Science.gov

Sample records for al environ health

  1. Healthful School Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Charles C., Ed.; Wilson, Elizabeth Avery, Ed.

    A broad range of topics deals with the development, maintenance, and full utilization of a healthful school environment, encompassing such areas as--(1) school organizations which affect the student environment, (2) accident prevention, (3) the criteria for healthful food services, (4) physical education and the necessary athletic facilities, (5)…

  2. Health and environment handbook for health professionals: Health and environment

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This handbook has been prepared primarily as a resource for health professionals working in Ontario communities, in response to public concerns regarding environmental health issues. It is structured around the following ideas: The basic concepts of environmental health; common causes of concern and key environmental health issues; and where to find more information. Sections of the handbook cover the following topics: The human health effects of environmental contaminants; risk determination, perception, and communication, and the groups most at risk; exposure pathways and absorption; dose and response relationships for chemicals; water quality; outdoor air quality and human health; food quality, including exposure to contaminants from food, pesticide residues, additives, and cookware safety; soil quality; and home environments (indoor air quality, home renovation safety, home products safety). Includes glossary, index, resource guide, and information sheets on individual contaminants (origin, uses, persistence and movement in the environment, human exposure and its reduction, health considerations, and bibliographic references).

  3. U-ALS: A Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piovesan, Sandra Dutra; Passerino, Liliana Maria; Medina, Roseclea Duarte

    2012-01-01

    The diffusion of the use of the learning virtual environments presents a great potential for the development of an application which meet the necessities in the education area. In view of the importance of a more dynamic application and that can adapt itself continuously to the students' necessities, the "U-ALS" (Ubiquitous Adapted Learning…

  4. Health, Safety, and Environment Division

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, C

    1992-01-01

    The primary responsibility of the Health, Safety, and Environmental (HSE) Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to provide comprehensive occupational health and safety programs, waste processing, and environmental protection. These activities are designed to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. Meeting these responsibilities requires expertise in many disciplines, including radiation protection, industrial hygiene, safety, occupational medicine, environmental science and engineering, analytical chemistry, epidemiology, and waste management. New and challenging health, safety, and environmental problems occasionally arise from the diverse research and development work of the Laboratory, and research programs in HSE Division often stem from these applied needs. These programs continue but are also extended, as needed, to study specific problems for the Department of Energy. The results of these programs help develop better practices in occupational health and safety, radiation protection, and environmental science.

  5. Comment on Mroczek et al. Evaluation of Quality of Life of Those Living near a Wind Farm. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2015, 12, 6066–6083

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    An article published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health indicated that, far from degrading health, noise from wind turbines may actually be associated with positive health outcomes. Such a finding is counter to that reported elsewhere for general and wind turbine noise. This Commentary sets out to explore alternative explanations of these differences. PMID:28157146

  6. Comment on Mroczek et al. Evaluation of Quality of Life of Those Living near a Wind Farm. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2015, 12, 6066-6083.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    An article published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health indicated that, far from degrading health, noise from wind turbines may actually be associated with positive health outcomes. Such a finding is counter to that reported elsewhere for general and wind turbine noise. This Commentary sets out to explore alternative explanations of these differences.

  7. [Indoor environments, work and health].

    PubMed

    Abbritti, G

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, the activities of most of the working population are carried out in confined, non-industrial environments such as offices, hospitals, libraries, social and leisure centres and means of transport. Sub-optimal air quality in these confined spaces can lead to discomfort, ailments and even diseases. The impact and diffusion of these effects have led to the organisation and funding of large-scale epidemiological investigations in many countries and the nomination of working parties by governments, health agencies and international scientific societies. Over the past 20 years studies on indoor environments have identified sources of risk of various pollutants, established the levels of potentially dangerous concentrations and, for most of them, have provided effective measures. However, the effects of many biological agents and chemical mixtures still remain to be defined and effective guidelines are needed for high quality indoor air. Identifying and managing indoor risk factors presupposes a specific methodology: the specialist in occupational medicine can play a key role in risk assessment, in the early diagnosis of building-related illnesses and in the prevention of both short- and long-term effects.

  8. 75 FR 67950 - National Institutes of Health, et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Health, et al.; Notice of Consolidated Decision on Applications for Duty-Free Entry of Electron...: National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892. Instrument: Electron Microscope. Manufacturer:...

  9. Getting strategic about the environment and health.

    PubMed

    Morris, G P; Beck, S A; Hanlon, P; Robertson, R

    2006-10-01

    Historically, the physical environment has been a target for public health policy across the globe. This remains the case in developing countries where the enduring infectious and toxic challenge posed by the environment is tangible and its health impact is manifest. However, in Western societies, the relevance of the environment to health has become obscured. Even when this is not the case, the perspective is usually narrow, centering on specific toxic, infectious or allergenic agents in particular environmental compartments. It is rare for importance to be given to a health-determining role for the environment acting through broader psychosocial mechanisms. The result is that environmental manipulation is seen as a cornerstone of the public health response for comparatively few health concerns. This paper considers how public health policies and action on the physical environment may be pursued more optimally. The need for a more strategic approach, which employs a new conceptual model that recognizes the complexity and contextual issues affecting the relationship between the environment and health but retains sufficient flexibility and simplicity to have practical application, is identified. Building on recent work, a model is proposed and pointers are given for its use in a practical context.

  10. [Breastfeeding: health, prevention, and environment].

    PubMed

    Giusti, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of research in the field of neuroscience and human microbiome indicates the primal period (from preconceptional up to the early years of a child's life) as crucial to the future of the individual, opening new scenarios for the understanding of the processes underlying the human health. In recent decades, the social representation of infant feeding moved in fact from the normality of breastfeeding to the normal use of artificial formulas and bottle-feeding. Even the scientific thinking and the research production have been influenced by this phenomenon. In fact, a clear dominance of studies aimed to show the benefits of breast milk compared to formula milk rather than the risks of the latter compared to the biological norm of breastfeeding. Mother milk affects infant health also through his/her microbiome. Microbial colonisation startes during intrauterine life and continues through the vaginal canal at birth, during skin to skin contact immediately after birth, with colostrum and breastfeeding. The microbial exposure of infants delivered by the mother influences the development of the child microbiota, by programming his/her future health. However, rewriting the biological normality implies also a health professional paradigm shift such as departing from the systematic separation mother-child at birth, sticking at fixed schedules for breastfeeding time and duration, as it still happens in many birth centres. Breastfeeding has economic implications and the increase of its prevalence is associated with significant reduction of avoidable hospital admissions and medical care costs, both for the child and for the mother. Success in breastfeeding is the result of complex social interactions and not simply of an individual choice. However, any successful strategy must be oriented to the mother empowerment. Therefore, health professionals and community stakeholders have to learn and practice the health promotion approach, particularly avoiding

  11. Home Health Agency Work Environments and Hospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Linda; Lake, Eileen T.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: An important goal of home health care is to assist patients to remain in community living arrangements. Yet home care often fails to prevent hospitalizations and to facilitate discharges to community living, thus putting patients at risk of additional health challenges and increasing care costs. Objectives: To determine the relationship between home health agency work environments and agency-level rates of acute hospitalization and discharges to community living. Methods and Design: Analysis of linked Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services Home Health Compare data and nurse survey data from 118 home health agencies. Robust regression models were used to estimate the effect of work environment ratings on between-agency variation in rates of acute hospitalization and community discharge. Results: Home health agencies with good work environments had lower rates of acute hospitalizations and higher rates of patient discharges to community living arrangements compared with home health agencies with poor work environments. Conclusion: Improved work environments in home health agencies hold promise for optimizing patient outcomes and reducing use of expensive hospital and institutional care. PMID:25215647

  12. NCSE Conference 2017: Integrating Environment & Health

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This conference will bring together scientist and professionals to discuss the complex relationships between people, the planet, and all living beings. The focus will specifically be integrating environment and health.

  13. Ecological determinants of health: food and environment on human health.

    PubMed

    Li, Alice M L

    2015-11-10

    Human health and diseases are determined by many complex factors. Health threats from the human-animal-ecosystems interface (HAEI) and zoonotic diseases (zoonoses) impose an increasing risk continuously to public health, from those emerging pathogens transmitted through contact with animals, food, water and contaminated environments. Immense challenges forced on the ecological perspectives on food and the eco-environments, including aquaculture, agriculture and the entire food systems. Impacts of food and eco-environments on human health will be examined amongst the importance of human interventions for intended purposes in lowering the adverse effects on the biodiversity. The complexity of relevant conditions defined as factors contributing to the ecological determinants of health will be illuminated from different perspectives based on concepts, citations, examples and models, in conjunction with harmful consequential effects of human-induced disturbances to our environments and food systems, together with the burdens from ecosystem disruption, environmental hazards and loss of ecosystem functions. The eco-health literacy should be further promoting under the "One Health" vision, with "One World" concept under Ecological Public Health Model for sustaining our environments and the planet earth for all beings, which is coincidentally echoing Confucian's theory for the environmental ethics of ecological harmony.

  14. Aluminum in the Environment and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, John R. J.; Campbell, Irene R.; Tepper, Lloyd B.; Lingg, Robert D.

    1974-01-01

    The review of over 800 references on aluminum (Al) published since the mid-fifties covers the occurrence of Al in soil, air, water, plants and food products, as well as air and water pollution problems. In addition, the existing quality criteria, the biology and toxicology of Al, and the therapeutic and medical uses are presented. It is concluded that absorption and retention or accumulation of Al in humans occurs at lower levels of intake than had been assumed formerly. However, levels of 5 to 50 times the normal daily intake do not appear to interfere with other metabolic processes. The adverse effects of Al reported in the more recent years resulted from the inhalation or ingestion of Al in concentrations many times greater than the amounts present under normal circumstances. As in the past, there is still no need for concern by the public or producers of Al or its products concerning hazards to human health derived from well established and extensively used products. PMID:4470920

  15. Environment and health: Probes and sensors for environment digital control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schettini, Chiara

    2014-05-01

    The idea of studying the environment using New Technologies (NT) came from a MIUR (Ministry of Education of the Italian Government) notice that allocated funds for the realization of innovative school science projects. The "Environment and Health" project uses probes and sensors for digital control of environment (water, air and soil). The working group was composed of 4 Science teachers from 'Liceo Statale G. Mazzini ', under the coordination of teacher Chiara Schettini. The Didactic Section of Naples City of Sciences helped the teachers in developing the project and it organized a refresher course for them on the utilization of digital control sensors. The project connects Environment and Technology because the study of the natural aspects and the analysis of the chemical-physical parameters give students and teachers skills for studying the environment based on the utilization of NT in computing data elaboration. During the practical project, samples of air, water and soil are gathered in different contexts. Sample analysis was done in the school's scientific laboratory with digitally controlled sensors. The data are elaborated with specific software and the results have been written in a booklet and in a computing database. During the first year, the project involved 6 school classes (age of the students 14—15 years), under the coordination of Science teachers. The project aims are: 1) making students more aware about environmental matters 2) achieving basic skills for evaluating air, water and soil quality. 3) achieving strong skills for the utilization of digitally controlled sensors. 4) achieving computing skills for elaborating and presenting data. The project aims to develop a large environmental conscience and the need of a ' good ' environment for defending our health. Moreover it would increase the importance of NT as an instrument of knowledge.

  16. [Health and environment: the 2nd public health revolution.].

    PubMed

    Cicolella, André

    2010-01-01

    As of the mid-19th century, most infectious disease epidemics have been fought and slowed down by taking action on the environment (water, housing, waste) and education. This constitutes the 1st public health revolution paradigm. As we face the current epidemic of chronic diseases and the failure of the dominant biomedical model to stop them, a 2nd public health revolution is needed. The vision for this 2nd public health revolution requires a new paradigm built upon an eco-systemic definition of health and the recognition of the legitimacy for citizen participation based on the precautionary principle.

  17. Satellites as Sentinels for Environment & Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2002-01-01

    Satellites as Sentinels for Environment & Health Remotely-sensed data and observations are providing powerful new tools for addressing human and ecosystem health by enabling improved understanding of the relationships and linkages between health-related environmental parameters and society as well as techniques for early warning of potential health problems. NASA Office of Earth Science Applications Program has established a new initiative to utilize its data, expertise, and observations of the Earth for public health applications. In this initiative, lead by Goddard Space Flight Center, remote sensing, geographic information systems, improved computational capabilities, and interdisciplinary research between the Earth and health science communities are being combined in rich collaborative efforts resulting in more rapid problem-solving, early warning, and prevention in global health issues. This presentation provides a number of recent examples of applications of advanced remote sensing and other technologies to health.and security issues related to the following: infectious and vector-borne diseases; urban, regional and global air pollution; African and Asian airborne dust; heat stress; UV radiation; water-borne disease; extreme weather; contaminant pathways (ocean, atmosphere, ice)

  18. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 1O-Point Initiative to strengthen environment,safety, and health (ES H) programs, and waste management activities at involved conducting DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points independent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are more focused, concentrating on ES H management, ES H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES H areas. This volume contains appendices to the Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment Manual.

  19. Validation environment for AIPS/ALS: Implementation and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segall, Zary; Siewiorek, Daniel; Caplan, Eddie; Chung, Alan; Czeck, Edward; Vrsalovic, Dalibor

    1990-01-01

    The work is presented which was performed in porting the Fault Injection-based Automated Testing (FIAT) and Programming and Instrumentation Environments (PIE) validation tools, to the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) in the context of the Ada Language System (ALS) application, as well as an initial fault free validation of the available AIPS system. The PIE components implemented on AIPS provide the monitoring mechanisms required for validation. These mechanisms represent a substantial portion of the FIAT system. Moreover, these are required for the implementation of the FIAT environment on AIPS. Using these components, an initial fault free validation of the AIPS system was performed. The implementation is described of the FIAT/PIE system, configured for fault free validation of the AIPS fault tolerant computer system. The PIE components were modified to support the Ada language. A special purpose AIPS/Ada runtime monitoring and data collection was implemented. A number of initial Ada programs running on the PIE/AIPS system were implemented. The instrumentation of the Ada programs was accomplished automatically inside the PIE programming environment. PIE's on-line graphical views show vividly and accurately the performance characteristics of Ada programs, AIPS kernel and the application's interaction with the AIPS kernel. The data collection mechanisms were written in a high level language, Ada, and provide a high degree of flexibility for implementation under various system conditions.

  20. [Assessing the impact of the environment on human health].

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Marine

    2016-05-01

    In public health, nurses are concerned with the global health of populations. A recently qualified nurse, interested in this area of health, enhanced her skills with a master's degree specialising in the links between the environment and health.

  1. Environment and Health: Not Only Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Colao, Annamaria; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Piscitelli, Prisco

    2016-01-01

    The Hippocratic tradition emphasized environmental causes of diseases and the need for harmony between the individual and the natural environment as the right philosophy to maintain a good health status. Public awareness and scientific attention concerning environmental pollution is usually focused on the consequent increased risk of developing cancer. Air pollution has been recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) to cause cardiovascular and respiratroy diseases, as well as lung cancer, after acute/chronic exposure to fine particulates (PM2.5 and PM10) even at concentrations which are 50% lower than those accepted as legal limits in many developed countries. An increase of 10 µg/m3 of PM2.5 produces a +4%–6% of overall mortality, a +10% of cardiovascular disease prevalence (arithmyas, acute myocardial infarctions, and heart failure) and a +22% of lung cancer prevalence. In addition to these chronic effects, acute hospitalizations are also affected, especially among susceptible populations such as children and diabetic patients. Water and soil contamination also have an additional detrimental effect on people’s health. Other issues concerning environment contamination and human health include male/female fertility, metabolic and thyroid conditions, but also professional exposures resulting in occupational diseases. Moreover, in the perspective of “gender medicine”, different acute or chronic effects of environmental pollution should be specifically assessed both in men and in women. This special issue on “Environmental Diseases” is aimed at providing a global overview about different threats to human health possibily originating from environmental contamination. PMID:27447654

  2. [Transport, environment and health. 2008 SESPAS Report].

    PubMed

    Ballester, Ferran; Peiró, Rosanna

    2008-04-01

    Motor road transport has increased exponentially in the last few years. To a large extent, mobility is an essential element in the organization of society, but, until recently, the implications of chosen forms of transport for health and the environment have not been considered. In this chapter we review the negative impact of current forms of transport on health in terms of traffic injuries, climate change, atmospheric contamination, noise, and interference with daily activities and exercise, such as impediments to walking or cycling. Some possible interventions related to the instruments available in public health and other fields are proposed. Issues deserving further research are highlighted. Some examples in Spain and other countries are described. Recommendations are made on the need to reduce the use of private cars and to develop segmented routes and areas of quiet traffic connected in the cities and among nearby towns to promote walking are cycling. One major goal in current public policies should be to develop and maintain a public transport system that is safe, cheap and faster and less polluting than private transport. These interventions would help to achieve a change in current modes of transport and would lead to a healthier population and a more sustainable environment.

  3. Mechanisms linking the social environment to health in African Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The social environment may influence health directly or indirectly through psychosocial factors, such as perceived stress, depressive symptoms and discrimination. This study explored potential psychosocial mediators of the associations between the social environment and physical and mental health in...

  4. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 10-Point Initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES H) programs, and waste management activities at DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points involved conducting dent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special independent Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are more focused, concentrating on ES H management, ES H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES H areas. This manual documents the processes to be used to perform the ES H Progress Assessments. It was developed based upon the lessons learned from Tiger Team Assessments, the two pilot Progress Assessments, and Progress Assessments that have been completed. The manual will be updated periodically to reflect lessons learned or changes in policy.

  5. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Poritosh; Orikasa, Takahiro; Okadome, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Shiina, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR), germinated brown rice (GBR) and partially-milled rice (PMR) contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR). Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR) seems to be relatively prone to arsenic contamination compared to that of untreated rice, if contaminated water is used for parboiling and cooking. A change in consumption patterns from PBR to untreated rice (non-parboiled), and WMR to PMR or BR may conserve about 43–54 million tons of rice and reduce the risk from arsenic contamination in the arsenic prone area. This study also reveals that a change in rice consumption patterns not only supply more food components but also reduces environmental loads. A switch in production and consumption patterns would improve food security where food grains are scarce, and provide more health beneficial food components, may prevent some diseases and ease the burden on the Earth. However, motivation and awareness of the environment and health, and even a nominal incentive may require for a method switching which may help in building a sustainable society. PMID:21776212

  6. [Health, environment and sustainable development in Mexico].

    PubMed

    1998-09-01

    This article is based on "Salud, ambiente y desarrollo humano sostenible: el caso de México," a document prepared in June 1997 by the Comité Técnico Nacional para el Desarrollo Sostenible. It opens with information regarding the epidemiologic and demographic changes that have taken place in Mexico, such as the decrease in communicable diseases, the rise in noncommunicable diseases, and the less conspicuous increase in lesions resulting from accidents or acts of violence. This is followed by a discussion of priority problems and problems of lesser magnitude in environmental health, specifically those relating to water and air quality, as well as disposal of household and dangerous wastes. Finally, it proposes three areas of intervention in light of the structural problems detected: the absence of an integrated information system covering the area of health, environment, and development; the absence of channels of communication within and between institutions and sectors, and the lack of coordination in planning and implementing programs and actions in this field.

  7. Occupational health and environment research 1983: Health, Safety, and Environment Division. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Voelz, G.L.

    1985-05-01

    The primary responsibility of the Health, Safety, and Environment (HSE) Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to provide comprehensive occupational health and safety programs, waste processing, and environmental protection. These activities are designed to protect the workers, the public, and the environment. Evaluation of respiratory protective equipment included the XM-30 and M17A1 military masks, use of MAG-1 spectacles in respirators, and eight self-contained units. The latter units were used in an evaluation of test procedures used for Bureau of Mines approval of breathing apparatuses. Analyses of air samples from field studies of a modified in situ oil shale retorting facility were performed for total cyclohexane extractables and selected polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Aerosols generation and characterization of effluents from oil shale processing were continued as part of an inhalation toxicology study. Additional data on plutonium excretion in urine are presented and point up problems in using the Langham equation to predict plutonium deposition in the body from long-term excretion data. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1983 showed the highest estimated radiation dose from Laboratory operations to be about 26% of the natural background radiation dose. Several studies on radionuclides and their transport in the Los Alamos environment are described. The chemical quality of surface and ground water near the geothermal hot dry rock facility is described. Short- and long-term consequences to man from releases of radionuclides into the environment can be simulated by the BIOTRAN computer model, which is discussed brirfly.

  8. UMTRA Project: Environment, Safety, and Health Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The US Department of Energy has prepared this UMTRA Project Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Plan to establish the policy, implementing requirements, and guidance for the UMTRA Project. The requirements and guidance identified in this plan are designed to provide technical direction to UMTRA Project contractors to assist in the development and implementation of their ES and H plans and programs for UMTRA Project work activities. Specific requirements set forth in this UMTRA Project ES and H Plan are intended to provide uniformity to the UMTRA Project`s ES and H programs for processing sites, disposal sites, and vicinity properties. In all cases, this UMTRA Project ES and H Plan is intended to be consistent with applicable standards and regulations and to provide guidance that is generic in nature and will allow for contractors` evaluation of site or contract-specific ES and H conditions. This plan specifies the basic ES and H requirements applicable to UMTRA Project ES and H programs and delineates responsibilities for carrying out this plan. DOE and contractor ES and H personnel are expected to exercise professional judgment and apply a graded approach when interpreting these guidelines, based on the risk of operations.

  9. Human Health and the Environment: In Harmony or in Conflict?

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B

    2009-01-01

    Health policy frameworks usually construe environmental protection and human health as harmonious values. Policies that protect the environment, such as pollution control and pesticide regulation, also benefit human health. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that promoting human health sometimes undermines environmental protection. Some actions, policies, or technologies that reduce human morbidity, mortality, and disease can have detrimental effects on the environment. Since human health and environmental protection are sometimes at odds, political leaders, citizens, and government officials need a way to mediate and resolve conflicts between these values. Unfortunately, few approaches to applied bioethics have the conceptual tools to do accomplish this task. Theories of health care ethics have little to say about the environment, and theories of environmental ethics don't say much about human health. In this essay, I defend an approach to ethical decision-making that gives policy-makers some tools for balancing promotion of human health and protection of the environment. PMID:19130245

  10. Human health and the environment: in harmony or in conflict?

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2009-09-01

    Health policy frameworks usually construe environmental protection and human health as harmonious values. Policies that protect the environment, such as pollution control and pesticide regulation, also benefit human health. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that promoting human health sometimes undermines environmental protection. Some actions, policies, or technologies that reduce human morbidity, mortality, and disease can have detrimental effects on the environment. Since human health and environmental protection are sometimes at odds, political leaders, citizens, and government officials need a way to mediate and resolve conflicts between these values. Unfortunately, few approaches to applied bioethics have the conceptual tools to do accomplish this task. Theories of health care ethics have little to say about the environment, and theories of environmental ethics don't say much about human health. In this essay, I defend an approach to ethical decision-making that gives policy-makers some tools for balancing promotion of human health and protection of the environment.

  11. Webinar Presentation: Our Environment, Our Health, Our Children's Future

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, Our Environment, Our Health, Our Children's Future, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: The Significance of Children’s Environmental Health Research Through Collaboration held on July 8, 2015.

  12. Built Environment and Elderly Population Health: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Garin, Noe; Olaya, Beatriz; Miret, Marta; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Power, Michael; Bucciarelli, Paola; Haro, Josep Maria

    2014-01-01

    Global population aging over recent years has been linked to poorer health outcomes and higher healthcare expenditure. Policies focusing on healthy aging are currently being developed but a complete understanding of health determinants is needed to guide these efforts. The built environment and other external factors have been added to the International Classification of Functioning as important determinants of health and disability. Although the relationship between the built environment and health has been widely examined in working age adults, research focusing on elderly people is relatively recent. In this review, we provide a comprehensive synthesis of the evidence on the built environment and health in the elderly. PMID:25356084

  13. Work environments for healthy and motivated public health nurses.

    PubMed

    Saito, Naoko; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Kitaike, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives By defining health as mental health and productivity and performance as work motivation, the study aimed to identify work environments that promote the health and motivation of public health nurses, using the concept of a healthy work organizations, which encompasses the coexistence of excellent health for each worker and the productivity and performance of the organization.Methods Self-administered questionnaires were sent to 363 public health nurses in 41 municipal public health departments in Chiba prefecture. The questions were comprised of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) for mental health and the Morale Measurement Scale (5 items) for work motivation. Demographic data, workplace attributes, workload, and workplace environment were set as independent variables. The Comfortable Workplace Survey (35 items in 7 areas) was used to assess workers' general work environments. The "Work Environment for Public Health Nurses" scale (25 items) was developed to assess the specific situations of public health nurses. While aggregation was carried out area by area for the general work environment, factor analysis and factor-by-factor aggregation were used for public health nurse-specific work environments. Mental health and work motivation results were divided in two based on the total scores, which were then evaluated by t-tests and χ(2) tests. Items that showed a significant correlation were analyzed using logistic regression.Results The valid responses of 215 participants were analyzed (response rate: 59.2%). For the general work environment, high scores (the higher the score, the better the situation) were obtained for "contributions to society" and "human relationships" and low scores were obtained for "career building and human resource development." For public health nurse-specific work environments, high scores were obtained for "peer support," while low scores were obtained for "easy access to advice and training" and

  14. Flourishing: Exploring Predictors of Mental Health within the College Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the predictive factors of student mental health within the college environment. Participants: Students enrolled at 7 unique universities during years 2008 (n = 1,161) and 2009 (n = 1,459). Methods: Participants completed survey measures of mental health, consequences of alcohol use, and engagement in the college environment.…

  15. Working together to create supportive environments in worksite health promotion.

    PubMed

    Golaszewski, Thomas; Allen, Judd; Edington, Dee

    2008-01-01

    A conccptual model for addressing the creation of supportive environments for worksite health promotion settings is presented. The authors also discuss the variety of organizational and cultural interventions that are necessary in creating a supportive environment for healthy behavior using a social ecology perspective. The connection to next generation strategies in worksite health promotion is proposed and summaries of the relevant literatures are cited.

  16. Is physical activity in natural environments better for mental health than physical activity in other environments?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that there may be synergy between the psychological benefits of physical activity, and the restorative effects of contact with a natural environment; physical activity in a natural environment might produce greater mental health benefits than physical activity elsewhere. However, such experiments are typically short-term and, by definition, artificially control the participant types, physical activity and contact with nature. This observational study asked whether such effects can be detected in everyday settings at a population level. It used data from the Scottish Health Survey 2008, describing all environments in which respondents were physically active. Associations were sought between use of each environment, and then use of environments grouped as natural or non-natural, and the risk of poor mental health (measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)) and level of wellbeing (measured by the Warwick Edinburgh Mental health and Wellbeing Score (WEMWBS). Results showed an independent association between regular use of natural environments and a lower risk of poor mental health, but not for activity in other types of environment. For example, the odds of poor mental health (GHQ ≥ 4) among those regularly using woods or forests for physical activity were 0.557 (95% CI 0.323-0.962), compared to non-users. However, regular use of natural environments was not clearly associated with greater wellbeing, whilst regular use of non-natural environments was. The study concludes that physical activity in natural environments is associated with a reduction in the risk of poor mental health to a greater extent than physical activity in other environments, but also that activity in different types of environment may promote different kinds of positive psychological response. Access to natural environments for physical activity should be protected and promoted as a contribution to protecting and improving population mental health.

  17. Marketing in today's health care environment.

    PubMed

    Liberman, A; Rotarius, T M

    2001-06-01

    The application of health care marketing is seen as a relatively recent phenomenon. Marketing is discussed as a sophisticated managerial tool that includes five critical components: product, price, place, promotion, and partners. The triumvirate of health care decision makers (i.e., patients, insurance organizations, and employers) are examined vis-à-vis these five components.

  18. Health Clinic Environments in Georgia Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Susan Rogers

    2005-01-01

    Schools seem to be the logical place to serve the health needs of students, since children spend a majority of their time there. Design standards were not available for health clinics in Georgia elementary schools; therefore, this study examined key characteristics of an elementary school clinic in order to determine the importance of each design…

  19. National Built Environment Health Impact Assessment Model ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Behavioral (activity, diet, social interaction) and exposure (air pollution, traffic injury, and noise) related health impacts of land use and transportation investment decisions are becoming better understood and quantified. Research has shown relationships between density, mix, street connectivity, access to parks, shops, transit, presence of sidewalks and bikeways, and healthy food with physical activity, obesity, cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and some mental health outcomes. This session demonstrates successful integration of health impact assessment into multiple scenario planning tool platforms. Detailed evidence on chronic disease and related costs associated with contrasting land use and transportation investments are built into a general-purpose module that can be accessed by multiple platforms. Funders, researchers, and end users of the tool will present a detailed description of the key elements of the approach, how it has been applied, and how will evolve. A critical focus will be placed on equity and social justice inherent within the assessment of health disparities that will be featured in the session. Health impacts of community design have significant cost benefit implications. Recent research is now extending relationships between community design features and chronic disease to health care costs. This session will demonstrate the recent application of this evidence on health impacts to the newly adopted Los Angeles Regional Transpo

  20. Environment and Women's Health Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... How can the environment affect older women? Outdoor air pollution What is outdoor air pollution and how can ... reduce outdoor air pollution and global warming? Indoor air pollution What is indoor air pollution and how can ...

  1. [Brazilian public health research output related to the environment].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Carlos Machado de

    2005-01-01

    Although there are few scientific studies on the environment in the Brazilian public health literature, there are indications of recent growth in this theme in research and graduate programs in Brazil, thus tending to consolidate the scientific output in this area. The objective of this study was to contribute to the understanding and characterization of this theme in public health, offering backing for establishing research focused on sustainability of the environment and health. We identified and analyzed the research output on the environment in the most important Brazilian scientific journals in public health (1992-2002), using as the reference Chapter 35 of Agenda 21 (science for sustainability). The results showed: research output highly concentrated in the more affluent Southeast region of the country; predominance of the biological concept of health and the biophysical concept of environment; prevalence of diagnoses versus the search for solutions; and few studies involving stakeholders' participation.

  2. [School environment and children respiratory health: the SEARCH project].

    PubMed

    Zauli Sajani, Stefano; Colaiacomo, Elisabetta; De Maio, Francesca; Lauriola, Paolo; Sinisi, Luciana

    2009-01-01

    The Budapest Fourth Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health in 2004 launched the Children Environment and Health Action Plan for Europe (CEHAPE). The Fifth Ministerial Conference will be held in March 2010 in Parma (I) and the project activities implemented within the CEHAPE framework will be introduced. One of these projects is the European multicentric SEARCH project (School Environment And Respiratory health of Children), promoted by REC (Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe) which involved, among national partners, several Italian regions and which will be briefly described in this paper.

  3. Urban environment and health: food security.

    PubMed

    Galal, Osman; Corroon, Meghan; Tirado, Cristina

    2010-07-01

    The authors examine the impact of urbanization on food security and human health in the Middle East. Within-urban-population disparities in food security represent one of the most dramatic indicators of economic and health disparities. These disparities are reflected in a double burden of health outcomes: increasing levels of chronic disease as well as growing numbers of undernourished among the urban poor. These require further comprehensive solutions. Some of the factors leading to food insecurity are an overdependence on purchased food commodities, lack of sufficient livelihoods, rapid reductions in peripheral agricultural land, and adverse impacts of climate change. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Food Security Framework is used to examine and compare 2 cities in the Middle East: Amman, Jordan, and Manama, Bahrain.

  4. [The Environment: Agriculture and Health Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Charles C.; Byerly, T. C.

    On January 1, 1970, President Nixon signed into law a bill establishing a national policy to maintain conditions of the environment under which man and nature can exist in productive harmony. In keeping with this, the 1970 National Agricultural Outlook Conference was held, at which the 2 speeches presented in this document were delivered. The…

  5. Bushfires and human health in a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Fay H

    2009-09-01

    Bushfires are an integral part of the Australian environment. While the immediate health impacts of these fires can be devastatingly obvious, there are many other serious aspects of bushfires that remain less well understood. A holistic perspective of bushfires is essential for minimising harm and ensuring public safety in an environment that is becoming increasingly conducive to major bushfire catastrophes. This review summarises the current evidence about the immediate health risks of bushfires and the special health needs of survivors. It also looks at the health risks of smoke haze and other environmental hazards associated with bushfires.

  6. The impact on health of urban environments.

    PubMed

    Satterthwaite, D

    1993-10-01

    In developing countries, environmental hazards in urban areas mainly affect low-income people--especially women, children, and migrants--the people who are least able to avoid the hazards and/or least able to deal with the illness or injury they cause. Poor people are priced out of safe, well-located, well-serviced housing and land sites. Hazards include biological pathogens; chemical pollutants; scarce, over-priced, or poor quality natural resources; physical hazards; natural resource degradation; and national/global environmental degradation. These preventable health burdens cause disease, accidents, and premature death. Biological pathogens have the most serious impact on human health. Crowded conditions, poor sanitation, inadequate water supplies, poor facilities for preparing and storing food, and inadequate hygiene contribute to biological pathogen-induced ill health. Common chemical pollutants in urban areas are lead, indoor air pollutants from fuel combustion, toxic/hazardous wastes, and ambient air pollution. A shortage of fresh water is often why some urban households do not have a safe and adequate water supply. Limited land in cities prevents the urban poor from growing their own crops or maintaining livestock. Common physical hazards in cities are traffic accidents; burns, scalds, and accidental fires and poisonings; falls; and floods. Overcrowding, poor building material, and settlements on dangerous sites (e.g., flood plains, steep hillsides, and dumps) are example of physical hazards. Noise, overcrowding, inappropriate design, and stresses contribute to the growing psychosocial health problems of many urban dwellers in developing countries, especially of adolescents and young adults. Poorer urban residents who begin or are included in initiatives to improve their neighborhoods are more likely to develop integrated responses to nonenvironmental and environmental problems and to make sure that environmental action programs meet local needs and

  7. Mexico: The Socio-Economic and Cultural Environment for Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambler, Moses

    Numerous factors influencing health status and health care in Mexico are reviewed in this paper. Part I covers socioeconomic influences including agricultural and land tenure patterns, oil production, population growth rate, and the extent of poverty. Part II discusses the political environment, emphasizing the effects of politics on strategies…

  8. Women's Health Issues in the Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Richard T.

    1999-01-01

    Women have been an integral part of US space crews since Sally Ride's mission in 1983, and a total of 40 women have been selected as US astronauts. The first Russian female cosmonaut flew in 1963. This presentation examines the health care and reproductive aspects of flying women in space. In addition, the reproductive implications of delaying one's childbearing for an astronaut career and the impact of new technology such as assisted reproductive techniques are examined. The reproductive outcomes of the US female astronauts who have become pregnant following space flight exposure are also presented. Since women have gained considerable operational experience on the Shuttle, Mir and during EVA, the unique operational considerations for preflight certification, menstruation control and hygiene, contraception, and urination are discussed. Medical and surgical implications for women on long-duration missions to remote locations are still evolving, and enabling technologies for health care delivery are being developed. There has been considerable progress in the development of microgravity surgical techniques, including laparoscopy, thoracoscopy, and laparotomy. The concepts of prevention of illness, conversion of surgical conditions to medically treatable conditions and surgical intervention for women on long duration space flights are considered.

  9. [Conscientous health objection in the prison environment].

    PubMed

    Talavera, P

    2010-06-01

    To be fully in accordance with constitutional doctrines the notion of conscientious objection must be understood as a manifestation of the fundamental right to ideological freedom as contained in art. 16.1 CE (assuming of course that all objecting conduct is legitimate), but it must also be understood as a principle. That is to say, any conflict between the subject's fundamental right and legal duty that he rejects must be resolved by the judge who must make a careful judgement of values and property. This fundamental right still exists and may invoked and exercised by inmates and health personnel in the prison context in the face of predictions of the forcible imposition of medical treatment as stated in the LOGP and RP, with no more limit than public order itself.

  10. Health, Safety, and Environment Division: Annual progress report 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.A.

    1988-04-01

    The primary responsibility of the Health, Safety, and Environment (HSE) Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to provide comprehensive occupational health and safety programs, waste processing, and environment protection. These activities are designed to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. Many disciplines are required to meet the responsibilities, including radiation protection, industrial hygiene, safety, occupational medicine, environmental science, epidemiology, and waste management. New and challenging health and safety problems arise occasionally from the diverse research and development work of the Laboratory. Research programs in HSE Division often stem from these applied needs. These programs continue but are also extended, as needed to study specific problems for the Department of Energy and to help develop better occupational health and safety practices.

  11. Good practice in health, environment and safety management in enterprise.

    PubMed

    Michalak, J

    2001-01-01

    Good practice in health, environment and safety management in enterprise (GP HESME) is a process that aims at continuous improvement in health, environment and safety performance, involving all stakeholders within and outside the enterprise. This WHO program is supported by other international organizations, and the declaration of Ministers of Health and Ministers of Environment adopted in 1999. The basic issues of the GP HESME concept are presented as well as its prerequisites, benefits and participants. The key partners in GP HESME are employers and their organizations, representatives of employees, governmental agencies, local authorities, financial and insurance institutions, occupational health services, environmental and social services, associations of professionals, research and training institutions. The HESME system is intended to function at different levels: international, national, local community, and enterprise settings. The lists of expected benefits for each group of stakeholders are discussed. Evaluation of GP HESME is based on the criteria and indicators, the most important of them are briefly presented.

  12. Job satisfaction among primary health care physicians and nurses in Al-madinah Al-munawwara.

    PubMed

    Al Juhani, Abdullah M; Kishk, Nahla A

    2006-01-01

    Job satisfaction is the affective orientation that an employee has towards his work. Greater physician satisfaction is associated with greater patient adherence and satisfaction. Nurses' job satisfaction, have great impact on the organizational success. Knowing parts of job dissatisfaction among physicians and nurses is important in forming strategies for retaining them in primary health care (PHC) centers. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the level of job satisfaction among PHC physicians and nurses in Al- Madina Al- Munawwara. Also, to explore the relationship of their personal and job characteristics with job satisfaction. A descriptive cross- sectional epidemiological approach was adopted. A self completion questionnaire was distributed to physicians and nurses at PHC centers. A multi-dimensional job scale adopted by Traynor and Wade (1993) was modified and used. The studied sample included 445 health care providers, 23.6% were physicians and 76.4% were nurses. Job dissatisfaction was highly encountered where 67.1% of the nurses & 52.4% of physicians were dissatisfied. Professional opportunities, patient care and financial reward were the most frequently encountered domains with which physicians were dissatisfied. The dissatisfying domains for majority of nurses were professional opportunities, workload and appreciation reward. Exploring the relation between demographic and job characteristics with job satisfaction revealed that older, male, non-Saudi, specialists physicians had insignificantly higher mean score of job satisfaction than their counterparts. While older, female, non-Saudi, senior nurses had significantly higher mean score than their counterparts. It is highly recommended to reduce workload for nurses and provision of better opportunities promotional for PHC physicians and nurses.

  13. [Applicability of Children's Environment and Health Action Plan in Serbia].

    PubMed

    Ilić, Miroslava Kristoforović

    2010-01-01

    The Children's Environment and Health Action Plan for Europe was adopted at the 4th Ministry Conference on Environment (the World Health Organization, 2004). It is focused on children health care against hazards originating from the human environment. In its conclusion, the need is expressed for the development of national plans in the field of Environmental and Children Health for European region by 2007. Mutual activities would be obligatory for each country and their realization should be the responsibility of Ministers of Health Care and Environmental Health. In our country, a draft version of this document was recently adopted, where the following priority regional goals are proposed: safe drinking water and adequate sanitation, injury prevention and adequate physical activity, clean indoor and outdoor air, the human environment without chemicals. Every segment has been explained in details through activities, expected results, indicators, sources of verification and the main participants in the project implementation. The end of the action plan period is proposed to be the year 2019. It is also followed by a defined set of indicators: exposure, activities and health status. The analyses of particular activities or data to be used have pointed to some drawbacks of this draft version, which can be overcome by respecting expert opinions.

  14. Health inequalities and the psychosocial environment-two scientific challenges.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Johannes; Marmot, Michael

    2004-04-01

    As social inequalities in health continue to be a key public health problem, scientific advances in explaining these inequalities are needed. It is unlikely that there will be a single explanation of social inequalities in health. This introductory paper sets out one explanatory framework, exposure to adverse psychosocial environments during midlife, and particularly at work. We argue that exposure to an adverse psychosocial environment, in terms of job tasks, defined by high demands and low control and/or by effort-reward imbalance, elicits sustained stress reactions with negative long-term consequences for health. These exposures may be implicated in the association of socioeconomic status with health in two ways. First, these exposures are likely to be experienced more frequently among lower socioeconomic groups. Second, the size of the effects on health produced by adverse working conditions may be higher in lower status groups, due to their increased vulnerability. In this special issue, these arguments are illustrated by a collection of original contributions from collaborative research across Europe. The papers, in our view, advance the case for the robust associations between measures of adverse psychosocial environment and ill health, as they are based on comparative studies across several European countries and as they combine different types of study designs. This collaboration was enabled and supported by a European Science Foundation scientific programme on 'Social Variations in Health Expectancy in Europe'.

  15. Nursing practice environment: a strategy for mental health nurse retention?

    PubMed

    Redknap, Robina; Twigg, Di; Rock, Daniel; Towell, Amanda

    2015-06-01

    Historically, mental health services have faced challenges in their ability to attract and retain a competent nursing workforce in the context of an overall nursing shortage. The current economic downturn has provided some respite; however, this is likely to be a temporary reprieve, with significant nursing shortages predicted for the future. Mental health services need to develop strategies to become more competitive if they are to attract and retain skilled nurses and avoid future shortages. Research demonstrates that creating and maintaining a positive nursing practice environment is one such strategy and an important area to consider when addressing nurse retention. This paper examines the impact the nursing practice environment has on nurse retention within the general and mental health settings. Findings indicate, that while there is a wealth of evidence to support the importance of a positive practice environment on nurse retention in the broader health system, there is little evidence specific to mental health. Further research of the mental health practice environment is required.

  16. Masculinity in young men's health: exploring health, help-seeking and health service use in an online environment.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Richard E; Williams, Sarah

    2014-04-01

    Twenty-eight young men took part in two online focus groups exploring understandings of health, help-seeking and health service use. Techniques from Foucauldian discourse analysis were used to elucidate how the young men framed health-related practices within gendered identities in online environments. The discourses are discussed within three discursive themes: 'conceptualising health: everyday health versus "cover man" health', 'help-seeking: the restrictions of masculinity' and 'using health care: legitimising help-seeking through masculine identity'. Young men are interested in their health and construct their health practices as justified while simultaneously maintaining masculine identities surrounding independence, autonomy and control over their bodies.

  17. The State of the Environment: Environment and Health 1986. United Nations Environment Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    People depend for their well-being on the health of the societies in which they live. This report aims to show that the achievement of sustained development, the promotion of health, and the rational use of environmental resources are absolutely inseparable. Chapter I, "Health Effects of Human Activities With Environmental Consequences,"…

  18. Developing the health, safety and environment excellence instrument

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Quality and efficiency are important issues in management systems. To increase quality, to reach best results, to move towards the continuous improvement of system and also to make the internal and external customers satisfied, it is necessary to consider the system performance measurement. In this study the Health, Safety and Environment Excellence Instrument was represented as a performance measurement tool for a wide range of health, safety and environment management systems. In this article the development of the instrument overall structure, its parts, and its test results in three organizations are presented. According to the results, the scores ranking was the managership organization, the manufacturing company and the powerhouse construction project, respectively. The results of the instrument test in three organizations show that, on the whole, the instrument has the ability to measure the performance of health, safety and environment management systems in a wide range of organizations. PMID:23369610

  19. [One Health--mutual health of humans, animals and the environment].

    PubMed

    Sukura, Antti; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2016-01-01

    The detection in the early 2000's of new, pandemically spreading viral diseases and threats led to "One Health", a holistic concept of the inevitability of collaboration between human and animal health and the protection of the ecosystem. The movement initiated by physicians and veterinarians emerges form the idea that the health of humans and animals is interconnected and connected with the environment and that changes occurring in the environment will have a significant impact on health. Problems associated with health, such as antimicrobial resistance or zoonoses, require global solutions.

  20. Psychological Distress Among Older Prisoners: Associations With Health, Health Care Utilization, and the Prison Environment.

    PubMed

    Baidawi, Susan; Trotter, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    Physical and functional health issues among older prisoners may be difficult to address in an environment designed for younger inmates. This article investigates the relationships between older prisoners' health, their experiences of the prison environment and health services, and their levels of psychological distress. One hundred and seventy-three older prisoners (aged 50 years and older) from eight Australian prisons were interviewed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, with additional information collected from prisoner interviews and correctional health files. Distress scores were significantly associated with measures of physical health, functional independence, and health care utilization. However, a hierarchical regression analysis determined that physical difficulties in the prison environment and issues accessing prison health care explained a significant proportion of the variation in older prisoners' distress scores.

  1. Children's Environmental Health: 2007 Highlights. Environment, Health, and a Focus on Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created in 1970 to protect human health and the environment. The year 2007 marks 10 years of concerted Federal effort to address children's environmental health risks as mandated by Executive Order 13045, Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. Much of the agency's…

  2. The microbiome of the built environment and mental health.

    PubMed

    Hoisington, Andrew J; Brenner, Lisa A; Kinney, Kerry A; Postolache, Teodor T; Lowry, Christopher A

    2015-12-17

    The microbiome of the built environment (MoBE) is a relatively new area of study. While some knowledge has been gained regarding impacts of the MoBE on the human microbiome and disease vulnerability, there is little knowledge of the impacts of the MoBE on mental health. Depending on the specific microbial species involved, the transfer of microorganisms from the built environment to occupant's cutaneous or mucosal membranes has the potential to increase or disrupt immunoregulation and/or exaggerate or suppress inflammation. Preclinical evidence highlighting the influence of the microbiota on systemic inflammation supports the assertion that microorganisms, including those originating from the built environment, have the potential to either increase or decrease the risk of inflammation-induced psychiatric conditions and their symptom severity. With advanced understanding of both the ecology of the built environment, and its influence on the human microbiome, it may be possible to develop bioinformed strategies for management of the built environment to promote mental health. Here we present a brief summary of microbiome research in both areas and highlight two interdependencies including the following: (1) effects of the MoBE on the human microbiome and (2) potential opportunities for manipulation of the MoBE in order to improve mental health. In addition, we propose future research directions including strategies for assessment of changes in the microbiome of common areas of built environments shared by multiple human occupants, and associated cohort-level changes in the mental health of those who spend time in the buildings. Overall, our understanding of the fields of both the MoBE and influence of host-associated microorganisms on mental health are advancing at a rapid pace and, if linked, could offer considerable benefit to health and wellness.

  3. Indoor Environments and Health: Moving Into the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Samet, Jonathan M.; Spengler, John D.

    2003-01-01

    The quality of our indoor environments affects well-being and productivity, and risks for diverse diseases are increased by indoor air pollutants, surface contamination with toxins and microbes, and contact among people at home, at work, in transportation, and in many other public and private places. We offer an overview of nearly a century of research directed at understanding indoor environments and health, consider current research needs, and set out policy matters that need to be addressed if we are to have the healthiest possible built environments. The policy context for built environments extends beyond health considerations to include energy use for air-conditioning, selection of materials for sustainability, and design for safety, security, and productivity. PMID:12948968

  4. Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, Steven Arvid; Thomas Wierman

    2003-12-01

    The Environment, Safety and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) models human safety and health risk resulting from waste management and environmental restoration activities. Human safety and health risks include those associated with storing, handling, processing, transporting, and disposing of radionuclides and chemicals. Exposures to these materials, resulting from both accidents and normal, incident-free operation, are modeled. In addition, standard industrial risks (falls, explosions, transportation accidents, etc.) are evaluated. Finally, human safety and health impacts from cleanup of accidental releases of radionuclides and chemicals to the environment are estimated. Unlike environmental impact statements and safety analysis reports, ESHRAP risk predictions are meant to be best estimate, rather than bounding or conservatively high. Typically, ESHRAP studies involve risk predictions covering the entire waste management or environmental restoration program, including such activities as initial storage, handling, processing, interim storage, transportation, and final disposal. ESHRAP can be used to support complex environmental decision-making processes and to track risk reduction as activities progress.

  5. Utilization of virtual learning environments in the allied health professions.

    PubMed

    Butina, Michelle; Brooks, Donna; Dominguez, Paul J; Mahon, Gwendolyn M

    2013-01-01

    Multiple technology based tools have been used to enhance skill development in allied health education, which now includes virtual learning environments. The purpose of this study was to explore whether, and how, this latest instructional technology is being adapted in allied health education. An online survey was circulated to all Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions (ASAHP) member institutions and focused on three broad areas of virtual learning environments: the uses of, the perceived pros and cons of, and the outcomes of utilizing them. Results show 40% (17 of 42) of the respondent use some form of the technology. The use of virtual learning technology in other healthcare professions (e.g., medicine) demonstrates the potential benefits to allied health education.

  6. Pivoting: leveraging opportunities in a turbulent health care environment*

    PubMed Central

    Bandy, Margaret Moylan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this lecture is to challenge librarians in clinical settings to leverage the opportunities presented by the current health care environment and to develop collaborative relationships with health care practitioners to provide relevant services. Discussion: Health care organizations are under financial and regulatory pressures, and many hospital librarians have been downsized or have had their positions eliminated. The lecture briefly reviews hospital librarians' roles in the past but focuses primarily on our current challenges. This environment requires librarians to be opportunity focused and pivot to a new vision that directs their actions. Many librarians are already doing this, and colleagues are encouraging us to embrace these opportunities. Evidence from publications, websites, discussion lists, personal communications, and the author's experience is explored. Conclusion: Developing interdisciplinary and collaborative relationships in our institutions and providing relevant services will mark our progress as vital, contributing members of our health care organizations. PMID:25552938

  7. Income statement management in a turbulent health care environment.

    PubMed

    Covaleski, M A

    2001-03-01

    This article considers the role of accounting information embedded in the income statement of health care providers in their increasingly difficult economic environment. This turbulent economic environment has resulted from the dramatic shift in power from the seller to the buyer of health care services, with a consequential shift of risks that will mandate that health care providers obtain access to better cost and utilization information. This article looks at the 2 critical components of the income statement--the revenue function and the cost structure-in terms of their importance in the management of enhanced economic performance in both the fee-for-service and the prepaid provision of health care services.

  8. The urban environment, poverty and health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Stephens, C

    1995-06-01

    The process of urbanization could be described as one of the major global environmental changes directly affecting human health today. Populations particularly affected are in developing countries where rapid urban growth has been accompanied by massive urban poverty. Urban environmental health impacts, particularly the impact on adults of an environment of poverty, are still poorly understood. Definitions of the urban environment tend to be physical, excluding the complex ramifications of a social setting of disadvantage. This paper provides a brief overview of existing knowledge on the links between environment, poverty and health in urban areas of developing countries, with an emphasis on the policy implications implied by research on health differential between groups within cities. The paper argues that urban poverty and inequalities in conditions between groups within cities present a central crisis confronting urban policy in terms of human health and quality of life. The paper suggests that definitions of the urban environment tend to consider only the physical, and not the social complexity of the urban setting. The review concludes that the scale and the complexity of the urban crisis in developing countries demands a real commitment to re-thinking the management of cities to address multiple deprivation. The paper suggests that this challenges urban professionals who continue to act with a bias towards unintegrated single sector solutions despite claims to the contrary.

  9. Protecting the environment and public health from rare earth mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiang; Zhang, Guochun; Pan, An; Chen, Fengying; Zheng, Chunli

    2016-11-01

    As increasing demand for green energy and high-tech devices grows, so does the rising prospecting of rare earth metals required for their production. Protecting the environment and public health from rare earth element (REE) mining as well as emerging pollutants is urgently required to achieve sustainable development. This study mapped Earth's hidden REE deposits to identify potential contamination hotspots with the aim of preventing its deleterious effects on the environment. We worry that there would be widespread tailing facilities concomitant with serious pollutions, such as the Bayan Obo tailings site, and argue that a tradeoff between the underground REE exploration and environment conservation should be reached as soon as possible.

  10. [Correlation between legal protection of the environment and health].

    PubMed

    Giraldi, Guglielmo; Rinaldi, Alessandro; D'Andrea, Elvira; Lucchetti, Pietro; Messano, Giuseppe Alessio; d'Alessandro, Eugenia De Luca

    2012-01-01

    Health promotion is a priority of our time and planning and the evaluation of health and hygiene should be directed towards strategies to improve the well-being and lifestyles of the community. At the legislative level in Italy, the Ministry of Health, was established in 1958 with the task of providing for the collective health of the whole nation and in 1978, with Law 833, the National Health Service (NHS) was created which secured assistance and healthcare to all Italian citizens. The most important component of the entire health system is the Local Health Unit (USL) which has responsibility for prevention, treatment and rehabilitation, and highlights the importance of safeguarding the health, hygiene and safely at home and at work and the "hygiene of urban settlements and communities", ie environmental protection. One of the reasons for the delays in the promotion of environmental protection initiatives in Italy is to be found in the referendums of 1993, including the one which removed the tasks regarding environmental controls from the NHS. The temporary skills gap in the environmental field was filled with the 'National Agency for Environmental Protection (ANPA), which later became the Agency for Environmental Protection and Technical Services (APAT), and the regional level, the Regional Agencies Environmental Protection Agency (ARPA). Law 61/21 January 1994 joined the ARPA to the National Institute for Environmental Research and Protection (ISPRA). It is now necessary to implement a program that takes account of the damage caused to the environment and consequently the individual, which is totally committed the combination of the environment and human health and not, as in the recent past, as two distinct entities. In this sense, it is of fundamental importance the role of prevention departments to promote the organization networking and of individual companies' and individuals' skills, in fact. The integration of planning processes, environmental monitoring

  11. Integration of health and environment through health impact assessment: cases from three continents.

    PubMed

    Negev, Maya; Levine, Hagai; Davidovitch, Nadav; Bhatia, Rajiv; Mindell, Jennifer

    2012-04-01

    Despite the strong linkage between environment and health, institutions responsible for these fields operate in largely fragmented ways with limited interaction. As illustrated in the recent engagement between health and urban planning institutions, inter-institutional cooperation could support more effective and politically acceptable solutions for both local and global problems. Analysis of three case-studies, from three different continents, shows that HIA might serve to promote synergies among health and environmental disciplines in different local contexts, and could lead to institutional and procedural changes that promote health. Case examples provided supportive evidence for these effects, despite differences in approaches to HIA and governance levels. Obstacles to the use of HIA for inter-institutional integration also differed between countries. Lessons learned could support cooperation in other common interests of health and environment disciplines such as research, training and preparedness, and mitigation of public health emergencies related to the environment.

  12. Child Health and the Environment: A Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Lynn R.

    2005-01-01

    Substances in the environment that are potentially harmful to children's health and development, from conception onward, include metals such as lead and mercury, pesticides, indoor air pollution, residues of synthetic chemicals, radiation from the sun, nuclear sources, and air pollution. Children's exposures to these substances, as well as…

  13. Environmental Health concerns in natural and man-made environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergtholdt, C. P.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial hygene and environmental health aspects of ground operation at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory were investigated. Major areas of concern are: (1) toxic substances, (2) noise pollution, (3) electromagnetic radiation; and (4) biohazards and sanitation. Each of these categories are also studied in a closed environment, such as encountered aboard of a spacecraft.

  14. The impact of incinerators on human health and environment.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Raman; Sharma, Meenakshi; Sharma, Ratika; Sharma, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Of the total wastes generated by health-care organizations, 10%-25% are biomedical wastes, which are hazardous to humans and the environment and requires specific treatment and management. For decades, incineration was the method of choice for the treatment of such infectious wastes. Incinerator releases a wide variety of pollutants depending on the composition of the waste, which leads to health deterioration and environmental degradation. The significant pollutants emitted are particulate matter, metals, acid gases, oxides of nitrogen, and sulfur, aside from the release of innumerable substances of unknown toxicity. This process of waste incineration poses a significant threat to public health and the environment. The major impact on health is the higher incidence of cancer and respiratory symptoms; other potential effects are congenital abnormalities, hormonal defects, and increase in sex ratio. The effect on the environmental is in the form of global warming, acidification, photochemical ozone or smog formation, eutrophication, and human and animal toxicity. Thus, there is a need to skip to newer, widely accepted, economical, and environment-friendly technologies. The use of hydroclaves and plasma pyrolysis for the incineration of biomedical wastes leads to lesser environmental degradation, negligible health impacts, safe handling of treated wastes, lesser running and maintenance costs, more effective reduction of microorganisms, and safer disposal.

  15. Airborne Transducer Integrity under Operational Environment for Structural Health Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Salmanpour, Mohammad Saleh; Sharif Khodaei, Zahra; Aliabadi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-12-12

    This paper investigates the robustness of permanently mounted transducers used in airborne structural health monitoring systems, when exposed to the operational environment. Typical airliners operate in a range of conditions, hence, structural health monitoring (SHM) transducer robustness and integrity must be demonstrated for these environments. A set of extreme temperature, altitude and vibration environment test profiles are developed using the existing Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA)/DO-160 test methods. Commercially available transducers and manufactured versions bonded to carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite materials are tested. It was found that the DuraAct transducer is robust to environmental conditions tested, while the other transducer types degrade under the same conditions.

  16. Airborne Transducer Integrity under Operational Environment for Structural Health Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Salmanpour, Mohammad Saleh; Sharif Khodaei, Zahra; Aliabadi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the robustness of permanently mounted transducers used in airborne structural health monitoring systems, when exposed to the operational environment. Typical airliners operate in a range of conditions, hence, structural health monitoring (SHM) transducer robustness and integrity must be demonstrated for these environments. A set of extreme temperature, altitude and vibration environment test profiles are developed using the existing Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA)/DO-160 test methods. Commercially available transducers and manufactured versions bonded to carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite materials are tested. It was found that the DuraAct transducer is robust to environmental conditions tested, while the other transducer types degrade under the same conditions. PMID:27973450

  17. The urban built environment and associations with women's psychosocial health.

    PubMed

    Messer, Lynne C; Maxson, Pamela; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2013-10-01

    The determinants that underlie a healthy or unhealthy pregnancy are complex and not well understood. We assess the relationship between the built environment and maternal psychosocial status using directly observed residential neighborhood characteristics (housing damage, property disorder, tenure status, vacancy, security measures, violent crime, and nuisances) and a wide range of psychosocial attributes (interpersonal support evaluation list, self-efficacy, John Henryism active coping, negative partner support, Perceived Stress Scale, perceived racism, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression) on a pregnant cohort of women living in the urban core of Durham, NC, USA. We found some associations between built environment characteristic and psychosocial health varied by exposure categorization approach, while others (residence in environments with more rental property is associated with higher reported active coping and negative partner support) were consistent across exposure categorizations. This study outlines specific neighborhood characteristics that are modifiable risk markers and therefore important targets for increased research and public health intervention.

  18. Quantifying the Impact of Scenic Environments on Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seresinhe, Chanuki Illushka; Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah

    2015-11-01

    Few people would deny an intuitive sense of increased wellbeing when spending time in beautiful locations. Here, we ask: can we quantify the relationship between environmental aesthetics and human health? We draw on data from Scenic-Or-Not, a website that crowdsources ratings of “scenicness” for geotagged photographs across Great Britain, in combination with data on citizen-reported health from the Census for England and Wales. We find that inhabitants of more scenic environments report better health, across urban, suburban and rural areas, even when taking core socioeconomic indicators of deprivation into account, such as income, employment and access to services. Our results provide evidence in line with the striking hypothesis that the aesthetics of the environment may have quantifiable consequences for our wellbeing.

  19. Quantifying the Impact of Scenic Environments on Health

    PubMed Central

    Seresinhe, Chanuki Illushka; Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah

    2015-01-01

    Few people would deny an intuitive sense of increased wellbeing when spending time in beautiful locations. Here, we ask: can we quantify the relationship between environmental aesthetics and human health? We draw on data from Scenic-Or-Not, a website that crowdsources ratings of “scenicness” for geotagged photographs across Great Britain, in combination with data on citizen-reported health from the Census for England and Wales. We find that inhabitants of more scenic environments report better health, across urban, suburban and rural areas, even when taking core socioeconomic indicators of deprivation into account, such as income, employment and access to services. Our results provide evidence in line with the striking hypothesis that the aesthetics of the environment may have quantifiable consequences for our wellbeing. PMID:26603464

  20. The applicability of SERVQUAL in different health care environments.

    PubMed

    Dean, A M

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that investigates the applicability of a modified SERVQUAL instrument as a means of measuring service quality in two types of health service environments; medical care and health care (incorporating medical, social, cognitive and emotional elements). The research confirms a four factor structure that is stable for both environments, and similar to the service quality dimensions recognised in the literature. However, the relative importance of the dimensions of quality is inconsistent for the two types of health services. These results confirm the suggestion that importance values should be part of the measurement tool. Finally, the extra diagnostic advantage achieved by the use of gap scores to measure service quality, when compared to perception only scores is demonstrated.

  1. Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael L; Hsu, John; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Gonzalez, Raquel Palomino; Lund, Niels

    2016-01-01

    There is growing awareness of the impact of human activity on the climate and the need to stem this impact. Public health care decision makers from Sweden and the United Kingdom have started examining environmental impacts when assessing new technologies. This article considers the case for incorporating environmental impacts into the health technology assessment (HTA) process and discusses the associated challenges. Two arguments favor incorporating environmental impacts into HTA: 1) environmental changes could directly affect people's health and 2) policy decision makers have broad mandates and objectives extending beyond health care. Two types of challenges hinder this process. First, the nascent evidence base is insufficient to support the accurate comparison of technologies' environmental impacts. Second, cost-utility analysis, which is favored by many HTA agencies, could capture some of the value of environmental impacts, especially those generating health impacts, but might not be suitable for addressing broader concerns. Both cost-benefit and multicriteria decision analyses are potential methods for evaluating health and environmental outcomes, but are less familiar to health care decision makers. Health care is an important and sizable sector of the economy that could warrant closer policy attention to its impact on the environment. Considerable work is needed to track decision makers' demands, augment the environmental evidence base, and develop robust methods for capturing and incorporating environmental data as part of HTA.

  2. Kazakhstan's Environment-Health system, a Big Data challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitolo, Claudia; Bella Gazdiyeva, Bella; Tucker, Allan; Russell, Andrew; Ali, Maged; Althonayan, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    Kazakhstan has witnessed a remarkable economic development in the past 15 years, becoming an upper-middle-income country. However it is still widely regarded as a developing nation, partially because of its population's low life expectancy which is 5 years below the average in similar economies. The environment is in a rather fragile state, affected by soil, water, air pollution, radioactive contamination and climate change. However, Kazakhstan's government is moving towards clean energy and environmental protection and calling on scientists to help prioritise investments. The British Council-funded "Kazakhstan's Environment-Health Risk Analysis (KEHRA)" project is one of the recently launched initiatives to support Kazakhstan healthier future. The underlying hypothesis of this research is that the above mentioned factors (air/water/soil pollution, etc.) affecting public health almost certainly do not act independently but rather trigger and exacerbate each other. Exploring the environment-health links in a multi-dimensional framework is a typical Big Data problem, in which the volume and variety of the data needed poses technical as well as scientific challenges. In Kazakhstan, the complexities related to managing and analysing Big Data are worsened by a number of obstacles at the data acquisition step: most of the data is not in digital form, spatial and temporal attributes are often ambiguous and the re-use and re-purpose of the information is subject to restrictive licenses and other mechanisms of control. In this work, we document the first steps taken towards building an understanding of the complex environment-health system in Kazakhstan, using interactive visualisation tools to identify and compare hot-spots of pollution and poor health outcomes, Big Data and web technologies to collect, manage and explore available information. In the future, the knowledge acquired will be modelled to develop evidence-based recommendation systems for decision makers in

  3. [Environment and health: the case of the built environment and obesity].

    PubMed

    Scoccianti, Chiara; Minelli, Liliana; Biribanti, Alessia; Casadei, Riccardo; Vineis, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Diseases of affluence such as obesity and type II diabetes mellitus represent a challenge for modern day Public Health. Since the 1980s the frequency of such diseases has greatly increased. Obesity can now be considered as an environmental disease since issues closely linked to the organization and structure of the built environment can clearly influence the lifestyle of citizens including physical activity and eating behaviours. A multi-layered approach to the issue thus becomes essential, both in terms of assessing the impact of the built environment on the state of physical and mental wellbeing of citizens, and in terms of the organization of the environment itself based on the social and health needs of the community.

  4. Ultrasonic Al2O3 Ceramic Thermometry in High-Temperature Oxidation Environment

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yanlong; Gao, Yubin; Xiao, Zhaoqian; Wang, Gao; Tian, Miao; Liang, Haijian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an ultrasonic temperature measurement system was designed with Al2O3 high-temperature ceramic as an acoustic waveguide sensor and preliminarily tested in a high-temperature oxidation environment. The test results indicated that the system can indeed work stably in high-temperature environments. The relationship between the temperature and delay time of 26 °C–1600 °C ceramic materials was also determined in order to fully elucidate the high-temperature oxidation of the proposed waveguide sensor and to lay a foundation for the further application of this system in temperatures as high as 2000 °C. PMID:27845726

  5. Health Impacts from Human Interaction with the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, S. E.

    2008-12-01

    Humans have produced far greater impact on the environment than any other living form. The impact has been so significant-particularly during the past 50 years-that a new word, Anthrposphere has started appearing in recent literature. It is now being used along with the four major components of the system earth to underscore humans' influence on the environment. Human activities have produced a myriad of impacts on the environment that span the scale from local to global. The slow process that brought humanity to the present environmental crisis began with the Industrial Revolution and has greatly accelerated since the World War II. The past 50 years mark a unique period in human history that is characterized by rapid technological advances and unprecedented population growth. While the use of technology has been very effective in meeting the needs of the growing population, it has also produced serious impact on the environment. Large scale exploitation of mineral, fuel, water, forest, and marine resources has led to severe environmental degradation; and the resulting pollution of air, water, and land has caused serious consequences to human and ecological health. The presentation deals with the adverse impact on human health associated with mining, dam and reservoir construction, improper waste management, use of fossil fuels, and climate change. Case studies are included to illustrate health impacts from metal and coal mining; dam and reservoir construction and preponderance of disease vectors; pollution caused by improper waste disposal and the resulting incidence of cancer and other diseases; and emergence of vector-borne diseases at hitherto unknown locations, cardiovascular and respiratory track ailments, and increased morbidity and mortality triggered by elevated temperatures associated with climate change. A brief discussion of possible measures to mitigate the health consequences is also included in the presentation.

  6. Hydrogen effects on the mechanical properties of Al-Li 2090 alloy in an acid environment

    SciTech Connect

    Velez, E.; Sundaram, P.A.

    1998-01-06

    Although aluminum-lithium alloys are attractive materials for aeronautic and aerospace applications because of their lower density and higher elastic modulus compared to conventional aluminum alloys, their bane is their poor ductility and susceptibility to environment induced cracking (EIC). EIC of Al-Li alloys has been fairly well researched and the role of hydrogen in causing this phenomenon has been proposed. Of the various mechanisms proposed to explain the phenomenon of hydrogen embrittlement (HE) in Al-Li alloys, the formation of brittle hydrides, LiH and LiAlH{sub 4} has been indicated as the cause of embrittlement. This mechanism has been accepted widely, both for precharged specimens and in stress-corrosion cracking. Literature is not consistent with regard to the phenomenon of HE in Al-Li alloys, believed to be due to the widely varying experimental conditions used by each group of investigators. There is also no general agreement on the effect of aging temper on HE in these alloys. Some investigators note that the HE resistance is poor for the overaged (OA) condition while others claim the underaged (UA) temper as having poor resistance to HE. Some others have also reported that the peak aged (PA) temper is most resistant to HE. Most studies of HE for the Al-Li alloy system has been carried out in a NaOH environment. The main objective of this study is to obtain an understanding of the effect of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of a 2090 commercial alloy using electrolytic charging conditions in an acid environment for different tempers.

  7. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual. Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 1O-Point Initiative to strengthen environment,safety, and health (ES&H) programs, and waste management activities at involved conducting DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points independent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ``more focused, concentrating on ES&H management, ES&H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.`` In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES&H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES&H areas. This volume contains appendices to the Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment Manual.

  8. Health risk and significance of mercury in the environment.

    PubMed

    Li, W C; Tse, H F

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) has long been recognised as a global pollutant, because it can remain in the atmosphere for more than 1 year. The mercury that enters the environment is generally acknowledged to have two sources: natural and anthropogenic. Hg takes three major forms in the environment, namely methyl-Hg (MeHg), Hg(0) and Hg(2+). All three forms of Hg adversely affect the natural environment and pose a risk to human health. In particular, they may damage the human central nervous system, leading to cardiovascular, respiratory and other diseases. MeHg is bioavailable and can be bioaccumulated within food webs. Therefore, several methods of eliminating Hg from the soil and the aquatic system have been proposed. The focus of this article is on phytoremediation, as this technique provides a low-cost and environmentally friendly alternative to traditional methods.

  9. Case study of a sabkha sedimentary environment: Mallahat al Bariquah, Libya

    SciTech Connect

    Krason, J.

    1987-05-01

    The importance of the sabkha sedimentary environment for formation and/or accumulation of hydrocarbons, salts, and various metalliferous mineral deposits has been recognized by many geologists. A sabkha in which sedimentation and the formation of salt deposits and hydrocarbons is in progress is located along the Mediterranean Sea coast, in northwestern Libya and northeastern Tunisia. The sabkha Mallahat al Bariquah was drilled in a regular grid at 1-km spacing; 63 holes have been completed. The sabkha and its vicinity were geologically mapped (1:20,000). Several hundred core and loose rock samples were thoroughly examined with regard to the lithology, mineralogy, paleontology, and chemical composition. The chemistry of brine from each drill hole and solar pan was determined. Three 24-hour pumping tests were performed, and the hydrogeological conditions of the sabkha were analyzed in detail. Economically valuable bedded salt reserves of 170,800,000 MT of NaCl were discovered and proven. Additionally, over 30 million MT of potassium, magnesium, and sodium salts including bromides are recoverable from the brine. Although marine-coastal sabkhas are common, the extensive scope of this study is unique. Mallahat al Bariquah sabkha is not unique with regard to its geographic, climatic, or sedimentary environments. Therefore, Mallahat al Bariquah can be considered as a model applicable in exploration for and study of similar sedimentary environments in other geographic regions and older geologic epochs.

  10. Corrosion performance of Fe-Cr-Al and Fe aluminide alloys in complex gas environments

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Johnson, R.N.

    1995-05-01

    Alumina-forming structural alloys can offer superior resistance to corrosion in the presence of sulfur-containing environments, which are prevalent in coal-fired fossil energy systems. Further, Fe aluminides are being developed for use as structural materials and/or cladding alloys in these systems. Extensive development has been in progress on Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys to improve their engineering ductility. In addition, surface coatings of Fe aluminide are being developed to impart corrosion resistance to structural alloys. This paper describes results from an ongoing program that is evaluating the corrosion performance of alumina-forming structural alloys, Fe-Al and Fe aluminide bulk alloys, and Fe aluminide coatings in environments typical of coal-gasification and combustion atmospheres. Experiments were conducted at 650-1000{degrees}C in simulated oxygen/sulfur gas mixtures. Other aspects of the program are corrosion evaluation of the aluminides in the presence of HCl-containing gases. Results are used to establish threshold Al levels in the alloys for development of protective alumina scales and to determine the modes of corrosion degradation that occur in the materials when they are exposed to S/Cl-containing gaseous environments.

  11. Health service support in the future operating environment 2035.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    The period to 2035 is likely to be characterised by instability between states and in relations between groups within states. It is predicted to include climate change, rapid population growth, resource scarcity, resurgence in ideology, and shifts in power from west to east. Many of these changes are likely to have an impact on the health of civil societies and those military personnel deployed by states to counter these challenges. This paper considers the potential impact of emerging global strategic trends on health service support (HSS) in the Future Operating Environment 2035. Global Strategic Trends-Out to 2040, The Future Character of Conflict and NATO Strategic Foresight Analysis Report 2013 provide the foundations of the paper. The study concludes that future impacts on HSS are neither completely predictable nor predetermined, and there is always a possibility of a strategic shock. Knowledge of vulnerability, however, allows an informed approach to the development and evaluation of adaptive strategies to lessen risks to health.

  12. The changing environment for technological innovation in health care.

    PubMed

    Goodman, C S; Gelijns, A C

    1996-01-01

    A distinguishing feature of American health care is its emphasis on advanced technology. Yet today's changing health care environment is overhauling the engine of technological innovation. The rate and direction of technological innovation are affected by a complex of supply- and demandside factors, including biomedical research, education, patent law, regulation, health care payment, tort law, and more. Some distinguishing features of technological innovation in health care are now at increased risk. Regulatory requirements and rising payment hurdles are especially challenging to small technology companies. Closer management of health care delivery and payment, particularly the standardization that may derive from practice guidelines and clamping down on payment for investigational technologies, curtails opportunities for innovation. Levels and distribution of biomedical research funding in government and industry are changing. Financial constraints are limiting the traditional roles of academic health centers in fostering innovation. Despite notable steps in recent years to lower regulatory barriers and speed approvals, especially for products for life-threatening conditions, the Food and Drug Administration is under great pressure from Congress, industry, and patients to do more. Technology gatekeeping is shifting from hundreds of thousands of physicians acting on behalf of their patients to fewer, yet more powerful, managed care organizations and health care networks. Beyond its direct effects on adoption, payment, and use of technologies, the extraordinary buying leverage of these large providers is cutting technology profit margins and heightening competition among technology companies. It is contributing to unprecedented restructuring of the pharmaceutical and medical device industries, leading to unprecedented alliances with generic product companies, health care providers, utilization review companies, and other agents. These industry changes are already

  13. Integrating the environment, the economy, and community health: a Community Health Center's initiative to link health benefits to smart growth.

    PubMed

    McAvoy, Peter V; Driscoll, Mary Beth; Gramling, Benjamin J

    2004-04-01

    The Sixteenth Street Community Health Center (SSCHC) in Milwaukee, Wis, is making a difference in the livability of surrounding neighborhoods and the overall health of the families it serves. SSCHC is going beyond traditional health care provider models and working to link the environment, the economy, and community health through urban brownfield redevelopment and sustainable land-use planning. In 1997, SSCHC recognized that restoration of local air and water quality and other environmental conditions, coupled with restoring family-supporting jobs in the neighborhood, could have a substantial impact on the overall health of families. Recent events indicate that SSCHC's pursuit of smart growth strategies has begun to pay off.

  14. Using a Total Environment Framework (Built, Natural, Social Environments) to Assess Life-long Health Effects of Chemical Exposures

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPAseeks applications for research on how pollution affects human health in the context of the total environment – built, natural, and social environments interacting together with inherent characteristics and interactions.

  15. Factors Affecting the Hydrogen Environment Assisted Cracking Resistance of an AL-Zn-Mg-(Cu) Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Young, G A; Scully, J R

    2002-04-09

    Precipitation hardenable Al-Zn-Mg alloys are susceptible to hydrogen environment assisted cracking (HEAC) when exposed to aqueous environments. In Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, overaged tempers are used to increase HEAC resistance at the expense of strength but overaging has little benefit in low copper alloys. However, the mechanism or mechanisms by which overaging imparts HEAC resistance is poorly understood. The present research investigated hydrogen uptake, diffusion, and crack growth rate in 90% relative humidity (RH) air for both a commercial copper bearing Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (AA 7050) and a low copper variant of this alloy in order to better understand the factors which affect HEAC resistance. Experimental methods used to evaluate hydrogen concentrations local to a surface and near a crack tip include nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), focused ion beam, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (FIB/SIMS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Results show that overaging the copper bearing alloys both inhibits hydrogen ingress from oxide covered surfaces and decreases the apparent hydrogen diffusion rates in the metal.

  16. 2H and 27Al solid-state NMR study of the local environments in Al-doped 2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, and lepidocrocite

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Jongsik; Ilott, Andrew J.; Middlemiss, Derek S.; ...

    2015-05-13

    Although substitution of aluminum into iron oxides and oxyhydroxides has been extensively studied, it is difficult to obtain accurate incorporation levels. Assessing the distribution of dopants within these materials has proven especially challenging because bulk analytical techniques cannot typically determine whether dopants are substituted directly into the bulk iron oxide or oxyhydroxide phase or if they form separate, minor phase impurities. These differences have important implications for the chemistry of these iron-containing materials, which are ubiquitous in the environment. In this work, 27Al and 2H NMR experiments are performed on series of Al-substituted goethite, lepidocrocite, and 2-line ferrihydrite in ordermore » to develop an NMR method to track Al substitution. The extent of Al substitution into the structural frameworks of each compound is quantified by comparing quantitative 27Al MAS NMR results with those from elemental analysis. Magnetic measurements are performed for the goethite series to compare with NMR measurements. Static 27Al spin–echo mapping experiments are used to probe the local environments around the Al substituents, providing clear evidence that they are incorporated into the bulk iron phases. As a result, predictions of the 2H and 27Al NMR hyperfine contact shifts in Al-doped goethite and lepidocrocite, obtained from a combined first-principles and empirical magnetic scaling approach, give further insight into the distribution of the dopants within these phases.« less

  17. Free-living amoebae: Health concerns in the indoor environment

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.; Ironside, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    Free-living amoebae are the most likely protozoa implicated in health concerns of the indoor environment. These amoebae can be the source of allergic reactions, eye infections or, on rare occasions, encephalitis. While too large to be effectively aerosolized, free- living amoebae can support the multiplication of pathogens such as Legionella which are easily aerosolized and infectious via the pulmonary route. Traditional detection methods for free-living amoebae are laborious and time consuming. Newer techniques for rapidly detecting and quantitating free-living amoebae such as monoclonal antibodies, flow cytometry, gene probes, and laser optics have or could be employed. 25 refs.

  18. Compatibility of the Zr-Al alloy with a tokamak plasma environment

    SciTech Connect

    Knize, R.J.; Cecchi, J.L.; Dylla, H.F.

    1981-12-01

    We have investigated the compatibility of the Zr-Al alloy bulk getter with a tokamak plasma environment, where the hydrogenic fluxes are sufficient to cause embrittlement in relatively short times. Under normal operating conditions with the getters activated, it is necessary to regenerate the absorbed hydrogenic species before the embrittlement limit is reached. We present a method for determining the loading under tokamak conditions where the Zr-Al surface characteristics can change. During glow discharge cleaning and pulse discharge cleaning, it is not convenient to regenerate. We find, however, that during the cleaning operations the getter self-inerts, thus limiting the loading. We present data and a model which accounts for this behavior in terms of impurity adsorption on the room temperature getter surface during the cleaning operations.

  19. Child health and the environment: the INMA Spanish Study.

    PubMed

    Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Ramón, Rosa; Ballester, Ferran; Grimalt, Joan; Marco, Alfredo; Olea, Nicolás; Posada, Manuel; Rebagliato, Marisa; Tardón, Adonina; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi

    2006-09-01

    The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [Environment and Childhood]) is a population-based cohort study in different Spanish cities, that focuses on prenatal environmental exposures and growth, development and health from early fetal life until childhood. The study focuses on five primary areas of research: (1) growth and physical development; (2) behavioural and cognitive development; (3) asthma and allergies; (4) sexual and reproductive development; and (5) environmental exposure pathways. The general aims of the project are: (1) to describe the degree of individual prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants, and the internal dose of chemicals during pregnancy, at birth and during childhood in Spain; (2) to evaluate the impact of the exposure to different contaminants on fetal and infant growth, health and development; (3) to evaluate the role of diet on fetal and infant growth, health and development; and (4) to evaluate the interaction between persistent pollutants, nutrients and genetic determinants on fetal and infant growth, health and development. Extensive assessments will be carried out on 3100 pregnant women and children. Data will be collected by physical examinations, questionnaires, interviews, ultrasound and biological samples. Pregnant women are being assessed at 12, 20 and 32 weeks of gestation to collect information about environmental exposures and fetal growth. The children will be followed until the age of 4 years.

  20. Environment and air pollution: health services bequeath to grotesque menace.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Imran; Rasli, Amran Md; Awan, Usama; Ma, Jian; Ali, Ghulam; Faridullah; Alam, Arif; Sajjad, Faiza; Zaman, Khalid

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study is to establish the link between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, industrialization, alternative and nuclear energy, combustible renewable and wastes, urbanization, and resulting impact on health services in Malaysia. The study employed two-stage least square regression technique on the time series data from 1975 to 2012 to possibly minimize the problem of endogeniety in the health services model. The results in general show that air pollution and environmental indicators act as a strong contributor to influence Malaysian health services. Urbanization and nuclear energy consumption both significantly increases the life expectancy in Malaysia, while fertility rate decreases along with the increasing urbanization in a country. Fossil fuel energy consumption and industrialization both have an indirect relationship with the infant mortality rate, whereas, carbon dioxide emissions have a direct relationship with the sanitation facility in a country. The results conclude that balancing the air pollution, environment, and health services needs strong policy vistas on the end of the government officials.

  1. International Symposium on Clusters and Nanostructures (Energy, Environment, and Health)

    SciTech Connect

    Jena, Puru

    2011-11-10

    The international Symposium on Clusters and Nanostructures was held in Richmond, Virginia during November 7-10, 2011. The symposium focused on the roles clusters and nanostructures play in solving outstanding problems in clean and sustainable energy, environment, and health; three of the most important issues facing science and society. Many of the materials issues in renewable energies, environmental impacts of energy technologies as well as beneficial and toxicity issues of nanoparticles in health are intertwined. Realizing that both fundamental and applied materials issues require a multidisciplinary approach the symposium provided a forum by bringing researchers from physics, chemistry, materials science, and engineering fields to share their ideas and results, identify outstanding problems, and develop new collaborations. Clean and sustainable energy sessions addressed challenges in production, storage, conversion, and efficiency of renewable energies such as solar, wind, bio, thermo-electric, and hydrogen. Environmental issues dealt with air- and water-pollution and conservation, environmental remediation and hydrocarbon processing. Topics in health included therapeutic and diagnostic methods as well as health hazards attributed to nanoparticles. Cross-cutting topics such as reactions, catalysis, electronic, optical, and magnetic properties were also covered.

  2. A Review of Obesity and Its Relationship with the Built Environment: Implications for Health Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinzon-Perez, Helda

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is an important worldwide public health problem. Obesogenic environments have been associated with increasing rates of overweight and obesity. The relationship between obesity and the built environment, along with its implications for health education are discussed in this article.

  3. Mold exposure and respiratory health in damp indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju-Hyeong; Cox-Ganser, Jean M

    2011-01-01

    Almost all modern buildings experience at least minor, and sometimes serious, water damage during their life span. Excess moisture in buildings becomes a critical factor for mold (fungal) proliferation in nutrient-rich environments. As a result, building occupants may be exposed to increased levels of microbial agents such as fungal spores, cell fragments, cell wall components, or toxins. Such exposures may result in various diseases and symptoms, both respiratory and non-respiratory. Respiratory health complaints are common in damp buildings and have been more thoroughly studied than non-respiratory complaints. Respiratory diseases and symptoms which may be produced by exposure to indoor fungi include asthma development, exacerbation of asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, cough, wheeze, dyspnea (shortness of breath), nasal and throat symptoms, and respiratory infections. In addition to these illnesses, rhinosinusitis and sarcoidosis in water-damaged building occupants are also drawing more scientific attention. In this article, we explore the evidence for adverse effects of fungal exposure on respiratory health in damp indoor environments and potential disease mechanisms related to the exposure.

  4. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 10-Point Initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES&H) programs, and waste management activities at DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points involved conducting dent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special independent Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ``more focused, concentrating on ES&H management, ES&H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.`` In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES&H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES&H areas. This manual documents the processes to be used to perform the ES&H Progress Assessments. It was developed based upon the lessons learned from Tiger Team Assessments, the two pilot Progress Assessments, and Progress Assessments that have been completed. The manual will be updated periodically to reflect lessons learned or changes in policy.

  5. Psychosocial mechanisms linking the social environment to mental health in African Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African Amer...

  6. Stress Corrosion Cracking in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Aluminum Alloys in Saline Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holroyd, N. J. Henry; Scamans, G. M.

    2013-03-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu (AA7xxx) aluminum alloys exposed to saline environments at temperatures ranging from 293 K to 353 K (20 °C to 80 °C) has been reviewed with particular attention to the influences of alloy composition and temper, and bulk and local environmental conditions. Stress corrosion crack (SCC) growth rates at room temperature for peak- and over-aged tempers in saline environments are minimized for Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys containing less than ~8 wt pct Zn when Zn/Mg ratios are ranging from 2 to 3, excess magnesium levels are less than 1 wt pct, and copper content is either less than ~0.2 wt pct or ranging from 1.3 to 2 wt pct. A minimum chloride ion concentration of ~0.01 M is required for crack growth rates to exceed those in distilled water, which insures that the local solution pH in crack-tip regions can be maintained at less than 4. Crack growth rates in saline solution without other additions gradually increase with bulk chloride ion concentrations up to around 0.6 M NaCl, whereas in solutions with sufficiently low dichromate (or chromate), inhibitor additions are insensitive to the bulk chloride concentration and are typically at least double those observed without the additions. DCB specimens, fatigue pre-cracked in air before immersion in a saline environment, show an initial period with no detectible crack growth, followed by crack growth at the distilled water rate, and then transition to a higher crack growth rate typical of region 2 crack growth in the saline environment. Time spent in each stage depends on the type of pre-crack ("pop-in" vs fatigue), applied stress intensity factor, alloy chemistry, bulk environment, and, if applied, the external polarization. Apparent activation energies ( E a) for SCC growth in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys exposed to 0.6 M NaCl over the temperatures ranging from 293 K to 353 K (20 °C to 80 °C) for under-, peak-, and over-aged low-copper-containing alloys (<0.2 wt pct) are typically ranging from

  7. Actinobacteria in indoor environments: exposures and respiratory health effects.

    PubMed

    Rintala, Helena

    2011-06-01

    Actinobacteria are a large group of Gram-positive bacteria common in the environment, especially in the soil. They are morphologically diverse and extremely versatile in their metabolic activities. They produce tens of thousands of secondary metabolites with different biological activities. Exposure to actinobacteria in indoor environments is probably continuous, since they are both common environmental bacteria and human normal flora. However, the occurrence of some species of spore-forming filamentous actinomycetes has been associated with abnormal and health-hazardous situations, such as moisture damage of the building. The measured concentrations of actinobacteria indoors are low. Higher concentrations have been reported during the remediation work of moisture damaged buildings and in agricultural environments. Exposure to high concentrations of actinobacteria can cause allergic alveolitis. Other respiratory disorders have been reported, too and although the measured concentrations are low, the indoor exposure is always a mixture of many different agents, which may have synergistic effects. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that actinobacteria are very immunoactive and hence, potential causative agents for respiratory and other disorders.

  8. Platinum group elements in the environment and their health risk.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Khaiwal; Bencs, László; Van Grieken, René

    2004-01-05

    Accumulation of platinum group elements (PGEs) in the environment has been increased over the time. Catalytic converters of modern vehicles are considered to be the main sources of PGE pollution, since the correlation is between the Pt:Rh ratios in various environmental compartments and in converter units. The present literature survey shows that the concentration of these metals has increased significantly in the last decades in diverse environmental matrices; like airborne particulate matter, soil, roadside dust and vegetation, river, coastal and oceanic environment. Generally, PGEs are referred to behave in an inert manner and to be immobile. However, there is an evidence of spread and bioaccumulation of these elements in the environment. Platinum content of road dusts can be soluble, consequently, it enters the waters, sediments, soil and finally, the food chain. The effect of chronic occupational exposure to Pt compounds is well-documented, and certain Pt species are known to exhibit allergenic potential. However, the toxicity of biologically available anthropogenic Pt is not clear. Hence, there is a need to study the effect on human health of long-term chronic exposure to low levels of Pt compounds.

  9. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J; Edge, Thomas A; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2014-09-01

    Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future work in

  10. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J.; Edge, Thomas A.; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future

  11. DNA methylation, early life environment, and health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Colter; Schneper, Lisa M.; Notterman, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics, and especially DNA methylation, have recently become provocative biological explanations for early-life environmental effects on later health. Despite the large increase in papers on the topic over the last few years, many questions remain with regards to the biological feasibility of this mechanism and the strength of the evidence to date. In this review, we examine the literature on early-life effects on epigenetic patterns, with special emphasis on social environmental influences. First, we review the basic biology of epigenetic modification of DNA and debate the role of early-life stressful, protective, and positive environments on gene-specific, system-specific, and whole-genome epigenetic patterns later in life. Second, we compare the epigenetic literatures of both humans and other animals and review the research linking epigenetic patterns to health in order to complete the mechanistic pathway. Third, we discuss physical environmental and social environmental effects, which have to date, generally not been jointly considered. Finally, we close with a discussion of the current state of the area’s research, its future direction, and its potential use in pediatric health. PMID:26466079

  12. Environment and health in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Holdren, Jill; Tao, Shu; Carpenter, David O

    2008-10-01

    There are major challenges facing the countries in the Pacific Basin. These include issues of hazardous waste management and the consequent adverse effects of hazardous wastes on human health, the potential disruption of our whole way of life as a consequence of global climate change, and the increasing problem on human health of air pollution and the effects of breathing polluted air. These issues and others were the focus of the 12th meeting of the Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health Sciences, held in Beijing in late 2007. This volume is a collection of papers presented at that meeting, and this introductory chapter provides some perspective on three of the major issues that are of concern in all of the countries in this region. This meeting provided an opportunity for Chinese scientists and those from other countries in the Pacific Basin to share perspectives and possible solutions with others from the international community, and these various approaches are reflected in these proceedings.

  13. Occupational Safety and Related Impacts on Health and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Watterson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The inter-relationship between safety, health and the ‘environment’ is a complex and at times a relatively neglected topic. In this issue, ‘safety’ is often viewed by contributors as ‘health and safety’ and includes occupationally-related ill health as well as injury or harm to employees and the wider public. ‘Environment’ is also interpreted in the widest sense covering both physical and work environments with upstream work hazards presenting risks to downstream communities. The focus is very much on exploring and where possible addressing the challenges, some old and some facing workers in a range of public and private settings and also at times their nearby communities. The 19 papers in the issue cover public and private sectors, global and very local populations, macro-theoretical perspectives, large epidemiological and some single factory or hospital site small case studies. A number of the papers are just beginning to explore and draw out for the first time the risks from hazards in their part of the world. The methodologies adopted also range from lab-based studies through ergonomic assessments and interventions to therapeutic approaches. PMID:27782047

  14. Burnout and work environments of public health nurses involved in mental health care

    PubMed Central

    Imai, H; Nakao, H; Tsuchiya, M; Kuroda, Y; Katoh, T

    2004-01-01

    Aims: (1) To examine whether prevalence of burnout is higher among community psychiatric nurses working under recently introduced job specific work systems than among public health nurses (PHNs) engaged in other public health services. (2) To identify work environment factors potentially contributing to burnout. Methods: Two groups were examined. The psychiatric group comprised 525 PHNs primarily engaged in public mental health services at public health centres (PHCs) that had adopted the job specific work system. The control group comprised 525 PHNs primarily engaged in other health services. Pines' Burnout Scale was used to measure burnout. Respondents were classified by burnout score into three groups: A (mentally stable, no burnout); B (positive signs, risk of burnout); and C (burnout present, action required). Groups B and C were considered representative of "burnout". A questionnaire was also prepared to investigate systems for supporting PHNs working at PHCs and to define emergency mental health service factors contributing to burnout. Results: Final respondents comprised 785 PHNs. Prevalence of burnout was significantly higher in the psychiatric group (59.2%) than in the control group (51.5%). Responses indicating lack of job control and increased annual frequency of emergency overtime services were significantly correlated with prevalence of burnout in the psychiatric group, but not in the control group. Conclusions: Prevalence of burnout is significantly higher for community psychiatric nurses than for PHNs engaged in other services. Overwork in emergency services and lack of job control appear to represent work environment factors contributing to burnout. PMID:15317917

  15. Oil for health in sub-Saharan Africa: health systems in a 'resource curse' environment

    PubMed Central

    Calain, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Background In a restricted sense, the resource curse is a theory that explains the inverse relationship classically seen between dependence on natural resources and economic growth. It defines a peculiar economic and political environment, epitomised by oil extraction in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Based on secondary research and illustrations from four oil-rich geographical areas (the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, Angola, southern Chad, Southern Sudan), I propose a framework for analysing the effects of the resource curse on the structure of health systems at sub-national levels. Qualitative attributes are emphasised. The role of the corporate sector, the influence of conflicts, and the value of classical mitigation measures (such as health impact assessments) are further examined. Results Health systems in a resource curse environment are classically fractured into tripartite components, including governmental health agencies, non-profit non-governmental organisations, and the corporate extractive sector. The three components entertain a range of contractual relationships generally based on operational considerations which are withdrawn from social or community values. Characterisation of agencies in this system should also include: values, operating principles, legitimacy and operational spaces. From this approach, it appears that community health is at the same time marginalised and instrumentalised toward economic and corporate interests in resource curse settings. Conclusion From a public health point of view, the resource curse represents a fundamental failure of dominant development theories, rather than a delay in creating the proper economy and governance environment for social progress. The scope of research on the resource curse should be broadened to include more accurate or comprehensive indicators of destitution (including health components) and more open perspectives on causal mechanisms. PMID:18939986

  16. Environment, Health and Climate: Impact of African aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liousse, C.; Doumbia, T.; Assamoi, E.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Baeza, A.; Penner, J. E.; Val, S.; Cachier, H.; Xu, L.; Criqui, P.

    2012-12-01

    Fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of particles in Africa are expected to significantly increase in the near future, particularly due to rapid growth of African cities. In addition to biomass burning emissions prevailing in these areas, air quality degradation is then expected with important consequences on population health and climatic/radiative impact. In our group, we are constructing a new integrated methodology to study the relations between emissions, air quality and their impacts. This approach includes: (1) African combustion emission characterizations; (2) joint experimental determination of aerosol chemistry from ultrafine to coarse fractions and health issues (toxicology and epidemiology). (3) integrated environmental, health and radiative modeling. In this work, we show some results illustrating our first estimates of African anthropogenic emission impacts: - a new African anthropogenic emission inventory adapted to regional specificities on traffic, biofuel and industrial emissions has been constructed for the years 2005 and 2030. Biomass burning inventories were also improved in the frame of AMMA (African Monsoon) program. - carbonaceous aerosol radiative impact in Africa has been modeled with TM5 model and Penner et al. (2011) radiative code for these inventories for 2005 and 2030 and for two scenarios of emissions : a reference scenario, with no further emission controls beyond those achieved in 2003 and a ccc* scenario including planned policies in Kyoto protocol and regulations as applied to African emission specificities. In this study we will show that enhanced heating is expected with the ccc* scenarios emissions in which the OC fraction is relatively lower than in the reference scenario. - results of short term POLCA intensive campaigns in Bamako and Dakar in terms of aerosol chemical characterization linked to specific emissions sources and their inflammatory impacts on the respiratory tract through in vitro studies. In this study, organic

  17. The prioritization of environment, safety, and health activities

    SciTech Connect

    Otway, H.; Puckett, J.M.; von Winterfeldt, D.

    1991-09-01

    Federal facilities, including the national laboratories, must bring existing operations into compliance with environment, safety, and health (ES H) regulations while restoring sites of past operations to conform with today's more rigorous standards. The need for ES H resources is increasing while overall budgets are decreasing, and the resulting staffing and financial constraints often make it impossible to carry out all necessary activities simultaneously. This stimulated interest in formal methods to prioritize ES H activities. We describe the development of an approach called MAPP (Multi-Attribute Prioritization Process), which features expert judgment, user values, and intensive user participation in the system design process. We present results of its application to the prioritization of 41 ES H activities having a total cost of over $25 million. We conclude that the insights gained from user participation in the design process and the formal prioritization results are probably of comparable value. 19 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. HYPERTENSION CARE IN AL ASYAH PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTER, AL QASSIM, SAUDI ARABIA: AN AUDIT OF STRUCTURE, PROCESS, AND OUTCOME

    PubMed Central

    Surour, Atef M.; Saleh, Mahmoud A.; Al-Alfi, Mohammed A.; Al-Saigul, Abdullah M.; Riyadh, Mohammed A.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the quality of hypertension care in Al-Asyah primary health cares (PHC) center, Al Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia through an auditing of structure, process, and outcome. Subjects and methods: All files of registered hypertensive patients in the PHC center were reviewed as recommended by WHO, National Quality Assurance protocol, protocol of management of hypertension and criteria in the Sixth report of Joint National Committee on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure (JNCVI), to evaluate the structure, process, and outcome of hypertension care. Result: All hypertensive patients registered in Al Asyah PHC center ( 201 patients ) were included in this study. The prevalence of HTN among adults (≥15 years) was7.4% and increased with age. Patients were mostly Saudi (94.5%) with a mean age of 58.6 ± 13.9 years. Most of the patients were diagnosed as essential HTN (98.5%) at Al Asyah PHC center (87.1%). The mean duration of the HTN was 7.7 years, and 48.8% had a family history of HTN and 35.3% had diabetes mellitus. Most patients were obese or overweight (53.7% and 31.3% respectively), blood pressure of 79.6% of the patients was well controlled, and 45.3% of these patients had at least one complication. Ischemic heart disease, left ventricular hypertrophy, stroke, and myocardial infarction were the most common recorded complications. Conclusion: This study proves that all essential resources needed for hypertension care are available, but the results of process and outcome indicators show the need for the improvement of the referral system as well as good continuous constant health education programs to encourage the patients, their families and the community to observe more healthy lifestyles. PMID:23012041

  19. Indirect health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments.

    PubMed Central

    Arundel, A V; Sterling, E M; Biggin, J H; Sterling, T D

    1986-01-01

    A review of the health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments suggests that relative humidity can affect the incidence of respiratory infections and allergies. Experimental studies on airborne-transmitted infectious bacteria and viruses have shown that the survival or infectivity of these organisms is minimized by exposure to relative humidities between 40 and 70%. Nine epidemiological studies examined the relationship between the number of respiratory infections or absenteeism and the relative humidity of the office, residence, or school. The incidence of absenteeism or respiratory infections was found to be lower among people working or living in environments with mid-range versus low or high relative humidities. The indoor size of allergenic mite and fungal populations is directly dependent upon the relative humidity. Mite populations are minimized when the relative humidity is below 50% and reach a maximum size at 80% relative humidity. Most species of fungi cannot grow unless the relative humidity exceeds 60%. Relative humidity also affects the rate of offgassing of formaldehyde from indoor building materials, the rate of formation of acids and salts from sulfur and nitrogen dioxide, and the rate of formation of ozone. The influence of relative humidity on the abundance of allergens, pathogens, and noxious chemicals suggests that indoor relative humidity levels should be considered as a factor of indoor air quality. The majority of adverse health effects caused by relative humidity would be minimized by maintaining indoor levels between 40 and 60%. This would require humidification during winter in areas with cold winter climates. Humidification should preferably use evaporative or steam humidifiers, as cool mist humidifiers can disseminate aerosols contaminated with allergens. PMID:3709462

  20. Indirect health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments

    SciTech Connect

    Arundel, A.V.; Sterling, E.M.; Biggin, J.H.; Sterling, T.D.

    1986-03-01

    A review of the health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments suggests that relative humidity can affect the incidence of respiratory infections and allergies. Experimental studies on airborne-transmitted infectious bacteria and viruses have shown that the survival or infectivity of these organisms is minimized by exposure to relative humidities between 40 and 70%. Nine epidemiological studies examined the relationship between the number of respiratory infections or absenteeism and the relative humidity of the office, residence, or school. The incidence of absenteeism or respiratory infections was found to be lower among people working or living in environments with mid-range versus low or high relative humidities. The indoor size of allergenic mite and fungal populations is directly dependent upon the relative humidity. Mite populations are minimized when the relative humidity is below 50% and reach a maximum size at 80% relative humidity. Most species of fungi cannot grow unless the relative humidity exceeds 60%. Relative humidity also affects the rate of offgassing of formaldehyde from indoor building materials, the rate of formation of acids and salts from sulfur and nitrogen dioxide, and the rate of formation of ozone. The influence of relative humidity on the abundance of allergens, pathogens, and noxious chemicals suggests that indoor relative humidity levels should be considered as a factor of indoor air quality. The majority of adverse health effects caused by relative humidity would be minimized by maintaining indoor levels between 40 and 60%. This would require humidification during winter in areas with cold winter climates. Humidification should preferably use evaporative or steam humidifiers, as cool mist humidifiers can disseminate aerosols contaminated with allergens.

  1. [Effects of volcanic eruptions on environment and health].

    PubMed

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Milosević, Milan

    2007-12-01

    Volcanoes pose a threat to almost half a billion people; today there are approximately 500 active volcanoes on Earth, and every year there are 10 to 40 volcanic eruptions. Volcanic eruptions produce hazardous effects for the environment, climate, and the health of the exposed persons, and are associated with the deterioration of social and economic conditions. Along with magma and steam (H2O), the following gases surface in the environment: carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), carbon sulphide (CS), carbon disulfide (CS2), hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), hydrogen fluoride (HF), hydrogen bromide (HBr) and various organic compounds, as well as heavy metals (mercury, lead, gold).Their unfavourable effects depend on the distance from a volcano, on magma viscosity, and on gas concentrations. The hazards closer to the volcano include pyroclastic flows, flows of mud, gases and steam, earthquakes, blasts of air, and tsunamis. Among the hazards in distant areas are the effects of toxic volcanic ashes and problems of the respiratory system, eyes and skin, as well as psychological effects, injuries, transport and communication problems, waste disposal and water supplies issues, collapse of buildings and power outage. Further effects are the deterioration of water quality, fewer periods of rain, crop damages, and the destruction of vegetation. During volcanic eruptions and their immediate aftermath, increased respiratory system morbidity has been observed as well as mortality among those affected by volcanic eruptions. Unfavourable health effects could partly be prevented by timely application of safety measures.

  2. The portrayal of natural environment in the evolution of the ecological public health paradigm.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Christopher; Forkink, Annet; Weiner, Jocelyn

    2014-01-10

    This paper explores the conceptualization of the natural environment in an evolving ecological public health paradigm. The natural environment has long been recognized as essential to supporting life, health, and wellbeing. Our understanding of the relationship between the natural environment and health has steadily evolved from one of an undynamic environment to a more sophisticated understanding of ecological interactions.  This evolution is reflected in a number of ecological public health models which demonstrate the many external and overlapping determinants of human health. Six models are presented here to demonstrate this evolution, each model reflecting an increasingly ecological appreciation for the fundamental role of the natural environment in supporting human health. We conclude that after decades of public health's acceptance of the ecological paradigm, we are only now beginning to assemble knowledge of sophisticated ecological interdependencies and apply this knowledge to the conceptualization and study of the relationship between the natural environment and the determinants of human health.

  3. Factors Affecting the Hydrogen Environment Assisted Cracking Resistance of an Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Young; J.R. Scully

    2001-09-12

    It is well established that Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) aluminum alloys are susceptible to hydrogen environment assisted cracking (HEAC) when exposed to aqueous environments. In Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, overaged tempers are commonly used to increase HEAC resistance at the expense of strength. Overaging has little benefit in low copper alloys. However, the mechanism or mechanisms by which overaging imparts HEAC resistance is poorly understood. The present research investigated hydrogen uptake, diffusion, and crack growth rate in 90% relative humidity (RH) air for both a commercial copper bearing Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (AA 7050) and a low copper variant of this alloy in order to better understand the factors which affect HEAC resistance. Experimental methods used to evaluate hydrogen concentrations local to a surface and near a crack tip include nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), focused ion beam, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (FIB/SIMS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). When freshly bared coupons of AA 7050 are exposed to 90 C, 90% RH air, hydrogen ingress follows inverse-logarithmic-type kinetics and is equivalent for underaged (HEAC susceptible) and overaged (HEAC resistant) tempers. However, when the native oxide is allowed to form (24 hrs in 25 C, 40% RH lab air) prior to exposure to 90 C, 90% RH air, underaged alloy shows significantly greater hydrogen ingress than the overaged alloy. Humid air is a very aggressive environment producing local ({approx}1{micro}m) hydrogen concentrations in excess of 10,000 wt. ppm at 90 C. In the copper bearing alloy, overaging also effects the apparent diffusivity of hydrogen. As AA 7050 is aged from underaged {yields} peak aged {yields} overaged, the activation energy for hydrogen diffusion increases and the apparent diffusivity for hydrogen decreases, In the low copper alloy, overaging has little effect on hydrogen diffusion. Comparison of the apparent activation energies for hydrogen diffusion and for K independent (stage II) crack growth

  4. The Health Literacy Environment of Hospitals and Health Centers. Partners for Action: Making Your Healthcare Facility Literacy-Friendly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, Rima E.; Anderson, Jennie E.

    2006-01-01

    The "health literacy environment" of a healthcare facility represents the expectations, preferences, and skills of those providing health information and services. Some of these demands are in the form of physical aspects of the hospital or health center, such as signs and postings. At the same time, access to and navigation of health services…

  5. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Mama, Scherezade K; Li, Yisheng; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W; Nguyen, Nga T; Reitzel, Lorraine R; McNeill, Lorna H

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans.

  6. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E.; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans. PMID:27119366

  7. Tracking health and the environment: a pilot test of environmental public health indicators.

    PubMed

    Dreyling, Erin; Dederick, Elizabeth J; Chari, Ramya; Resnick, Beth; Malecki, Kristen Chossek; Burke, Thomas; Neff, Roni

    2007-12-01

    Examining the relationship between health outcomes and environmental exposures requires summary measures, or indicators. To advance the use of indicators, the Johns Hopkins Center for Excellence in Environmental Public Health Tracking piloted three pairs of indicators: 1) air toxics and leukemia in New Jersey, 2) mercury emissions and fish advisories in the United States, and 3) urban sprawl and obesity in New Jersey. These analyses illustrate the feasibility of creating environmental hazard, exposure, and health outcome indicators, examining their temporal and geographic trends, and identifying their temporal and geographic relationships. They also show the importance of including appropriate caveats with the findings. The authors' investigations demonstrate how existing environmental health data can be used to create meaningful indicator measures to further the understanding of environment-related diseases and to help prioritize and guide interventions. Indicators are the foundation of environmental public health tracking, and increased use and development of them are necessary for the establishment of a nationwide tracking network capable of linking environmental exposures and health outcomes.

  8. Aggregation and Colloidal Stability of Commercially Available Al2O3 Nanoparticles in Aqueous Environments

    PubMed Central

    Mui, Julie; Ngo, Jennifer; Kim, Bojeong

    2016-01-01

    The aggregation and colloidal stability of three, commercially-available, gamma-aluminum oxide nanoparticles (γ-Al2O3 NPs) (nominally 5, 10, and 20–30 nm) were systematically examined as a function of pH, ionic strength, humic acid (HA) or clay minerals (e.g., montmorillonite) concentration using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy techniques. NPs possess pH-dependent surface charges, with a point of zero charge (PZC) of pH 7.5 to 8. When pH < PZC, γ-Al2O3 NPs are colloidally stable up to 100 mM NaCl and 30 mM CaCl2. However, significant aggregation of NPs is pronounced in both electrolytes at high ionic strength. In mixed systems, both HA and montmorillonite enhance NP colloidal stability through electrostatic interactions and steric hindrance when pH ≤ PZC, whereas their surface interactions are quite limited when pH > PZC. Even when pH approximates PZC, NPs became stable at a HA concentration of 1 mg·L−1. The magnitude of interactions and dominant sites of interaction (basal planes versus edge sites) are significantly dependent on pH because both NPs and montmorillonite have pH-dependent (conditional) surface charges. Thus, solution pH, ionic strength, and the presence of natural colloids greatly modify the surface conditions of commercial γ-Al2O3 NPs, affecting aggregation and colloidal stability significantly in the aqueous environment. PMID:28335218

  9. Health surveillance and agribusiness: the impact of pesticides on health and the environment. Danger ahead!

    PubMed

    Nasrala Neto, Elias; Lacaz, Francisco Antonio de Castro; Pignati, Wanderlei Antonio

    2014-12-01

    Pesticides are abundantly used in agribusiness and can be damaging to health and the environment. Society in general and agricultural, environmental and health institutions in particular have a legal and statutory duty to supervise their use. To identify and analyze these actions, interviews were conducted with managers of the municipal offices and union leaders representing the workers and farmers. Managers and rural producers were of the opinion that pesticides are essential to productivity and do not generate any impact on health and the environment. No policies or institutional relations monitoring pesticide use were identified or being considered. Rural workers' unions do not take any political initiatives to benefit the health of the workers themselves, their families and that of society in general. The conclusion draws is the pressing need to develop a model for sustainable agriculture, healthy and free of pesticides and that organized society and responsible institutions must undertake actions that meet the needs of the people who working on the farms or consume the agricultural products harvested there, especially controlling risks and consequences that can and must be avoided.

  10. Facilitating knowledge transfer: decision support tools in environment and health.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Ying; Bartonova, Alena; Neofytou, Panagiotis; Yang, Aileen; Kobernus, Michael J; Negrenti, Emanuele; Housiadas, Christos

    2012-06-28

    The HENVINET Health and Environment Network aimed to enhance the use of scientific knowledge in environmental health for policy making. One of the goals was to identify and evaluate Decision Support Tools (DST) in current use. Special attention was paid to four "priority" health issues: asthma and allergies, cancer, neurodevelopment disorders, and endocrine disruptors.We identified a variety of tools that are used for decision making at various levels and by various stakeholders. We developed a common framework for information acquisition about DSTs, translated this to a database structure and collected the information in an online Metadata Base (MDB).The primary product is an open access web-based MDB currently filled with 67 DSTs, accessible through the HENVINET networking portal http://www.henvinet.eu and http://henvinet.nilu.no. Quality assurance and control of the entries and evaluation of requirements to use the DSTs were also a focus of the work. The HENVINET DST MDB is an open product that enables the public to get basic information about the DSTs, and to search the DSTs using pre-designed attributes or free text. Registered users are able to 1) review and comment on existing DSTs; 2) evaluate each DST's functionalities, and 3) add new DSTs, or change the entry for their own DSTs. Assessment of the available 67 DSTs showed: 1) more than 25% of the DSTs address only one pollution source; 2) 25% of the DSTs address only one environmental stressor; 3) almost 50% of the DSTs are only applied to one disease; 4) 41% of the DSTs can only be applied to one decision making area; 5) 60% of the DSTs' results are used only by national authority and/or municipality/urban level administration; 6) almost half of the DSTs are used only by environmental professionals and researchers. This indicates that there is a need to develop DSTs covering an increasing number of pollution sources, environmental stressors and health end points, and considering links to other 'Driving

  11. Checklist of Health Promotion Environments at Worksites (CHEW): Development and Measurement Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldenburg, Brian; Sallis, James F.; Harris, David; Owen, Neville

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development and administration of the Checklist of Health Promotion Environments at Worksites (CHEW), which measures health-promoting characteristics of the workplace environment by direct observation (physical characteristics, information environment, and immediate neighborhood). Findings illustrate the type of data on environmental…

  12. The University Environment: A Comprehensive Assessment of Health-Related Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymona, Katie; Quick, Virginia; Olfert, Melissa; Shelnutt, Karla; Kattlemann, Kendra K.; Brown-Esters, Onikia; Colby, Sarah E.; Beaudoin, Christina; Lubniewski, Jocelyn; Maia, Angelina Moore; Horacek, Tanya; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about health-related advertising on university environments. Given the power of advertising and its potential effect on health behaviors, the purpose of this paper is to assess the health-related advertisement environment and policies on university campuses. Design/methodology/approach: In total, ten geographically and…

  13. "It is about being outside": Canadian youth's perspectives of good health and the environment.

    PubMed

    Woodgate, Roberta L; Skarlato, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on qualitative data generated from an ethnographic study exploring Canadian youth's understanding of health, this paper examines youth's perspectives of the relationships between health and environment. Seventy-one youth (12 to 19 years of age) took part in individual and focus group interviews, as well as in photovoice interviews. Although initial discourse about health mainly focused on healthy eating and exercise, youth were more enthused and able to share their thoughts and feelings about the relationships between health and environment during the photovoice interviews. For these youth, good health was defined and visualized as "being outside" in a safe, clean, green, and livable space. Youth talked about conditions contributing to healthy environments and how healthy environments contributed to a strong sense of place. Overall, the conversations about the environment evoked many feelings in the youth. Results are discussed in the context of current research and in relation to youth, but also more broadly in relation to research on health and environment.

  14. One health-Transdisciplinary opportunities for SETAC leadership in integrating and improving the health of people, animals, and the environment.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, A Alonso; Beasley, Val R; Augspurger, Tom; Benson, William H; Whaley, Janet; Basu, Niladri

    2016-10-01

    One Health is a collaborative, transdisciplinary effort working locally, nationally, and globally to improve health for people, animals, plants, and the environment. The term is relatively new (from ∼2003), and it is increasingly common to see One Health included by name in interinstitutional research partnerships, conferences, communications, and organizational frameworks, particularly those championed by the human health and veterinary medical communities. Environmental quality is arguably the least developed component within the One Health framework, but can be guided by expertise within the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC). Despite SETAC's long history of tripartite (academic, government, business) interdisciplinary environmental science activities, the term "One Health" is seldom used in SETAC communications (i.e., many of SETAC's activities are guided by One Health, but it is called by other names in SETAC's journals, newsletters, and presentations). Accordingly, the objective of this Focus article is to introduce the One Health concept to the SETAC membership. The article discusses the origins, evolution, and utility of the One Health approach as an organizational framework and provides key examples of ways in which SETAC expertise can benefit the One Health community. The authors assert that One Health needs SETAC and, to be most effective, SETAC needs One Health. Given that One Health to date has focused too little on the environment, on ecosystems, and on contaminants, SETAC's constructive involvement in One Health presents an opportunity to accelerate actions that will ultimately better protect human and ecosystem health. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2383-2391. © 2016 SETAC.

  15. Preliminary base heating environments for a generalized ALS LO2/LH2 launch vehicle, appendix 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Robert L.; Reardon, John E.

    1989-01-01

    A secondary objective of contract NAS8-39141 is to provide base heating assessments, as required, to support Advanced Launch System (ALS) preliminary launch vehicle and propulsion system design studies. The ALS propulsion systems integration working group meeting (No. 3) recently completed in San Diego, California, focused attention on the need for base heating environment determination to provide preliminary requirements for LO2/LH2 propulsion systems currently being considered for ALS. We were requested to provide these environments for a range of possible propellant mixture and nozzle area ratios. Base heating environments can only be determined as a function of altitude when the engine operating conditions and vehicle base region geometry (engine arrangement) are known. If time dependent environments are needed to assess thermal loads, a trajectory must also be provided. These parameters are not fixed at this time since the ALS configurations and propulsion operating conditions are varied and continue to be studied by Phase B contractors. Therefore, for this study, a generalized LO2/LH2 system was selected along with a vehicle configuration consisting of a seven-engine booster and a three-engine core. MSFC provided guidance for the selection. We also selected a limited number of body points on the booster and core vehicles and engines for the environment estimates. Environments at these locations are representative of maximum heating conditions in the base region and are provided as a function of altitude only. Guidelines and assumptions for this assessment, methodology for determining the environments, and preliminary results are provided in this technical note. Refinements in the environments will be provided as the ALS design matures.

  16. Preliminary base heating environments for a generalized ALS LO2/LH2 launch vehicle, appendix 1 and 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Robert L.; Reardon, John E.

    1989-10-01

    A secondary objective of contract NAS8-39141 is to provide base heating assessments, as required, to support Advanced Launch System (ALS) preliminary launch vehicle and propulsion system design studies. The ALS propulsion systems integration working group meeting (No. 3) recently completed in San Diego, California, focused attention on the need for base heating environment determination to provide preliminary requirements for LO2/LH2 propulsion systems currently being considered for ALS. We were requested to provide these environments for a range of possible propellant mixture and nozzle area ratios. Base heating environments can only be determined as a function of altitude when the engine operating conditions and vehicle base region geometry (engine arrangement) are known. If time dependent environments are needed to assess thermal loads, a trajectory must also be provided. These parameters are not fixed at this time since the ALS configurations and propulsion operating conditions are varied and continue to be studied by Phase B contractors. Therefore, for this study, a generalized LO2/LH2 system was selected along with a vehicle configuration consisting of a seven-engine booster and a three-engine core. MSFC provided guidance for the selection. We also selected a limited number of body points on the booster and core vehicles and engines for the environment estimates. Environments at these locations are representative of maximum heating conditions in the base region and are provided as a function of altitude only. Guidelines and assumptions for this assessment, methodology for determining the environments, and preliminary results are provided in this technical note. Refinements in the environments will be provided as the ALS design matures.

  17. Acting to Create a Healthy Environment. Teenage Health Teaching Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    The Teenage Health Teaching Modules (THTM) program is a health education curriculum for adolescents. Each THTM module frames an adolescent health task emphasizing development of self-assessment, communication, decision making, health advocacy, and self-management. This module encourages students to take a more active interest in environmental…

  18. EH&S annual report: Summary of activities Environment, Health and Safety Division, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This report presents an overview of the environment, safety, and health program in operation at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. description of research in environmental science, remediation, waste management, safety, health services, radiation assessment, and emergency plans are provided.

  19. The changing rural environment and the relationship between health services and rural development.

    PubMed Central

    Cordes, S M

    1989-01-01

    Author summarizes today's changing rural America and the challenges that health services researchers and policymakers face in relating the rural environment to the problems and possibilities of rural health services delivery. PMID:2917874

  20. One Health - Transdisciplinary Opportunities for SETAC Leadership in Integrating and Improving the Health of People, Animals, and the Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    One Health is a collaborative, transdisciplinary effort working locally, nationally, and globally to improve health for people,animals, plants, and the environment. The term is relatively new (from ?2003), and it is increasingly common to see One Health included by name in interi...

  1. Pupils' Views on an ICT-Based Learning Environment in Health Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Räihä, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Enkenberg, Jorma; Turunen, Hannele

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study that examined pupils' views on an ICT-based learning environment in health learning. The study was a part of the wider European Network of Health Promoting Schools programme (ENHPS; since 2008, Schools for Health in Europe, SHE) in Finland, and particularly its sub-project, From Puijo to the World with Health Lunch,…

  2. Youth dietary intake and weight status: healthful neighborhood food environments enhance the protective role of supportive family home environments.

    PubMed

    Berge, Jerica M; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Forsyth, Ann; Bauer, Katherine W; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate individual and joint associations of the home environment and the neighborhood built environment with adolescent dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI) z-score. Racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse adolescents (n=2682; 53.2% girls; mean age14.4 years) participating in the EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) study completed height and weight measurements and surveys in Minnesota middle and high schools. Neighborhood variables were measured using Geographic Information Systems data. Multiple regressions of BMI z-score, fruit and vegetable intake, and fast food consumption were fit including home and neighborhood environmental variables as predictors and also including their interactions to test for effect modification. Supportive family environments (i.e., higher family functioning, frequent family meals, and parent modeling of healthful eating) were associated with higher adolescent fruit and vegetable intake, lower fast food consumption, and lower BMI z-score. Associations between the built environment and adolescent outcomes were fewer. Interaction results, although not all consistent, indicated that the relationship between a supportive family environment and adolescent fruit and vegetable intake and BMI was enhanced when the neighborhood was supportive of healthful behavior. Public health interventions that simultaneously improve both the home environment and the neighborhood environment of adolescents may have a greater impact on adolescent obesity prevention than interventions that address one of these environments alone.

  3. What role for environmental public health practitioners in promoting healthy built environments?

    PubMed

    Rideout, Karen; Kosatsky, Tom; Lee, Karen K

    2016-06-27

    Spaces that encourage better health are increasingly seen as key to reducing the burden of chronic disease: many larger Canadian public health departments now include built environment (BE) teams, which work with municipalities and land use planners to promote and/or require the development of health-encouraging spaces. In many public health agencies, it is environmental health practitioners who have assumed the new healthy BE role, but at what cost to existing mandates? We argue that reinventing roles to increase BE capacities within environmental health practice would reinforce health protection mandates while building capacity in chronic disease prevention. Significant expansion into the design of healthier built environments may require some reallocation of resources. However, we anticipate that healthier built environments will reduce threats to health and so lessen the need for conventional health protection, while encouraging activities and behaviours that lead to greater population wellness.

  4. Weldability of Fe-Al-Cr Overlay Coatings for CorrosionProtection in Oxidizing/Sulfidizing Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Regina, JR

    2003-03-04

    The effect of chromium additions to the weldability of Fe-Al based overlay claddings are currently being investigated for the corrosion protection of boiler tubes in Low NOx furnaces. The primary objective of this research is to identify weldable (crack-free) Fe-Al-Cr weld overlay coating compositions that provide corrosion resistance over long exposure times. During the current project phase, preliminary corrosion testing was conducted on several ternary Fe-Al-Cr alloys in two types of gaseous corrosion environments. These long-term corrosion tests were used to develop a target weld composition matrix and serve as a base line for future corrosion tests. Preliminary Fe-Al based welds with various aluminum concentrations and one ternary Fe-Al-Cr weld overlay were successfully deposited using a Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) process and cracking susceptibility was evaluated on these coatings.

  5. MgAl2O4 spinel refractory as containment liner for high-temperature alkali salt containing environments

    DOEpatents

    Peascoe-Meisner, Roberta A [Knoxville, TN; Keiser, James R [Oak Ridge, TN; Hemric, James G [Knoxville, TN; Hubbard, Camden R [Oak Ridge, TN; Gorog, J Peter [Kent, WA; Gupta, Amul [Jamestown, NY

    2008-10-21

    A method includes containing a high-temperature alkali salt containing environment using a refractory containment liner containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel. A method, includes forming a refractory brick containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel having an exterior chill zone defined by substantially columnar crystallization and an interior zone defined by substantially equiaxed crystallization; and removing at least a portion of the exterior chill zone from the refractory brick containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel by scalping the refractory brick containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel to define at least one outer surface having an area of substantially equiaxed crystallization. A product of manufacture includes a refractory brick containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel including an interior zone defined by substantially equiaxed crystallization; and at least one outer surface having an area of substantially equiaxed crystallization.

  6. Uniform corrosion of FeCrAl alloys in LWR coolant environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrani, K. A.; Pint, B. A.; Kim, Y.-J.; Unocic, K. A.; Yang, Y.; Silva, C. M.; Meyer, H. M.; Rebak, R. B.

    2016-10-01

    The corrosion behavior of commercial and model FeCrAl alloys and type 310 stainless steel was examined by autoclave tests and compared to Zircaloy-4, the reference cladding materials in light water reactors. The corrosion studies were carried out in three distinct water chemistry environments found in pressurized and boiling water reactor primary coolant loop conditions for up to one year. The structure and morphology of the oxides formed on the surface of these alloys was consistent with thermodynamic predictions. Spinel-type oxides were found to be present after hydrogen water chemistry exposures, while the oxygenated water tests resulted in the formation of very thin and protective hematite-type oxides. Unlike the alloys exposed to oxygenated water tests, the alloys tested in hydrogen water chemistry conditions experienced mass loss as a function of time. This mass loss was the result of net sum of mass gain due to parabolic oxidation and mass loss due to dissolution that also exhibits parabolic kinetics. The maximum thickness loss after one year of LWR water corrosion in the absence of irradiation was ∼2 μm, which is inconsequential for a ∼300-500 μm thick cladding.

  7. Uniform corrosion of FeCrAl alloys in LWR coolant environments

    DOE PAGES

    Terrani, K. A.; Pint, B. A.; Kim, Y. -J.; ...

    2016-06-29

    The corrosion behavior of commercial and model FeCrAl alloys and type 310 stainless steel was examined by autoclave tests and compared to Zircaloy-4, the reference cladding materials in light water reactors. The corrosion studies were carried out in three distinct water chemistry environments found in pressurized and boiling water reactor primary coolant loop conditions for up to one year. The structure and morphology of the oxides formed on the surface of these alloys was consistent with thermodynamic predictions. Spinel-type oxides were found to be present after hydrogen water chemistry exposures, while the oxygenated water tests resulted in the formation ofmore » very thin and protective hematite-type oxides. Unlike the alloys exposed to oxygenated water tests, the alloys tested in hydrogen water chemistry conditions experienced mass loss as a function of time. This mass loss was the result of net sum of mass gain due to parabolic oxidation and mass loss due to dissolution that also exhibits parabolic kinetics. Finally, the maximum thickness loss after one year of LWR water corrosion in the absence of irradiation was ~2 μm, which is inconsequential for a ~300–500 μm thick cladding.« less

  8. Uniform corrosion of FeCrAl alloys in LWR coolant environments

    SciTech Connect

    Terrani, K. A.; Pint, B. A.; Kim, Y. -J.; Unocic, K. A.; Yang, Y.; Silva, C. M.; Meyer, III, H. M.; Rebak, R. B.

    2016-06-29

    The corrosion behavior of commercial and model FeCrAl alloys and type 310 stainless steel was examined by autoclave tests and compared to Zircaloy-4, the reference cladding materials in light water reactors. The corrosion studies were carried out in three distinct water chemistry environments found in pressurized and boiling water reactor primary coolant loop conditions for up to one year. The structure and morphology of the oxides formed on the surface of these alloys was consistent with thermodynamic predictions. Spinel-type oxides were found to be present after hydrogen water chemistry exposures, while the oxygenated water tests resulted in the formation of very thin and protective hematite-type oxides. Unlike the alloys exposed to oxygenated water tests, the alloys tested in hydrogen water chemistry conditions experienced mass loss as a function of time. This mass loss was the result of net sum of mass gain due to parabolic oxidation and mass loss due to dissolution that also exhibits parabolic kinetics. Finally, the maximum thickness loss after one year of LWR water corrosion in the absence of irradiation was ~2 μm, which is inconsequential for a ~300–500 μm thick cladding.

  9. Individual health care system distrust and neighborhood social environment: how are they jointly associated with self-rated health?

    PubMed

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Matthews, Stephen A; Shoff, Carla

    2011-10-01

    Americans' distrust in the health care system has increased in the past decades; however, little research has explored the impact of distrust on self-rated health and even less is known about whether neighborhood social environment plays a role in understanding the relationship between distrust and self-rated health. This study fills these gaps by investigating both the direct and moderating associations of neighborhood social environment with self-rated health. Our analysis is based on the 2008 Philadelphia Health Management Corporation's household survey and neighborhood-level data. Findings from multilevel logistic regression show that after controlling for individual- and neighborhood-level covariates, distrust is directly and adversely related to self-rated health, and that neighborhood social affluence and stability are directly and negatively associated with the odds of reporting poor/fair health. Neighborhood disadvantage and crime rates are not directly related to self-rated health, but increase the odds of having poor/fair health via distrust. Overall, our results suggest that macro-level actions can alter individual's perception of residential environment and lead to improved health. To improve the public health in an urban setting, rebuilding confidence in the health care system is integral, and the policies that help establish safe and cohesive neighborhoods may reduce the adverse effect of distrust on self-rated health.

  10. One Health and the Environment: Toxic Cyanobacteria, a Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants in ambient exposure situations. ...

  11. Building Health Promotion into the Job of Home Care Aides: Transformation of the Workplace Health Environment.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Naoko; Yin, Lijuan; Lin, Ting-Ti

    2017-04-05

    Home care aides (HCAs), predominantly women, constitute one of the fastest growing occupations in the United States. HCAs work in clients' homes that lack typical workplace resources and benefits. This mixed-methods study examined how HCAs' work environment was transformed by a pilot workplace health promotion program that targeted clients as well as workers. The intervention started with training HCAs to deliver a gentle physical activity program to their older clients in a Medicaid-funded home care program. Older HCAs aged 50+ reported increased time doing the types of physical activity that they delivered to their clients (stretching or strengthening exercise) (p = 0.027). Almost all (98%) HCAs were satisfied with the program. These quantitative results were corroborated by qualitative data from open-ended survey questions and focus groups. HCAs described how they exercised with clients and how the psychosocial work environment changed with the program. Building physical activity into HCAs' job is feasible and can effectively promote HCAs' health, especially among older HCAs.

  12. Environmental health disparities: environmental and social impact of industrial pollution in a community - the model of Anniston, AL.

    PubMed

    Rubin, I Leslie; Nodvin, Janice T; Geller, Robert J; Teague, W Gerald; Holtzclaw, Brian L; Felner, Eric I

    2007-04-01

    The health and well-being of children are critically dependent on the environment in which they live. This article explores the complex relationship between the environment in which a child lives and the environmental factors that can adversely affect health and development. It also examines how awareness of these adverse factors can be helpful in promoting optimal health for children through the societal infrastructures that deal with health, the environment, and social justice.

  13. Environment and health in South Africa: gains, losses, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Mathee, Angela

    2011-01-01

    South Africans face a range of preventable environmental hazards to their health, many of which are rooted in the country's colonial and apartheid past, and ongoing poverty and inequality. Since the advent of democracy in the country, government has made considerable progress in improving living conditions and in developing the legal framework to prevent and manage environmental contamination. Considerable, under-exploited potential also exists in South Africa to prevent disease, including infectious and chronic diseases, and to promote health through a more holistic and public health approach. This article summarizes the main environmental health concerns and reflects on mechanisms and opportunities to improve public environmental health.

  14. Translating school health research to policy. School outcomes related to the health environment and changes in mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Snelling, Anastasia M; Belson, Sarah Irvine; Watts, Erin; George, Stephanie; Van Dyke, Hugo; Malloy, Elizabeth; Kalicki, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes an exploration of the relationship between mathematic achievement and the school health environment relative to policy-driven changes in the school setting, specifically with regard to physical education/physical activity. Using school-level data, the authors seek to understand the relationship between mathematics achievement and the school health environment and physical education minutes. This work provides a description of the aspects of the school health environment, an exploration of the interrelationships between school health and student achievement, and an assessment of the effects of the school health policy and practice on student performance and health status. Based on these findings, we identify additional research necessary to describe the relationship between obesity and learning in children.

  15. Socio-Ecological School Environments and Children's Health and Wellbeing Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John-Akinola, Yetunde O.; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Attention to improving the school environment is a common activity in school health promotion. The role of the school environment in supporting improved health and wellbeing has a theoretical base, but has rarely been directly investigated empirically. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the associations between school…

  16. Maintaining Corrosion Protection by Anticipating Increased Environment, Safety and Health Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Maintaining Corrosion Protection by Anticipating Increased Environment, Safety and Health Requirements 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...responding? Environment, Safety and Health (ESH) Corrosion Prevention and Control (CPC) RDECOM  Often competing requirements  Many CPC...2001, Environmental Protection Agency: “highly likely” to be carcinogenic in humans  2006, National Research Council: “potential human carcinogen

  17. Impact of health education on compliance among patients of chronic diseases in Al Qassim, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf, Fawzy

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the impact of health education on diet, smoking and exercise among patients with chronic diseases (coronary artery disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus) in Al Qassim Region in Saudi Arabia. Methods: We used data from a clustered experimental study in selected primary health care (PHC) centers in Al-Qassim. The study was conducted during January to October 2009 to assess the impact of an enhanced health education program on smoking, diet and exercise. The intervention comprised refresher training of PHC centers’ staff to improve communication skills and use of health education materials. Special health education sessions in the PHC centers were also organized with the help of medical students from Qassim University. Target population included patients of chronic diseases as well as patients visiting for other complaints. Baseline and end-line surveys were conducted to assess the impact of health education program on the prevalence of smoking, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. The sample size was estimated to detect the impact of health education on these risk factors. Data were analyzed using SPSS (version 11.5) to conduct multivariate analysis to assess the impact of health education among chronic disease patients. Results: At baseline, chronic disease patients had generally healthier diet and did more exercise than patients of other diseases. Among chronic disease patients, significant improvements in smoking, diet and exercise habits were observed at end-line survey compared to baseline. These changes persisted after controlling for age, sex, marital status and education. Conclusion: We conclude that health education for patients visiting the PHC centers for follow-up of chronic diseases will significantly improve compliance to doctor’s advice regarding smoking, diet and exercise. PMID:21475552

  18. Life expectancy of modular Ti6Al4V hip implants: influence of stress and environment.

    PubMed

    Chandra, A; Ryu, J J; Karra, P; Shrotriya, P; Tvergaard, V; Gaisser, M; Weik, T

    2011-11-01

    Stress dependent electrochemical dissolution is identified as one of the key mechanisms governing surface degradation in fretting and crevice corrosion of biomedical implants. The present study focuses on delineating the roles of mechanical stress and chemical conditions on the life expectancy of modular hip implants. First, material removal on a stressed surface of Ti6Al4V subjected to single asperity contact is investigated experimentally to identify the influence of contact load, in-plane stress and chemical environment on mean wear rates. A range of known stress levels are applied to the specimen while its surface is mechanically stimulated in different non-reactive to oxidizing aqueous environments. Evolution of surface degradation is monitored, and its mechanism is elucidated. This phase allows estimation of Preston Constant which is later used in the analysis. Second phase of the work is semi-analytical and computational, where, based on the estimated Preston constant and other material and process parameters, the scratch propensity (consisting of magnitude of scratch depth and their frequency per unit area) due to micro-motion in modular hip implants is estimated. The third phase views these scratches as initial notches and utilizes a mixed-mode fatigue crack propagation model to estimate the critical crack length for onset of instability. The number of loading cycles needed to reach this critical crack length is then labeled as the expected life of the implant under given mechanical and chemical conditions. Implications of different material and process conditions to life expectancy of orthopedic implants are discussed. It is observed that transverse micro-motion, compared to longitudinal micro-motion, plays a far more critical role in determining the implant life. Patient body weight, as well as proximity of the joint fluid to its iso-electric point play key roles in determining wear rates and associated life expectancies of modular hip implants

  19. [Work environment and health status of agricultural aviation personnel].

    PubMed

    Marks, E; Karpińska, B; Swiecicki, W

    1983-01-01

    The morbidity rate and present health status of flying agricultural aviation personnel under health care of the Main Military Medical Committee for aviation workers were analysed and compared with another group of helicopter pilots. A detailed clinical examination of 77 "Agro" pilots indicated more trauma cases than idiopathic diseases cases, some of those trauma cases were due to professional work. Analysis of the present health status indicated the predominance of pilots with just one health disturbance, pilots with no health disturbances taking the second position in the comparison. The health deviations did not differ from those in other populations, as classified by pilots' age. On the other hand, their percentage was higher than in helicopters pilots control group. Average age of "Agro" pilots was relatively high and number of hours spent in air considerable, too.

  20. Using Green Building As A Model For Making Health Promotion Standard In The Built Environment.

    PubMed

    Trowbridge, Matthew J; Worden, Kelly; Pyke, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    The built environment-the constructed physical parts of the places where people live and work-is a powerful determinant of both individual and population health. Awareness of the link between place and health is growing within the public health sector and among built environment decision makers working in design, construction, policy, and both public and private finance. However, these decision makers lack the knowledge, tools, and capacity to ensure that health and well-being are routinely considered across all sectors of the built environment. The green building industry has successfully established environmental sustainability as a normative part of built environment practice, policy making, and investment. We explore the value of this industry's experience as a template for promoting health and well-being in the built environment.

  1. The environment and human health; USGS science for solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases, ground-water contamination, trace-metal poisoning...environmental threats to public health the world over require new solutions. Because of an increased awareness of the issues, greater cooperation among scientific and policy agencies, and powerful new tools and techniques to conduct research, there is new hope that complex ecological health problems can be solved. U.S. Geological Survey scientists are forming partnerships with experts in the public health and biomedical research communities to conduct rigorous scientific inquiries into the health effects of ecological processes.

  2. Built environment change: a framework to support health-enhancing behaviour through environmental policy and health research.

    PubMed

    Berke, Ethan M; Vernez-Moudon, Anne

    2014-06-01

    As research examining the effect of the built environment on health accelerates, it is critical for health and planning researchers to conduct studies and make recommendations in the context of a robust theoretical framework. We propose a framework for built environment change (BEC) related to improving health. BEC consists of elements of the built environment, how people are exposed to and interact with them perceptually and functionally, and how this exposure may affect health-related behaviours. Integrated into this framework are the legal and regulatory mechanisms and instruments that are commonly used to effect change in the built environment. This framework would be applicable to medical research as well as to issues of policy and community planning.

  3. The Built Environment and Its Relationship to the Public’s Health: The Legal Framework

    PubMed Central

    Perdue, Wendy Collins; Stone, Lesley A.; Gostin, Lawrence O.

    2003-01-01

    The built environment significantly affects the public’s health. This was most obvious when infectious disease was the primary public health threat during the industrial revolution; unsanitary conditions and overcrowded urban areas facilitated the spread of infection. However, even today in the age of chronic diseases there remains an important connection between population health and the built environment. Physical spaces can expose people to toxins or pollutants and influence lifestyles that contribute to diabetes, coronary vascular disease, and asthma. Public health advocates can help shape the design of cities and suburbs in ways that improve public health, but to do so effectively they need to understand the legal framework. This article reviews the connection between public health and the built environment and then describes the legal pathways for improving the design of our built environment. PMID:12948949

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH INDICATORS: STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Purpose: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is moving in the direction of measuring and assessing human health and ecological outcomes. The new "outcome" measures complement the more traditional approaches by more closely reflecting the actual public health...

  5. 75 FR 73946 - Worker Safety and Health Program: Safety Conscious Work Environment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Part 851 Worker Safety and Health Program: Safety Conscious Work Environment AGENCY: Office of the... ``Safety-Conscious Work Environment'' guidelines as a model. DOE published this petition and a request for... ``Safety-Conscious Work Environment'' by regulation be redundant, but it would also fail to add...

  6. Theories of how the school environment impacts on student health: systematic review and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bonell, C P; Fletcher, A; Jamal, F; Wells, H; Harden, A; Murphy, S; Thomas, J

    2013-11-01

    Public-health interventions informed by theory can be more effective but complex interventions often use insufficiently complex theories. We systematically reviewed theories of how school environments influence health. We included 37 reports drawing on 24 theories. Narrative synthesis summarised and categorised theories. We then produced an integrated theory of school environment influences on student health. This integrated theory could inform complex interventions such as health promoting schools programmes. Using systematic reviews to develop theories of change might be useful for other types of 'complex' public-health interventions addressing risks at the individual and community levels.

  7. The human environment interface: applying ecosystem concepts to health.

    PubMed

    Preston, Nicholas D; Daszak, Peter; Colwell, Rita R

    2013-01-01

    One Health approaches have tended to focus on closer collaboration among veterinarians and medical professionals, but remain unclear about how ecological approaches could be applied or how they might benefit public health and disease control. In this chapter, we review ecological concepts, and discuss their relevance to health, with an emphasis on emerging infectious diseases (EIDs). Despite the fact that most EIDs originate in wildlife, few studies account for the population, community, or ecosystem ecology of the host, reservoir, or vector. The dimensions of ecological approaches to public health that we propose in this chapter are, in essence, networks of population dynamics, community structure, and ecosystem matrices incorporating concepts of complexity, resilience, and biogeochemical processes.

  8. Disasters, the environment, and public health: improving our response.

    PubMed Central

    Logue, J N

    1996-01-01

    Natural and human-made disasters continue to adversely affect all areas of the world in both predictable and unpredictable ways. To highlight the importance of natural disasters, the United Nations declared the 1990s the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. This paper considers the public health response to disasters. It highlights environmental health issues and approaches since disasters are extreme environmental events, and it reviews developments relating to capacity building, training, and collaboration. Although progress is noted, a comprehensive federal or academic approach is not evident in the United States and the proper linkage to environmental health is lacking. With the International Decade now half over, public health professionals and others involved with disaster management should reflect on progress made to date and goals for the future. PMID:8806369

  9. National Built Environment Health Impact Assessment Model: Creation and Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    Behavioral (activity, diet, social interaction) and exposure (air pollution, traffic injury, and noise) related health impacts of land use and transportation investment decisions are becoming better understood and quantified. Research has shown relationships between density, mix,...

  10. Presenteeism according to healthy behaviors, physical health, and work environment.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Ray M; Aldana, Steven G; Pope, James E; Anderson, David R; Coberley, Carter R; Whitmer, R William

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the contribution that selected demographic characteristics, health behaviors, physical health outcomes, and workplace environmental factors have on presenteeism (on-the-job productivity loss attributed to poor health and other personal issues). Analyses are based on a cross-sectional survey administered to 3 geographically diverse US companies in 2010. Work-related factors had the greatest influence on presenteeism (eg, too much to do but not enough time to do it, insufficient technological support/resources). Personal problems and financial stress/concerns also contributed substantially to presenteeism. Factors with less contribution to presenteeism included physical limitations, depression or anxiety, inadequate job training, and problems with supervisors and coworkers. Presenteeism was greatest for those ages 30-49, women, separated/divorced/widowed employees, and those with a high school degree or some college. Clerical/office workers and service workers had higher presenteeism. Managers and professionals had the highest level of presenteeism related to having too much to do but too little time to do it, and transportation workers had the greatest presenteeism because of physical health limitations. Lowering presenteeism will require that employers have realistic expectations of workers, help workers prioritize, and provide sufficient technological support. Financial stress and concerns may warrant financial planning services. Health promotion interventions aimed at improving nutrition and physical and mental health also may contribute to reducing presenteeism.

  11. Managing personal health information in distributed research network environments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studying rare outcomes, new interventions and diverse populations often requires collaborations across multiple health research partners. However, transferring healthcare research data from one institution to another can increase the risk of data privacy and security breaches. Methods A working group of multi-site research programmers evaluated the need for tools to support data security and data privacy. The group determined that data privacy support tools should: 1) allow for a range of allowable Protected Health Information (PHI); 2) clearly identify what type of data should be protected under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA); and 3) help analysts identify which protected health information data elements are allowable in a given project and how they should be protected during data transfer. Based on these requirements we developed two performance support tools to support data programmers and site analysts in exchanging research data. Results The first tool, a workplan template, guides the lead programmer through effectively communicating the details of multi-site programming, including how to run the program, what output the program will create, and whether the output is expected to contain protected health information. The second performance support tool is a checklist that site analysts can use to ensure that multi-site program output conforms to expectations and does not contain protected health information beyond what is allowed under the multi-site research agreements. Conclusions Together the two tools create a formal multi-site programming workflow designed to reduce the chance of accidental PHI disclosure. PMID:24099117

  12. Healthy and Safe School Environment, Part II, Physical School Environment: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sherry Everett; Axelrad, Robert; Wattigney, Wendy A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: As society continues to focus on the importance of academic achievement, the physical environment of schools should be addressed as 1 of the critical factors that influence academic outcomes. The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2006 provides, for the first time, a comprehensive look at the extent to which schools have…

  13. [Environment of high temperature or air particle matter pollution, and health promotion of exercise].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie-xiu; Xu, Min-xiao; Wu, Zhao-zhao

    2014-10-01

    It is important to keep human health in special environment, since the special environment has different effects on health. In this review, we focused on high temperature and air particle matter environment, and health promotion of exercise. Exercise and high temperature are the main non-pharmacological therapeutic interventions of insulin resistance (IR). PGC-1α is key regulatory factor in health promotion of exercise and high temperature. The novel hormone Irisin might be the important pathway through which heat and exercise could have positive function on IR. Air particle matter (PM) is associated with onset of many respiratory diseases and negative effects of exerciser performance. However, regular exercise plays an important role in improving health of respiratory system and lowering the risk induced by PM. Furthermore, free radicals and inflammatory pathways are included in the possible mechanisms of positive physiological effects induced by exercise in air particle matter environment.

  14. Work Environment and Its Relationship to Quality Improvement: Health Care Providers' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Azza Hassan Mohamed; Abou Hashish, Ebtsam Aly

    2016-01-01

    There is a gap in understanding how work environment contributes to hospitals' readiness for quality improvement (QI) in developing countries; thus, diagnosing work environment problems in health care organizations is the initial step in designing strategies for QI in organizations. This study examines the relationship between nurses' and physicians' perspectives of the work environments and hospitals' climate for QI. Study results indicate that work environment is positively associated with hospitals' readiness for QI.

  15. THE CRITICAL CARE WORK ENVIRONMENT AND NURSE-REPORTED HEALTH CARE–ASSOCIATED INFECTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Deena; Kutney-Lee, Ann; Lake, Eileen T.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Critically ill patients are susceptible to health care–associated infections because of their illnesses and the need for intravenous access and invasive monitoring. The critical care work environment may influence the likelihood of infection in these patients. Objective To determine whether or not the critical care nurse work environment is predictive of nurse-reported health care–associated infections. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional design was used with linked nurse and hospital survey data. Nurses assessed the critical care work environment and provided the frequencies of ventilator-associated pneumonias, urinary tract infections, and infections associated with central catheters. Logistic regression models were used to determine if critical care work environments were predictive of nurse-reported frequent health care–associated infections, with controls for nurse and hospital characteristics. Results The final sample consisted of 3217 critical care nurses in 320 hospitals. Compared with nurses working in poor work environments, nurses working in better work environments were 36% to 41% less likely to report that health care–associated infections occurred frequently. Conclusion Health care–associated infections are less likely in favorable critical care work environments. These findings, based on the largest sample of critical care nurses to date, substantiate efforts to focus on the quality of the work environment as a way to minimize the frequency of health care–associated infections. PMID:24186818

  16. Health behaviour and the school environment in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    McLellan, L; Rissel, C; Donnelly, N; Bauman, A

    1999-09-01

    The relationship between the school environment and health has infrequently been examined. This study sought to examine the association between school students' perceptions of their school environment, teachers' and peers' support and their health behaviours. A cross sectional descriptive survey by supervised self-administration was conducted in 1996 based on the international WHO collaborative survey of school children's health and lifestyle (the HBSC Study) and extended in an Australian setting. Randomly sampled primary and secondary schools from Catholic, Independent and Government education sectors throughout New South Wales (NSW), Australia, were invited to participate. The final sample included 3918 school students attending Year 6 (primary school), Year 8 and Year 10 (high school) from 115 schools. The main outcome measures were self-reported health status and 7 health behaviours (tobacco use, alcohol use, physical activity, dental hygiene, nutritional intake, seat belt and bicycle helmet use). Independent variables included student perceptions of the school environment, perceptions of teachers' and peers' support. Girls, Year 6 students and students who have less than $19 a week to spend were significantly more likely to have positive perceptions towards their school environment, teacher(s) and peers. Students who had positive perceptions regarding their school environment and perceived their teachers as supportive were significantly more likely to engage in health promoting behaviours adjusting for age, sex and average weekly pocket money. A supportive peer environment was not associated with positive health behaviour. Health promotion practitioners need to consider the impact of the school environment on health behaviours of school students. In particular, practitioners should consider intervention models that improve the school environment as a key strategy within a health promoting school.

  17. The Developmental Environment, Epigenetic Biomarkers and Long-Term Health

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Keith M; Costello, Paula M; Lillycrop, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from both human and animal studies has shown that the prenatal and early postnatal environments influence susceptibility to chronic disease in later life and suggests that epigenetic processes are an important mechanism by which the environment alters long-term disease risk. Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation, histone modification and non-coding RNAs, play a central role in regulating gene expression. The epigenome is highly sensitive to environmental factors in early life, such as nutrition, stress, endocrine disruption and pollution, and changes in the epigenome can induce long-term changes in gene expression and phenotype. In this review we focus on how the early life nutritional environment can alter the epigenome leading to an altered susceptibility to disease in later life. PMID:26017068

  18. The developmental environment, epigenetic biomarkers and long-term health.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, K M; Costello, P M; Lillycrop, K A

    2015-10-01

    Evidence from both human and animal studies has shown that the prenatal and early postnatal environments influence susceptibility to chronic disease in later life and suggests that epigenetic processes are an important mechanism by which the environment alters long-term disease risk. Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation, histone modification and non-coding RNAs, play a central role in regulating gene expression. The epigenome is highly sensitive to environmental factors in early life, such as nutrition, stress, endocrine disruption and pollution, and changes in the epigenome can induce long-term changes in gene expression and phenotype. In this review we focus on how the early life nutritional environment can alter the epigenome leading to an altered susceptibility to disease in later life.

  19. [The value of housing conditions and urban environment for the health].

    PubMed

    Braubach, M; Heroux, M E; Korol, N; Paunovic, E; Zastenskaya, I A

    2014-01-01

    Housing and urban environments represent the physical context for everyday life and have a significant impact on population health and well-being. Depending on the quality of housing and urban conditions, they can support or restrict the health of their residents through a variety of aspects such as air pollution, noise, thermal conditions, safety aspects and environmental contamination. Therefore, housing and urban conditions are important dimensions for environmental health and knowledge on the main risk factors and their associated health effects is needed to identify adequate interventions and measures in the home and urban environment. This paper summarizes the results of WHO work on the health relevance of housing and urban environments and describes the health impact of the major risks observed in human settlements.

  20. 76 FR 35017 - United States et al. v. United Regional Health Care System; Public Comments and Response on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Antitrust Division United States et al. v. United Regional Health Care System; Public Comments and Response... States and State of Texas v. United Regional Health Care System, Civil Action No. 7:11-cv- 00030-0, which.... United Regional Health Care System, Defendant. Case No.: 7:11-cv-00030 Response Of Plaintiff...

  1. An ecological public health approach to understanding the relationships between sustainable urban environments, public health and social equity.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The environmental determinants of public health and social equity present many challenges to a sustainable urbanism-climate change, water shortages and oil dependency to name a few. There are many pathways from urban environments to human health. Numerous links have been described but some underlying mechanisms behind these relationships are less understood. Combining theory and methods is a way of understanding and explaining how the underlying structures of urban environments relate to public health and social equity. This paper proposes a model for an ecological public health, which can be used to explore these relationships. Four principles of an ecological public health-conviviality, equity, sustainability and global responsibility-are used to derive theoretical concepts that can inform ecological public health thinking, which, among other things, provides a way of exploring the underlying mechanisms that link urban environments to public health and social equity. Theories of more-than-human agency inform ways of living together (conviviality) in urban areas. Political ecology links the equity concerns about environmental and social justice. Resilience thinking offers a better way of coming to grips with sustainability. Integrating ecological ethics into public health considers the global consequences of local urban living and thus attends to global responsibility. This way of looking at the relationships between urban environments, public health and social equity answers the call to craft an ecological public health for the twenty-first century by re-imagining public health in a way that acknowledges humans as part of the ecosystem, not separate from it, though not central to it.

  2. Challenges of Health Games in the Social Network Environment.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Hugo; Pinho, Anabela; Zagalo, Nelson

    2012-04-01

    Virtual communities and their benefits have been widely exploited to support patients, caregivers, families, and healthcare providers. The complexity of the social organization evolved the concept of virtual community to social networks, exploring the establishment of ties and relations between people. These technological platforms provide a way to keep up with one's connections network, through a set of communication and interaction tools. Games, as social interactive technologies, have great potential, ensuring a supportive community and thereby reducing social isolation. Serious social health games bring forward several research challenges. This article examines the potential benefits of the triad "health-serious games-social networks" and discusses some research challenges and opportunities of the liaison of serious health games and social networks.

  3. Wear Behavior of Al-SiC Metal Matrix Composite under various Corrosive Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Smrutiranjan; Barman, Tapan Kumar; Sahoo, Prasanta; Sutradhar, Goutam

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the wear behavior under corrosive environments of LM6 based metal matrix composite reinforced with 5 wt% SiC prepared through the stir casting method. The experiments are carried out in a pin-on-disk tribotester varying five levels of normal load and sliding speed. The duration of each experiment is fixed for 30 minutes. Three environments viz. dry, deionised and dilute acid environments are considered to carry out the tribological tests. The composite exhibits slightly good wear resistance under low load and speed condition but weight loss increases as these parameters increases in all three environments. Maximum weight loss occurs in case of acid environment as it is more corrosive than dry and deionised environment. The wear surface of the composite is examined through the scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX).

  4. Integrating environment, safety and health training at a national laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.R.

    1993-03-01

    In a multi-purpose research laboratory, innovation and creativity are required to satisfy the training requirements for hazards to people and the environment. A climate that encourages excellence in research and enhances hazard minimization skills is created by combining technical expertise with instructional design talent.

  5. Integrating environment, safety and health training at a national laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    In a multi-purpose research laboratory, innovation and creativity are required to satisfy the training requirements for hazards to people and the environment. A climate that encourages excellence in research and enhances hazard minimization skills is created by combining technical expertise with instructional design talent.

  6. Food, Environment and Health: A Guide for Primary School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Trefor; And Others

    This book for primary school teachers provides a practical collection of facts, advice, projects, games, stories, and sample questions for use in teaching children the importance of healthy habits. Food, personal hygiene, and the home environment are areas of particular concern. Details range from advice on ways to start a school garden or design…

  7. External built residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adults.

    PubMed

    Ochodo, Charles; Ndetei, D M; Moturi, W N; Otieno, J O

    2014-10-01

    External built residential environment characteristics include aspects of building design such as types of walls, doors and windows, green spaces, density of houses per unit area, and waste disposal facilities. Neighborhoods that are characterized by poor quality external built environment can contribute to psychosocial stress and increase the likelihood of mental health disorders. This study investigated the relationship between characteristics of external built residential environment and mental health disorders in selected residences of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. External built residential environment characteristics were investigated for 544 residents living in different residential areas that were categorized by their socioeconomic status. Medically validated interview schedules were used to determine mental health of residents in the respective neighborhoods. The relationship between characteristics of the external built residential environment and mental health of residents was determined by multivariable logistic regression analyses and chi-square tests. The results show that walling materials used on buildings, density of dwelling units, state of street lighting, types of doors, states of roofs, and states of windows are some built external residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adult males and females. Urban residential areas that are characterized by poor quality external built environment substantially expose the population to daily stressors and inconveniences that increase the likelihood of developing mental health disorders.

  8. Complexity in built environment, health, and destination walking: a neighborhood-scale analysis.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Cynthia; Aytur, Semra; Gardner, Kevin; Rogers, Shannon

    2012-04-01

    This study investigates the relationships between the built environment, the physical attributes of the neighborhood, and the residents' perceptions of those attributes. It focuses on destination walking and self-reported health, and does so at the neighborhood scale. The built environment, in particular sidewalks, road connectivity, and proximity of local destinations, correlates with destination walking, and similarly destination walking correlates with physical health. It was found, however, that the built environment and health metrics may not be simply, directly correlated but rather may be correlated through a series of feedback loops that may regulate risk in different ways in different contexts. In particular, evidence for a feedback loop between physical health and destination walking is observed, as well as separate feedback loops between destination walking and objective metrics of the built environment, and destination walking and perception of the built environment. These feedback loops affect the ability to observe how the built environment correlates with residents' physical health. Previous studies have investigated pieces of these associations, but are potentially missing the more complex relationships present. This study proposes a conceptual model describing complex feedback relationships between destination walking and public health, with the built environment expected to increase or decrease the strength of the feedback loop. Evidence supporting these feedback relationships is presented.

  9. Effects of Environment on Animal Health: Mechanisms and Regulatory Inputs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A functional model was developed and presented here to identify critical control points in associated biochemical pathways and further understand that how environmental factors impact the immune system to affect animal health.. A general comparison of the differences in cellular responses to mild v...

  10. Library Services in the New Health Care Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook-Shelton, Sara Anne

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the strained financial situation of the health care industry and the debate whether medical libraries should attempt to recover costs by charging for information and library services. The discussion covers both possible benefits of cost recovery and problems, including difficulties in quantifying library services and ethical concerns…

  11. PROVIDING A HEALTHFUL SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT. STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JOHANNIS, NORMA; AND OTHERS

    THIS REPORT DISCUSSES STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES AS APPLIED TO MENTAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH AND SAFETY AS AFFECTED BY THE PHYSICAL SURROUNDINGS. A BIBLIOGRAPHY DESCRIBING STANDARDS AND SUGGESTED PROCEDURES, AND A CHECKLIST, ARE PROVIDED FOR VOLUNTARY SELF APPRAISAL. THE CHECKLIST COVERS (1) THE SCHOOL GROUNDS, (2) THE SCHOOL BUILDING, (3)…

  12. Industrial water pollution, water environment treatment, and health risks in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Yang, Zhiming

    2016-11-01

    The negative health effects of water pollution remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. The Chinese government is making great efforts to strengthen water environment treatment; however, no studies have evaluated the effects of water treatment on human health by water pollution in China. This study evaluated the association between water pollution and health outcomes, and determined the extent to which environmental regulations on water pollution may lead to health benefits. Data were extracted from the 2011 and 2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Random effects model and random effects Logit model were applied to study the relationship between health and water pollution, while a Mediator model was used to estimate the effects of environmental water treatment on health outcomes by the intensity of water pollution. Unsurprisingly, water pollution was negatively associated with health outcomes, and the common pollutants in industrial wastewater had differential impacts on health outcomes. The effects were stronger for low-income respondents. Water environment treatment led to improved health outcomes among Chinese people. Reduced water pollution mediated the associations between water environment treatment and health outcomes. The results of this study offer compelling evidence to support treatment of water pollution in China.

  13. Hazardous substances, the environment and public health: a statistical overview.

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, W G; Crowley, J J

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the statistical problems that exist and procedures that are available when attempts are made to assess the possible harm which has been or might be caused by substances in the environment. These issues bear directly on important decisions of public policy such as those related to the establishment and enforcement of regulations. PMID:540596

  14. Radium in the environment: exposure pathways and health effects.

    PubMed

    Brugge, Doug; Buchner, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Radium is a naturally occurring radioactive element in the environment that can exist as several isotopes. Little information is available on the acute (short-term) non-cancer effects in humans. Radium exposure has resulted in acute leukopenia, anemia, necrosis of the jaw, and other effects. Cancer is the major effect of concern. Radium, via oral exposure, is known to cause bone, head, and nasal passage tumors in humans. The US Environmental Protection Agency has not classified radium for carcinogenicity.

  15. [Are geoprocessing, environment, and health a possible combination?

    PubMed

    Barcellos; Bastos

    1996-07-01

    The use of geoprocessing techniques allows one to gather socioeconomic, health, and environmental data on a spatial basis. However, interpretation of associations between epidemiological and environmental variables requires the geoprocessing system design. The study scale and object choices precede conception of the system, conditioning the possible statistical and visual results. This scale must be compatible with the phenomenon on which one intends to focus, aiming at internal homogeneity and external heterogeneity of spatial units. The interdependency of spatial processes, reflected in the spatial configuration of social, environmental, and epidemiological data distribution, affects interpretation of causes for simultaneous processes. Geoprocessing allows for knowledge of the context or situational surroundings in which the damage to health takes place.

  16. Hydraulic fracturing for natural gas: impact on health and environment.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, David O

    2016-03-01

    Shale deposits exist in many parts of the world and contain relatively large amounts of natural gas and oil. Recent technological developments in the process of horizontal hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracturing or fracking) have suddenly made it economically feasible to extract natural gas from shale. While natural gas is a much cleaner burning fuel than coal, there are a number of significant threats to human health from the extraction process as currently practiced. There are immediate threats to health resulting from air pollution from volatile organic compounds, which contain carcinogens such as benzene and ethyl-benzene, and which have adverse neurologic and respiratory effects. Hydrogen sulfide, a component of natural gas, is a potent neuro- and respiratory toxin. In addition, levels of formaldehyde are elevated around fracking sites due to truck traffic and conversion of methane to formaldehyde by sunlight. There are major concerns about water contamination because the chemicals used can get into both ground and surface water. Much of the produced water (up to 40% of what is injected) comes back out of the gas well with significant radioactivity because radium in subsurface rock is relatively water soluble. There are significant long-term threats beyond cancer, including exacerbation of climate change due to the release of methane into the atmosphere, and increased earthquake activity due to disruption of subsurface tectonic plates. While fracking for natural gas has significant economic benefits, and while natural gas is theoretically a better fossil fuel as compared to coal and oil, current fracking practices pose significant adverse health effects to workers and near-by residents. The health of the public should not be compromized simply for the economic benefits to the industry.

  17. Workplace aesthetics: Impact of environments upon employee health?

    PubMed

    Schell, Elisabet; Theorell, Tores; Saraste, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Associations between self-reported need for aesthetic improvements in the workplace and the need for ergonomic improvement and health factors were investigated to determine the possible impact of aesthetic needs on job performance. The need for aesthetic improvements were compared with the need for ergonomic improvements. All employees at a Swedish broadcasting company were invited to participate in this cross sectional study. Of those who fulfilled the inclusion criteria the participation rate was 74% (1961/2641). Demographic data was obtained from company files and pre-validated questionnaire was used for data collections from the participants. additional questions on needs for improvement were developed, tested for repeatability, and demonstrated to be within acceptable limits. Differences between 'high rank' and 'low rank' aesthetic needs and ergonomic needs were correlated to set ups of demographic, work environmental and organisational and health variables.The perceived needs for aesthetic and ergonomic improvements showed significantly different distributions (p<0.001). Aesthetic needs were more frequently reported than ergonomic needs. There was no significant gender related difference in response distribution of aesthetic or ergonomic needs, whereas differences between occupational groups were shown (0.006 and 0.003). 'High rank' needs for aesthetic improvement were associated to psychologically demanding work, negative work stress, sleep disturbances, problems at work, musculoskeletal pain and lower age. Gender and physical training did not differ between 'high and low rank' responders regarding neither aesthetic nor ergonomic needs. Sick leave was stronger related to ergonomics. The independently tested associations with aesthetic needs were similar to, but fewer than those for ergonomic needs with regard to the variable set ups. Sixteen studied factors out of 24, showed significant difference between 'high and low rank' aesthetic needs, and 21/24 of

  18. [Environment and health: great concerns and fragile hopes].

    PubMed

    Bertollini, Roberto

    2006-10-01

    In the world, 24% of the burden of disease is attributable to environmental exposures: this proportion is up to 36% for 0-14 year old children. This notable impact on health is due partly to old environmental problems: 2.6 billion people, more than 40% of the world population, do not have access to proper sanitation; about 1.1 billion people, mostly living in rural areas (84%), do not have access to sources of safe drinking water; 1,8 million people per year die of diarrhea out of which 1.6 million are children under 5. At the same time, in the developed world and in countries with economies in rapid transition, there is wide concern and growing scientific evidence on the effects of chemical environmental pollution and of climate change on health. In order to tackle effectively these issues, public health policies, addressing traditional problems with well known approaches as well as multisectoral strategies involving the society at large, are necessary.

  19. Relative Association of Multi-Level Supportive Environments on Poor Health among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mier, Nelda; Ory, Marcia G; Towne, Samuel D; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2017-04-06

    Background: The aging of the United States population poses significant challenges to American healthcare and informal caregiving systems. Additional research is needed to understand how health promotion programs and policies based on a socio-ecological perspective impact the health and well-being of older persons. The purpose of this study was to investigate personal characteristics and supportive environments associated with poor health among older individuals aged 65 and over. Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design and was guided by a conceptual framework developed by the authors to depict the relationship between personal characteristics and environments associated with poor health status. Environment types included in this study were family, home, financial, neighborhood, and healthcare. The sample was comprised of 1319 adults aged 65 years and older residing in Central Texas. From a random selection of households, participants were administered a mail-based survey created by a community collaborative effort. Descriptive statistics and three binary logistic regression models were fitted to examine associations with poor health status (i.e., physical, mental, and combined physical/mental). Results: Two personal characteristics (number of chronic conditions and educational level) were consistently related (p < 0.05) to health outcomes. Supportive family, home, financial, neighborhood, and health care environmental factors were shown to be related (p < 0.05) to various aspects of physical or mental health outcomes. Conclusions: Multidimensional factors including personal characteristics and protective environments are related to health status among older individuals. The unique roles of each environment can help inform public health interventions to create and enhance support for older adults to engage in healthful activities and improve their physical and mental health.

  20. Environment Health & Safety Research Program. Organization and 1979-1980 Publications

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    This document was prepared to assist readers in understanding the organization of Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and the organization and functions of the Environment, Health and Safety Research Program Office. Telephone numbers of the principal management staff are provided. Also included is a list of 1979 and 1980 publications reporting on work performed in the Environment, Health and Safety Research Program, as well as a list of papers submitted for publication.

  1. From built environment to health inequalities: An explanatory framework based on evidence

    PubMed Central

    Gelormino, Elena; Melis, Giulia; Marietta, Cristina; Costa, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The Health in All Policies strategy aims to engage every policy domain in health promotion. The more socially disadvantaged groups are usually more affected by potential negative impacts of policies if they are not health oriented. The built environment represents an important policy domain and, apart from its housing component, its impact on health inequalities is seldom assessed. Methods: A scoping review of evidence on the built environment and its health equity impact was carried out, searching both urban and medical literature since 2000 analysing socio-economic inequalities in relation to different components of the built environment. Results: The proposed explanatory framework assumes that key features of built environment (identified as density, functional mix and public spaces and services), may influence individual health through their impact on both natural environment and social context, as well as behaviours, and that these effects may be unequally distributed according to the social position of individuals. Conclusion: In general, the expected links proposed by the framework are well documented in the literature; however, evidence of their impact on health inequalities remains uncertain due to confounding factors, heterogeneity in study design, and difficulty to generalize evidence that is still very embedded to local contexts. PMID:26844145

  2. Protecting reproductive health and the environment: toxics use reduction.

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, K

    1993-01-01

    Toxics use reduction is a new chemical hazard management approach that has emerged in several state laws over the past years. While toxics use reduction has been promoted as a means of preventing environmental pollution, little thought has been given to its adoption as a means of managing reproductive hazards. This paper provides illustrations of use reduction approaches to conventionally recognized reproductive and developmental toxicants. These approaches will require the opening of a new dialogue between industrial designers and process managers and those most concerned about reproductive health. Several different strategies are proposed that might be adopted into state programs for promoting reduction in the use of reproductive and developmental toxicants. PMID:8243394

  3. Managerial competencies necessary in today's dynamic health care environment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peggy; Pulich, Marcia

    2002-12-01

    The traditional functions of management--planning, organizing, leading, and controlling--continue to be the key activities used to enable the organization to accomplish its goals and objectives. Though significant changes have occurred in all organizational structures, processes, and managerial styles, these traditional functions remain a constant. What has undergone significant change, as this article examines, are the skills and competencies within each function, which managers must develop and employ if they are to be successful practitioners in today's dynamic health care organizations.

  4. Measuring human capital cost through benchmarking in health care environment.

    PubMed

    Kocakülâh, Mehmet C; Harris, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Each organization should seek to maximize its human capital investments, which ultimately lead to increased profits and asset efficiency. Service companies utilize less capital equipment and more human productivity, customer service, and/or delivery of service as the product. With the measurement of human capital, one can understand what is happening, exercise some degree of control, and make positive changes. Senior management lives or dies by the numbers and if Human Resources (HR) really wants to be a strategic business partner, HR must be judged by the same standards as everyone else in the health care organization.

  5. The Role of the School Nutrition Environment for Promoting the Health of Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Mary Kay; Marshak, John; Conklin, Martha T.

    2004-01-01

    This study identifies the nature of nutrition environment in middle grades schools from the principals' and superintendents' point of view and determines which elements of a school's nutrition environment these school administrators considered most relevant to students' health and well-being. Most school administrators did not think the…

  6. [Even cigarette butts can impact environment and health: preliminary considerations].

    PubMed

    Martino, Gianrocco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Chellini, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    In Italy, every year about 72 billion of cigarette butts are thrown away in the environment. Cigarette butts represent 50% of the wastes of urban areas (parks, roads) in the world, and 40% of Mediterranean Sea wastes. In particular, total polluting load is constituted of 1,872 Bq millions of Polonium-210, assuming 75 mBq per cigarette butt, and 1,800 tons of volatile organic compounds. As a matter of fact, according to several surveys, cigarette butts are considered by smokers and non-smokers as a common and acceptable waste in the environment. In 2008, European Union issued a Directive on wastes considering the «extended producer responsibility» (i.e., every industry is liable for costs of collection, transport and disposal of its own products). In October 2012, the Italian Parliament proposed a bill that classifies cigarette butts as special wastes in the frame of this responsibility. It could be interesting in the future to follow the legislative process of that bill in the Italian Parliament in order to show how strong it will be supported.

  7. Fiber optic acoustic emission sensors for harsh environment health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borinski, Jason W.; Duke, John C., Jr.; Horne, Michael R.

    2001-07-01

    Optical fiber sensors are rapidly emerging as viable alternatives to piezoelectric devices as effective means of detecting and quantifying acoustic emission (AE). Compared to traditional piezoelectric-based sensors, optical fiber sensors offer much smaller size, reduced weight, ability to operate at temperatures up to 2000 degree(s)C, immunity to electromagnetic interference, resistance to corrosive environments, inherent safety within flammable environments, and the ability to multiplex multiple sensors on a single fiber. The authors have investigated low-profile fiber optic-based AE sensors for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) systems. In particular, broadband and resonant type optical fiber sensors were developed for monitoring acoustic emission for NDE of pressurized composite vessels and commercial airframe structures. The authors developed an in-plane, broadband sensor design based on optical strain gage technology. In addition, an out-of-plane, resonant sensor was developed using micromachining techniques. The sensors have been evaluated for performance using swept frequency and impulse excitation techniques and compared to conventional piezoelectric transducers. Further, application experiments were conducted using these sensors on both aluminum lap-joints and composite fracture coupons, with collocated piezoelectric transducers. The results indicate that optical fiber AE sensors can be used as transducers sensitive to acoustic events and the indication of imminent failure of a structure, making these sensors useful in many applications where conventional piezoelectric transducers are not well suited.

  8. In situ evolution of trivalent chromium process passive film on Al in a corrosive aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xuecheng; Argekar, Sandip; Wang, Peng; Schaefer, Dale W

    2011-11-01

    In situ neutron reflectivity (NR) is used to observe the structure and evolution of a Trivalent Chromium Process (TCP) passive film on Al in a NaCl-D(2)O solution. Using a split liquid reflectivity cell we mimicked the corrosion process on the anodic sites in alloy AA 2024-T3 in a pitting scenario. The split cell separates the anodic and cathodic reactions, allowing NR observation of the corroding anodic surface under potential control. We observed the evolution of the TCP film on the Al anode and compared the degradation of the Al with and without TCP protection. When held at 100 mV above the open-circuit potential (OCP), unprotected aluminum dissolves at a rate of 120 Å/h. By contrast, TCP-coated Al is stable up to the pitting potential (200 mV above OCP). In the passive state D(2)O molecules penetrate the bulk TCP film by partially replacing the hydrate water. In spite of exchange of hydration water, the TCP film is stable and the underlying aluminum is fully protected. The passive character of the TCP film is due to a dense layer at the metal-TCP interface and/or to suppression of ion transport in the bulk film. As the pitting potential is approached the film swells and NaCl-D(2)O solution penetrates the TCP film. At this point, 50 vol % of the TCP film is occupied by bulk NaCl-D(2)O solution. Failure occurs by aluminum dissolution under the swollen TCP film as the imbibed solution contacts the Al metal. Further increase in potential leads to complete stripping of the TCP film.

  9. 76 FR 38399 - Assessing the Current Research, Policy, and Practice Environment in Public Health Genomics

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Practice Environment in Public Health Genomics AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC..., data and information. SUMMARY: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), located within the... public health genomics. HHS/CDC is currently leading a process to assess the most important steps...

  10. The Influence of Family Environment on Mental Health Need and Service Use among Vulnerable Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard; Lindsey, Michael A.; English, Diana J.; Hawley, Kristin M.; Lambert, Sharon; Browne, Dorothy C.

    2007-01-01

    Children in child welfare are especially likely to have unmet mental health needs. The role of family factors in children's use of mental health services was examined in a longitudinal sample of 1,075 maltreated or at-risk children. Vulnerable family environment (poor family functioning, low social support, and caregiver psychological distress) is…

  11. Implementation of an ICT-Based Learning Environment in a Nutrition Health Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiha, Teija; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Enkenberg, Jorma; Turunen, Hannele

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the views of school staff on a nutrition health project implemented via an ICT-based learning environment in a secondary school (7th to 9th grades). Design/methodology/approach: The study was a part of the wider European Network for Health Promoting Schools programme (ENHPS; since 2008, Schools…

  12. Health and Safety in the School Environment. A Manual of Recommended Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Disease Control (DHEW/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This manual emphasizes the health relationships in the physical school environment and provides environmental criteria by which existing or planned facilities can be evaluated. Individual chapters deal with school health programs; planning for new schools; school site selection, building plan, and plan review; water supply; plumbing; sewage…

  13. 30 CFR 250.107 - What must I do to protect health, safety, property, and the environment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., property, and the environment? 250.107 Section 250.107 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... the environment? (a) You must protect health, safety, property, and the environment by: (1) Performing... would have a significant effect on safety, health, or the environment; (2) If it is...

  14. 30 CFR 250.107 - What must I do to protect health, safety, property, and the environment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., property, and the environment? 250.107 Section 250.107 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... the environment? (a) You must protect health, safety, property, and the environment by: (1) Performing... would have a significant effect on safety, health, or the environment; (2) If it is...

  15. 30 CFR 250.107 - What must I do to protect health, safety, property, and the environment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., property, and the environment? 250.107 Section 250.107 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL... the environment? (a) You must protect health, safety, property, and the environment by: (1) Performing... would have a significant effect on safety, health, or the environment; (2) If it is...

  16. 30 CFR 250.107 - What must I do to protect health, safety, property, and the environment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., property, and the environment? 250.107 Section 250.107 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT..., property, and the environment? (a) You must protect health, safety, property, and the environment by: (1... would have a significant effect on safety, health, or the environment; (2) If it is...

  17. Advancing health equity for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people through sexual health education and LGBT-affirming health care environments.

    PubMed

    Keuroghlian, Alex S; Ard, Kevin L; Makadon, Harvey J

    2017-02-06

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people face pervasive health disparities and barriers to high-quality care. Adequate LGBT sexual health education for emerging health professionals is currently lacking. Clinical training programs and healthcare organisations are well poised to start addressing these disparities and affirming LGBT patients through curricula designed to cultivate core competencies in LBGT health as well as health care environments that welcome, include and protect LGBT patients, students and staff. Health education programs can emphasise mastery of basic LGBT concepts and terminology, as well as openness towards and acceptance of LGBT people. Core concepts, language and positive attitudes can be instilled alongside clinical skill in delivering inclusive sexual health care, through novel educational strategies and paradigms for clinical implementation. Caring for the health needs of LGBT patients also involves the creation of health care settings that affirm LGBT communities in a manner that is responsive to culturally specific needs, sensitivities and challenges that vary across the globe.

  18. The epigenetic lorax: gene–environment interactions in human health

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Keith E; Sapienza, Carmen; Engel, Nora

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, we have witnessed an explosion of information on genetic factors underlying common human diseases and disorders. This ‘human genomics’ information revolution has occurred as a backdrop to a rapid increase in the rates of many human disorders and diseases. For example, obesity, Type 2 diabetes, asthma, autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have increased at rates that cannot be due to changes in the genetic structure of the population, and are difficult to ascribe to changes in diagnostic criteria or ascertainment. A likely cause of the increased incidence of these disorders is increased exposure to environmental factors that modify gene function. Many environmental factors that have epidemiological association with common human disorders are likely to exert their effects through epigenetic alterations. This general mechanism of gene–environment interaction poses special challenges for individuals, educators, scientists and public policy makers in defining, monitoring and mitigating exposures. PMID:22920179

  19. Electromagnetic interference: causes and concerns in the health care environment.

    PubMed

    Paperman, W D; David, Y; McKee, K A

    1994-08-01

    In the past 15 years there has been a dramatic increase in the number of radio frequency emission sources that have entered medical treatment areas. Personal computers, digital pagers, hand-held radios, cellular phones, and wireless input devices have all become more prevalent in the contemporary clinical environment. Because of the productivity gains these devices promise, it is unlikely that the use of electronic instrumentation and wireless technologies will diminish--in fact greater uses are projected. Along with the benefits these devices provide, they also create a greater opportunity for increased electromagnetic interference among devices. It is important that engineering and professional staff are aware of some of the complex interactions these devices can create. Managing this emerging problem should be a concern for the medical community. Engineering staff should be able to communicate effectively with medical staff, patients, and visitors regarding potential interactions and how to recognize them and mitigate their consequences.

  20. Health promotion and the First Amendment: government control of the informational environment.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L O; Javitt, G H

    2001-01-01

    Government efforts to protect public health often include controlling health information. The government may proscribe messages conveyed by commercial entities (e.g., false or misleading), recommend messages from commercial entities (e.g., warnings and safety instructions), and convey health messages (e.g., health communication campaigns). Through well-developed, albeit evolving, case law, government control of private speech has been constrained to avoid impinging on such values as free expression, truthfulness, and autonomous decision making. No simple legal framework has been developed for the government's own health messages to mediate between the legitimate goals of health protection and these other values. Nevertheless, government recommendations on matters of health raise difficult social and ethical questions and involve important societal trade-offs. Accordingly, this article proposes legal and ethical principles relating to government control of the health information environment.

  1. Health, ethics and environment: a qualitative study of vegetarian motivations.

    PubMed

    Fox, Nick; Ward, Katie

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the motivations of vegetarians by means of online ethnographic research with participants in an international message board. The researcher participated in discussions on the board, gathered responses to questions from 33 participants, and conducted follow-up e-mail interviews with 18 of these participants. Respondents were predominantly from the US, Canada and the UK. Seventy per cent were females, and ages ranged from 14 to 53, with a median of 26 years. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. While this research found that health and the ethical treatment of animals were the main motivators for participants' vegetarianism, participants reported a range of commitments to environmental concerns, although in only one case was environmentalism a primary motivator for becoming a vegetarian. The data indicate that vegetarians may follow a trajectory, in which initial motivations are augmented over time by other reasons for sustaining or further restricting their diet.

  2. Our environment, our health: a community-based participatory environmental health survey in Richmond, California.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alison; Lopez, Andrea; Malloy, Nile; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2012-04-01

    This study presents a health survey conducted by a community-based participatory research partnership between academic researchers and community organizers to consider environmental health and environmental justice issues in four neighborhoods of Richmond, California, a low-income community of color living along the fence line of a major oil refinery and near other industrial and mobile sources of pollution. The Richmond health survey aimed to assess local concerns and perceptions of neighborhood conditions, health problems, mobile and stationary hazards, access to health care, and other issues affecting residents of Richmond. Although respondents thought their neighborhoods were good places to live, they expressed concerns about neighborhood stressors and particular sources of pollution, and identified elevated asthma rates for children and long-time Richmond residents. The Richmond health survey offers a holistic, community-centered perspective to understanding local environmental health issues, and can inform future environmental health research and organizing efforts for community-university collaboratives.

  3. Feminist health care in a hostile environment: a case study of the Womancare Health Center.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Cheryl A

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the Womancare Health Center in order to illustrate the development of and challenges to the feminist health movement in the United States. Specific attention is placed on the legislative, fiscal, and direct actions by the New Right against this organization. Analysis focuses on the means through which Womancare survived. The repercussions of constant intimidation and harassment for women's health programs and for health care policy overall are discussed.

  4. Motor neurons with differential vulnerability to degeneration show distinct protein signatures in health and ALS.

    PubMed

    Comley, L; Allodi, I; Nichterwitz, S; Nizzardo, M; Simone, C; Corti, S; Hedlund, E

    2015-04-16

    The lethal disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by the loss of somatic motor neurons. However, not all motor neurons are equally vulnerable to disease; certain groups are spared, including those in the oculomotor nucleus controlling eye movement. The reasons for this differential vulnerability remain unknown. Here we have identified a protein signature for resistant oculomotor motor neurons and vulnerable hypoglossal and spinal motor neurons in mouse and man and in health and ALS with the aim of understanding motor neuron resistance. Several proteins with implications for motor neuron resistance, including GABAA receptor α1, guanylate cyclase soluble subunit alpha-3 and parvalbumin were persistently expressed in oculomotor neurons in man and mouse. Vulnerable motor neurons displayed higher protein levels of dynein, peripherin and GABAA receptor α2, which play roles in retrograde transport and excitability, respectively. These were dynamically regulated during disease and thus could place motor neurons at an increased risk. From our analysis is it evident that oculomotor motor neurons have a distinct protein signature compared to vulnerable motor neurons in brain stem and spinal cord, which could in part explain their resistance to degeneration in ALS. Our comparison of human and mouse shows the relative conservation of signals across species and infers that transgenic SOD1G93A mice could be used to predict mechanisms of neuronal vulnerability in man.

  5. Promoting Health in Early Childhood Environments: A Health-Promotion Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Wardrope, Cheryl; Johnston, Donni; Kendall, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the mechanisms by which a health-promotion intervention might influence the health-promoting behaviours of staff members working in early childhood centres. The intervention was an ecological health-promotion initiative that was implemented within four early childhood centres in South-East Queensland, Australia. In-depth,…

  6. Protecting health data privacy while using residence-based environment and demographic data.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Sarah E; Demmler, Joanne C; Dsilva, Rohan; Lyons, Ronan A

    2012-03-01

    Spatial analyses of environment and health data are often made using point address data, despite the risk of identity disclosure. We describe how geospatial environment and non-spatial health data can be linked anonymously, thereby maintaining geoprivacy. High resolution environment data and population density were calculated specific to each residence. Population density and environment data were anonymously linked to individual-level demographic data using a split file method and residential anonymous linking fields. Access to the nearest park or playground was calculated for each residence; children in deprived areas have increased access compared to those in affluent areas. This method has the potential to be used to evaluate natural experiments and complex environmental health interventions.

  7. Living environment matters: relationships between neighborhood characteristics and health of the residents in a Dutch municipality.

    PubMed

    Putrik, Polina; de Vries, Nanne K; Mujakovic, Suhreta; van Amelsvoort, Ludovic; Kant, Ijmert; Kunst, Anton E; van Oers, Hans; Jansen, Maria

    2015-02-01

    Characteristics of an individual alone cannot exhaustively explain all the causes of poor health, and neighborhood of residence have been suggested to be one of the factors that contribute to health. However, knowledge about aspects of the neighborhood that are most important to health is limited. The main objective of this study was to explore associations between certain features of neighborhood environment and self-rated health and depressive symptoms in Maastricht (The Netherlands). A large amount of routinely collected neighborhood data were aggregated by means of factor analysis to 18 characteristics of neighborhood social and physical environment. Associations between these characteristics and self-rated health and presence of depressive symptoms were further explored in multilevel logistic regression models adjusted for individual demographic and socio-economic factors. The study sample consisted of 9,879 residents (mean age 55 years, 48 % male). Residents of unsafe communities were less likely to report good health (OR 0.88 95 % CI 0.80-0.97) and depressive symptoms (OR 0.81 95 % CI 0.69-0.97), and less cohesive environment was related to worse self-rated health (OR 0.81 95 % CI 0.72-0.92). Residents of neighborhoods with more car traffic nuisance and more disturbance from railway noise reported worse mental health (OR 0.79 95 % CI 0.68-0.92 and 0.85 95 % CI 0.73-0.99, respectively). We did not observe any association between health and quality of parking and shopping facilities, facilities for public or private transport, neighborhood aesthetics, green space, industrial nuisance, sewerage, neighbor nuisance or satisfaction with police performance. Our findings can be used to support development of integrated health policies targeting broader determinants of health. Improving safety, social cohesion and decreasing traffic nuisance in disadvantaged neighborhoods might be a promising way to improve the health of residents and reduce health inequalities.

  8. In Brief: Hidden environment and health costs of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-10-01

    The hidden costs of energy production and use in the United States amounted to an estimated $120 billion in 2005, according to a 19 October report by the U.S. National Research Council. The report, “Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use,” examines hidden costs, including the cost of air pollution damage to human health, which are not reflected in market prices of energy sources, electricity, or gasoline. The report found that in 2005, the total annual external damages from sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter created by coal-burning power plants that produced 95% of the nation's coal-generated electricity were about $62 billion, with nonclimate damages averaging about 3.2 cents for every kilowatt-hour of energy produced. It is estimated that by 2030, nonclimate damages will fall to 1.7 cents per kilowatt-hour. The 2030 figure assumes that new policies already slated for implementation are put in place.

  9. Respiratory Health Effects of Large Animal Farming Environments

    PubMed Central

    May, Sara; Romberger, Debra J.; Poole, Jill A.

    2014-01-01

    With increases in large animal-feeding operations to meet consumer demand, adverse upper and lower respiratory health effects in exposed agriculture workers is a concern. The aim of this study was to review large animal confinement feeding operational exposures associated with respiratory disease with focus on recent advances in the knowledge of causative factors and cellular and immunological mechanisms. A PubMed search was conducted with the following keywords: airway, farm, swine, dairy, horse, cattle inflammation, organic dust, endotoxin, and peptidoglycan that were published between 1980 and current. Articles were selected based on their relevance to environmental exposure and reference to airway diseases. Airway diseases included rhinitis, sinusitis, mucus membrane inflammation syndrome, asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and organic dust toxic syndrome. There is lower prevalence of IgE-mediated asthma and atopy in farmers and their children, but organic dust worsens existing asthma. Multiple etiologic factors are linked to disease including allergens, organic dusts, endotoxins, peptidoglycans and gases. Large animal confinement feeding operations contain a wide-diversity of microbes with increasing focus on Gram-positive bacteria and archeabacteria as opposed to Gram-negative bacteria in mediating disease. Toll-like receptors (TLR) and nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like innate immune pathways respond to these exposures. Finally, a chronic inflammatory adaptation, tolerance-like response in chronically exposed workers occurs. Large animal confinement farming exposures produces a wide spectrum of upper and lower respiratory tract diseases due to the complex diversity of organic dust, particulates, microbial cell wall components and gases and resultant activation of various innate immune receptor signaling pathways. PMID:23199220

  10. Water and health in Europe. A joint report from the European Environment Agency and the WHO Regional Office for Europe.

    PubMed

    2002-01-01

    Shortage of water may be most urgent health problem currently facing some European countries. Climate change is predicted to influence water availability, especially in coastal areas. The extend of provision of piped drinking-water supplies to households varies across Europe and between urban and rural populations. The utilization of water for irrigation and for industry exerts pressure on water resources. Changes in populaton distribution and density are key factors influencing the quality of water resources. Outbreaks of waterborne diseases continue to occur across Europe, and minor supply problems are encountered in all countries. Inadequate sewerage systems are a significant threat to public health. Numerous chemicals are found throughout the aquatic environment. Eutrophication is a major threat to European surface waters. Considerate evidence has accrued linking the quality of bathing water with minor illnesses. Additional efforts are required to sustain the European Region's water resources and to provide safe water. Partnerships and cooperation are needed between the environment and health sectors at al levels of government to disseminate technology, to improve management and to provide financial and institutional support to ensure access to safe water and sanitation for all.

  11. Probing the local environment of substitutional Al^{3+} in goethite using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducher, Manoj; Blanchard, Marc; Vantelon, Delphine; Nemausat, Ruidy; Cabaret, Delphine

    2016-03-01

    We present experimental and calculated Al K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra of aluminous goethite with 10-33 mol% of AlOOH and diaspore. Significant changes are observed experimentally in the near- and pre-edge regions with increasing Al concentration in goethite. First-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) reproduce successfully the experimental trends. This permits to identify the electronic and structural parameters controlling the spectral features and to improve our knowledge of the local environment of {Al}^{3+} in the goethite-diaspore partial solid solution. In the near-edge region, the larger peak spacing in diaspore compared to Al-bearing goethite is related to the nature (Fe or Al) of the first cation neighbours around the absorbing Al atom (Al*). The intensity ratio of the two near-edge peaks, which decreases with Al concentration, is correlated with the average distance of the first cations around Al* and the distortion of the {AlO}_6 octahedron. Finally, the decrease in intensity of the pre-edge features with increasing Al concentration is due to the smaller number of Fe atoms in the local environment of Al since Al atoms tend to cluster. In addition, it is found that the pre-edge features of the Al K-edge XANES spectra enable to probe indirectly empty 3 d states of Fe. Energetic, structural and spectroscopic results suggest that for Al concentrations around 10 mol%, Al atoms can be considered as isolated, whereas above 25 mol%, Al clusters are more likely to occur.

  12. Performance of Plasma Sprayed Al2O3 Coating in Bio-Simulated Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldız, F.; Yetim, A. F.; Alsaran, A.; Çelik, A.

    2014-01-01

    Alumina coatings deposited on the surface of stainless steel 316L by the method of plasma spraying are studied. Tests for wear and corrosion are preformed in Ringer's solution simulating a human body environment. The structure, microhardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance of the steel are determined with and without a coating. Deposition of a coating onto the stainless steel is shown to be an effective means for protecting implants from corrosion and wear.

  13. Cold Spraying of Cu-Al-Bronze for Cavitation Protection in Marine Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebs, S.; Gärtner, F.; Klassen, T.

    2015-01-01

    Traveling at high speeds, ships have to face the problem of rudder cavitation-erosion. At present, the problem is countered by fluid dynamically optimized rudders, synthetic, and weld-cladded coatings on steel basis. Nevertheless, docking and repair is required after certain intervals. Bulk Cu-Al-bronzes are in use at ships propellers to withstand corrosion and cavitation. Deposited as coatings with bulk-like properties, such bronzes could also enhance rudder life times. The present study investigates the coating formation by cold spraying CuAl10Fe5Ni5 bronze powders. By calculations of the impact conditions, the range of optimum spray parameters was preselected in terms of the coating quality parameter η on steel substrates with different temperatures. As-atomized and annealed powders were compared to optimize cavitation resistance of the coatings. Results provide insights about the interplay between the mechanical properties of powder and substrate for coating formation. Single particle impact morphologies visualize the deformation behavior. Coating performance was assessed by analyzing microstructures, bond strength, and cavitation resistance. These first results demonstrate that cold-sprayed bronze coatings have a high potential for ensuring a good performances in rudder protection. With further optimization, such coatings could evolve towards a competitive alternative to existing anti-cavitation procedures.

  14. A Safe and Healthful Work Environment: Development and Testing of an Undergraduate Occupational Health Nursing Curriculum.

    PubMed

    McCullagh, Marjorie C; Berry, Peggy

    2015-08-01

    Occupational health nursing focuses on promotion and restoration of health, prevention of illness and injury, protection from work-related and environmental hazards, and corporate profitability. Quality education about the relationship between work and health is critical for nurses' success regardless of work setting, and is consistent with Healthy People 2020 goals, but is lacking or limited in some programs. This report introduces an innovative occupational health nursing curriculum for students enrolled in baccalaureate nursing programs. The process of designing and pilot testing this novel curriculum, its alignment with nursing competencies, and its format and learning activities are described. Preparing professional nurses to understand the role of the occupational health nurse and the relationship between work and health is an essential curricular consideration for contemporary nursing education.

  15. Effects of the Residential Environment on Health in Japan Linked with Travel Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Perez Barbosa, David; Zhang, Junyi; Seya, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify how the residential environment is associated with overall health-related quality of life (QOL) via active travel (walking and cycling), by reflecting the influence of different trip purposes in Japan. The health-related QOL includes physical, mental, and social dimensions. For this study we implemented a questionnaire survey in 20 cities in Japan in 2010 and obtained valid answers from 1202 respondents. The residential environment is defined in terms of distances to and densities of different daily facilities extracted from both the survey and external GIS data. We found that the effects of residential environment on active travel behavior are mixed and limited, depending on types of trip makers. Unexpectedly, travel behavior has no direct effects on the health-related QOL. The residential environment, which is only observed indirectly via lifestyle habits for commuters, has limited effects on health. As for noncommuters, neither their travel behavior nor the residential environment influences their health-related QOL. PMID:26848676

  16. Effects of the Residential Environment on Health in Japan Linked with Travel Behavior.

    PubMed

    Perez Barbosa, David; Zhang, Junyi; Seya, Hajime

    2016-02-03

    This paper aims to clarify how the residential environment is associated with overall health-related quality of life (QOL) via active travel (walking and cycling), by reflecting the influence of different trip purposes in Japan. The health-related QOL includes physical, mental, and social dimensions. For this study we implemented a questionnaire survey in 20 cities in Japan in 2010 and obtained valid answers from 1202 respondents. The residential environment is defined in terms of distances to and densities of different daily facilities extracted from both the survey and external GIS data. We found that the effects of residential environment on active travel behavior are mixed and limited, depending on types of trip makers. Unexpectedly, travel behavior has no direct effects on the health-related QOL. The residential environment, which is only observed indirectly via lifestyle habits for commuters, has limited effects on health. As for noncommuters, neither their travel behavior nor the residential environment influences their health-related QOL.

  17. The potential impact of geological environment on health status of residents of the Slovak Republic.

    PubMed

    Rapant, S; Cvečková, V; Dietzová, Z; Fajčíková, K; Hiller, E; Finkelman, R B; Škultétyová, S

    2014-06-01

    In order to assess the potential impact of the geological environment on the health of the population of the Slovak Republic, the geological environment was divided into eight major units: Paleozoic, Crystalline, Carbonatic Mesozoic and basal Paleogene, Carbonatic-silicate Mesozoic and Paleogene, Paleogene Flysch, Neovolcanics, Neogene and Quaternary sediments. Based on these geological units, the databases of environmental indicators (chemical elements/parameters in groundwater and soils) and health indicators (concerning health status and demographic development of the population) were compiled. The geological environment of the Neogene volcanics (andesites and basalts) has been clearly documented as having the least favourable impact on the health of Slovak population, while Paleogene Flysch geological environment (sandstones, shales, claystones) has the most favourable impact. The most significant differences between these two geological environments were observed, especially for the following health indicators: SMRI6364 (cerebral infarction and strokes) more than 70 %, SMRK (digestive system) 55 %, REI (circulatory system) and REE (endocrine and metabolic system) almost 40 % and REC (malignant neoplasms) more than 30 %. These results can likely be associated with deficit contents of Ca and Mg in groundwater from the Neogene volcanics that are only about half the level of Ca and Mg in groundwater of the Paleogene sediments.

  18. Meeting the ONCHIT population health mandate: a proposed model for security in selective transportable distributed environments.

    PubMed

    Lorence, Daniel; Chin, John; Richards, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Goal Two of the US ONCHIT Plan focuses on enabling the use of electronic health information for critical health improvement activities that promote the health of targeted communities, and the US population as a whole. Because of the focus on communities and populations, the activities under this second goal differ fundamentally from those of the first goal, which focus on the care of individuals. Proposed here is a model for health information management in such population-based environments, which allows selective access and use of information, and maintains transportability while ensuring security and confidentiality.

  19. Manufacturing uncertainty: contested science and the protection of the public's health and environment.

    PubMed

    Michaels, David; Monforton, Celeste

    2005-01-01

    Opponents of public health and environmental regulations often try to "manufacture uncertainty" by questioning the validity of scientific evidence on which the regulations are based. Though most identified with the tobacco industry, this strategy has also been used by producers of other hazardous products. Its proponents use the label "junk science" to ridicule research that threatens powerful interests. This strategy of manufacturing uncertainty is antithetical to the public health principle that decisions be made using the best evidence available. The public health system must ensure that scientific evidence is evaluated in a manner that assures the public's health and environment will be adequately protected.

  20. The silence of mental health issues within university environments: a quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Wynaden, Dianne; McAllister, Margaret; Tohotoa, Jenny; Al Omari, Omar; Heslop, Karen; Duggan, Ravani; Murray, Sean; Happell, Brenda; Byrne, Louise

    2014-10-01

    A descriptive study was used to examine the attitudes and experiences of staff and students towards mental health problems. Staff completed the "Attitude towards mental illness survey", and students who self-identified having a mental health problem completed the "Stigma scale". Using an online collection process, data from 270 staff and 201 students showed that the "silence" surrounding mental health problems permeates the university environment and impacts on help seeking behaviors, the provision of support and on the recovery and wellbeing of affected individuals. Universities must decrease stigma and foster social inclusion to build self-esteem in people who have mental health problems.

  1. [Healthy housing and healthy environments as a strategy for health promotion].

    PubMed

    Cohen, Simone Cynamon; Bodstein, Regina; Kligerman, Débora Cynamon; Marcondes, Willer Baumgarten

    2007-01-01

    In this article, Healthy Housing is discussed as a potential field of knowledge and practices to be applied in the Health Promotion strategy and as an instrument in a larger discussion of problems in health and living standards. The development and consolidation of Health Promotion is presented focusing the discussion on two fields of action: healthy public policies and the establishment of healthy environments. The concepts of habitability and ambience are presented as a path conducive to reflection and the development of closer ties between Health Promotion and Healthy Housing.

  2. Current views of health care design and construction: practical implications for safer, cleaner environments.

    PubMed

    Bartley, Judene M; Olmsted, Russell N; Haas, Janet

    2010-06-01

    Infection preventionists (IP) play an increasingly important role in preventing health care-associated infection in the physical environment associated with new construction or renovation of health care facilities. The Guidelines for Design and Construction of Hospital and Healthcare Facilities, 2010, formerly known as "AIA Guidelines" was the origin of the "infection control risk assessment" now required by multiple agencies. These Guidelines represent minimum US health care standards and provide guidance on best practices. They recognize that the built environment has a profound affect on health and the natural environment and require that health care facilities be designed to "first, do no harm." This review uses the Guidelines as a blueprint for IPs' role in design and construction, updating familiar concepts to the 2010 edition with special emphasis on IP input into design given its longer range impact on health care-associated infection prevention while linking to safety and sustainability. Section I provides an overview of disease transmission risks from the built environment and related costs, section II presents a broad view of design and master planning, and section III addresses the detailed design strategies for infection prevention specifically addressed in the 2010 Facility Guidelines Institute edition.

  3. Our Environment, Our Health: A Community-Based Participatory Environmental Health Survey in Richmond, California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Alison; Lopez, Andrea; Malloy, Nile; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a health survey conducted by a community-based participatory research partnership between academic researchers and community organizers to consider environmental health and environmental justice issues in four neighborhoods of Richmond, California, a low-income community of color living along the fence line of a major oil…

  4. Incorporating a built environment module into an accelerated second-degree community health nursing course.

    PubMed

    Hays, Judith C; Davis, Jeffrey A; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Environmental quality is a leading indicator of population health. Environmental health content has been integrated into the curriculum of an Accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing program for second-degree students through development of an environmental health nursing module for the final-semester community health nursing course. The module was developed through collaboration between two professional schools at Duke University (the School of Nursing and the Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences). It focused on the role of the built environment in community health and featured a mix of teaching strategies, including five components: (1) classroom lecture with associated readings, (2) two rounds of online small-group student discussions, (3) assessment of the built environment in local neighborhoods by student teams, (4) team presentation of the neighborhood assessments, and (5) individual student papers synthesizing the conclusions from all team presentations. The goal of the module was to provide nursing students with an organizing framework for integrating environmental health into clinical practice and an innovative tool for understanding community-level components of public health.

  5. Healthful Eating and Physical Activity in the Home Environment: Results from Multi-Family Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Arikian, Aimee; Doherty, William J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore multiple family members’ perceptions of risk and protective factors for healthy eating and physical activity in the home. Design Ten multi-family focus groups were conducted with 26 families. Setting Community setting. Participants Primarily Black and White families. Family members (n = 103) were between the ages of 8–61 years. Analysis A grounded hermeneutic approach. Phenomenon of Interest Risk and protective factors for healthy eating and physical activity in the home environment. Results Ten major themes were identified by family members related to health behaviors in the home environment, including: (a) accessibility to healthy foods and activity, (b) time constraints, (c) stage of youth development, (d) individual investment in health behaviors, (e) family investment in health behaviors, (f) family meals and shared activities, (g) parent modeling, (h) making health behaviors fun, (i) making health behaviors part of the family lifestyle, and (j) community investment in family health behaviors. Conclusions and Implications This study identified the importance of the family system and the reciprocal influences within the home environment on health behaviors. In addition, individual and community-level suggestions were identified. Insights from the families provide leads for future research and ideas for the prevention of youth obesity. PMID:22192951

  6. Basis for the implementation of digital signature in Argentine's health environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, P. P.; Formica, M.

    2007-11-01

    The growth of telemedical applications and electronic transactions in health environments is paced by the constant technology evolution. This implies a big cultural change in traditional medicine and in hospital information systems' users which arrival is delayed, basically, by the lack of solid laws and a well defined role-based infrastructure. The use of digital signature as a mean of identification, authentication, confidentiality and non-repudiation is the most suitable tool for assuring the electronic transactions and patient's data protection. The implementation of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) in health environment allows for authentication, encryption and use of digital signature for assuring confidentiality and control of the movement of sensitive information. This work defines the minimum technological, legal and procedural basis for a successful PKI implementation and establishes the roles for the different actors in the chain of confidence in the public health environment of Argentine.

  7. Portfolio evaluation of health programs: a reply to Sendi et al.

    PubMed

    Bridges, John F P; Terris, Darcey D

    2004-05-01

    Sendi et al. (Soc. Sci. Med. 57 (2003) 2207) extend previous research on cost-effectiveness analysis to the evaluation of a portfolio of interventions with risky outcomes using a "second best" approach that can identify improvements in efficiency in the allocation of resources. This method, however, cannot be used to directly identify the optimal solution to the resource allocation problem. Theoretically, a stricter adherence to the foundations of portfolio theory would permit direct optimization in portfolio selection, however, when we include uncertainty in our analysis in addition to the traditional concept of risk (which is often mislabelled uncertainty) complexities are introduced that create significant hurdles in the development of practical applications of portfolio theory for health care policy decision making.

  8. Environment--a new key area for Health of the Nation?

    PubMed

    Walker, A

    1996-11-09

    Later this month the government will be consulting on whether the environment should be adopted as a new key area for their Health of the Nation strategy. It is proposing to have five topic areas and to adopt 10-15 environmental targets. This would reaffirm its commitment to linking environmental policy and health policy following publication earlier this year of its environmental health action plan. Critics may respond to the consultation document with suggestions for more far reaching targets--based, for example, on the "Health for All" targets from the World Health Organisation, or those arising out of Agenda 21 from the earth summit in Rio De Janeiro. Whatever the criticism, this move will be a chance to link environmental and health agendas at both national and local level.

  9. Environment--a new key area for Health of the Nation?

    PubMed Central

    Walker, A.

    1996-01-01

    Later this month the government will be consulting on whether the environment should be adopted as a new key area for their Health of the Nation strategy. It is proposing to have five topic areas and to adopt 10-15 environmental targets. This would reaffirm its commitment to linking environmental policy and health policy following publication earlier this year of its environmental health action plan. Critics may respond to the consultation document with suggestions for more far reaching targets--based, for example, on the "Health for All" targets from the World Health Organisation, or those arising out of Agenda 21 from the earth summit in Rio De Janeiro. Whatever the criticism, this move will be a chance to link environmental and health agendas at both national and local level. Images p1197-a PMID:8916758

  10. Will considerations of environmental sustainability revitalise the policy links between the urban environment and health?

    PubMed

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores when and how considerations of population health have influenced the creation, planning and management of cities. Cities--now the dominant human habitat--must be planned and managed sustainably in a world that is manifestly experiencing increasing environmental and social strains. Early industrialisation entailed crowding, squalor and industrial environmental blight; the two great associated public health hazards were infectious diseases and air pollution. These hazards have been largely controlled in rich countries. Today's main urban health hazards are obesity (with its life-shortening health consequences) and the huge contribution of cities to climate change with the resultant risks to population health. These and other health issues in urban environments need to be understood and addressed at the community or population level. This is an ecological challenge, crucial to attaining real sustainability.

  11. Challenges in researching violence affecting health service delivery in complex security environments.

    PubMed

    Foghammar, Ludvig; Jang, Suyoun; Kyzy, Gulzhan Asylbek; Weiss, Nerina; Sullivan, Katherine A; Gibson-Fall, Fawzia; Irwin, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Complex security environments are characterized by violence (including, but not limited to "armed conflict" in the legal sense), poverty, environmental disasters and poor governance. Violence directly affecting health service delivery in complex security environments includes attacks on individuals (e.g. doctors, nurses, administrators, security guards, ambulance drivers and translators), obstructions (e.g. ambulances being stopped at checkpoints), discrimination (e.g. staff being pressured to treat one patient instead of another), attacks on and misappropriation of health facilities and property (e.g. vandalism, theft and ambulance theft by armed groups), and the criminalization of health workers. This paper examines the challenges associated with researching the context, scope and nature of violence directly affecting health service delivery in these environments. With a focus on data collection, it considers how these challenges affect researchers' ability to analyze the drivers of violence and impact of violence. This paper presents key findings from two research workshops organized in 2014 and 2015 which convened researchers and practitioners in the fields of health and humanitarian aid delivery and policy, and draws upon an analysis of organizational efforts to address violence affecting healthcare delivery and eleven in-depth interviews with representatives of organizations working in complex security environments. Despite the urgency and impact of violence affecting healthcare delivery, there is an overall lack of research that is of health-specific, publically accessible and comparable, as well as a lack of gender-disaggregated data, data on perpetrator motives and an assessment of the 'knock-on' effects of violence. These gaps limit analysis and, by extension, the ability of organizations operating in complex security environments to effectively manage the security of their staff and facilities and to deliver health services. Increased research

  12. Public Health and Hospitals: Lessons Learned From Partnerships in a Changing Health Care Environment.

    PubMed

    Scutchfield, F Douglas; Prybil, Lawrence; Kelly, Ann V; Mays, Glen P

    2016-01-01

    Recent changes in policymaking, such as the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, have ushered in a new era in community health partnerships. To investigate characteristics of effective collaboration between hospitals, their parent systems, and the public health community, with the support of major hospital, medical, and public health associations, we compiled a list of 157 successful partnerships. This set was subsequently narrowed to 12 successful and diverse partnerships. After conducting site visits in each of the partnerships' communities and interviews with key partnership participants, we extracted lessons about their success. The lessons we have learned from our investigation have the potential to assist others as they develop partnerships.

  13. Relationships between the health of Alaska Native communities and our environment -- phase 1, exploring and communicating

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Durelle

    2013-01-01

    Alaska Natives depend on local natural resources for nutritional and, for many, spiritual health. As a result, public health in Alaska is strongly influenced by the relationship between people and their surrounding physical, chemical, and biological environments. Alaska is vast with diverse wildlife and plant communities that are valued as subsistence foods (fig. 1). These resources are supported by equally diverse ecosystems and their underpinning landforms and geologies. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is attempting to integrate physical, chemical, and biological information to better describe current (2013) environments and project scenarios for the future. Integrating ecological data into the public health dialogue is challenging for the more than 280 rural communities of Alaska. This fact sheet reviews a recent USGS effort, the Geographic Information System (GIS) Native Health Project, to better incorporate scientific information into such dialogue.

  14. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...

  15. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...

  16. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...

  17. 30 CFR 250.107 - What must I do to protect health, safety, property, and the environment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., property, and the environment? 250.107 Section 250.107 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... Performance Standards § 250.107 What must I do to protect health, safety, property, and the environment? (a) You must protect health, safety, property, and the environment by: (1) Performing all operations in...

  18. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...

  19. Health and the Built Environment: Exploring Foundations for a New Interdisciplinary Profession

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Jennifer; Thompson, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The supportive role of the built environment for human health is a growing area of interdisciplinary research, evidence-based policy development, and related practice. Nevertheless, despite closely linked origins, the contemporary professions of public health and urban planning largely operate within the neoliberal framework of academic, political, and policy silos. A reinvigorated relationship between the two is fundamental to building and sustaining an effective “healthy built environment profession.” A recent comprehensive review of the burgeoning literature on healthy built environments identified an emergent theme which we have termed “Professional Development.” This literature relates to the development of relationships between health and built environment professionals. It covers case studies illustrating good practice models for policy change, as well as ways professionals can work to translate research into policy. Intertwined with this empirical research is a dialogue on theoretical tensions emerging as health and built environment practitioners and researchers seek to establish mutual understanding and respect. The nature of evidence required to justify policy change, for example, has surfaced as an area of asynchrony between accepted disciplinary protocols. Our paper discusses this important body of research with a view to initiating and supporting the ongoing development of an interdisciplinary profession of healthy planning. PMID:23028393

  20. Health and the built environment: exploring foundations for a new interdisciplinary profession.

    PubMed

    Kent, Jennifer; Thompson, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The supportive role of the built environment for human health is a growing area of interdisciplinary research, evidence-based policy development, and related practice. Nevertheless, despite closely linked origins, the contemporary professions of public health and urban planning largely operate within the neoliberal framework of academic, political, and policy silos. A reinvigorated relationship between the two is fundamental to building and sustaining an effective "healthy built environment profession." A recent comprehensive review of the burgeoning literature on healthy built environments identified an emergent theme which we have termed "Professional Development." This literature relates to the development of relationships between health and built environment professionals. It covers case studies illustrating good practice models for policy change, as well as ways professionals can work to translate research into policy. Intertwined with this empirical research is a dialogue on theoretical tensions emerging as health and built environment practitioners and researchers seek to establish mutual understanding and respect. The nature of evidence required to justify policy change, for example, has surfaced as an area of asynchrony between accepted disciplinary protocols. Our paper discusses this important body of research with a view to initiating and supporting the ongoing development of an interdisciplinary profession of healthy planning.

  1. The Built Environment and Child Health: An Overview of Current Evidence.

    PubMed

    Gascon, Mireia; Vrijheid, Martine; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-09-01

    Urbanization and the shaping of the built environment have provided a number of socioeconomic benefits, but they have also brought unwanted side effects on health. We aimed to review the current epidemiological evidence of the associations between the built environment, closely related exposures, and child health. We focused on growth and obesity, neuropsychological development, and respiratory and immune health. We used existing review articles and supplemented these with relevant work published and not included in existing reviews. The present review shows that there is good evidence for an association between air pollution and fetal growth restriction and respiratory health, whereas for other exposure and outcome combinations, further evidence is needed. Future studies should make efforts to integrate the different built environment features and to include the evaluation of environments other than home, as well as accessibility, qualitative and perception assessment of the built environment, and, if possible, with improved and standardized tools to facilitate comparability between studies. Efforts are also needed to conduct longitudinal and intervention studies and to understand potential mechanisms behind the associations observed. Finally, studies in low- and middle-income countries are needed.

  2. The impact of healthcare on the environment: improving sustainability in the health service.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Jane

    As the largest employer in the UK, the NHS has a duty to contribute to sustainability in the UK and minimise the impact of healthcare provision on the environment. Nurses also have a responsibility to ensure their practice makes the best use of resources. This article discusses initiatives aimed at supporting organisations and individuals in reducing the negative impact of healthcare on the environment and on human health and wellbeing.

  3. Evaluation of the corrosion resistance of Fe-Al-Cr alloys in simulated low NOx environments

    SciTech Connect

    Deacon, R.M.; DuPont, J.N.; Kiely, C.J.; Marder, A.R.; Tortorelli, P.F.

    2009-08-15

    Due to their excellent corrosion resistance, iron aluminum alloys are currently being considered for use as weld claddings in fossil fuel fired power plants. The susceptibility to hydrogen cracking of these alloys at higher aluminum concentrations has led researchers to examine the effect of chromium additions on the corrosion resistance of lower aluminum alloys. In this work, three iron aluminum alloys were exposed to simulated coal combustion environments at 500 and 700{sup o}C for short (100 h) and long (5000 h) isothermal durations. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the corrosion products. All alloys exhibited excellent corrosion resistance during short term exposures. For longer test times, increasing the aluminum concentration improved alloy corrosion resistance. The addition of chromium to the binary iron aluminum alloy prevented the formation iron sulfide and resulted in slower corrosion kinetics. A general classification of the scales developed on these alloys is presented.

  4. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-09-07

    According to the framework of "Pressure-State-Response", this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries).

  5. Assessing the Relationship Between the Perceived Shelter Environment and Mental Health Among Homeless Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Beharie, Nisha; Lennon, Mary Clare; McKay, Mary McKernan

    2015-01-01

    Little attention has been given to how the environment of homeless shelters may impact the mental health of their residents. This study addresses this gap in the literature and presents a cross-sectional analysis of 209 caregivers nested within 10 family shelters across New York City. Multivariate regression was employed using hierarchical modeling to test the association between two shelter related variables (ie, the perceived social environment of the shelter and difficulty following shelter rules) and the mental health status of the caregiver residents. Less favorable perceptions of the social environment of the shelter and difficulty following shelter rules were both found to be associated with poorer mental health after controlling for demographic covariates as well as time in the shelter and first time in the shelter. These findings highlight the potential impact of the perceived social environment of shelters and methods of governance of shelters on the mental health of caregiver residents. In addition, the findings support the notion that interventions such as trauma informed care could potentially aid in addressing the mental health challenges that residents face. PMID:26332928

  6. Assessing the Relationship Between the Perceived Shelter Environment and Mental Health Among Homeless Caregivers.

    PubMed

    Beharie, Nisha; Lennon, Mary Clare; McKay, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Little attention has been given to how the environment of homeless shelters may impact the mental health of their residents. This study addresses this gap in the literature and presents a cross-sectional analysis of 209 caregivers nested within 10 family shelters across New York City. Multivariate regression was employed using hierarchical modeling to test the association between two shelter related variables (ie, the perceived social environment of the shelter and difficulty following shelter rules) and the mental health status of the caregiver residents. Less favorable perceptions of the social environment of the shelter and difficulty following shelter rules were both found to be associated with poorer mental health after controlling for demographic covariates as well as time in the shelter and first time in the shelter. These findings highlight the potential impact of the perceived social environment of shelters and methods of governance of shelters on the mental health of caregiver residents. In addition, the findings support the notion that interventions such as trauma informed care could potentially aid in addressing the mental health challenges that residents face.

  7. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-01-01

    According to the framework of “Pressure-State-Response”, this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries). PMID:26371016

  8. Distributed Lag Models: Examining Associations Between the Built Environment and Health.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jonggyu; Sánchez, Brisa N; Berrocal, Veronica J; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V

    2016-01-01

    Built environment factors constrain individual level behaviors and choices, and thus are receiving increasing attention to assess their influence on health. Traditional regression methods have been widely used to examine associations between built environment measures and health outcomes, where a fixed, prespecified spatial scale (e.g., 1 mile buffer) is used to construct environment measures. However, the spatial scale for these associations remains largely unknown and misspecifying it introduces bias. We propose the use of distributed lag models (DLMs) to describe the association between built environment features and health as a function of distance from the locations of interest and circumvent a-priori selection of a spatial scale. Based on simulation studies, we demonstrate that traditional regression models produce associations biased away from the null when there is spatial correlation among the built environment features. Inference based on DLMs is robust under a range of scenarios of the built environment. We use this innovative application of DLMs to examine the association between the availability of convenience stores near California public schools, which may affect children's dietary choices both through direct access to junk food and exposure to advertisement, and children's body mass index z scores.

  9. 2H and 27Al solid-state NMR study of the local environments in Al-doped 2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, and lepidocrocite

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jongsik; Ilott, Andrew J.; Middlemiss, Derek S.; Chernova, Natasha A.; Pinney, Nathan; Morgan, Dane; Grey, Clare P.

    2015-05-13

    Although substitution of aluminum into iron oxides and oxyhydroxides has been extensively studied, it is difficult to obtain accurate incorporation levels. Assessing the distribution of dopants within these materials has proven especially challenging because bulk analytical techniques cannot typically determine whether dopants are substituted directly into the bulk iron oxide or oxyhydroxide phase or if they form separate, minor phase impurities. These differences have important implications for the chemistry of these iron-containing materials, which are ubiquitous in the environment. In this work, 27Al and 2H NMR experiments are performed on series of Al-substituted goethite, lepidocrocite, and 2-line ferrihydrite in order to develop an NMR method to track Al substitution. The extent of Al substitution into the structural frameworks of each compound is quantified by comparing quantitative 27Al MAS NMR results with those from elemental analysis. Magnetic measurements are performed for the goethite series to compare with NMR measurements. Static 27Al spin–echo mapping experiments are used to probe the local environments around the Al substituents, providing clear evidence that they are incorporated into the bulk iron phases. As a result, predictions of the 2H and 27Al NMR hyperfine contact shifts in Al-doped goethite and lepidocrocite, obtained from a combined first-principles and empirical magnetic scaling approach, give further insight into the distribution of the dopants within these phases.

  10. A Look into Miners' Health in Prevailing Ambience of Underground Coal Mine Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, N. C.; Pal, S.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental factors such as noise, vibration, illumination, humidity, temperature and air velocity, etc. do play a major role on the health, comfort and efficient performance of underground coal miners at work. Ergonomics can help to promote health, efficiency and well being of miners and to make best use of their capabilities within the ambit of underground coal mine environment. Adequate work stretch and work-rest scheduling have to be determined for every category of miners from work physiology point of view so as to keep better health of the miners in general and to have their maximum efficiency at work in particular.

  11. Oceans and human health: Emerging public health risks n the marine environment

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, L.E.; Broad, K.; Clement, A.; Dewailly, E.; Elmir, S.; Knap, A.; Pomponi, S.A.; Smith, S.; Gabriele, H. Solo; Walsh, P.

    2008-01-01

    There has been an increasing recognition of the inter-relationship between human health and the oceans. Traditionally, the focus of research and concern has been on the impact of human activities on the oceans, particularly through anthropogenic pollution and the exploitation of marine resources. More recently, there has been recognition of the potential direct impact of the oceans on human health, both detrimental and beneficial. Areas identified include: global change, harmful algal blooms (HABs), microbial and chemical contamination of marine waters and seafood, and marine models and natural products from the seas. It is hoped that through the recognition of the inter-dependence of the health of both humans and the oceans, efforts will be made to restore and preserve the oceans. PMID:16996542

  12. Oceans and human health: Emerging public health risks in the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Fleming, L E; Broad, K; Clement, A; Dewailly, E; Elmir, S; Knap, A; Pomponi, S A; Smith, S; Solo Gabriele, H; Walsh, P

    2006-01-01

    There has been an increasing recognition of the inter-relationship between human health and the oceans. Traditionally, the focus of research and concern has been on the impact of human activities on the oceans, particularly through anthropogenic pollution and the exploitation of marine resources. More recently, there has been recognition of the potential direct impact of the oceans on human health, both detrimental and beneficial. Areas identified include: global change, harmful algal blooms (HABs), microbial and chemical contamination of marine waters and seafood, and marine models and natural products from the seas. It is hoped that through the recognition of the inter-dependence of the health of both humans and the oceans, efforts will be made to restore and preserve the oceans.

  13. [Environmental licensing of major undertakings: possible connection between health and environment].

    PubMed

    Silveira, Missifany; Araújo Neto, Mário Diniz de

    2014-09-01

    The prospect of multidisciplinary assessment that considers the environmental impacts on the health of the population during the implementation of potentially polluting projects is incipient in Brazil. Considering the scenario of major undertakings in the country, broadening the outlook on the health and environment relationship based on social and economic development processes striving for environmentally sustainable projects is a key strategy. This article examines the debate on the relationship between the current development model, the risks, the environment and health and discusses the importance of the participation of the health sector in the environmental licensing procedures, which is the instrument of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Seeking to create more environmentally and socially sustainable territories, the health sector has been looking for opportunities to participate in the licensing processes of major undertakings from the EIA standpoint. Results of research conducted by the Ministry of Health have demonstrated the form of participation in these processes, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses that favor or hinder the increase of preventive actions in public health in the implementation of major undertakings in Brazil.

  14. Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange in Atlanta (HELIX-Atlanta): A Pilot Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug; Shire, J.; Qualters, J.; Mitchell, K.; Pollard, S.; Rao, R.; Kajumba, N.; Quattrochi, D.; Estes, M., Jr.; Meyer, P.; Crosson, W.; Limaye, A.; Al-Hamdan, M.; Khan, M.; Bayakly, R.; Staley, F.; Hallisey, E.; Young, J.; Ward, K.; Tolbert, P.; Tolsma, D.; Sinclair, A.; Strickland, M.; Adeniyi, K.; Rainisch, G.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. To provide an overview of four environmental public health surveillance projects developed by CDC and its partners for the Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange, Atlanta (HELIX-Atlanta) and to illustrate common issues and challenges encountered in developing an environmental public health tracking system. Methods. HELIX-Atlanta, initiated in October 2003 to develop data linkage and analysis methods that can be used by the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (Tracking Network), conducted four projects. We highlight the projects' work, assess attainment of the HELIX-Atlanta goals and discuss three surveillance attributes. Results. Among the major challenges was the complexity of analytic issues which required multidiscipline teams with technical expertise. This expertise and the data resided across multiple organizations. Conclusions:Establishing formal procedures for sharing data, defining data analysis standards and automating analyses, and committing staff with appropriate expertise is needed to support wide implementation of environmental public health tracking.

  15. Factors Contributing to Mental and Physical Health Care in a Disaster-Prone Environment.

    PubMed

    Osofsky, Howard J; Hansel, Tonya Cross; Osofsky, Joy D; Speier, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Environment as a contextual factor plays an important role in southeastern Louisiana, as this area represents a major economic hub for the United States port, petroleum, and fishing industries. The location also exposes the population to both natural and technological disasters, including Hurricane Katrina and the Gulf oil spill. This study explored associations among hurricane loss, oil spill disruption, and environmental quality of life on mental and physical health on over 1,000 residents (N = 1,225) using structural equation modeling techniques. Results showed that oil spill distress was associated with increased symptoms of mental and physical health; Hurricane Katrina loss; and decreased environmental quality of life. Findings also indicate that mental health symptoms explain the association among oil spill distress and physical health symptoms-specifically, those that overlap with somatic complaints. These findings provide important support of the need for mental health assessment and service availability for disaster recovery.

  16. A National Study of the Association between Food Environments and County-Level Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahern, Melissa; Brown, Cheryl; Dukas, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This national, county-level study examines the relationship between food availability and access, and health outcomes (mortality, diabetes, and obesity rates) in both metro and non-metro areas. Methods: This is a secondary, cross-sectional analysis using Food Environment Atlas and CDC data. Linear regression models estimate relationships…

  17. Cultural Differences in the Health Information Environments and Practices between Finnish and Japanese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askola, Kreetta; Atsushi, Toshimori; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to identify cultural differences in the information environment and information practices, namely active seeking and encountering, of web-based health information between Finnish and Japanese university students. Method: The data were gathered with a Web-based survey among first-year university students at…

  18. Nursing Workload and the Changing Health Care Environment: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the health care environment have impacted nursing workload, quality of care, and patient safety. Traditional nursing workload measures do not guarantee efficiency, nor do they adequately capture the complexity of nursing workload. Review of the literature indicates nurses perceive the quality of their work has diminished. Research has…

  19. The public health nursing work environment: review of the research literature.

    PubMed

    Dingley, Jacquelyn; Yoder, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Public health nurses (PHNs) work to address critical health issues at the individual, family, and population levels. In recent years, a global nursing shortage has posed a significant challenge to the recruitment and retention of PHNs. Hospital-based research has shown that a healthy and productive work environment is vital to successful nursing recruitment and retention. Specific organizational characteristics have been linked to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job vacancies, and turnover rates. Although it is presumed that similarities exist between the public health and acute care nursing work environments, further evaluation is required. This literature review was conducted to identify studies that characterize the PHN work environment. An online database search was conducted to identify prospective PHN studies published between 2000 and 2010. Definitions were established for screening purposes. Twenty-nine PHN studies in the United States and abroad met criteria for inclusion in this review. Satisfaction with teamwork and job autonomy generally was reported. However, inadequate PHN staffing was described as a concern, with problems magnified during prolonged response to public health emergencies. Insufficient control over PHN practice was reported as well. Perceptions regarding other work environment characteristics were mixed or were not measured in detail. More in-depth research is recommended with the ultimate goal of improving PHN recruitment and retention.

  20. Health Consequences of the Interaction of Our Genome with Our Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Consequences Of The Interaction Of Our Genome With Our Environment DM DeMarini, US EPA, RTP, NC 27711 Our primary exposures to potentially mutagenic agents are via the air, water, soil, combustion emissions, and food. Thus, characterizing the mutations induced by these...

  1. School Policy and Environment: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Meg L.; Jones, Sherry Everett; Barrios, Lisa C.; Crossett, Linda S.; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Albuquerque, Melissa S.; Sleet, David A.; Greene, Brenda Z.; Schmidt, Ellen R.

    2001-01-01

    Uses data from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000 to describe state- and district-level policy support and coordination and state- and district-level policies regarding school environment, injury prevention, and substance use and violence prevention, noting school-level policies and practices in those areas, policies to inform…

  2. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health: Part 5: Environment, safety, health, and quality assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, L.G.; Steelman, B.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1988-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1987 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Environmental Guidance and Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, and the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, articles describe progress made during fiscal year 1987. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  3. Impact of climate change on the domestic indoor environment and associated health risks in the UK.

    PubMed

    Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Dimitroulopoulou, Chrysanthi; Thornes, John; Lai, Ka-Man; Taylor, Jonathon; Myers, Isabella; Heaviside, Clare; Mavrogianni, Anna; Shrubsole, Clive; Chalabi, Zaid; Davies, Michael; Wilkinson, Paul

    2015-12-01

    There is growing evidence that projected climate change has the potential to significantly affect public health. In the UK, much of this impact is likely to arise by amplifying existing risks related to heat exposure, flooding, and chemical and biological contamination in buildings. Identifying the health effects of climate change on the indoor environment, and risks and opportunities related to climate change adaptation and mitigation, can help protect public health. We explored a range of health risks in the domestic indoor environment related to climate change, as well as the potential health benefits and unintended harmful effects of climate change mitigation and adaptation policies in the UK housing sector. We reviewed relevant scientific literature, focusing on housing-related health effects in the UK likely to arise through either direct or indirect mechanisms of climate change or mitigation and adaptation measures in the built environment. We considered the following categories of effect: (i) indoor temperatures, (ii) indoor air quality, (iii) indoor allergens and infections, and (iv) flood damage and water contamination. Climate change may exacerbate health risks and inequalities across these categories and in a variety of ways, if adequate adaptation measures are not taken. Certain changes to the indoor environment can affect indoor air quality or promote the growth and propagation of pathogenic organisms. Measures aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions have the potential for ancillary public health benefits including reductions in health burdens related heat and cold, indoor exposure to air pollution derived from outdoor sources, and mould growth. However, increasing airtightness of dwellings in pursuit of energy efficiency could also have negative effects by increasing concentrations of pollutants (such as PM2.5, CO and radon) derived from indoor or ground sources, and biological contamination. These effects can largely be ameliorated by mechanical

  4. Approaching the Discriminatory Work Environment as Stressor: The Protective Role of Job Satisfaction on Health

    PubMed Central

    Di Marco, Donatella; López-Cabrera, Rocio; Arenas, Alicia; Giorgi, Gabriele; Arcangeli, Giulio; Mucci, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a complex phenomenon with adverse consequences at personal and organizational levels. Past studies have demonstrated that workers who are victims of discrimination might show less job satisfaction, less organizational commitment and worse levels of health and productivity. Although most research has focused on the effects of discrimination on victims, less is known about the extent to which discrimination produces consequences on workers who perceive the existence of a discriminatory work environment. The goal of this article is to analyze the consequences of the perception of a discriminatory work environment on employees’ health. The importance of this relationship is studied taking into account the mediating effect of job satisfaction. In order to reach this goal a cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1633 Italian workers (male = 826, female = 764), employed in private and public sectors, and in different hierarchical positions. Results suggest that the perception of a discriminatory work environment is negatively associated with employees’ health. This relationship is partially mediated by job satisfaction (R2 = 0.17). This study demonstrates that perceiving a discriminatory work environment might have a negative impact on workers’ health. A higher level of job satisfaction might buffer this effect. These findings have several practical implications. On the one hand, Human Resource Managers need to intervene in order to recognize and diminish implicit biases, creating a healthy and inclusive environment (e.g., through training, diversity policies, etc.). On the other hand, promoting job satisfaction (e.g., providing mechanisms of voice) might help workers to preserve their well-being, coping with the negative effects of a discriminatory work environment. PMID:27625625

  5. Approaching the Discriminatory Work Environment as Stressor: The Protective Role of Job Satisfaction on Health.

    PubMed

    Di Marco, Donatella; López-Cabrera, Rocio; Arenas, Alicia; Giorgi, Gabriele; Arcangeli, Giulio; Mucci, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a complex phenomenon with adverse consequences at personal and organizational levels. Past studies have demonstrated that workers who are victims of discrimination might show less job satisfaction, less organizational commitment and worse levels of health and productivity. Although most research has focused on the effects of discrimination on victims, less is known about the extent to which discrimination produces consequences on workers who perceive the existence of a discriminatory work environment. The goal of this article is to analyze the consequences of the perception of a discriminatory work environment on employees' health. The importance of this relationship is studied taking into account the mediating effect of job satisfaction. In order to reach this goal a cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1633 Italian workers (male = 826, female = 764), employed in private and public sectors, and in different hierarchical positions. Results suggest that the perception of a discriminatory work environment is negatively associated with employees' health. This relationship is partially mediated by job satisfaction (R (2) = 0.17). This study demonstrates that perceiving a discriminatory work environment might have a negative impact on workers' health. A higher level of job satisfaction might buffer this effect. These findings have several practical implications. On the one hand, Human Resource Managers need to intervene in order to recognize and diminish implicit biases, creating a healthy and inclusive environment (e.g., through training, diversity policies, etc.). On the other hand, promoting job satisfaction (e.g., providing mechanisms of voice) might help workers to preserve their well-being, coping with the negative effects of a discriminatory work environment.

  6. Poverty, environment, and health: the role of environmental epidemiology and environmental epidemiologists.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Marie S; McMichael, Anthony J; Schwartz, Joel; Wartenberg, Daniel

    2007-11-01

    International attention is focusing increasingly on environmental concerns, from global warming and extreme weather to persistent chemical pollutants that affect our food supplies, health and well-being. These environmental exposures disproportionately affect the poor and those residing in developing countries, and may partly explain the persistent social gradients in health that exist within and between nations. We support recent calls for environmental epidemiologists to play a more active role in furthering the global agenda for sustainability, environmental health and equity. We further suggest that the discipline of environmental epidemiology, as well as relevant funding agencies, broaden their focus to include rigorous research on the upstream, larger-scale societal factors that contribute to inequitable patterns of exposure and health outcomes. By widening the scope of our vision and increasing the strength and breadth of the evidence base about how poverty and environment together affect health, we can better participate in efforts to promote social justice and responsible use and protection of the environment, and thus reduce health inequities. That is both a primary mode and rationale for achieving sustainability.

  7. [POPULATION MONITORING OF THE HEALTH SHAPING ENVIRONMENT OF THE STUDENTS OF NAGORNO KARABAKH].

    PubMed

    Galstyan, H

    2016-10-01

    The study of the health shaping environment of students is one of the actual biomedical tasks, it is also the scientific founding for conducting health-preventive and health-preserving measures. Despite the importance of the proposed problem, this study is a pioneering attempt in Nagorno Karabakh. The objective of the work is the scientific grounding of regional peculiarities and the contemporary level of health shaping environment of students on the basis of population monitoring system. The results of the study prove that the studied health criteria are within limits of physiological norm. The most wide-spead risk factors are lack of physical activity, in the group of young boys - also tobacco use and alcohol consumption. The analysis of daily diet of examinees attests ''fat'' nutrition model. The data on the impact of physical effort reveal high tension in the cardiac activity in the group of physically untrained students. The study of the impact of educational and mental strain on the functional state of the organism of the students revealed that daily academic leads to fatigue. The examination session is characterized by strongly expressed sympatotonia sympathicotonia, mental strain - by parasympatotonia. The obtained results point to the necessity of the enhanced control in preserving and strengthening the health of the younger generation considering the above-brought regional peculiarities.

  8. Combining environment and health information systems for the assessment of atmospheric pollution on human health.

    PubMed

    Skouloudis, Andreas N; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2014-08-01

    The use of emerging technologies for environmental monitoring with satellite and in-situ sensors have become essential instruments for assessing the impact of environmental pollution on human health, especially in areas that require high spatial and temporal resolution. This was until recently a rather difficult problem. Regrettably, with classical approaches the spatial resolution is frequently inadequate in reporting environmental causes and health effects in the same time scale. This work examines with new tools different levels of air-quality with sensor monitoring with the aim to associate those with severe health effects. The process established here facilitates the precise representation of human exposure with the population attributed in a fine spatial grid and taking into account environmental stressors of human exposure. These stressors can be monitored with innovative sensor units with a temporal resolution that accurately describes chronic and acute environmental burdens. The current understanding of the situation in densely populated areas can be properly analyzed, before commitments are made for reductions in total emissions as well as for assessing the effects of reduced trans-boundary fluxes. In addition, the data processed here with in-situ sensors can assist in establishing more effective regulatory policies for the protection of vulnerable population groups and the satellite monitoring instruments permit abatement strategies that are close to real-time over large geographical areas.

  9. Audit: an exploration of two models from outside the health care environment.

    PubMed

    Earl-Slater, A; Wilcox, V

    1997-11-01

    Whilst there has been exponential growth in auditing health care services and a proliferation of the instruments involved, there seems to have been less cross-fertilization of audit systems and instruments between health care environments and other environments. This paper identifies and explores two audit systems and instruments outside the health care environment. The objective is to seek to improve the level of common understanding, communication and collaboration amongst those who are interested or involved in audit in any sector of the economy. This exercise offers an opportunity and incentive for cross-fertilization of ideas with respect to audit concepts, systems, instruments, results and experiences. Yet there is a more fundamental question to be considered: why bother with audit? This paper identifies core reasons for performing audit which, although they have been mentioned elsewhere, are worth recalling once again. The two non-health care audit systems and instruments are then identified and explored. On the one hand it is seen that the two audit systems and instruments outside health care have common features with audits in health care. On the other hand, it is also suggested that there are some significant differences in the two audit systems and instruments when compared to health care audits. This paper identifies and discusses similarities and differences. Finally, if we fail to learn from the mixture of experiences and insights of various audit exercises, not only will be doing our professions and our customers a disservice but we will lower the chances of continuous improvement in knowledge and understanding.

  10. Health inequalities by wage income in Sweden: the role of work environment.

    PubMed

    Hemström, Orjan

    2005-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to explore the mediating role made by work environment to health inequalities by wage income in Sweden. Gender differences were also analysed. Data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions for the years 1998 and 1999 were analysed. Employed 20-64-year olds with a registered wage were included (nearly 6000 respondents). Sex-specific logistic regressions in relation to global self-rated health were applied. Those in the lowest income quintile had 2.4 times (men) and 4.3 times (women) higher probability of less than good health than did those in the highest quintile (adjusted for age, family status, country of birth, education level, smoking and full-time work). The mediating contribution of work environment factors to the health gradient by income was 25 per cent (men) and 29 per cent (women), respectively. This contribution was observed mainly from ergonomic and physical exposure, decision authority and skill discretion. Psychological demands did not contribute to such inequalities because mentally demanding work tasks are more common in high income as compared with low income jobs. Using sex-specific income quintiles, instead of income quintiles for the entire sample, gave very similar results. In conclusion, work environment factors can be seen as important mediators for the association between wage income and ill health in Sweden. A larger residual effect of income on health for women as compared with men suggests that one's own income from work is a more important determinant of women's than men's ill health in Sweden.

  11. The association between physical environment and health: indicating the direction of effects using German panel data

    PubMed Central

    Romppel, Matthias; Igel, Ulrike; Brähler, Elmar; Grande, Gesine

    2016-01-01

    Background A growing body of research has identified an association between health and physical residential environmental characteristics. However, the direction of effects remains unclear, and further research is needed to determine whether the residential environment influences health. Objectives To specify the direction of the association between environmental disadvantage and self-reported health. Methods Longitudinal data were obtained from the German Socioeconomic Panel and were examined at two points in time. Participants were grouped by relocation status assessed across a five-year period. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effect of baseline environmental disadvantage on baseline health and on health five years later. Results In both groups, environmental disadvantage was cross-sectionally correlated with poor health. Only among people who did not relocate was baseline environmental disadvantage significantly related to health five years later in bivariate analyses. Results from the structural equation model found that environmental disadvantage was no longer significantly related to poor health five years later within the group of non-movers (β = -.02, p = .052). In addition, there was no effect in this direction within the group of movers (β = .02, p = .277). Conclusions Our results suggest the existence of a weak contextual effect as group differences in longitudinal associations indicated the direction of ecological effects. PMID:27078172

  12. Quality of Diabetes Care in Primary Health Centres in North Al-Batinah of Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shafaee, Mohammed; Al-Farsi, Yousuf; Al-Kaabi, Yousuf; Banerjee, Yajnavalka; Al-Zadjali, Najat; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the quality of diabetic care provided in primary health care settings in Oman. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of randomly selected 500 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) attending 6 primary care diabetic clinics in the north Al-Batinah region of Oman from January to December 2010. Nine standards on the quality of diabetes care were audited. Results: The mean age of the sample was 51±13 years, ranging from 15 to 87 years; the majority (61%) were females. The mean duration of DM was 4±3 years, ranging from 1 to 18 years. Seventy-seven percent of the patients attended diabetic clinics at least 4 times per year. Of the 9 assessed diabetic standards, HbA1c was documented in 33% of the patients, body mass index in 12%, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in 40%, urinary albumin:creatinine ratio in 28%, creatinine in 63% and blood pressure (BP) in 96%. Optimal control among the documented indicators was noted in 32, 21, 25, 85, 95 and 19%, respectively. Twenty percent of the patients had their ECGs done while only 39% of the patients had foot examination. No patient had attained control in all of HbA1c., BP and LDL-C. Conclusion: There is a gap between the recommended DM care guidelines and current practice with consequent poor quality of care in these patients. PMID:25024774

  13. The school environment and student health: a systematic review and meta-ethnography of qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in promoting young people’s health by modifying the school environment. However, existing research offers little guidance on how the school context enables or constrains students’ health behaviours, or how students’ backgrounds relate to these processes. For these reasons, this paper reports on a meta-ethnography of qualitative studies examining: through what processes does the school environment (social and physical) influence young people’s health? Methods Systematic review of qualitative studies. Sixteen databases were searched, eliciting 62, 329 references which were screened, with included studies quality assessed, data extracted and synthesized using an adaptation of Noblit and Hare’s meta-ethnographic approach. Results Nineteen qualitative studies were synthesised to explore processes through which school-level influences on young people’s health might occur. Four over-arching meta-themes emerged across studies focused on a range of different health issues. First, aggressive behaviour and substance use are often a strong source of status and bonding at schools where students feel educationally marginalised or unsafe. Second, health-risk behaviours are concentrated in unsupervised ‘hotspots’ at the school. Third, positive relationships with teachers appear to be critical in promoting student wellbeing and limiting risk behaviour; however, certain aspects of schools’ organisation and education policies constrain this, increasing the likelihood that students look for a sense of identity and social support via health-risk behaviours. Fourth, unhappiness at school can cause students to seek sources of ‘escape’, either by leaving school at lunchtime or for longer unauthorized spells or through substance use. These meta-themes resonate with Markham and Aveyard’s theory of human functioning and school organisation, and we draw on these qualitative data to refine and extend this theory, in particular

  14. [Environment, health and urban poverty. A perspective for the study of human settlements].

    PubMed

    Schteingart, M; Saenz, O

    1991-01-01

    Urbanization in Mexico has given rise to creation of unauthorized squatter settlements on the peripheries of large cities. Such settlements are estimated to house about 1/2 of the urban population of Mexico. These settlers share a low standard of housing resulting from lack of employment and low income. Very often large households are crowded into poor quality structures with no running water or sewage disposal. Health consequences are serious. Although precise data are lacking in Mexico, residents of squatter settlements generally fall below the rest of the urban population in health indicators. Settlers in these makeshift communities all tend to be disadvantaged, but there are significant differences in the health and living conditions of different low income zones on the urban periphery. The relationship between the physical and social environments of squatter settlements and the health of the residents should be analyzed by urban administrators and public health officials as well as by demographers and social scientists, in order that solutions be found to existing problems. An integrated focus on the problem will be necessary. A working hypothesis to guide research is that habitat is a principal factor influencing the health o the population, and it affects health through a series of processes that can be analytically decomposed. In this multicausal approach, health status is the final result of a complex process in which many different factors intervene. A fundamental determinant is that of factors in the general social context, including public policy regarding low income housing, basic services, and health. A 2nd level of determinants is that of underlying factors in the physical and social environment. In squatter settlements, housing and services are central elements of the physical environment in which the life of the inhabitants unfolds. The current cholera epidemic in Latin American demonstrates the importance of housing and related variables for

  15. The role of physical environment on student health and education in green schools.

    PubMed

    Okcu, Selen; Ryherd, Erica; Bayer, Charlene

    2011-01-01

    The role of physical school environment on student health and education is becoming better understood. A growing body of literature indicates that improved physical environments in schools (e.g., indoor air quality, lighting, and acoustic conditions) can enhance student health outcomes. In parallel, the green building movement centers around designing buildings, including schools, that are more sustainable to decrease energy consumption, minimize environmental impact, and create healthier spaces for occupants. This paper synthesizes the findings from both green design studies and school outcomes studies to provide a systematic evaluation of the potential impacts of green school design features on student health outcomes. Three inter-related topics are covered in detail: (i) overview of the "green" concept, including existing guidelines for "greening" schools, attitudes toward green schools, and condition of the physical environments in non-green schools; (ii) potential effects of the physical environment on school children, including documentation of national statistics and summary of findings from school research studies; (iii) synthesis of findings, including a discussion of the knowledge gaps in the field of green school research and conclusions.

  16. Incidence of bacteria of public health interest carried by cockroaches in different food-related environments.

    PubMed

    García, F; Notario, M J; Cabanás, J M; Jordano, R; Medina, L M

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of bacteria of public health interest transmitted by cockroaches in different food-related environments. From April to November, cockroaches were trapped in 11 buildings in different urban areas of Western Andalusia (Spain): three hotels, four grocery stores, a catering establishment, a food-industry plant, a health center, and a care home. The presence of a number of bacterial species, including Salmonella, in these food-related environments was confirmed; these species included microorganisms listed in European Union regulations, such as Salmonella spp., Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.), and Escherichia coli. A wide variety of species were isolated, some belonging to different genera that have a significant impact on public health and hygiene, such as Enterobacter and Klebsiella. To ensure adequate elimination of these microorganisms in food-related environments, the control of vectors such as Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, and Blatta orientalis, together with a thorough review of hygiene strategies, appears to be fundamental. It is clearly essential to compare the results of hygiene regulations implemented in food-related environments.

  17. Sustainable diets: The interaction between food industry, nutrition, health and the environment.

    PubMed

    Alsaffar, Ayten Aylin

    2016-03-01

    Everyday great amounts of food are produced, processed, transported by the food industry and consumed by us and these activities have direct impact on our health and the environment. The current food system has started causing strain on the Earth's natural resources and that is why sustainable food production systems are needed. This review article discusses the need for sustainable diets by exploring the interactions between the food industry, nutrition, health and the environment, which are strongly interconnected. The most common environmental issues in the food industry are related to food processing loss, food wastage and packaging; energy efficiency; transportation of foods; water consumption and waste management. Among the foods produced and processed, meat and meat products have the greatest environmental impact followed by the dairy products. Our eating patterns impact the environment, but the environment can impact dietary choices as well. The foods and drinks we consume may also affect our health. A healthy and sustainable diet would minimise the consumption of energy-dense and highly processed and packaged foods, include less animal-derived foods and more plant-based foods and encourage people not to exceed the recommended daily energy intake. Sustainable diets contribute to food and nutrition security, have low environmental impacts and promote healthy life for present and future generations. There is an urgent need to develop and promote strategies for sustainable diets; and governments, United Nations agencies, civil society, research organisations and the food industry should work together in achieving this.

  18. Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Management Plan. Fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This report describes efforts by the Department of Energy (DOE) to effectively plan for environment, safety and health activities that protect the environment, workers and the public from harm. This document, which covers fiscal year 1996, reflects planning by operating contractors and Program Offices in early 1994, updated to be consistent with the President`s FY 1996 budget submittal to Congress, and subsequent Department of Energy Program refinements. Prior to 1992, only a small number of facilities had a structured process for identifying environment, safety and health (ES and H) needs, reporting the costs (in both direct and indirect budgets) of ES and H requirements, prioritizing and allocating available resources, and efficiently communicating this information to DOE. Planned costs for ES and H activities were usually developed as an afterthought to program budgets. There was no visible, consistently applied mechanism for determining the appropriate amount of resources that should be allocated to ES and H, or for assuring that significant ES and H vulnerabilities were planned to be funded. To address this issue, the Secretary (in November 1991) directed DOE to develop a Safety and Health Five-Year Plan to serve as a line management tool to delineate DOE-wide programs to reduce and manage safety and health risks, and to establish a consistent framework for risk-based resource planning and allocation.

  19. Potential nationwide improvements in productivity and health from better indoor environments

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1998-07-01

    Theoretical considerations and empirical data suggest that existing technologies and procedures can improve indoor environments in a manner that significantly increases productivity and health. Existing literature contains moderate to strong evidence that characteristics of buildings and indoor environments significantly influence rates of respiratory disease, allergy and asthma symptoms, sick building symptoms, and worker performance. While there is considerable uncertainty in their estimates of the magnitudes of productivity gains that may be obtained by providing better indoor environments, the projected gains are very large. For the US, the authors estimate potential annual savings and productivity gains of $6 to $19 billion from reduced respiratory disease, $1 to $4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma, $10 to $20 billion from reduced sick building syndrome symptoms, and $12 to $125 billion from direct improvements in worker performance that are unrelated to health. In two example calculations, the potential financial benefits of improving indoor environments exceed costs by a factor of 8 and 14. Productivity gains that are quantified and demonstrated could serve as a strong stimulus for energy efficiency measures that simultaneously improve the indoor environment.

  20. Potential Nationwide Improvements in Productivity and Health from Better Indoor Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1998-05-01

    Theoretical considerations and empirical data suggest that existing technologies and procedures can improve indoor environments in a manner that significantly increases productivity and health. Existing literature contains moderate to strong evidence that characteristics of buildings and indoor environments significantly influence rates of respiratory disease, allergy and asthma symptoms, sick building symptoms, and worker performance. While there is considerable uncertainty in our estimates of the magnitudes of productivity gains that may be obtained by providing better indoor environments, the projected gains are very large. For the U.S., we estimate potential annual savings and productivity gains of $6 to $19 billion from reduced respiratory disease, $1 to $4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma, $10 to $20 billion from reduced sick building syndrome symptoms, and $12 to $125 billion from direct improvements in worker performance that are unrelated to health. In two example calculations, the potential financial benefits of improving indoor environments exceed costs by a factor of 8 and 14. Productivity gains that are quantified and demonstrated could serve as a strong stimulus for energy efficiency measures that simultaneously improve the indoor environment.

  1. Family Environment, Coping, and Mental Health in Adolescents Attending Therapeutic Day Schools

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Erin M.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W.; Brown, Larry K.; Houck, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examined associations among family environment, coping, and emotional and conduct problems in adolescents attending therapeutic day schools due to mental health problems. METHODS Adolescents (N=417; 30.2% female) ages 13–20 (M=15.25) reported on their family environment (affective involvement and functioning), coping (emotion-focused support-seeking, cognitive restructuring, avoidant actions), and emotional and conduct problems. RESULTS Poorer family environment was associated with less emotion-focused support-seeking and cognitive restructuring, and more emotional and conduct problems. Emotional problems were negatively associated with cognitive restructuring, and conduct problems were negatively associated with all coping strategies. Cognitive restructuring accounted for the relationship between family environment and emotional problems. Cognitive restructuring and emotion-focused support-seeking each partially accounted for the relationship between family functioning and conduct problems, but not the relationship between family affective involvement and conduct problems. CONCLUSIONS Findings implicate the role of coping in the relationship between family environment and adolescent mental health. PMID:25151645

  2. Zoonotic protozoa in the marine environment: a threat to aquatic mammals and public health.

    PubMed

    Olson, M E; Appelbee, A; Measures, L; Cole, R A; Lindsay, D S; Dubey, J P; Thomas, N J; Miller, M; Conrad, P; Gardner, I; Kreuder, C; Mazet, J; Jessup, D; Dodd, E; Harris, M; Ames, J; Worcester, K; Paradies, D; Grigg, M; Fayer, R; Lewis, E J; Trout, J M; Xiao, L; Howard, D W; Palmer, R; Ludwig, K; Tyler, S S

    2004-10-28

    This collection of abstracts provides an account of four presentations at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP)(held in New Orleans, LA, USA from 10–14 August 2003) in a symposium session on zoonotic protozoan parasites found in the marine environment and chaired by Ronald Fayer and David Lindsay.The focus was on three genera of parasites of veterinary and public health concern—Toxoplasma,Giardia, and Cryptosporidium with emphasis on their epidemiology in the marine environment.

  3. A model curriculum for a course on the built environment and public health: training for an interdisciplinary workforce.

    PubMed

    Botchwey, Nisha D; Hobson, Susan E; Dannenberg, Andrew L; Mumford, Karen G; Contant, Cheryl K; McMillan, Tracy E; Jackson, Richard J; Lopez, Russell; Winkle, Curtis

    2009-02-01

    Despite growing evidence of the direct and indirect effects of the built environment on public health, planners, who shape the built environment, and public health professionals, who protect the public's health, rarely interact. Most public health professionals have little experience with urban planners, zoning boards, city councils, and others who make decisions about the built environment. Likewise, few planners understand the health implications of design, land use, or transportation decisions. One strategy for bridging this divide is the development of interdisciplinary courses in planning and public health that address the health implications of the built environment. Professional networking and Internet-based searches in 2007 led to the identification of six primarily graduate-level courses in the U.S. that address the links between the built environment and public health. Common content areas in most of the identified courses included planning and public health histories, health disparities, interdisciplinary approaches, air and water quality, physical activity, social capital, and mental health. Instructors of these courses collaborated on course content, assignments, and evaluations to develop a model curriculum that follows an active learning-centered approach to course design. The proposed model curriculum is adaptable by both planning and public health departments to promote interdisciplinary learning. Results show that students gain planning and public health perspectives through this instruction, benefiting from active-learning opportunities. Faculty implementation of the proposed interdisciplinary model curriculum will help bridge the divide between the built environment and public health and enable both planners and public health professionals to value, create, and promote healthy environments.

  4. Electronic Informational and Educational Environment as a Factor of Competence-Oriented Higher Pedagogical Education in the Sphere of Health, Safety and Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamerilova, Galina S.; Kartavykh, Marina A.; Ageeva, Elena L.; Veryaskina, Marina A.; Ruban, Elena M.

    2016-01-01

    The authors consider the question of computerisation in health, safety and environment teachers' training in the context of the general approaches and requirements of the Federal National Standard of Higher Education, which is realised through designing of electronic informational and educational environment. The researchers argue indispensability…

  5. The need for better public health decisions on chemicals released into our environment.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Tracey J; Burke, Thomas A; Zeise, Lauren

    2011-05-01

    Protecting the health of the public-particularly the most vulnerable groups, such as children-requires rethinking current approaches to reducing environmental risks. We review the evolving understanding of the relationship between exposure to chemicals in the environment and disease, as well as the current state of managing those chemicals. We present recommendations to improve current approaches, including changing the burden of proof so that chemicals are not presumed safe in the absence of scientific data. We also propose modernizing approaches to assessing health risks.

  6. Technology Development, Evaluation, and Application (TDEA) FY 2001 Progress Report Environment, Safety, and Health (ESH) Division

    SciTech Connect

    L.G. Hoffman; K. Alvar; T. Buhl; E. Foltyn; W. Hansen; B. Erdal; P. Fresquez; D. Lee; B. Reinert

    2002-05-01

    This progress report presents the results of 11 projects funded ($500K) in FY01 by the Technology Development, Evaluation, and Application (TDEA) Committee of the Environment, Safety, and Health Division (ESH). Five projects fit into the Health Physics discipline, 5 projects are environmental science and one is industrial hygiene/safety. As a result of their TDEA-funded projects, investigators have published sixteen papers in professional journals, proceedings, or Los Alamos reports and presented their work at professional meetings. Supplement funds and in-kind contributions, such as staff time, instrument use, and workspace, were also provided to TDEA-funded projects by organizations external to ESH Divisions.

  7. The social environment of nursing homes and the health of older residents.

    PubMed

    Zurakowski, T L

    2000-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of two social environment variables, social support and anomia, on the self-reported health of older nursing home residents. Three specific hypotheses were tested as well as the fit of the data to the proposed theory. A nonrandom, convenience sample of 91 nursing home residents was drawn from four nursing homes. Only whites who could speak and understand English and who were judged to be cognitively intact or only mildly cognitively impaired were included. The data were analyzed using path analysis. Only one hypothesis asserting that anomia will have direct negative effects on self-reported health was fully supported.

  8. The Provision of a Health Promoting Environment for HIV/AIDS Education: The Case of Namibian Senior Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Bob; Lubben, Fred

    2003-01-01

    HIV/AIDS programmes in schools ultimately intend to decrease high risk sexual behaviour. One factor facilitating this outcome is a strong health promoting environment in the school. This paper reports a study surveying the health promoting environments supporting HIV/AIDS education in Namibian senior secondary schools. It develops a…

  9. The General Picture of Supportive Health Environments for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities among 121 Disability Welfare Institutions in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, J.-D.; Yen, C.-F.; Loh, C.-H.; Chwo, M.-J.; Lee, J.-T.; Wu, J.-L.; Chu, C. M.; Tang, C.-C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Little information is available on the provision of supportive health environments for persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) in institutions. The aim of this study was to present an overview of supportive environments for health in institutions in Taiwan. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine the perceptions…

  10. 48 CFR 952.223-71 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...

  11. 48 CFR 952.223-71 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...

  12. 48 CFR 952.223-71 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...

  13. 48 CFR 952.223-71 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...

  14. 48 CFR 952.223-71 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...

  15. Developing a model for effects of climate change on human health and health-environment interactions: Heat stress in Austin, Texas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods In December, 2010, a consortium of EPA, Centers for Disease Control, and state and local health officials convened in Austin, Texas for a “participatory modeling workshop” on climate change effects on human health and health-environment interactions. ...

  16. Developing a model for effects of climate change on human health and health-environment interactions: Heat stress in Austin, Texas presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods In December, 2010, a consortium of EPA, Centers for Disease Control, and state and local health officials convened in Austin, Texas for a “participatory modeling workshop” on climate change effects on human health and health-environment int...

  17. US Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The assessment, which was conducted from July 20 through August 4, 1992, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and progress of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices; the DOE Nevada Field Office (NV); and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. This report presents a summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management.

  18. Toxicological Profile of Chlorophenols and Their Derivatives in the Environment: The Public Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Igbinosa, Etinosa O.; Odjadjare, Emmanuel E.; Chigor, Vincent N.; Igbinosa, Isoken H.; Emoghene, Alexander O.; Ekhaise, Fredrick O.; Igiehon, Nicholas O.; Idemudia, Omoruyi G.

    2013-01-01

    Chlorophenol compounds and their derivatives are ubiquitous contaminants in the environment. These compounds are used as intermediates in manufacturing agricultural chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biocides, and dyes. Chlorophenols gets into the environment from a variety of sources such as industrial waste, pesticides, and insecticides, or by degradation of complex chlorinated hydrocarbons. Thermal and chemical degradation of chlorophenols leads to the formation of harmful substances which constitute public health problems. These compounds may cause histopathological alterations, genotoxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity amongst other abnormalities in humans and animals. Furthermore, the recalcitrant nature of chlorophenolic compounds to degradation constitutes an environmental nuisance, and a good understanding of the fate and transport of these compounds and their derivatives is needed for a clearer view of the associated risks and mechanisms of pathogenicity to humans and animals. This review looks at chlorophenols and their derivatives, explores current research on their effects on public health, and proffers measures for mitigation. PMID:23690744

  19. Neighborhood Environment and Self-Rated Health Among Urban Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Arlesia; Rooks, Ronica; Kruger, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) among urban older adults. Method: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a de-industrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and SRH was analyzed using regression models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism, and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = .01). Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = .005) and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p < .001). Discussion: More than 80% of older adults live in urban areas. By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S.

  20. The influence of the neighborhood physical environment on early child health and development: A review and call for research.

    PubMed

    Christian, Hayley; Zubrick, Stephen R; Foster, Sarah; Giles-Corti, Billie; Bull, Fiona; Wood, Lisa; Knuiman, Matthew; Brinkman, Sally; Houghton, Stephen; Boruff, Bryan

    2015-05-01

    This review examines evidence of the association between the neighborhood built environment, green spaces and outdoor home area, and early (0-7 years) child health and development. There was evidence that the presence of child relevant neighborhood destinations and services were positively associated with early child development domains of physical health and wellbeing and social competence. Parents׳ perceptions of neighborhood safety were positively associated with children׳s social-emotional development and general health. Population representative studies using objective measures of the built environment and valid measures of early child development are warranted to understand the impact of the built environment on early child health and development.

  1. A Data Encryption Solution for Mobile Health Apps in Cooperation Environments

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Bruno M; Canelo, Fábio; Lopes, Ivo C; Zhou, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Background Mobile Health (mHealth) proposes health care delivering anytime and anywhere. It aims to answer several emerging problems in health services, including the increasing number of chronic diseases, high costs on national health services, and the need to provide direct access to health services, regardless of time and place. mHealth systems include the use of mobile devices and apps that interact with patients and caretakers. However, mobile devices present several constraints, such as processor, energy, and storage resource limitations. The constant mobility and often-required Internet connectivity also exposes and compromises the privacy and confidentiality of health information. Objective This paper presents a proposal, construction, performance evaluation, and validation of a data encryption solution for mobile health apps (DE4MHA), considering a novel and early-proposed cooperation strategy. The goal was to present a robust solution based on encryption algorithms that guarantee the best confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of users health information. In this paper, we presented, explained, evaluated the performance, and discussed the cooperation mechanisms and the proposed encryption solution for mHealth apps. Methods First, we designed and deployed the DE4MHA. Then two studies were performed: (1) study and comparison of symmetric and asymmetric encryption/decryption algorithms in an mHealth app under a cooperation environment, and (2) performance evaluation of the DE4MHA. Its performance was evaluated through a prototype using an mHealth app for obesity prevention and cares, called SapoFit. We then conducted an evaluation study of the mHealth app with cooperation mechanisms and the DE4MHA using real users and a real cooperation scenario. In 5 days, 5 different groups of 7 students selected randomly agreed to use and experiment the SapoFit app using the 7 devices available for trials. Results There were 35 users of SapoFit that participated in

  2. Health human resources and public-private partnerships: understanding their contributions to Canada's transforming healthcare environment.

    PubMed

    de Mora, Joseph A

    2008-01-01

    This article sets out some of the main elements that characterize Canada's transforming healthcare environment and that largely form the raison d'être for new approaches to health human resources and for the emergence of public-private partnerships. It then presents core findings from a meeting of healthcare CEOs held in Banff as well as the author's views based on his experiences as president and CEO of Kingston General Hospital.

  3. The health information environment: a view of organizational and professional needs and priorities.

    PubMed Central

    Creth, S D

    1993-01-01

    Inspired by Platform for Change: The Educational Policy Statement of the Medical Library Association, this paper discusses the institutional changes, new delivery modes and services, learning and development, leadership, and strategies needed for health sciences librarians to prosper in the changing medical information environment. To fulfill their potential, librarians must articulate and act upon a vision that involves them more fully in the work of faculty, researchers, and medical practitioners. PMID:8251977

  4. Hypobaric chamber for the study of oral health problems in a simulated spacecraft environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L. R.

    1974-01-01

    A hypobaric chamber was constructed to house two marmo-sets simultaneously in a space-simulated environment for periods of 14, 28 and 56 days which coincided with the anticipated Skylab missions. This report details the fabrication, operation, and performance of the chamber and very briefly reviews the scientific data from nine chamber trials involving 18 animals. The possible application of this model system to studies unrelated to oral health or space missions is discussed.

  5. Panel session on "safety, health and the environment: implications of nuclear power growth".

    PubMed

    Bilbao y León, Sama

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the presentations and the insights offered by panelists John P. Winston, Robert Bernero, and Stephen LaMontagne during the Panel on Safety, Health and the Environment: Implications of Nuclear Power Growth that took place during the NCRP 2009 Annual Meeting. The paper describes the opportunities and the challenges faced in the areas of infrastructure development, radiation control, licensing and regulatory issues, and non-proliferation as a consequence of the forecasted growth in nuclear power capacity worldwide.

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health - Part 5: Environment, Safety, Health, and Quality Assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, L.G.; Doctor, P.G.; Selby, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    Part 5 of the 1989 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Environmental Guidance and Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance, the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Safety Compliance, and the Office of Policy and Standards. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, there is an article describing progress made during fiscal year 1989. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work. 35 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Perceptions of the Environment and Health Among Members of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation

    PubMed Central

    Schure, Marc B.; Kile, Molly L.; Harding, Anna; Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart; Uesugi, Sandra; Goins, R. Turner

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous cultures perceive the natural environment as an essential link between traditional cultural practices, social connectedness, identity, and health. Many tribal communities face substantial health disparities related to exposure to environmental hazards. Our study used qualitative methods to better understand the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) members' perspectives about their environment and its connections with their health including views on environmental health hazards. Three 90-minute focus group sessions with a total of 27 participants were held to elicit opinions on meanings of health and how the environment interacts with health. A systematic text analysis was used to derive themes across focus groups. Participants expressed a holistic view of health that included environmental, physical, mental, spiritual, and social components. A healthy natural environment was identified as an essential component of a healthy individual and a healthy community. Participants also described many environmental health concerns including second-hand smoke, outdoor smoke, diesel exhaust, mold, pesticides, contaminated natural foods, and toxic wastes from the Hanford nuclear site and methamphetamine labs. Many believe the identified environmental hazards contribute to diseases in their community. The natural environment is an important resource to CTUIR members and plays an integral role in achieving and maintaining health. Knowledge about the values and concerns of the community are useful to the tribal and federal governments, health professionals, environmental health practitioners, and community members who seek to achieve sustainable and healthy rural Native communities. PMID:25152803

  8. Perceptions of the Environment and Health Among Members of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

    PubMed

    Schure, Marc B; Kile, Molly L; Harding, Anna; Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart; Uesugi, Sandra; Goins, R Turner

    2013-06-01

    Indigenous cultures perceive the natural environment as an essential link between traditional cultural practices, social connectedness, identity, and health. Many tribal communities face substantial health disparities related to exposure to environmental hazards. Our study used qualitative methods to better understand the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) members' perspectives about their environment and its connections with their health including views on environmental health hazards. Three 90-minute focus group sessions with a total of 27 participants were held to elicit opinions on meanings of health and how the environment interacts with health. A systematic text analysis was used to derive themes across focus groups. Participants expressed a holistic view of health that included environmental, physical, mental, spiritual, and social components. A healthy natural environment was identified as an essential component of a healthy individual and a healthy community. Participants also described many environmental health concerns including second-hand smoke, outdoor smoke, diesel exhaust, mold, pesticides, contaminated natural foods, and toxic wastes from the Hanford nuclear site and methamphetamine labs. Many believe the identified environmental hazards contribute to diseases in their community. The natural environment is an important resource to CTUIR members and plays an integral role in achieving and maintaining health. Knowledge about the values and concerns of the community are useful to the tribal and federal governments, health professionals, environmental health practitioners, and community members who seek to achieve sustainable and healthy rural Native communities.

  9. Organizational justice at school and its associations with pupils' psychosocial school environment, health, and wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Elovainio, Marko; Pietikäinen, Minna; Luopa, Pauliina; Kivimäki, Mika; Ferrie, Jane E; Jokela, Jukka; Suominen, Sakari; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna

    2011-12-01

    It has been shown that the psychosocial environment perceived by school staff is associated with children's academic performance and wellbeing. In this study we examined the associations between organizational justice (procedural and relational justice) as reported by school staff and pupils' perceptions of their school environment, health problems, academic performance, and absenteeism. We combined data from two surveys: for the staff (the Finnish Public Sector Study, n = 1946) and pupils (the Finnish school health promotion survey, n = 11,781 boys and 12,842 girls) of 136 secondary schools, collected during 2004-2005. Multilevel cumulative logistic regression analyses showed that after adjustment for potential individual and school-level confounding factors, low procedural justice was associated with pupils' dissatisfaction with school-going. Low relational justice was associated with a 1.30 times higher risk of poor academic performance, 1.15 times higher risk of psychosomatic symptoms and 1.13 times higher risk of depressive symptoms among pupils. Both organizational justice components were associated with truancy. We concluded that staff perceptions of organizational justice at school are associated with pupils' reports of their psychosocial school environment, health, performance, and absenteeism due to truancy. Improving managerial and decision making procedures among school personnel may be an important factor for protecting pupils' academic performance and wellbeing.

  10. Respiratory Health among Korean Pupils in Relation to Home, School and Outdoor Environment

    PubMed Central

    Elfman, Lena; Wieslander, Gunilla; Ferm, Martin; Torén, Kjell; Norbäck, Dan

    2011-01-01

    There are few studies about school-environment in relation to pupils' respiratory health, and Korean school-environment has not been characterized. All pupils in 4th grade in 12 selected schools in three urban cities in Korea received a questionnaire (n = 2,453), 96% participated. Gaseous pollutants and ultrafine particles (UFPs) were measured indoors (n = 34) and outdoors (n = 12) during winter, 2004. Indoor dampness at home was investigated by the questionnaire. To evaluate associations between respiratory health and environment, multiple logistic- and multi-level regression models were applied adjusting for potential confounders. The mean age of pupils was 10 yr and 49% were boys. No school had mechanical ventilation and CO2-levels exceeded 1,000 ppm in all except one of the classrooms. The indoor mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, O3 and formaldehyde were 0.6 µg/m3, 19 µg/m3, 8 µg/m3 and 28 µg/m3, respectively. The average level of UFPs was 18,230 pt/cm3 in the classrooms and 16,480 pt/cm3 outdoors. There were positive associations between wheeze and outdoor NO2, and between current asthma and outdoor UFPs. With dampness at home, pupils had more wheeze. In conclusion, outdoor UFPs and even low levels of NO2 may adversely contribute to respiratory health in children. High CO2-levels in classrooms and indoor dampness/mold at home should be reduced. PMID:21286005

  11. An EMI-aware prioritized wireless access scheme for e-Health applications in hospital environments.

    PubMed

    Phunchongharn, Phond; Niyato, Dusit; Hossain, Ekram; Camorlinga, Sergio

    2010-09-01

    Wireless communications technologies can support efficient healthcare services in medical and patient-care environments. However, using wireless communications in a healthcare environment raises two crucial issues. First, the RF transmission can cause electromagnetic interference (EMI) to biomedical devices, which could critically malfunction. Second, the different types of electronic health (e-Health) applications require different quality of service (QoS). In this paper, we introduce an innovative wireless access scheme, called EMI-aware prioritized wireless access, to address these issues. First, the system architecture for the proposed scheme is introduced. Then, an EMI-aware handshaking protocol is proposed for e-Health applications in a hospital environment. This protocol provides safety to the biomedical devices from harmful interference by adapting transmit power of wireless devices based on the EMI constraints. A prioritized wireless access scheme is proposed for channel access by two different types of applications with different priorities. A Markov chain model is presented to study the queuing behavior of the proposed system. Then, this queuing model is used to optimize the performance of the system given the QoS requirements. Finally, the performance of the proposed wireless access scheme is evaluated through extensive simulations.

  12. Social and Physical Environments and Self-Rated Health in Urban and Rural Communities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-A; Park, Jong Heon; Kim, Myung

    2015-11-12

    This study evaluated the associations between social and physical environments and self-rated health (SRH) for urban and rural Korean adults, using data from the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS) of 199,790 participants (115,454 urban and 84,336 rural). The main dependent variable was SRH, while the primary independent variables were social and physical characteristics. Urban residents reported better SRH than did rural residents. Five social environmental variables (trust of neighbors, residence in the area for over 20 years, exchanging help with neighbors, friend and fellowship activities, contact with relatives and neighbors over five times per month) were more prevalent among rural residents. Satisfaction with physical environment was more common among rural residents, but satisfaction with traffic and healthcare facilities was more common among urban areas. After adjusting for relevant factors, positive associations between SRH and trust of neighbors, exchanging help with neighbors, participation in social activities or organizations, and physical environment existed in both rural and urban populations. Also, in both areas, there was no demonstrated association between SRH and years of residence or frequency of contact with relatives. Our findings suggest the existence of an association between social and physical factors and perceived health status among the general population of Korea.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT AND IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH IN ROMA VILLAGES IN SLOVAKIA AND ROMANIA

    PubMed Central

    Majdan, Marek; Coman, Alexandru; Gallová, Eva; Ďuricová, Janka; Kállayová, Daniela; Kvaková, Mária; Bošák, Ľuboš

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives The objective of this paper is to provide information on indoor air quality and on the quality of the broader indoor environment of the houses in Roma villages in Slovakia and Romania and to discuss possible implications for health. Methods Indoor air was sampled in 11 houses in a Romanian Roma village and in 19 houses in a Slovakian Roma village. Levels of Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), total particulate matter (PM), temperature and humidity were measured. A questionnaire and a checklist were used to obtain additional information on the indoor environment and behavioural factors. We have sampled the same houses in winter and in summer. Results Levels of CO and CO2 were higher in winter in both countries as compared to summer. The limit value of 10 mg/m3 CO was exceeded in a few cases in both countries. In general, levels of CO, CO2 and PM were higher in Romania. Further environmental and behavioural hazards such as indoor smoking, pets inside or lack of ventilation were found. The reported self-perceived quality of the indoor environment was poor in many aspects. Conclusions Our findings of CO, CO2 and PM levels suggest that indoor air pollution in Roma settlements has the potential to be a health threat. The fact that the inhabitants spend a relatively long time inside the houses and that a number of additional environmental and behavioural hazards were identified by our study emphasizes the importance of the indoor air quality for health and thus priority attention should be paid to these issues by health authorities and researchers. Further research is essential and study designs must consider cultural background and specific characteristics of the community, especially in order to obtain valid data on health outcomes. PMID:23285520

  14. Children's health and the environment: public health issues and challenges for risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, Philip J; Kimmel, Carole A; Correa, Adolfo; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2004-01-01

    Infants and children are not little adults. They are uniquely vulnerable to environmental toxicants. To protect infants and children against toxicants, the National Research Council in 1993 called for development of an approach to risk assessment that considers children's unique patterns of exposure and their special vulnerabilities to pesticides. Many aspects of that call were codified into federal law in the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. This report highlights the central elements needed for development of a child-protective approach to risk assessment: a) improved quantitative assessment of children's exposures at different life stages, from fetal life through adolescence, including acute and chronic exposures, exposures via multiple routes, and exposures to multiple agents; b) development of new approaches to toxicity testing of chemicals that can detect unanticipated and subtle outcomes and that evaluate experimental subjects over the entire life span from early exposure to natural death to replicate the human experience; c) development of new toxicodynamic and toxicokinetic models that account for the unique physiologic characteristics of infants and children; d) development of new approaches to assessment of outcomes, functional, organ, cellular and molecular, over the entire life span; these measures need to be incorporated into toxicity testing and into long-term prospective epidemiologic studies of children; and e) application of uncertainty and safety factors in risk assessment that specifically consider children's risks. Under FQPA, children are presumed more vulnerable to pesticides than adults unless evidence exists to the contrary. Uncertainty and safety factors that are protective of children must therefore be incorporated into risk assessment when data on developmental toxicity are lacking or when there is evidence of developmental toxicity. The adequate protection of children against toxic agents in the environment will require

  15. Health and productivity gains from better indoor environments and their relationship with building energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.

    2000-04-01

    Theoretical considerations and empirical data suggest that existing technologies and procedures can improve indoor environments in a manner that significantly increases productivity and health. Existing literature contains moderate to strong evidence that characteristics of buildings and indoor environments significantly influence rates of communicable respiratory illness, allergy and asthma symptoms, sick building symptoms, and worker performance. While there is considerable uncertainty in the estimates of the magnitudes of productivity gains that may be obtained by providing better indoor environments, the projected gains are very large. For the U.S., the estimated potential annual savings and productivity gains are $6 to $14 billion from reduced respiratory disease, $2 to $4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma, $10 to $30 billion from reduced sick building syndrome symptoms, and $20 to $160 billion from direct improvements in worker performance that are unrelated to health. Productivity gains that are quantified and demonstrated could serve as a strong stimulus for energy efficiency measures that simultaneously improve the indoor environment.

  16. Improving the Neighborhood Environment for Urban Older Adults: Social Context and Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Arlesia; Rooks, Ronica; Kruger, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Over 80% of older adults live in urban areas. This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) among urban older adults. Methods: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a deindustrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) was analyzed using regression and GIS models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = 0.01). Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = 0.005) and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p < 0.001). Discussion: Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important for well-being among seniors. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood which are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability. PMID:26703659

  17. Effects of internal and external environment on health and well-being: from cell to society.

    PubMed

    Tomljenović, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Stem cell fate in cell culture depends on the composition of the culturing media. Every single cell in an organism is influenced by its microenvironment and surrounding cells. Biology, psychology, emotions, spirit, energy, lifestyle, culture, economic and political influences, social interactions in family, work, living area and the possibilities to expresses oneself and live full life with a sense of well-being have influence on people appearances. Disease is as much social as biological. It is a reaction of an organism to unbalancing changes in the internal environment caused by the changes in the external environment and/or by the structural and functional failures or unfortunate legacies. Health gradient in the society depends on the every day circumstances in which people live and work. The health of the population is an insight into the society. The problem facing medicine in the complex society of today cannot be resolved without the aid of social sciences, as cultural, social, ecological and mental processes affect physiological responses and health outcomes. Anthropology could be a bridge between biomedicine and social sciences and influence strategies in public health to prevent rather than cure and in education for fulfillment in life and improvement of society.

  18. Changing the environment to improve population health: a framework for considering exposure in natural experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, David K; Panter, Jenna; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Goodman, Anna; Ogilvie, David

    2016-09-01

    There is renewed optimism regarding the use of natural experimental studies to generate evidence as to the effectiveness of population health interventions. Natural experimental studies capitalise on environmental and policy events that alter exposure to certain social, economic or environmental factors that influence health. Natural experimental studies can be useful for examining the impact of changes to 'upstream' determinants, which may not be amenable to controlled experiments. However, while natural experiments provide opportunities to generate evidence, they often present certain conceptual and methodological obstacles. Population health interventions that alter the physical or social environment are usually administered broadly across populations and communities. The breadth of these interventions means that variation in exposure, uptake and impact may be complex. Yet many evaluations of natural experiments focus narrowly on identifying suitable 'exposed' and 'unexposed' populations for comparison. In this paper, we discuss conceptual and analytical issues relating to defining and measuring exposure to interventions in this context, including how recent advances in technology may enable researchers to better understand the nature of population exposure to changes in the built environment. We argue that when it is unclear whether populations are exposed to an intervention, it may be advantageous to supplement traditional impact assessments with observational approaches that investigate differing levels of exposure. We suggest that an improved understanding of changes in exposure will assist the investigation of the impact of complex natural experiments in population health.

  19. Environments for Healthy Aging: Linking Prevention Research and Public Health Practice

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Lynda A.; Belza, Basia; Bodiford, Kristin; Hooker, Steven P.; Kochtitzky, Chris S.; Marquez, David X.; Satariano, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Safe and well-designed community environments support healthful behaviors that help prevent chronic conditions and unintentional injuries and enable older adults to be active and engaged in community life for as long as possible. We describe the work of the Healthy Aging Research Network (HAN) and partners over the past decade to better understand place-based determinants of health and translate that knowledge to real-world practice, with a focus on environmental strategies. Using key components of the Knowledge to Action framework, we document the importance of a sustained, multidisciplinary, collaborative approach and ongoing interaction between researchers and communities. We share examples of practical tools and strategies designed to engage and support critical sectors with the potential to enhance the health and well-being of older adults and their communities. We conclude with a description of lessons learned in facilitating the translation of prevention research into practice. PMID:23597393

  20. Integrity mechanism for eHealth tele-monitoring system in smart home environment.

    PubMed

    Mantas, Georgios; Lymberopoulos, Dimitrios; Komninos, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    During the past few years, a lot of effort has been invested in research and development of eHealth tele-monitoring systems that will provide many benefits for healthcare delivery from the healthcare provider to the patient's home. However, there is a plethora of security requirements in eHealth tele-monitoring systems. Data integrity of the transferred medical data is one of the most important security requirements that should be satisfied in these systems, since medical information is extremely sensitive information, and even sometimes life threatening information. In this paper, we present a data integrity mechanism for eHealth tele-monitoring system that operates in a smart home environment. Agent technology is applied to achieve data integrity with the use of cryptographic smart cards. Furthermore, the overall security infrastructure and its various components are described.

  1. Public health applications of remote sensing of the environment, an evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The available techniques were examined in the field of remote sensing (including aerial photography, infrared detection, radar, etc.) and applications to a number of problems in the wide field of public health determined. The specific areas of public health examined included: air pollution, water pollution, communicable disease, and the combined problems of urban growth and the effect of disasters on human communities. The assessment of the possible applications of remote sensing to these problems was made primarily by examination of the available literature in each field, and by interviews with health authorities, physicists, biologists, and other interested workers. Three types of programs employing remote sensors were outlined in the air pollution field: (1) proving ability of sensors to monitor pollutants at three levels of interest - point source, ambient levels in cities, and global patterns; (2) detection of effects of pollutants on the environment at local and global levels; and (3) routine monitoring.

  2. Innovative Environments In Health Care: Where And How New Approaches To Care Are Succeeding.

    PubMed

    Bates, David W; Sheikh, Aziz; Asch, David A

    2017-03-01

    Organizations seeking to create innovative environments in health care need to pay attention to a number of factors. These include making available sufficient resources, notably money and physical space, but also coordination and consultation regarding intellectual property and licensing; enabling access to engineers, software developers, and behavioral scientists; making providers and patients available to innovators; having a sufficiently long-term view; and insulating the innovation group from operational demands. If there is a single essential key to success, it is making innovation a strategic priority. Academic health systems are enormous generators of innovation in the form of generalizable research in biomedical sciences. Typically, much of that innovation is externally supported, and little is directed to improving care processes internally. In industries other than health care, organizations invest their own funds in research and development to promote innovation, and this investment is seen as a metric for a firm's commitment to its future. Increased investment in care-process innovation is long overdue.

  3. Pesticides in vegetable and food commodities: environment and public health concern.

    PubMed

    Thapa, K; Pant, B R

    2014-01-01

    Haphazard use of pesticides in the field and stored food commodities for the control of insect and pest has been a serious problem from view of environment and public health. The nutritional value of these is suppressed due to addition of toxins. The increased trend of Non communicable disease and communicable diseases may have close relation with the nutritious value and life styles associated with. The impacts on health should be considered as important issues from the view of public health. The article gives emphasis on organic farming & Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to minimize the harm of chemicals. It is deemed essential to think again about the current trend of malnutrition & obesity overweight among the Nepalese people and relationship with pesticides on the foods and vegetables.

  4. Environments for healthy aging: linking prevention research and public health practice.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Rebecca H; Anderson, Lynda A; Belza, Basia; Bodiford, Kristin; Hooker, Steven P; Kochtitzky, Chris S; Marquez, David X; Satariano, William A

    2013-04-18

    Safe and well-designed community environments support healthful behaviors that help prevent chronic conditions and unintentional injuries and enable older adults to be active and engaged in community life for as long as possible. We describe the work of the Healthy Aging Research Network (HAN) and partners over the past decade to better understand place-based determinants of health and translate that knowledge to real-world practice, with a focus on environmental strategies. Using key components of the Knowledge to Action framework, we document the importance of a sustained, multidisciplinary, collaborative approach and ongoing interaction between researchers and communities. We share examples of practical tools and strategies designed to engage and support critical sectors with the potential to enhance the health and well-being of older adults and their communities. We conclude with a description of lessons learned in facilitating the translation of prevention research into practice.

  5. NASA Satellite Observations: A Unique Asset for the Study of the Environment and Implications for Public Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes Sue M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation highlights how satellite observation systems are assets for studying the environment in relation to public health. It includes information on current and future satellite observation systems, NASA's public health and safety research, surveillance projects, and NASA's public health partners.

  6. [People, the environment and health: the "Oneness" of human health from the perspective of universal life presented in "Changes"].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ke-Ping

    2008-12-01

    This paper aimed to expand the paradigm of nursing and expand the essential factors of nursing theories beyond "environment" to encompass universal life. While individuals live between the sky and earth, we are an inseparable part of the universe. "Health" is derived from a oneness that embraces the body, mind and spirit. The human body contains the wisdom of the universe, known in Chinese philosophy as the wisdom of "Changes". The body has its own consciousness and possesses great powers of self-healing. Healthiness is the original condition of life. Modern medicine assumes sickness to be a natural phenomenon, with the essential nature of "Changes" neglected as a universal law for maintaining health. Dr. Sun, a renowned physician from the Tang Dynasty, was quoted as saying "Knowing Changes is the prerequisite of knowing medicine." Another saying holds that, "Every word and every sentence in the Book of Changes is an indicator of medicine." Much emphasis has been placed on the relationship between "Changes" and "medicine" in the past. This paper elaborates the relationship between nature and human health in order to provide a clear understanding of the nature of true health, described from the perspectives of medicine and "Changes", an evaluation of modern medical science and the oneness of body-mind-spirit, which is the reality of health. The human body is thus a reflection of the mind and spirit, while the mind and spirit is the "inner body". The body is a highly intelligent organism that truly reflects our inner world. Our inner world is also displayed through physical symptoms. As human suffering is caused by separation from our inner life, the only path to enjoying a healthy and joyful life is to achieve a oneness between our body-mind-spirit. Such is a universal law, which is called "Changes" or "Oneness".

  7. The health risks and benefits of cycling in urban environments compared with car use: health impact assessment study

    PubMed Central

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Tainio, Marko; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate the risks and benefits to health of travel by bicycle, using a bicycle sharing scheme, compared with travel by car in an urban environment. Design Health impact assessment study. Setting Public bicycle sharing initiative, Bicing, in Barcelona, Spain. Participants 181 982 Bicing subscribers. Main outcomes measures The primary outcome measure was all cause mortality for the three domains of physical activity, air pollution (exposure to particulate matter <2.5 µm), and road traffic incidents. The secondary outcome was change in levels of carbon dioxide emissions. Results Compared with car users the estimated annual change in mortality of the Barcelona residents using Bicing (n=181 982) was 0.03 deaths from road traffic incidents and 0.13 deaths from air pollution. As a result of physical activity, 12.46 deaths were avoided (benefit:risk ratio 77). The annual number of deaths avoided was 12.28. As a result of journeys by Bicing, annual carbon dioxide emissions were reduced by an estimated 9 062 344 kg. Conclusions Public bicycle sharing initiatives such as Bicing in Barcelona have greater benefits than risks to health and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. PMID:21816732

  8. The performance of primary health care organizations depends on interdependences with the local environment.

    PubMed

    Lamarche, Paul; Maillet, Lara

    2016-09-19

    Purpose Improving the performance of health care organizations is now perceived as essential in order to better address the needs of the populations and respect their ability to pay for the services. There is no consensus on what is performance. It is increasingly considered as the optimal execution of four functions that every organization must achieve in order to survive and develop: reach goals; adapt to its environment; produce goods or services and maintain values; and a satisfying organizational climate. There is also no consensus on strategies to improve this performance. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This paper intends to analyze the performance of primary health care organizations from the perspective of Kauffman's model. It mainly aims to understand the often contradictory, paradoxical and unexpected results that emerge from studies on this topic. Findings To do so, the first section briefly presents Kauffman's model and lays forward its principal components. The second section presents three studies on the performance of primary organizations and brings out the contradictory, paradoxical and unexpected results they obtained. The third section explains these results in the light of Kauffman's model. Originality/value Kauffman's model helps give meaning to the results of researches on performance of primary health care organizations that were qualified as paradoxical or unexpected. The performance of primary health care organizations then cannot be understood by only taking into account the characteristics of these organizations. The complexity of the environments in which they operate must simultaneously be taken into account. This paper brings original development of an integrated view of the performance of organizations, their own characteristics and those of the local environment in which they operated.

  9. Corrosion and carburization behavior of Al-rich surface layer on Ni-base alloy in supercritical-carbon dioxide environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ho Jung; Kim, Sung Hwan; Kim, Hyunmyung; Jang, Changheui

    2016-12-01

    In order to improve the corrosion and carburization resistance in a high-temperature supercritical-carbon dioxide (S-CO2) environment, an Al-rich surface layer was developed on Alloy 600 by Al deposition and a subsequent high energy electron beam (EB) remelting. As a result of the EB surface treatment, an Al enriched (5-7 wt.%) micro-alloying zone (40 μm) was produced. When the EB surface-treated Alloy 600 was corroded in S-CO2 at 600 °C (20 MPa) for 500 h, the surface oxide layer mostly consisted of chromia (Cr2O3) with small amount of transition alumina (Al2O3). In addition, a carburized region of an amorphous C layer inter-mixed with the alumina was observed at the oxide/matrix interface. Meanwhile, when the EB surface-treated specimen was pre-oxidized in helium at 900 °C, α-alumina layer was formed on the surface, which showed superior corrosion and carburization resistance in S-CO2 environment. Therefore, it could be said that the presence of Al-rich surface layer alone is not enough to provide sufficient corrosion and carburization resistance in S-CO2 environment at 600 °C, unless pre-oxidation at higher temperature is applied to form a more protective α-alumina on the surface.

  10. The urban environment and health in a world of increasing globalization: issues for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    Urban living is the keystone of modern human ecology. Cities have multiplied and expanded rapidly worldwide over the past two centuries. Cities are sources of creativity and technology, and they are the engines for economic growth. However, they are also sources of poverty, inequality, and health hazards from the environment. Urban populations have long been incubators and gateways for infectious diseases. The early industrializing period of unplanned growth and laissez-faire economic activity in cities in industrialized countries has been superseded by the rise of collective management of the urban environment. This occurred in response to environmental blight, increasing literacy, the development of democratic government, and the collective accrual of wealth. In many low-income countries, this process is being slowed by the pressures and priorities of economic globalization. Beyond the traditional risks of diarrhoeal disease and respiratory infections in the urban poor and the adaptation of various vector-borne infections to urbanization, the urban environment poses various physicochemical hazards. These include exposure to lead, air pollution, traffic hazards, and the "urban heat island" amplification of heatwaves. As the number of urban consumers and their material expectations rise and as the use of fossil fuels increases, cities contribute to the large-scale pressures on the biosphere including climate change. We must develop policies that ameliorate the existing, and usually unequally distributed, urban environmental health hazards and larger-scale environmental problems. PMID:11019460

  11. Indoor environment and children's health: recent developments in chemical, biological, physical and social aspects.

    PubMed

    Le Cann, Pierre; Bonvallot, Nathalie; Glorennec, Philippe; Deguen, Séverine; Goeury, Christophe; Le Bot, Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Much research is being carried out into indoor exposure to harmful agents. This review focused on the impact on children's health, taking a broad approach to the indoor environment and including chemical, microbial, physical and social aspects. Papers published from 2006 onwards were reviewed, with regards to scientific context. Most of publications dealt with chemical exposure. Apart from the ongoing issue of combustion by-products, most of these papers concerned semi volatile organic compounds (such as phthalates). These may be associated with neurotoxic, reprotoxic or respiratory effects and may, therefore, be of particular interest so far as children are concerned. In a lesser extent, volatile organic compounds (such as aldehydes) that have mainly respiratory effects are still studied. Assessing exposure to metals is still of concern, with increasing interest in bioaccessibility. Most of the papers on microbial exposure focused on respiratory tract infections, especially asthma linked to allergens and bio-aerosols. Physical exposure includes noise and electromagnetic fields, and articles dealt with the auditory and non auditory effects of noise. Articles on radiofrequency electromagnetic fields mainly concerned questions about non-thermal effects and papers on extremely low-frequency magnetic fields focused on the characterization of exposure. The impact of the indoor environment on children's health cannot be assessed merely by considering the effect of these different types of exposure: this review highlights new findings and also discusses the interactions between agents in indoor environments and also with social aspects.

  12. A review of chronic pain impact on patients, their social environment and the health care system

    PubMed Central

    Dueñas, María; Ojeda, Begoña; Salazar, Alejandro; Mico, Juan Antonio; Failde, Inmaculada

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain (CP) seriously affects the patient’s daily activities and quality of life, but few studies on CP have considered its effects on the patient’s social and family environment. In this work, through a review of the literature, we assessed several aspects of how CP influences the patient’s daily activities and quality of life, as well as its repercussions in the workplace, and on the family and social environment. Finally, the consequences of pain on the health care system are discussed. On the basis of the results, we concluded that in addition to the serious consequences on the patient’s life, CP has a severe detrimental effect on their social and family environment, as well as on health care services. Thus, we want to emphasize on the need to adopt a multidisciplinary approach to treatment so as to obtain more comprehensive improvements for patients in familial and social contexts. Accordingly, it would be beneficial to promote more social- and family-oriented research initiatives. PMID:27418853

  13. The moderating effect of school type on the relationship between school-based health centers and the learning environment.

    PubMed

    Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica; Sisselman, Amanda; Auerbach, Charles; Sharon, Lisa; Spolter, Samantha; Corn, Tara Beth

    2012-01-01

    School-Based Health Centers (SBHCs) have improved access to primary and preventive health care for underserved children and youth by bringing comprehensive health services into the schools while addressing critical health problems that make it difficult for students to learn. Despite the findings on the positive effects of SBHCs on health outcomes, the literature investigating the relationship between SBHCs and the learning environment is scant. This study utilizes a quasi experimental study to investigate the moderating effects of school type on the relationship between school based health centers and the learning environment. Findings indicate that SBHCs in middle and elementary schools are associated with greater levels of school engagement and satisfaction with the learning environment than those in high schools.

  14. European Union research in support of environment and health: Building scientific evidence base for policy.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Tuomo; Hoeveler, Arnd; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra

    2017-04-03

    Opinion polls show that the European Union citizens are increasingly concerned about the impact of environmental factors on their health. In order to respond and provide solid scientific evidence for the numerous policies related to the protection of human health and the environment managed at the Union level, the European Union made a substantial investment in research and innovation in the past two decades through its Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, including the current programme, Horizon 2020, which started in 2014. This policy review paper analysed the portfolio of forty collaborative projects relevant to environment and health, which received a total amount of around 228 million euros from the EU. It gives details on their contents and general scientific trends observed, the profiles of the participating countries and institutions, and the potential policy implications of the results obtained. The increasing knowledge base is needed to make informed policy decisions in Europe and beyond, and should be useful to many stakeholders including the scientific community and regulatory authorities.

  15. Professors' Perceptions of Distance Education in Virtual Environments: The Case of the Education Faculty of University of Al-Yarmouk (Jordan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oassim-Al-shboul, Oassim Mahmoud; Sabiote, Clemente Rodriguez; Álvarez-Rodríguez, José

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the perceptions that the teaching staff of the Faculty of Education at University of Al-Yarmouk (Jordan) have of the implementation of distance learning in virtual environments, more specifically, the professors' opinion of the potential and limitations of this educational strategy. To fulfil this goal, we…

  16. [Environment and health in Gela (Sicily): present knowledge and prospects for future studies].

    PubMed

    Musmeci, Loredana; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Carere, Mario; Cori, Liliana

    2009-01-01

    The study area includes the Municipalities of Gela, Niscemi and Butera located in the South of Sicily, Italy. In 1990 it was declared Area at High Risk of Environmental Crisis. In 2000 part of it was designated as Gela Reclamation Site of National Interest, RSNI. The site includes a private industrial area, public and marine areas, for a total of 51 km(2). Gela populationin 2008 was 77,145 (54,774 in 1961). Sea level:46 m. Total area: 276 km(2). Grid reference: 37 degrees 4' 0" N, 14 degrees 15' 0" E. Niscemi and Butera are located border to Gela. Populations are respectively 26,541 and 5,063. Sea level respectively: 332 m and 402 m. Close to the city of Gela, the industrial area, operating since 1962, includes chemical production plants, a power station and an oil refinery plant, one of the larger in Europe, refining 5 millions tons of crude per year. From the beginning the workforces decreased from 7,000 to the current 3,000 units. Over the years, these industrial activities have been a major source of environmental pollution. Extremely high levels of toxic, persistent and bio-accumulating chemical pollutants have been documented. Many relevant environmental and health data are available. Prior to the studies described in the present publication, their use in order to identify environmental pressures on health has been limited. Nevertheless, since several years different epidemiological studies have provided evidence of the occurrence of health outcomes significantly higher than in neighbouring areas and compared to regional data. In 2007 a Multidisciplinary Working Group has been established, to analyze the existing data on pollution-exposure-effect and to complete current knowledge on the cycle of pollutants, from migration in the environment to health impact. The present publication is a collection of contribution of this group of experts, supported by the following projects: Evaluation of environmental health impact and estimation of economic costs at of

  17. A synopsis of the Joint Environment and Human Health Programme in the UK

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The Joint Environment and Human Health (E&HH) Programme has explored how both man-made and natural changes to the environment can influence human health. Scientists have tackled the complicated mix of environmental, social and economic factors that influence health, particularly focusing on naturally occurring toxins, man-made pollutants, nanoparticles and pathogens to see: • how they spread within the environment • how their properties change as they interact with other substances or organisms • how we become exposed to them, and • their impact on human health. The Programme has not only succeeded in bringing together scientists from a broad range of environmental, social and biomedical backgrounds, but also fostered new relationships with end users and policy makers. This new community is helping to provide the multidisciplinary capacity able to respond in an interdisciplinary way to resolve problems that are intrinsically interfacial in character. Many of these questions relate to complex issues such as the environmental biology and geochemistry of soils and how these influence the transport, accessibility and bioavailability of chemical pollutants and infectivity of pathogens. The dispersion of harmful particles in the atmosphere is another area of major concern where the E&HH Programme has broken new ground by showing how the chemical and physical properties of such particles influence their environmental behaviour and may govern their toxicity and resultant pathological reactions induced following inhalation. Working groups and networks have identified potential health problems concerning the transport and emergence of human pathogens associated with food, soil, air and water. The consequence(s) of global and regional climate change for the environmental behaviours of pollutants and pathogens have been considered by a number of the projects supported by the E&HH programme. The selection of articles in this supplement reflect the broad scope of the E

  18. A synopsis of the Joint Environment and Human Health Programme in the UK.

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael N; Kempton, Pamela D

    2009-12-21

    The Joint Environment and Human Health (E&HH) Programme has explored how both man-made and natural changes to the environment can influence human health. Scientists have tackled the complicated mix of environmental, social and economic factors that influence health, particularly focusing on naturally occurring toxins, man-made pollutants, nanoparticles and pathogens to see:* how they spread within the environment* how their properties change as they interact with other substances or organisms* how we become exposed to them, and* their impact on human health.The Programme has not only succeeded in bringing together scientists from a broad range of environmental, social and biomedical backgrounds, but also fostered new relationships with end users and policy makers. This new community is helping to provide the multidisciplinary capacity able to respond in an interdisciplinary way to resolve problems that are intrinsically interfacial in character. Many of these questions relate to complex issues such as the environmental biology and geochemistry of soils and how these influence the transport, accessibility and bioavailability of chemical pollutants and infectivity of pathogens. The dispersion of harmful particles in the atmosphere is another area of major concern where the E&HH Programme has broken new ground by showing how the chemical and physical properties of such particles influence their environmental behaviour and may govern their toxicity and resultant pathological reactions induced following inhalation. Working groups and networks have identified potential health problems concerning the transport and emergence of human pathogens associated with food, soil, air and water. The consequence(s) of global and regional climate change for the environmental behaviours of pollutants and pathogens have been considered by a number of the projects supported by the E&HH programme.The selection of articles in this supplement reflect the broad scope of the E&HH programme

  19. The Role of Parents, Parenting and the Family Environment in Children's Post-Disaster Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Cobham, Vanessa E; McDermott, Brett; Haslam, Divna; Sanders, Matthew R

    2016-06-01

    There is widespread support for the hypothesis that, post-disaster, children's mental health is impacted--at least in part--via the impact on parents, parenting, parent-child interactions, and the family environment. To some degree, the enthusiasm with which this hypothesis is held outstrips the evidence examining it. The current paper critically evaluates the empirical evidence for this hypothesis and concludes that although limited (both in terms of number of existing studies and methodological flaws), the extant literature indicates some parent-related variables, as well as some aspects of the family environment are likely to constitute risk or protective factors for children. Given that parenting is modifiable, it is proposed that the identified parent- and family-related factors represent important therapeutic targets, and a universal post-disaster parenting intervention (Disaster Recovery Triple P) is described.

  20. Integrating population, health, and environment programs with contraceptive distribution in rural Ethiopia: a qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Lianne; Donovan, Samuel E; Ryan, Victoria; Winch, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    In rural Ethiopia, environmental degradation and a shortage of arable land impose a major toll on the population. Population, health, and environment (PHE) programs, such as that of the Ethio-Wetlands and Natural Resources Association (EWNRA), have evolved to address these issues. This article examines the community-based distribution (CBD) of family planning commodities in rural Ethiopia through EWNRA's large, multisectoral PHE program. Participants indicated that the integrated program encouraged acceptance of family planning and reduced geographic barriers to access. Through peer education and collaboration across government ministries, EWNRA leveraged integrated population-environment messages to garner support for its network of CBD providers. These integration strategies are a model for PHE programs worldwide, especially amid the global response to climate change. Because of the complex nature of PHE organizations, researchers often find it difficult to effectively document and evaluate their programs. With this in mind, we propose a framework to assess PHE integration.

  1. Evaluation and comparison of health care Work Environment Scale in military settings.

    PubMed

    Maloney, J P; Anderson, F D; Gladd, D L; Brown, D L; Hardy, M A

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe health care providers' perceptions of their work environment at a large U.S. Army medical center, and to compare the findings to other military medical centers. The sample (N = 112) consisted of the professional nursing staff working on the nine inpatient units. The Work Environmental Scale (WES) was used to measure perceptions of the workplace relative to gender, position (head nurses, staff nurses, and agency nurses), specialty nursing (intensive care unit [ICU] versus non-ICU), education (MSN, BSN, and ADN), and patterns of differences between the WES subscales of four military medical centers. Results of the study indicate that there were no significant gender differences. Head nurses, non-ICU nurses, and MSN nurses perceived their environment more positively. There were significant differences in the WES subscales between the military hospitals. Implications for nursing using the WES were recommended.

  2. Neighborhood Environments: Links to Health Behaviors and Obesity Status in Vulnerable Children.

    PubMed

    Choo, Jina; Kim, Hye-Jin; Park, Sooyeon

    2016-10-16

    This study aimed to identify the actual and perceived features of neighborhood environments linked to health behaviors and obesity status in vulnerable children by using geographic information systems, walking surveys, and focus group interviews. The participants were 126 children registered at community child centers and 10 mothers of study participants. Increased availability of fast food outlets and convenience stores was significantly and positively associated with fast food and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and inversely with physical activity. Reduced availability of physical activity outlets was significantly and positively associated with sedentary behaviors. Mothers' perceptions of their neighborhoods fell into three content categories: (a) changed to be unfriendly for children, (b) adapted to fast food and convenience eating, and (c) confined to physically inactive living. Based on these findings, community-level environmental strategies for reducing unhealthy behaviors linked to neighborhood environments should be prioritized to prevent childhood obesity in vulnerable populations.

  3. Human exposure to environmental health concern by types of urban environment: The case of Tel Aviv.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Izhak; Potchter, Oded; Yaakov, Yaron; Epstein, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    This study classifies urban environments into types characterized by different exposure to environmental risk factors measured by general sense of discomfort and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). We hypothesize that a set of environmental factors (micro-climatic, CO, noise and individual heart rate) that were measured simultaneously in random locations can provide a better understanding of the distribution of human exposure to environmental loads throughout the urban space than results calculated based on measurements from close fixed stations. We measured micro-climatic and thermal load, CO and noise, individual Heart Rate, Subjective Social Load and Sense of Discomfort (SD) were tested by questionnaire survey. The results demonstrate significant differences in exposure to environmental factors among 8 types of urban environments. It appears that noise and social load are the more significant environmental factors to enhance health risks and general sense of discomfort.

  4. Creating an enabling environment for adolescent sexual and reproductive health: a framework and promising approaches.

    PubMed

    Svanemyr, Joar; Amin, Avni; Robles, Omar J; Greene, Margaret E

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a conceptual framework and points out the key elements for creating enabling environments for adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH). An ecological framework is applied to organize the key elements of enabling environments for ASRH. At the individual level, strategies that are being implemented and seem promising are those that empower girls, build their individual assets, and create safe spaces. At the relationship level, strategies that are being implemented and seem promising include efforts to build parental support and communication as well as peer support networks. At the community level, strategies to engage men and boys and the wider community to transform gender and other social norms are being tested and may hold promise. Finally, at the broadest societal level, efforts to promote laws and policies that protect and promote human rights and address societal awareness about ASRH issues, including through mass media approaches, need to be considered.

  5. Effects of modifying water environments on water supply and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takizawa, S.; Nguyen, H. T.; Takeda, T.; Tran, N. T.

    2008-12-01

    Due to increasing population and per-capita water demand, demands for water are increasing in many parts of the world. Consequently, overuse of limited water resources leaves only small amounts of water in rivers and is bringing about rapid drawdown of groundwater tables. Water resources are affected by human activities such as excessive inputs of nutrients and other contaminants, agriculture and aquaculture expansions, and many development activities. The combined effects of modifying the water environments, both in terms of quantity and quality, on water supply and human health are presented in the paper with some examples from the Asian countries. In rural and sub-urban areas in Bangladesh and Vietnam, for example, the traditional way of obtaining surface water from ponds had been replaced by taking groundwaters to avert the microbial health risks that had arisen from contamination by human wastes. Such a change of water sources, however, has brought about human health impact caused by arsenic on a massive scale. In Thailand, the industrial development has driven the residents to get groundwater leaden with very high fluoride. Monitoring the urine fluoride levels reveal the risk of drinking fluoride-laden groundwaters. Rivers are also affected by extensive exploitation such as sand mining. As a result, turbidity changes abruptly after a heavy rainfall. In cities, due to shrinking water resources they have to take poor quality waters from contaminated sources. Algal blooms are seen in many reservoirs and lakes due to increasing levels of nutrients. Hence, it is likely that algal toxins may enter the water supply systems. Because most of the water treatment plants are not designed to remove those known and unknown contaminants, it is estimated that quite a large number of people are now under the threat of the public health "gtime bomb,"h which may one day bring about mass-scale health problems. In order to mitigate the negative impacts of modifying the water

  6. Survival of Escherichia coli in the environment: fundamental and public health aspects.

    PubMed

    van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Semenov, Alexander V; Costa, Rodrigo; Trevors, Jack T

    2011-02-01

    In this review, our current understanding of the species Escherichia coli and its persistence in the open environment is examined. E. coli consists of six different subgroups, which are separable by genomic analyses. Strains within each subgroup occupy various ecological niches, and can be broadly characterized by either commensalistic or different pathogenic behaviour. In relevant cases, genomic islands can be pinpointed that underpin the behaviour. Thus, genomic islands of, on the one hand, broad environmental significance, and, on the other hand, virulence, are highlighted in the context of E. coli survival in its niches. A focus is further placed on experimental studies on the survival of the different types of E. coli in soil, manure and water. Overall, the data suggest that E. coli can persist, for varying periods of time, in such terrestrial and aquatic habitats. In particular, the considerable persistence of the pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 is of importance, as its acid tolerance may be expected to confer a fitness asset in the more acidic environments. In this context, the extent to which E. coli interacts with its human/animal host and the organism's survivability in natural environments are compared. In addition, the effect of the diversity and community structure of the indigenous microbiota on the fate of invading E. coli populations in the open environment is discussed. Such a relationship is of importance to our knowledge of both public and environmental health.

  7. Survival of Escherichia coli in the environment: fundamental and public health aspects

    PubMed Central

    van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Semenov, Alexander V; Costa, Rodrigo; Trevors, Jack T

    2011-01-01

    In this review, our current understanding of the species Escherichia coli and its persistence in the open environment is examined. E. coli consists of six different subgroups, which are separable by genomic analyses. Strains within each subgroup occupy various ecological niches, and can be broadly characterized by either commensalistic or different pathogenic behaviour. In relevant cases, genomic islands can be pinpointed that underpin the behaviour. Thus, genomic islands of, on the one hand, broad environmental significance, and, on the other hand, virulence, are highlighted in the context of E. coli survival in its niches. A focus is further placed on experimental studies on the survival of the different types of E. coli in soil, manure and water. Overall, the data suggest that E. coli can persist, for varying periods of time, in such terrestrial and aquatic habitats. In particular, the considerable persistence of the pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 is of importance, as its acid tolerance may be expected to confer a fitness asset in the more acidic environments. In this context, the extent to which E. coli interacts with its human/animal host and the organism's survivability in natural environments are compared. In addition, the effect of the diversity and community structure of the indigenous microbiota on the fate of invading E. coli populations in the open environment is discussed. Such a relationship is of importance to our knowledge of both public and environmental health. PMID:20574458

  8. A review on the distribution of Hg in the environment and its human health impacts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Jahan, Shamin Ara

    2016-04-05

    Exposure to mercury is a silent threat to the environment and human life. It has the potential to harm almost every organ and body system. Mercury compounds are classified in different chemical types such as elemental, inorganic, and organic forms. The most significant source of ingestion-related mercury exposure in humans and animals is the consumption of fish. Long-term exposure to mercury compounds from different sources (e.g., water, food, soil, and air) can lead to toxic effects on skin, cardiovascular, pulmonary, urinary, gastrointestinal, and neurological systems. Mercury toxicity is found to pose more significant health hazards to certain occupational groups (e.g., goldminers and dental personnel). Because continuous exposure to mercury can be dangerous, it is desirable to re-evaluate the current reference (risk-free) values. This paper reviews the route of Hg exposure to humans, its human health impacts, the associated risk assessment, and treatment based on the recent findings from various studies.

  9. Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines.

    PubMed

    McMurtry, Robert Y; Krogh, Carmen Me

    2014-10-01

    In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed.

  10. Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines

    PubMed Central

    Krogh, Carmen ME

    2014-01-01

    Summary In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed. PMID:25383200

  11. Effects of the presence of sulfonamides in the environment and their influence on human health.

    PubMed

    Baran, Wojciech; Adamek, Ewa; Ziemiańska, Justyna; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2011-11-30

    World production and consumption of pharmaceuticals has been steadily increasing. Anti-infectives have been particularly important in modern therapy of microbial infection. Sulfonamides have been widely used for a long time as anti-infectives and are still widely prescribed today. This review presents the most common types of sulfonamides used in healthcare and veterinary medicine and discusses the problems connected with their presence in the biosphere. Based on the analysis of over 160 papers, it was found that small amounts of sulfonamides present in the environment were mainly derived from agricultural activities. These drugs have caused changes in the population of microbes that could be potentially hazardous to human health. This human health hazard could have a global range, and administrative activities have been ineffective in risk reduction.

  12. The challenge of social networking in the field of environment and health

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The fields of environment and health are both interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary, and until recently had little engagement in social networking designed to cross disciplinary boundaries. The EU FP6 project HENVINET aimed to establish integrated social network and networking facilities for multiple stakeholders in environment and health. The underlying assumption is that increased social networking across disciplines and sectors will enhance the quality of both problem knowledge and problem solving, by facilitating interactions. Inter- and trans-disciplinary networks are considered useful for this purpose. This does not mean that such networks are easily organized, as openness to such cooperation and exchange is often difficult to ascertain. Methods Different methods may enhance network building. Using a mixed method approach, a diversity of actions were used in order to investigate the main research question: which kind of social networking activities and structures can best support the objective of enhanced inter- and trans-disciplinary cooperation and exchange in the fields of environment and health. HENVINET applied interviews, a role playing session, a personal response system, a stakeholder workshop and a social networking portal as part of the process of building an interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary network. Results The interviews provided support for the specification of requirements for an interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary network. The role playing session, the personal response system and the stakeholder workshop were assessed as useful tools in forming such network, by increasing the awareness by different disciplines of other’s positions. The social networking portal was particularly useful in delivering knowledge, but the role of the scientist in social networking is not yet clear. Conclusions The main challenge in the field of environment and health is not so much a lack of scientific problem knowledge, but rather the

  13. Technology Development, Evaluation, and Application (TDEA) FY 1999 Progress Report, Environment, Safety, and Health (ESH) Division

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Hoffman

    2000-12-01

    This progress report presents the results of 10 projects funded ($500K) in FY99 by the Technology Development, Evaluation, and Application (TDEA) Committee of the Environment, Safety, and Health Division. Five are new projects for this year; seven projects have been completed in their third and final TDEA-funded year. As a result of their TDEA-funded projects, investigators have published thirty-four papers in professional journals, proceedings, or Los Alamos reports and presented their work at professional meetings. Supplemental funds and in-kind contributions, such as staff time, instrument use, and work space, were also provided to TDEA-funded projects by organizations external to ESH Division.

  14. A mobile-health application to detect wandering patterns of elderly people in home environment.

    PubMed

    Vuong, N K; Goh, S G A; Chan, S; Lau, C T

    2013-01-01

    Wandering is a common and risky behavior in people with dementia (PWD). In this paper, we present a mobile healthcare application to detect wandering patterns in indoor settings. The application harnesses consumer electronics devices including WiFi access points and mobile phones and has been tested successfully in a home environment. Experimental results show that the mobile-health application is able to detect wandering patterns including lapping, pacing and random in real-time. Once wandering is detected, an alert message is sent using SMS (Short Message Service) to attending caregivers or physicians for further examination and timely interventions.

  15. Potential impact of antimicrobial resistance in wildlife, environment and human health

    PubMed Central

    Radhouani, Hajer; Silva, Nuno; Poeta, Patrícia; Torres, Carmen; Correia, Susana; Igrejas, Gilberto

    2014-01-01

    Given the significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity in antimicrobial resistance distribution and the factors that affect its evolution, dissemination, and persistence, it is important to highlight that antimicrobial resistance must be viewed as an ecological problem. Monitoring the resistance prevalence of indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli and enterococci in wild animals makes it possible to show that wildlife has the potential to serve as an environmental reservoir and melting pot of bacterial resistance. These researchers address the issue of antimicrobial-resistant microorganism proliferation in the environment and the related potential human health and environmental impact. PMID:24550896

  16. [The environment as a health surveillance issue: analysis of nursing activities].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Maria Celeste Soares; Bertolozzi, Maria Rita

    2004-01-01

    The fact that the need for environmental conservation has been on the national and international agenda determined the development of this study, which aims to examine how the environment is an issue for nurses working in health surveillance services, according to their testimonies. From July to August 1999, eight female nurses described their routine. Their reports were studied by means of the discourse analysis technique. It was concluded that, in general, their actions were not aimed at environmental conservation and were limited to factual and emergency issues.

  17. Nutrition, environment and cardiovascular health (NESCAV): protocol of an inter-regional cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the remarkable technological progress in health care and treatment, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of premature death, prolonged hospitalization and disability in most European countries. In the population of the Greater Region (Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, Wallonia in Belgium, and Lorraine in France), the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and disease is among the highest in Europe, warranting the need for a better understanding of factors contributing to this pattern. In this context, the cross-border "Nutrition, Environment and Cardiovascular Health-NESCAV" project is initiated by an inter-regional multi-disciplinary consortium and supported by the INTERREG IV A program "Greater Region", 2007-2013, to fight synergically and harmoniously against this major public health problem. Methods/design The objectives of the three-year planned project are to assess, in a representative sample of 3000 randomly selected individuals living at the Greater Region, 1) the cardiovascular health and risk profile, 2) the association between the dietary habits and the cardiovascular risk, 3) the association of occupational and environmental pollution markers with the cardiovascular risk, 4) the knowledge, awareness and level of control of cardiovascular risk factors, 5) the potential gaps in the current primary prevention, and finally, to address evidence-based recommendations enabling the development of inter-regional guidance to help policy-makers and health care workers for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Discussion The findings will provide tools that may enable the Greater Region's decision-makers and health professionals to implement targeted and cost-effective prevention strategies. PMID:21078172

  18. Conceptual Model of Comprehensive Research Metrics for Improved Human Health and Environment

    PubMed Central

    Engel-Cox, Jill A.; Van Houten, Bennett; Phelps, Jerry; Rose, Shyanika W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Federal, state, and private research agencies and organizations have faced increasing administrative and public demand for performance measurement. Historically, performance measurement predominantly consisted of near-term outputs measured through bibliometrics. The recent focus is on accountability for investment based on long-term outcomes. Developing measurable outcome-based metrics for research programs has been particularly challenging, because of difficulty linking research results to spatially and temporally distant outcomes. Our objective in this review is to build a logic model and associated metrics through which to measure the contribution of environmental health research programs to improvements in human health, the environment, and the economy. Data sources We used expert input and literature research on research impact assessment. Data extraction With these sources, we developed a logic model that defines the components and linkages between extramural environmental health research grant programs and the outputs and outcomes related to health and social welfare, environmental quality and sustainability, economics, and quality of life. Data synthesis The logic model focuses on the environmental health research portfolio of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Division of Extramural Research and Training. The model delineates pathways for contributions by five types of institutional partners in the research process: NIEHS, other government (federal, state, and local) agencies, grantee institutions, business and industry, and community partners. Conclusions The model is being applied to specific NIEHS research applications and the broader research community. We briefly discuss two examples and discuss the strengths and limits of outcome-based evaluation of research programs. PMID:18470312

  19. The lunar environment: Determining the health effects of exposure to moon dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen

    The Earth's moon presents a hostile environment in which to live and work. There is no atmosphere to protect its surface from the ravages of cosmic radiation, solar wind and micrometeorite impacts. As a result, the moon's surface is covered with a thin layer of fine, charged, reactive dust capable of entering habitats, and vehicle compartments, where it can cause crew member health problems. During the Apollo missions, lunar dusts were introduced into the Lunar Lander and command module, resulting in direct exposure and occasional reports of respiratory, dermal and ocular irritation. Now that we are returning to the moon for long duration stays and multiple space walk exposures, NASA is concerned with the health of the astronauts in regards to repeated (chronic) and acute episodic exposures to lunar dusts. We expect that lunar dust will be returned to the module post-space-walk (extravehicular activity, EVA) activity. These repeated episodic exposures will need to be controlled by our Environmental Control Life Support System, based upon the health standards that we set for acute and chronic exposures. In order to characterize the toxicological effects of lunar dust, NASA formed the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Advisory Group (LADTAG). This interdisciplinary group is composed of experts in space toxicology, lunar geology, space medicine, dust toxicity, and biomedical research. Ultimately, this panel of experts will set health standards and risk criteria for use by vehicle design engineers, operation planners and astronauts during lunar missions.

  20. Strategic planning and radiology practice management in the new health care environment.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Richard E; Mehta, Tejas S; Eisenberg, Ronald L; Kruskal, Jonathan B

    2015-01-01

    Current comprehensive health care reform in the United States demands that policy makers, insurers, providers, and patients work in reshaping the health care system to deliver care that is both more affordable and of higher quality. A tectonic shift is under way that runs contrary to the traditional goal of radiology groups to perform and interpret large numbers of imaging examinations. In fact, radiology service requisitions now must be evaluated for their appropriateness, possibly resulting in a reduction in the number of imaging studies performed. To be successful, radiology groups will have to restructure their business practices and strategies to align with the emerging health care paradigm. This article outlines a four-stage strategic framework that has aided corporations in achieving their goals and that can be readily adapted and applied by radiologists. The four stages are (a) definition and articulation of a purpose, (b) clear definition of strategic goals, (c) prioritization of specific strategic enablers, and (d) implementation of processes for tracking progress and enabling continuous adaptation. The authors provide practical guidance for applying specific tools such as analyses of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (so-called SWOT analyses), prioritization matrices, and balanced scorecards to accomplish each stage. By adopting and applying these tools within the strategic framework outlined, radiology groups can position themselves to succeed in the evolving health care environment.

  1. The Lunar Environment: Determining the Health Effects of Exposure to Moon Dusts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen

    2007-01-01

    The Earth s moon presents a hostile environment in which to live and work. There is no atmosphere to protect its surface from the ravages of solar wind and micrometeorite impacts. As a result, the moon s surface is covered with a thin layer of fine, charged, reactive dust capable of entering habitats and vehicle compartments, where it can result in crewmember health problems. During the Apollo missions, lunar dusts were introduced into the crew vehicle, resulting in direct exposure and occasional reports of respiratory, dermal and ocular irritation. In order to study the toxicological effects of lunar dust, NASA formed the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Advisory Group (LADTAG). This interdisciplinary group is comprised of leading experts in space toxicology, lunar geology, space medicine and biomedical research. LADTAG has demonstrated that lunar soil contains several types of reactive dusts, including an extremely fine respirable component. These dusts have highly reactive surfaces in the lunar environment; the grains contain surface coatings which are generated by vapor phases formed by hypervelocity impact of micrometeorites. This unique class of dusts has surface properties that are unlike any Earth based analog. These distinctive properties are why lunar dusts are of great toxicological interest. Understanding how these reactive components behave "biochemically" in a moisture-rich pulmonary environment will aid in determining how toxic these particles are to humans. The data obtained from toxicological examination of lunar dusts will determine the human risk criteria for lunar dust exposure and produce a lunar health standard. LADTAG s analysis of lunar dusts and lunar dust simulants will include detailed lunar particle characterizations, determining the properties of particle activation, reactivation of lunar dust, the process of dust passivation and discerning the pathology of lunar dust exposure via inhalation, intratracheal instillation, cell culture

  2. Modeling the Context-Dependent Associations between the Gut Microbiome, Its Environment, and Host Health.

    PubMed

    Sharpton, Thomas J; Gaulke, Christopher A

    2015-09-08

    Changes in the gut microbiome are often associated with disease. One of the major goals in microbiome research is determining which components of this complex system are responsible for the observed differences in health state. Most studies apply a reductionist approach, wherein individual organisms are evaluated independently of the surrounding context of the microbiome. While such methods have yielded valuable insights into the microbiome, they fail to identify patterns that may be obscured by contextual variation. A recent report by Schubert et al. [A. M. Schubert, H. Sinani, and P. D. Schloss, mBio 6(4):e00974-15, 2015, doi: 10.1128/mBio.00974-15] communicates an alternative approach to the study of the microbiome's association with host health. By coupling a multifactored experimental design with regression modeling, the authors are able to profile context-dependent changes in the microbiome and predict health status. This work underscores the value of incorporating model-based procedures into the investigation of the microbiome and illustrates the potential clinical transformations that may arise through their use.

  3. The relationship between microbial DNA concentrations and swimming associated health effects at a tropical environment bathing beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between microbial DNA concentrations and swimming associated health effects at a tropical environment bathing beach. Timothy 1. Wade, presenter. Co-authors: Alfred P. Dufour, Kristen Brenner, Rich Haugland, Larry Wymer, Elizabeth Sams Fecal indicator bacteria (F...

  4. Single Room Occupancy (SRO) hotels as mental health risk environments among impoverished women: the intersection of policy, drug use, trauma, and urban space

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Knight R.; Lopez, Andrea M.; Comfort, Megan; Shumway, Martha; Cohen, Jennifer; Riley, Elise

    2014-01-01

    Due to the significantly high levels of comorbid substance use and mental health diagnosis among urban poor populations, examining the intersection of drug policy and place requires a consideration of the role of housing in drug user mental health. In San Francisco, geographic boundedness and progressive health and housing polices have coalesced to make single room occupancy hotels (SROs) a key urban built environment used to house poor populations with co-occurring drug use and mental health issues. Unstably housed women who use illicit drugs have high rates of lifetime and current trauma, which manifests in disproportionately high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression when compared to stably housed women. We report data from a qualitative interview study (n=30) and four years of ethnography conducted with housing policy makers and unstably housed women who use drugs and live in SROs. Women in the study lived in a range of SRO built environments, from publicly-funded, newly built SROs to privately-owned, dilapidated buildings, which presented a rich opportunity for ethnographic comparison. Applying Rhodes et al.’s framework of socio-structural vulnerability, we explore how SROs can operate as “mental health risk environments” in which macro-structural factors (housing policies shaping the built environment) interact with meso-level factors (social relations within SROs) and micro-level, behavioral coping strategies to impact women’s mental health. The degree to which SRO built environments were “trauma-sensitive” at the macro level significantly influenced women’s mental health at meso- and micro- levels. Women who were living in SROs which exacerbated fear and anxiety attempted, with limited success, to deploy strategies on the meso- and micro- level to manage their mental health symptoms. Study findings underscore the importance of housing polices which consider substance use in the context of current and

  5. Favorite green, waterside and urban environments, restorative experiences and perceived health in Finland.

    PubMed

    Korpela, Kalevi M; Ylén, Matti; Tyrväinen, Liisa; Silvennoinen, Harri

    2010-06-01

    The study investigated restorative experiences in relation to respondents' everyday favorite places and analysed the associations between the use of favorite places, restorative experiences, their determinants and aspects of self-rated health. A simple random sample of 1273 inhabitants, aged between 15 and 75 years, of two major cities in Finland (Helsinki and Tampere) completed a postal questionnaire. A subsample of the answers from inhabitants with a self-reported distance from home to a favorite place of 15 km or less (n = 1089) was analysed. Restorative experiences in favorite exercise and activity outdoor areas, waterside environments and extensively managed natural settings (mainly urban woodlands) were stronger than in favorite places in built urban settings or green spaces in urban settings (mostly parks). The results revealed a link between the need for restoration (worries and stress), the use of environmental self-regulation strategies (favorite places) and restorative outcomes. The more worries about money and work (during the last month) a person had, the more stressed a person had felt during the last year, the less energetic s/he had felt, the lower was the number of visits to the favorite place (during the last 6 months) and the lower the typical level of restorative experiences. Inconsistently, the direct path suggested that the more worries about money and work, the higher the typical level of restorative experiences. The findings increase knowledge of health-enhancing environments and have implications for stress and work recovery research.

  6. Environment, Safety, and Health Self-Assessment Report, Fiscal Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Chernowski, John

    2009-02-27

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Self-Assessment Program ensures that Integrated Safety Management (ISM) is implemented institutionally and by all divisions. The Self-Assessment Program, managed by the Office of Contract Assurance (OCA), provides for an internal evaluation of all ES&H programs and systems at LBNL. The functions of the program are to ensure that work is conducted safely, and with minimal negative impact to workers, the public, and the environment. The Self-Assessment Program is also the mechanism used to institute continuous improvements to the Laboratory's ES&H programs. The program is described in LBNL/PUB 5344, Environment, Safety, and Health Self-Assessment Program and is composed of four distinct assessments: the Division Self-Assessment, the Management of Environment, Safety, and Health (MESH) review, ES&H Technical Assurance, and the Appendix B Self-Assessment. The Division Self-Assessment uses the five core functions and seven guiding principles of ISM as the basis of evaluation. Metrics are created to measure performance in fulfilling ISM core functions and guiding principles, as well as promoting compliance with applicable regulations. The five core functions of ISM are as follows: (1) Define the Scope of Work; (2) Identify and Analyze Hazards; (3) Control the Hazards; (4) Perform the Work; and (5) Feedback and Improvement. The seven guiding principles of ISM are as follows: (1) Line Management Responsibility for ES&H; (2) Clear Roles and Responsibilities; (3) Competence Commensurate with Responsibilities; (4) Balanced Priorities; (5) Identification of ES&H Standards and Requirements; (6) Hazard Controls Tailored to the Work Performed; and (7) Operations Authorization. Performance indicators are developed by consensus with OCA, representatives from each division, and Environment, Health, and Safety (EH&S) Division program managers. Line management of each division performs the Division Self

  7. WIC Mothers' Social Environment and Postpartum Health on Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration

    PubMed Central

    Darfour-Oduro, Sandra Asantewaa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A low breastfeeding rate has been a consistent maternal and child health problem in the United States, especially for low-income families. Understanding mothers' social environment and overall well-being is important in determining how mothers will take care of themselves and their infants during the postnatal period in relation to the breastfeeding rate among low-income mothers. In this study, we examined the effects of the social environment of mothers enrolled in a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program in eastern Illinois and their postpartum health on breastfeeding initiation (n=103) and maintaining breastfeeding for at least 3 months (n=73). Using logistic regression models, a significant positive association (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=3.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15–10.47; p=0.03) between marital status and breastfeeding initiation and a significant negative association (AOR=0.23; 95% CI, 0.06–0.88) between receiving food stamps and breastfeeding initiation were found. WIC mothers who were married were 4.1 times as likely to maintain any breastfeeding for at least 3 months than single mothers, and the association was significant (AOR=4.08; 95% CI, 1.36–12.27; p=0.01). The breastfeeding initiation rate was 77.7%, however, the mean±standard deviation age of the child when breastfeeding stopped was 2.2±1.4 months. There was a nonsignificant association between postpartum depression and breastfeeding initiation and maintaining any breastfeeding for 3 months. This study has shown that the familial environment of mothers plays a very important role in improving breastfeeding rates among WIC mothers. In addition, there is a negative relationship between using a food assistance program and breastfeeding among low-income women. PMID:25188784

  8. Contradictions in Educational Policy: Implementing Integrated Problem-Based Environmental Health Curriculum in a High Stakes Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martina, Camille Anne; Hursh, David; Markowitz, Dina

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the efforts of educators at nine different research sites within the United States, funded by a grant from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), to develop and implement innovative, interdisciplinary curriculum on the relationship of the environment and human health. The NIEHS correctly…

  9. Application of Tools and Databases to Community-Level Assessments of Exposure, Health and the Environment with Case Study Examples

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this report is to assess the application of tools to community-level assessments of exposure, health and the environment. Various tools and datasets provided different types of information, such as on health effects, chemical types and volumes, facility locations a...

  10. Aggregate human health risk assessment from dust of daily life in the urban environment of Beijing.

    PubMed

    Xu, L Y; Shu, X

    2014-04-01

    Because of the high emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into the environment by the increasing number of vehicles in Beijing and the absorption of these PAHs onto particulates, the performance of a preliminary health risk assessment of the aggregate exposure to PAHs of urban citizens in daily life is very important. Urban dust can be used to examine the aggregation of atmospheric particulates from local pollution sources over a long time period and the direct exposure of the urban human population. The environment's correlative with clothing, dining, residing, and traveling in urban daily life was assessed using exposure-receptor-oriented analysis. The multipathway exposure model was used to simulate the lifetime exposure of a female citizen to PAHs in dust. All of the PAH concentrations in dust for each behavior and its correlative environment in Beijing were acceptable because all of the carcinogenic risks of PAHs in the dust were approximately 1.0 × 10(-6). The dominant induced carcinogenic risks in the dust were Benzo(a)pyrene and Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene. The main carcinogenic risk routes for humans were dermal contact and oral intake, which contributed on average 99.78% of the risk. Indoor risk is especially important, as the decoration and height within the building were important impact factors for carcinogenic risk induced by indoor PAHs. For people living in an urban area, a healthy lifestyle includes less decoration per room, living on a low floor, wearing a respirator, and reducing exposed skin area when traveling.

  11. Approaches to the Development of Human Health Toxicity Values for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in the Environment.

    PubMed

    Sorell, Tamara L

    2016-01-01

    Management of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in the environment is challenging because these substances represent a large and diverse group of compounds. Advanced wastewater treatment technologies that can remove API tend to be costly. Because of the potential resources required to address API in the environment, there is a need to establish environmental benchmarks that can serve as targets for treatment and release. To date, there are several different approaches that have been taken to derive human health toxicity values for API. These methods include traditional risk assessment approaches that calculate "safe" doses using experimental data and uncertainty (safety) factors; point of departure (POD), which starts from a therapeutic human dose and applies uncertainty factors; and threshold of toxicological concern (TTC), a generic approach that establishes threshold values across broad classes of chemicals based on chemical structure. To evaluate the use of these approaches, each of these methods was applied to three API commonly encountered in the environment: acetaminophen, caffeine, and chlorpromazine. The results indicate that the various methods of estimating toxicity values produce highly varying doses. Associated doses are well below typical intakes, or toxicity thresholds cannot be derived due to a lack of information. No uniform approach can be applied to establishing thresholds for multiple substances. Rather, an individualized approach will need to be applied to each target API.

  12. Work environment, health outcomes and magnet hospital traits in the Canadian nephrology nursing scene.

    PubMed

    Ridley, Jane; Wilson, Barbara; Harwood, Lori; Laschinger, Heather K

    2009-01-01

    Nephrology, like others areas of health care, is confronting a nursing shortage. Unless action is taken to address nursing shortages, patient care may be negatively affected (American Nephrology Nurses' Association, 2007). Previous studies have been conducted on magnet hospital traits, quality of nursing worklife, empowerment, job satisfaction, burnout, health outcomes, and their influence on nursing retention in Canada. However, there is little research in this area specific to nephrology nursing. This descriptive study examined whether magnet hospital traits, empowerment, and organizational support contribute to Canadian nephrology nurses' job satisfaction, health outcomes, and perceived quality of patient care. A randomly selected sample of 300 nurse members of the Canadian Association of Nephrology Nurses and Technologists (CANNT) was asked to complete a survey consisting of four instruments: The Nursing Work Index (Lake, 2002), the Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire II (Laschinger, Finegan, Shamian, & Wilk, 2001), the Pressure Management Indicator (Williams & Cooper, 1998), and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach, Jackson, & Leiter, 1996). There was a 48.1% response rate. Results demonstrated that some aspects of the Canadian nephrology nursing environment were rated quite favourably (e.g., high standards of care are expected; good working relationships with peers), but areas requiring improvement were evident (e.g., assignments that foster continuity of care). Overall, the nurses felt empowered. The results of the Pressure Management Indicator and Maslach Burnout Inventory indicated that nephrology nurses are generally coping well, but that some of them are struggling. Strategies that improve work environments could promote the recruitment and retention of nephrology nurses. Further research in this area is warranted.

  13. How adolescents perceive their communities: a qualitative study that explores the relationship between health and the physical environment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) study was conducted among adolescents aged 15-19 years in Baltimore, Ibadan, Johannesburg, New Delhi, and Shanghai to examine perceived factors related to their health. A preliminary analysis of the data, unexpectedly, revealed that the influence of the physical environment on adolescent health was a dominant theme across every site examined. To explore this further, this paper analyzed the specific components of the physical environment that were perceived to influence health, and how they contributed to various health outcomes across sites. Methods Researchers in each site conducted in-depth interviews among adolescents; community mapping and focus groups among adolescents; a Photovoice methodology, in which adolescents were trained in photography and took photos of the meaning of ‘health’ in their communities; and key informant interviews among adults who work with young people. A total 529 participants from across the sites were included in the analysis. Results Findings showed that while there was surprising uniformity in how adolescents characterized their physical environment, perceived health outcomes related to the physical environment varied by site and gender. In Baltimore and Johannesburg, vacant homes and the lack of recreation facilities were perceived to impact on sexual and reproductive health problems for girls, while among boys they contributed to drugs and violence. In Shanghai, New Delhi, and Ibadan, garbage and trash observed in their communities were perceived to have a higher impact on infectious and chronic diseases. Conclusions As the world continues to urbanize, our study points to a strong need to examine how the physical aspects of a living environment contribute to the health of adolescents. Specific aspects, such as housing, safety, garbage, and recreational spaces must all be examined as possible pathways for making improvements to health of adolescents

  14. Relationship marketing of health care plans: retaining corporate customers in a competitive environment.

    PubMed

    Choong, P

    2000-01-01

    Corporate employers have become major purchasers of health care. They are gatekeepers who decide whether to retain or drop an insurance company from the choice set offered to employees as well as whether to include new insurers into this choice set. If marketers of health maintenance organizations are to maintain their market share in this competitive environment, they need to understand issues considered important to corporate employers. This paper identifies the key drivers of satisfaction among corporate employers and shows the impact these key drivers have on overall satisfaction. More importantly, it demonstrates both theoretically and empirically that the impact of performance attributes on satisfaction is asymmetrical. Positive performances of attributes are shown to have smaller impacts on satisfaction than negative performances. The theoretical underpinnings of these phenomena are shown to lie in prospect theory. Finally, quantitative indicators are computed to aid managerial decision-making. Marketing managers of health insurance companies will optimize returns on their investment by understanding this asymmetric effect and eliminate existing deficiencies.

  15. How do interactions between early caregiving environment and genes influence health and behavior?

    PubMed

    Letourneau, Nicole; Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Bernier, Francois P; Joschko, Justin

    2014-01-01

    To promote optimal health and behavioral outcomes in children, nurses have long supported parents in providing the best possible care and nurturance to their offspring. A growing body of neuroscience research argues convincingly for the combined influences of genes and early caregiving on producing an individual's unique health and behavioral phenotype. In this article, we systematically review studies that demonstrate the relationship between qualities of early caregiving and genetic propensity to health and behavioral outcomes. From an initial set of 255 articles, 24 articles met our inclusion criteria. The outcomes fall into four distinct groups: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to stress, externalizing behavior, internalizing behavior, and disorganized attachment. In the articles, authors examined genes that code for the 5-hydroxy tryptamine (serotonin) transporter genes linked polymorphic region [5-HTTLPR] serotonin transporter promoter, D4 dopamine receptor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and monoamine oxidase A promoter. The reviewed studies suggest that the effect of the early rearing environment on gene expression relates mainly to HPA response to stress, whereas interactions between genes and caregiving mainly relate to behavior and attachment. Findings have implications for nurses focused on advocacy, prevention, and intervention to support the healthy development of children in families faced with adversity.

  16. Impacts of lead/zinc mining and smelting on the environment and human health in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuwu; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Wang, Wuyi; Ye, Bixiong

    2012-04-01

    Mining and smelting are important economic activities. However, mining-related industries are also some of the largest sources of environmental pollution from heavy metals. China is one of the largest producers and consumers of lead and zinc in the world. A large amount of lead, zinc, and related elements, such as cadmium, have been released into the environment due to mineral processing activities and have impacted water resources, soils, vegetables, and crops. In some areas, this pollution is hazardous to human health. This article reviews studies published in the past 10 years (2000-2009), on the environmental and human health consequences of lead/zinc mineral exploitation in China. Polluted areas are concentrated in the following areas: the junction of Yunnan, Guizhou and Sichuan provinces, west-central Hunan province, central Guangxi province, northern Guangdong, northwestern Henan province, the border between Shanxi and Gansu provinces, and the region of Liaoning province near Bohai. Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are the main pollutants and are associated with human health effects such as high lead blood levels in children, arthralgia, osteomalacia, and excessive cadmium in urine.

  17. Bio-aerosols in indoor environment: composition, health effects and analysis.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, Padma; Sudharsanam, Suchithra; Steinberg, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    Bio-aerosols are airborne particles that are living (bacteria, viruses and fungi) or originate from living organisms. Their presence in air is the result of dispersal from a site of colonization or growth. The health effects of bio-aerosols including infectious diseases, acute toxic effects, allergies and cancer coupled with the threat of bioterrorism and SARS have led to increased awareness on the importance of bio-aerosols. The evaluation of bio-aerosols includes use of variety of methods for sampling depending on the concentration of microorganisms expected. There have been problems in developing standard sampling methods, in proving a causal relationship and in establishing threshold limit values for exposures due to the complexity of composition of bio-aerosols, variations in human response to their exposure and difficulties in recovering microorganisms. Currently bio-aerosol monitoring in hospitals is carried out for epidemiological investigation of nosocomial infectious diseases, research into airborne microorganism spread and control, monitoring biohazardous procedures and use as a quality control measure. In India there is little awareness regarding the quality of indoor air, mould contamination in indoor environments, potential source for transmission of nosocomial infections in health care facilities. There is an urgent need to undertake study of indoor air, to generate baseline data and explore the link to nosocomial infections. This article is a review on composition, sources, modes of transmission, health effects and sampling methods used for evaluation of bio-aerosols, and also suggests control measures to reduce the loads of bio-aerosols.

  18. The Case for “Environment in All Policies”: Lessons from the “Health in All Policies” Approach in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Geoffrey R.; Rutherfurd, Ian D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Both public health, and the health of the natural environment, are affected by policy decisions made across portfolios as diverse as finance, planning, transport, housing, education, and agriculture. A response to the interdependent character of public health has been the “health in all policies” (HiAP) approach. Objectives: With reference to parallels between health and environment, this paper argues that lessons from HiAP are useful for creating a new integrated environmental management approach termed “environment in all polices” (EiAP). Discussion: This paper covers the theoretical foundations of HiAP, which is based on an understanding that health is strongly socially determined. The paper then highlights how lessons learned from HiAP’s implementation in Finland, California, and South Australia might be applied to EiAP. It is too early to learn from evaluations of HiAP, but it is apparent that there is no single tool kit for its application. The properties that are likely to be necessary for an effective EiAP approach include a jurisdiction-specific approach, ongoing and strong leadership from a central agency, independent analysis, and a champion. We then apply these properties to Victoria (Australia) to demonstrate how EiAP might work. Conclusions: We encourage further exploration of the feasibility of EiAP as an approach that could make explicit the sometimes surprising environmental implications of a whole range of strategic policies. Citation: Browne GR, Rutherfurd ID. 2017. The case for “environment in all policies”: lessons from the “health in all policies” approach in public health. Environ Health Perspect 125:149–154; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP294 PMID:27352407

  19. The Relationship of Built Environment to Health-Related Behaviors and Health Outcomes in Elderly Community Residents in a Middle Income Country

    PubMed Central

    Blay, Sergio L.; Schulz, Amy J.; Mentz, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the impact of the built environment (BE) on health behaviours and health outcomes in middle income countries. This study examines associations between self-assessed characteristics of the home and neighbourhood environment and health-related behaviours and health outcomes in an elderly population in Brazil Design and methods In a community sample of 6963 community dwellers 60 years old and older living in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, associations between self-reported BE conditions and health behaviours and health outcomes were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Multivariate analysis was conducted to investigate these associations while accounting for other relevant characteristics. Results We found significant positive associations between adverse BE conditions and pulmonary, urinary conditions, gastrointestinal, problems, headache and depression. There were mixed associations between adverse BE conditions and musculoskeletal and sensory conditions, inverse associations with metabolic disorders. and no associations with dermatologic problems and cancer. After accounting for health related behaviours, results suggest a modest association between adverse BE conditions and hypertension, with no significant associations with other indicators of cardiovascular conditions (heart problems, stroke, varicose veins). Conclusions The findings in this study suggest links between adverse conditions in the BE and health related behaviours in the hypothesized direction. Associations with the health conditions examined here are mixed. We find the strongest evidence for effects of adverse BE conditions for pulmonary and infectious conditions. Significant associations between the adverse BE indicators and health outcomes persist after accounting for health related behaviours, suggesting that BE conditions are linked to health pathways above and beyond the health related behaviours assessed in this study. Significance for

  20. The Origin and Impact of Ideals in eHealth Research: Experiences From the U-CARE Research Environment

    PubMed Central

    von Essen, Louise; Grönqvist, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of information technology (IT) in society is a foundation for new modes of interaction between patients and health specialists. IT plays an important role in the renewal of care. Several countries have incorporated eHealth plans into their national health strategies. Part of the eHealth evolution concerns Internet psychological treatment and psychosocial care. These interventions are complex to design and evaluate due to legal, ethical, organizational, technical, and methodological challenges. Objective The objective of our study was to seek to make explicit contributions to the understanding of ideals in eHealth research, and illuminate their implications for establishing an effective research environment. Our analysis draws from three years of experience in establishing an eHealth research environment, and the literature. Methods We worked inductively to characterize challenging research ideals, and their origins, in our environment. Thereafter, we made a selective search of the literature to scrutinize and illuminate each ideal and it’s implications. Results In this work, we propose a structured approach to address ideals in eHealth research. The scrutinized ideals are accountability, innovation, rigor, relevance, and sustainability. The approach supports researchers to systematically understand the ideals, their origin, and to manage their implications within an eHealth research environment. Conclusions The complexity of eHealth research causes a need for sustainable, multi-disciplinary research environments. There is a need for a structured approach to organize eHealth research. The proposed approach helps to systematically scrutinize ideals, thus promoting high quality research. PMID:24860071

  1. Thermomechanical fatigue behavior of SiC/Ti-24Al-11Nb in air and argon environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolotta, Paul A.; Verrilli, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    A series of tension-tension, load-controlled thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) tests were conducted on a titanium aluminide composite in both laboratory air and a flowing argon environment. Results from these tests show that the environment plays an increasingly important role as applied stress levels are decreased. Differences in damage mechanisms between the two environments were observed which corresponds to observed variations in TMF lives.

  2. Moving NASA Remote Sensing Data to the GIS Environment for Health Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, Gilberto A.; Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    There has been an increasing demand by the health community for improved data on many different environmental factors relevant to the links between the environment and disease occurrence and transmission. These data are important for GIS-based monitoring, risk mapping, and surveillance of epidemiological parameters on a large number of different spatial, temporal, and spectral resolutions. Accordingly, NASA is developing new approaches to data collection and distribution in order to improve access to multiple sources of data streams to increase spatial and temporal coverage. Methods are being developed to incorporate different, scalable capabilities to handle multiple data sources by adding, deleting and replacing components as required as well as associated tools for their management. An approach has been to search for innovative solutions focused on the creation, use and manipulation of data stored in many different archives. These include data transformation and combination as well as data and information tools that can assist the public health and science community to use existing and anticipated products in new and flexible ways. This presentation will provide an inventory of geophysical parameters derived from satellite remote sensing sensors that are useful for GIS-based public health studies. The presentation will also discuss the physical and scientific limitations of access to and use of these data for health applications such as resolution and format differences, lack of software interoperability, data access problems. Finally, there will be a summary of the recent steps the NASA program has taken to bring NASA-generated satellite products to a wider range of users in the GIS community.

  3. Climate change influences on environment as a determinant of Indigenous health: Relationships to place, sea ice, and health in an Inuit community.

    PubMed

    Durkalec, Agata; Furgal, Chris; Skinner, Mark W; Sheldon, Tom

    2015-07-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on Indigenous health, human dimensions of climate change, and place-based dimensions of health by examining the role of environment for Inuit health in the context of a changing climate. We investigated the relationship between one key element of the environment - sea ice - and diverse aspects of health in an Inuit community in northern Canada, drawing on population health and health geography approaches. We used a case study design and participatory and collaborative approach with the community of Nain in northern Labrador, Canada. Focus groups (n = 2), interviews (n = 22), and participant observation were conducted in 2010-11. We found that an appreciation of place was critical for understanding the full range of health influences of sea ice use for Inuit. Negative physical health impacts were reported on less frequently than positive health benefits of sea ice use, which were predominantly related to mental/emotional, spiritual, social, and cultural health. We found that sea ice means freedom for sea ice users, which we suggest influences individual and collective health through relationships between sea ice use, culture, knowledge, and autonomy. While sea ice users reported increases in negative physical health impacts such as injuries and stress related to changing environmental conditions, we suggest that less tangible climate change impacts related to losses of health benefits and disruptions to place meanings and place attachment may be even more significant. Our findings indicate that climate change is resulting in and compounding existing environmental dispossession for Inuit. They also demonstrate the necessity of considering place meanings, culture, and socio-historical context to assess the complexity of climate change impacts on Indigenous environmental health.

  4. Impact of health education on community knowledge, attitudes and behaviour towards solid waste management in Al Ghobeiry, Beirut.

    PubMed

    Karout, N; Altuwaijri, S

    2012-07-01

    The risks posed by accumulation of solid waste are most obvious in developing countries, where waste collection and treatment is often inadequate. This study aimed to determine the impact of a health education intervention (based on lectures and focus group discussions) on community knowledge, attitudes and behaviours concerning solid waste management in Al Ghobeiry, Beirut. A randomly selected sample of 320 inhabitants were divide into intervention and control groups who completed the same questionnaire in the pre- and post-intervention phases. Compared with the control group the intervention group, who attended the health education sessions, showed: significantly better knowledge about the problems of and diseases spread by accumulation of solid waste; better attitudes to management of solid waste collection; and improved practices in terms of handling and recycling of household waste. There was an observed increased participation by people in cleaning campaigns and voluntary work in all the municipality activities.

  5. Health and climate related ecosystem services provided by street trees in the urban environment.

    PubMed

    Salmond, Jennifer A; Tadaki, Marc; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Arbuthnott, Katherine; Coutts, Andrew; Demuzere, Matthias; Dirks, Kim N; Heaviside, Clare; Lim, Shanon; Macintyre, Helen; McInnes, Rachel N; Wheeler, Benedict W

    2016-03-08

    Urban tree planting initiatives are being actively promoted as a planning tool to enable urban areas to adapt to and mitigate against climate change, enhance urban sustainability and improve human health and well-being. However, opportunities for creating new areas of green space within cities are often limited and tree planting initiatives may be constrained to kerbside locations. At this scale, the net impact of trees on human health and the local environment is less clear, and generalised approaches for evaluating their impact are not well developed.In this review, we use an urban ecosystems services framework to evaluate the direct, and locally-generated, ecosystems services and disservices provided by street trees. We focus our review on the services of major importance to human health and well-being which include 'climate regulation', 'air quality regulation' and 'aesthetics and cultural services'. These are themes that are commonly used to justify new street tree or street tree retention initiatives. We argue that current scientific understanding of the impact of street trees on human health and the urban environment has been limited by predominantly regional-scale reductionist approaches which consider vegetation generally and/or single out individual services or impacts without considering the wider synergistic impacts of street trees on urban ecosystems. This can lead planners and policymakers towards decision making based on single parameter optimisation strategies which may be problematic when a single intervention offers different outcomes and has multiple effects and potential trade-offs in different places.We suggest that a holistic approach is required to evaluate the services and disservices provided by street trees at different scales. We provide information to guide decision makers and planners in their attempts to evaluate the value of vegetation in their local setting. We show that by ensuring that the specific aim of the intervention, the

  6. Site Environmental Report for 2006. Volume I, Environment, Health, and Safety Division

    SciTech Connect

    2007-09-30

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.1 The Site Environmental Report for 2006 summarizes Berkeley Lab’s environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2006. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as “Berkeley Lab,” “the Laboratory,” “Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,” and “LBNL.”) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters that contain an overview of the Laboratory, a discussion of the Laboratory’s environmental management system, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities.

  7. Environment, safety and health compliance assessment, Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The Secretary of Energy established independent Tiger Teams to conduct environment, safety, and health (ES H) compliance assessments at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. This report presents the assessment of the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. The purpose of the assessment at FMPC is to provide the Secretary with information regarding current ES H compliance status, specific ES H noncompliance items, evaluation of the adequacy of the ES H organizations and resources (DOE and contractor), and root causes for noncompliance items. Areas reviewed included performance under Federal, state, and local agreements and permits; compliance with Federal, state and DOE orders and requirements; adequacy of operations and other site activities, such as training, procedures, document control, quality assurance, and emergency preparedness; and management and staff, including resources, planning, and interactions with outside agencies.

  8. Shared Knowledge for Decision-making on Environment and Health Issues in the Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper will describe a remote sensing and GIs-based system to bring indigenous traditional knowledge together with contemporary scientific knowledge to address impacts resulting from changes in climate, environment, weather and pollution in the Arctic. As scientists and policy-makers from both indigenous and non-indigenous communities continue to build closer partnerships to address common sustainability issues such as the health impacts of climate change and anthropogenic activities, it becomes increasingly important to create shared information management systems which integrate all relevant factors for optimal information sharing and decision-making. This system is being designed to bring together remotely sensed, indigenous and other data and observations for analysis, measuring, and monitoring parameters of interest (e.g., snow cover, rainfall, temperature, ice conditions, vegetation, infrastructure, fires). A description of the system and its components as well as a preliminary application of the system in the Arctic will be presented.

  9. Commons ignorance: the failure of environmental law to produce needed information on health and the environment.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Wendy E

    2004-04-01

    One of the most significant problems facing environmental law is the dearth of scientific information available to assess the impact of industrial activities on public health and the environment. After documenting the significant gaps in existing information, this Article argues that existing laws both exacerbate and perpetuate this problem. By failing to require actors to assess the potential harm from their activities, and by penalizing them with additional regulation when they do, existing laws fail to counteract actors' natural inclination to remain silent about the harms that they might be causing. Both theory and practice confirm that when the stakes are high, actors not only will resist producing potentially incriminating information but will invest in discrediting public research that suggests their activities are harmful. The Article concludes with specific recommendations about how these perverse incentives for ignorance can be reversed.

  10. Environment, safety and health progress assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This report documents the results of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Fernald, Ohio, conducted from October 15 through October 25, 1991. The Secretary of Energy directed that small, focused, ES&H Progress Assessments be performed as part of the continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process in the areas of ES&H. The FEMP assessment is the pilot assessment for this new program. The objectives for the FEMP ES&H Progress Assessment were to assess: (1) how the FEMP has progressed since the 1989 Tiger Assessment; (2) how effectively the FEMP has corrected specific deficiencies and associated root causes identified by that team; and (3) whether the current organization, resources, and systems are sufficient to proactively manage ES&H issues.

  11. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. METC is currently a research and development facility, managed by DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. Its goal is to focus energy research and development to develop engineered fossil fuel systems, that are economically viable and environmentally sound, for commercial application. There is clear evidence that, since the 1991 Tiger Team Assessment, substantial progress has been made by both FE and METC in most aspects of their ES&H program. The array of new and restructured organizations, systems, and programs at FE and METC; increased assignments of staff to support these initiatives; extensive training activities; and the maturing planning processes, all reflect a discernable, continuous improvement in the quality of the ES&H performance.

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, L.G.; Moraski, R.V.; Selby, J.M.

    1991-05-01

    Part 5 of the 1990 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Environmental Guidance, the Office of Environmental Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance, the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Safety Compliance, and the Office of Policy and Standards. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, there is an article describing progress made during fiscal year 1990. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  13. Tiger Team environment, safety, and health assessment of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This report documents the results of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Tiger Team Assessment of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, conducted from October 22 and November 30, 1990. The assessment was conducted by a tam comprised of environment, safety, and health (ES H) professional from the Department, its contractors, and consultants. The purpose of the ORNL Tiger Team Assessment is to provide the Secretary of Energy with concise information on: current ES H compliance status at the site and the vulnerabilities associated with that compliance status; root causes for noncompliance; and adequacy of DOE and site contractor ES H management programs. This information will assist DOE in determining patterns and trends in ES H compliance and probable root causes, and will provide guidance for management to take needed corrective actions.

  14. Optical fiber gratings for structural health monitoring in high-temperature environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Richard J.; Chau, Kelvin; Chen, George; Moslehi, Behzad; Oblea, Levy; Sourichanh, Keo

    2007-04-01

    Fiber gratings are proving to provide versatile discrete sensor elements for structural health monitoring systems. For example, they outperform traditional resistive foil strain gages in terms of temperature resistance as well as multiplexing capability, relative ease of installation, electromagnetic interference immunity and electrical passivity. However, the fabrication method and post-fabrication processing influences both performance and survivability in extreme temperature environments. In this paper, we compare the performance and survivability when making strain measurements at elevated temperatures for a range of fabrication and processing conditions such as UV-laser and electric-arc writing and post-fabrication annealing. The optimum method or process will depend on the application temperatures (e.g., up to 300°C, 600°C or 1000°C), and times at these temperatures. As well, other sensing requirements, including the number of sensors, measurand and sensitivity may influence the grating choice (short or long period).

  15. Technology Development, Evaluation, and Application (TDEA) FY 1998 Progress Report Environment, Safety, and Health (ESH) Division

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Hoffman; Kenneth Alvar; Thomas Buhl; Bruce Erdal; Philip Fresquez; Elizabeth Foltyn; Wayne Hansen; Bruce Reinert

    1999-06-01

    This progress report presents the results of 10 projects funded ($504K) in FY98 by the Technology Development, Evaluation, and Application (TDEA) Committee of the Environment, Safety, and Health Division. Nine projects are new for this year; two projects were completed in their third and final TDEA-funded year. As a result of their TDEA-funded projects, investigators have published 19 papers in professional journals, proceedings, or Los Alamos reports and presented their work at professional meetings. Supplemental funds and in-kind contributions, such as staff time, instrument use, and work space were also provided to the TDEA-funded projects by organizations external to ESH Division. Products generated from the projects funded in FY98 included a new extremity dosimeter that replaced the previously used finger-ring dosimeters, a light and easy-to-use detector to measure energy deposited by neutron interactions, and a device that will allow workers to determine the severity of a hazard.

  16. Differences in Caregiver-Reported Health Problems and Health Care Use in Maltreated Adolescents and a Comparison Group from the Same Urban Environment

    PubMed Central

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Kools, Susan; Negriff, Sonya; Smith, Sharon; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2014-01-01

    Maltreated youth have a high prevalence of acute and chronic mental and physical health problems, but it is not clear whether these problems are related to maltreatment or to a disadvantaged environment. To compare health status and health care use of maltreated youth receiving child protective services to comparison youth living in the same community, we conducted a secondary analysis of caregiver reports for 207 maltreated adolescents (mean age 11.9 years) and 142 comparison adolescents (mean age 12.3 years) living in urban Los Angeles, using questionnaire data from a larger longitudinal study framed in a socio-ecological model. Caregivers included biological parents, relatives, and unrelated caregivers. Analyses included t-test, MANOVA, chi-square, and multivariable logistic regression. Caregivers reported similar rates of physical health problems but more mental health problems and psychotropic medicine use in maltreated youth than in the comparison youth, suggesting that maltreated youths’ higher rates of mental health problems could not be attributed to the disadvantaged environment. Although there were no differences in health insurance coverage, maltreated youth received preventive medical care more often than comparison youth. For all youth, having Medicaid improved their odds of receiving preventive health and dental care. Attention to mental health issues in adolescents receiving child welfare services remains important. Acceptance of Medicaid by neighborhood-based and/or school-based services in low-income communities may reduce barriers to preventive care. PMID:25557881

  17. Reshaping the Built Environment to Reduce Environmental and Public Health Impacts of Summertime Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, J. E.; Bakewell, K.

    2005-12-01

    Many American cities are experiencing two types of warming trends in their local climate that due to global environmental change, and that due to local environmental change. Over the next five decades, urban areas within temperate regions may warm disproportionately compared to tropical and subtropical zones according to the IPCC Special Report on The Regional Impacts of Climate Change, and the frequency of very hot days in these climates is expected to approximately double for an increase of 2-3°C in the average summer temperature. As well, due to urbanized land-cover, air temperatures in cities can register 2 to 10 degrees F higher than in surrounding rural areas, resulting in a hotter environment, higher energy demand, and accelerated smog formation due to the urban heat island effect. Our previous research analyzed the temperature differences over time between NY Central Park (NYCP) station and 23 metropolitan regional weather stations classified according to distance and level of urbanization, and showed a heat island effect existing in NYC, with mean temperatures in the NYCP Station generally higher than the surrounding stations, ranging from 1.20 C to 3.02 C. A difference of at least 1 C already existed at the beginning of the 20th century between the mean temperature in NYC and its surrounding rural areas, and this difference increased over the twentieth century. Summertime heat can create heat stress and other health consequences for urban residents. In cities around the world, summer heat can lead to elevated mortality and morbidity rates, especially during extreme events. The epidemiological literature has identified factors in the built environment and demographic characteristics that can increase the risk of heat-related mortality. The elderly and people with pre-existing illnesses are especially vulnerable; also, being bedridden, living alone, and having poor access to public transportation or air-conditioned places. During the Chicago 1995 heat wave

  18. Monitoring the Environment using High-Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing: Contribution to Health Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourre, Y. M.; Lacaux, J.

    2007-12-01

    Presence (density) of mosquitoes linked to Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemics in the Ferlo (Senegal) is evaluated by monitoring the environment from space. Using five SPOT-5 high-resolution images (~10m spatial resolution, on August 17th, 2006) a meridional transect of 290 x 60 km2 is analyzed for the first time. Four major ecozones are thus identified: Senegal River valley; sandy Ferlo; sandy-clayey Ferlo; and steppe/cultivated areas, from north to south, respectively. An integrated/multidisciplinary approach using remote-sensing leads to a composited Zones Potentially Occupied by Mosquitoes (or ZPOMs, with extrema). It is found that at the peak of the rainy season, the area occupied by ponds is of 12,817 ha ± 10% (i.e., ~ 0.8 % of the transect) with a mean ZPOM 17 times larger i.e.: 212,813 ha ± 10 % (or ~14 % of the transect). ZPOMs characteristics (minimum and maximum) at the ecozones levels with different hydrological mechanisms, are presented. Ponds and ZPOMs inter-annual variabilities and RVF risks, are subsequently highlighted by comparing statistics in the so-called Barkedji zone (sandy-clayey Ferlo with a hydrofossil riverbed), for the very humid year of 2003, and the near normal rainfall year of 2006. It is shown that at the end of August 2003/2006, ponds (ZPOMs) areas, were already ~22 (~5) times larger. The key roles played by isolated ponds for animals' exposure to RVF risks are thus identified. These results highlight the importance of monitoring the changing environment when linkages with public health exist. The ZPOM approach is to be adapted for other vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, in different places of the world. Results are meant to be included into Health Information Systems (HIS) on an operational basis, in order to minimize socio-economical impacts from epidemics.

  19. [Relationship of genetically modified crops with the environment and health of the Costa Rican human population].

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Ana M; Arrieta-Espinoza, Griselda; Sittenfeld, Ana

    2004-09-01

    Genetic engineering and the food derived from genetically modified crops (GMCs) have been the center of debate worldwide, as has occurred historically with the advent of new technologies. Questions are derived from the potential impact of GMCs to the environment and the safety of the products to the consumers. In relation to the first inquiry, practice has been oriented to a case-by-case-study, according to the own characteristics of the GMC, in order to minimize its impact in the environment. Scientific studies in diverse latitudes of the world have demonstrated that GMCs in the market showed no adverse effects related to this issue. In relation to food derived from the GMCs, rigorous evaluation protocols have been developed and approved by FAO and WHO to guarantee the innocuousness of these products. Up to the moment, no contraindications for human health have been pointed out for the products that are available today in the market. In the particular case of Costa Rica, the country has established since the 90s a regulatory biosafety framework for the management of the GMCs, safeguarding the biodiversity of the country and the health of consumers. At the same time the country has made significant public and private investments in the field that allowed the country to obtain a leading position in biosafety in the region and genetic engineering research at national research centers. Any attempt to restrict or prohibit these activities in the country, will put in risk the previously described investment, will affect the generation of new knowledge for decision making and the leadership in the field, preventing the benefits derived from this promising technology.

  20. Environment, safety and health progress assessment of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES H) Progress Assessment of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The onsite assessment, which was conducted from November 9 through November 20, 1992, included a selective review of the ES H management systems and programs with principal focus on the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs (DP); San Francisco Field Office (SF), including the Livermore Site Office (LSO); and the site contractor, the University of California. The purpose of the LLNL ES H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES H issues and requirements. The assessment was not a comprehensive compliance assessment of ES H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at LLNL was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of LLNL, which was conducted from February 26 through April 5, 1990. The LLNL Progress Assessment was conducted by a team of 12 professionals from various DOE offices and their support contractors, with expertise in the areas of management, environment, safety, and health. The Progress Assessment Team concluded that LLNL management recognizes the importance that the Secretary of Energy places on ES H excellence and has responded with improvements in all ES H areas. Progress has been made in addressing the deficiencies identified in the 1990 Tiger Team Assessment. Although much remains to be done and concerns were noted in several areas, these concerns do not diminish the significance of the progress made since the 1990 Tiger Team Assessment.

  1. Environment, safety and health progress assessment of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The onsite assessment, which was conducted from November 9 through November 20, 1992, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and programs with principal focus on the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs (DP); San Francisco Field Office (SF), including the Livermore Site Office (LSO); and the site contractor, the University of California. The purpose of the LLNL ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES&H issues and requirements. The assessment was not a comprehensive compliance assessment of ES&H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at LLNL was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of LLNL, which was conducted from February 26 through April 5, 1990. The LLNL Progress Assessment was conducted by a team of 12 professionals from various DOE offices and their support contractors, with expertise in the areas of management, environment, safety, and health. The Progress Assessment Team concluded that LLNL management recognizes the importance that the Secretary of Energy places on ES&H excellence and has responded with improvements in all ES&H areas. Progress has been made in addressing the deficiencies identified in the 1990 Tiger Team Assessment. Although much remains to be done and concerns were noted in several areas, these concerns do not diminish the significance of the progress made since the 1990 Tiger Team Assessment.

  2. Foodborne pathogens in milk and the dairy farm environment: food safety and public health implications.

    PubMed

    Oliver, S P; Jayarao, B M; Almeida, R A

    2005-01-01

    Milk and products derived from milk of dairy cows can harbor a variety of microorganisms and can be important sources of foodborne pathogens. The presence of foodborne pathogens in milk is due to direct contact with contaminated sources in the dairy farm environment and to excretion from the udder of an infected animal. Most milk is pasteurized, so why should the dairy industry be concerned about the microbial quality of bulk tank milk? There are several valid reasons, including (1) outbreaks of disease in humans have been traced to the consumption of unpasteurized milk and have also been traced back to pasteurized milk, (2) unpasteurized milk is consumed directly by dairy producers, farm employees, and their families, neighbors, and raw milk advocates, (3) unpasteurized milk is consumed directly by a large segment of the population via consumption of several types of cheeses manufactured from unpasteurized milk, (4) entry of foodborne pathogens via contaminated raw milk into dairy food processing plants can lead to persistence of these pathogens in biofilms, and subsequent contamination of processed milk products and exposure of consumers to pathogenic bacteria, (5) pasteurization may not destroy all foodborne pathogens in milk, and (6) inadequate or faulty pasteurization will not destroy all foodborne pathogens. Furthermore, pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes can survive and thrive in post-pasteurization processing environments, thus leading to recontamination of dairy products. These pathways pose a risk to the consumer from direct exposure to foodborne pathogens present in unpasteurized dairy products as well as dairy products that become re-contaminated after pasteurization. The purpose of this communication is to review literature published on the prevalence of bacterial foodborne pathogens in milk and in the dairy environment, and to discuss public health and food safety issues associated with foodborne pathogens found in the dairy environment

  3. Impact of Early Environment on Children's Mental Health: Lessons From DNA Methylation Studies With Monozygotic Twins.

    PubMed

    Chiarella, Julian; Tremblay, Richard E; Szyf, Moshe; Provençal, Nadine; Booij, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, epigenetic analyses have made important contributions to our understanding of healthy development and a wide variety of adverse conditions such as cancer and psychopathology. There is increasing evidence that DNA methylation is a mechanism by which environmental factors influence gene transcription and, ultimately, phenotype. However, differentiating the effects of the environment from those of genetics on DNA methylation profiles remains a significant challenge. Monozygotic (MZ) twin study designs are unique in their ability to control for genetic differences because each pair of MZ twins shares essentially the same genetic sequence with the exception of a small number of de novo mutations and copy number variations. Thus, differences within twin pairs in gene expression and phenotype, including behavior, can be attributed in the majority of cases to environmental effects rather than genetic influence. In this article, we review the literature showing how MZ twin designs can be used to study basic epigenetic principles, contributing to understanding the role of early in utero and postnatal environmental factors on the development of psychopathology. We also highlight the importance of initiating longitudinal and experimental studies with MZ twins during pregnancy. This approach is especially important to identify: (1) critical time periods during which the early environment can impact brain and mental health development, and (2) the specific mechanisms through which early environmental effects may be mediated. These studies may inform the optimum timing and design for early preventive interventions aimed at reducing risk for psychopathology.

  4. Genetic Variation in the Social Environment Contributes to Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ingels, Jesse F.; Bohl, Casey J.; Callebert, Jacques; Launay, Jean-Marie; Krohn, Jon; Legarra, Andres; Williams, Robert W.; Stegle, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Assessing the impact of the social environment on health and disease is challenging. As social effects are in part determined by the genetic makeup of social partners, they can be studied from associations between genotypes of one individual and phenotype of another (social genetic effects, SGE, also called indirect genetic effects). For the first time we quantified the contribution of SGE to more than 100 organismal phenotypes and genome-wide gene expression measured in laboratory mice. We find that genetic variation in cage mates (i.e. SGE) contributes to variation in organismal and molecular measures related to anxiety, wound healing, immune function, and body weight. Social genetic effects explained up to 29% of phenotypic variance, and for several traits their contribution exceeded that of direct genetic effects (effects of an individual’s genotypes on its own phenotype). Importantly, we show that ignoring SGE can severely bias estimates of direct genetic effects (heritability). Thus SGE may be an important source of “missing heritability” in studies of complex traits in human populations. In summary, our study uncovers an important contribution of the social environment to phenotypic variation, sets the basis for using SGE to dissect social effects, and identifies an opportunity to improve studies of direct genetic effects. PMID:28121987

  5. Structuring policy problems for plastics, the environment and human health: reflections from the UK.

    PubMed

    Shaxson, Louise

    2009-07-27

    How can we strengthen the science-policy interface for plastics, the environment and human health? In a complex policy area with multiple stakeholders, it is important to clarify the nature of the particular plastics-related issue before trying to understand how to reconcile the supply and demand for evidence in policy. This article proposes a simple problem typology to assess the fundamental characteristics of a policy issue and thus identify appropriate processes for science-policy interactions. This is illustrated with two case studies from one UK Government Department, showing how policy and science meet over the environmental problems of plastics waste in the marine environment and on land. A problem-structuring methodology helps us understand why some policy issues can be addressed through relatively linear flows of science from experts to policymakers but why others demand a more reflexive approach to brokering the knowledge between science and policy. Suggestions are given at the end of the article for practical actions that can be taken on both sides.

  6. Influence of Nanotoxicity on Human Health and Environment: The Alternative Strategies.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Buddolla; Kim, Sanghyo

    2017-01-01

    Currently, nanotechnology revolutionizing both scientific and industrial community due to their applications in the fields of medicine, environmental protection, energy, and space exploration. Despite of the evident benefits of nanoparticles, there are still open questions about the influence of these nanoparticles on human health and environment. This is one of the critical issues that have to be addressed in the near future, before massive production of nanomaterials. Manufactured nanoparticles, which are finding ever-increasing applications in industry and consumer products fall into the category of emerging contaminants with ecological and toxicological effects on populations, communities and ecosystems. The existing experimental knowledge gave evidence that inhaled nanoparticles are less efficiently separated than larger particles by the macrophage clearance mechanisms and these nanoparticles are known to translocate through the lymphatic, circulatory and nervous systems to many tissues and organs, including the brain. In this review we highlight adverse impacts of nanoparticles on human and the environment with special emphasis on green nanoscience as a sustainable alternative.

  7. Structuring policy problems for plastics, the environment and human health: reflections from the UK

    PubMed Central

    Shaxson, Louise

    2009-01-01

    How can we strengthen the science–policy interface for plastics, the environment and human health? In a complex policy area with multiple stakeholders, it is important to clarify the nature of the particular plastics-related issue before trying to understand how to reconcile the supply and demand for evidence in policy. This article proposes a simple problem typology to assess the fundamental characteristics of a policy issue and thus identify appropriate processes for science–policy interactions. This is illustrated with two case studies from one UK Government Department, showing how policy and science meet over the environmental problems of plastics waste in the marine environment and on land. A problem-structuring methodology helps us understand why some policy issues can be addressed through relatively linear flows of science from experts to policymakers but why others demand a more reflexive approach to brokering the knowledge between science and policy. Suggestions are given at the end of the article for practical actions that can be taken on both sides. PMID:19528061

  8. [Endocrine disruption agents: environment, health, public policies, and the precautionary principle].

    PubMed

    Vandelac, L

    2000-01-01

    The already substantial body of evidence and growing web of suspicions as to the scale and severity of the cascade effects of endocrine disrupters (related to persistent organic pollutants or POPs) on the health of ecosystems and humans have sparked such concern that in June 1998, representatives of 94 countries meeting in Montreal under the aegis of UNEP signed a draft international agreement to phase out the most harmful POPs. Related to particular persistent organic pollutants--toxic semi-volatile and persistent chemical compounds now found everywhere in the environment, such as BPCs, organochlorine pesticides, dioxins and furans, that build up in the bodies of organisms that consume other contaminated organisms along the food chain--endocrine disrupters are strongly suspected of affecting the health of animals and adversely impacting the health, fertility and even intellectual faculties of humans. For example, very low-level exposure to some POPs is associated with some hormone-dependent cancers, damage to the central and peripheral nervous systems, impaired immune system function, reproductive disorders and developmental disruptions in newborns and infants, who can be affected in utero or through breast-feeding. Considering the extreme complexity of the scientific and socio-economic effects of POP-related endocrine disrupters, there are those who, advocate a wait-and-see approach, claiming that there is not enough formal scientific proof. There are others who use the available evidence to advance the research, press for bans on incriminated substances and look for global, integrated and viable alternatives. And there are other still who, with careless disregard for the Precautionary Principle, are quite prepared to talk about the perverse effects of POPs in order to justify the increased use of artificial means of reproduction or the replacement of chemical pesticides by pest-resistant genetically modified organisms (GMOs), thereby opening the door to

  9. Implementation of Context Aware e-Health Environments Based on Social Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Erik; Led, Santiago; Lopez-Iturri, Peio; Azpilicueta, Leyre; Serrano, Luís; Falcone, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    In this work, context aware scenarios applied to e-Health and m-Health in the framework of typical households (urban and rural) by means of deploying Social Sensors will be described. Interaction with end-users and social/medical staff is achieved using a multi-signal input/output device, capable of sensing and transmitting environmental, biomedical or activity signals and information with the aid of a combined Bluetooth and Mobile system platform. The devices, which play the role of Social Sensors, are implemented and tested in order to guarantee adequate service levels in terms of multiple signal processing tasks as well as robustness in relation with the use wireless transceivers and channel variability. Initial tests within a Living Lab environment have been performed in order to validate overall system operation. The results obtained show good acceptance of the proposed system both by end users as well as by medical and social staff, increasing interaction, reducing overall response time and social inclusion levels, with a compact and moderate cost solution that can readily be largely deployed.

  10. Climate change and health in the urban environment: adaptation opportunities in Australian cities.

    PubMed

    Bambrick, Hilary Jane; Capon, Anthony Guy; Barnett, Guy Bruce; Beaty, R Matthew; Burton, Anthony John

    2011-03-01

    Urban populations are growing rapidly throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Cities are vulnerable to the health impacts of climate change because of their concentration of people and infrastructure, the physical (geographical, material, and structural) attributes of the built environment, and the ecological interdependence with the urban ecosystem. Australia is one of the most highly urbanized countries in the region and its already variable climate is set to become hotter and drier with climate change. Climate change in Australia is expected to increase morbidity and mortality from thermal stress, bacterial gastroenteritis, vector-borne disease, air pollution, flooding, and bushfires. The cost and availability of fresh water, food, and energy will also likely be affected. The more vulnerable urban populations, including the elderly, socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, and those with underlying chronic disease, will be most affected. Adaptation strategies need to address this underlying burden of disease and inequity as well as implement broad structural changes to building codes and urban design, and infrastructure capacity. In doing so, cities provide opportunities to realize "co-benefits" for health (eg, from increased levels of physical activity and improved air quality). With evidence that climate change is underway, the need for cities to be a focus in the development of climate adaptation strategies is becoming more urgent.

  11. Sustainable development goals for global health: facilitating good governance in a complex environment.

    PubMed

    Haffeld, Just

    2013-11-01

    Increasing complexity is following in the wake of rampant globalization. Thus, the discussion about Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires new thinking that departs from a critique of current policy tools in exploration of a complexity-friendly approach. This article argues that potential SDGs should: treat stakeholders, like states, business and civil society actors, as agents on different aggregate levels of networks; incorporate good governance processes that facilitate early involvement of relevant resources, as well as equitable participation, consultative processes, and regular policy and programme implementation reviews; anchor adoption and enforcement of such rules to democratic processes in accountable organizations; and include comprehensive systems evaluations, including procedural indicators. A global framework convention for health could be a suitable instrument for handling some of the challenges related to the governance of a complex environment. It could structure and legitimize government involvement, engage stakeholders, arrange deliberation and decision-making processes with due participation and regular policy review, and define minimum standards for health services. A monitoring scheme could ensure that agents in networks comply according to whole-systems targets, locally defined outcome indicators, and process indicators, thus resolving the paradox of government control vs. local policy space. A convention could thus exploit the energy created in the encounter between civil society, international organizations and national authorities.

  12. Incorporating immersive virtual environments in health promotion campaigns: a construal level theory approach.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sun Joo Grace

    2015-01-01

    In immersive virtual environments (IVEs), users may observe negative consequences of a risky health behavior in a personally involving way via digital simulations. In the context of an ongoing health promotion campaign, IVEs coupled with pamphlets are proposed as a novel messaging strategy to heighten personal relevance and involvement with the issue of soft-drink consumption and obesity, as well as perceptions that the risk is proximal and imminent. The framework of construal level theory guided the design of a 2 (tailoring: other vs. self) × 2 (medium: pamphlet only vs. pamphlet with IVEs) between-subjects experiment to test the efficacy in reducing the consumption of soft drinks over 1 week. Immediately following exposure, tailoring the message to the self (vs. other) seemed to be effective in reducing intentions to consume soft drinks. The effect of tailoring dissipated after 1 week, and measures of actual soft-drink consumption 1 week following experimental treatments demonstrated that coupling IVEs with the pamphlet was more effective. Behavioral intention was a significant predictor of actual behavior, but underlying mechanisms driving intentions and actual behavior were distinct. Results prescribed a messaging strategy that incorporates both tailoring and coupling IVEs with traditional media to increase behavioral changes over time.

  13. Electrostatics in the environment: How they may affect health and productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, K. S.; Simon, H. M. Ap; Bell, J. N. B.

    2008-12-01

    Lifestyles and the built environment have changed considerably during the past century and have greatly influenced the electric field, small air ion and charged submicron aerosol regimes to which individuals are often exposed. In particular the use of electrical items, synthetic materials/finishes and low humidity levels that can lead to the generation of high electrostatic charges, along with inadequate grounding protocols and building techniques which create 'Faraday cage'-like conditions, have all greatly altered the electromagnetic nature of the microclimates many people occupy for prolonged periods of time. It is suggested that the type, polarity and strengths of electric fields individuals are exposed to may affect their likelihood of succumbing to ill-health through influencing biological functioning, oxygen-uptake and retention rates of inhaled submicron contaminants to a far greater degree than previously realised. These factors can also influence the degree of local surface contamination and adhesion that occurs. It is further suggested that both health and work productivity can be affected by such factors, and that improved 'best practice' electro-hygiene/productivity protocols should be adopted wherever practical.

  14. Hot environment and health problems of outdoor workers at a construction site.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Ikuharu; Miyai, Nobuyuki; Miyashita, Kazuhisa

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this research was to understand hot working environment at a construction site in summer and its effects on health of workers. In the subjective construction site, some measures, such as taking a break during work, setting tents and electric fans, and drinking cool water, had already been taken to reduce heat stress. Twelve male workers were examined. The WBGT outdoors during work varied from 23 to 34 degrees C. The time-motion study revealed that one subject worked exceeding 7 hours, and that the other one had little rest time and drank little water during work. Few items of subjective symptoms increased after work compared with before work. In blood chemical data, electrolytes and blood urea nitrogen did not change. Blood sugar before work was significantly higher than before lunch and after work. Two subjects showed serum osmotic pressures increased after work. Two had the tendency to increase the blood pressure during work. The measures seemed effective, because the effects of work were not remarkable in general. However, some problems were still pointed out. Thus, stricter work control and health care for workers are necessary, such as controlling working hours strictly and monitoring the water intake during work.

  15. Implementation of Context Aware e-Health Environments Based on Social Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Erik; Led, Santiago; Lopez-Iturri, Peio; Azpilicueta, Leyre; Serrano, Luís; Falcone, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    In this work, context aware scenarios applied to e-Health and m-Health in the framework of typical households (urban and rural) by means of deploying Social Sensors will be described. Interaction with end-users and social/medical staff is achieved using a multi-signal input/output device, capable of sensing and transmitting environmental, biomedical or activity signals and information with the aid of a combined Bluetooth and Mobile system platform. The devices, which play the role of Social Sensors, are implemented and tested in order to guarantee adequate service levels in terms of multiple signal processing tasks as well as robustness in relation with the use wireless transceivers and channel variability. Initial tests within a Living Lab environment have been performed in order to validate overall system operation. The results obtained show good acceptance of the proposed system both by end users as well as by medical and social staff, increasing interaction, reducing overall response time and social inclusion levels, with a compact and moderate cost solution that can readily be largely deployed. PMID:26938539

  16. Cyanotoxins in desert environments may present a risk to human health.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, J S; Richer, R; Cox, P A; Codd, G A

    2012-04-01

    There have been few studies concerning cyanotoxins in desert environments, compared with the multitude of studies of cyanotoxins in aquatic environments. However, cyanobacteria are important primary producers in desert environments, where after seasonal rains they can grow rapidly both stabilising and fertilising arid habitats. Samples of cyanobacteria from wadis - dry, ephemeral river beds - and sabkha - supertidal salt flats - in Qatar were analysed for the presence of microcystins, nodularin, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin and anatoxin-a(S). Microcystins were detected by HPLC-PDA and ELISA at concentrations between 1.5 and 53.7ngg(-1) dry wt of crust. PCR products for the mycD gene for microcystin biosynthesis were detected after amplification of DNA from desert crust samples at two out of three sample sites. The presence of anatoxin-a(S) was also indicated by acetylcholine esterase inhibition assay. As a function of area of desert crust, microcystin concentrations were between 3 and 56μgm(-2). Based on the concentration of microcystins detected in crust, with reference to the published inhalation NOAEL and LOAEL values via nasal spray inhalation of purified microcystin-LR in aqueous solution, and the amount of dust potentially inhaled by a person from these dried crusts, the dose of microcystins could exceed a calculated TDI value of 1-2ngkg(-1)day(-1) for an average adult. The presence of microcystins, and potentially of anatoxin-a(S), in desert crusts has important implications for human health. Further studies are required to monitor desert dust storms for the presence of cyanotoxins. An understanding of the risks of inhaling particles containing cyanotoxins is also warranted.

  17. Health risk assessment for exposure to benzene in petroleum refinery environments.

    PubMed

    Edokpolo, Benjamin; Yu, Qiming Jimmy; Connell, Des

    2015-01-12

    The health risk resulting from benzene exposure in petroleum refineries was calculated using data from the scientific literature from various countries throughout the world. The exposure data was collated into four scenarios from petroleum refinery environments and plotted as cumulative probability distributions (CPD) plots. Health risk was evaluated for each scenario using the Hazard Quotient (HQ) at 50% (CEXP50) and 95% (CEXP95) exposure levels. Benzene levels were estimated to pose a significant risk with HQ50 > 1 and HQ95 > 1 for workers exposed to benzene as base estimates for petroleum refinery workers (Scenario 1), petroleum refinery workers evaluated with personal samplers in Bulgarian refineries (Scenario 2B) and evaluated using air inside petroleum refineries in Bulgarian refineries (Scenario 3B). HQ50 < 1 were calculated for petroleum refinery workers with personal samplers in Italian refineries (Scenario 2A), air inside petroleum refineries (Scenario 3A) and air outside petroleum refineries (Scenario 4) in India and Taiwan indicating little possible adverse health effects. Also, HQ95 was < 1 for Scenario 4 however potential risk was evaluated for Scenarios 2A and 3A with HQ95 > 1. The excess Cancer risk (CR) for lifetime exposure to benzene for all the scenarios was evaluated using the Slope Factor and Overall Risk Probability (ORP) methods. The result suggests a potential cancer risk for exposure to benzene in all the scenarios. However, there is a higher cancer risk at 95% (CEXP95) for petroleum refinery workers (2B) with a CR of 48,000 per 106 and exposure to benzene in air inside petroleum refineries (3B) with a CR of 28,000 per 106.

  18. Relative Influence of Genetics and Shared Environment on Child Mental Health Symptoms Depends on Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Van Hulle, Carol A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Maier, Rose; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2014-01-01

    Background Comorbidity among childhood mental health symptoms is common in clinical and community samples and should be accounted for when investigating etiology. We therefore aimed to uncover latent classes of mental health symptoms in middle childhood in a community sample, and to determine the latent genetic and environmental influences on those classes. Methods The sample comprised representative cohorts of twins. A questionnaire-based assessment of mental health symptoms was used in latent class analyses. Data on 3223 twins (1578 boys and 1645 girls) with a mean age of 7.5 years were analyzed. The sample was predominantly non-Hispanic Caucasian (92.1%). Results Latent class models delineated groups of children according to symptom profiles–not necessarily clinical groups but groups representing the general population, most with scores in the normative range. The best-fitting models suggested 9 classes for both girls and boys. Eight of the classes were very similar across sexes; these classes ranged from a “Low Symptom” class to a “Moderately Internalizing & Severely Externalizing” class. In addition, a “Moderately Anxious” class was identified for girls but not boys, and a “Severely Impulsive & Inattentive” class was identified for boys but not girls. Sex-combined analyses implicated moderate genetic influences for all classes. Shared environmental influences were moderate for the “Low Symptom” and “Moderately Internalizing & Severely Externalizing” classes, and small to zero for other classes. Conclusions We conclude that symptom classes are largely similar across sexes in middle childhood. Heritability was moderate for all classes, but shared environment played a greater role for classes in which no one type of symptom predominated. PMID:25077799

  19. Environment, Safety and Health Self-Assessment Report Fiscal Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Scott

    2011-03-23

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Self-Assessment Program was established to ensure that Integrated Safety Management (ISM) is implemented institutionally and by all divisions. The ES&H Self-Assessment Program, managed by the Office of Contractor Assurance (OCA), provides for an internal evaluation of all ES&H programs and systems at LBNL. The primary objective of the program is to ensure that work is conducted safely and with minimal negative impact to workers, the public, and the environment. Self-assessment follows the five core functions and guiding principles of ISM. Self-assessment is the mechanism used to promote the continuous improvement of the Laboratory's ES&H programs. The process is described in the Environment, Safety, and Health Assurance Plan (PUB-5344) and is composed of three types of self-assessments: Division ES&H Self-Assessment, ES&H Technical Assurance Program Assessment, and Division ES&H Peer Review. The Division ES&H Self-Assessment Manual (PUB-3105) provides the framework by which divisions conduct formal ES&H self-assessments to systematically identify program deficiencies. Issue-specific assessments are designed and implemented by the divisions and focus on areas of interest to division management. They may be conducted by teams and involve advance planning to ensure that appropriate resources are available. The ES&H Technical Assurance Program Manual (PUB-913E) provides the framework for systematic reviews of ES&H programs and processes. The ES&H Technical Assurance Program Assessment is designed to evaluate whether ES&H programs and processes are compliant with guiding regulations, are effective, and are properly implemented by LBNL divisions. The Division ES&H Peer Review Manual provides the framework by which division ISM systems are evaluated and improved. Peer Reviews are conducted by teams under the direction of senior division management and focus on higher-level management

  20. Defining Population Health Vulnerability Following an Extreme Weather Event in an Urban Pacific Island Environment: Honiara, Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Natuzzi, Eileen S; Joshua, Cynthia; Shortus, Matthew; Reubin, Reginald; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Ferran, Karen; Aumua, Audrey; Brodine, Stephanie

    2016-08-03

    Extreme weather events are common and increasing in intensity in the southwestern Pacific region. Health impacts from cyclones and tropical storms cause acute injuries and infectious disease outbreaks. Defining population vulnerability to extreme weather events by examining a recent flood in Honiara, Solomon Islands, can help stakeholders and policymakers adapt development to reduce future threats. The acute and subacute health impacts following the April 2014 floods were defined using data obtained from hospitals and clinics, the Ministry of Health and in-country World Health Organization office in Honiara. Geographical information system (GIS) was used to assess morbidity and mortality, and vulnerability of the health system infrastructure and households in Honiara. The April flash floods were responsible for 21 acute deaths, 33 injuries, and a diarrhea outbreak that affected 8,584 people with 10 pediatric deaths. A GIS vulnerability assessment of the location of the health system infrastructure and households relative to rivers and the coastline identified 75% of the health infrastructure and over 29% of Honiara's population as vulnerable to future hydrological events. Honiara, Solomon Islands, is a rapidly growing, highly vulnerable urban Pacific Island environment. Evaluation of the mortality and morbidity from the April 2014 floods as well as the infectious disease outbreaks that followed allows public health specialists and policy makers to understand the health system and populations vulnerability to future shocks. Understanding the negative impacts natural disaster have on people living in urban Pacific environments will help the government as well as development partners in crafting resilient adaptation development.

  1. Crime, fear of crime, environment, and mental health and wellbeing: mapping review of theories and causal pathways.

    PubMed

    Lorenc, Theo; Clayton, Stephen; Neary, David; Whitehead, Margaret; Petticrew, Mark; Thomson, Hilary; Cummins, Steven; Sowden, Amanda; Renton, Adrian

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the findings from a review of the theoretical and empirical literature on the links between crime and fear of crime, the social and built environment, and health and wellbeing. A pragmatic approach was employed, with iterative stages of searching and synthesis. This produced a holistic causal framework of pathways to guide future research. The framework emphasises that crime and fear of crime may have substantial impacts on wellbeing, but the pathways are often highly indirect, mediated by environmental factors, difficult to disentangle and not always in the expected direction. The built environment, for example, may affect health via its impacts on health behaviours; via its effects on crime and fear of crime; or via the social environment. The framework also helps to identify unexpected factors which may affect intervention success, such as the risk of adverse effects from crime prevention interventions as a result of raising awareness of crime.

  2. Persistence of microbial communities including Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a hospital environment: a potential health hazard

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The persistence of microbial communities and how they change in indoor environments is of immense interest to public health. Moreover, hospital acquired infections are significant contributors to morbidity and mortality. Evidence suggests that, in hospital environments agent transfer between surfaces causes healthcare associated infections in humans, and that surfaces are an important transmission route and may act as a reservoir for some of the pathogens. This study aimed to evaluate the diversity of microorganisms that persist on noncritical equipment and surfaces in a main hospital in Portugal, and are able to grow in selective media for Pseudomonas, and relate them with the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results During 2 years, a total of 290 environmental samples were analyzed, in 3 different wards. The percentage of equipment in each ward that showed low contamination level varied between 22% and 38%, and more than 50% of the equipment sampled was highly contaminated. P. aeruginosa was repeatedly isolated from sinks (10 times), from the taps’ biofilm (16 times), and from the showers and bedside tables (two times). Two ERIC clones were isolated more than once. The contamination level of the different taps analyzed showed correlation with the contamination level of the hand gels support, soaps and sinks. Ten different bacteria genera were frequently isolated in the selective media for Pseudomonas. Organisms usually associated with nosocomial infections as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Enterococcus feacalis, Serratia nematodiphila were also repeatedly isolated on the same equipment. Conclusions The environment may act as a reservoir for at least some of the pathogens implicated in nosocomial infections. The bacterial contamination level was related to the presence of humidity on the surfaces, and tap water (biofilm) was a point of dispersion of bacterial species, including potentially pathogenic organisms. The materials of the equipment

  3. Cytotoxic Responses and Potential Respiratory Health Effects of Carbon and Carbonaceous Nanoparticulates in the Paso del Norte Airshed Environment

    PubMed Central

    Soto, K. F.; Murr, L. E.; Garza, K. M.

    2008-01-01

    We have utilized a range of manufactured or commercial nanoparticulate materials, including surrogate carbon nano-PM along with combustion-generated carbonaceous (soot) nano-PM characteristic of environmental nano-PM (both indoor and outdoor) to investigate and compare their cytotoxic response in vitro with an immortalized human epithelial (lung model) cell line (A549). These have included nano-Ag, Al2O3, TiO2, Fe2O3, ZrO2, Si3N4, chrysotile asbestos, BC, 2 types of MWCNT-aggregate PM (MWCNT-R and MWCNT-N), and high-volume glass fiber collected soots: candle, wood, diesel (truck), tire, and 3-types of natural gas kitchen burner-generated soots: yellow (fuel-rich) flame, low-flow blue flame, and normal flow blue flame soot PM. These carbonaceous nano-PM species can be found in either the indoor and outdoor environments or microenvironments. Two-day and two-week in-vitro cultures of A549 showed cell death (or decreased cell viability) for all nanoparticulate materials, but especially significant for all but the TiO2 and candle, wood, and diesel PM. The natural gas kitchen burner combustion PM cell death response was characteristic of BC and MWCNT PM. There was no correlation with total PAH content of the soot PM. Cytokine release (IL-6, IL-8) was detected for the Ag, Fe2 O3, asbestos, BC and the MWCNT PM. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was also detected for Ag, Fe2 O3, ZrO2, asbestos, BC, and the MWCNT aggregate PM, as well as the natural gas kitchen burner combustion PM. TEM, FESEM, and optical microscopy examination of these nanomaterials illustrate the wide range in PM morphologies and crystallinities as well as cell morphologies. Taken together, these results illustrate proinflammatory and related respiratory health issues in relation to environmental nanoparticulates. PMID:18441401

  4. Designing health care environments: Part I. Basic concepts, principles, and issues related to evidence-based design.

    PubMed

    Cesario, Sandra K

    2009-06-01

    A 2001 Institute of Medicine report captured the nation's attention regarding the dangers that can result from the health care environment. This report, fueled by the need for new facilities to be constructed, led to an explosion of research that now links the physical structure and design of health care facilities to the health and well-being of patients, nurses, other health care workers, and visitors. Continuing nursing education that highlights the importance of evidence-based design has been associated with measurable improvement in health care facilities' clinical outcomes, economic performance, employee productivity, customer satisfaction, and cultural congruency. Three major categories of outcomes can be impacted by evidence-based design: stress reduction, safety, and overall health care quality and ecology. In this article, Part I of a two-part series, the basic concepts, principles, and issues related to evidence-based design are introduced. Part II will describe continuing education programs available for nurses.

  5. Environment, safety and health, management and organization compliance assessment, West Valley Demonstration Program, West Valley, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    An Environment, Safety and Health Tiger Team'' Assessment was conducted at the West Valley Demonstration Project. The Tiger Team was chartered to conduct an onsite, independent assessment of WVDP's environment, safety and health (ES H) programs to assure compliance with applicable Federal and State laws, regulations, and standards, and Department of Energy Orders. The objective is to provide to the Secretary of Energy the following information: current ES H compliance status of each facility; specific noncompliance items; root causes'' for noncompliance items; evaluation of the adequacy of ES H organization and resources (DOE and contractor) and needed modifications; and where warranted, recommendations for addressing identified problem areas.

  6. Environment and air pollution like gun and bullet for low-income countries: war for better health and wealth.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiang; Azam, Muhammad; Islam, Talat; Zaman, Khalid

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the impact of environmental indicators and air pollution on "health" and "wealth" for the low-income countries. The study used a number of promising variables including arable land, fossil fuel energy consumption, population density, and carbon dioxide emissions that simultaneously affect the health (i.e., health expenditures per capita) and wealth (i.e., GDP per capita) of the low-income countries. The general representation for low-income countries has shown by aggregate data that consist of 39 observations from the period of 1975-2013. The study decomposes the data set from different econometric tests for managing robust inferences. The study uses temporal forecasting for the health and wealth model by a vector error correction model (VECM) and an innovation accounting technique. The results show that environment and air pollution is the menace for low-income countries' health and wealth. Among environmental indicators, arable land has the largest variance to affect health and wealth for the next 10-year period, while air pollution exerts the least contribution to change health and wealth of low-income countries. These results indicate the prevalence of war situation, where environment and air pollution become visible like "gun" and "bullet" for low-income countries. There are required sound and effective macroeconomic policies to combat with the environmental evils that affect the health and wealth of the low-income countries.

  7. Hot Corrosion Studies of Detonation-Gun-Sprayed NiCrAlY + 0.4 wt.% CeO2 Coated Superalloys in Molten Salt Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Subhash; Jayaganthan, R.; Prakash, Satya

    2011-08-01

    Rare earth oxide (CeO2) has been incorporated in NiCrAlY alloy and hot corrosion resistance of detonation-gun-sprayed NiCrAlY + 0.4 wt.% CeO2 coatings on superalloys, namely, superni 75, superni 718, and superfer 800H in molten 40% Na2SO4-60% V2O5 salt environment were investigated at 900 °C for 100 cycles. The coatings exhibited characteristic splat globular dendritic structure with diameter similar to the original powder particles. The weight change technique was used to establish corrosion kinetics. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive analysis (FE-SEM/EDAX), and x-ray mapping techniques were used to analyze the corrosion products. Coated superfer 800H alloy showed the highest corrosion resistance among the examined superalloys. CeO2 was found to be distributed in the coating along the splat boundaries, whereas Al streaks distributed non-uniformly. The main phases observed for the coated superalloys are oxides of Ni, Cr, Al, and spinels, which are suggested to be responsible for developing corrosion resistance.

  8. The Predictive Effects of Work Environment on Stigma Toward and Practical Concerns for Seeking Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Yamawaki, Niwako; Kelly, Clinton; Dresden, Brooke E; Busath, Gregory L; Riley, Christina E

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate factors in the work environment of the U.S. military that influence barriers toward seeking help from mental health. In particular, this study investigated the effects of gender, pay grade, satisfaction of work, coworkers, leaders, and perceived hostility in the workplace on practical concerns for and stigma toward seeking help from mental health services. A sample of 22,792 was drawn from the 2012 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey. The results revealed the crucial roles of work environments for stigma toward seeking help from mental health services. Being female or an officer are significant predictors for greater stigma toward and practical concerns that impede seeking help from mental health professionals in comparison to being male or an enlisted officer. Furthermore, higher workplace hostility, lower satisfaction toward leaders, coworkers, and one's work were all significant predictors for greater stigma toward and practical concerns for seeking help. This study revealed the vital roles of work environments in the military that influence stigma toward and practical concerns for seeking help from mental health professionals. Some implications and recommendations for prevention and intervention for underutilization of mental health services are discussed.

  9. Human and ecosystem health: the environment-agriculture connection in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Graber, D R; Jones, W J; Johnson, J A

    1995-01-01

    It is posited that farming methods and activities are both affected by and have an impact on local and global environmental ecosystems. This article discusses regional and global trends that affect the environment and the health and survival of rural agricultural populations. Political, social, and environmental factors that "underlie and generate" medical issues are identified for developing countries with large rural populations dependent upon the land for survival. Although food production appears to have kept pace with population growth in macro statistics, 35% of the population in sub-Saharan Africa, 22% of the Asian population, and 22% of developing market economies were estimated to be malnourished in the mid-1980s. The Green Revolution involved the widespread use of chemicals in agriculture that had adverse environmental impacts. The interrelationships between water resources, erosion, pesticides and fertilizers, deforestation, population pressure, and biodiversity, and farmers are individually addressed. It is argued that a new perspective may be necessary in order to preserve agriculture and other ecosystems and human health. A universal formula for environmentally sensitive and productive agriculture is not possible. However, it is likely that some approaches may involve traditional practices, such as crop rotation and natural pest management, combined with the tools of the Green Revolution (pesticides, fertilizers, and intensive irrigation). An increasing number of people are aware that creative and locally rational farming methods are the best option, and that the costs of chemical-intensive farming in developing countries are too high. National policies that promote cultivation of non-food cash crops and favor the land-wealthy elite have serious consequences for the small farmer and national food availability. The World Bank has the greatest potential to guide agricultural reforms that promote protective practices engendered in local controls over

  10. The work environment and workers' health in four large office buildings.

    PubMed Central

    Chao, H Jasmine; Schwartz, Joel; Milton, Donald K; Burge, Harriet A

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a 1-year epidemiologic study in Boston, Massachusetts, beginning May 1997, to examine the associations between environmental factors and office workers' health. We recruited 98 subjects (81 females and 17 males) in 21 offices in four office buildings. We conducted environmental sampling every 6 weeks and concurrently administered detailed questionnaires to collect information on work-related symptoms, psychosocial factors, and perceptions of the office environments. In multivariate analyses, eye irritation was positively correlated with floor dust [odds ratio (OR) = 1.46; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.14-1.86] and reported lack of office cleanliness (OR = 1.52; 95% CI, 1.11-2.08). Nonspecific symptoms were positively associated with unidentified chair fungi (OR = 1.87; 95% CI, 1.11-3.15) and several self-reported conditions, including a history of asthma (OR = 3.15; 95% CI, 1.26-7.87), more people in offices (OR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.16-2.51), lack of office cleanliness (OR = 2.85; 95% CI, 1.72-4.73), and low job satisfaction (OR = 1.72; 95% CI, 1.06-2.81). Upper respiratory symptoms were positively associated with total fungal concentrations recovered from chair dust (OR = 1.35; 95% CI, 1.07-1.70) and the following self-reported conditions: more people in offices (OR = 1.45; 95% CI, 1.01-2.08), lack of office cleanliness (OR = 1.62; 95% CI, 1.15-2.30), and jobs frequently requiring hard work (OR = 1.43; 95% CI, 1.05-1.95). This study emphasizes the importance of maintaining a clean, uncrowded workspace and the importance of chair fungi as a correlate for health effects. PMID:12842780

  11. Environmental factors and human health: fibrous and particulate substance-induced immunological disorders and construction of a health-promoting living environment.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Takemi; Matsuzaki, Hidenori; Lee, Suni; Kumagai-Takei, Naoko; Yamamoto, Shoko; Hatayama, Tamayo; Yoshitome, Kei; Nishimura, Yasumitsu

    2016-03-01

    Among the various scientific fields covered in the area of hygiene such as environmental medicine, epidemiology, public health and preventive medicine, we are investigating the immunological effects of fibrous and particulate substances in the environment and work surroundings, such as asbestos fibers and silica particles. In addition to these studies, we have attempted to construct health-promoting living conditions. Thus, in this review we will summarize our investigations regarding the (1) immunological effects of asbestos fibers, (2) immunological effects of silica particles, and (3) construction of a health-promoting living environment. This review article summarizes the 2014 Japanese Society for Hygiene (JSH) Award Lecture of the 85th Annual Meeting of the JSH entitled "Environmental health effects: immunological effects of fibrous and particulate matter and establishment of health-promoting environments" presented by the first author of this manuscript, Prof. Otsuki, Department of Hygiene, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Japan, the recipient of the 2014 JSH award. The results of our experiments can be summarized as follows: (1) asbestos fibers reduce anti-tumor immunity, (2) silica particles chronically activate responder and regulatory T cells causing an unbalance of these two populations of T helper cells, which may contribute to the development of autoimmune disorders frequently complicating silicosis, and (3) living conditions to enhance natural killer cell activity were developed, which may promote the prevention of cancers and diminish symptoms of virus infections.

  12. [Health-related absenteeism among workers employed in various work environments].

    PubMed

    Szubert, Z; Makowiec-Dabrowska, T; Sobala, W

    1999-01-01

    The state of health in working people is determined by a number of factors among which working conditions and the kind of job performed play undoubtedly a crucial role. The observation and analysis of trends in sick absenteeism may provide indirect information on health problems of the occupationally active population. The aim of the analysis presented was to define the magnitude and the causes of temporary work disability among workers employed in individual branches of the national economy, and finally to identify high risk groups of workers because of their employment in specific working conditions. The statistical material used as the basis for the calculation of absenteeism indicators embraced the data on the number of work disability days, derived from a 15 representative sample of punched cards, concerning certificates of temporary work disability. In order to accomplish the objectives of the analysis, the trends in sick absenteeism observed before 1989, the period preceding the structural changes and the transformation of Polish economy were taken into consideration. The analysis indicates that the level of sick absenteeism in the branches of the national economy (forestry, building construction, transport, industry) and the proportion of chronic diseases in its structure prove the effect of working conditions on the workers' health. Considering individual branches of industry, the highest levels of sick absenteeism are observed in the following branches: mining for men (5.61), non-ferrous metals for women (10.04) and men (4.95), ferrous metallurgy for women (9.99) and men (4.93), and petroleum products for women (11.76). The analysis of sick absenteeism in the branches selected in view of hazardous working conditions shows that: (1) in many branches chemical hazards in the work environment are responsible for an increased sick absenteeism due to diseases of the circulatory system, particularly among men, mental disorders and neoplasms, both among men and

  13. How to Find Lessons from the Public Health Literature: Example of a Scoping Study Protocol on the Neighborhood Environment

    PubMed Central

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Généreux, Mélissa; Desroches, Josiane; Carrier, Annie; Lacasse, Francis; Chabot, Éric; Abecia, Ana; Gosselin, Louise; Vanasse, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Background: As key determinants of many favorable health and quality of life outcomes, it is important to identify factors associated with mobility and social participation. Although several investigations have been carried out on mobility, social participation and neighborhood environment, there is no clear integration of these results. This paper presents a scoping study protocol that aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of how the physical and social neighborhood environment is associated with or influences mobility and social participation in older adults. Methods: The rigorous methodological framework for scoping studies is used to synthesize and disseminate current knowledge on the associations or influence of the neighborhood environment on mobility and social participation in aging. Nine databases from public health and other fields are searched with 51 predetermined keywords. Using content analysis, all data are exhaustively analyzed, organized, and synthesized independently by two research assistants. Discussion: A comprehensive synthesis of empirical studies provides decision-makers, clinicians and researchers with current knowledge and best practices regarding neighborhood environments with a view to enhancing mobility and social participation. Such a synthesis represents an original contribution and can ultimately support decisions and development of innovative interventions and clear guidelines for the creation of age-supportive environments. Improvements in public health and clinical interventions might be the new innovation needed to foster health and quality of life for aging population. Finally, the aspects of the associations or influence of the neighborhood environment on mobility and social participation not covered by previous research are identified. Conclusions: Among factors that impact mobility and social participation, the neighborhood environment is important since interventions targeting it may have a greater impact on an

  14. Place-focused physical activity research, human agency, and social justice in public health: taking agency seriously in studies of the built environment.

    PubMed

    Blacksher, Erika; Lovasi, Gina S

    2012-03-01

    Built environment characteristics have been linked to health outcomes and health disparities. However, the effects of an environment on behavior may depend on human perception, interpretation, motivation, and other forms of human agency. We draw on epidemiological and ethical concepts to articulate a critique of research on the built environment and physical activity. We identify problematic assumptions and enumerate both scientific and ethical reasons to incorporate subjective perspectives and public engagement strategies into built environment research and interventions. We maintain that taking agency seriously is essential to the pursuit of health equity and the broader demands of social justice in public health, an important consideration as studies of the built environment and physical activity increasingly focus on socially disadvantaged communities. Attention to how people understand their environment and navigate competing demands can improve the scientific value of ongoing efforts to promote active living and health, while also better fulfilling our ethical obligations to the individuals and communities whose health we strive to protect.

  15. Environment, Safety and Health progress assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Department`s continuous improvement process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the INEL ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Department with concise independent information on the following: (1) change in culture and attitude related to ES&H activities; (2) progress and effectiveness of the ES&H corrective actions resulting from previous Tiger Team Assessments; (3) adequacy and effectiveness of the ES&H self-assessment programs of the DOE line organizations and the site management and operating contractor; and (4) effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES&H problems. It is not intended that this Progress Assessment be a comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The points of reference for assessing programs at the INEL were, for the most part, the 1991 INEL Tiger Team Assessment, the INEL Corrective Action Plan, and recent appraisals and self-assessments of INEL. Horizontal and vertical reviews of the following programmatic areas were conducted: Management: Corrective action program; self-assessment; oversight; directives, policies, and procedures; human resources management; and planning, budgeting, and resource allocation. Environment: Air quality management, surface water management, groundwater protection, and environmental radiation. Safety and Health: Construction safety, worker safety and OSHA, maintenance, packaging and transportation, site/facility safety review, and industrial hygiene.

  16. Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This report documents the results of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site (AIS), near Chicago, Illinois, conducted from October 25 through November 9, 1993. During the Progress Assessment, activities included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and programs with principal focus on the DOE Office of Energy Research (ER); CH, which includes the Argonne Area Office; the University of Chicago; and the contractor`s organization responsible for operation of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of DOE`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the AIS ES&H Progress Assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy, senior DOE managers, and contractor management with concise independent information on the following: change in culture and attitude related to ES&H activities; progress and effectiveness of the ES&H corrective actions resulting from the previous Tiger Team Assessment; adequacy and effectiveness of the ES&H self-assessment process of the DOE line organizations, the site management, and the operating contractor; and effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES&H problems and new ES&H initiatives.

  17. Environment, safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the DOE Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. The assessment, which was conducted during the period of May 17 through May 28, 1993, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices (Defense Programs (DP) and Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM)), the DOE Rocky Flats Office (RFO), and the site contractor, EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. (EG&G). Despite the near constant state of flux under which RFP has been required to operate, the Progress Assessment Team has concluded that significant progress has been made in correcting the deficiencies identified in the 1989 Assessment and in responding responsibly to regulations, and DOE directives and guidance that have been issued since that time. The Team concluded that the improvements have been concentrated in the activities associated with plutonium facilities and in regulatory driven programs. Much remains to be done with respect to implementing on a sitewide basis those management systems that anchor an organization`s pursuit of continuous ES&H improvement. Furthermore the Team concluded that the pace of improvement has been constrained by a combination of factors that have limited the site`s ability to manage change in the pursuit of sitewide ES&H excellence.

  18. Environment, safety, and health considerations for a neutrino source based on a muon storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    J. Donald Cossairt

    2000-05-15

    The Neutrino Source presents a number of challenges in the general area of environment, safety, and health. It is the intent of this paper to identify these challenges and make a preliminary, but not detailed assessment of how they might be addressed and of their potential impact on the project. Some of the considerations which must be taken into account are very similar to those that have been encountered and solved during the construction and operation of other facilities at Fermilab and at similar laboratories elsewhere in the US and worldwide. Other considerations have not been encountered previously in connection with the construction and operation of accelerator laboratories. These novel issues will require particular attention as such a project proceeds to assure their timely resolution in a manner that is cost-effective and that meets the approval of the public. In this paper, both the conventional and the novel issues are discussed, with more emphasis on the latter. It is concluded here that with adequate planning in the design stages, these problems can be adequately addressed in a manner that merits the support of the Laboratory, the Department of Energy, and the public. An abbreviated version of this paper appears as Chapter 14 in the report of a recent feasibility study (Ho 00)and the figures have come from that work.

  19. Site Environmental Report for 2004. Volume 1, Environment, Health, and Safety Division

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-30

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.1 The Site Environmental Report for 2004 summarizes Berkeley Lab’s environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2004. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as “Berkeley Lab,” “the Laboratory,” “Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,” and “LBNL.”) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains an overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Volume II contains individual data results from these activities. This year, the Site Environmental Report was distributed by releasing it on the Web from the Berkeley Lab Environmental Services Group (ESG) home page, which is located at http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. Many of the documents cited in this report also are accessible from the ESG Web page. CD and printed copies of this Site Environmental Report are available upon request.

  20. Tracing and cataloguing knowledge in an e-health cardiology environment.

    PubMed

    Gortzis, L G; Nikiforidis, G

    2008-04-01

    In an e-health cardiology environment, the current knowledge engineering systems can support two knowledge processes; the knowledge tracing, and the knowledge cataloguing. We have developed an n-tier system capable of supporting these processes by enabling human collaboration in each phase along with, a prototype scalable knowledge engineering tactic. A knowledge graph is used as a dynamic information structure. Biosignal data (values of HR, QRS, and ST variables) from 86 patients were used; two general practitioners defined and updated the patients' clinical management protocols; and feedback was inserted retrospectively. Several calibration tests were also performed. The system succeeded in formulating three knowledge catalogues per patient, namely, the "patient in life", the "patient in time", and the "patient in action". For each patient the clinically accepted normal limits of each variable were predicted with an accuracy of approximately 95%. The patients' risk-levels were identified accurately, and in turn, the errors were reduced. The data and the expert-oriented feedback were also time-stamped correctly and synchronized under a common time-framework. Knowledge processes optimization necessitates human collaboration and scalable knowledge engineering tactics. Experts should be responsible for resenting or rejecting a process if it downgrades the provided healthcare quality.

  1. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 1: Technical standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standard (referred to as the Standard) provides guidance for integrating and enhancing worker, public, and environmental protection during facility disposition activities. It provides environment, safety, and health (ES and H) guidance to supplement the project management requirements and associated guidelines contained within DOE O 430.1A, Life-Cycle Asset Management (LCAM), and amplified within the corresponding implementation guides. In addition, the Standard is designed to support an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), consistent with the guiding principles and core functions contained in DOE P 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, and discussed in DOE G 450.4-1, Integrated Safety Management System Guide. The ISMS guiding principles represent the fundamental policies that guide the safe accomplishment of work and include: (1) line management responsibility for safety; (2) clear roles and responsibilities; (3) competence commensurate with responsibilities; (4) balanced priorities; (5) identification of safety standards and requirements; (6) hazard controls tailored to work being performed; and (7) operations authorization. This Standard specifically addresses the implementation of the above ISMS principles four through seven, as applied to facility disposition activities.

  2. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This volume contains the appendices that provide additional environment, safety, and health (ES and H) information to complement Volume 1 of this Standard. Appendix A provides a set of candidate DOE ES and H directives and external regulations, organized by hazard types that may be used to identify potentially applicable directives to a specific facility disposition activity. Appendix B offers examples and lessons learned that illustrate implementation of ES and H approaches discussed in Section 3 of Volume 1. Appendix C contains ISMS performance expectations to guide a project team in developing and implementing an effective ISMS and in developing specific performance criteria for use in facility disposition. Appendix D provides guidance for identifying potential Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) when decommissioning facilities fall under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, Liability Act (CERCLA) process. Appendix E discusses ES and H considerations for dispositioning facilities by privatization. Appendix F is an overview of the WSS process. Appendix G provides a copy of two DOE Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards memoranda that form the bases for some of the guidance discussed within the Standard. Appendix H gives information on available hazard analysis techniques and references. Appendix I provides a supplemental discussion to Sections 3.3.4, Hazard Baseline Documentation, and 3.3.6, Environmental Permits. Appendix J presents a sample readiness evaluation checklist.

  3. Medical competence: the interplay between individual ability and the health care environment.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, Olle; Snell, Linda; Carraccio, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Competency-based education in the health care professions has become a prominent approach to postgraduate training in Canada, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, the United States, and many other countries. Competency frameworks devised at national and international levels have been well received, and in many cases mandated, by governing bodies. However, the teaching and assessment of competencies pose questions of practicality, validity, and reliability. In this article we propose that competence and competencies be approached in the context of the particular clinical environment, such that the assessment of competence is tied to a trainee's performance of essential clinical activities that define the profession. Competence is implicit in the eventual entrustment of trainees to perform these professional activities. Competencies and "entrustable professional activities" (EPAs) relate to each other as two dimensions of a grid in which each EPA can be mapped back to a number of competencies. This backward visioning from EPAs to competencies is proposed as a guide to curriculum planning and assessment. The authors discuss experiences with this conceptual model in research, curriculum development and learner assessment.

  4. Influences of environment and its modification on dairy animal health and production.

    PubMed

    Collier, R J; Beede, D K; Thatcher, W W; Israel, L A; Wilcox, C J

    1982-11-01

    Physiological state of dairy animals is a predisposing factor in environmental influences on animal health. Critical phases of life cycle include neonatal period, postpubertal reproduction, and lactation. Primary effect of environment in neonatal period is increased disease incidence associated with reduced immunoglobulin content in plasma of calves. Cold stress has little effect on reproduction; in contrast, heat stress reduces libido, fertility, and embryonic survival in cattle. Heat stress in late gestation reduces fetal growth and alters endocrine status of the dam. Carryover effects of heat stress during late gestation on postpartum lactation and reproduction also are detectable. Heat stress of lactating cattle results in dramatic reductions in roughage intake and rumination. Decreases in roughage intake contribute to decreased volatile fatty acid production and may contribute to alteration in ratio of acetate/propionate. Rumen pH also declines during thermal stress. Electrolyte concentrations, in particular sodium and potassium, also are reduced in rumen fluid of heat stressed cattle. The decrease in sodium and potassium are related to increases in loss of urinary sodium and loss of skin potassium as well as decline in plasma aldosterone and increase in plasma prolactin. Reduction in thyroxine, growth hormone, and glucocorticoid concentrations in chronically heat stressed cattle appear to be related to decreases in basal metabolism.

  5. Influence of dispersion state of initial AlN powder on the hydrolysis process in air environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditts, A. A.; Revva, I. B.; Grishko, N. Y.; Tarnovskiy, R. V.

    2016-11-01

    The research results of the hydrolysis processes of aluminum nitride powders received by the SVS method in dependence on humidity of the storage environment, and grain size distribution are presented in this work. Oxidation kinetics was estimated by means of X- ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The induction period of the hydrolysis process for various powders, its dependence on powder dispersion and thickness of the oxide layer on surface of particles have been defined.

  6. Relationship between clinical fieldwork educator performance and health professional students' perceptions of their practice education learning environments.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ted; Williams, Brett; Lynch, Marty

    2013-12-01

    The Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure, Clinical Teaching Effectiveness Instrument, and Clinical Learning Environment Inventory were completed by 548 undergraduate students (54.5% response rate) enrolled in eight health professional bachelor degree courses. Regression analysis was used to investigate the significant predictors of the Clinical Teaching Effectiveness Instrument with the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure and Clinical Learning Environment Inventory subscales as independent variables. The results indicated that the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure and Clinical Learning Environment Inventory Actual version subscale scores explained 44% of the total variance in the Clinical Teaching Effectiveness Instrument score. The Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure subscale Academic Self-Perception explained 1.1% of the variance in the Clinical Teaching Effectiveness Instrument score. The Clinical Learning Environment Inventory Actual subscales accounted for the following variance percentages in the Clinical Teaching Effectiveness Instrument score: personalization, 1.1%; satisfaction, 1.7%; task orientation, 5.1%; and innovation, 6.2%. Aspects of the clinical learning environment appear to be predictive of the effectiveness of the clinical teaching that students experience. Fieldwork educator performance might be a significant contributing factor toward student skill development and practitioner success.

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1988 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health: Part 5, Environment, safety, health, and quality assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, L.G.; Pennell, W.T.; Selby, J.M.

    1989-02-01

    This document summarizes the research programs now underway at Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratory in the areas of environmental safety, health, and quality assurance. Topics include internal irradiation, emergency plans, dose equivalents, risk assessment, dose equivalents, surveys, neutron dosimetry, and radiation accidents. (TEM)

  8. Ecological Health and Water Quality Assessments in Big Creek Lake, AL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, L. M.; Frey, J. W.; Jones, J. B.; Maki, A. E.; Brozen, M. W.; Malik, S.; Allain, M.; Mitchell, B.; Batina, M.; Brooks, A. O.

    2008-12-01

    Big Creek Lake (aka J.B. Converse Reservoir) serves as the water supply for the majority of residents in Mobile County, Alabama. The area surrounding the reservoir serves as a gopher tortoise mitigation bank and is protected from further development, however, impacts from previous disasters and construction have greatly impacted the Big Creek Lake area. The Escatawpa Watershed drains into the lake, and of the seven drainage streams, three have received a 303 (d) (impaired water bodies) designation in the past. In the adjacent ecosystem, the forest is experiencing major stress from drought and pine bark beetle infestations. Various agencies are using control methods such as pesticide treatment to eradicate the beetles. There are many concerns about these control methods and the run-off into the ecosystem. In addition to pesticide control methods, the Highway 98 construction projects cross the north area of the lake. The community has expressed concern about both direct and indirect impacts of these construction projects on the lake. This project addresses concerns about water quality, increasing drought in the Southeastern U.S., forest health as it relates to vegetation stress, and state and federal needs for improved assessment methods supported by remotely sensed data to determine coastal forest susceptibility to pine bark beetles. Landsat TM, ASTER, MODIS, and EO-1/ALI imagery was employed in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI), as well as to detect concentration of suspended solids, chlorophyll and water turbidity. This study utilizes NASA Earth Observation Systems to determine how environmental conditions and human activity relate to pine tree stress and the onset of pine beetle invasion, as well as relate current water quality data to community concerns and gain a better understanding of human impacts upon water resources.

  9. Toward a Case Definition of Adverse Health Effects in the Environs of Industrial Wind Turbines: Facilitating a Clinical Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtry, Robert Y.

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, there are reports of adverse health effects (AHE) in the environs of industrial wind turbines (IWT). There was multidisciplinary confirmation of the key characteristics of the AHE at the first international symposium on AHE/IWT. The symptoms being reported are consistent internationally and are characterized by crossover findings…

  10. Does employee participation in workplace health promotion depend on the working environment? A cross-sectional study of Danish workers

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Villadsen, Ebbe; Burr, Hermann; Punnett, Laura; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate if participation in workplace health promotion (WHP) depends on the work environment. Methods Questionnaire data on participation in WHP activities (smoking cessation, healthy diet, exercise facilities, weekly exercise classes, contact with health professionals, health screenings) and the work environment (social support, fatiguing work, physical, quantitative and emotional demands, job control and WHP availability setting) were collected cross-sectionally in 2010 in a representative sample (n=10 605) of Danish workers. Binary regression analyses of the association between work environment characteristics and participation in WHP were conducted and adjusted for age, gender and industry. Results WHP offered during leisure time was associated with lower participation in all measured activities compared with when offered during working hours. Low social support and fatiguing work were associated with low participation in WHP. No associations with participation in WHPs were observed for physical work or quantitative demands, work pace or job strain. However, high physical demands/low job control and high emotional demands/low job control were associated with low participation. Conclusions Lower participation in WHP was associated with programmes during leisure, low social support, very fatiguing work and high physical or emotional demands with low job control. This suggests that to obtain proper effect of health promotion in a workplace setting, a good work environment is essential. PMID:27279474

  11. Healthy and Safe School Environment, Part I: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sherry Everett; Fisher, Carolyn J.; Greene, Brenda Z.; Hertz, Marci F.; Pritzl, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Background: Policies set at the state, district, and school levels can support and enhance a healthy and safe school environment. Methods: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducts the School Health Policies and Programs Study every 6 years. In 2006, computer-assisted telephone interviews or self-administered mail questionnaires were…

  12. Understanding School Health Environment through Interviews with Key Stakeholders in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal and Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Eun Young; Gittelsohn, Joel; Nkala, Denis; Choi, Bo Youl

    2015-01-01

    Studies on health promoting schools (HPS) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are scarce. To contribute to the development of HPS in these countries, we conducted formative research to understand the school environment in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Forty-three teachers, 10 government workers and 5 parents participated in…

  13. Creating healthful home food environments: Results of a study with participants in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to evaluate a modified curriculum for the 6-session Texas Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP), promoting healthful home food environments and parenting skills related to obesity prevention. We used a two-group randomized control trial: intervention versus usual EF...

  14. Creating Healthful Home Food Environments: Results of a Study with Participants in the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Smalling, Agueda Lara; Thompson, Debbe; Watson, Kathleen B.; Reed, Debra; Konzelmann, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a modified curriculum for the 6-session Texas Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) promoting healthful home food environments and parenting skills related to obesity prevention. Design: Two-group randomized control trial; intervention versus usual EFNEP curriculum. Setting: Texas EFNEP classes. Participants:…

  15. Proceedings, AMA Congress on Environmental Health Problems. Population Environment and Health (2nd, Chicago, Illinois, April 26-27, 1965).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Medical Association, Chicago, IL.

    Included are 20 papers presented at the second AMA Congress on Environmental Health Problems. The papers have been grouped into these broad subject categories. One group relates to physical and chemical changes, living cells, mental health, and human physiology. The second category relates to tuberculosis, venereal disease, respiratory disease,…

  16. Rate and correlates of depression among elderly people attending primary health care centres in Al-Dakhiliyah governorate, Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabahi, S M; Al Sinawi, H N; Al-Hinai, S S; Youssef, R M

    2014-04-03

    This study determined the rates and correlates of depression among community-dwelling elderly people, based on data from the comprehensive health assessment conducted in Al-Dakhiliyah governorate in Oman in 2008-2010. Data covered sociodemographic characteristics, medical and nutrition status, functional abilities, depression and dementia. The rate of depression was 16.9%, higher among women than men (19.3% versus 14.3%). Depression was independently predicted by the presence of social risk (OR = 3.44), dementia (OR = 3.17), impairment in activities of daily living (OR = 2.19), joint problems (OR = 1.52) and mobility restriction (OR = 1.43). If dementia was excluded from the model, depression was additionally predicted by poor perception of health (OR = 2.09), impairment in instrumental activities of daily living (OR = 1.47) and older ages of 70-< 80 years (OR = 1.63) and ≥ 80 years (OR = 1.75). Although not presenting as a complaint, depression in not uncommon among elderly people.

  17. Health and productivity gains from better indoor environments and their implications for the U.S. Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.

    2000-10-01

    A substantial portion of the US population suffers frequently from communicable respiratory illnesses, allergy and asthma symptoms, and sick building syndrome symptoms. We now have increasingly strong evidence that changes in building design, operation, and maintenance can significantly reduce these illnesses. Decreasing the prevalence or severity of these health effects would lead to lower health care costs, reduced sick leave, and shorter periods of illness-impaired work performance, resulting in annual economic benefits for the US in the tens of billions of dollars. Increasing the awareness of these potential health and economic gains, combined with other factors, could help bring about a shift in the way we design, construct, operate, and occupy buildings. The current goal of providing marginally adequate indoor environments could be replaced by the goal of providing indoor environments that maximize the health, satisfaction, and performance of building occupants. Through research and technology transfer, DOE and its contractors are well positioned to help stimulate this shift in practice and, consequently, improve the health and economic well-being of the US population. Additionally, DOE's energy-efficiency interests would be best served by a program that prepares for the potential shift, specifically by identifying and promoting the most energy-efficient methods of improving the indoor environment. The associated research and technology transfer topics of particular relevance to DOE are identified and discussed.

  18. Predictors of English Health Literacy among U.S. Hispanic Immigrants: The importance of language, bilingualism and sociolinguistic environment

    PubMed Central

    Hund, Lauren; Soto Mas, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, data confirm that Spanish-speaking immigrants are particularly affected by the negative health outcomes associated with low health literacy. Although the literature points to variables such as age, educational background and language, only a few studies have investigated the factors that may influence health literacy in this group. Similarly, the role that bilingualism and/or multilingualism play in health literacy assessment continues to be an issue in need of further research. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors of English health literacy among adult Hispanic immigrants whose self-reported primary language is Spanish, but who live and function in a bilingual community. It also explored issues related to the language of the instrument. An analysis of data collected through a randomized controlled study was conducted. Results identified English proficiency as the strongest predictor of health literacy (p < 0.001). The results further point to the importance of primary and secondary language in the assessment of heath literacy level. This study raises many questions in need of further investigation to clarify how language proficiency and sociolinguistic environment affect health literacy in language minority adults; proposes language approaches that may be more appropriate for measuring health literacy in these populations; and recommends further place-based research to determine whether the connection between language proficiency and health is generalizable to border communities. PMID:27127416

  19. Connecting food environments and health through the relational nature of aesthetics: Gaining insight through the community gardening experience

    PubMed Central

    Hale, James; Knapp, Corrine; Bardwell, Lisa; Buchenau, Michael; Marshall, Julie; Sancar, Fahriye; Litt, Jill S

    2011-01-01

    Current environmental and health challenges require us to identify ways to better align aesthetics, ecology, and health. At the local level, community gardens are increasingly praised for their therapeutic qualities. They also provide a lens through which we can explore relational processes that connect people, ecology and health. Using key-informant interview data, this research explores gardeners’ tactile, emotional, and value-driven responses to the gardening experience and how these responses influence health at various ecological levels (n=67 participants, 28 urban gardens). Our findings demonstrate that gardeners’ aesthetic experiences generate meaning that encourages further engagement with activities that may lead to positive health outcomes. Gardeners directly experience nearby nature by ‘getting their hands dirty’ and growing food. They enjoy the way vegetables taste and form emotional connections with the garden. The physical and social qualities of garden participation awaken the senses and stimulate a range of responses that influence interpersonal processes (learning, affirming, expressive experiences) and social relationships that are supportive of positive health-related behaviors and overall health. This research suggests that the relational nature of aesthetics, defined as the most fundamental connection between people and place, can help guide community designers and health planners when designing environment and policy approaches to improve health behaviors. PMID:21596466

  20. Connecting food environments and health through the relational nature of aesthetics: gaining insight through the community gardening experience.

    PubMed

    Hale, James; Knapp, Corrine; Bardwell, Lisa; Buchenau, Michael; Marshall, Julie; Sancar, Fahriye; Litt, Jill S

    2011-06-01

    Current environmental and health challenges require us to identify ways to better align aesthetics, ecology, and health. At the local level, community gardens are increasingly praised for their therapeutic qualities. They also provide a lens through which we can explore relational processes that connect people, ecology and health. Using key-informant interview data, this research explores gardeners' tactile, emotional, and value-driven responses to the gardening experience and how these responses influence health at various ecological levels (n = 67 participants, 28 urban gardens). Our findings demonstrate that gardeners' aesthetic experiences generate meaning that encourages further engagement with activities that may lead to positive health outcomes. Gardeners directly experience nearby nature by 'getting their hands dirty' and growing food. They enjoy the way vegetables taste and form emotional connections with the garden. The physical and social qualities of garden participation awaken the senses and stimulate a range of responses that influence interpersonal processes (learning, affirming, expressive experiences) and social relationships that are supportive of positive health-related behaviors and overall health. This research suggests that the relational nature of aesthetics, defined as the most fundamental connection between people and place, can help guide community designers and health planners when designing environment and policy approaches to improve health behaviors.

  1. Creating Welcoming Spaces for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Patients: An Evaluation of the Health Care Environment.

    PubMed

    McClain, Zachary; Hawkins, Linda A; Yehia, Baligh R

    2016-01-01

    Health outcomes are affected by patient, provider, and environmental factors. Previous studies have evaluated patient-level factors; few focusing on environment. Safe clinical spaces are important for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities. This study evaluates current models of LGBT health care delivery, identifies strengths and weaknesses, and makes recommendations for LGBT spaces. Models are divided into LGBT-specific and LGBT-embedded care delivery. Advantages to both models exist, and they provide LGBT patients different options of healthcare. Yet certain commonalities must be met: a clean and confidential system. Once met, LGBT-competent environments and providers can advocate for appropriate care for LGBT communities, creating environments where they would want to seek care.

  2. Improving the Health of Workers in Indoor Environments: Priority Research Needs for a National Occupational Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Mendell, Mark J.; Fisk, William J.; Kreiss, Kathleen; Levin, Hal; Alexander, Darryl; Cain, William S.; Girman, John R.; Hines, Cynthia J.; Jensen, Paul A.; Milton, Donald K.; Rexroat, Larry P.; Wallingford, Kenneth M.

    2002-01-01

    Indoor nonindustrial work environments were designated a priority research area through the nationwide stakeholder process that created the National Occupational Research Agenda. A multidisciplinary research team used member consensus and quantitative estimates, with extensive external review, to develop a specific research agenda. The team outlined the following priority research topics: building-influenced communicable respiratory infections, building-related asthma/allergic diseases, and nonspecific building-related symptoms; indoor environmental science; and methods for increasing implementation of healthful building practices. Available data suggest that improving building environments may result in health benefits for more than 15 million of the 89 million US indoor workers, with estimated economic benefits of $5 to $75 billion annually. Research on these topics, requiring new collaborations and resources, offers enormous potential health and economic returns. PMID:12197969

  3. Regulation of the immune system by biodiversity from the natural environment: An ecosystem service essential to health

    PubMed Central

    Rook, Graham A.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that living close to the natural environment is associated with long-term health benefits including reduced death rates, reduced cardiovascular disease, and reduced psychiatric problems. This is often attributed to psychological mechanisms, boosted by exercise, social interactions, and sunlight. Compared with urban environments, exposure to green spaces does indeed trigger rapid psychological, physiological, and endocrinological effects. However, there is little evidence that these rapid transient effects cause long-term health benefits or even that they are a specific property of natural environments. Meanwhile, the illnesses that are increasing in high-income countries are associated with failing immunoregulation and poorly regulated inflammatory responses, manifested as chronically raised C-reactive protein and proinflammatory cytokines. This failure of immunoregulation is partly attributable to a lack of exposure to organisms (“Old Friends”) from mankind’s evolutionary past that needed to be tolerated and therefore evolved roles in driving immunoregulatory mechanisms. Some Old Friends (such as helminths and infections picked up at birth that established carrier states) are almost eliminated from the urban environment. This increases our dependence on Old Friends derived from our mothers, other people, animals, and the environment. It is suggested that the requirement for microbial input from the environment to drive immunoregulation is a major component of the beneficial effect of green space, and a neglected ecosystem service that is essential for our well-being. This insight will allow green spaces to be designed to optimize health benefits and will provide impetus from health systems for the preservation of ecosystem biodiversity. PMID:24154724

  4. Regulation of the immune system by biodiversity from the natural environment: an ecosystem service essential to health.

    PubMed

    Rook, Graham A

    2013-11-12

    Epidemiological studies suggest that living close to the natural environment is associated with long-term health benefits including reduced death rates, reduced cardiovascular disease, and reduced psychiatric problems. This is often attributed to psychological mechanisms, boosted by exercise, social interactions, and sunlight. Compared with urban environments, exposure to green spaces does indeed trigger rapid psychological, physiological, and endocrinological effects. However, there is little evidence that these rapid transient effects cause long-term health benefits or even that they are a specific property of natural environments. Meanwhile, the illnesses that are increasing in high-income countries are associated with failing immunoregulation and poorly regulated inflammatory responses, manifested as chronically raised C-reactive protein and proinflammatory cytokines. This failure of immunoregulation is partly attributable to a lack of exposure to organisms ("Old Friends") from mankind's evolutionary past that needed to be tolerated and therefore evolved roles in driving immunoregulatory mechanisms. Some Old Friends (such as helminths and infections picked up at birth that established carrier states) are almost eliminated from the urban environment. This increases our dependence on Old Friends derived from our mothers, other people, animals, and the environment. It is suggested that the requirement for microbial input from the environment to drive immunoregulation is a major component of the beneficial effect of green space, and a neglected ecosystem service that is essential for our well-being. This insight will allow green spaces to be designed to optimize health benefits and will provide impetus from health systems for the preservation of ecosystem biodiversity.

  5. Effect of chloride environment on fatigue behavior of AA6061-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particle composite

    SciTech Connect

    Bertolini, L.; Brunella, M.F.; Candiani, S.

    1998-12-31

    The paper deals with the corrosion fatigue behavior of a particulate reinforced metal matrix composite with aluminium alloy AA 6061-T6 matrix and 10% by volume of alumina particles. The material was in two different working conditions. Fatigue K-increasing and K-decreasing crack growth rate tests were carried out in air and a 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution. The condition of pitting corrosion initiation in chloride environments was studied by means of potentiodynamic polarization tests carried out in aerated and deaerated 3.5% NaCl solutions. Furthermore immersion tests were performed in aerated solutions. The aggressive environment significantly increased the fatigue crack growth rate for a given {Delta}K, with respect to tests in air. The sensitivity of the fatigue behavior to the chloride solution was different in the two materials, whereas the corrosion behavior was similar. Thereafter an interaction between pitting corrosion, occurring preferentially at the particle-matrix interface, and the mechanisms of crack propagation in the composite material was argued.

  6. Limiting the impact of light pollution on human health, environment and stellar visibility.

    PubMed

    Falchi, Fabio; Cinzano, Pierantonio; Elvidge, Christopher D; Keith, David M; Haim, Abraham

    2011-10-01

    Light pollution is one of the most rapidly increasing types of environmental degradation. Its levels have been growing exponentially over the natural nocturnal lighting levels provided by starlight and moonlight. To limit this pollution several effective practices have been defined: the use of shielding on lighting fixture to prevent direct upward light, particularly at low angles above the horizon; no over lighting, i.e. avoid using higher lighting levels than strictly needed for the task, constraining illumination to the area where it is needed and the time it will be used. Nevertheless, even after the best control of the light distribution is reached and when the proper quantity of light is used, some upward light emission remains, due to reflections from the lit surfaces and atmospheric scatter. The environmental impact of this "residual light pollution", cannot be neglected and should be limited too. Here we propose a new way to limit the effects of this residual light pollution on wildlife, human health and stellar visibility. We performed analysis of the spectra of common types of lamps for external use, including the new LEDs. We evaluated their emissions relative to the spectral response functions of human eye photoreceptors, in the photopic, scotopic and the 'meltopic' melatonin suppressing bands. We found that the amount of pollution is strongly dependent on the spectral characteristics of the lamps, with the more environmentally friendly lamps being low pressure sodium, followed by high pressure sodium. Most polluting are the lamps with a strong blue emission, like Metal Halide and white LEDs. Migration from the now widely used sodium lamps to white lamps (MH and LEDs) would produce an increase of pollution in the scotopic and melatonin suppression bands of more than five times the present levels, supposing the same photopic installed flux. This increase will exacerbate known and possible unknown effects of light pollution on human health, environment

  7. Mitigating Stress and Supporting Health in Deprived Urban Communities: The Importance of Green Space and the Social Environment.

    PubMed

    Ward Thompson, Catharine; Aspinall, Peter; Roe, Jenny; Robertson, Lynette; Miller, David

    2016-04-22

    Environment-health research has shown significant relationships between the quantity of green space in deprived urban neighbourhoods and people's stress levels. The focus of this paper is the nature of access to green space (i.e., its quantity or use) necessary before any health benefit is found. It draws on a cross-sectional survey of 406 adults in four communities of high urban deprivation in Scotland, United Kingdom. Self-reported measures of stress and general health were primary outcomes; physical activity and social wellbeing were also measured. A comprehensive, objective measure of green space quantity around each participant's home was also used, alongside self-report measures of use of local green space. Correlated Component Regression identified the optimal predictors for primary outcome variables in the different communities surveyed. Social isolation and place belonging were the strongest predictors of stress in three out of four communities sampled, and of poor general health in the fourth, least healthy, community. The amount of green space in the neighbourhood, and in particular access to a garden or allotment, were significant predictors of stress. Physical activity, frequency of visits to green space in winter months, and views from the home were predictors of general health. The findings have implications for public health and for planning of green infrastructure, gardens and public open space in urban environments.

  8. Residential Surrounding Greenness, Self-Rated Health and Interrelations with Aspects of Neighborhood Environment and Social Relations.

    PubMed

    Orban, Ester; Sutcliffe, Robynne; Dragano, Nico; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    Previous research suggests that green environments positively influence health. Several underlying mechanisms have been discussed; one of them is facilitation of social interaction. Further, greener neighborhoods may appear more aesthetic, contributing to satisfaction and well-being. Aim of this study was to analyze the association of residential surrounding greenness with self-rated health, using data from 4480 women and men aged 45-75 years that participated in the German population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. We further aimed to explore the relationships of greenness and self-rated health with the neighborhood environment and social relations. Surrounding greenness was measured using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within 100 m around participants' residence. As a result, we found that with higher greenness, poor self-rated health decreased (adjusted OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.98; per 0.1 increase in NDVI), while neighborhood satisfaction (1.41, 1.23-1.61) and neighborhood social capital (1.22, 1.12-1.32) increased. Further, we observed inverse associations of neighborhood satisfaction (0.70, 0.52-0.94), perceived safety (0.36, 0.22-0.60), social satisfaction (0.43, 0.31-0.58), and neighborhood social capital (0.53, 0.44-0.64) with poor self-rated health. These results underline the importance of incorporating green elements into neighborhoods for health-promoting urban development strategies.

  9. Mitigating Stress and Supporting Health in Deprived Urban Communities: The Importance of Green Space and the Social Environment

    PubMed Central

    Ward Thompson, Catharine; Aspinall, Peter; Roe, Jenny; Robertson, Lynette; Miller, David

    2016-01-01

    Environment-health research has shown significant relationships between the quantity of green space in deprived urban neighbourhoods and people’s stress levels. The focus of this paper is the nature of access to green space (i.e., its quantity or use) necessary before any health benefit is found. It draws on a cross-sectional survey of 406 adults in four communities of high urban deprivation in Scotland, United Kingdom. Self-reported measures of stress and general health were primary outcomes; physical activity and social wellbeing were also measured. A comprehensive, objective measure of green space quantity around each participant’s home was also used, alongside self-report measures of use of local green space. Correlated Component Regression identified the optimal predictors for primary outcome variables in the different communities surveyed. Social isolation and place belonging were the strongest predictors of stress in three out of four communities sampled, and of poor general health in the fourth, least healthy, community. The amount of green space in the neighbourhood, and in particular access to a garden or allotment, were significant predictors of stress. Physical activity, frequency of visits to green space in winter months, and views from the home were predictors of general health. The findings have implications for public health and for planning of green infrastructure, gardens and public open space in urban environments. PMID:27110803

  10. Constitutive Model for the Time-Dependent Mechanical Behavior of 430 Stainless Steel and FeCrAlY Foams in Sulfur-Bearing Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Lara-Curzio, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of 430 stainless steel and pre-oxidized FeCrAlY open-cell foam materials of various densities was evaluated in compression at temperatures between 450 C and 600 C in an environment containing hydrogen sulfide and water vapor. Both materials showed negligible corrosion due to the gaseous atmosphere for up to 168 hours. The monotonic stress-strain response of these materials was found to be dependent on both the strain rate and their density, and the 430 stainless steel foam materials exhibited less stress relaxation than FeCrAlY for similar experimental conditions. Using the results from multiple hardening-relaxation and monotonic tests, an empirical constitutive equation was derived to predict the stress-strain behavior of FeCrAlY foams as a function of temperature and strain rate. These results are discussed in the context of using these materials in a black liquor gasifier to accommodate the chemical expansion of the refractory liner resulting from its reaction with the soda in the black liquor.

  11. Constitutive Model for the Time-Dependent Mechanical Behavior of 430 Stainless Steel and FeCrAlY Foams in Sulfur-Bearing Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemrick, James G.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar

    2013-03-01

    The mechanical behavior of 430 stainless steel and pre-oxidized FeCrAlY open-cell foam materials of various densities was evaluated in compression at temperatures between 450°C and 600°C in an environment containing hydrogen sulfide and water vapor. Both materials showed negligible corrosion due to the gaseous atmosphere for up to 168 h. The monotonic stress-strain response of these materials was found to be dependent on both the strain rate and their density, and the 430 stainless steel foam materials exhibited less stress relaxation than the FeCrAlY for similar experimental conditions. Using the results from multiple hardening-relaxation and monotonic tests, an empirical constitutive equation was derived to predict the stress-strain behavior of FeCrAlY foams as a function of temperature, and strain rate. These results are discussed in the context of using these materials in a black liquor gasifier to accommodate the chemical expansion of the refractory liner resulting from its reaction with the soda in the black liquor.

  12. [Introduction to the thematic session "Environment and health. Sustainable risk and communication in Public Health" (National Conference of Public Health. Italian Society of Hygiene. Naples 15-17 October 2009)].

    PubMed

    Faggioli, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organization and European Union have for quite some time drawn attention to the relationship between environment and health, the environmental risks responsible for a part of disease burden and the role of primary prevention in eliminating these risks. The above international organisms have identified objectives, strategies and actions for promoting and safeguarding health through protection and improvement of the environment but these have not been considered in the planning and regulatory processes regarding primary prevention strategies in Italy. The aims of this session are to highlight political and institutional weaknesses in this regard, demonstrate the efficacy of "good practices" and their feasibility if adequate and dedicated resources are made available, and call for investments for the environment and health.

  13. Health issues and the environment--an emerging paradigm for providers of obstetrical and gynaecological health care.

    PubMed

    Genuis, Stephen J

    2006-09-01

    Although ongoing study is required to winnow environmental ideology from scientific fact, existing evidence from recent research demonstrates a definitive link between chemical toxicants and potential health sequelae, including congenital affliction and gynaecological disorders. Amid media clamour of health risk and biological peril associated with various environmental toxicants, a spectrum of responses has emerged: some have embraced the environmental cause, some have summarily dismissed it as piffle and perhaps the majority has remained disinterested. Although journals devoted to toxicological and environmental health concerns have become prominent in academia with voluminous numbers of scientific reports being published, there has been limited exploration of the relationship between contemporary chemical exposure and reproductive medical issues in mainstream obstetrics and gynaecology literature. Providers of obstetrical and gynaecological health care need to acquire knowledge of taking an exposure history, instruction in details of precautionary avoidance, skills to provide preconception care and necessary tools to investigate and manage patients with toxicant exposure.

  14. Quality and Safety in Health Care, Part XIV: The External Environment and Research for Diagnostic Processes.

    PubMed

    Harolds, Jay A

    2016-09-01

    The work system in which diagnosis takes place is affected by the external environment, which includes requirements such as certification, accreditation, and regulations. How errors are reported, malpractice, and the system for payment are some other aspects of the external environment. Improving the external environment is expected to decrease errors in diagnosis. More research on improving the diagnostic process is needed.

  15. Environment, Safety and Health independent evaluation of Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Company`s (FERMCO) Comprehensive Environmental Occupational Safety and Health Program (CEOSHP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) requested the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) to perform an independent evaluation of Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation`s (FERMCO`s) Comprehensive Environmental occupational Safety and Health Program (CEOSHP) document. In 1992, FERMCO was awarded the Department of Energy`s (DOE) first Environmental Restoration Management Contract and developed the CEOSHP to respond to contract requirements. EH limited its review to the CEOSHP because this document constitutes FERMCO`s written environment, safety and health (ES&H) program document and thus provides the basis for FERMCO`s ES&H program. EH`s independent review identified several major areas of the CEOSHP that need to be revised if it is to function successfully as the program-level document for FERMCO`s environment, safety and health program. The problems identified occur throughout the document and apply across the three CEOSHP sections evaluated by EH: the Occupational Safety and Health program, the Environmental Protection program, and the Radiological Control program. Primary findings of the CEOSHP: (1) Does not fully reflect the occupational safety and health, environmental protection, and radiological control requirements of the Department; (2) Does not convey a strong sense of management leadership of the program or clearly delineate employee rights, responsibilities, and roles in FERMCO`s ES&H program; (3) Is not a program management-level document; (4) Does not describe a ``seamless`` ES&H program; and (5) Does not clearly convey how FERMCO`s ES&H program actually works. EH`s detailed evaluation of FERMCO`s CEOSHP, along with specific recommendations are presented in Sections 2, 3, and 4 of this report. EH believes that EM will find this review and analysis useful in its efforts to assist FERMCO in a comprehensive redrafting of the CEOSHP.

  16. Endocrine actions of pesticides measured in the Flemish environment and health studies (FLEHS I and II).

    PubMed

    Croes, K; Den Hond, E; Bruckers, L; Govarts, E; Schoeters, G; Covaci, A; Loots, I; Morrens, B; Nelen, V; Sioen, I; Van Larebeke, N; Baeyens, W

    2015-10-01

    Within the Flemish Environment and Health studies (FLEHS I, 2002-2006, and FLEHS II, 2007-2012), pesticide exposure, hormone levels and degree of sexual maturation were measured in 14-15-year-old adolescents residing in Flanders (Belgium). In FLEHS II, geometric mean concentrations (with 95 % confidence interval (CI)) of 307 (277-341) and 36.5 ng L(-1) (34.0-39.2) were found for p,p'-dichlorophenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). These values were respectively 26 and 60 % lower than levels in FLEHS I, 5 years earlier. Metabolites of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) and of para-dichlorobenzene were measured for the first time in FLEHS II, yielding concentrations of 11.4, 3.27 and 1.57 μg L(-1) for the sum of dimethyl- and diethyl phosphate metabolites and 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), respectively. Data on internal exposure of HCB showed a positive correlation with sexual maturation, testosterone and the aromatase index for boys and with free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (both boys and girls). For both p,p'-DDE and HCB, a negative association with sexual development in girls was found. The OPP metabolites were negatively associated with sex hormone levels in the blood of boys and with sexual maturation (both boys and girls). The pesticide metabolite 2,5-DCP was negatively correlated with free T4, while a positive association with TSH was reported (boys and girls). These results show that even exposure to relatively low concentrations of pesticides can have significant influences on hormone levels and the degree of sexual maturation in 14-15-year-old adolescents.

  17. Chemicals in the environment and developmental toxicity to children: a public health and policy perspective.

    PubMed

    Goldman, L R; Koduru, S

    2000-06-01

    There are numerous pesticides and toxic chemicals in the environment that have yet to be evaluated for potential to cause developmental neurotoxicity. Recent legislation and testing initiatives provide an impetus to generating more information about potential hazards to children. In the United States, the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) to make a finding that a pesticide food use is safe for children. In addition, the law requires U.S. EPA to incorporate an additional 10-fold factor in risk assessments for pesticide residue tolerances to take into account the special sensitivities of infants and children as well as incomplete data with respect to toxicity and exposures. The potential of chemicals in food and drinking water to cause endocrine disruption will also be examined via the Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Program required by the FQPA and the 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act. In addition, a new voluntary chemical information program will provide screening-level information for the some 2,800 high-volume chemicals in commerce in the United States. These initiatives will need to be accompanied by research focused on developmental toxicity for children, including developmental disabilities. Developmental disabilities exact a large toll on children's health in the United States. Three major developmental disabilities--autism, cerebral palsy, and severe mental retardation--each affect substantial numbers of children. We know very little about the etiology of these conditions. A number of priority areas for research are suggested, including a large environmental prospective study of developmental neurotoxicity.

  18. Clinical solid waste management practices and its impact on human health and environment--A review.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Sohrab; Santhanam, Amutha; Nik Norulaini, N A; Omar, A K Mohd

    2011-04-01

    The management of clinical solid waste (CSW) continues to be a major challenge, particularly, in most healthcare facilities of the developing world. Poor conduct and inappropriate disposal methods exercised during handling and disposal of CSW is increasing significant health hazards and environmental pollution due to the infectious nature of the waste. This article summarises a literature review into existing CSW management practices in the healthcare centers. The information gathered in this paper has been derived from the desk study of open literature survey. Numerous researches have been conducted on the management of CSW. Although, significant steps have been taken on matters related to safe handling and disposal of the clinical waste, but improper management practice is evident from the point of initial collection to the final disposal. In most cases, the main reasons of the mismanagement of CSW are the lack of appropriate legislation, lack of specialized clinical staffs, lack of awareness and effective control. Furthermore, most of the healthcare centers of the developing world have faced financial difficulties and therefore looking for cost effective disposal methods of clinical waste. This paper emphasizes to continue the recycle-reuse program of CSW materials after sterilization by using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO2) sterilization technology at the point of initial collection. Emphasis is on the priority to inactivate the infectious micro-organisms in CSW. In that case, waste would not pose any threat to healthcare workers. The recycling-reuse program would be carried out successfully with the non-specialized clinical staffs. Therefore, the adoption of SF-CO2 sterilization technology in management of clinical solid waste can reduce exposure to infectious waste, decrease labor, lower costs, and yield better compliance with regulatory. Thus healthcare facilities can both save money and provide a safe environment for patients, healthcare staffs

  19. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Richard C; Moore, Charles J; vom Saal, Frederick S; Swan, Shanna H

    2009-07-27

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However, concerns about usage and disposal are diverse and include accumulation of waste in landfills and in natural habitats, physical problems for wildlife resulting from ingestion or entanglement in plastic, the leaching of chemicals from plastic products and the potential for plastics to transfer chemicals to wildlife and humans. However, perhaps the most important overriding concern, which is implicit throughout this volume, is that our current usage is not sustainable. Around 4 per cent of world oil production is used as a feedstock to make plastics and a similar amount is used as energy in the process. Yet over a third of current production is used to make items of packaging, which are then rapidly discarded. Given our declining reserves of fossil fuels, and finite capacity for disposal of waste to landfill, this linear use of hydrocarbons, via packaging and other short-lived applications of plastic, is simply not sustainable. There are solutions, including material reduction, design for end-of-life recyclability, increased recycling capacity, development of bio-based feedstocks, strategies to reduce littering, the application of green chemistry life-cycle analyses and revised risk assessment approaches. Such measures will be most effective through the combined actions of the public, industry, scientists and policymakers. There is some urgency, as the quantity of plastics produced in the first 10 years of the current century is likely to approach the quantity produced in the

  20. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Richard C.; Moore, Charles J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Swan, Shanna H.

    2009-01-01

    Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities. It is evident that plastics bring many societal benefits and offer future technological and medical advances. However, concerns about usage and disposal are diverse and include accumulation of waste in landfills and in natural habitats, physical problems for wildlife resulting from ingestion or entanglement in plastic, the leaching of chemicals from plastic products and the potential for plastics to transfer chemicals to wildlife and humans. However, perhaps the most important overriding concern, which is implicit throughout this volume, is that our current usage is not sustainable. Around 4 per cent of world oil production is used as a feedstock to make plastics and a similar amount is used as energy in the process. Yet over a third of current production is used to make items of packaging, which are then rapidly discarded. Given our declining reserves of fossil fuels, and finite capacity for disposal of waste to landfill, this linear use of hydrocarbons, via packaging and other short-lived applications of plastic, is simply not sustainable. There are solutions, including material reduction, design for end-of-life recyclability, increased recycling capacity, development of bio-based feedstocks, strategies to reduce littering, the application of green chemistry life-cycle analyses and revised risk assessment approaches. Such measures will be most effective through the combined actions of the public, industry, scientists and policymakers. There is some urgency, as the quantity of plastics produced in the first 10 years of the current century is likely to approach the quantity produced in the