jade workers in Hong Kong points to this disease being an occupational hazard. The source was found to be the silica flour that was added in a polishing process. Five cases are described together with the results of environmental investigation in a workplace. In three cases the disease was of early onset, rapidly progressive, and presented the features of galloping silicosis noted in other occupational exposures to silica flour. One patient had massive fibrosis and severe glomerulonephropathy, an association that has also been previously noted. One case showed evidence of active tubercular infection in addition to silicosis and two had healed lesions. Silica concentrations in the workplace during the suepect process were well above accepted threshold limit values. Images PMID:2998434

  16. Radium dial workers

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, R.E.; Lucas, H.F. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The population of radium dial workers who were exposed to radium 30 to 50 years ago are currently being followed by the Center for Human Radiobiology at the Argonne National Laboratory. It is not clear that radium has induced additional malignancies in this population, other than the well-known bone sarcomas and head carcinomas, but elevated incidence rates for multiple myeloma and cancers of the colon, rectum, stomach, and breast suggest that radium might be involved. Continued follow-up of this population may resolve these questions. Finally, the question of the effect of fetal irradiation on the offspring of these women remains to be resolved. No evidence exists to suggest that any effects have occurred, but there is no question that a chronic irradiation of the developing fetus did take place. No formal follow-up of these children has yet been initiated.

  17. [Cutaneous allergy in construction workers].

    PubMed

    Rui, F; Bovenzi, M; Prodi, A; Filon, F Larese

    2012-01-01

    Nine hundred building trade workers and 4372 office workers (from a database of 16267 patients) with suspected allergic dermatitis, underwent patch tests. The associations between patch test results and occupations were assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. As expected, building trade work was significantly associated with chromium sensitization (OR 1.55; 95% IC 1.22-1.97), a well known occupational hapten in this occupational group. An increased risk for epoxy resin sensitization (OR 3.80; 95% IC 2.11-6.86) and thiuram mix sensitization (OR 1.69; 95% IC 1.07-2.65) was also found in the construction workers. Epoxy resin is a strong skin sensitizer widely used in building trade, while thiuram mix is often present as an additive in the rubber gloves used by construction workers. These findings suggest that effective measures to prevent allergic contact dermatitis are needed in the construction workers. PMID:23405606

  18. [Rural workers' health in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Jessica Pronestino de Lima; Oliveira, Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves de; Muzi, Camila Drumond; Cunha, Carlos Leonardo Figueiredo; Brito, Alexandre dos Santos; Luiz, Ronir Raggio

    2015-08-01

    Workers' health is a central theme in public health surveys, but the specificity of work activities should be considered. This study aimed to analyze the health of rural workers in Brazil that perform both agricultural and non-agricultural work, based on self-rated health and self-reported diseases. The Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD 2008) was used, incorporating information from the complex sampling plan. Agricultural workers 18 years or older were selected, stratified according to those with and without non-agricultural work. Logistic regression was performed for self-rated health, and odds ratios were calculated for self-reported diseases. Exclusive agricultural work decreased the odds of reporting good health and increased the odds of reporting back pain, high blood pressure, and arthritis/rheumatism. Exclusive agricultural workers reported more diseases and worse living conditions. Self-rated health was generally better in workers with non-agricultural occupations. PMID:26375648

  19. Carbon treated commercial aluminium alloys as anodes for aluminium-air batteries in sodium chloride electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, M.; Herranz, D.; Chacón, J.; Fatás, E.; Ocón, P.

    2016-09-01

    An easy treatment based in carbon layer deposition into aluminium alloys is presented to enhance the performance of Al-air primary batteries with neutral pH electrolyte. The jellification of aluminate in the anode surface is described and avoided by the carbon covering. Treated commercial Al alloys namely Al1085 and Al7475 are tested as anodes achieving specific capacities above 1.2 Ah g-1vs 0.5 Ah g-1 without carbon covering. The influence of the binder proportion in the treatment as well as different carbonaceous materials, Carbon Black, Graphene and Pyrolytic Graphite are evaluated as candidates for the covering. Current densities of 1-10 mA cm-2 are measured and the influence of the alloy explored. A final battery design of 4 cells in series is presented for discharges with a voltage plateau of 2 V and 1 Wh g-1 energy density.

  20. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2015-11-12

    The present invention is generally related to electrolytes containing anion receptor additives to enhance the power capability of lithium-ion batteries. The anion receptor of the present invention is a Lewis acid that can help to dissolve LiF in the passivation films of lithium-ion batteries. Accordingly, one aspect the invention provides electrolytes comprising a lithium salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and an anion receptor additive; and wherein the electrolyte solution is substantially non-aqueous. Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte.

  1. Ceramic and polymeric solid electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    Lithium-ion batteries are important for energy storage in a wide variety of applications including consumer electronics, transportation and large-scale energy production. The performance of lithium-ion batteries depends on the materials used. One critical component is the electrolyte, which is the focus of this paper. In particular, inorganic ceramic and organic polymer solid-electrolyte materials are reviewed. Solid electrolytes provide advantages in terms of simplicity of design and operational safety, but typically have conductivities that are lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. This paper provides a comparison of the conductivities of solid-electrolyte materials being used or developed for use in lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Tunable optical properties of colloidal quantum dots in electrolytic environments.

    PubMed

    Ramadurai, D; Kohanpour, B; Alexson, D; Shi, P; Sethuraman, A; Li, Y; Saini, V; Dutta, M; Stroscio, M A

    2004-12-01

    The absorption spectra of colloidal cadmium sulfide quantum dots in electrolytic solutions are found to manifest a shift in the absorption threshold as the concentration of the electrolyte is varied. These results are consistent with a shift in the absorption threshold that would be caused by electrolytic screening of the field caused by the intrinsic spontaneous polarisation of these würtzite structured quantum dots. These electrolyte-dependent absorption properties provide a potential means of gaining insights on the variable extracellular and intracellular electrolytic concentrations that are present in biological systems.

  3. Terahertz characteristics of electrolytes in aqueous Luria-Bertani media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seung Jae; Son, Joo-Hiuk; Yoo, Ocki; Lee, Dong-Hee

    2007-10-01

    We measured the optical constants of aqueous biomaterial mixtures with various electrolyte concentrations using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The mixtures were divided into water and other electrolyte parts in mass fractions for analysis. The optical constants of the electrolyte, excluding water, were obtained by applying the ideal mixture equation, and the power absorption of the electrolyte was observed to be larger than that of water above 1THz. Data from the measurement were fitted with the modified double Debye model, and the reorientation and hydrogen-bond formation decomposition times were found to decrease as the electrolyte concentration increased.

  4. Method and apparatus for storage battery electrolyte circulation

    DOEpatents

    Inkmann, Mark S.

    1980-09-09

    An electrolyte reservoir in fluid communication with the cell of a storage battery is intermittently pressurized with a pulse of compressed gas to cause a flow of electrolyte from the reservoir to the upper region of less dense electrolyte in the cell. Upon termination of the pressure pulse, more dense electrolyte is forced into the reservoir from the lower region of the cell by the differential pressure head between the cell and reservoir electrolyte levels. The compressed gas pulse is controlled to prevent the entry of gas from the reservoir into the cell.

  5. DNA based electrolyte/separator for lithium battery application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Ouchen, Fahima; Smarra, Devin A.; Subramanyam, Guru; Grote, James G.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we demonstrated the use of DNA-CTMA (DC) in combination with PolyVinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) as a host matrix or separator for Lithium based electrolyte to form solid polymer/gel like electrolyte for potential application in Li-ion batteries. The addition of DC provided a better thermal stability of the composite electrolyte as shown by the thermos-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The AC conductivity measurements suggest that the addition of DC to the gel electrolyte had no effect on the overall ionic conductivity of the composite. The obtained films are flexible with high mechanical stretch-ability as compared to the gel type electrolytes only.

  6. A Comparative Study of Electrolyte Flow and Slime Particle Transport in a Newly Designed Copper Electrolytic Cell and a Laboratory-Scale Conventional Electrolytic Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Weizhi; Wang, Shijie; Free, Michael L.

    2016-08-01

    An innovative copper electrolytic cell was designed with its inlet at the cell top and its outlet near the cell bottom, in opposite to conventional electrolytic cells. It was modeled in COMSOL Multiphysics to simulate copper electrorefining process. Unlike conventional electrorefining cells, downward electrolyte flows are more dominant in the fluid flow field in this cell, which leads to faster settlement of slime particles and less contamination to the cathode. Copper concentration profiles, electrolyte flow velocity field, slime particle movements, and slime particle distributions were obtained as simulation results, which were compared with those in a laboratory-scale conventional electrolytic cell. Advantages of the newly designed electrolytic cell were found: copper ions are distributed more uniformly in the cell with a thinner diffusion layer near the cathode; stronger convection exists in the inter-electrode domain with dominant downward flows; and slime particles have larger possibilities to settle down and are less likely to reach the cathode.

  7. In situ Raman and electrochemical characterization of the role of electrolyte additives in Li/SOCl2 batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovac, M.; Milicev, S.; Kovac, A.; Pejovnik, S.

    1995-05-01

    A simple glass cell has been constructed for in situ Raman characterization of discharge products in Li/SOCl2 batteries with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and LiAl(SO3Cl4) additives. The assembly enables the characterization of catholyte-soluble discharge products in the electrolyte as well as products on the lithium and carbon electrode surfaces. The effect of the additives was also examined by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy and impedance spectroscopy and correlated to the voltage delay in batteries. The best results, as regards to the elimination of the delay effect, were obtained with a new electrolyte consisting of LiAlCl4/SOCl2 with an admixture of PVC and LiAl(SO3Cl4).

  8. Do Social Workers Make Better Child Welfare Workers than Non-Social Workers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Robin E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To empirically examine whether the educational background of child welfare workers in Florida impacts on performance evaluations of their work. Method: A proportionate, stratified random sample of supervisor and peer evaluations of child protective investigators and child protective service workers is conducted. ANOVA procedures are…

  9. Novel electrolytes for use in new and improved batteries: An NMR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Marc B.

    This thesis focuses on the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in order to study materials for use as electrolytes in batteries. The details of four projects are described in this thesis as well as a brief theoretical background of NMR. Structural and dynamics properties were determined using several NMR techniques such as static, MAS, PFG diffusion, and relaxation to understand microscopic and macroscopic properties of the materials described within. Nuclei investigate were 1H, 2H, 7Li, 13C, 19F, 23Na, and 27Al. The first project focuses on an exciting new material to be used as a solid electrolyte membrane. T. The second project focuses on the dynamics of ionic liquid-solvent mixtures and their comparison to molecular dynamics computer simulations. The third project involves a solvent-free film containing NaTFSI salt mixed in to PEO for use in sodium-ion batteries. This final project focuses on a composite electrolyte consisting of a ceramic and solid: LiI:PEO:LiAlO2.

  10. Use of Additives to Improve Performance of Methyl Butyrate-Based Lithium-Ion Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2011-01-01

    This work addresses the need for robust rechargeable batteries that can operate well over a wide temperature range. To this end, a number of electrolyte formulations have been developed that incorporate the use of electrolyte additives to improve the high-temperature resilience, low-temperature power capability, and life characteristics of methyl butyrate-based electrolyte solutions. These electrolyte additives include mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), lithium oxalate, vinylene carbonate (VC), and lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB), which have been shown to result in improved high-temperature resilience of all carbonate-based electrolytes. Improved performance has been demonstrated of Li-ion cells with methyl butyrate-based electrolytes, including 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %); 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + 2% FEC; 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + 4% FEC; 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + lithium oxalate; 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + 2% VC; and 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + 0.10M LiBOB. These electrolytes have been shown to improve performance in MCMB-LiNiCoO2 and graphite-LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 experimental Li-ion cells. A number of LiPF6-based mixed carbonate electrolyte formulations have been developed that contain ester co-solvents, which have been optimized for operation at low temperature, while still providing reasonable performance at high temperature. For example, a number of ester co-solvents were investigated, including methyl propionate (MP), ethyl propionate (EP), methyl butyrate (MB), ethyl butyrate (EB), propyl butyrate (PB), and butyl butyrate (BB) in multi-component electrolytes of the following composition: 1.0M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC) + ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) + X (20:60:20 v/v %) [where X = ester co-solvent]. ["Optimized Car bon ate and Ester-Based Li-Ion Electrolytes", NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 4 (April 2008), p. 56.] Focusing upon improved rate

  11. Electrowinning process with electrode compartment to avoid contamination of electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Poa, D.S.; Pierce, R.D.; Mulcahey, T.P.; Johnson, G.K.

    1993-07-06

    A process is described of electrolytically recovering a metal from an oxide of the metal comprising the steps of: (a) providing an electrolytic cell including a molten salt electrolyte containing the metal oxide and one or more halide salts of the metal, a pair of spaced apart electrodes in the electrolyte, and a source of electrical voltage to the electrodes, one of the electrodes being an anode and a source of particulate carbon contamination of the electrolyte during operation of the cell, (b) operating the cell to recover the metal as an element at the other electrode while confining the contaminant to a zone in the electrolyte about the one electrode, and (c) periodically removing the contaminant from the electrolyte zone while interrupting operation of the cell.

  12. Fuel cell and system for supplying electrolyte thereto

    DOEpatents

    Adlhart, Otto J.; Feigenbaum, Haim

    1984-01-01

    An electrolyte distribution and supply system for use with a fuel cell having means for drawing electrolyte therein is formed by a set of containers of electrolyte joined to respective fuel cells in a stack of such cells. The electrolyte is separately stored so as to provide for electrical isolation between electrolytes of the individual cells of the stack. Individual storage compartments are coupled by capillary tubes to the respective fuel cells. Hydrostatic pressure is maintained individually for each of the fuel cells by separately elevating each compartment of the storing means to a specific height above the corresponding fuel cell which is to be fed from that compartment of the storing means. The individual compartments are filled with electrolyte by allowing the compartments to overflow thereby maintaining the requisite depth of electrolyte in each of the storage compartments.

  13. Managing Emotionally Intelligent Service Workers: Personal and Positional Effects in the Greek Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitriades, Zoe S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to investigate the relative importance of personal-demographic and positional factors in predicting emotional intelligence (EI) among service workers in the Greek context. Design/methodology/approach: The study involved administering Schutte et al.'s SREIT test to employees engaged in retailing, insurance,…

  14. Frequency of Electrolyte Derangement after Transurethral Resection of Prostate: Need for Postoperative Electrolyte Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Wajahat; Ather, M. Hammad

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the electrolyte derangement following transurethral resection of prostate (TURP). Methods. All patients undergoing TURP from June 2012 to April 2013 were included. Preoperative electrolytes were performed within a week of procedures. Monopolar TURP using 1.5% glycine was performed. Serum Na+ and K+ were assessed within 1 hour postoperatively and subsequently if clinically indicated. Results. The study included 280 patients. Sixty-six patients (23.6%) had electrolyte derangement after TURP. Patients with deranged electrolytes were older (mean age of 73.41 ± 4.08 yrs. versus 68.93 yrs. ± 10.34) and had a longer mean resection time (42.5 ± 20.04 min versus 28.34 ± 14.64 min). Mean weight of tissue resected (41.49 ± 34.46 g versus 15.33 ± 9.74 g) and volume of irrigant used (23.55 ± 15.20 L versus 12.81 ± 7.57 L) were also significantly higher in patients with deranged electrolytes (all p = 0.00). On multivariate logistic regression analysis preoperative sodium level was found to be a significant predictor of postoperative electrolyte derangement (odds ratio 0.267, S.E. = 0.376, and p value = 0.00). Conclusion. Electrolyte derangement occurs in older patients, with larger amount of tissue and longer time of resection and higher volume of irrigant, and in those with lower serum preoperative sodium levels. PMID:26089874

  15. Medical Surveillance for Former Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Takaro Jordan Firestone

    2009-05-29

    The Former Hanford Worker Medical Monitoring Program, directed by the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program at the University of Washington, served former production and other non-construction workers who were potentially exposed to workplace hazards while working for the USDOE or its contractors at Hanford. The USDOE Former Workers Program arose from Congressional action in the Defense Authorization of 1993 (Public Law 102). Section 3162 stated that, “The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and ongoing medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such employment.” (This also covers former employees of USDOE contractors and subcontractors.) The key objective has been to provide these former workers with medical evaluations in order to determine whether workers have experienced significant risk due to workplace exposure to hazards. Exposures to asbestos, beryllium, and noise can produce specific medical conditions: asbestosis, berylliosis, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Each of these conditions can be identified by specific, non-invasive screening tests, which are widely available. Treatments are also available for individuals affected by these conditions. This project involved two phases. Phase I involved a needs and risk assessment, characterizing the nature and extent of workplace health hazards which may have increased the risk for long-term health effects. We categorized jobs and tasks by likelihood of exposures to specific workplace health hazards; and located and established contact with former Hanford workers. Phase II involved implementation of medical monitoring programs for former workers whose individual work history indicated significant risk for adverse health effects. We identified 118,000 former workers, employed from 1943 to 1997

  16. Critical parameters of unrestricted primitive model electrolytes with charge asymmetries up to 10:1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Daniel W.; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2003-10-01

    The phase behavior of charge- and size-asymmetric primitive model electrolytes has been investigated using reservoir grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. The simulations rely on the insertion and removal of neutral ion clusters from a reservoir of possible configurations. We first validated our approach by investigating the effect of Rc, the maximum allowable distance between the central cation and its associated anions, on the critical parameters of 2:1 and 3:1 electrolytes. We have shown that the effect of Rc is weak and does not change the qualitative dependence of the critical parameters on size and charge asymmetry. The critical temperature for 2:1 and 3:1 electrolytes shows a maximum at Rc≈3, while the critical volume fraction decreases more or less monotonically, consistent with previous results for 1:1 electrolytes by Romero-Enrique et al. [Phys. Rev. E 66, 041204 (2002)]. We have used the reservoir method to obtain the critical parameters for 5:1 and 10:1 electrolytes. The critical temperature decreases with increasing charge asymmetry and shows a maximum as a function of δ, the size asymmetry parameter. The critical volume fraction however, defined as the volume occupied by ions divided by the total volume of the simulation box, increases with increasing charge asymmetry and exhibits a minimum as a function of δ. This trend is contrary to what is generally predicted by theories, although more recent approaches based on the Debye-Hückel theory reproduce this observed trend. Our results deviate somewhat from the predictions of Linse [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 359, 853 (2001)] for the scaling of the critical temperature for a system of macroions with point counterions.

  17. Electrolyte effects in Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, R.A.; Reinhardt, F.W.

    1994-10-01

    The most common electrochemical couple for thermally activated (``thermal``) batteries is the Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} system. The most common Li-alloys used for anodes are 20% Li-80% Al and 44% Li-56% Si (by weight); liquid Li immobilized with iron powder has also been used. The standard electrolyte that has been used in thermal batteries over the years is the LiCl-KCl eutectic that melts at 352{degrees}C. The LiCl-LiBr-LiF eutectic had the best rate and power characteristics. This electrolyte melts at 436{degrees}C and shows very low polarization because of the absence of Li+ gradients common with the LiCl-KCl eutectic. The low-melting electrolytes examined included a KBr-LiBr-LiCl eutectic (melting at 321{degrees}C), a LiBr-KBr-LiF eutectic (melting at 313{degrees}C), and a CsBr-LiBr-KBr eutectic (melting at 238{degrees}C). The CsBr-based salt had poor conductivity and was not studied further. The LiBr-KBr-LiF eutectic outperformed the KBr-LiBr-LiCl eutectic and was selected for more extensive testing. Because of their lower melting points and larger liquidi relative to the LiCl-KCl eutectic, the low-melting electrolytes are prime candidates for long-life applications (i.e., for activated lives of one hour or more). This paper will detail the relative performance of the Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} couple using primarily the LiCl-KCl (standard) eutectic, the LiCl-LiBr-LiF (all-Li) eutectic, and the LiBr-KBr-LiF (low-melting) eutectic electrolytes. Most of the tests were conducted with 5-cell batteries; validation tests were also carried out with appropriate full-sized batteries.

  18. Electrolyte effects in Li(Si)/FeS2 thermal batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidotti, Ronald A.; Reinhardt, Frederick W.

    The most common electrochemical couple for thermally activated ('thermal') batteries is the Li-alloy/FeS2 system. The most common Li-alloys used for anodes are 20% Li-80% Al and 44% Li-56% Si (by weight); liquid Li immobilized with iron powder has also been used. The standard electrolyte that has been used in thermal batteries over the years is the LiCl-KCl eutectic that melts at 352 C. The LiCl-LiBr-LiF eutectic had the best rate and power characteristics. This electrolyte melts at 436(degrees)C and shows very low polarization because of the absence of Li(+) gradients common with the LiCl-KCl eutectic. The low-melting electrolytes examined included a KBr-LiBr-LiCl eutectic (melting at 321 C), a LiBr-KBr-LiF eutectic (melting at 313 C), and a CsBr-LiBr-KBr eutectic (melting at 238 C). The CsBr-based salt had poor conductivity and was not studied further. The LiBr-KBr-LiF eutectic outperformed the KBr-LiBr-LiCl eutectic and was selected for more extensive testing. Because of their lower melting points and larger liquidi relative to the LiCl-KCl eutectic, the low-melting electrolytes are prime candidates for long-life applications (i.e., for activated lives of one hour or more). This paper will detail the relative performance of the Li(Si)/FeS2 couple using primarily the LiCl-KCl (standard) eutectic, the LiCl-LiBr-LiF (all-Li) eutectic, and the LiBr-KBr-LiF (low-melting) eutectic electrolytes. Most of the tests were conducted with 5-cell batteries; validation tests were also carried out with appropriate full-sized batteries.

  19. Pulmonary fibrosis in aluminum oxide workers. Investigation of nine workers, with pathologic examination and microanalysis in three of them

    SciTech Connect

    Jederlinic, P.J.; Abraham, J.L.; Churg, A.; Himmelstein, J.S.; Epler, G.R.; Gaensler, E.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Epidemiologic surveys have indicated an excess of nonmalignant respiratory disease in workers exposed to aluminum oxide (Al2O3) during abrasives production. However, clinical, roentgenographic, histologic, and microanalytic description of these workers are lacking. This is a report of nine Al2O3-exposed workers with abnormal chest roentgenograms (profusion greater than or equal to 1/0, ILO/UC) from a plant engaged in the production of Al2O3 abrasives from alundum ore. Mean duration of exposure was 25 yr, and time since first exposure was 28 yr. in a subgroup of three, the severity of symptoms, reduction in the forced vital capacity (67% predicted) and diffusing capacity (51% predicted), and progressive roentgenographic changes (profusion greater than or equal to 2/2) prompted open lung biopsy. Lung tissue was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analysis. In each of the three biopsies, interstitial fibrosis with honeycombing was seen on routine section. In one biopsy, silica and asbestos fiber counts were at the low end of the range seen with silicosis and asbestosis; however, the absence of asbestos bodies and silicotic nodules suggested that the fibrosis was due to another cause. Metals occurred in amounts several orders of magnitude above background, and the majority was aluminum as Al2O3 and aluminum alloys. The findings in these nine workers suggests a common exposure as the possible cause. The nonspecific pathologic findings, absence of asbestos bodies and silicotic nodules, and the striking number of aluminum-containing particles suggest that Al2O3 is that common exposure. The possibility of mixed dust fibrosis should also be considered.

  20. The effect of crystal orientation on the aluminum anodes of the aluminum-air batteries in alkaline electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Liang; Lu, Huimin; Leng, Jing; Sun, Zegao; Chen, Chunbo

    2015-12-01

    Recently, aluminum-air (Al-air) batteries have received attention from researchers as an exciting option for safe and efficient batteries. The electrochemical performance of Aluminum anode remains an active area of investigation. In this paper, the electrochemical properties of polycrystalline Al, Al (001), (110) and (111) single crystals are investigated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 4 M NaOH and KOH. Hydrogen corrosion rates of the Al anodes are determined by hydrogen collection. Battery performance using the anodes is tested by constant current discharge at 10 mA cm-2. This is the first report showing that the electrochemical properties of Al are closely related to the crystallographic orientation in alkaline electrolytes. The (001) crystallographic plane has good corrosion resistance but (110) is more sensitive. Al (001) single crystals display higher anode efficiency and capacity density. Controlling the crystallographic orientation of the Al anode is another way to improve the performance of Al-air batteries in alkaline electrolytes.

  1. Non-Newtonian stress in an electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, J D

    2011-02-10

    Analogies are drawn between the dynamics of electrolyte solutions and those of dilute suspensions of charged colloidal particles. The viscosity of both electrolytes and suspensions is a function of the ionic concentration c and of the Peclet number Pe characterizing the ratio of applied shear rate that tends to deform the ionic charge clouds, to diffusion that allows them to relax back to equilibrium. In particular, previously published results on the rheology of colloidal suspensions ( Lever , D. A. J. Fluid Mech. 1979 , 92 , 421 - 433 ) imply not only that the Falkenhagen O(c(1/2)) electrical contribution to viscosity is shear thinning, as shown by H. Wada ( J. Stat. Mech.: Theory Exp. 2005 , P01001 ), but also that this contribution to the stress is elastic, with normal stress differences appearing at O(Pe(2)). In practice, the shear rates required for substantial departure from a Newtonian rheology are large, typically 10(9) s(-1).

  2. Glasslike behavior in aqueous electrolyte solutions.

    PubMed

    Turton, David A; Hunger, Johannes; Hefter, Glenn; Buchner, Richard; Wynne, Klaas

    2008-04-28

    When salts are added to water, generally the viscosity increases, suggesting that the ions increase the strength of the water's hydrogen-bond network. However, infrared pump-probe measurements on electrolyte solutions have found that ions have no influence on the rotational dynamics of water molecules, implying no enhancement or breakdown of the hydrogen-bond network. Here, we report optical Kerr effect and dielectric relaxation spectroscopic measurements, which have enabled us to separate the effects of rotational and transitional motions of the water molecules. These data show that electrolyte solutions behave like a supercooled liquid approaching a glass transition in which rotational and translational molecular motions are decoupled. It is now possible to understand previously conflicting viscosity data, nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation, and ultrafast infrared spectroscopy in a single unified picture.

  3. Electrolyte compositions for lithium ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng; Liao, Chen

    2016-03-29

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to an ionic liquid of the general formula Y.sup.+Z.sup.-, wherein Y.sup.+ is a positively-charged component of the ionic liquid and Z.sup.- is a negatively-charged component of the ionic liquid, wherein Z.sup.- is a boron-containing anion of the following formula: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to electrolyte compositions in which the boron-containing ionic liquid Y.sup.+Z.sup.- is incorporated into a lithium ion battery electrolyte, with or without admixture with another ionic liquid Y.sup.+X.sup.- and/or non-ionic solvent and/or non-ionic solvent additive.

  4. Dedicated nuclear facilities for electrolytic hydrogen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foh, S. E.; Escher, W. J. D.; Donakowski, T. D.

    1979-01-01

    An advanced technology, fully dedicated nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen production facility is presented. This plant will produce hydrogen and oxygen only and no electrical power will be generated for off-plant use. The conceptual design was based on hydrogen production to fill a pipeline at 1000 psi and a 3000 MW nuclear base, and the base-line facility nuclear-to-shaftpower and shaftpower-to-electricity subsystems, the water treatment subsystem, electricity-to-hydrogen subsystem, hydrogen compression, efficiency, and hydrogen production cost are discussed. The final conceptual design integrates a 3000 MWth high-temperature gas-cooled reactor operating at 980 C helium reactor-out temperature, direct dc electricity generation via acyclic generators, and high-current density, high-pressure electrolyzers based on the solid polymer electrolyte approach. All subsystems are close-coupled and optimally interfaced and pipeline hydrogen is produced at 1000 psi. Hydrogen costs were about half of the conventional nuclear electrolysis process.

  5. Non-aqueous aluminium-air battery based on ionic liquid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revel, Renaud; Audichon, Thomas; Gonzalez, Serge

    2014-12-01

    A promising metal-air secondary battery based on aluminium-oxygen couple is described. In this paper, we observed that an aluminium-air battery employing EMImCl, AlCl3 room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) as electrolyte and aluminium as negative electrode, has an exceptional reduced self-discharged rate. Due to its new and innovative type of electrolyte, this aluminium-air battery can support relatively high current densities (up to 0.6 mA cm-2) and an average voltage of 0.6-0.8 V. Such batteries may find immediate applications, as they can provide an internal, built-in autonomous and self-sustained energy source.

  6. Toward the design of high voltage magnesium-lithium hybrid batteries using dual-salt electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yingwen; Choi, Daiwon; Han, Kee Sung; Mueller, Karl T; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Sprenkle, Vincent L; Liu, Jun; Li, Guosheng

    2016-04-01

    We report a design of high voltage magnesium-lithium (Mg-Li) hybrid batteries through rational control of the electrolyte chemistry, electrode materials and cell architecture. Prototype devices with a structure of Mg-Li/LiFePO4 (LFP) and Mg-Li/LiMn2O4 (LMO) have been investigated. A Mg-Li/LFP cell using a dual-salt electrolyte 0.2 M [Mg2Cl2(DME)4][AlCl4]2 and 1.0 M LiTFSI exhibits voltages higher than 2.5 V (vs. Mg) and a high specific energy density of 246 W h kg(-1) under conditions that are amenable for practical applications. The successful demonstrations reported here could be a significant step forward for practical hybrid batteries. PMID:26959513

  7. For cermet inert anode containing oxide and metal phases useful for the electrolytic production of metals

    DOEpatents

    Ray, Siba P.; Liu, Xinghua; Weirauch, Douglas A.

    2002-01-01

    A cermet inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode comprises a ceramic phase including an oxide of Ni, Fe and M, where M is at least one metal selected from Zn, Co, Al, Li, Cu, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Ta, W, Mo, Hf and rare earths, preferably Zn and/or Co. Preferred ceramic compositions comprise Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3, NiO and ZnO or CoO. The cermet inert anode also comprises a metal phase such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. A preferred metal phase comprises Cu and Ag. The cermet inert anodes may be used in electrolytic reduction cells for the production of commercial purity aluminum as well as other metals.

  8. Functional electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-14

    Functional electrolyte solvents include compounds having at least one aromatic ring with 2, 3, 4 or 5 substituents, at least one of which is a substituted or unsubstituted methoxy group, at least one of which is a tert-butyl group and at least one of which is a substituted or unsubstituted polyether or poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) group bonded through oxygen to the aromatic ring, are provided.

  9. Solid acids as fuel cell electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Haile, S M; Boysen, D A; Chisholm, C R; Merle, R B

    2001-04-19

    Fuel cells are attractive alternatives to combustion engines for electrical power generation because of their very high efficiencies and low pollution levels. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells are generally considered to be the most viable approach for mobile applications. However, these membranes require humid operating conditions, which limit the temperature of operation to less than 100 degrees C; they are also permeable to methanol and hydrogen, which lowers fuel efficiency. Solid, inorganic, acid compounds (or simply, solid acids) such as CsHSO4 and Rb3H(SeO4)2 have been widely studied because of their high proton conductivities and phase-transition behaviour. For fuel-cell applications they offer the advantages of anhydrous proton transport and high-temperature stability (up to 250 degrees C). Until now, however, solid acids have not been considered viable fuel-cell electrolyte alternatives owing to their solubility in water and extreme ductility at raised temperatures (above approximately 125 degrees C). Here we show that a cell made of a CsHSO4 electrolyte membrane (about 1.5 mm thick) operating at 150-160 degrees C in a H2/O2 configuration exhibits promising electrochemical performances: open circuit voltages of 1.11 V and current densities of 44 mA cm-2 at short circuit. Moreover, the solid-acid properties were not affected by exposure to humid atmospheres. Although these initial results show promise for applications, the use of solid acids in fuel cells will require the development of fabrication techniques to reduce electrolyte thickness, and an assessment of possible sulphur reduction following prolonged exposure to hydrogen.

  10. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance model (FEB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzjerrell, D. G.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of various oral input water loads on solute and water distribution throughout the body are presented in the form of a model. The model was a three compartment model; the three compartments being plasma, interstitial fluid and cellular fluid. Sodium, potassium, chloride and urea were the only major solutes considered explicitly. The control of body water and electrolyte distribution was affected via drinking and hormone levels.

  11. Grain Boundary Effects in Solid Oxide Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Mai

    Ion conducting ceramics are essential in applications such as solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen sensors. Traditional 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) solid oxide electrolytes operate at high temperatures (850°C-1000°C) to achieve high ionic conductivity (> 0.1 Scm-1 at 1000°C) by oxygen ion diffusion via vacancies. Operation at such temperatures requires high temperature electrode materials and shortens device lifetime due to interdiffusion and reactions at electrode/electrolyte interfaces. These concerns drive research in current systems and alternative materials to improve ionic conductivity at reduced operating temperatures. This research considers how grain size and grain boundary phases affect three electrolyte materials with different ion diffusion mechanisms. First, the conductivity of ultra-fine grained two-step sintered and large grained conventional sintered 8YSZ are compared to determine if enhanced ionic conductivity occurs supporting the theory that ion blocking impurities in grain boundaries are diluted with decreasing grain size. Second, apatite-type lanthanide silicates (Ln9.33(SiO4)6O2) which exhibit anisotropic interstitial oxygen diffusion at intermediate temperatures (400°C-800°C) are studied to determine whether grain boundaries detrimentally affect conductivity. Lastly, proton conducting La-monazite (LaPO4) is evaluated to determine the role of Sr-doping (up to 10% substitution of La with Sr) on grain size and conductivity as well as the effect of sintering in air or water vapor on the formation of intergranular phases rich in Sr and P. This research investigates grain boundary effects in three solid oxide electrolyte materials with the goal of understanding how grain boundaries affect ionic conductivity and the atomistic behavior governing these different diffusion mechanisms.

  12. Improved Liquid-Electrode/Solid-Electrolyte Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Williams, Roger M.; Bankston, Clyde P.

    1990-01-01

    Organic liquid in cathode extends working life. Rechargeable solid-electrolyte electrochemical cell includes novel mixture of organic and inorganic materials in liquid cathode. Operates at temperature about 120 to 170 degrees C lower than sodium/sulfur cells. Offers energy density comparable to that of sodium/sulfur cells - about 10 Wh/kg - and suited to such applications as military systems and electric vehicles.

  13. ELECTROLYTIC CLADDING OF ZIRCONIUM ON URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Wick, J.J.

    1959-09-22

    A method is presented for coating uranium with zircoalum by rendering the uranium surface smooth and oxidefree, immersing it in a molten electrolytic bath in NaCI, K/sub 2/ZrF/sub 6/, KF, and ZrO/sub 2/, and before the article reaches temperature equilibrium with the bath, applying an electrolyzing current of 60 amperes per square dectmeter at approximately 3 volts to form a layer of zirconium metal on the uranium.

  14. Electrolyte reservoir for carbonate fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Iacovangelo, C.D.; Shores, D.A.

    1984-05-23

    An electrode for a carbonate fuel cell and method of making same are described wherein a substantially uniform mixture of an electrode-active powder and porous ceramic particles suitable for a carbonate fuel cell are formed into an electrode with the porous ceramic particles having pores in the range of from about 1 micron to about 3 microns, and a carbonate electrolyte is in the pores of the ceramic particles.

  15. Electrolyte reservoir for carbonate fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Iacovangelo, Charles D.; Shores, David A.

    1985-01-01

    An electrode for a carbonate fuel cell and method of making same wherein a substantially uniform mixture of an electrode-active powder and porous ceramic particles suitable for a carbonate fuel cell are formed into an electrode with the porous ceramic particles having pores in the range of from about 1 micron to about 3 microns, and a carbonate electrolyte is in the pores of the ceramic particles.

  16. Anti-perovskite solid electrolyte compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yusheng; Daemen, Luc Louis

    2015-12-26

    Solid electrolyte antiperovskite compositions for batteries, capacitors, and other electrochemical devices have chemical formula Li.sub.3OA, Li.sub.(3-x)M.sub.x/2OA, Li.sub.(3-x)N.sub.x/3OA, or LiCOX.sub.zY.sub.(1-z), wherein M and N are divalent and trivalent metals respectively and wherein A is a halide or mixture of halides, and X and Y are halides.

  17. The Evaluation of Triphenyl Phosphate as a Flame Retardant Additive to Improve the Safety of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Krause, F. C.; Hwang, C.; West, W. C.; Soler, J.; Prakash, G. K. S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.

    2011-01-01

    With the intent of improving the safety characteristics of lithium ion cells, electrolytes containing flame retardant additives have been investigated. A number of triphenyl phosphate-containing electrolytes were evaluated in both coin cells and experimental three electrode lithium-ion cells (containing reference electrodes). A number of chemistries were investigated, including MCMB carbon/LiNi(0.8)Co(0.2)O2 (NCO), graphite/LiNi(0.8)Co(0.15)Al(0.05)O2 (NCA), Li/Li(Li(0.17)Ni(0.25)Mn(0.58))O2, Li/LiNiMnCoO2 (NMC) and graphite/LiNiMnCoO2 (NMC), to study the effect that different electrolyte compositions have upon performance. A wide range of TPP-containing electrolytes were demonstrated to have good compatibility with the C/NCO, C/NCA, and Li/NMC systems, however, poor performance was initially observed with the high voltage C/NMC system. This necessitated the development of improved electrolytes with stabilizing additives, leading to formulations containing lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) that displayed substantially improved performance.

  18. Correlations Between Electrolyte Concentration and Solid Electrolyte Interphase Composition in Electrodeposited Lithium.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Soon-Ki; Kim, Jin Hee; Jeong, Yoon-Taek; Kim, Yang Soo

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of lithium on nickel electrodes in propylene carbonate (PC) electrolytes containing different concentrations of lithium salts, including LiN(SO2C2F5)2 or LiPF6. The electrode reactions were significantly affected by the electrolyte concentration. The cyclability of the electrodes was considerably improved by increasing the electrolyte concentration. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that the composition of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) was also affected by the electrolyte concentration. The SEI formed in the 1st cycle consisted mainly of LiF in 1 and 2.15 M LiN(SO2C2F5)2/PC solutions. After the 30th cycle in the former solution, there was a large decrease in the amount of LiF and a large increase in the amount of LiOH. On the other hand, in the latter solution there was a smaller decrease and a smaller increase in the amount of LiF and LiOH, respectively, as compared to the former solution after the 30th cycle. PMID:27455758

  19. Ionic Conduction Mechanism of Polymer Gel Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yuria; Kataoka, Hiroshi

    2002-12-01

    Carrier migration mechanism of polymer gel electrolyte for lithium secondary batteries was investigated through the dynamic behavior of diffusion coefficient and conductivity. The gel prepared with PEO showed a homogeneous structure with any fraction of the electrolyte solution. The diffusion coefficient of the ionic species decreased with the increase in the polymer fraction in the gel. Cation migration is closely associated with the polymer, showing the reduced activation energy for diffusion with polymer in contrast to the increasing feature of the activation energy of the anion diffusion. The PVDF-gel electrolytes have a solid solubility limit due to the swelling saturation. The excess solution was then trapped in the cavities of the swollen polymer network. As a result, the diffusion showed two components. One is the fast migration of the carriers similar to that in the solution and the other is the relatively slow migration in the swollen region. The latter was influenced by the polymer due to the physical blocking and chemical interactive effects.

  20. A new perturbation theory for electrolyte solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drunsel, F.; Zmpitas, W.; Gross, J.

    2014-08-01

    Developing physically based equations of state for electrolyte solutions is demanding due to the long range behaviour of the Coulombic interaction potentials. In this work, we present a new perturbation approach for nonprimitive model electrolyte solutions consisting of hard spheres with a positive or negative point charge or with point dipoles. We overcome the problem of diverging correlation integrals by separating the interaction potentials into short ranged parts and a long ranged contribution. For the point charges, the division is done like in most implementations of the Ewald sum. The perturbation expansion to 3rd order is formulated using the short ranged part of the potentials only, which results in converging correlation integrals for which we provide simple analytical expressions. The long range contribution to the Helmholtz energy is taken into account by a analytical term that has recently been presented by Rodgers and Weeks [J. M. Rodgers and J. D. Weeks, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 244108 (2009)]. In order to assess the proposed theory, we present molecular simulation data for Helmholtz energies of the same model electrolyte solutions. Predictions for the Helmholtz energy from the new theory are found to be in very good agreement with results from the molecular simulations for all state points we regarded.