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Sample records for al environ health

  1. Healthful School Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Charles C., Ed.; Wilson, Elizabeth Avery, Ed.

    A broad range of topics deals with the development, maintenance, and full utilization of a healthful school environment, encompassing such areas as--(1) school organizations which affect the student environment, (2) accident prevention, (3) the criteria for healthful food services, (4) physical education and the necessary athletic facilities, (5)…

  2. U-ALS: A Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piovesan, Sandra Dutra; Passerino, Liliana Maria; Medina, Roseclea Duarte

    2012-01-01

    The diffusion of the use of the learning virtual environments presents a great potential for the development of an application which meet the necessities in the education area. In view of the importance of a more dynamic application and that can adapt itself continuously to the students' necessities, the "U-ALS" (Ubiquitous Adapted Learning…

  3. [Health and environment].

    PubMed

    Tubiana, M

    2000-07-01

    The impact of the environment (air, water, food pollution) on health is a major concern in contemporary society. Unfortunately, there are relatively few objective epidemiological data on this subject and their accuracy is limited. Risks are often not quantified, whereas in public health the quantitative assessment of the various risks and benefits must provide the bases for a global strategy. Actual risks should be distinguished from putative risks and, when the risks are putative, an effort should be made to ascertain the upper and lower limits of the risk. The validity of a linear no threshold relationship for assessing putative risks should be discussed and, whenever appropriate, other relationships should be considered. Since emotional reactions often pervade environmental issues, which in turn are exploited for political or commercial reasons, it is not surprising that any statement or action may provoke violent debate. It is serious to underestimate the importance of a risk, since appropriate measures may not be put in place. However, it is equally serious to overestimate it because this can provoke unjustified fears, a pervasive unease, and a rejection of certain technologies, even to the point of discrediting science. It can lead therefore to a questioning of progress by instilling fears about any innovation, as well as facilitating the manipulation of public opinion for financial or ideological reasons, and finally to distortions in budget allocations and public health actions. Confronted with this situation, the Academy's role should be threefold. a) Whenever necessary, point out the need for an increase in appropriate fundamental research. When epidemiological data are uncertain, analyse the cause of these uncertainties and advocate appropriate development in statistical methodologies and epidemiological research, which could ascertain the upper limit of the putative risk. The lack of knowledge often results in public anxiety; this reaction should be

  4. [Health and environment].

    PubMed

    Tubiana, M

    2000-07-01

    The impact of the environment (air, water, food pollution) on health is a major concern in contemporary society. Unfortunately, there are relatively few objective epidemiological data on this subject and their accuracy is limited. Risks are often not quantified, whereas in public health the quantitative assessment of the various risks and benefits must provide the bases for a global strategy. Actual risks should be distinguished from putative risks and, when the risks are putative, an effort should be made to ascertain the upper and lower limits of the risk. The validity of a linear no threshold relationship for assessing putative risks should be discussed and, whenever appropriate, other relationships should be considered. Since emotional reactions often pervade environmental issues, which in turn are exploited for political or commercial reasons, it is not surprising that any statement or action may provoke violent debate. It is serious to underestimate the importance of a risk, since appropriate measures may not be put in place. However, it is equally serious to overestimate it because this can provoke unjustified fears, a pervasive unease, and a rejection of certain technologies, even to the point of discrediting science. It can lead therefore to a questioning of progress by instilling fears about any innovation, as well as facilitating the manipulation of public opinion for financial or ideological reasons, and finally to distortions in budget allocations and public health actions. Confronted with this situation, the Academy's role should be threefold. a) Whenever necessary, point out the need for an increase in appropriate fundamental research. When epidemiological data are uncertain, analyse the cause of these uncertainties and advocate appropriate development in statistical methodologies and epidemiological research, which could ascertain the upper limit of the putative risk. The lack of knowledge often results in public anxiety; this reaction should be

  5. Chemicals, Health, Environment, and Me.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Hall of Science.

    The CHEM (Chemicals, Health, Environment, and Me) Project is a series of 10 units designed to provide experiences for fifth and sixth graders that help them to accomplish an understanding of: (1) the nature of chemicals and how they interact with the environment; (2) how to collect, process, and analyze information; (3) how to use scientific…

  6. Health, Safety, and Environment Division

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, C

    1992-01-01

    The primary responsibility of the Health, Safety, and Environmental (HSE) Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to provide comprehensive occupational health and safety programs, waste processing, and environmental protection. These activities are designed to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. Meeting these responsibilities requires expertise in many disciplines, including radiation protection, industrial hygiene, safety, occupational medicine, environmental science and engineering, analytical chemistry, epidemiology, and waste management. New and challenging health, safety, and environmental problems occasionally arise from the diverse research and development work of the Laboratory, and research programs in HSE Division often stem from these applied needs. These programs continue but are also extended, as needed, to study specific problems for the Department of Energy. The results of these programs help develop better practices in occupational health and safety, radiation protection, and environmental science.

  7. [Environment and health: priorities for preventive medicine].

    PubMed

    Rakhmanin, Yu A; Mikhaylova, R I

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary environmental factors influencing the formation of the environment and public health have been analyzed The increasing chemical pollution of the environment (air water, soil, living environment), and the intensification of the impact of physical factors in the first place, "electromagnetic smog" associated with the widespread use of appliances and computer equipment, cellular threaten public health have been shown. In this connection, there were determined priorities and main directions of research in the platform "Preventive Environment", approved by Ministry of Health of Russia, which is based on the concept of the factor prevention of noninfectious diseases. PMID:25831920

  8. Health, justice, and the environment.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Roman, Gerard

    2007-05-01

    In this article, we argue that the scope of bioethical debate concerning justice in health should expand beyond the topic of access to health care and cover such issues as occupational hazards, safe housing, air pollution, water quality, food and drug safety, pest control, public health, childhood nutrition, disaster preparedness, literacy, and many other environmental factors that can cause differences in health. Since society does not have sufficient resources to address all of these environmental factors at one time, it is important to set priorities for bioethical theorizing and policy formation. Two considerations should be used to set these priorities: (1) the impact of the environmental factor on health inequality, and (2) the practicality of addressing the factor.

  9. HEALTH, JUSTICE, AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we argue that the scope of bioethical debate concerning justice in health should expand beyond the topic of access to health care and cover such issues as occupational hazards, safe housing, air pollution, water quality, food and drug safety, pest control, public health, childhood nutrition, disaster preparedness, literacy, and many other environmental factors that can cause differences in health. Since society does not have sufficient resources to address all of these environmental factors at one time, it is important to set priorities for bioethical theorizing and policy formation. Two considerations should be used to set these priorities: (1) the impact of the environmental factor on health inequality, and (2) the practicality of addressing the factor. PMID:17845481

  10. Home Health Agency Work Environments and Hospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Linda; Lake, Eileen T.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: An important goal of home health care is to assist patients to remain in community living arrangements. Yet home care often fails to prevent hospitalizations and to facilitate discharges to community living, thus putting patients at risk of additional health challenges and increasing care costs. Objectives: To determine the relationship between home health agency work environments and agency-level rates of acute hospitalization and discharges to community living. Methods and Design: Analysis of linked Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services Home Health Compare data and nurse survey data from 118 home health agencies. Robust regression models were used to estimate the effect of work environment ratings on between-agency variation in rates of acute hospitalization and community discharge. Results: Home health agencies with good work environments had lower rates of acute hospitalizations and higher rates of patient discharges to community living arrangements compared with home health agencies with poor work environments. Conclusion: Improved work environments in home health agencies hold promise for optimizing patient outcomes and reducing use of expensive hospital and institutional care. PMID:25215647

  11. The impact of the environment on health.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Karen A

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly science is providing evidence linking the disease burden of people with exposure to toxins in their environments. The quality of one's health is determined by physical, chemical, biological, social, and psychological problems in the environment. This article provides an overview of the current science on how environmental pollution is impacting upon the chronic disease burden in people, how toxic chemicals are traveling globally and entering the food chain, and the impact of changes in climate upon one's health.

  12. Environment and health in Africa.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Four environmental and public health measures were identified by the World Health Organization for the well-being of Africans. This article gives some action-oriented guidelines pertaining to these measures. The measures cover an adequate and safe water supply, hygienic disposal of excrement, disposal of solid and household wastes, and a healthy habitat and housing (location, structure, and amenities). Safe water supplies should be accessible within 15 minutes. Water should not be wasted. Households may obtain water from rainwater stocks, a family well, communal water, or public taps. Households must have a sufficient number of covered containers for water storage. Collecting vessels must be kept clean and always covered. Water must be boiled during outbreaks of water-borne enteric diseases and for the use of babies, infants, and the elderly. Public places must provide adequate quantities of water for drinking and hygiene. Water supply equipment in public and community places must be properly maintained. Chlorination of the public water supplies is necessary during a disease outbreak. Communities must identify alternative water sources during emergencies. Water supplies must be protected against pollution or contamination. Latrines must be constructed, improved, and maintained within 10 meters of households and at least 15 meters of wells. Public and community places must provide clean latrines. Wastes must be collected in a suitable covered container and placed safely away from infants and animals. In lieu of public waste collection, households must dispose of wastes daily in a pit covered with dirt. Hospitals must dispose of contaminated wastes with incineration and burial of ashes in a dirt-covered pit a distance from buildings. Public collections systems for waste removal are necessary in densely populated areas. Public repositories for waste should be suitably located, well maintained, and regularly emptied. Construction materials for repositories may be

  13. The built environment and mental health.

    PubMed

    Evans, Gary W

    2003-12-01

    The built environment has direct and indirect effects on mental health. High-rise housing is inimical to the psychological well-being of women with young children. Poor-quality housing appears to increase psychological distress, but methodological issues make it difficult to draw clear conclusions. Mental health of psychiatric patients has been linked to design elements that affect their ability to regulate social interaction (e.g., furniture configuration, privacy). Alzheimer's patients adjust better to small-scale, homier facilities that also have lower levels of stimulation. They are also better adjusted in buildings that accommodate physical wandering. Residential crowding (number of people per room) and loud exterior noise sources (e.g., airports) elevate psychological distress but do not produce serious mental illness. Malodorous air pollutants heighten negative affect, and some toxins (e.g., lead, solvents) cause behavioral disturbances (e.g., self-regulatory ability, aggression). Insufficient daylight is reliably associated with increased depressive symptoms. Indirectly, the physical environment may influence mental health by altering psychosocial processes with known mental health sequelae. Personal control, socially supportive relationships, and restoration from stress and fatigue are all affected by properties of the built environment. More prospective, longitudinal studies and, where feasible, randomized experiments are needed to examine the potential role of the physical environment in mental health. Even more challenging is the task of developing underlying models of how the built environment can affect mental health. It is also likely that some individuals may be more vulnerable to mental health impacts of the built environment. Because exposure to poor environmental conditions is not randomly distributed and tends to concentrate among the poor and ethnic minorities, we also need to focus more attention on the health implications of multiple

  14. Aluminum in the Environment and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, John R. J.; Campbell, Irene R.; Tepper, Lloyd B.; Lingg, Robert D.

    1974-01-01

    The review of over 800 references on aluminum (Al) published since the mid-fifties covers the occurrence of Al in soil, air, water, plants and food products, as well as air and water pollution problems. In addition, the existing quality criteria, the biology and toxicology of Al, and the therapeutic and medical uses are presented. It is concluded that absorption and retention or accumulation of Al in humans occurs at lower levels of intake than had been assumed formerly. However, levels of 5 to 50 times the normal daily intake do not appear to interfere with other metabolic processes. The adverse effects of Al reported in the more recent years resulted from the inhalation or ingestion of Al in concentrations many times greater than the amounts present under normal circumstances. As in the past, there is still no need for concern by the public or producers of Al or its products concerning hazards to human health derived from well established and extensively used products. PMID:4470920

  15. Environment and health: Probes and sensors for environment digital control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schettini, Chiara

    2014-05-01

    The idea of studying the environment using New Technologies (NT) came from a MIUR (Ministry of Education of the Italian Government) notice that allocated funds for the realization of innovative school science projects. The "Environment and Health" project uses probes and sensors for digital control of environment (water, air and soil). The working group was composed of 4 Science teachers from 'Liceo Statale G. Mazzini ', under the coordination of teacher Chiara Schettini. The Didactic Section of Naples City of Sciences helped the teachers in developing the project and it organized a refresher course for them on the utilization of digital control sensors. The project connects Environment and Technology because the study of the natural aspects and the analysis of the chemical-physical parameters give students and teachers skills for studying the environment based on the utilization of NT in computing data elaboration. During the practical project, samples of air, water and soil are gathered in different contexts. Sample analysis was done in the school's scientific laboratory with digitally controlled sensors. The data are elaborated with specific software and the results have been written in a booklet and in a computing database. During the first year, the project involved 6 school classes (age of the students 14—15 years), under the coordination of Science teachers. The project aims are: 1) making students more aware about environmental matters 2) achieving basic skills for evaluating air, water and soil quality. 3) achieving strong skills for the utilization of digitally controlled sensors. 4) achieving computing skills for elaborating and presenting data. The project aims to develop a large environmental conscience and the need of a ' good ' environment for defending our health. Moreover it would increase the importance of NT as an instrument of knowledge.

  16. Wellness health care and the architectural environment.

    PubMed

    Verderber, S; Grice, S; Gutentag, P

    1987-01-01

    The stress management-wellness health care environment is emerging as a distinct facility type in the 1980s. Yet the idea is not a new one, with roots based in the Greek Asklepieon dating from 480 B.C. This and later Western transformations for health promotion embraced the therapeutic amenity inherent in meditation, solace and communality with nature based on the premise that the need for refuge from the stress inherent in one's daily life is deep-rooted in humans. A two-phase study is reported on wellness health care provider priorities, relative to the architectural features of stress-wellness centers. Representatives of 11 health care organizations responded to a telephone survey questionnaire, and 128 respondents completed a user needs questionnaire. Four major issues were addressed: image and appearance, location and setting, services provided and costs, and patterns of use. Convenience to one's place of work, a balanced mixture of clinical and nonclinical programs, a noninstitutional retreat-like environment, and membership cost structures were found to be major user considerations with respect to planning and design concepts for wellness health care environments. Directions for further research are discussed.

  17. Satellites as Sentinels for Environment & Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2002-01-01

    Satellites as Sentinels for Environment & Health Remotely-sensed data and observations are providing powerful new tools for addressing human and ecosystem health by enabling improved understanding of the relationships and linkages between health-related environmental parameters and society as well as techniques for early warning of potential health problems. NASA Office of Earth Science Applications Program has established a new initiative to utilize its data, expertise, and observations of the Earth for public health applications. In this initiative, lead by Goddard Space Flight Center, remote sensing, geographic information systems, improved computational capabilities, and interdisciplinary research between the Earth and health science communities are being combined in rich collaborative efforts resulting in more rapid problem-solving, early warning, and prevention in global health issues. This presentation provides a number of recent examples of applications of advanced remote sensing and other technologies to health.and security issues related to the following: infectious and vector-borne diseases; urban, regional and global air pollution; African and Asian airborne dust; heat stress; UV radiation; water-borne disease; extreme weather; contaminant pathways (ocean, atmosphere, ice)

  18. Validation environment for AIPS/ALS: Implementation and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segall, Zary; Siewiorek, Daniel; Caplan, Eddie; Chung, Alan; Czeck, Edward; Vrsalovic, Dalibor

    1990-01-01

    The work is presented which was performed in porting the Fault Injection-based Automated Testing (FIAT) and Programming and Instrumentation Environments (PIE) validation tools, to the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) in the context of the Ada Language System (ALS) application, as well as an initial fault free validation of the available AIPS system. The PIE components implemented on AIPS provide the monitoring mechanisms required for validation. These mechanisms represent a substantial portion of the FIAT system. Moreover, these are required for the implementation of the FIAT environment on AIPS. Using these components, an initial fault free validation of the AIPS system was performed. The implementation is described of the FIAT/PIE system, configured for fault free validation of the AIPS fault tolerant computer system. The PIE components were modified to support the Ada language. A special purpose AIPS/Ada runtime monitoring and data collection was implemented. A number of initial Ada programs running on the PIE/AIPS system were implemented. The instrumentation of the Ada programs was accomplished automatically inside the PIE programming environment. PIE's on-line graphical views show vividly and accurately the performance characteristics of Ada programs, AIPS kernel and the application's interaction with the AIPS kernel. The data collection mechanisms were written in a high level language, Ada, and provide a high degree of flexibility for implementation under various system conditions.

  19. Environment and Health: Not Only Cancer.

    PubMed

    Colao, Annamaria; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Piscitelli, Prisco

    2016-07-19

    The Hippocratic tradition emphasized environmental causes of diseases and the need for harmony between the individual and the natural environment as the right philosophy to maintain a good health status. Public awareness and scientific attention concerning environmental pollution is usually focused on the consequent increased risk of developing cancer. Air pollution has been recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) to cause cardiovascular and respiratroy diseases, as well as lung cancer, after acute/chronic exposure to fine particulates (PM2.5 and PM10) even at concentrations which are 50% lower than those accepted as legal limits in many developed countries. An increase of 10 µg/m³ of PM2.5 produces a +4%-6% of overall mortality, a +10% of cardiovascular disease prevalence (arithmyas, acute myocardial infarctions, and heart failure) and a +22% of lung cancer prevalence. In addition to these chronic effects, acute hospitalizations are also affected, especially among susceptible populations such as children and diabetic patients. Water and soil contamination also have an additional detrimental effect on people's health. Other issues concerning environment contamination and human health include male/female fertility, metabolic and thyroid conditions, but also professional exposures resulting in occupational diseases. Moreover, in the perspective of "gender medicine", different acute or chronic effects of environmental pollution should be specifically assessed both in men and in women. This special issue on "Environmental Diseases" is aimed at providing a global overview about different threats to human health possibily originating from environmental contamination.

  20. Environment and Health: Not Only Cancer.

    PubMed

    Colao, Annamaria; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Piscitelli, Prisco

    2016-01-01

    The Hippocratic tradition emphasized environmental causes of diseases and the need for harmony between the individual and the natural environment as the right philosophy to maintain a good health status. Public awareness and scientific attention concerning environmental pollution is usually focused on the consequent increased risk of developing cancer. Air pollution has been recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) to cause cardiovascular and respiratroy diseases, as well as lung cancer, after acute/chronic exposure to fine particulates (PM2.5 and PM10) even at concentrations which are 50% lower than those accepted as legal limits in many developed countries. An increase of 10 µg/m³ of PM2.5 produces a +4%-6% of overall mortality, a +10% of cardiovascular disease prevalence (arithmyas, acute myocardial infarctions, and heart failure) and a +22% of lung cancer prevalence. In addition to these chronic effects, acute hospitalizations are also affected, especially among susceptible populations such as children and diabetic patients. Water and soil contamination also have an additional detrimental effect on people's health. Other issues concerning environment contamination and human health include male/female fertility, metabolic and thyroid conditions, but also professional exposures resulting in occupational diseases. Moreover, in the perspective of "gender medicine", different acute or chronic effects of environmental pollution should be specifically assessed both in men and in women. This special issue on "Environmental Diseases" is aimed at providing a global overview about different threats to human health possibily originating from environmental contamination. PMID:27447654

  1. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 1O-Point Initiative to strengthen environment,safety, and health (ES H) programs, and waste management activities at involved conducting DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points independent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are more focused, concentrating on ES H management, ES H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES H areas. This volume contains appendices to the Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment Manual.

  2. [Assessing the impact of the environment on human health].

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Marine

    2016-05-01

    In public health, nurses are concerned with the global health of populations. A recently qualified nurse, interested in this area of health, enhanced her skills with a master's degree specialising in the links between the environment and health.

  3. Environment and Health: Not Only Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Colao, Annamaria; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Piscitelli, Prisco

    2016-01-01

    The Hippocratic tradition emphasized environmental causes of diseases and the need for harmony between the individual and the natural environment as the right philosophy to maintain a good health status. Public awareness and scientific attention concerning environmental pollution is usually focused on the consequent increased risk of developing cancer. Air pollution has been recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) to cause cardiovascular and respiratroy diseases, as well as lung cancer, after acute/chronic exposure to fine particulates (PM2.5 and PM10) even at concentrations which are 50% lower than those accepted as legal limits in many developed countries. An increase of 10 µg/m3 of PM2.5 produces a +4%–6% of overall mortality, a +10% of cardiovascular disease prevalence (arithmyas, acute myocardial infarctions, and heart failure) and a +22% of lung cancer prevalence. In addition to these chronic effects, acute hospitalizations are also affected, especially among susceptible populations such as children and diabetic patients. Water and soil contamination also have an additional detrimental effect on people’s health. Other issues concerning environment contamination and human health include male/female fertility, metabolic and thyroid conditions, but also professional exposures resulting in occupational diseases. Moreover, in the perspective of “gender medicine”, different acute or chronic effects of environmental pollution should be specifically assessed both in men and in women. This special issue on “Environmental Diseases” is aimed at providing a global overview about different threats to human health possibily originating from environmental contamination. PMID:27447654

  4. Mechanisms linking the social environment to health in African Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The social environment may influence health directly or indirectly through psychosocial factors, such as perceived stress, depressive symptoms and discrimination. This study explored potential psychosocial mediators of the associations between the social environment and physical and mental health in...

  5. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 10-Point Initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES H) programs, and waste management activities at DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points involved conducting dent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special independent Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are more focused, concentrating on ES H management, ES H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES H areas. This manual documents the processes to be used to perform the ES H Progress Assessments. It was developed based upon the lessons learned from Tiger Team Assessments, the two pilot Progress Assessments, and Progress Assessments that have been completed. The manual will be updated periodically to reflect lessons learned or changes in policy.

  6. Eco-health in the rural environment.

    PubMed

    Carr-harris, J

    1993-04-01

    The rural population in India is exposed to working and living conditions: drinking supply, sanitation, fuel wood shortages, maternal mortality, alcoholism among males, pesticide use, environmental degradation, migrant workers, sickness and injury compensation in natural resource based industry, and mechanization in the workplace. Good health is dependent on a supportive home environment which physically provides protection, has access to safe potable drinking water and sanitary facilities, and reinforces health habits and behavior. One of the greatest health hazards is the lack of safe drinking water. The result is increases in water-related diseases such as dysentery, cholera, diarrhea, and hepatitis among men, women, children, and fetuses. Today only 30% of the total population has access to sufficient, safe drinking water. Personal hygiene is also affected by inadequate supplies. Another hazard is waste disposal, which if improperly managed, results in hookworm and ascarias infestations. Barefoot people are particularly affected. In 1982, 8790 villages were found to be without latrines, or with only bucket latrines. The firewood fuel shortages impact directly on women through food habit changes and excessive labor in acquiring adequate supplies. Women are also affected by high rates of anemia which are a by-product of environmental and social conditions. There are a number of psychosocial conditions that impact on the health of women. In Himachal Pradesh women complain that their husbands drink too much alcohol, which increases acts of domestic violence. Male migration for work places women in stressful work conditions managing the land and child care, and exposing women to sexually transmitted diseases. The workplace also had hazards. Agricultural workers have little bargaining power and few organizations representing their interests. A brief description is given of conditions among plantation workers in Assam and Darjeeling. There are hazards due to unskilled

  7. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Poritosh; Orikasa, Takahiro; Okadome, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Shiina, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR), germinated brown rice (GBR) and partially-milled rice (PMR) contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR). Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR) seems to be relatively prone to arsenic contamination compared to that of untreated rice, if contaminated water is used for parboiling and cooking. A change in consumption patterns from PBR to untreated rice (non-parboiled), and WMR to PMR or BR may conserve about 43–54 million tons of rice and reduce the risk from arsenic contamination in the arsenic prone area. This study also reveals that a change in rice consumption patterns not only supply more food components but also reduces environmental loads. A switch in production and consumption patterns would improve food security where food grains are scarce, and provide more health beneficial food components, may prevent some diseases and ease the burden on the Earth. However, motivation and awareness of the environment and health, and even a nominal incentive may require for a method switching which may help in building a sustainable society. PMID:21776212

  8. [Health, environment and sustainable development in Mexico].

    PubMed

    1998-09-01

    This article is based on "Salud, ambiente y desarrollo humano sostenible: el caso de México," a document prepared in June 1997 by the Comité Técnico Nacional para el Desarrollo Sostenible. It opens with information regarding the epidemiologic and demographic changes that have taken place in Mexico, such as the decrease in communicable diseases, the rise in noncommunicable diseases, and the less conspicuous increase in lesions resulting from accidents or acts of violence. This is followed by a discussion of priority problems and problems of lesser magnitude in environmental health, specifically those relating to water and air quality, as well as disposal of household and dangerous wastes. Finally, it proposes three areas of intervention in light of the structural problems detected: the absence of an integrated information system covering the area of health, environment, and development; the absence of channels of communication within and between institutions and sectors, and the lack of coordination in planning and implementing programs and actions in this field.

  9. ALS: A bucket of genes, environment, metabolism and unknown ingredients.

    PubMed

    Zufiría, Mónica; Gil-Bea, Francisco Javier; Fernández-Torrón, Roberto; Poza, Juan José; Muñoz-Blanco, Jose Luis; Rojas-García, Ricard; Riancho, Javier; de Munain, Adolfo López

    2016-07-01

    The scientific scenario of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has dramatically changed since TDP-43 aggregates were discovered in 2006 as the main component of the neuronal inclusions seen in the disease, and more recently, when the implication of C9ORF72 expansion in familial and sporadic cases of ALS and frontotemporal dementia was confirmed. These discoveries have enlarged an extense list of genes implicated in different cellular processes such as RNA processing or autophagia among others and have broaden the putative molecular targets of the disease. Some of ALS-related genes such as TARDBP or SOD1 among others have important roles in the regulation of glucose and fatty acids metabolism, so that an impairment of fatty acids (FA) consumption and ketogenic deficits during exercise in ALS patients would connect the physiopathology with some of the more intriguing epidemiological traits of the disease. The current understanding of ALS as part of a continuum with other neurodegenerative diseases and a crossroads between genetic, neurometabolic and environmental factors represent a fascinating model of interaction that could be translated to other neurodegenerative diseases. In this review we summarize the most relevant data obtained in the ten last years and the key lines for future research in ALS.

  10. ALS: A bucket of genes, environment, metabolism and unknown ingredients.

    PubMed

    Zufiría, Mónica; Gil-Bea, Francisco Javier; Fernández-Torrón, Roberto; Poza, Juan José; Muñoz-Blanco, Jose Luis; Rojas-García, Ricard; Riancho, Javier; de Munain, Adolfo López

    2016-07-01

    The scientific scenario of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has dramatically changed since TDP-43 aggregates were discovered in 2006 as the main component of the neuronal inclusions seen in the disease, and more recently, when the implication of C9ORF72 expansion in familial and sporadic cases of ALS and frontotemporal dementia was confirmed. These discoveries have enlarged an extense list of genes implicated in different cellular processes such as RNA processing or autophagia among others and have broaden the putative molecular targets of the disease. Some of ALS-related genes such as TARDBP or SOD1 among others have important roles in the regulation of glucose and fatty acids metabolism, so that an impairment of fatty acids (FA) consumption and ketogenic deficits during exercise in ALS patients would connect the physiopathology with some of the more intriguing epidemiological traits of the disease. The current understanding of ALS as part of a continuum with other neurodegenerative diseases and a crossroads between genetic, neurometabolic and environmental factors represent a fascinating model of interaction that could be translated to other neurodegenerative diseases. In this review we summarize the most relevant data obtained in the ten last years and the key lines for future research in ALS. PMID:27236050

  11. Al environment in tectosilicate and peraluminous glasses: A 27Al MQ-MAS NMR, Raman, and XANES investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuville, Daniel R.; Cormier, Laurent; Massiot, Dominique

    2004-12-01

    Tecto-aluminosilicate and peraluminous glasses have been prepared by conventional and laser heating techniques, respectively, in the CaO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2 system. The structure of these glasses were studied using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray absorption at the Al K-edge and 27Al NMR spectroscopy with two different high fields (400 and 750 MHz). Raman spectroscopy and X-ray absorption are techniques sensitive to the network polymerization and, in particular, show different signal as a function of silica content. However, these two techniques are less sensitive than NMR to describe the local aluminium environment. For tectosilicate glasses, aluminium in five-fold coordination, [5]Al, was found and a careful quantification allows the determination of a significant amount of [5]Al (7% in the anorthite glass). The proportion of [5]Al increases for the peraluminous glasses with small amounts (<2%) of six-fold coordination, [6]Al. The presence of [5]Al agrees with previous observations of the existence of nonbridging oxygens (NBOs) in tectosilicate compositions. However, the proportion of [5]Al in the present study indicates that no major proportion of triclusters (oxygen coordinated to three (Si,Al)O 4 tetrahedra) is required to explain these NBOS.

  12. Role of defect coordination environment on point defects formation energies in Ni-Al intermetallic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennessen, Emrys; Rondinelli, James

    We present a relationship among the point defect formation energies and the bond strengths, lengths, and local coordination environment for Ni-Al intermetallic alloys based on density functional calculations, including Ni3Al, Ni5Al3, NiAl,Ni3Al4, Ni2Al3 and NiAl3. We find the energetic stability of vacancy and anti-site defects for the entire family can be attributed primarily to changes in interactions among first nearest neighbors, owing to spatially localized charge density reconstructions in the vicinity of the defect site. We also compare our interpretation of the local coordination environment with a DFT-based cluster expansion and discuss the performance of each approach in predicting defect stability in the Ni-Al system.

  13. UMTRA Project: Environment, Safety, and Health Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The US Department of Energy has prepared this UMTRA Project Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Plan to establish the policy, implementing requirements, and guidance for the UMTRA Project. The requirements and guidance identified in this plan are designed to provide technical direction to UMTRA Project contractors to assist in the development and implementation of their ES and H plans and programs for UMTRA Project work activities. Specific requirements set forth in this UMTRA Project ES and H Plan are intended to provide uniformity to the UMTRA Project`s ES and H programs for processing sites, disposal sites, and vicinity properties. In all cases, this UMTRA Project ES and H Plan is intended to be consistent with applicable standards and regulations and to provide guidance that is generic in nature and will allow for contractors` evaluation of site or contract-specific ES and H conditions. This plan specifies the basic ES and H requirements applicable to UMTRA Project ES and H programs and delineates responsibilities for carrying out this plan. DOE and contractor ES and H personnel are expected to exercise professional judgment and apply a graded approach when interpreting these guidelines, based on the risk of operations.

  14. Occupational health and environment research 1983: Health, Safety, and Environment Division. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Voelz, G.L.

    1985-05-01

    The primary responsibility of the Health, Safety, and Environment (HSE) Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to provide comprehensive occupational health and safety programs, waste processing, and environmental protection. These activities are designed to protect the workers, the public, and the environment. Evaluation of respiratory protective equipment included the XM-30 and M17A1 military masks, use of MAG-1 spectacles in respirators, and eight self-contained units. The latter units were used in an evaluation of test procedures used for Bureau of Mines approval of breathing apparatuses. Analyses of air samples from field studies of a modified in situ oil shale retorting facility were performed for total cyclohexane extractables and selected polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Aerosols generation and characterization of effluents from oil shale processing were continued as part of an inhalation toxicology study. Additional data on plutonium excretion in urine are presented and point up problems in using the Langham equation to predict plutonium deposition in the body from long-term excretion data. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1983 showed the highest estimated radiation dose from Laboratory operations to be about 26% of the natural background radiation dose. Several studies on radionuclides and their transport in the Los Alamos environment are described. The chemical quality of surface and ground water near the geothermal hot dry rock facility is described. Short- and long-term consequences to man from releases of radionuclides into the environment can be simulated by the BIOTRAN computer model, which is discussed brirfly.

  15. Nonbibliographic Databases in a Corporate Health, Safety, and Environment Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubillas, Mary M.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes the characteristics of TOXIN, CHEMFILE, and the Product Profile Information System (PPIS), nonbibliographic databases used by Shell Oil Company's Health, Safety, and Environment Organization. (FM)

  16. Built environment and elderly population health: a comprehensive literature review.

    PubMed

    Garin, Noe; Olaya, Beatriz; Miret, Marta; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Power, Michael; Bucciarelli, Paola; Haro, Josep Maria

    2014-01-01

    Global population aging over recent years has been linked to poorer health outcomes and higher healthcare expenditure. Policies focusing on healthy aging are currently being developed but a complete understanding of health determinants is needed to guide these efforts. The built environment and other external factors have been added to the International Classification of Functioning as important determinants of health and disability. Although the relationship between the built environment and health has been widely examined in working age adults, research focusing on elderly people is relatively recent. In this review, we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the evidence on the built environment and health in the elderly.

  17. Built Environment and Elderly Population Health: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Garin, Noe; Olaya, Beatriz; Miret, Marta; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Power, Michael; Bucciarelli, Paola; Haro, Josep Maria

    2014-01-01

    Global population aging over recent years has been linked to poorer health outcomes and higher healthcare expenditure. Policies focusing on healthy aging are currently being developed but a complete understanding of health determinants is needed to guide these efforts. The built environment and other external factors have been added to the International Classification of Functioning as important determinants of health and disability. Although the relationship between the built environment and health has been widely examined in working age adults, research focusing on elderly people is relatively recent. In this review, we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the evidence on the built environment and health in the elderly. PMID:25356084

  18. Work environments for healthy and motivated public health nurses.

    PubMed

    Saito, Naoko; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Kitaike, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives By defining health as mental health and productivity and performance as work motivation, the study aimed to identify work environments that promote the health and motivation of public health nurses, using the concept of a healthy work organizations, which encompasses the coexistence of excellent health for each worker and the productivity and performance of the organization.Methods Self-administered questionnaires were sent to 363 public health nurses in 41 municipal public health departments in Chiba prefecture. The questions were comprised of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) for mental health and the Morale Measurement Scale (5 items) for work motivation. Demographic data, workplace attributes, workload, and workplace environment were set as independent variables. The Comfortable Workplace Survey (35 items in 7 areas) was used to assess workers' general work environments. The "Work Environment for Public Health Nurses" scale (25 items) was developed to assess the specific situations of public health nurses. While aggregation was carried out area by area for the general work environment, factor analysis and factor-by-factor aggregation were used for public health nurse-specific work environments. Mental health and work motivation results were divided in two based on the total scores, which were then evaluated by t-tests and χ(2) tests. Items that showed a significant correlation were analyzed using logistic regression.Results The valid responses of 215 participants were analyzed (response rate: 59.2%). For the general work environment, high scores (the higher the score, the better the situation) were obtained for "contributions to society" and "human relationships" and low scores were obtained for "career building and human resource development." For public health nurse-specific work environments, high scores were obtained for "peer support," while low scores were obtained for "easy access to advice and training" and

  19. A Safe and Healthful Work Environment

    PubMed Central

    McCullagh, Marjorie C.; Berry, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health nursing focuses on promotion and restoration of health, prevention of illness and injury, protection from work-related and environmental hazards, and corporate profitability. Quality education about the relationship between work and health is critical for nurses’ success regardless of work setting, and is consistent with Healthy People 2020 goals, but is lacking or limited in some programs. This report introduces an innovative occupational health nursing curriculum for students enrolled in baccalaureate nursing programs. The process of designing and pilot testing this novel curriculum, its alignment with nursing competencies, and its format and learning activities are described. Preparing professional nurses to understand the role of the occupational health nurse and the relationship between work and health is an essential curricular consideration for contemporary nursing education. PMID:26077879

  20. Flourishing: Exploring Predictors of Mental Health within the College Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the predictive factors of student mental health within the college environment. Participants: Students enrolled at 7 unique universities during years 2008 (n = 1,161) and 2009 (n = 1,459). Methods: Participants completed survey measures of mental health, consequences of alcohol use, and engagement in the college environment.…

  1. Health Clinic Environments in Georgia Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Susan Rogers

    2005-01-01

    Schools seem to be the logical place to serve the health needs of students, since children spend a majority of their time there. Design standards were not available for health clinics in Georgia elementary schools; therefore, this study examined key characteristics of an elementary school clinic in order to determine the importance of each design…

  2. Psychosocial environment: a health promotion model.

    PubMed

    Kar, S B

    1983-01-01

    This article presents a multidimensional model of psychosocial determinants of health behavior for health promotion research and policy analysis. Frequently, health promotion focuses almost exclusively on intrapsychic determinants and on individual level behavior. Based upon Field Theory and attitude theories, this proposed model holds that in populations with comparable sociodemographic and biological status (exogenous variables) a health behavior is a function of direct and interaction effects of five key intrapsychic and external variables. These are: behavioral intentions, social support, accessibility of means for action, personal autonomy, and action situation. Empirical tests with cross-cultural studies in Venezuela, Kenya, and the Philippines provide substantial support for the model. The findings suggest that while health promotion strategies should deal with intrapsychic determinants of behavior, key extrapsychic factors (such as social support, quality and accessibility of health care measures, and situational factors) all have direct and independent effects on health behavior as well. Health promotion research and interventions which aim exclusively at intrapsychic determinants would thus have rather limited overall value. The article discusses key research and policy implications of the model presented.

  3. Is physical activity in natural environments better for mental health than physical activity in other environments?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that there may be synergy between the psychological benefits of physical activity, and the restorative effects of contact with a natural environment; physical activity in a natural environment might produce greater mental health benefits than physical activity elsewhere. However, such experiments are typically short-term and, by definition, artificially control the participant types, physical activity and contact with nature. This observational study asked whether such effects can be detected in everyday settings at a population level. It used data from the Scottish Health Survey 2008, describing all environments in which respondents were physically active. Associations were sought between use of each environment, and then use of environments grouped as natural or non-natural, and the risk of poor mental health (measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)) and level of wellbeing (measured by the Warwick Edinburgh Mental health and Wellbeing Score (WEMWBS). Results showed an independent association between regular use of natural environments and a lower risk of poor mental health, but not for activity in other types of environment. For example, the odds of poor mental health (GHQ ≥ 4) among those regularly using woods or forests for physical activity were 0.557 (95% CI 0.323-0.962), compared to non-users. However, regular use of natural environments was not clearly associated with greater wellbeing, whilst regular use of non-natural environments was. The study concludes that physical activity in natural environments is associated with a reduction in the risk of poor mental health to a greater extent than physical activity in other environments, but also that activity in different types of environment may promote different kinds of positive psychological response. Access to natural environments for physical activity should be protected and promoted as a contribution to protecting and improving population mental health.

  4. Environment and Women's Health Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... I have been exposed to lead? How is lead poisoning treated? What can I do to reduce exposure ... the greatest risk of health problems due to lead poisoning. In children, lead can harm the brain and ...

  5. Urban environment and health: food security.

    PubMed

    Galal, Osman; Corroon, Meghan; Tirado, Cristina

    2010-07-01

    The authors examine the impact of urbanization on food security and human health in the Middle East. Within-urban-population disparities in food security represent one of the most dramatic indicators of economic and health disparities. These disparities are reflected in a double burden of health outcomes: increasing levels of chronic disease as well as growing numbers of undernourished among the urban poor. These require further comprehensive solutions. Some of the factors leading to food insecurity are an overdependence on purchased food commodities, lack of sufficient livelihoods, rapid reductions in peripheral agricultural land, and adverse impacts of climate change. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Food Security Framework is used to examine and compare 2 cities in the Middle East: Amman, Jordan, and Manama, Bahrain.

  6. [The Environment: Agriculture and Health Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Charles C.; Byerly, T. C.

    On January 1, 1970, President Nixon signed into law a bill establishing a national policy to maintain conditions of the environment under which man and nature can exist in productive harmony. In keeping with this, the 1970 National Agricultural Outlook Conference was held, at which the 2 speeches presented in this document were delivered. The…

  7. Heterogeneity in Health Care Computing Environments

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Soumitra

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses issues of heterogeneity in computer systems, networks, databases, and presentation techniques, and the problems it creates in developing integrated medical information systems. The need for institutional, comprehensive goals are emphasized. Using the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center's computing environment as the case study, various steps to solve the heterogeneity problem are presented.

  8. Establishing and Maintaining Health Environments: Toward a Social Ecology of Health Promotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokols, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    Offers a social ecological analysis of health promotive environments, emphasizing the transactions between individual or collective behavior and the health resources and constraints that exist in specific environmental settings. Directions for future research on the creation and maintenance of health promotive environments also are examined. (JB)

  9. Women's Health Issues in the Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Richard T.

    1999-01-01

    Women have been an integral part of US space crews since Sally Ride's mission in 1983, and a total of 40 women have been selected as US astronauts. The first Russian female cosmonaut flew in 1963. This presentation examines the health care and reproductive aspects of flying women in space. In addition, the reproductive implications of delaying one's childbearing for an astronaut career and the impact of new technology such as assisted reproductive techniques are examined. The reproductive outcomes of the US female astronauts who have become pregnant following space flight exposure are also presented. Since women have gained considerable operational experience on the Shuttle, Mir and during EVA, the unique operational considerations for preflight certification, menstruation control and hygiene, contraception, and urination are discussed. Medical and surgical implications for women on long-duration missions to remote locations are still evolving, and enabling technologies for health care delivery are being developed. There has been considerable progress in the development of microgravity surgical techniques, including laparoscopy, thoracoscopy, and laparotomy. The concepts of prevention of illness, conversion of surgical conditions to medically treatable conditions and surgical intervention for women on long duration space flights are considered.

  10. Mexico: The Socio-Economic and Cultural Environment for Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambler, Moses

    Numerous factors influencing health status and health care in Mexico are reviewed in this paper. Part I covers socioeconomic influences including agricultural and land tenure patterns, oil production, population growth rate, and the extent of poverty. Part II discusses the political environment, emphasizing the effects of politics on strategies…

  11. Air control system providing healthful enclosed environment

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.A.

    1991-08-27

    This patent describes an environmentally controlled building. It comprises an outer wall defining an outer building perimeter and having at least one fenestration therethrough for passage of personnel; a roof supported by and cooperating with the outer wall to define a building exterior and interior; and an environmental control system for controlling the environment within the building interior, the environmental control system including a heating and air conditioning unit, having an air inlet, for controlling the temperature of air drawing into the air control system; a humidity control unit, having an inlet connected to the heating and air conditioning unit, for controlling the humidity of air within the air control system; an air blower for forcing air from the environmental control system into the building interior; and an air filtering system having an inlet connected to the humidity control unit and an outlet connected to the blower.

  12. [Conscientous health objection in the prison environment].

    PubMed

    Talavera, P

    2010-06-01

    To be fully in accordance with constitutional doctrines the notion of conscientious objection must be understood as a manifestation of the fundamental right to ideological freedom as contained in art. 16.1 CE (assuming of course that all objecting conduct is legitimate), but it must also be understood as a principle. That is to say, any conflict between the subject's fundamental right and legal duty that he rejects must be resolved by the judge who must make a careful judgement of values and property. This fundamental right still exists and may invoked and exercised by inmates and health personnel in the prison context in the face of predictions of the forcible imposition of medical treatment as stated in the LOGP and RP, with no more limit than public order itself. PMID:23128487

  13. [Environment and child health: from health transition to shared risk?].

    PubMed

    Revault, P; Monjour, L

    2003-01-01

    Children under the age of 18 account for almost half of the world's population, with most living in developing countries. Young people are especially sensitive to acute and chronic environmental conditions and 43% of environmental diseases occur in the 12% of the world's population under age 5. The main environmental threats to the health of children in developing countries are inadequate access to clean water for drinking and hygiene, exposure to air pollution: primarily indoors and secondarily outdoors, risk of accidents and wounds, and poisoning due to toxic products. Recent data suggest that the number and diversity of environmental risk factors affecting child health is increasing as a result of increasing malnutrition, pollution, and violence and consequently that the level of health and quality of life of future generations will decrease. Due to the complexity of the interactions between environmental factors and socio-economic determinants, the epidemiological transition model is poorly suited to analyzing and predicting the concurring risks of infectious disease and chronic disease (diabetes, cancer...). This article presents a number of recommendations for training health professional, developing environmental reference centers, implementing risk assessment, coordinating decentralized activities and policy, and involving parents and children in the decisional process with emphasis on divulgating study findings and developing interfaces between the various stakeholders.

  14. Health, Safety, and Environment Division: Annual progress report 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.A.

    1988-04-01

    The primary responsibility of the Health, Safety, and Environment (HSE) Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to provide comprehensive occupational health and safety programs, waste processing, and environment protection. These activities are designed to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. Many disciplines are required to meet the responsibilities, including radiation protection, industrial hygiene, safety, occupational medicine, environmental science, epidemiology, and waste management. New and challenging health and safety problems arise occasionally from the diverse research and development work of the Laboratory. Research programs in HSE Division often stem from these applied needs. These programs continue but are also extended, as needed to study specific problems for the Department of Energy and to help develop better occupational health and safety practices.

  15. Workplace bullying, working environment and health.

    PubMed

    Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Elofsson, Stig; Gjerde, Maria; Magnusson Hanson, Linda; Theorell, Töres

    2012-01-01

    Improved work organisation could be of importance for decreased bullying in workplaces. Participants in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) responded to questions about work and workplace and whether they had been bullied during the past year in 2006. Those in worksites with at least five employees who did not report that they had been bullied in 2006 and without workplace change between 2006 and 2008 constituted the final sample (n=1,021 men and 1,182 women). Work characteristics and workplace factors in 2006 were used in multiple logistic regression as predictors of bullying in 2008. Separate analyses were performed for work characteristics and workplace factors respectively. Adjustments for demographic factors were made in all analyses. The question used for bullying was: "Are you exposed to personal persecution by means of vicious words or actions from your superiors or your workmates?" Such persecution any time during the past year was defined as bullying. For both genders organisational change and conflicting demands were identified as risk factors, and good decision authority as a protective factor. Dictatorial leadership, lack of procedural justice and attitude of expendability were male and lack of humanity a female risk factor for bullying. PMID:22453205

  16. The State of the Environment: Environment and Health 1986. United Nations Environment Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    People depend for their well-being on the health of the societies in which they live. This report aims to show that the achievement of sustained development, the promotion of health, and the rational use of environmental resources are absolutely inseparable. Chapter I, "Health Effects of Human Activities With Environmental Consequences," addresses…

  17. Masculinity in young men's health: exploring health, help-seeking and health service use in an online environment.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Richard E; Williams, Sarah

    2014-04-01

    Twenty-eight young men took part in two online focus groups exploring understandings of health, help-seeking and health service use. Techniques from Foucauldian discourse analysis were used to elucidate how the young men framed health-related practices within gendered identities in online environments. The discourses are discussed within three discursive themes: 'conceptualising health: everyday health versus "cover man" health', 'help-seeking: the restrictions of masculinity' and 'using health care: legitimising help-seeking through masculine identity'. Young men are interested in their health and construct their health practices as justified while simultaneously maintaining masculine identities surrounding independence, autonomy and control over their bodies.

  18. The population, environment, and health nexus: an Arab world perspective.

    PubMed

    Kulczycki, A; Saxena, P C

    1998-01-01

    This report describes models of the links between population growth, environmental degradation, and health in Arab countries and in the world; management of the commons; urbanization and water as critical issues; and challenges in Lebanon. It is concluded that the complexity of interrelationships is difficult to untangle. Researchers frequently neglect health issues in modeling the relationships. The lack of attention to the health, development, and environment nexus has serious implications in the Middle East and North Africa. In Lebanon, national strategies do not include a national waste management strategy based on reduction, reuse, and recycling. Most Arab countries face the major issue of the lack of adequate planning in many economic sectors, which results in imbalances in supply and demand. Most Arab countries do not have adequate statistical databases upon which to base development, planning, and policy-making. The last census in Lebanon was in 1932. Information is missing on health. Health economics are ignored. It is not possible to estimate the health costs due to deficiencies in sanitation, hygiene, water, and air quality. Capacity building for environmental management and intersectoral collaboration is hampered. Arab countries with large oil reserves have ignored the population and environment links. Poorer countries will suffer the most from limited renewable water resources and their decline due to population growth. The political agenda in Arab countries should give priority to health, environment, development, and population issues. PMID:12295045

  19. Developing the health, safety and environment excellence instrument

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Quality and efficiency are important issues in management systems. To increase quality, to reach best results, to move towards the continuous improvement of system and also to make the internal and external customers satisfied, it is necessary to consider the system performance measurement. In this study the Health, Safety and Environment Excellence Instrument was represented as a performance measurement tool for a wide range of health, safety and environment management systems. In this article the development of the instrument overall structure, its parts, and its test results in three organizations are presented. According to the results, the scores ranking was the managership organization, the manufacturing company and the powerhouse construction project, respectively. The results of the instrument test in three organizations show that, on the whole, the instrument has the ability to measure the performance of health, safety and environment management systems in a wide range of organizations. PMID:23369610

  20. [One Health--mutual health of humans, animals and the environment].

    PubMed

    Sukura, Antti; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2016-01-01

    The detection in the early 2000's of new, pandemically spreading viral diseases and threats led to "One Health", a holistic concept of the inevitability of collaboration between human and animal health and the protection of the ecosystem. The movement initiated by physicians and veterinarians emerges form the idea that the health of humans and animals is interconnected and connected with the environment and that changes occurring in the environment will have a significant impact on health. Problems associated with health, such as antimicrobial resistance or zoonoses, require global solutions. PMID:27522830

  1. Children's Environmental Health: 2007 Highlights. Environment, Health, and a Focus on Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created in 1970 to protect human health and the environment. The year 2007 marks 10 years of concerted Federal effort to address children's environmental health risks as mandated by Executive Order 13045, Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. Much of the agency's…

  2. The microbiome of the built environment and mental health.

    PubMed

    Hoisington, Andrew J; Brenner, Lisa A; Kinney, Kerry A; Postolache, Teodor T; Lowry, Christopher A

    2015-12-17

    The microbiome of the built environment (MoBE) is a relatively new area of study. While some knowledge has been gained regarding impacts of the MoBE on the human microbiome and disease vulnerability, there is little knowledge of the impacts of the MoBE on mental health. Depending on the specific microbial species involved, the transfer of microorganisms from the built environment to occupant's cutaneous or mucosal membranes has the potential to increase or disrupt immunoregulation and/or exaggerate or suppress inflammation. Preclinical evidence highlighting the influence of the microbiota on systemic inflammation supports the assertion that microorganisms, including those originating from the built environment, have the potential to either increase or decrease the risk of inflammation-induced psychiatric conditions and their symptom severity. With advanced understanding of both the ecology of the built environment, and its influence on the human microbiome, it may be possible to develop bioinformed strategies for management of the built environment to promote mental health. Here we present a brief summary of microbiome research in both areas and highlight two interdependencies including the following: (1) effects of the MoBE on the human microbiome and (2) potential opportunities for manipulation of the MoBE in order to improve mental health. In addition, we propose future research directions including strategies for assessment of changes in the microbiome of common areas of built environments shared by multiple human occupants, and associated cohort-level changes in the mental health of those who spend time in the buildings. Overall, our understanding of the fields of both the MoBE and influence of host-associated microorganisms on mental health are advancing at a rapid pace and, if linked, could offer considerable benefit to health and wellness.

  3. Indoor environments and health: moving into the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Samet, Jonathan M; Spengler, John D

    2003-09-01

    The quality of our indoor environments affects well-being and productivity, and risks for diverse diseases are increased by indoor air pollutants, surface contamination with toxins and microbes, and contact among people at home, at work, in transportation, and in many other public and private places. We offer an overview of nearly a century of research directed at understanding indoor environments and health, consider current research needs, and set out policy matters that need to be addressed if we are to have the healthiest possible built environments. The policy context for built environments extends beyond health considerations to include energy use for air-conditioning, selection of materials for sustainability, and design for safety, security, and productivity.

  4. Safety, health or the environment--which comes first?

    PubMed

    Crawley, F K; Ashton, D

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes the development and application of two integrated models which can be used for assessing the life cycle risk (to life) and environmental impact of a number of possible concept options for new offshore oil and gas developments. The two models can also be used for ranking the designs in terms of lowest human risk and environmental impact. The paper also gives values/criteria for both risks to safety, health and the environment by which the total safety, health and environmental assessment/impact may be balanced as a whole. The paper illustrates the use of the models and shows that the pragmatic or cosmetic improvement to safety, health or the environment may not be advantageous to the overall safety, health and environmental objectives. While the models were developed originally for offshore installations, the basic framework can be readily adapted for use on onshore petrochemical processes.

  5. Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, Steven Arvid; Thomas Wierman

    2003-12-01

    The Environment, Safety and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) models human safety and health risk resulting from waste management and environmental restoration activities. Human safety and health risks include those associated with storing, handling, processing, transporting, and disposing of radionuclides and chemicals. Exposures to these materials, resulting from both accidents and normal, incident-free operation, are modeled. In addition, standard industrial risks (falls, explosions, transportation accidents, etc.) are evaluated. Finally, human safety and health impacts from cleanup of accidental releases of radionuclides and chemicals to the environment are estimated. Unlike environmental impact statements and safety analysis reports, ESHRAP risk predictions are meant to be best estimate, rather than bounding or conservatively high. Typically, ESHRAP studies involve risk predictions covering the entire waste management or environmental restoration program, including such activities as initial storage, handling, processing, interim storage, transportation, and final disposal. ESHRAP can be used to support complex environmental decision-making processes and to track risk reduction as activities progress.

  6. The psychosocial work environment and evidence utilization by health professionals.

    PubMed

    Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Sounan, Charles; Lavigne, Geneviève L; Bonin, Jean-Pierre; Lesage, Alain D; Denis, Pascale L; Renaud, Martine; Maisy, Nadège; Farand, Lambert; Racine, Hélène

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between dimensions of the psychosocial work environment and health professionals' use of evidence in their practice. A correlational descriptive design was developed. Health professionals working in mental health units at 2 hospitals were asked to complete a questionnaire about their perceptions of the psychosocial work environment and their use of evidence. Correlations and regression analyses were performed. Use of evidence was found to be correlated with social support and decision latitude. Results of multiple regression analyses found perceived social support (beta = .27, p < .01) and perceived decision latitude (beta = .25,p < .01) to be significant predictors of the use of evidence. The authors conclude that good social support and decision latitude among interprofessional groups may promote use of evidence by health professions in their practice.

  7. Income statement management in a turbulent health care environment.

    PubMed

    Covaleski, M A

    2001-03-01

    This article considers the role of accounting information embedded in the income statement of health care providers in their increasingly difficult economic environment. This turbulent economic environment has resulted from the dramatic shift in power from the seller to the buyer of health care services, with a consequential shift of risks that will mandate that health care providers obtain access to better cost and utilization information. This article looks at the 2 critical components of the income statement--the revenue function and the cost structure-in terms of their importance in the management of enhanced economic performance in both the fee-for-service and the prepaid provision of health care services. PMID:11239384

  8. Pivoting: leveraging opportunities in a turbulent health care environment*

    PubMed Central

    Bandy, Margaret Moylan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this lecture is to challenge librarians in clinical settings to leverage the opportunities presented by the current health care environment and to develop collaborative relationships with health care practitioners to provide relevant services. Discussion: Health care organizations are under financial and regulatory pressures, and many hospital librarians have been downsized or have had their positions eliminated. The lecture briefly reviews hospital librarians' roles in the past but focuses primarily on our current challenges. This environment requires librarians to be opportunity focused and pivot to a new vision that directs their actions. Many librarians are already doing this, and colleagues are encouraging us to embrace these opportunities. Evidence from publications, websites, discussion lists, personal communications, and the author's experience is explored. Conclusion: Developing interdisciplinary and collaborative relationships in our institutions and providing relevant services will mark our progress as vital, contributing members of our health care organizations. PMID:25552938

  9. Health, Safety, and Environment Division annual report, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.A.

    1989-10-01

    The primary responsibility of the Health, Safety, and Environment (HSE) Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to provide comprehensive occupational health and safety programs, waste processing, and environmental protection. These activities are designed to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. Many disciplines are required to meet the responsibilities, including radiation protection, industrial hygiene, safety, occupational medicine, environmental science, epidemiology, and waste management. New and challenging health and safety problems occasionally arise from the diverse research and development work of the Laboratory. Research programs in HSE Division often stem from these applied needs. These programs continue but are also extended, as needed, to study specific problems for the Department of Energy and to help develop better occupational health and safety practices. 52 refs.

  10. Health, Safety, and Environment Division annual report 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, C.

    1992-01-01

    The primary responsibility of the Health, Safety, and Environment (HSE) Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to provide comprehensive occupational health and safety programs, waste processing, and environmental protection. These activities are designed to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. Meeting the responsibilities involves many disciplines, including radiation protection, industrial hygiene, safety, occupational medicine, environmental science and engineering, analytical chemistry, epidemiology, and waste management. New and challenging health, safety, and environmental problems occasionally arise from the diverse research and development work of the Laboratory, and research programs in the HSE Division often stem from these applied needs. These programs continue but are also extended, as needed, to study specific problems for the Department of Energy. The result of these programs is to help develop better practices in occupational health and safety, radiation protection, and environmental sciences.

  11. [Correlation between legal protection of the environment and health].

    PubMed

    Giraldi, Guglielmo; Rinaldi, Alessandro; D'Andrea, Elvira; Lucchetti, Pietro; Messano, Giuseppe Alessio; d'Alessandro, Eugenia De Luca

    2012-01-01

    Health promotion is a priority of our time and planning and the evaluation of health and hygiene should be directed towards strategies to improve the well-being and lifestyles of the community. At the legislative level in Italy, the Ministry of Health, was established in 1958 with the task of providing for the collective health of the whole nation and in 1978, with Law 833, the National Health Service (NHS) was created which secured assistance and healthcare to all Italian citizens. The most important component of the entire health system is the Local Health Unit (USL) which has responsibility for prevention, treatment and rehabilitation, and highlights the importance of safeguarding the health, hygiene and safely at home and at work and the "hygiene of urban settlements and communities", ie environmental protection. One of the reasons for the delays in the promotion of environmental protection initiatives in Italy is to be found in the referendums of 1993, including the one which removed the tasks regarding environmental controls from the NHS. The temporary skills gap in the environmental field was filled with the 'National Agency for Environmental Protection (ANPA), which later became the Agency for Environmental Protection and Technical Services (APAT), and the regional level, the Regional Agencies Environmental Protection Agency (ARPA). Law 61/21 January 1994 joined the ARPA to the National Institute for Environmental Research and Protection (ISPRA). It is now necessary to implement a program that takes account of the damage caused to the environment and consequently the individual, which is totally committed the combination of the environment and human health and not, as in the recent past, as two distinct entities. In this sense, it is of fundamental importance the role of prevention departments to promote the organization networking and of individual companies' and individuals' skills, in fact. The integration of planning processes, environmental monitoring

  12. Child Health and the Environment: A Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Lynn R.

    2005-01-01

    Substances in the environment that are potentially harmful to children's health and development, from conception onward, include metals such as lead and mercury, pesticides, indoor air pollution, residues of synthetic chemicals, radiation from the sun, nuclear sources, and air pollution. Children's exposures to these substances, as well as…

  13. Environmental Health concerns in natural and man-made environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergtholdt, C. P.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial hygene and environmental health aspects of ground operation at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory were investigated. Major areas of concern are: (1) toxic substances, (2) noise pollution, (3) electromagnetic radiation; and (4) biohazards and sanitation. Each of these categories are also studied in a closed environment, such as encountered aboard of a spacecraft.

  14. The impact of incinerators on human health and environment.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Raman; Sharma, Meenakshi; Sharma, Ratika; Sharma, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Of the total wastes generated by health-care organizations, 10%-25% are biomedical wastes, which are hazardous to humans and the environment and requires specific treatment and management. For decades, incineration was the method of choice for the treatment of such infectious wastes. Incinerator releases a wide variety of pollutants depending on the composition of the waste, which leads to health deterioration and environmental degradation. The significant pollutants emitted are particulate matter, metals, acid gases, oxides of nitrogen, and sulfur, aside from the release of innumerable substances of unknown toxicity. This process of waste incineration poses a significant threat to public health and the environment. The major impact on health is the higher incidence of cancer and respiratory symptoms; other potential effects are congenital abnormalities, hormonal defects, and increase in sex ratio. The effect on the environmental is in the form of global warming, acidification, photochemical ozone or smog formation, eutrophication, and human and animal toxicity. Thus, there is a need to skip to newer, widely accepted, economical, and environment-friendly technologies. The use of hydroclaves and plasma pyrolysis for the incineration of biomedical wastes leads to lesser environmental degradation, negligible health impacts, safe handling of treated wastes, lesser running and maintenance costs, more effective reduction of microorganisms, and safer disposal. PMID:23612530

  15. The impact of incinerators on human health and environment.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Raman; Sharma, Meenakshi; Sharma, Ratika; Sharma, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Of the total wastes generated by health-care organizations, 10%-25% are biomedical wastes, which are hazardous to humans and the environment and requires specific treatment and management. For decades, incineration was the method of choice for the treatment of such infectious wastes. Incinerator releases a wide variety of pollutants depending on the composition of the waste, which leads to health deterioration and environmental degradation. The significant pollutants emitted are particulate matter, metals, acid gases, oxides of nitrogen, and sulfur, aside from the release of innumerable substances of unknown toxicity. This process of waste incineration poses a significant threat to public health and the environment. The major impact on health is the higher incidence of cancer and respiratory symptoms; other potential effects are congenital abnormalities, hormonal defects, and increase in sex ratio. The effect on the environmental is in the form of global warming, acidification, photochemical ozone or smog formation, eutrophication, and human and animal toxicity. Thus, there is a need to skip to newer, widely accepted, economical, and environment-friendly technologies. The use of hydroclaves and plasma pyrolysis for the incineration of biomedical wastes leads to lesser environmental degradation, negligible health impacts, safe handling of treated wastes, lesser running and maintenance costs, more effective reduction of microorganisms, and safer disposal.

  16. The urban built environment and associations with women's psychosocial health.

    PubMed

    Messer, Lynne C; Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2013-10-01

    The determinants that underlie a healthy or unhealthy pregnancy are complex and not well understood. We assess the relationship between the built environment and maternal psychosocial status using directly observed residential neighborhood characteristics (housing damage, property disorder, tenure status, vacancy, security measures, violent crime, and nuisances) and a wide range of psychosocial attributes (interpersonal support evaluation list, self-efficacy, John Henryism active coping, negative partner support, Perceived Stress Scale, perceived racism, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression) on a pregnant cohort of women living in the urban core of Durham, NC, USA. We found some associations between built environment characteristic and psychosocial health varied by exposure categorization approach, while others (residence in environments with more rental property is associated with higher reported active coping and negative partner support) were consistent across exposure categorizations. This study outlines specific neighborhood characteristics that are modifiable risk markers and therefore important targets for increased research and public health intervention.

  17. [Environment, health and nursing in the ecosystem context].

    PubMed

    Zamberlan, Claudia; Calvetti de Medeiros, Adriane; Dei Svaldi, Jaqueline; Siqueira, Hedi Crecencia Heckler

    2013-01-01

    This is a theoretical and philosophical review that aimed to reflect on the interrelations between environment, health and nursing in an ecosystem perspective. The understanding of the environment and its influence on people's health, as well as the possibilities that the systems leverage, can produce input for the formulation of new public policies in various contexts, or even provide a (re)organization of existing practices by bringing additional opportunities for attention, in addition to direct and enhance caring in health / nursing. It is concluded that nursing professionals in taking ecosystem actions in their daily, advocates the comprehensive human attention, because they have the opportunity to put in practice actions of environmental, ecological, physical, psychological, spiritual and social nature, thus creating possibilities for a full and interactive care.

  18. Quantifying the Impact of Scenic Environments on Health.

    PubMed

    Seresinhe, Chanuki Illushka; Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah

    2015-01-01

    Few people would deny an intuitive sense of increased wellbeing when spending time in beautiful locations. Here, we ask: can we quantify the relationship between environmental aesthetics and human health? We draw on data from Scenic-Or-Not, a website that crowdsources ratings of "scenicness" for geotagged photographs across Great Britain, in combination with data on citizen-reported health from the Census for England and Wales. We find that inhabitants of more scenic environments report better health, across urban, suburban and rural areas, even when taking core socioeconomic indicators of deprivation into account, such as income, employment and access to services. Our results provide evidence in line with the striking hypothesis that the aesthetics of the environment may have quantifiable consequences for our wellbeing. PMID:26603464

  19. Quantifying the Impact of Scenic Environments on Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seresinhe, Chanuki Illushka; Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah

    2015-11-01

    Few people would deny an intuitive sense of increased wellbeing when spending time in beautiful locations. Here, we ask: can we quantify the relationship between environmental aesthetics and human health? We draw on data from Scenic-Or-Not, a website that crowdsources ratings of “scenicness” for geotagged photographs across Great Britain, in combination with data on citizen-reported health from the Census for England and Wales. We find that inhabitants of more scenic environments report better health, across urban, suburban and rural areas, even when taking core socioeconomic indicators of deprivation into account, such as income, employment and access to services. Our results provide evidence in line with the striking hypothesis that the aesthetics of the environment may have quantifiable consequences for our wellbeing.

  20. The applicability of SERVQUAL in different health care environments.

    PubMed

    Dean, A M

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that investigates the applicability of a modified SERVQUAL instrument as a means of measuring service quality in two types of health service environments; medical care and health care (incorporating medical, social, cognitive and emotional elements). The research confirms a four factor structure that is stable for both environments, and similar to the service quality dimensions recognised in the literature. However, the relative importance of the dimensions of quality is inconsistent for the two types of health services. These results confirm the suggestion that importance values should be part of the measurement tool. Finally, the extra diagnostic advantage achieved by the use of gap scores to measure service quality, when compared to perception only scores is demonstrated. PMID:10538736

  1. Quantifying the Impact of Scenic Environments on Health

    PubMed Central

    Seresinhe, Chanuki Illushka; Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah

    2015-01-01

    Few people would deny an intuitive sense of increased wellbeing when spending time in beautiful locations. Here, we ask: can we quantify the relationship between environmental aesthetics and human health? We draw on data from Scenic-Or-Not, a website that crowdsources ratings of “scenicness” for geotagged photographs across Great Britain, in combination with data on citizen-reported health from the Census for England and Wales. We find that inhabitants of more scenic environments report better health, across urban, suburban and rural areas, even when taking core socioeconomic indicators of deprivation into account, such as income, employment and access to services. Our results provide evidence in line with the striking hypothesis that the aesthetics of the environment may have quantifiable consequences for our wellbeing. PMID:26603464

  2. Women's work environment and health: clerical workers in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Meleis, A I; Messias, D K; Arruda, E N

    1996-02-01

    Although women are participating more in the formal workforce, the majority are employed primarily in low-income and low-status occupations. While work roles may provide women with some rewards, employment may also create many stressful demands on their daily lives. As part of an international study, 60 female Brazilian clerical workers responded to a self-administered questionnaire describing what they liked, disliked, and found stressful about the structural, physical, and social aspects of their work environment. Participants also identified strategies they used to cope with stress in the work environment. Dimensions of healthy environments identified in the data included utility, challenge, participation, safety, pleasing workplace, valuation, clarity of roles, and empowerment. Unhealthy environments were characterized by hazards, bureaucracy, devaluation, and economic constraints. Participants described their concerns about the effect of the environment on their physical and mental health, but tended to adopt a passive, resigned coping style rather than a proactive approach to co-creating a healthier work environment. The results and their relationship to healthy work environments are discussed within the context of the larger sociopolitical environment of Brazil. PMID:8552803

  3. Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael L; Hsu, John; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Gonzalez, Raquel Palomino; Lund, Niels

    2016-01-01

    There is growing awareness of the impact of human activity on the climate and the need to stem this impact. Public health care decision makers from Sweden and the United Kingdom have started examining environmental impacts when assessing new technologies. This article considers the case for incorporating environmental impacts into the health technology assessment (HTA) process and discusses the associated challenges. Two arguments favor incorporating environmental impacts into HTA: 1) environmental changes could directly affect people's health and 2) policy decision makers have broad mandates and objectives extending beyond health care. Two types of challenges hinder this process. First, the nascent evidence base is insufficient to support the accurate comparison of technologies' environmental impacts. Second, cost-utility analysis, which is favored by many HTA agencies, could capture some of the value of environmental impacts, especially those generating health impacts, but might not be suitable for addressing broader concerns. Both cost-benefit and multicriteria decision analyses are potential methods for evaluating health and environmental outcomes, but are less familiar to health care decision makers. Health care is an important and sizable sector of the economy that could warrant closer policy attention to its impact on the environment. Considerable work is needed to track decision makers' demands, augment the environmental evidence base, and develop robust methods for capturing and incorporating environmental data as part of HTA. PMID:27021760

  4. Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael L; Hsu, John; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Gonzalez, Raquel Palomino; Lund, Niels

    2016-01-01

    There is growing awareness of the impact of human activity on the climate and the need to stem this impact. Public health care decision makers from Sweden and the United Kingdom have started examining environmental impacts when assessing new technologies. This article considers the case for incorporating environmental impacts into the health technology assessment (HTA) process and discusses the associated challenges. Two arguments favor incorporating environmental impacts into HTA: 1) environmental changes could directly affect people's health and 2) policy decision makers have broad mandates and objectives extending beyond health care. Two types of challenges hinder this process. First, the nascent evidence base is insufficient to support the accurate comparison of technologies' environmental impacts. Second, cost-utility analysis, which is favored by many HTA agencies, could capture some of the value of environmental impacts, especially those generating health impacts, but might not be suitable for addressing broader concerns. Both cost-benefit and multicriteria decision analyses are potential methods for evaluating health and environmental outcomes, but are less familiar to health care decision makers. Health care is an important and sizable sector of the economy that could warrant closer policy attention to its impact on the environment. Considerable work is needed to track decision makers' demands, augment the environmental evidence base, and develop robust methods for capturing and incorporating environmental data as part of HTA.

  5. [From disease to health: the individual, society, environment and culture].

    PubMed

    Prost, A

    1995-01-01

    With the onset of science-based medicine in the mid-19th century, environmental factors were almost totally discarded as health determinants. This was a complete rupture with the medical thinking which had prevailed since the time of Hippocrates. Yet, for the vast majority of mankind, harmony with environmental reality remains the most important determinant of good or ill health. This scission explains to a great extent the differences between traditional and Western medicine, which are based on entirely different concepts and on distinct paradigms. Environment as a health determinant--in its broadest definition to include both physical and social environments--is again being considered of importance as a result of better understanding of causality factors, and because of the influence of disciplines such as ecology and epidemiology. Here we show that human societies can develop different methods of adjusting to their environments, some of which would increase the risks of disease and others which can be considered as resistance factors of a social nature. Societies and individuals alike are not equal in relation to health risks. PMID:8784533

  6. [Environment-related health disorders. Experience and perspectives in the care of patients with environment-related health disorders].

    PubMed

    Hornberg, C; Malsch, A K F; Weissbach, W; Wiesmüller, G A

    2004-08-01

    Environmental medicine outpatient clinics, counseling centers, and practicing physicians have observed environment-related health disorders in patient groups of mixed age as well as for groups consisting only of adults or children. Practicing physicians suspected correlations between environmental factors and health disorders in 36-45% of cases, environmental medicine outpatient clinics and counseling centers in 4-34% for mixed-age groups, 0-24% for adults, and 9-13% for children. A comparison of these data is difficult due to differences in data acquisition, evaluation methods, and descriptive statistics used. Furthermore, data on children are insufficient. Patient-oriented environmental medicine faces a number of problems regarding determination of exposure, effects, and susceptibility, including a lack of scientifically verified cause-and-effect models as well as incorrect diagnoses, attributions, and conclusions. In view of the scope and intensity of environment-related health disorders, the topic cannot be ignored. A functioning program of environmental medicine counseling and patient care is needed for practicing physicians, universities and/or the public sector to deliver effective primary medical care in this field. As always, the building blocks of environ-mental medicine counseling are medical history, physical examination, differential diagnosis, human biomonitoring, and on-site inspection with environmental monitoring while also taking gender differences into account. Uniform basic documentation procedures and health science analyses will help to optimize patient care in environ-mental medicine. The value of a diagnostic algorithm in the care of patients with environment-related health disorders is beyond dispute. Last but not least, quality assurance and control are a sine qua non of patient-oriented environmental medicine. PMID:15340722

  7. Kazakhstan's Environment-Health system, a Big Data challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitolo, Claudia; Bella Gazdiyeva, Bella; Tucker, Allan; Russell, Andrew; Ali, Maged; Althonayan, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    Kazakhstan has witnessed a remarkable economic development in the past 15 years, becoming an upper-middle-income country. However it is still widely regarded as a developing nation, partially because of its population's low life expectancy which is 5 years below the average in similar economies. The environment is in a rather fragile state, affected by soil, water, air pollution, radioactive contamination and climate change. However, Kazakhstan's government is moving towards clean energy and environmental protection and calling on scientists to help prioritise investments. The British Council-funded "Kazakhstan's Environment-Health Risk Analysis (KEHRA)" project is one of the recently launched initiatives to support Kazakhstan healthier future. The underlying hypothesis of this research is that the above mentioned factors (air/water/soil pollution, etc.) affecting public health almost certainly do not act independently but rather trigger and exacerbate each other. Exploring the environment-health links in a multi-dimensional framework is a typical Big Data problem, in which the volume and variety of the data needed poses technical as well as scientific challenges. In Kazakhstan, the complexities related to managing and analysing Big Data are worsened by a number of obstacles at the data acquisition step: most of the data is not in digital form, spatial and temporal attributes are often ambiguous and the re-use and re-purpose of the information is subject to restrictive licenses and other mechanisms of control. In this work, we document the first steps taken towards building an understanding of the complex environment-health system in Kazakhstan, using interactive visualisation tools to identify and compare hot-spots of pollution and poor health outcomes, Big Data and web technologies to collect, manage and explore available information. In the future, the knowledge acquired will be modelled to develop evidence-based recommendation systems for decision makers in

  8. The effect of Al implantation on the thermal oxidation of stainless steel in aggressive environments

    SciTech Connect

    Noli, F.; Misaelides, P.; Giorginis, G.; Baumann, H.; Pavlidou, E.

    2000-04-01

    AISI-321 steel samples were implanted with Al ions (implantation-energy: 40 keV; dose: 2 {times} 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}). Thermal oxidation of the samples was performed at 450, 550, 600, and 650 C for periods varying from 1 to 6 days in air and in a corrosive CO{sub 2}-containing environment. Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) were used to investigate the oxidized samples. A significant improvement of the oxidation resistance of the implanted material in comparison to the nonimplanted material was observed. This especially applies for samples oxidized at high temperatures. The aluminum depth distribution determined by NRA [using the resonance at 992keV of the {sup 27}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 28}Si nuclear reaction] and RBS, indicated no variation of the Al profile in the temperature region 450--600 C, whereas at 650 C a slight Al diffusion was observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) was applied to study the surface morphology and the constitution of the oxide scale formed, as well as to explain the influence of Al implantation of the oxidation behavior of AISI-321 austenitic stainless steel.

  9. Health Impacts from Human Interaction with the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, S. E.

    2008-12-01

    Humans have produced far greater impact on the environment than any other living form. The impact has been so significant-particularly during the past 50 years-that a new word, Anthrposphere has started appearing in recent literature. It is now being used along with the four major components of the system earth to underscore humans' influence on the environment. Human activities have produced a myriad of impacts on the environment that span the scale from local to global. The slow process that brought humanity to the present environmental crisis began with the Industrial Revolution and has greatly accelerated since the World War II. The past 50 years mark a unique period in human history that is characterized by rapid technological advances and unprecedented population growth. While the use of technology has been very effective in meeting the needs of the growing population, it has also produced serious impact on the environment. Large scale exploitation of mineral, fuel, water, forest, and marine resources has led to severe environmental degradation; and the resulting pollution of air, water, and land has caused serious consequences to human and ecological health. The presentation deals with the adverse impact on human health associated with mining, dam and reservoir construction, improper waste management, use of fossil fuels, and climate change. Case studies are included to illustrate health impacts from metal and coal mining; dam and reservoir construction and preponderance of disease vectors; pollution caused by improper waste disposal and the resulting incidence of cancer and other diseases; and emergence of vector-borne diseases at hitherto unknown locations, cardiovascular and respiratory track ailments, and increased morbidity and mortality triggered by elevated temperatures associated with climate change. A brief discussion of possible measures to mitigate the health consequences is also included in the presentation.

  10. Improving delivery of a health-promoting-environments program: experiences from Queensland Health.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, S

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the key components of a statewide multisite health-promoting-environments program. Contemporary health-promotion programs in settings such as schools, workplaces and hospitals use organisational development theory to address the health issues of the setting, including the physical environment, the organisational environment, and the specific health needs of the employees and consumers of the service. Program principles include management of each project by the participant organisation or site (for example, a school or workplace), using resources available within the organisation and the local community, voluntary participation, social justice and participant-based priority setting, and evaluation and monitoring. Adoption of these principles implies a shift in the role of the health worker from implementer to facilitator. Based on the experience of Queensland Health, it is proposed that the essential building blocks of the health-promoting-environments program are an intersectoral policy base, a model for action, training and resources, local facilitators, support from local organisations, a supportive network of sites, marketing of the program, and a state-based evaluation and monitoring system. The program in Queensland was able to develop a significant number of these components over the 1990-1996 period. In regard to evaluation, process measures can be built around the program components; however, further research is required for development of impact indicators and benchmarks on quality.

  11. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual. Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 1O-Point Initiative to strengthen environment,safety, and health (ES&H) programs, and waste management activities at involved conducting DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points independent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ``more focused, concentrating on ES&H management, ES&H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.`` In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES&H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES&H areas. This volume contains appendices to the Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment Manual.

  12. Healthy, healthful, and healing environments: a nursing imperative.

    PubMed

    Stichler, Jaynelle F

    2009-01-01

    The literature is replete with evidence about the effects of the work environment on nurses' stress levels, interdisciplinary collaboration, workload, job conflict, job satisfaction, and anticipated turnover. Healthcare leaders have been challenged by the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN), other professional organizations, and regulatory agencies to develop and sustain healthy work environments that support the professional practice of nursing. Magnet designation, the Beacon award, and other organizational structures and cultures led by authentic and transformational leaders have been the stimulus to ensure that workplaces are both healthy and healthful. The positive effect of healing environments on patient and provider outcomes has caused many healthcare leaders to strive to develop healing attributes within their philosophies of care and organizational cultural initiatives.

  13. Health service support in the future operating environment 2035.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    The period to 2035 is likely to be characterised by instability between states and in relations between groups within states. It is predicted to include climate change, rapid population growth, resource scarcity, resurgence in ideology, and shifts in power from west to east. Many of these changes are likely to have an impact on the health of civil societies and those military personnel deployed by states to counter these challenges. This paper considers the potential impact of emerging global strategic trends on health service support (HSS) in the Future Operating Environment 2035. Global Strategic Trends-Out to 2040, The Future Character of Conflict and NATO Strategic Foresight Analysis Report 2013 provide the foundations of the paper. The study concludes that future impacts on HSS are neither completely predictable nor predetermined, and there is always a possibility of a strategic shock. Knowledge of vulnerability, however, allows an informed approach to the development and evaluation of adaptive strategies to lessen risks to health.

  14. Challenges to neurology residency education in today's health care environment.

    PubMed

    Bega, Danny; Krainc, Dimitri

    2016-09-01

    Residency training has had to adapt to higher patient volumes, increased complexity of medical care, and the commercialized system of health care. These changes have led to a concerning culture shift in neurology. We review the relationship between the emerging health care delivery system and residency training, highlighting issues related to duty hours and work-life balance, the changing technological landscape, high patient volumes, and complex service obligations. We propose that the current challenges in health care delivery offer the opportunity to improve neurology residency through faculty development programs, bringing teaching back to the bedside, increasing resident autonomy, utilizing near-peer teaching, and rewarding educators who facilitate an environment of inquiry and scholarship, with the ultimate goal of better alignment between education and patient care. Ann Neurol 2016;80:315-320. PMID:27422739

  15. Factors Affecting the Hydrogen Environment Assisted Cracking Resistance of an AL-Zn-Mg-(Cu) Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Young, G A; Scully, J R

    2002-04-09

    Precipitation hardenable Al-Zn-Mg alloys are susceptible to hydrogen environment assisted cracking (HEAC) when exposed to aqueous environments. In Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, overaged tempers are used to increase HEAC resistance at the expense of strength but overaging has little benefit in low copper alloys. However, the mechanism or mechanisms by which overaging imparts HEAC resistance is poorly understood. The present research investigated hydrogen uptake, diffusion, and crack growth rate in 90% relative humidity (RH) air for both a commercial copper bearing Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (AA 7050) and a low copper variant of this alloy in order to better understand the factors which affect HEAC resistance. Experimental methods used to evaluate hydrogen concentrations local to a surface and near a crack tip include nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), focused ion beam, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (FIB/SIMS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Results show that overaging the copper bearing alloys both inhibits hydrogen ingress from oxide covered surfaces and decreases the apparent hydrogen diffusion rates in the metal.

  16. The changing environment for technological innovation in health care.

    PubMed

    Goodman, C S; Gelijns, A C

    1996-01-01

    A distinguishing feature of American health care is its emphasis on advanced technology. Yet today's changing health care environment is overhauling the engine of technological innovation. The rate and direction of technological innovation are affected by a complex of supply- and demandside factors, including biomedical research, education, patent law, regulation, health care payment, tort law, and more. Some distinguishing features of technological innovation in health care are now at increased risk. Regulatory requirements and rising payment hurdles are especially challenging to small technology companies. Closer management of health care delivery and payment, particularly the standardization that may derive from practice guidelines and clamping down on payment for investigational technologies, curtails opportunities for innovation. Levels and distribution of biomedical research funding in government and industry are changing. Financial constraints are limiting the traditional roles of academic health centers in fostering innovation. Despite notable steps in recent years to lower regulatory barriers and speed approvals, especially for products for life-threatening conditions, the Food and Drug Administration is under great pressure from Congress, industry, and patients to do more. Technology gatekeeping is shifting from hundreds of thousands of physicians acting on behalf of their patients to fewer, yet more powerful, managed care organizations and health care networks. Beyond its direct effects on adoption, payment, and use of technologies, the extraordinary buying leverage of these large providers is cutting technology profit margins and heightening competition among technology companies. It is contributing to unprecedented restructuring of the pharmaceutical and medical device industries, leading to unprecedented alliances with generic product companies, health care providers, utilization review companies, and other agents. These industry changes are already

  17. The changing environment for technological innovation in health care.

    PubMed

    Goodman, C S; Gelijns, A C

    1996-01-01

    A distinguishing feature of American health care is its emphasis on advanced technology. Yet today's changing health care environment is overhauling the engine of technological innovation. The rate and direction of technological innovation are affected by a complex of supply- and demandside factors, including biomedical research, education, patent law, regulation, health care payment, tort law, and more. Some distinguishing features of technological innovation in health care are now at increased risk. Regulatory requirements and rising payment hurdles are especially challenging to small technology companies. Closer management of health care delivery and payment, particularly the standardization that may derive from practice guidelines and clamping down on payment for investigational technologies, curtails opportunities for innovation. Levels and distribution of biomedical research funding in government and industry are changing. Financial constraints are limiting the traditional roles of academic health centers in fostering innovation. Despite notable steps in recent years to lower regulatory barriers and speed approvals, especially for products for life-threatening conditions, the Food and Drug Administration is under great pressure from Congress, industry, and patients to do more. Technology gatekeeping is shifting from hundreds of thousands of physicians acting on behalf of their patients to fewer, yet more powerful, managed care organizations and health care networks. Beyond its direct effects on adoption, payment, and use of technologies, the extraordinary buying leverage of these large providers is cutting technology profit margins and heightening competition among technology companies. It is contributing to unprecedented restructuring of the pharmaceutical and medical device industries, leading to unprecedented alliances with generic product companies, health care providers, utilization review companies, and other agents. These industry changes are already

  18. Integrating the environment, the economy, and community health: a Community Health Center's initiative to link health benefits to smart growth.

    PubMed

    McAvoy, Peter V; Driscoll, Mary Beth; Gramling, Benjamin J

    2004-04-01

    The Sixteenth Street Community Health Center (SSCHC) in Milwaukee, Wis, is making a difference in the livability of surrounding neighborhoods and the overall health of the families it serves. SSCHC is going beyond traditional health care provider models and working to link the environment, the economy, and community health through urban brownfield redevelopment and sustainable land-use planning. In 1997, SSCHC recognized that restoration of local air and water quality and other environmental conditions, coupled with restoring family-supporting jobs in the neighborhood, could have a substantial impact on the overall health of families. Recent events indicate that SSCHC's pursuit of smart growth strategies has begun to pay off. PMID:15053995

  19. Educating Nurses for Ethical Practice in Contemporary Health Care Environments.

    PubMed

    Grace, Pam; Milliken, Aimee

    2016-09-01

    Because health care professions exist to provide a good for society, ethical questions are inherently part of them. Such professions and their members can be assessed based on how effective they are in developing knowledge and enacting practices that further the health and well-being of individuals and society. The complexity of contemporary health care environments makes it important to prepare clinicians who can anticipate, recognize, and address problems that arise in practice or that prevent a profession from fulfilling its service goals and obligations. Different health care professions have evolved distinct perspectives about appropriate goals for, and the purposes of, their clinicians, even when the goal of improving health and well-being for society is shared across professions. While medicine and nursing goals are shared in principle, they differ in the particulars. Given the centrality to nursing of ethical questions, the profession has a collective responsibility to help clinicians at all levels of practice become ethically savvy and to reinforce their moral agency as needed. Both knowledge of nursing ethics and knowledge of the interdisciplinary field of bioethics are critical to nursing work. PMID:27649912

  20. Human health hazards associated with chemical contamination of aquatic environment.

    PubMed Central

    Stara, J F; Kello, D; Durkin, P

    1980-01-01

    Given the finite supply of water available for human use, continued chemical contamination of the aquatic environment may pose a significant human health hazard. Consequently, an effort must be made to develop ambient water quality criteria to protect human health and preserve the integrity of the aquatic environment. In developing water quality criteria based on human health effects, information on sources of exposure, pharmacokinetics, and adverse effects must be carefully evaluated. Information on sources of exposure is needed to determine the contribution of exposure from water relative to all other sources. Pharmacokinetic data are used in inter- and intraspecies extrapolation and in characterizing the mode of toxic action. Information on toxic effects includes data on acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity. In analyzing such information, a distinction is made between threshold and nonthreshold effects. Currently, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity are considered to be nonthreshold effects. For carcinogens and mutagens, criteria are calculated by postulating an "acceptable" increased level of risk and using extrapolation models to estimate the dose which would result in this increased level of risk. For other chemicals, thresholds are assumed and criteria are calculated by deriving "acceptable daily intakes" for man which would presumably result in no observable adverse effects. Neither process is exact, and attempts must be made to improve and verify risk assessment methodologies. PMID:6993199

  1. 76 FR 38399 - Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health Genomics

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Practice Environment in Public Health Genomics AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC..., and other information helpful to assess the current research, policy, and practice environment...

  2. Stress Corrosion Cracking in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Aluminum Alloys in Saline Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holroyd, N. J. Henry; Scamans, G. M.

    2013-03-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu (AA7xxx) aluminum alloys exposed to saline environments at temperatures ranging from 293 K to 353 K (20 °C to 80 °C) has been reviewed with particular attention to the influences of alloy composition and temper, and bulk and local environmental conditions. Stress corrosion crack (SCC) growth rates at room temperature for peak- and over-aged tempers in saline environments are minimized for Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys containing less than ~8 wt pct Zn when Zn/Mg ratios are ranging from 2 to 3, excess magnesium levels are less than 1 wt pct, and copper content is either less than ~0.2 wt pct or ranging from 1.3 to 2 wt pct. A minimum chloride ion concentration of ~0.01 M is required for crack growth rates to exceed those in distilled water, which insures that the local solution pH in crack-tip regions can be maintained at less than 4. Crack growth rates in saline solution without other additions gradually increase with bulk chloride ion concentrations up to around 0.6 M NaCl, whereas in solutions with sufficiently low dichromate (or chromate), inhibitor additions are insensitive to the bulk chloride concentration and are typically at least double those observed without the additions. DCB specimens, fatigue pre-cracked in air before immersion in a saline environment, show an initial period with no detectible crack growth, followed by crack growth at the distilled water rate, and then transition to a higher crack growth rate typical of region 2 crack growth in the saline environment. Time spent in each stage depends on the type of pre-crack ("pop-in" vs fatigue), applied stress intensity factor, alloy chemistry, bulk environment, and, if applied, the external polarization. Apparent activation energies ( E a) for SCC growth in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys exposed to 0.6 M NaCl over the temperatures ranging from 293 K to 353 K (20 °C to 80 °C) for under-, peak-, and over-aged low-copper-containing alloys (<0.2 wt pct) are typically ranging from

  3. Talk about cancer: environment and health in Oceanpoint.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, A

    1998-12-01

    Based on an ethnographic study, this paper explores one Australian community's 'popular epidemiology' of the role of the environment on health. Residents express concern about cancer risks due to contamination from a land-fill dump site and from radioactivity from previous mining activities. These concerns carry a range of meanings, not only regarding the threats to the physical place of Oceanpoint, but the social space the community occupies and the values they espouse. The perceptions of health risks in this location involve a contest over the cultural politics of place, the political economy of development and the sense of a former authentic 'community' that is being lost and disempowered from controlling its future.

  4. Free-living amoebae: Health concerns in the indoor environment

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.; Ironside, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    Free-living amoebae are the most likely protozoa implicated in health concerns of the indoor environment. These amoebae can be the source of allergic reactions, eye infections or, on rare occasions, encephalitis. While too large to be effectively aerosolized, free- living amoebae can support the multiplication of pathogens such as Legionella which are easily aerosolized and infectious via the pulmonary route. Traditional detection methods for free-living amoebae are laborious and time consuming. Newer techniques for rapidly detecting and quantitating free-living amoebae such as monoclonal antibodies, flow cytometry, gene probes, and laser optics have or could be employed. 25 refs.

  5. Child health and the environment: the INMA Spanish Study.

    PubMed

    Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Ramón, Rosa; Ballester, Ferran; Grimalt, Joan; Marco, Alfredo; Olea, Nicolás; Posada, Manuel; Rebagliato, Marisa; Tardón, Adonina; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi

    2006-09-01

    The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [Environment and Childhood]) is a population-based cohort study in different Spanish cities, that focuses on prenatal environmental exposures and growth, development and health from early fetal life until childhood. The study focuses on five primary areas of research: (1) growth and physical development; (2) behavioural and cognitive development; (3) asthma and allergies; (4) sexual and reproductive development; and (5) environmental exposure pathways. The general aims of the project are: (1) to describe the degree of individual prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants, and the internal dose of chemicals during pregnancy, at birth and during childhood in Spain; (2) to evaluate the impact of the exposure to different contaminants on fetal and infant growth, health and development; (3) to evaluate the role of diet on fetal and infant growth, health and development; and (4) to evaluate the interaction between persistent pollutants, nutrients and genetic determinants on fetal and infant growth, health and development. Extensive assessments will be carried out on 3100 pregnant women and children. Data will be collected by physical examinations, questionnaires, interviews, ultrasound and biological samples. Pregnant women are being assessed at 12, 20 and 32 weeks of gestation to collect information about environmental exposures and fetal growth. The children will be followed until the age of 4 years.

  6. Environment and air pollution: health services bequeath to grotesque menace.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Imran; Rasli, Amran Md; Awan, Usama; Ma, Jian; Ali, Ghulam; Faridullah; Alam, Arif; Sajjad, Faiza; Zaman, Khalid

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study is to establish the link between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, industrialization, alternative and nuclear energy, combustible renewable and wastes, urbanization, and resulting impact on health services in Malaysia. The study employed two-stage least square regression technique on the time series data from 1975 to 2012 to possibly minimize the problem of endogeniety in the health services model. The results in general show that air pollution and environmental indicators act as a strong contributor to influence Malaysian health services. Urbanization and nuclear energy consumption both significantly increases the life expectancy in Malaysia, while fertility rate decreases along with the increasing urbanization in a country. Fossil fuel energy consumption and industrialization both have an indirect relationship with the infant mortality rate, whereas, carbon dioxide emissions have a direct relationship with the sanitation facility in a country. The results conclude that balancing the air pollution, environment, and health services needs strong policy vistas on the end of the government officials.

  7. Environment and air pollution: health services bequeath to grotesque menace.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Imran; Rasli, Amran Md; Awan, Usama; Ma, Jian; Ali, Ghulam; Faridullah; Alam, Arif; Sajjad, Faiza; Zaman, Khalid

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study is to establish the link between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, industrialization, alternative and nuclear energy, combustible renewable and wastes, urbanization, and resulting impact on health services in Malaysia. The study employed two-stage least square regression technique on the time series data from 1975 to 2012 to possibly minimize the problem of endogeniety in the health services model. The results in general show that air pollution and environmental indicators act as a strong contributor to influence Malaysian health services. Urbanization and nuclear energy consumption both significantly increases the life expectancy in Malaysia, while fertility rate decreases along with the increasing urbanization in a country. Fossil fuel energy consumption and industrialization both have an indirect relationship with the infant mortality rate, whereas, carbon dioxide emissions have a direct relationship with the sanitation facility in a country. The results conclude that balancing the air pollution, environment, and health services needs strong policy vistas on the end of the government officials. PMID:25242593

  8. International Symposium on Clusters and Nanostructures (Energy, Environment, and Health)

    SciTech Connect

    Jena, Puru

    2011-11-10

    The international Symposium on Clusters and Nanostructures was held in Richmond, Virginia during November 7-10, 2011. The symposium focused on the roles clusters and nanostructures play in solving outstanding problems in clean and sustainable energy, environment, and health; three of the most important issues facing science and society. Many of the materials issues in renewable energies, environmental impacts of energy technologies as well as beneficial and toxicity issues of nanoparticles in health are intertwined. Realizing that both fundamental and applied materials issues require a multidisciplinary approach the symposium provided a forum by bringing researchers from physics, chemistry, materials science, and engineering fields to share their ideas and results, identify outstanding problems, and develop new collaborations. Clean and sustainable energy sessions addressed challenges in production, storage, conversion, and efficiency of renewable energies such as solar, wind, bio, thermo-electric, and hydrogen. Environmental issues dealt with air- and water-pollution and conservation, environmental remediation and hydrocarbon processing. Topics in health included therapeutic and diagnostic methods as well as health hazards attributed to nanoparticles. Cross-cutting topics such as reactions, catalysis, electronic, optical, and magnetic properties were also covered.

  9. Corrosion behavior of TiN, TiAlN, TiAlSiN-coated 316L stainless steel in simulated proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Nguyen Dang; Vaka, Mahesh; Tran Hung, Nguyen

    2014-12-01

    To gain high hardness, good thermal stability and corrosion resistance, multicomponent TiAlSiN coating has been developed using different deposition methods. In this study, the influence of Al and Si on the electrochemical properties of TiN-coated 316L stainless steel as bipolar plate (BP) materials has been investigated in simulated proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment. The deposited TiN, TiAlN and TiAlSiN possess high hardness of 23.9, 31.7, 35.0 GPa, respectively. The coating performance of the TiN coating is enhanced by Al and Si addition due to lower corrosion current density and higher Rcoating and Rct values. This result could be attributed to the formation of crystalline-refined TiN(200), which improves the surface roughness, surface resistance, corrosion performance, and decreased passive current density.

  10. Some public attitudes about health and the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, R H

    1990-01-01

    Public opinion is formed both by long-term developments and--at the other extreme--by single unanticipated events. This suggests that readers of opinion survey findings should note field interviewing dates and further determine what the news media have been reporting about relevant developments and events. Personal health and the cost of health care are high on the public's agenda; this is an important backdrop to a review of public attitudes and priorities related to health and the environment. What about the environment? Americans increasingly believe that we are not spending enough on environmental protection and improvement. The public thinks of environmentalists in a favorable light, and a very sizeable minority believe they have too little influence--the same number who feel it's "about right." Our surveys have shown that the more people perceive an environmental threat to their safety, well-being and health, the more they will want regulation or industry action to meet the threat. High on the public's anxiety list are hazardous wastes (especially their disposal) and the transport and use of toxic materials in manufacturing and processing, industrial accidents involving the release of pollutants, the leakage of chemical waste into the soil, and the pollution of water and air from industrial sources. Our data support the assumption that for the foreseeable future these and certain other ecological dangers will be seen as serious by large majorities of Americans. For example, even the safety of drinking water has slowly become more questionable in the public's mind.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2401262

  11. Some public attitudes about health and the environment.

    PubMed

    Baxter, R H

    1990-06-01

    Public opinion is formed both by long-term developments and--at the other extreme--by single unanticipated events. This suggests that readers of opinion survey findings should note field interviewing dates and further determine what the news media have been reporting about relevant developments and events. Personal health and the cost of health care are high on the public's agenda; this is an important backdrop to a review of public attitudes and priorities related to health and the environment. What about the environment? Americans increasingly believe that we are not spending enough on environmental protection and improvement. The public thinks of environmentalists in a favorable light, and a very sizeable minority believe they have too little influence--the same number who feel it's "about right." Our surveys have shown that the more people perceive an environmental threat to their safety, well-being and health, the more they will want regulation or industry action to meet the threat. High on the public's anxiety list are hazardous wastes (especially their disposal) and the transport and use of toxic materials in manufacturing and processing, industrial accidents involving the release of pollutants, the leakage of chemical waste into the soil, and the pollution of water and air from industrial sources. Our data support the assumption that for the foreseeable future these and certain other ecological dangers will be seen as serious by large majorities of Americans. For example, even the safety of drinking water has slowly become more questionable in the public's mind.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Some public attitudes about health and the environment.

    PubMed

    Baxter, R H

    1990-06-01

    Public opinion is formed both by long-term developments and--at the other extreme--by single unanticipated events. This suggests that readers of opinion survey findings should note field interviewing dates and further determine what the news media have been reporting about relevant developments and events. Personal health and the cost of health care are high on the public's agenda; this is an important backdrop to a review of public attitudes and priorities related to health and the environment. What about the environment? Americans increasingly believe that we are not spending enough on environmental protection and improvement. The public thinks of environmentalists in a favorable light, and a very sizeable minority believe they have too little influence--the same number who feel it's "about right." Our surveys have shown that the more people perceive an environmental threat to their safety, well-being and health, the more they will want regulation or industry action to meet the threat. High on the public's anxiety list are hazardous wastes (especially their disposal) and the transport and use of toxic materials in manufacturing and processing, industrial accidents involving the release of pollutants, the leakage of chemical waste into the soil, and the pollution of water and air from industrial sources. Our data support the assumption that for the foreseeable future these and certain other ecological dangers will be seen as serious by large majorities of Americans. For example, even the safety of drinking water has slowly become more questionable in the public's mind.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2401262

  13. A Review of Obesity and Its Relationship with the Built Environment: Implications for Health Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinzon-Perez, Helda

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is an important worldwide public health problem. Obesogenic environments have been associated with increasing rates of overweight and obesity. The relationship between obesity and the built environment, along with its implications for health education are discussed in this article.

  14. Interventions to improve children's health by improving the housing environment.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Nita

    2004-01-01

    Young children spend more than 90% of their time in the household environment--a likely place of exposure to hazardous substances. In the developing world, childhood diarrheal disease and acute lower respiratory infections represent a large portion of the global burden of disease and are strongly related to housing conditions. In the developed world, allergies and asthma are also strongly linked to housing conditions. Therefore, intervention to improve housing is essential to improve and maintain children's health. This paper will review several factors that have been shown to mediate housing and health relations, including psychosocial, environmental, socioeconomic, behavior-cultural, and physiological factors, and will provide examples of intervention to improve child health, with housing as a focus. Environmental contaminants found in the household include biological (for example, vector-borne diseases, dustmites, mold, water- and sanitation-related), chemical (for example, lead, volatile organic compounds, asbestos) or physical (for example, radon, electric and magnetic fields). Socioeconomic factors include household income, the ability to obtain adequate and appropriate housing, and the ability to implement ongoing preventative maintenance. Housing tenure has been used as a proxy for socioeconomic status and shown some relation with health outcome. Socioeconomic factors can be relevant to the ability of households to create social networks that affect health. Psychosocial factors, including stress and depression, can also be related to housing type or design. Behavioral-cultural factors include practices that might influence exposure to chemical, biological, or radiation hazards like time-activity patterns, including gender relations and household decision-making patterns. Physiological factors include genetics or the nutritional and immune status of household members, which can influence the extent to which other housing factors like biological or chemical

  15. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 10-Point Initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES&H) programs, and waste management activities at DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points involved conducting dent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special independent Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ``more focused, concentrating on ES&H management, ES&H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.`` In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES&H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES&H areas. This manual documents the processes to be used to perform the ES&H Progress Assessments. It was developed based upon the lessons learned from Tiger Team Assessments, the two pilot Progress Assessments, and Progress Assessments that have been completed. The manual will be updated periodically to reflect lessons learned or changes in policy.

  16. Optometric record keeping in a comprehensive health care environment.

    PubMed

    Rivard, B

    1996-05-01

    Optometric records which have evolved in private practice must be reconsidered when included in a comprehensive care environment. These hospital, health maintenance organization (HMO), preferred provider organization, and similarly linked systems require a higher degree of communication among specialties than do self-standing practices. Furthermore, the administrative requirements of such a system require more standardization, cost sensitivity, medicolegal compliance, and other elements pecular to a comprehensive facility. The expended scope of care provided by optometrists within a hospital requires familiarity with a new range of procedures, languages, and reports. Information from laboratories, radiology, and other areas must be incorporated into the optometric record. Continuity of care is more complex. Opportunities for strong interprofessional synergies within the organization arise directly from proactivity in optometric record keeping. New legal hot spots arise from questions of records ownership, access, and privacy. Billing procedures are becoming extremely important, with significant effects on quality assurance audits, coding, doctor "profiling" against fraud, and abuse; these priorities can interfere with clinical priorities. Driven primarily by the concerns and resources of large third-party payers, technology is making rapid changes in the form of optometric record keeping in comprehensive systems. Electronic data management will change the face of medical records, although administrative data will be digitized much more quickly than clinical notes. Comprehensive care environments will be the "test beds" for these technologies. Optometry is in a good position to show its contribution to the health care team through leadership in the implementation of new record keeping models. PMID:8771579

  17. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Hanford Site, in Richland, Washington. The assessment, which was conducted from May 11 through May 22, 1992, included a selective-review of the ES&H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices the DOE Richland Field Office, and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the Hanford Site ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES&H problems and requirements. They are not intended to be comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at the Hanford Site was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of the Hanford Site, which was conducted from May 21 through July 18, 1990. A summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management is included.

  18. Psychosocial work environment and mental health among construction workers.

    PubMed

    Boschman, J S; van der Molen, H F; Sluiter, J K; Frings-Dresen, M H W

    2013-09-01

    We assessed psychosocial work environment, the prevalence of mental health complaints and the association between these two among bricklayers and construction supervisors. For this cross-sectional study a total of 1500 bricklayers and supervisors were selected. Psychosocial work characteristics were measured using the Dutch Questionnaire on the Experience and Evaluation of Work and compared to the general Dutch working population. Mental health effects were measured with scales to assess fatigue during work, need for recovery after work, symptoms of distress, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. The prevalence of self-reported mental health complaints was determined using the cut-off values. Associations between psychosocial work characteristics and self-reported mental health complaints were analysed using logistic regression. Total response rate was 43%. Compared to the general working population, bricklayers experienced statistically significant worse job control, learning opportunities and future perspectives; supervisors experienced statistically significant higher psychological demands and need for recovery. Prevalence of self-reported mental health effects among bricklayers and supervisors, respectively, were as follows: high need for recovery after work (14%; 25%), distress (5%, 7%), depression (18%, 20%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (11%, 7%). Among both occupations, high work speed and quantity were associated with symptoms of depression. Further, among construction supervisors, low participation in decision making and low social support of the direct supervisor was associated with symptoms of depression. The findings in the present study indicate psychosocial risk factors for bricklayers and supervisors. In each occupation a considerable proportion of workers was positively screened for symptoms of common mental disorders.

  19. Psychosocial mechanisms linking the social environment to mental health in African Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African Amer...

  20. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J; Edge, Thomas A; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2014-09-01

    Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future work in

  1. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J.; Edge, Thomas A.; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future

  2. Mental health needs in a post-disaster environment.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Gary; McGuinness, Teena M

    2009-09-01

    Maintenance of a daily routine, which includes scheduled medications, access to a health care provider, and a stable environment, forms an anchor point in the lives of people diagnosed with mental illness. When a disaster, either man made or natural, interferes with these, patients often experience an acute exacerbation of their illness. Efforts to mitigate the ensuing disruption require a contingency plan in the event of a disaster; a plan ensuring access to medications, health information, and caregiver stability, allows those with mental illness to continue to function at an acceptable level. Recent world events, such as the Asian Tsunami in 2004 and Hurricane Katrina in 2005, indicate that minimal research exists regarding the magnitude of the effects of disasters on those with mental illness. A review of the literature indicates that the impact on survivors' mental well-being is directly related to the level of exposure to a disaster. Mental health professionals must include crisis management, planning, and communication in pre- and post-disaster interventions with people who have mental illness. PMID:19772248

  3. Environment and health in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Holdren, Jill; Tao, Shu; Carpenter, David O

    2008-10-01

    There are major challenges facing the countries in the Pacific Basin. These include issues of hazardous waste management and the consequent adverse effects of hazardous wastes on human health, the potential disruption of our whole way of life as a consequence of global climate change, and the increasing problem on human health of air pollution and the effects of breathing polluted air. These issues and others were the focus of the 12th meeting of the Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health Sciences, held in Beijing in late 2007. This volume is a collection of papers presented at that meeting, and this introductory chapter provides some perspective on three of the major issues that are of concern in all of the countries in this region. This meeting provided an opportunity for Chinese scientists and those from other countries in the Pacific Basin to share perspectives and possible solutions with others from the international community, and these various approaches are reflected in these proceedings. PMID:18991897

  4. Occupational Safety and Related Impacts on Health and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Watterson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The inter-relationship between safety, health and the ‘environment’ is a complex and at times a relatively neglected topic. In this issue, ‘safety’ is often viewed by contributors as ‘health and safety’ and includes occupationally-related ill health as well as injury or harm to employees and the wider public. ‘Environment’ is also interpreted in the widest sense covering both physical and work environments with upstream work hazards presenting risks to downstream communities. The focus is very much on exploring and where possible addressing the challenges, some old and some facing workers in a range of public and private settings and also at times their nearby communities. The 19 papers in the issue cover public and private sectors, global and very local populations, macro-theoretical perspectives, large epidemiological and some single factory or hospital site small case studies. A number of the papers are just beginning to explore and draw out for the first time the risks from hazards in their part of the world. The methodologies adopted also range from lab-based studies through ergonomic assessments and interventions to therapeutic approaches. PMID:27782047

  5. Health service support in the future operating environment 2035.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    The period to 2035 is likely to be characterised by instability between states and in relations between groups within states. It is predicted to include climate change, rapid population growth, resource scarcity, resurgence in ideology, and shifts in power from west to east. Many of these changes are likely to have an impact on the health of civil societies and those military personnel deployed by states to counter these challenges. This paper considers the potential impact of emerging global strategic trends on health service support (HSS) in the Future Operating Environment 2035. Global Strategic Trends-Out to 2040, The Future Character of Conflict and NATO Strategic Foresight Analysis Report 2013 provide the foundations of the paper. The study concludes that future impacts on HSS are neither completely predictable nor predetermined, and there is always a possibility of a strategic shock. Knowledge of vulnerability, however, allows an informed approach to the development and evaluation of adaptive strategies to lessen risks to health. PMID:24696135

  6. Mental health needs in a post-disaster environment.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Gary; McGuinness, Teena M

    2009-09-01

    Maintenance of a daily routine, which includes scheduled medications, access to a health care provider, and a stable environment, forms an anchor point in the lives of people diagnosed with mental illness. When a disaster, either man made or natural, interferes with these, patients often experience an acute exacerbation of their illness. Efforts to mitigate the ensuing disruption require a contingency plan in the event of a disaster; a plan ensuring access to medications, health information, and caregiver stability, allows those with mental illness to continue to function at an acceptable level. Recent world events, such as the Asian Tsunami in 2004 and Hurricane Katrina in 2005, indicate that minimal research exists regarding the magnitude of the effects of disasters on those with mental illness. A review of the literature indicates that the impact on survivors' mental well-being is directly related to the level of exposure to a disaster. Mental health professionals must include crisis management, planning, and communication in pre- and post-disaster interventions with people who have mental illness.

  7. Factors Affecting the Hydrogen Environment Assisted Cracking Resistance of an Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Young; J.R. Scully

    2001-09-12

    It is well established that Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) aluminum alloys are susceptible to hydrogen environment assisted cracking (HEAC) when exposed to aqueous environments. In Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, overaged tempers are commonly used to increase HEAC resistance at the expense of strength. Overaging has little benefit in low copper alloys. However, the mechanism or mechanisms by which overaging imparts HEAC resistance is poorly understood. The present research investigated hydrogen uptake, diffusion, and crack growth rate in 90% relative humidity (RH) air for both a commercial copper bearing Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (AA 7050) and a low copper variant of this alloy in order to better understand the factors which affect HEAC resistance. Experimental methods used to evaluate hydrogen concentrations local to a surface and near a crack tip include nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), focused ion beam, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (FIB/SIMS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). When freshly bared coupons of AA 7050 are exposed to 90 C, 90% RH air, hydrogen ingress follows inverse-logarithmic-type kinetics and is equivalent for underaged (HEAC susceptible) and overaged (HEAC resistant) tempers. However, when the native oxide is allowed to form (24 hrs in 25 C, 40% RH lab air) prior to exposure to 90 C, 90% RH air, underaged alloy shows significantly greater hydrogen ingress than the overaged alloy. Humid air is a very aggressive environment producing local ({approx}1{micro}m) hydrogen concentrations in excess of 10,000 wt. ppm at 90 C. In the copper bearing alloy, overaging also effects the apparent diffusivity of hydrogen. As AA 7050 is aged from underaged {yields} peak aged {yields} overaged, the activation energy for hydrogen diffusion increases and the apparent diffusivity for hydrogen decreases, In the low copper alloy, overaging has little effect on hydrogen diffusion. Comparison of the apparent activation energies for hydrogen diffusion and for K independent (stage II) crack growth

  8. Burnout and work environments of public health nurses involved in mental health care

    PubMed Central

    Imai, H; Nakao, H; Tsuchiya, M; Kuroda, Y; Katoh, T

    2004-01-01

    Aims: (1) To examine whether prevalence of burnout is higher among community psychiatric nurses working under recently introduced job specific work systems than among public health nurses (PHNs) engaged in other public health services. (2) To identify work environment factors potentially contributing to burnout. Methods: Two groups were examined. The psychiatric group comprised 525 PHNs primarily engaged in public mental health services at public health centres (PHCs) that had adopted the job specific work system. The control group comprised 525 PHNs primarily engaged in other health services. Pines' Burnout Scale was used to measure burnout. Respondents were classified by burnout score into three groups: A (mentally stable, no burnout); B (positive signs, risk of burnout); and C (burnout present, action required). Groups B and C were considered representative of "burnout". A questionnaire was also prepared to investigate systems for supporting PHNs working at PHCs and to define emergency mental health service factors contributing to burnout. Results: Final respondents comprised 785 PHNs. Prevalence of burnout was significantly higher in the psychiatric group (59.2%) than in the control group (51.5%). Responses indicating lack of job control and increased annual frequency of emergency overtime services were significantly correlated with prevalence of burnout in the psychiatric group, but not in the control group. Conclusions: Prevalence of burnout is significantly higher for community psychiatric nurses than for PHNs engaged in other services. Overwork in emergency services and lack of job control appear to represent work environment factors contributing to burnout. PMID:15317917

  9. Oil for health in sub-Saharan Africa: health systems in a 'resource curse' environment

    PubMed Central

    Calain, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Background In a restricted sense, the resource curse is a theory that explains the inverse relationship classically seen between dependence on natural resources and economic growth. It defines a peculiar economic and political environment, epitomised by oil extraction in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Based on secondary research and illustrations from four oil-rich geographical areas (the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, Angola, southern Chad, Southern Sudan), I propose a framework for analysing the effects of the resource curse on the structure of health systems at sub-national levels. Qualitative attributes are emphasised. The role of the corporate sector, the influence of conflicts, and the value of classical mitigation measures (such as health impact assessments) are further examined. Results Health systems in a resource curse environment are classically fractured into tripartite components, including governmental health agencies, non-profit non-governmental organisations, and the corporate extractive sector. The three components entertain a range of contractual relationships generally based on operational considerations which are withdrawn from social or community values. Characterisation of agencies in this system should also include: values, operating principles, legitimacy and operational spaces. From this approach, it appears that community health is at the same time marginalised and instrumentalised toward economic and corporate interests in resource curse settings. Conclusion From a public health point of view, the resource curse represents a fundamental failure of dominant development theories, rather than a delay in creating the proper economy and governance environment for social progress. The scope of research on the resource curse should be broadened to include more accurate or comprehensive indicators of destitution (including health components) and more open perspectives on causal mechanisms. PMID:18939986

  10. Environment, Health and Climate: Impact of African aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liousse, C.; Doumbia, T.; Assamoi, E.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Baeza, A.; Penner, J. E.; Val, S.; Cachier, H.; Xu, L.; Criqui, P.

    2012-12-01

    Fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of particles in Africa are expected to significantly increase in the near future, particularly due to rapid growth of African cities. In addition to biomass burning emissions prevailing in these areas, air quality degradation is then expected with important consequences on population health and climatic/radiative impact. In our group, we are constructing a new integrated methodology to study the relations between emissions, air quality and their impacts. This approach includes: (1) African combustion emission characterizations; (2) joint experimental determination of aerosol chemistry from ultrafine to coarse fractions and health issues (toxicology and epidemiology). (3) integrated environmental, health and radiative modeling. In this work, we show some results illustrating our first estimates of African anthropogenic emission impacts: - a new African anthropogenic emission inventory adapted to regional specificities on traffic, biofuel and industrial emissions has been constructed for the years 2005 and 2030. Biomass burning inventories were also improved in the frame of AMMA (African Monsoon) program. - carbonaceous aerosol radiative impact in Africa has been modeled with TM5 model and Penner et al. (2011) radiative code for these inventories for 2005 and 2030 and for two scenarios of emissions : a reference scenario, with no further emission controls beyond those achieved in 2003 and a ccc* scenario including planned policies in Kyoto protocol and regulations as applied to African emission specificities. In this study we will show that enhanced heating is expected with the ccc* scenarios emissions in which the OC fraction is relatively lower than in the reference scenario. - results of short term POLCA intensive campaigns in Bamako and Dakar in terms of aerosol chemical characterization linked to specific emissions sources and their inflammatory impacts on the respiratory tract through in vitro studies. In this study, organic

  11. Health and the environment in the 1990s.

    PubMed Central

    Doll, R

    1992-01-01

    Expectation of life at birth provides a simple measure of the state of health of a country. Differences in the expectation are examined in the United States over time and between males and females and Whites and non-Whites, and worldwide between market and nonmarket developed countries, and between developed and developing countries. The principal factors responsible for the trends and the current differences are changes in the social and physical environment, in personal behavior, and in medical care, and their relative importance is assessed. It is concluded that, at present, the principal environmental hazards worldwide are those associated with poverty of individuals within the market economies and of communities in the developing countries and that in the future, they will be the effects of overpopulation and the production of greenhouse gases. PMID:1609912

  12. The prioritization of environment, safety, and health activities

    SciTech Connect

    Otway, H.; Puckett, J.M.; von Winterfeldt, D.

    1991-09-01

    Federal facilities, including the national laboratories, must bring existing operations into compliance with environment, safety, and health (ES H) regulations while restoring sites of past operations to conform with today's more rigorous standards. The need for ES H resources is increasing while overall budgets are decreasing, and the resulting staffing and financial constraints often make it impossible to carry out all necessary activities simultaneously. This stimulated interest in formal methods to prioritize ES H activities. We describe the development of an approach called MAPP (Multi-Attribute Prioritization Process), which features expert judgment, user values, and intensive user participation in the system design process. We present results of its application to the prioritization of 41 ES H activities having a total cost of over $25 million. We conclude that the insights gained from user participation in the design process and the formal prioritization results are probably of comparable value. 19 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Health and the environment in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Doll, R

    1992-07-01

    Expectation of life at birth provides a simple measure of the state of health of a country. Differences in the expectation are examined in the United States over time and between males and females and Whites and non-Whites, and worldwide between market and nonmarket developed countries, and between developed and developing countries. The principal factors responsible for the trends and the current differences are changes in the social and physical environment, in personal behavior, and in medical care, and their relative importance is assessed. It is concluded that, at present, the principal environmental hazards worldwide are those associated with poverty of individuals within the market economies and of communities in the developing countries and that in the future, they will be the effects of overpopulation and the production of greenhouse gases. PMID:1609912

  14. The health care work environment and adverse health and safety consequences for nurses.

    PubMed

    Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Lipscomb, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Nurses' working conditions are inextricably linked to the quality of care that is provided to patients and patients' safety. These same working conditions are associated with health and safety outcomes for nurses and other health care providers. This chapter describes aspects of the nursing work environment that have been linked to hazards and adverse exposures for nurses, as well as the most common health and safety outcomes of nursing work. We include studies from 2000 to the present by nurse researchers, studies of nurses as subjects, and studies of workers under similar working conditions that could translate to nurses' work environment. We explore a number of work organization factors including shift work and extended work hours, safety climate and culture, teamwork, and communication. We also describe environmental hazards, including chemical hazards (e.g., waste anesthetics, hazardous drugs, cleaning compounds) and airborne and bloodborne pathogen exposure. Nurses' health and safety outcomes include physical (e.g., musculoskeletal disorders, gastrointestinal, slips, trips and falls, physical assault) and psychosocial outcomes (e.g., burnout, work-family conflict). Finally, we present recommendations for future research to further protect nurses and all health care workers from a range of hazardous working conditions.

  15. Indirect health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments

    SciTech Connect

    Arundel, A.V.; Sterling, E.M.; Biggin, J.H.; Sterling, T.D.

    1986-03-01

    A review of the health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments suggests that relative humidity can affect the incidence of respiratory infections and allergies. Experimental studies on airborne-transmitted infectious bacteria and viruses have shown that the survival or infectivity of these organisms is minimized by exposure to relative humidities between 40 and 70%. Nine epidemiological studies examined the relationship between the number of respiratory infections or absenteeism and the relative humidity of the office, residence, or school. The incidence of absenteeism or respiratory infections was found to be lower among people working or living in environments with mid-range versus low or high relative humidities. The indoor size of allergenic mite and fungal populations is directly dependent upon the relative humidity. Mite populations are minimized when the relative humidity is below 50% and reach a maximum size at 80% relative humidity. Most species of fungi cannot grow unless the relative humidity exceeds 60%. Relative humidity also affects the rate of offgassing of formaldehyde from indoor building materials, the rate of formation of acids and salts from sulfur and nitrogen dioxide, and the rate of formation of ozone. The influence of relative humidity on the abundance of allergens, pathogens, and noxious chemicals suggests that indoor relative humidity levels should be considered as a factor of indoor air quality. The majority of adverse health effects caused by relative humidity would be minimized by maintaining indoor levels between 40 and 60%. This would require humidification during winter in areas with cold winter climates. Humidification should preferably use evaporative or steam humidifiers, as cool mist humidifiers can disseminate aerosols contaminated with allergens.

  16. [Effects of volcanic eruptions on environment and health].

    PubMed

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Milosević, Milan

    2007-12-01

    Volcanoes pose a threat to almost half a billion people; today there are approximately 500 active volcanoes on Earth, and every year there are 10 to 40 volcanic eruptions. Volcanic eruptions produce hazardous effects for the environment, climate, and the health of the exposed persons, and are associated with the deterioration of social and economic conditions. Along with magma and steam (H2O), the following gases surface in the environment: carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), carbon sulphide (CS), carbon disulfide (CS2), hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), hydrogen fluoride (HF), hydrogen bromide (HBr) and various organic compounds, as well as heavy metals (mercury, lead, gold).Their unfavourable effects depend on the distance from a volcano, on magma viscosity, and on gas concentrations. The hazards closer to the volcano include pyroclastic flows, flows of mud, gases and steam, earthquakes, blasts of air, and tsunamis. Among the hazards in distant areas are the effects of toxic volcanic ashes and problems of the respiratory system, eyes and skin, as well as psychological effects, injuries, transport and communication problems, waste disposal and water supplies issues, collapse of buildings and power outage. Further effects are the deterioration of water quality, fewer periods of rain, crop damages, and the destruction of vegetation. During volcanic eruptions and their immediate aftermath, increased respiratory system morbidity has been observed as well as mortality among those affected by volcanic eruptions. Unfavourable health effects could partly be prevented by timely application of safety measures.

  17. Indirect health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments.

    PubMed Central

    Arundel, A V; Sterling, E M; Biggin, J H; Sterling, T D

    1986-01-01

    A review of the health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments suggests that relative humidity can affect the incidence of respiratory infections and allergies. Experimental studies on airborne-transmitted infectious bacteria and viruses have shown that the survival or infectivity of these organisms is minimized by exposure to relative humidities between 40 and 70%. Nine epidemiological studies examined the relationship between the number of respiratory infections or absenteeism and the relative humidity of the office, residence, or school. The incidence of absenteeism or respiratory infections was found to be lower among people working or living in environments with mid-range versus low or high relative humidities. The indoor size of allergenic mite and fungal populations is directly dependent upon the relative humidity. Mite populations are minimized when the relative humidity is below 50% and reach a maximum size at 80% relative humidity. Most species of fungi cannot grow unless the relative humidity exceeds 60%. Relative humidity also affects the rate of offgassing of formaldehyde from indoor building materials, the rate of formation of acids and salts from sulfur and nitrogen dioxide, and the rate of formation of ozone. The influence of relative humidity on the abundance of allergens, pathogens, and noxious chemicals suggests that indoor relative humidity levels should be considered as a factor of indoor air quality. The majority of adverse health effects caused by relative humidity would be minimized by maintaining indoor levels between 40 and 60%. This would require humidification during winter in areas with cold winter climates. Humidification should preferably use evaporative or steam humidifiers, as cool mist humidifiers can disseminate aerosols contaminated with allergens. PMID:3709462

  18. [Effects of volcanic eruptions on environment and health].

    PubMed

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Milosević, Milan

    2007-12-01

    Volcanoes pose a threat to almost half a billion people; today there are approximately 500 active volcanoes on Earth, and every year there are 10 to 40 volcanic eruptions. Volcanic eruptions produce hazardous effects for the environment, climate, and the health of the exposed persons, and are associated with the deterioration of social and economic conditions. Along with magma and steam (H2O), the following gases surface in the environment: carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), carbon sulphide (CS), carbon disulfide (CS2), hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), hydrogen fluoride (HF), hydrogen bromide (HBr) and various organic compounds, as well as heavy metals (mercury, lead, gold).Their unfavourable effects depend on the distance from a volcano, on magma viscosity, and on gas concentrations. The hazards closer to the volcano include pyroclastic flows, flows of mud, gases and steam, earthquakes, blasts of air, and tsunamis. Among the hazards in distant areas are the effects of toxic volcanic ashes and problems of the respiratory system, eyes and skin, as well as psychological effects, injuries, transport and communication problems, waste disposal and water supplies issues, collapse of buildings and power outage. Further effects are the deterioration of water quality, fewer periods of rain, crop damages, and the destruction of vegetation. During volcanic eruptions and their immediate aftermath, increased respiratory system morbidity has been observed as well as mortality among those affected by volcanic eruptions. Unfavourable health effects could partly be prevented by timely application of safety measures. PMID:18063533

  19. Effect of thermal environment evolution on AlN bulk sublimation crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, D.; Zheng, L. L.; Zhang, H.; Zhuang, D.; Herro, Z. G.; Schlesser, R.; Sitar, Z.

    2007-08-01

    To obtain a large and thick AlN single crystal during sublimation growth, it is very important to maintain the thermal environment suitable for growth inside the crucible during a long period of time (>50 h). In this paper, an in-house developed integrated model capable of describing inductive, radiative and conductive heat transfer will be used to simulate the transient behavior of thermal environment inside the crucible during a 40-h experiment growth. Effects of graphite insulation degradation on temperature distribution inside the crucible will be investigated. Simulation results will be compared with the experimental data to study the effects of the insulation degradation-induced particle deposition, geometric variation of source material and crystal size enlargement on the temperature distribution in the crucible and the growth rate. The relationship between graphite insulation degradation and power input change of the induction-heated system will be established. The evolution of temperature difference between the source material and crystal, which is the driving force for growth, will be presented. This study will also provide the explanation of mechanism underling substantial reduction of growth rate after a long experiment run.

  20. Work-based learning in health care environments.

    PubMed

    Spouse, J

    2001-03-01

    In reviewing contemporary literature and theories about work-based learning, this paper explores recent trends promoting life-long learning. In the process the paper reviews and discusses some implications of implementing recent policies and fostering le arning in health care practice settings. Recent Government policies designed to provide quality health care services and to improve staffing levels in the nursing workforce, have emphasized the importance of life-long learning whilst learning-on-the-job and the need to recognize and credit experiential learning. Such calls include negotiation of personal development plans tailored to individual educational need and context-sensitive learning activities. To be implemented effectively, this policy cann ot be seen as a cheap option but requires considerable financial resourcing for preparation of staff and the conduct of such activities. Successful work-based learning requires investment in staff at all levels as well as changes to staffing structures in organizations and trusts; changes designed to free people up to work and learn collaboratively. Creating an organizational environment where learning is prized depends upon a climate of trust; a climate where investigation and speculation are fostered and where time is protected for engaging in discussions about practice. Such a change may be radical for many health care organizations and may require a review of current policies and practices ensuring that they include education at all levels. The nature of such education also requires reconceptualizing. In the past, learning in practice settings was seen as formal lecturing or demonstration, and relied upon behaviourist principles of learning. Contemporary thinking suggests effective learning in work-settings is multi-faceted and draws on previously acquired formal knowledge, contextualizes it and moulds it according to situations at hand. Thinking about work-based learning in this way raises questions about how such

  1. The Status of Health Information Delivery in the United States: The Role of Libraries in the Complex Health Care Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlen, Karen Hackleman

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the current environment in which health information is disseminated. Topics addressed include health information versus patient education; a model for examining delivery of consumer health information; the role of library professional associations; national libraries; public libraries; hospital libraries; academic health sciences…

  2. The Health Literacy Environment of Hospitals and Health Centers. Partners for Action: Making Your Healthcare Facility Literacy-Friendly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, Rima E.; Anderson, Jennie E.

    2006-01-01

    The "health literacy environment" of a healthcare facility represents the expectations, preferences, and skills of those providing health information and services. Some of these demands are in the form of physical aspects of the hospital or health center, such as signs and postings. At the same time, access to and navigation of health services…

  3. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Mama, Scherezade K; Li, Yisheng; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W; Nguyen, Nga T; Reitzel, Lorraine R; McNeill, Lorna H

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans. PMID:27119366

  4. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E.; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans. PMID:27119366

  5. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Mama, Scherezade K; Li, Yisheng; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W; Nguyen, Nga T; Reitzel, Lorraine R; McNeill, Lorna H

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans.

  6. Health surveillance and agribusiness: the impact of pesticides on health and the environment. Danger ahead!

    PubMed

    Nasrala Neto, Elias; Lacaz, Francisco Antonio de Castro; Pignati, Wanderlei Antonio

    2014-12-01

    Pesticides are abundantly used in agribusiness and can be damaging to health and the environment. Society in general and agricultural, environmental and health institutions in particular have a legal and statutory duty to supervise their use. To identify and analyze these actions, interviews were conducted with managers of the municipal offices and union leaders representing the workers and farmers. Managers and rural producers were of the opinion that pesticides are essential to productivity and do not generate any impact on health and the environment. No policies or institutional relations monitoring pesticide use were identified or being considered. Rural workers' unions do not take any political initiatives to benefit the health of the workers themselves, their families and that of society in general. The conclusion draws is the pressing need to develop a model for sustainable agriculture, healthy and free of pesticides and that organized society and responsible institutions must undertake actions that meet the needs of the people who working on the farms or consume the agricultural products harvested there, especially controlling risks and consequences that can and must be avoided.

  7. Facilitating knowledge transfer: decision support tools in environment and health.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Ying; Bartonova, Alena; Neofytou, Panagiotis; Yang, Aileen; Kobernus, Michael J; Negrenti, Emanuele; Housiadas, Christos

    2012-01-01

    The HENVINET Health and Environment Network aimed to enhance the use of scientific knowledge in environmental health for policy making. One of the goals was to identify and evaluate Decision Support Tools (DST) in current use. Special attention was paid to four "priority" health issues: asthma and allergies, cancer, neurodevelopment disorders, and endocrine disruptors.We identified a variety of tools that are used for decision making at various levels and by various stakeholders. We developed a common framework for information acquisition about DSTs, translated this to a database structure and collected the information in an online Metadata Base (MDB).The primary product is an open access web-based MDB currently filled with 67 DSTs, accessible through the HENVINET networking portal http://www.henvinet.eu and http://henvinet.nilu.no. Quality assurance and control of the entries and evaluation of requirements to use the DSTs were also a focus of the work. The HENVINET DST MDB is an open product that enables the public to get basic information about the DSTs, and to search the DSTs using pre-designed attributes or free text. Registered users are able to 1) review and comment on existing DSTs; 2) evaluate each DST's functionalities, and 3) add new DSTs, or change the entry for their own DSTs. Assessment of the available 67 DSTs showed: 1) more than 25% of the DSTs address only one pollution source; 2) 25% of the DSTs address only one environmental stressor; 3) almost 50% of the DSTs are only applied to one disease; 4) 41% of the DSTs can only be applied to one decision making area; 5) 60% of the DSTs' results are used only by national authority and/or municipality/urban level administration; 6) almost half of the DSTs are used only by environmental professionals and researchers. This indicates that there is a need to develop DSTs covering an increasing number of pollution sources, environmental stressors and health end points, and considering links to other 'Driving

  8. Preliminary base heating environments for a generalized ALS LO2/LH2 launch vehicle, appendix 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Robert L.; Reardon, John E.

    1989-01-01

    A secondary objective of contract NAS8-39141 is to provide base heating assessments, as required, to support Advanced Launch System (ALS) preliminary launch vehicle and propulsion system design studies. The ALS propulsion systems integration working group meeting (No. 3) recently completed in San Diego, California, focused attention on the need for base heating environment determination to provide preliminary requirements for LO2/LH2 propulsion systems currently being considered for ALS. We were requested to provide these environments for a range of possible propellant mixture and nozzle area ratios. Base heating environments can only be determined as a function of altitude when the engine operating conditions and vehicle base region geometry (engine arrangement) are known. If time dependent environments are needed to assess thermal loads, a trajectory must also be provided. These parameters are not fixed at this time since the ALS configurations and propulsion operating conditions are varied and continue to be studied by Phase B contractors. Therefore, for this study, a generalized LO2/LH2 system was selected along with a vehicle configuration consisting of a seven-engine booster and a three-engine core. MSFC provided guidance for the selection. We also selected a limited number of body points on the booster and core vehicles and engines for the environment estimates. Environments at these locations are representative of maximum heating conditions in the base region and are provided as a function of altitude only. Guidelines and assumptions for this assessment, methodology for determining the environments, and preliminary results are provided in this technical note. Refinements in the environments will be provided as the ALS design matures.

  9. The Portrayal of Natural Environment in the Evolution of the Ecological Public Health Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Coutts, Christopher; Forkink, Annet; Weiner, Jocelyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the conceptualization of the natural environment in an evolving ecological public health paradigm. The natural environment has long been recognized as essential to supporting life, health, and wellbeing. Our understanding of the relationship between the natural environment and health has steadily evolved from one of an undynamic environment to a more sophisticated understanding of ecological interactions. This evolution is reflected in a number of ecological public health models which demonstrate the many external and overlapping determinants of human health. Six models are presented here to demonstrate this evolution, each model reflecting an increasingly ecological appreciation for the fundamental role of the natural environment in supporting human health. We conclude that after decades of public health’s acceptance of the ecological paradigm, we are only now beginning to assemble knowledge of sophisticated ecological interdependencies and apply this knowledge to the conceptualization and study of the relationship between the natural environment and the determinants of human health. PMID:24434596

  10. Violence against Primary Health Care Workers in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; El-Wehady, Adel; Amr, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    This self-report questionnaire study was carried out in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia to highlight the magnitude, predictors, and circumstances of workplace violence against primary health care (PHC) workers. A total of 1,091 workers completed a self-administered questionnaire. About 28% were exposed to at least one violent event during the past year.…

  11. The University Environment: A Comprehensive Assessment of Health-Related Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymona, Katie; Quick, Virginia; Olfert, Melissa; Shelnutt, Karla; Kattlemann, Kendra K.; Brown-Esters, Onikia; Colby, Sarah E.; Beaudoin, Christina; Lubniewski, Jocelyn; Maia, Angelina Moore; Horacek, Tanya; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about health-related advertising on university environments. Given the power of advertising and its potential effect on health behaviors, the purpose of this paper is to assess the health-related advertisement environment and policies on university campuses. Design/methodology/approach: In total, ten geographically and…

  12. MgAl2O4 spinel refractory as containment liner for high-temperature alkali salt containing environments

    DOEpatents

    Peascoe-Meisner, Roberta A [Knoxville, TN; Keiser, James R [Oak Ridge, TN; Hemric, James G [Knoxville, TN; Hubbard, Camden R [Oak Ridge, TN; Gorog, J Peter [Kent, WA; Gupta, Amul [Jamestown, NY

    2008-10-21

    A method includes containing a high-temperature alkali salt containing environment using a refractory containment liner containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel. A method, includes forming a refractory brick containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel having an exterior chill zone defined by substantially columnar crystallization and an interior zone defined by substantially equiaxed crystallization; and removing at least a portion of the exterior chill zone from the refractory brick containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel by scalping the refractory brick containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel to define at least one outer surface having an area of substantially equiaxed crystallization. A product of manufacture includes a refractory brick containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel including an interior zone defined by substantially equiaxed crystallization; and at least one outer surface having an area of substantially equiaxed crystallization.

  13. Health-related quality of life in ALS, myasthenia gravis and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Winter, Yaroslav; Schepelmann, Karsten; Spottke, Annika E; Claus, Detlef; Grothe, Christoph; Schröder, Rolf; Heuss, Dieter; Vielhaber, Stefan; Tackenberg, Björn; Mylius, Veit; Reese, Jens-Peter; Kiefer, Reinhard; Schrank, Bertold; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Dodel, Richard

    2010-09-01

    Neuromuscular disorders are rare diseases with a chronic and debilitating course. Unfortunately, data on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in neuromuscular diseases are limited. The objective of this multicentre cross-sectional study was to compare the HRQoL in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) and myasthenia gravis (MG) and to identify the determinants of the HRQoL in these diseases. We recruited 91 consecutive outpatients with ALS (n = 37), FSHD (n = 17) or MG (n = 37) in seven specialized German health centres. The HRQoL was determined using the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the EuroQol (EQ-5D). Independent predictors of the HRQoL were identified using multiple regression analysis. The HRQoL in all domains of the SF-36, except for bodily pain, was significantly reduced. The domains related to physical health (physical functioning, physical role) were most affected. The EQ-5D-index score was most reduced in ALS (0.54) and least reduced in MG (0.89). Independent predictors of a reduced HRQoL were disease severity and depression in ALS, and disease severity, depression, older age and increased body-mass index in MG. The patterns of HRQoL-impairment in neuromuscular disorders share some common features, such as a more pronounced reduction in the HRQoL related to physical health, but there are a number of disease-specific features that should be considered in outcomes of clinical trials and treatment guidelines. In addition to the treatment of motor symptoms, greater attention should be paid to the treatment of depression, which was found to be among the independent predictors of the HRQoL in ALS and MG. PMID:20383521

  14. Exploring the Role of the Built and Social Neighborhood Environment in Moderating Stress and Health

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Health researchers have explored how different aspects of neighborhood characteristics contribute to health and well-being, but current understanding of built environment factors is limited. Purpose This study explores whether the association between stress and health varies by residential neighborhood, and if yes, whether built and social neighborhood environment characteristics act as moderators. Methods This study uses multilevel modeling and variables derived from geospatial data to explore the role of neighborhood environment in moderating the association of stress with health. Individual-level data (N=4,093) were drawn from residents of 45 neighborhoods within Philadelphia County, PA, collected as part of the 2006 Philadelphia Health Management Corporation's Household Health Survey. Results We find that the negative influence of high stress varied by neighborhood, that residential stability and affluence (social characteristics) attenuated the association of high stress with health, and that the presence of hazardous waste facilities (built environment characteristics) moderated health by enhancing the association with stress. Conclusions Our findings suggest that neighborhood environment has both direct and moderating associations with health, after adjusting for individual characteristics. The use of geospatial data could broaden the scope of stress–health research and advance knowledge by untangling the intertwined relationship between built and social environments, stress, and health. In particular, future studies should integrate built environment characteristics in health-related research; these characteristics are modifiable and can facilitate health promotion policies. PMID:20300905

  15. Uniform corrosion of FeCrAl alloys in LWR coolant environments

    DOE PAGES

    Terrani, K. A.; Pint, B. A.; Kim, Y. -J.; Unocic, K. A.; Yang, Y.; Silva, C. M.; Meyer, III, H. M.; Rebak, R. B.

    2016-06-29

    In this study, the corrosion behavior of commercial and model FeCrAl alloys and type 310 stainless steel was examined by autoclave tests and compared to Zircaloy-4, the reference cladding materials in light water reactors. The corrosion studies were carried out in three distinct water chemistry environments found in pressurized and boiling water reactor primary coolant loop conditions for up to one year. The structure and morphology of the oxides formed on the surface of these alloys was consistent with thermodynamic predictions. Spinel-type oxides were found to be present after hydrogen water chemistry exposures, while the oxygenated water tests resulted inmore » the formation of very thin and protective hematite-type oxides. Unlike the alloys exposed to oxygenated water tests, the alloys tested in hydrogen water chemistry conditions experienced mass loss as a function of time. This mass loss was the result of net sum of mass gain due to parabolic oxidation and mass loss due to dissolution that also exhibits parabolic kinetics. Finally, the maximum thickness loss after one year of LWR water corrosion in the absence of irradiation was ~2 μm, which is inconsequential for a ~300–500 μm thick cladding.« less

  16. Uniform corrosion of FeCrAl alloys in LWR coolant environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrani, K. A.; Pint, B. A.; Kim, Y.-J.; Unocic, K. A.; Yang, Y.; Silva, C. M.; Meyer, H. M.; Rebak, R. B.

    2016-10-01

    The corrosion behavior of commercial and model FeCrAl alloys and type 310 stainless steel was examined by autoclave tests and compared to Zircaloy-4, the reference cladding materials in light water reactors. The corrosion studies were carried out in three distinct water chemistry environments found in pressurized and boiling water reactor primary coolant loop conditions for up to one year. The structure and morphology of the oxides formed on the surface of these alloys was consistent with thermodynamic predictions. Spinel-type oxides were found to be present after hydrogen water chemistry exposures, while the oxygenated water tests resulted in the formation of very thin and protective hematite-type oxides. Unlike the alloys exposed to oxygenated water tests, the alloys tested in hydrogen water chemistry conditions experienced mass loss as a function of time. This mass loss was the result of net sum of mass gain due to parabolic oxidation and mass loss due to dissolution that also exhibits parabolic kinetics. The maximum thickness loss after one year of LWR water corrosion in the absence of irradiation was ∼2 μm, which is inconsequential for a ∼300-500 μm thick cladding.

  17. Acting to Create a Healthy Environment. Teenage Health Teaching Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    The Teenage Health Teaching Modules (THTM) program is a health education curriculum for adolescents. Each THTM module frames an adolescent health task emphasizing development of self-assessment, communication, decision making, health advocacy, and self-management. This module encourages students to take a more active interest in environmental…

  18. The New Knowledge Environment: Quality Initiatives in Health Sciences Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    Reviews changes in health sciences libraries, including the evolving role of health sciences librarians, education and training of health sciences librarians, rethinking reference services, impact on quality health care, improving the value of information, virtual libraries, National Library of Medicine initiatives, and quality initiatives. (LRW)

  19. The changing rural environment and the relationship between health services and rural development.

    PubMed Central

    Cordes, S M

    1989-01-01

    Author summarizes today's changing rural America and the challenges that health services researchers and policymakers face in relating the rural environment to the problems and possibilities of rural health services delivery. PMID:2917874

  20. EH&S annual report: Summary of activities Environment, Health and Safety Division, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This report presents an overview of the environment, safety, and health program in operation at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. description of research in environmental science, remediation, waste management, safety, health services, radiation assessment, and emergency plans are provided.

  1. One Health - Transdisciplinary Opportunities for SETAC Leadership in Integrating and Improving the Health of People, Animals, and the Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    One Health is a collaborative, transdisciplinary effort working locally, nationally, and globally to improve health for people,animals, plants, and the environment. The term is relatively new (from ?2003), and it is increasingly common to see One Health included by name in interi...

  2. One Health and the Environment: Toxic Cyanobacteria, a Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants in ambient exposure situations. ...

  3. Youth Dietary Intake and Weight Status: Healthful Neighborhood Food Environments Enhance the Protective Role of Supportive Family Home Environments

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Forsyth, Ann; Bauer, Katherine W.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate individual and joint associations of the home environment and the neighborhood built environment with adolescent dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI) z-score. Racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse adolescents (n = 2682; 53.2% girls; mean age14. 4 years) participating in the EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) study completed height and weight measurements and surveys in Minnesota middle and high schools. Neighborhood variables were measured using Geographic Information Systems data. Multiple regressions of BMI z-score, fruit and vegetable intake, and fast food consumption were fit including home and neighborhood environmental variables as predictors and also including their interactions to test for effect modification. Supportive family environments (i.e., higher family functioning, frequent family meals, parent modeling of healthful eating) were associated with higher adolescent fruit and vegetable intake, lower fast food consumption, and lower BMI z-score. Associations between the built environment and adolescent outcomes were fewer. Interaction results, although not all consistent, indicated that the relationship between a supportive family environment and adolescent fruit and vegetable intake and BMI was enhanced when the neighborhood was supportive of healthful behavior. Public health interventions that simultaneously improve both the home environment and the neighborhood environment of adolescents may have a greater impact on adolescent obesity prevention than interventions that address one of these environments alone. PMID:24378461

  4. Youth dietary intake and weight status: healthful neighborhood food environments enhance the protective role of supportive family home environments.

    PubMed

    Berge, Jerica M; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Forsyth, Ann; Bauer, Katherine W; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate individual and joint associations of the home environment and the neighborhood built environment with adolescent dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI) z-score. Racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse adolescents (n=2682; 53.2% girls; mean age14.4 years) participating in the EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) study completed height and weight measurements and surveys in Minnesota middle and high schools. Neighborhood variables were measured using Geographic Information Systems data. Multiple regressions of BMI z-score, fruit and vegetable intake, and fast food consumption were fit including home and neighborhood environmental variables as predictors and also including their interactions to test for effect modification. Supportive family environments (i.e., higher family functioning, frequent family meals, and parent modeling of healthful eating) were associated with higher adolescent fruit and vegetable intake, lower fast food consumption, and lower BMI z-score. Associations between the built environment and adolescent outcomes were fewer. Interaction results, although not all consistent, indicated that the relationship between a supportive family environment and adolescent fruit and vegetable intake and BMI was enhanced when the neighborhood was supportive of healthful behavior. Public health interventions that simultaneously improve both the home environment and the neighborhood environment of adolescents may have a greater impact on adolescent obesity prevention than interventions that address one of these environments alone. PMID:24378461

  5. Developing built environment programs in local health departments: lessons learned from a nationwide mentoring program.

    PubMed

    Rube, Kate; Veatch, Maggie; Huang, Katy; Sacks, Rachel; Lent, Megan; Goldstein, Gail P; Lee, Karen K

    2014-05-01

    Local health departments (LHDs) have a key role to play in developing built environment policies and programs to encourage physical activity and combat obesity and related chronic diseases. However, information to guide LHDs' effective engagement in this arena is lacking. During 2011-2012, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) facilitated a built environment peer mentoring program for 14 LHDs nationwide. Program objectives included supporting LHDs in their efforts to achieve built environment goals, offering examples from DOHMH's built environment work to guide LHDs, and building a healthy built environment learning network. We share lessons learned that can guide LHDs in developing successful healthy built environment agendas.

  6. The epidemiology of ALS: a conspiracy of genes, environment and time.

    PubMed

    Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Hardiman, Orla

    2013-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a relentlessly progressive neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons, resulting in worsening weakness of voluntary muscles until death from respiratory failure occurs after about 3 years. Although great advances have been made in our understanding of the genetic causes of ALS, the contribution of environmental factors has been more difficult to assess. Large-scale studies of the clinical patterns of ALS, individual histories preceding the onset of ALS, and the rates of ALS in different populations and groups have led to improved patient care, but have not yet revealed a replicable, definitive environmental risk factor. In this Review, we outline what is currently known of the environmental and genetic epidemiology of ALS, describe the current state of the art with respect to the different types of ALS, and explore whether ALS should be considered a single disease or a syndrome. We examine the relationship between genetic and environmental risk factors, and propose a disease model in which ALS is considered to be the result of environmental risks and time acting on a pre-existing genetic load, followed by an automatic, self-perpetuating decline to death. PMID:24126629

  7. Environment and health in South Africa: gains, losses, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Mathee, Angela

    2011-01-01

    South Africans face a range of preventable environmental hazards to their health, many of which are rooted in the country's colonial and apartheid past, and ongoing poverty and inequality. Since the advent of democracy in the country, government has made considerable progress in improving living conditions and in developing the legal framework to prevent and manage environmental contamination. Considerable, under-exploited potential also exists in South Africa to prevent disease, including infectious and chronic diseases, and to promote health through a more holistic and public health approach. This article summarizes the main environmental health concerns and reflects on mechanisms and opportunities to improve public environmental health.

  8. Public health law and disaster medicine: understanding the legal environment.

    PubMed

    Gionis, Thomas A; Wecht, Cyril; Marshall, Lewis W

    2007-01-01

    Disaster medicine specialists, policy makers, and the public often feel frustrated when they encounter the complex legal framework that surrounds public health emergencies and disasters. Such a framework is particularly difficult to understand when one considers that the federal government has no express powers over public health or disaster management. In fact, under the US Constitution, the states, rather than the federal government, possess public health governance. Although public health sovereignty formally resides within the states, and notwithstanding the federal government's lack of express constitutional powers over public health crises and disaster management, the federal government has gradually taken on a greater leadership role in managing public health emergencies. In order to clarify the state and federal responsibilities surrounding public health emergencies and disasters, this article explores necessary and pertinent legal topics. These topics include public health duties, public health disasters, state sovereignty, governmental coercion, de facto constitutional empowerment, separation of powers, limited powers, federalism, state police powers, general and federal declarations of emergencies, the Model State Emergency Health Powers Act (MSEHPA), and public health and national security.

  9. Translating school health research to policy. School outcomes related to the health environment and changes in mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Snelling, Anastasia M; Belson, Sarah Irvine; Watts, Erin; George, Stephanie; Van Dyke, Hugo; Malloy, Elizabeth; Kalicki, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes an exploration of the relationship between mathematic achievement and the school health environment relative to policy-driven changes in the school setting, specifically with regard to physical education/physical activity. Using school-level data, the authors seek to understand the relationship between mathematics achievement and the school health environment and physical education minutes. This work provides a description of the aspects of the school health environment, an exploration of the interrelationships between school health and student achievement, and an assessment of the effects of the school health policy and practice on student performance and health status. Based on these findings, we identify additional research necessary to describe the relationship between obesity and learning in children.

  10. 3D visualization environment for analysis of telehealth indicators in public health.

    PubMed

    Filho, Amadeu S Campos; Novaes, Magdala A; Gomes, Alex S

    2013-01-01

    With the growth of telehealth applications and the need for public health managers to have tools that facilitate visualization of indicators produced by telehealth services arose the need to have simple systems to better planning the interventions. Furthermore, Health systems are considers difficult in order to visualize the right information by many health professionals [1] because of the complexity of its Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the high cognitive load needed to handle it. To overcome this problem, we have proposed a 3D environment for the analysis of telehealth indicators in public health by managers of public health sites. Users who will use the environment are part of public health manager of family health sites that participate of Network of Telehealth Centers of Pernambuco (RedeNUTES) [2] that is part of Brazil telehealth program. This paper aims to present a 3D environment for analysis of telehealth indicators by public health manager.

  11. Beyond toxicity: human health and the natural environment.

    PubMed

    Frumkin, H

    2001-04-01

    Research and teaching in environmental health have centered on the hazardous effects of various environmental exposures, such as toxic chemicals, radiation, and biological and physical agents. However, some kinds of environmental exposures may have positive health effects. According to E.O. Wilson's "biophilia" hypothesis, humans are innately attracted to other living organisms. Later authors have expanded this concept to suggest that humans have an innate bond with nature more generally. This implies that certain kinds of contact with the natural world may benefit health. Evidence supporting this hypothesis is presented from four aspects of the natural world: animals, plants, landscapes, and wilderness. Finally, the implications of this hypothesis for a broader agenda for environmental health, encompassing not only toxic outcomes but also salutary ones, are discussed. This agenda implies research on a range of potentially healthful environmental exposures, collaboration among professionals in a range of disciplines from public health to landscape architecture to city planning, and interventions based on research outcomes.

  12. Socio-Ecological School Environments and Children's Health and Wellbeing Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John-Akinola, Yetunde O.; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Attention to improving the school environment is a common activity in school health promotion. The role of the school environment in supporting improved health and wellbeing has a theoretical base, but has rarely been directly investigated empirically. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the associations between school…

  13. Integrated Environment and Safety and Health Management System (ISMS) Implementation Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    MITCHELL, R.L.

    2000-01-10

    The Integrated Environment, Safety and Health Management System (ISMS) Implementation Project Plan serves as the project document to guide the Fluor Hanford, Inc (FHI) and Major Subcontractor (MSC) participants through the steps necessary to complete the integration of environment, safety, and health into management and work practices at all levels.

  14. The environment and human health; USGS science for solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases, ground-water contamination, trace-metal poisoning...environmental threats to public health the world over require new solutions. Because of an increased awareness of the issues, greater cooperation among scientific and policy agencies, and powerful new tools and techniques to conduct research, there is new hope that complex ecological health problems can be solved. U.S. Geological Survey scientists are forming partnerships with experts in the public health and biomedical research communities to conduct rigorous scientific inquiries into the health effects of ecological processes.

  15. Corrosion fatigue of steam turbine-blading alloys in operational environments. Final report. [Ti-6Al-4V

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, J.W.; Dowling, N.E.; Heymann, F.J.; Jonas, O.; Kunsman, L.D.; Pebler, A.R.; Swaminathan, V.P.; Willertz, L.E.; Rust, T.M.

    1984-09-01

    The corrosion fatigue strengths of Type 403 and 17-4 PH stainless steel and several processing variations of Ti-6Al-4V were determined in various steam turbine environments. Steam and turbine deposits were analyzed to establish test environments. Pure 80/sup 0/C water base line data was determined and compared to saturated aqueous solutions of NaCl, Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, Na/sub 3/PO/sub 4/, Na/sub 2/SiO/sub 3/ and some mixtures of these. The pH and oxygen content were also varied. Fatigue strengths at 20 kHz and 100 Hz were established for 10/sup 9/ and 10/sup 7/ cycles, respectively. The corrosion fatigue effect of notches, shot peening and mean stress were measured. Acidic, high oxygen 22% NaCl solutions were found to be extremely aggressive, causing Type 403 to lose 87% of its pure water fatigue strength; more basic solutions and other chemical species were less severe. The Ti-6Al-4V alloys were only mildly affected in most environments although NaOH plus SiO/sub 2/ was found to dissolve this alloy. The effect of the environments on 17-4 PH was intermediate between Type 403 and Ti-6Al-4V.

  16. Corrosion behavior of an HVOF-sprayed Fe3Al coating in a high-temperature oxidizing/sulfidizing environment

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Shrestha, S.; Harvey, D.

    2005-01-01

    An iron aluminide (Fe3Al) intermetallic coating was deposited onto a F22 (2.25Cr-1Mo) steel substrate using a JP-5000 high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray system. The as-sprayed coating was examined by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction and was characterized in terms of oxidation and adhesion. Fe3Al-coated steel specimens were exposed to a mixed oxidizing/sulfidizing environment at 500, 600, 700, and 800DGC for approximately seven days. The gaseous environment consisted of N2-10%CO-5%CO2-2%H2O-0.12%H2S (by volume). All specimens gained mass after exposure to the environment and the mass gains were found to be inversely proportional to temperature increases. Representative specimens exposed at each temperature were cross-sectioned and subjected to examination under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray mapping. Results are presented in terms of corrosion weight gain and corrosion product formation. The purpose of the research presented here was to evaluate the effectiveness of an HVOF-sprayed Fe3Al coating in protecting a steel substrate exposed to a fossil energy environment.

  17. Crystallization of LiAlSiO4 Glass in Hydrothermal Environments at Gigapascal Pressures-Dense Hydrous Aluminosilicates.

    PubMed

    Spektor, Kristina; Fischer, Andreas; Häussermann, Ulrich

    2016-08-15

    High-pressure hydrothermal environments can drastically reduce the kinetic constraints of phase transitions and afford high-pressure modifications of oxides at comparatively low temperatures. Under certain circumstances such environments allow access to kinetically favored phases, including hydrous ones with water incorporated as hydroxyl. We studied the crystallization of glass in the presence of a large excess of water in the pressure range of 0.25-10 GPa and at temperatures from 200 to 600 °C. The p and T quenched samples were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and IR spectroscopy. At pressures of 0.25-2 GPa metastable zeolite Li-ABW and stable α-eucryptite are obtained at low and high temperatures, respectively, with crystal structures based on tetrahedrally coordinated Al and Si atoms. At 5 GPa a new, hydrous phase of LiAlSiO4, LiAlSiO3(OH)2 = LiAlSiO4·H2O, is produced. Its crystal structure was characterized from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (space group P21/c, a = 9.547(3) Å, b = 14.461(5) Å, c = 5.062(2) Å, β = 104.36(1)°). The monoclinic structure resembles that of α-spodumene (LiAlSi2O6) and constitutes alternating layers of chains of corner-condensed SiO4 tetrahedra and chains of edge-sharing AlO6 octahedra. OH groups are part of the octahedral Al coordination and extend into channels provided within the SiO4 tetrahedron chain layers. At 10 GPa another hydrous phase of LiAlSiO4 with presently unknown structure is produced. The formation of hydrous forms of LiAlSiO4 shows the potential of hydrothermal environments at gigapascal pressures for creating truly new materials. In this particular case it indicates the possibility of generally accessing pyroxene-type aluminosilicates with crystallographic amounts of hydroxyl incorporated. This could also have implications to geosciences by representing a mechanism of water storage and transport in the depths of the Earth. PMID:27482770

  18. Crystallization of LiAlSiO4 Glass in Hydrothermal Environments at Gigapascal Pressures-Dense Hydrous Aluminosilicates.

    PubMed

    Spektor, Kristina; Fischer, Andreas; Häussermann, Ulrich

    2016-08-15

    High-pressure hydrothermal environments can drastically reduce the kinetic constraints of phase transitions and afford high-pressure modifications of oxides at comparatively low temperatures. Under certain circumstances such environments allow access to kinetically favored phases, including hydrous ones with water incorporated as hydroxyl. We studied the crystallization of glass in the presence of a large excess of water in the pressure range of 0.25-10 GPa and at temperatures from 200 to 600 °C. The p and T quenched samples were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and IR spectroscopy. At pressures of 0.25-2 GPa metastable zeolite Li-ABW and stable α-eucryptite are obtained at low and high temperatures, respectively, with crystal structures based on tetrahedrally coordinated Al and Si atoms. At 5 GPa a new, hydrous phase of LiAlSiO4, LiAlSiO3(OH)2 = LiAlSiO4·H2O, is produced. Its crystal structure was characterized from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (space group P21/c, a = 9.547(3) Å, b = 14.461(5) Å, c = 5.062(2) Å, β = 104.36(1)°). The monoclinic structure resembles that of α-spodumene (LiAlSi2O6) and constitutes alternating layers of chains of corner-condensed SiO4 tetrahedra and chains of edge-sharing AlO6 octahedra. OH groups are part of the octahedral Al coordination and extend into channels provided within the SiO4 tetrahedron chain layers. At 10 GPa another hydrous phase of LiAlSiO4 with presently unknown structure is produced. The formation of hydrous forms of LiAlSiO4 shows the potential of hydrothermal environments at gigapascal pressures for creating truly new materials. In this particular case it indicates the possibility of generally accessing pyroxene-type aluminosilicates with crystallographic amounts of hydroxyl incorporated. This could also have implications to geosciences by representing a mechanism of water storage and transport in the depths of the Earth.

  19. Alloy development of FeAl aluminide alloys for structural use in corrosive environments

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.; Sikka, V.K.; McKamey, C.G.

    1993-02-01

    Objectives include adequate ductilities ({ge}10%) at ambient temperature, high-temperature strength better than stainless steels (types 304 and 316), and fabricability and weldability by conventional techniques (gas tungsten arc). The alloys should be capable of being corrosion resistant in molten nitrate salts with rates lower than other iron-base structural alloys and coating materials (such as Fe-Cr-Al alloys). Such corrosion rates should be less than 0.3 mm per year. The FeAl aluminide containing 35.8 at. % Al was selected as base composition. Preliminary studies indicate that additions of B and Zr, increase the room-temperature ductility of FeAl. Further alloying with 0.2% Mo, and/or 5% Cr, improves the creep. Our preliminary alloying effort has led to identification of the following aluminide composition with promising properties: Fe - (35 {plus_minus} 2)Al - (0.3 {plus_minus} 0.2)Mo - (0.2 {plus_minus} 0.15)Zr - (0.3 {plus_minus} 0.2)B- up to 5Cr, at. %. However, this composition is likely to be modified in future work to improve the weldability of the alloy. The FeAl alloy FA-362 (Fe-35.8% Al-0.2% Mo-0.05% Zr-0.24% B) produced by hot extrusion at 900C showed a tensile ductility of more than 10% at room temperature and a creep rupture life longer than unalloyed FeAl by more than an order of magnitude at 593C at 138 MPa. Melting and processing of scaled-up heats of selected FeAl alloys are described. Forging, extruding, and hot-rolling processes for the scale-up heats are also described.

  20. Alloy development of FeAl aluminide alloys for structural use in corrosive environments

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.; Sikka, V.K.; McKamey, C.G.

    1993-02-01

    Objectives include adequate ductilities ([ge]10%) at ambient temperature, high-temperature strength better than stainless steels (types 304 and 316), and fabricability and weldability by conventional techniques (gas tungsten arc). The alloys should be capable of being corrosion resistant in molten nitrate salts with rates lower than other iron-base structural alloys and coating materials (such as Fe-Cr-Al alloys). Such corrosion rates should be less than 0.3 mm per year. The FeAl aluminide containing 35.8 at. % Al was selected as base composition. Preliminary studies indicate that additions of B and Zr, increase the room-temperature ductility of FeAl. Further alloying with 0.2% Mo, and/or 5% Cr, improves the creep. Our preliminary alloying effort has led to identification of the following aluminide composition with promising properties: Fe - (35 [plus minus] 2)Al - (0.3 [plus minus] 0.2)Mo - (0.2 [plus minus] 0.15)Zr - (0.3 [plus minus] 0.2)B- up to 5Cr, at. %. However, this composition is likely to be modified in future work to improve the weldability of the alloy. The FeAl alloy FA-362 (Fe-35.8% Al-0.2% Mo-0.05% Zr-0.24% B) produced by hot extrusion at 900C showed a tensile ductility of more than 10% at room temperature and a creep rupture life longer than unalloyed FeAl by more than an order of magnitude at 593C at 138 MPa. Melting and processing of scaled-up heats of selected FeAl alloys are described. Forging, extruding, and hot-rolling processes for the scale-up heats are also described.

  1. Built environment change: a framework to support health-enhancing behaviour through environmental policy and health research.

    PubMed

    Berke, Ethan M; Vernez-Moudon, Anne

    2014-06-01

    As research examining the effect of the built environment on health accelerates, it is critical for health and planning researchers to conduct studies and make recommendations in the context of a robust theoretical framework. We propose a framework for built environment change (BEC) related to improving health. BEC consists of elements of the built environment, how people are exposed to and interact with them perceptually and functionally, and how this exposure may affect health-related behaviours. Integrated into this framework are the legal and regulatory mechanisms and instruments that are commonly used to effect change in the built environment. This framework would be applicable to medical research as well as to issues of policy and community planning.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH INDICATORS: STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Purpose: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is moving in the direction of measuring and assessing human health and ecological outcomes. The new "outcome" measures complement the more traditional approaches by more closely reflecting the actual public health...

  3. The Built Environment and Its Relationship to the Public’s Health: The Legal Framework

    PubMed Central

    Perdue, Wendy Collins; Stone, Lesley A.; Gostin, Lawrence O.

    2003-01-01

    The built environment significantly affects the public’s health. This was most obvious when infectious disease was the primary public health threat during the industrial revolution; unsanitary conditions and overcrowded urban areas facilitated the spread of infection. However, even today in the age of chronic diseases there remains an important connection between population health and the built environment. Physical spaces can expose people to toxins or pollutants and influence lifestyles that contribute to diabetes, coronary vascular disease, and asthma. Public health advocates can help shape the design of cities and suburbs in ways that improve public health, but to do so effectively they need to understand the legal framework. This article reviews the connection between public health and the built environment and then describes the legal pathways for improving the design of our built environment. PMID:12948949

  4. Self-assessed health of elderly people in Brussels: does the built environment matter?

    PubMed

    Dujardin, Claire; Lorant, Vincent; Thomas, Isabelle

    2014-05-01

    The living environment plays a key role in the "Aging in Place" strategy. We studied the influence of the built environment on the health status of elderly people living in Brussels. Using census and geo-coded data, we analysed whether built environment factors were associated with poor self-assessed health status and functional limitations of elderly residents (aged 65 and over). We concluded that evidence of such an association is weak and vulnerable to the composition of the neighbourhood.

  5. 76 FR 35017 - United States et al. v. United Regional Health Care System; Public Comments and Response on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Antitrust Division United States et al. v. United Regional Health Care System; Public Comments and Response... States and State of Texas v. United Regional Health Care System, Civil Action No. 7:11-cv- 00030-0, which.... United Regional Health Care System, Defendant. Case No.: 7:11-cv-00030 Response Of Plaintiff...

  6. Theories of how the school environment impacts on student health: systematic review and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bonell, C P; Fletcher, A; Jamal, F; Wells, H; Harden, A; Murphy, S; Thomas, J

    2013-11-01

    Public-health interventions informed by theory can be more effective but complex interventions often use insufficiently complex theories. We systematically reviewed theories of how school environments influence health. We included 37 reports drawing on 24 theories. Narrative synthesis summarised and categorised theories. We then produced an integrated theory of school environment influences on student health. This integrated theory could inform complex interventions such as health promoting schools programmes. Using systematic reviews to develop theories of change might be useful for other types of 'complex' public-health interventions addressing risks at the individual and community levels.

  7. Pupils' Views on an ICT-Based Learning Environment in Health Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Räihä, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Enkenberg, Jorma; Turunen, Hannele

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study that examined pupils' views on an ICT-based learning environment in health learning. The study was a part of the wider European Network of Health Promoting Schools programme (ENHPS; since 2008, Schools for Health in Europe, SHE) in Finland, and particularly its sub-project, From Puijo to the World with Health…

  8. The human environment interface: applying ecosystem concepts to health.

    PubMed

    Preston, Nicholas D; Daszak, Peter; Colwell, Rita R

    2013-01-01

    One Health approaches have tended to focus on closer collaboration among veterinarians and medical professionals, but remain unclear about how ecological approaches could be applied or how they might benefit public health and disease control. In this chapter, we review ecological concepts, and discuss their relevance to health, with an emphasis on emerging infectious diseases (EIDs). Despite the fact that most EIDs originate in wildlife, few studies account for the population, community, or ecosystem ecology of the host, reservoir, or vector. The dimensions of ecological approaches to public health that we propose in this chapter are, in essence, networks of population dynamics, community structure, and ecosystem matrices incorporating concepts of complexity, resilience, and biogeochemical processes.

  9. Disasters, the environment, and public health: improving our response.

    PubMed Central

    Logue, J N

    1996-01-01

    Natural and human-made disasters continue to adversely affect all areas of the world in both predictable and unpredictable ways. To highlight the importance of natural disasters, the United Nations declared the 1990s the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. This paper considers the public health response to disasters. It highlights environmental health issues and approaches since disasters are extreme environmental events, and it reviews developments relating to capacity building, training, and collaboration. Although progress is noted, a comprehensive federal or academic approach is not evident in the United States and the proper linkage to environmental health is lacking. With the International Decade now half over, public health professionals and others involved with disaster management should reflect on progress made to date and goals for the future. PMID:8806369

  10. Wear Behavior of Al-SiC Metal Matrix Composite under various Corrosive Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Smrutiranjan; Barman, Tapan Kumar; Sahoo, Prasanta; Sutradhar, Goutam

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the wear behavior under corrosive environments of LM6 based metal matrix composite reinforced with 5 wt% SiC prepared through the stir casting method. The experiments are carried out in a pin-on-disk tribotester varying five levels of normal load and sliding speed. The duration of each experiment is fixed for 30 minutes. Three environments viz. dry, deionised and dilute acid environments are considered to carry out the tribological tests. The composite exhibits slightly good wear resistance under low load and speed condition but weight loss increases as these parameters increases in all three environments. Maximum weight loss occurs in case of acid environment as it is more corrosive than dry and deionised environment. The wear surface of the composite is examined through the scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX).

  11. Managing personal health information in distributed research network environments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studying rare outcomes, new interventions and diverse populations often requires collaborations across multiple health research partners. However, transferring healthcare research data from one institution to another can increase the risk of data privacy and security breaches. Methods A working group of multi-site research programmers evaluated the need for tools to support data security and data privacy. The group determined that data privacy support tools should: 1) allow for a range of allowable Protected Health Information (PHI); 2) clearly identify what type of data should be protected under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA); and 3) help analysts identify which protected health information data elements are allowable in a given project and how they should be protected during data transfer. Based on these requirements we developed two performance support tools to support data programmers and site analysts in exchanging research data. Results The first tool, a workplan template, guides the lead programmer through effectively communicating the details of multi-site programming, including how to run the program, what output the program will create, and whether the output is expected to contain protected health information. The second performance support tool is a checklist that site analysts can use to ensure that multi-site program output conforms to expectations and does not contain protected health information beyond what is allowed under the multi-site research agreements. Conclusions Together the two tools create a formal multi-site programming workflow designed to reduce the chance of accidental PHI disclosure. PMID:24099117

  12. Presenteeism according to healthy behaviors, physical health, and work environment.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Ray M; Aldana, Steven G; Pope, James E; Anderson, David R; Coberley, Carter R; Whitmer, R William

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the contribution that selected demographic characteristics, health behaviors, physical health outcomes, and workplace environmental factors have on presenteeism (on-the-job productivity loss attributed to poor health and other personal issues). Analyses are based on a cross-sectional survey administered to 3 geographically diverse US companies in 2010. Work-related factors had the greatest influence on presenteeism (eg, too much to do but not enough time to do it, insufficient technological support/resources). Personal problems and financial stress/concerns also contributed substantially to presenteeism. Factors with less contribution to presenteeism included physical limitations, depression or anxiety, inadequate job training, and problems with supervisors and coworkers. Presenteeism was greatest for those ages 30-49, women, separated/divorced/widowed employees, and those with a high school degree or some college. Clerical/office workers and service workers had higher presenteeism. Managers and professionals had the highest level of presenteeism related to having too much to do but too little time to do it, and transportation workers had the greatest presenteeism because of physical health limitations. Lowering presenteeism will require that employers have realistic expectations of workers, help workers prioritize, and provide sufficient technological support. Financial stress and concerns may warrant financial planning services. Health promotion interventions aimed at improving nutrition and physical and mental health also may contribute to reducing presenteeism.

  13. Rethinking Public Health: Promoting Public Engagement Through a New Discursive Environment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    I reexamine the notion of public health after reviewing critiques of the prevalent individualistic conception of health. I argue that public health should mean not only the health of the public but also health in the public and by the public, and I expound on the social contingency of health and highlight the importance of the interpersonal dimensions of health conditions and health promotion efforts. Promoting public health requires activating health-enhancing communicative behaviors (such as interpersonal advocacy and mutual responsibility taking) in addition to individual behavioral change. To facilitate such communicative behaviors, it is imperative to first construct a new discursive environment in which to think and talk about health in a language of interdependence and collective efforts. PMID:24228674

  14. [Environment of high temperature or air particle matter pollution, and health promotion of exercise].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie-xiu; Xu, Min-xiao; Wu, Zhao-zhao

    2014-10-01

    It is important to keep human health in special environment, since the special environment has different effects on health. In this review, we focused on high temperature and air particle matter environment, and health promotion of exercise. Exercise and high temperature are the main non-pharmacological therapeutic interventions of insulin resistance (IR). PGC-1α is key regulatory factor in health promotion of exercise and high temperature. The novel hormone Irisin might be the important pathway through which heat and exercise could have positive function on IR. Air particle matter (PM) is associated with onset of many respiratory diseases and negative effects of exerciser performance. However, regular exercise plays an important role in improving health of respiratory system and lowering the risk induced by PM. Furthermore, free radicals and inflammatory pathways are included in the possible mechanisms of positive physiological effects induced by exercise in air particle matter environment.

  15. Work Environment and Its Relationship to Quality Improvement: Health Care Providers' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Azza Hassan Mohamed; Abou Hashish, Ebtsam Aly

    2016-01-01

    There is a gap in understanding how work environment contributes to hospitals' readiness for quality improvement (QI) in developing countries; thus, diagnosing work environment problems in health care organizations is the initial step in designing strategies for QI in organizations. This study examines the relationship between nurses' and physicians' perspectives of the work environments and hospitals' climate for QI. Study results indicate that work environment is positively associated with hospitals' readiness for QI. PMID:27191372

  16. The airport atmospheric environment: respiratory health at work.

    PubMed

    Touri, Léa; Marchetti, Hélène; Sari-Minodier, Irène; Molinari, Nicolas; Chanez, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    Air traffic is increasing, raising concern about local pollution and its adverse health effects on the people living in the vicinity of large airports. However, the highest risk is probably occupational exposure due to proximity. Jet exhaust is one of the main concerns at an airport and may have a health impact, particularly on the respiratory tract. Current studies are neither numerous enough nor strong enough to prove this kind of association. Yet, more and more people work in airports, and occupational exposure to jet exhaust is a fact. The aim of this review was to evaluate the existing knowledge regarding the impact of airport pollution on respiratory health. We conducted systematic literature searches to examine workplace exposures.

  17. Children's environment and health in Latin America: the Ecuadorian case.

    PubMed

    Harari, Raul; Harari, Homero

    2006-09-01

    Environmental health problems of children in Latin America and Ecuador are complex due to the close relationship that exists between social and environmental factors. Extended poverty and basic problems, such as the lack of drinking water and sanitation, are common. Infectious diseases are the greatest cause of morbidity and mortality among children. Development in industry and the introduction of chemical substances in agriculture add new risks including pesticide use, heavy metal exposure, and air pollution. Major problems can be divided into (a) lack of basic infrastructure, (b) poor living conditions, (c) specific environmental problems, and (d) child labor. Reproductive health disorders are frequent in developing countries like Ecuador. Issues related to children's health should consider new approaches, creative methodologies, and the search for independent predictors to separate environmental from social problems. Only with knowledge of the specific contribution of each factor, can it be possible to develop a strategy for prevention.

  18. Preserving workers' compensation benefits in a managed health care environment.

    PubMed

    Dembe, A E

    1998-01-01

    Managed care techniques are increasingly being applied in the workers' compensation setting. Many workers, labor representatives and public health advocates fear that the introduction of managed care into workers' compensation may reflect a broader employer-driven campaign to erode benefits, tighten eligibility criteria, and weaken employees' control over health care and compensation issues. The potential threats to workers can be mitigated by involving them in the design of the workers' compensation health plan and selection of provider organization, assuring access to appropriate specialists and diagnostic testing, minimizing delays, increasing accountability through contract provisions and government oversight, and enhancing communications through the use of ombudsmen and alternative dispute resolution approaches. Additional outcomes studies assessing the long-term impact of managed care in workers' compensation are needed. PMID:9670702

  19. The airport atmospheric environment: respiratory health at work.

    PubMed

    Touri, Léa; Marchetti, Hélène; Sari-Minodier, Irène; Molinari, Nicolas; Chanez, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    Air traffic is increasing, raising concern about local pollution and its adverse health effects on the people living in the vicinity of large airports. However, the highest risk is probably occupational exposure due to proximity. Jet exhaust is one of the main concerns at an airport and may have a health impact, particularly on the respiratory tract. Current studies are neither numerous enough nor strong enough to prove this kind of association. Yet, more and more people work in airports, and occupational exposure to jet exhaust is a fact. The aim of this review was to evaluate the existing knowledge regarding the impact of airport pollution on respiratory health. We conducted systematic literature searches to examine workplace exposures. PMID:23728866

  20. Challenges of Health Games in the Social Network Environment.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Hugo; Pinho, Anabela; Zagalo, Nelson

    2012-04-01

    Virtual communities and their benefits have been widely exploited to support patients, caregivers, families, and healthcare providers. The complexity of the social organization evolved the concept of virtual community to social networks, exploring the establishment of ties and relations between people. These technological platforms provide a way to keep up with one's connections network, through a set of communication and interaction tools. Games, as social interactive technologies, have great potential, ensuring a supportive community and thereby reducing social isolation. Serious social health games bring forward several research challenges. This article examines the potential benefits of the triad "health-serious games-social networks" and discusses some research challenges and opportunities of the liaison of serious health games and social networks.

  1. [The value of housing conditions and urban environment for the health].

    PubMed

    Braubach, M; Heroux, M E; Korol, N; Paunovic, E; Zastenskaya, I A

    2014-01-01

    Housing and urban environments represent the physical context for everyday life and have a significant impact on population health and well-being. Depending on the quality of housing and urban conditions, they can support or restrict the health of their residents through a variety of aspects such as air pollution, noise, thermal conditions, safety aspects and environmental contamination. Therefore, housing and urban conditions are important dimensions for environmental health and knowledge on the main risk factors and their associated health effects is needed to identify adequate interventions and measures in the home and urban environment. This paper summarizes the results of WHO work on the health relevance of housing and urban environments and describes the health impact of the major risks observed in human settlements.

  2. An ecological public health approach to understanding the relationships between sustainable urban environments, public health and social equity.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The environmental determinants of public health and social equity present many challenges to a sustainable urbanism-climate change, water shortages and oil dependency to name a few. There are many pathways from urban environments to human health. Numerous links have been described but some underlying mechanisms behind these relationships are less understood. Combining theory and methods is a way of understanding and explaining how the underlying structures of urban environments relate to public health and social equity. This paper proposes a model for an ecological public health, which can be used to explore these relationships. Four principles of an ecological public health-conviviality, equity, sustainability and global responsibility-are used to derive theoretical concepts that can inform ecological public health thinking, which, among other things, provides a way of exploring the underlying mechanisms that link urban environments to public health and social equity. Theories of more-than-human agency inform ways of living together (conviviality) in urban areas. Political ecology links the equity concerns about environmental and social justice. Resilience thinking offers a better way of coming to grips with sustainability. Integrating ecological ethics into public health considers the global consequences of local urban living and thus attends to global responsibility. This way of looking at the relationships between urban environments, public health and social equity answers the call to craft an ecological public health for the twenty-first century by re-imagining public health in a way that acknowledges humans as part of the ecosystem, not separate from it, though not central to it. PMID:23661624

  3. An ecological public health approach to understanding the relationships between sustainable urban environments, public health and social equity.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The environmental determinants of public health and social equity present many challenges to a sustainable urbanism-climate change, water shortages and oil dependency to name a few. There are many pathways from urban environments to human health. Numerous links have been described but some underlying mechanisms behind these relationships are less understood. Combining theory and methods is a way of understanding and explaining how the underlying structures of urban environments relate to public health and social equity. This paper proposes a model for an ecological public health, which can be used to explore these relationships. Four principles of an ecological public health-conviviality, equity, sustainability and global responsibility-are used to derive theoretical concepts that can inform ecological public health thinking, which, among other things, provides a way of exploring the underlying mechanisms that link urban environments to public health and social equity. Theories of more-than-human agency inform ways of living together (conviviality) in urban areas. Political ecology links the equity concerns about environmental and social justice. Resilience thinking offers a better way of coming to grips with sustainability. Integrating ecological ethics into public health considers the global consequences of local urban living and thus attends to global responsibility. This way of looking at the relationships between urban environments, public health and social equity answers the call to craft an ecological public health for the twenty-first century by re-imagining public health in a way that acknowledges humans as part of the ecosystem, not separate from it, though not central to it.

  4. Food, Environment and Health: A Guide for Primary School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Trefor; And Others

    This book for primary school teachers provides a practical collection of facts, advice, projects, games, stories, and sample questions for use in teaching children the importance of healthy habits. Food, personal hygiene, and the home environment are areas of particular concern. Details range from advice on ways to start a school garden or design…

  5. Integrating environment, safety and health training at a national laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.R.

    1993-03-01

    In a multi-purpose research laboratory, innovation and creativity are required to satisfy the training requirements for hazards to people and the environment. A climate that encourages excellence in research and enhances hazard minimization skills is created by combining technical expertise with instructional design talent.

  6. Integrating environment, safety and health training at a national laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    In a multi-purpose research laboratory, innovation and creativity are required to satisfy the training requirements for hazards to people and the environment. A climate that encourages excellence in research and enhances hazard minimization skills is created by combining technical expertise with instructional design talent.

  7. Effects of Environment on Animal Health: Mechanisms and Regulatory Inputs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A functional model was developed and presented here to identify critical control points in associated biochemical pathways and further understand that how environmental factors impact the immune system to affect animal health.. A general comparison of the differences in cellular responses to mild v...

  8. External built residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adults.

    PubMed

    Ochodo, Charles; Ndetei, D M; Moturi, W N; Otieno, J O

    2014-10-01

    External built residential environment characteristics include aspects of building design such as types of walls, doors and windows, green spaces, density of houses per unit area, and waste disposal facilities. Neighborhoods that are characterized by poor quality external built environment can contribute to psychosocial stress and increase the likelihood of mental health disorders. This study investigated the relationship between characteristics of external built residential environment and mental health disorders in selected residences of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. External built residential environment characteristics were investigated for 544 residents living in different residential areas that were categorized by their socioeconomic status. Medically validated interview schedules were used to determine mental health of residents in the respective neighborhoods. The relationship between characteristics of the external built residential environment and mental health of residents was determined by multivariable logistic regression analyses and chi-square tests. The results show that walling materials used on buildings, density of dwelling units, state of street lighting, types of doors, states of roofs, and states of windows are some built external residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adult males and females. Urban residential areas that are characterized by poor quality external built environment substantially expose the population to daily stressors and inconveniences that increase the likelihood of developing mental health disorders.

  9. Radium in the environment: exposure pathways and health effects.

    PubMed

    Brugge, Doug; Buchner, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Radium is a naturally occurring radioactive element in the environment that can exist as several isotopes. Little information is available on the acute (short-term) non-cancer effects in humans. Radium exposure has resulted in acute leukopenia, anemia, necrosis of the jaw, and other effects. Cancer is the major effect of concern. Radium, via oral exposure, is known to cause bone, head, and nasal passage tumors in humans. The US Environmental Protection Agency has not classified radium for carcinogenicity.

  10. Workplace aesthetics: Impact of environments upon employee health?

    PubMed

    Schell, Elisabet; Theorell, Tores; Saraste, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Associations between self-reported need for aesthetic improvements in the workplace and the need for ergonomic improvement and health factors were investigated to determine the possible impact of aesthetic needs on job performance. The need for aesthetic improvements were compared with the need for ergonomic improvements. All employees at a Swedish broadcasting company were invited to participate in this cross sectional study. Of those who fulfilled the inclusion criteria the participation rate was 74% (1961/2641). Demographic data was obtained from company files and pre-validated questionnaire was used for data collections from the participants. additional questions on needs for improvement were developed, tested for repeatability, and demonstrated to be within acceptable limits. Differences between 'high rank' and 'low rank' aesthetic needs and ergonomic needs were correlated to set ups of demographic, work environmental and organisational and health variables.The perceived needs for aesthetic and ergonomic improvements showed significantly different distributions (p<0.001). Aesthetic needs were more frequently reported than ergonomic needs. There was no significant gender related difference in response distribution of aesthetic or ergonomic needs, whereas differences between occupational groups were shown (0.006 and 0.003). 'High rank' needs for aesthetic improvement were associated to psychologically demanding work, negative work stress, sleep disturbances, problems at work, musculoskeletal pain and lower age. Gender and physical training did not differ between 'high and low rank' responders regarding neither aesthetic nor ergonomic needs. Sick leave was stronger related to ergonomics. The independently tested associations with aesthetic needs were similar to, but fewer than those for ergonomic needs with regard to the variable set ups. Sixteen studied factors out of 24, showed significant difference between 'high and low rank' aesthetic needs, and 21/24 of

  11. Hydraulic fracturing for natural gas: impact on health and environment.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, David O

    2016-03-01

    Shale deposits exist in many parts of the world and contain relatively large amounts of natural gas and oil. Recent technological developments in the process of horizontal hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracturing or fracking) have suddenly made it economically feasible to extract natural gas from shale. While natural gas is a much cleaner burning fuel than coal, there are a number of significant threats to human health from the extraction process as currently practiced. There are immediate threats to health resulting from air pollution from volatile organic compounds, which contain carcinogens such as benzene and ethyl-benzene, and which have adverse neurologic and respiratory effects. Hydrogen sulfide, a component of natural gas, is a potent neuro- and respiratory toxin. In addition, levels of formaldehyde are elevated around fracking sites due to truck traffic and conversion of methane to formaldehyde by sunlight. There are major concerns about water contamination because the chemicals used can get into both ground and surface water. Much of the produced water (up to 40% of what is injected) comes back out of the gas well with significant radioactivity because radium in subsurface rock is relatively water soluble. There are significant long-term threats beyond cancer, including exacerbation of climate change due to the release of methane into the atmosphere, and increased earthquake activity due to disruption of subsurface tectonic plates. While fracking for natural gas has significant economic benefits, and while natural gas is theoretically a better fossil fuel as compared to coal and oil, current fracking practices pose significant adverse health effects to workers and near-by residents. The health of the public should not be compromized simply for the economic benefits to the industry.

  12. Hydraulic fracturing for natural gas: impact on health and environment.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, David O

    2016-03-01

    Shale deposits exist in many parts of the world and contain relatively large amounts of natural gas and oil. Recent technological developments in the process of horizontal hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracturing or fracking) have suddenly made it economically feasible to extract natural gas from shale. While natural gas is a much cleaner burning fuel than coal, there are a number of significant threats to human health from the extraction process as currently practiced. There are immediate threats to health resulting from air pollution from volatile organic compounds, which contain carcinogens such as benzene and ethyl-benzene, and which have adverse neurologic and respiratory effects. Hydrogen sulfide, a component of natural gas, is a potent neuro- and respiratory toxin. In addition, levels of formaldehyde are elevated around fracking sites due to truck traffic and conversion of methane to formaldehyde by sunlight. There are major concerns about water contamination because the chemicals used can get into both ground and surface water. Much of the produced water (up to 40% of what is injected) comes back out of the gas well with significant radioactivity because radium in subsurface rock is relatively water soluble. There are significant long-term threats beyond cancer, including exacerbation of climate change due to the release of methane into the atmosphere, and increased earthquake activity due to disruption of subsurface tectonic plates. While fracking for natural gas has significant economic benefits, and while natural gas is theoretically a better fossil fuel as compared to coal and oil, current fracking practices pose significant adverse health effects to workers and near-by residents. The health of the public should not be compromized simply for the economic benefits to the industry. PMID:26943595

  13. Health care and the environment: local champions, global impact.

    PubMed

    Augustson, Jeanette; Patow, Carl

    2011-04-01

    Health care as a sector has recently become aware that it is a major user of energy and generator of waste. Now, many institutions are taking steps to curb their energy consumption, reduce waste, and design processes and facilities that are more environmentally friendly and, as a result, healthier. This article describes these trends as well as specific efforts underway in Minnesota that could serve as models for providers in other parts of the United States.

  14. Synthesis of DNL-6 with a high concentration of Si (4 Al) environments and its application in CO(2) separation.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiong; Tian, Peng; Fan, Dong; Xia, Qinghua; Yang, Yue; Xu, Shutao; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Dehua; Liu, Zhongmin

    2013-05-01

    The synthesis of DNL-6 with a high concentration of Si (4 Al) environments [Si/(Si+Al+P)=0.182 mol, denoted as M-DNL-6] is demonstrated. This represents the highest reported concentration of such environments in silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieves. Adsorption studies show that the high Si (4 Al) content in M-DNL-6, with an increased number of Brønsted acid sites in the framework, greatly promotes the adsorption of CO(2). M-DNL-6 exhibits a large CO(2) uptake capacity of up to 6.18 mmol g(-1) at 273 K and 101 kPa, and demonstrates high ratios of CO(2)/CH(4) and CO(2)/N(2) separation. From breakthrough and cycling experiments, M-DNL-6 demonstrates the ability to completely separate CO(2) from CH(4) or N(2) with a dynamic capacity of approximately 8.0 wt % before breakthrough. Importantly, the adsorbed CO(2) is easily released from the adsorbent through a simple gas purging operation at room temperature to regain 95 % of the original adsorption capacity. These results suggest that M-DNL-6 can be used as a potential adsorbent for CO(2) capture in pressure swing adsorption processes. PMID:23606439

  15. Health Risk Assessment of Inhalable Particulate Matter in Beijing Based on the Thermal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lin-Yu; Yin, Hao; Xie, Xiao-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Inhalable particulate matter (PM10) is a primary air pollutant closely related to public health, and an especially serious problem in urban areas. The urban heat island (UHI) effect has made the urban PM10 pollution situation more complex and severe. In this study, we established a health risk assessment system utilizing an epidemiological method taking the thermal environment effects into consideration. We utilized a remote sensing method to retrieve the PM10 concentration, UHI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). With the correlation between difference vegetation index (DVI) and PM10 concentration, we utilized the established model between PM10 and thermal environmental indicators to evaluate the PM10 health risks based on the epidemiological study. Additionally, with the regulation of UHI, NDVI and NDWI, we aimed at regulating the PM10 health risks and thermal environment simultaneously. This study attempted to accomplish concurrent thermal environment regulation and elimination of PM10 health risks through control of UHI intensity. The results indicate that urban Beijing has a higher PM10 health risk than rural areas; PM10 health risk based on the thermal environment is 1.145, which is similar to the health risk calculated (1.144) from the PM10 concentration inversion; according to the regulation results, regulation of UHI and NDVI is effective and helpful for mitigation of PM10 health risk in functional zones. PMID:25464132

  16. Health risk assessment of inhalable particulate matter in Beijing based on the thermal environment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin-Yu; Yin, Hao; Xie, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Inhalable particulate matter (PM10) is a primary air pollutant closely related to public health, and an especially serious problem in urban areas. The urban heat island (UHI) effect has made the urban PM10 pollution situation more complex and severe. In this study, we established a health risk assessment system utilizing an epidemiological method taking the thermal environment effects into consideration. We utilized a remote sensing method to retrieve the PM10 concentration, UHI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). With the correlation between difference vegetation index (DVI) and PM10 concentration, we utilized the established model between PM10 and thermal environmental indicators to evaluate the PM10 health risks based on the epidemiological study. Additionally, with the regulation of UHI, NDVI and NDWI, we aimed at regulating the PM10 health risks and thermal environment simultaneously. This study attempted to accomplish concurrent thermal environment regulation and elimination of PM10 health risks through control of UHI intensity. The results indicate that urban Beijing has a higher PM10 health risk than rural areas; PM10 health risk based on the thermal environment is 1.145, which is similar to the health risk calculated (1.144) from the PM10 concentration inversion; according to the regulation results, regulation of UHI and NDVI is effective and helpful for mitigation of PM10 health risk in functional zones.

  17. Health care utilization patterns in developing countries: role of the technology environment in "deriving" the demand for health care.

    PubMed

    Wouters, A V

    1992-01-01

    Health care services, in combination with several intermediate (proximate) determinants of health such as environmental sanitation and nutrition, directly influence health status. In the economics literature, this is referred to as the health production technology. Although many studies recognize that demand for health care depends on the health production technology, otherwise known as a "derived" demand, this review indicates that few of them have so far been able to fully incorporate this technology in estimating significant determinants of health care use. Understanding the technology environment could help explain why substantial portions of the population do not gain access to care even when financial factors do not appear to be a barrier. Also, low utilization of health services may simply reflect the low productivity of these services when other complementary factors such as nutrition or clean water and sanitation are lacking. Finally, since health-producing technology is often a multistep (multivisit) process, health care demand studies generally offer an incomplete picture of health care utilization patterns because they focus on a single event such as the first visit of an illness episode. Researchers should obtain more complete information on the interaction between all health production inputs, their availability and access to them. Multidisciplinary methodologies are likely to be useful.

  18. Analysing contractual environments: lessons from Indigenous health in Canada, Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Josée; Boulton, Amohia; Dwyer, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Contracting in health care is a mechanism used by the governments of Canada, Australia and New Zealand to improve the participation of marginalized populations in primary health care and improve responsiveness to local needs. As a result, complex contractual environments have emerged. The literature on contracting in health has tended to focus on the pros and cons of classical versus relational contracts from the funder's perspective. This article proposes an analytical framework to explore the strengths and weaknesses of contractual environments that depend on a number of classical contracts, a single relational contract or a mix of the two. Examples from indigenous contracting environments are used to inform the elaboration of the framework. Results show that contractual environments that rely on a multiplicity of specific contracts are administratively onerous, while constraining opportunities for local responsiveness. Contractual environments dominated by a single relational contract produce a more flexible and administratively streamlined system.

  19. Environment Health & Safety Research Program. Organization and 1979-1980 Publications

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    This document was prepared to assist readers in understanding the organization of Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and the organization and functions of the Environment, Health and Safety Research Program Office. Telephone numbers of the principal management staff are provided. Also included is a list of 1979 and 1980 publications reporting on work performed in the Environment, Health and Safety Research Program, as well as a list of papers submitted for publication.

  20. Ethical considerations involved in constructing the built environment to promote health.

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, Peter Geoffrey

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of chronic diseases has increased in recent decades. Some forms of the built environment adopted during the 20th century-e.g., urban sprawl, car dependency, and dysfunctional streetscapes-have contributed to this. In this article, I summarise ways in which the built environment influences health and how it can be constructed differently to promote health. I argue that urban planning is inevitably a social and political activity with many ethical dimensions, and I illustrate this with two examples: the construction of a hypothetical new suburb and a current review of planning legislation in Australia. I conclude that (1) constructing the built environment in ways that promote health can be ethically justified, (2) urban planners and public health workers should become more skilled in the application of ethical considerations to practical problems, and (3) the public health workforce needs to become more competent at influencing the activities of other sectors. PMID:23288444

  1. [Formaldehyde in the environment and its effect on health].

    PubMed

    Kalinić, N

    1995-06-01

    The presence of formaldehyde in the environment is due to natural processes and to man-made sources. It is produced in large quantities and has varied applications. One of the most common uses is in urea-formaldehyde and melamine-formaldehyde resins. There are several indoor environmental sources that can result in human exposure including furniture containing formaldehyde-based resins, building materials, paints, disinfectants, carpets etc. Emphasis is placed on indoor formaldehyde levels and on the ways of their reduction or elimination.

  2. Probing the local environment of substitutional Al^{3+} in goethite using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducher, Manoj; Blanchard, Marc; Vantelon, Delphine; Nemausat, Ruidy; Cabaret, Delphine

    2016-03-01

    We present experimental and calculated Al K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra of aluminous goethite with 10-33 mol% of AlOOH and diaspore. Significant changes are observed experimentally in the near- and pre-edge regions with increasing Al concentration in goethite. First-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) reproduce successfully the experimental trends. This permits to identify the electronic and structural parameters controlling the spectral features and to improve our knowledge of the local environment of {Al}^{3+} in the goethite-diaspore partial solid solution. In the near-edge region, the larger peak spacing in diaspore compared to Al-bearing goethite is related to the nature (Fe or Al) of the first cation neighbours around the absorbing Al atom (Al*). The intensity ratio of the two near-edge peaks, which decreases with Al concentration, is correlated with the average distance of the first cations around Al* and the distortion of the {AlO}_6 octahedron. Finally, the decrease in intensity of the pre-edge features with increasing Al concentration is due to the smaller number of Fe atoms in the local environment of Al since Al atoms tend to cluster. In addition, it is found that the pre-edge features of the Al K-edge XANES spectra enable to probe indirectly empty 3 d states of Fe. Energetic, structural and spectroscopic results suggest that for Al concentrations around 10 mol%, Al atoms can be considered as isolated, whereas above 25 mol%, Al clusters are more likely to occur.

  3. Protecting reproductive health and the environment: toxics use reduction.

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, K

    1993-01-01

    Toxics use reduction is a new chemical hazard management approach that has emerged in several state laws over the past years. While toxics use reduction has been promoted as a means of preventing environmental pollution, little thought has been given to its adoption as a means of managing reproductive hazards. This paper provides illustrations of use reduction approaches to conventionally recognized reproductive and developmental toxicants. These approaches will require the opening of a new dialogue between industrial designers and process managers and those most concerned about reproductive health. Several different strategies are proposed that might be adopted into state programs for promoting reduction in the use of reproductive and developmental toxicants. PMID:8243394

  4. Measuring human capital cost through benchmarking in health care environment.

    PubMed

    Kocakülâh, Mehmet C; Harris, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Each organization should seek to maximize its human capital investments, which ultimately lead to increased profits and asset efficiency. Service companies utilize less capital equipment and more human productivity, customer service, and/or delivery of service as the product. With the measurement of human capital, one can understand what is happening, exercise some degree of control, and make positive changes. Senior management lives or dies by the numbers and if Human Resources (HR) really wants to be a strategic business partner, HR must be judged by the same standards as everyone else in the health care organization. PMID:12462657

  5. Measuring human capital cost through benchmarking in health care environment.

    PubMed

    Kocakülâh, Mehmet C; Harris, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Each organization should seek to maximize its human capital investments, which ultimately lead to increased profits and asset efficiency. Service companies utilize less capital equipment and more human productivity, customer service, and/or delivery of service as the product. With the measurement of human capital, one can understand what is happening, exercise some degree of control, and make positive changes. Senior management lives or dies by the numbers and if Human Resources (HR) really wants to be a strategic business partner, HR must be judged by the same standards as everyone else in the health care organization.

  6. Managerial competencies necessary in today's dynamic health care environment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peggy; Pulich, Marcia

    2002-12-01

    The traditional functions of management--planning, organizing, leading, and controlling--continue to be the key activities used to enable the organization to accomplish its goals and objectives. Though significant changes have occurred in all organizational structures, processes, and managerial styles, these traditional functions remain a constant. What has undergone significant change, as this article examines, are the skills and competencies within each function, which managers must develop and employ if they are to be successful practitioners in today's dynamic health care organizations.

  7. "It is about being outside": Canadian youth's perspectives of good health and the environment.

    PubMed

    Woodgate, Roberta L; Skarlato, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on qualitative data generated from an ethnographic study exploring Canadian youth's understanding of health, this paper examines youth's perspectives of the relationships between health and environment. Seventy-one youth (12 to 19 years of age) took part in individual and focus group interviews, as well as in photovoice interviews. Although initial discourse about health mainly focused on healthy eating and exercise, youth were more enthused and able to share their thoughts and feelings about the relationships between health and environment during the photovoice interviews. For these youth, good health was defined and visualized as "being outside" in a safe, clean, green, and livable space. Youth talked about conditions contributing to healthy environments and how healthy environments contributed to a strong sense of place. Overall, the conversations about the environment evoked many feelings in the youth. Results are discussed in the context of current research and in relation to youth, but also more broadly in relation to research on health and environment. PMID:25463923

  8. Health students’ expectations of the ideal educational environment: a qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    AGHAMOLAEI, TEAMUR; SHIRAZI, MANDANA; DADGARAN, IDEH; SHAHSAVARI, HOOMAN; GHANBARNEJAD, AMIN

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Educational environment is an important determinant of students’ behavior and its elements are associated with academic achievement and course satisfaction. The aim of this study was to determine students’ expectations of the ideal educational environment. Methods: This was a qualitative study with content analysis approach. Using a theoretical sampling method, we selected eight students from Health School of Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, studying health education, public health, environmental health, occupational health and medical entomology. To collect data, semi-structured interviews were used and continued until reaching data saturation. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results: Students' expectations of the ideal educational environment emerged in four main themes including school atmosphere, teaching, human aspects (with three subthemes including teachers, students, and school staff) and non-human aspects (with two subthemes including educational equipment and physical environment). Conclusion: Educational environment is a multidimensional issue and to achieve an ideal educational environment, educational planners should meet the students' expectations of the school atmosphere, teaching, teachers, students, school staff, educational equipment and physical environment. PMID:25512939

  9. [Even cigarette butts can impact environment and health: preliminary considerations].

    PubMed

    Martino, Gianrocco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Chellini, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    In Italy, every year about 72 billion of cigarette butts are thrown away in the environment. Cigarette butts represent 50% of the wastes of urban areas (parks, roads) in the world, and 40% of Mediterranean Sea wastes. In particular, total polluting load is constituted of 1,872 Bq millions of Polonium-210, assuming 75 mBq per cigarette butt, and 1,800 tons of volatile organic compounds. As a matter of fact, according to several surveys, cigarette butts are considered by smokers and non-smokers as a common and acceptable waste in the environment. In 2008, European Union issued a Directive on wastes considering the «extended producer responsibility» (i.e., every industry is liable for costs of collection, transport and disposal of its own products). In October 2012, the Italian Parliament proposed a bill that classifies cigarette butts as special wastes in the frame of this responsibility. It could be interesting in the future to follow the legislative process of that bill in the Italian Parliament in order to show how strong it will be supported. PMID:24548837

  10. [Even cigarette butts can impact environment and health: preliminary considerations].

    PubMed

    Martino, Gianrocco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Chellini, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    In Italy, every year about 72 billion of cigarette butts are thrown away in the environment. Cigarette butts represent 50% of the wastes of urban areas (parks, roads) in the world, and 40% of Mediterranean Sea wastes. In particular, total polluting load is constituted of 1,872 Bq millions of Polonium-210, assuming 75 mBq per cigarette butt, and 1,800 tons of volatile organic compounds. As a matter of fact, according to several surveys, cigarette butts are considered by smokers and non-smokers as a common and acceptable waste in the environment. In 2008, European Union issued a Directive on wastes considering the «extended producer responsibility» (i.e., every industry is liable for costs of collection, transport and disposal of its own products). In October 2012, the Italian Parliament proposed a bill that classifies cigarette butts as special wastes in the frame of this responsibility. It could be interesting in the future to follow the legislative process of that bill in the Italian Parliament in order to show how strong it will be supported.

  11. The concentration of swine production. Effects on swine health, productivity, human health, and the environment.

    PubMed

    Donham, K J

    2000-11-01

    The concern about environmental issues centering around CAFOs is appropriate. The veterinary profession can be an important force in meeting these challenges by broadening its scope of knowledge and practice into the broader environmental field. Although animal agriculture's contribution to environmental concerns is the focus of this article, it is only one of several sectors that contributes to environmental degradation. Crop production, as well as livestock production industries, contribute to pollution. Manufacturing industries, municipalities, private individuals, our consumptive lifestyles, and agriculture all contribute to the degradation of our environment. One must keep in mind the huge importance of our agricultural industry and not single it out to the detriment of its progress. We have an abundance of high-quality foods at the lowest cost to the individual of any industrialized nation. We export over 40 billion dollars in agricultural products yearly. Agriculture sustains our rural economies and provides opportunities for over 2 million private enterprises scattered across the country; however, there is a goal that we have a sustainable agriculture. A big part of that depends on development and enhancement of an agriculture that does not pollute, that sustains its farm operators and workers, and that does not make the area residents ill or degrade their quality of life; however, the current situation is not promising. Much remains to be learned about the actual acute and long-term health consequences of animal agricultural pollution. Many health concerns are speculative, even though based on sound facts. We know that many surface waters have excess N and P that leads to eutrophication and possibly enhanced growth of undesirable organisms such as Pfiesteria piscicida. We know that other animal pathogens, such as cryptosporidia, have caused large community outbreaks. There are other potential pathogens, such as Salmonella sp, for which we do not know the

  12. The concentration of swine production. Effects on swine health, productivity, human health, and the environment.

    PubMed

    Donham, K J

    2000-11-01

    The concern about environmental issues centering around CAFOs is appropriate. The veterinary profession can be an important force in meeting these challenges by broadening its scope of knowledge and practice into the broader environmental field. Although animal agriculture's contribution to environmental concerns is the focus of this article, it is only one of several sectors that contributes to environmental degradation. Crop production, as well as livestock production industries, contribute to pollution. Manufacturing industries, municipalities, private individuals, our consumptive lifestyles, and agriculture all contribute to the degradation of our environment. One must keep in mind the huge importance of our agricultural industry and not single it out to the detriment of its progress. We have an abundance of high-quality foods at the lowest cost to the individual of any industrialized nation. We export over 40 billion dollars in agricultural products yearly. Agriculture sustains our rural economies and provides opportunities for over 2 million private enterprises scattered across the country; however, there is a goal that we have a sustainable agriculture. A big part of that depends on development and enhancement of an agriculture that does not pollute, that sustains its farm operators and workers, and that does not make the area residents ill or degrade their quality of life; however, the current situation is not promising. Much remains to be learned about the actual acute and long-term health consequences of animal agricultural pollution. Many health concerns are speculative, even though based on sound facts. We know that many surface waters have excess N and P that leads to eutrophication and possibly enhanced growth of undesirable organisms such as Pfiesteria piscicida. We know that other animal pathogens, such as cryptosporidia, have caused large community outbreaks. There are other potential pathogens, such as Salmonella sp, for which we do not know the

  13. From built environment to health inequalities: An explanatory framework based on evidence

    PubMed Central

    Gelormino, Elena; Melis, Giulia; Marietta, Cristina; Costa, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The Health in All Policies strategy aims to engage every policy domain in health promotion. The more socially disadvantaged groups are usually more affected by potential negative impacts of policies if they are not health oriented. The built environment represents an important policy domain and, apart from its housing component, its impact on health inequalities is seldom assessed. Methods: A scoping review of evidence on the built environment and its health equity impact was carried out, searching both urban and medical literature since 2000 analysing socio-economic inequalities in relation to different components of the built environment. Results: The proposed explanatory framework assumes that key features of built environment (identified as density, functional mix and public spaces and services), may influence individual health through their impact on both natural environment and social context, as well as behaviours, and that these effects may be unequally distributed according to the social position of individuals. Conclusion: In general, the expected links proposed by the framework are well documented in the literature; however, evidence of their impact on health inequalities remains uncertain due to confounding factors, heterogeneity in study design, and difficulty to generalize evidence that is still very embedded to local contexts. PMID:26844145

  14. Environmental justice: building a unified vision of health and the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Charles

    2002-01-01

    The assorted and multidimensional concerns that give rise to the issue of environmental justice have proved to be intellectually daunting and highly resistant to positive change. Low-income, people of color, and tribal communities confronting environmental stressors are beset by stressors in both the physical and social environments. For this reason, while the bifurcation of the public health and environmental fields taking place over the past several decades has yielded generally negative impacts in areas of public health, environment, and planning, the consequences for low-income and disadvantaged communities have been especially grievous. This commentary builds on the recent Institute of Medicine workshop titled "Rebuilding the Unity of Health and the Environment: A New Vision of Environmental Health for the 21st Century." The workshop organizers posited that only by thinking about environmental health on multiple levels will it be possible to merge various strategies to protect both the environment and health. In this commentary we examine how such a new vision of uniting public health and the environment can contribute to attaining environmental justice for all populations. PMID:11929721

  15. Developing Built Environment Programs in Local Health Departments: Lessons Learned From a Nationwide Mentoring Program

    PubMed Central

    Rube, Kate; Veatch, Maggie; Huang, Katy; Lent, Megan; Goldstein, Gail P.; Lee, Karen K.

    2014-01-01

    Local health departments (LHDs) have a key role to play in developing built environment policies and programs to encourage physical activity and combat obesity and related chronic diseases. However, information to guide LHDs’ effective engagement in this arena is lacking. During 2011–2012, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) facilitated a built environment peer mentoring program for 14 LHDs nationwide. Program objectives included supporting LHDs in their efforts to achieve built environment goals, offering examples from DOHMH’s built environment work to guide LHDs, and building a healthy built environment learning network. We share lessons learned that can guide LHDs in developing successful healthy built environment agendas. PMID:24625166

  16. 75 FR 73946 - Worker Safety and Health Program: Safety Conscious Work Environment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... petition for rulemaking, published on October 16, 2009. 74 FR 53190. The vast majority of those comments... Part 851 Worker Safety and Health Program: Safety Conscious Work Environment AGENCY: Office of the... ``Safety-Conscious Work Environment'' guidelines as a model. DOE published this petition and a request...

  17. The Role of the School Nutrition Environment for Promoting the Health of Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Mary Kay; Marshak, John; Conklin, Martha T.

    2004-01-01

    This study identifies the nature of nutrition environment in middle grades schools from the principals' and superintendents' point of view and determines which elements of a school's nutrition environment these school administrators considered most relevant to students' health and well-being. Most school administrators did not think the…

  18. Implementation of an ICT-Based Learning Environment in a Nutrition Health Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiha, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Enkenberg, Jorma; Turunen, Hannele

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the views of school staff on a nutrition health project implemented via an ICT-based learning environment in a secondary school (7th to 9th grades). Design/methodology/approach: The study was a part of the wider European Network for Health Promoting Schools programme (ENHPS; since 2008, Schools…

  19. Mental Health Status: A Comparison of Different Socio-Cultural Environments for the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.; Penning, Margaret J.

    1982-01-01

    Compared the mental health of the elderly living in three different environments: conventional community housing, subsidized housing, and institutions providing medical care. Mental health variables include autonomy and independence. Results indicated institutions do not appear to have better effects for their inhabitants given similar levels of…

  20. The Highland Park Environmental Health Plan: Evaluation and Recommendations for Improving the Urban Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Commerce, Lansing. Community Planning Div.

    The Highland Park environmental health plan includes the following components: Legal and administrative and programmatic relationships, planning studies, residential environment, disease vector control, water and sewage systems, sanitation, air pollution, food protection, industrial and radiological health, and solid waste facilities. (JR)

  1. Health and Safety in the School Environment. A Manual of Recommended Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This manual emphasizes the health relationships in the physical school environment and provides environmental criteria by which existing or planned facilities can be evaluated. Individual chapters deal with school health programs; planning for new schools; school site selection, building plan, and plan review; water supply; plumbing; sewage…

  2. Laser programs facility management plan for environment, safety, and health

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) Laser Programs ES&H policy is established by the Associate Director for Laser Programs. This FMP is one component of that policy. Laser Programs personnel design, construct and operate research and development equipment located in various Livermore and Site 300 buildings. The Programs include a variety of activities, primarily laser research and development, inertial confinement fusion, isotope separation, and an increasing emphasis on materials processing, imaging systems, and signal analysis. This FMP is a formal statement of responsibilities and controls to assure operational activities are conducted without harm to employees, the general public, or the environment. This plan identifies the hazards associated with operating a large research and development facility and is a vehicle to control and mitigate those hazards. Hazards include, but are not limited to: laser beams, hazardous and radioactive materials, criticality, ionizing radiation or x rays, high-voltage electrical equipment, chemicals, and powered machinery.

  3. The epigenetic lorax: gene–environment interactions in human health

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Keith E; Sapienza, Carmen; Engel, Nora

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, we have witnessed an explosion of information on genetic factors underlying common human diseases and disorders. This ‘human genomics’ information revolution has occurred as a backdrop to a rapid increase in the rates of many human disorders and diseases. For example, obesity, Type 2 diabetes, asthma, autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have increased at rates that cannot be due to changes in the genetic structure of the population, and are difficult to ascribe to changes in diagnostic criteria or ascertainment. A likely cause of the increased incidence of these disorders is increased exposure to environmental factors that modify gene function. Many environmental factors that have epidemiological association with common human disorders are likely to exert their effects through epigenetic alterations. This general mechanism of gene–environment interaction poses special challenges for individuals, educators, scientists and public policy makers in defining, monitoring and mitigating exposures. PMID:22920179

  4. National ignition facility environment, safety, and health management plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The ES&H Management Plan describes all of the environmental, safety, and health evaluations and reviews that must be carried out in support of the implementation of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. It describes the policy, organizational responsibilities and interfaces, activities, and ES&H documents that will be prepared by the Laboratory Project Office for the DOE. The only activity not described is the preparation of the NIF Project Specific Assessment (PSA), which is to be incorporated into the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship and Management (PEIS). This PSA is being prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) with input from the Laboratory participants. As the independent NEPA document preparers ANL is directly contracted by the DOE, and its deliverables and schedule are agreed to separately with DOE/OAK.

  5. Health, ethics and environment: a qualitative study of vegetarian motivations.

    PubMed

    Fox, Nick; Ward, Katie

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the motivations of vegetarians by means of online ethnographic research with participants in an international message board. The researcher participated in discussions on the board, gathered responses to questions from 33 participants, and conducted follow-up e-mail interviews with 18 of these participants. Respondents were predominantly from the US, Canada and the UK. Seventy per cent were females, and ages ranged from 14 to 53, with a median of 26 years. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. While this research found that health and the ethical treatment of animals were the main motivators for participants' vegetarianism, participants reported a range of commitments to environmental concerns, although in only one case was environmentalism a primary motivator for becoming a vegetarian. The data indicate that vegetarians may follow a trajectory, in which initial motivations are augmented over time by other reasons for sustaining or further restricting their diet. PMID:17980457

  6. Environment, health, socioeconomics and environmental control technology. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, D.W.

    1980-10-01

    This report summarizes the important findings of a two-volume report that deals with the potential impacts and environmental controls associated with the operation of geothermal power plants in California's Imperial Valley. The valley contains nearly a third of the nation's total energy potential for identified hot-water resources. Possible impacts of developing those resources include violation of air quality standards if emissions of hydrogen sulfide are not abated, negative ecological effects resulting from increased in the salinity of the Salton Sea, and damage to irrigation systems caused by land subsidence induced by the extraction of geothermal fluids. Other minor impacts concern occupational health and safety, socioeconomics, and hazardous wastes. Analyses of environmental impacts and the control measures for minimizing negative impacts are based primarily on a projected production of 3000 MW of electrical power by the year 2010.

  7. Health maintenance organization environments in the 1980s and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Ellen M.; Luft, Harold S.

    1990-01-01

    Throughout the past decade, health maintenance organizations (HMOs) were buffeted by dramatic regulatory and competitive changes. In this article, literature of the 1980s is reviewed to update our knowledge on the HMO industry and to suggest future research. The influence of intensified competition on these organizations and the determinants of market entry, expansion, and exit are examined. These organizations are now beginning to require copayments and deductibles and to offer point-of-service choice, while indemnity plans are developing sophisticated utilization management techniques. Given these significant structural changes, past distinctions among HMO, preferred provider organization and fee-for-service medicine must be replaced with a distinction between degree of provider choice and level of benefits. PMID:10113465

  8. Health, ethics and environment: a qualitative study of vegetarian motivations.

    PubMed

    Fox, Nick; Ward, Katie

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the motivations of vegetarians by means of online ethnographic research with participants in an international message board. The researcher participated in discussions on the board, gathered responses to questions from 33 participants, and conducted follow-up e-mail interviews with 18 of these participants. Respondents were predominantly from the US, Canada and the UK. Seventy per cent were females, and ages ranged from 14 to 53, with a median of 26 years. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. While this research found that health and the ethical treatment of animals were the main motivators for participants' vegetarianism, participants reported a range of commitments to environmental concerns, although in only one case was environmentalism a primary motivator for becoming a vegetarian. The data indicate that vegetarians may follow a trajectory, in which initial motivations are augmented over time by other reasons for sustaining or further restricting their diet.

  9. 30 CFR 250.107 - What must I do to protect health, safety, property, and the environment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., property, and the environment? 250.107 Section 250.107 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... the environment? (a) You must protect health, safety, property, and the environment by: (1) Performing... would have a significant effect on safety, health, or the environment; (2) If it is...

  10. 30 CFR 250.107 - What must I do to protect health, safety, property, and the environment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., property, and the environment? 250.107 Section 250.107 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... the environment? (a) You must protect health, safety, property, and the environment by: (1) Performing... would have a significant effect on safety, health, or the environment; (2) If it is...

  11. 30 CFR 250.107 - What must I do to protect health, safety, property, and the environment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., property, and the environment? 250.107 Section 250.107 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... the environment? (a) You must protect health, safety, property, and the environment by: (1) Performing... would have a significant effect on safety, health, or the environment; (2) If it is...

  12. 30 CFR 250.107 - What must I do to protect health, safety, property, and the environment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., property, and the environment? 250.107 Section 250.107 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT..., property, and the environment? (a) You must protect health, safety, property, and the environment by: (1... would have a significant effect on safety, health, or the environment; (2) If it is...

  13. Our environment, our health: a community-based participatory environmental health survey in Richmond, California.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alison; Lopez, Andrea; Malloy, Nile; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2012-04-01

    This study presents a health survey conducted by a community-based participatory research partnership between academic researchers and community organizers to consider environmental health and environmental justice issues in four neighborhoods of Richmond, California, a low-income community of color living along the fence line of a major oil refinery and near other industrial and mobile sources of pollution. The Richmond health survey aimed to assess local concerns and perceptions of neighborhood conditions, health problems, mobile and stationary hazards, access to health care, and other issues affecting residents of Richmond. Although respondents thought their neighborhoods were good places to live, they expressed concerns about neighborhood stressors and particular sources of pollution, and identified elevated asthma rates for children and long-time Richmond residents. The Richmond health survey offers a holistic, community-centered perspective to understanding local environmental health issues, and can inform future environmental health research and organizing efforts for community-university collaboratives.

  14. Health promotion and the First Amendment: government control of the informational environment.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L O; Javitt, G H

    2001-01-01

    Government efforts to protect public health often include controlling health information. The government may proscribe messages conveyed by commercial entities (e.g., false or misleading), recommend messages from commercial entities (e.g., warnings and safety instructions), and convey health messages (e.g., health communication campaigns). Through well-developed, albeit evolving, case law, government control of private speech has been constrained to avoid impinging on such values as free expression, truthfulness, and autonomous decision making. No simple legal framework has been developed for the government's own health messages to mediate between the legitimate goals of health protection and these other values. Nevertheless, government recommendations on matters of health raise difficult social and ethical questions and involve important societal trade-offs. Accordingly, this article proposes legal and ethical principles relating to government control of the health information environment. PMID:11789117

  15. Feminist health care in a hostile environment: a case study of the Womancare Health Center.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Cheryl A

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the Womancare Health Center in order to illustrate the development of and challenges to the feminist health movement in the United States. Specific attention is placed on the legislative, fiscal, and direct actions by the New Right against this organization. Analysis focuses on the means through which Womancare survived. The repercussions of constant intimidation and harassment for women's health programs and for health care policy overall are discussed.

  16. Feminist health care in a hostile environment: a case study of the Womancare Health Center.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Cheryl A

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the Womancare Health Center in order to illustrate the development of and challenges to the feminist health movement in the United States. Specific attention is placed on the legislative, fiscal, and direct actions by the New Right against this organization. Analysis focuses on the means through which Womancare survived. The repercussions of constant intimidation and harassment for women's health programs and for health care policy overall are discussed. PMID:19213480

  17. Promoting Health in Early Childhood Environments: A Health-Promotion Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Wardrope, Cheryl; Johnston, Donni; Kendall, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the mechanisms by which a health-promotion intervention might influence the health-promoting behaviours of staff members working in early childhood centres. The intervention was an ecological health-promotion initiative that was implemented within four early childhood centres in South-East Queensland, Australia. In-depth,…

  18. [Health risks study in a pottery environment in Morocco].

    PubMed

    Laraqui, C H; Caubet, A; Laraqui, O; Rahhali, A E; Curtes, J P; Verger, C

    2000-01-01

    Morocco is famous for its potteries, the largest of which are located at Rabat, Safi, Marrakech and Fes. This cross-sectional, descriptive epidemiological survey was carried out over an eight-month period, from January to August 1997. The study population consisted of 290 male workers from 36 workshops. The study involved a social and medical survey (a questionnaire and medical examination for all workers, with biological assessment for a representative sample of 95 craftsmen) and an analysis of the working conditions in which atmospheric pollution at the pottery was evaluated. Atmospheric concentrations of zinc, copper, iron, chrome and lead were determined. Only lead levels were found to be significantly high and were analyzed on three occasions. This study demonstrates poor working conditions and a lack of respect for the regulations concerning specific prevention measures and the health rules applicable to establishments where personnel are routinely exposed to the risk of lead poisoning. Various pathological conditions were observed, with the following prevalences: skeletal muscle 67.6%, dermatological 8.3%, digestive 58%, respiratory 28% and neurological 35.5%. Several nonspecific, often minor, clinical signs were recorded for most of the potters but the toxicological analysis confirmed lead contamination in 74% of the exposed subjects (plasma lead concentration, CPU, ALAU). The potteries of Morocco are not subject to any protection. Special technical and medical surveillance should be introduced and the laws concerning exposure to lead should be applied.

  19. Environment and health: environmental sanitation and community water supply.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies important features of two 5-Year Plans in India. Currently, only about 200 cities have even a partial sewage system. Elementary sewage systems are nonexistent in rural villages. In 1990, under 5% of rural population had access to sanitary facilities. The result is widespread soil and water pollution and its accompanying disease. The Rural Water Supply Program was proposed in the 5th Plan, but was implemented in the 7th Plan (1985-90). Construction of latrines is still too low. Resources were insufficiently mobilized for latrine construction. An alternative would be to institute cost recovery and user pays principles. Low cost technology could be substituted. Low cost latrine systems should conform with users' social habits, local culture, and the customs of the community. The system should be affordable to users. The technology should be user-friendly and rely on use of local materials and workers. Over 90% of the population rely on community water supply facilities. Health has not benefited from the access to water supplies. The reasons are low hygienic standards, lack of water quality surveillance, and poor maintenance of equipment. The community does not participate. By 1996, people's access to water was reduced to 1 km in the plains, and 50 m in hilly areas. Surface waters are contaminated by fecal matter, fluoride, nitrate, and arsenic. The Water Quality Surveillance Program lacks an institutional framework and human resource development. There is a need for education about hygiene, unsafe drinking water, and poor sanitation for people and agency staff.

  20. Hydrocarbon insecticides: their risks for environment and human health.

    PubMed

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Mohammad, Amina El-Hosini; Morsy, Tosson A

    2014-08-01

    Insecticides are used to control diseases spread by arthropods, but theys vary greatly in toxicity. Toxicity depends on the chemical and physical properties of a substance, and may be defined as the quality of being poisonous or harmful to animals or plants. Poisons have many different modes of action, but in general cause biochemical changes which interfere with normal body functions. Toxicity can be either acute or chronic. Acute toxicity is the ability of a substance to cause harmful effects which develop rapidly following absorption, i.e. a few hours or a day. Chronic toxicity is the ability of a substance to cause adverse health effects resulting from long-term exposure to a substance. There is a great range in the toxicity of insecticides to humans. The relative hazard of an insecticide is dependent upon the toxicity of the pesticide, the dose received and the length of time exposed. A hazard can be defined as a source of danger. The great majority of insecticides are poisonous to man and his beneficial insects and animals and are carcinogenic agents particularly, the halogenated hydrocarbons containing benzene ring.

  1. Alaska Natives assessing the health of their environment.

    PubMed

    Garza, D

    2001-11-01

    The changes in Alaska's ecosystems caused by pollution, contaminants and global climate change are negatively impacting Alaska Natives and rural residents who rely on natural resources for food, culture and community identity. While Alaska commerce has contributed little to these global changes and impacts, Alaska and its resources are nonetheless affected by the changes. While Alaska Natives have historically relied on Alaska's land, water and animals for survival and cultural identity, today their faith in the safety and quality of these resources has decreased. Alaska Natives no longer believe that these wild resources are the best and many are turning to alternative store-bought foods. Such a change in diet and activity may be contributing to a decline in traditional activities and a decline in general health. Contaminants are showing up in the animals, fish and waters that Alaska Natives use. Efforts need to be expanded to empower Alaska Native Tribes to collect and analyze local wild foods for various contaminants. In addition existing information on contaminants and pollution should be made readily available to Alaska residents. Armed with this type of information Alaska Native residents will be better prepared to make informed decisions on using wild foods and materials. PMID:11768422

  2. Living environment matters: relationships between neighborhood characteristics and health of the residents in a Dutch municipality.

    PubMed

    Putrik, Polina; de Vries, Nanne K; Mujakovic, Suhreta; van Amelsvoort, Ludovic; Kant, Ijmert; Kunst, Anton E; van Oers, Hans; Jansen, Maria

    2015-02-01

    Characteristics of an individual alone cannot exhaustively explain all the causes of poor health, and neighborhood of residence have been suggested to be one of the factors that contribute to health. However, knowledge about aspects of the neighborhood that are most important to health is limited. The main objective of this study was to explore associations between certain features of neighborhood environment and self-rated health and depressive symptoms in Maastricht (The Netherlands). A large amount of routinely collected neighborhood data were aggregated by means of factor analysis to 18 characteristics of neighborhood social and physical environment. Associations between these characteristics and self-rated health and presence of depressive symptoms were further explored in multilevel logistic regression models adjusted for individual demographic and socio-economic factors. The study sample consisted of 9,879 residents (mean age 55 years, 48 % male). Residents of unsafe communities were less likely to report good health (OR 0.88 95 % CI 0.80-0.97) and depressive symptoms (OR 0.81 95 % CI 0.69-0.97), and less cohesive environment was related to worse self-rated health (OR 0.81 95 % CI 0.72-0.92). Residents of neighborhoods with more car traffic nuisance and more disturbance from railway noise reported worse mental health (OR 0.79 95 % CI 0.68-0.92 and 0.85 95 % CI 0.73-0.99, respectively). We did not observe any association between health and quality of parking and shopping facilities, facilities for public or private transport, neighborhood aesthetics, green space, industrial nuisance, sewerage, neighbor nuisance or satisfaction with police performance. Our findings can be used to support development of integrated health policies targeting broader determinants of health. Improving safety, social cohesion and decreasing traffic nuisance in disadvantaged neighborhoods might be a promising way to improve the health of residents and reduce health inequalities. PMID

  3. Portfolio evaluation of health programs: a reply to Sendi et al.

    PubMed

    Bridges, John F P; Terris, Darcey D

    2004-05-01

    Sendi et al. (Soc. Sci. Med. 57 (2003) 2207) extend previous research on cost-effectiveness analysis to the evaluation of a portfolio of interventions with risky outcomes using a "second best" approach that can identify improvements in efficiency in the allocation of resources. This method, however, cannot be used to directly identify the optimal solution to the resource allocation problem. Theoretically, a stricter adherence to the foundations of portfolio theory would permit direct optimization in portfolio selection, however, when we include uncertainty in our analysis in addition to the traditional concept of risk (which is often mislabelled uncertainty) complexities are introduced that create significant hurdles in the development of practical applications of portfolio theory for health care policy decision making.

  4. Environment and health: environmental sanitation and community water supply.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies important features of two 5-Year Plans in India. Currently, only about 200 cities have even a partial sewage system. Elementary sewage systems are nonexistent in rural villages. In 1990, under 5% of rural population had access to sanitary facilities. The result is widespread soil and water pollution and its accompanying disease. The Rural Water Supply Program was proposed in the 5th Plan, but was implemented in the 7th Plan (1985-90). Construction of latrines is still too low. Resources were insufficiently mobilized for latrine construction. An alternative would be to institute cost recovery and user pays principles. Low cost technology could be substituted. Low cost latrine systems should conform with users' social habits, local culture, and the customs of the community. The system should be affordable to users. The technology should be user-friendly and rely on use of local materials and workers. Over 90% of the population rely on community water supply facilities. Health has not benefited from the access to water supplies. The reasons are low hygienic standards, lack of water quality surveillance, and poor maintenance of equipment. The community does not participate. By 1996, people's access to water was reduced to 1 km in the plains, and 50 m in hilly areas. Surface waters are contaminated by fecal matter, fluoride, nitrate, and arsenic. The Water Quality Surveillance Program lacks an institutional framework and human resource development. There is a need for education about hygiene, unsafe drinking water, and poor sanitation for people and agency staff. PMID:12293893

  5. Respiratory Health Effects of Large Animal Farming Environments

    PubMed Central

    May, Sara; Romberger, Debra J.; Poole, Jill A.

    2014-01-01

    With increases in large animal-feeding operations to meet consumer demand, adverse upper and lower respiratory health effects in exposed agriculture workers is a concern. The aim of this study was to review large animal confinement feeding operational exposures associated with respiratory disease with focus on recent advances in the knowledge of causative factors and cellular and immunological mechanisms. A PubMed search was conducted with the following keywords: airway, farm, swine, dairy, horse, cattle inflammation, organic dust, endotoxin, and peptidoglycan that were published between 1980 and current. Articles were selected based on their relevance to environmental exposure and reference to airway diseases. Airway diseases included rhinitis, sinusitis, mucus membrane inflammation syndrome, asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and organic dust toxic syndrome. There is lower prevalence of IgE-mediated asthma and atopy in farmers and their children, but organic dust worsens existing asthma. Multiple etiologic factors are linked to disease including allergens, organic dusts, endotoxins, peptidoglycans and gases. Large animal confinement feeding operations contain a wide-diversity of microbes with increasing focus on Gram-positive bacteria and archeabacteria as opposed to Gram-negative bacteria in mediating disease. Toll-like receptors (TLR) and nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like innate immune pathways respond to these exposures. Finally, a chronic inflammatory adaptation, tolerance-like response in chronically exposed workers occurs. Large animal confinement farming exposures produces a wide spectrum of upper and lower respiratory tract diseases due to the complex diversity of organic dust, particulates, microbial cell wall components and gases and resultant activation of various innate immune receptor signaling pathways. PMID:23199220

  6. Prenatal care in primary health care centers of Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    al Teheawy, M M

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the performance of Al Hassa primary health care (PHC) centers in the scope of prenatal care and to have a baseline data for future evaluation of achievement in that field. A retrospective study was done by collecting information on a pre-designed form from the available records in the PHC centers. The number of registered pregnant ladies for prenatal care in PHC centers was 10,594 which was equal to 58% of the estimated number of pregnant ladies in Al-Hassa, in 1409 H (the official calendar of Saudi Arabia corresponding to 1989). The immunization coverage by tetanus toxoid of the registered pregnant ladies was 66.7% for the first dose and 40.3% for the second dose. Forty six percent of the registered pregnancies was identified by PHC staff as high risk pregnancy. It was found that 64.4% of the high risk pregnancy was due to causes in the reproductive history, 25.4% due to associated medical conditions and 7.2% due to causes in the present pregnancy. A self criticism and future need to improve prenatal services are discussed.

  7. Corrosion Resistance of Fe-Al/Al2O3 Duplex Coating on Pipeline Steel X80 in Simulated Oil and Gas Well Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Min; Wang, Yu; Wang, Ping-Gu; Shi, Qin-Yi; Zhang, Meng-Xian

    2015-04-01

    Corrosion resistant Fe-Al/Al2O3 duplex coating for pipeline steel X80 was prepared by a combined treatment of low-temperature aluminizing and micro-arc oxidation (MAO). Phase composition and microstructure of mono-layer Fe-Al coating and Fe-Al/Al2O3 duplex coating were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Corrosion resistance of the coated pipeline steel X80 in a simulated oil and gas well condition was also investigated. Mono-layer Fe-Al coating consists of Fe2Al5 and FeAl, which is a suitable transitional layer for the preparation of ceramic coating by MAO on the surface of pipeline steel X80. Under the same corrosion condition at 373 K for 168 h with 1 MPa CO2 and 0.1 MPa H2S, corrosion weight loss rate of pipeline steel X80 with Fe-Al/Al2O3 duplex coating decreased to 23% of original pipeline steel X80, which improved by 10% than that of pipeline steel X80 with mono-layer Fe-Al coating. It cannot find obvious cracks and pits on the corrosion surface of pipeline steel X80 with Fe-Al/Al2O3 duplex coating.

  8. Health, environment and sustainable development: identifying links and indicators to promote action.

    PubMed

    Corvalán, C F; Kjellström, T; Smith, K R

    1999-09-01

    This paper discusses the links among health, environment, and sustainable development and presents a framework that extends from the epidemiological domain to the policy domain and includes the driving forces that generate environmental pressures, creating changes in the state of the environment and eventually contributing to human exposures. Health effects are the end result of this complex net of events. Environmental health interventions should not be limited to treatment of cases and directly reducing human exposures. The paper discusses the need for integrated action at all levels and, in particular, on the need to focus on long-term action directed at reducing the driving forces that generate the environmental health threats. Only this approach can achieve sustained health benefits and environmental protection in accord with the principles of sustainable development.

  9. A Safe and Healthful Work Environment: Development and Testing of an Undergraduate Occupational Health Nursing Curriculum.

    PubMed

    McCullagh, Marjorie C; Berry, Peggy

    2015-08-01

    Occupational health nursing focuses on promotion and restoration of health, prevention of illness and injury, protection from work-related and environmental hazards, and corporate profitability. Quality education about the relationship between work and health is critical for nurses' success regardless of work setting, and is consistent with Healthy People 2020 goals, but is lacking or limited in some programs. This report introduces an innovative occupational health nursing curriculum for students enrolled in baccalaureate nursing programs. The process of designing and pilot testing this novel curriculum, its alignment with nursing competencies, and its format and learning activities are described. Preparing professional nurses to understand the role of the occupational health nurse and the relationship between work and health is an essential curricular consideration for contemporary nursing education.

  10. A Safe and Healthful Work Environment: Development and Testing of an Undergraduate Occupational Health Nursing Curriculum.

    PubMed

    McCullagh, Marjorie C; Berry, Peggy

    2015-08-01

    Occupational health nursing focuses on promotion and restoration of health, prevention of illness and injury, protection from work-related and environmental hazards, and corporate profitability. Quality education about the relationship between work and health is critical for nurses' success regardless of work setting, and is consistent with Healthy People 2020 goals, but is lacking or limited in some programs. This report introduces an innovative occupational health nursing curriculum for students enrolled in baccalaureate nursing programs. The process of designing and pilot testing this novel curriculum, its alignment with nursing competencies, and its format and learning activities are described. Preparing professional nurses to understand the role of the occupational health nurse and the relationship between work and health is an essential curricular consideration for contemporary nursing education. PMID:26077879

  11. The silence of mental health issues within university environments: a quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Wynaden, Dianne; McAllister, Margaret; Tohotoa, Jenny; Al Omari, Omar; Heslop, Karen; Duggan, Ravani; Murray, Sean; Happell, Brenda; Byrne, Louise

    2014-10-01

    A descriptive study was used to examine the attitudes and experiences of staff and students towards mental health problems. Staff completed the "Attitude towards mental illness survey", and students who self-identified having a mental health problem completed the "Stigma scale". Using an online collection process, data from 270 staff and 201 students showed that the "silence" surrounding mental health problems permeates the university environment and impacts on help seeking behaviors, the provision of support and on the recovery and wellbeing of affected individuals. Universities must decrease stigma and foster social inclusion to build self-esteem in people who have mental health problems.

  12. Effects of the Residential Environment on Health in Japan Linked with Travel Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Perez Barbosa, David; Zhang, Junyi; Seya, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify how the residential environment is associated with overall health-related quality of life (QOL) via active travel (walking and cycling), by reflecting the influence of different trip purposes in Japan. The health-related QOL includes physical, mental, and social dimensions. For this study we implemented a questionnaire survey in 20 cities in Japan in 2010 and obtained valid answers from 1202 respondents. The residential environment is defined in terms of distances to and densities of different daily facilities extracted from both the survey and external GIS data. We found that the effects of residential environment on active travel behavior are mixed and limited, depending on types of trip makers. Unexpectedly, travel behavior has no direct effects on the health-related QOL. The residential environment, which is only observed indirectly via lifestyle habits for commuters, has limited effects on health. As for noncommuters, neither their travel behavior nor the residential environment influences their health-related QOL. PMID:26848676

  13. Effects of the Residential Environment on Health in Japan Linked with Travel Behavior.

    PubMed

    Perez Barbosa, David; Zhang, Junyi; Seya, Hajime

    2016-02-01

    This paper aims to clarify how the residential environment is associated with overall health-related quality of life (QOL) via active travel (walking and cycling), by reflecting the influence of different trip purposes in Japan. The health-related QOL includes physical, mental, and social dimensions. For this study we implemented a questionnaire survey in 20 cities in Japan in 2010 and obtained valid answers from 1202 respondents. The residential environment is defined in terms of distances to and densities of different daily facilities extracted from both the survey and external GIS data. We found that the effects of residential environment on active travel behavior are mixed and limited, depending on types of trip makers. Unexpectedly, travel behavior has no direct effects on the health-related QOL. The residential environment, which is only observed indirectly via lifestyle habits for commuters, has limited effects on health. As for noncommuters, neither their travel behavior nor the residential environment influences their health-related QOL. PMID:26848676

  14. Re: Madsen et al. "Unnecessary work tasks and mental health: a prospective analysis of Danish human service workers".

    PubMed

    Durand-Moreau, Quentin; Loddé, Brice; Dewitte, Jean-Dominique

    2015-03-01

    Madsen et al (1) recently published a secondary analysis on data provided by the Project on Burnout, Motivation and Job Satisfaction (PUMA). The aim of their study, published in the Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health was to examine the associations between unnecessary work tasks and a decreased level of mental health. Though the topic was quite novel, reading this work proved disturbing and raised issues. Based on the results of this study, the authors stated that there is an association between unnecessary work tasks (assessed by a single question) and a decreased level of mental health, idem [assessed by the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5)], in the specific population included in this PUMA survey. The authors point out a limitation of the study, namely that unnecessary work tasks were evaluated using one single question: "Do you sometimes have to do things in your job which appear to be unnecessary?". Semmer defines unnecessary work task as "tasks that should not be carried out at all because they do not make sense or because they could have been avoided, or could be carried out with less effort if things were organized more efficiently" (2). De facto, qualifying what an unnecessary task is requires stating or explaining whether the task makes sense. Making sense or not is not an objective notion. It is very difficult for either a manager or an employee to say if a task is necessary or not. Most important is that it makes sense from the worker's point of view. Making sense and being necessary are not synonyms. Some tasks do not make sense but are economically necessary (eg, when, as physicians, we are reporting our activity using ICD-10 on computers instead of being at patients' bedsides or reading this journal). Thus, there is a wide gap between Semmer's definition and the question used by the authors to evaluate his concept. A secondary analysis based on a single question is not adequate to evaluate unnecessary tasks. Nowadays, the general trend

  15. Re: Madsen et al. "Unnecessary work tasks and mental health: a prospective analysis of Danish human service workers".

    PubMed

    Durand-Moreau, Quentin; Loddé, Brice; Dewitte, Jean-Dominique

    2015-03-01

    Madsen et al (1) recently published a secondary analysis on data provided by the Project on Burnout, Motivation and Job Satisfaction (PUMA). The aim of their study, published in the Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health was to examine the associations between unnecessary work tasks and a decreased level of mental health. Though the topic was quite novel, reading this work proved disturbing and raised issues. Based on the results of this study, the authors stated that there is an association between unnecessary work tasks (assessed by a single question) and a decreased level of mental health, idem [assessed by the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5)], in the specific population included in this PUMA survey. The authors point out a limitation of the study, namely that unnecessary work tasks were evaluated using one single question: "Do you sometimes have to do things in your job which appear to be unnecessary?". Semmer defines unnecessary work task as "tasks that should not be carried out at all because they do not make sense or because they could have been avoided, or could be carried out with less effort if things were organized more efficiently" (2). De facto, qualifying what an unnecessary task is requires stating or explaining whether the task makes sense. Making sense or not is not an objective notion. It is very difficult for either a manager or an employee to say if a task is necessary or not. Most important is that it makes sense from the worker's point of view. Making sense and being necessary are not synonyms. Some tasks do not make sense but are economically necessary (eg, when, as physicians, we are reporting our activity using ICD-10 on computers instead of being at patients' bedsides or reading this journal). Thus, there is a wide gap between Semmer's definition and the question used by the authors to evaluate his concept. A secondary analysis based on a single question is not adequate to evaluate unnecessary tasks. Nowadays, the general trend

  16. Our Environment, Our Health: A Community-Based Participatory Environmental Health Survey in Richmond, California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Alison; Lopez, Andrea; Malloy, Nile; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a health survey conducted by a community-based participatory research partnership between academic researchers and community organizers to consider environmental health and environmental justice issues in four neighborhoods of Richmond, California, a low-income community of color living along the fence line of a major oil…

  17. Basis for the implementation of digital signature in Argentine's health environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, P. P.; Formica, M.

    2007-11-01

    The growth of telemedical applications and electronic transactions in health environments is paced by the constant technology evolution. This implies a big cultural change in traditional medicine and in hospital information systems' users which arrival is delayed, basically, by the lack of solid laws and a well defined role-based infrastructure. The use of digital signature as a mean of identification, authentication, confidentiality and non-repudiation is the most suitable tool for assuring the electronic transactions and patient's data protection. The implementation of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) in health environment allows for authentication, encryption and use of digital signature for assuring confidentiality and control of the movement of sensitive information. This work defines the minimum technological, legal and procedural basis for a successful PKI implementation and establishes the roles for the different actors in the chain of confidence in the public health environment of Argentine.

  18. Community Health Environment Scan Survey (CHESS): a novel tool that captures the impact of the built environment on lifestyle factors

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Fiona; Stevens, Denise; O'Connor-Duffany, Kathleen; Siegel, Karen; Gao, Yue

    2011-01-01

    Background Novel efforts and accompanying tools are needed to tackle the global burden of chronic disease. This paper presents an approach to describe the environments in which people live, work, and play. Community Health Environment Scan Survey (CHESS) is an empirical assessment tool that measures the availability and accessibility, of healthy lifestyle options lifestyle options. CHESS reveals existing community assets as well as opportunities for change, shaping community intervention planning efforts by focusing on community-relevant opportunities to address the three key risk factors for chronic disease (i.e. unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and tobacco use). Methods The CHESS tool was developed following a review of existing auditing tools and in consultation with experts. It is based on the social-ecological model and is adaptable to diverse settings in developed and developing countries throughout the world. Results For illustrative purposes, baseline results from the Community Interventions for Health (CIH) Mexico site are used, where the CHESS tool assessed 583 food stores and 168 restaurants. Comparisons between individual-level survey data from schools and community-level CHESS data are made to demonstrate the utility of the tool in strategically guiding intervention activities. Conclusion The environments where people live, work, and play are key factors in determining their diet, levels of physical activity, and tobacco use. CHESS is the first tool of its kind that systematically and simultaneously examines how built environments encourage/discourage healthy eating, physical activity, and tobacco use. CHESS can help to design community interventions to prevent chronic disease and guide healthy urban planning. PMID:21394246

  19. Will considerations of environmental sustainability revitalise the policy links between the urban environment and health?

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores when and how considerations of population health have influenced the creation, planning and management of cities. Cities--now the dominant human habitat--must be planned and managed sustainably in a world that is manifestly experiencing increasing environmental and social strains. Early industrialisation entailed crowding, squalor and industrial environmental blight; the two great associated public health hazards were infectious diseases and air pollution. These hazards have been largely controlled in rich countries. Today's main urban health hazards are obesity (with its life-shortening health consequences) and the huge contribution of cities to climate change with the resultant risks to population health. These and other health issues in urban environments need to be understood and addressed at the community or population level. This is an ecological challenge, crucial to attaining real sustainability.

  20. Challenges in researching violence affecting health service delivery in complex security environments.

    PubMed

    Foghammar, Ludvig; Jang, Suyoun; Kyzy, Gulzhan Asylbek; Weiss, Nerina; Sullivan, Katherine A; Gibson-Fall, Fawzia; Irwin, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Complex security environments are characterized by violence (including, but not limited to "armed conflict" in the legal sense), poverty, environmental disasters and poor governance. Violence directly affecting health service delivery in complex security environments includes attacks on individuals (e.g. doctors, nurses, administrators, security guards, ambulance drivers and translators), obstructions (e.g. ambulances being stopped at checkpoints), discrimination (e.g. staff being pressured to treat one patient instead of another), attacks on and misappropriation of health facilities and property (e.g. vandalism, theft and ambulance theft by armed groups), and the criminalization of health workers. This paper examines the challenges associated with researching the context, scope and nature of violence directly affecting health service delivery in these environments. With a focus on data collection, it considers how these challenges affect researchers' ability to analyze the drivers of violence and impact of violence. This paper presents key findings from two research workshops organized in 2014 and 2015 which convened researchers and practitioners in the fields of health and humanitarian aid delivery and policy, and draws upon an analysis of organizational efforts to address violence affecting healthcare delivery and eleven in-depth interviews with representatives of organizations working in complex security environments. Despite the urgency and impact of violence affecting healthcare delivery, there is an overall lack of research that is of health-specific, publically accessible and comparable, as well as a lack of gender-disaggregated data, data on perpetrator motives and an assessment of the 'knock-on' effects of violence. These gaps limit analysis and, by extension, the ability of organizations operating in complex security environments to effectively manage the security of their staff and facilities and to deliver health services. Increased research

  1. Challenges in researching violence affecting health service delivery in complex security environments.

    PubMed

    Foghammar, Ludvig; Jang, Suyoun; Kyzy, Gulzhan Asylbek; Weiss, Nerina; Sullivan, Katherine A; Gibson-Fall, Fawzia; Irwin, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Complex security environments are characterized by violence (including, but not limited to "armed conflict" in the legal sense), poverty, environmental disasters and poor governance. Violence directly affecting health service delivery in complex security environments includes attacks on individuals (e.g. doctors, nurses, administrators, security guards, ambulance drivers and translators), obstructions (e.g. ambulances being stopped at checkpoints), discrimination (e.g. staff being pressured to treat one patient instead of another), attacks on and misappropriation of health facilities and property (e.g. vandalism, theft and ambulance theft by armed groups), and the criminalization of health workers. This paper examines the challenges associated with researching the context, scope and nature of violence directly affecting health service delivery in these environments. With a focus on data collection, it considers how these challenges affect researchers' ability to analyze the drivers of violence and impact of violence. This paper presents key findings from two research workshops organized in 2014 and 2015 which convened researchers and practitioners in the fields of health and humanitarian aid delivery and policy, and draws upon an analysis of organizational efforts to address violence affecting healthcare delivery and eleven in-depth interviews with representatives of organizations working in complex security environments. Despite the urgency and impact of violence affecting healthcare delivery, there is an overall lack of research that is of health-specific, publically accessible and comparable, as well as a lack of gender-disaggregated data, data on perpetrator motives and an assessment of the 'knock-on' effects of violence. These gaps limit analysis and, by extension, the ability of organizations operating in complex security environments to effectively manage the security of their staff and facilities and to deliver health services. Increased research

  2. Relationships between the health of Alaska Native communities and our environment -- phase 1, exploring and communicating

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Durelle

    2013-01-01

    Alaska Natives depend on local natural resources for nutritional and, for many, spiritual health. As a result, public health in Alaska is strongly influenced by the relationship between people and their surrounding physical, chemical, and biological environments. Alaska is vast with diverse wildlife and plant communities that are valued as subsistence foods (fig. 1). These resources are supported by equally diverse ecosystems and their underpinning landforms and geologies. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is attempting to integrate physical, chemical, and biological information to better describe current (2013) environments and project scenarios for the future. Integrating ecological data into the public health dialogue is challenging for the more than 280 rural communities of Alaska. This fact sheet reviews a recent USGS effort, the Geographic Information System (GIS) Native Health Project, to better incorporate scientific information into such dialogue.

  3. Health and the Built Environment: Exploring Foundations for a New Interdisciplinary Profession

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Jennifer; Thompson, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The supportive role of the built environment for human health is a growing area of interdisciplinary research, evidence-based policy development, and related practice. Nevertheless, despite closely linked origins, the contemporary professions of public health and urban planning largely operate within the neoliberal framework of academic, political, and policy silos. A reinvigorated relationship between the two is fundamental to building and sustaining an effective “healthy built environment profession.” A recent comprehensive review of the burgeoning literature on healthy built environments identified an emergent theme which we have termed “Professional Development.” This literature relates to the development of relationships between health and built environment professionals. It covers case studies illustrating good practice models for policy change, as well as ways professionals can work to translate research into policy. Intertwined with this empirical research is a dialogue on theoretical tensions emerging as health and built environment practitioners and researchers seek to establish mutual understanding and respect. The nature of evidence required to justify policy change, for example, has surfaced as an area of asynchrony between accepted disciplinary protocols. Our paper discusses this important body of research with a view to initiating and supporting the ongoing development of an interdisciplinary profession of healthy planning. PMID:23028393

  4. The Built Environment and Child Health: An Overview of Current Evidence.

    PubMed

    Gascon, Mireia; Vrijheid, Martine; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-09-01

    Urbanization and the shaping of the built environment have provided a number of socioeconomic benefits, but they have also brought unwanted side effects on health. We aimed to review the current epidemiological evidence of the associations between the built environment, closely related exposures, and child health. We focused on growth and obesity, neuropsychological development, and respiratory and immune health. We used existing review articles and supplemented these with relevant work published and not included in existing reviews. The present review shows that there is good evidence for an association between air pollution and fetal growth restriction and respiratory health, whereas for other exposure and outcome combinations, further evidence is needed. Future studies should make efforts to integrate the different built environment features and to include the evaluation of environments other than home, as well as accessibility, qualitative and perception assessment of the built environment, and, if possible, with improved and standardized tools to facilitate comparability between studies. Efforts are also needed to conduct longitudinal and intervention studies and to understand potential mechanisms behind the associations observed. Finally, studies in low- and middle-income countries are needed.

  5. Health and the built environment: exploring foundations for a new interdisciplinary profession.

    PubMed

    Kent, Jennifer; Thompson, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The supportive role of the built environment for human health is a growing area of interdisciplinary research, evidence-based policy development, and related practice. Nevertheless, despite closely linked origins, the contemporary professions of public health and urban planning largely operate within the neoliberal framework of academic, political, and policy silos. A reinvigorated relationship between the two is fundamental to building and sustaining an effective "healthy built environment profession." A recent comprehensive review of the burgeoning literature on healthy built environments identified an emergent theme which we have termed "Professional Development." This literature relates to the development of relationships between health and built environment professionals. It covers case studies illustrating good practice models for policy change, as well as ways professionals can work to translate research into policy. Intertwined with this empirical research is a dialogue on theoretical tensions emerging as health and built environment practitioners and researchers seek to establish mutual understanding and respect. The nature of evidence required to justify policy change, for example, has surfaced as an area of asynchrony between accepted disciplinary protocols. Our paper discusses this important body of research with a view to initiating and supporting the ongoing development of an interdisciplinary profession of healthy planning.

  6. [Developmental origins of health and disease in adults: role of maternal environment].

    PubMed

    Chavatte-Palmer, P; Tarrade, A; Lévy, R

    2012-09-01

    Many epidemiological studies indicate that environmental conditions during embryonic and fetal development can have an impact on health at adulthood. Animal studies clearly demonstrate that maternal, and even paternal undernutrition or nutritional excess durably modify some epigenetic marks in their offspring, affecting gene expression and physiological adaptations to the environment. It is crucial to better define the effects of early environment on adult phenotype and epigenetic marks in humans and to develop, with the help of animal models, new preventive strategies and treatments.

  7. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-09-01

    According to the framework of "Pressure-State-Response", this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries). PMID:26371016

  8. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-09-07

    According to the framework of "Pressure-State-Response", this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries).

  9. Assessing the Relationship Between the Perceived Shelter Environment and Mental Health Among Homeless Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Beharie, Nisha; Lennon, Mary Clare; McKay, Mary McKernan

    2015-01-01

    Little attention has been given to how the environment of homeless shelters may impact the mental health of their residents. This study addresses this gap in the literature and presents a cross-sectional analysis of 209 caregivers nested within 10 family shelters across New York City. Multivariate regression was employed using hierarchical modeling to test the association between two shelter related variables (ie, the perceived social environment of the shelter and difficulty following shelter rules) and the mental health status of the caregiver residents. Less favorable perceptions of the social environment of the shelter and difficulty following shelter rules were both found to be associated with poorer mental health after controlling for demographic covariates as well as time in the shelter and first time in the shelter. These findings highlight the potential impact of the perceived social environment of shelters and methods of governance of shelters on the mental health of caregiver residents. In addition, the findings support the notion that interventions such as trauma informed care could potentially aid in addressing the mental health challenges that residents face. PMID:26332928

  10. Health Literacy and Task Environment Influence Parents' Burden for Data Entry on Child-Specific Health Information: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chao-Yu; Bacic, Janine; Chan, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    Background Health care systems increasingly rely on patients’ data entry efforts to organize and assist in care delivery through health information exchange. Objectives We sought to determine (1) the variation in burden imposed on parents by data entry efforts across paper-based and computer-based environments, and (2) the impact, if any, of parents’ health literacy on the task burden. Methods We completed a randomized controlled trial of parent-completed data entry tasks. Parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were randomized based on the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) to either a paper-based or computer-based environment for entry of health information on their children. The primary outcome was the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (TLX) total weighted score. Results We screened 271 parents: 194 (71.6%) were eligible, and 180 of these (92.8%) constituted the study cohort. We analyzed 90 participants from each arm. Parents who completed information tasks on paper reported a higher task burden than those who worked in the computer environment: mean (SD) TLX scores were 22.8 (20.6) for paper and 16.3 (16.1) for computer. Assignment to the paper environment conferred a significant risk of higher task burden (F1,178 = 4.05, P = .046). Adequate literacy was associated with lower task burden (decrease in burden score of 1.15 SD, P = .003). After adjusting for relevant child and parent factors, parents’ TOFHLA score (beta = -.02, P = .02) and task environment (beta = .31, P = .03) remained significantly associated with task burden. Conclusions A tailored computer-based environment provided an improved task experience for data entry compared to the same tasks completed on paper. Health literacy was inversely related to task burden. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00543257; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00543257 (Archived by WebCite at http

  11. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...

  12. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...

  13. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...

  14. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...

  15. 30 CFR 250.107 - What must I do to protect health, safety, property, and the environment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., property, and the environment? 250.107 Section 250.107 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... Performance Standards § 250.107 What must I do to protect health, safety, property, and the environment? (a) You must protect health, safety, property, and the environment by: (1) Performing all operations in...

  16. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...

  17. Engaging Urban Residents in Assessing Neighborhood Environments and Their Implications for Health

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Amy J.; Estrada-Martinez, Lorena; Zenk, Shannon N.; Viruell-Fuentes, Edna; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Stokes, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have worked to delineate the manner in which urban environments reflect broader social processes, such as those creating racially, ethnically and economically segregated communities with vast differences in aspects of the built environment, opportunity structures, social environments, and environmental exposures. Interdisciplinary research is essential to gain an enhanced understanding of the complex relationships between these stressors and protective factors in urban environments and health. The purpose of this study was to examine the ways that multiple factors may intersect to influence the social and physical context and health within three areas of Detroit, Michigan. We describe the study design and results from seven focus groups conducted by the Healthy Environments Partnership (HEP) and how the results informed the development of a survey questionnaire and environmental audit tool. The findings from the stress process exercise used in the focus groups described here validated the relevance of a number of existing concepts and measures, suggested modifications of others, and evoked several new concepts and measures that may not have been captured without this process, all of which were subsequently included in the survey and environmental audit conducted by HEP. Including both qualitative and quantitative methods can enrich research and maximize the extent to which research questions being asked and hypotheses being tested are driven by the experiences of residents themselves, which can enhance our efforts to identify strategies to improve the physical and social environments of urban areas and, in so doing, reduce inequities in health. PMID:16739052

  18. Distributed Lag Models: Examining Associations Between the Built Environment and Health.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jonggyu; Sánchez, Brisa N; Berrocal, Veronica J; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V

    2016-01-01

    Built environment factors constrain individual level behaviors and choices, and thus are receiving increasing attention to assess their influence on health. Traditional regression methods have been widely used to examine associations between built environment measures and health outcomes, where a fixed, prespecified spatial scale (e.g., 1 mile buffer) is used to construct environment measures. However, the spatial scale for these associations remains largely unknown and misspecifying it introduces bias. We propose the use of distributed lag models (DLMs) to describe the association between built environment features and health as a function of distance from the locations of interest and circumvent a-priori selection of a spatial scale. Based on simulation studies, we demonstrate that traditional regression models produce associations biased away from the null when there is spatial correlation among the built environment features. Inference based on DLMs is robust under a range of scenarios of the built environment. We use this innovative application of DLMs to examine the association between the availability of convenience stores near California public schools, which may affect children's dietary choices both through direct access to junk food and exposure to advertisement, and children's body mass index z scores.

  19. The challenge of health & environment: Profiling risks & strategic priorities for now & the future

    PubMed Central

    Narain, Jai P.

    2012-01-01

    A substantial burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases in the developing countries is attributable to environmental risk factors. WHO estimates that the environmental factors are responsible for an estimated 24 per cent of the global burden of disease in terms of healthy life years lost and 23 per cent of all deaths; children being the worst sufferers. Given that the environment is linked with most of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), without proper attention to the environmental risk factors and their management, it will be difficult to achieve many MDGs by 2015. The impact of environmental degradation on health may continue well into the future and the situation in fact, is likely to get worse. In order to address this challenge, two facts are worth noting. First, that much of the environmental disease burden is attributable to a few critical risk factors which include unsafe water and sanitation, exposure to indoor smoke from cooking fuel, outdoor air pollution, exposure to chemicals such as arsenic, and climate change. Second, that environment and health aspects must become, as a matter of urgency, a national priority, both in terms of policy and resources allocation. To meet the challenge of health and environment now and in the future, the following strategic approaches must be considered which include conducting environmental and health impact assessments; strengthening national environmental health policy and infrastructure; fostering inter-sectoral co-ordination and partnerships; mobilizing public participation; and enhancing the leadership role of health in advocacy, stewardship and capacity building. PMID:22960884

  20. The challenge of health & environment: profiling risks & strategic priorities for now & the future.

    PubMed

    Narain, Jai P

    2012-08-01

    A substantial burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases in the developing countries is attributable to environmental risk factors. WHO estimates that the environmental factors are responsible for an estimated 24 per cent of the global burden of disease in terms of healthy life years lost and 23 per cent of all deaths; children being the worst sufferers. Given that the environment is linked with most of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), without proper attention to the environmental risk factors and their management, it will be difficult to achieve many MDGs by 2015. The impact of environmental degradation on health may continue well into the future and the situation in fact, is likely to get worse. In order to address this challenge, two facts are worth noting. First, that much of the environmental disease burden is attributable to a few critical risk factors which include unsafe water and sanitation, exposure to indoor smoke from cooking fuel, outdoor air pollution, exposure to chemicals such as arsenic, and climate change. Second, that environment and health aspects must become, as a matter of urgency, a national priority, both in terms of policy and resources allocation. To meet the challenge of health and environment now and in the future, the following strategic approaches must be considered which include conducting environmental and health impact assessments; strengthening national environmental health policy and infrastructure; fostering inter-sectoral co-ordination and partnerships; mobilizing public participation; and enhancing the leadership role of health in advocacy, stewardship and capacity building. PMID:22960884

  1. A study of early corrosion behaviors of FeCrAl alloys in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jun; Nam, Hyo On; Hwang, Il Soon; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2010-12-01

    Lead and lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) alloy have been increasingly receiving attention as heavy liquid metal coolants (HLMC) for future nuclear energy systems. The compatibility of structural materials and components with lead-bismuth eutectic liquid at high temperature is one of key issues for the commercialization of lead fast reactors. In the present study, the corrosion behaviors of iron-based alumina-forming alloys (Kanthal-AF®, PM2000, MA956) were investigated by exposing to stagnant LBE environments at 500 °C and 550 °C for up to 500 h. After exposures, the thickness and chemistry of the oxide layer on the specimens were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. As a result, the oxide characteristics and the corrosion resistance were compared. In this study, it was shown that the corrosion resistance of FeCrAl ODS steels (PM2000, MA956) are superior to that of FeCrAl ferritic steel (Kanthal-AF®) in higher temperature LBE.

  2. A Look into Miners' Health in Prevailing Ambience of Underground Coal Mine Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, N. C.; Pal, S.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental factors such as noise, vibration, illumination, humidity, temperature and air velocity, etc. do play a major role on the health, comfort and efficient performance of underground coal miners at work. Ergonomics can help to promote health, efficiency and well being of miners and to make best use of their capabilities within the ambit of underground coal mine environment. Adequate work stretch and work-rest scheduling have to be determined for every category of miners from work physiology point of view so as to keep better health of the miners in general and to have their maximum efficiency at work in particular.

  3. Community Health and the Built Environment: examining place in a Canadian chronic disease prevention project.

    PubMed

    Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Schopflocher, Donald; Vallianatos, Helen; Spence, John C; Raine, Kim D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Vanspronsen, Eric; Nieuwendyk, Laura

    2013-06-01

    The Community Health and the Built Environment (CHBE) project investigated the role of place in interventions for chronic disease prevention in order to identify contextual factors that may foster or inhibit intervention success. This paper presents a project model comprising objective-outsider and subjective-insider perspectives in a multi-method, community-based participatory research approach with an emphasis on knowledge exchange. The collaborative process generated valuable lessons concerning effective conduct of community-based research. The CHBE project model contributes a mechanism for investigating how place influences health behaviours and the outcomes of health promotion interventions.

  4. Oceans and human health: Emerging public health risks n the marine environment

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, L.E.; Broad, K.; Clement, A.; Dewailly, E.; Elmir, S.; Knap, A.; Pomponi, S.A.; Smith, S.; Gabriele, H. Solo; Walsh, P.

    2008-01-01

    There has been an increasing recognition of the inter-relationship between human health and the oceans. Traditionally, the focus of research and concern has been on the impact of human activities on the oceans, particularly through anthropogenic pollution and the exploitation of marine resources. More recently, there has been recognition of the potential direct impact of the oceans on human health, both detrimental and beneficial. Areas identified include: global change, harmful algal blooms (HABs), microbial and chemical contamination of marine waters and seafood, and marine models and natural products from the seas. It is hoped that through the recognition of the inter-dependence of the health of both humans and the oceans, efforts will be made to restore and preserve the oceans. PMID:16996542

  5. [Environmental licensing of major undertakings: possible connection between health and environment].

    PubMed

    Silveira, Missifany; Araújo Neto, Mário Diniz de

    2014-09-01

    The prospect of multidisciplinary assessment that considers the environmental impacts on the health of the population during the implementation of potentially polluting projects is incipient in Brazil. Considering the scenario of major undertakings in the country, broadening the outlook on the health and environment relationship based on social and economic development processes striving for environmentally sustainable projects is a key strategy. This article examines the debate on the relationship between the current development model, the risks, the environment and health and discusses the importance of the participation of the health sector in the environmental licensing procedures, which is the instrument of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Seeking to create more environmentally and socially sustainable territories, the health sector has been looking for opportunities to participate in the licensing processes of major undertakings from the EIA standpoint. Results of research conducted by the Ministry of Health have demonstrated the form of participation in these processes, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses that favor or hinder the increase of preventive actions in public health in the implementation of major undertakings in Brazil.

  6. Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange in Atlanta (HELIX-Atlanta): A Pilot Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug; Shire, J.; Qualters, J.; Mitchell, K.; Pollard, S.; Rao, R.; Kajumba, N.; Quattrochi, D.; Estes, M., Jr.; Meyer, P.; Crosson, W.; Limaye, A.; Al-Hamdan, M.; Khan, M.; Bayakly, R.; Staley, F.; Hallisey, E.; Young, J.; Ward, K.; Tolbert, P.; Tolsma, D.; Sinclair, A.; Strickland, M.; Adeniyi, K.; Rainisch, G.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. To provide an overview of four environmental public health surveillance projects developed by CDC and its partners for the Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange, Atlanta (HELIX-Atlanta) and to illustrate common issues and challenges encountered in developing an environmental public health tracking system. Methods. HELIX-Atlanta, initiated in October 2003 to develop data linkage and analysis methods that can be used by the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (Tracking Network), conducted four projects. We highlight the projects' work, assess attainment of the HELIX-Atlanta goals and discuss three surveillance attributes. Results. Among the major challenges was the complexity of analytic issues which required multidiscipline teams with technical expertise. This expertise and the data resided across multiple organizations. Conclusions:Establishing formal procedures for sharing data, defining data analysis standards and automating analyses, and committing staff with appropriate expertise is needed to support wide implementation of environmental public health tracking.

  7. Factors Contributing to Mental and Physical Health Care in a Disaster-Prone Environment.

    PubMed

    Osofsky, Howard J; Hansel, Tonya Cross; Osofsky, Joy D; Speier, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Environment as a contextual factor plays an important role in southeastern Louisiana, as this area represents a major economic hub for the United States port, petroleum, and fishing industries. The location also exposes the population to both natural and technological disasters, including Hurricane Katrina and the Gulf oil spill. This study explored associations among hurricane loss, oil spill disruption, and environmental quality of life on mental and physical health on over 1,000 residents (N = 1,225) using structural equation modeling techniques. Results showed that oil spill distress was associated with increased symptoms of mental and physical health; Hurricane Katrina loss; and decreased environmental quality of life. Findings also indicate that mental health symptoms explain the association among oil spill distress and physical health symptoms-specifically, those that overlap with somatic complaints. These findings provide important support of the need for mental health assessment and service availability for disaster recovery. PMID:26287389

  8. Factors Contributing to Mental and Physical Health Care in a Disaster-Prone Environment.

    PubMed

    Osofsky, Howard J; Hansel, Tonya Cross; Osofsky, Joy D; Speier, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Environment as a contextual factor plays an important role in southeastern Louisiana, as this area represents a major economic hub for the United States port, petroleum, and fishing industries. The location also exposes the population to both natural and technological disasters, including Hurricane Katrina and the Gulf oil spill. This study explored associations among hurricane loss, oil spill disruption, and environmental quality of life on mental and physical health on over 1,000 residents (N = 1,225) using structural equation modeling techniques. Results showed that oil spill distress was associated with increased symptoms of mental and physical health; Hurricane Katrina loss; and decreased environmental quality of life. Findings also indicate that mental health symptoms explain the association among oil spill distress and physical health symptoms-specifically, those that overlap with somatic complaints. These findings provide important support of the need for mental health assessment and service availability for disaster recovery.

  9. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health: Part 5: Environment, safety, health, and quality assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, L.G.; Steelman, B.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1988-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1987 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Environmental Guidance and Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, and the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, articles describe progress made during fiscal year 1987. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  10. Job Satisfaction of Home Health Satisfaction Workers in the Environment of Cost Containment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Marcia; Kadushin, Goldie

    2004-01-01

    This national survey examined the job satisfaction of 228 home health social workers in the restrictive reimbursement environment of the Medicare interim payment system. Administrators' helpfulness in resolving ethical conflicts between patient access to services and agency financial priorities contributed significantly to greater satisfaction in…

  11. Cultural Differences in the Health Information Environments and Practices between Finnish and Japanese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askola, Kreetta; Atsushi, Toshimori; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to identify cultural differences in the information environment and information practices, namely active seeking and encountering, of web-based health information between Finnish and Japanese university students. Method: The data were gathered with a Web-based survey among first-year university students at…

  12. Nursing Workload and the Changing Health Care Environment: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the health care environment have impacted nursing workload, quality of care, and patient safety. Traditional nursing workload measures do not guarantee efficiency, nor do they adequately capture the complexity of nursing workload. Review of the literature indicates nurses perceive the quality of their work has diminished. Research has…

  13. Health Consequences of the Interaction of Our Genome with Our Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Consequences Of The Interaction Of Our Genome With Our Environment DM DeMarini, US EPA, RTP, NC 27711 Our primary exposures to potentially mutagenic agents are via the air, water, soil, combustion emissions, and food. Thus, characterizing the mutations induced by these...

  14. A National Study of the Association between Food Environments and County-Level Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahern, Melissa; Brown, Cheryl; Dukas, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This national, county-level study examines the relationship between food availability and access, and health outcomes (mortality, diabetes, and obesity rates) in both metro and non-metro areas. Methods: This is a secondary, cross-sectional analysis using Food Environment Atlas and CDC data. Linear regression models estimate relationships…

  15. The public health nursing work environment: review of the research literature.

    PubMed

    Dingley, Jacquelyn; Yoder, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Public health nurses (PHNs) work to address critical health issues at the individual, family, and population levels. In recent years, a global nursing shortage has posed a significant challenge to the recruitment and retention of PHNs. Hospital-based research has shown that a healthy and productive work environment is vital to successful nursing recruitment and retention. Specific organizational characteristics have been linked to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job vacancies, and turnover rates. Although it is presumed that similarities exist between the public health and acute care nursing work environments, further evaluation is required. This literature review was conducted to identify studies that characterize the PHN work environment. An online database search was conducted to identify prospective PHN studies published between 2000 and 2010. Definitions were established for screening purposes. Twenty-nine PHN studies in the United States and abroad met criteria for inclusion in this review. Satisfaction with teamwork and job autonomy generally was reported. However, inadequate PHN staffing was described as a concern, with problems magnified during prolonged response to public health emergencies. Insufficient control over PHN practice was reported as well. Perceptions regarding other work environment characteristics were mixed or were not measured in detail. More in-depth research is recommended with the ultimate goal of improving PHN recruitment and retention.

  16. School Policy and Environment: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Meg L.; Jones, Sherry Everett; Barrios, Lisa C.; Crossett, Linda S.; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Albuquerque, Melissa S.; Sleet, David A.; Greene, Brenda Z.; Schmidt, Ellen R.

    2001-01-01

    Uses data from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000 to describe state- and district-level policy support and coordination and state- and district-level policies regarding school environment, injury prevention, and substance use and violence prevention, noting school-level policies and practices in those areas, policies to inform…

  17. Impact of climate change on the domestic indoor environment and associated health risks in the UK.

    PubMed

    Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Dimitroulopoulou, Chrysanthi; Thornes, John; Lai, Ka-Man; Taylor, Jonathon; Myers, Isabella; Heaviside, Clare; Mavrogianni, Anna; Shrubsole, Clive; Chalabi, Zaid; Davies, Michael; Wilkinson, Paul

    2015-12-01

    There is growing evidence that projected climate change has the potential to significantly affect public health. In the UK, much of this impact is likely to arise by amplifying existing risks related to heat exposure, flooding, and chemical and biological contamination in buildings. Identifying the health effects of climate change on the indoor environment, and risks and opportunities related to climate change adaptation and mitigation, can help protect public health. We explored a range of health risks in the domestic indoor environment related to climate change, as well as the potential health benefits and unintended harmful effects of climate change mitigation and adaptation policies in the UK housing sector. We reviewed relevant scientific literature, focusing on housing-related health effects in the UK likely to arise through either direct or indirect mechanisms of climate change or mitigation and adaptation measures in the built environment. We considered the following categories of effect: (i) indoor temperatures, (ii) indoor air quality, (iii) indoor allergens and infections, and (iv) flood damage and water contamination. Climate change may exacerbate health risks and inequalities across these categories and in a variety of ways, if adequate adaptation measures are not taken. Certain changes to the indoor environment can affect indoor air quality or promote the growth and propagation of pathogenic organisms. Measures aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions have the potential for ancillary public health benefits including reductions in health burdens related heat and cold, indoor exposure to air pollution derived from outdoor sources, and mould growth. However, increasing airtightness of dwellings in pursuit of energy efficiency could also have negative effects by increasing concentrations of pollutants (such as PM2.5, CO and radon) derived from indoor or ground sources, and biological contamination. These effects can largely be ameliorated by mechanical

  18. Impact of climate change on the domestic indoor environment and associated health risks in the UK.

    PubMed

    Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Dimitroulopoulou, Chrysanthi; Thornes, John; Lai, Ka-Man; Taylor, Jonathon; Myers, Isabella; Heaviside, Clare; Mavrogianni, Anna; Shrubsole, Clive; Chalabi, Zaid; Davies, Michael; Wilkinson, Paul

    2015-12-01

    There is growing evidence that projected climate change has the potential to significantly affect public health. In the UK, much of this impact is likely to arise by amplifying existing risks related to heat exposure, flooding, and chemical and biological contamination in buildings. Identifying the health effects of climate change on the indoor environment, and risks and opportunities related to climate change adaptation and mitigation, can help protect public health. We explored a range of health risks in the domestic indoor environment related to climate change, as well as the potential health benefits and unintended harmful effects of climate change mitigation and adaptation policies in the UK housing sector. We reviewed relevant scientific literature, focusing on housing-related health effects in the UK likely to arise through either direct or indirect mechanisms of climate change or mitigation and adaptation measures in the built environment. We considered the following categories of effect: (i) indoor temperatures, (ii) indoor air quality, (iii) indoor allergens and infections, and (iv) flood damage and water contamination. Climate change may exacerbate health risks and inequalities across these categories and in a variety of ways, if adequate adaptation measures are not taken. Certain changes to the indoor environment can affect indoor air quality or promote the growth and propagation of pathogenic organisms. Measures aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions have the potential for ancillary public health benefits including reductions in health burdens related heat and cold, indoor exposure to air pollution derived from outdoor sources, and mould growth. However, increasing airtightness of dwellings in pursuit of energy efficiency could also have negative effects by increasing concentrations of pollutants (such as PM2.5, CO and radon) derived from indoor or ground sources, and biological contamination. These effects can largely be ameliorated by mechanical

  19. The maritime environment: a comparison with land-based remote area health care.

    PubMed

    Bull, R M; Boyle, A J

    1998-05-01

    The sea is not often considered when discussing remote area health care; however, when a comparison is made of the challenges posed by this and land-based remote areas and the experiences of people providing health care in both settings, the similarities are striking. Like people living in land-based remote areas, seafarers live in isolated communities, are often in remote geographical locations, and are required to be self-sufficient in the provision of health care, utilising limited medical resources and training in conjunction with radio medical advice. Given the large numbers of small, isolated floating communities that characterise the world shipping industry, some consideration of the quality of and access to health care needs to be made. This paper introduces the marine environment as a remote area, drawing comparisons between it and land-based environments. Issues pertinent to the people providing health care in both environments are discussed. These issues include limited educational preparation, sparse resources and the problems related to distance, isolation, communication, accessibility and weather.

  20. The public health implications of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment.

    PubMed

    Ross, Gilbert

    2004-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were widely used in various industrial applications. Research confirmed that some PCB congeners degrade slowly in the environment and can build up in the food chain. Poisoning episodes in Asia were initially attributed to PCB-contaminated oil, although subsequent analysis suggested that thermal degradation products of PCBs were responsible for the observed toxicity. Commercial production of PCBs in the United States was banned in 1979. Several agencies have categorized PCBs as animal carcinogens; however, studies of workers exposed to high doses of PCBs have not demonstrated an increased cancer risk. Health effects attributable to PCBs include skin and eye irritation. There is no reliable evidence that PCBs in the environment result in either "endocrine disruption" or intellectual deterioration in children exposed in utero. Because PCB exposures from environmental sources do not pose a significant health risk, little benefit to public health can result from continued remediation of PCB sources.

  1. Approaching the Discriminatory Work Environment as Stressor: The Protective Role of Job Satisfaction on Health.

    PubMed

    Di Marco, Donatella; López-Cabrera, Rocio; Arenas, Alicia; Giorgi, Gabriele; Arcangeli, Giulio; Mucci, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a complex phenomenon with adverse consequences at personal and organizational levels. Past studies have demonstrated that workers who are victims of discrimination might show less job satisfaction, less organizational commitment and worse levels of health and productivity. Although most research has focused on the effects of discrimination on victims, less is known about the extent to which discrimination produces consequences on workers who perceive the existence of a discriminatory work environment. The goal of this article is to analyze the consequences of the perception of a discriminatory work environment on employees' health. The importance of this relationship is studied taking into account the mediating effect of job satisfaction. In order to reach this goal a cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1633 Italian workers (male = 826, female = 764), employed in private and public sectors, and in different hierarchical positions. Results suggest that the perception of a discriminatory work environment is negatively associated with employees' health. This relationship is partially mediated by job satisfaction (R (2) = 0.17). This study demonstrates that perceiving a discriminatory work environment might have a negative impact on workers' health. A higher level of job satisfaction might buffer this effect. These findings have several practical implications. On the one hand, Human Resource Managers need to intervene in order to recognize and diminish implicit biases, creating a healthy and inclusive environment (e.g., through training, diversity policies, etc.). On the other hand, promoting job satisfaction (e.g., providing mechanisms of voice) might help workers to preserve their well-being, coping with the negative effects of a discriminatory work environment. PMID:27625625

  2. Approaching the Discriminatory Work Environment as Stressor: The Protective Role of Job Satisfaction on Health

    PubMed Central

    Di Marco, Donatella; López-Cabrera, Rocio; Arenas, Alicia; Giorgi, Gabriele; Arcangeli, Giulio; Mucci, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a complex phenomenon with adverse consequences at personal and organizational levels. Past studies have demonstrated that workers who are victims of discrimination might show less job satisfaction, less organizational commitment and worse levels of health and productivity. Although most research has focused on the effects of discrimination on victims, less is known about the extent to which discrimination produces consequences on workers who perceive the existence of a discriminatory work environment. The goal of this article is to analyze the consequences of the perception of a discriminatory work environment on employees’ health. The importance of this relationship is studied taking into account the mediating effect of job satisfaction. In order to reach this goal a cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1633 Italian workers (male = 826, female = 764), employed in private and public sectors, and in different hierarchical positions. Results suggest that the perception of a discriminatory work environment is negatively associated with employees’ health. This relationship is partially mediated by job satisfaction (R2 = 0.17). This study demonstrates that perceiving a discriminatory work environment might have a negative impact on workers’ health. A higher level of job satisfaction might buffer this effect. These findings have several practical implications. On the one hand, Human Resource Managers need to intervene in order to recognize and diminish implicit biases, creating a healthy and inclusive environment (e.g., through training, diversity policies, etc.). On the other hand, promoting job satisfaction (e.g., providing mechanisms of voice) might help workers to preserve their well-being, coping with the negative effects of a discriminatory work environment. PMID:27625625

  3. Approaching the Discriminatory Work Environment as Stressor: The Protective Role of Job Satisfaction on Health

    PubMed Central

    Di Marco, Donatella; López-Cabrera, Rocio; Arenas, Alicia; Giorgi, Gabriele; Arcangeli, Giulio; Mucci, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a complex phenomenon with adverse consequences at personal and organizational levels. Past studies have demonstrated that workers who are victims of discrimination might show less job satisfaction, less organizational commitment and worse levels of health and productivity. Although most research has focused on the effects of discrimination on victims, less is known about the extent to which discrimination produces consequences on workers who perceive the existence of a discriminatory work environment. The goal of this article is to analyze the consequences of the perception of a discriminatory work environment on employees’ health. The importance of this relationship is studied taking into account the mediating effect of job satisfaction. In order to reach this goal a cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1633 Italian workers (male = 826, female = 764), employed in private and public sectors, and in different hierarchical positions. Results suggest that the perception of a discriminatory work environment is negatively associated with employees’ health. This relationship is partially mediated by job satisfaction (R2 = 0.17). This study demonstrates that perceiving a discriminatory work environment might have a negative impact on workers’ health. A higher level of job satisfaction might buffer this effect. These findings have several practical implications. On the one hand, Human Resource Managers need to intervene in order to recognize and diminish implicit biases, creating a healthy and inclusive environment (e.g., through training, diversity policies, etc.). On the other hand, promoting job satisfaction (e.g., providing mechanisms of voice) might help workers to preserve their well-being, coping with the negative effects of a discriminatory work environment.

  4. Approaching the Discriminatory Work Environment as Stressor: The Protective Role of Job Satisfaction on Health.

    PubMed

    Di Marco, Donatella; López-Cabrera, Rocio; Arenas, Alicia; Giorgi, Gabriele; Arcangeli, Giulio; Mucci, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a complex phenomenon with adverse consequences at personal and organizational levels. Past studies have demonstrated that workers who are victims of discrimination might show less job satisfaction, less organizational commitment and worse levels of health and productivity. Although most research has focused on the effects of discrimination on victims, less is known about the extent to which discrimination produces consequences on workers who perceive the existence of a discriminatory work environment. The goal of this article is to analyze the consequences of the perception of a discriminatory work environment on employees' health. The importance of this relationship is studied taking into account the mediating effect of job satisfaction. In order to reach this goal a cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1633 Italian workers (male = 826, female = 764), employed in private and public sectors, and in different hierarchical positions. Results suggest that the perception of a discriminatory work environment is negatively associated with employees' health. This relationship is partially mediated by job satisfaction (R (2) = 0.17). This study demonstrates that perceiving a discriminatory work environment might have a negative impact on workers' health. A higher level of job satisfaction might buffer this effect. These findings have several practical implications. On the one hand, Human Resource Managers need to intervene in order to recognize and diminish implicit biases, creating a healthy and inclusive environment (e.g., through training, diversity policies, etc.). On the other hand, promoting job satisfaction (e.g., providing mechanisms of voice) might help workers to preserve their well-being, coping with the negative effects of a discriminatory work environment.

  5. Creating Neighbourhood Groupings Based on Built Environment Features to Facilitate Health Promotion Activities

    PubMed Central

    Schopflocher, Donald; VanSpronsen, Eric; Spence, John C.; Vallianatos, Helen; Raine, Kim D.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Nykiforuk, Candace I.J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Detailed assessments of the built environment often resist data reduction and summarization. This project sought to develop a method of reducing built environment data to an extent that they can be effectively communicated to researchers and community stakeholders. We aim to help in an understanding of how these data can be used to create neighbourhood groupings based on built environment characteristics and how the process of discussing these neighbourhoods with community stakeholders can result in the development of community-informed health promotion interventions. Methods We used the Irvine Minnesota Inventory (IMI) to assess 296 segments of a semi-rural community in Alberta. Expert raters “created” neighbourhoods by examining the data. Then, a consensus grouping was developed using cluster analysis, and the number of IMI variables to characterize the neighbourhoods was reduced by multiple discriminant function analysis. Results The 296 segments were reduced to a consensus set of 10 neighbourhoods, which could be separated from each other by 9 functions constructed from 24 IMI variables. Biplots of these functions were an effective means of summarizing and presenting the results of the community assessment, and stimulated community action. Conclusions It is possible to use principled quantitative methods to reduce large amounts of information about the built environment into meaningful summaries. These summaries, or built environment neighbourhoods, were useful in catalyzing action with community stakeholders and led to the development of health-promoting built environment interventions. PMID:23618092

  6. Combining environment and health information systems for the assessment of atmospheric pollution on human health.

    PubMed

    Skouloudis, Andreas N; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2014-08-01

    The use of emerging technologies for environmental monitoring with satellite and in-situ sensors have become essential instruments for assessing the impact of environmental pollution on human health, especially in areas that require high spatial and temporal resolution. This was until recently a rather difficult problem. Regrettably, with classical approaches the spatial resolution is frequently inadequate in reporting environmental causes and health effects in the same time scale. This work examines with new tools different levels of air-quality with sensor monitoring with the aim to associate those with severe health effects. The process established here facilitates the precise representation of human exposure with the population attributed in a fine spatial grid and taking into account environmental stressors of human exposure. These stressors can be monitored with innovative sensor units with a temporal resolution that accurately describes chronic and acute environmental burdens. The current understanding of the situation in densely populated areas can be properly analyzed, before commitments are made for reductions in total emissions as well as for assessing the effects of reduced trans-boundary fluxes. In addition, the data processed here with in-situ sensors can assist in establishing more effective regulatory policies for the protection of vulnerable population groups and the satellite monitoring instruments permit abatement strategies that are close to real-time over large geographical areas.

  7. Integrating the Environment, the Economy, and Community Health: A Community Health Center’s Initiative to Link Health Benefits to Smart Growth

    PubMed Central

    McAvoy, Peter V.; Driscoll, Mary Beth; Gramling, Benjamin J.

    2004-01-01

    The Sixteenth Street Community Health Center (SSCHC) in Milwaukee, Wis, is making a difference in the livability of surrounding neighborhoods and the overall health of the families it serves. SSCHC is going beyond traditional health care provider models and working to link the environment, the economy, and community health through urban brownfield redevelopment and sustainable land-use planning. In 1997, SSCHC recognized that restoration of local air and water quality and other environmental conditions, coupled with restoring family-supporting jobs in the neighborhood, could have a substantial impact on the overall health of families. Recent events indicate that SSCHC’s pursuit of smart growth strategies has begun to pay off. PMID:15053995

  8. Environment, health, and sustainable development: the role of economic instruments and policies.

    PubMed Central

    Warford, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    Recent years have seen considerable progress in integrating environmental concerns into the mainstream of development policy and planning. Economic instruments designed explicitly for environmental purposes may help to achieve cost-effective solutions, and generate public revenues. Macroeconomic and sectoral policies may impact heavily upon the environment, and there is much scope for policy reforms that are justified in both economic and environmental terms. Progress in this area has been much more rapid than in the case of health objectives, even though the rationale for environmental improvement is often ultimately related to human health and well-being. It is proposed that lessons from recent experience in the use of economic instruments and policies to achieve environmental objectives are highly relevant for the health sector, which should seek and encourage support for measures that requires consumer and producers of environmentally degrading products to pay for the economic and social costs of the damage resulting from their use. Policy reform at the macroeconomic or sectoral level may yield cost-effective solutions to some health problems, and may even bring about improvements in health status that involve no net cost at all. The countrywide impact of such policies indicate that health agencies, including WHO, should develop the capacity to understand how economic policies and the adjustment process impact upon human health, not only direct through the effect on incomes, but also indirectly, via changes in the natural environment. Ability to conduct rigorous health impact assessment of economic policy reform, which requires a multidisciplinary effort, is a necessary condition if health ministries are to maximize their effectiveness in influencing overall government economic policy. PMID:7614671

  9. Health inequalities by wage income in Sweden: the role of work environment.

    PubMed

    Hemström, Orjan

    2005-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to explore the mediating role made by work environment to health inequalities by wage income in Sweden. Gender differences were also analysed. Data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions for the years 1998 and 1999 were analysed. Employed 20-64-year olds with a registered wage were included (nearly 6000 respondents). Sex-specific logistic regressions in relation to global self-rated health were applied. Those in the lowest income quintile had 2.4 times (men) and 4.3 times (women) higher probability of less than good health than did those in the highest quintile (adjusted for age, family status, country of birth, education level, smoking and full-time work). The mediating contribution of work environment factors to the health gradient by income was 25 per cent (men) and 29 per cent (women), respectively. This contribution was observed mainly from ergonomic and physical exposure, decision authority and skill discretion. Psychological demands did not contribute to such inequalities because mentally demanding work tasks are more common in high income as compared with low income jobs. Using sex-specific income quintiles, instead of income quintiles for the entire sample, gave very similar results. In conclusion, work environment factors can be seen as important mediators for the association between wage income and ill health in Sweden. A larger residual effect of income on health for women as compared with men suggests that one's own income from work is a more important determinant of women's than men's ill health in Sweden. PMID:15899322

  10. Audit: an exploration of two models from outside the health care environment.

    PubMed

    Earl-Slater, A; Wilcox, V

    1997-11-01

    Whilst there has been exponential growth in auditing health care services and a proliferation of the instruments involved, there seems to have been less cross-fertilization of audit systems and instruments between health care environments and other environments. This paper identifies and explores two audit systems and instruments outside the health care environment. The objective is to seek to improve the level of common understanding, communication and collaboration amongst those who are interested or involved in audit in any sector of the economy. This exercise offers an opportunity and incentive for cross-fertilization of ideas with respect to audit concepts, systems, instruments, results and experiences. Yet there is a more fundamental question to be considered: why bother with audit? This paper identifies core reasons for performing audit which, although they have been mentioned elsewhere, are worth recalling once again. The two non-health care audit systems and instruments are then identified and explored. On the one hand it is seen that the two audit systems and instruments outside health care have common features with audits in health care. On the other hand, it is also suggested that there are some significant differences in the two audit systems and instruments when compared to health care audits. This paper identifies and discusses similarities and differences. Finally, if we fail to learn from the mixture of experiences and insights of various audit exercises, not only will be doing our professions and our customers a disservice but we will lower the chances of continuous improvement in knowledge and understanding.

  11. The Environment and Children’s Health Care in Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Industrialization in the northwest provinces of the People’s Republic of China is accelerating rapid increases in early life environmental exposures, yet no publications have assessed health care provider capacity to manage common hazards. Methods To assess provider attitudes and beliefs regarding the environment in children’s health, determine self-efficacy in managing concerns, and identify common approaches to managing patients with significant exposures or environmentally-mediated conditions, a two-page survey was administered to pediatricians, child care specialists, and nurses in five provinces (Gansu, Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Qinghai, and Ningxia). Descriptive and multivariable analyses assessed predictors of strong self-efficacy, beliefs or attitudes. Results 960 surveys were completed with <5% refusal; 695 (72.3%) were valid for statistical analyses. The role of environment in health was rated highly (mean 4.35 on a 1-5 scale). Self-efficacy reported with managing lead, pesticide, air pollution, mercury, mold and polychlorinated biphenyl exposures were generally modest (2.22-2.52 mean). 95.4% reported patients affected with 11.9% reporting seeing >20 affected patients. Only 12.0% reported specific training in environmental history taking, and 12.0% reported owning a text on children’s environmental health. Geographic disparities were most prominent in multivariable analyses, with stronger beliefs in environmental causation yet lower self-efficacy in managing exposures in the northwestern-most province. Conclusions Health care providers in Northwest China have strong beliefs regarding the role of environment in children’s health, and frequently identify affected children. Few are trained in environmental history taking or rate self-efficacy highly in managing common hazards. Enhancing provider capacity has promise for improving children’s health in the region. PMID:24670157

  12. Evaluation of health care services provided for older adults in primary health care centers and its internal environment

    PubMed Central

    Alhamdan, Adel A.; Alshammari, Sulaiman A.; Al-Amoud, Maysoon M.; Hameed, Tariq A.; Al-Muammar, May N.; Bindawas, Saad M.; Al-Orf, Saada M.; Mohamed, Ashry G.; Al-Ghamdi, Essam A.; Calder, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the health care services provided for older adults by primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), and the ease of use of these centers by older adults. Methods: Between October 2013 and January 2014, we conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study of 15 randomly selected PHCCs in Riyadh City, KSA. The evaluation focused on basic indicators of clinical services offered and factors indicative of the ease of use of the centers by older adults. Evaluations were based upon the age-friendly PHCCs toolkit of the World Health Organization. Results: Coverage of basic health assessments (such as blood pressure, diabetes, and blood cholesterol) was generally good. However, fewer than half of the PHCCs offered annual comprehensive screening for the common age-related conditions. There was no screening for cancer. Counseling on improving lifestyle was provided by most centers. However, there was no standard protocol for counseling. Coverage of common vaccinations was poor. The layout of most PHCCs and their signage were good, except for lack of Braille signage. There may be issues of access of older adults to PHCCs through lack of public transport, limited parking opportunities, the presence of steps, ramps, and internal stairs, and the lack of handrails. Conclusions: Clinical services and the internal environment of PHCCs can be improved. The data will be useful for health-policy makers to improve PHCCs to be more age-friendly. PMID:26318467

  13. The school environment and student health: a systematic review and meta-ethnography of qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in promoting young people’s health by modifying the school environment. However, existing research offers little guidance on how the school context enables or constrains students’ health behaviours, or how students’ backgrounds relate to these processes. For these reasons, this paper reports on a meta-ethnography of qualitative studies examining: through what processes does the school environment (social and physical) influence young people’s health? Methods Systematic review of qualitative studies. Sixteen databases were searched, eliciting 62, 329 references which were screened, with included studies quality assessed, data extracted and synthesized using an adaptation of Noblit and Hare’s meta-ethnographic approach. Results Nineteen qualitative studies were synthesised to explore processes through which school-level influences on young people’s health might occur. Four over-arching meta-themes emerged across studies focused on a range of different health issues. First, aggressive behaviour and substance use are often a strong source of status and bonding at schools where students feel educationally marginalised or unsafe. Second, health-risk behaviours are concentrated in unsupervised ‘hotspots’ at the school. Third, positive relationships with teachers appear to be critical in promoting student wellbeing and limiting risk behaviour; however, certain aspects of schools’ organisation and education policies constrain this, increasing the likelihood that students look for a sense of identity and social support via health-risk behaviours. Fourth, unhappiness at school can cause students to seek sources of ‘escape’, either by leaving school at lunchtime or for longer unauthorized spells or through substance use. These meta-themes resonate with Markham and Aveyard’s theory of human functioning and school organisation, and we draw on these qualitative data to refine and extend this theory, in particular

  14. Sustainable diets: The interaction between food industry, nutrition, health and the environment.

    PubMed

    Alsaffar, Ayten Aylin

    2016-03-01

    Everyday great amounts of food are produced, processed, transported by the food industry and consumed by us and these activities have direct impact on our health and the environment. The current food system has started causing strain on the Earth's natural resources and that is why sustainable food production systems are needed. This review article discusses the need for sustainable diets by exploring the interactions between the food industry, nutrition, health and the environment, which are strongly interconnected. The most common environmental issues in the food industry are related to food processing loss, food wastage and packaging; energy efficiency; transportation of foods; water consumption and waste management. Among the foods produced and processed, meat and meat products have the greatest environmental impact followed by the dairy products. Our eating patterns impact the environment, but the environment can impact dietary choices as well. The foods and drinks we consume may also affect our health. A healthy and sustainable diet would minimise the consumption of energy-dense and highly processed and packaged foods, include less animal-derived foods and more plant-based foods and encourage people not to exceed the recommended daily energy intake. Sustainable diets contribute to food and nutrition security, have low environmental impacts and promote healthy life for present and future generations. There is an urgent need to develop and promote strategies for sustainable diets; and governments, United Nations agencies, civil society, research organisations and the food industry should work together in achieving this. PMID:25680370

  15. Incidence of bacteria of public health interest carried by cockroaches in different food-related environments.

    PubMed

    García, F; Notario, M J; Cabanás, J M; Jordano, R; Medina, L M

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of bacteria of public health interest transmitted by cockroaches in different food-related environments. From April to November, cockroaches were trapped in 11 buildings in different urban areas of Western Andalusia (Spain): three hotels, four grocery stores, a catering establishment, a food-industry plant, a health center, and a care home. The presence of a number of bacterial species, including Salmonella, in these food-related environments was confirmed; these species included microorganisms listed in European Union regulations, such as Salmonella spp., Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.), and Escherichia coli. A wide variety of species were isolated, some belonging to different genera that have a significant impact on public health and hygiene, such as Enterobacter and Klebsiella. To ensure adequate elimination of these microorganisms in food-related environments, the control of vectors such as Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, and Blatta orientalis, together with a thorough review of hygiene strategies, appears to be fundamental. It is clearly essential to compare the results of hygiene regulations implemented in food-related environments.

  16. The role of physical environment on student health and education in green schools.

    PubMed

    Okcu, Selen; Ryherd, Erica; Bayer, Charlene

    2011-01-01

    The role of physical school environment on student health and education is becoming better understood. A growing body of literature indicates that improved physical environments in schools (e.g., indoor air quality, lighting, and acoustic conditions) can enhance student health outcomes. In parallel, the green building movement centers around designing buildings, including schools, that are more sustainable to decrease energy consumption, minimize environmental impact, and create healthier spaces for occupants. This paper synthesizes the findings from both green design studies and school outcomes studies to provide a systematic evaluation of the potential impacts of green school design features on student health outcomes. Three inter-related topics are covered in detail: (i) overview of the "green" concept, including existing guidelines for "greening" schools, attitudes toward green schools, and condition of the physical environments in non-green schools; (ii) potential effects of the physical environment on school children, including documentation of national statistics and summary of findings from school research studies; (iii) synthesis of findings, including a discussion of the knowledge gaps in the field of green school research and conclusions.

  17. Sustainable diets: The interaction between food industry, nutrition, health and the environment.

    PubMed

    Alsaffar, Ayten Aylin

    2016-03-01

    Everyday great amounts of food are produced, processed, transported by the food industry and consumed by us and these activities have direct impact on our health and the environment. The current food system has started causing strain on the Earth's natural resources and that is why sustainable food production systems are needed. This review article discusses the need for sustainable diets by exploring the interactions between the food industry, nutrition, health and the environment, which are strongly interconnected. The most common environmental issues in the food industry are related to food processing loss, food wastage and packaging; energy efficiency; transportation of foods; water consumption and waste management. Among the foods produced and processed, meat and meat products have the greatest environmental impact followed by the dairy products. Our eating patterns impact the environment, but the environment can impact dietary choices as well. The foods and drinks we consume may also affect our health. A healthy and sustainable diet would minimise the consumption of energy-dense and highly processed and packaged foods, include less animal-derived foods and more plant-based foods and encourage people not to exceed the recommended daily energy intake. Sustainable diets contribute to food and nutrition security, have low environmental impacts and promote healthy life for present and future generations. There is an urgent need to develop and promote strategies for sustainable diets; and governments, United Nations agencies, civil society, research organisations and the food industry should work together in achieving this.

  18. The Stockholm Indoor Environment Questionnaire: a sociologically based tool for the assessment of indoor environment and health in dwellings.

    PubMed

    Engvall, K; Norrby, C; Sandstedt, E

    2004-02-01

    The aim was to develop and validate a standardized questionnaire - the Stockholm Indoor Environment Questionnaire (SIEQ). The validation procedure was based on sociological principles and test procedures for validation. The indicators of indoor environment are air quality, thermal climate, noise, and illumination. The indicators of health are symptoms comprised in the sick building syndrome (SBS). The questionnaire also contains questions about the apartment, individual behavior, and personal factors. The everyday language describing the building and its function was first obtained by qualitative personal interviews, then by standardized questions. The interview questionnaire was transformed into a postal self-administered questionnaire. The reduction of the questionnaire was based on correlation analysis. It was found that to obtain a good validity, general questions are not sufficient, but specific question on perceptions and observations are needed. Good test-retest agreement was found both on an area level, building level, and individually. For each indicator, a set of questions are constructed and validated. SIEQ has been used in several studies, and the results are presented in graphic problem profiles. Reference data has been calculated for the Stockholm area.

  19. What you don't know can hurt you: health hazards in the work environment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Renee A

    2009-04-01

    Perianesthesia nurses are aware of health hazards in the work environment including radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, and blood-borne pathogens. Results of a 2005 survey reveal that there may be more hazards to consider. Substances used by nurses and patients every day such as hand disinfecting agents, personal care products, and housekeeping chemicals may also pose a threat to the health of patients, nurses, and the nurses' children. Perianesthesia nurses are exposed to these commonly occurring hazards and to other materials including second-hand anesthetic gases, latex, and sterilizing agents. A survey of more than 1,500 nurses from across the country conducted by a coalition of environmental and nursing organizations revealed exposures that can have serious health effects. These survey results illuminate health implications all nurses need to know to take the necessary steps to protect patients, themselves, and their children.

  20. From promise to practice: getting healthy work environments in health workplaces.

    PubMed

    Silas, Linda

    2007-01-01

    The two lead papers examine what makes the health workplace healthier, one from the perspective of workers and the other from the perspective of patients. Patients demand effective teamwork. Workers demand a range of initiatives, from occupational health and safety to professional development opportunities. Whereas patients' and workers' perspectives on healthy workplaces appear quite discrete as discussed in these papers, they are two sides of the same coin. Both lead papers recognize that unhealthy work environments result in unhealthy workers and reduced health outcomes for patients. Both review research documenting effective change and some progress in acceptance of proposed solutions at the policy level. Most importantly, both call for a greater effort in making these changes a reality in Canadian health workplaces. The papers themselves offer up some strategies for getting from yes to real. This commentary focuses on these and other strategies for moving forward and getting real change in the workplace, changes that workers and patients will talk about.

  1. Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Management Plan. Fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This report describes efforts by the Department of Energy (DOE) to effectively plan for environment, safety and health activities that protect the environment, workers and the public from harm. This document, which covers fiscal year 1996, reflects planning by operating contractors and Program Offices in early 1994, updated to be consistent with the President`s FY 1996 budget submittal to Congress, and subsequent Department of Energy Program refinements. Prior to 1992, only a small number of facilities had a structured process for identifying environment, safety and health (ES and H) needs, reporting the costs (in both direct and indirect budgets) of ES and H requirements, prioritizing and allocating available resources, and efficiently communicating this information to DOE. Planned costs for ES and H activities were usually developed as an afterthought to program budgets. There was no visible, consistently applied mechanism for determining the appropriate amount of resources that should be allocated to ES and H, or for assuring that significant ES and H vulnerabilities were planned to be funded. To address this issue, the Secretary (in November 1991) directed DOE to develop a Safety and Health Five-Year Plan to serve as a line management tool to delineate DOE-wide programs to reduce and manage safety and health risks, and to establish a consistent framework for risk-based resource planning and allocation.

  2. Creating healthy communities, healthy homes, healthy people: initiating a research agenda on the built environment and public health.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Shobha; O'Fallon, Liam R; Dearry, Allen

    2003-09-01

    Mounting evidence suggests physical and mental health problems relate to the built environment, including human-modified places such as homes, schools, workplaces, parks, industrial areas, farms, roads and highways. The public health relevance of the built environment requires examination. Preliminary research demonstrates the health benefits of sustainable communities. However, the impact of mediating and moderating factors within the built environment on health must be explored further. Given the complexity of the built environment, understanding its influence on human health requires a community-based, multilevel, interdisciplinary research approach. The authors offer recommendations, based upon a recent conference sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), for research and policy approaches, and suggest interagency research alliances for greater public health impact.

  3. Creating Healthy Communities, Healthy Homes, Healthy People: Initiating a Research Agenda on the Built Environment and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Shobha; O’Fallon, Liam R.; Dearry, Allen

    2003-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests physical and mental health problems relate to the built environment, including human-modified places such as homes, schools, workplaces, parks, industrial areas, farms, roads and highways. The public health relevance of the built environment requires examination. Preliminary research demonstrates the health benefits of sustainable communities. However, the impact of mediating and moderating factors within the built environment on health must be explored further. Given the complexity of the built environment, understanding its influence on human health requires a community-based, multilevel, interdisciplinary research approach. The authors offer recommendations, based upon a recent conference sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), for research and policy approaches, and suggest interagency research alliances for greater public health impact. PMID:12948961

  4. Creating healthy communities, healthy homes, healthy people: initiating a research agenda on the built environment and public health.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Shobha; O'Fallon, Liam R; Dearry, Allen

    2003-09-01

    Mounting evidence suggests physical and mental health problems relate to the built environment, including human-modified places such as homes, schools, workplaces, parks, industrial areas, farms, roads and highways. The public health relevance of the built environment requires examination. Preliminary research demonstrates the health benefits of sustainable communities. However, the impact of mediating and moderating factors within the built environment on health must be explored further. Given the complexity of the built environment, understanding its influence on human health requires a community-based, multilevel, interdisciplinary research approach. The authors offer recommendations, based upon a recent conference sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), for research and policy approaches, and suggest interagency research alliances for greater public health impact. PMID:12948961

  5. Prevalence and Predictors of Self-Medication with Antibiotics in Al Wazarat Health Center, Riyadh City, KSA

    PubMed Central

    Al Rasheed, Abdulrahman; Yagoub, Umar; Alkhashan, Hesham; Abdelhay, Osama; Alawwad, Ahmad; Al Aboud, Aboud; Al Battal, Saad

    2016-01-01

    Background. Antibiotics are responsible for most dramatic improvement in medical therapy in history. These medications contributed significantly to the decreasing mortality and morbidity when prescribed based on evidence of microbial infection. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of self-prescription with antibiotics in Al Wazarat Health Center, Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted in Al Wazarat Health Center between February 2014 and November 2014. Respondents were randomly selected using a multistage clustered random sampling technique. Data was entered into SPSS version 21 and analyzed. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression models were applied. Results. A total of 681 patients have participated in this study with a response rate of 92%. The prevalence of self-prescription with antibiotics in Al Wazarat Health Center was 78.7%. Amoxicillin was the most used self-prescribed antibiotic with prevalence of (22.3%). Friend advice on self-prescription of antibiotics use (p = 0.000) and pharmacy near to the participants (p = 0.002) were the most common predictors for self-prescription with antibiotics. Conclusion. The level of self-prescribing antibiotics is relatively high among participants. Health education on the appropriate use of antibiotics is highly recommended. The proper use of treatment guidelines for antibiotic therapy will significantly reduce self-prescription with antibiotics. PMID:26881218

  6. Potential Nationwide Improvements in Productivity and Health from Better Indoor Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1998-05-01

    Theoretical considerations and empirical data suggest that existing technologies and procedures can improve indoor environments in a manner that significantly increases productivity and health. Existing literature contains moderate to strong evidence that characteristics of buildings and indoor environments significantly influence rates of respiratory disease, allergy and asthma symptoms, sick building symptoms, and worker performance. While there is considerable uncertainty in our estimates of the magnitudes of productivity gains that may be obtained by providing better indoor environments, the projected gains are very large. For the U.S., we estimate potential annual savings and productivity gains of $6 to $19 billion from reduced respiratory disease, $1 to $4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma, $10 to $20 billion from reduced sick building syndrome symptoms, and $12 to $125 billion from direct improvements in worker performance that are unrelated to health. In two example calculations, the potential financial benefits of improving indoor environments exceed costs by a factor of 8 and 14. Productivity gains that are quantified and demonstrated could serve as a strong stimulus for energy efficiency measures that simultaneously improve the indoor environment.

  7. Family Environment, Coping, and Mental Health in Adolescents Attending Therapeutic Day Schools

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Erin M.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W.; Brown, Larry K.; Houck, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examined associations among family environment, coping, and emotional and conduct problems in adolescents attending therapeutic day schools due to mental health problems. METHODS Adolescents (N=417; 30.2% female) ages 13–20 (M=15.25) reported on their family environment (affective involvement and functioning), coping (emotion-focused support-seeking, cognitive restructuring, avoidant actions), and emotional and conduct problems. RESULTS Poorer family environment was associated with less emotion-focused support-seeking and cognitive restructuring, and more emotional and conduct problems. Emotional problems were negatively associated with cognitive restructuring, and conduct problems were negatively associated with all coping strategies. Cognitive restructuring accounted for the relationship between family environment and emotional problems. Cognitive restructuring and emotion-focused support-seeking each partially accounted for the relationship between family functioning and conduct problems, but not the relationship between family affective involvement and conduct problems. CONCLUSIONS Findings implicate the role of coping in the relationship between family environment and adolescent mental health. PMID:25151645

  8. Potential nationwide improvements in productivity and health from better indoor environments

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1998-07-01

    Theoretical considerations and empirical data suggest that existing technologies and procedures can improve indoor environments in a manner that significantly increases productivity and health. Existing literature contains moderate to strong evidence that characteristics of buildings and indoor environments significantly influence rates of respiratory disease, allergy and asthma symptoms, sick building symptoms, and worker performance. While there is considerable uncertainty in their estimates of the magnitudes of productivity gains that may be obtained by providing better indoor environments, the projected gains are very large. For the US, the authors estimate potential annual savings and productivity gains of $6 to $19 billion from reduced respiratory disease, $1 to $4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma, $10 to $20 billion from reduced sick building syndrome symptoms, and $12 to $125 billion from direct improvements in worker performance that are unrelated to health. In two example calculations, the potential financial benefits of improving indoor environments exceed costs by a factor of 8 and 14. Productivity gains that are quantified and demonstrated could serve as a strong stimulus for energy efficiency measures that simultaneously improve the indoor environment.

  9. The built environment, climate change, and health: opportunities for co-benefits.

    PubMed

    Younger, Margalit; Morrow-Almeida, Heather R; Vindigni, Stephen M; Dannenberg, Andrew L

    2008-11-01

    The earth's climate is changing, due largely to greenhouse gas emissions resulting from human activity. These human-generated gases derive in part from aspects of the built environment such as transportation systems and infrastructure, building construction and operation, and land-use planning. Transportation, the largest end-use consumer of energy, affects human health directly through air pollution and subsequent respiratory effects, as well as indirectly through physical activity behavior. Buildings contribute to climate change, influence transportation, and affect health through the materials utilized, decisions about sites, electricity and water usage, and landscape surroundings. Land use, forestry, and agriculture also contribute to climate change and affect health by increasing atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide, shaping the infrastructures for both transportation and buildings, and affecting access to green spaces. Vulnerable populations are disproportionately affected with regard to transportation, buildings, and land use, and are most at risk for experiencing the effects of climate change. Working across sectors to incorporate a health promotion approach in the design and development of built environment components may mitigate climate change, promote adaptation, and improve public health.

  10. Environmental protection in Italy: the emerging concept of a right to a healthful environment

    SciTech Connect

    Patti, S.

    1984-07-01

    Italy's concepts of private law limit the possibilities for environmental protection. The failure to use available public law effectively and the failure of other governments to solve the problem with constitutional changes, emphasizes the need to establish an effective legal means within the existing constitutional structure. A recent approach draws on the right of the individual to a healthful environment, but whether this succeeds in protecting the environment depends, to a large degree, on the ability of Italians to overcome a system characterized by economic individualism. 40 references.

  11. Technology Development, Evaluation, and Application (TDEA) FY 2001 Progress Report Environment, Safety, and Health (ESH) Division

    SciTech Connect

    L.G. Hoffman; K. Alvar; T. Buhl; E. Foltyn; W. Hansen; B. Erdal; P. Fresquez; D. Lee; B. Reinert

    2002-05-01

    This progress report presents the results of 11 projects funded ($500K) in FY01 by the Technology Development, Evaluation, and Application (TDEA) Committee of the Environment, Safety, and Health Division (ESH). Five projects fit into the Health Physics discipline, 5 projects are environmental science and one is industrial hygiene/safety. As a result of their TDEA-funded projects, investigators have published sixteen papers in professional journals, proceedings, or Los Alamos reports and presented their work at professional meetings. Supplement funds and in-kind contributions, such as staff time, instrument use, and workspace, were also provided to TDEA-funded projects by organizations external to ESH Divisions.

  12. A model curriculum for a course on the built environment and public health: training for an interdisciplinary workforce.

    PubMed

    Botchwey, Nisha D; Hobson, Susan E; Dannenberg, Andrew L; Mumford, Karen G; Contant, Cheryl K; McMillan, Tracy E; Jackson, Richard J; Lopez, Russell; Winkle, Curtis

    2009-02-01

    Despite growing evidence of the direct and indirect effects of the built environment on public health, planners, who shape the built environment, and public health professionals, who protect the public's health, rarely interact. Most public health professionals have little experience with urban planners, zoning boards, city councils, and others who make decisions about the built environment. Likewise, few planners understand the health implications of design, land use, or transportation decisions. One strategy for bridging this divide is the development of interdisciplinary courses in planning and public health that address the health implications of the built environment. Professional networking and Internet-based searches in 2007 led to the identification of six primarily graduate-level courses in the U.S. that address the links between the built environment and public health. Common content areas in most of the identified courses included planning and public health histories, health disparities, interdisciplinary approaches, air and water quality, physical activity, social capital, and mental health. Instructors of these courses collaborated on course content, assignments, and evaluations to develop a model curriculum that follows an active learning-centered approach to course design. The proposed model curriculum is adaptable by both planning and public health departments to promote interdisciplinary learning. Results show that students gain planning and public health perspectives through this instruction, benefiting from active-learning opportunities. Faculty implementation of the proposed interdisciplinary model curriculum will help bridge the divide between the built environment and public health and enable both planners and public health professionals to value, create, and promote healthy environments.

  13. Electronic Informational and Educational Environment as a Factor of Competence-Oriented Higher Pedagogical Education in the Sphere of Health, Safety and Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamerilova, Galina S.; Kartavykh, Marina A.; Ageeva, Elena L.; Veryaskina, Marina A.; Ruban, Elena M.

    2016-01-01

    The authors consider the question of computerisation in health, safety and environment teachers' training in the context of the general approaches and requirements of the Federal National Standard of Higher Education, which is realised through designing of electronic informational and educational environment. The researchers argue indispensability…

  14. The General Picture of Supportive Health Environments for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities among 121 Disability Welfare Institutions in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, J.-D.; Yen, C.-F.; Loh, C.-H.; Chwo, M.-J.; Lee, J.-T.; Wu, J.-L.; Chu, C. M.; Tang, C.-C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Little information is available on the provision of supportive health environments for persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) in institutions. The aim of this study was to present an overview of supportive environments for health in institutions in Taiwan. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine the perceptions…

  15. 48 CFR 952.223-71 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...

  16. 48 CFR 952.223-71 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...

  17. 48 CFR 952.223-71 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...

  18. 48 CFR 952.223-71 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...

  19. 48 CFR 952.223-71 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...

  20. Transition of New Graduate Nurses to the Workforce: Challenges and Solutions in the Changing Health Care Environment.

    PubMed

    Hofler, Linda; Thomas, Kendal

    2016-01-01

    New graduate nurses face a host of challenges that impact successful transition to practice. Health care organizations thus need to understand how changes in the health care landscape impact new graduate nurses who are transitioning to the practice environment. This commentary discusses challenges and possible solutions to successful transition of new graduates into the work environment. PMID:26961840

  1. Developing a model for effects of climate change on human health and health-environment interactions: Heat stress in Austin, Texas presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods In December, 2010, a consortium of EPA, Centers for Disease Control, and state and local health officials convened in Austin, Texas for a “participatory modeling workshop” on climate change effects on human health and health-environment int...

  2. Developing a model for effects of climate change on human health and health-environment interactions: Heat stress in Austin, Texas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods In December, 2010, a consortium of EPA, Centers for Disease Control, and state and local health officials convened in Austin, Texas for a “participatory modeling workshop” on climate change effects on human health and health-environment interactions. ...

  3. US Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The assessment, which was conducted from July 20 through August 4, 1992, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and progress of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices; the DOE Nevada Field Office (NV); and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. This report presents a summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management.

  4. Toxicological Profile of Chlorophenols and Their Derivatives in the Environment: The Public Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Igbinosa, Etinosa O.; Odjadjare, Emmanuel E.; Chigor, Vincent N.; Igbinosa, Isoken H.; Emoghene, Alexander O.; Ekhaise, Fredrick O.; Igiehon, Nicholas O.; Idemudia, Omoruyi G.

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophenol compounds and their derivatives are ubiquitous contaminants in the environment. These compounds are used as intermediates in manufacturing agricultural chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biocides, and dyes. Chlorophenols gets into the environment from a variety of sources such as industrial waste, pesticides, and insecticides, or by degradation of complex chlorinated hydrocarbons. Thermal and chemical degradation of chlorophenols leads to the formation of harmful substances which constitute public health problems. These compounds may cause histopathological alterations, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity amongst other abnormalities in humans and animals. Furthermore, the recalcitrant nature of chlorophenolic compounds to degradation constitutes an environmental nuisance, and a good understanding of the fate and transport of these compounds and their derivatives is needed for a clearer view of the associated risks and mechanisms of pathogenicity to humans and animals. This review looks at chlorophenols and their derivatives, explores current research on their effects on public health, and proffers measures for mitigation. PMID:23690744

  5. Toxicological profile of chlorophenols and their derivatives in the environment: the public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Igbinosa, Etinosa O; Odjadjare, Emmanuel E; Chigor, Vincent N; Igbinosa, Isoken H; Emoghene, Alexander O; Ekhaise, Fredrick O; Igiehon, Nicholas O; Idemudia, Omoruyi G

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophenol compounds and their derivatives are ubiquitous contaminants in the environment. These compounds are used as intermediates in manufacturing agricultural chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biocides, and dyes. Chlorophenols gets into the environment from a variety of sources such as industrial waste, pesticides, and insecticides, or by degradation of complex chlorinated hydrocarbons. Thermal and chemical degradation of chlorophenols leads to the formation of harmful substances which constitute public health problems. These compounds may cause histopathological alterations, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity amongst other abnormalities in humans and animals. Furthermore, the recalcitrant nature of chlorophenolic compounds to degradation constitutes an environmental nuisance, and a good understanding of the fate and transport of these compounds and their derivatives is needed for a clearer view of the associated risks and mechanisms of pathogenicity to humans and animals. This review looks at chlorophenols and their derivatives, explores current research on their effects on public health, and proffers measures for mitigation.

  6. The impact of the environment on health by country: a meta-synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Prüss-Üstün, Annette; Bonjour, Sophie; Corvalán, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Background Health gains that environmental interventions could achieve are main questions when choosing environmental health action to prevent disease. The World Health Organization has recently released profiles of environmental burden of disease for 192 countries. Methods These country profiles provide an estimate of the health impacts from the three major risk factors 'unsafe water, sanitation & hygiene', 'indoor air pollution from solid fuel use' and 'outdoor air pollution'. The profiles also provide an estimate of preventable health impacts by the environment as a whole. While the estimates for the three risk factors are based on country exposures, the estimates of health gains for total environmental improvements are based on a review of the literature supplemented by expert opinion and combined with country health statistics. Results Between 13% and 37% of the countries' disease burden could be prevented by environmental improvements, resulting globally in about 13 million deaths per year. It is estimated that about four million of these could be prevented by improving water, sanitation and hygiene, and indoor and outdoor air alone. The number of environmental DALYs per 1000 capita per year ranges between 14 and 316 according to the country. An analysis by disease group points to main preventions opportunities for each country. Conclusion Notwithstanding the uncertainties in their calculation, these estimates provide an overview of opportunities for prevention through healthier environments. The estimates show that for similar national incomes, the environmental burden of disease can typically vary by a factor five. This analysis also shows that safer water, sanitation and hygiene, and safer fuels for cooking could significantly reduce child mortality, namely by more than 25% in 20 of the lowest income countries. PMID:18298819

  7. A Data Encryption Solution for Mobile Health Apps in Cooperation Environments

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Bruno M; Canelo, Fábio; Lopes, Ivo C; Zhou, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Background Mobile Health (mHealth) proposes health care delivering anytime and anywhere. It aims to answer several emerging problems in health services, including the increasing number of chronic diseases, high costs on national health services, and the need to provide direct access to health services, regardless of time and place. mHealth systems include the use of mobile devices and apps that interact with patients and caretakers. However, mobile devices present several constraints, such as processor, energy, and storage resource limitations. The constant mobility and often-required Internet connectivity also exposes and compromises the privacy and confidentiality of health information. Objective This paper presents a proposal, construction, performance evaluation, and validation of a data encryption solution for mobile health apps (DE4MHA), considering a novel and early-proposed cooperation strategy. The goal was to present a robust solution based on encryption algorithms that guarantee the best confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of users health information. In this paper, we presented, explained, evaluated the performance, and discussed the cooperation mechanisms and the proposed encryption solution for mHealth apps. Methods First, we designed and deployed the DE4MHA. Then two studies were performed: (1) study and comparison of symmetric and asymmetric encryption/decryption algorithms in an mHealth app under a cooperation environment, and (2) performance evaluation of the DE4MHA. Its performance was evaluated through a prototype using an mHealth app for obesity prevention and cares, called SapoFit. We then conducted an evaluation study of the mHealth app with cooperation mechanisms and the DE4MHA using real users and a real cooperation scenario. In 5 days, 5 different groups of 7 students selected randomly agreed to use and experiment the SapoFit app using the 7 devices available for trials. Results There were 35 users of SapoFit that participated in

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health - Part 5: Environment, Safety, Health, and Quality Assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, L.G.; Doctor, P.G.; Selby, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    Part 5 of the 1989 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Environmental Guidance and Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance, the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Safety Compliance, and the Office of Policy and Standards. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, there is an article describing progress made during fiscal year 1989. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work. 35 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Hypobaric chamber for the study of oral health problems in a simulated spacecraft environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L. R.

    1974-01-01

    A hypobaric chamber was constructed to house two marmo-sets simultaneously in a space-simulated environment for periods of 14, 28 and 56 days which coincided with the anticipated Skylab missions. This report details the fabrication, operation, and performance of the chamber and very briefly reviews the scientific data from nine chamber trials involving 18 animals. The possible application of this model system to studies unrelated to oral health or space missions is discussed.

  10. Environment, development and health: ideological metaphors of post-traditional societies?

    PubMed

    Wenzel, E

    1997-12-01

    Environment and health have become nearly interchangeable concepts in post-traditional societies. We are able to observe almost an obsession with them, as if individual changes in ways of life--important for the individual and significant for the culture though they may be--possessed the power to overthrow a system of economic relations that aims at growth in numerical terms rather than at development, enabling society to sustain its specific modes of private and public interaction.

  11. The health information environment: a view of organizational and professional needs and priorities.

    PubMed Central

    Creth, S D

    1993-01-01

    Inspired by Platform for Change: The Educational Policy Statement of the Medical Library Association, this paper discusses the institutional changes, new delivery modes and services, learning and development, leadership, and strategies needed for health sciences librarians to prosper in the changing medical information environment. To fulfill their potential, librarians must articulate and act upon a vision that involves them more fully in the work of faculty, researchers, and medical practitioners. PMID:8251977

  12. ASSESSMENT OF THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT AND IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH IN ROMA VILLAGES IN SLOVAKIA AND ROMANIA

    PubMed Central

    Majdan, Marek; Coman, Alexandru; Gallová, Eva; Ďuricová, Janka; Kállayová, Daniela; Kvaková, Mária; Bošák, Ľuboš

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives The objective of this paper is to provide information on indoor air quality and on the quality of the broader indoor environment of the houses in Roma villages in Slovakia and Romania and to discuss possible implications for health. Methods Indoor air was sampled in 11 houses in a Romanian Roma village and in 19 houses in a Slovakian Roma village. Levels of Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), total particulate matter (PM), temperature and humidity were measured. A questionnaire and a checklist were used to obtain additional information on the indoor environment and behavioural factors. We have sampled the same houses in winter and in summer. Results Levels of CO and CO2 were higher in winter in both countries as compared to summer. The limit value of 10 mg/m3 CO was exceeded in a few cases in both countries. In general, levels of CO, CO2 and PM were higher in Romania. Further environmental and behavioural hazards such as indoor smoking, pets inside or lack of ventilation were found. The reported self-perceived quality of the indoor environment was poor in many aspects. Conclusions Our findings of CO, CO2 and PM levels suggest that indoor air pollution in Roma settlements has the potential to be a health threat. The fact that the inhabitants spend a relatively long time inside the houses and that a number of additional environmental and behavioural hazards were identified by our study emphasizes the importance of the indoor air quality for health and thus priority attention should be paid to these issues by health authorities and researchers. Further research is essential and study designs must consider cultural background and specific characteristics of the community, especially in order to obtain valid data on health outcomes. PMID:23285520

  13. A Picture of the Healthful Food Environment in Two Diverse Urban Cities

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Heinrich, Katie M.; Medina, Ashley V.; Regan, Gail R.; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y.; Jokura, Yuka; Maddock, Jay E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Local food environments influence fresh produce purchase and consumption, and previous research has found disparities in local food environments by income and ethnicity. Other existing studies have begun to quantify the distribution of food sources, but there has been limited attention to important features or types of healthful food that are available or their quality or cost. Two studies assessed the type, quantity, quality and cost of healthful food from two diverse urban cities, Kansas City, Kansas and Missouri and Honolulu, Hawaii, and evaluated differences by neighborhood income and ethnic composition. Method: A total of 343 food stores in urban neighborhoods were assessed using the one-page Understanding Neighborhood Determinants of Obesity (UNDO) Food Stores Assessment (FSA) measuring healthful foods. US Census data were used to define median household income and ethnic minority concentration. Results: In Study 1, most low socioeconomic status (SES), high ethnic minority neighborhoods had primarily convenience, liquor or small grocery stores. Quality of produce was typically lower, and prices of some foods were more than in comparison neighborhoods. In Study 2, low SES neighborhoods had more convenience and grocery stores. Farmers’ markets and supermarkets had the best produce availability and quality, and farmers’ markets and pharmacies had the lowest prices. Conclusions: Messages emphasizing eating more fruits and vegetables are not realistic in urban, low SES, high ethnic concentration neighborhoods. Farmers’ markets and supermarkets provided the best opportunities for fresh produce. Increasing access to farmers’ markets and supermarkets or reducing prices could improve the local food environment. PMID:20706621

  14. Social and Physical Environments and Self-Rated Health in Urban and Rural Communities in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-A; Park, Jong Heon; Kim, Myung

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the associations between social and physical environments and self-rated health (SRH) for urban and rural Korean adults, using data from the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS) of 199,790 participants (115,454 urban and 84,336 rural). The main dependent variable was SRH, while the primary independent variables were social and physical characteristics. Urban residents reported better SRH than did rural residents. Five social environmental variables (trust of neighbors, residence in the area for over 20 years, exchanging help with neighbors, friend and fellowship activities, contact with relatives and neighbors over five times per month) were more prevalent among rural residents. Satisfaction with physical environment was more common among rural residents, but satisfaction with traffic and healthcare facilities was more common among urban areas. After adjusting for relevant factors, positive associations between SRH and trust of neighbors, exchanging help with neighbors, participation in social activities or organizations, and physical environment existed in both rural and urban populations. Also, in both areas, there was no demonstrated association between SRH and years of residence or frequency of contact with relatives. Our findings suggest the existence of an association between social and physical factors and perceived health status among the general population of Korea. PMID:26569279

  15. Social and Physical Environments and Self-Rated Health in Urban and Rural Communities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-A; Park, Jong Heon; Kim, Myung

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the associations between social and physical environments and self-rated health (SRH) for urban and rural Korean adults, using data from the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS) of 199,790 participants (115,454 urban and 84,336 rural). The main dependent variable was SRH, while the primary independent variables were social and physical characteristics. Urban residents reported better SRH than did rural residents. Five social environmental variables (trust of neighbors, residence in the area for over 20 years, exchanging help with neighbors, friend and fellowship activities, contact with relatives and neighbors over five times per month) were more prevalent among rural residents. Satisfaction with physical environment was more common among rural residents, but satisfaction with traffic and healthcare facilities was more common among urban areas. After adjusting for relevant factors, positive associations between SRH and trust of neighbors, exchanging help with neighbors, participation in social activities or organizations, and physical environment existed in both rural and urban populations. Also, in both areas, there was no demonstrated association between SRH and years of residence or frequency of contact with relatives. Our findings suggest the existence of an association between social and physical factors and perceived health status among the general population of Korea.

  16. Social and Physical Environments and Self-Rated Health in Urban and Rural Communities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-A; Park, Jong Heon; Kim, Myung

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the associations between social and physical environments and self-rated health (SRH) for urban and rural Korean adults, using data from the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS) of 199,790 participants (115,454 urban and 84,336 rural). The main dependent variable was SRH, while the primary independent variables were social and physical characteristics. Urban residents reported better SRH than did rural residents. Five social environmental variables (trust of neighbors, residence in the area for over 20 years, exchanging help with neighbors, friend and fellowship activities, contact with relatives and neighbors over five times per month) were more prevalent among rural residents. Satisfaction with physical environment was more common among rural residents, but satisfaction with traffic and healthcare facilities was more common among urban areas. After adjusting for relevant factors, positive associations between SRH and trust of neighbors, exchanging help with neighbors, participation in social activities or organizations, and physical environment existed in both rural and urban populations. Also, in both areas, there was no demonstrated association between SRH and years of residence or frequency of contact with relatives. Our findings suggest the existence of an association between social and physical factors and perceived health status among the general population of Korea. PMID:26569279

  17. Children's health and the environment: public health issues and challenges for risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, Philip J; Kimmel, Carole A; Correa, Adolfo; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2004-01-01

    Infants and children are not little adults. They are uniquely vulnerable to environmental toxicants. To protect infants and children against toxicants, the National Research Council in 1993 called for development of an approach to risk assessment that considers children's unique patterns of exposure and their special vulnerabilities to pesticides. Many aspects of that call were codified into federal law in the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. This report highlights the central elements needed for development of a child-protective approach to risk assessment: a) improved quantitative assessment of children's exposures at different life stages, from fetal life through adolescence, including acute and chronic exposures, exposures via multiple routes, and exposures to multiple agents; b) development of new approaches to toxicity testing of chemicals that can detect unanticipated and subtle outcomes and that evaluate experimental subjects over the entire life span from early exposure to natural death to replicate the human experience; c) development of new toxicodynamic and toxicokinetic models that account for the unique physiologic characteristics of infants and children; d) development of new approaches to assessment of outcomes, functional, organ, cellular and molecular, over the entire life span; these measures need to be incorporated into toxicity testing and into long-term prospective epidemiologic studies of children; and e) application of uncertainty and safety factors in risk assessment that specifically consider children's risks. Under FQPA, children are presumed more vulnerable to pesticides than adults unless evidence exists to the contrary. Uncertainty and safety factors that are protective of children must therefore be incorporated into risk assessment when data on developmental toxicity are lacking or when there is evidence of developmental toxicity. The adequate protection of children against toxic agents in the environment will require

  18. Perceptions of the Environment and Health Among Members of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation

    PubMed Central

    Schure, Marc B.; Kile, Molly L.; Harding, Anna; Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart; Uesugi, Sandra; Goins, R. Turner

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous cultures perceive the natural environment as an essential link between traditional cultural practices, social connectedness, identity, and health. Many tribal communities face substantial health disparities related to exposure to environmental hazards. Our study used qualitative methods to better understand the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) members' perspectives about their environment and its connections with their health including views on environmental health hazards. Three 90-minute focus group sessions with a total of 27 participants were held to elicit opinions on meanings of health and how the environment interacts with health. A systematic text analysis was used to derive themes across focus groups. Participants expressed a holistic view of health that included environmental, physical, mental, spiritual, and social components. A healthy natural environment was identified as an essential component of a healthy individual and a healthy community. Participants also described many environmental health concerns including second-hand smoke, outdoor smoke, diesel exhaust, mold, pesticides, contaminated natural foods, and toxic wastes from the Hanford nuclear site and methamphetamine labs. Many believe the identified environmental hazards contribute to diseases in their community. The natural environment is an important resource to CTUIR members and plays an integral role in achieving and maintaining health. Knowledge about the values and concerns of the community are useful to the tribal and federal governments, health professionals, environmental health practitioners, and community members who seek to achieve sustainable and healthy rural Native communities. PMID:25152803

  19. Direct Observation of Lattice Aluminum Environments in Li Ion Cathodes LiNi1-y-zCoyAlzO2 and Al-Doped LiNixMnyCozO2 via (27)Al MAS NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Fulya; Vaughey, John T; Iddir, Hakim; Key, Baris

    2016-07-01

    Direct observations of local lattice aluminum environments have been a major challenge for aluminum-bearing Li ion battery materials, such as LiNi1-y-zCoyAlzO2 (NCA) and aluminum-doped LiNixMnyCozO2 (NMC). (27)Al magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the only structural probe currently available that can qualitatively and quantitatively characterize lattice and nonlattice (i.e., surface, coatings, segregation, secondary phase etc.) aluminum coordination and provide information that helps discern its effect in the lattice. In the present study, we use NMR to gain new insights into transition metal (TM)-O-Al coordination and evolution of lattice aluminum sites upon cycling. With the aid of first-principles DFT calculations, we show direct evidence of lattice Al sites, nonpreferential Ni/Co-O-Al ordering in NCA, and the lack of bulk lattice aluminum in aluminum-"doped" NMC. Aluminum coordination of the paramagnetic (lattice) and diamagnetic (nonlattice) nature is investigated for Al-doped NMC and NCA. For the latter, the evolution of the lattice site(s) upon cycling is also studied. A clear reordering of lattice aluminum environments due to nickel migration is observed in NCA upon extended cycling.

  20. Health and productivity gains from better indoor environments and their relationship with building energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.

    2000-04-01

    Theoretical considerations and empirical data suggest that existing technologies and procedures can improve indoor environments in a manner that significantly increases productivity and health. Existing literature contains moderate to strong evidence that characteristics of buildings and indoor environments significantly influence rates of communicable respiratory illness, allergy and asthma symptoms, sick building symptoms, and worker performance. While there is considerable uncertainty in the estimates of the magnitudes of productivity gains that may be obtained by providing better indoor environments, the projected gains are very large. For the U.S., the estimated potential annual savings and productivity gains are $6 to $14 billion from reduced respiratory disease, $2 to $4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma, $10 to $30 billion from reduced sick building syndrome symptoms, and $20 to $160 billion from direct improvements in worker performance that are unrelated to health. Productivity gains that are quantified and demonstrated could serve as a strong stimulus for energy efficiency measures that simultaneously improve the indoor environment.

  1. Improving the Neighborhood Environment for Urban Older Adults: Social Context and Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Arlesia; Rooks, Ronica; Kruger, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Over 80% of older adults live in urban areas. This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) among urban older adults. Methods: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a deindustrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) was analyzed using regression and GIS models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = 0.01). Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = 0.005) and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p < 0.001). Discussion: Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important for well-being among seniors. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood which are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability. PMID:26703659

  2. Professors' Perceptions of Distance Education in Virtual Environments: The Case of the Education Faculty of University of Al-Yarmouk (Jordan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oassim-Al-shboul, Oassim Mahmoud; Sabiote, Clemente Rodriguez; Álvarez-Rodríguez, José

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the perceptions that the teaching staff of the Faculty of Education at University of Al-Yarmouk (Jordan) have of the implementation of distance learning in virtual environments, more specifically, the professors' opinion of the potential and limitations of this educational strategy. To fulfil this goal, we…

  3. Exploring complexities of promoting health in families in an obesogenic environment.

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, Laura; Krishnagiri, Sheama

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious public health concern, and although the complexity of this issue is now recognized, programming has yet to consider the interconnected nature of the contributing factors. This study, guided by grounded theory, sought to discover how mothers are attempting to promote health in a seemingly obesogenic environment. Data were collected via 22 semi-structured interviews, 55 personal diary entries, and 11 parenting style questionnaires. Constant comparative analysis occurred until theoretical saturation, and strategies to increase trustworthiness were used. Themes included (a) Managing Time, Managing Chaos; (b) Cultural Infatuation with Food; (c) Managing Health from a Distance; (d) Fluctuating Challenges and Supports; (e) Strategies; and (f) Resulting Actions/Interactions. Additionally, a substantive-level theory was developed. Findings highlight the importance of developing contextually relevant, family-based interventions for overweight children and their families, and propose a shift in current program development for this population. PMID:24822263

  4. Pesticides in vegetable and food commodities: environment and public health concern.

    PubMed

    Thapa, K; Pant, B R

    2014-01-01

    Haphazard use of pesticides in the field and stored food commodities for the control of insect and pest has been a serious problem from view of environment and public health. The nutritional value of these is suppressed due to addition of toxins. The increased trend of Non communicable disease and communicable diseases may have close relation with the nutritious value and life styles associated with. The impacts on health should be considered as important issues from the view of public health. The article gives emphasis on organic farming & Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to minimize the harm of chemicals. It is deemed essential to think again about the current trend of malnutrition & obesity overweight among the Nepalese people and relationship with pesticides on the foods and vegetables. PMID:26032063

  5. Public health applications of remote sensing of the environment, an evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The available techniques were examined in the field of remote sensing (including aerial photography, infrared detection, radar, etc.) and applications to a number of problems in the wide field of public health determined. The specific areas of public health examined included: air pollution, water pollution, communicable disease, and the combined problems of urban growth and the effect of disasters on human communities. The assessment of the possible applications of remote sensing to these problems was made primarily by examination of the available literature in each field, and by interviews with health authorities, physicists, biologists, and other interested workers. Three types of programs employing remote sensors were outlined in the air pollution field: (1) proving ability of sensors to monitor pollutants at three levels of interest - point source, ambient levels in cities, and global patterns; (2) detection of effects of pollutants on the environment at local and global levels; and (3) routine monitoring.

  6. Pesticides in vegetable and food commodities: environment and public health concern.

    PubMed

    Thapa, K; Pant, B R

    2014-01-01

    Haphazard use of pesticides in the field and stored food commodities for the control of insect and pest has been a serious problem from view of environment and public health. The nutritional value of these is suppressed due to addition of toxins. The increased trend of Non communicable disease and communicable diseases may have close relation with the nutritious value and life styles associated with. The impacts on health should be considered as important issues from the view of public health. The article gives emphasis on organic farming & Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to minimize the harm of chemicals. It is deemed essential to think again about the current trend of malnutrition & obesity overweight among the Nepalese people and relationship with pesticides on the foods and vegetables.

  7. NASA Satellite Observations: A Unique Asset for the Study of the Environment and Implications for Public Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes Sue M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation highlights how satellite observation systems are assets for studying the environment in relation to public health. It includes information on current and future satellite observation systems, NASA's public health and safety research, surveillance projects, and NASA's public health partners.

  8. The performance of primary health care organizations depends on interdependences with the local environment.

    PubMed

    Lamarche, Paul; Maillet, Lara

    2016-09-19

    Purpose Improving the performance of health care organizations is now perceived as essential in order to better address the needs of the populations and respect their ability to pay for the services. There is no consensus on what is performance. It is increasingly considered as the optimal execution of four functions that every organization must achieve in order to survive and develop: reach goals; adapt to its environment; produce goods or services and maintain values; and a satisfying organizational climate. There is also no consensus on strategies to improve this performance. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This paper intends to analyze the performance of primary health care organizations from the perspective of Kauffman's model. It mainly aims to understand the often contradictory, paradoxical and unexpected results that emerge from studies on this topic. Findings To do so, the first section briefly presents Kauffman's model and lays forward its principal components. The second section presents three studies on the performance of primary organizations and brings out the contradictory, paradoxical and unexpected results they obtained. The third section explains these results in the light of Kauffman's model. Originality/value Kauffman's model helps give meaning to the results of researches on performance of primary health care organizations that were qualified as paradoxical or unexpected. The performance of primary health care organizations then cannot be understood by only taking into account the characteristics of these organizations. The complexity of the environments in which they operate must simultaneously be taken into account. This paper brings original development of an integrated view of the performance of organizations, their own characteristics and those of the local environment in which they operated. PMID:27681020

  9. The performance of primary health care organizations depends on interdependences with the local environment.

    PubMed

    Lamarche, Paul; Maillet, Lara

    2016-09-19

    Purpose Improving the performance of health care organizations is now perceived as essential in order to better address the needs of the populations and respect their ability to pay for the services. There is no consensus on what is performance. It is increasingly considered as the optimal execution of four functions that every organization must achieve in order to survive and develop: reach goals; adapt to its environment; produce goods or services and maintain values; and a satisfying organizational climate. There is also no consensus on strategies to improve this performance. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This paper intends to analyze the performance of primary health care organizations from the perspective of Kauffman's model. It mainly aims to understand the often contradictory, paradoxical and unexpected results that emerge from studies on this topic. Findings To do so, the first section briefly presents Kauffman's model and lays forward its principal components. The second section presents three studies on the performance of primary organizations and brings out the contradictory, paradoxical and unexpected results they obtained. The third section explains these results in the light of Kauffman's model. Originality/value Kauffman's model helps give meaning to the results of researches on performance of primary health care organizations that were qualified as paradoxical or unexpected. The performance of primary health care organizations then cannot be understood by only taking into account the characteristics of these organizations. The complexity of the environments in which they operate must simultaneously be taken into account. This paper brings original development of an integrated view of the performance of organizations, their own characteristics and those of the local environment in which they operated.

  10. From promise to practice: getting healthy work environments in health workplaces.

    PubMed

    Silas, Linda

    2007-01-01

    The papers by Shamian and El-Jardali, "Healthy Workplaces for Health Workers in Canada," and by Clements, Dault and Priest, "Effective Teamwork in Healthcare," examine what makes the health workplace healthier, one from the perspective of workers and the other from the perspective of patients. Patients demand effective teamwork. Workers demand a range of initiatives, from occupational health and safety to professional development opportunities. Whereas patients' and workers' perspectives on healthy workplaces appear quite discrete as discussed in these papers, they are two sides of the same coin. Both lead papers recognize that unhealthy work environments result in unhealthy workers and reduced health outcomes for patients. Both review research documenting effective change and some progress in acceptance of proposed solutions at the policy level. Most importantly, both call for a greater effort in making these changes a reality in Canadian health workplaces. The papers themselves offer up some strategies for getting from yes to real. This commentary focuses on these and other strategies for moving forward and getting real change in the workplace, changes that workers and patients will talk about.

  11. Obesity, physical activity, and the urban environment: public health research needs

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Russell P; Hynes, H Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Persistent trends in overweight and obesity have resulted in a rapid research effort focused on built environment, physical activity, and overweight. Much of the focus of this research has been on the design and form of suburbs. It suggests that several features of the suburban built environment such as low densities, poor street connectivity and the lack of sidewalks are associated with decreased physical activity and an increased risk of being overweight. But compared to suburban residents, inner city populations have higher rates of obesity and inactivity despite living in neighborhoods that are dense, have excellent street connectivity and who's streets are almost universally lined with sidewalks. We suggest that the reasons for this apparent paradox are rooted in the complex interaction of land use, infrastructure and social factors affecting inner city populations. Sometimes seemingly similar features are the result of very different processes, necessitating different policy responses to meet these challenges. For example, in suburbs, lower densities can result from government decision making that leads to restrictive zoning and land use issues. In the inner city, densities may be lowered because of abandonment and disinvestment. In the suburbs, changes in land use regulations could result in a healthier built environment. In inner cities, increasing densities will depend on reversing economic trends and investment decisions that have systematically resulted in distressed housing, abandoned buildings and vacant lots. These varying issues need to be further studied in the context of the totality of urban environments, incorporating what has been learned from other disciplines, such as economics and sociology, as well as highlighting some of the more successful inner city policy interventions, which may provide examples for communities working to improve their health. Certain disparities among urban and suburban populations in obesity and overweight, physical

  12. Obesity, physical activity, and the urban environment: public health research needs.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Russell P; Hynes, H Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Persistent trends in overweight and obesity have resulted in a rapid research effort focused on built environment, physical activity, and overweight. Much of the focus of this research has been on the design and form of suburbs. It suggests that several features of the suburban built environment such as low densities, poor street connectivity and the lack of sidewalks are associated with decreased physical activity and an increased risk of being overweight. But compared to suburban residents, inner city populations have higher rates of obesity and inactivity despite living in neighborhoods that are dense, have excellent street connectivity and who's streets are almost universally lined with sidewalks. We suggest that the reasons for this apparent paradox are rooted in the complex interaction of land use, infrastructure and social factors affecting inner city populations. Sometimes seemingly similar features are the result of very different processes, necessitating different policy responses to meet these challenges. For example, in suburbs, lower densities can result from government decision making that leads to restrictive zoning and land use issues. In the inner city, densities may be lowered because of abandonment and disinvestment. In the suburbs, changes in land use regulations could result in a healthier built environment. In inner cities, increasing densities will depend on reversing economic trends and investment decisions that have systematically resulted in distressed housing, abandoned buildings and vacant lots. These varying issues need to be further studied in the context of the totality of urban environments, incorporating what has been learned from other disciplines, such as economics and sociology, as well as highlighting some of the more successful inner city policy interventions, which may provide examples for communities working to improve their health. Certain disparities among urban and suburban populations in obesity and overweight, physical

  13. Indoor environment and children's health: recent developments in chemical, biological, physical and social aspects.

    PubMed

    Le Cann, Pierre; Bonvallot, Nathalie; Glorennec, Philippe; Deguen, Séverine; Goeury, Christophe; Le Bot, Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Much research is being carried out into indoor exposure to harmful agents. This review focused on the impact on children's health, taking a broad approach to the indoor environment and including chemical, microbial, physical and social aspects. Papers published from 2006 onwards were reviewed, with regards to scientific context. Most of publications dealt with chemical exposure. Apart from the ongoing issue of combustion by-products, most of these papers concerned semi volatile organic compounds (such as phthalates). These may be associated with neurotoxic, reprotoxic or respiratory effects and may, therefore, be of particular interest so far as children are concerned. In a lesser extent, volatile organic compounds (such as aldehydes) that have mainly respiratory effects are still studied. Assessing exposure to metals is still of concern, with increasing interest in bioaccessibility. Most of the papers on microbial exposure focused on respiratory tract infections, especially asthma linked to allergens and bio-aerosols. Physical exposure includes noise and electromagnetic fields, and articles dealt with the auditory and non auditory effects of noise. Articles on radiofrequency electromagnetic fields mainly concerned questions about non-thermal effects and papers on extremely low-frequency magnetic fields focused on the characterization of exposure. The impact of the indoor environment on children's health cannot be assessed merely by considering the effect of these different types of exposure: this review highlights new findings and also discusses the interactions between agents in indoor environments and also with social aspects.

  14. The urban environment and health in a world of increasing globalization: issues for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    Urban living is the keystone of modern human ecology. Cities have multiplied and expanded rapidly worldwide over the past two centuries. Cities are sources of creativity and technology, and they are the engines for economic growth. However, they are also sources of poverty, inequality, and health hazards from the environment. Urban populations have long been incubators and gateways for infectious diseases. The early industrializing period of unplanned growth and laissez-faire economic activity in cities in industrialized countries has been superseded by the rise of collective management of the urban environment. This occurred in response to environmental blight, increasing literacy, the development of democratic government, and the collective accrual of wealth. In many low-income countries, this process is being slowed by the pressures and priorities of economic globalization. Beyond the traditional risks of diarrhoeal disease and respiratory infections in the urban poor and the adaptation of various vector-borne infections to urbanization, the urban environment poses various physicochemical hazards. These include exposure to lead, air pollution, traffic hazards, and the "urban heat island" amplification of heatwaves. As the number of urban consumers and their material expectations rise and as the use of fossil fuels increases, cities contribute to the large-scale pressures on the biosphere including climate change. We must develop policies that ameliorate the existing, and usually unequally distributed, urban environmental health hazards and larger-scale environmental problems. PMID:11019460

  15. Protective environments and health status: cross-talk between human and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Singer, Burton; Friedman, Elliot; Seeman, Teresa; Fava, Giovanni A; Ryff, Carol D

    2005-12-01

    Although aging populations tend to have increased prevalence of a diversity of diseases and disabilities, there are substantial numbers of people who, nevertheless, maintain good health into old age. Human studies frequently demonstrate associations between environmental factors, particularly supportive social environments, and positive states of health. Identifying the pathways from protective social environments to reduced disease risk necessitates the use of animal models as a basis of explanation and a source of suggestions for further human research. We present two examples of this kind of cross-talk: (i) the possibility that the success of well-being therapy following pharmacological treatment for depression as a means of preventing recurrent depressive episodes is based on the stimulation of enrichment of dendritic networks in the hippocampus and spine retraction in the basolateral amygdala; (ii) the possibility that the release of intracerebral oxytocin is a mediating factor between persistently supportive social environments and reduced disease in later life, as exemplified by low levels of allostatic load. PMID:16213626

  16. Indoor environment and children's health: recent developments in chemical, biological, physical and social aspects.

    PubMed

    Le Cann, Pierre; Bonvallot, Nathalie; Glorennec, Philippe; Deguen, Séverine; Goeury, Christophe; Le Bot, Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Much research is being carried out into indoor exposure to harmful agents. This review focused on the impact on children's health, taking a broad approach to the indoor environment and including chemical, microbial, physical and social aspects. Papers published from 2006 onwards were reviewed, with regards to scientific context. Most of publications dealt with chemical exposure. Apart from the ongoing issue of combustion by-products, most of these papers concerned semi volatile organic compounds (such as phthalates). These may be associated with neurotoxic, reprotoxic or respiratory effects and may, therefore, be of particular interest so far as children are concerned. In a lesser extent, volatile organic compounds (such as aldehydes) that have mainly respiratory effects are still studied. Assessing exposure to metals is still of concern, with increasing interest in bioaccessibility. Most of the papers on microbial exposure focused on respiratory tract infections, especially asthma linked to allergens and bio-aerosols. Physical exposure includes noise and electromagnetic fields, and articles dealt with the auditory and non auditory effects of noise. Articles on radiofrequency electromagnetic fields mainly concerned questions about non-thermal effects and papers on extremely low-frequency magnetic fields focused on the characterization of exposure. The impact of the indoor environment on children's health cannot be assessed merely by considering the effect of these different types of exposure: this review highlights new findings and also discusses the interactions between agents in indoor environments and also with social aspects. PMID:21889403

  17. A review of chronic pain impact on patients, their social environment and the health care system

    PubMed Central

    Dueñas, María; Ojeda, Begoña; Salazar, Alejandro; Mico, Juan Antonio; Failde, Inmaculada

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain (CP) seriously affects the patient’s daily activities and quality of life, but few studies on CP have considered its effects on the patient’s social and family environment. In this work, through a review of the literature, we assessed several aspects of how CP influences the patient’s daily activities and quality of life, as well as its repercussions in the workplace, and on the family and social environment. Finally, the consequences of pain on the health care system are discussed. On the basis of the results, we concluded that in addition to the serious consequences on the patient’s life, CP has a severe detrimental effect on their social and family environment, as well as on health care services. Thus, we want to emphasize on the need to adopt a multidisciplinary approach to treatment so as to obtain more comprehensive improvements for patients in familial and social contexts. Accordingly, it would be beneficial to promote more social- and family-oriented research initiatives. PMID:27418853

  18. The role of natural environments within women's everyday health and wellbeing in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Felicity

    2015-09-01

    Urbanisation has been linked with sedentary lifestyles and poor mental health outcomes amongst women. The potential for natural environments to enhance physical activity and mental wellbeing in urban areas is now well recognised. However, little is known about the ways that women use natural spaces for health and wellbeing within the context of their everyday lives. This paper draws on ideas developed in the therapeutic landscapes literature to examine how experiences in different types of green and blue space provide important health and wellbeing benefits for women in Copenhagen, Denmark. As well as facilitating physical exercise, such spaces were found to enable a range of more subtle benefits that helped to restore mental wellbeing through stress and anxiety alleviation, the facilitation of emotional perspective, clarity and reassurance, and through the maintenance of positive family dynamics. However, amongst some women who were overweight, the socio-political associations they made with natural environments deterred use of such spaces. Such findings challenge dominant planning and policy assumptions that equate open public access to natural spaces with universal benefit. PMID:25435057

  19. Nuestro Futuro saludable: connecting public health research and community development in partnership to build a healthy environment

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Linda S.; Ndulue, Uchenna; Peréa, Flavia C.

    2012-01-01

    Caribbean Latinos are the largest Latino group in Boston, primarily located in the Jamaica Plain (JP) neighborhood. There are various macro-level public health issues that result from the built environment in JP, factors which can create and sustain health disparities. Caribbean Latino youth are a priority group in JP, and it is important to address the causes of disparities early in life to promote good health. Presented here is an integrated research-and-action model to engage community stakeholders and researchers in designing an intervention to mitigate the negative health effects of the built environment and maximize community assets. The approach operates from a community empowerment model that allows public health practitioners, policy makers, researchers and residents to take an up-stream approach to improve health by focusing on the built environment, which is integral to community development. PMID:25258619

  20. [Environment and health in Gela (Sicily): present knowledge and prospects for future studies].

    PubMed

    Musmeci, Loredana; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Carere, Mario; Cori, Liliana

    2009-01-01

    The study area includes the Municipalities of Gela, Niscemi and Butera located in the South of Sicily, Italy. In 1990 it was declared Area at High Risk of Environmental Crisis. In 2000 part of it was designated as Gela Reclamation Site of National Interest, RSNI. The site includes a private industrial area, public and marine areas, for a total of 51 km(2). Gela populationin 2008 was 77,145 (54,774 in 1961). Sea level:46 m. Total area: 276 km(2). Grid reference: 37 degrees 4' 0" N, 14 degrees 15' 0" E. Niscemi and Butera are located border to Gela. Populations are respectively 26,541 and 5,063. Sea level respectively: 332 m and 402 m. Close to the city of Gela, the industrial area, operating since 1962, includes chemical production plants, a power station and an oil refinery plant, one of the larger in Europe, refining 5 millions tons of crude per year. From the beginning the workforces decreased from 7,000 to the current 3,000 units. Over the years, these industrial activities have been a major source of environmental pollution. Extremely high levels of toxic, persistent and bio-accumulating chemical pollutants have been documented. Many relevant environmental and health data are available. Prior to the studies described in the present publication, their use in order to identify environmental pressures on health has been limited. Nevertheless, since several years different epidemiological studies have provided evidence of the occurrence of health outcomes significantly higher than in neighbouring areas and compared to regional data. In 2007 a Multidisciplinary Working Group has been established, to analyze the existing data on pollution-exposure-effect and to complete current knowledge on the cycle of pollutants, from migration in the environment to health impact. The present publication is a collection of contribution of this group of experts, supported by the following projects: Evaluation of environmental health impact and estimation of economic costs at of

  1. A synopsis of the Joint Environment and Human Health Programme in the UK.

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael N; Kempton, Pamela D

    2009-01-01

    The Joint Environment and Human Health (E&HH) Programme has explored how both man-made and natural changes to the environment can influence human health. Scientists have tackled the complicated mix of environmental, social and economic factors that influence health, particularly focusing on naturally occurring toxins, man-made pollutants, nanoparticles and pathogens to see:* how they spread within the environment* how their properties change as they interact with other substances or organisms* how we become exposed to them, and* their impact on human health.The Programme has not only succeeded in bringing together scientists from a broad range of environmental, social and biomedical backgrounds, but also fostered new relationships with end users and policy makers. This new community is helping to provide the multidisciplinary capacity able to respond in an interdisciplinary way to resolve problems that are intrinsically interfacial in character. Many of these questions relate to complex issues such as the environmental biology and geochemistry of soils and how these influence the transport, accessibility and bioavailability of chemical pollutants and infectivity of pathogens. The dispersion of harmful particles in the atmosphere is another area of major concern where the E&HH Programme has broken new ground by showing how the chemical and physical properties of such particles influence their environmental behaviour and may govern their toxicity and resultant pathological reactions induced following inhalation. Working groups and networks have identified potential health problems concerning the transport and emergence of human pathogens associated with food, soil, air and water. The consequence(s) of global and regional climate change for the environmental behaviours of pollutants and pathogens have been considered by a number of the projects supported by the E&HH programme.The selection of articles in this supplement reflect the broad scope of the E&HH programme

  2. A synopsis of the Joint Environment and Human Health Programme in the UK

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The Joint Environment and Human Health (E&HH) Programme has explored how both man-made and natural changes to the environment can influence human health. Scientists have tackled the complicated mix of environmental, social and economic factors that influence health, particularly focusing on naturally occurring toxins, man-made pollutants, nanoparticles and pathogens to see: • how they spread within the environment • how their properties change as they interact with other substances or organisms • how we become exposed to them, and • their impact on human health. The Programme has not only succeeded in bringing together scientists from a broad range of environmental, social and biomedical backgrounds, but also fostered new relationships with end users and policy makers. This new community is helping to provide the multidisciplinary capacity able to respond in an interdisciplinary way to resolve problems that are intrinsically interfacial in character. Many of these questions relate to complex issues such as the environmental biology and geochemistry of soils and how these influence the transport, accessibility and bioavailability of chemical pollutants and infectivity of pathogens. The dispersion of harmful particles in the atmosphere is another area of major concern where the E&HH Programme has broken new ground by showing how the chemical and physical properties of such particles influence their environmental behaviour and may govern their toxicity and resultant pathological reactions induced following inhalation. Working groups and networks have identified potential health problems concerning the transport and emergence of human pathogens associated with food, soil, air and water. The consequence(s) of global and regional climate change for the environmental behaviours of pollutants and pathogens have been considered by a number of the projects supported by the E&HH programme. The selection of articles in this supplement reflect the broad scope of the E

  3. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Gilbert F.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are perspectives on the emergence of environmental problems. Six major trends in scientific thinking are identified including: holistic approaches to examining environments, life support systems, resource management, risk assessment, streamlined methods for monitoring environmental change, and emphasis on the global framework. (Author/SA)

  4. Modeling the Context-Dependent Associations between the Gut Microbiome, Its Environment, and Host Health.

    PubMed

    Sharpton, Thomas J; Gaulke, Christopher A

    2015-09-08

    Changes in the gut microbiome are often associated with disease. One of the major goals in microbiome research is determining which components of this complex system are responsible for the observed differences in health state. Most studies apply a reductionist approach, wherein individual organisms are evaluated independently of the surrounding context of the microbiome. While such methods have yielded valuable insights into the microbiome, they fail to identify patterns that may be obscured by contextual variation. A recent report by Schubert et al. [A. M. Schubert, H. Sinani, and P. D. Schloss, mBio 6(4):e00974-15, 2015, doi: 10.1128/mBio.00974-15] communicates an alternative approach to the study of the microbiome's association with host health. By coupling a multifactored experimental design with regression modeling, the authors are able to profile context-dependent changes in the microbiome and predict health status. This work underscores the value of incorporating model-based procedures into the investigation of the microbiome and illustrates the potential clinical transformations that may arise through their use.

  5. Effects of modifying water environments on water supply and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takizawa, S.; Nguyen, H. T.; Takeda, T.; Tran, N. T.

    2008-12-01

    Due to increasing population and per-capita water demand, demands for water are increasing in many parts of the world. Consequently, overuse of limited water resources leaves only small amounts of water in rivers and is bringing about rapid drawdown of groundwater tables. Water resources are affected by human activities such as excessive inputs of nutrients and other contaminants, agriculture and aquaculture expansions, and many development activities. The combined effects of modifying the water environments, both in terms of quantity and quality, on water supply and human health are presented in the paper with some examples from the Asian countries. In rural and sub-urban areas in Bangladesh and Vietnam, for example, the traditional way of obtaining surface water from ponds had been replaced by taking groundwaters to avert the microbial health risks that had arisen from contamination by human wastes. Such a change of water sources, however, has brought about human health impact caused by arsenic on a massive scale. In Thailand, the industrial development has driven the residents to get groundwater leaden with very high fluoride. Monitoring the urine fluoride levels reveal the risk of drinking fluoride-laden groundwaters. Rivers are also affected by extensive exploitation such as sand mining. As a result, turbidity changes abruptly after a heavy rainfall. In cities, due to shrinking water resources they have to take poor quality waters from contaminated sources. Algal blooms are seen in many reservoirs and lakes due to increasing levels of nutrients. Hence, it is likely that algal toxins may enter the water supply systems. Because most of the water treatment plants are not designed to remove those known and unknown contaminants, it is estimated that quite a large number of people are now under the threat of the public health "gtime bomb,"h which may one day bring about mass-scale health problems. In order to mitigate the negative impacts of modifying the water

  6. Creating an enabling environment for adolescent sexual and reproductive health: a framework and promising approaches.

    PubMed

    Svanemyr, Joar; Amin, Avni; Robles, Omar J; Greene, Margaret E

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a conceptual framework and points out the key elements for creating enabling environments for adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH). An ecological framework is applied to organize the key elements of enabling environments for ASRH. At the individual level, strategies that are being implemented and seem promising are those that empower girls, build their individual assets, and create safe spaces. At the relationship level, strategies that are being implemented and seem promising include efforts to build parental support and communication as well as peer support networks. At the community level, strategies to engage men and boys and the wider community to transform gender and other social norms are being tested and may hold promise. Finally, at the broadest societal level, efforts to promote laws and policies that protect and promote human rights and address societal awareness about ASRH issues, including through mass media approaches, need to be considered.

  7. Creating an enabling environment for adolescent sexual and reproductive health: a framework and promising approaches.

    PubMed

    Svanemyr, Joar; Amin, Avni; Robles, Omar J; Greene, Margaret E

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a conceptual framework and points out the key elements for creating enabling environments for adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH). An ecological framework is applied to organize the key elements of enabling environments for ASRH. At the individual level, strategies that are being implemented and seem promising are those that empower girls, build their individual assets, and create safe spaces. At the relationship level, strategies that are being implemented and seem promising include efforts to build parental support and communication as well as peer support networks. At the community level, strategies to engage men and boys and the wider community to transform gender and other social norms are being tested and may hold promise. Finally, at the broadest societal level, efforts to promote laws and policies that protect and promote human rights and address societal awareness about ASRH issues, including through mass media approaches, need to be considered. PMID:25528980

  8. Human exposure to environmental health concern by types of urban environment: The case of Tel Aviv.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Izhak; Potchter, Oded; Yaakov, Yaron; Epstein, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    This study classifies urban environments into types characterized by different exposure to environmental risk factors measured by general sense of discomfort and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). We hypothesize that a set of environmental factors (micro-climatic, CO, noise and individual heart rate) that were measured simultaneously in random locations can provide a better understanding of the distribution of human exposure to environmental loads throughout the urban space than results calculated based on measurements from close fixed stations. We measured micro-climatic and thermal load, CO and noise, individual Heart Rate, Subjective Social Load and Sense of Discomfort (SD) were tested by questionnaire survey. The results demonstrate significant differences in exposure to environmental factors among 8 types of urban environments. It appears that noise and social load are the more significant environmental factors to enhance health risks and general sense of discomfort. PMID:26344491

  9. Human exposure to environmental health concern by types of urban environment: The case of Tel Aviv.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Izhak; Potchter, Oded; Yaakov, Yaron; Epstein, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    This study classifies urban environments into types characterized by different exposure to environmental risk factors measured by general sense of discomfort and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). We hypothesize that a set of environmental factors (micro-climatic, CO, noise and individual heart rate) that were measured simultaneously in random locations can provide a better understanding of the distribution of human exposure to environmental loads throughout the urban space than results calculated based on measurements from close fixed stations. We measured micro-climatic and thermal load, CO and noise, individual Heart Rate, Subjective Social Load and Sense of Discomfort (SD) were tested by questionnaire survey. The results demonstrate significant differences in exposure to environmental factors among 8 types of urban environments. It appears that noise and social load are the more significant environmental factors to enhance health risks and general sense of discomfort.

  10. Effects of the presence of sulfonamides in the environment and their influence on human health.

    PubMed

    Baran, Wojciech; Adamek, Ewa; Ziemiańska, Justyna; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2011-11-30

    World production and consumption of pharmaceuticals has been steadily increasing. Anti-infectives have been particularly important in modern therapy of microbial infection. Sulfonamides have been widely used for a long time as anti-infectives and are still widely prescribed today. This review presents the most common types of sulfonamides used in healthcare and veterinary medicine and discusses the problems connected with their presence in the biosphere. Based on the analysis of over 160 papers, it was found that small amounts of sulfonamides present in the environment were mainly derived from agricultural activities. These drugs have caused changes in the population of microbes that could be potentially hazardous to human health. This human health hazard could have a global range, and administrative activities have been ineffective in risk reduction.

  11. A review on the distribution of Hg in the environment and its human health impacts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Jahan, Shamin Ara

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to mercury is a silent threat to the environment and human life. It has the potential to harm almost every organ and body system. Mercury compounds are classified in different chemical types such as elemental, inorganic, and organic forms. The most significant source of ingestion-related mercury exposure in humans and animals is the consumption of fish. Long-term exposure to mercury compounds from different sources (e.g., water, food, soil, and air) can lead to toxic effects on skin, cardiovascular, pulmonary, urinary, gastrointestinal, and neurological systems. Mercury toxicity is found to pose more significant health hazards to certain occupational groups (e.g., goldminers and dental personnel). Because continuous exposure to mercury can be dangerous, it is desirable to re-evaluate the current reference (risk-free) values. This paper reviews the route of Hg exposure to humans, its human health impacts, the associated risk assessment, and treatment based on the recent findings from various studies.

  12. Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines.

    PubMed

    McMurtry, Robert Y; Krogh, Carmen Me

    2014-10-01

    In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed. PMID:25383200

  13. [Health surveillance in ridden work environments by means of the MM040/IAQ Questionnaire].

    PubMed

    Magnavita, N

    2007-01-01

    Complaints and symptoms related to the indoor environment experienced by 3380 workers were collected from 26 workplaces by using the Italian modified version of the Swedish questionnaire MM-040 and the Finnish IAQ-Indoor Air Quality questionnaire. Complaints related to environmental factors, and air related symptoms, were common in indoor workers. Women reported work related symptoms more often than men, the difference being significant. The Indoor Air Quality questionnaire is a suitable tool for the occupational health physician in investigating indoor air problems. In the Italian version six general symptoms were added to the symptom scale, in order to make the questionnaire feasible for analysis of general health, during medical surveillance at work.

  14. Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines.

    PubMed

    McMurtry, Robert Y; Krogh, Carmen Me

    2014-10-01

    In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed.

  15. Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines

    PubMed Central

    Krogh, Carmen ME

    2014-01-01

    Summary In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed. PMID:25383200

  16. The challenge of social networking in the field of environment and health

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The fields of environment and health are both interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary, and until recently had little engagement in social networking designed to cross disciplinary boundaries. The EU FP6 project HENVINET aimed to establish integrated social network and networking facilities for multiple stakeholders in environment and health. The underlying assumption is that increased social networking across disciplines and sectors will enhance the quality of both problem knowledge and problem solving, by facilitating interactions. Inter- and trans-disciplinary networks are considered useful for this purpose. This does not mean that such networks are easily organized, as openness to such cooperation and exchange is often difficult to ascertain. Methods Different methods may enhance network building. Using a mixed method approach, a diversity of actions were used in order to investigate the main research question: which kind of social networking activities and structures can best support the objective of enhanced inter- and trans-disciplinary cooperation and exchange in the fields of environment and health. HENVINET applied interviews, a role playing session, a personal response system, a stakeholder workshop and a social networking portal as part of the process of building an interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary network. Results The interviews provided support for the specification of requirements for an interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary network. The role playing session, the personal response system and the stakeholder workshop were assessed as useful tools in forming such network, by increasing the awareness by different disciplines of other’s positions. The social networking portal was particularly useful in delivering knowledge, but the role of the scientist in social networking is not yet clear. Conclusions The main challenge in the field of environment and health is not so much a lack of scientific problem knowledge, but rather the

  17. A mobile-health application to detect wandering patterns of elderly people in home environment.

    PubMed

    Vuong, N K; Goh, S G A; Chan, S; Lau, C T

    2013-01-01

    Wandering is a common and risky behavior in people with dementia (PWD). In this paper, we present a mobile healthcare application to detect wandering patterns in indoor settings. The application harnesses consumer electronics devices including WiFi access points and mobile phones and has been tested successfully in a home environment. Experimental results show that the mobile-health application is able to detect wandering patterns including lapping, pacing and random in real-time. Once wandering is detected, an alert message is sent using SMS (Short Message Service) to attending caregivers or physicians for further examination and timely interventions. PMID:24111292

  18. Technology Development, Evaluation, and Application (TDEA) FY 1999 Progress Report, Environment, Safety, and Health (ESH) Division

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Hoffman

    2000-12-01

    This progress report presents the results of 10 projects funded ($500K) in FY99 by the Technology Development, Evaluation, and Application (TDEA) Committee of the Environment, Safety, and Health Division. Five are new projects for this year; seven projects have been completed in their third and final TDEA-funded year. As a result of their TDEA-funded projects, investigators have published thirty-four papers in professional journals, proceedings, or Los Alamos reports and presented their work at professional meetings. Supplemental funds and in-kind contributions, such as staff time, instrument use, and work space, were also provided to TDEA-funded projects by organizations external to ESH Division.

  19. Potential impact of antimicrobial resistance in wildlife, environment and human health

    PubMed Central

    Radhouani, Hajer; Silva, Nuno; Poeta, Patrícia; Torres, Carmen; Correia, Susana; Igrejas, Gilberto

    2014-01-01

    Given the significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity in antimicrobial resistance distribution and the factors that affect its evolution, dissemination, and persistence, it is important to highlight that antimicrobial resistance must be viewed as an ecological problem. Monitoring the resistance prevalence of indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli and enterococci in wild animals makes it possible to show that wildlife has the potential to serve as an environmental reservoir and melting pot of bacterial resistance. These researchers address the issue of antimicrobial-resistant microorganism proliferation in the environment and the related potential human health and environmental impact. PMID:24550896

  20. OECD environment, health and safety programme: information on the world wide web.

    PubMed

    de Marcellus, Sally

    2003-08-21

    This article presents the computerised resources of the Environment, Health and Safety (EHS) Programme of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. The main focus is the dissemination of tools for chemical safety assessment, which are used by OECD member countries, with the aim of promoting harmonization. The contents include the activities of the programme with special emphasis on dissemination of information via the web site (http://www.oecd.org/ehs) in the form of up-to-date information on activities, publications, directories, databases, contact points and links to other sites of importance. PMID:12909404

  1. Nutrition, environment and cardiovascular health (NESCAV): protocol of an inter-regional cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the remarkable technological progress in health care and treatment, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of premature death, prolonged hospitalization and disability in most European countries. In the population of the Greater Region (Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, Wallonia in Belgium, and Lorraine in France), the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and disease is among the highest in Europe, warranting the need for a better understanding of factors contributing to this pattern. In this context, the cross-border "Nutrition, Environment and Cardiovascular Health-NESCAV" project is initiated by an inter-regional multi-disciplinary consortium and supported by the INTERREG IV A program "Greater Region", 2007-2013, to fight synergically and harmoniously against this major public health problem. Methods/design The objectives of the three-year planned project are to assess, in a representative sample of 3000 randomly selected individuals living at the Greater Region, 1) the cardiovascular health and risk profile, 2) the association between the dietary habits and the cardiovascular risk, 3) the association of occupational and environmental pollution markers with the cardiovascular risk, 4) the knowledge, awareness and level of control of cardiovascular risk factors, 5) the potential gaps in the current primary prevention, and finally, to address evidence-based recommendations enabling the development of inter-regional guidance to help policy-makers and health care workers for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Discussion The findings will provide tools that may enable the Greater Region's decision-makers and health professionals to implement targeted and cost-effective prevention strategies. PMID:21078172

  2. Human biomonitoring and the INSPIRE directive: spatial data as link for environment and health research.

    PubMed

    Smolders, Roel; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Joas, Reinhard; Schoeters, Greet

    2008-10-01

    Recently, there has been a rapid gain of interest in the availability, applicability, and integration of different types of spatial data for environment and health issues. The INSPIRE Directive (Directive 2007/2/EC) aims at providing better and easily accessible spatial information in Europe for the formulation and implementation of community policy on the environment by triggering the creation of a European spatial information infrastructure that delivers integrated spatial information services to potential users. Human biomonitoring (HBM) significantly contributes to the already existing data on environment and health because of its specific nature of providing information on the internal dose of chemicals rather than their mere presence in different environmental compartments. However, due to the intrinsic nature of HBM data, a number of issues need to be dealt with if HBM data are to be used to its full capacity in a geographic information systems (GIS) environment and within the INSPIRE directive. The current article highlights some of these issues, and discusses a number of options to improve the geographical relevance of HBM data for their optimal use within the INSPIRE Directive framework. The main aim of this publication is to illustrate that HBM has a significant contribution to make to the INSPIRE Directive, although some kind of data aggregation will be necessary to protect individual privacy. If HBM data wants to have a significant contribution to spatial information used to assist policymaking and on the surveillance or tracking of the direct or indirect impact of such policies, the HBM data need to be compatible with other data collected within the other themes of the INSPIRE Directive.

  3. The future of retail clinics: in a volatile health care environment.

    PubMed

    Kaissi, Amer

    2010-01-01

    Recent estimates put the total number of retail clinics at more than 1000 nationwide. Some forecasts estimate that explosive growth will continue in the future, whereas others suggest that the retail clinic boom might be ending. This article assesses the retail clinic trend and explores its future viability in the volatile health care environment. Eight administrative and clinical leaders in 7 health systems that are affiliated with or own retail clinics were asked specific questions about the future evolution of retail clinics. Respondents offered mixed opinions about the future of retail clinics, and most were skeptical about their growth potential. Some of the respondents believed that health care reform will be supportive of retail clinics, but there was uncertainty about the specific effects of expansion in insurance coverage. Respondents reacted differently to the prospect of retail clinics expanding their scope of practice to include chronic conditions. Some of them welcomed the trend, but the majority was critical of it for various reasons. At this turning point for the health care system, it is not clear whether retail clinics will represent a significant value proposition for the system or whether they are a fad that will soon pass and disappear.

  4. Strategic planning and radiology practice management in the new health care environment.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Richard E; Mehta, Tejas S; Eisenberg, Ronald L; Kruskal, Jonathan B

    2015-01-01

    Current comprehensive health care reform in the United States demands that policy makers, insurers, providers, and patients work in reshaping the health care system to deliver care that is both more affordable and of higher quality. A tectonic shift is under way that runs contrary to the traditional goal of radiology groups to perform and interpret large numbers of imaging examinations. In fact, radiology service requisitions now must be evaluated for their appropriateness, possibly resulting in a reduction in the number of imaging studies performed. To be successful, radiology groups will have to restructure their business practices and strategies to align with the emerging health care paradigm. This article outlines a four-stage strategic framework that has aided corporations in achieving their goals and that can be readily adapted and applied by radiologists. The four stages are (a) definition and articulation of a purpose, (b) clear definition of strategic goals, (c) prioritization of specific strategic enablers, and (d) implementation of processes for tracking progress and enabling continuous adaptation. The authors provide practical guidance for applying specific tools such as analyses of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (so-called SWOT analyses), prioritization matrices, and balanced scorecards to accomplish each stage. By adopting and applying these tools within the strategic framework outlined, radiology groups can position themselves to succeed in the evolving health care environment.

  5. The lunar environment: Determining the health effects of exposure to moon dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen

    The Earth's moon presents a hostile environment in which to live and work. There is no atmosphere to protect its surface from the ravages of cosmic radiation, solar wind and micrometeorite impacts. As a result, the moon's surface is covered with a thin layer of fine, charged, reactive dust capable of entering habitats, and vehicle compartments, where it can cause crew member health problems. During the Apollo missions, lunar dusts were introduced into the Lunar Lander and command module, resulting in direct exposure and occasional reports of respiratory, dermal and ocular irritation. Now that we are returning to the moon for long duration stays and multiple space walk exposures, NASA is concerned with the health of the astronauts in regards to repeated (chronic) and acute episodic exposures to lunar dusts. We expect that lunar dust will be returned to the module post-space-walk (extravehicular activity, EVA) activity. These repeated episodic exposures will need to be controlled by our Environmental Control Life Support System, based upon the health standards that we set for acute and chronic exposures. In order to characterize the toxicological effects of lunar dust, NASA formed the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Advisory Group (LADTAG). This interdisciplinary group is composed of experts in space toxicology, lunar geology, space medicine, dust toxicity, and biomedical research. Ultimately, this panel of experts will set health standards and risk criteria for use by vehicle design engineers, operation planners and astronauts during lunar missions.

  6. Children's health and the environment: a new agenda for prevention research.

    PubMed

    Landrigan, P J; Carlson, J E; Bearer, C F; Cranmer, J S; Bullard, R D; Etzel, R A; Groopman, J; McLachlan, J A; Perera, F P; Reigart, J R; Robison, L; Schell, L; Suk, W A

    1998-06-01

    Patterns of illness in American children have changed dramatically in this century. The ancient infectious diseases have largely been controlled. The major diseases confronting children now are chronic and disabling conditions termed the "new pediatric morbidity"--asthma mortality has doubled; leukemia and brain cancer have increased in incidence; neurodevelopmental dysfunction is widespread; hypospadias incidence has doubled. Chemical toxicants in the environment as well as poverty, racism, and inequitable access to medical care are factors known and suspected to contribute to causation of these pediatric diseases. Children are at risk of exposure to over 15,000 high-production-volume synthetic chemicals, nearly all of them developed in the past 50 years. These chemicals are used widely in consumer products and are dispersed in the environment. More than half are untested for toxicity. Children appear uniquely vulnerable to chemical toxicants because of their disproportionately heavy exposures and their inherent biological susceptibility. To prevent disease of environmental origin in America's children, the Children's Environmental Health Network (CEHN) calls for a comprehensive, national, child-centered agenda. This agenda must recognize children's vulnerabilities to environmental toxicants. It must encompass a) a new prevention-oriented research focus; b) a new child-centered paradigm for health risk assessment and policy formulation; and c) a campaign to educate the public, health professionals, and policy makers that environmental disease is caused by preventable exposures and is therefore avoidable. To anchor the agenda, CEHN calls for long-term, stable investment and for creation of a national network of pediatric environmental health research and prevention centers.

  7. Implementing safer alternatives to lithographic cleanup solvents to protect the health of workers and the environment.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Patrice; Wolf, Katy; Quint, Julia

    2009-03-01

    The use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in lithographic printing cleanup is an environmental and occupational hazard. Regulations to reduce ambient ozone levels limited VOC emissions from lithographic cleanup operations and spurred the development of low-VOC alternatives. The purpose of this project was to promote the substitution of hazardous cleanup solvents with less toxic chemicals to protect the health of workers and the environment. A convenience sample of printers, employers, union, industry, and government representatives was constructed. Data regarding the lithographic printing work force and the use of cleanup solvents and alternatives were collected through: (1) work site walk-throughs, (2) a focus group, (3) key informant interviews, (4) a half-day workshop, and (5) demonstration projects. Overall, 66 individuals from 15 different print shops, 10 government agencies, the lithographic printing industry, and one printer's union participated in one or more aspects of the project. Printer inhalation exposure to hazardous cleanup solvents was prevalent and printers were not aware of safer alternatives. Employers should implement low-VOC, low-toxicity cleanup products in a timely manner to protect the health of printers and the environment. Use of low-VOC lithographic cleanup products does not mitigate the potential for printer dermal exposure and may carry safety and ergonomic implications. Lithographic cleanup solvent manufacturers should seek low-VOC ingredients that do not pose a dermal exposure hazard. Linking environmental and occupational health prevented the development of substitutes that would have introduced worker hazards and provided an opportunity to circumvent some of the inadequacies of the current occupational health regulatory apparatus. Governmental organizations should establish and maintain institutional interdisciplinary mechanisms to support these linkages. PMID:19142792

  8. The Lunar Environment: Determining the Health Effects of Exposure to Moon Dusts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen

    2007-01-01

    The Earth s moon presents a hostile environment in which to live and work. There is no atmosphere to protect its surface from the ravages of solar wind and micrometeorite impacts. As a result, the moon s surface is covered with a thin layer of fine, charged, reactive dust capable of entering habitats and vehicle compartments, where it can result in crewmember health problems. During the Apollo missions, lunar dusts were introduced into the crew vehicle, resulting in direct exposure and occasional reports of respiratory, dermal and ocular irritation. In order to study the toxicological effects of lunar dust, NASA formed the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Advisory Group (LADTAG). This interdisciplinary group is comprised of leading experts in space toxicology, lunar geology, space medicine and biomedical research. LADTAG has demonstrated that lunar soil contains several types of reactive dusts, including an extremely fine respirable component. These dusts have highly reactive surfaces in the lunar environment; the grains contain surface coatings which are generated by vapor phases formed by hypervelocity impact of micrometeorites. This unique class of dusts has surface properties that are unlike any Earth based analog. These distinctive properties are why lunar dusts are of great toxicological interest. Understanding how these reactive components behave "biochemically" in a moisture-rich pulmonary environment will aid in determining how toxic these particles are to humans. The data obtained from toxicological examination of lunar dusts will determine the human risk criteria for lunar dust exposure and produce a lunar health standard. LADTAG s analysis of lunar dusts and lunar dust simulants will include detailed lunar particle characterizations, determining the properties of particle activation, reactivation of lunar dust, the process of dust passivation and discerning the pathology of lunar dust exposure via inhalation, intratracheal instillation, cell culture

  9. Single Room Occupancy (SRO) hotels as mental health risk environments among impoverished women: the intersection of policy, drug use, trauma, and urban space

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Knight R.; Lopez, Andrea M.; Comfort, Megan; Shumway, Martha; Cohen, Jennifer; Riley, Elise

    2014-01-01

    Due to the significantly high levels of comorbid substance use and mental health diagnosis among urban poor populations, examining the intersection of drug policy and place requires a consideration of the role of housing in drug user mental health. In San Francisco, geographic boundedness and progressive health and housing polices have coalesced to make single room occupancy hotels (SROs) a key urban built environment used to house poor populations with co-occurring drug use and mental health issues. Unstably housed women who use illicit drugs have high rates of lifetime and current trauma, which manifests in disproportionately high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression when compared to stably housed women. We report data from a qualitative interview study (n=30) and four years of ethnography conducted with housing policy makers and unstably housed women who use drugs and live in SROs. Women in the study lived in a range of SRO built environments, from publicly-funded, newly built SROs to privately-owned, dilapidated buildings, which presented a rich opportunity for ethnographic comparison. Applying Rhodes et al.’s framework of socio-structural vulnerability, we explore how SROs can operate as “mental health risk environments” in which macro-structural factors (housing policies shaping the built environment) interact with meso-level factors (social relations within SROs) and micro-level, behavioral coping strategies to impact women’s mental health. The degree to which SRO built environments were “trauma-sensitive” at the macro level significantly influenced women’s mental health at meso- and micro- levels. Women who were living in SROs which exacerbated fear and anxiety attempted, with limited success, to deploy strategies on the meso- and micro- level to manage their mental health symptoms. Study findings underscore the importance of housing polices which consider substance use in the context of current and

  10. The relationship between microbial DNA concentrations and swimming associated health effects at a tropical environment bathing beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between microbial DNA concentrations and swimming associated health effects at a tropical environment bathing beach. Timothy 1. Wade, presenter. Co-authors: Alfred P. Dufour, Kristen Brenner, Rich Haugland, Larry Wymer, Elizabeth Sams Fecal indicator bacteria (F...

  11. The health-care environment on a locked psychiatric ward: an ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Inger M; Skärsäter, Ingela; Danielson, Ella

    2006-12-01

    Recent changes in psychiatric hospital care involving a reduction in the number of beds and time spent in hospital motivated the study of conditions of inpatient care on such wards. An ethnographic study of a locked, acute psychiatric ward in a department of psychiatry was performed with the aim of describing the health-care environment in such a ward. The ward admitted patients on both a voluntarily and involuntarily basis. Data were collected by means of 3.5 months of participant observations. The results showed a health-care environment that was overshadowed by control. Staff were in control but they also lacked control; they attempted to master the situation in line with organizational demands and they sometimes failed. At the same time, the staff tried to share the responsibility of caring for patients and next of kin. Patients were controlled by staff; they were the underdogs and dependent on staff for their care and the freedom to leave the ward. Patients tried to make themselves heard and reacted to the control by developing counter-strategies. What this study adds to earlier research is patients' pressure on staff and sometimes quite an open struggle for more control, which may be an expression for an unacceptable imbalance in power between patients and staff.

  12. Health and chemical environment in Czecho-Slovakia, international cooperation context.

    PubMed

    Trnovec, T; Rosival, L

    1993-02-01

    This review provides a record of the present situation with regard to public health and environmental degradation and its underlying causes in Czecho-Slovakia, taking into account "ways of life," which is a synonym for its two components: environment and behavior. It gives attention to the priorities which include air and water pollution and food contamination. "Environmental protection" includes the human health protection from air, water, land, and groundwater pollution, ecological protection and natural resource preservation, use of pesticides, food and consumer product safety, and safety associated with the introduction of new chemicals into commerce. Further, this review focuses on the fundamental building blocks for a new environmental policy and management system (Constitution Act, 1991; Environmental Law, 1991; Chemical Act, in preparation; standards regarding chemicals, etc.). With regard to the international concern about the dangers of chemicals for humanity and the natural environment, attention is drawn to the collaboration of Czecho-Slovakia in chemical safety with WHO, IRPTC, and OECD. An important task is to determine what scientific research is needed and to educate administrators, politicians, and the general public in chemical safety. PMID:8441829

  13. Health and chemical environment in Czecho-Slovakia, international cooperation context.

    PubMed

    Trnovec, T; Rosival, L

    1993-02-01

    This review provides a record of the present situation with regard to public health and environmental degradation and its underlying causes in Czecho-Slovakia, taking into account "ways of life," which is a synonym for its two components: environment and behavior. It gives attention to the priorities which include air and water pollution and food contamination. "Environmental protection" includes the human health protection from air, water, land, and groundwater pollution, ecological protection and natural resource preservation, use of pesticides, food and consumer product safety, and safety associated with the introduction of new chemicals into commerce. Further, this review focuses on the fundamental building blocks for a new environmental policy and management system (Constitution Act, 1991; Environmental Law, 1991; Chemical Act, in preparation; standards regarding chemicals, etc.). With regard to the international concern about the dangers of chemicals for humanity and the natural environment, attention is drawn to the collaboration of Czecho-Slovakia in chemical safety with WHO, IRPTC, and OECD. An important task is to determine what scientific research is needed and to educate administrators, politicians, and the general public in chemical safety.

  14. Relevance of thermal environment to human health: a case study of Ondo State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omonijo, Akinyemi Gabriel; Adeofun, Clement Olabinjo; Oguntoke, Olusegun; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    The interconnection between weather and climate and the performance, well-being, and human health cannot be overemphasized. The relationship between them is of both local and global significance. Information about weather, climate, and thermal environment is very important to human health and medical practitioners. The most crucial environmental information needed by medical practitioners and for maintaining human health, performance, and well-being are thermal conditions. The study used meteorological variables: air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, and RayMan model as an analytical tool to compute physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) in order to assess thermo-physiological thresholds in Ondo State. The study revealed that there are marked spatial and seasonal variations in the environmental thermal conditions in the study area. The results of physiologically equivalent temperature for different grades of thermal sensation and physiological stress on human beings indicate that about 60 % of the total study period (1998-2008) fall under physiological stress level of moderate heat stress (PET 31-36 °C). In derived savannah, 32.6 % out of the total study period was under strong heat stress. In view of this, the study concluded that Ondo State may likely be prone to heat-related ailments and that some of the death recorded in the State, in recent times, may be heat-related mortality, but this is difficult to ascertain because there is no postmortem records in Nigeria where it could be confirmed. This type of study is relevant to help government to improve health care interventions and achieve Millennium Development Goals in health sector.

  15. Environment, Safety, and Health Self-Assessment Report, Fiscal Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Chernowski, John

    2009-02-27

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Self-Assessment Program ensures that Integrated Safety Management (ISM) is implemented institutionally and by all divisions. The Self-Assessment Program, managed by the Office of Contract Assurance (OCA), provides for an internal evaluation of all ES&H programs and systems at LBNL. The functions of the program are to ensure that work is conducted safely, and with minimal negative impact to workers, the public, and the environment. The Self-Assessment Program is also the mechanism used to institute continuous improvements to the Laboratory's ES&H programs. The program is described in LBNL/PUB 5344, Environment, Safety, and Health Self-Assessment Program and is composed of four distinct assessments: the Division Self-Assessment, the Management of Environment, Safety, and Health (MESH) review, ES&H Technical Assurance, and the Appendix B Self-Assessment. The Division Self-Assessment uses the five core functions and seven guiding principles of ISM as the basis of evaluation. Metrics are created to measure performance in fulfilling ISM core functions and guiding principles, as well as promoting compliance with applicable regulations. The five core functions of ISM are as follows: (1) Define the Scope of Work; (2) Identify and Analyze Hazards; (3) Control the Hazards; (4) Perform the Work; and (5) Feedback and Improvement. The seven guiding principles of ISM are as follows: (1) Line Management Responsibility for ES&H; (2) Clear Roles and Responsibilities; (3) Competence Commensurate with Responsibilities; (4) Balanced Priorities; (5) Identification of ES&H Standards and Requirements; (6) Hazard Controls Tailored to the Work Performed; and (7) Operations Authorization. Performance indicators are developed by consensus with OCA, representatives from each division, and Environment, Health, and Safety (EH&S) Division program managers. Line management of each division performs the Division Self

  16. Thermomechanical fatigue behavior of SiC/Ti-24Al-11Nb in air and argon environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolotta, Paul A.; Verrilli, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    A series of tension-tension, load-controlled thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) tests were conducted on a titanium aluminide composite in both laboratory air and a flowing argon environment. Results from these tests show that the environment plays an increasingly important role as applied stress levels are decreased. Differences in damage mechanisms between the two environments were observed which corresponds to observed variations in TMF lives.

  17. Increasing community health worker productivity and effectiveness: a review of the influence of the work environment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Community health workers (CHWs) are increasingly recognized as a critical link in improving access to services and achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals. Given the financial and human resources constraints in developing countries, CHWs are expected to do more without necessarily receiving the needed support to do their jobs well. How much can be expected of CHWs before work overload and reduced organizational support negatively affect their productivity, the quality of services, and in turn the effectiveness of the community-based programmes that rely on them? This article presents policy-makers and programme managers with key considerations for a model to improve the work environment as an important approach to increase CHW productivity and, ultimately, the effectiveness of community-based strategies. Methods A desk review of selective published and unpublished articles and reports on CHW programs in developing countries was conducted to analyse and organize findings on the elements that influence CHW productivity. The search was not exhaustive but rather was meant to gather information on general themes that run through the various documents to generate perspectives on the issue and provide evidence on which to formulate ideas. After an initial search for key terminology related to CHW productivity, a snowball technique was used where a reference in one article led to the discovery of additional documents and reports. Results CHW productivity is determined in large part by the conditions under which they work. Attention to the provision of an enabling work environment for CHWs is essential for achieving high levels of productivity. We present a model in which the work environment encompasses four essential elements—workload, supportive supervision, supplies and equipment, and respect from the community and the health system—that affect the productivity of CHWs. We propose that when CHWs have a manageable workload in terms of a

  18. WIC mothers' social environment and postpartum health on breastfeeding initiation and duration.

    PubMed

    Darfour-Oduro, Sandra Asantewaa; Kim, Juhee

    2014-12-01

    A low breastfeeding rate has been a consistent maternal and child health problem in the United States, especially for low-income families. Understanding mothers' social environment and overall well-being is important in determining how mothers will take care of themselves and their infants during the postnatal period in relation to the breastfeeding rate among low-income mothers. In this study, we examined the effects of the social environment of mothers enrolled in a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program in eastern Illinois and their postpartum health on breastfeeding initiation (n=103) and maintaining breastfeeding for at least 3 months (n=73). Using logistic regression models, a significant positive association (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=3.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-10.47; p=0.03) between marital status and breastfeeding initiation and a significant negative association (AOR=0.23; 95% CI, 0.06-0.88) between receiving food stamps and breastfeeding initiation were found. WIC mothers who were married were 4.1 times as likely to maintain any breastfeeding for at least 3 months than single mothers, and the association was significant (AOR=4.08; 95% CI, 1.36-12.27; p=0.01). The breastfeeding initiation rate was 77.7%, however, the mean±standard deviation age of the child when breastfeeding stopped was 2.2±1.4 months. There was a nonsignificant association between postpartum depression and breastfeeding initiation and maintaining any breastfeeding for 3 months. This study has shown that the familial environment of mothers plays a very important role in improving breastfeeding rates among WIC mothers. In addition, there is a negative relationship between using a food assistance program and breastfeeding among low-income women. PMID:25188784

  19. Approaches to the Development of Human Health Toxicity Values for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in the Environment.

    PubMed

    Sorell, Tamara L

    2016-01-01

    Management of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in the environment is challenging because these substances represent a large and diverse group of compounds. Advanced wastewater treatment technologies that can remove API tend to be costly. Because of the potential resources required to address API in the environment, there is a need to establish environmental benchmarks that can serve as targets for treatment and release. To date, there are several different approaches that have been taken to derive human health toxicity values for API. These methods include traditional risk assessment approaches that calculate "safe" doses using experimental data and uncertainty (safety) factors; point of departure (POD), which starts from a therapeutic human dose and applies uncertainty factors; and threshold of toxicological concern (TTC), a generic approach that establishes threshold values across broad classes of chemicals based on chemical structure. To evaluate the use of these approaches, each of these methods was applied to three API commonly encountered in the environment: acetaminophen, caffeine, and chlorpromazine. The results indicate that the various methods of estimating toxicity values produce highly varying doses. Associated doses are well below typical intakes, or toxicity thresholds cannot be derived due to a lack of information. No uniform approach can be applied to establishing thresholds for multiple substances. Rather, an individualized approach will need to be applied to each target API. PMID:26338232

  20. Aggregate human health risk assessment from dust of daily life in the urban environment of Beijing.

    PubMed

    Xu, L Y; Shu, X

    2014-04-01

    Because of the high emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into the environment by the increasing number of vehicles in Beijing and the absorption of these PAHs onto particulates, the performance of a preliminary health risk assessment of the aggregate exposure to PAHs of urban citizens in daily life is very important. Urban dust can be used to examine the aggregation of atmospheric particulates from local pollution sources over a long time period and the direct exposure of the urban human population. The environment's correlative with clothing, dining, residing, and traveling in urban daily life was assessed using exposure-receptor-oriented analysis. The multipathway exposure model was used to simulate the lifetime exposure of a female citizen to PAHs in dust. All of the PAH concentrations in dust for each behavior and its correlative environment in Beijing were acceptable because all of the carcinogenic risks of PAHs in the dust were approximately 1.0 × 10(-6). The dominant induced carcinogenic risks in the dust were Benzo(a)pyrene and Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene. The main carcinogenic risk routes for humans were dermal contact and oral intake, which contributed on average 99.78% of the risk. Indoor risk is especially important, as the decoration and height within the building were important impact factors for carcinogenic risk induced by indoor PAHs. For people living in an urban area, a healthy lifestyle includes less decoration per room, living on a low floor, wearing a respirator, and reducing exposed skin area when traveling.

  1. Occupational health and safety professionals strategies to improve working environment and their self-assessed impact.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) practitioners have difficulty influencing the decision-making process because they are placed on the sidelines in the organisation. This paper analyses the strategies that OHS practitioners use to fulfill their job role and the impact they have on the working environment and OHS management systems. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten New Zealand OHS practitioners from mainly large private and public organisations about their job role, OHS tasks, strategies and their impact. The interviews were tape recorded, transcribed, entered into a qualitative data management programme and analysed thematically in relation to their strategies, barriers and their impact on the OHS management system and working environment. The analysis revealed that these OHS practitioners used multiple strategies - chosen in relation to the situation, the stakeholders and their own resources. They saw themselves as change agents or facilitators. They preferred to use a knowledge strategy, supported by an audit strategy. Their last resort was a regulation strategy. All of the practitioners had a positive impact on stakeholders' knowledge, attitude and behavior and on OHS management systems. Some practitioners improved the working environment but few were involved in introduction of new technology.

  2. Approaches to the Development of Human Health Toxicity Values for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in the Environment.

    PubMed

    Sorell, Tamara L

    2016-01-01

    Management of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in the environment is challenging because these substances represent a large and diverse group of compounds. Advanced wastewater treatment technologies that can remove API tend to be costly. Because of the potential resources required to address API in the environment, there is a need to establish environmental benchmarks that can serve as targets for treatment and release. To date, there are several different approaches that have been taken to derive human health toxicity values for API. These methods include traditional risk assessment approaches that calculate "safe" doses using experimental data and uncertainty (safety) factors; point of departure (POD), which starts from a therapeutic human dose and applies uncertainty factors; and threshold of toxicological concern (TTC), a generic approach that establishes threshold values across broad classes of chemicals based on chemical structure. To evaluate the use of these approaches, each of these methods was applied to three API commonly encountered in the environment: acetaminophen, caffeine, and chlorpromazine. The results indicate that the various methods of estimating toxicity values produce highly varying doses. Associated doses are well below typical intakes, or toxicity thresholds cannot be derived due to a lack of information. No uniform approach can be applied to establishing thresholds for multiple substances. Rather, an individualized approach will need to be applied to each target API.

  3. Application of Tools and Databases to Community-Level Assessments of Exposure, Health and the Environment with Case Study Examples

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this report is to assess the application of tools to community-level assessments of exposure, health and the environment. Various tools and datasets provided different types of information, such as on health effects, chemical types and volumes, facility locations a...

  4. Contradictions in Educational Policy: Implementing Integrated Problem-Based Environmental Health Curriculum in a High Stakes Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martina, Camille Anne; Hursh, David; Markowitz, Dina

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the efforts of educators at nine different research sites within the United States, funded by a grant from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), to develop and implement innovative, interdisciplinary curriculum on the relationship of the environment and human health. The NIEHS correctly…

  5. Relationship marketing of health care plans: retaining corporate customers in a competitive environment.

    PubMed

    Choong, P

    2000-01-01

    Corporate employers have become major purchasers of health care. They are gatekeepers who decide whether to retain or drop an insurance company from the choice set offered to employees as well as whether to include new insurers into this choice set. If marketers of health maintenance organizations are to maintain their market share in this competitive environment, they need to understand issues considered important to corporate employers. This paper identifies the key drivers of satisfaction among corporate employers and shows the impact these key drivers have on overall satisfaction. More importantly, it demonstrates both theoretically and empirically that the impact of performance attributes on satisfaction is asymmetrical. Positive performances of attributes are shown to have smaller impacts on satisfaction than negative performances. The theoretical underpinnings of these phenomena are shown to lie in prospect theory. Finally, quantitative indicators are computed to aid managerial decision-making. Marketing managers of health insurance companies will optimize returns on their investment by understanding this asymmetric effect and eliminate existing deficiencies.

  6. Telepsychiatry: Benefits and costs in a changing health-care environment.

    PubMed

    Waugh, Maryann; Voyles, Debbie; Thomas, Marshall R

    2015-01-01

    In the USA, the high cost and inefficiencies of the health care system have prompted widespread demand for a better value on investment. Reform efforts, focused on increasing effective, cost-efficient, and patient-centred practices, are inciting lasting changes to health care delivery. Integrated care, providing team-based care that addresses both physical and behavioural health needs is growing as an evidence-based way to provide improved care with lower overall costs. This in turn, is leading to an increasing demand for psychiatrists to work with primary care physicians in delivering integrated care. Telepsychiatry is an innovative platform that has a variety of benefits to patients, providers, and systems. Associated costs are changing as technology advances and policies shift. The purpose of this article is to describe the changing role of psychiatry within the environment of U.S. healthcare reform, and the benefits (demonstrated and potential) and costs (fixed, variable, and reimbursable) of telepsychiatry to providers, patients and systems. PMID:26586193

  7. Impacts of lead/zinc mining and smelting on the environment and human health in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuwu; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Wang, Wuyi; Ye, Bixiong

    2012-04-01

    Mining and smelting are important economic activities. However, mining-related industries are also some of the largest sources of environmental pollution from heavy metals. China is one of the largest producers and consumers of lead and zinc in the world. A large amount of lead, zinc, and related elements, such as cadmium, have been released into the environment due to mineral processing activities and have impacted water resources, soils, vegetables, and crops. In some areas, this pollution is hazardous to human health. This article reviews studies published in the past 10 years (2000-2009), on the environmental and human health consequences of lead/zinc mineral exploitation in China. Polluted areas are concentrated in the following areas: the junction of Yunnan, Guizhou and Sichuan provinces, west-central Hunan province, central Guangxi province, northern Guangdong, northwestern Henan province, the border between Shanxi and Gansu provinces, and the region of Liaoning province near Bohai. Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are the main pollutants and are associated with human health effects such as high lead blood levels in children, arthralgia, osteomalacia, and excessive cadmium in urine. PMID:21573711

  8. Impacts of lead/zinc mining and smelting on the environment and human health in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuwu; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Wang, Wuyi; Ye, Bixiong

    2012-04-01

    Mining and smelting are important economic activities. However, mining-related industries are also some of the largest sources of environmental pollution from heavy metals. China is one of the largest producers and consumers of lead and zinc in the world. A large amount of lead, zinc, and related elements, such as cadmium, have been released into the environment due to mineral processing activities and have impacted water resources, soils, vegetables, and crops. In some areas, this pollution is hazardous to human health. This article reviews studies published in the past 10 years (2000-2009), on the environmental and human health consequences of lead/zinc mineral exploitation in China. Polluted areas are concentrated in the following areas: the junction of Yunnan, Guizhou and Sichuan provinces, west-central Hunan province, central Guangxi province, northern Guangdong, northwestern Henan province, the border between Shanxi and Gansu provinces, and the region of Liaoning province near Bohai. Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are the main pollutants and are associated with human health effects such as high lead blood levels in children, arthralgia, osteomalacia, and excessive cadmium in urine.

  9. How adolescents perceive their communities: a qualitative study that explores the relationship between health and the physical environment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) study was conducted among adolescents aged 15-19 years in Baltimore, Ibadan, Johannesburg, New Delhi, and Shanghai to examine perceived factors related to their health. A preliminary analysis of the data, unexpectedly, revealed that the influence of the physical environment on adolescent health was a dominant theme across every site examined. To explore this further, this paper analyzed the specific components of the physical environment that were perceived to influence health, and how they contributed to various health outcomes across sites. Methods Researchers in each site conducted in-depth interviews among adolescents; community mapping and focus groups among adolescents; a Photovoice methodology, in which adolescents were trained in photography and took photos of the meaning of ‘health’ in their communities; and key informant interviews among adults who work with young people. A total 529 participants from across the sites were included in the analysis. Results Findings showed that while there was surprising uniformity in how adolescents characterized their physical environment, perceived health outcomes related to the physical environment varied by site and gender. In Baltimore and Johannesburg, vacant homes and the lack of recreation facilities were perceived to impact on sexual and reproductive health problems for girls, while among boys they contributed to drugs and violence. In Shanghai, New Delhi, and Ibadan, garbage and trash observed in their communities were perceived to have a higher impact on infectious and chronic diseases. Conclusions As the world continues to urbanize, our study points to a strong need to examine how the physical aspects of a living environment contribute to the health of adolescents. Specific aspects, such as housing, safety, garbage, and recreational spaces must all be examined as possible pathways for making improvements to health of adolescents

  10. Properties of a reaction-bonded β-SiAlON ceramic doped with an FeMo alloy for application to molten aluminum environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-jun; Yu, Hai-liang; Jin, Hai-yun; Shi, Zhong-qi; Qiao, Guan-jun; Jin, Zhi-hao

    2015-05-01

    An FeMo-alloy-doped β-SiAlON (FeMo/β-SiAlON) composite was fabricated via a reaction-bonding method using raw materials of Si, Al2O3, AlN, FeMo, and Sm2O3. The effects of FeMo on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the composite were investigated. Some properties of the composite, including its bending strength at 700°C and after oxidization at 700°C for 24 h in air, thermal shock resistance and corrosion resistance to molten aluminum, were also evaluated. The results show that the density, toughness, bending strength, and thermal shock resistance of the composite are obviously improved with the addition of an FeMo alloy. In addition, other properties of the composite such as its high-temperature strength and oxidized strength are also improved by the addition of FeMo alloy, and its corrosion resistance to molten aluminum is maintained. These findings indicate that the developed FeMo/β-SiAlON composite exhibits strong potential for application to molten aluminum environments.

  11. A simultaneous analysis of neighbourhood and childhood socio-economic environment with self-assessed health and health-related behaviours.

    PubMed

    Monden, Christiaan W S; van Lenthe, Frank J; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2006-12-01

    Childhood socio-economic environment and neighbourhood socio-economic environment later in life are closely related. However, few studies have considered their effects simultaneously. Using cross-sectional data of approximately 8000 respondents in 86 neighbourhoods in the city of Eindhoven, The Netherlands, we study associations of both determinants with self-assessed health, smoking, alcohol consumption and overweight. Growing up in a low socio-economic environment increased the probability to live a more deprived neighbourhood in adulthood. Controlling for individual socio-economic characteristics, both childhood and neighbourhood socio-economic environment were related to smoking and overweight, but not with excessive alcohol consumption. Associations between childhood socio-economic environment and smoking and overweight are still substantial after controlling for neighbourhood socio-economic environment. Similarly, neighbourhood inequalities in smoking and overweight remain substantial after controlling for childhood socio-economic environment.

  12. Reply to discussion of "Tropospheric ozone variability over the Iberian Peninsula Atmospheric Environment" by Kulkarni et al. (2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Pavan S.; Bortoli, D.; Salgado, R.; Antón, M.; Costa, M. J.; Silva, A. M.

    2011-05-01

    In the discussion paper on our article ( Kulkarni et al., 2011), de Laat has criticized TOR methodology and TOR data and thus questioned the validity of the findings. He has also pointed out the fact that the authors may have used the OMI/MLS data. In this reply to the discussion, the clarifications and references given herewith endeavour to undoubtedly answer the questions posed by de Laat on TOR methodology and on TOR data and thus proving that the findings of Kulkarni et al. (2011) are scientifically justified and therefore entirely valid. Furthermore, reasons were presented to justify the non use of the OMI/MLS data.

  13. The Relationship of Built Environment to Health-Related Behaviors and Health Outcomes in Elderly Community Residents in a Middle Income Country

    PubMed Central

    Blay, Sergio L.; Schulz, Amy J.; Mentz, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the impact of the built environment (BE) on health behaviours and health outcomes in middle income countries. This study examines associations between self-assessed characteristics of the home and neighbourhood environment and health-related behaviours and health outcomes in an elderly population in Brazil Design and methods In a community sample of 6963 community dwellers 60 years old and older living in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, associations between self-reported BE conditions and health behaviours and health outcomes were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Multivariate analysis was conducted to investigate these associations while accounting for other relevant characteristics. Results We found significant positive associations between adverse BE conditions and pulmonary, urinary conditions, gastrointestinal, problems, headache and depression. There were mixed associations between adverse BE conditions and musculoskeletal and sensory conditions, inverse associations with metabolic disorders. and no associations with dermatologic problems and cancer. After accounting for health related behaviours, results suggest a modest association between adverse BE conditions and hypertension, with no significant associations with other indicators of cardiovascular conditions (heart problems, stroke, varicose veins). Conclusions The findings in this study suggest links between adverse conditions in the BE and health related behaviours in the hypothesized direction. Associations with the health conditions examined here are mixed. We find the strongest evidence for effects of adverse BE conditions for pulmonary and infectious conditions. Significant associations between the adverse BE indicators and health outcomes persist after accounting for health related behaviours, suggesting that BE conditions are linked to health pathways above and beyond the health related behaviours assessed in this study. Significance for

  14. Behavioral marriage therapy. III. The contents of Gurman et al. may be hazardous to our health.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, N; Weiss, R L

    1978-06-01

    This paper was written as a reply to a critique of behavioral marital therapy (BMT) by Gurman, Kniskern, and Knudson (6, 7). The reply is divided into four sections. First, the paper addresses the critics' comments on the conceptual model put forth by BMT, correcting and clarifying various misconceptions, and restating some of the basic ideological principles in the behavioral model. Second, the paper discusses behavioral change techniques and technology, along with extratechnological treatment considerations. Again, misrepresentations of BMT are corrected. Third, an analysis of the literature investigating the therapeutic efficacy of BMT is reviewed, and the conclusion is reached that BMT is demonstrably effective, at least for a substantial number of mildly to moderately distressed couples. Criticisms are made of the analysis of the same literature conducted by Gurman et al. We conclude that, contrary to the spirit of the paper by Gurman et al., BMT is a viable framework for conceptualizing and treating relationship problems and that the commitment of its adherents to experimental investigation promises continued evolution, refinement, and improvement. PMID:678349

  15. The Origin and Impact of Ideals in eHealth Research: Experiences From the U-CARE Research Environment

    PubMed Central

    von Essen, Louise; Grönqvist, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of information technology (IT) in society is a foundation for new modes of interaction between patients and health specialists. IT plays an important role in the renewal of care. Several countries have incorporated eHealth plans into their national health strategies. Part of the eHealth evolution concerns Internet psychological treatment and psychosocial care. These interventions are complex to design and evaluate due to legal, ethical, organizational, technical, and methodological challenges. Objective The objective of our study was to seek to make explicit contributions to the understanding of ideals in eHealth research, and illuminate their implications for establishing an effective research environment. Our analysis draws from three years of experience in establishing an eHealth research environment, and the literature. Methods We worked inductively to characterize challenging research ideals, and their origins, in our environment. Thereafter, we made a selective search of the literature to scrutinize and illuminate each ideal and it’s implications. Results In this work, we propose a structured approach to address ideals in eHealth research. The scrutinized ideals are accountability, innovation, rigor, relevance, and sustainability. The approach supports researchers to systematically understand the ideals, their origin, and to manage their implications within an eHealth research environment. Conclusions The complexity of eHealth research causes a need for sustainable, multi-disciplinary research environments. There is a need for a structured approach to organize eHealth research. The proposed approach helps to systematically scrutinize ideals, thus promoting high quality research. PMID:24860071

  16. Moving NASA Remote Sensing Data to the GIS Environment for Health Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, Gilberto A.; Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    There has been an increasing demand by the health community for improved data on many different environmental factors relevant to the links between the environment and disease occurrence and transmission. These data are important for GIS-based monitoring, risk mapping, and surveillance of epidemiological parameters on a large number of different spatial, temporal, and spectral resolutions. Accordingly, NASA is developing new approaches to data collection and distribution in order to improve access to multiple sources of data streams to increase spatial and temporal coverage. Methods are being developed to incorporate different, scalable capabilities to handle multiple data sources by adding, deleting and replacing components as required as well as associated tools for their management. An approach has been to search for innovative solutions focused on the creation, use and manipulation of data stored in many different archives. These include data transformation and combination as well as data and information tools that can assist the public health and science community to use existing and anticipated products in new and flexible ways. This presentation will provide an inventory of geophysical parameters derived from satellite remote sensing sensors that are useful for GIS-based public health studies. The presentation will also discuss the physical and scientific limitations of access to and use of these data for health applications such as resolution and format differences, lack of software interoperability, data access problems. Finally, there will be a summary of the recent steps the NASA program has taken to bring NASA-generated satellite products to a wider range of users in the GIS community.

  17. Climate change influences on environment as a determinant of Indigenous health: Relationships to place, sea ice, and health in an Inuit community.

    PubMed

    Durkalec, Agata; Furgal, Chris; Skinner, Mark W; Sheldon, Tom

    2015-07-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on Indigenous health, human dimensions of climate change, and place-based dimensions of health by examining the role of environment for Inuit health in the context of a changing climate. We investigated the relationship between one key element of the environment - sea ice - and diverse aspects of health in an Inuit community in northern Canada, drawing on population health and health geography approaches. We used a case study design and participatory and collaborative approach with the community of Nain in northern Labrador, Canada. Focus groups (n = 2), interviews (n = 22), and participant observation were conducted in 2010-11. We found that an appreciation of place was critical for understanding the full range of health influences of sea ice use for Inuit. Negative physical health impacts were reported on less frequently than positive health benefits of sea ice use, which were predominantly related to mental/emotional, spiritual, social, and cultural health. We found that sea ice means freedom for sea ice users, which we suggest influences individual and collective health through relationships between sea ice use, culture, knowledge, and autonomy. While sea ice users reported increases in negative physical health impacts such as injuries and stress related to changing environmental conditions, we suggest that less tangible climate change impacts related to losses of health benefits and disruptions to place meanings and place attachment may be even more significant. Our findings indicate that climate change is resulting in and compounding existing environmental dispossession for Inuit. They also demonstrate the necessity of considering place meanings, culture, and socio-historical context to assess the complexity of climate change impacts on Indigenous environmental health.

  18. Health and climate related ecosystem services provided by street trees in the urban environment.

    PubMed

    Salmond, Jennifer A; Tadaki, Marc; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Arbuthnott, Katherine; Coutts, Andrew; Demuzere, Matthias; Dirks, Kim N; Heaviside, Clare; Lim, Shanon; Macintyre, Helen; McInnes, Rachel N; Wheeler, Benedict W

    2016-03-08

    Urban tree planting initiatives are being actively promoted as a planning tool to enable urban areas to adapt to and mitigate against climate change, enhance urban sustainability and improve human health and well-being. However, opportunities for creating new areas of green space within cities are often limited and tree planting initiatives may be constrained to kerbside locations. At this scale, the net impact of trees on human health and the local environment is less clear, and generalised approaches for evaluating their impact are not well developed.In this review, we use an urban ecosystems services framework to evaluate the direct, and locally-generated, ecosystems services and disservices provided by street trees. We focus our review on the services of major importance to human health and well-being which include 'climate regulation', 'air quality regulation' and 'aesthetics and cultural services'. These are themes that are commonly used to justify new street tree or street tree retention initiatives. We argue that current scientific understanding of the impact of street trees on human health and the urban environment has been limited by predominantly regional-scale reductionist approaches which consider vegetation generally and/or single out individual services or impacts without considering the wider synergistic impacts of street trees on urban ecosystems. This can lead planners and policymakers towards decision making based on single parameter optimisation strategies which may be problematic when a single intervention offers different outcomes and has multiple effects and potential trade-offs in different places.We suggest that a holistic approach is required to evaluate the services and disservices provided by street trees at different scales. We provide information to guide decision makers and planners in their attempts to evaluate the value of vegetation in their local setting. We show that by ensuring that the specific aim of the intervention, the

  19. Health and climate related ecosystem services provided by street trees in the urban environment.

    PubMed

    Salmond, Jennifer A; Tadaki, Marc; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Arbuthnott, Katherine; Coutts, Andrew; Demuzere, Matthias; Dirks, Kim N; Heaviside, Clare; Lim, Shanon; Macintyre, Helen; McInnes, Rachel N; Wheeler, Benedict W

    2016-01-01

    Urban tree planting initiatives are being actively promoted as a planning tool to enable urban areas to adapt to and mitigate against climate change, enhance urban sustainability and improve human health and well-being. However, opportunities for creating new areas of green space within cities are often limited and tree planting initiatives may be constrained to kerbside locations. At this scale, the net impact of trees on human health and the local environment is less clear, and generalised approaches for evaluating their impact are not well developed.In this review, we use an urban ecosystems services framework to evaluate the direct, and locally-generated, ecosystems services and disservices provided by street trees. We focus our review on the services of major importance to human health and well-being which include 'climate regulation', 'air quality regulation' and 'aesthetics and cultural services'. These are themes that are commonly used to justify new street tree or street tree retention initiatives. We argue that current scientific understanding of the impact of street trees on human health and the urban environment has been limited by predominantly regional-scale reductionist approaches which consider vegetation generally and/or single out individual services or impacts without considering the wider synergistic impacts of street trees on urban ecosystems. This can lead planners and policymakers towards decision making based on single parameter optimisation strategies which may be problematic when a single intervention offers different outcomes and has multiple effects and potential trade-offs in different places.We suggest that a holistic approach is required to evaluate the services and disservices provided by street trees at different scales. We provide information to guide decision makers and planners in their attempts to evaluate the value of vegetation in their local setting. We show that by ensuring that the specific aim of the intervention, the

  20. Adverse human health effects associated with molds in the indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Bryan D; Kelman, Bruce J; Saxon, Andrew

    2003-05-01

    inhalation exposure to fungi, bacteria, and other organic matter, usually in industrial or agricultural settings. Molds growing indoors are believed by some to cause building-related symptoms. Despite a voluminous literature on the subject, the causal association remains weak and unproven, particularly with respect to causation by mycotoxins. One mold in particular, Stachybotrys chartarum, is blamed for a diverse array of maladies when it is found indoors. Despite its well-known ability to produce mycotoxins under appropriate growth conditions, years of intensive study have failed to establish exposure to S. chartarum in home, school, or office environments as a cause of adverse human health effects. Levels of exposure in the indoor environment, dose-response data in animals, and dose-rate considerations suggest that delivery by the inhalation route of a toxic dose of mycotoxins in the indoor environment is highly unlikely at best, even for the hypothetically most vulnerable subpopulations. Mold spores are present in all indoor environments and cannot be eliminated from them. Normal building materials and furnishings provide ample nutrition for many species of molds, but they can grow and amplify indoors only when there is an adequate supply of moisture. Where mold grows indoors there is an inappropriate source of water that must be corrected before remediation of the mold colonization can succeed. Mold growth in the home, school, or office environment should not be tolerated because mold physically destroys the building materials on which it grows, mold growth is unsightly and may produce offensive odors, and mold is likely to sensitize and produce allergic responses in allergic individuals. Except for persons with severely impaired immune systems, indoor mold is not a source of fungal infections. Current scientific evidence does not support the proposition that human health has been adversely affected by inhaled mycotoxins in home, school, or office environments.

  1. Technology Development, Evaluation, and Application (TDEA) FY 1998 Progress Report Environment, Safety, and Health (ESH) Division

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Hoffman; Kenneth Alvar; Thomas Buhl; Bruce Erdal; Philip Fresquez; Elizabeth Foltyn; Wayne Hansen; Bruce Reinert

    1999-06-01

    This progress report presents the results of 10 projects funded ($504K) in FY98 by the Technology Development, Evaluation, and Application (TDEA) Committee of the Environment, Safety, and Health Division. Nine projects are new for this year; two projects were completed in their third and final TDEA-funded year. As a result of their TDEA-funded projects, investigators have published 19 papers in professional journals, proceedings, or Los Alamos reports and presented their work at professional meetings. Supplemental funds and in-kind contributions, such as staff time, instrument use, and work space were also provided to the TDEA-funded projects by organizations external to ESH Division. Products generated from the projects funded in FY98 included a new extremity dosimeter that replaced the previously used finger-ring dosimeters, a light and easy-to-use detector to measure energy deposited by neutron interactions, and a device that will allow workers to determine the severity of a hazard.

  2. Site Environmental Report for 2006. Volume I, Environment, Health, and Safety Division

    SciTech Connect

    2007-09-30

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.1 The Site Environmental Report for 2006 summarizes Berkeley Lab’s environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2006. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as “Berkeley Lab,” “the Laboratory,” “Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,” and “LBNL.”) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters that contain an overview of the Laboratory, a discussion of the Laboratory’s environmental management system, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities.

  3. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, L.G.; Moraski, R.V.; Selby, J.M.

    1991-05-01

    Part 5 of the 1990 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Environmental Guidance, the Office of Environmental Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance, the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Safety Compliance, and the Office of Policy and Standards. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, there is an article describing progress made during fiscal year 1990. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  4. Tiger Team environment, safety, and health assessment of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This report documents the results of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Tiger Team Assessment of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, conducted from October 22 and November 30, 1990. The assessment was conducted by a tam comprised of environment, safety, and health (ES H) professional from the Department, its contractors, and consultants. The purpose of the ORNL Tiger Team Assessment is to provide the Secretary of Energy with concise information on: current ES H compliance status at the site and the vulnerabilities associated with that compliance status; root causes for noncompliance; and adequacy of DOE and site contractor ES H management programs. This information will assist DOE in determining patterns and trends in ES H compliance and probable root causes, and will provide guidance for management to take needed corrective actions.

  5. Shared Knowledge for Decision-making on Environment and Health Issues in the Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper will describe a remote sensing and GIs-based system to bring indigenous traditional knowledge together with contemporary scientific knowledge to address impacts resulting from changes in climate, environment, weather and pollution in the Arctic. As scientists and policy-makers from both indigenous and non-indigenous communities continue to build closer partnerships to address common sustainability issues such as the health impacts of climate change and anthropogenic activities, it becomes increasingly important to create shared information management systems which integrate all relevant factors for optimal information sharing and decision-making. This system is being designed to bring together remotely sensed, indigenous and other data and observations for analysis, measuring, and monitoring parameters of interest (e.g., snow cover, rainfall, temperature, ice conditions, vegetation, infrastructure, fires). A description of the system and its components as well as a preliminary application of the system in the Arctic will be presented.

  6. Environment, safety and health compliance assessment, Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The Secretary of Energy established independent Tiger Teams to conduct environment, safety, and health (ES H) compliance assessments at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. This report presents the assessment of the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. The purpose of the assessment at FMPC is to provide the Secretary with information regarding current ES H compliance status, specific ES H noncompliance items, evaluation of the adequacy of the ES H organizations and resources (DOE and contractor), and root causes for noncompliance items. Areas reviewed included performance under Federal, state, and local agreements and permits; compliance with Federal, state and DOE orders and requirements; adequacy of operations and other site activities, such as training, procedures, document control, quality assurance, and emergency preparedness; and management and staff, including resources, planning, and interactions with outside agencies.

  7. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. METC is currently a research and development facility, managed by DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. Its goal is to focus energy research and development to develop engineered fossil fuel systems, that are economically viable and environmentally sound, for commercial application. There is clear evidence that, since the 1991 Tiger Team Assessment, substantial progress has been made by both FE and METC in most aspects of their ES&H program. The array of new and restructured organizations, systems, and programs at FE and METC; increased assignments of staff to support these initiatives; extensive training activities; and the maturing planning processes, all reflect a discernable, continuous improvement in the quality of the ES&H performance.

  8. Sustaining global progress in E and P health, safety, and environment

    SciTech Connect

    Arscott, R.L.; Edwardes, R.J.; Ognedal, M.; Visser, J.P.

    1996-12-01

    The third International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) was held in New Orleans in June 1996. During this meeting, the technical committee members were asked to complete a questionnaire with two questions: (1) What are the three biggest improvements in the industry`s performance in the HSE function over the past 5 years? and (2) What are the three biggest challenges for the next 5 years? The results from 30 replies from industry experts were compared with a similar survey conducted at the 1991 meeting, where the question was, What are the key action items the industry should take to enhance performance over the next decade? This article gives the most frequently occurring comments cited by the 1996 technical committee relating to the 1991 recommendations. This may be considered a mid-decade review of worldwide E and P progress.

  9. Differences in Caregiver-Reported Health Problems and Health Care Use in Maltreated Adolescents and a Comparison Group from the Same Urban Environment

    PubMed Central

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Kools, Susan; Negriff, Sonya; Smith, Sharon; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2014-01-01

    Maltreated youth have a high prevalence of acute and chronic mental and physical health problems, but it is not clear whether these problems are related to maltreatment or to a disadvantaged environment. To compare health status and health care use of maltreated youth receiving child protective services to comparison youth living in the same community, we conducted a secondary analysis of caregiver reports for 207 maltreated adolescents (mean age 11.9 years) and 142 comparison adolescents (mean age 12.3 years) living in urban Los Angeles, using questionnaire data from a larger longitudinal study framed in a socio-ecological model. Caregivers included biological parents, relatives, and unrelated caregivers. Analyses included t-test, MANOVA, chi-square, and multivariable logistic regression. Caregivers reported similar rates of physical health problems but more mental health problems and psychotropic medicine use in maltreated youth than in the comparison youth, suggesting that maltreated youths’ higher rates of mental health problems could not be attributed to the disadvantaged environment. Although there were no differences in health insurance coverage, maltreated youth received preventive medical care more often than comparison youth. For all youth, having Medicaid improved their odds of receiving preventive health and dental care. Attention to mental health issues in adolescents receiving child welfare services remains important. Acceptance of Medicaid by neighborhood-based and/or school-based services in low-income communities may reduce barriers to preventive care. PMID:25557881

  10. Assessment of the health system and policy environment as a critical complement to tracking intervention coverage for maternal, newborn, and child health.

    PubMed

    Cavagnero, Eleonora; Daelmans, Bernadette; Gupta, Neeru; Scherpbier, Robert; Shankar, Anuraj

    2008-04-12

    In 2008, the Countdown to 2015 initiative identified 68 priority countries for action on maternal, newborn, and child health. Much attention was paid to monitoring country-level progress in achieving high and equitable coverage with interventions effective in reducing mortality of mothers, newborn infants, and children up to 5 years of age. To have a broader understanding of the environment in which health services are delivered and health outcomes are produced is essential to increase intervention coverage. Programmes to address MNCH rely on health systems to generate information needed for effective decisions and to achieve the expected outcomes. Governance and leadership are needed throughout the process not only to create policies and implement them but also to assure quality and efficiency of care, to finance health services sufficiently and in an equitable way, and to manage the health workforce. We present a systematic approach to assess the wider health system and policy environment needed to achieve positive outcomes for maternal, newborn, and child health. We report on results from 13 indicators and show gaps in policy adoption as well as weaknesses in other health system building blocks. We identify areas for future action in measurement of key indicators and their use to support decision making. We hope that this information will provide an additional dimension to the discussions on feasible and sustainable solutions to accelerate progress towards Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, both at the global level but most importantly in individual countries. PMID:18406863

  11. Reshaping the Built Environment to Reduce Environmental and Public Health Impacts of Summertime Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, J. E.; Bakewell, K.

    2005-12-01

    Many American cities are experiencing two types of warming trends in their local climate that due to global environmental change, and that due to local environmental change. Over the next five decades, urban areas within temperate regions may warm disproportionately compared to tropical and subtropical zones according to the IPCC Special Report on The Regional Impacts of Climate Change, and the frequency of very hot days in these climates is expected to approximately double for an increase of 2-3°C in the average summer temperature. As well, due to urbanized land-cover, air temperatures in cities can register 2 to 10 degrees F higher than in surrounding rural areas, resulting in a hotter environment, higher energy demand, and accelerated smog formation due to the urban heat island effect. Our previous research analyzed the temperature differences over time between NY Central Park (NYCP) station and 23 metropolitan regional weather stations classified according to distance and level of urbanization, and showed a heat island effect existing in NYC, with mean temperatures in the NYCP Station generally higher than the surrounding stations, ranging from 1.20 C to 3.02 C. A difference of at least 1 C already existed at the beginning of the 20th century between the mean temperature in NYC and its surrounding rural areas, and this difference increased over the twentieth century. Summertime heat can create heat stress and other health consequences for urban residents. In cities around the world, summer heat can lead to elevated mortality and morbidity rates, especially during extreme events. The epidemiological literature has identified factors in the built environment and demographic characteristics that can increase the risk of heat-related mortality. The elderly and people with pre-existing illnesses are especially vulnerable; also, being bedridden, living alone, and having poor access to public transportation or air-conditioned places. During the Chicago 1995 heat wave

  12. Environment, safety and health progress assessment of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES H) Progress Assessment of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The onsite assessment, which was conducted from November 9 through November 20, 1992, included a selective review of the ES H management systems and programs with principal focus on the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs (DP); San Francisco Field Office (SF), including the Livermore Site Office (LSO); and the site contractor, the University of California. The purpose of the LLNL ES H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES H issues and requirements. The assessment was not a comprehensive compliance assessment of ES H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at LLNL was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of LLNL, which was conducted from February 26 through April 5, 1990. The LLNL Progress Assessment was conducted by a team of 12 professionals from various DOE offices and their support contractors, with expertise in the areas of management, environment, safety, and health. The Progress Assessment Team concluded that LLNL management recognizes the importance that the Secretary of Energy places on ES H excellence and has responded with improvements in all ES H areas. Progress has been made in addressing the deficiencies identified in the 1990 Tiger Team Assessment. Although much remains to be done and concerns were noted in several areas, these concerns do not diminish the significance of the progress made since the 1990 Tiger Team Assessment.

  13. Environment, safety and health progress assessment of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The onsite assessment, which was conducted from November 9 through November 20, 1992, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and programs with principal focus on the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs (DP); San Francisco Field Office (SF), including the Livermore Site Office (LSO); and the site contractor, the University of California. The purpose of the LLNL ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES&H issues and requirements. The assessment was not a comprehensive compliance assessment of ES&H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at LLNL was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of LLNL, which was conducted from February 26 through April 5, 1990. The LLNL Progress Assessment was conducted by a team of 12 professionals from various DOE offices and their support contractors, with expertise in the areas of management, environment, safety, and health. The Progress Assessment Team concluded that LLNL management recognizes the importance that the Secretary of Energy places on ES&H excellence and has responded with improvements in all ES&H areas. Progress has been made in addressing the deficiencies identified in the 1990 Tiger Team Assessment. Although much remains to be done and concerns were noted in several areas, these concerns do not diminish the significance of the progress made since the 1990 Tiger Team Assessment.

  14. Monitoring the Environment using High-Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing: Contribution to Health Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourre, Y. M.; Lacaux, J.

    2007-12-01

    Presence (density) of mosquitoes linked to Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemics in the Ferlo (Senegal) is evaluated by monitoring the environment from space. Using five SPOT-5 high-resolution images (~10m spatial resolution, on August 17th, 2006) a meridional transect of 290 x 60 km2 is analyzed for the first time. Four major ecozones are thus identified: Senegal River valley; sandy Ferlo; sandy-clayey Ferlo; and steppe/cultivated areas, from north to south, respectively. An integrated/multidisciplinary approach using remote-sensing leads to a composited Zones Potentially Occupied by Mosquitoes (or ZPOMs, with extrema). It is found that at the peak of the rainy season, the area occupied by ponds is of 12,817 ha ± 10% (i.e., ~ 0.8 % of the transect) with a mean ZPOM 17 times larger i.e.: 212,813 ha ± 10 % (or ~14 % of the transect). ZPOMs characteristics (minimum and maximum) at the ecozones levels with different hydrological mechanisms, are presented. Ponds and ZPOMs inter-annual variabilities and RVF risks, are subsequently highlighted by comparing statistics in the so-called Barkedji zone (sandy-clayey Ferlo with a hydrofossil riverbed), for the very humid year of 2003, and the near normal rainfall year of 2006. It is shown that at the end of August 2003/2006, ponds (ZPOMs) areas, were already ~22 (~5) times larger. The key roles played by isolated ponds for animals' exposure to RVF risks are thus identified. These results highlight the importance of monitoring the changing environment when linkages with public health exist. The ZPOM approach is to be adapted for other vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, in different places of the world. Results are meant to be included into Health Information Systems (HIS) on an operational basis, in order to minimize socio-economical impacts from epidemics.

  15. [Relationship of genetically modified crops with the environment and health of the Costa Rican human population].

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Ana M; Arrieta-Espinoza, Griselda; Sittenfeld, Ana

    2004-09-01

    Genetic engineering and the food derived from genetically modified crops (GMCs) have been the center of debate worldwide, as has occurred historically with the advent of new technologies. Questions are derived from the potential impact of GMCs to the environment and the safety of the products to the consumers. In relation to the first inquiry, practice has been oriented to a case-by-case-study, according to the own characteristics of the GMC, in order to minimize its impact in the environment. Scientific studies in diverse latitudes of the world have demonstrated that GMCs in the market showed no adverse effects related to this issue. In relation to food derived from the GMCs, rigorous evaluation protocols have been developed and approved by FAO and WHO to guarantee the innocuousness of these products. Up to the moment, no contraindications for human health have been pointed out for the products that are available today in the market. In the particular case of Costa Rica, the country has established since the 90s a regulatory biosafety framework for the management of the GMCs, safeguarding the biodiversity of the country and the health of consumers. At the same time the country has made significant public and private investments in the field that allowed the country to obtain a leading position in biosafety in the region and genetic engineering research at national research centers. Any attempt to restrict or prohibit these activities in the country, will put in risk the previously described investment, will affect the generation of new knowledge for decision making and the leadership in the field, preventing the benefits derived from this promising technology.

  16. Structuring policy problems for plastics, the environment and human health: reflections from the UK

    PubMed Central

    Shaxson, Louise

    2009-01-01

    How can we strengthen the science–policy interface for plastics, the environment and human health? In a complex policy area with multiple stakeholders, it is important to clarify the nature of the particular plastics-related issue before trying to understand how to reconcile the supply and demand for evidence in policy. This article proposes a simple problem typology to assess the fundamental characteristics of a policy issue and thus identify appropriate processes for science–policy interactions. This is illustrated with two case studies from one UK Government Department, showing how policy and science meet over the environmental problems of plastics waste in the marine environment and on land. A problem-structuring methodology helps us understand why some policy issues can be addressed through relatively linear flows of science from experts to policymakers but why others demand a more reflexive approach to brokering the knowledge between science and policy. Suggestions are given at the end of the article for practical actions that can be taken on both sides. PMID:19528061

  17. Impact of Early Environment on Children's Mental Health: Lessons From DNA Methylation Studies With Monozygotic Twins.

    PubMed

    Chiarella, Julian; Tremblay, Richard E; Szyf, Moshe; Provençal, Nadine; Booij, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, epigenetic analyses have made important contributions to our understanding of healthy development and a wide variety of adverse conditions such as cancer and psychopathology. There is increasing evidence that DNA methylation is a mechanism by which environmental factors influence gene transcription and, ultimately, phenotype. However, differentiating the effects of the environment from those of genetics on DNA methylation profiles remains a significant challenge. Monozygotic (MZ) twin study designs are unique in their ability to control for genetic differences because each pair of MZ twins shares essentially the same genetic sequence with the exception of a small number of de novo mutations and copy number variations. Thus, differences within twin pairs in gene expression and phenotype, including behavior, can be attributed in the majority of cases to environmental effects rather than genetic influence. In this article, we review the literature showing how MZ twin designs can be used to study basic epigenetic principles, contributing to understanding the role of early in utero and postnatal environmental factors on the development of psychopathology. We also highlight the importance of initiating longitudinal and experimental studies with MZ twins during pregnancy. This approach is especially important to identify: (1) critical time periods during which the early environment can impact brain and mental health development, and (2) the specific mechanisms through which early environmental effects may be mediated. These studies may inform the optimum timing and design for early preventive interventions aimed at reducing risk for psychopathology.

  18. [Influence of the technogenic environment on health new-borns infant children in Lugansk region].

    PubMed

    Kapranov, S V; Sapel'nikov, A Ia; Sapel'nikova, L Ia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work was to evaluate the health of new-borns born to mothers who lived constantly influenced of the technogenic environmentat on health infant children in Luhansk region. We exameded evaluation of the influence of the technogenic environmental factors on the health of 1119 children in Alchevsk city, Perevalsk town with mining towns and rural villages of Perevalsky area of Lugansk region and Zhovtnev district of Lugansk region. The children were measured in anthropometric studies conducted body length, body weight, chest circumference and the head. Evaluation of the physical development of the children carried tsentilnym method. Prior to discharge from the hospital new-borns divided into three main groups--healthy, risk group, pathology. Also we have done the analysis of the statistical information on the health status of all newborns administrative units Lugansk region. Found that the percentage of new-borns with normal anthropometric variables (from 3 to 97 centile), body length and head circumference was significantly higher in rural areas Perevalsky area with more favorable environmental conditions compared to the industrial city of Alchevsk. New-borns with abnormal significantly higher in women who are domiciled in the city of Alchevsk (19.01% ± 1.44%) under the impact of emissions components ferrous metallurgy and coke-chemical, compared with Perevalskiy and mining towns (13.82% ± 2.20%), as well as rural villages Perevalsky area (11.90% ± 2.89%). Over the period 2004-2011, the incidence of congenital anomalies of new-borns weighing 1000 g or more (per 1000 live births and stillbirths) were significantly higher in the industrial cities of Luhansk region--19.70 ± 0.61 compared with rural areas--15.51 ± 0.73. The incidence of this pathology is one of the highest in Alchevsk--31.88 ± 2.48, which was significantly higher than.in urban areas, as well as in the whole of Luhansk region--19.13 ± 0.55. Therefore, the health of new-born babies is

  19. [Endocrine disruption agents: environment, health, public policies, and the precautionary principle].

    PubMed

    Vandelac, L

    2000-01-01

    The already substantial body of evidence and growing web of suspicions as to the scale and severity of the cascade effects of endocrine disrupters (related to persistent organic pollutants or POPs) on the health of ecosystems and humans have sparked such concern that in June 1998, representatives of 94 countries meeting in Montreal under the aegis of UNEP signed a draft international agreement to phase out the most harmful POPs. Related to particular persistent organic pollutants--toxic semi-volatile and persistent chemical compounds now found everywhere in the environment, such as BPCs, organochlorine pesticides, dioxins and furans, that build up in the bodies of organisms that consume other contaminated organisms along the food chain--endocrine disrupters are strongly suspected of affecting the health of animals and adversely impacting the health, fertility and even intellectual faculties of humans. For example, very low-level exposure to some POPs is associated with some hormone-dependent cancers, damage to the central and peripheral nervous systems, impaired immune system function, reproductive disorders and developmental disruptions in newborns and infants, who can be affected in utero or through breast-feeding. Considering the extreme complexity of the scientific and socio-economic effects of POP-related endocrine disrupters, there are those who, advocate a wait-and-see approach, claiming that there is not enough formal scientific proof. There are others who use the available evidence to advance the research, press for bans on incriminated substances and look for global, integrated and viable alternatives. And there are other still who, with careless disregard for the Precautionary Principle, are quite prepared to talk about the perverse effects of POPs in order to justify the increased use of artificial means of reproduction or the replacement of chemical pesticides by pest-resistant genetically modified organisms (GMOs), thereby opening the door to

  20. Profit versus public health: the need to improve the food environment in recreational facilities.

    PubMed

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Raine, Kim D

    2013-01-08

    Despite their wellness mandate, many publicly funded recreational facilities offer primarily unhealthy foods. Governments have developed programs and resources to assist facilities to improve their food offerings, however the challenge to incent preferential sale of healthier foods remains substantial. In the Canadian province of Alberta, uptake of government-issued voluntary nutrition guidelines for recreational facilities has been limited, and offers of free assistance to implement them as part of a research study were not embraced. Financial constraints appear to be the most important barrier to offering healthier items in Alberta's recreational facilities, as facility and food service managers perceive that selling healthier foods is unprofitable and might jeopardize sponsorship agreements. Mandatory government regulation may therefore be required to overcome the barriers to offering healthier foods in this setting. The advantages of a regulatory approach appear to outweigh any disadvantages, with benefits for population health, more effective use of public funds, and greater equity for the public and industry. Adverse effects on corporate profitability and freedom of choice are expected to be limited. Regulation may offer an efficient, effective and equitable means of ensuring that recreational facilities support child health and do not undermine it by exposing children to unhealthy food environments.

  1. Future directions in behavioral headache research: applications for an evolving health care environment.

    PubMed

    Penzien, Donald B; Rains, Jeanetta C; Lipchik, Gay L; Nicholson, Robert A; Lake, Alvin E; Hursey, Karl G

    2005-05-01

    Three decades of research has produced effective behavioral treatments for migraine and tension-type headache, yet the full fruition of this research has not been realized. Further development and dissemination of behavioral treatments is needed to impact the large numbers of those with headache who potentially could benefit from these interventions. At the same time, an evolving health care environment challenges researchers and providers to employ greater efficiency and innovation in managing all chronic disorders. Hopefully, the recently published clinical trials guidelines for behavioral headache research will serve as a catalyst for production of quality empiricism that, in turn, will generate enhanced behavioral strategies and will optimize health care resource utilization. This article describes 10 areas of critical needs and research priorities for behavioral headache research, including: replication and extension of seminal studies using improved methodology; analysis of barriers to implementation of behavioral treatments; development of referral and treatment algorithms; behavioral compliance facilitation with medical interventions; development of a headache self-management model; integration of behavioral intervention within traditional medical practice; identification and management of comorbid psychopathology among headache patients; prevention of disease progression; analysis of behavioral therapeutic mechanisms, and development of innovative treatment formats and applications of information technologies. PMID:15953270

  2. Profit versus public health: the need to improve the food environment in recreational facilities.

    PubMed

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Raine, Kim D

    2013-01-01

    Despite their wellness mandate, many publicly funded recreational facilities offer primarily unhealthy foods. Governments have developed programs and resources to assist facilities to improve their food offerings, however the challenge to incent preferential sale of healthier foods remains substantial. In the Canadian province of Alberta, uptake of government-issued voluntary nutrition guidelines for recreational facilities has been limited, and offers of free assistance to implement them as part of a research study were not embraced. Financial constraints appear to be the most important barrier to offering healthier items in Alberta's recreational facilities, as facility and food service managers perceive that selling healthier foods is unprofitable and might jeopardize sponsorship agreements. Mandatory government regulation may therefore be required to overcome the barriers to offering healthier foods in this setting. The advantages of a regulatory approach appear to outweigh any disadvantages, with benefits for population health, more effective use of public funds, and greater equity for the public and industry. Adverse effects on corporate profitability and freedom of choice are expected to be limited. Regulation may offer an efficient, effective and equitable means of ensuring that recreational facilities support child health and do not undermine it by exposing children to unhealthy food environments. PMID:23618211

  3. The possible effects on health, comfort and safety of aircraft cabin environments.

    PubMed

    Brown, T P; Shuker, L K; Rushton, L; Warren, F; Stevens, J

    2001-09-01

    A consultation was undertaken to investigate the views and concerns of stakeholders in the aircraft industry about the possible harmful effects on personal health, comfort and safety of aircraft cabin environments. Stakeholders were identified from a variety of sources including Government agencies, the Internet, House of Lords inquiry, and suggestions of interviewees. They represented: aircraft crews, aircraft constructors and engineers, government departments and authorities, holiday/flight companies, insurance companies, non-governmental organisations, occupational health physicians, passenger representatives, and independent researchers and consultants. Eighty-seven were contacted of which 57 were interviewed over the telephone using a semi-structured questionnaire. Their concerns were transcribed into a standard format and analysed qualitatively. Key stakeholders, along with Government officials, were invited to a workshop to discuss and prioritize the issues raised during the interviews. The main concerns expressed by the participants fell into five main areas: deep vein thrombosis, air quality, infection, cosmic radiation, and jet lag and work patterns. In addition, a number of safety concerns were raised as well as comments on the provision of appropriate advice to passengers. It was generally felt that further research was required on each of these subjects, as well as an improvement in the quality, quantity and availability of information provided for passengers prior to boarding a flight.

  4. Electrostatics in the environment: How they may affect health and productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, K. S.; Simon, H. M. Ap; Bell, J. N. B.

    2008-12-01

    Lifestyles and the built environment have changed considerably during the past century and have greatly influenced the electric field, small air ion and charged submicron aerosol regimes to which individuals are often exposed. In particular the use of electrical items, synthetic materials/finishes and low humidity levels that can lead to the generation of high electrostatic charges, along with inadequate grounding protocols and building techniques which create 'Faraday cage'-like conditions, have all greatly altered the electromagnetic nature of the microclimates many people occupy for prolonged periods of time. It is suggested that the type, polarity and strengths of electric fields individuals are exposed to may affect their likelihood of succumbing to ill-health through influencing biological functioning, oxygen-uptake and retention rates of inhaled submicron contaminants to a far greater degree than previously realised. These factors can also influence the degree of local surface contamination and adhesion that occurs. It is further suggested that both health and work productivity can be affected by such factors, and that improved 'best practice' electro-hygiene/productivity protocols should be adopted wherever practical.

  5. Incorporating immersive virtual environments in health promotion campaigns: a construal level theory approach.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sun Joo Grace

    2015-01-01

    In immersive virtual environments (IVEs), users may observe negative consequences of a risky health behavior in a personally involving way via digital simulations. In the context of an ongoing health promotion campaign, IVEs coupled with pamphlets are proposed as a novel messaging strategy to heighten personal relevance and involvement with the issue of soft-drink consumption and obesity, as well as perceptions that the risk is proximal and imminent. The framework of construal level theory guided the design of a 2 (tailoring: other vs. self) × 2 (medium: pamphlet only vs. pamphlet with IVEs) between-subjects experiment to test the efficacy in reducing the consumption of soft drinks over 1 week. Immediately following exposure, tailoring the message to the self (vs. other) seemed to be effective in reducing intentions to consume soft drinks. The effect of tailoring dissipated after 1 week, and measures of actual soft-drink consumption 1 week following experimental treatments demonstrated that coupling IVEs with the pamphlet was more effective. Behavioral intention was a significant predictor of actual behavior, but underlying mechanisms driving intentions and actual behavior were distinct. Results prescribed a messaging strategy that incorporates both tailoring and coupling IVEs with traditional media to increase behavioral changes over time. PMID:24991725

  6. Implementation of Context Aware e-Health Environments Based on Social Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Erik; Led, Santiago; Lopez-Iturri, Peio; Azpilicueta, Leyre; Serrano, Luís; Falcone, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    In this work, context aware scenarios applied to e-Health and m-Health in the framework of typical households (urban and rural) by means of deploying Social Sensors will be described. Interaction with end-users and social/medical staff is achieved using a multi-signal input/output device, capable of sensing and transmitting environmental, biomedical or activity signals and information with the aid of a combined Bluetooth and Mobile system platform. The devices, which play the role of Social Sensors, are implemented and tested in order to guarantee adequate service levels in terms of multiple signal processing tasks as well as robustness in relation with the use wireless transceivers and channel variability. Initial tests within a Living Lab environment have been performed in order to validate overall system operation. The results obtained show good acceptance of the proposed system both by end users as well as by medical and social staff, increasing interaction, reducing overall response time and social inclusion levels, with a compact and moderate cost solution that can readily be largely deployed. PMID:26938539

  7. Implementation of Context Aware e-Health Environments Based on Social Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Erik; Led, Santiago; Lopez-Iturri, Peio; Azpilicueta, Leyre; Serrano, Luís; Falcone, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    In this work, context aware scenarios applied to e-Health and m-Health in the framework of typical households (urban and rural) by means of deploying Social Sensors will be described. Interaction with end-users and social/medical staff is achieved using a multi-signal input/output device, capable of sensing and transmitting environmental, biomedical or activity signals and information with the aid of a combined Bluetooth and Mobile system platform. The devices, which play the role of Social Sensors, are implemented and tested in order to guarantee adequate service levels in terms of multiple signal processing tasks as well as robustness in relation with the use wireless transceivers and channel variability. Initial tests within a Living Lab environment have been performed in order to validate overall system operation. The results obtained show good acceptance of the proposed system both by end users as well as by medical and social staff, increasing interaction, reducing overall response time and social inclusion levels, with a compact and moderate cost solution that can readily be largely deployed.

  8. Implementation of Context Aware e-Health Environments Based on Social Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Erik; Led, Santiago; Lopez-Iturri, Peio; Azpilicueta, Leyre; Serrano, Luís; Falcone, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    In this work, context aware scenarios applied to e-Health and m-Health in the framework of typical households (urban and rural) by means of deploying Social Sensors will be described. Interaction with end-users and social/medical staff is achieved using a multi-signal input/output device, capable of sensing and transmitting environmental, biomedical or activity signals and information with the aid of a combined Bluetooth and Mobile system platform. The devices, which play the role of Social Sensors, are implemented and tested in order to guarantee adequate service levels in terms of multiple signal processing tasks as well as robustness in relation with the use wireless transceivers and channel variability. Initial tests within a Living Lab environment have been performed in order to validate overall system operation. The results obtained show good acceptance of the proposed system both by end users as well as by medical and social staff, increasing interaction, reducing overall response time and social inclusion levels, with a compact and moderate cost solution that can readily be largely deployed. PMID:26938539

  9. Sustainable development goals for global health: facilitating good governance in a complex environment.

    PubMed

    Haffeld, Just

    2013-11-01

    Increasing complexity is following in the wake of rampant globalization. Thus, the discussion about Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires new thinking that departs from a critique of current policy tools in exploration of a complexity-friendly approach. This article argues that potential SDGs should: treat stakeholders, like states, business and civil society actors, as agents on different aggregate levels of networks; incorporate good governance processes that facilitate early involvement of relevant resources, as well as equitable participation, consultative processes, and regular policy and programme implementation reviews; anchor adoption and enforcement of such rules to democratic processes in accountable organizations; and include comprehensive systems evaluations, including procedural indicators. A global framework convention for health could be a suitable instrument for handling some of the challenges related to the governance of a complex environment. It could structure and legitimize government involvement, engage stakeholders, arrange deliberation and decision-making processes with due participation and regular policy review, and define minimum standards for health services. A monitoring scheme could ensure that agents in networks comply according to whole-systems targets, locally defined outcome indicators, and process indicators, thus resolving the paradox of government control vs. local policy space. A convention could thus exploit the energy created in the encounter between civil society, international organizations and national authorities.

  10. Climate change and health in the urban environment: adaptation opportunities in Australian cities.

    PubMed

    Bambrick, Hilary Jane; Capon, Anthony Guy; Barnett, Guy Bruce; Beaty, R Matthew; Burton, Anthony John

    2011-03-01

    Urban populations are growing rapidly throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Cities are vulnerable to the health impacts of climate change because of their concentration of people and infrastructure, the physical (geographical, material, and structural) attributes of the built environment, and the ecological interdependence with the urban ecosystem. Australia is one of the most highly urbanized countries in the region and its already variable climate is set to become hotter and drier with climate change. Climate change in Australia is expected to increase morbidity and mortality from thermal stress, bacterial gastroenteritis, vector-borne disease, air pollution, flooding, and bushfires. The cost and availability of fresh water, food, and energy will also likely be affected. The more vulnerable urban populations, including the elderly, socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, and those with underlying chronic disease, will be most affected. Adaptation strategies need to address this underlying burden of disease and inequity as well as implement broad structural changes to building codes and urban design, and infrastructure capacity. In doing so, cities provide opportunities to realize "co-benefits" for health (eg, from increased levels of physical activity and improved air quality). With evidence that climate change is underway, the need for cities to be a focus in the development of climate adaptation strategies is becoming more urgent.

  11. Sustainable development goals for global health: facilitating good governance in a complex environment.

    PubMed

    Haffeld, Just

    2013-11-01

    Increasing complexity is following in the wake of rampant globalization. Thus, the discussion about Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires new thinking that departs from a critique of current policy tools in exploration of a complexity-friendly approach. This article argues that potential SDGs should: treat stakeholders, like states, business and civil society actors, as agents on different aggregate levels of networks; incorporate good governance processes that facilitate early involvement of relevant resources, as well as equitable participation, consultative processes, and regular policy and programme implementation reviews; anchor adoption and enforcement of such rules to democratic processes in accountable organizations; and include comprehensive systems evaluations, including procedural indicators. A global framework convention for health could be a suitable instrument for handling some of the challenges related to the governance of a complex environment. It could structure and legitimize government involvement, engage stakeholders, arrange deliberation and decision-making processes with due participation and regular policy review, and define minimum standards for health services. A monitoring scheme could ensure that agents in networks comply according to whole-systems targets, locally defined outcome indicators, and process indicators, thus resolving the paradox of government control vs. local policy space. A convention could thus exploit the energy created in the encounter between civil society, international organizations and national authorities. PMID:24315062

  12. Cyanotoxins in desert environments may present a risk to human health.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, J S; Richer, R; Cox, P A; Codd, G A

    2012-04-01

    There have been few studies concerning cyanotoxins in desert environments, compared with the multitude of studies of cyanotoxins in aquatic environments. However, cyanobacteria are important primary producers in desert environments, where after seasonal rains they can grow rapidly both stabilising and fertilising arid habitats. Samples of cyanobacteria from wadis - dry, ephemeral river beds - and sabkha - supertidal salt flats - in Qatar were analysed for the presence of microcystins, nodularin, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin and anatoxin-a(S). Microcystins were detected by HPLC-PDA and ELISA at concentrations between 1.5 and 53.7ngg(-1) dry wt of crust. PCR products for the mycD gene for microcystin biosynthesis were detected after amplification of DNA from desert crust samples at two out of three sample sites. The presence of anatoxin-a(S) was also indicated by acetylcholine esterase inhibition assay. As a function of area of desert crust, microcystin concentrations were between 3 and 56μgm(-2). Based on the concentration of microcystins detected in crust, with reference to the published inhalation NOAEL and LOAEL values via nasal spray inhalation of purified microcystin-LR in aqueous solution, and the amount of dust potentially inhaled by a person from these dried crusts, the dose of microcystins could exceed a calculated TDI value of 1-2ngkg(-1)day(-1) for an average adult. The presence of microcystins, and potentially of anatoxin-a(S), in desert crusts has important implications for human health. Further studies are required to monitor desert dust storms for the presence of cyanotoxins. An understanding of the risks of inhaling particles containing cyanotoxins is also warranted.

  13. Evaluation of tuberculosis public health surveillance, Al-Madinah province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Alkhalawi, Mohammed J; McNabb, Scott J N; Assiri, Abdullah M; Memish, Ziad A

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the quality of the data, the sensitivity of the surveillance, and the completeness of identification and investigation of tuberculosis (TB) patient's contacts. The study covered the TB surveillance program in Al-Madinah province in 2011. First, we reviewed all the notifications, treatment cards, and register books, as well as monthly and quarterly reports, for completeness and accuracy of data. Then, we searched for the missed cases that were not reported. Finally, we reviewed all the patients' household contacts' reports to assess the degree of completion of identification and investigation. There were 444 cases detected during the study period; only 200 cases were reported. The sensitivity of the TB surveillance system was 45%. Among the 200 reported cases, the results revealed high completeness rates for demographic and disease data and low completeness rates for the test result fields. The contact identification and investigation showed that 34.4% of smear-positive cases' contacts were not identified. Only 67% of identified contacts were investigated. The review of hospital records and lab registers showed that 244 cases were not reported. In conclusion, the TB surveillance system has several areas that need improvement.

  14. Hot Corrosion Studies of Detonation-Gun-Sprayed NiCrAlY + 0.4 wt.% CeO2 Coated Superalloys in Molten Salt Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Subhash; Jayaganthan, R.; Prakash, Satya

    2011-08-01

    Rare earth oxide (CeO2) has been incorporated in NiCrAlY alloy and hot corrosion resistance of detonation-gun-sprayed NiCrAlY + 0.4 wt.% CeO2 coatings on superalloys, namely, superni 75, superni 718, and superfer 800H in molten 40% Na2SO4-60% V2O5 salt environment were investigated at 900 °C for 100 cycles. The coatings exhibited characteristic splat globular dendritic structure with diameter similar to the original powder particles. The weight change technique was used to establish corrosion kinetics. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive analysis (FE-SEM/EDAX), and x-ray mapping techniques were used to analyze the corrosion products. Coated superfer 800H alloy showed the highest corrosion resistance among the examined superalloys. CeO2 was found to be distributed in the coating along the splat boundaries, whereas Al streaks distributed non-uniformly. The main phases observed for the coated superalloys are oxides of Ni, Cr, Al, and spinels, which are suggested to be responsible for developing corrosion resistance.

  15. Health Risk Assessment for Exposure to Benzene in Petroleum Refinery Environments

    PubMed Central

    Edokpolo, Benjamin; Yu, Qiming Jimmy; Connell, Des

    2015-01-01

    The health risk resulting from benzene exposure in petroleum refineries was calculated using data from the scientific literature from various countries throughout the world. The exposure data was collated into four scenarios from petroleum refinery environments and plotted as cumulative probability distributions (CPD) plots. Health risk was evaluated for each scenario using the Hazard Quotient (HQ) at 50% (CEXP50) and 95% (CEXP95) exposure levels. Benzene levels were estimated to pose a significant risk with HQ50 > 1 and HQ95 > 1 for workers exposed to benzene as base estimates for petroleum refinery workers (Scenario 1), petroleum refinery workers evaluated with personal samplers in Bulgarian refineries (Scenario 2B) and evaluated using air inside petroleum refineries in Bulgarian refineries (Scenario 3B). HQ50 < 1 were calculated for petroleum refinery workers with personal samplers in Italian refineries (Scenario 2A), air inside petroleum refineries (Scenario 3A) and air outside petroleum refineries (Scenario 4) in India and Taiwan indicating little possible adverse health effects. Also, HQ95 was < 1 for Scenario 4 however potential risk was evaluated for Scenarios 2A and 3A with HQ95 > 1. The excess Cancer risk (CR) for lifetime exposure to benzene for all the scenarios was evaluated using the Slope Factor and Overall Risk Probability (ORP) methods. The result suggests a potential cancer risk for exposure to benzene in all the scenarios. However, there is a higher cancer risk at 95% (CEXP95) for petroleum refinery workers (2B) with a CR of 48,000 per 106 and exposure to benzene in air inside petroleum refineries (3B) with a CR of 28,000 per 106. PMID:25588154

  16. Health risk assessment for exposure to benzene in petroleum refinery environments.

    PubMed

    Edokpolo, Benjamin; Yu, Qiming Jimmy; Connell, Des

    2015-01-12

    The health risk resulting from benzene exposure in petroleum refineries was calculated using data from the scientific literature from various countries throughout the world. The exposure data was collated into four scenarios from petroleum refinery environments and plotted as cumulative probability distributions (CPD) plots. Health risk was evaluated for each scenario using the Hazard Quotient (HQ) at 50% (CEXP50) and 95% (CEXP95) exposure levels. Benzene levels were estimated to pose a significant risk with HQ50 > 1 and HQ95 > 1 for workers exposed to benzene as base estimates for petroleum refinery workers (Scenario 1), petroleum refinery workers evaluated with personal samplers in Bulgarian refineries (Scenario 2B) and evaluated using air inside petroleum refineries in Bulgarian refineries (Scenario 3B). HQ50 < 1 were calculated for petroleum refinery workers with personal samplers in Italian refineries (Scenario 2A), air inside petroleum refineries (Scenario 3A) and air outside petroleum refineries (Scenario 4) in India and Taiwan indicating little possible adverse health effects. Also, HQ95 was < 1 for Scenario 4 however potential risk was evaluated for Scenarios 2A and 3A with HQ95 > 1. The excess Cancer risk (CR) for lifetime exposure to benzene for all the scenarios was evaluated using the Slope Factor and Overall Risk Probability (ORP) methods. The result suggests a potential cancer risk for exposure to benzene in all the scenarios. However, there is a higher cancer risk at 95% (CEXP95) for petroleum refinery workers (2B) with a CR of 48,000 per 106 and exposure to benzene in air inside petroleum refineries (3B) with a CR of 28,000 per 106.

  17. Environment, Safety and Health Self-Assessment Report Fiscal Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Scott

    2011-03-23

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Self-Assessment Program was established to ensure that Integrated Safety Management (ISM) is implemented institutionally and by all divisions. The ES&H Self-Assessment Program, managed by the Office of Contractor Assurance (OCA), provides for an internal evaluation of all ES&H programs and systems at LBNL. The primary objective of the program is to ensure that work is conducted safely and with minimal negative impact to workers, the public, and the environment. Self-assessment follows the five core functions and guiding principles of ISM. Self-assessment is the mechanism used to promote the continuous improvement of the Laboratory's ES&H programs. The process is described in the Environment, Safety, and Health Assurance Plan (PUB-5344) and is composed of three types of self-assessments: Division ES&H Self-Assessment, ES&H Technical Assurance Program Assessment, and Division ES&H Peer Review. The Division ES&H Self-Assessment Manual (PUB-3105) provides the framework by which divisions conduct formal ES&H self-assessments to systematically identify program deficiencies. Issue-specific assessments are designed and implemented by the divisions and focus on areas of interest to division management. They may be conducted by teams and involve advance planning to ensure that appropriate resources are available. The ES&H Technical Assurance Program Manual (PUB-913E) provides the framework for systematic reviews of ES&H programs and processes. The ES&H Technical Assurance Program Assessment is designed to evaluate whether ES&H programs and processes are compliant with guiding regulations, are effective, and are properly implemented by LBNL divisions. The Division ES&H Peer Review Manual provides the framework by which division ISM systems are evaluated and improved. Peer Reviews are conducted by teams under the direction of senior division management and focus on higher-level management

  18. Defining Population Health Vulnerability Following an Extreme Weather Event in an Urban Pacific Island Environment: Honiara, Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Natuzzi, Eileen S; Joshua, Cynthia; Shortus, Matthew; Reubin, Reginald; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Ferran, Karen; Aumua, Audrey; Brodine, Stephanie

    2016-08-01

    Extreme weather events are common and increasing in intensity in the southwestern Pacific region. Health impacts from cyclones and tropical storms cause acute injuries and infectious disease outbreaks. Defining population vulnerability to extreme weather events by examining a recent flood in Honiara, Solomon Islands, can help stakeholders and policymakers adapt development to reduce future threats. The acute and subacute health impacts following the April 2014 floods were defined using data obtained from hospitals and clinics, the Ministry of Health and in-country World Health Organization office in Honiara. Geographical information system (GIS) was used to assess morbidity and mortality, and vulnerability of the health system infrastructure and households in Honiara. The April flash floods were responsible for 21 acute deaths, 33 injuries, and a diarrhea outbreak that affected 8,584 people with 10 pediatric deaths. A GIS vulnerability assessment of the location of the health system infrastructure and households relative to rivers and the coastline identified 75% of the health infrastructure and over 29% of Honiara's population as vulnerable to future hydrological events. Honiara, Solomon Islands, is a rapidly growing, highly vulnerable urban Pacific Island environment. Evaluation of the mortality and morbidity from the April 2014 floods as well as the infectious disease outbreaks that followed allows public health specialists and policy makers to understand the health system and populations vulnerability to future shocks. Understanding the negative impacts natural disaster have on people living in urban Pacific environments will help the government as well as development partners in crafting resilient adaptation development. PMID:27091867

  19. Defining Population Health Vulnerability Following an Extreme Weather Event in an Urban Pacific Island Environment: Honiara, Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Natuzzi, Eileen S; Joshua, Cynthia; Shortus, Matthew; Reubin, Reginald; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Ferran, Karen; Aumua, Audrey; Brodine, Stephanie

    2016-08-01

    Extreme weather events are common and increasing in intensity in the southwestern Pacific region. Health impacts from cyclones and tropical storms cause acute injuries and infectious disease outbreaks. Defining population vulnerability to extreme weather events by examining a recent flood in Honiara, Solomon Islands, can help stakeholders and policymakers adapt development to reduce future threats. The acute and subacute health impacts following the April 2014 floods were defined using data obtained from hospitals and clinics, the Ministry of Health and in-country World Health Organization office in Honiara. Geographical information system (GIS) was used to assess morbidity and mortality, and vulnerability of the health system infrastructure and households in Honiara. The April flash floods were responsible for 21 acute deaths, 33 injuries, and a diarrhea outbreak that affected 8,584 people with 10 pediatric deaths. A GIS vulnerability assessment of the location of the health system infrastructure and households relative to rivers and the coastline identified 75% of the health infrastructure and over 29% of Honiara's population as vulnerable to future hydrological events. Honiara, Solomon Islands, is a rapidly growing, highly vulnerable urban Pacific Island environment. Evaluation of the mortality and morbidity from the April 2014 floods as well as the infectious disease outbreaks that followed allows public health specialists and policy makers to understand the health system and populations vulnerability to future shocks. Understanding the negative impacts natural disaster have on people living in urban Pacific environments will help the government as well as development partners in crafting resilient adaptation development.

  20. Cytotoxic responses and potential respiratory health effects of carbon and carbonaceous nanoparticulates in the Paso del Norte airshed environment.

    PubMed

    Soto, K F; Murr, L E; Garza, K M

    2008-03-01

    We have utilized a range of manufactured or commercial nanoparticulate materials, including surrogate carbon nano-PM along with combustion-generated carbonaceous (soot) nano-PM characteristic of environmental nano- PM (both indoor and outdoor) to investigate and compare their cytotoxic response in vitro with an immortalized human epithelial (lung model) cell line (A549). These have included nano-Ag, Al2O3, TiO2, Fe2O3, ZrO2, Si3N4, chrysotile asbestos, BC, 2 types of MWCNT-aggregate PM (MWCNT-R and MWCNT-N), and high-volume glass fiber collected soots: candle, wood, diesel (truck), tire, and 3-types of natural gas kitchen burner-generated soots: yellow (fuel-rich) flame, low-flow blue flame, and normal flow blue flame soot PM. These carbonaceous nano-PM species can be found in either the indoor and outdoor environments or microenvironments. Two-day and two-week in-vitro cultures of A549 showed cell death (or decreased cell viability) for all nanoparticulate materials, but especially significant for all but the TiO2 and candle, wood, and diesel PM. The natural gas kitchen burner combustion PM cell death response was characteristic of BC and MWCNT PM. There was no correlation with total PAH content of the soot PM. Cytokine release (IL-6, IL-8) was detected for the Ag, Fe2 O3, asbestos, BC and the MWCNT PM. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was also detected for Ag, Fe2 O3, ZrO2, asbestos, BC, and the MWCNT aggregate PM, as well as the natural gas kitchen burner combustion PM. TEM, FESEM, and optical microscopy examination of these nanomaterials illustrate the wide range in PM morphologies and crystallinities as well as cell morphologies. Taken together, these results illustrate proinflammatory and related respiratory health issues in relation to environmental nanoparticulates.