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Sample records for al environ sci

  1. Data supporting Al-Abed et al., Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2016,

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Data files representing each of the Figures and Tables published in Al-Abed et al., Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2016,3, 593. The data file names identify the Figure or Table and each file contains an internal set of data definitionsThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Al-Abed, S.R., J. Virkutyte, J. Ortenzio , R.M. McCarrick, L. Degn, R. Zucker , N. Coates , K. Cleveland, H. Ma, S. Diamond, K. Dreher , and W. Boyes. Environmental aging alters AI(OH)3 coating of TiO2 nanoparticles enhancing their photocatalytic and phototoxicity activities. Environmental Science: Nano. RSC Publishing, Cambridge, UK, N/A, (2016).

  2. Authors' response on Hoppe et al. (2015) "Effects of a neonicotinoid pesticide on honey bee colonies: a response to the field study by Pilling et al. (2013)". Environ Sci Eur (2015) 27-28.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Peter; Coulson, Mike; Ruddle, Natalie; Tornier, Ingo; Pilling, Ed

    2015-01-01

    The published Commentary by Hoppe et al. (Environ Sci Eur 27-28, 2015) makes a number of strong criticisms of Pilling et al. (PLoS One 8:e77193, 2013), which this authors' response will show are either wrong, inaccurate or misleading. A selection of these misrepresentations include a claim that technical thiamethoxam was used rather than the commercial product. This is not true. Pilling et al. (PLoS One 8:e77193, 2013) clearly state that formulated commercial products were used which also included fungicides. It is claimed that there was a failure to quantify colony losses in winter. Again this is not true. These data were readily extractable from the original paper. It is claimed that 70 % of the colonies did not survive. For a multiple year study this is very misleading. The annual colony loss rate was 14.8 % for treated colonies and 16 % for control colonies, well within background colony loss rates reported by the EC Epilobee EU monitoring programme. Concerns are also raised regarding the PLOS One reviewing process. The reality is that Pilling et al. (PLoS One 8:e77193, 2013) was extensively reviewed by five referees during the original review process, followed by a second post-publication editorial review. These inaccurate and misleading statements are then used to infer that the data, methodology and conclusions of low risk to honeybees from Pilling et al. (PLoS One 8:e77193, 2013) are untruthful and misleading. This inference is both absolutely untrue and inappropriate. Pilling et al.'s (PLoS One 8:e77193, 2013) paper is a summary of one the most comprehensive set of field studies ever conducted on honeybees, a fact recognised within both the second review by PLOS One and within the published EFSA Evaluation of Thiamethoxam.

  3. Authors response on Schick et al. 2017 "An experiment of the impact of a neonicotinoid pesticide on honey bees; the value of a formal analysis of the data". Environ Sci Eur (2017).

    PubMed

    Campbell, Peter; Coulson, Mike; Ward, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Whilst a formal statistical analysis of any experimental data is always preferable in principle, in the case of Pilling et al. (PLoS ONE 8:e77193, 2013), it is hard to see how the results of any formal analysis-including those provided by Schick et al.-could be considered reliable. Regardless of the issue of statistical analysis, there was a wealth of valuable and novel biological and chemical residue data generated under field conditions of use in Pilling et al., which when taken into consideration alongside other relevant available published data and information (i.e. expert judgement) demonstrated a low risk to honeybees from thiamethoxam when used as a seed treatment on oilseed rape. Indeed, similar conclusions have been reported in subsequent published honeybee field studies using thiamethoxam seed-treated oilseed rape, thus supporting the original conclusions of Pilling et al.

  4. SciEthics Interactive: Science and Ethics Learning in a Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadolny, Larysa; Woolfrey, Joan; Pierlott, Matthew; Kahn, Seth

    2013-01-01

    Learning in immersive 3D environments allows students to collaborate, build, and interact with difficult course concepts. This case study examines the design and development of the TransGen Island within the SciEthics Interactive project, a National Science Foundation-funded, 3D virtual world emphasizing learning science content in the context of…

  5. SciEthics Interactive: Science and Ethics Learning in a Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadolny, Larysa; Woolfrey, Joan; Pierlott, Matthew; Kahn, Seth

    2013-01-01

    Learning in immersive 3D environments allows students to collaborate, build, and interact with difficult course concepts. This case study examines the design and development of the TransGen Island within the SciEthics Interactive project, a National Science Foundation-funded, 3D virtual world emphasizing learning science content in the context of…

  6. SciServer: An Online Collaborative Environment for Big Data in Research and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddick, Jordan; Souter, Barbara; Lemson, Gerard; Taghizadeh-Popp, Manuchehr

    2017-01-01

    For the past year, SciServer Compute (http://compute.sciserver.org) has offered access to big data resources running within server-side Docker containers. Compute has allowed thousands of researchers to bring advanced analysis to big datasets like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and others, while keeping the analysis close to the data for better performance and easier read/write access. SciServer Compute is just one part of the SciServer system being developed at Johns Hopkins University, which provides an easy-to-use collaborative research environment for astronomy and many other sciences.SciServer enables these collaborative research strategies using Jupyter notebooks, in which users can write their own Python and R scripts and execute them on the same server as the data. We have written special-purpose libraries for querying, reading, and writing data. Intermediate results can be stored in large scratch space (hundreds of TBs) and analyzed directly from within Python or R with state-of-the-art visualization and machine learning libraries. Users can store science-ready results in their permanent allocation on SciDrive, a Dropbox-like system for sharing and publishing files.SciServer Compute’s virtual research environment has grown with the addition of task management and access control functions, allowing collaborators to share both data and analysis scripts securely across the world. These features also open up new possibilities for education, allowing instructors to share datasets with students and students to write analysis scripts to share with their instructors. We are leveraging these features into a new system called “SciServer Courseware,” which will allow instructors to share assignments with their students, allowing students to engage with big data in new ways.SciServer has also expanded to include more datasets beyond the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. A part of that growth has been the addition of the SkyQuery component, which allows for simple, fast

  7. ScyFlow: An Environment for the Visual Specification and Execution of Scientific Workflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCann, Karen M.; Yarrow, Maurice; DeVivo, Adrian; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    With the advent of grid technologies, scientists and engineers are building more and more complex applications to utilize distributed grid resources. The core grid services provide a path for accessing and utilizing these resources in a secure and seamless fashion. However what the scientists need is an environment that will allow them to specify their application runs at a high organizational level, and then support efficient execution across any given set or sets of resources. We have been designing and implementing ScyFlow, a dual-interface architecture (both GUT and APT) that addresses this problem. The scientist/user specifies the application tasks along with the necessary control and data flow, and monitors and manages the execution of the resulting workflow across the distributed resources. In this paper, we utilize two scenarios to provide the details of the two modules of the project, the visual editor and the runtime workflow engine.

  8. GENESIS SciFlo: Scientific Knowledge Creation on the Grid Using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Tang, B.; Mazzoni, D.; Fetzer, E.; Dobinson, E.; Yunck, T.

    2005-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of Web Services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-stratosphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we have developed a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo is a system for Scientific Knowledge Creation on the Grid using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment. SciFlo leverages Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) Web Services and the Grid Computing standards (WS-* & Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable Web Services and native executables into a distributed computing flow (tree of operators). The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. The scientist injects a distributed computation into the Grid by simply filling

  9. U-ALS: A Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piovesan, Sandra Dutra; Passerino, Liliana Maria; Medina, Roseclea Duarte

    2012-01-01

    The diffusion of the use of the learning virtual environments presents a great potential for the development of an application which meet the necessities in the education area. In view of the importance of a more dynamic application and that can adapt itself continuously to the students' necessities, the "U-ALS" (Ubiquitous Adapted Learning…

  10. A Comprehensive Evaluation of H2SO4 formation from OH and sCI pathways in high BVOC environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Seco, R.; Park, J. H.; Guenther, A. B.; Smith, J. N.; Kuang, C.; Bustillos, J. O. V.; Tota, J.; Souza, R. A. F. D.

    2014-12-01

    The recently highlighted importance of stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCI) as an oxidant for atmospheric SO2 triggered a number of studies to assess the atmospheric implications of H2SO4 formation from the sCI reaction pathway. In addition, it has not been clear why new particle formation events are not observed in the Amazon rain forest. The mostly widely speculated reason has been a very low H2SO4 level. We will present quantitative assessments of SO2 oxidation by sCI leading to the H2SO4 production using a comprehensive observational dataset from a tropical rainforest study during the GOAmazon field campaign at the T3 site in Manacapuru, Amazonas, Brazil. To our best knowledge, this is the first observation of H2SO4 and OH in Amazon and is unique for all tropical sites due to the accompanying comprehensive gas and aerosol observations such as CO, NOX, SO2, VOCs, and physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols. We will discuss observed H2SO4 levels during the GOAmazon field campaigns to demonstrate 1) H2SO4 formation potential from OH and sCI oxidation pathways by contrasting extremely clean and relatively polluted air masses and 2) the Implications of the observed H2SO4 levels in new particle formation and particle growth events.

  11. Comment on Neiser et al. Assessment of Dextran Antigenicity of Intravenous Iron Preparations with Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1185.

    PubMed

    Strom, Claes C; Andreasen, Hans B

    2017-01-10

    All IV iron complexes carry a risk of potentially fatal allergic type hypersensitivity reactions. The mechanism(s) behind these reactions is unknown but the limited data available suggests that classic IgE mediated allergy is exceedingly rare, if ever occurring. Iron-carbohydrate molecules are complex nano-particles and trying to reduce the risk of serious hypersensitivity to antibody binding of an artificial antibody seems meaningless. A recently published analysis of safety data from randomized clinical trials confirms the method reported by Neiser to be useless to predict reaction risk. In conclusion, the study by Neiser et al. is biased, contains no new information, and has no clinical relevance. We are concerned that the association of the authors with a commercial entity has caused a conflict of interest that biases not only the results, but the entire experimental setup against competitors. (Comment on Neiser et al. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1185, doi:10.3390/ijms17071185).

  12. GENESIS SciFlo: Choreographing Interoperable Web Services on the Grid using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Xing, Z.

    2007-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of Web Services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-stratosphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we have developed a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo leverages remote Web Services, called via Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) or REST (one-line) URLs, and the Grid Computing standards (WS-* & Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi- instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable Web Services and native executables into a distributed computing flow (tree of operators). The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. In particular, SciFlo exploits the wealth of datasets accessible by OpenGIS Consortium (OGC) Web Mapping Servers & Web Coverage Servers (WMS/WCS), and by Open Data

  13. Comment on Neiser et al. Assessment of Dextran Antigenicity of Intravenous Iron Preparations with Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1185.

    PubMed Central

    Strom, Claes C.; Andreasen, Hans B.

    2017-01-01

    All IV iron complexes carry a risk of potentially fatal allergic type hypersensitivity reactions. The mechanism(s) behind these reactions is unknown but the limited data available suggests that classic IgE mediated allergy is exceedingly rare, if ever occurring. Iron–carbohydrate molecules are complex nano-particles and trying to reduce the risk of serious hypersensitivity to antibody binding of an artificial antibody seems meaningless. A recently published analysis of safety data from randomized clinical trials confirms the method reported by Neiser to be useless to predict reaction risk. In conclusion, the study by Neiser et al. is biased, contains no new information, and has no clinical relevance. We are concerned that the association of the authors with a commercial entity has caused a conflict of interest that biases not only the results, but the entire experimental setup against competitors. (Comment on Neiser et al. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1185, doi:10.3390/ijms17071185). PMID:28075402

  14. Learning by Creating and Exchanging Objects: The SCY Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Ton; Van Joolingen, Wouter R.; Giemza, Adam; Girault, Isabelle; Hoppe, Ulrich; Kindermann, Jorg; Kluge, Anders; Lazonder, Ard W.; Vold, Vibeke; Weinberger, Armin; Weinbrenner, Stefan; Wichmann, Astrid; Anjewierden, Anjo; Bodin, Marjolaine; Bollen, Lars; D'Ham, Cedric; Dolonen, Jan; Engler, Jan; Geraedts, Caspar; Grosskreutz, Henrik; Hovardas, Tasos; Julien, Rachel; Lechner, Judith; Ludvigsen, Sten; Matteman, Yuri; Meistadt, Oyvind; Naess, Bjorge; Ney, Muriel; Pedaste, Margus; Perritano, Anthony; Rinket, Marieke; Von Schlanbusch, Henrik; Sarapuu, Tago; Schulz, Florian; Sikken, Jakob; Slotta, Jim; Toussaint, Jeremy; Verkade, Alex; Wajeman, Claire; Wasson, Barbara; Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Van Der Zanden, Martine

    2010-01-01

    Science Created by You (SCY) is a project on learning in science and technology domains. SCY uses a pedagogical approach that centres around products, called "emerging learning objects" (ELOs) that are created by students. Students work individually and collaboratively in SCY-Lab (the general SCY learning environment) on "missions" that are guided…

  15. Preface: SciDAC 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyes, David E.

    2007-09-01

    It takes a village to perform a petascale computation—domain scientists, applied mathematicians, computer scientists, computer system vendors, program managers, and support staff—and the village was assembled during 24-28 June 2007 in Boston's Westin Copley Place for the third annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) 2007 Conference. Over 300 registered participants networked around 76 posters, focused on achievements and challenges in 36 plenary talks, and brainstormed in two panels. In addition, with an eye to spreading the vision for simulation at the petascale and to growing the workforce, 115 participants—mostly doctoral students and post-docs complementary to the conferees—were gathered on 29 June 2007 in classrooms of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for a full day of tutorials on the use of SciDAC software. Eleven SciDAC-sponsored research groups presented their software at an introductory level, in both lecture and hands-on formats that included live runs on a local BlueGene/L. Computation has always been about garnering insight into the behavior of systems too complex to explore satisfactorily by theoretical means alone. Today, however, computation is about much more: scientists and decision makers expect quantitatively reliable predictions from simulations ranging in scale from that of the Earth's climate, down to quarks, and out to colliding black holes. Predictive simulation lies at the heart of policy choices in energy and environment affecting billions of lives and expenditures of trillions of dollars. It is also at the heart of scientific debates on the nature of matter and the origin of the universe. The petascale is barely adequate for such demands and we are barely established at the levels of resolution and throughput that this new scale of computation affords. However, no scientific agenda worldwide is pushing the petascale frontier on all its fronts as vigorously as SciDAC. The breadth of this conference

  16. Comment on "Rainfall erosivity in Europe" by Panagos et al. (Sci. Total Environ., 511, 801-814, 2015).

    PubMed

    Auerswald, Karl; Fiener, Peter; Gomez, José A; Govers, Gerard; Quinton, John N; Strauss, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Recently a rainfall erosivity map has been published. We show that the values of this map contain considerable bias because (i) the temporal resolution of the rain data was insufficient, which likely underestimates rain erosivity by about 20%, (ii) no attempt had been included to account for the different time periods that were used for different countries, which can modify rain erosivity by more than 50%, (iii) and likely precipitation data had been used instead of rain data and thus rain erosivity is overestimated in areas with significant snowfall. Furthermore, the seasonal distribution of rain erosivity is not provided, which does not allow using the erosivity map for erosion prediction in many cases. Although a rain erosivity map for Europe would be highly desirable, we recommend using the national erosivity maps until these problems have been solved. Such maps are available for many European countries.

  17. Comment on: "The ascent of kimberlite: Insights from olivine" by Brett R.C. et al. [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 424 (2015) 119-131

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenetsky, Vadim S.

    2016-04-01

    Brett et al. (2015) proposed a kimberlite factory model that ;…involves carbonatitic proto-kimberlite melts preferentially assimilating Opx xenocrysts as they transit the cratonic mantle lithosphere to evolve into silicic-hydrous melts that reach olivine saturation during ascent; (p. 130). A cornerstone of this model is a specific, carbonatitic composition of proto-kimberlite melts ascending through the subcratonic lithospheric mantle ;…whereby parental carbonatitic magmas are progressively converted to kimberlite (e.g., Russell et al., 2012, 2013; Bussweiler et al., 2015); (p. 120). The model by Brett et al. (2015) is based on observations of ;the carbonate-sealed cracks; in olivine that ;…strongly support to the hypothesis that all kimberlite magmas originate as carbonatitic-melts (e.g., Russell et al., 2012, 2013; Kamenetsky et al., 2013; Pilbeam et al., 2013; Kamenetsky and Yaxley, 2015; Bussweiler et al., 2015).; (p. 129). While the major thrust of the study by Brett et al. (2015) hinges on the premise that the parental kimberlite melt is carbonatitic, the overwhelming majority in the kimberlite community still prefers a carbonated ultramafic/ultrabasic composition for parental kimberlite melts. Thus the suggestion that kimberlites have an initial carbonatite composition is not less than ;a paradigm shift; in the kimberlite petrology. It appears that a carbonatite origin for kimberlites has been proposed in many studies that significantly pre-date the publications starting from 2012 that they cite, but which unfortunately are overlooked by Brett et al. (2015). It is, therefore, worth acknowledging the research which has previously advanced this unorthodox idea.

  18. Reply on: "Comment on: The ascent of kimberlite: Insights from olivine" authored by Brett R.C. et al. [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 424 (2015) 119-131

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brett, R. Curtis; Russell, J. K.; Andrews, G. D. M.; Jones, T. J.

    2016-04-01

    The Kamenetsky (2016) comment on the Kimberlite Factory model proposed by Brett et al. (2015) asserts, ;A cornerstone of this model is a specific, carbonatitic composition of proto-kimberlite melts ascending through the sub-cratonic lithospheric mantle; and ;… the major thrust of the study hinges on the premise that the parental kimberlite melt is carbonatitic;. This is a clear misstatement of our central thesis, which is to utilize the attributes of olivine xenocrysts to constrain the physical ascent of kimberlite. Brett et al.'s study does not hinge on the premise that parental kimberlite melt is carbonatitic. Rather, our interpretation that kimberlite melt originates as near carbonatitic hinges on our novel observation that early ;carbonate sealed cracks provide evidence of melt being drawn into decompression cracks and precipitating; (p. 129). Our connection between this observation and our interpretation is tied explicitly to earlier published works ;in this regard, the carbonate-filled sealed cracks strongly support to the hypothesis that all kimberlite magmas originate as carbonatitic-melts (e.g.,Russell et al., 2012, 2013;Kamenetsky et al., 2013; Pilbeam et al., 2013; Kamenetsky and Yaxley, 2015; Bussweiler et al., 2015); (p. 129). To state that our interpretation is based on a pre-existing bias towards a model of a carbonatitic origin of kimberlite magmas is incorrect. Rather, our new observational data independently demonstrates that the presence of carbonate-sealed cracks formed during kimberlite ascent.

  19. A bibliography for the conclusions to the special issue of Science of the Total Environment concerning 'The water quality of UK rivers entering the North Sea'. Sci. Tot. Environ., this volume.

    PubMed

    Neal, C; Turner, H

    2000-05-05

    In this document, a bibliography for the conclusions to the special issue of Science of the Total Environment concerning 'The water quality of UK rivers entering the North Sea'. Sci. Tot. Environ., this volume, is presented. It comprises a list of the papers presented in five special issues in learned journals, three in Science of the Total Environment (this volume and volumes 194/195, 1997 and 210/211, 1998) as well as Hydrological Processes (1999, vol 13: Special Issue, River Basin Sediment Dynamics, eds. Anderson, M.G., Peters, N.E. and Walling, D.E.) and Marine Pollution Bulletin [1999, vol 37(3-7) Special Issue: Flux of Materials between Rivers and Coastal Waters, eds. Stebbing, A.R.D., Huntley, D. and Leeks, G.J.L.]. The bibliography comprises six main sections with subsections for specific water quality issues. These are as follows: Section 1 deals with the introduction to LOIS and contained in this section is background material over the nature of the programme, the study area, remit, water quality issues and international context. Section 2 provides the main meat to the bibliography and it splits into Section 2.1 historical and Section 2.2 current water quality issues. Within Section 2.2 there are subsections dealing with specific current aspects of water quality (Section 2.2.1, major ions; Section 2.2.2, pH, dissolved carbon dioxide and dissolved oxygen; Section 2.2.3 nutrients; Section 2.2.4, trace elements; Section 2.2.5 micro-organics; Section 2.2.6 sediments; Section 2.2.7 biology). Section 3 deals with hydrology and climate variability, Section 4, modelling, Section 5 load estimation and Section 6 conclusions. A full listing of the LOIS programme is available from the LOIS programme office, CCMS, Plymouth Laboratory, Prospect Place, West Hoe, Plymouth, PL1 3DH, UK (e-mail lois@ccms.ac.uk).

  20. Comment on "Adsorption of hydrogen and hydrocarbon molecules on SiC(001)" by Pollmann et al. (Surf. Sci. Rep. 69 (2014) 55-104)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer, E.; Celasco, E.; Vattuone, L.; Savio, L.; Tejeda, A.; Silly, M.; D'angelo, M.; Sirotti, F.; Rocca, M.; Catellani, A.; Galli, G.; Douillard, L.; Semond, F.; Aristov, V. Yu.; Soukiassian, P.

    2016-02-01

    This comment clarifies two issues related to the (001) surface reconstructions of cubic SiC, namely: (i) The failure of the bridge-bond model for H atoms interacting with the 3C-SiC(001) 3 × 2 reconstruction to explain all the experimental data based on different techniques, while a recent model has reconciled theory and experimental results. This model has not been discussed or even mentioned in the review by Pollmann et al.; and (ii) In their review, two models of the Si-terminated c(4 × 2) 3C-SiC(001) surface reconstruction are presented as equally probable. This is clearly not the case and the reasons are explained in this comment.

  1. Validation environment for AIPS/ALS: Implementation and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segall, Zary; Siewiorek, Daniel; Caplan, Eddie; Chung, Alan; Czeck, Edward; Vrsalovic, Dalibor

    1990-01-01

    The work is presented which was performed in porting the Fault Injection-based Automated Testing (FIAT) and Programming and Instrumentation Environments (PIE) validation tools, to the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) in the context of the Ada Language System (ALS) application, as well as an initial fault free validation of the available AIPS system. The PIE components implemented on AIPS provide the monitoring mechanisms required for validation. These mechanisms represent a substantial portion of the FIAT system. Moreover, these are required for the implementation of the FIAT environment on AIPS. Using these components, an initial fault free validation of the AIPS system was performed. The implementation is described of the FIAT/PIE system, configured for fault free validation of the AIPS fault tolerant computer system. The PIE components were modified to support the Ada language. A special purpose AIPS/Ada runtime monitoring and data collection was implemented. A number of initial Ada programs running on the PIE/AIPS system were implemented. The instrumentation of the Ada programs was accomplished automatically inside the PIE programming environment. PIE's on-line graphical views show vividly and accurately the performance characteristics of Ada programs, AIPS kernel and the application's interaction with the AIPS kernel. The data collection mechanisms were written in a high level language, Ada, and provide a high degree of flexibility for implementation under various system conditions.

  2. iSocial: delivering the Social Competence Intervention for Adolescents (SCI-A) in a 3D virtual learning environment for youth with high functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Stichter, Janine P; Laffey, James; Galyen, Krista; Herzog, Melissa

    2014-02-01

    One consistent area of need for students with autism spectrum disorders is in the area of social competence. However, the increasing need to provide qualified teachers to deliver evidence-based practices in areas like social competence leave schools, such as those found in rural areas, in need of support. Distance education and in particular, 3D Virtual Learning, holds great promise for supporting schools and youth to gain social competence through knowledge and social practice in context. iSocial, a distance education, 3D virtual learning environment implemented the 31-lesson social competence intervention for adolescents across three small cohorts totaling 11 students over a period of 4 months. Results demonstrated that the social competence curriculum was delivered with fidelity in the 3D virtual learning environment. Moreover, learning outcomes suggest that the iSocial approach shows promise for social competence benefits for youth.

  3. Sci-Vis Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur Bleeker, PNNL

    2015-03-11

    SVF is a full featured OpenGL 3d framework that allows for rapid creation of complex visualizations. The SVF framework handles much of the lifecycle and complex tasks required for a 3d visualization. Unlike a game framework SVF was designed to use fewer resources, work well in a windowed environment, and only render when necessary. The scene also takes advantage of multiple threads to free up the UI thread as much as possible. Shapes (actors) in the scene are created by adding or removing functionality (through support objects) during runtime. This allows a highly flexible and dynamic means of creating highly complex actors without the code complexity (it also helps overcome the lack of multiple inheritance in Java.) All classes are highly customizable and there are abstract classes which are intended to be subclassed to allow a developer to create more complex and highly performant actors. There are multiple demos included in the framework to help the developer get started and shows off nearly all of the functionality. Some simple shapes (actors) are already created for you such as text, bordered text, radial text, text area, complex paths, NURBS paths, cube, disk, grid, plane, geometric shapes, and volumetric area. It also comes with various camera types for viewing that can be dragged, zoomed, and rotated. Picking or selecting items in the scene can be accomplished in various ways depending on your needs (raycasting or color picking.) The framework currently has functionality for tooltips, animation, actor pools, color gradients, 2d physics, text, 1d/2d/3d textures, children, blending, clipping planes, view frustum culling, custom shaders, and custom actor states

  4. Sci-Vis Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur Bleeker, PNNL

    2015-03-11

    SVF is a full featured OpenGL 3d framework that allows for rapid creation of complex visualizations. The SVF framework handles much of the lifecycle and complex tasks required for a 3d visualization. Unlike a game framework SVF was designed to use fewer resources, work well in a windowed environment, and only render when necessary. The scene also takes advantage of multiple threads to free up the UI thread as much as possible. Shapes (actors) in the scene are created by adding or removing functionality (through support objects) during runtime. This allows a highly flexible and dynamic means of creating highly complex actors without the code complexity (it also helps overcome the lack of multiple inheritance in Java.) All classes are highly customizable and there are abstract classes which are intended to be subclassed to allow a developer to create more complex and highly performant actors. There are multiple demos included in the framework to help the developer get started and shows off nearly all of the functionality. Some simple shapes (actors) are already created for you such as text, bordered text, radial text, text area, complex paths, NURBS paths, cube, disk, grid, plane, geometric shapes, and volumetric area. It also comes with various camera types for viewing that can be dragged, zoomed, and rotated. Picking or selecting items in the scene can be accomplished in various ways depending on your needs (raycasting or color picking.) The framework currently has functionality for tooltips, animation, actor pools, color gradients, 2d physics, text, 1d/2d/3d textures, children, blending, clipping planes, view frustum culling, custom shaders, and custom actor states

  5. Preface: SciDAC 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Horst

    2009-07-01

    By almost any measure, the SciDAC community has come a long way since DOE launched the SciDAC program back in 2001. At the time, we were grappling with how to efficiently run applications on terascale systems (the November 2001 TOP500 list was led by DOE's ASCI White IBM system at Lawrence Livermore achieving 7.2 teraflop/s). And the results stemming from the first round of SciDAC projects were summed up in two-page reports. The scientific results were presented at annual meetings, which were by invitation only and typically were attended by about 75 researchers. Fast forward to 2009 and we now have SciDAC Review, a quarterly magazine showcasing the scientific computing contributions of SciDAC projects and related programs, all focused on presenting a comprehensive look at Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing. That is also the motivation behind the annual SciDAC conference that in 2009 was held from June 14-18 in San Diego. The annual conference, which can also be described as a celebration of all things SciDAC, grew out those meetings organized in the early days of the program. In 2005, the meeting was held in San Francisco and attendance was opened up to all members of the SciDAC community. The schedule was also expanded to include a keynote address, plenary speakers and other features found in a conference format. This year marks the fifth such SciDAC conference, which now comprises four days of computational science presentations, multiple poster sessions and, since last year, an evening event showcasing simulations and modeling runs resulting from SciDAC projects. The fifth annual SciDAC conference was remarkable on several levels. The primary purpose, of course, is to showcase the research accomplishments resulting from SciDAC programs in particular and computational science in general. It is these accomplishments, represented in 38 papers and 52 posters, that comprise this set of conference proceedings. These proceedings can stand alone as

  6. Mexican Space Weather Service (SCiESMEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Esparza, J. A.; De la Luz, V.; Corona-Romero, P.; Mejia-Ambriz, J. C.; Gonzalez, L. X.; Sergeeva, M. A.; Romero-Hernandez, E.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.

    2017-01-01

    Legislative modifications of the General Civil Protection Law in Mexico in 2014 included specific references to space hazards and space weather phenomena. The legislation is consistent with United Nations promotion of international engagement and cooperation on space weather awareness, studies, and monitoring. These internal and external conditions motivated the creation of a space weather service in Mexico. The Mexican Space Weather Service (SCiESMEX in Spanish) (www.sciesmex.unam.mx) was initiated in October 2014 and is operated by the Institute of Geophysics at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). SCiESMEX became a Regional Warning Center of the International Space Environment Services (ISES) in June 2015. We present the characteristics of the service, some products, and the initial actions for developing a space weather strategy in Mexico. The service operates a computing infrastructure including a web application, data repository, and a high-performance computing server to run numerical models. SCiESMEX uses data of the ground-based instrumental network of the National Space Weather Laboratory (LANCE), covering solar radio burst emissions, solar wind and interplanetary disturbances (by interplanetary scintillation observations), geomagnetic measurements, and analysis of the total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere (by employing data from local networks of GPS receiver stations).

  7. Preface: SciDAC 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, William M., Dr.

    2006-01-01

    The second annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Conference was held from June 25-29, 2006 at the new Hyatt Regency Hotel in Denver, Colorado. This conference showcased outstanding SciDAC-sponsored computational science results achieved during the past year across many scientific domains, with an emphasis on science at scale. Exciting computational science that has been accomplished outside of the SciDAC program both nationally and internationally was also featured to help foster communication between SciDAC computational scientists and those funded by other agencies. This was illustrated by many compelling examples of how domain scientists collaborated productively with applied mathematicians and computer scientists to effectively take advantage of terascale computers (capable of performing trillions of calculations per second) not only to accelerate progress in scientific discovery in a variety of fields but also to show great promise for being able to utilize the exciting petascale capabilities in the near future. The SciDAC program was originally conceived as an interdisciplinary computational science program based on the guiding principle that strong collaborative alliances between domain scientists, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists are vital to accelerated progress and associated discovery on the world's most challenging scientific problems. Associated verification and validation are essential in this successful program, which was funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE OS) five years ago. As is made clear in many of the papers in these proceedings, SciDAC has fundamentally changed the way that computational science is now carried out in response to the exciting challenge of making the best use of the rapid progress in the emergence of more and more powerful computational platforms. In this regard, Dr. Raymond Orbach, Energy Undersecretary for Science at the DOE and Director of the OS has stated

  8. Corrigendum to 'The crystal structures of m,o-Ce3Pt4Sn6 and Ce1-xPt6Al13+2x' [Solid State Sci. 55 (2016) 48-57

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschinger, Werner; Yubuta, Kunio; Saiga, Yuta; Takabatake, Toshiro; Giester, Gerald; Rogl, Peter

    2017-03-01

    The authors regret that a misleading version of Table 3 concerning the crystallographic data for the compound ;Ce1-xPt6Al13+2x; was reported. The correct formula of the compound is Ce1-xPt6Al16+2x. The occupancies shown in the corrected Table 3 (enclosed) for the defect sites Ce1, Al11, Al12 are the results of free parameter refinements and it is comforting to see that the sum (0.587(Ce1) + ½[0.414(Al11) + 0.414(Al12)] = 1) reaches full occupation.

  9. Preface: SciDAC 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzacappa, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    On 26-30 June 2005 at the Grand Hyatt on Union Square in San Francisco several hundred computational scientists from around the world came together for what can certainly be described as a celebration of computational science. Scientists from the SciDAC Program and scientists from other agencies and nations were joined by applied mathematicians and computer scientists to highlight the many successes in the past year where computation has led to scientific discovery in a variety of fields: lattice quantum chromodynamics, accelerator modeling, chemistry, biology, materials science, Earth and climate science, astrophysics, and combustion and fusion energy science. Also highlighted were the advances in numerical methods and computer science, and the multidisciplinary collaboration cutting across science, mathematics, and computer science that enabled these discoveries. The SciDAC Program was conceived and funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Science. It is the Office of Science's premier computational science program founded on what is arguably the perfect formula: the priority and focus is science and scientific discovery, with the understanding that the full arsenal of `enabling technologies' in applied mathematics and computer science must be brought to bear if we are to have any hope of attacking and ultimately solving today's computational Grand Challenge problems. The SciDAC Program has been in existence for four years, and many of the computational scientists funded by this program will tell you that the program has given them the hope of addressing their scientific problems in full realism for the very first time. Many of these scientists will also tell you that SciDAC has also fundamentally changed the way they do computational science. We begin this volume with one of DOE's great traditions, and core missions: energy research. As we will see, computation has been seminal to the critical advances that have been made in this arena. Of course, to

  10. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Welcome to Seattle and the 2008 SciDAC Conference. This conference, the fourth in the series, is a continuation of the PI meetings we first began under SciDAC-1. I would like to start by thanking the organizing committee, and Rick Stevens in particular, for organizing this year's meeting. This morning I would like to look briefly at SciDAC, to give you a brief history of SciDAC and also look ahead to see where we plan to go over the next few years. I think the best description of SciDAC, at least the simulation part, comes from a quote from Dr Ray Orbach, DOE's Under Secretary for Science and Director of the Office of Science. In an interview that appeared in the SciDAC Review magazine, Dr Orbach said, `SciDAC is unique in the world. There isn't any other program like it anywhere else, and it has the remarkable ability to do science by bringing together physical scientists, mathematicians, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists who recognize that computation is not something you do at the end, but rather it needs to be built into the solution of the very problem that one is addressing'. Of course, that is extended not just to physical scientists, but also to biological scientists. This is a theme of computational science, this partnership among disciplines, which goes all the way back to the early 1980s and Ken Wilson. It's a unique thread within the Department of Energy. SciDAC-1, launched around the turn of the millennium, created a new generation of scientific simulation codes. It advocated building out mathematical and computing system software in support of science and a new collaboratory software environment for data. The original concept for SciDAC-1 had topical centers for the execution of the various science codes, but several corrections and adjustments were needed. The ASCR scientific computing infrastructure was also upgraded, providing the hardware facilities for the program. The computing facility that we had at that time was the big 3

  11. Preface: SciDAC 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Rick

    2008-07-01

    The fourth annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Conference was held June 13-18, 2008, in Seattle, Washington. The SciDAC conference series is the premier communitywide venue for presentation of results from the DOE Office of Science's interdisciplinary computational science program. Started in 2001 and renewed in 2006, the DOE SciDAC program is the country's - and arguably the world's - most significant interdisciplinary research program supporting the development of advanced scientific computing methods and their application to fundamental and applied areas of science. SciDAC supports computational science across many disciplines, including astrophysics, biology, chemistry, fusion sciences, and nuclear physics. Moreover, the program actively encourages the creation of long-term partnerships among scientists focused on challenging problems and computer scientists and applied mathematicians developing the technology and tools needed to address those problems. The SciDAC program has played an increasingly important role in scientific research by allowing scientists to create more accurate models of complex processes, simulate problems once thought to be impossible, and analyze the growing amount of data generated by experiments. To help further the research community's ability to tap into the capabilities of current and future supercomputers, Under Secretary for Science, Raymond Orbach, launched the Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) program in 2003. The INCITE program was conceived specifically to seek out computationally intensive, large-scale research projects with the potential to significantly advance key areas in science and engineering. The program encourages proposals from universities, other research institutions, and industry. During the first two years of the INCITE program, 10 percent of the resources at NERSC were allocated to INCITE awardees. However, demand for supercomputing resources

  12. Reply to Comment on: “Direct evidence of ancient shock metamorphism at the site of the 1908 Tunguska event”, by P. Vannucchi et al. [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 409 (2015) 168-174

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannucchi, Paola; Morgan, Jason P.

    2015-06-01

    The comment by Schmieder et al. (in press) concentrates on the viability of the quartz planar microdeformation features (PMFs) (or deformation lamellae) presented by Vannucchi et al. (2015) to infer the presence of shock metamorphism in the area of the 1908 Tunguska event. Their comment focuses on two points: The quartz PMFs that are shown in Vannucchi et al. are not produced by shock metamorphism.

  13. Opening Remarks: SciDAC 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2007-09-01

    superheated ionic gas in the ITER reactor as a result of an AORSA run on 22,500 processors that achieved over 87 trillion calculations per second (87 teraflops) which is 74% of the system's theoretical peak. Tomorrow, Argonne and IBM will announce that the first IBM Blue Gene/P, a 100 teraflop system, will be shipped to the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility later this fiscal year. By the end of FY2007 ASCR high performance and leadership computing resources will include the 114 teraflop IBM Blue Gene/P; a 102 teraflop Cray XT4 at NERSC and a 119 teraflop Cray XT system at Oak Ridge. Before ringing in the New Year, Oak Ridge will upgrade to 250 teraflops with the replacement of the dual core processors with quad core processors and Argonne will upgrade to between 250-500 teraflops, and next year, a petascale Cray Baker system is scheduled for delivery at Oak Ridge. The multidisciplinary teams in our SciDAC Centers for Enabling Technologies and our SciDAC Institutes must continue to work with our Scientific Application teams to overcome the barriers that prevent effective use of these new systems. These challenges include: the need for new algorithms as well as operating system and runtime software and tools which scale to parallel systems composed of hundreds of thousands processors; program development environments and tools which scale effectively and provide ease of use for developers and scientific end users; and visualization and data management systems that support moving, storing, analyzing, manipulating and visualizing multi-petabytes of scientific data and objects. The SciDAC Centers, located primarily at our DOE national laboratories will take the lead in ensuring that critical computer science and applied mathematics issues are addressed in a timely and comprehensive fashion and to address issues associated with research software lifecycle. In contrast, the SciDAC Institutes, which are university-led centers of excellence, will have more flexibility to pursue

  14. Complementary and alternative therapies and SCI nursing.

    PubMed

    Oliver, N R

    2001-01-01

    Increasing numbers of individuals are experimenting with different complementary and alternative techniques and practices in their quest to improve their health status or change symptom experiences. Consumer utilization patterns are described, activities to ensure the safety and efficacy of alternative practices are reviewed, and relationships to nursing interventions and nursing responsibilities are presented. The relationship between complementary/alternative therapies and spinal cord injury (SCI) nursing practice, education, and research are described, as well as strategies for integrating these therapies into SCI nursing. The potential roles for SCI nurses and benefits to individuals with SCI are unlimited.

  15. Comment on: “Direct evidence of ancient shock metamorphism at the site of the 1908 Tunguska event”, by P. Vannucchi et al. [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 409 (2015) 168-174

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, Martin; Ferrière, Ludovic; Ormö, Jens; Buchner, Elmar; Koeberl, Christian; Reimold, Wolf Uwe

    2015-06-01

    Vannucchi et al. (2015) report alleged 'shock metamorphic' features in Permian sandstone clasts associated with the Siberian Trap basalts at Mount Stojkovic inside the Great Tunguska Depression, only a few kilometers away from the site of the 1908 Tunguska event. Given the low probability that these features have formed by either the Tunguska event or by an older impact in the same area, Vannucchi et al. argue that these features may in fact not be diagnostic for impact, but could also be related to explosive volcanism.

  16. Ultrasonic Al2O3 Ceramic Thermometry in High-Temperature Oxidation Environment

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yanlong; Gao, Yubin; Xiao, Zhaoqian; Wang, Gao; Tian, Miao; Liang, Haijian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an ultrasonic temperature measurement system was designed with Al2O3 high-temperature ceramic as an acoustic waveguide sensor and preliminarily tested in a high-temperature oxidation environment. The test results indicated that the system can indeed work stably in high-temperature environments. The relationship between the temperature and delay time of 26 °C–1600 °C ceramic materials was also determined in order to fully elucidate the high-temperature oxidation of the proposed waveguide sensor and to lay a foundation for the further application of this system in temperatures as high as 2000 °C. PMID:27845726

  17. Reply to comment on "Direct evidence of ancient shock metamorphism at the site of the 1908 Tunguska event" by Vannucchi et al. (Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 409 (2015) 168-174)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannucchi, Paola; Morgan, Jason P.

    2015-04-01

    Our paper (Vannucchi et al., 2015) focuses on geologic evidence for shock metamorphism found at the epicentral region of the 1908 Tunguska event. None of the currently proposed bolide explanations for the 1908 event can produce the shock pressures indicated by the geological evidence described in Vannucchi et al. (2015). If the 1908 event would have generated these pressures over the epicentral region, an observable crater should have also formed. The comment by Melott and Overholt discusses the possibility that a 1908 cometary bolide strike in Tunguska cannot be excluded because of the absence of a detectable 14C increase at this site. They dispute the findings of a recent Liu et al.'s (2014) study that an East Asian comet impact recorded by eyewitness accounts in 773 AD was coincident with a detectable 14C increase in regional South China Sea corals that grew at that time. Their point, whether true or not, is fairly peripheral to our study because the bolide hypothesis for the 1908 Tunguska event, no matter the nature of the bolide itself, does not provide a viable explanation for the geological evidence of shock metamorphism found at the 1908 Tunguska site. Furthermore, as we discuss in our paper, the probability of a prior large impact-shock event having occurred at the site of the 1908 event is extremely low, suggesting that a terrestrial shock-generating mechanism may be linked to the resolution of the Tunguska enigma. Our preferred resolution is that a terrestrial hyper-explosive gas release event, a Verneshot (Morgan et al., 2004), created the large shock-event during the emplacement of the Siberian Traps. In this scenario, the 1908 Tunguska event was due to a much smaller gas-burst that re-used the lithospheric weakness created by the ancient Verneshot. Melott and Overholt's discussion regarding the existence and size of regional and global 14C anomalies related to cometary impacts seems, therefore, to be better addressed in response to the work of Liu et

  18. Hydrogen effects on the mechanical properties of Al-Li 2090 alloy in an acid environment

    SciTech Connect

    Velez, E.; Sundaram, P.A.

    1998-01-06

    Although aluminum-lithium alloys are attractive materials for aeronautic and aerospace applications because of their lower density and higher elastic modulus compared to conventional aluminum alloys, their bane is their poor ductility and susceptibility to environment induced cracking (EIC). EIC of Al-Li alloys has been fairly well researched and the role of hydrogen in causing this phenomenon has been proposed. Of the various mechanisms proposed to explain the phenomenon of hydrogen embrittlement (HE) in Al-Li alloys, the formation of brittle hydrides, LiH and LiAlH{sub 4} has been indicated as the cause of embrittlement. This mechanism has been accepted widely, both for precharged specimens and in stress-corrosion cracking. Literature is not consistent with regard to the phenomenon of HE in Al-Li alloys, believed to be due to the widely varying experimental conditions used by each group of investigators. There is also no general agreement on the effect of aging temper on HE in these alloys. Some investigators note that the HE resistance is poor for the overaged (OA) condition while others claim the underaged (UA) temper as having poor resistance to HE. Some others have also reported that the peak aged (PA) temper is most resistant to HE. Most studies of HE for the Al-Li alloy system has been carried out in a NaOH environment. The main objective of this study is to obtain an understanding of the effect of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of a 2090 commercial alloy using electrolytic charging conditions in an acid environment for different tempers.

  19. Comment on "Direct evidence of ancient shock metamorphism at the site of the 1908 Tunguska event" by Vannucchi et al. (Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 409 (2015) 168-174)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melott, Adrian L.; Overholt, Andrew C.

    2015-04-01

    An enormous explosion, reportedly aerial, over Tunguska, Siberia in 1908 is commonly thought to be a bolide of some type, possibly a rocky or metallic asteroid, or an icy comet. Vannucchi et al. (2015) present a variety of arguments against the bolide hypothesis. They argue that the lack of unambiguous meteoritic material in the area excludes rocky or metallic asteroids, and that the lack of a 14C anomaly in the geoisotope record excludes a comet. They then present evidence of shock metamorphism in the area which they attribute to a volcanic superexplosion. We show here that the exclusion of a comet based on the isotopic record and the work of Liu et al. (2014) is incorrect.

  20. Corrosion performance of Fe-Cr-Al and Fe aluminide alloys in complex gas environments

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Johnson, R.N.

    1995-05-01

    Alumina-forming structural alloys can offer superior resistance to corrosion in the presence of sulfur-containing environments, which are prevalent in coal-fired fossil energy systems. Further, Fe aluminides are being developed for use as structural materials and/or cladding alloys in these systems. Extensive development has been in progress on Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys to improve their engineering ductility. In addition, surface coatings of Fe aluminide are being developed to impart corrosion resistance to structural alloys. This paper describes results from an ongoing program that is evaluating the corrosion performance of alumina-forming structural alloys, Fe-Al and Fe aluminide bulk alloys, and Fe aluminide coatings in environments typical of coal-gasification and combustion atmospheres. Experiments were conducted at 650-1000{degrees}C in simulated oxygen/sulfur gas mixtures. Other aspects of the program are corrosion evaluation of the aluminides in the presence of HCl-containing gases. Results are used to establish threshold Al levels in the alloys for development of protective alumina scales and to determine the modes of corrosion degradation that occur in the materials when they are exposed to S/Cl-containing gaseous environments.

  1. Case study of a sabkha sedimentary environment: Mallahat al Bariquah, Libya

    SciTech Connect

    Krason, J.

    1987-05-01

    The importance of the sabkha sedimentary environment for formation and/or accumulation of hydrocarbons, salts, and various metalliferous mineral deposits has been recognized by many geologists. A sabkha in which sedimentation and the formation of salt deposits and hydrocarbons is in progress is located along the Mediterranean Sea coast, in northwestern Libya and northeastern Tunisia. The sabkha Mallahat al Bariquah was drilled in a regular grid at 1-km spacing; 63 holes have been completed. The sabkha and its vicinity were geologically mapped (1:20,000). Several hundred core and loose rock samples were thoroughly examined with regard to the lithology, mineralogy, paleontology, and chemical composition. The chemistry of brine from each drill hole and solar pan was determined. Three 24-hour pumping tests were performed, and the hydrogeological conditions of the sabkha were analyzed in detail. Economically valuable bedded salt reserves of 170,800,000 MT of NaCl were discovered and proven. Additionally, over 30 million MT of potassium, magnesium, and sodium salts including bromides are recoverable from the brine. Although marine-coastal sabkhas are common, the extensive scope of this study is unique. Mallahat al Bariquah sabkha is not unique with regard to its geographic, climatic, or sedimentary environments. Therefore, Mallahat al Bariquah can be considered as a model applicable in exploration for and study of similar sedimentary environments in other geographic regions and older geologic epochs.

  2. SciDB and Geoinformatics Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The SciDB project took as its design goals a list of features identified as being critical to scientific data management in a survey of working scientists (Stonebraker et al 2009). Earth scientists working with remote sensing data were well represented among those polled so it should come as no surprise that the platform has been embraced by that community. In this talk we focus on work done by researchers at NASA and INPE, and on applications created by commercial data providers in Korea and the United States. For each use-case, we will review the project team's objectives, the nature and quantity of the data involved, the their workload queries. As we discuss each use-case we will describe what is emerging as "best practice" for data management and analysis in this space. M. Stonebraker, J. Becla, D. J. DeWitt, K. T. Lim, D. Maier, O. Ratzesberger, and S. B. Zdonik. Requirements for science data bases and scidb. In CIDR 2009, Fourth Biennial Conference on Innovative Data Systems Research, Asilomar, CA, USA, January 4-7, 2009, Online Proceedings, 2009.

  3. [SciELO: method for electronic publishing].

    PubMed

    Laerte Packer, A; Rocha Biojone, M; Antonio, I; Mayumi Takemaka, R; Pedroso García, A; Costa da Silva, A; Toshiyuki Murasaki, R; Mylek, C; Carvalho Reisl, O; Rocha F Delbucio, H C

    2001-01-01

    It describes the SciELO Methodology Scientific Electronic Library Online for electronic publishing of scientific periodicals, examining issues such as the transition from traditional printed publication to electronic publishing, the scientific communication process, the principles which founded the methodology development, its application in the building of the SciELO site, its modules and components, the tools use for its construction etc. The article also discusses the potentialities and trends for the area in Brazil and Latin America, pointing out questions and proposals which should be investigated and solved by the methodology. It concludes that the SciELO Methodology is an efficient, flexible and wide solution for the scientific electronic publishing.

  4. Comment on “40Ar / 39Ar dating of the Rajahmundry Traps, eastern India and their relationship to the Deccan Traps” by Knight et al. [Earth Planet Sci. Lett. 208 (2003) 85 99

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksi, Ajoy K.

    2005-11-01

    Knight et al. presented age and chemical data on two (sets of) lava flows from the Rajahmundry area, on either bank of the Godavari River. The age and petrogenesis of these flows and their possible link to sections of the main Deccan Province are of importance to the understanding of many aspects of flood basalt volcanism. I comment on (a) the use of geochemical fingerprints for lava identification/correlation at Rajahmundry, superceding (apparent) field relations, (b) their 40Ar / 39Ar data and its refinement based on statistical tests and the alteration state of the samples (c) correlation of age data and the magnetic polarity of the lavas to the geomagnetic polarity time scale and (d) the possibility that both lavas at Rajahmundry were formed by intracanyon flows derived from ˜1000 km away.

  5. Comment on “Isotopic fractionation between Fe(III) and Fe(II) in aqueous solutions” by Clark Johnson et al., [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 195 (2002) 141–153

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bullen, Thomas D.; White, Arthur F.; Childs, Cyril W.

    2003-01-01

    In a recent contribution [1], Johnson et al. reported the equilibrium isotope fractionation factor between dissolved Fe(II) and Fe(III) in aqueous solutions at pH=2.5 and 5.5. They suggest that because the iron isotope fractionation observed in their experiments spans virtually the entire range observed in sedimentary rocks, Fe(II)–Fe(III) aqueous speciation may play a major role in determining iron isotope variations in nature where Fe(II) and Fe(III) can become physically separated. They discounted earlier conclusions by us and others [2] ;  [3] that significant equilibrium fractionation between specific coexisting Fe(II)- or Fe(III)-aqueous complexes (e.g., between aqueous Fe(II)(OH)x(aq)and Fe(II)(aq) ion) is capable of producing iron isotope contrasts that can be preserved in nature. This is an important contribution not only because the authors recognize the importance of abiotic equilibrium iron isotope fractionation in nature in contrast to previous assertions [4], but also because it will help to focus discussion on the development and evaluation of experimental approaches that can reveal abiotic fractionation mechanisms. However, in this Comment we propose that the experiments presented in this paper cannot be interpreted as straightforwardly as Johnson et al. contend. In particular, we show that in one of their critical experiments attainment of either isotope mass balance or equilibrium was not demonstrated, and thus the results of that experiment cannot be used to calculate an Fe(II)–Fe(III) equilibrium fractionation factor.

  6. Factors Affecting the Hydrogen Environment Assisted Cracking Resistance of an AL-Zn-Mg-(Cu) Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Young, G A; Scully, J R

    2002-04-09

    Precipitation hardenable Al-Zn-Mg alloys are susceptible to hydrogen environment assisted cracking (HEAC) when exposed to aqueous environments. In Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, overaged tempers are used to increase HEAC resistance at the expense of strength but overaging has little benefit in low copper alloys. However, the mechanism or mechanisms by which overaging imparts HEAC resistance is poorly understood. The present research investigated hydrogen uptake, diffusion, and crack growth rate in 90% relative humidity (RH) air for both a commercial copper bearing Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (AA 7050) and a low copper variant of this alloy in order to better understand the factors which affect HEAC resistance. Experimental methods used to evaluate hydrogen concentrations local to a surface and near a crack tip include nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), focused ion beam, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (FIB/SIMS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Results show that overaging the copper bearing alloys both inhibits hydrogen ingress from oxide covered surfaces and decreases the apparent hydrogen diffusion rates in the metal.

  7. 2H and 27Al solid-state NMR study of the local environments in Al-doped 2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, and lepidocrocite

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Jongsik; Ilott, Andrew J.; Middlemiss, Derek S.; ...

    2015-05-13

    Although substitution of aluminum into iron oxides and oxyhydroxides has been extensively studied, it is difficult to obtain accurate incorporation levels. Assessing the distribution of dopants within these materials has proven especially challenging because bulk analytical techniques cannot typically determine whether dopants are substituted directly into the bulk iron oxide or oxyhydroxide phase or if they form separate, minor phase impurities. These differences have important implications for the chemistry of these iron-containing materials, which are ubiquitous in the environment. In this work, 27Al and 2H NMR experiments are performed on series of Al-substituted goethite, lepidocrocite, and 2-line ferrihydrite in ordermore » to develop an NMR method to track Al substitution. The extent of Al substitution into the structural frameworks of each compound is quantified by comparing quantitative 27Al MAS NMR results with those from elemental analysis. Magnetic measurements are performed for the goethite series to compare with NMR measurements. Static 27Al spin–echo mapping experiments are used to probe the local environments around the Al substituents, providing clear evidence that they are incorporated into the bulk iron phases. As a result, predictions of the 2H and 27Al NMR hyperfine contact shifts in Al-doped goethite and lepidocrocite, obtained from a combined first-principles and empirical magnetic scaling approach, give further insight into the distribution of the dopants within these phases.« less

  8. Compatibility of the Zr-Al alloy with a tokamak plasma environment

    SciTech Connect

    Knize, R.J.; Cecchi, J.L.; Dylla, H.F.

    1981-12-01

    We have investigated the compatibility of the Zr-Al alloy bulk getter with a tokamak plasma environment, where the hydrogenic fluxes are sufficient to cause embrittlement in relatively short times. Under normal operating conditions with the getters activated, it is necessary to regenerate the absorbed hydrogenic species before the embrittlement limit is reached. We present a method for determining the loading under tokamak conditions where the Zr-Al surface characteristics can change. During glow discharge cleaning and pulse discharge cleaning, it is not convenient to regenerate. We find, however, that during the cleaning operations the getter self-inerts, thus limiting the loading. We present data and a model which accounts for this behavior in terms of impurity adsorption on the room temperature getter surface during the cleaning operations.

  9. Novel Target for Ameliorating Pain and Other Problems after SCI: Spontaneous Activity in Nociceptors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    and evoked pain. Other findings led to a major paper showing that blockade of the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway, which enhances Nav1.8 activity...in neuropathic SCI pain came from observations of enhanced nociceptor growth after SCI (Bedi et al., 2012). Primary nociceptors are the first...Cyclic AMP via PKA enhances Nav1.8 activity. Alexis Bavencoffe, in collaboration with Dr. Carmen Dessauer in this department, found that blocking

  10. Stress Corrosion Cracking in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Aluminum Alloys in Saline Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holroyd, N. J. Henry; Scamans, G. M.

    2013-03-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu (AA7xxx) aluminum alloys exposed to saline environments at temperatures ranging from 293 K to 353 K (20 °C to 80 °C) has been reviewed with particular attention to the influences of alloy composition and temper, and bulk and local environmental conditions. Stress corrosion crack (SCC) growth rates at room temperature for peak- and over-aged tempers in saline environments are minimized for Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys containing less than ~8 wt pct Zn when Zn/Mg ratios are ranging from 2 to 3, excess magnesium levels are less than 1 wt pct, and copper content is either less than ~0.2 wt pct or ranging from 1.3 to 2 wt pct. A minimum chloride ion concentration of ~0.01 M is required for crack growth rates to exceed those in distilled water, which insures that the local solution pH in crack-tip regions can be maintained at less than 4. Crack growth rates in saline solution without other additions gradually increase with bulk chloride ion concentrations up to around 0.6 M NaCl, whereas in solutions with sufficiently low dichromate (or chromate), inhibitor additions are insensitive to the bulk chloride concentration and are typically at least double those observed without the additions. DCB specimens, fatigue pre-cracked in air before immersion in a saline environment, show an initial period with no detectible crack growth, followed by crack growth at the distilled water rate, and then transition to a higher crack growth rate typical of region 2 crack growth in the saline environment. Time spent in each stage depends on the type of pre-crack ("pop-in" vs fatigue), applied stress intensity factor, alloy chemistry, bulk environment, and, if applied, the external polarization. Apparent activation energies ( E a) for SCC growth in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys exposed to 0.6 M NaCl over the temperatures ranging from 293 K to 353 K (20 °C to 80 °C) for under-, peak-, and over-aged low-copper-containing alloys (<0.2 wt pct) are typically ranging from

  11. Comment on Giuseppe Genchi et al. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 74.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, S M J; Mortazavi, Ghazal; Paknahad, Maryam

    2017-07-06

    Cenchi et al. [1] have recently published an article entitled "Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases" that is published in Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 74; doi:10.3390/ijerph14010074.[...].

  12. [Al

    PubMed

    Purath; Köppe; Schnöckel

    1999-10-04

    A "naked" aluminum atom links two aluminum tetrahedra in the [Al(7){N(SiMe(3))(2)}(6)](-) ion (see picture), which results from the reaction of a metastable AlCl solution with LiN(SiMe(3))(2) and crystallizes with [Li(OEt(2))(3)](+) as cation. This unique structure among molecular metal atom clusters represents a small but characteristic section of cubic close-packed aluminum.

  13. Corrosion behavior of TiN, TiAlN, TiAlSiN-coated 316L stainless steel in simulated proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Nguyen Dang; Vaka, Mahesh; Tran Hung, Nguyen

    2014-12-01

    To gain high hardness, good thermal stability and corrosion resistance, multicomponent TiAlSiN coating has been developed using different deposition methods. In this study, the influence of Al and Si on the electrochemical properties of TiN-coated 316L stainless steel as bipolar plate (BP) materials has been investigated in simulated proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment. The deposited TiN, TiAlN and TiAlSiN possess high hardness of 23.9, 31.7, 35.0 GPa, respectively. The coating performance of the TiN coating is enhanced by Al and Si addition due to lower corrosion current density and higher Rcoating and Rct values. This result could be attributed to the formation of crystalline-refined TiN(200), which improves the surface roughness, surface resistance, corrosion performance, and decreased passive current density.

  14. Factors Affecting the Hydrogen Environment Assisted Cracking Resistance of an Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Young; J.R. Scully

    2001-09-12

    It is well established that Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) aluminum alloys are susceptible to hydrogen environment assisted cracking (HEAC) when exposed to aqueous environments. In Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, overaged tempers are commonly used to increase HEAC resistance at the expense of strength. Overaging has little benefit in low copper alloys. However, the mechanism or mechanisms by which overaging imparts HEAC resistance is poorly understood. The present research investigated hydrogen uptake, diffusion, and crack growth rate in 90% relative humidity (RH) air for both a commercial copper bearing Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (AA 7050) and a low copper variant of this alloy in order to better understand the factors which affect HEAC resistance. Experimental methods used to evaluate hydrogen concentrations local to a surface and near a crack tip include nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), focused ion beam, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (FIB/SIMS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). When freshly bared coupons of AA 7050 are exposed to 90 C, 90% RH air, hydrogen ingress follows inverse-logarithmic-type kinetics and is equivalent for underaged (HEAC susceptible) and overaged (HEAC resistant) tempers. However, when the native oxide is allowed to form (24 hrs in 25 C, 40% RH lab air) prior to exposure to 90 C, 90% RH air, underaged alloy shows significantly greater hydrogen ingress than the overaged alloy. Humid air is a very aggressive environment producing local ({approx}1{micro}m) hydrogen concentrations in excess of 10,000 wt. ppm at 90 C. In the copper bearing alloy, overaging also effects the apparent diffusivity of hydrogen. As AA 7050 is aged from underaged {yields} peak aged {yields} overaged, the activation energy for hydrogen diffusion increases and the apparent diffusivity for hydrogen decreases, In the low copper alloy, overaging has little effect on hydrogen diffusion. Comparison of the apparent activation energies for hydrogen diffusion and for K independent (stage II) crack growth

  15. Astronomy Popularization via Sci-fi Movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingkang

    2015-08-01

    It is astronomers’ duty to let more and more young people know a bit astronomy and be interested in astronomy and appreciate the beauty and great achievements in astronomy. One of the most effective methods to popularize astronomy to young people nowadays might be via enjoying some brilliant sci-fi movies related to astronomy with some guidance from astronomers. Firstly, we will introduce the basic information of our selective course “Appreciation of Sci-fi Movies in Astronomy” for the non-major astronomy students in our University, which is surely unique in China, then we will show its effect on astronomy popularization based on several rounds of teaching.

  16. Aggregation and Colloidal Stability of Commercially Available Al2O3 Nanoparticles in Aqueous Environments

    PubMed Central

    Mui, Julie; Ngo, Jennifer; Kim, Bojeong

    2016-01-01

    The aggregation and colloidal stability of three, commercially-available, gamma-aluminum oxide nanoparticles (γ-Al2O3 NPs) (nominally 5, 10, and 20–30 nm) were systematically examined as a function of pH, ionic strength, humic acid (HA) or clay minerals (e.g., montmorillonite) concentration using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy techniques. NPs possess pH-dependent surface charges, with a point of zero charge (PZC) of pH 7.5 to 8. When pH < PZC, γ-Al2O3 NPs are colloidally stable up to 100 mM NaCl and 30 mM CaCl2. However, significant aggregation of NPs is pronounced in both electrolytes at high ionic strength. In mixed systems, both HA and montmorillonite enhance NP colloidal stability through electrostatic interactions and steric hindrance when pH ≤ PZC, whereas their surface interactions are quite limited when pH > PZC. Even when pH approximates PZC, NPs became stable at a HA concentration of 1 mg·L−1. The magnitude of interactions and dominant sites of interaction (basal planes versus edge sites) are significantly dependent on pH because both NPs and montmorillonite have pH-dependent (conditional) surface charges. Thus, solution pH, ionic strength, and the presence of natural colloids greatly modify the surface conditions of commercial γ-Al2O3 NPs, affecting aggregation and colloidal stability significantly in the aqueous environment. PMID:28335218

  17. Correlation Between Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Near-Equilibrium Al-Co Alloys in Various Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priputen, Pavol; Palcut, Marián; Babinec, Martin; Mišík, Jozef; Černičková, Ivona; Janovec, Jozef

    2017-08-01

    Al-rich Al-Co alloys belong to a broad family of complex metallic alloys. These alloys contain structurally complex intermetallic phases inclusive of quasicrystals. The chemical properties of these phases are relatively unknown. The corrosion resistance of non-equilibrium Al-Co alloys in aqueous NaCl solution is influenced by aluminum content of Al-Co phases present. The only exception is structurally complex Z-Al3Co phase. To elucidate this phenomenon, the Al71Co29 and Al74Co26 alloys (metal contents are given in at.%) were prepared by arc melting and annealed at 1050 °C for 330 h. After annealing, the samples were rapidly cooled to reach near-equilibrium condition. Their phase constitution and microstructure were studied using both x-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry coupled with scanning electron microscopy, The Al71Co29 alloy was found to consist of Al5Co2 and B2 phases. The Al74Co26 alloy was composed of Al5Co2 and Z-Al3Co phases. The samples were corrosion tested in water solutions of NaCl, HCl and NaOH by potentiodynamic polarization. In NaCl and HCl, the pitting corrosion was observed. In aqueous NaOH solution, a uniform corrosion occured. In alkaline and acidic environments, the most aggressive and the weakest corrosion attacks were found, respectively. Good corrosion resistance of the Z-Al3Co phase in chlorine anions containing environments was observed. Possible explanation of such behavior has been discussed.

  18. Preliminary base heating environments for a generalized ALS LO2/LH2 launch vehicle, appendix 1 and 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Robert L.; Reardon, John E.

    1989-10-01

    A secondary objective of contract NAS8-39141 is to provide base heating assessments, as required, to support Advanced Launch System (ALS) preliminary launch vehicle and propulsion system design studies. The ALS propulsion systems integration working group meeting (No. 3) recently completed in San Diego, California, focused attention on the need for base heating environment determination to provide preliminary requirements for LO2/LH2 propulsion systems currently being considered for ALS. We were requested to provide these environments for a range of possible propellant mixture and nozzle area ratios. Base heating environments can only be determined as a function of altitude when the engine operating conditions and vehicle base region geometry (engine arrangement) are known. If time dependent environments are needed to assess thermal loads, a trajectory must also be provided. These parameters are not fixed at this time since the ALS configurations and propulsion operating conditions are varied and continue to be studied by Phase B contractors. Therefore, for this study, a generalized LO2/LH2 system was selected along with a vehicle configuration consisting of a seven-engine booster and a three-engine core. MSFC provided guidance for the selection. We also selected a limited number of body points on the booster and core vehicles and engines for the environment estimates. Environments at these locations are representative of maximum heating conditions in the base region and are provided as a function of altitude only. Guidelines and assumptions for this assessment, methodology for determining the environments, and preliminary results are provided in this technical note. Refinements in the environments will be provided as the ALS design matures.

  19. Preliminary base heating environments for a generalized ALS LO2/LH2 launch vehicle, appendix 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Robert L.; Reardon, John E.

    1989-01-01

    A secondary objective of contract NAS8-39141 is to provide base heating assessments, as required, to support Advanced Launch System (ALS) preliminary launch vehicle and propulsion system design studies. The ALS propulsion systems integration working group meeting (No. 3) recently completed in San Diego, California, focused attention on the need for base heating environment determination to provide preliminary requirements for LO2/LH2 propulsion systems currently being considered for ALS. We were requested to provide these environments for a range of possible propellant mixture and nozzle area ratios. Base heating environments can only be determined as a function of altitude when the engine operating conditions and vehicle base region geometry (engine arrangement) are known. If time dependent environments are needed to assess thermal loads, a trajectory must also be provided. These parameters are not fixed at this time since the ALS configurations and propulsion operating conditions are varied and continue to be studied by Phase B contractors. Therefore, for this study, a generalized LO2/LH2 system was selected along with a vehicle configuration consisting of a seven-engine booster and a three-engine core. MSFC provided guidance for the selection. We also selected a limited number of body points on the booster and core vehicles and engines for the environment estimates. Environments at these locations are representative of maximum heating conditions in the base region and are provided as a function of altitude only. Guidelines and assumptions for this assessment, methodology for determining the environments, and preliminary results are provided in this technical note. Refinements in the environments will be provided as the ALS design matures.

  20. MgAl2O4 spinel refractory as containment liner for high-temperature alkali salt containing environments

    DOEpatents

    Peascoe-Meisner, Roberta A [Knoxville, TN; Keiser, James R [Oak Ridge, TN; Hemric, James G [Knoxville, TN; Hubbard, Camden R [Oak Ridge, TN; Gorog, J Peter [Kent, WA; Gupta, Amul [Jamestown, NY

    2008-10-21

    A method includes containing a high-temperature alkali salt containing environment using a refractory containment liner containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel. A method, includes forming a refractory brick containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel having an exterior chill zone defined by substantially columnar crystallization and an interior zone defined by substantially equiaxed crystallization; and removing at least a portion of the exterior chill zone from the refractory brick containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel by scalping the refractory brick containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel to define at least one outer surface having an area of substantially equiaxed crystallization. A product of manufacture includes a refractory brick containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel including an interior zone defined by substantially equiaxed crystallization; and at least one outer surface having an area of substantially equiaxed crystallization.

  1. Weldability of Fe-Al-Cr Overlay Coatings for CorrosionProtection in Oxidizing/Sulfidizing Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Regina, JR

    2003-03-04

    The effect of chromium additions to the weldability of Fe-Al based overlay claddings are currently being investigated for the corrosion protection of boiler tubes in Low NOx furnaces. The primary objective of this research is to identify weldable (crack-free) Fe-Al-Cr weld overlay coating compositions that provide corrosion resistance over long exposure times. During the current project phase, preliminary corrosion testing was conducted on several ternary Fe-Al-Cr alloys in two types of gaseous corrosion environments. These long-term corrosion tests were used to develop a target weld composition matrix and serve as a base line for future corrosion tests. Preliminary Fe-Al based welds with various aluminum concentrations and one ternary Fe-Al-Cr weld overlay were successfully deposited using a Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) process and cracking susceptibility was evaluated on these coatings.

  2. SciServer Compute brings Analysis to Big Data in the Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddick, Jordan; Medvedev, Dmitry; Lemson, Gerard; Souter, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    SciServer Compute uses Jupyter Notebooks running within server-side Docker containers attached to big data collections to bring advanced analysis to big data "in the cloud." SciServer Compute is a component in the SciServer Big-Data ecosystem under development at JHU, which will provide a stable, reproducible, sharable virtual research environment.SciServer builds on the popular CasJobs and SkyServer systems that made the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) archive one of the most-used astronomical instruments. SciServer extends those systems with server-side computational capabilities and very large scratch storage space, and further extends their functions to a range of other scientific disciplines.Although big datasets like SDSS have revolutionized astronomy research, for further analysis, users are still restricted to downloading the selected data sets locally - but increasing data sizes make this local approach impractical. Instead, researchers need online tools that are co-located with data in a virtual research environment, enabling them to bring their analysis to the data.SciServer supports this using the popular Jupyter notebooks, which allow users to write their own Python and R scripts and execute them on the server with the data (extensions to Matlab and other languages are planned). We have written special-purpose libraries that enable querying the databases and other persistent datasets. Intermediate results can be stored in large scratch space (hundreds of TBs) and analyzed directly from within Python or R with state-of-the-art visualization and machine learning libraries. Users can store science-ready results in their permanent allocation on SciDrive, a Dropbox-like system for sharing and publishing files. Communication between the various components of the SciServer system is managed through SciServer‘s new Single Sign-on Portal.We have created a number of demos to illustrate the capabilities of SciServer Compute, including Python and R scripts

  3. Uniform corrosion of FeCrAl alloys in LWR coolant environments

    SciTech Connect

    Terrani, K. A.; Pint, B. A.; Kim, Y. -J.; Unocic, K. A.; Yang, Y.; Silva, C. M.; Meyer, III, H. M.; Rebak, R. B.

    2016-06-29

    The corrosion behavior of commercial and model FeCrAl alloys and type 310 stainless steel was examined by autoclave tests and compared to Zircaloy-4, the reference cladding materials in light water reactors. The corrosion studies were carried out in three distinct water chemistry environments found in pressurized and boiling water reactor primary coolant loop conditions for up to one year. The structure and morphology of the oxides formed on the surface of these alloys was consistent with thermodynamic predictions. Spinel-type oxides were found to be present after hydrogen water chemistry exposures, while the oxygenated water tests resulted in the formation of very thin and protective hematite-type oxides. Unlike the alloys exposed to oxygenated water tests, the alloys tested in hydrogen water chemistry conditions experienced mass loss as a function of time. This mass loss was the result of net sum of mass gain due to parabolic oxidation and mass loss due to dissolution that also exhibits parabolic kinetics. Finally, the maximum thickness loss after one year of LWR water corrosion in the absence of irradiation was ~2 μm, which is inconsequential for a ~300–500 μm thick cladding.

  4. Uniform corrosion of FeCrAl alloys in LWR coolant environments

    DOE PAGES

    Terrani, K. A.; Pint, B. A.; Kim, Y. -J.; ...

    2016-06-29

    The corrosion behavior of commercial and model FeCrAl alloys and type 310 stainless steel was examined by autoclave tests and compared to Zircaloy-4, the reference cladding materials in light water reactors. The corrosion studies were carried out in three distinct water chemistry environments found in pressurized and boiling water reactor primary coolant loop conditions for up to one year. The structure and morphology of the oxides formed on the surface of these alloys was consistent with thermodynamic predictions. Spinel-type oxides were found to be present after hydrogen water chemistry exposures, while the oxygenated water tests resulted in the formation ofmore » very thin and protective hematite-type oxides. Unlike the alloys exposed to oxygenated water tests, the alloys tested in hydrogen water chemistry conditions experienced mass loss as a function of time. This mass loss was the result of net sum of mass gain due to parabolic oxidation and mass loss due to dissolution that also exhibits parabolic kinetics. Finally, the maximum thickness loss after one year of LWR water corrosion in the absence of irradiation was ~2 μm, which is inconsequential for a ~300–500 μm thick cladding.« less

  5. Uniform corrosion of FeCrAl alloys in LWR coolant environments

    SciTech Connect

    Terrani, K. A.; Pint, B. A.; Kim, Y. -J.; Unocic, K. A.; Yang, Y.; Silva, C. M.; Meyer, III, H. M.; Rebak, R. B.

    2016-06-29

    The corrosion behavior of commercial and model FeCrAl alloys and type 310 stainless steel was examined by autoclave tests and compared to Zircaloy-4, the reference cladding materials in light water reactors. The corrosion studies were carried out in three distinct water chemistry environments found in pressurized and boiling water reactor primary coolant loop conditions for up to one year. The structure and morphology of the oxides formed on the surface of these alloys was consistent with thermodynamic predictions. Spinel-type oxides were found to be present after hydrogen water chemistry exposures, while the oxygenated water tests resulted in the formation of very thin and protective hematite-type oxides. Unlike the alloys exposed to oxygenated water tests, the alloys tested in hydrogen water chemistry conditions experienced mass loss as a function of time. This mass loss was the result of net sum of mass gain due to parabolic oxidation and mass loss due to dissolution that also exhibits parabolic kinetics. Finally, the maximum thickness loss after one year of LWR water corrosion in the absence of irradiation was ~2 μm, which is inconsequential for a ~300–500 μm thick cladding.

  6. Uniform corrosion of FeCrAl alloys in LWR coolant environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrani, K. A.; Pint, B. A.; Kim, Y.-J.; Unocic, K. A.; Yang, Y.; Silva, C. M.; Meyer, H. M.; Rebak, R. B.

    2016-10-01

    The corrosion behavior of commercial and model FeCrAl alloys and type 310 stainless steel was examined by autoclave tests and compared to Zircaloy-4, the reference cladding materials in light water reactors. The corrosion studies were carried out in three distinct water chemistry environments found in pressurized and boiling water reactor primary coolant loop conditions for up to one year. The structure and morphology of the oxides formed on the surface of these alloys was consistent with thermodynamic predictions. Spinel-type oxides were found to be present after hydrogen water chemistry exposures, while the oxygenated water tests resulted in the formation of very thin and protective hematite-type oxides. Unlike the alloys exposed to oxygenated water tests, the alloys tested in hydrogen water chemistry conditions experienced mass loss as a function of time. This mass loss was the result of net sum of mass gain due to parabolic oxidation and mass loss due to dissolution that also exhibits parabolic kinetics. The maximum thickness loss after one year of LWR water corrosion in the absence of irradiation was ∼2 μm, which is inconsequential for a ∼300-500 μm thick cladding.

  7. OPENING REMARKS: SciDAC: Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Good morning. Welcome to SciDAC 2005 and San Francisco. SciDAC is all about computational science and scientific discovery. In a large sense, computational science characterizes SciDAC and its intent is change. It transforms both our approach and our understanding of science. It opens new doors and crosses traditional boundaries while seeking discovery. In terms of twentieth century methodologies, computational science may be said to be transformational. There are a number of examples to this point. First are the sciences that encompass climate modeling. The application of computational science has in essence created the field of climate modeling. This community is now international in scope and has provided precision results that are challenging our understanding of our environment. A second example is that of lattice quantum chromodynamics. Lattice QCD, while adding precision and insight to our fundamental understanding of strong interaction dynamics, has transformed our approach to particle and nuclear science. The individual investigator approach has evolved to teams of scientists from different disciplines working side-by-side towards a common goal. SciDAC is also undergoing a transformation. This meeting is a prime example. Last year it was a small programmatic meeting tracking progress in SciDAC. This year, we have a major computational science meeting with a variety of disciplines and enabling technologies represented. SciDAC 2005 should position itself as a new corner stone for Computational Science and its impact on science. As we look to the immediate future, FY2006 will bring a new cycle to SciDAC. Most of the program elements of SciDAC will be re-competed in FY2006. The re-competition will involve new instruments for computational science, new approaches for collaboration, as well as new disciplines. There will be new opportunities for virtual experiments in carbon sequestration, fusion, and nuclear power and nuclear waste, as well as collaborations

  8. Institutional profile: the national Swedish academic drug discovery & development platform at SciLifeLab.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Per I; Sandberg, Kristian; Sakariassen, Kjell S

    2017-06-01

    The Science for Life Laboratory Drug Discovery and Development Platform (SciLifeLab DDD) was established in Stockholm and Uppsala, Sweden, in 2014. It is one of ten platforms of the Swedish national SciLifeLab which support projects run by Swedish academic researchers with large-scale technologies for molecular biosciences with a focus on health and environment. SciLifeLab was created by the coordinated effort of four universities in Stockholm and Uppsala: Stockholm University, Karolinska Institutet, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Uppsala University, and has recently expanded to other Swedish university locations. The primary goal of the SciLifeLab DDD is to support selected academic discovery and development research projects with tools and resources to discover novel lead therapeutics, either molecules or human antibodies. Intellectual property developed with the help of SciLifeLab DDD is wholly owned by the academic research group. The bulk of SciLifeLab DDD's research and service activities are funded from the Swedish state, with only consumables paid by the academic research group through individual grants.

  9. Institutional profile: the national Swedish academic drug discovery & development platform at SciLifeLab

    PubMed Central

    Arvidsson, Per I; Sandberg, Kristian; Sakariassen, Kjell S

    2017-01-01

    The Science for Life Laboratory Drug Discovery and Development Platform (SciLifeLab DDD) was established in Stockholm and Uppsala, Sweden, in 2014. It is one of ten platforms of the Swedish national SciLifeLab which support projects run by Swedish academic researchers with large-scale technologies for molecular biosciences with a focus on health and environment. SciLifeLab was created by the coordinated effort of four universities in Stockholm and Uppsala: Stockholm University, Karolinska Institutet, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Uppsala University, and has recently expanded to other Swedish university locations. The primary goal of the SciLifeLab DDD is to support selected academic discovery and development research projects with tools and resources to discover novel lead therapeutics, either molecules or human antibodies. Intellectual property developed with the help of SciLifeLab DDD is wholly owned by the academic research group. The bulk of SciLifeLab DDD's research and service activities are funded from the Swedish state, with only consumables paid by the academic research group through individual grants. PMID:28670468

  10. Life expectancy of modular Ti6Al4V hip implants: influence of stress and environment.

    PubMed

    Chandra, A; Ryu, J J; Karra, P; Shrotriya, P; Tvergaard, V; Gaisser, M; Weik, T

    2011-11-01

    Stress dependent electrochemical dissolution is identified as one of the key mechanisms governing surface degradation in fretting and crevice corrosion of biomedical implants. The present study focuses on delineating the roles of mechanical stress and chemical conditions on the life expectancy of modular hip implants. First, material removal on a stressed surface of Ti6Al4V subjected to single asperity contact is investigated experimentally to identify the influence of contact load, in-plane stress and chemical environment on mean wear rates. A range of known stress levels are applied to the specimen while its surface is mechanically stimulated in different non-reactive to oxidizing aqueous environments. Evolution of surface degradation is monitored, and its mechanism is elucidated. This phase allows estimation of Preston Constant which is later used in the analysis. Second phase of the work is semi-analytical and computational, where, based on the estimated Preston constant and other material and process parameters, the scratch propensity (consisting of magnitude of scratch depth and their frequency per unit area) due to micro-motion in modular hip implants is estimated. The third phase views these scratches as initial notches and utilizes a mixed-mode fatigue crack propagation model to estimate the critical crack length for onset of instability. The number of loading cycles needed to reach this critical crack length is then labeled as the expected life of the implant under given mechanical and chemical conditions. Implications of different material and process conditions to life expectancy of orthopedic implants are discussed. It is observed that transverse micro-motion, compared to longitudinal micro-motion, plays a far more critical role in determining the implant life. Patient body weight, as well as proximity of the joint fluid to its iso-electric point play key roles in determining wear rates and associated life expectancies of modular hip implants

  11. Enhancing Propriospinal Relays to Improve Functional Recovery after SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0595 TITLE: Enhancing Propriospinal Relays to Improve Functional Recovery after SCI PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Enhancing Propriospinal Relays to Improve Functional Recovery after SCI 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0595...Despite the clinical impact of traumatic spinal cord injury ( SCI ), there is no effective treatment for SCI . As a consequence, there are approximately

  12. SciFi - A large scintillating fibre tracker for LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirn, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and to read out the data at 40 MHz using a trigger-less read-out system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with higher occupancy. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. Concept, design and operational parameters are driven by the challenging LHC environment including significant ionising and neutron radiation levels. Over a total active surface of 360 m2 the SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres (∅ = 0.25 mm) read out by state-of-the-art multi-channel Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) arrays. A custom ASIC will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. The project is now at the transition from R&D to series production. We will present the evolution of the design and the latest lab and test beam results.

  13. Web life: Planet SciCast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-08-01

    So what is the site about? Planet SciCast is an online repository for short films about science - a bit like a science-specific, moderated version of YouTube. As of July 2009, the site hosts over 150 films on topics ranging from CERN's Large Hadron Collider to fun things to do with treacle. New content appears on the site every few weeks, and some films include links to information about related experiments, demos and activities. The site also runs an annual competition aimed at getting more people involved in making science films, with prizes in categories like "best original score" and "best presenter".

  14. Microsensors based on a whispering gallery mode in AlGaN microdisks undercut by hydrogen-environment thermal etching.

    PubMed

    Kouno, Tetsuya; Sakai, Masaru; Takeshima, Hoshi; Suzuki, Sho; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Kishino, Katsumi; Hara, Kazuhiko

    2017-04-20

    AlGaN microdisks were fabricated via a top-down process using electron-beam lithography, inductively coupled plasma reactive-ion etching, and hydrogen-environment thermal etching from commercial epitaxial wafers with a 100-300 nm thick AlGaN layer grown on a c-plane GaN layer by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The hydrogen-environment thermal etching performed well in undercutting the AlGaN microdisks owing to the selective etching for the GaN layer. The AlGaN microdisks acted as the whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical microresonators, exhibiting sharp resonant peaks in room temperature photoluminescence spectra. The evanescent component of the whispering gallery mode (WGM) is influenced by the ambient condition of the microdisk, resulting in the shift of the resonant peaks. The phenomenon is considered to be used for microsensors. Using the WGM in the AlGaN microdisks, we demonstrated microsensors and a microsensor system, which can potentially be used to evaluate biological and chemical actions in a microscale area in real time.

  15. Corrosion fatigue of steam turbine-blading alloys in operational environments. Final report. [Ti-6Al-4V

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, J.W.; Dowling, N.E.; Heymann, F.J.; Jonas, O.; Kunsman, L.D.; Pebler, A.R.; Swaminathan, V.P.; Willertz, L.E.; Rust, T.M.

    1984-09-01

    The corrosion fatigue strengths of Type 403 and 17-4 PH stainless steel and several processing variations of Ti-6Al-4V were determined in various steam turbine environments. Steam and turbine deposits were analyzed to establish test environments. Pure 80/sup 0/C water base line data was determined and compared to saturated aqueous solutions of NaCl, Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, Na/sub 3/PO/sub 4/, Na/sub 2/SiO/sub 3/ and some mixtures of these. The pH and oxygen content were also varied. Fatigue strengths at 20 kHz and 100 Hz were established for 10/sup 9/ and 10/sup 7/ cycles, respectively. The corrosion fatigue effect of notches, shot peening and mean stress were measured. Acidic, high oxygen 22% NaCl solutions were found to be extremely aggressive, causing Type 403 to lose 87% of its pure water fatigue strength; more basic solutions and other chemical species were less severe. The Ti-6Al-4V alloys were only mildly affected in most environments although NaOH plus SiO/sub 2/ was found to dissolve this alloy. The effect of the environments on 17-4 PH was intermediate between Type 403 and Ti-6Al-4V.

  16. Using SciDB to Support Photon Science Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Becla, Jack; Wang, Daniel; lim, Kian-Tat; /SLAC

    2012-02-15

    Array data analytic systems like SciDB hold great potential to accelerate processing data from SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source and other experiments. SciDB is unique in its ability to integrate storage and processing of array data efficiently, providing both space-efficient storage and out-of-memory efficient parallel array processing. We describe a recent effort to leverage SciDB to store and process LCLS data. The work includes development of software to import data into SciDB, subsequent benchmarks, and interactive manipulation of data in SciDB.

  17. Public Data Set: Erratum: "Multi-point, high-speed passive ion velocity distribution diagnostic on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment" [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D516 (2012)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Burke, Marcus G. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000176193724); Fonck, Raymond J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000294386762); Bongard, Michael W. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000231609746); Schlossberg, David J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000287139448); Winz, Gregory R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000177627184)

    2016-07-18

    This data set contains openly-documented, machine readable digital research data corresponding to figures published in M.G. Burke et al., 'Erratum: "Multi-point, high-speed passive ion velocity distribution diagnostic on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment" [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D516 (2012)],' Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 079902 (2016).

  18. Wear Behavior of Al-SiC Metal Matrix Composite under various Corrosive Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Smrutiranjan; Barman, Tapan Kumar; Sahoo, Prasanta; Sutradhar, Goutam

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the wear behavior under corrosive environments of LM6 based metal matrix composite reinforced with 5 wt% SiC prepared through the stir casting method. The experiments are carried out in a pin-on-disk tribotester varying five levels of normal load and sliding speed. The duration of each experiment is fixed for 30 minutes. Three environments viz. dry, deionised and dilute acid environments are considered to carry out the tribological tests. The composite exhibits slightly good wear resistance under low load and speed condition but weight loss increases as these parameters increases in all three environments. Maximum weight loss occurs in case of acid environment as it is more corrosive than dry and deionised environment. The wear surface of the composite is examined through the scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX).

  19. SciDAC Institute for Ultrascale Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, Grigori R.

    2008-09-30

    The Institute for Ultrascale Visualization aims to address visualization needs of SciDAC science domains, including research topics in advanced scientific visualization architectures, algorithms, and interfaces for understanding large, complex datasets. During the current project period, the focus of the team at the University of Virginia has been interactive remote rendering for scientific visualization. With high-performance computing resources enabling increasingly complex simulations, scientists may desire to interactively visualize huge 3D datasets. Traditional large-scale 3D visualization systems are often located very close to the processing clusters, and are linked to them with specialized connections for high-speed rendering. However, this tight coupling of processing and display limits possibilities for remote collaboration, and prohibits scientists from using their desktop workstations for data exploration. In this project, we are developing a client/server system for interactive remote 3D visualization on desktop computers.

  20. Biomaterial scaffolds used for the regeneration of spinal cord injury (SCI).

    PubMed

    Kim, Moonhang; Park, So Ra; Choi, Byung Hyune

    2014-11-01

    This review presents a summary of various types of scaffold biomaterials used alone or together with therapeutic drugs and cells to regenerate spinal cord injury (SCI). The inhibitory environment and loss of axonal connections after SCI give rise to critical obstacles to regeneration of lost tissues and neuronal functions. Biomaterial scaffolds can provide a bridge to connect lost tissues, an adhesion site for implanted or host cells, and sustained release of therapeutic drugs in the injured spinal cord. In addition, they not only provide a structural platform, but can play active roles by inhibiting apoptosis of cells, inflammation and scar formation, and inducing neurogenesis, axonal growth and angiogenesis. Many synthetic and natural biomaterial scaffolds have been extensively investigated and tested in vitro and in animal SCI models for these purposes. We summarized the literature on the biomaterials commonly used for spinal cord regeneration in terms of historical backgrounds and current approaches.

  1. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Welcome to San Diego and the 2009 SciDAC conference. Over the next four days, I would like to present an assessment of the SciDAC program. We will look at where we've been, how we got to where we are and where we are going in the future. Our vision is to be first in computational science, to be best in class in modeling and simulation. When Ray Orbach asked me what I would do, in my job interview for the SciDAC Director position, I said we would achieve that vision. And with our collective dedicated efforts, we have managed to achieve this vision. In the last year, we have now the most powerful supercomputer for open science, Jaguar, the Cray XT system at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). We also have NERSC, probably the best-in-the-world program for productivity in science that the Office of Science so depends on. And the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility offers architectural diversity with its IBM Blue Gene/P system as a counterbalance to Oak Ridge. There is also ESnet, which is often understated—the 40 gigabit per second dual backbone ring that connects all the labs and many DOE sites. In the President's Recovery Act funding, there is exciting news that ESnet is going to build out to a 100 gigabit per second network using new optical technologies. This is very exciting news for simulations and large-scale scientific facilities. But as one noted SciDAC luminary said, it's not all about the computers—it's also about the science—and we are also achieving our vision in this area. Together with having the fastest supercomputer for science, at the SC08 conference, SciDAC researchers won two ACM Gordon Bell Prizes for the outstanding performance of their applications. The DCA++ code, which solves some very interesting problems in materials, achieved a sustained performance of 1.3 petaflops, an astounding result and a mark I suspect will last for some time. The LS3DF application for studying nanomaterials also required the development of a

  2. In situ evolution of trivalent chromium process passive film on Al in a corrosive aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xuecheng; Argekar, Sandip; Wang, Peng; Schaefer, Dale W

    2011-11-01

    In situ neutron reflectivity (NR) is used to observe the structure and evolution of a Trivalent Chromium Process (TCP) passive film on Al in a NaCl-D(2)O solution. Using a split liquid reflectivity cell we mimicked the corrosion process on the anodic sites in alloy AA 2024-T3 in a pitting scenario. The split cell separates the anodic and cathodic reactions, allowing NR observation of the corroding anodic surface under potential control. We observed the evolution of the TCP film on the Al anode and compared the degradation of the Al with and without TCP protection. When held at 100 mV above the open-circuit potential (OCP), unprotected aluminum dissolves at a rate of 120 Å/h. By contrast, TCP-coated Al is stable up to the pitting potential (200 mV above OCP). In the passive state D(2)O molecules penetrate the bulk TCP film by partially replacing the hydrate water. In spite of exchange of hydration water, the TCP film is stable and the underlying aluminum is fully protected. The passive character of the TCP film is due to a dense layer at the metal-TCP interface and/or to suppression of ion transport in the bulk film. As the pitting potential is approached the film swells and NaCl-D(2)O solution penetrates the TCP film. At this point, 50 vol % of the TCP film is occupied by bulk NaCl-D(2)O solution. Failure occurs by aluminum dissolution under the swollen TCP film as the imbibed solution contacts the Al metal. Further increase in potential leads to complete stripping of the TCP film.

  3. Simulated behaviour of large scale SCI rings and tori

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Hojung; Knowles, A.; Daniel, R. Jr.

    1993-09-01

    SCI(Scalable Coherent Interface) is a new IEEE standard for a high speed interconnect in parallel processors. It is attracting interest because of its high bandwidth (1 GB/sec/link) and low latency. The default SCI topology is a ring, which does not scale well to large numbers of processors. This paper uses stochastic and trace-driven simulations to compare the performance of SCI-based parallel computers with a ring topology to those based on a torus topology. We also look at the effects of varying some of the internals of the SCI components.

  4. A millenium approach to Data Acquisition: SCI and PCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Hans; Bogaerts, A.; Lindenstruth, V.

    The international SCI standard IEEE/ANSI 1596a [Ref. 1.] is on its way to become the computer interconnect of the year 2000 since for a first time, low latency desktop multiprocessing and cluster computing can be implemented at low cost. The PCI bus is todays's dominating local bus extension for all major computer platforms as well as for buses like VMEbus. PCI is a self configuring memory and I/O system for peripheral components with a hierarchical architecture. SCI is a scalable, bus-like interconnect for distributed processors and memories. It allows for optionally coherent data caching and assures errorfree data delivery. First measurement with commercial SCI products (SBUS-SCI) confirm simulations that SCI can handle even the highest data rates of LHC experiments. The eventbuilder layer for a millenium very high rate DAQ system can therefore be viewed as a SCI network ( bridges, cables & switches) interfaced between PCI buses on the frontend (VMEb ) side and on the processor farm ( Multi-CPU) side. Such a combination of SCI and PCI enables PCI-PCI memory access, transparently across SCI. It also allows for a novel, low level trigger technique: the trigger algorithm can access VME data buffers with bus-like latencies like local memory, i.e. full data transfers become redundent. The first prototype of a PCI-SCI bridge for DAQ is presented as starting point for a test system with built-in scalability.

  5. Probing the local environment of substitutional Al^{3+} in goethite using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducher, Manoj; Blanchard, Marc; Vantelon, Delphine; Nemausat, Ruidy; Cabaret, Delphine

    2016-03-01

    We present experimental and calculated Al K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra of aluminous goethite with 10-33 mol% of AlOOH and diaspore. Significant changes are observed experimentally in the near- and pre-edge regions with increasing Al concentration in goethite. First-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) reproduce successfully the experimental trends. This permits to identify the electronic and structural parameters controlling the spectral features and to improve our knowledge of the local environment of {Al}^{3+} in the goethite-diaspore partial solid solution. In the near-edge region, the larger peak spacing in diaspore compared to Al-bearing goethite is related to the nature (Fe or Al) of the first cation neighbours around the absorbing Al atom (Al*). The intensity ratio of the two near-edge peaks, which decreases with Al concentration, is correlated with the average distance of the first cations around Al* and the distortion of the {AlO}_6 octahedron. Finally, the decrease in intensity of the pre-edge features with increasing Al concentration is due to the smaller number of Fe atoms in the local environment of Al since Al atoms tend to cluster. In addition, it is found that the pre-edge features of the Al K-edge XANES spectra enable to probe indirectly empty 3 d states of Fe. Energetic, structural and spectroscopic results suggest that for Al concentrations around 10 mol%, Al atoms can be considered as isolated, whereas above 25 mol%, Al clusters are more likely to occur.

  6. The environment assisted cracking of Fe-32Mn-9Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.C.; Liu, J.Y.; Juang, H.K.

    1994-12-31

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviors of four austenitic Fe-32Mn-9Al containing approximately 1 wt% carbon alloys were studied in this work. All of the four alloys are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in room temperature and 160C NaCl solution. The SCC can be enhanced by applying anodic potential. The mechanism of SCC is mainly active path corrosion. The crack path is transgranular. The addition of 1.23% Mo or 1.27% Si to the austenitic Fe-32Mn-V/ 9Al alloy does not change the SCC mechanism and crack path. The addition of 1.27% Si makes the alloy more susceptible to SCC but no such effect was observed with 1.23% Mo. All four alloys studied are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement in 3.5% NaCl solution at negative enough cathodic applied potential. The addition of Mo, Cr or Si in the alloy displaces the embrittlement potential to a more cathodic range.

  7. Cold Spraying of Cu-Al-Bronze for Cavitation Protection in Marine Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebs, S.; Gärtner, F.; Klassen, T.

    2015-01-01

    Traveling at high speeds, ships have to face the problem of rudder cavitation-erosion. At present, the problem is countered by fluid dynamically optimized rudders, synthetic, and weld-cladded coatings on steel basis. Nevertheless, docking and repair is required after certain intervals. Bulk Cu-Al-bronzes are in use at ships propellers to withstand corrosion and cavitation. Deposited as coatings with bulk-like properties, such bronzes could also enhance rudder life times. The present study investigates the coating formation by cold spraying CuAl10Fe5Ni5 bronze powders. By calculations of the impact conditions, the range of optimum spray parameters was preselected in terms of the coating quality parameter η on steel substrates with different temperatures. As-atomized and annealed powders were compared to optimize cavitation resistance of the coatings. Results provide insights about the interplay between the mechanical properties of powder and substrate for coating formation. Single particle impact morphologies visualize the deformation behavior. Coating performance was assessed by analyzing microstructures, bond strength, and cavitation resistance. These first results demonstrate that cold-sprayed bronze coatings have a high potential for ensuring a good performances in rudder protection. With further optimization, such coatings could evolve towards a competitive alternative to existing anti-cavitation procedures.

  8. Flaw Growth of 6Al-4V Titanium in a Freon TF Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiffany, C. F.; Masters, J. N.; Bixler, W. D.

    1969-01-01

    The plane strain threshold stress intensity and sustained stress flaw growth rates were experimentally determined for 6AI-4V S.T.A. titanium forging and weldments in environments of Freon TF at room temperature. Sustained load tests of surface flawed specimens were conducted with the experimental approach based on linear elastic fracture mechanics. It was concluded that sustained stress flaw growth rates, in conjunction with threshold stress intensities, can be used in assessing the service life of pressure vessels.

  9. Performance of Plasma Sprayed Al2O3 Coating in Bio-Simulated Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldız, F.; Yetim, A. F.; Alsaran, A.; Çelik, A.

    2014-01-01

    Alumina coatings deposited on the surface of stainless steel 316L by the method of plasma spraying are studied. Tests for wear and corrosion are preformed in Ringer's solution simulating a human body environment. The structure, microhardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance of the steel are determined with and without a coating. Deposition of a coating onto the stainless steel is shown to be an effective means for protecting implants from corrosion and wear.

  10. Experiences using SciPy for computer vision research

    SciTech Connect

    Eads, Damian R; Rosten, Edward J

    2008-01-01

    SciPy is an effective tool suite for prototyping new algorithms. We share some of our experiences using it for the first time to support our research in object detection. SciPy makes it easy to integrate C code, which is essential when algorithms operating on large data sets cannot be vectorized. The universality of Python, the language in which SciPy was written, gives the researcher access to a broader set of non-numerical libraries to support GUI development, interface with databases, manipulate graph structures. render 3D graphics, unpack binary files, etc. Python's extensive support for operator overloading makes SciPy's syntax as succinct as its competitors, MATLAB, Octave, and R. More profoundly, we found it easy to rework research code written with SciPy into a production application, deployable on numerous platforms.

  11. GeoSciML version 3: A GML application for geologic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    International Union of Geological Sciences., I. C.; Richard, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    orientation (e.g. 'miarolitic cavities'). The Earth material package allows for the description of both individual components, such as minerals, and compound materials, such as rocks or unconsolidated materials. Provision is made for alteration, weathering, metamorphism, particle geometry, fabric, and petrophysical descriptions. Mapped features describe the shape of the geological features using standard GML geometries, such as polygons, lines, points or 3D volumes. Geological events provide the age, process and environment of formation of geological features. The Earth Resource section includes features to represent mineral occurrences and mines and associated human activities independently. This addition allows description of resources and reserves that can comply with national and internationally accepted reporting codes. GeoSciML v3 is under consideration as the data model for INSPIRE annex 2 geologic reporting in Europe.

  12. 75 FR 24747 - SCI, LLC/Zener-Rectifier Operations Division A Wholly Owned Subsidiary of SCI, LLC/ON...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... of SCI, LLC/ON Semiconductor Including On-Site Leased Workers From Superior Technical Resources... of SCI, LLC/ON Semiconductor, Phoenix, Arizona. The notice was published in the Federal Register on... certification ] for workers of the subject firm. The workers are engaged in the production of semiconductor...

  13. Evaluation of the corrosion resistance of Fe-Al-Cr alloys in simulated low NOx environments

    SciTech Connect

    Deacon, R.M.; DuPont, J.N.; Kiely, C.J.; Marder, A.R.; Tortorelli, P.F.

    2009-08-15

    Due to their excellent corrosion resistance, iron aluminum alloys are currently being considered for use as weld claddings in fossil fuel fired power plants. The susceptibility to hydrogen cracking of these alloys at higher aluminum concentrations has led researchers to examine the effect of chromium additions on the corrosion resistance of lower aluminum alloys. In this work, three iron aluminum alloys were exposed to simulated coal combustion environments at 500 and 700{sup o}C for short (100 h) and long (5000 h) isothermal durations. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the corrosion products. All alloys exhibited excellent corrosion resistance during short term exposures. For longer test times, increasing the aluminum concentration improved alloy corrosion resistance. The addition of chromium to the binary iron aluminum alloy prevented the formation iron sulfide and resulted in slower corrosion kinetics. A general classification of the scales developed on these alloys is presented.

  14. SciJourn is magic: construction of a science journalism community of practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Celeste R.

    2017-06-01

    This article is the first to describe the discoursal construction of an adolescent community of practice (CoP) in a non-school setting. CoPs can provide optimal learning environments. The adolescent community centered around science journalism and positioned itself dichotomously in relationship to school literacy practices. The analysis focuses on recordings from a panel-style research interview from an early implementation of the Science Literacy Through Science Journalism (SciJourn) project. Researchers trained high school students participating in a youth development program to write science news articles. Students engaged in the authentic practices of professional science journalists, received feedback from a professional editor, and submitted articles for publication. I used a fine-grained critical discourse analysis of genre, discourse, and style to analyze student responses about differences between writing in SciJourn and in school. Students described themselves as agentic in SciJourn and passive in school, using an academic writing discourse of deficit to describe schooling experiences. They affiliated with and defined a SciJourn CoP, constructing positive journalistic identities therein. Educators are encouraged to develop similar CoPs. The discursive features presented may be used to monitor the development of communities of practice in a variety of settings.

  15. Microlithography and resist technology information at your fingertips via SciFinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konuk, Rengin; Macko, John R.; Staggenborg, Lisa

    1997-07-01

    Finding and retrieving the information you need about microlithography and resist technology in a timely fashion can make or break your competitive edge in today's business environment. Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) provides the most complete and comprehensive database of the chemical literature in the CAplus, REGISTRY, and CASREACT files including 13 million document references, 15 million substance records and over 1.2 million reactions. This includes comprehensive coverage of positive and negative resist formulations and processing, photoacid generation, silylation, single and multilayer resist systems, photomasks, dry and wet etching, photolithography, electron-beam, ion-beam and x-ray lithography technologies and process control, optical tools, exposure systems, radiation sources and steppers. Journal articles, conference proceedings and patents related to microlithography and resist technology are analyzed and indexed by scientific information analysts with strong technical background in these areas. The full CAS database, which is updated weekly with new information, is now available at your desktop, via a convenient, user-friendly tool called 'SciFinder.' Author, subject and chemical substance searching is simplified by SciFinder's smart search features. Chemical substances can be searched by chemical structure, chemical name, CAS registry number or molecular formula. Drawing chemical structures in SciFinder is easy and does not require compliance with CA conventions. Built-in intelligence of SciFinder enables users to retrieve substances with multiple components, tautomeric forms and salts.

  16. SciJourn is magic: construction of a science journalism community of practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Celeste R.

    2016-01-01

    This article is the first to describe the discoursal construction of an adolescent community of practice (CoP) in a non-school setting. CoPs can provide optimal learning environments. The adolescent community centered around science journalism and positioned itself dichotomously in relationship to school literacy practices. The analysis focuses on recordings from a panel-style research interview from an early implementation of the Science Literacy Through Science Journalism (SciJourn) project. Researchers trained high school students participating in a youth development program to write science news articles. Students engaged in the authentic practices of professional science journalists, received feedback from a professional editor, and submitted articles for publication. I used a fine-grained critical discourse analysis of genre, discourse, and style to analyze student responses about differences between writing in SciJourn and in school. Students described themselves as agentic in SciJourn and passive in school, using an academic writing discourse of deficit to describe schooling experiences. They affiliated with and defined a SciJourn CoP, constructing positive journalistic identities therein. Educators are encouraged to develop similar CoPs. The discursive features presented may be used to monitor the development of communities of practice in a variety of settings.

  17. 2H and 27Al solid-state NMR study of the local environments in Al-doped 2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, and lepidocrocite

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jongsik; Ilott, Andrew J.; Middlemiss, Derek S.; Chernova, Natasha A.; Pinney, Nathan; Morgan, Dane; Grey, Clare P.

    2015-05-13

    Although substitution of aluminum into iron oxides and oxyhydroxides has been extensively studied, it is difficult to obtain accurate incorporation levels. Assessing the distribution of dopants within these materials has proven especially challenging because bulk analytical techniques cannot typically determine whether dopants are substituted directly into the bulk iron oxide or oxyhydroxide phase or if they form separate, minor phase impurities. These differences have important implications for the chemistry of these iron-containing materials, which are ubiquitous in the environment. In this work, 27Al and 2H NMR experiments are performed on series of Al-substituted goethite, lepidocrocite, and 2-line ferrihydrite in order to develop an NMR method to track Al substitution. The extent of Al substitution into the structural frameworks of each compound is quantified by comparing quantitative 27Al MAS NMR results with those from elemental analysis. Magnetic measurements are performed for the goethite series to compare with NMR measurements. Static 27Al spin–echo mapping experiments are used to probe the local environments around the Al substituents, providing clear evidence that they are incorporated into the bulk iron phases. As a result, predictions of the 2H and 27Al NMR hyperfine contact shifts in Al-doped goethite and lepidocrocite, obtained from a combined first-principles and empirical magnetic scaling approach, give further insight into the distribution of the dopants within these phases.

  18. Response to Julian et al. (2015) "comment on and reinterpretation of Gabriel et al. (2014) 'fish mercury and surface water sulfate relationships in the everglades protection area'".

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Mark C; Axelrad, Don; Orem, William; Osborne, Todd Z

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this forum is to respond to a rebuttal submitted by Julian et al., Environ Manag 55:1-5, 2015 where they outlined their overall disagreement with the data preparation, methods, and interpretation of results presented in Gabriel et al. (Environ Manag 53:583-593, 2014). Here, we provide background information on the research premise presented in Gabriel et al. (Environ Manag 53:583-593, 2014) and provide a defense for this work using five themes. In spite of what Julian et al. perceive as limitations in the sampling methods and analytical tools used for this work, the relationships found between fish total mercury and surface water sulfate concentrations in Gabriel et al. (Environ Manag 53:583-593, 2014) are comparable to relationships between pore water methylmercury (MeHg) and pore water sulfate found in past studies indicating that sulfate is important to MeHg production and bioaccumulation in the Everglades. Julian et al. state "…there is no way to justify any ecosystem-wide sulfur strategy as a management approach to reduce mercury risk in the (Everglades) as suggested by Gabriel et al. (Environ Manag 53:583-593, 2014), Corrales et al. (Sci Tot Environ 409:2156-2162, 2011) and Orem et al. (Rev Environ Sci Technol 41 (S1):249-288, 2011)." We disagree, and having stated why sulfate input reduction to the Everglades may be the most effective means of reducing mercury in Everglades fish, it is important that research on sulfur and mercury biogeochemistry continues. If further studies support the relationship between sulfate loading reduction and MeHg reduction, sulfur mass balance studies should commence to (1) better quantify agricultural and connate seawater sulfate inputs and (2) define opportunities to reduce sulfate inputs to the Everglades ecosystem.

  19. Response to Julian et al. (2015) "Comment on and Reinterpretation of Gabriel et al. (2014) `Fish Mercury and Surface Water Sulfate Relationships in the Everglades Protection Area'"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Mark C.; Axelrad, Don; Orem, William; Osborne, Todd Z.

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this forum is to respond to a rebuttal submitted by Julian et al., Environ Manag 55:1-5, 2015 where they outlined their overall disagreement with the data preparation, methods, and interpretation of results presented in Gabriel et al. (Environ Manag 53:583-593, 2014). Here, we provide background information on the research premise presented in Gabriel et al. (Environ Manag 53:583-593, 2014) and provide a defense for this work using five themes. In spite of what Julian et al. perceive as limitations in the sampling methods and analytical tools used for this work, the relationships found between fish total mercury and surface water sulfate concentrations in Gabriel et al. (Environ Manag 53:583-593, 2014) are comparable to relationships between pore water methylmercury (MeHg) and pore water sulfate found in past studies indicating that sulfate is important to MeHg production and bioaccumulation in the Everglades. Julian et al. state "…there is no way to justify any ecosystem-wide sulfur strategy as a management approach to reduce mercury risk in the (Everglades) as suggested by Gabriel et al. (Environ Manag 53:583-593, 2014), Corrales et al. (Sci Tot Environ 409:2156-2162, 2011) and Orem et al. (Rev Environ Sci Technol 41 (S1):249-288, 2011)." We disagree, and having stated why sulfate input reduction to the Everglades may be the most effective means of reducing mercury in Everglades fish, it is important that research on sulfur and mercury biogeochemistry continues. If further studies support the relationship between sulfate loading reduction and MeHg reduction, sulfur mass balance studies should commence to (1) better quantify agricultural and connate seawater sulfate inputs and (2) define opportunities to reduce sulfate inputs to the Everglades ecosystem.

  20. Best Sci-Tech Books of 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Gregg

    2009-01-01

    In tight economic times, the concerns and issues of science, viewed as not having enough practical value, can get pushed aside. But the top science books of 2008 demonstrate how science more often than not pays for itself. What's more practical than food (Tomorrow's Table), health (Our Daily Meds), the environment (The Hot Topics), or even--sex…

  1. Best Sci-Tech Books of 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Gregg

    2009-01-01

    In tight economic times, the concerns and issues of science, viewed as not having enough practical value, can get pushed aside. But the top science books of 2008 demonstrate how science more often than not pays for itself. What's more practical than food (Tomorrow's Table), health (Our Daily Meds), the environment (The Hot Topics), or even--sex…

  2. Comment on "Timing and nature of the Xinlin-Xiguitu Ocean: constraints from ophiolitic gabbros in the northern Great Xing'an Range, eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt" by Feng et al. (2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Dong-Hong

    2017-09-01

    We disagree the transitional supra-subduction zone model of Feng et al. (Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) 105:491-505, 2016) for the tectonic setting of Jifeng ophiolite suite in NE China. Existence of the komatiite in the Jifeng ophiolite indicates an oceanic plateau environment for this ophiolite suite within the so-called Xinlin-Xiguitu ocean.

  3. Comment on "Timing and nature of the Xinlin-Xiguitu Ocean: constraints from ophiolitic gabbros in the northern Great Xing'an Range, eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt" by Feng et al. (2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Dong-Hong

    2016-10-01

    We disagree the transitional supra-subduction zone model of Feng et al. (Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) 105:491-505, 2016) for the tectonic setting of Jifeng ophiolite suite in NE China. Existence of the komatiite in the Jifeng ophiolite indicates an oceanic plateau environment for this ophiolite suite within the so-called Xinlin-Xiguitu ocean.

  4. Fitness and Independence after SCI: Defining Meaningful Change and Thresholds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Quality of life after SCI/D is depends more on participation...below. Thank you! Introduction and Background Information Research has shown that quality of life (QOL) after Spinal Cord Injury or Disease (SCI/D...seven of those most essential to daily life . Fitness level is a major determinant of transfer and general ADL (Activities of Daily Living) independence

  5. Status of FNAL SciBooNE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Yasuhiro; /Kyoto U.

    2007-12-01

    SciBooNE is a new experiment at FNAL which will make precision neutrino-nucleus cross section measurements in the one GeV region. These measurements are essential for the future neutrino oscillation experiments. We started data taking in the antineutrino mode on June 8, 2007, and collected 5.19 x 10{sup 19} protons on target (POT) before the accelerator shutdown in August. The first data from SciBooNE are reported in this article.

  6. Introduction to Searching with SciFinder Scholar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, Damon D.

    2001-04-01

    With SciFinder Scholar now one of the preferred access routes to information in the sciences, many college information retrieval courses that dealt with online networks need to be redesigned. Although one of the basic assumptions within the design of SciFinder Scholar is that staff and students may retrieve valuable answers with little training, nevertheless, with a little instruction improved search results may be obtained. We present here our basic teaching program for senior undergraduate and postgraduate classes.

  7. Fatigue crack growth of Ti-6Al-4V-0.1Ru (ELI grade) in ocean environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langoy, Morten Andre

    1999-11-01

    This study of fatigue crack growth rates found that Ti-6Al-4V-0.1Ru alloy seamless pipe in beta transformed/annealed condition is well suited for dynamically loaded risers, which transport the reservoir fluid (oil and gas) from the well to the vessel, and promises significant economic benefits can be realized by employing the material in this application. The tested ocean environments did not detrimentally affect crack growth rates. The material was studied in two conditions: as-received (i.e., the parent material) and cold rolled (simulating the effect of coiling and reeling). The effect of different combinations of loading and environment on fatigue crack growth rates of the parent and cold rolled materials were studied systematically using a design of experiments (DOE) approach. Different combinations of temperature, load frequency, R (sigmamin/sigmamax of the fatigue cycle), pre-strain (cold work), and environment (laboratory air and aerated and deaerated simulated ocean water) were used in the study. The observed fatigue crack growth rates ranged from 4 x 10 -10 to 1 x 10-6 m/cycle and the investigated DeltaK's (stress intensity ranges) ranged from 7 to 45 MPa√m. Fatigue crack growth rates are not substantially higher in ocean environments than in air, but the differences appear to be real. Cold work (5% reduction in thickness by rolling) reduces fatigue crack growth rates (compared to the parent material) at intermediate and high DeltaK by a factor of two. Microstructure, fracture surfaces, and crack path also were related to testing conditions. Fracture surfaces reveal a change of morphology from features associated with microstructure-sensitive crack propagation (cyclic cleavage) to features (striations) linked with structure-insensitive (continuum-mode) growth. Contrary to expectations based on anecdotal accounts, crack branching is observed at the center of the samples regardless of DeltaK or other parameters and also on the outer surfaces of the

  8. Holocene coastal regression and facies patterns in a subtropical arid carbonate environment - The sabkha of Al-Zareq, Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Max; Peis, Kim T.; Strohmenger, Christian J.; Pint, Anna; Rivers, John M.; Brückner, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    The Arabian Gulf is a semi-enclosed, shallow sea, which became flooded some 12,500 years ago. Current relative sea level was first reached c. 7000 to 6500 years ago, while a relative sea-level highstand of c. 2-4 m dates to around 6000-4500 years ago. Supratidal coastal sabkhas (former lagoons), stranded beach ridges and foredune sequences as well as abandoned tidal channels along the coasts of Qatar and the UAE witness this mid-Holocene peak in sea level. Regression since then triggered shoreline migration of up to several kilometers along the low-lying coasts of Qatar, for which, however, detailed reconstructions in space and time are scarce. This study presents facies changes and a scenario for the spatio-temporal evolution of the coastal area of Al Zareq in the inner Gulf of Salwa (SW Qatar), thereby also contributing to a better understanding of reservoirs that formed under arid climatic conditions. Ten vibracores (up to 8 m), two deep drillings (up to 20.5 m) and two trenches covering the entire transgression-regression cycle were investigated. In order to characterize and interpret facies types at Al-Zareq as well as to reconstruct sabkha formation in space and time, grain size and shape distribution (laser diffraction, camsizer), XRD, micro- and macrofossil contents and thin sections were analysed by applying qualitative interpretation, descriptive and multivariate statistics (PCA, MDA, end-member modelling), and RIR (XRD). Thirty-seven samples were radiocarbon dated and four samples were dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). Depositional environments include the following types: eolian dune and interdune (in-situ or reworked), coastal sabkha (diagenetic), saline lake (salina), protected lagoon (sand- or carbonate-dominated), beach and beach spit, tidal channel and tidal bar, as well as open lagoon (low-energy, shallow-subtidal lagoon and low-energy deeper-subtidal).

  9. Reply to Comment on "The Jurassic-Cretaceous basaltic magmatism of the Oued El-Abid syncline (High Atlas, Morocco): Physical volcanology, geochemistry and geodynamic implications" by André Michard et al. (2013) [J. Afr. Earth Sci. 88 (December) (2013) 101-105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensalah, Mohamed Khalil; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Mata, João; Madeira, José; Martins, Línia; Font, Eric; Medina, Fida; Marzoli, Andrea; Hachimi, Hind El; Bertrand, Hervé; Bellieni, Giuliano; Doblas, Miguel; Mahmoudi, Abdelkader; Beraâouz, El Hassane; Miranda, Rui; Verati, Chrystèle; Min, Angelo De; Abbou, Mohamed Ben; Zayane, Rachid

    2016-06-01

    We welcome the comment by Michard et al. (2013) as it gives us the opportunity to better discuss the Jurassic-Cretaceous magmatism of the High Atlas (Morocco). In their comment, Michard et al. (2013) focus on three main points which are: (i) the age of the basalts from Naour, (ii) the structural history of the Central High Atlas and (iii) the geodynamic significance of the related Jurassic-Cretaceous magmatism. We will address these questions in the following sections.

  10. Physiatrists’ Opinions and Practice Patterns for Bone Health after SCI

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Maureen C.; Eng, Janice J.; Krassioukov, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    Objective To ascertain physiatrists’ opinions and current practice patterns for bone health management after spinal cord injury (SCI). Study Design Self-report survey Participants Physiatrists who work in teaching rehabilitation centers in Canada. Methods A 4-page 17-question survey (available in French and English) was sent to working physiatrists in all major Canadian SCI rehabilitation centers. Results We had an 85% response rate (22 responses). Physiatrists reported that they should be managing bone health issues after SCI in conjunction with family physicians, and most respondents assess and treat for bone health after SCI. However, just over one-third of the physiatrists reported that the current treatment options are not effective for low bone mass; there was more support for pharmacological treatments than there was for rehabilitation modalities. Conclusion Bone health after SCI is an important health concern that is being managed by physiatrists; however, more discussion and research is needed to ascertain the effectiveness of assessment and treatment options for low bone mass. PMID:18711417

  11. Novel Target for Ameliorating Pain and Other Problems after SCI: Spontaneous Activity in Nociceptors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    isoflurane and a chronic intrathecal catheter was inserted at the atlantooccipital joint termi- nating at the lumbar enlargement. Animals showing...0.01 and p 0.05, respectively). No difference was found between SCI and sham groups in Nav1.8 mRNA expres- sion in lumbar DRG, nor was any evidence...found for Nav1.8 mRNA expression in lumbar spinal cord in either group (Fig. 1B). Using a Nav1.8 ASO sequence (Lai et al., 2002), we com- pared the

  12. GENESIS SciFlo: Enabling Multi-Instrument Atmospheric Science Using Grid Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Tang, B.; Manipon, G.; Yunck, T.; Fetzer, E.; Braverman, A.; Dobinson, E.

    2004-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of web services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations will include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-strato-sphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we are developing a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo is a system for Scientific Knowledge Creation on the Grid using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment. SciFlo leverages Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) Web Services and the Grid Computing standards (Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable web services and executable operators into a distributed computing flow (operator tree). The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. The scientist injects a distributed computation into the Grid by simply filling out

  13. A faster and more reliable data acquisition system for the full performance of the SciCRT

    DOE PAGES

    Sasai, Y.; Matsubara, Y.; Itow, Y.; ...

    2017-01-03

    The SciBar Cosmic Ray Telescope (SciCRT) is a massive scintillator tracker to observe cosmic rays at a very high-altitude environment in Mexico. The fully active tracker is based on the Scintillator Bar (SciBar) detector developed as a near detector for the KEK-to-Kamioka long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment (K2K) in Japan. Since the data acquisition (DAQ) system was developed for the accelerator experiment, we determined to develop a new robust DAQ system to optimize it to our cosmic-ray experiment needs at the top of Mt. Sierra Negra (4600 m). One of our special requirements is to achieve a 10 times faster readoutmore » rate. We started to develop a new fast readout back-end board (BEB) based on 100 Mbps SiTCP, a hardware network processor developed for DAQ systems for high energy physics experiments. Then we developed the new BEB which has a potential of 20 times faster than the current one in the case of observing neutrons. Lastly, we installed the new DAQ system including the new BEBs to a part of the SciCRT in July 2015. The system has been operating since then. In this article, we describe the development, the basic performance of the new BEB, the status after the installation in the SciCRT, and the future performance.« less

  14. A faster and more reliable data acquisition system for the full performance of the SciCRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasai, Y.; Matsubara, Y.; Itow, Y.; Sako, T.; Kawabata, T.; Lopez, D.; Hikimochi, R.; Tsuchiya, A.; Ikeno, M.; Uchida, T.; Tanaka, M.; Munakata, K.; Kato, C.; Nakamura, Y.; Oshima, T.; Koike, T.; Kozai, M.; Shibata, S.; Oshima, A.; Takamaru, H.; Kojima, H.; Tsuchiya, H.; Watanabe, K.; Koi, T.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Ortiz, E.; Musalem, O.; Hurtado, A.; Garcia, R.; Anzorena, M.; Taylor, R.; Barrantes, M.; González, L. X.

    2017-06-01

    The SciBar Cosmic Ray Telescope (SciCRT) is a massive scintillator tracker to observe cosmic rays at a very high-altitude environment in Mexico. The fully active tracker is based on the Scintillator Bar (SciBar) detector developed as a near detector for the KEK-to-Kamioka long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment (K2K) in Japan. Since the data acquisition (DAQ) system was developed for the accelerator experiment, we determined to develop a new robust DAQ system to optimize it to our cosmic-ray experiment needs at the top of Mt. Sierra Negra (4600 m). One of our special requirements is to achieve a 10 times faster readout rate. We started to develop a new fast readout back-end board (BEB) based on 100 Mbps SiTCP, a hardware network processor developed for DAQ systems for high energy physics experiments. Then we developed the new BEB which has a potential of 20 times faster than the current one in the case of observing neutrons. Finally we installed the new DAQ system including the new BEBs to a part of the SciCRT in July 2015. The system has been operating since then. In this paper, we describe the development, the basic performance of the new BEB, the status after the installation in the SciCRT, and the future performance.

  15. Solving Large-scale Eigenvalue Problems in SciDACApplications

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chao

    2005-06-29

    Large-scale eigenvalue problems arise in a number of DOE applications. This paper provides an overview of the recent development of eigenvalue computation in the context of two SciDAC applications. We emphasize the importance of Krylov subspace methods, and point out its limitations. We discuss the value of alternative approaches that are more amenable to the use of preconditioners, and report the progression using the multi-level algebraic sub-structuring techniques to speed up eigenvalue calculation. In addition to methods for linear eigenvalue problems, we also examine new approaches to solving two types of non-linear eigenvalue problems arising from SciDAC applications.

  16. Treatment of Neuropathic Pain after SCI with a Catalytic Oxidoreductant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    research in years 1 and 2 focused on the goal of aims 1 and 2, to test the hypothesis that post-SCI administration of BuOE decreases inflammation and ROS... inflammation and ROS activation acutely post-SCI in rats and mice. On-going experiments will evaluate additional outcome measures and behavioral...administration of BuOE2 on ROS, NF- κB signaling, inflammation , and pain-associated behaviors in a clinically relevant rat model of cervical contusion

  17. Corrosion and carburization behavior of Al-rich surface layer on Ni-base alloy in supercritical-carbon dioxide environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ho Jung; Kim, Sung Hwan; Kim, Hyunmyung; Jang, Changheui

    2016-12-01

    In order to improve the corrosion and carburization resistance in a high-temperature supercritical-carbon dioxide (S-CO2) environment, an Al-rich surface layer was developed on Alloy 600 by Al deposition and a subsequent high energy electron beam (EB) remelting. As a result of the EB surface treatment, an Al enriched (5-7 wt.%) micro-alloying zone (40 μm) was produced. When the EB surface-treated Alloy 600 was corroded in S-CO2 at 600 °C (20 MPa) for 500 h, the surface oxide layer mostly consisted of chromia (Cr2O3) with small amount of transition alumina (Al2O3). In addition, a carburized region of an amorphous C layer inter-mixed with the alumina was observed at the oxide/matrix interface. Meanwhile, when the EB surface-treated specimen was pre-oxidized in helium at 900 °C, α-alumina layer was formed on the surface, which showed superior corrosion and carburization resistance in S-CO2 environment. Therefore, it could be said that the presence of Al-rich surface layer alone is not enough to provide sufficient corrosion and carburization resistance in S-CO2 environment at 600 °C, unless pre-oxidation at higher temperature is applied to form a more protective α-alumina on the surface.

  18. Professors' Perceptions of Distance Education in Virtual Environments: The Case of the Education Faculty of University of Al-Yarmouk (Jordan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oassim-Al-shboul, Oassim Mahmoud; Sabiote, Clemente Rodriguez; Álvarez-Rodríguez, José

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the perceptions that the teaching staff of the Faculty of Education at University of Al-Yarmouk (Jordan) have of the implementation of distance learning in virtual environments, more specifically, the professors' opinion of the potential and limitations of this educational strategy. To fulfil this goal, we…

  19. SciTech Clubs for Girls. [Annual] technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Nogal, A.M.

    1993-02-01

    Since January 1992, 9 exhibits have been constructed by the SciTech Clubs for Girls, which involved 63 girls, ages 10 to 14. These exhibits are: Bubble Shapes by the St. Charles Cadette Girl Scout Troop No. 109. Density Games by the South Elgin Cadette Girl Scout Troop No. 132. Electric Fleas by the Warrenville Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 305. Energy vs. Power by the Aurora Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 242. The Organ Pipe by the Bartlett Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 107. Ohm`s Law by the Geneva Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 401. What is Gravity by the Pilsen YMCA girls. Insulation at Work by the Algonquin Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 303. Series vs. Parallel by the Leland Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 50. The report is a description of each exhibit and the group that built the exhibit. Each group had a minimum of 10 hours of contact time at SciTech with the SciTech Clubs for Girls Program Coordinator. All mentors are female. Each exhibit building experience includes a trip to the hardware store to purchase supplies. After the exhibit is complete, the girls receive certificates of achievement and a SciTech Club Patch.

  20. SciFlo: Semantically-Enabled Grid Workflow for Collaborative Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunck, T.; Wilson, B. D.; Raskin, R.; Manipon, G.

    2005-12-01

    SciFlo is a system for Scientific Knowledge Creation on the Grid using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment. SciFlo leverages Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) Web Services and the Grid Computing standards (WS-* standards and the Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable SOAP Services, native executables, local command-line scripts, and python codes into a distributed computing flow (a graph of operators). SciFlo's XML dataflow documents can be a mixture of concrete operators (fully bound operations) and abstract template operators (late binding via semantic lookup). All data objects and operators can be both simply typed (simple and complex types in XML schema) and semantically typed using controlled vocabularies (linked to OWL ontologies such as SWEET). By exploiting ontology-enhanced search and inference, one can discover (and automatically invoke) Web Services and operators that have been semantically labeled as performing the desired transformation, and adapt a particular invocation to the proper interface (number, types, and meaning of inputs and outputs). The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. The scientist injects a distributed computation into the Grid by simply filling out an HTML form or directly authoring the underlying XML dataflow document, and results are returned directly to the scientist's desktop. A Visual Programming tool is also being developed, but it is not required. Once an analysis has been specified for a granule or day of data, it can be easily repeated with different control parameters and over months or years of data. SciFlo uses and preserves semantics, and also generates and infers new semantic annotations. Specifically, the SciFlo engine uses semantic metadata to

  1. Combined SCI and TBI: Recovery of forelimb function after unilateral cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) is retarded by contralateral traumatic brain injury (TBI), and ipsilateral TBI balances the effects of SCI on paw placement

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Tomoo; Lin, Amity; Ma, Xiaokui; McKenna, Stephen L.; Creasey, Graham H.; Manley, Geoffrey T.; Ferguson, Adam R.; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.; Beattie, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    A significant proportion (estimates range from 16–74%) of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) have concomitant traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the combination often produces difficulties in planning and implementing rehabilitation strategies and drug therapies. For example, many of the drugs used to treat SCI may interfere with cognitive rehabilitation, and conversely drugs that are used to control seizures in TBI patients may undermine locomotor recovery after SCI. The current paper presents an experimental animal model for combined SCI and TBI to help drive mechanistic studies of dual diagnosis. Rats received a unilateral SCI (75 kdyn) at C5 vertebral level, a unilateral TBI (2.0 mm depth, 4.0 m/s velocity impact on the forelimb sensori-motor cortex), or both SCI + TBI. TBI was placed either contralateral or ipsilateral to the SCI. Behavioral recovery was examined using paw placement in a cylinder, grooming, open field locomotion, and the IBB cereal eating test. Over 6 weeks, in the paw placement test, SCI + contralateral TBI produced a profound deficit that failed to recover, but SCI + ipsilateral TBI increased the relative use of the paw on the SCI side. In the grooming test, SCI + contralateral TBI produced worse recovery than either lesion alone even though contralateral TBI alone produced no observable deficit. In the IBB forelimb test, SCI + contralateral TBI revealed a severe deficit that recovered in 3 weeks. For open field locomotion, SCI alone or in combination with TBI resulted in an initial deficit that recovered in 2 weeks. Thus, TBI and SCI affected forelimb function differently depending upon the test, reflecting different neural substrates underlying, for example, exploratory paw placement and stereotyped grooming. Concurrent SCI and TBI had significantly different effects on outcomes and recovery, depending upon laterality of the two lesions. Recovery of function after cervical SCI was retarded by the addition of a moderate TBI in the

  2. Combined SCI and TBI: recovery of forelimb function after unilateral cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) is retarded by contralateral traumatic brain injury (TBI), and ipsilateral TBI balances the effects of SCI on paw placement.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomoo; Lin, Amity; Ma, Xiaokui; McKenna, Stephen L; Creasey, Graham H; Manley, Geoffrey T; Ferguson, Adam R; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C; Beattie, Michael S

    2013-10-01

    A significant proportion (estimates range from 16 to 74%) of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) have concomitant traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the combination often produces difficulties in planning and implementing rehabilitation strategies and drug therapies. For example, many of the drugs used to treat SCI may interfere with cognitive rehabilitation, and conversely drugs that are used to control seizures in TBI patients may undermine locomotor recovery after SCI. The current paper presents an experimental animal model for combined SCI and TBI to help drive mechanistic studies of dual diagnosis. Rats received a unilateral SCI (75 kdyn) at C5 vertebral level, a unilateral TBI (2.0 mm depth, 4.0 m/s velocity impact on the forelimb sensori-motor cortex), or both SCI+TBI. TBI was placed either contralateral or ipsilateral to the SCI. Behavioral recovery was examined using paw placement in a cylinder, grooming, open field locomotion, and the IBB cereal eating test. Over 6weeks, in the paw placement test, SCI+contralateral TBI produced a profound deficit that failed to recover, but SCI+ipsilateral TBI increased the relative use of the paw on the SCI side. In the grooming test, SCI+contralateral TBI produced worse recovery than either lesion alone even though contralateral TBI alone produced no observable deficit. In the IBB forelimb test, SCI+contralateral TBI revealed a severe deficit that recovered in 3 weeks. For open field locomotion, SCI alone or in combination with TBI resulted in an initial deficit that recovered in 2 weeks. Thus, TBI and SCI affected forelimb function differently depending upon the test, reflecting different neural substrates underlying, for example, exploratory paw placement and stereotyped grooming. Concurrent SCI and TBI had significantly different effects on outcomes and recovery, depending upon laterality of the two lesions. Recovery of function after cervical SCI was retarded by the addition of a moderate TBI in the contralateral

  3. Development, reliability and use of a food environment assessment tool in supermarkets of four neighbourhoods in Montréal, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jalbert-Arsenault, Élise; Robitaille, Éric; Paquette, Marie-Claude

    2017-09-01

    The food environment is a promising arena in which to influence people's dietary habits. This study aimed to develop a comprehensive food environment assessment tool for businesses and characterize the food environment of a low-tomedium income area of Montréal, Canada. We developed a tool, Mesure de l'environnement alimentaire du consommateur dans les supermarchés (MEAC-S), and tested it for reliability. We used the MEAC-S to assess the consumer food environment of 17 supermarkets in four neighbourhoods of Montréal. We measured the shelf length, variety, price, display counts and in-store positions of fruits and vegetables (FV) and ultra-processed food products (UPFPs). We also assessed fresh FV for quality. Store size was estimated using the total measured shelf length for all food categories. We conducted Spearman correlations between these indicators of the food environment. Reliability analyses revealed satisfactory results for most indicators. Characterization of the food environment revealed high variability in shelf length, variety and price of FV between supermarkets and suggested a disproportionate promotion of UPFPs. Display counts of UPFPs outside their normal display location ranged from 7 to 26, and they occupied 8 to 33 strategic in-store positions, whereas the number of display counts of fresh FV outside their normal display location exceeded 1 in only 2 of the 17 stores surveyed, and they occupied a maximum of 2 strategic in-store positions per supermarket. Price of UPFPs was inversely associated with their prominence (p < .005) and promotion (p < .003). Store size was associated with display counts and strategic in-store positioning of UPFPs (p < .001), but not FV, and was inversely associated with the price of soft drinks (p < .003). This study illustrates the variability of the food environment between supermarkets and underscores the importance of measuring in-store characteristics to adequately picture the consumer food environment.

  4. Distributed job scheduling in SCI Local Area MultiProcessors

    SciTech Connect

    Agasaveeran, S.; Li, Qiang

    1996-12-31

    Local Area MultiProcessors (LAMP) is a network of personal workstations with distributed shared physical memory provided by high performance technologies such as SCI. LAMP is more tightly coupled than the traditional local area networks (LAN) but is more loosely coupled than the bus based multiprocessors. This paper presents a distributed scheduling algorithm which exploits the distributed shared memory in SCI-LAMP to schedule the idle remote processors among the requesting workstations. It considers fairness by allocating remote processing capacity to the requesting workstations based on their priorities according to the decay-usage scheduling approach. The performance of the algorithm in scheduling both sequential and parallel jobs is evaluated by simulation. It is found that the higher priority nodes achieve faster job response times and higher speedups than that of the lower priority nodes. Lower scheduling overhead allows finer granularity of remote processors sharing than in LAN.

  5. Overview of the Scalable Coherent Interface, IEEE STD 1596 (SCI)

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavson, D.B.; James, D.V.; Wiggers, H.A.

    1992-10-01

    The Scalable Coherent Interface standard defines a new generation of interconnection that spans the full range from supercomputer memory `bus` to campus-wide network. SCI provides bus-like services and a shared-memory software model while using an underlying, packet protocol on many independent communication links. Initially these links are 1 GByte/s (wires) and 1 GBit/s (fiber), but the protocol scales well to future faster or lower-cost technologies. The interconnect may use switches, meshes, and rings. The SCI distributed-shared-memory model is simple and versatile, enabling for the first time a smooth integration of highly parallel multiprocessors, workstations, personal computers, I/O, networking and data acquisition.

  6. What's Manifest in the History of SciTech: Reflections on The History Manifesto.

    PubMed

    Kevles, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Making nuts-and-bolts public policy is not--and never has been--the long suit of professional historians, but general historical work, whatever its durée, has done a good deal to shape discourse on public issues. Jo Guldi and David Armitage neglect that fact, as well as the opinion-shaping influence of history conveyed via nonprint media. They also ignore the large body of scholarship produced in all media during recent decades in the history of science, technology, and science-related medicine (SciTech), even though SciTech itself looms enormously large in the modern era as an instrument of national and international security, a driver of the economy, and a transformer of medicine, public health, and the environment. Much of this scholarship, even though of short durée, can illuminate salient contemporary issues, including innovation; patronage and practice; government and policy; imperialism and globalization; intellectual property; science and religion; and human rights, environment, energy, and disasters.

  7. Treatment of Nueropathic Pain after SCI with a Catalytic Oxidoreductant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The on- going ...administration of BuOE on the outcomes listed above. Our data from on- going experiments indicate that the dose of 0.2mg/kg BuOE was most effective in...reducing inflammation and ROS activation acutely post-SCI in rats and mice. On- going experiments will evaluate additional outcome measures and

  8. An Implantable Neuroprosthetic Device to Normalize Bladder Function after SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    design the novel neuroprosthetic device. Based on our previous studies, we propose in this project to use pudendal nerve stimulation and blockade to...injured animals. These results indicated that an implantable stimulator for pudendal nerve stimulation/ blockade could be developed for human subjects...stimulation and blockade to restore both continence and micturition after SCI. Our strategy does not require sacral posterior root rhizotomy, preserves the

  9. Emotional Intelligence in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI).

    PubMed

    Saberi, Hooshang; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa

    2017-05-01

    Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is a devastating situation. Spinal Cord Injury affects functional, psychological and socioeconomic aspects of patients' lives. The ability to accomplish and explicate the one's own and other's feelings and emotions to spread over appropriate information for confirming thoughts and actions is defined as emotional intelligence (EI). The goal of this study was to evaluate depression and EI in SCI patients in comparison with healthy subjects. One-hundred-ten patients with SCI and 80 healthy subjects between Aug 2014 and Aug 2015 were enrolled. The study was conducted in Imam Hospital, Tehran, Iran. All participants were asked to fill valid and reliable Persian version Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). All data were analyzed using SPSS. Data were presented as Mean±SD for continuous or frequencies for categorical variables. Continuous variables compared by means of independent sample t-test. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Mean age of patients was 28.7 and mean age of controls was 30.2 yr. Spinal cord injury in 20 (18.3%) were at cervical level, in 83 (75.4%) were thoracic and in 7 (6.3%) were lumbar. Mean values of independence, stress tolerance, self-actualization, emotional Self-Awareness, reality testing, Impulse Control, flexibility, responsibility, and assertiveness were significantly different between cases and controls. Mean values of stress tolerance, optimism, self-regard, and responsibility were significantly different between three groups with different injury level. Most scales were not significantly different between male and female cases. Emotional intelligence should be considered in SCI cases as their physical and psychological health is affected by their illness.

  10. Molecular Determinants Fundamental to Axon Regeneration after SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    adult zebrafish (Specific Aim 1). We also will examine in vivo the role of PTP σ in inhibition of axon regeneration (Specific Aim 2). In addition, we...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0645 TITLE: Molecular Determinants Fundamental to Axon Regeneration ... Regeneration after SCI 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0645 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Jeffrey Alan Plunkett, Ph.D

  11. HamSCI: The Ham Radio Science Citizen Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frissell, N. A.; Moses, M. L.; Earle, G. D.; McGwier, R. W.; Miller, E. S.; Kaeppler, S. R.; Silver, H. W.; Ceglia, F.; Pascoe, D.; Sinanis, N.; Smith, P.; Williams, R.; Shovkoplyas, A.; Gerrard, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Amateur (or "ham") radio operators are individuals with a non-pecuniary interest in radio technology, engineering, communications, science, and public service. They are licensed by their national governments to transmit on amateur radio frequencies. In many jurisdictions, there is no age requirement for a ham radio license, and operators from diverse backgrounds participate. There are more than 740,000 hams in the US, and over 3 million (estimated) worldwide. Many amateur communications are conducted using transionospheric links and thus affected by space weather and ionospheric processes. Recent technological advances have enabled the development of automated ham radio observation networks (e.g. the Reverse Beacon Network, www.reversebeacon.net) and specialized operating modes for the study of weak-signal propagation. The data from these networks have been shown to be useful for the study of ionospheric processes. In order to connect professional researchers with the volunteer-based ham radio community, HamSCI (Ham Radio Science Citizen Investigation, www.hamsci.org) has been established. HamSCI is a platform for publicizing and promoting projects that are consistent with the following objectives: (1) Advance scientific research and understanding through amateur radio activities. (2) Encourage the development of new technologies to support this research. (3) Provide educational opportunities for the amateur community and the general public. HamSCI researchers are working with the American Radio Relay League (ARRL, www.arrl.org) to publicize these objectives and recruit interested hams. The ARRL is the US national organization for amateur radio with a membership of over 170,000 and a monthly magazine, QST. HamSCI is currently preparing to support ionospheric research connected to the 21 Aug 2017 Total Solar Eclipse by expanding coverage of the Reverse Beacon Network and organizing a large-scale ham radio operating event ("QSO Party") to generate data during the

  12. Online Registries for Researchers: Using ORCID and SciENcv.

    PubMed

    Vrabel, Mark

    2016-12-01

    The Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID) registry helps resolve name ambiguity by assigning persistent unique identifiers that automatically link to a researcher's publications, grants, and other activities. This article provides an overview of ORCID and its benefits, citing several examples of its use in cancer and nursing journals. The article also briefly describes My NCBI and the Science Experts Network Curriculum Vitae (SciENcv) and its connection to ORCID.

  13. Utilization of SciFinder Scholar at an Undergraduate Institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, Stacy A.; Wilson, Anne M.; Howes, Barbara

    2002-04-01

    The use of tools to search chemical information databases continues to be important to science educators. The ability to perform online searches of Chemical Abstracts Service can have a significant impact on teaching and research. The implementation of SciFinder Scholar at Butler University has resulted in significant changes in teaching, student-based research, and faculty development in the Chemistry Department. Details of these changes in courses, student research projects and proposals, and the professional growth of the faculty are discussed.

  14. Thermomechanical fatigue behavior of SiC/Ti-24Al-11Nb in air and argon environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolotta, Paul A.; Verrilli, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    A series of tension-tension, load-controlled thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) tests were conducted on a titanium aluminide composite in both laboratory air and a flowing argon environment. Results from these tests show that the environment plays an increasingly important role as applied stress levels are decreased. Differences in damage mechanisms between the two environments were observed which corresponds to observed variations in TMF lives.

  15. Erratum: “Multi-point, high-speed passive ion velocity distribution diagnostic on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment” [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D516 (2012)

    DOE PAGES

    Burke, Marcus G.; Fonck, Raymond J.; Bongard, Michael W.; ...

    2016-07-18

    This article corrects an error in M.G. Burke et al., 'Multi-point, high-speed passive ion velocity distribution diagnostic on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment,' Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D516 (2012) pertaining to ion temperature. The conclusions of this paper are not altered by the revised ion temperature measurements.

  16. Erratum: “Multi-point, high-speed passive ion velocity distribution diagnostic on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment” [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D516 (2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Marcus G.; Fonck, Raymond J.; Bongard, Michael W.; Schlossberg, David J.; Winz, Gregory R.

    2016-07-18

    This article corrects an error in M.G. Burke et al., 'Multi-point, high-speed passive ion velocity distribution diagnostic on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment,' Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D516 (2012) pertaining to ion temperature. The conclusions of this paper are not altered by the revised ion temperature measurements.

  17. SciDAC-Data, A Project to Enabling Data Driven Modeling of Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Mubarak, M.; Ding, P.; Aliaga, L.; Tsaris, A.; Norman, A.; Lyon, A.; Ross, R.

    2016-10-10

    The SciDAC-Data project is a DOE funded initiative to analyze and exploit two decades of information and analytics that have been collected by the Fermilab Data Center on the organization, movement, and consumption of High Energy Physics data. The project will analyze the analysis patterns and data organization that have been used by the NOvA, MicroBooNE, MINERvA and other experiments, to develop realistic models of HEP analysis workflows and data processing. The SciDAC-Data project aims to provide both realistic input vectors and corresponding output data that can be used to optimize and validate simulations of HEP analysis. These simulations are designed to address questions of data handling, cache optimization and workflow structures that are the prerequisites for modern HEP analysis chains to be mapped and optimized to run on the next generation of leadership class exascale computing facilities. We will address the use of the SciDAC-Data distributions acquired from Fermilab Data Center’s analysis workflows and corresponding to around 71,000 HEP jobs, as the input to detailed queuing simulations that model the expected data consumption and caching behaviors of the work running in HPC environments. In particular we describe in detail how the Sequential Access via Metadata (SAM) data handling system in combination with the dCache/Enstore based data archive facilities have been analyzed to develop the radically different models of the analysis of HEP data. We present how the simulation may be used to analyze the impact of design choices in archive facilities.

  18. 75 FR 19626 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License: SciTech Medical Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... Exclusive Patent License: SciTech Medical Inc. AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... SciTech Medical Inc. The proposed license is a revocable, nonassignable, partially exclusive...

  19. The impact of SciDAC on US climate change research and the IPCC AR4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, Michael

    2005-01-01

    SciDAC has invested heavily in climate change research. We offer a candid opinion as to the impact of the DOE laboratories' SciDAC projects on the upcoming Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

  20. Using Scenarios to Design Complex Technology-Enhanced Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Ton; Weinberger, Armin; Girault, Isabelle; Kluge, Anders; Lazonder, Ard W.; Pedaste, Margus; Ludvigsen, Sten; Ney, Muriel; Wasson, Barbara; Wichmann, Astrid; Geraedts, Caspar; Giemza, Adam; Hovardas, Tasos; Julien, Rachel; van Joolingen, Wouter R.; Lejeune, Anne; Manoli, Constantinos C.; Matteman, Yuri; Sarapuu, Tago; Verkade, Alex; Vold, Vibeke; Zacharia, Zacharias C.

    2012-01-01

    Science Created by You (SCY) learning environments are computer-based environments in which students learn about science topics in the context of addressing a socio-scientific problem. Along their way to a solution for this problem students produce many types of intermediate products or learning objects. SCY learning environments center the entire…

  1. SCI with Brain Injury: Bedside to Bench Modeling for Developing Treatment and Rehabilitation Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    building a clinical TBI+SCI patient database from San Francisco General Hospital , the Santa Clara Valley Medical Center and from the VA Palo Alto Health...SCI. The admission and discharge notes of patients (n=14) with combined TBI and SCI diagnosis were then extracted from the hospital records of...The patient cohort with SCI+TBI had a total of 343 unique International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition (ICD-9) codes, confirming the

  2. Adsorption of boric acid on pure and humic acid coated am-Al(OH)3: A boron K-edge XANES study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dani; Peak, Derek

    2007-02-01

    The fate and mobility of boric acid in the environment is largely controlled by adsorption reactions with soil organic matter and soil minerals to form surface complexes (Soil Sci Soc. Am. J. 1991, 55, 1582; Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 2002, 67, 2551; Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1995, 59, 405; Environ. Sci. Technol. 1995, 29, 302). In this study, boric acid adsorption on pure am-Al(OH)3 and 5% (w/w) humic acid (HA) coated am-Al(OH)3 were investigated both as a function of pH (4.5-11) and initial boric acid concentration (0-4.5 mmol L(-1)). Batch adsorption isotherm experiments were also conducted with samples exposed to atmospheric CO2 and anaerobic (N2) conditions to examine the effects of dissolved CO2 on boric acid adsorption. Boron (B) K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was used to investigate the coordination of boric acid adsorbed at mineral/water interfaces. The XANES spectra of boric acid adsorption samples showed that both trigonally and tetrahedrally coordinated B complexes were present on the mineral surface. Both macroscopic and spectroscopic experiments revealed that the combination of HA coating on am-Al(OH)3 and dissolved CO2 decreased boric acid adsorption compared to adsorption on pure am-Al(OH)3.

  3. Orthostatic Responses to Anticholinesterase Inhibition in Persons with SCI

    PubMed Central

    Wecht, Jill M.; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M.; Azarelo, Frank; Bauman, William A.; Kirshblum, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine (Ach) is the pre-synaptic neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system. Increased pre-synaptic Ach may augment post-synaptic release of norepinephrine thereby increasing systemic blood pressure (BP). The primary objective of this investigation was to determine the hemodynamic effect of pyridostigmine bromide (PYRIDO: 60 mg), an Ach inhibitor (AchI), compared to no-drug (NO-D) during head-up tilt (HUT) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Secondarily we aimed to determine the effects of PYRIDO compared to NO-D on symptoms of orthostatic intolerance (OI) and adverse event reporting (AE). Ten individuals with SCI (C4–C7) were studied on 2 occasions: visit 1) NO-D and visit 2) PYRIDO. On each visit subjects underwent a progressive HUT maneuver to 15°, 25°, 35° for 5 minutes at each angle and 45 minutes at 45°. Supine and orthostatic heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic BP (SBP & DBP) were monitored and symptoms of OI and AE recorded. Supine hemodynamics did not differ between the trials. The significant fall in SBP during the NO-D trial was diminished with PYRIDO and five subjects had an increased DBP during HUT with PYRIDO compared to the NO-D trial. Individuals that responded to PYRIDO with an increase in orthostatic BP had significantly lower resting HR than non-responders (p<0.01), which suggests increased levels of pre-synaptic Ach. Subjective symptoms of OI and AE reporting did not differ between the two trials. These preliminary data suggest that PYRIDO is safe and may be effective at ameliorating the orthostatic fall in BP in select individuals with SCI. PMID:25916633

  4. Knowledge map of artemisinin research in SCI and Medline database.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qiang; Chen, Jing; Lyu, Peng-Hui; Zhang, Shi-Jing; Ma, Fei-Cheng; Fang, Jian-Guo

    2012-12-01

    Artemisinin was first extracted from the herb Artemisia annua which has been used for many centuries in Chinese traditional medicine as a treatment for fever and malaria. It has been given the 2011 Lasker-DeBakey clinical medical research award. In this paper, knowledge map of artemisinin research was drawn to provide some information for global researchers interested in artemisinin and its relevant references. In this work, bibliometric analysis and knowledge visualization technology were applied to evaluate global scientific production and developing trend of artemisinin research through Science Citation Index (SCI) papers and Medline papers with online version published as following aspects: publication outputs, subject categories, journals, countries, international collaboration, citations, authorship and co-authorship, author key words and co-words analysis. The Thomson Data Analyzer (TDA), Netdraw and Aureka software were employed to analyze the SCI as well as Medline papers data for knowledge mapping. Global literature of artemisinin research has increased rapidly over the past 30 years and has boosted in recent years. Seen from the statistical study in many aspects, Pharmacology & Pharmacy, and Chemistry are still the main subjects of artemisinin research with parasitology and tropical medicine increasing quickly. Malaria Journal and American Journal of Tropical Medicine are top productive journals both in SCI and Medline databases. Quantity and quality of papers in US are in a leading position, although papers quantity and active degree in developing countries such as P.R. China, Thailand and India are relatively high, the quality of papers from these countries needs to be improved. New emerging key words and co-words remind us that mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, artemisinin-based alternatives, etc. are the future trends of artemisinin research. Through bibliometric analysis the development trends of artemisinin research are predicted. With further

  5. Psychological defense mechanisms among individuals with SCI with adjustment disorder.

    PubMed

    Yazdanshenas Ghazwin, Manijeh; Tavakoli, Seyed Amir Hossein; Latifi, Sahar; Saberi, Hooshang; Derakhshanrad, Nazi; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Sadeghi, Majid; Emami Razavi, Seyed-Hassan; Norouzi Javidan, Abbas; Ghodsi, Seyed-Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    The used psychological defense styles among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) with adjustment disorders (AJD) have not yet been described. In the present investigation, the prevalence of AJD among people with SCI has been estimated and the pattern of used defense styles has been identified. Cross-sectional investigation. A tertiary rehabilitation center in Iran. Individuals referred to Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center were invited to participate in a screening interview. AJD was diagnosed based on DSM-V criteria. Those with AJD diagnosis were scheduled for another interview to assess defense mechanisms. Demographic and injury-related variables were recorded. Defense mechanisms were assessed by the 40-item version of the Defense-Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). Among 114 participants, 32 (28%) were diagnosed with AJD among whom 23 subjects attended the second interview. Mean age and time since injury were 29.57 ± 9.29 years and 11.70 ± 6.34 months, respectively. The majority of patients were using idealization defense mechanism (91.3%). In the second and third place, passive aggression (87.0%) and somatization (82.6%) defense mechanisms were observed, respectively. Neurotic style was dominantly used (11.52 ± 2.26). Sex, marital status, educational level, cause of the injury and injury level were not related to defense style (P: 0.38, 0.69, 0.88, 0.73, and P: 0.32, respectively). Prevalence of AJD is estimated to be 28% among individuals with SCI. The most prevalent defense style was neurotic and the dominant used defense mechanism was "idealization." The role of demographic and injury-related variables in determining the used defense mechanisms was insignificant.

  6. Nuclear Physics in the SciDAC Era

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Edwards

    2009-08-01

    Lattice QCD currently provides our only means of solving QCD (Quantum Chromo Dynamics) -- the theory of the strong nuclear force -- in the low-energy regime, and thus of crucial importance for theoretical and experimental research programs in High Energy and Nuclear Physics. Under the SciDAC program, a software infrastructure has been developed for lattice QCD that effectively utilize the capabilities of the INCITE facilities. These developments have enabled a new generation of Nuclear Physics calculations investigating the spectrum and structure of matter, such as the origin of mass and spin. This software infrastructure is described and recent results are reviewed.

  7. Strategies for chemical reaction searching in SciFinder

    PubMed

    Ridley

    2000-09-01

    The bibliographic, chemical structure, and chemical reaction databases produced by Chemical Abstracts Service allow a number of possibilities for chemical reaction searching. While these same databases may be searched through the STN network, many end-users find the intuitive software interface SciFinder simpler, but there still are issues to address. Searching may be performed through keywords, chemical structures, or chemical reactions, and the answers may vary with respect to precision and comprehension. Often combinations of search options may be needed to best solve the problem. Retrosynthetic analyses are easily performed in the chemical reaction database and can give unique insights into synthetic alternatives.

  8. Introduction to Structure Searching with SciFinder Scholar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, Damon D.

    2001-04-01

    CAS Registry Numbers provide a key to searching for chemical substances in CAS databases, and the challenge is to obtain the Registry Numbers for all the substances required. When the substances can be represented by structures, then one option is to find the Registry Numbers through structure searches. With SciFinder Scholar, the process of drawing and searching structures is intuitive; however, there are underlying issues and opportunities that need some explanation in courses on chemical information retrieval.We describe here our introductory course, which addresses the major ones.

  9. Environment-assisted cracking of Fe-32% Mn-9% Al alloys in 3.5% sodium chloride solution

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.C.; Liu, J.Y.; Juang, H.K.

    1995-05-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of four austenitic Fe-32% Mn-9% Al alloys containing {approx} 1 wt% carbon was studied. All of the four alloys were susceptible to SCC in room temperature and 160 C NaCl solution. SCC was enhanced by applying an anodic potential. The crack path was transgranular, and cleavage-like regions were observed on the fracture surface. The corrosion-assisted microcleavage model proposed for the transgranular SCC behavior of face-centered cubic (fcc) materials very likely was the operating SCC mechanism of the austenitic Fe-Mn-Al alloys. Adding 1.23% Mo or 1.27% Si to the austenitic Fe-32% Mn-9% Al alloys did not change the SCC mechanism and crack paths. Adding 1.27% Si made the alloys more susceptible to SCC, but no such effect was observed with the addition of 1.23% Mo. All four alloys studied were susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement (HE) in 3.5% NaCl solution at large cathodic applied potentials, and the crack paths were intergranular. The addition of Mo, Cr, or Si in the alloy displaced the potential at which HE occurred to more cathodic values.

  10. Valence and environment of rare earth ions in CaAl 2O 4:Eu 2+,R 3+ persistent luminescence materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölsä, Jorma; Laamanen, Taneli; Lastusaari, Mika; Malkamäki, Marja; Welter, Edmund; Zajac, Dariusz A.

    2010-04-01

    The existence of the different R 2+/R 3+/R IV (R: rare earth) ions as well as the modifications in the structural environment around the dopant and co-dopants in CaAl 2O 4:Eu 2+,R 3+ persistent luminescence materials was studied by L III edge X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) measurements at Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor (HASYLAB) at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) (Hamburg, Germany). The measurements were carried out at 10 and 296 K for selected rare earth (co-)dopants (Eu 2+; Ce 3+, Nd 3+, Sm 3+, and Yb 3+). The XANES results indicated the co-existence of both divalent and trivalent europium in all co-doped CaAl 2O 4:Eu 2+,R 3+ materials, but only divalent europium in CaAl 2O 4:Eu 2+. The measurement temperature did not affect the XANES results. The interatomic distances extracted from the EXAFS data of the CaAl 2O 4:Eu 2+,R 3+ materials indicated that co-doping creates distortions around the Eu 2+ ions suggesting dopant aggregation.

  11. Hot Corrosion Studies of Detonation-Gun-Sprayed NiCrAlY + 0.4 wt.% CeO2 Coated Superalloys in Molten Salt Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Subhash; Jayaganthan, R.; Prakash, Satya

    2011-08-01

    Rare earth oxide (CeO2) has been incorporated in NiCrAlY alloy and hot corrosion resistance of detonation-gun-sprayed NiCrAlY + 0.4 wt.% CeO2 coatings on superalloys, namely, superni 75, superni 718, and superfer 800H in molten 40% Na2SO4-60% V2O5 salt environment were investigated at 900 °C for 100 cycles. The coatings exhibited characteristic splat globular dendritic structure with diameter similar to the original powder particles. The weight change technique was used to establish corrosion kinetics. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive analysis (FE-SEM/EDAX), and x-ray mapping techniques were used to analyze the corrosion products. Coated superfer 800H alloy showed the highest corrosion resistance among the examined superalloys. CeO2 was found to be distributed in the coating along the splat boundaries, whereas Al streaks distributed non-uniformly. The main phases observed for the coated superalloys are oxides of Ni, Cr, Al, and spinels, which are suggested to be responsible for developing corrosion resistance.

  12. Reactive-environment, hollow cathode sputtering: Basic characteristics and application to Al2O3, doped ZnO, and In2O3:Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delahoy, A. E.; Guo, S. Y.; Paduraru, C.; Belkind, A.

    2004-07-01

    A method for thin-film deposition has been studied. The method is based on metal sputtering in a hollow cathode configuration with supply of a reactive gas in the vicinity of the substrate. The working gas and entrained sputtered atoms exit the cathode through an elongated slot. The reactive gas is thereby largely prevented from reaching the target. The basic operation of the cathode was studied using a Cu target and pulsed power excitation. These studies included the dependence of deposition rate on power, pressure, and flow rate, film thickness profiles, and film resistivity as a function of substrate conditions. Modeling was conducted to calculate the gas velocity distribution and pressure inside the cavity. Al2O3 films were prepared in a reactive environment of oxygen by sputtering an Al target. It was demonstrated that only a very small amount of oxygen passing through the cathode will oxidize (poison) the target, whereas large quantities of oxygen supplied externally to the cathode need not affect the target at all. A very stable discharge and ease of Al2O3 formation were realized in this latter mode. The method was applied to the preparation of transparent, conductive films of ZnO doped with either Al or B. High deposition rates were achieved, and, at appropriate oxygen flow rates, low film resistivities. High-mobility In2O3:Mo transparent conductors were also prepared, with resistivities as low as 1.9×10-4 Ω cm. Scaling relations for hollow cathodes, and deposition efficiency, and process comparisons between magnetron sputtering and linear, reactive-environment, hollow cathode sputtering are presented. .

  13. SciTil Detector for the PANDA experiment at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Ken; Gruber, Lukas; Brunner, Stefan; Marton, Johann; Orth, Herbert; Schwarz, Carsten; Scitil/Panda Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The PANDA experiment at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is a fixed-target experiment installed in a antiproton storage ring (HESR) in the energy range of 1 GeV to 15 GeV. FAIR is being build on the area of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany. The universal PANDA detector together with the HESR enables to study fundamental questions of hadron and nuclear physics, e.g. gluonic excitations, the physics of strange and charm quarks and nucleon structure. The SciTil detector is a barrel time-of-flight detector and is a relatively new subcomponent to the system. The demand arose in order to provide a securer event tagging at the event rates of 20-100 MHz instantaneous event rate, to improve a particle identification capability of relatively low momentum particles, and to allow a faster track finding with pattern recognition. The beam test of the SciTil prototype detector in January 2014 showed a promising result. We report the status and outlook of the project.

  14. Exploring Earth and the Solar System: Educational Outreach Through NASA's Space Place, SciJinks, and Climate Kids Websites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneses, Joseph Chistopher

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Space Place team publishes engaging content and creates an effective environment to inspire a young audience to dare mighty things. NASA uses the Space Place, Climate Kids, and SciJinks websites to cultivate interest among elementary-school-aged children in both science and technology. During my summer internship at Jet Propulsion Laboratory I used Adobe Flash and ActionScript 3 to develop content for the Space Place, Climate Kids, and SciJinks sites. In addition, I was involved in the development process for ongoing and new projects during my internship. My involvement allowed me to follow a project from concept to design, implementation, and release. I personally worked on three projects this summer, two of which are currently in deployment. The first is a scrambled letter-tile guessing game titled Solar System Scramble. The second, Butterfrog Mix-Up, is a rotating-tile puzzle game. The third project is a unfinished prototype for a maze game.

  15. Exploring Earth and the Solar System: Educational Outreach Through NASA's Space Place, SciJinks, and Climate Kids Websites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneses, Joseph Chistopher

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Space Place team publishes engaging content and creates an effective environment to inspire a young audience to dare mighty things. NASA uses the Space Place, Climate Kids, and SciJinks websites to cultivate interest among elementary-school-aged children in both science and technology. During my summer internship at Jet Propulsion Laboratory I used Adobe Flash and ActionScript 3 to develop content for the Space Place, Climate Kids, and SciJinks sites. In addition, I was involved in the development process for ongoing and new projects during my internship. My involvement allowed me to follow a project from concept to design, implementation, and release. I personally worked on three projects this summer, two of which are currently in deployment. The first is a scrambled letter-tile guessing game titled Solar System Scramble. The second, Butterfrog Mix-Up, is a rotating-tile puzzle game. The third project is a unfinished prototype for a maze game.

  16. Psychometric evaluation of the Spanish version of the MPI-SCI

    PubMed Central

    Soler, MD; Cruz-Almeida, Y; Saurí, J; Widerström-Noga, EG

    2013-01-01

    Study design Postal surveys. Objectives To confirm the factor structure of the Spanish version of the MPI-SCI (MPI-SCI-S, Multidimensional Pain Inventory in the SCI population) and to test its internal consistency and construct validity in a Spanish population. Setting Guttmann Institute, Barcelona, Spain. Methods The MPI-SCI-S along with Spanish measures of pain intensity (Numerical Rating Scale), pain interference (Brief Pain Inventory), functional independence (Functional Independence Measure), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), locus of control (Multidimensional health Locus of Control), support (Functional Social Support Questionnaire (Duke-UNC)), psychological well-being (Psychological Global Well-Being Index) and demographic/injury characteristics were assessed in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and chronic pain (n = 126). Results Confirmatory factor analysis suggested an adequate factor structure for the MPI-SCI-S. The internal consistency of the MPI-SCI-S subscales ranged from acceptable (r = 0.66, Life Control) to excellent (r = 0.94, Life Interference). All MPI-SCI-S subscales showed adequate construct validity, with the exception of the Negative and Solicitous Responses subscales. Conclusions The Spanish version of the MPI-SCI is adequate for evaluating chronic pain impact following SCI in a Spanish-speaking population. Future studies should include additional measures of pain-related support in the Spanish-speaking SCI population. PMID:23608807

  17. Strength and corrosion behavior of a SiC particulate reinforced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite in hot coal combustion environments

    SciTech Connect

    Breder, K.; Parten, R.J.; Canon, J.M. |

    1996-05-01

    As part of an effort to evaluate the use of advanced ceramics in a new generation of coal-fired power plants, a SiC particulate reinforced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been exposed to corrosive coal slag in a laboratory furnace and two pilot scale caombustors. Results show increased corrosive attack with temperature and that only slight changes in temperature may significantly alter the degree of strength degradation due to corrosive attack. The present results are part of a larger experimental matrix evaluating the behavior of ceramics in the coal combustion environment.

  18. Influence of dispersion state of initial AlN powder on the hydrolysis process in air environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditts, A. A.; Revva, I. B.; Grishko, N. Y.; Tarnovskiy, R. V.

    2016-11-01

    The research results of the hydrolysis processes of aluminum nitride powders received by the SVS method in dependence on humidity of the storage environment, and grain size distribution are presented in this work. Oxidation kinetics was estimated by means of X- ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The induction period of the hydrolysis process for various powders, its dependence on powder dispersion and thickness of the oxide layer on surface of particles have been defined.

  19. Analytical electron microscopy study of new class material Cr2AlC for coating applications at high temperature environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskandar, R.

    2017-04-01

    The interactions between electron and specimens produce wide range of secondary signals from the specimen that can be used in analytical electron microscopy. These signals will give us chemical information and electronic structure information of specimen atoms. Two techniques which based on these secondary signals, X-rays energy-dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), are very powerful to be used for characterization materials. These two techniques are complementary each on the other. The former is very useful to quantify heavy elements and the other is very suitable to identify light elements as oxygen and carbon. In this report, we demonstrated the capability of these techniques to investigate microstructure evolution during the oxidation process of thin film Cr2AlC at 1320 °C. This thin film belongs to MAX phase, a new class material, and becomes a promising candidate for coating applications since it exhibits a good oxidation resistant.

  20. Cyclic Deformation, Damage, and Effects of Environment in the Ni3Al Ordered Alloy at Elevated Temperature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-29

    TEMPERATURE Accession For OTIS NTIS GIRA&I Pn DTIC TAB PREPARED BY: Unannounced 0 Justification Stephen D. Antolovich B_________ D~istribution/ Professor... Antolovich and G. Webb, "Cyclic Deformation, Damage, and Effects of Environment in the N13A1 Ordered Alloy at Elevated Temperature", Progress Report for...Metallurgica, vol. 51, 1981, 4, p. 170. 66. A. de Bussac, G. Webb, and S.D. Antolovich , "A Model for the Strain-Rate Dependence of Yielding in Ni3AI Alloys

  1. Effect of chloride environment on fatigue behavior of AA6061-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particle composite

    SciTech Connect

    Bertolini, L.; Brunella, M.F.; Candiani, S.

    1998-12-31

    The paper deals with the corrosion fatigue behavior of a particulate reinforced metal matrix composite with aluminium alloy AA 6061-T6 matrix and 10% by volume of alumina particles. The material was in two different working conditions. Fatigue K-increasing and K-decreasing crack growth rate tests were carried out in air and a 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution. The condition of pitting corrosion initiation in chloride environments was studied by means of potentiodynamic polarization tests carried out in aerated and deaerated 3.5% NaCl solutions. Furthermore immersion tests were performed in aerated solutions. The aggressive environment significantly increased the fatigue crack growth rate for a given {Delta}K, with respect to tests in air. The sensitivity of the fatigue behavior to the chloride solution was different in the two materials, whereas the corrosion behavior was similar. Thereafter an interaction between pitting corrosion, occurring preferentially at the particle-matrix interface, and the mechanisms of crack propagation in the composite material was argued.

  2. Constitutive Model for the Time-Dependent Mechanical Behavior of 430 Stainless Steel and FeCrAlY Foams in Sulfur-Bearing Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Lara-Curzio, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of 430 stainless steel and pre-oxidized FeCrAlY open-cell foam materials of various densities was evaluated in compression at temperatures between 450 C and 600 C in an environment containing hydrogen sulfide and water vapor. Both materials showed negligible corrosion due to the gaseous atmosphere for up to 168 hours. The monotonic stress-strain response of these materials was found to be dependent on both the strain rate and their density, and the 430 stainless steel foam materials exhibited less stress relaxation than FeCrAlY for similar experimental conditions. Using the results from multiple hardening-relaxation and monotonic tests, an empirical constitutive equation was derived to predict the stress-strain behavior of FeCrAlY foams as a function of temperature and strain rate. These results are discussed in the context of using these materials in a black liquor gasifier to accommodate the chemical expansion of the refractory liner resulting from its reaction with the soda in the black liquor.

  3. Constitutive Model for the Time-Dependent Mechanical Behavior of 430 Stainless Steel and FeCrAlY Foams in Sulfur-Bearing Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemrick, James G.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar

    2013-03-01

    The mechanical behavior of 430 stainless steel and pre-oxidized FeCrAlY open-cell foam materials of various densities was evaluated in compression at temperatures between 450°C and 600°C in an environment containing hydrogen sulfide and water vapor. Both materials showed negligible corrosion due to the gaseous atmosphere for up to 168 h. The monotonic stress-strain response of these materials was found to be dependent on both the strain rate and their density, and the 430 stainless steel foam materials exhibited less stress relaxation than the FeCrAlY for similar experimental conditions. Using the results from multiple hardening-relaxation and monotonic tests, an empirical constitutive equation was derived to predict the stress-strain behavior of FeCrAlY foams as a function of temperature, and strain rate. These results are discussed in the context of using these materials in a black liquor gasifier to accommodate the chemical expansion of the refractory liner resulting from its reaction with the soda in the black liquor.

  4. A Design Method for FES Bone Health Therapy in SCI

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Brian; Shippen, James; Armengol, Monica; Gibbons, Robin; Holderbaum, William; Harwin, William

    2016-01-01

    FES assisted activities such as standing, walking, cycling and rowing induce forces within the leg bones and have been proposed to reduce osteoporosis in spinal cord injury (SCI). However, details of the applied mechanical stimulus for osteogenesis is often not reported. Typically, comparisons of bone density results are made after costly and time consuming clinical trials. These studies have produced inconsistent results and are subject to sample size variations. Here we propose a design process that may be used to predict the clinical outcome based on biomechanical simulation and mechano-biology. This method may allow candidate therapies to be optimized and quantitatively compared. To illustrate the approach we have used data obtained from a rower with complete paraplegia using the RowStim (III) system. PMID:28078075

  5. eSciMart: Web Platform for Scientific Software Marketplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryukov, A. P.; Demichev, A. P.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we suggest a design of a web marketplace where users of scientific application software and databases, presented in the form of web services, as well as their providers will have presence simultaneously. The model, which will be the basis for the web marketplace is close to the customer-to-customer (C2C) model, which has been successfully used, for example, on the auction sites such as eBay (ebay.com). Unlike the classical model of C2C the suggested marketplace focuses on application software in the form of web services, and standardization of API through which application software will be integrated into the web marketplace. A prototype of such a platform, entitled eSciMart, is currently being developed at SINP MSU.

  6. Overview of the Spinal Cord Injury--Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) measurement system.

    PubMed

    Tulsky, David S; Kisala, Pamela A; Victorson, David; Tate, Denise G; Heinemann, Allen W; Charlifue, Susan; Kirshblum, Steve C; Fyffe, Denise; Gershon, Richard; Spungen, Ann M; Bombardier, Charles H; Dyson-Hudson, Trevor A; Amtmann, Dagmar; Kalpakjian, Claire Z; Choi, Seung W; Jette, Alan M; Forchheimer, Martin; Cella, David

    2015-05-01

    The Spinal Cord Injury--Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) measurement system was developed to address the shortage of relevant and psychometrically sound patient reported outcome (PRO) measures available for clinical care and research in spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation. Using a computer adaptive testing (CAT) approach, the SCI-QOL builds on the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders (Neuro-QOL) initiative. This initial manuscript introduces the background and development of the SCI-QOL measurement system. Greater detail is presented in the additional manuscripts of this special issue. Classical and contemporary test development methodologies were employed. Qualitative input was obtained from individuals with SCI and clinicians through interviews, focus groups, and cognitive debriefing. Item pools were field tested in a multi-site sample (n=877) and calibrated using item response theory methods. Initial reliability and validity testing was performed in a new sample of individuals with traumatic SCI (n=245). Five Model SCI System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center across the United States. Adults with traumatic SCI. n/a n/a The SCI-QOL consists of 19 item banks, including the SCI-Functional Index banks, and 3 fixed-length scales measuring physical, emotional, and social aspects of health-related QOL (HRQOL). The SCI-QOL measurement system consists of psychometrically sound measures for individuals with SCI. The manuscripts in this special issue provide evidence of the reliability and initial validity of this measurement system. The SCI-QOL also links to other measures designed for a general medical population.

  7. Degradation of Ti-6Al-4V alloy under cyclic loading in a simulated body environment with cell culturing.

    PubMed

    Doi, Kotaro; Miyabe, Sayaka; Tsuchiya, Hiroaki; Fujimoto, Shinji

    2016-03-01

    The present study reports the corrosion fatigue of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy using cyclic deformation test in a simulated body fluid under cell culturing for the first time. Cyclic deformation tests were carried out using three types of specimens to reveal the effects of proteins and cells on the corrosion fatigue of the alloy. For the 1-day-immersed and 1-week-immersed specimens, tensile specimens were soaked in a simulated body fluid for 1 day and 1 week, respectively, before cyclic deformation test, whereas for the cell-cultured specimen, MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells were seeded and then cultured on tensile specimens for 1 week. The incubation period for crack initiation was longer for the cell-cultured and 1-week-immersed specimens compared to that for the 1-day-immersed specimen. On the other hand, crack propagation period for the cell-cultured and 1-week-immersed specimens was shorter than that for the 1-day-immersed specimen. These results indicate that proteins and cells adhered on the alloy surface inhibit metal dissolution at newly created surface emerged by cyclic deformation to suppress crack initiation, whereas they accelerate crack propagation because dissolution at crack tip is accelerated in the occluded space formed under proteins and cells.

  8. Stress corrosion cracking of Al-Li-Cu-Zr alloy 2090 in aqueous Cl sup minus and mixed CO sub 3 sup 2 minus /Cl sup minus environments

    SciTech Connect

    Buchheit, R.G. ); Wall, F.D.; Stoner, G.E. . Dept. of Materials Science); Moran, J.P. )

    1991-01-01

    A comparison of the short-transverse SCC behavior of 2090 in pH 5.5 Cl{sup {minus}} and alkaline CO{sub 3}{sup 2 {minus}}/Cl{sup {minus}} solutions using a static load smooth bar SCC technique was made. In the alkaline CO{sub 3}{sup 2 {minus}}/Cl{sup {minus}} solutions, E{sub br} for the {alpha}-Al matrix phase was 0.130 V more positive than the E{sub br} of the subgrain boundary T{sub 1} phase. In this environment, stress corrosion cracking test specimens subjected to potentials in the window defined by the two breakaway potentials failed along an intersubgranular path in less than an hour. In the Cl{sup {minus}} environment, the E{sub br} values for the two phases were nearly equal and this rapid SCC condition could not be satisfied; accordingly SCC failures were not observed. Rapid SCC failure of 2090 in CO{sub 3}{sup 2 {minus}}/Cl{sup {minus}} in our static load, constant immersion experiments appear to be related to recently reported pre-exposure embrittlement'' failures induced by immersing stressed specimens removed into ambient laboratory air after immersion in aerated NaCl solution for 7 days. In those experiments, specimens failed in less than 24 hours after removal from solution. Our polarization experiments have shown that the corrosion behavior of T{sub 1}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2 {minus}}/Cl{sup {minus}} environments, but the {alpha}-Al phase crack walls, is rapidly passivated. X-ray diffraction of the films which formed in simulated crevices suggests that this passivating film belongs to a class of compounds known as hydrotalcites.

  9. Environmental fatigue of an Al-Li-Cu alloy. I - Intrinsic crack propagation kinetics in hydrogenous environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    Deleterious environmental effects on steady-state, intrinsic fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rates (da/dN) in peak aged Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 are established by electrical potential monitoring of short cracks with programmed constant delta K and K(sub max) loading. The da/dN are equally unaffected by vacuum, purified helium, and oxygen but are accelerated in order of decreasing effectiveness of aqueous 1 percent NaCl with anodic polarization, pure water vapor, moist air, and NaCl with cathodic polarization. While da/dN depends on delta K(sup 4.0) for the inert gases, water vapor and chloride induced multiple power-laws, and a transition growth rate 'plateau'. Environmental effects are strongest at low delta K. Crack tip damage is ascribed to hydrogen embrittlement because of the following: (1) accelerated da/dN due to part-per-million levels of H2O without condensation; (2) impeded molecular flow model predictions of the measured water vapor pressure dependence of da/dN as affected by mean crack opening; (3) the lack of an effect of film-forming O2; (4) the likelihood for crack tip hydrogen production in NaCl; and (5) the environmental and delta K-process zone volume dependencies of the microscopic cracking modes. For NaCl, growth rates decrease with decreasing loading frequency, with the addition of passivating Li2CO3, and upon cathodic polarization. These variables increase crack surface film stability to reduce hydrogen entry efficiency. The hydrogen environmental FCP resistance of 2090 is similar to other 2000 series alloys and is better than 7075.

  10. Environmental fatigue of an Al-Li-Cu alloy. Part 1: Intrinsic crack propagation kinetics in hydrogenous environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    Deleterious environmental effects on steady-state, intrinsic fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rates (da/dN) in peak aged Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 are established by electrical potential monitoring of short cracks with programmed constant delta K and K(sub max) loading. The da/dN are equally unaffected by vacuum, purified helium, and oxygen but are accelerated in order of decreasing effectiveness by aqueous 1 percent NaCl with anodic polarization, pure water vapor, moist air, and NaCl with cathodic polarization. While da/dN depends on delta K(sup 4.0) for the inert gases, water vapor and chloride induced multiple power-laws, and a transition growth rate 'plateau'. Environmental effects are strongest at low delta K. Crack tip damage is ascribed to hydrogen embrittlement because of the following: (1) accelerated da/dN due to part-per-million levels of H2O without condensation; (2) impeded molecular flow model predictions of the measured water vapor pressure dependence of da/dN as affected by mean crack opening; (3) the lack of an effect of film-forming O2; (4) the likelihood for crack tip hydrogen production in NaCl, and (5) the environmental and delta K-process zone volume dependencies of the microscopic cracking modes. For NaCl, growth rates decrease with decreasing loading frequency, with the addition of passivating Li2CO3, and upon cathodic polarization. These variables increase crack surface film stability to reduce hydrogen entry efficiency. The hydrogen environmental FCP resistance of 2090 is similar to other 2000 series alloys and is better than 7075.

  11. Environmental fatigue of an Al-Li-Cu alloy: part I. Intrinsic crack propagation kinetics in hydrogenous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1991-10-01

    Deleterious environmental effects on steady-state, intrinsic fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rates (da/dN) in peak-aged Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 are established by electrical potential monitoring of short cracks with programmed constant ΔK and K maxI loading. Such rates are equally unaffected by vacuum, purified helium, and oxygen but are accelerated in order of decreasing effectiveness by aqueous 1 pct NaCl with anodic polarization, pure water’ vapor, moist air, and NaCl with cathodic polarization. While da/dN depend on ΔK4.0 for the inert gases, water vapor and chloride induce multiple power laws and a transition growth rate “plateau.” Environmental effects are strongest at low ΔK. Crack tip damage is ascribed to hydrogen embrittlement because of accelerated da/dN due to parts-per-million (ppm) levels of H2O without condensation, impeded molecular flow model predictions of the measured water vapor pressure dependence of da/dN as affected by mean crack opening, the lack of an effect of film-forming O2, the likelihood for crack tip hydrogen production in NaCl, and the environmental and ΔK-process zone volume dependencies of the microscopic cracking modes. For NaCl, growth rates decrease with decreasing loading frequency, with the addition of passivating Li2CO3 and upon cathodic polarization. These variables increase crack surface film stability to reduce hydrogen entry efficiency. Small crack effects are not observed for 2090; such cracks do not grow at abnormally high rates in single grains or in NaCl and are not arrested at grain boundaries. The hydrogen environmental FCP resistance of 2090 is similar to other 2000 series alloys and is better than 7075.

  12. Environmental fatigue of an Al-Li-Cu alloy. I - Intrinsic crack propagation kinetics in hydrogenous environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    Deleterious environmental effects on steady-state, intrinsic fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rates (da/dN) in peak aged Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 are established by electrical potential monitoring of short cracks with programmed constant delta K and K(sub max) loading. The da/dN are equally unaffected by vacuum, purified helium, and oxygen but are accelerated in order of decreasing effectiveness of aqueous 1 percent NaCl with anodic polarization, pure water vapor, moist air, and NaCl with cathodic polarization. While da/dN depends on delta K(sup 4.0) for the inert gases, water vapor and chloride induced multiple power-laws, and a transition growth rate 'plateau'. Environmental effects are strongest at low delta K. Crack tip damage is ascribed to hydrogen embrittlement because of the following: (1) accelerated da/dN due to part-per-million levels of H2O without condensation; (2) impeded molecular flow model predictions of the measured water vapor pressure dependence of da/dN as affected by mean crack opening; (3) the lack of an effect of film-forming O2; (4) the likelihood for crack tip hydrogen production in NaCl; and (5) the environmental and delta K-process zone volume dependencies of the microscopic cracking modes. For NaCl, growth rates decrease with decreasing loading frequency, with the addition of passivating Li2CO3, and upon cathodic polarization. These variables increase crack surface film stability to reduce hydrogen entry efficiency. The hydrogen environmental FCP resistance of 2090 is similar to other 2000 series alloys and is better than 7075.

  13. SCI Survey to Determine Pressure Ulcer Vulnerability in the Outpatient Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-10-1-0840 TITLE: SCI Survey to Determine Pressure Ulcer Vulnerability in the Outpatient Population PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0840 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SCI Survey to Determine Pressure Ulcer Vulnerability in the Outpatient Population 5b. GRANT...ulcers (PrUs) have primarily been identified by research conducted in elderly and nursing home populations , or in the Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Model

  14. Integrating the perspectives of individuals with spinal cord injuries, their family caregivers and healthcare professionals from the time of rehabilitation admission to community reintegration: protocol for a scoping study on SCI needs.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Alexander; Zidarov, Diana; Raju, Chandhana; Boruff, Jill; Ahmed, Sara

    2017-08-04

    There is fragmented information about the different needs following a spinal cord injury (SCI). Expressed SCI needs can be met or unmet, they change along the rehabilitation continuum (eg, acute, rehabilitation and reintegration into the community) and can be different for traumatic and non traumatic SCI. The general objective of this scoping study is to evaluate and integrate the needs of individuals with traumatic and non-traumatic SCI, their family caregivers and those reported by rehabilitation professionals from the time of rehabilitation admission to community reintegration. The specific objectives are to: (A) synthesise the needs of individuals with SCI as perceived by themselves, their family caregivers and rehabilitation professionals using two theoretical models, (B) classify needs as met and unmet, (C) explore the evolution of met/unmet needs from the time of rehabilitation admission to community reintegration and (D) provide recommendations to improve SCI care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: (A) identifying the most frequent met and unmet needs reported by adults with traumatic and non-traumatic SCI, their family caregivers and their rehabilitation professionals from the time of rehabilitation admission to community reintegration; (B) identifying relevant studies with a search in electronic databases; (C) charting the data based on categories refined and adjusted with a stakeholder group; (D) collating, summarising and reporting the results using two analytical frameworks (Maslow's hierarchical model of human needs and the Ferrans et al's model of health-related quality of life) and (E) a stakeholder consultation phase. The results of this scoping study will allow understanding SCI needs from the time of rehabilitation admission to community reintegration from the perspective of different stakeholders. An integrated master report combining the needs of individuals with SCI from the perspectives of different stakeholders from the time of rehabilitation admission

  15. The Emerging Pathogen Candida auris: Growth Phenotype, Virulence Factors, Activity of Antifungals, and Effect of SCY-078, a Novel Glucan Synthesis Inhibitor, on Growth Morphology and Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Emily; Hager, Christopher; Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Retuerto, Mauricio; Salem, Iman; Long, Lisa; Isham, Nancy; Kovanda, Laura; Borroto-Esoda, Katyna; Wring, Steve; Angulo, David; Ghannoum, Mahmoud

    2017-05-01

    Candidaauris, a new multidrug-resistant Candida spp. which is associated with invasive infection and high rates of mortality, has recently emerged. Here, we determined the virulence factors (germination, adherence, biofilm formation, phospholipase and proteinase production) of 16 C. auris isolates and their susceptibilities to 11 drugs belonging to different antifungal classes, including a novel orally bioavailable 1,3-β-d-glucan synthesis inhibitor (SCY-078). We also examined the effect of SCY-078 on the growth, ultrastructure, and biofilm-forming abilities of C. auris Our data showed that while the tested strains did not germinate, they did produce phospholipase and proteinase in a strain-dependent manner and had a significantly reduced ability to adhere and form biofilms compared to that of Candida albicans (P = 0.01). C. auris isolates demonstrated reduced susceptibility to fluconazole and amphotericin B, while, in general, they were susceptible to the remaining drugs tested. SCY-078 had an MIC90 of 1 mg/liter against C. auris and caused complete inhibition of the growth of C. auris and C. albicans Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that SCY-078 interrupted C. auris cell division, with the organism forming abnormal fused fungal cells. Additionally, SCY-078 possessed potent antibiofilm activity, wherein treated biofilms demonstrated significantly reduced metabolic activity and a significantly reduced thickness compared to the untreated control (P < 0.05 for both comparisons). Our study shows that C. auris expresses several virulence determinants (albeit to a lesser extent than C. albicans) and is resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin B. SCY-078, the new orally bioavailable antifungal, had potent antifungal/antibiofilm activity against C. auris, indicating that further evaluation of this antifungal is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Larkin et al.

  16. ScienceDirect through SciVerse: a new way to approach Elsevier.

    PubMed

    Bengtson, Jason

    2011-01-01

    SciVerse is the new combined portal from Elsevier that services their ScienceDirect collection, SciTopics, and their Scopus database. Using SciVerse to access ScienceDirect is the specific focus of this review. Along with advanced keyword searching and citation searching options, SciVerse also incorporates a very useful image search feature. The aim seems to be not only to create an interface that provides broad functionality on par with other database search tools that many searchers use regularly but also to create an open platform that could be changed to respond effectively to the needs of customers.

  17. Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Pressure Ulcers scale and short form

    PubMed Central

    Kisala, Pamela A.; Tulsky, David S.; Choi, Seung W.; Kirshblum, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a self-reported measure of the subjective impact of pressure ulcers on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) as part of the SCI quality of life (SCI-QOL) measurement system. Design Grounded-theory based qualitative item development methods, large-scale item calibration testing, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and item response theory-based psychometric analysis. Setting Five SCI Model System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States. Participants Adults with traumatic SCI. Main Outcome Measures SCI-QOL Pressure Ulcers scale. Results 189 individuals with traumatic SCI who experienced a pressure ulcer within the past 7 days completed 30 items related to pressure ulcers. CFA confirmed a unidimensional pool of items. IRT analyses were conducted. A constrained Graded Response Model with a constant slope parameter was used to estimate item thresholds for the 12 retained items. Conclusions The 12-item SCI-QOL Pressure Ulcers scale is unique in that it is specifically targeted to individuals with spinal cord injury and at every stage of development has included input from individuals with SCI. Furthermore, use of CFA and IRT methods provide flexibility and precision of measurement. The scale may be administered in its entirety or as a 7-item “short form” and is available for both research and clinical practice. PMID:26010965

  18. Reply to the EFSA (2016) on the relevance of recent publications (Hofmann et al. 2014, 2016) on environmental risk assessment and management of Bt-maize events (MON810, Bt11 and 1507).

    PubMed

    Kruse-Plass, Maren; Hofmann, Frieder; Kuhn, Ulrike; Otto, Mathias; Schlechtriemen, Ulrich; Schröder, Boris; Vögel, Rudolf; Wosniok, Werner

    2017-01-01

    In this commentary, we respond to a report of the EFSA GMO Panel (EFSA EFSA Supp Publ, 1) that criticises the outcomes of two studies published in this journal (Hofmann et al. Environ Sci Eur 26: 24, 2; Environ Sci Eur 28: 14, 3). Both publications relate to the environmental risk assessment and management of Bt-maize, including maize events MON810, Bt11 and maize 1507. The results of Hofmann et al. (Environ Sci Eur 26: 24, 2), using standardised pollen mass filter deposition measurements, indicated that the EFSA Panel model had underestimated pollen deposition and, hence, exposure of non-target organisms to Bt-maize pollen. The results implied a need for safety buffer distances in the kilometre range for protected nature reserve areas instead of the 20-30 m range recommended by the EFSA Panel. As a result, the EFSA Panel revised their model (EFSA EFSA J 13: 4127, 4), adopting the slope of the empirical data from Hofmann et al. The intercept, however, was substantially reduced to less than 1% at one point by introducing further assumptions based on the estimates of mainly panel members, citing possible 'uncertainty'. Hofmann et al. (Environ Sci Eur 28: 14, 3) published extensive empirical data regarding pollen deposition on leaves. These results were part of a larger 3-year study involving detailed measurements of pollen release, dispersal and deposition over the maize flowering period. The data collected in situ confirmed the previous predictions of Hofmann et al. (Environ Sci Eur 26: 24, 2). Mean levels and observed variability of pollen deposition on maize and four lepidopteran host plants exceeded the assumptions and disagreed with the conclusions of the EFSA Panel. The EFSA Panel reacted in a report (EFSA EFSA Supp Publ, 1) criticising the methods and outcomes of the two published studies of Hofmann et al. while reaffirming their original recommendations. We respond here point-by-point, showing that the critique is not justified. Based on our results on

  19. ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk factors for veterans include exposure to lead, pesticides, and other environmental toxins. ALS is recognized as ... from scientific studies suggests that both genetics and environment play a role in the development of ALS. ...

  20. Hydrogen and the First Stars: First Results from the SCI-HI 21-cm all-sky spectrum experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voytek, Tabitha; Peterson, Jeffrey; Lopez-Cruz, Omar; Jauregui-Garcia, Jose-Miguel; SCI-HI Experiment Team

    2015-01-01

    The 'Sonda Cosmologica de las Islas para la Deteccion de Hidrogeno Neutro' (SCI-HI) experiment is an all-sky 21-cm brightness temperature spectrum experiment studying the cosmic dawn (z~15-35). The experiment is a collaboration between Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE) in Mexico. Initial deployment of the SCI-HI experiment occurred in June 2013 on Guadalupe; a small island about 250 km off of the Pacific coast of Baja California in Mexico. Preliminary measurements from this deployment have placed the first observational constraints on the 21-cm all-sky spectrum around 70 MHz (z~20), see Voytek et al (2014).Neutral Hydrogen (HI) is found throughout the universe in the cold gas that makes up the intergalactic medium (IGM). HI can be observed through the spectral line at 21 cm (1.4 GHz) due to hyperfine structure. Expansion of the universe causes the wavelength of this spectral line to stretch at a rate defined by the redshift z, leading to a signal which can be followed through time.Now the strength of the 21-cm signal in the IGM is dependent only on a small number of variables; the temperature and density of the IGM, the amount of HI in the IGM, the UV energy density in the IGM, and the redshift. This means that 21-cm measurements teach us about the history and structure of the IGM. The SCI-HI experiment focuses on the spatially averaged 21-cm spectrum, looking at the temporal evolution of the IGM during the cosmic dawn before reionization.Although the SCI-HI experiment placed first constraints with preliminary data, this data was limited to a narrow frequency regime around 60-85 MHz. This limitation was caused by instrumental difficulties and the presence of residual radio frequency interference (RFI) in the FM radio band (~88-108 MHz). The SCI-HI experiment is currently undergoing improvements and we plan to have another deployment soon. This deployment would be to Socorro and Clarion, two

  1. Tribocorrosive behaviour of commonly used temporomandibular implants in a synovial fluid-like environment: Ti-6Al-4V and CoCrMo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royhman, D.; Yuan, J. C.; Shokuhfar, T.; Takoudis, C.; Sukotjo, C.; Mathew, M. T.

    2013-10-01

    The temporomandibular joint implant metal alloys, Ti6Al4V and CoCrMo, (n = 3/group) were tested under free-potential and potentiostatic conditions using a custom-made tribocorrosion apparatus. Sliding duration (1800 cycles), frequency (1.0 Hz) and load (16 N) mimicked the daily mastication process. Synovial-like fluid (bovine calf serum, pH = 7.6 at 37 °C) was used to simulate the in vivo environment. Changes in friction coefficient were monitored throughout the sliding process. Changes in surface topography, total weight loss and roughness values were calculated using scanning electron microscopy and white-light interferometry. Finally, statistical analyses were performed using paired t-tests to determine significance between regions within each metal type and also independent sample t-tests to determine statistical significance between metal alloy types. Ti6Al4V demonstrated a greater decrease of potential than CoCrMo, a higher weight loss from wear (Kw = 257.8 versus 2.62 µg p < 0.0001), a higher weight loss from corrosion (Kc = 17.44 versus 0.14 µg p < 0.0001) and a higher weight loss from the combined effects of wear and corrosion (Kwc = 275.28 versus 2.76 µg p < 0.0001). White-light interferometry measurements demonstrated a greater difference in surface roughness inside the wear region in Ti6Al4V than CoCrMo after the sliding (Ra = 323.80 versus 70.74 nm p < 0.0001). In conclusion, CoCrMo alloy shows superior anti-corrosive and biomechanical properties.

  2. 3D Boltzmann Simulation of the Io's Plasma Environment with Adaptive Mesh and Particle Refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Combi, M. R.

    2002-12-01

    The global dynamics of the ionized and neutral components in the environment of Io plays an important role in the interaction of Jupiter's corotating magnetospheric plasma with Io [Combi et al., 2002; 1998; Kabin et al., 2001]. The stationary simulation of this problem was done in the MHD [Combi et al., 1998; Linker et al, 1998; Kabin et al., 2001] and the electrodynamic [Saur et al., 1999] approaches. In this report, we develop a method of kinetic ion-neutral simulation, which is based on a multiscale adaptive mesh, particle and algorithm refinement. This method employs the fluid description for electrons whereas for ions the drift-kinetic and particle approaches are used. This method takes into account charge-exchange and photoionization processes. The first results of such simulation of the dynamics of ions in the Io's environment are discussed in this report. ~ M R Combi et al., J. Geophys. Res., 103, 9071, 1998. M R Combi, T I Gombosi, K Kabin, Atmospheres in the Solar System: Comparative\\ Aeronomy. Geophys. Monograph Series, 130, 151, 2002. K Kabin et al., Planetary and Space Sci., 49, 337, 2001. J A Linker et al., J. Geophys. Res., 103(E9), 19867, 1998. J Saur et al., J. Geophys. Res., 104, 25105, 1999.

  3. SciDAC-Center for Plasma Edge Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Choong Seock

    2012-06-04

    The SciDAC ProtoFSP Center for Plasma Edge Simulation (CPES) [http://www.cims.nyu.edu/cpes/] was awarded to New York University, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in FY 2006. C.S. Chang was the institutional and national project PI. It's mission was 1) to build kinetic simulation code applicable to tokamak edge region including magnetic divertor geometry, 2) to build a computer science framework which can integrate the kinetic code with MHD/fluid codes in multiscale, 3) to conduct scientific research using the developed tools. CPES has built two such edge kinetic codes XGC0 and XGC1, which are still the only working kinetic edge plasma codes capable of including the diverted magnetic field geometry. CPES has also built the code coupling framework EFFIS (End-to-end Framework for Fusion Integrated Simulation), which incubated and used the Adios (www.olcf.ornl.gov/center-projects/adios/) and eSiMon (http://www.olcf.ornl.gov/center-projects/esimmon/) technologies, together with the Kepler technology.

  4. rOpenSci - open tools for open science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, K.

    2013-12-01

    Solving many of the basic and applied challenges in ecology and evolution requires access to large amounts of data, often spanning long spatial and temporal scales. The long-established model where researchers collect and analyze their own data will soon be replaced by one where disparate datasets are brought to bear on both basic and applied problems. As science becomes more data-driven, it faces a whole new set of challenges. Researchers will not only have to maintain expertise in their domains but also learn new skills to curate, retrieve, and analyze these newly available data. In order to fully realize the potential of data-driven science and allow researchers to draw insights from these vast data stores, we need to address challenges associated with all aspects of the research life cycle. To foster and support a new generation of data-driven science, my colleagues and I founded a project called rOpenSci (http://ropensci.org). The project is an integrated effort to build tools and training using Ecology and Evolution as a model community. In this talk I will outline several of the barriers that need to be overcome including better incentive mechanisms for data, training gaps, and lowering technical barriers.

  5. "Sci-Tech - Couldn't be without it !"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    Launch of a Major European Outreach Programme Seven of Europe's leading Research Organizations [1] launch joint outreach programme for the European Science and Technology Week at the Technopolis Museum in Brussels on 22 March. Their aim is to show Europeans how today's society couldn't be without fundamental research . Could you imagine life without mobile phones, cars, CD players, TV, refrigerators, computers, the internet and the World Wide Web, antibiotics, vitamins, anaesthetics, vaccination, heating, pampers, nylon stockings, glue, bar codes, metal detectors, contact lenses, modems, laser printers, digital cameras, gameboys, play stations...? Technology is everywhere and used by everyone in today's society, but how many Europeans suspect that without studies on the structure of the atom, lasers would not exist, and neither would CD players? Most do not realise that most things they couldn't be without have required years of fundamental research . To fill this knowledge gap, the leading Research Organizations in Europe [1], with the support of the research directorate of the European Commission, have joined forces to inform Europeans how technology couldn't be without science, and how science can no longer progress without technology. The project is called...... Sci-Tech - Couldn't be without it! Sci-Tech - Couldn't be without it! invites Europeans to vote online in a survey to identify the top ten technologies they can't live without. It will show them through a dynamic and entertaining Web space where these top technologies really come from, and it will reveal their intimate links with research. Teaching kits will be developed to explain to students how their favourite gadgets actually work, and how a career in science can contribute to inventions that future generations couldn't be without. The results of the survey will be presented as a series of quiz shows live on the Internet during the Science Week, from 4 to 10 November. Sci-tech - Couldn't be without

  6. STARtorialist: Astronomy Outreach via Fashion, Sci-Fi, & Pop Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Emily L.; Ash, Summer

    2015-01-01

    Astronomical images in the public domain have increasingly been used as inspiration and patterns for clothing, accessories, and home decor. These 'AstroFashion' items are as diverse as DIY projects, handmade and boutique products, mass-produced commercial items, and haute couture. STARtorialist is a Tumblr-based blog that curates the proliferation of these products with the goal of celebrating the beauty of the universe and highlighting the science behind the images. The blog also includes sci-fi, space, and science-related aspects of popular culture. Each post features images and descriptions of the products, and often where/how we found them and/or the people wearing them, with links to the original astronomical images or other relevant science content. The popularity of each post is evident in the number of 'notes', including 'faves' (personal bookmarks) and 'reblogs' (shares with other users). Since launching the blog in December 2013, with an average of one post per day, we've attracted hundreds of followers on Tumblr and Twitter and thousands of notes on Tumblr. We will present our most popular posts and recommend how education, outreach, and press offices can add Tumblr to their social media repertoire.

  7. A Novel Approach for Effectively Treating SCI Pain, Improving Opioid Efficacy, and Preventing Opioid Induced Constipation: Key Role of Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    including peripheral inflammatory nerve injury (chronic constriction injury) and spinal root avulsion injury. There are several possibilities that could...explain why morphine-exacerbated pain was not observed. First, the mechanisms of pain at the lumbar level following contusion SCI versus other models...that potentially mediate morphine pain (e.g., TLR4) (Ellis et al., 2016;Eidson and Murphy, 2013) are not induced in lumbar spinal cord by T9 injury

  8. Methodology for the development and calibration of the SCI-QOL item banks

    PubMed Central

    Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Victorson, David; Choi, Seung W.; Gershon, Richard; Heinemann, Allen W.; Cella, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a comprehensive, psychometrically sound, and conceptually grounded patient reported outcomes (PRO) measurement system for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods Individual interviews (n = 44) and focus groups (n = 65 individuals with SCI and n = 42 SCI clinicians) were used to select key domains for inclusion and to develop PRO items. Verbatim items from other cutting-edge measurement systems (i.e. PROMIS, Neuro-QOL) were included to facilitate linkage and cross-population comparison. Items were field tested in a large sample of individuals with traumatic SCI (n = 877). Dimensionality was assessed with confirmatory factor analysis. Local item dependence and differential item functioning were assessed, and items were calibrated using the item response theory (IRT) graded response model. Finally, computer adaptive tests (CATs) and short forms were administered in a new sample (n = 245) to assess test-retest reliability and stability. Participants and Procedures A calibration sample of 877 individuals with traumatic SCI across five SCI Model Systems sites and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center completed SCI-QOL items in interview format. Results We developed 14 unidimensional calibrated item banks and 3 calibrated scales across physical, emotional, and social health domains. When combined with the five Spinal Cord Injury – Functional Index physical function banks, the final SCI-QOL system consists of 22 IRT-calibrated item banks/scales. Item banks may be administered as CATs or short forms. Scales may be administered in a fixed-length format only. Conclusions The SCI-QOL measurement system provides SCI researchers and clinicians with a comprehensive, relevant and psychometrically robust system for measurement of physical-medical, physical-functional, emotional, and social outcomes. All SCI-QOL instruments are freely available on Assessment CenterSM. PMID:26010963

  9. Detection of Abnormal Muscle Activations during Walking Following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ping; Low, K. H.; McGregor, Alison H.; Tow, Adela

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify optimal rehabilitation strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI) participants, assessment of impaired walking is required to detect, monitor and quantify movement disorders. In the proposed assessment, ten healthy and seven SCI participants were recruited to perform an over-ground walking test at slow walking speeds. SCI…

  10. What Makes Things Happen? Study Guide. Unit B. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  11. Soil conditioning index (SCI) and soil organic carbon in the Midwest and southeastern USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Calibration of the soil conditioning index (SCI) to a diversity of field studies with known changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) would improve the usefulness of the SCI by the USDA–Natural Resources Conservation Service to assess the environmental services provided by agricultural land stewardship. ...

  12. Particles in Action. Study Guide. Unit C2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit…

  13. Exploring Student and Supervisor Interaction during the SciPro Thesis Process: Two Use Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Preben; Hansson, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Common problems identified by students during their interaction with supervisors are too little instructions as well as infrequent and insufficient supervisor feedback. The SciPro system has been developed to tackle these problems. This paper describes, analyzes and discusses the interaction between students and supervisors using the SciPro…

  14. Detection of Abnormal Muscle Activations during Walking Following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ping; Low, K. H.; McGregor, Alison H.; Tow, Adela

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify optimal rehabilitation strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI) participants, assessment of impaired walking is required to detect, monitor and quantify movement disorders. In the proposed assessment, ten healthy and seven SCI participants were recruited to perform an over-ground walking test at slow walking speeds. SCI…

  15. Close Encounters of the Best Kind: The Latest Sci-Fi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunzel, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    Not only is science fiction alive and well--it's flourishing. From the big screen (howdy, Wall-E) to the big books (like Suzanne Collins's The Hunger Games, which has attracted loads of prepublication praise), 2008 has been a great year for sci-fi. Publishers have released truckloads of new sci-fi titles this year, but what's particularly…

  16. The Adequacy of the Science Citation Index (SCI) as an Indicator of International Scientific Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Mark P.; Narin, Francis

    1981-01-01

    Presents the results of a study of Science Citation Index (SCI) as a source for developing indicators of international scientific activity. Journal counts based on SCI and British Library Lending Division (BLLD) cataloging records are compared and reference patterns in key journals are described. Eleven references are listed. (JL)

  17. Looking at Life. Study Guide. Unit A2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  18. Particles in Action. Study Guide. Unit C2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit…

  19. What Makes Things Happen? Study Guide. Unit B. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  20. Close Encounters of the Best Kind: The Latest Sci-Fi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunzel, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    Not only is science fiction alive and well--it's flourishing. From the big screen (howdy, Wall-E) to the big books (like Suzanne Collins's The Hunger Games, which has attracted loads of prepublication praise), 2008 has been a great year for sci-fi. Publishers have released truckloads of new sci-fi titles this year, but what's particularly…

  1. Data Sharing and Publication Using the SciDrive Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, D.; Medvedev, D.; Szalay, A. S.; Plante, R.; Graham, M.

    2014-05-01

    Despite all the progress made during the last years in the field of cloud data storage, the problem of fast and reliable data storage for the scientific community still remains open. The SciDrive project meets the need for a free open-source scientific data publishing platform. Having the primary target audience of astronomers as the largest data producers, the platform however is not bound to any scientific domain and can be used by different communities. Our current installation provides a free and safe storage platform for scientists to publish their data and share it with the community with the simplicity of Dropbox. The system allows service providers to harvest from the files and derive their broader context in a fairly automated fashion. Collecting various scientific data files in a single location or multiple connected sites allows building an intelligent system of metadata extractors. Our system is aimed at simplifying the cataloging and processing of large file collections for the long tail of scientific data. We propose an extensible plugin architecture for automatic metadata extraction and storage. The current implementation targets some of the data formats commonly used by the astronomy communities, including FITS, ASCII and Excel tables, TIFF images, and YT simulations data archives. Along with generic metadata, format-specific metadata is also processed. For example, basic information about celestial objects is extracted from FITS files and TIFF images, if present. This approach makes the simple BLOB storage a smart system providing access to various data in its own representation, such as a database for files containing tables, or providing additional search and access features such as full-text search, image pyramids or thumbnails creation, simulation dataset id extractor for fast search. A 100TB implementation has just been put into production at Johns Hopkins University.

  2. First time experiences using SciPy for computer vision research

    SciTech Connect

    Eads, Damian R; Rosten, Edward J

    2008-01-01

    SciPy is an effective tool suite for prototyping new algorithms. We share some of our experiences using it for the first time to support our research in object detection. SciPy makes it easy to integrate C code, which is essential when algorithms operating on large data sets cannot be vectorized. Python's extensive support for operator overloading makes SciPy's syntax as succinct as its competitors, MATLAB. Octave. and R. The universality of Python. the language in which SciPy was written, gives the researcher access to a broader set of non-numerical libraries to support GUI development. interface with databases, manipulate graph structures, render 3D graphics, unpack binary files, etc. More profoundly, we found it easy to rework research code written with SciPy into a production application, deployable on numerous platforms.

  3. Membrane Targeting and Insertion of the C-Tail Protein SciP.

    PubMed

    Pross, Eva; Soussoula, Lavinia; Seitl, Ines; Lupo, Domenico; Kuhn, Andreas

    2016-10-09

    C-tailed membrane proteins insert into the bilayer post-translationally because the hydrophobic anchor segment leaves the ribosome at the end of translation. Nevertheless, we find here evidence that the targeting of SciP to the membrane of Escherichia coli occurs co-translationally since signal elements in the N-terminal part of the SciP protein sequence are present. Two short hydrophobic sequences were identified that targeted a green fluorescent protein-SciP fusion protein to the membrane involving the signal recognition particle. After targeting, the membrane insertion of SciP is catalyzed by YidC independent of the SecYEG translocase. However, when the C-terminal tail of SciP was extended to 21 aa residues, we found that SecYEG becomes involved and makes its membrane insertion more efficient.

  4. Data publication and sharing using the SciDrive service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, Dmitry; Medvedev, D.; Szalay, A. S.; Plante, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the last years progress in scientific data storage, still remains the problem of public data storage and sharing system for relatively small scientific datasets. These are collections forming the “long tail” of power log datasets distribution. The aggregated size of the long tail data is comparable to the size of all data collections from large archives, and the value of data is significant. The SciDrive project's main goal is providing the scientific community with a place to reliably and freely store such data and provide access to it to broad scientific community. The primary target audience of the project is astoromy community, and it will be extended to other fields. We're aiming to create a simple way of publishing a dataset, which can be then shared with other people. Data owner controls the permissions to modify and access the data and can assign a group of users or open the access to everyone. The data contained in the dataset will be automaticaly recognized by a background process. Known data formats will be extracted according to the user's settings. Currently tabular data can be automatically extracted to the user's MyDB table where user can make SQL queries to the dataset and merge it with other public CasJobs resources. Other data formats can be processed using a set of plugins that upload the data or metadata to user-defined side services. The current implementation targets some of the data formats commonly used by the astronomy communities, including FITS, ASCII and Excel tables, TIFF images, and YT simulations data archives. Along with generic metadata, format-specific metadata is also processed. For example, basic information about celestial objects is extracted from FITS files and TIFF images, if present. A 100TB implementation has just been put into production at Johns Hopkins University. The system features public data storage REST service supporting VOSpace 2.0 and Dropbox protocols, HTML5 web portal, command-line client and Java

  5. Corrosion-fatigue of laser-repaired commercially pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V alloy under different test environments.

    PubMed

    Zavanelli, R A; Guilherme, A S; Pessanha-Henriques, G E; de Arruda Nóbilo, M Antônio; Mesquita, M F

    2004-10-01

    This study evaluated the corrosion-fatigue life of laser-repaired specimens fabricated from commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) and Ti-6Al-4V alloy, tested under different storage conditions. For each metal, 30 dumbbell rods with a central 2.3 mm diameter were prepared by lost-wax casting with the Rematitan System. Simulating the failure after service, corrosion-fatigue life in different media at room temperature (air, synthetic saliva and fluoride synthetic saliva) was determined at a testing frequency of 10 Hz for intact specimens and after laser repairing, using a square waveform with equal maximum tensile and compressive stress that was 30% lower than the 0.2% offset yield strength. For laser welding, the fractured specimens were rejoined using a jig to align the sections invested in type-IV dental stone. The adjacent areas of the gap was air-abraded with 100 microm aluminum oxide, laser welded and retested under the same conditions as the initial intact specimens. The number of cycles at failure was recorded, and the fracture surface was examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The number of cycles for failure of the welded and intact specimens was compared by anova and the Tukey test at a 5% probability level. Within the limitations of this study, the number of cycles required for fracture decreased in wet environments and the laser repairing process adversely affected the life of both metals under the corrosion-fatigue conditions.

  6. SCI with Brain Injury: Bedside to Bench Modeling for Developing Treatment and Rehabilitation Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    injuries.  We  then  built  a  clinical  TBI+SCI   patient   database  from  San  Francisco  General   Hospital ,  the...Discharge notes: The patient cohort with SCI+TBI had a total of 343 unique International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition (ICD-9) codes...ICD-9 code that referenced a spinal cord injury. This indicates that using ICD-9 codes to search hospital records for patients with TBI, SCI, and both

  7. Astronomical Data Processing Using SciQL, an SQL Based Query Language for Array Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Scheers, B.; Kersten, M.; Ivanova, M.; Nes, N.

    2012-09-01

    SciQL (pronounced as ‘cycle’) is a novel SQL-based array query language for scientific applications with both tables and arrays as first class citizens. SciQL lowers the entrance fee of adopting relational DBMS (RDBMS) in scientific domains, because it includes functionality often only found in mathematics software packages. In this paper, we demonstrate the usefulness of SciQL for astronomical data processing using examples from the Transient Key Project of the LOFAR radio telescope. In particular, how the LOFAR light-curve database of all detected sources can be constructed, by correlating sources across the spatial, frequency, time and polarisation domains.

  8. Cognitions, Decisions, and Behaviors Related to Successful Adjustment among Individuals with SCI: A Qualitative Examination of Military and Nonmilitary Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0589 TITLE: Cognitions, Decisions, and Behaviors Related to Successful Adjustment among Individuals with SCI: A...Behaviors Related to Successful Adjustment among Individuals with SCI: A Qualitative Examination of Military and Nonmilitary Personnel 5b. GRANT...This project was designed to find out how successful adjustment happens after SCI. We used a mail survey to identify individuals with SCI who reported

  9. Theoretical investigation on local structure and transport properties of NaFsbnd AlF3 molten salts under electric field environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Xiaojun; Xu, Zhenming; Li, Jie; Chen, Jiangan; Liu, Qingsheng

    2016-08-01

    The effect of electric field and molecular ratio CR (NaF/AlF3) on basic structure and transport properties of NaFsbnd AlF3 molten salts were investigated by molecular dynamics simulations with the Buckingham potential model. The [AlF6]3- groups are the dominant specie in NaFsbnd AlF3 molten salts at CR ≥ 2.6, and followed by the [AlF5]2- groups, while CR ≤ 2.4, [AlF5]2- groups are the protagonists up to 40%. In NaFsbnd AlF3 system, with the increase of CR, the proportion of Fb decreases slightly and the percentage of Ff increases dramatically. The Alsbnd F bonds have ionic characters as well as partial covalently characters due to the hybridization of F-2p and Al-3s, 3p orbitals. The order of ion diffusion ability follows as Na+ > F- > Al3+. Adding more NaF can break some F bridges of structure networks and decrease the polymerization degree of NaFsbnd AlF3 molten salts, the viscosity reduces and ionic conductivity increases as a consequence. The calculated results of ionic conductivity are in agreement with the experimental results. Electric field has no significant impact on the local structure characters, while transport properties are not. The change of CR (NaF/AlF3) can significantly affect these characters of both the structure and transport.

  10. Complementary use of the SciSearch database for improved biomedical information searching.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, C M

    1998-01-01

    The use of at least two complementary online biomedical databases is generally considered critical for biomedical scientists seeking to keep fully abreast of recent research developments as well as to retrieve the highest number of relevant citations possible. Although the National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE is usually the database of choice, this paper illustrates the benefits of using another database, the Institute for Scientific Information's SciSearch, when conducting a biomedical information search. When a simple query about red wine consumption and coronary artery disease was posed simultaneously in both MEDLINE and SciSearch, a greater number of relevant citations were retrieved through SciSearch. This paper also provides suggestions for carrying out a comprehensive biomedical literature search in a rapid and efficient manner by using SciSearch in conjunction with MEDLINE. PMID:9549014

  11. Sci-Hub: What Librarians Should Know and Do about Article Piracy.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2017-01-01

    The high cost of journal articles has driven many researchers to turn to a new way of getting access: "pirate" article sites. Sci-Hub, the largest and best known of these sites, currently offers instant access to more than 58 million journal articles. Users attracted by the ease of use and breadth of the collection may not realize that these articles are often obtained using stolen credentials and downloading them may be illegal. This article will briefly describe Sci-Hub and how it works, the legal and ethical issues it raises, and the problems it may cause for librarians. Librarians should be aware of Sci-Hub and the ways it may change their patrons' expectations. They should also understand the risks Sci-Hub can pose to their patrons and their institutions.

  12. 76 FR 10395 - BreconRidge Manufacturing Solutions, Now Known as Sanmina-SCI Corporation, Division...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... Corporation, Division Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Design and Manufacturing, a Subsidiary of Sanmina-SCI Corporation, Including On- Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services, Penski, Inc., and Whitney Enterprises... Corporation, Division Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Design and Manufacturing, a subsidiary of...

  13. SCI Survey to Determine Pressure Ulcer Vulnerability in the Outpatient Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    include an analysis of osteomyelitis diagnosis and treatment with plans to submit a proposed algorithm to the SCI-QUERI‘ (SCI-Quality Enhancement...34, is there independent ability to % SERVICE CONNECTED BOWEL PRGM LOC # HRS PER TREATMENT BLADDER CONTINENT BLADDER MANAGEMENT INDEWELLING CATHETER...ANEMIA AUTONOMIC DYSREFLEXIA DIABETES1 DIABETES2 HETEROTOPIC OSSIFICATION HYPERTHYROID HYPOTHYROID OSTEOMYELITIS PAIN LEVEL 1-10 TOBACCO USE PAST

  14. FES-Rowing versus Zoledronic Acid to Improve Bone Health in SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    SCI, although the risk is high in this population of osteoporosis -related bone fracture. This study aims to learn if the severe osteoporosis in lower... Osteoporosis , FES-rowing, zoledronic acid, exercise, bone health 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a...Introduction Serious spinal cord injury (SCI) causes osteoporosis in the lower extremities, significantly increasing the risk of bone fracture in

  15. FES-Rowing versus Zoledronic Acid to Improve Bone Health in SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    loss or to induce new bone formation following SCI, although the risk is high in this population of osteoporosis -related bone fracture. This study...aims to learn if the severe osteoporosis in lower extremities caused by spinal cord injuries can be slowed or reversed with a combination of an...the study protocol. At this point, there are no significant findings to report. 15. SUBJECT TERMS SCI, Osteoporosis , FES-rowing, zoledronic

  16. www.elearnSCI.org: a global educational initiative of ISCoS.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, H S; Harvey, L A; Muldoon, S; Chaudhary, S; Arora, M; Brown, D J; Biering-Sorensen, F; Wyndaele, J J; Charlifue, S; Horsewell, J; Ducharme, S; Green, D; Simpson, D; Glinsky, J; Weerts, E; Upadhyay, N; Aito, S; Wing, P; Katoh, S; Kovindha, A; Krassioukov, A; Weeks, C; Srikumar, V; Reeves, R; Siriwardane, C; Hasnan, N; Kalke, Y B; Lanig, I

    2013-03-01

    To develop a web-based educational resource for health professionals responsible for the management of spinal cord injury (SCI). The resource:www.elearnSCI.org is comprised of seven learning modules, each subdivided into various submodules. Six of the seven modules address the educational needs of all disciplines involved in comprehensive SCI management. The seventh module addresses prevention of SCI. Each submodule includes an overview, activities, self-assessment questions and references. Three hundred and thirty-two experts from The International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) and various affiliated societies from 36 countries were involved in developing the resource through 28 subcommittees. The content of each submodule was reviewed and approved by the Education and Scientific Committees of ISCoS and finally by an Editorial Committee of 23 experts. The content of the learning modules is relevant to students and to new as well as experienced SCI healthcare professionals. The content is applicable globally, has received consumer input and is available at no cost. The material is presented on a website underpinned by a sophisticated content-management system, which allows easy maintenance and ready update of all the content. The resource conforms to key principles of e-learning, including appropriateness of curriculum, engagement of learners, innovative approaches, effective learning, ease of use, inclusion, assessment, coherence, consistency, transparency, cost effectiveness and feedback. www.elearnSCI.org provides a cost effective way of training healthcare professionals that goes beyond the textbook and traditional face-to-face teaching.

  17. Mid-year Status of MESSENGER SciBox Science Planning and Commanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, L.; Choo, T. H.; Steele, R. J.; Lucks, M.; Nair, H.; Perry, M. E.; Anderson, B. J.; Berman, A. F.; Solomon, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    More than halfway into its primary orbital mission, MESSENGER has successfully exploited the SciBox planning and commanding system to automate science observation scheduling and command generation for its full instrument suite, as well as its radio-frequency communication and guidance and control systems. MESSENGER's SciBox software coordinates instrument observations to determine the optimal conflict-free science schedule for the entire orbital mission and generates weekly command sequences for submission to mission operations. SciBox maximizes science return by filling all available observing opportunities and fully utilizing onboard storage and downlink bandwidth. As of four months into its one-year orbital mission, MESSENGER SciBox had scheduled the acquisition and downlink of nearly 40,000 images and comparable data sets from the spacecraft's six other instruments. The flexibility of MESSENGER SciBox allows for rapid re-optimization of schedules in the event of unforeseen circumstances. It has also allowed the science and planning teams to analyze rapidly the effects of modifying operational parameters and adding new observations. Within two hours, the entire mission can be re-optimized, schedules and command sequences generated, and a full set of plots and reports produced. The effects on resource usage, observational coverage, and compliance with operational constraints may be quickly assessed. This rapid turnaround ensures that optimal schedules are produced regardless of circumstances. We present an overview of the MESSENGER SciBox design and its operation.

  18. Targeting Translational Successes through CANSORT-SCI: Using Pet Dogs To Identify Effective Treatments for Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah A; Granger, Nicolas; Olby, Natasha J; Spitzbarth, Ingo; Jeffery, Nick D; Tipold, Andrea; Nout-Lomas, Yvette S; da Costa, Ronaldo C; Stein, Veronika M; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J; Blight, Andrew R; Grossman, Robert G; Basso, D Michele; Levine, Jonathan M

    2017-03-22

    Translation of therapeutic interventions for spinal cord injury (SCI) from laboratory to clinic has been historically challenging, highlighting the need for robust models of injury that more closely mirror the human condition. The high prevalence of acute, naturally occurring SCI in pet dogs provides a unique opportunity to evaluate expeditiously promising interventions in a population of animals that receive diagnoses and treatment clinically in a manner similar to persons with SCI, while adhering to National Institutes of Health guidelines for scientific rigor and transparent reporting. In addition, pet dogs with chronic paralysis are often maintained long-term by their owners, offering a similarly unique population for study of chronic SCI. Despite this, only a small number of studies have used the clinical dog model of SCI. The Canine Spinal Cord Injury Consortium (CANSORT-SCI) was recently established by a group of veterinarians and basic science researchers to promote the value of the canine clinical model of SCI. The CANSORT-SCI group held an inaugural meeting November 20 and 21, 2015 to evaluate opportunities and challenges to the use of pet dogs in SCI research. Key challenges identified included lack of familiarity with the model among nonveterinary scientists and questions about how and where in the translational process the canine clinical model would be most valuable. In light of these, we review the natural history, outcome, and available assessment tools associated with canine clinical SCI with emphasis on their relevance to human SCI and the translational process.

  19. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML Update, 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, S. M.; Commissionthe Management; Application Inte, I.

    2012-12-01

    CGI Interoperability Working Group activities during 2012 include deployment of services using the GeoSciML-Portrayal schema, addition of new vocabularies to support properties added in version 3.0, improvements to server software for deploying services, introduction of EarthResourceML v.2 for mineral resources, and collaboration with the IUSS on a markup language for soils information. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML have been used as the basis for the INSPIRE Geology and Mineral Resources specifications respectively. GeoSciML-Portrayal is an OGC GML simple-feature application schema for presentation of geologic map unit, contact, and shear displacement structure (fault and ductile shear zone) descriptions in web map services. Use of standard vocabularies for geologic age and lithology enables map services using shared legends to achieve visual harmonization of maps provided by different services. New vocabularies have been added to the collection of CGI vocabularies provided to support interoperable GeoSciML services, and can be accessed through http://resource.geosciml.org. Concept URIs can be dereferenced to obtain SKOS rdf or html representations using the SISSVoc vocabulary service. New releases of the FOSS GeoServer application greatly improve support for complex XML feature schemas like GeoSciML, and the ArcGIS for INSPIRE extension implements similar complex feature support for ArcGIS Server. These improved server implementations greatly facilitate deploying GeoSciML services. EarthResourceML v2 adds features for information related to mining activities. SoilML provides an interchange format for soil material, soil profile, and terrain information. Work is underway to add GeoSciML to the portfolio of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) specifications.

  20. Direct Observation of Lattice Aluminum Environments in Li Ion Cathodes LiNi 1–yz Co y Al z O 2 and Al-Doped LiNi x Mn y Co z O 2 via 27 Al MAS NMR Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Fulya; Vaughey, John T.; Iddir, Hakim; Key, Baris

    2016-07-06

    Direct observations of local lattice aluminum environments have been a major challenge for aluminum -bearing Li ion battery materials, such as LiNi1-y-zCoyAlzO2 Al(NCA) and aluminum-doped LiNixMnyCozO2 (NMC). Al-27 magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the only structural probe currently available that can qualitatively and quantitatively characterize lattice and nonlattice (i.e., surface, coatings, segregation, secondary phase etc.) aluminum coordination and provide information that helps discern its effect in the lattice. In the present study, we use NMR to gain new insights into transition metal (TM)-O-Al coordination and evolution of lattice aluminum sites upon cycling. With the aid of first-principles DFT calculations, we show direct evidence of lattice Al sites, nonpreferential Ni/Co-O-Al ordering in NCA, and the lack of bulk lattice aluminum in aluminum -"doped" NMC. Aluminum coordination of the paramagnetic (lattice) and diamagnetic (nonlattice) nature is investigated for Al-doped NMC and NCA. For the latter, the evolution of the lattice site(s) upon cycling is also studied. A clear reordering of lattice aluminum environments due to nickel migration is observed in NCA upon extended cycling.

  1. Toward Sci-φ: A Lightweight Cloud PaaS for Developing Embarrassingly Parallel Applications Based on Jini

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Embarrassingly parallel problems are characterised by a very small amount of information to be exchanged among the parts they are split in, during their parallel execution. As a consequence they do not require sophisticated, low-latency, high-bandwidth interconnection networks but can be efficiently computed in parallel by exploiting commodity hardware. Basically, this means cheap clusters, networks of workstations and desktops, and Computational Clouds. This computational model can be exploited to compute a quite large range of problems. This paper describes Sci-φ, an almost complete redesign of a previous tool of ours aimed at developing task parallel applications based on Java and Jini that were shown to be an effective and efficient solution in environments like clusters and networks of workstations and desktops. PMID:24701174

  2. Impact of Health Behaviors and Health Management on Employment After SCI: Psychological Health and Health Management

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Michelle A.; Krause, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between employment and psychological health and health management as described by individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) who were employed at least once following injury. Methods: A qualitative approach used 6 focus groups at 2 sites with 44 participants who were at least 10 years post SCI. All had been employed at some point since injury. Heterogeneous and homogeneous groups were delineated based on specific characteristics, such as education, gender, or race. Group sessions followed a semi-structured interview format with questions about personal, environmental, and policy related factors influencing employment following SCI. All group sessions were recorded, transcribed, and coded into conceptual categories to identify topics, themes, and patterns. Inferences were drawn about their meaning. NVivo 10 software using the constant comparative method was used for data analysis. Results: Narratives discussed the relationship between employment and psychological and emotional health and health management. Four themes were identified: (1) adjustment and dealing with emotional reactions, (2) gaining self-confidence, (3) preventing burnout, and (4) attitudes and perspectives. Most themes reflected issues that varied based on severity of injury as well as stage of employment. Conclusions: Individuals with SCI who are successful in working following injury must determine how to perform the behaviors necessary to manage their health and prevent emotional or physical complications. The emotional consequences of SCI must be recognized and addressed and specific behaviors enacted in order to optimize employment outcomes.

  3. Diagnosing ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... that a person diagnosed with ALS seek a second opinion from an ALS "expert" - someone who diagnoses and treats many ALS patients and has training in this medical specialty. The ALS Association maintains a list of recognized experts in the field of ALS. See ALS Association Certified Centers of ...

  4. Influence of the P2O5/Al2O3 co-doping on the local environment of erbium ions and on the 1.5 μm quantum efficiency of Er3+-borosilicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourhis, Kevin; Boetti, Nadia G.; Koponen, Joona; Milanese, Daniel; Petit, Laetica

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the absorption properties of Er3+-doped borosilicate glasses with various P2O5 and Al2O3 content are measured for different silica concentrations. The Judd-Ofelt parameters (Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6) have been calculated in order to investigate the local environment of the rare-earth cations. The compositional changes of Ω2 and Ω6 are attributed to changes in the bonding between Er3+ and surrounding ligand groups due to structural modifications occurring with the introduction of P2O5 and Al2O3. The luminescence quantum efficiency of the 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 transition slightly increases with the addition of P2O5 whereas it decreases with the progressive replacement of P2O5 by Al2O3. We noticed that it also increases when the silica content is higher.

  5. Charged-Current Neutral Pion production at SciBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Catala-Perez, J.; /Valencia U., IFIC

    2009-10-01

    SciBooNE, located in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab, collected data from June 2007 to August 2008 to accurately measure muon neutrino and anti-neutrino cross sections on carbon below 1 GeV neutrino energy. SciBooNE is studying charged current interactions. Among them, neutral pion production interactions will be the focus of this poster. The experimental signature of neutrino-induced neutral pion production is constituted by two electromagnetic cascades initiated by the conversion of the {pi}{sup 0} decay photons, with an additional muon in the final state for CC processes. In this poster, I will present how we reconstruct and select charged-current muon neutrino interactions producing {pi}{sup 0}'s in SciBooNE.

  6. Al-tobermorite in Pyroclastic Rock-Seawater Environments: 1963-1967 Surtsey Tephra and 2000-year-old Roman Baianus Sinus Harbor Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M. D.; Moore, J. G.; Wenk, H.; Monteiro, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Interaction of basaltic tephra from the 1963-1967 Surtsey eruptions in Iceland with 70-150 °C seawater produced authigenic zeolites and Al-tobermorite, a layered calcium-aluminum-silicate-hydrate mineral that holds promise as a cementitious binder for environmentally-friendly concretes and concrete encapsulations of hazardous wastes, but has never been recognized in conventional portland cement concretes. A Roman concrete breakwater, or pilae, constructed of lime and Campi Flegrei pyroclastic rock in the 14-26°C seawater of Pozzuoli Bay (Baianus Sinus) in first century BCE, however, developed Al-tobermorite in relict lime clasts, Neapolitan Yellow Tuff pumice fragments, and voids, forming about 5-10 volume% of the pozzolanic mortar. A thermal model of the 10m2 by 6m tall pilae indicates that exothermic hydration of portlandite and poorly-crystalline calcium-aluminum-silicate-hydrate (C-A-S-H) cementitious binder produced maximum adiabatic temperatures <85 °C, 28-90 days after installation. Relative to Surtsey Al-tobermorite, Baianus Sinus Al-tobermorite in relict lime clasts is enriched in aluminum and calcium, with Al/(Si+Al)=0.16-0.17 and Ca/(Si+Al)=0.83. This is likely the result of saturation with respect to portlandite at pH>12.7, and high Al3+mobility in a system infused with silicon, aluminum, sodium and potassium from the alkali-rich Flegrean ash, with sulfate and chloride from seawater acting as possible mineralizers. Synchrotron-radiation soft X-ray microscopy and NMR studies indicate that Baianus Sinus Al-tobermorite has a double-silicate-chain structure with aluminum substitution for silicon in tetrahedral chain and branching sites, and a large 11.44(3) Å interlayer spacing. The bulk modulus measured from high pressure synchroton X-ray diffraction experiments, 54.7±5.5 GPa, is ~20 GPa greater than modern C-A-S-H. Na2O and K2O at 0.3-1.2 weight% partially balance Al3+ substitution for Si4+ in both the Surtsey and Baianus Sinus crystals. Sulphate and

  7. Bringing the SciBar detector to the booster neutrino beam

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.A.; Alcaraz, J.; Andringa, S.; Brice, S.J.; Brown, B.C.; Bugel, L.; Catala, J.; Cervera, A.; Conrad, J.M.; Couce, E.; Dore, U.; Espinal, X.; Finley, D.A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Hayato, Y.; Hiraide, K.; Ishii, T.; Jover, G.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kurimoto, Y.; Kurosawa, Y.; /Columbia U. /Fermilab /KEK, Tsukuba /Barcelona, IFAE /Tokyo U., ICRR /Valencia U., IFIC /Kyoto U. /Los Alamos /Louisiana State U. /Stratton Mountain Sch. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Colorado U.

    2006-01-01

    This document presents the physics case for bringing SciBar, the fully active, finely segmented tracking detector at KEK, to the FNAL Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) line. This unique opportunity arose with the termination of K2K beam operations in 2005. At that time, the SciBar detector became available for use in other neutrino beam lines, including the BNB, which has been providing neutrinos to the MiniBooNE experiment since late 2002. The physics that can be done with SciBar/BNB can be put into three categories, each involving several measurements. First are neutrino cross section measurements which are interesting in their own right, including analyses of multi-particle final states, with unprecedented statistics. Second are measurements of processes that represent the signal and primary background channels for the upcoming T2K experiment. Third are measurements which improve existing or planned MiniBooNE analyses and the understanding of the BNB, both in neutrino and antineutrino mode. For each of these proposed measurements, the SciBar/BNB combination presents a unique opportunity or will significantly improve upon current or near-future experiments for several reasons. First, the fine granularity of SciBar allows detailed reconstruction of final states not possible with the MiniBooNE detector. Additionally, the BNB neutrino energy spectrum is a close match to the expected T2K energy spectrum in a region where cross sections are expected to vary dramatically with energy. As a result, the SciBar/BNB combination will provide cross-section measurements in an energy range complementary to MINERvA and complete the knowledge of neutrino cross sections over the entire energy range of interest to the upcoming off-axis experiments.

  8. Pediatric SCI/D caregiver mental health and family dynamics in Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Sarah T; Perrin, Paul B; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Olivera, Silvia Leonor; Quintero, Lorena Medina; Otálvaro, Nadezda Yulieth Méndez; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the connections between family dynamics and the mental health of caregivers of youth with spinal cord injuries/disorders (SCI/D) caregivers from Colombia, South America. It was hypothesized that lower family functioning would be associated with poorer caregiver mental health. A cross-sectional study of self-report data collected from caregivers through the Hospital Universatario Hernando Moncaleano Perdomo in Neiva, Colombia. Thirty caregivers of children with SCI/D from Nevia, Colombia who were a primary caregiver for ≥3 months, providing care for an individual who was ≥6 months post-injury/diagnosis, familiar with the patient's history, and without neurological or psychiatric conditions. Caregivers' average age was 41.30 years (SD = 10.98), and 90% were female. Caregivers completed Spanish versions of instruments assessing their own mental health and family dynamics. Family dynamics explained 43.2% of the variance in caregiver burden and 50.1% of the variance in satisfaction with life, although family dynamics were not significantly associated with caregiver depression in the overall analysis. Family satisfaction was the only family dynamics variable to yield a significant unique association with any index of caregiver mental health (satisfaction with life). If similar findings emerge in future intervention research, interventions for pediatric SCI/D caregivers in Colombia and other similar global regions could benefit from including techniques to improve family dynamics, especially family satisfaction, given the strong potentially reciprocal connection between these dynamics and caregiver mental health. The degree of disability resulting from SCI/D can vary greatly depending on the severity and level of the lesion, though permanent impairment is often present that profoundly impacts both physical and psychological functioning. Very little is known about the impact of pediatric SCI/D in developing countries, despite the high rates of

  9. Implementing Connected Component Labeling as a User Defined Operator for SciDB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oloso, Amidu; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Clune, Thomas; Brown, Paul; Poliakov, Alex; Yu, Hongfeng

    2016-01-01

    We have implemented a flexible User Defined Operator (UDO) for labeling connected components of a binary mask expressed as an array in SciDB, a parallel distributed database management system based on the array data model. This UDO is able to process very large multidimensional arrays by exploiting SciDB's memory management mechanism that efficiently manipulates arrays whose memory requirements far exceed available physical memory. The UDO takes as primary inputs a binary mask array and a binary stencil array that specifies the connectivity of a given cell to its neighbors. The UDO returns an array of the same shape as the input mask array with each foreground cell containing the label of the component it belongs to. By default, dimensions are treated as non-periodic, but the UDO also accepts optional input parameters to specify periodicity in any of the array dimensions. The UDO requires four stages to completely label connected components. In the first stage, labels are computed for each subarray or chunk of the mask array in parallel across SciDB instances using the weighted quick union (WQU) with half-path compression algorithm. In the second stage, labels around chunk boundaries from the first stage are stored in a temporary SciDB array that is then replicated across all SciDB instances. Equivalences are resolved by again applying the WQU algorithm to these boundary labels. In the third stage, relabeling is done for each chunk using the resolved equivalences. In the fourth stage, the resolved labels, which so far are "flattened" coordinates of the original binary mask array, are renamed with sequential integers for legibility. The UDO is demonstrated on a 3-D mask of O(1011) elements, with O(108) foreground cells and O(106) connected components. The operator completes in 19 minutes using 84 SciDB instances.

  10. Why is sodium cocoyl isethionate (SCI) mild to the skin barrier? - An in vitro investigation based on the relative sizes of the SCI micelles and the skin aqueous pores.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Saswata; Blankschtein, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Sodium cocoyl isethionate (SCI) is an important surfactant ingredient in mild, syndet (synthetic detergent) cleansing bars. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that SCI is mild and less damaging to the skin barrier than soaps and surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). We have recently shown that SDS forms small micelles in aqueous solutions contacting the skin relative to the aqueous pores in the stratum corneum (SC), and as a result, the SDS micelles can contribute to SDS skin penetration and induce skin barrier perturbation. In this paper, we attempt to explain the well-documented skin mildness of SCI by examining the size of the SCI micelles relative to that of the aqueous pores in the SC. For this purpose, we have conducted in vitro mannitol skin permeability and average skin electrical resistivity measurements upon exposure of the skin to an aqueous SCI contacting solution in the context of a hindered-transport aqueous porous pathway model of the SC. These in vitro studies demonstrate that an SCI micelle of radius 33.5 +/- 1 Angstrom (as determined using dynamic light-scattering measurements) experiences significant steric hindrance and cannot penetrate into the SC through aqueous pores that have an average radius of 29 +/- 5 Angstrom. We believe that this inability of the SCI micelles to contribute to SCI skin penetration and associated skin barrier perturbation is responsible for the observed skin mildness of SCI. Through in vitro quantitative skin radioactivity assays using (14)C-radiolabeled SCI and pig full-thickness skin (p-FTS), we also show conclusively that SCI skin penetration is dose-independent, an important finding that provides additional evidence that the larger SCI micelles cannot penetrate into the SC through the smaller aqueous pores that exist in the SC, and therefore, cannot induce skin barrier perturbation.

  11. The SCI Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES): development and psychometric properties

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Thilo; Kehn, Matthew; Ho, Pei-Shu; Groah, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    Background Rising prevalence of secondary conditions among persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) has focused recent attention to potential health promotion programs designed to reduce such adverse health conditions. A healthy lifestyle for people with SCI, including and specifically, the adoption of a vigorous exercise routine, has been shown to produce an array of health benefits, prompting many providers to recommend the implementation of such activity to those with SCI. Successfully adopting such an exercise regimen however, requires confidence in one's ability to engage in exercise or exercise self-efficacy. Exercise self-efficacy has not been assessed adequately for people with SCI due to a lack of validated and reliable scales, despite self efficacy's status as one of the most widely researched concepts and despite its broad application in health promotion studies. Exercise self efficacy supporting interventions for people with SCI are only meaningful if appropriate measurement tools exist. The objective of our study was to develop a psychometrically sound exercise self-efficacy self-report measure for people with SCI. Methods Based on literature reviews, expert comments and cognitive testing, 10 items were included and made up the 4-point Likert SCI Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES) in its current form. The ESES was administered as part of the first wave of a nationwide survey (n = 368) on exercise behavior and was also tested separately for validity in four groups of individuals with SCI. Reliability and validity testing was performed using SPSS 12.0. Results Cronbach's alpha was .9269 for the ESES. High internal consistency was confirmed in split-half (EQ Length Spearman Brown = .8836). Construct validity was determined using principal component factor analysis by correlating the aggregated ESES items with the Generalised Self Efficacy Scale (GSE). We found that all items loaded on one factor only and that there was a statistically significant

  12. Final Report for DOE Project: Portal Web Services: Support of DOE SciDAC Collaboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Mary Thomas, PI; Geoffrey Fox, Co-PI; Gannon, D; Pierce, M; Moore, R; Schissel, D; Boisseau, J

    2007-10-01

    Grid portals provide the scientific community with familiar and simplified interfaces to the Grid and Grid services, and it is important to deploy grid portals onto the SciDAC grids and collaboratories. The goal of this project is the research, development and deployment of interoperable portal and web services that can be used on SciDAC National Collaboratory grids. This project has four primary task areas: development of portal systems; management of data collections; DOE science application integration; and development of web and grid services in support of the above activities.

  13. Pressure Relief Behaviors and Weight Shifting Activities to Prevent Pressure Ulcers in Persons with SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0387 TITLE: Pressure Relief Behaviors and Weight-Shifting Activities to Prevent Pressure Ulcers in Persons with SCI...Annual Report 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pressure Relief Behaviors and Weight-Shifting Activities to Prevent... Pressure Ulcers in Persons with SCI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0387 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Stephen Sprigle, PhD

  14. CitSci.org: A New Model for Managing, Documenting, and Sharing Citizen Science Data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiwei; Kaplan, Nicole; Newman, Greg; Scarpino, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Citizen science projects have the potential to advance science by increasing the volume and variety of data, as well as innovation. Yet this potential has not been fully realized, in part because citizen science data are typically not widely shared and reused. To address this and related challenges, we built CitSci.org (see www.citsci.org), a customizable platform that allows users to collect and generate diverse datasets. We hope that CitSci.org will ultimately increase discoverability and confidence in citizen science observations, encouraging scientists to use such data in their own scientific research. PMID:26492521

  15. CitSci.org: A New Model for Managing, Documenting, and Sharing Citizen Science Data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiwei; Kaplan, Nicole; Newman, Greg; Scarpino, Russell

    2015-10-01

    Citizen science projects have the potential to advance science by increasing the volume and variety of data, as well as innovation. Yet this potential has not been fully realized, in part because citizen science data are typically not widely shared and reused. To address this and related challenges, we built CitSci.org (see www.citsci.org), a customizable platform that allows users to collect and generate diverse datasets. We hope that CitSci.org will ultimately increase discoverability and confidence in citizen science observations, encouraging scientists to use such data in their own scientific research.

  16. Comment on "Plasma fireball: A unique tool to fabricate patterned nanodots" [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88, 063507 (2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruenwald, J.

    2017-08-01

    The article of Chauhan et al. ["Plasma fireball: A unique tool to fabricate patterned nanodots," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 88(6), 063507 (2017)] describes the very interesting idea of utilising the plasma phenomenon of fireballs for the creation of patterned nanodots on a GaSb substrate. For this purpose, the authors obtained a large plasma fireball in a magnetised background plasma and used it to accelerate ions in the sheath, which surrounds such a fireball. Chauhan et al. were able to demonstrate the production of large ion fluxes that can be extracted from the fireball and that the properties of these fluxes define the geometric structure of the nanodots on the substrate surface. Hence, the nanodot pattern can be easily controlled by the discharge parameters of the plasma fireball. This is clearly a novel method of fireball-induced surface modification. However, plasma fireballs themselves have been known for about hundred years, although as a very particular plasma phenomenon. Therefore, this letter aims at providing some additional background information and references on this topic for the interested reader.

  17. Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Chronic SCI: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Treatment Impact on Cognition, Quality of Life, and Cardiovascular Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0479 TITLE: Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Chronic SCI: A...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Chronic SCI: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Treatment Impact on Cognition...SCI. In this prospective randomized controlled trial, we will objectively measure sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in chronic SCI patients using

  18. Scalable Earth-observation Analytics for Geoscientists: Spacetime Extensions to the Array Database SciDB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, Marius; Lahn, Florian; Pebesma, Edzer; Buytaert, Wouter; Moulds, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Today's amount of freely available data requires scientists to spend large parts of their work on data management. This is especially true in environmental sciences when working with large remote sensing datasets, such as obtained from earth-observation satellites like the Sentinel fleet. Many frameworks like SpatialHadoop or Apache Spark address the scalability but target programmers rather than data analysts, and are not dedicated to imagery or array data. In this work, we use the open-source data management and analytics system SciDB to bring large earth-observation datasets closer to analysts. Its underlying data representation as multidimensional arrays fits naturally to earth-observation datasets, distributes storage and computational load over multiple instances by multidimensional chunking, and also enables efficient time-series based analyses, which is usually difficult using file- or tile-based approaches. Existing interfaces to R and Python furthermore allow for scalable analytics with relatively little learning effort. However, interfacing SciDB and file-based earth-observation datasets that come as tiled temporal snapshots requires a lot of manual bookkeeping during ingestion, and SciDB natively only supports loading data from CSV-like and custom binary formatted files, which currently limits its practical use in earth-observation analytics. To make it easier to work with large multi-temporal datasets in SciDB, we developed software tools that enrich SciDB with earth observation metadata and allow working with commonly used file formats: (i) the SciDB extension library scidb4geo simplifies working with spatiotemporal arrays by adding relevant metadata to the database and (ii) the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL) driver implementation scidb4gdal allows to ingest and export remote sensing imagery from and to a large number of file formats. Using added metadata on temporal resolution and coverage, the GDAL driver supports time-based ingestion of

  19. System Configuration and Operation Plan of Hayabusa2 DCAM3-D Camera System for Scientific Observation During SCI Impact Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Kazunori; Shirai, Kei; Sawada, Hirotaka; Arakawa, Masahiko; Honda, Rie; Wada, Koji; Ishibashi, Ko; Iijima, Yu-ichi; Sakatani, Naoya; Nakazawa, Satoru; Hayakawa, Hajime

    2017-03-01

    An artificial impact experiment is scheduled for 2018-2019 in which an impactor will collide with asteroid 162137 Ryugu (1999 JU3) during the asteroid rendezvous phase of the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. The small carry-on impactor (SCI) will shoot a 2-kg projectile at 2 km/s to create a crater 1-10 m in diameter with an expected subsequent ejecta curtain of a 100-m scale on an ideal sandy surface. A miniaturized deployable camera (DCAM3) unit will separate from the spacecraft at about 1 km from impact, and simultaneously conduct optical observations of the experiment. We designed and developed a camera system (DCAM3-D) in the DCAM3, specialized for scientific observations of impact phenomenon, in order to clarify the subsurface structure, construct theories of impact applicable in a microgravity environment, and identify the impact point on the asteroid. The DCAM3-D system consists of a miniaturized camera with a wide-angle and high-focusing performance, high-speed radio communication devices, and control units with large data storage on both the DCAM3 unit and the spacecraft. These components were successfully developed under severe constraints of size, mass and power, and the whole DCAM3-D system has passed all tests verifying functions, performance, and environmental tolerance. Results indicated sufficient potential to conduct the scientific observations during the SCI impact experiment. An operation plan was carefully considered along with the configuration and a time schedule of the impact experiment, and pre-programed into the control unit before the launch. In this paper, we describe details of the system design concept, specifications, and the operating plan of the DCAM3-D system, focusing on the feasibility of scientific observations.

  20. System Configuration and Operation Plan of Hayabusa2 DCAM3-D Camera System for Scientific Observation During SCI Impact Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Kazunori; Shirai, Kei; Sawada, Hirotaka; Arakawa, Masahiko; Honda, Rie; Wada, Koji; Ishibashi, Ko; Iijima, Yu-ichi; Sakatani, Naoya; Nakazawa, Satoru; Hayakawa, Hajime

    2017-07-01

    An artificial impact experiment is scheduled for 2018-2019 in which an impactor will collide with asteroid 162137 Ryugu (1999 JU3) during the asteroid rendezvous phase of the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. The small carry-on impactor (SCI) will shoot a 2-kg projectile at 2 km/s to create a crater 1-10 m in diameter with an expected subsequent ejecta curtain of a 100-m scale on an ideal sandy surface. A miniaturized deployable camera (DCAM3) unit will separate from the spacecraft at about 1 km from impact, and simultaneously conduct optical observations of the experiment. We designed and developed a camera system (DCAM3-D) in the DCAM3, specialized for scientific observations of impact phenomenon, in order to clarify the subsurface structure, construct theories of impact applicable in a microgravity environment, and identify the impact point on the asteroid. The DCAM3-D system consists of a miniaturized camera with a wide-angle and high-focusing performance, high-speed radio communication devices, and control units with large data storage on both the DCAM3 unit and the spacecraft. These components were successfully developed under severe constraints of size, mass and power, and the whole DCAM3-D system has passed all tests verifying functions, performance, and environmental tolerance. Results indicated sufficient potential to conduct the scientific observations during the SCI impact experiment. An operation plan was carefully considered along with the configuration and a time schedule of the impact experiment, and pre-programed into the control unit before the launch. In this paper, we describe details of the system design concept, specifications, and the operating plan of the DCAM3-D system, focusing on the feasibility of scientific observations.

  1. [Analysis of the citation of the articles published in National Journal of Andrology by SCI periodicals from 2002 to 2008].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hai

    2009-03-01

    Science Citation Index (SCI) is one of the world's most important and influential information retrieval systems. Today Web of Science covers over 9000 international and regional journals and book series in every field of natural sciences, social sciences, and arts and humanities. More and more Chinese periodicals have been cited by SCI. This paper briefly introduces the SCI database and its selection process and analyzes the citation of the articles published in National Journal of Andrology (NJA) by SCI journals from 2002 to 2008, aiming to provide some information for the internationalization of NJA.

  2. ALS Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... toward a world without ALS! Walk to Defeat ALS® Walk to Defeat ALS® draws people of all ... We need your help. I Will Advocate National ALS Registry The National ALS Registry is a congressionally ...

  3. Calibration of the soil conditioning index (SCI) to soil organic carbon in the southeastern USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prediction of soil organic C sequestration with adoption of various conservation agricultural management approaches is needed to meet the emerging market for environmental services provided by agricultural land stewardship. The soil conditioning index (SCI) is a relatively simple model used by the ...

  4. A Structured Clinical Interview for Kleptomania (SCI-K): preliminary validity and reliability testing.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won; McCabe, James S

    2006-06-01

    Kleptomania presents difficulties in diagnosis for clinicians. This study aimed to develop and test a DSM-IV-based diagnostic instrument for kleptomania. To assess for current kleptomania the Structured Clinical Interview for Kleptomania (SCI-K) was administered to 112 consecutive subjects requesting psychiatric outpatient treatment for a variety of disorders. Reliability and validity were determined. Classification accuracy was examined using the longitudinal course of illness. The SCI-K demonstrated excellent test-retest (Phi coefficient = 0.956 (95% CI = 0.937, 0.970)) and inter-rater reliability (phi coefficient = 0.718 (95% CI = 0.506, 0.848)) in the diagnosis of kleptomania. Concurrent validity was observed with a self-report measure using DSM-IV kleptomania criteria (phi coefficient = 0.769 (95% CI = 0.653, 0.850)). Discriminant validity was observed with a measure of depression (point biserial coefficient = -0.020 (95% CI = -0.205, 0.166)). The SCI-K demonstrated both high sensitivity and specificity based on longitudinal assessment. The SCI-K demonstrated excellent reliability and validity in diagnosing kleptomania in subjects presenting with various psychiatric problems. These findings require replication in larger groups, including non-psychiatric populations, to examine their generalizability. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. What Makes Things Happen? Teacher's Guide. Unit B. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  6. What Makes Things Happen? Teacher's Guide. Unit B. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  7. Evaluating soil organic C sequestration in the Cotton Belt with the soil conditioning index (SCI)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Simulation models that are sensitive to management, edaphic factors, and climate could provide insightful probes of how land owners and producers might be able to sequester soil organic C and engage in emerging carbon markets. We used the soil conditioning index (SCI) embedded in the RUSLE2 model t...

  8. Performance Engineering Research Institute SciDAC-2 Enabling Technologies Institute Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert

    2013-04-20

    Enhancing the performance of SciDAC applications on petascale systems had high priority within DOE SC at the start of the second phase of the SciDAC program, SciDAC-2, as it continues to do so today. Achieving expected levels of performance on high-end computing (HEC) systems is growing ever more challenging due to enormous scale, increasing architectural complexity, and increasing application complexity. To address these challenges, the University of Southern California?s Information Sciences Institute organized the Performance Engineering Research Institute (PERI). PERI implemented a unified, tripartite research plan encompassing: (1) performance modeling and prediction; (2) automatic performance tuning; and (3) performance engineering of high profile applications. Within PERI, USC?s primary research activity was automatic tuning (autotuning) of scientific software. This activity was spurred by the strong user preference for automatic tools and was based on previous successful activities such as ATLAS, which automatically tuned components of the LAPACK linear algebra library, and other recent work on autotuning domain-specific libraries. Our other major component was application engagement, to which we devoted approximately 30% of our effort to work directly with SciDAC-2 applications. This report is a summary of the overall results of the USC PERI effort.

  9. Particles in Action. Teacher's Guide. Unit C2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  10. Cross section analyses in MiniBooNE and SciBooNE experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Katori, Teppei

    2015-05-15

    The MiniBooNE experiment (2002-2012) and the SciBooNE experiment (2007-2008) are modern high statistics neutrino experiments, and they developed many new ideas in neutrino cross section analyses. In this note, I discuss selected topics of these analyses.

  11. Psychosocial and Behavioral Factors Associated with Bowel and Bladder Management after SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0524 TITLE: Psychosocial and Behavioral Factors Associated with Bowel and Bladder Management after SCI. PRINCIPAL...29Nov2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Psychosocial and Behavioral Factors Associated with Bowel and Bladder 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Management after...ABSTRACT Risk factors to bladder and bowel complications suggested associations between neurological status and hemorrhoids and urinary tract

  12. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome with spinal cord involvement (PRES-SCI): A case report.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Harsh Vardhan; Choudhary, Pradeep; Saxena, Sangeeta; Arif, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome with spinal cord involvement (PRES-SCI) is a recently described entity with a handful of cases reported in literature. We describe a case of PRES in setting of Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) with involvement of brain stem and spinal cord.

  13. National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory SciDAC-2 Closeout Report Indiana University Component

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, Steven Arthur; DeTar, Carleton; Tousaint, Doug

    2014-07-24

    This is the closeout report for the Indiana University portion of the National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory project supported by the United States Department of Energy under the SciDAC program. It includes information about activities at Indian University, the University of Arizona, and the University of Utah, as those three universities coordinated their activities.

  14. Looking at Life. Teacher's Guide. Unit A2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  15. The ZIM-SCI Project. Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Progress Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dock, A. W.

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) was started in 1981 with the aim of developing a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. Project activities included developing student study guides, corresponding teaching…

  16. Particles in Action. Teacher's Guide. Unit C2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  17. Purification and biochemical characterisation of human and murine stem cell inhibitors (SCI).

    PubMed

    Graham, G J; Freshney, M G; Donaldson, D; Pragnell, I B

    1992-01-01

    We have recently characterised an inhibitor of haemopoietic stem cell proliferation (SCI/MIP-1 alpha) and report here on its purification and initial biological and biochemical characterisation. The activity can be detected by direct addition to the CFU-A stem cell assay and this simple test for inhibitory activity has greatly facilitated the purification of the molecule. The purification involves a combination of Mono Q ion exchange chromatography, heparin-sepharose affinity chromatography and Blue Sepharose affinity chromatography. The purified stem cell inhibitor is an 8 kD peptide which is identical to the previously described peptide macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha. The peptide has a natural tendency to form large self-aggregates and appears, in physiological buffers, to have a native molecular weight of around 90 kD. SCI is a heat stable, protease sensitive protein which is half maximally active at between 10 and 25 pM in the CFU-A assay. The self-aggregates can be disrupted by dilute solutions of acetic acid and it appears that disruption increases the specific activity of SCI preparations. We also report the characterisation of the human homologue of the stem cell inhibitor (human SCI/MIP-1 alpha) which is 74% identical to murine MIP-1 alpha and which shares all the above features of the murine inhibitor.

  18. A Program Design To Motivate Individuals with SCI for Self-Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scotzin, Martha

    The report compares a skin care education program with a standard rehabilitation program to determine whether the program improved the self care motivations of spinal cord injury (SCI) paraplegic and quadriplegic inpatients (N=42). Study findings suggest that the skin care educational program was successful in changing patients' thinking about…

  19. SciELO, Scientific Electronic Library Online, a Database of Open Access Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meneghini, Rogerio

    2013-01-01

    This essay discusses SciELO, a scientific journal database operating in 14 countries. It covers over 1000 journals providing open access to full text and table sets of scientometrics data. In Brazil it is responsible for a collection of nearly 300 journals, selected along 15 years as the best Brazilian periodicals in natural and social sciences.…

  20. SCI with Brain Injury: Bedside-to-Bench Modeling for Developing Treatment and Rehabilitation Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Modeling for Developing Treatment and Rehabilitation Strategies PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Michael S. Beattie, Ph.D...September 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SCI with Brain Injury: Bedside To Bench Modeling For Developing Treatment And Rehabilitation Strategies 5a...duration of all medications prescribed during admission for acute rehabilitation . More medications are used in the dual- diagnosis patients than for

  1. SciTech Clubs for Girls. [Final report], September 1, 1991--April 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Malamud, E.; Diaz, O.; Cox, J.

    1994-12-31

    The program of SciTech Clubs for Girls and its progress are described. This is a program that promotes the learning of science and mathematics by girls in the age range of 9 to 13 years through the process of building exhibits and learning from local professionals. A list of exhibits and a critique of the program are given.

  2. The SciELO Open Access: A Gold Way from the South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Abel L.

    2009-01-01

    Open access has long emphasized access to scholarly materials. However, open access can also mean access to the means of producing visible and recognized journals. This issue is particularly important in developing and emergent countries. The SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library On-line) project, first started in Brazil and, shortly afterward, in…

  3. SCY-078 Is Fungicidal against Candida Species in Time-Kill Studies

    PubMed Central

    Scorneaux, Bernard; Angulo, David; Borroto-Esoda, Katyna; Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Peel, Michael

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT SCY-078 is an orally bioavailable ß-1,3-glucan synthesis inhibitor (GSI) and the first-in-class of structurally novel triterpene antifungals in clinical development for treating candidemia and invasive candidiasis. In vitro susceptibilities by broth microdilution, antifungal carryover, and time-kill dynamics were determined for three reference (ATCC) strains (Candida albicans 90028, Candida parapsilosis 90018, and Candida tropicalis 750), a quality-control (QC) strain (Candida krusei 6258), and four other strains (C. albicans MYA-2732, 64124, and 76485 and Candida glabrata 90030). Caspofungin (CASP), fluconazole (FLC), and voriconazole (VRC) were comparators. For time-kill experiments, SCY-078 and CASP were evaluated at 0.25, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 times the MIC80, and FLU and VRC were evaluated at 4× MIC80. The time to reach 50%, 90%, and 99.9% reduction in the number of CFUs from the starting inoculum was determined. Net change in the number of CFU per milliliter was used to determine 50% and 90% effective concentrations and maximum effect (EC50, EC90, and Emax, respectively). The SCY-078 MIC range was between 0.0625 and 1 μg/ml and generally similar to that of CASP. Antifungal carryover was not observed for SCY-078. SCY-078 was fungicidal against seven isolates at ≥4× MIC (kill of ≥3 log10) and achieved a 1.7-log10 reduction in CFU count/milliliter against C. albicans 90028. CASP behaved similarly against each isolate and achieved a 1.5-log10 reduction in the number of CFU/milliliter against C. albicans 90028. Reductions of 50% in CFU count/milliliter were achieved rapidly (1 to 2.8 h); fungicidal endpoints were reached at 12.1 to 21.8 h at ≥4× MIC. EC90 was reached at ∼5× MIC at each time point to 24 h. The EC50 and EC90 values were generally similar (8 to 24 h). Time-kill behavior of CASP was similar to that of SCY-078. FLC and VRC were fungistatic. Overall, SCY-078 has primarily fungicidal activity against Candida spp. and behaved

  4. SCY-078 Is Fungicidal against Candida Species in Time-Kill Studies.

    PubMed

    Scorneaux, Bernard; Angulo, David; Borroto-Esoda, Katyna; Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Peel, Michael; Wring, Stephen

    2017-03-01

    SCY-078 is an orally bioavailable ß-1,3-glucan synthesis inhibitor (GSI) and the first-in-class of structurally novel triterpene antifungals in clinical development for treating candidemia and invasive candidiasis. In vitro susceptibilities by broth microdilution, antifungal carryover, and time-kill dynamics were determined for three reference (ATCC) strains (Candida albicans 90028, Candida parapsilosis 90018, and Candida tropicalis 750), a quality-control (QC) strain (Candida krusei 6258), and four other strains (C. albicans MYA-2732, 64124, and 76485 and Candida glabrata 90030). Caspofungin (CASP), fluconazole (FLC), and voriconazole (VRC) were comparators. For time-kill experiments, SCY-078 and CASP were evaluated at 0.25, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 times the MIC80, and FLU and VRC were evaluated at 4× MIC80 The time to reach 50%, 90%, and 99.9% reduction in the number of CFUs from the starting inoculum was determined. Net change in the number of CFU per milliliter was used to determine 50% and 90% effective concentrations and maximum effect (EC50, EC90, and Emax, respectively). The SCY-078 MIC range was between 0.0625 and 1 μg/ml and generally similar to that of CASP. Antifungal carryover was not observed for SCY-078. SCY-078 was fungicidal against seven isolates at ≥4× MIC (kill of ≥3 log10) and achieved a 1.7-log10 reduction in CFU count/milliliter against C. albicans 90028. CASP behaved similarly against each isolate and achieved a 1.5-log10 reduction in the number of CFU/milliliter against C. albicans 90028. Reductions of 50% in CFU count/milliliter were achieved rapidly (1 to 2.8 h); fungicidal endpoints were reached at 12.1 to 21.8 h at ≥4× MIC. EC90 was reached at ∼5× MIC at each time point to 24 h. The EC50 and EC90 values were generally similar (8 to 24 h). Time-kill behavior of CASP was similar to that of SCY-078. FLC and VRC were fungistatic. Overall, SCY-078 has primarily fungicidal activity against Candida spp. and behaved comparably to CASP.

  5. SciSpark's SRDD : A Scientific Resilient Distributed Dataset for Multidimensional Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palamuttam, R. S.; Wilson, B. D.; Mogrovejo, R. M.; Whitehall, K. D.; Mattmann, C. A.; McGibbney, L. J.; Ramirez, P.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing data and climate model output are multi-dimensional arrays of massive sizes locked away in heterogeneous file formats (HDF5/4, NetCDF 3/4) and metadata models (HDF-EOS, CF) making it difficult to perform multi-stage, iterative science processing since each stage requires writing and reading data to and from disk. We have developed SciSpark, a robust Big Data framework, that extends ApacheTM Spark for scaling scientific computations. Apache Spark improves the map-reduce implementation in ApacheTM Hadoop for parallel computing on a cluster, by emphasizing in-memory computation, "spilling" to disk only as needed, and relying on lazy evaluation. Central to Spark is the Resilient Distributed Dataset (RDD), an in-memory distributed data structure that extends the functional paradigm provided by the Scala programming language. However, RDDs are ideal for tabular or unstructured data, and not for highly dimensional data. The SciSpark project introduces the Scientific Resilient Distributed Dataset (sRDD), a distributed-computing array structure which supports iterative scientific algorithms for multidimensional data. SciSpark processes data stored in NetCDF and HDF files by partitioning them across time or space and distributing the partitions among a cluster of compute nodes. We show usability and extensibility of SciSpark by implementing distributed algorithms for geospatial operations on large collections of multi-dimensional grids. In particular we address the problem of scaling an automated method for finding Mesoscale Convective Complexes. SciSpark provides a tensor interface to support the pluggability of different matrix libraries. We evaluate performance of the various matrix libraries in distributed pipelines, such as Nd4jTM and BreezeTM. We detail the architecture and design of SciSpark, our efforts to integrate climate science algorithms, parallel ingest and partitioning (sharding) of A-Train satellite observations from model grids. These

  6. Looking into Pandora's Box: The Content of Sci-Hub and its Usage.

    PubMed

    Greshake, Bastian

    2017-01-01

    Despite the growth of Open Access, potentially illegally circumventing paywalls to access scholarly publications is becoming a more mainstream phenomenon. The web service Sci-Hub is amongst the biggest facilitators of this, offering free access to around 62 million publications. So far it is not well studied how and why its users are accessing publications through Sci-Hub. By utilizing the recently released corpus of Sci-Hub and comparing it to the data of  ~28 million downloads done through the service, this study tries to address some of these questions. The comparative analysis shows that both the usage and complete corpus is largely made up of recently published articles, with users disproportionately favoring newer articles and 35% of downloaded articles being published after 2013. These results hint that embargo periods before publications become Open Access are frequently circumnavigated using Guerilla Open Access approaches like Sci-Hub. On a journal level, the downloads show a bias towards some scholarly disciplines, especially Chemistry, suggesting increased barriers to access for these. Comparing the use and corpus on a publisher level, it becomes clear that only 11% of publishers are highly requested in comparison to the baseline frequency, while 45% of all publishers are significantly less accessed than expected. Despite this, the oligopoly of publishers is even more remarkable on the level of content consumption, with 80% of all downloads being published through only 9 publishers. All of this suggests that Sci-Hub is used by different populations and for a number of different reasons, and that there is still a lack of access to the published scientific record. A further analysis of these openly available data resources will undoubtedly be valuable for the investigation of academic publishing.

  7. Science Classroom Inquiry (SCI) Simulations: A Novel Method to Scaffold Science Learning

    PubMed Central

    Peffer, Melanie E.; Beckler, Matthew L.; Schunn, Christian; Renken, Maggie; Revak, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Science education is progressively more focused on employing inquiry-based learning methods in the classroom and increasing scientific literacy among students. However, due to time and resource constraints, many classroom science activities and laboratory experiments focus on simple inquiry, with a step-by-step approach to reach predetermined outcomes. The science classroom inquiry (SCI) simulations were designed to give students real life, authentic science experiences within the confines of a typical classroom. The SCI simulations allow students to engage with a science problem in a meaningful, inquiry-based manner. Three discrete SCI simulations were created as website applications for use with middle school and high school students. For each simulation, students were tasked with solving a scientific problem through investigation and hypothesis testing. After completion of the simulation, 67% of students reported a change in how they perceived authentic science practices, specifically related to the complex and dynamic nature of scientific research and how scientists approach problems. Moreover, 80% of the students who did not report a change in how they viewed the practice of science indicated that the simulation confirmed or strengthened their prior understanding. Additionally, we found a statistically significant positive correlation between students’ self-reported changes in understanding of authentic science practices and the degree to which each simulation benefitted learning. Since SCI simulations were effective in promoting both student learning and student understanding of authentic science practices with both middle and high school students, we propose that SCI simulations are a valuable and versatile technology that can be used to educate and inspire a wide range of science students on the real-world complexities inherent in scientific study. PMID:25786245

  8. Science classroom inquiry (SCI) simulations: a novel method to scaffold science learning.

    PubMed

    Peffer, Melanie E; Beckler, Matthew L; Schunn, Christian; Renken, Maggie; Revak, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Science education is progressively more focused on employing inquiry-based learning methods in the classroom and increasing scientific literacy among students. However, due to time and resource constraints, many classroom science activities and laboratory experiments focus on simple inquiry, with a step-by-step approach to reach predetermined outcomes. The science classroom inquiry (SCI) simulations were designed to give students real life, authentic science experiences within the confines of a typical classroom. The SCI simulations allow students to engage with a science problem in a meaningful, inquiry-based manner. Three discrete SCI simulations were created as website applications for use with middle school and high school students. For each simulation, students were tasked with solving a scientific problem through investigation and hypothesis testing. After completion of the simulation, 67% of students reported a change in how they perceived authentic science practices, specifically related to the complex and dynamic nature of scientific research and how scientists approach problems. Moreover, 80% of the students who did not report a change in how they viewed the practice of science indicated that the simulation confirmed or strengthened their prior understanding. Additionally, we found a statistically significant positive correlation between students' self-reported changes in understanding of authentic science practices and the degree to which each simulation benefitted learning. Since SCI simulations were effective in promoting both student learning and student understanding of authentic science practices with both middle and high school students, we propose that SCI simulations are a valuable and versatile technology that can be used to educate and inspire a wide range of science students on the real-world complexities inherent in scientific study.

  9. Understanding Quality of Life in Adults with Spinal Cord Injury Via SCI-Related Needs and Secondary Complications

    PubMed Central

    Noreau, Luc; Leblond, Jean; Dumont, Frédéric S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Understanding the factors that can predict greater quality of life (QoL) is important for adults with spinal cord injury (SCI), given that they report lower levels of QoL than the general population. Objectives: To build a conceptual model linking SCI-related needs, secondary complications, and QoL in adults with SCI. Prior to testing the conceptual model, we aimed to develop and evaluate the factor structure for both SCI-related needs and secondary complications. Methods: Individuals with a traumatic SCI (N = 1,137) responded to an online survey measuring 13 SCI-related needs, 13 secondary complications, and the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire to assess QoL. The SCI-related needs and secondary complications were conceptualized into factors, tested with a confirmatory factor analysis, and subsequently evaluated in a structural equation model to predict QoL. Results: The confirmatory factor analysis supported a 2-factor model for SCI related needs, χ2(61, N = 1,137) = 250.40, P <.001, comparative fit index (CFI) = .93, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .05, standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = .04, and for 11 of the 13 secondary complications, χ2(44, N = 1,137) = 305.67, P < .001, CFI = .91, RMSEA = .060, SRMR = .033. The final 2 secondary complications were kept as observed constructs. In the structural model, both vital and personal development unmet SCI-related needs (β = -.22 and -.20, P < .05, respectively) and the neuro-physiological systems factor (β = -.45, P < .05) were negatively related with QoL. Conclusions: Identifying unmet SCI-related needs of individuals with SCI and preventing or managing secondary complications are essential to their QoL. PMID:25477745

  10. Sacrificial anode stability and polarization potential variation in a ternary Al-xZn-xMg alloy in a seawater-marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muazu, Abubakar; Aliyu, Yaro Shehu; Abdulwahab, Malik; Idowu Popoola, Abimbola Patricia

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the effects of zinc (Zn) and magnesium (Mg) addition on the performance of an aluminum-based sacrificial anode in seawater were investigated using a potential measurement method. Anodic efficiency, protection efficiency, and polarized potential were the parameters used. The percentages of Zn and Mg in the anodes were varied from 2% to 8% Zn and 1% to 4% Mg. The alloys produced were tested as sacrificial anodes for the protection of mild steel in seawater at room temperature. Current efficiency as high as 88.36% was obtained in alloys containing 6% Zn and 1% Mg. The polarized potentials obtained for the coupled (steel/Al-based alloys) are as given in the Pourbaix diagrams, with steel lying within the immunity region/cathodic region and the sacrificial anodes within the anodic region. The protection offered by the sacrificial anodes to the steel after the 7th and 8th week was measured and protection efficiency values as high as 99.66% and 99.47% were achieved for the Al-6%Zn-1%Mg cast anode. The microstructures of the cast anodes comprise of intermetallic structures of hexagonal Mg3Zn2 and body-centered cubic Al2Mg3Zn3. These are probably responsible for the breakdown of the passive alumina film, thus enhancing the anode efficiency.

  11. Interaction of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with the membrane-binding domains following spinal cord injury (SCI): introduction of a mechanism for SCI repair.

    PubMed

    Rad, Iman; Khodayari, Kaveh; Hadi Alijanvand, Saeid; Mobasheri, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Lipid-binding domains regulate positioning of the membrane proteins via specific interactions with phospholipid's head groups. Spinal cord injury (SCI) diminishes the integrity of neural fiber membranes at nanoscopic level. In cases that the ruptured zone size is beyond the natural resealing ability, there is a need for reinforcing factors such as polymers (e.g. Polyethylene glycol) to patch the dismantled axoplasm. Certain conserved sequential and structural patterns of interacting residues specifically bind to PEGs. It is also found that PEG600, PEG400 and PEG200 share the strongest interaction with the lipid-binding domains even more successful than phospholipid head groups. The alpha helix structure composed of hydrophobic, neutral and acidic residues prepares an opportunity for PEG400 to play an amphipathic role in the interaction with injured membrane. This in-silico study introduces a mechanism for PEG restorative ability at the molecular level. It is believed that PEG400 interrelates the injured membrane to their underneath axoplasm while retaining the integrity of ruptured membrane via interaction with ENTH domains of membrane proteins. This privilege of PEG400 in treating injured membrane must be considered in designing of polymeric biomaterials that are introduced for SCI repair.

  12. Energy for Living. Study Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide includes activities and…

  13. Living Things and Their Food. Study Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  14. Understanding Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  15. Learning to be a Scientist. Study Guide. Unit A1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide introduces students to…

  16. Atoms and Molecules. Study Guide. Unit 2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandizha, George

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit…

  17. Sense from Senses. Study Guide. Unit J. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simango, Sam

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  18. Ranking Business and Economics Journals in South America Using the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jennifer K.; Pradenas, Lorena; Parada, Victor; Scherer, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Access to published research for knowledge creation and education in the administrative science disciplines in South America has been enhanced since the introduction of the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). Although SciELO has been available as an online journal indexing and publication service since 1998, there have been no…

  19. Forces in Living Things. Study Guide. Unit H2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty; Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  20. Life, Beginning and Growing. Study Guide. Unit E1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a three-part unit…

  1. Reproducing by Flowers and Seeds. Study Guide. Unit E2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and environmental laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide consists of…

  2. 32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization: For someone who is not the... Guidelines for Temporary Access § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI...

  3. 32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization: For someone who is not the... Guidelines for Temporary Access § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI...

  4. 32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization: For someone who is not the... Guidelines for Temporary Access § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI...

  5. 32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization: For someone who is not the... Guidelines for Temporary Access § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI...

  6. 32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization: For someone who is not the... Guidelines for Temporary Access § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI...

  7. Living Things and Their Food. Study Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  8. Reproducing by Flowers and Seeds. Study Guide. Unit E2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and environmental laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide consists of…

  9. Forces in Living Things. Study Guide. Unit H2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty; Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  10. Using Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  11. Our Planet Earth. Teacher's Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities,…

  12. Ranking Business and Economics Journals in South America Using the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jennifer K.; Pradenas, Lorena; Parada, Victor; Scherer, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Access to published research for knowledge creation and education in the administrative science disciplines in South America has been enhanced since the introduction of the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). Although SciELO has been available as an online journal indexing and publication service since 1998, there have been no…

  13. Learning to be a Scientist. Study Guide. Unit A1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide introduces students to…

  14. Our Planet Earth. Teacher's Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities,…

  15. Atoms and Molecules. Study Guide. Unit 2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandizha, George

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit…

  16. Sense from Senses. Study Guide. Unit J. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simango, Sam

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  17. What Do You Know about Water? Study Guide. Unit D. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a three-part unit…

  18. Using Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  19. Energy for Living. Study Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide includes activities and…

  20. The Chemicals of the Earth. Study Guide. Unit F2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  1. Understanding Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  2. Forces in Action. Study Guide. Unit H1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  3. Forces in Action. Study Guide. Unit H1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  4. Life, Beginning and Growing. Study Guide. Unit E1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a three-part unit…

  5. SciSpark: In-Memory Map-Reduce for Earth Science Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, P.; Wilson, B. D.; Whitehall, K. D.; Palamuttam, R. S.; Mattmann, C. A.; Shah, S.; Goodman, A.; Burke, W.

    2016-12-01

    We are developing a lightning fast Big Data technology called SciSpark based on ApacheTM Spark under a NASA AIST grant (PI Mattmann). Spark implements the map-reduce paradigm for parallel computing on a cluster, but emphasizes in-memory computation, "spilling" to disk only as needed, and so outperforms the disk-based Apache Hadoop by 100x in memory and by 10x on disk. SciSpark extends Spark to support Earth Science use in three ways: Efficient ingest of N-dimensional geo-located arrays (physical variables) from netCDF3/4, HDF4/5, and/or OPeNDAP URLS; Array operations for dense arrays in scala and Java using the ND4S/ND4J or Breeze libraries; Operations to "split" datasets across a Spark cluster by time or space or both. For example, a decade-long time-series of geo-variables can be split across time to enable parallel "speedups" of analysis by day, month, or season. Similarly, very high-resolution climate grids can be partitioned into spatial tiles for parallel operations across rows, columns, or blocks. In addition, using Spark's gateway into python, PySpark, one can utilize the entire ecosystem of numpy, scipy, etc. Finally, SciSpark Notebooks provide a modern eNotebook technology in which scala, python, or spark-sql codes are entered into cells in the Notebook and executed on the cluster, with results, plots, or graph visualizations displayed in "live widgets". We have exercised SciSpark by implementing three complex Use Cases: discovery and evolution of Mesoscale Convective Complexes (MCCs) in storms, yielding a graph of connected components; PDF Clustering of atmospheric state using parallel K-Means; and statistical "rollups" of geo-variables or model-to-obs. differences (i.e. mean, stddev, skewness, & kurtosis) by day, month, season, year, and multi-year. Geo-variables are ingested and split across the cluster using methods on the sciSparkContext object including netCDFVariables() for spatial decomposition and wholeNetCDFVariables() for time-series. The

  6. GeoSciGraph: An Ontological Framework for EarthCube Semantic Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, A.; Schachne, A.; Condit, C.; Valentine, D.; Richard, S.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2015-12-01

    The CINERGI (Community Inventory of EarthCube Resources for Geosciences Interoperability) project compiles an inventory of a wide variety of earth science resources including documents, catalogs, vocabularies, data models, data services, process models, information repositories, domain-specific ontologies etc. developed by research groups and data practitioners. We have developed a multidisciplinary semantic framework called GeoSciGraph semantic ingration of earth science resources. An integrated ontology is constructed with Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) as its upper ontology and currently ingests multiple component ontologies including the SWEET ontology, GeoSciML's lithology ontology, Tematres controlled vocabulary server, GeoNames, GCMD vocabularies on equipment, platforms and institutions, software ontology, CUAHSI hydrology vocabulary, the environmental ontology (ENVO) and several more. These ontologies are connected through bridging axioms; GeoSciGraph identifies lexically close terms and creates equivalence class or subclass relationships between them after human verification. GeoSciGraph allows a community to create community-specific customizations of the integrated ontology. GeoSciGraph uses the Neo4J,a graph database that can hold several billion concepts and relationships. GeoSciGraph provides a number of REST services that can be called by other software modules like the CINERGI information augmentation pipeline. 1) Vocabulary services are used to find exact and approximate terms, term categories (community-provided clusters of terms e.g., measurement-related terms or environmental material related terms), synonyms, term definitions and annotations. 2) Lexical services are used for text parsing to find entities, which can then be included into the ontology by a domain expert. 3) Graph services provide the ability to perform traversal centric operations e.g., finding paths and neighborhoods which can be used to perform ontological operations like

  7. Assessing the in vitro toxicity of the lunar dust environment using respiratory cells exposed to Al(2)O(3) or SiO(2) fine dust particles.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Jacqueline A; Verhoff, Ashley M; Morgan, Julie E; Fischer, David G

    2009-12-01

    Prior chemical and physical analysis of lunar soil suggests a composition of dust particles that may contribute to the development of acute and chronic respiratory disorders. In this study, fine Al(2)O(3) (0.7 μm) and fine SiO(2) (mean 1.6 μm) were used to assess the cellular uptake and cellular toxicity of lunar dust particle analogs. Respiratory cells, murine alveolar macrophages (RAW 264.7) and human type II epithelial (A549), were cultured as the in vitro model system. The phagocytic activity of both cell types using ultrafine (0.1 μm) and fine (0.5 μm) fluorescent polystyrene beads was determined. Following a 6-h exposure, RAW 264.7 cells had extended pseudopods with beads localized in the cytoplasmic region of cells. After 24 h, the macrophage cells were rounded and clumped and lacked pseudopods, which suggest impairment of phagocytosis. A549 cells did not contain beads, and after 24 h, the majority of the beads appeared to primarily coat the surface of the cells. Next, we investigated the cellular response to fine SiO(2) and Al(2)O(3) (up to 5 mg/ml). RAW 264.7 cells exposed to 1.0 mg/ml of fine SiO(2) for 6 h demonstrated pseudopods, cellular damage, apoptosis, and necrosis. A549 cells showed slight toxicity when exposed to fine SiO(2) for the same time and dose. A549 cells had particles clustered on the surface of the cells. Only a higher dose (5.0 mg/ml) of fine SiO(2) resulted in a significant cytotoxicity to A549 cells. Most importantly, both cell types showed minimal cytotoxicity following exposure to fine Al(2)O(3). Overall, this study suggests differential cellular toxicity associated with exposure to fine mineral dust particles.

  8. Increasing specialty care access through use of an innovative home telehealth-based spinal cord injury disease management protocol (SCI DMP).

    PubMed

    Woo, Christine; Seton, Jacinta M; Washington, Monique; Tomlinson, Suk C; Phrasavath, Douangmala; Farrell, Karen R; Goldstein, Barry

    2016-01-01

    A spinal cord injury disease management protocol (SCI DMP) was developed to address the unique medical, physical, functional, and psychosocial needs of those living with spinal cord injuries and disorders (SCI/D). The SCI DMP was piloted to evaluate DMP clinical content and to identify issues for broader implementation across the Veterans Affairs (VA) SCI System of Care. Thirty-three patients with SCI/D from four VA SCI centers participated in a 6-month pilot. Patients received customized SCI DMP questions through a data messaging device (DMD). Nurse home telehealth care coordinators (HTCC) monitored responses and addressed clinical alerts daily. One site administered the Duke Severity of Illness (DUSOI) Checklist and Short Form-8 (SF-8™) to evaluate the changes in comorbidity severity and health-related quality of life while on the SCI DMP. Patients remained enrolled an average of 116 days, with a mean response rate of 56%. The average distance between patient's home and their VA SCI center was 59 miles. Feedback on SCI DMP content and the DMD included requests for additional clinical topics, changes in administration frequency, and adapting the DMD for functional impairments. Improvement in clinical outcomes was seen in a subset of patients enrolled on the SCI DMP. SCI HTCCs and patients reported that the program was most beneficial for newly injured patients recently discharged from acute rehabilitation that live far from specialty SCI care facilities. SCI DMP content changes and broader implementation strategies are currently being evaluated based on lessons learned from the pilot.

  9. Natural Killer (NK) Cell Functionality after human Spinal Cord Injury (SCI): protocol of a prospective, longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Laginha, Inês; Kopp, Marcel A; Druschel, Claudia; Schaser, Klaus-Dieter; Brommer, Benedikt; Hellmann, Rick C; Watzlawick, Ralf; Ossami-Saidi, Ramin-Raul; Prüss, Harald; Failli, Vieri; Meisel, Christian; Liebscher, Thomas; Prilipp, Erik; Niedeggen, Andreas; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Grittner, Ulrike; Piper, Sophie K; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Killig, Monica; Romagnani, Chiara; Schwab, Jan M

    2016-09-13

    Natural killer (NK) cells comprise the main components of lymphocyte-mediated nonspecific immunity. Through their effector function they play a crucial role combating bacterial and viral challenges. They are also thought to be key contributors to the systemic spinal cord injury-induced immune-deficiency syndrome (SCI-IDS). SCI-IDS increases susceptibility to infection and extends to the post-acute and chronic phases after SCI. The prospective study of NK cell function after traumatic SCI was carried out in two centers in Berlin, Germany. SCI patients and control patients with neurologically silent vertebral fracture also undergoing surgical stabilization were enrolled. Furthermore healthy controls were included to provide reference data. The NK cell function was assessed at 7 (5-9) days, 14 days (11-28) days, and 10 (8-12) weeks post-trauma. Clinical documentation included the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment scale (AIS), neurological level of injury, infection status, concomitant injury, and medications. The primary endpoint of the study is CD107a expression by NK cells (cytotoxicity marker) 8-12 weeks following SCI. Secondary endpoints are the NK cell's TNF-α and IFN-γ production by the NK cells 8-12 weeks following SCI. The protocol of this study was developed to investigate the hypotheses whether i) SCI impairs NK cell function throughout the post-acute and sub-acute phases after SCI and ii) the degree of impairment relates to lesion height and severity. A deeper understanding of the SCI-IDS is crucial to enable strategies for prevention of infections, which are associated with poor neurological outcome and elevated mortality. DRKS00009855 .

  10. The spectacular evolution of Supernova 1996al over 15 years: a low energy explosion of a stripped massive star in a highly structured environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetti, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    The final fate of massive stars is not well explored and depending on the stellar mass may have very much different outputs, ranging from very energetic explosions (e.g. GRB-SNe) to direct collapse on black-holes with very weak or not explosion at all (Heger, Woosley, & Baraffe, 2005). Here I present the case of SN 1996al. I describe the physical properties of this luminous supernova in the framework of a very weak explosion (kinetic energy of 1.6 x 10^(50 erg)), where the bolometric luminosity is sustained by the conversion of the kinetic energy into radiation thanks to the interaction between a low mass ( 1.15 M_{⊙}) , 87% of which is Helium, the remaining is Hydrogen) symmetric ejecta with an highly asymmetric circumstellar material. The detection of Hα emission in pre-explosion archive images suggests that the progenitor of SN 1996al was most likely a massive star ( 25 M_{⊙}) ZAMS) that had lost a large fraction of its hydrogen envelope before explosion, and was hence embedded in a H-rich cocoon. The low-mass ejecta and modest kinetic energy of the explosion are then explained with massive fallback of material into the compact remnant, a 7 - 8 M_{⊙}) black hole. Finally, I will try to place this particularly interesting SN in the framework of the SNIIn zoo.

  11. Mitigation of Corrosion in 5 Series Al-Mg Alloys in Marine Environments: Grain Boundary Engineering and Cold Spray Coating Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-26

    Potentiodynamic testing of coatings in synthetic sea -water 52 8.3 Metallographic analysis of AA5083 54 8.4 Salt-spray testing of cold spray coatings 59 9...the p-phase occurs at the grain boundaries during prolonged exposures. In a sea -water environment the p-phase anodically dissolves due to galvanic...testing. Corrosion testing of the optimized coatings included a one-sided NAMLT procedure and potentiodynamic corrosion tests in synthetic sea

  12. Assembling Large, Multi-Sensor Climate Datasets Using the SciFlo Grid Workflow System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Xing, Z.; Fetzer, E.

    2008-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is the world's most ambitious facility for studying global climate change. The mandate now is to combine measurements from the instruments on the A-Train platforms (AIRS, AMSR-E, MODIS, MISR, MLS, and CloudSat) and other Earth probes to enable large-scale studies of climate change over periods of years to decades. However, moving from predominantly single-instrument studies to a multi-sensor, measurement-based model for long-duration analysis of important climate variables presents serious challenges for large-scale data mining and data fusion. For example, one might want to compare temperature and water vapor retrievals from one instrument (AIRS) to another instrument (MODIS), and to a model (ECMWF), stratify the comparisons using a classification of the cloud scenes from CloudSat, and repeat the entire analysis over years of AIRS data. To perform such an analysis, one must discover & access multiple datasets from remote sites, find the space/time matchups between instruments swaths and model grids, understand the quality flags and uncertainties for retrieved physical variables, and assemble merged datasets for further scientific and statistical analysis. To meet these large-scale challenges, we are utilizing a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data query, access, subsetting, co-registration, mining, fusion, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo is a semantically-enabled ("smart") Grid Workflow system that ties together a peer-to-peer network of computers into an efficient engine for distributed computation. The SciFlo workflow engine enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling remotely-invokable Web Services (SOAP or http GET URLs), native executables, command-line scripts, and Python codes into a distributed computing flow. A scientist visually authors the graph of operation in the VizFlow GUI, or uses a

  13. Assembling Large, Multi-Sensor Climate Datasets Using the SciFlo Grid Workflow System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B.; Manipon, G.; Xing, Z.; Fetzer, E.

    2009-04-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is an ambitious facility for studying global climate change. The mandate now is to combine measurements from the instruments on the "A-Train" platforms (AIRS, AMSR-E, MODIS, MISR, MLS, and CloudSat) and other Earth probes to enable large-scale studies of climate change over periods of years to decades. However, moving from predominantly single-instrument studies to a multi-sensor, measurement-based model for long-duration analysis of important climate variables presents serious challenges for large-scale data mining and data fusion. For example, one might want to compare temperature and water vapor retrievals from one instrument (AIRS) to another instrument (MODIS), and to a model (ECMWF), stratify the comparisons using a classification of the "cloud scenes" from CloudSat, and repeat the entire analysis over years of AIRS data. To perform such an analysis, one must discover & access multiple datasets from remote sites, find the space/time "matchups" between instruments swaths and model grids, understand the quality flags and uncertainties for retrieved physical variables, assemble merged datasets, and compute fused products for further scientific and statistical analysis. To meet these large-scale challenges, we are utilizing a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data query, access, subsetting, co-registration, mining, fusion, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo is a semantically-enabled ("smart") Grid Workflow system that ties together a peer-to-peer network of computers into an efficient engine for distributed computation. The SciFlo workflow engine enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling remotely-invokable Web Services (SOAP or http GET URLs), native executables, command-line scripts, and Python codes into a distributed computing flow. A scientist visually authors the graph of operation in the Viz

  14. SCiP at 35: an idiosyncratic history of the society for computers in psychology.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Christopher R

    2006-05-01

    SCiP history may be divided into three eras: the Paleozoic (1971-1982), the Mesozoic (1982-1994), and the Cenozoic (1994-present). Following a list of Secretary-Treasurers, a list of all SCiP Presidents is provided in Table 1. Next I present personal highlights, including the first symposium on psychology and the World-Wide Web; David Rumelhart's mathematical explanation of connectionism; and Stevan Hamad's discussion of "freeing" the journal literature. I observe that a small conference is becoming more intimate and that much of our mission involves figuring out how to conduct high-quality scientific research with consumer-grade electronics. I argue that we are an increasingly international organization, that graduate students are welcome, and that we should become more inclusive in the areas of gender and ethnicity and should make membership more meaningful I conclude by looking ahead and attempting to predict the future.

  15. Simulations with SCI as a data carrier in data acquisition systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kristiansen, E.H. Univ. of Oslo . Dept. of Physics); Bothner, J.W.; Hulaas, T.I.; Skaali, T.B. ); Rongved, E. )

    1994-02-01

    Detailed simulations of processor networks based on the Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) show that SCI is suitable as data carrier in data acquisition systems where the total bandwidth need is in the multi GBytes/s range and a low latency is required. The objective of these simulations was to find topologies with low latency and high bandwidth, but also with the cost of implementation in mind. A ring-to-ring bridge has been used as the building element for the networks. The simulations have been performed on regular k-ary n-cubes type topologies from a few tens of nodes and up to about 500 nodes under different load conditions. Among the parameters which has been manipulated in the simulations are the number of nodes, topology structure, number of outstanding requests and load in the system.

  16. SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes; Johnson, Chris; Joy, Ken; Ahern, Sean; Pascucci,Valerio; Childs, Hank; Cohen, Jonathan; Duchaineau, Mark; Hamann, Bernd; Hansen, Charles; Laney, Dan; Lindstrom, Peter; Meredith, Jeremy; Ostrouchov, George; Parker, Steven; Silva, Claudio; Sanderson, Allen; Tricoche, Xavier

    2006-11-28

    The SciDAC2 Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies (VACET) began operation on 10/1/2006. This document, dated11/27/2006, is the first version of the VACET project management plan. Itwas requested by and delivered to ASCR/DOE. It outlines the Center'saccomplishments in the first six weeks of operation along with broadobjectives for the upcoming future (12-24 months).

  17. Developing a Meaningful Life: Social Reintegration of Service-Members and Veterans with SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    military veteran who suffered a service-related traumatic SCI. Methods: An in-depth anthropological interview was used with Jake, a 28-year old marine...spinal cord injury. 9 Participants Seth Messinger, Principal Investigator Associate Professor of Anthropology Seth Messinger is responsible...Networks for Veterans with Spinal Cord Injury in Obtaining Employment. Annals of Anthropological Practice. 37,2:40-56 Fritz, H., Lysack, C

  18. A cable-driven locomotor training system for restoration of gait in human SCI.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming; Hornby, T George; Landry, Jill M; Roth, Heidi; Schmit, Brian D

    2011-02-01

    A novel cable-driven robotic locomotor training system was developed to provide compliant assistance/resistance forces to the legs during treadmill training in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Eleven subjects with incomplete SCI were recruited to participate in two experiments to test the feasibility of the robotic gait training system. Specifically, 10 subjects participated in one experimental session to test the characteristics of the robotic gait training system and one subject participated in repeated testing sessions over 8 weeks with the robotic device to test improvements in locomotor function. Limb kinematics were recorded in one experiment to evaluate the system characteristics of the cable-driven locomotor trainer and the overground gait speed and 6 min walking distance were evaluated at pre, 4 and 8 weeks post treadmill training of a single subject as well. The results indicated that the cable driven robotic gait training system improved the kinematic performance of the leg during treadmill walking and had no significant impact on the variability of lower leg trajectory, suggesting a high backdrivability of the cable system. In addition, results from a patient with incomplete SCI indicated that prolonged robotic gait training using the cable robot improved overground gait speed. Results from this study suggested that a cable driven robotic gait training system is effective in improving leg kinematic performance, yet allows variability of gait kinematics. Thus, it seems feasible to improve the locomotor function in human SCI using this cable driven robotic system, warranting testing with a larger group of patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. SciDAC advances in beam dynamics simulation: from light sources to colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji; Qiang, J.; Borland, M.; Kabel, A.; Li, R.; Ryne, R.; Stern, E.; Wang, Y.; Wasserman, H.; Zhang, Y.

    2008-06-16

    In this paper, we report on progress that has been made in beam dynamics simulation, from light sources to colliders, during the first year of SciDAC-II accelerator project,"Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS)." Several parallel computational tools for beam dynamics simulation will be described. A number of applications in current and future accelerator facilities, e.g., LCLS, RHIC, Tevatron, LHC, ELIC, are presented.

  20. SciDAC advances in beam dynamics simulation: from light sources to colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, J.; Borland, M.; Kabel, A.; Li, Rui; Ryne, Robert; Stern, E.; Wang, Y.; Wasserman, H.; Zhang, Y.

    2008-08-01

    In this paper, we report on progress that has been made in beam dynamics simulation, from light sources to colliders, during the first year of the SciDAC-2 accelerator project 'Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS).' Several parallel computational tools for beam dynamics simulation are described. Also presented are number of applications in current and future accelerator facilities (e.g., LCLS, RHIC, Tevatron, LHC, and ELIC).

  1. T-1025 IU SciBath-768 detector tests in MI-12

    SciTech Connect

    Tayloe, Rex; Cooper, R.; Garrison, L.; Thornton, T.; Rebenitsch, L.; DeJongh, Fritz; Loer, Benjamin; Ramberg, Erik; Yoo, Jonghee; /Fermilab

    2012-02-11

    This is a memorandum of understanding between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of Department of Physics and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, who have committed to participate in detector tests to be carried out during the 2012 Fermilab Neutrino program. The memorandum is intended solely for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocations for Fermilab, the funding agencies and the participating institutions. it reflects an arrangement that currently is satisfactory to the parties; however, it is recognized and anticipated that changing circumstances of the evolving research program will necessitate revisions. The parties agree to modify this memorandum to reflect such required adjustments. Actual contractual obligations will be set forth in separate documents. The experimenters propsoe to test their prototype 'SciBat-768' detector in the MI-12 building for 3 months (February-April) in Spring 2012. The major goal of this effort is to measure or limit the flux of beam-induced neutrons in a far-off-axis (> 45{sup o}) location of the Booster Neutrino Beamline (BNB). This flux is of interest for a proposed coherent neutral-current neutrino-argon elastic scattering experiment. A second goal is to collect more test data for the SciBath-768 to enable better understanding and calibration of the device. The SciBath-768 detector successfully ran for 3 months in the MINOS Underground Area in Fall 2011 as testbeam experiment T-1014 and is currently running above ground in the MINOS service building. For the run proposed here, the experiments are requesting: space in MI-12 in which to run the SciBath detector during February-April 2012 while the BNB is operating; technical support to help with moving the equipment on site; access to power, internet, and accelerator signals; and a small office space from which to run and monitor the experiment.

  2. The Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) and the Hayabusa2 Impact Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiki, T.; Imamura, H.; Arakawa, M.; Wada, K.; Takagi, Y.; Hayakawa, M.; Shirai, K.; Yano, H.; Okamoto, C.

    2017-07-01

    Hayabusa2 is a sample return mission of JAXA launched on 3 December 2014. Hayabusa2 is the successor of Hayabusa, which returned samples from the asteroid Itokawa to the Earth. Although the design of Hayabusa2 follows that of Hayabusa, the former is equipped with some new components. The small carry-on impactor (SCI) is one of those components. The SCI is a compact kinetic impactor designed to remove the asteroid surface regolith locally and create an artificial crater. One of the most important scientific objectives of Hayabusa2 is to investigate the chemical and physical properties of the internal materials and structures of the target body, asteroid Ryugu. Hayabusa2 will attempt to observe the resultant crater with some scientific instruments and to get samples from around the crater. High kinetic energy is required to create a meaningful crater, however, the impact system design needs to fit within strict constraints. Complicated functions, such as a guidance and control system, are not permitted. A special type of shaped charge is used for the acceleration of the impactor of the SCI in order to make system simpler. Using this explosion technique makes it possible to accelerate the impactor very quickly and to hit the asteroid without a guidance system. However, the impact operation will be complicated because the explosive is very powerful and it scatters high-speed debris at the detonation. This paper describes an overview of the SCI system, the results of the development testing and an outline of the impact experiment of the Hayabusa2 mission.

  3. The Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) and the Hayabusa2 Impact Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiki, T.; Imamura, H.; Arakawa, M.; Wada, K.; Takagi, Y.; Hayakawa, M.; Shirai, K.; Yano, H.; Okamoto, C.

    2016-10-01

    Hayabusa2 is a sample return mission of JAXA launched on 3 December 2014. Hayabusa2 is the successor of Hayabusa, which returned samples from the asteroid Itokawa to the Earth. Although the design of Hayabusa2 follows that of Hayabusa, the former is equipped with some new components. The small carry-on impactor (SCI) is one of those components. The SCI is a compact kinetic impactor designed to remove the asteroid surface regolith locally and create an artificial crater. One of the most important scientific objectives of Hayabusa2 is to investigate the chemical and physical properties of the internal materials and structures of the target body, asteroid Ryugu. Hayabusa2 will attempt to observe the resultant crater with some scientific instruments and to get samples from around the crater. High kinetic energy is required to create a meaningful crater, however, the impact system design needs to fit within strict constraints. Complicated functions, such as a guidance and control system, are not permitted. A special type of shaped charge is used for the acceleration of the impactor of the SCI in order to make system simpler. Using this explosion technique makes it possible to accelerate the impactor very quickly and to hit the asteroid without a guidance system. However, the impact operation will be complicated because the explosive is very powerful and it scatters high-speed debris at the detonation. This paper describes an overview of the SCI system, the results of the development testing and an outline of the impact experiment of the Hayabusa2 mission.

  4. Intermittent Hypoxia Elicits Prolonged Restoration of Motor Function in Human SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0831 TITLE: Intermittent Hypoxia Elicits Prolonged Restoration of Motor Function in...Sep 30 2010 – Sep 29 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Intermittent Hypoxia Elicits Prolonged Restoration of Motor 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Function in...injured (SCI) subjects designed to test the effects of a novel therapy, termed acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH), on voluntary limb function

  5. Improvement in Student Science Proficiency Through InSciEd Out

    PubMed Central

    Sonju, James D.; Leicester, Jean E.; Hoody, Maggie; LaBounty, Thomas J.; Frimannsdottir, Katrin R.; Ekker, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Integrated Science Education Outreach (InSciEd Out) is a collaboration formed between Mayo Clinic, Winona State University, and Rochester Public Schools (MN) with the shared vision of achieving excellence in science education. InSciEd Out employs an equitable partnership model between scientists, teachers, education researchers, and the community. Teams of teachers from all disciplines within a single school experience cutting-edge science using the zebrafish model system, as well as current pedagogical methods, during a summer internship at the Mayo Clinic. Within the internship, the teachers produce new curriculum that directly addresses opportunities for science education improvement at their own school. Zebrafish are introduced within the new curriculum to support a living model of the practice of science. Following partnership with the InSciEd Out program and 2 years of implementation in the classroom, teacher-interns from a K–8 public school reported access to local scientific technology and expertise they had not previously recognized. Teachers also reported improved integration of other disciplines into the scientific curriculum and a flow of concepts vertically from K through 8. Students more than doubled selection of an Honors science track in high school to nearly 90%. 98% of students who took the Minnesota Comprehensive Assessments in their 5th and 8th grade year (a span that includes 2 years of InSciEd Out) showed medium or high growth in science proficiency. These metrics indicate that cooperation between educators and scientists can result in positive change in student science proficiency and demonstrate that a higher expectation in science education can be achieved in US public schools. PMID:23244687

  6. Improvement in student science proficiency through InSciEd out.

    PubMed

    Pierret, Chris; Sonju, James D; Leicester, Jean E; Hoody, Maggie; LaBounty, Thomas J; Frimannsdottir, Katrin R; Ekker, Stephen C

    2012-12-01

    Integrated Science Education Outreach (InSciEd Out) is a collaboration formed between Mayo Clinic, Winona State University, and Rochester Public Schools (MN) with the shared vision of achieving excellence in science education. InSciEd Out employs an equitable partnership model between scientists, teachers, education researchers, and the community. Teams of teachers from all disciplines within a single school experience cutting-edge science using the zebrafish model system, as well as current pedagogical methods, during a summer internship at the Mayo Clinic. Within the internship, the teachers produce new curriculum that directly addresses opportunities for science education improvement at their own school. Zebrafish are introduced within the new curriculum to support a living model of the practice of science. Following partnership with the InSciEd Out program and 2 years of implementation in the classroom, teacher-interns from a K-8 public school reported access to local scientific technology and expertise they had not previously recognized. Teachers also reported improved integration of other disciplines into the scientific curriculum and a flow of concepts vertically from K through 8. Students more than doubled selection of an Honors science track in high school to nearly 90%. 98% of students who took the Minnesota Comprehensive Assessments in their 5(th) and 8(th) grade year (a span that includes 2 years of InSciEd Out) showed medium or high growth in science proficiency. These metrics indicate that cooperation between educators and scientists can result in positive change in student science proficiency and demonstrate that a higher expectation in science education can be achieved in US public schools.

  7. Medical informatics on the Internet: creating the sci.med. informatics newsgroup.

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, A M; Sittig, D F

    1995-01-01

    A Usenet newsgroup, sci.med.informatics, has been created to serve as an international electronic forum for discussion of issues related to medical informatics. The creation process follows a set of administrative rules set out by the Usenet administration on the Internet and consists of five steps: 1) informal discussion, 2) request for formal discussion, 3) formal discussion, 4) voting, and 5) posting of results. The newsgroup can be accessed using any news reader via the Internet. PMID:7583645

  8. SciDB versus Spark: A Preliminary Comparison Based on an Earth Science Use Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clune, T.; Kuo, K. S.; Doan, K.; Oloso, A.

    2015-12-01

    We compare two Big Data technologies, SciDB and Spark, for performance, usability, and extensibility, when applied to a representative Earth science use case. SciDB is a new-generation parallel distributed database management system (DBMS) based on the array data model that is capable of handling multidimensional arrays efficiently but requires lengthy data ingest prior to analysis, whereas Spark is a fast and general engine for large scale data processing that can immediately process raw data files and thereby avoid the ingest process. Once data have been ingested, SciDB is very efficient in database operations such as subsetting. Spark, on the other hand, provides greater flexibility by supporting a wide variety of high-level tools including DBMS's. For the performance aspect of this preliminary comparison, we configure Spark to operate directly on text or binary data files and thereby limit the need for additional tools. Arguably, a more appropriate comparison would involve exploring other configurations of Spark which exploit supported high-level tools, but that is beyond our current resources. To make the comparison as "fair" as possible, we export the arrays produced by SciDB into text files (or converting them to binary files) for the intake by Spark and thereby avoid any additional file processing penalties. The Earth science use case selected for this comparison is the identification and tracking of snowstorms in the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis data. The identification portion of the use case is to flag all grid cells of the MERRA high-resolution hourly data that satisfies our criteria for snowstorm, whereas the tracking portion connects flagged cells adjacent in time and space to form a snowstorm episode. We will report the results of our comparisons at this presentation.

  9. SCI with Brain Injury: Bedside-to-Bench Modeling for Developing Treatment and Rehabilitation Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    1-0912 TITLE: SCI with Brain Injury: Bedside-to-Bench Modeling for Developing Treatment and Rehabilitation Strategies PRINCIPAL...Modeling for 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Developing Treatment and Rehabilitation Strategies 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0912 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...prescribed during admission for acute rehabilitation . More medications are used in the dual-diagnosis patients than for each injury alone. We have also

  10. SciDAC Center for Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhihong

    2013-12-18

    During the first year of the SciDAC gyrokinetic particle simulation (GPS) project, the GPS team (Zhihong Lin, Liu Chen, Yasutaro Nishimura, and Igor Holod) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) studied the tokamak electron transport driven by electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence, and by trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence and ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence with kinetic electron effects, extended our studies of ITG turbulence spreading to core-edge coupling. We have developed and optimized an elliptic solver using finite element method (FEM), which enables the implementation of advanced kinetic electron models (split-weight scheme and hybrid model) in the SciDAC GPS production code GTC. The GTC code has been ported and optimized on both scalar and vector parallel computer architectures, and is being transformed into objected-oriented style to facilitate collaborative code development. During this period, the UCI team members presented 11 invited talks at major national and international conferences, published 22 papers in peer-reviewed journals and 10 papers in conference proceedings. The UCI hosted the annual SciDAC Workshop on Plasma Turbulence sponsored by the GPS Center, 2005-2007. The workshop was attended by about fifties US and foreign researchers and financially sponsored several gradual students from MIT, Princeton University, Germany, Switzerland, and Finland. A new SciDAC postdoc, Igor Holod, has arrived at UCI to initiate global particle simulation of magnetohydrodynamics turbulence driven by energetic particle modes. The PI, Z. Lin, has been promoted to the Associate Professor with tenure at UCI.

  11. [SciELO: A cooperative project for the dissemination of science].

    PubMed

    Bojo Canales, C; Fraga Medín, C; Hernández Villegas, S; Primo Peña, E

    2009-10-01

    The article describes the SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online) model for the electronic publication and dissemination of scientific journals, its origin and evolution, methodology, components, services and potential, and its implantation in Spain. It consists of thirteen participant countries with eight certified web portals, with another 5 under development and another two thematic ones. In February 2009 Scielo.org had 611 magazines and 195,789 articles of which 46% were about health sciences. Spain became a project member in 1999 and launched the SciELO web portal in 2001, as well as 4 magazines. It currently has 39 titles in the field of Health Sciences; one of which is the Revista Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria, which joined the project in 2007 and which currently has 6 issues from 2007 and 2008 available. This makes it one of the most important open access initiatives existing. The report concludes by stating that the SciELO model contributes to the development of research and science by offering an effective and efficient method of promoting and increasing the dissemination of scientific publications in Latin America.

  12. [Analysis on acupuncture literature in Science Citation Index (SCI) periodicals in 2007].

    PubMed

    Gao, Liang; Tian, Li-xin; Guo, Yi

    2009-06-01

    To grasp the international developing tendency of acupuncture research and provide some references for promoting acupuncture and moxibustion internationalization process, the articles about acupuncture in Science Citation Index (SCI) periodicals in 2007 were retrieved by adopting the retrieval tactics on line in combination with database searching. Results indicate that 257 articles about acupuncture had been retrived from the SCI Web databases. These articles were published in 125 journals respectively, most of which were Euramerican journals. Among these journals, the impact factor of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), 25. 547, is the highest one. It is shown that the impact factors of the SCI periodicals, in which acupuncture articles embodied are increased, the quality of these articles are improved obviously and the types of the articles are various in 2007, but there is obvious difference in the results of these studies due to the difference of experimental methods, the subjects of these experiments and acupuncture manipulations. Therefore, standardization of many problems arising from the researches on acupuncture is extremely imminent.

  13. Restoring Walking after SCI: Operant Conditioning of Spinal Reflexes Can Help

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Aiko K.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2014-01-01

    People with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently suffer motor disabilities due to spasticity and poor muscle control, even after conventional therapy. Abnormal spinal reflex activity often contributes to these problems. Operant conditioning of spinal reflexes, which can target plasticity to specific reflex pathways, can enhance recovery. In rats in which a right lateral column lesion had weakened right stance and produced an asymmetrical gait, up-conditioning of the right soleus H-reflex, which increased muscle spindle afferent excitation of soleus, strengthened right stance and eliminated the asymmetry. In people with hyperreflexia due to incomplete SCI, down-conditioning of the soleus H-reflex improved walking speed and symmetry. Furthermore, modulation of EMG activity during walking improved bilaterally, indicating that a protocol that targets plasticity to a specific pathway can trigger widespread plasticity that improves recovery far beyond that attributable to the change in the targeted pathway. These improvements were apparent to people in their daily lives. They reported walking faster and farther, and noted less spasticity and better balance. Operant conditioning protocols could be developed to modify other spinal reflexes or corticospinal connections; and could be combined with other therapies to enhance recovery in people with SCI or other neuromuscular disorders. PMID:24636954

  14. An Exploratory Analysis of the Potential Association Between SCI Secondary Health Conditions and Daily Activities

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, John; Dumont, Frédéric S.; Leblond, Jean; Park, So Eyun; Noonan, Vanessa K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Secondary health conditions (SHCs) are common following traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI) and are believed to influence a person’s ability to participate in daily activities (DAs). This association should be understood so that health care providers may target interventions with clarity and purpose to manage SHCs and facilitate DAs to maximal effect. Objective: To explore the association between SHCs and DAs expressed as the increased chance of not participating as much as wanted in a DA when an SHC is present. Methods: Community-dwelling persons with tSCI (n = 1,137) responded to the SCI Community Survey. The occurrence and frequency of 21 SHCs were determined. The extent of participation in 26 DAs was measured. The relative risk (RR) of not participating as much as wanted in a DA when a SHC is present was calculated. Results: When some SHC were present, the RR of not participating as much as wanted increased significantly (range, 15%-153%; P < .001). Certain SHCs (light-headedness/dizziness, fatigue, weight problems, constipation, shoulder problems) were associated with a greater chance of not participating in many DAs. No single SHC was associated with every DA and conversely not every DA was associated with an SHC. Conclusions: Maximizing participation in DAs requires minimizing SHCs in every instance. Understanding the association between SHCs and DAs may facilitate targeted care resulting in less severe SHCs, greater participation in DAs, and benefits to both the individual and society. PMID:25477741

  15. Family dynamics and psychosocial functioning in children with SCI/D from Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Nicolais, Christina J; Perrin, Paul B; Panyavin, Ivan; Nicholls, Elizabeth G; Olivera Plaza, Silvia Leonor; Quintero, Lorena Medina; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the connections between family dynamics and the psychosocial functioning of children with spinal cord injuries and disorders (SCI/D). Cross-sectional. Participants were recruited from communities in Neiva, Colombia. Thirty children with SCI/D and their primary caregiver participated. Children were between 8 and 17 years of age, and had sustained their injury at least six months prior to data collection. NA. Participating children completed measures assessing their own psychosocial functioning (Children's Depression Inventory, Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale-2, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory), and their primary caregiver completed measures of family dynamics (Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale- Fourth Edition, Family Communication Scale, Family Assessment Device- General Functioning, Family Satisfaction Scale, Relationship-Focused Coping Scale). A correlation matrix showed a number of significant bivariate correlations between child and family variables, and three multiple regressions showed that family satisfaction, empathy, and flexibility significantly explained 27% of the variance in child worry; family satisfaction and communication explained 18% of the variance in child social anxiety; and family cohesion and communication explained 23% of the variance in child emotional functioning. These findings highlight the importance of rehabilitation professionals considering the association between family dynamics and the psychosocial functioning of children with SCI/D when working with this population.

  16. Family dynamics and psychosocial functioning in children with SCI/D from Colombia, South America

    PubMed Central

    Nicolais, Christina J.; Perrin, Paul B.; Panyavin, Ivan; Nicholls, Elizabeth G.; Olivera Plaza, Silvia Leonor; Quintero, Lorena Medina; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the connections between family dynamics and the psychosocial functioning of children with spinal cord injuries and disorders (SCI/D). Design Cross-sectional. Setting Participants were recruited from communities in Neiva, Colombia. Participants Thirty children with SCI/D and their primary caregiver participated. Children were between 8 and 17 years of age, and had sustained their injury at least six months prior to data collection. Interventions NA. Outcome measures Participating children completed measures assessing their own psychosocial functioning (Children's Depression Inventory, Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale-2, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory), and their primary caregiver completed measures of family dynamics (Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale- Fourth Edition, Family Communication Scale, Family Assessment Device- General Functioning, Family Satisfaction Scale, Relationship-Focused Coping Scale). Results A correlation matrix showed a number of significant bivariate correlations between child and family variables, and three multiple regressions showed that family satisfaction, empathy, and flexibility significantly explained 27% of the variance in child worry; family satisfaction and communication explained 18% of the variance in child social anxiety; and family cohesion and communication explained 23% of the variance in child emotional functioning. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of rehabilitation professionals considering the association between family dynamics and the psychosocial functioning of children with SCI/D when working with this population. PMID:25582185

  17. Injuries and Falls in an Aging Cohort with Spinal Cord Injury: SCI Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Lee L; Krause, James S

    2015-01-01

    Limited research suggests that additional "subsequent" injuries occur frequently among persons with an existing spinal cord injury (SCI), which may result in further significant complications and added disability. The purpose of this study was to (a) report the 12-month incidence of injuries by age in an aging SCI cohort, (b) report the 12-month incidence of falls, (c) assess the impact of injuries on participation by age, and (d) assess the relationship of age with injuries and falls while controlling for potential confounding factors. Participants (N = 759) responded to questions about injuries and falls resulting in injury in the past year. Demographic and SCI characteristics, binge drinking, and prescription medication use were measured. A total of 19.2% reported 1 or more injuries in the past year, and 10.4% reported a fall resulting in an injury in the past year. Among those who sustained 1 or more injuries, 22.8% had at least 1 hospitalization for an injury within the past 12 months. Additionally, 47.6% were limited in their normal daily activities for a week or more due to injury. Prescription medication use was associated with injury in the past year and falls resulting in injury. Equal time between walking and wheelchair use as the primary mode of locomotion was also associated with falls in the past year. Future research should investigate circumstances surrounding subsequent injuries to aid in prevention efforts. Additionally, information is needed on whether subsequent injuries further contribute to physical disability.

  18. Supporting Research using Satellite Data: A Framework for Spatiotemporal Queries in SciDB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, S. S.; Krcal, L.

    2015-12-01

    Natural phenomena such as haze, hurricane, and blizzard that evolve over time usually do not have well-defined boundaries. Their features may be captured by multiple satellites. To process and extract information from the large-scale satellite data, one needs a data-intensive architecture for distributed storage and computation resources. Such architecture allows end users such as scientists to effectively run their computation tasks with sharing computational resources and intermediate results, but without data replication. The satellite data is most conveniently represented using arrays, exploiting its multidimensional nature. For our investigation, we use the open-source distributed, array-based SciDB as a platform for our spatiotemporal framework. SciDB conforms with the data-intensive architecture, providing a highly effectively computational and data storage platform. Moreover, it provides standard extension points, i.e., user defined data types, operators and functions. Our current work focuses on more sophisticated indices including cartesian-coordinate indices, hierarchical triangular mesh and hybrid indices with data statistics and indexing. Furthermore, we introduce a spatiotemporal framework that allows us to generate and maintain indices according to given criteria and perform spatial and temporal operators and predicates. This framework overcomes weaknesses in SciDB where standard underlying array operations are less effective. We will demonstrate some examples (e.g., hurricane research using satellite data) of the functionalities in the proposed spatiotemporal framework.

  19. Comparing NetCDF and SciDB on managing and querying 5D hydrologic dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haicheng; Xiao, Xiao

    2016-11-01

    Efficiently extracting information from high dimensional hydro-meteorological modelling datasets requires smart solutions. Traditional methods are mostly based on files, which can be edited and accessed handily. But they have problems of efficiency due to contiguous storage structure. Others propose databases as an alternative for advantages such as native functionalities for manipulating multidimensional (MD) arrays, smart caching strategy and scalability. In this research, NetCDF file based solutions and the multidimensional array database management system (DBMS) SciDB applying chunked storage structure are benchmarked to determine the best solution for storing and querying 5D large hydrologic modelling dataset. The effect of data storage configurations including chunk size, dimension order and compression on query performance is explored. Results indicate that dimension order to organize storage of 5D data has significant influence on query performance if chunk size is very large. But the effect becomes insignificant when chunk size is properly set. Compression of SciDB mostly has negative influence on query performance. Caching is an advantage but may be influenced by execution of different query processes. On the whole, NetCDF solution without compression is in general more efficient than the SciDB DBMS.

  20. Staying connected: neighbourhood correlates of social participation among older adults living in an urban environment in Montréal, Québec

    PubMed Central

    RICHARD, LUCIE; GAUVIN, LISE; GOSSELIN, CÉLINE; LAFOREST, SOPHIE

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Alongside community involvement, promoting social participation has been identified as a key strategy of fostering empowerment, one of the central tenets of the health promotion movement. Engagement in social and productive activities appears to be particularly beneficial to older adults, as it has been found to be associated with positive outcomes on a variety of health indicators. It is therefore critical to identify factors that might lead to greater social participation within these age groups. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between perceptions of neighbourhood user-friendliness and social participation while controlling for personal characteristics in a sample of seniors living in an urban environment. A convenience sample of older adults (n = 282) was recruited through community organizations located in high-average- and low-income Montreal neighbourhoods. Data were collected via an interviewer-administered questionnaire assessing social participation and various variables at the neighbourhood level (e.g. housing and social environment, walking environment and transportation, and services and amenities) and at the individual-level (e.g. health status and socio-demographic characteristics). Five variables emerged as independent predictors of social participation. Positive predictors retained in the final regression model included frequent walking episodes (almost every day), higher Vitality and General Health SF-12v2 scores, and perceived accessibility to key resources for older adults. Also included was a negative predictor: age (R2 of the final model = 0.28). Implications of the findings for research and action pertaining to ecological, health promotion interventions for older adults are identified. PMID:19098293

  1. ALS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- www.mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) ...

  2. GeoSciML v3.0 - a significant upgrade of the CGI-IUGS geoscience data model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, O.; Duclaux, G.; Boisvert, E.; Cipolloni, C.; Cox, S.; Laxton, J.; Letourneau, F.; Richard, S.; Ritchie, A.; Sen, M.; Serrano, J.-J.; Simons, B.; Vuollo, J.

    2012-04-01

    GeoSciML version 3.0 (http://www.geosciml.org), released in late 2011, is the latest version of the CGI-IUGS* Interoperability Working Group geoscience data interchange standard. The new version is a significant upgrade and refactoring of GeoSciML v2 which was released in 2008. GeoSciML v3 has already been adopted by several major international interoperability initiatives, including OneGeology, the EU INSPIRE program, and the US Geoscience Information Network, as their standard data exchange format for geoscience data. GeoSciML v3 makes use of recently upgraded versions of several Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and ISO data transfer standards, including GML v3.2, SWE Common v2.0, and Observations and Measurements v2 (ISO 19156). The GeoSciML v3 data model has been refactored from a single large application schema with many packages, into a number of smaller, but related, application schema modules with individual namespaces. This refactoring allows the use and future development of modules of GeoSciML (eg; GeologicUnit, GeologicStructure, GeologicAge, Borehole) in smaller, more manageable units. As a result of this refactoring and the integration with new OGC and ISO standards, GeoSciML v3 is not backwardly compatible with previous GeoSciML versions. The scope of GeoSciML has been extended in version 3.0 to include new models for geomorphological data (a Geomorphology application schema), and for geological specimens, geochronological interpretations, and metadata for geochemical and geochronological analyses (a LaboratoryAnalysis-Specimen application schema). In addition, there is better support for borehole data, and the PhysicalProperties model now supports a wider range of petrophysical measurements. The previously used CGI_Value data type has been superseded in favour of externally governed data types provided by OGC's SWE Common v2 and GML v3.2 data standards. The GeoSciML v3 release includes worked examples of best practice in delivering geochemical

  3. Ground-Based Testing of TiB2 and Al2O3/TiB2 Response to Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferies, Sharon A.; Logan, Kathryn V.

    2007-01-01

    Two materials, titanium diboride and an alumina/titanium diboride composite, exhibit characteristics favorable for use in multiple space applications. These characteristics include low mass (4.52 gm/cc), high strain rate impact resistance, high temperature use (3000oC M.P.), thermal and electrical conductivity, thermal shock resistance, and high visible-range reflectivity. Additionally, the presence of boron in these materials gives them the potential to shield against neutron radiation as well as charged radiation. These materials are flying on MISSE 6 to assess material changes resulting from exposure to the space environment. This study provides a preliminary, ground-based examination of these materials' interactions with individual components of the space environment, in particular atomic oxygen (AO) and neutron radiation, in order to better predict and understand post-flight results. Individual specimens are exposed to ground state AO and surface oxidation is measured. Equivalent exposures of up to 13 months show no rapid oxidation, however evidence indicates some surface oxidation occurring. Other samples are placed near a polyethylene moderated, one Ci Am/Be neutron source to determine their shielding capability. Comparisons between exposed and shielded indium foil, which is activated by transmitted neutrons, measure each material's ability to shield neutrons. Preliminary results indicate a significant shielding benefit provided by both materials.

  4. Capability Study of Ti, Cr, W, Ta and Pt as Seed Layers for Electrodeposited Platinum Films on γ-Al2O3 for High Temperature and Harsh Environment Applications

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Marietta; Brachmann, Erik; Rane, Gayatri K.; Menzel, Siegfried B.; Gemming, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    High temperature surface acoustic wave sensors based on radio frequency identification technology require adequate antennas of high efficiency and thermal stability for the signal transmission. Platinum is well known and frequently used as a material of choice for high temperature and harsh environment applications because of the high melting point and its chemical stability. Therefore, one way to realize high temperature stable antennas is the combination of a Pt metallization on an Al2O3 substrate. As a cost-effective technique, the Pt film is deposited via electrochemical deposition. For this growth procedure, a pre-deposited metallization on the Al2O3 layer is required. This paper analyzes the influence of various seed layers (Ta, Ti, W, Cr, Pt) on the morphology, stability and electrical properties of the electrochemically-grown Pt thick film after heat treatments up to 1000 ∘C in air. We find an oxidation of all adhesion layers except for Pt, for which the best electrical properties were measured. Although significant areas of the films delaminate from the substrate, individual anchor structures retain a stable connection between the Pt layer and the rough Al2O3 substrate. PMID:28772415

  5. SciNews: Incorporating Science Current Events in 21st Century Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiMaggio, E.

    2011-12-01

    Middle school students are instructed with the aid of textbooks, lectures, and activities to teach topics that satisfy state standards. However, teaching materials created to convey standard-aligned science concepts often leave students asking how the content relates to their lives and why they should be learning it. Conveying relevance is important for student learning and retention, especially in science where abstract concepts can often be incorrectly perceived as irrelevant. One way to create an educational link between classroom content and everyday life is through the use of scientific current events. Students read, hear, and watch media coverage of natural events (such as the 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan), but do not necessarily relate the scientific information from media sources to classroom studies. Taking advantage of these brief 'teachable moments'--when student interest is high--provides a valuable opportunity to make classroom-to-everyday life associations and to incorporate inquiry based learning. To address this need, I create pre-packaged current event materials for middle to high school teachers that align to state standards, and which are short, effective, and easy to implement in the classroom. Each lesson takes approximately 15-30 minutes to implement, allowing teachers time to facilitate brief but meaningful discussions. I assemble materials within approximately one week of the regional or global science event, consisting of short slide shows, maps, videos, pictures, and real-time data. I use a listserv to send biweekly emails to subscribed instructors containing the current event topic and a link to download the materials. All materials are hosted on the Arizona State University Education Outreach SciNews website (http://sese.asu.edu/teacher-resources) and are archived. Currently, 285 educators subscribe to the SciNews listserv, representing 36 states and 19 countries. In order to assess the effectiveness and usefulness of Sci

  6. Differences in the use of everyday technology among persons with MCI, SCI and older adults without known cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Malinowsky, Camilla; Kottorp, Anders; Wallin, Anders; Nordlund, Arto; Björklund, Eva; Melin, Ilse; Pernevik, Anette; Rosenberg, Lena; Nygård, Louise

    2017-07-01

    To use valid subjective reports sensible to cognitive decline is vital to identify very early signs of dementia development. Use of everyday technology (ET) has been shown to be sensitive to differentiate adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from controls, but the group with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) has not yet been examined. This study aims to investigate and compare self-perceived ability in ET use and number of ETs reported as actually used in a sample of older adults with SCI, MCI, and older adults with no known cognitive impairment, i.e. Older adults with MCI (n = 29), SCI ( n = 26), and controls (n = 30) were interviewed with the short version of the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire (S-ETUQ) to capture self-perceived ability in ET use and number of ETs used. To generate individual measures of ability to use ET, Rasch analysis was used. The measures were then compared group-wise using ANCOVA. The numbers of ETs used were compared group-wise with ANOVA. Controls versus SCI and MCI differed significantly regarding ETs reported as used, but not SCI versus MCI. Similarly, in ability to use ET, controls versus SCI and MCI differed significantly but not SCI versus MCI. The significantly lower numbers of ETs reported as actually used and the lower ability in SCI and MCI groups compared to controls suggest that ET use is affected already in very minor cognitive decline. This indicates that self-reported ET use based on the S-ETUQ is sensitive to detect changes already in SCI.

  7. Publishing datasets with eSciDoc and panMetaDocs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbricht, D.; Klump, J.; Bertelmann, R.

    2012-04-01

    Currently serveral research institutions worldwide undertake considerable efforts to have their scientific datasets published and to syndicate them to data portals as extensively described objects identified by a persistent identifier. This is done to foster the reuse of data, to make scientific work more transparent, and to create a citable entity that can be referenced unambigously in written publications. GFZ Potsdam established a publishing workflow for file based research datasets. Key software components are an eSciDoc infrastructure [1] and multiple instances of the data curation tool panMetaDocs [2]. The eSciDoc repository holds data objects and their associated metadata in container objects, called eSciDoc items. A key metadata element in this context is the publication status of the referenced data set. PanMetaDocs, which is based on PanMetaWorks [3], is a PHP based web application that allows to describe data with any XML-based metadata schema. The metadata fields can be filled with static or dynamic content to reduce the number of fields that require manual entries to a minimum and make use of contextual information in a project setting. Access rights can be applied to set visibility of datasets to other project members and allow collaboration on and notifying about datasets (RSS) and interaction with the internal messaging system, that was inherited from panMetaWorks. When a dataset is to be published, panMetaDocs allows to change the publication status of the eSciDoc item from status "private" to "submitted" and prepare the dataset for verification by an external reviewer. After quality checks, the item publication status can be changed to "published". This makes the data and metadata available through the internet worldwide. PanMetaDocs is developed as an eSciDoc application. It is an easy to use graphical user interface to eSciDoc items, their data and metadata. It is also an application supporting a DOI publication agent during the process of

  8. Antifungal activities of SCY-078 (MK-3118) and standard antifungal agents against clinical non-Aspergillus mold isolates.

    PubMed

    Lamoth, Frédéric; Alexander, Barbara D

    2015-07-01

    The limited armamentarium of active and oral antifungal drugs against emerging non-Aspergillus molds is of particular concern. Current antifungal agents and the new orally available beta-1,3-d-glucan synthase inhibitor SCY-078 were tested in vitro against 135 clinical non-Aspergillus mold isolates. Akin to echinocandins, SCY-078 showed no or poor activity against Mucoromycotina and Fusarium spp. However, SCY-078 was highly active against Paecilomyces variotii and was the only compound displaying some activity against notoriously panresistant Scedosporium prolificans.

  9. The High-resolution Stereo Color Imager (HiSCI) on ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, A. S.; Thomas, N.; Bridges, J.; Byrne, S.; Cremonese, G.; Delamere, W.; Hansen, C.; Hauber, E.; Ivanov, A.; Kestay, L.; Kirk, R.; Mangold, N.; Markiewicz, W.; Massironi, M.; Mattson, S.; Okubo, C.; Wray, J.

    2011-10-01

    HiSCI has been chosen for the payload of the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO), a joint ESA/NASA mission scheduled to arrive at Mars in 2016 [1]. There are 3 major HiSCI partners: (1) the telescope assembly will be built in Switzerland overseen by the University of Bern; (2) the overall design, electronics, and integration will be by Ball Aerospace in Colorado; and (3) operations will be joint with MRO's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) [2] at the University of Arizona. HiSCI will acquire the best-ever colour and stereo images over significant areas of Mars.

  10. High sensitivity cardiac troponin I detection in physiological environment using AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Sarangadharan, Indu; Regmi, Abiral; Chen, Yen-Wen; Hsu, Chen-Pin; Chen, Pei-Chi; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Lee, Geng-Yen; Chyi, Jen-Inn; Shiesh, Shu-Chu; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Wang, Yu-Lin

    2017-09-14

    In this study, we report the development of a high sensitivity assay for the detection of cardiac troponin I using electrical double layer gated high field AlGaN/GaN HEMT biosensor. The unique gating mechanism overcomes the drawback of charge screening seen in traditional FET based biosensors, allowing detection of target proteins in physiological solutions without sample processing steps. Troponin I specific antibody and aptamer are used as receptors. The tests carried out using purified protein solution and clinical serum samples depict high sensitivity, specificity and wide dynamic range (0.006-148ng/mL). No additional wash or sample pre-treatment steps are required, which greatly simplifies the biosensor system. The miniaturized HEMT chip is packaged in a polymer substrate and easily integrated with a portable measurement unit, to carry out quantitative troponin I detection in serum samples with<2µl sample volume in 5min. The integrated prototype biosensor unit demonstrates the potential of the method as a rapid, inexpensive, high sensitivity CVD biomarker assay. The highly simplified protocols and enhanced sensor performance make our biosensor an ideal choice for point of care diagnostics and personal healthcare systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Collaborative Science Using Web Services and the SciFlo Grid Dataflow Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Xing, Z.; Yunck, T.

    2006-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of Web Services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-stratosphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we have developed a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo leverages remote Web Services, called via Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) or REST (one-line) URLs, and the Grid Computing standards (WS-* &Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable Web Services and native executables into a distributed computing flow (tree of operators). The SciFlo client &server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. In particular, SciFlo exploits the wealth of datasets accessible by OpenGIS Consortium (OGC) Web Mapping Servers & Web Coverage Servers (WMS/WCS), and by Open Data

  12. DOE SciDAC's Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.

    2011-09-27

    The mission of the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is to provide the worldwide climate-research community with access to the data, information, model codes, analysis tools, and intercomparison capabilities required to make sense of enormous climate data sets. Its specific goals are to (1) provide an easy-to-use and secure web-based data access environment for data sets; (2) add value to individual data sets by presenting them in the context of other data sets and tools for comparative analysis; (3) address the specific requirements of participating organizations with respect to bandwidth, access restrictions, and replication; (4) ensure that the data are readily accessible through the analysis and visualization tools used by the climate research community; and (5) transfer infrastructure advances to other domain areas. For the ESGF, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) team has led international development and delivered a production environment for managing and accessing ultra-scale climate data. This production environment includes multiple national and international climate projects (such as the Community Earth System Model and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project), ocean model data (such as the Parallel Ocean Program), observation data (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Best Estimate, Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center, Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, etc.), and analysis and visualization tools, all serving a diverse user community. These data holdings and services are distributed across multiple ESG-CET sites (such as ANL, LANL, LBNL/NERSC, LLNL/PCMDI, NCAR, and ORNL) and at unfunded partner sites, such as the Australian National University National Computational Infrastructure, the British Atmospheric Data Centre, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, the German Climate Computing

  13. A Characterization Of The GNAT SciTech STAR Class 0.5m Prototype Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barentine, J. C.; Culver, R. B.

    2002-05-01

    In 1995 the Global Network of Automated Telescopes (GNAT) acquired an option to purchase a 0.5m "STAR" class telescope, manufactured by SciTech Corporation of Forresthill, CA, contingent upon its attainment of performance specifications published by SciTech. In spite of a concerted, and protracted effort, the telescope has not yet approached the manufacturer's specifications, and has proven largely unusable for its intended purpose. In light of the difficult history of commercial development of true automated telescopes (see Sinnott 1996 and Henry 1994) it is important to understand the current state of such commercial systems. We present results of a characterization of this telescope and recommendations for how to proceed in light of its failure to attain specifications. Principle failings of the telescope can be summarized as follows: 1) the mechanical structure was inadequately designed and built, yielding large and unacceptable pointing and tracking errors, 2) the autoguider system was never successfully implemented, limiting the system to very short integrations, 3) the autofocus mechanism was never successfully implemented, resulting in periodic, unacceptable focus drifts during automatic operation, 4) the telescope control system as provided with the telescope did not work and ultimately had to be developed by an independent contractor recommended by GNAT and contracted through SciTech, and 5) the telescope optical system design did not adequately accommodate scattered light issues, yielding significant scattered light contributions to the images under certain conditions. Based on analyses of these issues, we present recommendations for improvements in this system. Support of this work has been provided by Colorado State University and GNAT. REFERENCES Sinnott, R.W. Sky And Telescope vol.91, no.6, p.38 (1996) Henry, G.W. IAPPP Communication No.57, Autumn 1994, p.57

  14. The Fulldome Curriculum for the Spitz SciDome Digital Planetarium: Volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradstreet, David H.; Sanders, S. J.; Huggins, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Spitz Fulldome Curriculum (FDC) for the SciDome digital planetarium ushered in a new and innovative way to present astronomical pedagogy via its use of the unique teaching attributes of the digital planetarium. In the case of the FDC, which uses the ubiquitous Starry Night planetarium software as its driving engine, these engaging and novel teaching techniques have also been made usable to desktop computers and flat-screen video projectors for classroom use. Volume 2 of the FDC introduces exciting new classes and mini-lessons to further enlighten and invigorate students as they struggle with often difficult three dimensional astronomical concepts. Additionally, other topics with related astronomical ties have been created to integrate history into planetarium presentations. One of the strongest advantages of the SciDome is its use of Starry Night as its astronomical engine. With it students can create their own astronomical configurations in the computer lab or at home, using the PC or Mac version. They can then simply load their creations onto the SciDome planetarium system and display them for their classmates on the dome. This poster will discuss and illustrate some of the new content that has been developed for Volume 2. Topics covered in Volume 2 include eclipses, plotting planet locations on a curtate orbit chart by observing their positions in the sky, time and timekeeping (including sidereal day, hour angles, sidereal time, LAST, LMST, time zones and the International Date Line), teaching to the Boy Scout Merit Badge requirements, plotting scale analemmas on the surface of planets and interpreting them, precession, astronomical events in revolutionary Boston, the Lincoln Almanac Trial, eclipsing binaries, lunar librations, a trip through the universe, watching the speed of light move in real time, stellar sizes and the Milky Way.

  15. Studying the History of the Intergalactic Medium with the SCI-HI Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voytek, Tabitha Christine

    The Cosmic Dawn (z ˜ 15 -- 35) is the period in the history of our universe when stars first began to form in small Dark Matter minihalos. Light from these first stars is too dim for telescopes to see, which means that the Cosmic Dawn has never been directly measured. However, the first stars impacted the gas, or intergalactic medium (IGM), around them. The impact of the first stars was heating and eventual ionization of the IGM. The process of heating and ionization creates a spectrum that varies over redshift, namely the spatially averaged brightness temperature spectrum of 21-cm light from the IGM. Measurement of this spectrum will give us a first glimpse of the Cosmic Dawn. The "Sonda Cosmologica de las Islas para la Deteccion de Hidrogeno Neutro" (SCIHI) experiment is a collaboration between Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) in Mexico and was designed to make this measurement. The SCI-HI experiment is a small-scale system which travels with the team to remote locations for deployments. These remote locations are necessary to avoid radio frequency interference and other environmental impacts on the system. This thesis describes the development and deployment of the SCI-HI experiment. It starts with the original design and covers development of the system over time. Deployment location selection is then discussed, including the results of site evaluations. In addition, the thesis outlines the data analysis process used for the system and shows results from data collected during the June 2013 deployment of the experiment. Finally, the thesis describes plans for the future of the SCI-HI experiment, including deployment to South Africa in 2015.

  16. Impact of SciELO and MEDLINE indexing on submissions to Jornal de Pediatria.

    PubMed

    Blank, Danilo; Buchweitz, Claudia; Procianoy, Renato S

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of SciELO and MEDLINE indexing on the number of articles submitted to Jornal de Pediatria. Analysis of total article submission, submission of articles from foreign countries and acceptance figures in the following periods: stage I - pre-website (Jan 2000-Mar 2001); stage II - website (Apr 2001-Jul 2002); stage III - SciELO (Aug 2002-Aug 2003); stage IV - MEDLINE (Sep 2003-Dec 2004). There was a significant trend toward linear increase in the number of submissions along the study period (p = 0.009). The number of manuscripts submitted in stages I through IV was 184, 240, 297, and 482, respectively. The number of submissions was similar in stages I and II (p = 0.148), but statistically higher in Stage III (p < 0.001 vs. Stage I and p = 0.006 vs. Stage II) and Stage IV (p < 0.001 vs. stages I and II, and p < 0.05 vs. stage III). The rate of article acceptance decreased during the study period. The number of original articles published has been stable since the 2001 March/April issue (n = 10), when the journal reached a printed page limit, leading to stricter judgment criteria and a relative decrease in acceptance rate. The number of foreign submissions in stages I through IV was 1, 2, zero and 17, respectively, with p < 0.001 for the comparison of stage IV with previous stages. SciELO indexing was associated with an increase in Brazilian manuscript submissions to Jornal de Pediatria, whereas MEDLINE indexing led to an increase in both Brazilian and foreign submissions.

  17. Comment on ``Implementing of a precision fast thermoelectric cooler using a personal computer parallel port connection and ADN8830 controller'' [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3862 (2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloman, A. W.

    2004-03-01

    Eli Flaxer has described a feedback controlled circuit to drive a Peltier junction to control the temperature of a specimen in the range 0 to 50 °C in a room temperature environment [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 3862 (2003)]. The amount of heat transferred per unit current by a Peltier junction varies substantially with the temperature difference across the Peltier junction. Flaxer's circuit does not provide any mechanism to compensate for this variation. This means that if the proportional-integral-differential control loop he uses is optimized at any particular temperature differential, the control loop with be over-damped at lower specimen temperatures, and under-damped at higher specimen temperatures. A circuit using a second thermistor to monitor the temperature of the exhaust side of the Peltier junction, and a digital control loop, can minimize this problem [A. W. Sloman, Paul Buggs, James Molloy, and Douglas Stewart, Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 1653 (1996)]. This circuit has the incidental advantage of offering ten times better temperature stability.

  18. Transposon-Assisted Genetic Engineering with Mos1-Mediated Single-Copy Insertion (MosSCI).

    PubMed

    Frøkjær-Jensen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Transgenesis in model organisms is necessary to determine the function, expression, and subcellular localization of gene products. In Caenorhabditis elegans, injected DNA can be propagated as multicopy extrachromosomal arrays but transgenes in arrays are mosaic, over-expressed in some tissues and silenced in the germline. Here, a method to insert a transgene into a specific genomic location called Mos1-mediated single-copy insertion (MosSCI) is described. Single-copy insertion allows transgene expression at levels that approximate endogenous gene expression as well as expression in the germline.

  19. Effects of Early Acute Care on Autonomic Outcomes in SCI: Bedside to Bench and Back

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    acute spinal cord lesion in humans via an indwelling lumbar catheter and compare this with the Mean Arterial Pressure to determine the Spinal Cord...higher than the number with thoracic and lumbar SCI: 218 (53.3%) tetraplegia versus 191 (46.7%) paraplegia (Table 1). The frequencies of concurrent...13.6%) 1 (7.7%) 0.171 Lumbar 4 (80%) 1 (3.0%) 2 (9.1%) 0 (0%) 0.024 Required two vasopressors 1 (20%) 11 (31.4%) 5 (21.7%) 3 (23.1%) 0.927 AIS, ASIA

  20. Measurement of Neutron and Muon Fluxes 100~m Underground with the SciBath Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, Lance

    2014-01-01

    The SciBath detector is an 80 liter liquid scintillator detector read out by a three dimensional grid of 768 wavelength-shifting fibers. Initially conceived as a fine-grained charged particle detector for neutrino studies that could image charged particle tracks in all directions, it is also sensitive to fast neutrons (15-200 MeV). In fall of 2011 the apparatus performed a three month run to measure cosmic-induced muons and neutrons 100~meters underground in the FNAL MINOS near-detector area. Data from this run has been analyzed and resulted in measurements of the cosmic muon flux as \

  1. [Analysis of acupuncture literatures published in Science Citation Index (SCI) periodicals in 2010].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yan; Li, Rui

    2012-08-01

    Acupuncture-related literatures published in foreign medical journal in Science Citation Index (SCI) periodicals in 2010 were retrieved, summarized and analyzed. The result shows that the recognition of acupuncture clinic abroad was still in the initial period. Most of the researches were still remained in the section of clinical efficacy verification. There was comparatively less studies on its working mechanism. Traditional treatments according to differentiation of syndromes were still deficient in clinical researches. There were big differences on research results, however, most of the result equated therapeutic effect of acupuncture with placeboes. And it was lack of unified and standard estimation system on the effect of acupuncture.

  2. Effects of Early Acute Care on Autonomic Outcomes in SCI: Bedside to Bench and Back

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-30

    reviewed   SCVMC  Trauma,  SCVMC  Neurosurgery,  SCVMC   Rehabilitation   ICU ,  SCVMC  Spinal  Cord  Injury  Service,   SCVMC...accessing a large dataset collected over the past several years from the ICU using the Aristein monitoring system which contains q 1min blood pressure...data for all SCI patients during their ICU stay. Data have been loaded into the HIPA compliant database ‘RedCap’ for querying. Dr. Whetstone has

  3. [Analysis on acupuncture related articles published in periodicals in science citation index (SCI) in 2008].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; He, Wen-Ju; Guo, Yi

    2010-09-01

    Acupuncture related articles published in periodicals in Science Citation Index (SCI) in 2008 were summarized and analyzed. About 583 articles were collected using "acupuncture" and "in 2008" as keywords in the Web of Science data base by information retrieval. These papers were summarized and analyzed from various aspects of country, language, subject category, literature type, publication sources, impact factor, research method, acupoints, disease category and needling methods by using Excel software combined with manual sorting of the literature, the aim is to provide a reference for domestic acupuncture research.

  4. SciFinder Scholar 2006: an empirical analysis of research topic query processing.

    PubMed

    Wagner, A Ben

    2006-01-01

    Topical search queries in SciFinder Scholar are processed through an extensive set of natural language processing algorithms that greatly enhance the relevance and comprehensiveness of the search results. Little detailed documentation on these algorithms has been published. However, a careful examination of the highlighted hit terms coupled with a comparison of results from small variations in query language reveal much additional, useful information about these algorithms. An understanding of how these algorithms work can lead to better search results and explain many unexpected results, including differing hit counts for singular versus plural query words and phrases.

  5. SciSpark: Highly Interactive and Scalable Model Evaluation and Climate Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Palamuttam, R. S.; Mogrovejo, R. M.; Whitehall, K. D.; Mattmann, C. A.; Verma, R.; Waliser, D. E.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing data and climate model output are multi-dimensional arrays of massive sizes locked away in heterogeneous file formats (HDF5/4, NetCDF 3/4) and metadata models (HDF-EOS, CF) making it difficult to perform multi-stage, iterative science processing since each stage requires writing and reading data to and from disk. We are developing a lightning fast Big Data technology called SciSpark based on ApacheTM Spark under a NASA AIST grant (PI Mattmann). Spark implements the map-reduce paradigm for parallel computing on a cluster, but emphasizes in-memory computation, "spilling" to disk only as needed, and so outperforms the disk-based ApacheTM Hadoop by 100x in memory and by 10x on disk. SciSpark will enable scalable model evaluation by executing large-scale comparisons of A-Train satellite observations to model grids on a cluster of 10 to 1000 compute nodes. This 2nd generation capability for NASA's Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES) will compute simple climate metrics at interactive speeds, and extend to quite sophisticated iterative algorithms such as machine-learning based clustering of temperature PDFs, and even graph-based algorithms for searching for Mesocale Convective Complexes. We have implemented a parallel data ingest capability in which the user specifies desired variables (arrays) as several time-sorted lists of URL's (i.e. using OPeNDAP model.nc?varname, or local files). The specified variables are partitioned by time/space and then each Spark node pulls its bundle of arrays into memory to begin a computation pipeline. We also investigated the performance of several N-dim. array libraries (scala breeze, java jblas & netlib-java, and ND4J). We are currently developing science codes using ND4J and studying memory behavior on the JVM. On the pyspark side, many of our science codes already use the numpy and SciPy ecosystems. The talk will cover: the architecture of SciSpark, the design of the scientific RDD (sRDD) data structure, our

  6. SciSpark: Highly Interactive and Scalable Model Evaluation and Climate Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Mattmann, C. A.; Waliser, D. E.; Kim, J.; Loikith, P.; Lee, H.; McGibbney, L. J.; Whitehall, K. D.

    2014-12-01

    Remote sensing data and climate model output are multi-dimensional arrays of massive sizes locked away in heterogeneous file formats (HDF5/4, NetCDF 3/4) and metadata models (HDF-EOS, CF) making it difficult to perform multi-stage, iterative science processing since each stage requires writing and reading data to and from disk. We are developing a lightning fast Big Data technology called SciSpark based on ApacheTM Spark. Spark implements the map-reduce paradigm for parallel computing on a cluster, but emphasizes in-memory computation, "spilling" to disk only as needed, and so outperforms the disk-based ApacheTM Hadoop by 100x in memory and by 10x on disk, and makes iterative algorithms feasible. SciSpark will enable scalable model evaluation by executing large-scale comparisons of A-Train satellite observations to model grids on a cluster of 100 to 1000 compute nodes. This 2nd generation capability for NASA's Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES) will compute simple climate metrics at interactive speeds, and extend to quite sophisticated iterative algorithms such as machine-learning (ML) based clustering of temperature PDFs, and even graph-based algorithms for searching for Mesocale Convective Complexes. The goals of SciSpark are to: (1) Decrease the time to compute comparison statistics and plots from minutes to seconds; (2) Allow for interactive exploration of time-series properties over seasons and years; (3) Decrease the time for satellite data ingestion into RCMES to hours; (4) Allow for Level-2 comparisons with higher-order statistics or PDF's in minutes to hours; and (5) Move RCMES into a near real time decision-making platform. We will report on: the architecture and design of SciSpark, our efforts to integrate climate science algorithms in Python and Scala, parallel ingest and partitioning (sharding) of A-Train satellite observations from HDF files and model grids from netCDF files, first parallel runs to compute comparison statistics and PDF

  7. MicroRNA-146a Contributes to SCI Recovery via Regulating TRAF6 and IRAK1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jinsong; Zhou, Yulan; Yan, Shouquan

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-146a participates in spinal cord injury (SCI) recovery. Until recently, how miRNA-146a participates in SCI remained unclear. In this study, we tried to explore the roles of miRNA-146a in the recovery of SCI using a rat model. The expression of the probable target genes of miRNA-146a (including IRAK1 and TARF6) as well as proinflammation cytokines were measured until 7 days after surgery in the three groups (sham group, SCI group, and miRNA-146a antagomir injection group). Also, the animals' motivations were estimated using Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) during the whole experiment. A luciferase assay was performed to demonstrate that miRNA-146a could directly target the mRNAs of IRAK1 and TRAF6. Our experiments indicate that miRNA-146a inhibits proinflammatory cytokine secretion by suppressing IRAK1 and TRAF6 expression in the SCI model. In contrast, miRNA-146a may be upregulated by inflammatory mediators via the IRAK1/TRAF6 pathway in the spinal cord. As a negative feedback element, miRNA-146a could make sure that the expression of IRAK1- and TRAF6-mediated genes was under tight control. Thus, miRNA-146a may serve as a novel therapeutic target for SCI interventions. PMID:27830143

  8. Ontological Encoding of GeoSciML and INSPIRE geological standard vocabularies and schemas: application to geological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Vincenzo; Piana, Fabrizio; Mimmo, Dario; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Encoding of geologic knowledge in formal languages is an ambitious task, aiming at the interoperability and organic representation of geological data, and semantic characterization of geologic maps. Initiatives such as GeoScience Markup Language (last version is GeoSciML 4, 2015[1]) and INSPIRE "Data Specification on Geology" (an operative simplification of GeoSciML, last version is 3.0 rc3, 2013[2]), as well as the recent terminological shepherding of the Geoscience Terminology Working Group (GTWG[3]) have been promoting information exchange of the geologic knowledge. There have also been limited attempts to encode the knowledge in a machine-readable format, especially in the lithology domain (see e.g. the CGI_Lithology ontology[4]), but a comprehensive ontological model that connect the several knowledge sources is still lacking. This presentation concerns the "OntoGeonous" initiative, which aims at encoding the geologic knowledge, as expressed through the standard vocabularies, schemas and data models mentioned above, through a number of interlinked computational ontologies, based on the languages of the Semantic Web and the paradigm of Linked Open Data. The initiative proceeds in parallel with a concrete case study, concerning the setting up of a synthetic digital geological map of the Piemonte region (NW Italy), named "GEOPiemonteMap" (developed by the CNR Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, CNR IGG, Torino), where the description and classification of GeologicUnits has been supported by the modeling and implementation of the ontologies. We have devised a tripartite ontological model called OntoGeonous that consists of: 1) an ontology of the geologic features (in particular, GeologicUnit, GeomorphologicFeature, and GeologicStructure[5], modeled from the definitions and UML schemata of CGI vocabularies[6], GeoScienceML and INSPIRE, and aligned with the Planetary realm of NASA SWEET ontology[7]), 2) an ontology of the Earth materials (as defined by the

  9. Lakes or wetlands? A comment on 'The middle Holocene climatic records from Arabia: Reassessing lacustrine environments, shift of ITCZ in Arabian Sea, and impacts of the southwest Indian and African monsoons' by Enzel et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Max; Matter, Albert; Parker, Adrian G.; Parton, Ash; Petraglia, Michael D.; Preston, Gareth W.; Preusser, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Enzel et al. (2015) reassess sedimentary records of Early to Mid-Holocene lake sites in Arabia based on a reinterpretation of published multiproxy data and a qualitative analysis of satellite imagery. The authors conclude that these sites represent palaeo-wetland environments rather than palaeolakes and that the majority of the Arabian Peninsula experienced no or, if at all, only a very minor increase of rainfall at that time mainly due to eastward expansion of the East African Summer Monsoon. We disagree with their reassessment and identify several cases where unequivocal evidence for early Late Pleistocene and Early to Mid-Holocene perennial lake environments in Arabia, lasting for centuries to millennia, was neglected by Enzel et al. (2015). Here we summarize findings which indicate the presence of lakes from the sites of Jubbah, Tayma, Mundafan (all Saudi Arabia), Wahalah, Awafi (both UAE), and the Wahiba Sands (Oman), supported by evidence including occurrence of barnacle colonies in living position, remnant bioclastic shoreline deposits, undisturbed varve formation, shallowing-up lacustrine sequences, various aquatic freshwater, brackish and saline micro- and macrofossils, such as ichnofaunal remains, which are the result of prolonged field-based research. While the precise depth, hydrology and ecology of these water bodies is still not entirely resolved, their perennial nature is indicative of a markedly increased precipitation regime, which, in combination with more abundant groundwater and increased spring outflow in terminal basins fed by charged aquifers, was sufficient to overcome evaporative losses. The palaeolakes' influence on sustaining prehistoric populations is corroborated by the presence of rich archaeological evidence.

  10. Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional (UNEDF). SciDAC-2 Project

    SciTech Connect

    Vary, James P.; Carlson, Joe; Furnstahl, Dick; Horoi, Mihai; Lusk, Rusty; Nazarewicz, Witek; Ng, Esmond; Thompson, Ian

    2012-09-29

    An understanding of the properties of atomic nuclei is crucial for a complete nuclear theory, for element formation, for properties of stars, and for present and future energy and defense applications. During the period of Dec. 1 2006 – Jun. 30, 2012, the UNEDF collaboration carried out a comprehensive study of all nuclei, based on the most accurate knowledge of the strong nuclear interaction, the most reliable theoretical approaches, the most advanced algorithms, and extensive computational resources, with a view towards scaling to the petaflop platforms and beyond. Until recently such an undertaking was hard to imagine, and even at the present time such an ambitious endeavor would be far beyond what a single researcher or a traditional research group could carry out. The UNEDF SciDAC project has developed several key computational codes and algorithms for reaching the goal of solving the nuclear quantum many-body problem throughout the chart of nuclei. Without such developments, scientific progress would not be possible. In addition the UNEDF SciDAC successfully applied these developments to solve many forefront research problems.

  11. Scientific support of SciTech museum exhibits and outreach programs

    SciTech Connect

    Peshkin, M.

    1995-08-01

    SciTech (Science and Technology Interactive Center) is a small hands-on science museum located in Aurora, Illinois, not far from Argonne National Laboratory. Its constituency includes prosperous suburbs and economically disadvantaged minority communities in Aurora and Chicago. Its mission is to contribute to the country`s scientific literacy initiative by offering hands-on experiences on the museum floor and through outreach programs extended to school children, their teachers, and other groups. Argonne`s participation is focused mainly on the development of exhibits to carry the ideas of modern science and technology to the public. This is an area in which traditional museums are weak, but in which SciTech has become a nationally recognized leader with the assistance of Argonne, Fermilab, nearby technological companies, and many volunteer scientists and engineers. We also participate in development and improvement of the museum`s general exhibits and outreach programs. Argonne`s Director, Alan Schriesheim, serves as a member of the museum`s Board of Directors. Murray Peshkin serves part-time as the museum`s Senior Scientist. Dale Henderson serves part-time as an exhibit developer. That work is supported by the Laboratory Director`s discretionary funds. In addition, several members of the Physics Division voluntarily assist with exhibit development and the Division makes facilities available for that effort.

  12. SciDAC Advances in Beam Dynamics Simulation: From Light Sources to Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, J.; Borland, M.; Kabel, A.; Li, R.; Ryne, R.; Stern, E.; Wang, Y.; Wasserman, H.; Zhang, Y.; /SLAC

    2011-11-14

    In this paper, we report on progress that has been made in beam dynamics simulation, from light sources to colliders, during the first year of the SciDAC-2 accelerator project 'Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS).' Several parallel computational tools for beam dynamics simulation are described. Also presented are number of applications in current and future accelerator facilities (e.g., LCLS, RHIC, Tevatron, LHC, and ELIC). Particle accelerators are some of most important tools of scientific discovery. They are widely used in high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and other basic and applied sciences to study the interaction of elementary particles, to probe the internal structure of matter, and to generate high-brightness radiation for research in materials science, chemistry, biology, and other fields. Modern accelerators are complex and expensive devices that may be several kilometers long and may consist of thousands of beamline elements. An accelerator may transport trillions of charged particles that interact electromagnetically among themselves, that interact with fields produced by the accelerator components, and that interact with beam-induced fields. Large-scale beam dynamics simulations on massively parallel computers can help provide understanding of these complex physical phenomena, help minimize design cost, and help optimize machine operation. In this paper, we report on beam dynamics simulations in a variety of accelerators ranging from next generation light sources to high-energy ring colliders that have been studied during the first year of the SciDAC-2 accelerator project.

  13. Performance Engineering Research Institute SciDAC-2 Enabling Technologies Institute Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Mary

    2014-09-19

    Enhancing the performance of SciDAC applications on petascale systems has high priority within DOE SC. As we look to the future, achieving expected levels of performance on high-end com-puting (HEC) systems is growing ever more challenging due to enormous scale, increasing archi-tectural complexity, and increasing application complexity. To address these challenges, PERI has implemented a unified, tripartite research plan encompassing: (1) performance modeling and prediction; (2) automatic performance tuning; and (3) performance engineering of high profile applications. The PERI performance modeling and prediction activity is developing and refining performance models, significantly reducing the cost of collecting the data upon which the models are based, and increasing model fidelity, speed and generality. Our primary research activity is automatic tuning (autotuning) of scientific software. This activity is spurred by the strong user preference for automatic tools and is based on previous successful activities such as ATLAS, which has automatically tuned components of the LAPACK linear algebra library, and other re-cent work on autotuning domain-specific libraries. Our third major component is application en-gagement, to which we are devoting approximately 30% of our effort to work directly with Sci-DAC-2 applications. This last activity not only helps DOE scientists meet their near-term per-formance goals, but also helps keep PERI research focused on the real challenges facing DOE computational scientists as they enter the Petascale Era.

  14. SciDAC - The Scientific Data Management Center (http://sdmcenter.lbl.gov)

    SciTech Connect

    Ling Liu Calton Pu

    2005-06-20

    In SciDAC SDM project, the main assignment to the Georgia Institute of Technology team (according to the proposed work) is to develop advanced information extraction and information integration technologies on top of the XWRAP technology originated from Georgia Tech [LPH01]. We have developed XWRAPComposer technology to enable the XWRAP code generator to generate Java information wrappers that are capable of extraction of data from multiple linked pages. These information wrappers are used as gateways or adaptors for scientific information mediators to access and fuse interesting data and answering complex queries over a large collection of heterogeneous scientific information sources. Our accomplishments over the SciDAC sponsored years (July 2001 to July 2004) can be summarized along two dimensions. Technically, we have produced a number of major software releases and published over 30 research papers in both international conferences and international journals. The planned software releases include 1. Five Java wrappers and five WDSL-enabled wrappers for SDM Pilot scenarios, which were released in early 2003, 2. The XWRAPComposer toolkit (command line version) which was first released in late 2003 and then released in Summer 2004, 3. Five Ptolemy wrapper actors which were released first in Summer 2003, and then released again in Fall 2005. 4. The decomposable XWRAPComposer actor in Ptolemy, which we have made it available as open source in end of 2004 and tested it in early 2005.

  15. Neuroinflammatory contributions to pain after SCI: roles for central glial mechanisms and nociceptor-mediated host defense.

    PubMed

    Walters, Edgar T

    2014-08-01

    Neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) is common, often intractable, and can be severely debilitating. A number of mechanisms have been proposed for this pain, which are discussed briefly, along with methods for revealing SCI pain in animal models, such as the recently applied conditioned place preference test. During the last decade, studies of animal models have shown that both central neuroinflammation and behavioral hypersensitivity (indirect reflex measures of pain) persist chronically after SCI. Interventions that reduce neuroinflammation have been found to ameliorate pain-related behavior, such as treatment with agents that inhibit the activation states of microglia and/or astroglia (including IL-10, minocycline, etanercept, propentofylline, ibudilast, licofelone, SP600125, carbenoxolone). Reversal of pain-related behavior has also been shown with disruption by an inhibitor (CR8) and/or genetic deletion of cell cycle-related proteins, deletion of a truncated receptor (trkB.T1) for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or reduction by antisense knockdown or an inhibitor (AMG9810) of the activity of channels (TRPV1 or Nav1.8) important for electrical activity in primary nociceptors. Nociceptor activity is known to drive central neuroinflammation in peripheral injury models, and nociceptors appear to be an integral component of host defense. Thus, emerging results suggest that spinal and systemic effects of SCI can activate nociceptor-mediated host defense responses that interact via neuroinflammatory signaling with complex central consequences of SCI to drive chronic pain. This broader view of SCI-induced neuroinflammation suggests new targets, and additional complications, for efforts to develop effective treatments for neuropathic SCI pain.

  16. Sterilization-CO2-Injection (SCI) BaPS: Establishment of a new method to measure rates of soil respiration and gross nitrification in calcareous agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrads, Hannah; Ingwersen, Joachim; Streck, Thilo

    2013-04-01

    out that with the acidic soils no significant differences in the nitrification rates between the standard BaPS method and the SCI-BaPS method were found whereas with calcareous soils nitrification rates calculated with the standard BaPS method were 60 to 180% higher than the nitrification rates measured with the SCI-BaPS. Comparing SCI-BaPS nitrification rates with 15N pool dilution results, with all soils BaPS rates were always higher than 15N rates, which suggests a systematic overestimation due to the utilization of an inadequate respiration quotient (RQ = dCO2,R/dO2,R = 1). For all soils the RQ values were adjusted such that BaPS nitrification rates matched the 15N rates (Müller et al., 2004). This procedure yielded a mean optimum RQ value of 0.9. After this adjustment both methods yielded comparable results. Further, temperature and moisture dependency of the CO2,aq flux and dissolution dynamics were studied and will be presented.

  17. Social Competence Intervention for Parents (SCI-P): Comparing Outcomes for a Parent Education Program Targeting Adolescents with ASD

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Tia R.; Stichter, Janine P.; Herzog, Melissa J.; McGhee, Stephanie D.; Lierheimer, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that parent education programs can address some of the distinct challenges that parents of youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) encounter. This study examined the effectiveness of the Social Competence Intervention for Parents (SCI-P), a parent education program, administered in conjunction with a social competence intervention that targeted youth with ASD ages 11–14 (SCI-A). Using a quasi-experimental pre-post design, parents were assigned to either the SCI-P group (n = 16) or to the waitlist comparison group (n = 10). Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) revealed a significant effect for parent education participation such that SCI-P participants experienced significantly greater reductions in levels of stress and a trend for increases in parenting sense of competence from pre- to post-intervention. Moreover, parents in the SCI-P group reported high satisfaction with the program. These findings suggest that parent education can result in positive outcomes for parents' well being. PMID:22934178

  18. Transporter Protein-Coupled DPCPX Nanoconjugates Induce Diaphragmatic Recovery after SCI by Blocking Adenosine A1 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Minic, Zeljka; Zhang, Yanhua; Mao, Guangzhao

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory complications in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) are common and have a negative impact on the quality of patients' lives. Systemic administration of drugs that improve respiratory function often cause deleterious side effects. The present study examines the applicability of a novel nanotechnology-based drug delivery system, which induces recovery of diaphragm function after SCI in the adult rat model. We developed a protein-coupled nanoconjugate to selectively deliver by transsynaptic transport small therapeutic amounts of an A1 adenosine receptor antagonist to the respiratory centers. A single administration of the nanoconjugate restored 75% of the respiratory drive at 0.1% of the systemic therapeutic drug dose. The reduction of the systemic dose may obviate the side effects. The recovery lasted for 4 weeks (the longest period studied). These findings have translational implications for patients with respiratory dysfunction after SCI. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The leading causes of death in humans following SCI are respiratory complications secondary to paralysis of respiratory muscles. Systemic administration of methylxantines improves respiratory function but also leads to the development of deleterious side effects due to actions of the drug on nonrespiratory sites. The importance of the present study lies in the novel drug delivery approach that uses nanotechnology to selectively deliver recovery-inducing drugs to the respiratory centers exclusively. This strategy allows for a reduction in the therapeutic drug dose, which may reduce harmful side effects and markedly improve the quality of life for SCI patients. PMID:27013674

  19. Further Precipitation Reactions Associated with Beta’ (Al3Zr) Particles in Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Gregson 8’ precipitation in Al-Li-Mg-Cu-Zr alloys. H.M. Flower J. Mater. Sci. Lett., 3, 829 (1984) 5 P.L. Makin On the ageing of an aluminium-lithium...Technol., 2, 349 (1986) 8 H.M. Flower The effect of composition and heat treatment upon the et al microstructure/property relationships in Al-Li-Cu-Mg...1119 REFERENCES concluded) No. Author Title, etc 10 P.J. Gregon Microstructural control of toughness in aluminium- H.M. Flower lithium alloys. Acta

  20. Towards molecular computers that operate in a biological environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahan, Maya; Gil, Binyamin; Adar, Rivka; Shapiro, Ehud

    2008-07-01

    Even though electronic computers are the only computer species we are accustomed to, the mathematical notion of a programmable computer has nothing to do with electronics. In fact, Alan Turing’s notional computer [L.M. Turing, On computable numbers, with an application to the entcheidungsproblem, Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. 42 (1936) 230-265], which marked in 1936 the birth of modern computer science and still stands at its heart, has greater similarity to natural biomolecular machines such as the ribosome and polymerases than to electronic computers. This similarity led to the investigation of DNA-based computers [C.H. Bennett, The thermodynamics of computation - Review, Int. J. Theoret. Phys. 21 (1982) 905-940; A.M. Adleman, Molecular computation of solutions to combinatorial problems, Science 266 (1994) 1021-1024]. Although parallelism, sequence specific hybridization and storage capacity, inherent to DNA and RNA molecules, can be exploited in molecular computers to solve complex mathematical problems [Q. Ouyang, et al., DNA solution of the maximal clique problem, Science 278 (1997) 446-449; R.J. Lipton, DNA solution of hard computational problems, Science 268 (1995) 542-545; R.S. Braich, et al., Solution of a 20-variable 3-SAT problem on a DNA computer, Science 296 (2002) 499-502; Liu Q., et al., DNA computing on surfaces, Nature 403 (2000) 175-179; D. Faulhammer, et al., Molecular computation: RNA solutions to chess problems, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97 (2000) 1385-1389; C. Mao, et al., Logical computation using algorithmic self-assembly of DNA triple-crossover molecules, Nature 407 (2000) 493-496; A.J. Ruben, et al., The past, present and future of molecular computing, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell. Biol. 1 (2000) 69-72], we believe that the more significant potential of molecular computers lies in their ability to interact directly with a biochemical environment such as the bloodstream and living cells. From this perspective, even simple molecular computations may have

  1. Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Bladder Management Difficulties and Bowel Management Difficulties item banks and short forms and the SCI-QOL Bladder Complications scale

    PubMed Central

    Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Tate, Denise G.; Spungen, Ann M.; Kirshblum, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and psychometric properties of the Spinal Cord Injury – Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Bladder Management Difficulties and Bowel Management Difficulties item banks and Bladder Complications scale. Design Using a mixed-methods design, a pool of items assessing bladder and bowel-related concerns were developed using focus groups with individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and SCI clinicians, cognitive interviews, and item response theory (IRT) analytic approaches, including tests of model fit and differential item functioning. Setting Thirty-eight bladder items and 52 bowel items were tested at the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation Research Center, the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital, and the James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY. Participants Seven hundred fifty-seven adults with traumatic SCI. Results The final item banks demonstrated unidimensionality (Bladder Management Difficulties CFI = 0.965; RMSEA = 0.093; Bowel Management Difficulties CFI = 0.955; RMSEA = 0.078) and acceptable fit to a graded response IRT model. The final calibrated Bladder Management Difficulties bank includes 15 items, and the final Bowel Management Difficulties item bank consists of 26 items. Additionally, 5 items related to urinary tract infections (UTI) did not fit with the larger Bladder Management Difficulties item bank but performed relatively well independently (CFI = 0.992, RMSEA = 0.050) and were thus retained as a separate scale. Conclusion The SCI-QOL Bladder Management Difficulties and Bowel Management Difficulties item banks are psychometrically robust and are available as computer adaptive tests or short forms. The SCI-QOL Bladder Complications scale is a brief, fixed-length outcomes instrument for individuals with a UTI. PMID:26010964

  2. VACET: Proposed SciDAC2 Visualization and Analytics Center forEnabling Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, W.; Johnson, Chris; Hansen, Charles; Parker, Steve; Sanderson, Allen; Silva, Claudio; Tricoche, Xavier; Pascucci, Valerio; Childs, Hank; Cohen, Jonathon; Duchaineau, Mark; Laney, Dan; Lindstrom,Peter; Ahern, Sean; Meredith, Jeremy; Ostrouchov, George; Joy, Ken; Hamann, Bernd

    2006-06-19

    This paper accompanies a poster that is being presented atthe SciDAC 2006 meeting in Denver, CO. This project focuses on leveragingscientific visualization and analytics software technology as an enablingtechnology for increasing scientific productivity and insight. Advancesincomputational technology have resultedin an "information big bang,"which in turn has createda significant data understanding challenge. Thischallenge is widely acknowledged to be one of the primary bottlenecks incontemporary science. The vision for our Center is to respond directly tothat challenge by adapting, extending, creating when necessary anddeploying visualization and data understanding technologies for ourscience stakeholders. Using an organizational model as a Visualizationand Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET), we are wellpositioned to be responsive to the needs of a diverse set of scientificstakeholders in a coordinated fashion using a range of visualization,mathematics, statistics, computer and computational science and datamanagement technologies.

  3. Recent progress in CdTe solar cell research at SCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasala, R. A.; Powell, R. C.; Dorer, G. L.; Reiter, N.

    1997-02-01

    Research at Solar Cells Inc. is focused on developing processes which will lead to high volume and low cost manufacturing of solar cells and to increase the performance of our present technology. The process research has focused on developing vapor transport deposition of the semiconductors, eliminating wet chemistry steps while minimizing the chloride treatment time, forming a low-loss back contact using only dry processing, and an improved interconnection technique. The performance improvement work has focused on the increase of the photocurrent by a combination of more transparent glass substrates and a thinner CdS window layer deposited on an i-SnO2 buffer layer. SCI record 13.0% 1 cm2 devices have been fabricated using these techniques. Stability monitoring continues and shows minimal degradation for over 20,000 hours of continuous light soak at 0.8 sun illumination.

  4. Open for collaboration: an academic platform for drug discovery and development at SciLifeLab.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Per I; Sandberg, Kristian; Forsberg-Nilsson, Karin

    2016-10-01

    The Science for Life Laboratory Drug Discovery and Development (SciLifeLab DDD) platform reaches out to Swedish academia with an industry-standard infrastructure for academic drug discovery, supported by earmarked funds from the Swedish government. In this review, we describe the build-up and operation of the platform, and reflect on our first two years of operation, with the ambition to share learnings and best practice with academic drug discovery centers globally. We also discuss how the Swedish Teacher Exemption Law, an internationally unique aspect of the innovation system, has shaped the operation. Furthermore, we address how this investment in infrastructure and expertise can be utilized to facilitate international collaboration between academia and industry in the best interest of those ultimately benefiting the most from translational pharmaceutical research - the patients.

  5. SciData: a data model and ontology for semantic representation of scientific data.

    PubMed

    Chalk, Stuart J

    2016-01-01

    With the move toward global, Internet enabled science there is an inherent need to capture, store, aggregate and search scientific data across a large corpus of heterogeneous data silos. As a result, standards development is needed to create an infrastructure capable of representing the diverse nature of scientific data. This paper describes a fundamental data model for scientific data that can be applied to data currently stored in any format, and an associated ontology that affords semantic representation of the structure of scientific data (and its metadata), upon which discipline specific semantics can be applied. Application of this data model to experimental and computational chemistry data are presented, implemented using JavaScript Object Notation for Linked Data. Full examples are available at the project website (Chalk in SciData: a scientific data model. http://stuchalk.github.io/scidata/, 2016).

  6. The Virtual Earth-Solar Observatory of the SCiESMEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De la Luz, V.; Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Cifuentes-Nava, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Mexican Space Weather Service (SCiESMEX, http://www.sciesmex.unam.mx) started operations in October 2014. The project includes the Virtual Earth-Solar Observatory (VESO, http://www.veso.unam.mx). The VESO is a improved project wich objetive is integrate the space weather instrumentation network from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The network includes the Mexican Array Radiotelescope (MEXART), the Callisto receptor (MEXART), a Neutron Telescope, a Cosmic Ray Telescope. the Schumann Antenna, the National Magnetic Service, and the mexican GPS network (TlalocNet). The VESO facility is located at the Geophysics Institute campus Michoacan (UNAM). We offer the service of data store, real-time data, and quasi real-time data. The hardware of VESO includes a High Performance Computer (HPC) dedicated specially to big data storage.

  7. Extraordinary Tools for Extraordinary Science: The Impact ofSciDAC on Accelerator Science&Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, Robert D.

    2006-08-10

    Particle accelerators are among the most complex and versatile instruments of scientific exploration. They have enabled remarkable scientific discoveries and important technological advances that span all programs within the DOE Office of Science (DOE/SC). The importance of accelerators to the DOE/SC mission is evident from an examination of the DOE document, ''Facilities for the Future of Science: A Twenty-Year Outlook''. Of the 28 facilities listed, 13 involve accelerators. Thanks to SciDAC, a powerful suite of parallel simulation tools has been developed that represent a paradigm shift in computational accelerator science. Simulations that used to take weeks or more now take hours, and simulations that were once thought impossible are now performed routinely. These codes have been applied to many important projects of DOE/SC including existing facilities (the Tevatron complex, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider), facilities under construction (the Large Hadron Collider, the Spallation Neutron Source, the Linac Coherent Light Source), and to future facilities (the International Linear Collider, the Rare Isotope Accelerator). The new codes have also been used to explore innovative approaches to charged particle acceleration. These approaches, based on the extremely intense fields that can be present in lasers and plasmas, may one day provide a path to the outermost reaches of the energy frontier. Furthermore, they could lead to compact, high-gradient accelerators that would have huge consequences for US science and technology, industry, and medicine. In this talk I will describe the new accelerator modeling capabilities developed under SciDAC, the essential role of multi-disciplinary collaboration with applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and other IT experts in developing these capabilities, and provide examples of how the codes have been used to support DOE/SC accelerator projects.

  8. PACIFIC: the readout ASIC for the SciFi Tracker of the upgraded LHCb detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazorra, J.; Chanal, H.; Comerma, A.; Gascón, D.; Gómez, S.; Han, X.; Pillet, N.; Vandaele, R.

    2016-02-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and will switch to a 40 MHz readout rate using a trigger-less software based system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with the higher detector occupancy and radiation damage. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed and a custom ASIC, called the low-Power ASIC for the sCIntillating FIbres traCker (PACIFIC), will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. This article presents an overview of the R&D for the PACIFIC. It is a 64-channel ASIC implemented in 130 nm CMOS technology, aiming at a radiation tolerant design with a power consumption below 10 mW per channel. It interfaces directly with the SiPM anode through a current mode input, and provides a configurable non-linear 2-bit per channel digital output. The SiPM signal is acquired by a current conveyor and processed with a fast shaper and a gated integrator. The digitization is performed using a three threshold non-linear flash ADC operating at 40 MHz. Simulation and test results show the PACIFIC chip prototypes functioning well.

  9. Extraordinary tools for extraordinary science: the impact of SciDAC on accelerator science and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryne, Robert D.

    2006-09-01

    Particle accelerators are among the most complex and versatile instruments of scientific exploration. They have enabled remarkable scientific discoveries and important technological advances that span all programs within the DOE Office of Science (DOE/SC). The importance of accelerators to the DOE/SC mission is evident from an examination of the DOE document, ''Facilities for the Future of Science: A Twenty-Year Outlook.'' Of the 28 facilities listed, 13 involve accelerators. Thanks to SciDAC, a powerful suite of parallel simulation tools has been developed that represent a paradigm shift in computational accelerator science. Simulations that used to take weeks or more now take hours, and simulations that were once thought impossible are now performed routinely. These codes have been applied to many important projects of DOE/SC including existing facilities (the Tevatron complex, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider), facilities under construction (the Large Hadron Collider, the Spallation Neutron Source, the Linac Coherent Light Source), and to future facilities (the International Linear Collider, the Rare Isotope Accelerator). The new codes have also been used to explore innovative approaches to charged particle acceleration. These approaches, based on the extremely intense fields that can be present in lasers and plasmas, may one day provide a path to the outermost reaches of the energy frontier. Furthermore, they could lead to compact, high-gradient accelerators that would have huge consequences for US science and technology, industry, and medicine. In this talk I will describe the new accelerator modeling capabilities developed under SciDAC, the essential role of multi-disciplinary collaboration with applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and other IT experts in developing these capabilities, and provide examples of how the codes have been used to support DOE/SC accelerator projects.

  10. Modified Ashworth scale reliability for measurement of lower extremity spasticity among patients with SCI.

    PubMed

    Craven, B C; Morris, A R

    2010-03-01

    Observational study. To report the intra-rater (one rater), inter-rater (two raters) and inter-session (one subject, sessions 1-5) reliability of lower extremity modified Ashworth scale (MAS) scores among patients with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Tertiary Academic Rehab Centre in Toronto, Canada. MAS scores of 20 subjects with chronic SCI (C5-T10 AIS A-D>12 months) were recorded for the hip abductors and adductors, knee flexors and extensors, and ankle plantar and dorsiflexors. MAS scores were assessed by two blinded raters (A and B) at the same time of day, weekly for 5 weeks using standardized test positions, a one-cycle per second metronome, with ratings recorded on the second cycle. MAS score reproducibility [intra-rater, inter-rater] were calculated using Cohen's Kappa. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to determine inter-session (trials 1-5) reliability; Kappa values >or=0.81 and ICC values >or=0.75 were desired. Intra-rater reliability was fair to almost perfect (0.2

  11. [Summarization and analysis on the acupuncture-related articles published in science citation index (SCI) periodicals in 2005].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jia-Yue; Wu, Li-Ping; Guo, Yi

    2007-04-01

    To retrieve, summarize and analyze journals and articles related to acupuncture published in SCI periodicals in 2005, so as to understand the international dynamics about acupuncture researches. The articles about treatment and mechanisms of acupuncture published in SCI periodicals in 2005 were found out and searched for by acupuncture information retrieval online and databank. Most of the 72 SCI periodicals retrieved are from the west, with 147 articles of acupuncture published, and Lancet has the highest impact factors of 23. 407. The kinds of the journals and articles publishing acupuncture researches are increasing, with varied types, rich and varied contents, and increasing the design level. However, the results of the studies are vastly different due to differences of experimental methods, objects and acupuncture manipulations. Therefore, standardization of acupuncture studies is extremely urgent.

  12. SciDAC's Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies Semiannual Progress Report October 1, 2010 through March 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.

    2011-04-02

    This report summarizes work carried out by the Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) from October 1, 2010 through March 31, 2011. It discusses ESG-CET highlights for the reporting period, overall progress, period goals, and collaborations, and lists papers and presentations. To learn more about our project and to find previous reports, please visit the ESG-CET Web sites: http://esg-pcmdi.llnl.gov/ and/or https://wiki.ucar.edu/display/esgcet/Home. This report will be forwarded to managers in the Department of Energy (DOE) Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER), as well as national and international collaborators and stakeholders (e.g., those involved in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 (CMIP5) for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (AR5); the Community Earth System Model (CESM); the Climate Science Computational End Station (CCES); SciDAC II: A Scalable and Extensible Earth System Model for Climate Change Science; the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP); the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)), and also to researchers working on a variety of other climate model and observation evaluation activities. The ESG-CET executive committee consists of Dean N. Williams, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Ian Foster, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); and Don Middleton, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The ESG-CET team is a group of researchers and scientists with diverse domain knowledge, whose home institutions include eight laboratories and two universities: ANL, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), LLNL, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NCAR, Oak Ridge National

  13. SciNOvA: A Measurement of Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering in a Narrow-Band Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Paley, J.; Djurcic, Z.; Harris, D.; Tesarek, R.; Feldman, G.; Corwin, L.; Messier, M.D.; Mayer, N.; Musser, J.; Paley, J.; Tayloe, R.; /Indiana U. /Iowa State U. /Minnesota U. /South Carolina U. /Wichita State U. /William-Mary Coll.

    2010-10-15

    We propose to construct and deploy a fine-grained detector in the Fermilab NOvA 2 GeV narrow-band neutrino beam. In this beam, the detector can make unique contributions to the measurement of quasi-elastic scattering, neutral-current elastic scattering, neutral-current {pi}{sup 0} production, and enhance the NOvA measurements of electron neutrino appearance. To minimize cost and risks, the proposed detector is a copy of the SciBar detector originally built for the K2K long baseline experiment and used recently in the SciBooNE experiment.

  14. Measurement of the nu(mu)-CCQE cross-section in the SciBooNE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaraz-Aunion, Jose Luis; Walding, Joseph; /Imperial Coll., London

    2009-09-01

    SciBooNE is a neutrino and anti-neutrino cross-section experiment at Fermilab, USA. The SciBooNE experiment is summarized and two independent CCQE analyses are described. For one of the analyses, an absolute {nu}{sub {mu}}-CCQE cross section in the neutrino energy region (0.6-1.6) GeV is shown and the technique developed for such a purpose is also explained. The total cross section measured over this energy range agrees well with expectations, based on the NEUT event generator and using a value of 1.21 GeV for the CCQE axial mass.

  15. Use, knowledge, and perception of the scientific contribution of Sci-Hub in medical students: Study in six countries in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Christian R; Valladares-Garrido, Mario J; Miñan-Tapia, Armando; Serrano, Felipe T; Tobler-Gómez, Liz E; Pereda-Castro, William; Mendoza-Flores, Cynthia R; Mundaca-Manay, Maria Y; Valladares-Garrido, Danai

    2017-01-01

    Sci-Hub is a useful web portal for people working in science as it provides access to millions of free scientific articles. Satisfaction and usage should be explored in the Latino student population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use, knowledge, and perception of the scientific contribution of Sci-Hub in medical students from Latin America. A multicenter, observational, analytical study was conducted in 6632 medical students from 6 countries in Latin America. We surveyed from a previously validated instrument, delving into knowledge, monthly average usage, satisfaction level, and perception of the scientific contributions provided by Sci-Hub. Frequencies and percentages are described, and generalized linear models were used to establish statistical associations. Only 19.2% of study participants knew of Sci-Hub and its function, while the median use was twice a month. 29.9% of Sci-Hub-aware participants claimed they always find the desired scientific information in their Sci-Hub search; 62.5% of participants affirmed that Sci-Hub contributes to scientific investigation; only 2.2% reported that Sci-Hub does not contribute to science. The majority of Latino students are not aware of Sci-Hub.

  16. Measuring stigma after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Stigma item bank and short form

    PubMed Central

    Kisala, Pamela A.; Tulsky, David S.; Pace, Natalie; Victorson, David; Choi, Seung W.; Heinemann, Allen W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a calibrated item bank and computer adaptive test (CAT) to assess the effects of stigma on health-related quality of life in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Grounded-theory based qualitative item development methods, large-scale item calibration field testing, confirmatory factor analysis, and item response theory (IRT)-based psychometric analyses. Setting Five SCI Model System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States. Participants Adults with traumatic SCI. Main Outcome Measures SCI-QOL Stigma Item Bank Results A sample of 611 individuals with traumatic SCI completed 30 items assessing SCI-related stigma. After 7 items were iteratively removed, factor analyses confirmed a unidimensional pool of items. Graded Response Model IRT analyses were used to estimate slopes and thresholds for the final 23 items. Conclusions The SCI-QOL Stigma item bank is unique not only in the assessment of SCI-related stigma but also in the inclusion of individuals with SCI in all phases of its development. Use of confirmatory factor analytic and IRT methods provide flexibility and precision of measurement. The item bank may be administered as a CAT or as a 10-item fixed-length short form and can be used for research and clinical applications. PMID:26010973

  17. Predicting plants -modeling traits as a function of environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Oskar

    2016-04-01

    A central problem in understanding and modeling vegetation dynamics is how to represent the variation in plant properties and function across different environments. Addressing this problem there is a strong trend towards trait-based approaches, where vegetation properties are functions of the distributions of functional traits rather than of species. Recently there has been enormous progress in in quantifying trait variability and its drivers and effects (Van Bodegom et al. 2012; Adier et al. 2014; Kunstler et al. 2015) based on wide ranging datasets on a small number of easily measured traits, such as specific leaf area (SLA), wood density and maximum plant height. However, plant function depends on many other traits and while the commonly measured trait data are valuable, they are not sufficient for driving predictive and mechanistic models of vegetation dynamics -especially under novel climate or management conditions. For this purpose we need a model to predict functional traits, also those not easily measured, and how they depend on the plants' environment. Here I present such a mechanistic model based on fitness concepts and focused on traits related to water and light limitation of trees, including: wood density, drought response, allocation to defense, and leaf traits. The model is able to predict observed patterns of variability in these traits in relation to growth and mortality, and their responses to a gradient of water limitation. The results demonstrate that it is possible to mechanistically predict plant traits as a function of the environment based on an eco-physiological model of plant fitness. References Adier, P.B., Salguero-Gómez, R., Compagnoni, A., Hsu, J.S., Ray-Mukherjee, J., Mbeau-Ache, C. et al. (2014). Functional traits explain variation in plant lifehistory strategies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 111, 740-745. Kunstler, G., Falster, D., Coomes, D.A., Hui, F., Kooyman, R.M., Laughlin, D.C. et al. (2015). Plant functional traits

  18. Interactions in Ternary Mixtures of MnO2, Al2O3, and Natural Organic Matter (NOM) and the Impact on MnO2 Oxidative Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Taujale, Saru; Baratta, Laura R; Huang, Jianzhi; Zhang, Huichun

    2016-03-01

    Our previous work reported that Al2O3 inhibited the oxidative reactivity of MnO2 through heteroaggregation between oxide particles and surface complexation of the dissolved Al ions with MnO2 (S. Taujale and H. Zhang, "Impact of interactions between metal oxides to oxidative reactivity of manganese dioxide" Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012, 46, 2764-2771). The aim of the current work was to investigate interactions in ternary mixtures of MnO2, Al2O3, and NOM and how the interactions affect MnO2 oxidative reactivity. For the effect of Al ions, we examined ternary mixtures of MnO2, Al ions, and NOM. Our results indicated that an increase in the amount of humic acids (HAs) increasingly inhibited Al adsorption by forming soluble Al-HA complexes. As a consequence, there was less inhibition on MnO2 reactivity than by the sum of two binary mixtures (MnO2+Al ions and MnO2+HA). Alginate or pyromellitic acid (PA)-two model NOM compounds-did not affect Al adsorption, but Al ions increased alginate/PA adsorption by MnO2. The latter effect led to more inhibition on MnO2 reactivity than the sum of the two binary mixtures. In ternary mixtures of MnO2, Al2O3, and NOM, NOM inhibited dissolution of Al2O3. Zeta potential measurements, sedimentation experiments, TEM images, and modified DLVO calculations all indicated that HAs of up to 4 mg-C/L increased heteroaggregation between Al2O3 and MnO2, whereas higher amounts of HAs completely inhibited heteroaggregation. The effect of alginate is similar to that of HAs, although not as significant, while PA had negligible effects on heteroaggregation. Different from the effects of Al ions and NOMs on MnO2 reactivity, the MnO2 reactivity in ternary mixtures of Al2O3, MnO2, and NOM was mostly enhanced. This suggests MnO2 reactivity was mainly affected through heteroaggregation in the ternary mixtures because of the limited availability of Al ions.

  19. A preliminary study of intravenous surfactants in paraplegic dogs: polymer therapy in canine clinical SCI.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Peter H; Leskovar, Alenka; Breur, Gert J; Coates, Joan R; Bergman, Robert L; Widmer, William R; Toombs, James P; Shapiro, Scott; Borgens, Richard B

    2004-12-01

    Hydrophilic polymers, both surfactants and triblock polymers, are known to seal defects in cell membranes. In previous experiments using laboratory animals, we have exploited this capability using polyethylene glycol (PEG) to repair spinal axons after severe, standardized spinal cord injury (SCI) in guinea pigs. Similar studies were conducted using a related co-polymer Poloxamer 188 (P 188). Here we carried out initial investigations of an intravenous application of PEG or P 188 (3500 Daltons, 30% w/w in saline; 2 mL/kg I.V. and 2 mL/kg body weight or 300 mL P 188 per kg, respectively) to neurologically complete cases of paraplegia in dogs. Our aim was to first determine if this is a clinically safe procedure in cases of severe naturally occurring SCI in dogs. Secondarily, we wanted to obtain preliminary evidence if this therapy could be of clinical benefit when compared to a larger number of similar, but historical, control cases. Strict entry criteria permitted recruitment of only neurologically complete paraplegic dogs into this study. Animals were treated by a combination of conventional and experimental techniques within approximately 72 h of admission for spinal trauma secondary to acute, explosive disk herniation. Outcome measures consisted of measurements of voluntary ambulation, deep and superficial pain perception, conscious proprioception in hindlimbs, and evoked potentials (somatosensory evoked potentials [SSEP]). We determined that polymer injection is a safe adjunct to the conventional management of severe neurological injury in dogs. We did not observe any unacceptable clinical response to polymer injection; there were no deaths, nor any other problem arising from, or associated with, the procedures. Outcome measures over the 6-8-week trial were improved by polymer injection when compared to historical cases. This recovery was unexpectedly rapid compared to these comparator groups. The results of this pilot trial provides evidence consistent with the

  20. Therapeutic effects of anti-spastic medication on neuromuscular abnormalities in SCI: a system identification approach.

    PubMed

    Mirbagheri, M M; Kindig, M; Niu, X; Varoqui, D

    2013-01-01

    Previous attempts to investigate the effects of antispastic medications are limited to clinical studies using that use clinical evaluations to assess. Since these measures are neither objective nor quantitative, the therapeutic effects of such medications on neuromuscular properties have not been fully evaluated. In this study, as a first attempt, we examined the effect of tizanidine, an anti-spastic medication, on modification of the neuromuscular properties of patients with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Each patient was administered 2 mg of tizanidine four times per day for four weeks. The spastic ankle of each patient was evaluated at baseline (prior to any medication, and then 1, 2, and 4 weeks after the start of medication. The ankle was perturbed with a small-amplitude Pseudo-Random Binary Sequence (PRBS) perturbation at various positions over the ankle range-of-motion. A parallel-cascade system identification technique, which provides an objective and quantitative measure of neuromuscular properties, was used to calculate the intrinsic and reflex stiffness. The stiffness vs. joint angle trends were then calculated for each evaluation; these curves were compared across the intervention time to determine the recovery pattern (i.e. change over time) due to the tizanidine intervention. All patients exhibited decreases in reflex stiffness (which abnormally increase after SCI) due to the medication; however, patients were observed to exhibit multiple recovery patterns. For some patients, the reflex stiffness continuously reduced over the four-week intervention period, while for other patients, the decrease during the first week (i.e. between the baseline and 1-Week evaluations) was most pronounced. Also, some patients presented a significant decrease with time, while others presented no improvement in the intrinsic stiffness. These findings suggest that tizanidine may be effective in reducing not only reflex stiffness, but also the subject

  1. Using Electricity. Teacher's Guide. Unit I2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be used in…

  2. Energy for Living. Teacher's Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  3. Living Things and Their Food. Teacher's Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  4. Understanding Electricity. Teacher's Guide. Unit I1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  5. Atoms and Molecules. 'O' Level. Teacher's Guide. Unit 2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandizha, George

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be used in…

  6. Sense from Senses. Teacher's Guide. Unit J. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simango, Sam

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  7. "Publish SCI Papers or No Degree": Practices of Chinese Doctoral Supervisors in Response to the Publication Pressure on Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yongyan

    2016-01-01

    Publishing English papers in journals listed in Science Citation Index (SCI) has become a requirement for degree conferment for doctoral science students at many universities in China. The publication requirement engenders high pressure for doctoral students and their supervisors and shapes the politics of the relationship between the two parties.…

  8. Reproducing by Flowers and Seeds. Teacher's Guide. Unit E2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  9. Life, Beginning and Growing. Teacher's Guide. Unit E1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  10. Observing Some Life Cycles. Teacher's Guide. Unit E3. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitepo, Thoko; And Others

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide contains instructional…

  11. Living Things and Their Food. Teacher's Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  12. Reproducing by Flowers and Seeds. Teacher's Guide. Unit E2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  13. Evaluation of Programmatic Interventions to Improve Postsecondary STEM Education for Students with Disabilities: Findings from SciTrain University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Nathan W.; Utschig, Tristan T.; Todd, Robert L.; Bozzorg, Ariyana

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the evaluation of programmatic interventions to enhance postsecondary STEM education for students with disabilities. SciTrain University, a federally funded project to provide instructor training on accessible teaching according to universal design principles, is presented here as a case study on evaluation for similar…

  14. Our Planet Earth. Study Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  15. Our Planet Earth. Study Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  16. Mind and body: Mental health and health related quality of life in SCI caregivers from Neiva, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Jennifer A; Harper, Leia A; Perrin, Paul B; Olabarrieta Landa, Laiene; Leonor Olivera, Silvia; Libardo Perdomo, Jose; Anselmo Arango, Jose; Carlos Arango-Lasprilla, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the body of research on caregivers of individuals with various types of disabilities, SCI caregivers have received comparably less attention, especially in regions like Latin America. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between HRQOL and mental health in SCI caregivers from Colombia. A cross sectional study assessed SCI caregivers (n = 40) in Neiva, Colombia. Participants completed a measure of their HRQOL (SF-36 Health Questionnaire) and four measures of mental health (Satisfaction With Life Scale, Zarit Burden Interview, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). A canonical correlation between variables revealed that 64% of the variance was shared between mental health and HRQOL. The domains that loaded highest within the canonical correlation were social functioning, general health, and anxiety, indicating that SCI caregivers with higher anxiety experienced lower social functioning and lower general health. Furthermore, 15 of the 24 bivariate correlations between mental health and HRQOL were statistically significant, suggesting a strong connection between these two sets of variables. Rehabilitation professionals in Latin America should consider the development of caregiver interventions focusing on both physical and mental health, as the two constructs are closely connected through social functioning, general health, and anxiety.

  17. Atoms and Molecules. 'O' Level. Teacher's Guide. Unit 2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandizha, George

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be used in…

  18. Reactions of the rat musculoskeletal system to compressive spinal cord injury (SCI) and whole body vibration (WBV) therapy

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, A.; Pick, C.; Harrach, R.; Stein, G.; Bendella, H.; Ozsoy, O.; Ozsoy, U.; Schoenau, E.; Jaminet, P.; Sarikcioglu, L.; Dunlop, S.; Angelov, D.N.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a loss of locomotor function with associated compromise of the musculo-skeletal system. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a potential therapy following SCI, but little is known about its effects on the musculo-skeletal system. Here, we examined locomotor recovery and the musculo-skeletal system after thoracic (T7-9) compression SCI in adult rats. Daily WBV was started at 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after injury (WBV1-WBV28 respectively) and continued over a 12-week post-injury period. Intact rats, rats with SCI but no WBV (sham-treated) and a group that received passive flexion and extension (PFE) of their hind limbs served as controls. Compared to sham-treated rats, neither WBV nor PFE improved motor function. Only WBV14 and PFE improved body support. In line with earlier studies we failed to detect signs of soleus muscle atrophy (weight, cross sectional diameter, total amount of fibers, mean fiber diameter) or bone loss in the femur (length, weight, bone mineral density). One possible explanation is that, despite of injury extent, the preservation of some axons in the white matter, in combination with quadripedal locomotion, may provide sufficient trophic and neuronal support for the musculoskeletal system. PMID:26032204

  19. "Publish SCI Papers or No Degree": Practices of Chinese Doctoral Supervisors in Response to the Publication Pressure on Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yongyan

    2016-01-01

    Publishing English papers in journals listed in Science Citation Index (SCI) has become a requirement for degree conferment for doctoral science students at many universities in China. The publication requirement engenders high pressure for doctoral students and their supervisors and shapes the politics of the relationship between the two parties.…

  20. Forces. Teacher's Guide. Units H1 and H2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dock, Alan; Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  1. Sense from Senses. Teacher's Guide. Unit J. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simango, Sam

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  2. What Do You Know about Water? Teacher's Guide. Unit D. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  3. Using Electricity. Teacher's Guide. Unit I2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be used in…

  4. Reactions of the rat musculoskeletal system to compressive spinal cord injury (SCI) and whole body vibration (WBV) therapy.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, A; Pick, C; Harrach, R; Stein, G; Bendella, H; Ozsoy, O; Ozsoy, U; Schoenau, E; Jaminet, P; Sarikcioglu, L; Dunlop, S; Angelov, D N

    2015-06-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a loss of locomotor function with associated compromise of the musculo-skeletal system. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a potential therapy following SCI, but little is known about its effects on the musculo-skeletal system. Here, we examined locomotor recovery and the musculo-skeletal system after thoracic (T7-9) compression SCI in adult rats. Daily WBV was started at 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after injury (WBV1-WBV28 respectively) and continued over a 12-week post-injury period. Intact rats, rats with SCI but no WBV (sham-treated) and a group that received passive flexion and extension (PFE) of their hind limbs served as controls. Compared to sham-treated rats, neither WBV nor PFE improved motor function. Only WBV14 and PFE improved body support. In line with earlier studies we failed to detect signs of soleus muscle atrophy (weight, cross sectional diameter, total amount of fibers, mean fiber diameter) or bone loss in the femur (length, weight, bone mineral density). One possible explanation is that, despite of injury extent, the preservation of some axons in the white matter, in combination with quadripedal locomotion, may provide sufficient trophic and neuronal support for the musculoskeletal system.

  5. Energy for Living. Teacher's Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  6. The Chemicals of the Earth. Teacher's Guide. Unit F2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  7. Understanding Electricity. Teacher's Guide. Unit I1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  8. Forces. Teacher's Guide. Units H1 and H2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dock, Alan; Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  9. Life, Beginning and Growing. Teacher's Guide. Unit E1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  10. Observing Some Life Cycles. Teacher's Guide. Unit E3. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitepo, Thoko; And Others

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide contains instructional…

  11. Speciation of Al, Fe, and P in recent sediment from three lakes in Maine, USA.

    PubMed

    Norton, Stephen A; Coolidge, Kyle; Amirbahman, Aria; Bouchard, Roy; Kopácek, Jirí; Reinhardt, Raquel

    2008-10-15

    Sequential extraction of sediments [Psenner R, Pucsko R. Die Fraktionierung organischer und anorganischer Phosphorverbindungen von Sedimenten. Arch Hydrobiol/Suppl 1988. 70(1): 111-155.] from short, (210)Pb-dated cores from three lakes in Maine USA demonstrates that sediment P is dominantly associated with the NaOH-extractable fraction (P-NaOH(25)) and less with the bicarbonate-dithionite extractable fraction (P-BD). The ratios (Al-NaOH(25))/(Fe-BD) and (Al-NaOH(25))/(P-NH(4)Cl+P-BD) for upper sediment for two oligo-mesotrophic lakes exceeded 3 and 25, the thresholds for preventing substantial release of P from sediments during hypolimnetic anoxia [Kopácek J, Borovec J, Hejzlar J, Ulrich K-U, Norton SA, Amirbahman A. Aluminum control of phosphorus sorption by lake sediments. Environ Sci Technol 2005a;39:8784-8789.]. Hypolimnetic water chemistry verifies this effect. The third lake, currently eutrophic, has values for the ratios that are below the thresholds and this lake has substantial release of P from recent sediment. The sediment characteristics remain relatively constant over the last 150+ years, indicating that the processes responsible for P retention have operated long before atmospheric acidification of watersheds might have influenced the flux of Al and Fe to the lake. In 2002, the pH of inlets and the lakes was generally between 6 and 8. Input to the lakes had high concentrations of acid-soluble particulate and dissolved Al, Fe, and P, and dissolved Al and Fe complexed with dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Lake water column and outlet Al, Fe, and P were typically 90-95% lower than inlet concentrations over a 12 month period. Photo-oxidation of Al-DOC and Fe-DOC in the lake, liberation of inorganic Al and Fe, precipitation of Al(OH)(3) and Fe(OH)(3), adsorption of P by the hydroxides, and sedimentation are responsible for the changes in water quality and long-term sediment characteristics.

  12. 10Be and 26Al in Individual Cosmic Spherules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J. R.; Chaffee, M. W.; Finkel, R. C.; Southon, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Harvey, R. P.

    1992-07-01

    previously by Nishiizumi et al., 1992, LC- 10 and LC-15) have contents of ^10Be and ^26Al that are not inconsistent with their being spall droplets from larger objects, bringing the number of possible cases to three out of 42 stony objects so far reported. In all other cases, clear evidence of SCR bombardment (^26Al/^10Be greater than the ratio produced in meteorites by GCR) is present. An earlier paper (Nishiizumi et al., 1991) discusses two acceptable models (4-pi and 2-pi) for the bombardment history of the particles bearing a clear SCR signature. The present data strengthen our preference for the 4-pi model; measurements of other nuclides will provide further constraints. References Dohnanyi J. S. (1978) in Cosmic Dust (ed. J. A. M. McDonnell) 527-605, (J. Wiley). Grun E. et al. (1985) Icarus 62, 244-272. Harvey R. P. and Maurette M. (1990) Lunar Planet. Sci. XXI, 467- 468. Koeberl C. and Hagen E. H. (1989) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 53, 937-944. Maurette M. et al. (1986) Science 233, 869-872. Murrell M. T. et al. (1980) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 44, 2067- 2074. Nishiizumi K. et al. (1991) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 104, 315-324. Nishiizumi K. et al. (1992) Lunar Planet. Sci. XXIII, 997-998. Olinger C. T. et al. (1990) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 100, 77-93. Raisbeck G. M. et al. (1985) in Properties and Interactions of Interplanetary Dust (eds. Giese R. H. & Lamy P.) 169-174 (D. Reidel).

  13. AL Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) light chains (LC) (most commonly of lambda isotype) usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in β leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils. Epidemiology AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50. Clinical description The clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis. Diagnostic methods The diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and/or immunofluorescence. Due to the

  14. [Systematic review of studies on quality of life indexed on the SciELO database].

    PubMed

    Landeiro, Graziela Macedo Bastos; Pedrozo, Celine Cristina Raimundo; Gomes, Maria José; Oliveira, Elizabete Regina de Araújo

    2011-10-01

    Interest in the quality of life construct has increased in the same proportion as the output of instruments to measure it. In order to analyze the scientific literature on the subject to provide a reflection on this construct in Brazil, a systematic review of the SciELO database covering the period from January 2001 to December 2006 was conducted. It was divided into 3 phases: the first involving 180 publications, the second 124, and the third 10. Of the 180 publications, 77.4% consisted of production in the last three years, with growth of 32.4% from 2001 to 2006. Of these, 124 were selected for methodological analysis in accordance with the category of the study: 79 (63.9%) instrument application articles; 25 (20.1%) translation, validation, adaptation and construction of a QOL instrument; 10 (8%) qualitative studies on QOL; 5 (4%) bibliographical review, 5 (4%) on the quality of life concept. The next stage involved the use of questionnaires and/or interview scripts in order to obtain a broader consensus on perceived quality of life from the interviewees. It was seen that there was significant scientific output in the period under scrutiny, with diversification of approaches and methodologies, highlighting the complexity of the quality of life construct.

  15. Impact of SciDAC on accelerator projects across the office of science through electromagnetic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, K.; Folwell, N.; Ge, L.; Guetz, A.; Ivanov, V.; Kabel, A.; Kowalski, M.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Ng, C.; Prudencio, E.; Schussman, G.; Uplenchwar, R.; Xiao, L.; Collaborators, ISICs/SAPP

    2005-01-01

    Electromagnetic Modelling led by SLAC is a principal component of the "Advanced Computing for 21st Century Accelerator Science and Technology" SciDAC project funded through the Office of High Energy Physics. This large team effort comprises three other national laboratories (LBNL, LLNL, SNL) and six universities (CMU, Columbia, RPI, Stanford, UC Davis and U of Wisconsin) with the goal to develop a set of parallel electromagnetic codes based on unstructured grids to target challenging problems in accelerators, and solve them to unprecedented realism and accuracy. Essential to the code development are the collaborations with the ISICs/SAPP in eigensolvers, meshing, adaptive refinement, shape optimization and visualization (see "Achievements in ISICs/SAPP Collaborations for Electromagnetic Modelling of Accelerators"). Supported by these advances in computational science, we have successfully performed the large-scale simulations that have impacted important accelerator projects across the Office of Science (SC) including the Positron Electron Project (PEP) -II, Next Linear Collider (NLC) and the International Linear Collider (ILC) in High Energy Physics (HEP), the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) in Nuclear Physics (NP) and the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) in Basic Energy Science (BES).

  16. Measurement of neutrino induced charged current neutral pion production cross section at SciBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Catala-Perez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    SciBooNE is a neutrino scattering experiment located in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. It collected data from June 2007 to August 2008 to accurately measure muon neutrino and anti-neutrino cross sections on carbon around 1 GeV neutrino energy. In this thesis we present the results on the measurement of the muon neutrino cross section resulting in a μ- plus a single π0 final state (CC- π0 channel). The present work will show the steps taken to achieve this result: from the reconstruction improvements to the background extraction. The flux-averaged CC - π0 production cross section measurement obtained in this thesis < σCC- π0 > Φ = (5.6 ± 1.9fit ± 0.7beam ± 0.5int - 0.7det) × 10-40 cm2/N at an average energy of 0.89 GeV is found to agree well both with the expectation from the Monte Ca

  17. Sci-Fin: Visual Mining Spatial and Temporal Behavior Features from Social Media.

    PubMed

    Pu, Jiansu; Teng, Zhiyao; Gong, Rui; Wen, Changjiang; Xu, Yang

    2016-12-20

    Check-in records are usually available in social services, which offer us the opportunity to capture and analyze users' spatial and temporal behaviors. Mining such behavior features is essential to social analysis and business intelligence. However, the complexity and incompleteness of check-in records bring challenges to achieve such a task. Different from the previous work on social behavior analysis, in this paper, we present a visual analytics system, Social Check-in Fingerprinting (Sci-Fin), to facilitate the analysis and visualization of social check-in data. We focus on three major components of user check-in data: location, activity, and profile. Visual fingerprints for location, activity, and profile are designed to intuitively represent the high-dimensional attributes. To visually mine and demonstrate the behavior features, we integrate WorldMapper and Voronoi Treemap into our glyph-like designs. Such visual fingerprint designs offer us the opportunity to summarize the interesting features and patterns from different check-in locations, activities and users (groups). We demonstrate the effectiveness and usability of our system by conducting extensive case studies on real check-in data collected from a popular microblogging service. Interesting findings are reported and discussed at last.

  18. Assessing ComSciCon 2013: A science communication workshop for STEM graduate students (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, S.; Ranjan, S.; Sanders, N.; Morey, S.

    2013-12-01

    We report on the efficacy of Communicating Science 2013, a science communication workshop for graduate students. Effective science communication is imperative for the sharing of scientific ideas, continued funding and support from policy makers, and education of the public. Science graduate students are a prime group to target for communication training, as they will be our future scientists, educators, and EPO professionals. To this end, Communicating Science 2013 (ComSciCon), a workshop organized by and for STEM graduate students, was held in June of this year. This workshop taught graduate students from around the nation to effectively communicate science to both their peers and the public. To learn about grad students' attitudes toward science communication and establish the workshop's efficacy, we surveyed the participants both before and after the workshop. This assessment probed topics such as communication preparation the participants have already received, how science communication is perceived in their home department, and what participants gained from the workshop. We report the results here.

  19. What Is Required In Uganda? The 2007 Report Of The Japan Sci-edu. Support Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Tatsuhiro

    2010-07-01

    The development of ability for technology and invention is required as self-sustaining growth of science and technology in Asian and African developing countries. Science education that connects to the real world is the required education for the self-sustaining growth. But in fact, it is very common to study for the entrance examination. According to C. Camilla, S. and Sjo/berg, [The Re-emergence of Values in the Science Curriculum. Rotterdam, 2007, Sense Publishers], Ugandan students are the most interested ones in science and technology (I would like to be a scientist, I would like to get a job in technology) in the world. Science education should mortgages future of youth. Especially science education of developing countries should be directly connected to the real world. Because they need a lot of engineers as skilled worker, we implemented physics education that was directly connected with manufacturing by the sci-edu. support project in Uganda. The best results were achieved by contrivance in spite of poverty area. Our education method gave one form of New Science Education in Asia and Africa.

  20. First-principles edge physics simulation in diverted tokamak geometry at SciDAC CPES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. S.; the CPES Team

    2011-10-01

    Primary mission of the SciDAC Proto-FSP CPES (Center for Plasma Edge Simulation) is (a) to build a new kinetic code applicable to realistic diverted edge geometry, (b) to create a new code integration framework to couple the multi scale edge physics including MHD and neutrals, and (c) to make scientific discoveries in the edge physics and the edge effect on the core confinement. Absence of a kinetic code applicable to realistic diverted edge geometry has been a critical missing element in the world fusion program. The insurmountable difficulties in building such a kinetic code has been in the requirement of the full-f approach instead of the popular delta-f approach, the complicated edge geometry, existence of the X-point, and the necessity of extreme scale computing. We have succeeded in building two such kinetic HPC codes XGC0 and XGC1, and in creating a state-of-the-art code integration framework EFFIS. The current capability of the XGC codes, including the kinetic ion-electron turbulence physics and 3D magnetic perturbation physics, will be described. Scientific discoveries on the edge neoclassical and turbulence physics, the non-local core-edge interaction, 3D RMP physics, pedestal physics, wall load, plasma rotation physics, and other edge physics will be reported. Work supported primarily by US DOE OFES and ASCR.

  1. Final Technical Report - SciDAC Cooperative Agreement: Center for Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Schnack, Dalton D.

    2012-07-01

    Final technical report for research performed by Dr. Thomas G. Jenkins in collaboration with Professor Dalton D. Schnack on SciDAC Cooperative Agreement: Center for Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodyanics, DE-FC02-06ER54899, for the period of 8/15/06 - 8/14/11. This report centers on the Slow MHD physics campaign work performed by Dr. Jenkins while at UW-Madison and then at Tech-X Corporation. To make progress on the problem of RF induced currents affect magnetic island evolution in toroidal plasmas, a set of research approaches are outlined. Three approaches can be addressed in parallel. These are: (1) Analytically prescribed additional term in Ohm's law to model the effect of localized ECCD current drive; (2) Introduce an additional evolution equation for the Ohm's law source term. Establish a RF source 'box' where information from the RF code couples to the fluid evolution; and (3) Carry out a more rigorous analytic calculation treating the additional RF terms in a closure problem. These approaches rely on the necessity of reinvigorating the computation modeling efforts of resistive and neoclassical tearing modes with present day versions of the numerical tools. For the RF community, the relevant action item is - RF ray tracing codes need to be modified so that general three-dimensional spatial information can be obtained. Further, interface efforts between the two codes require work as well as an assessment as to the numerical stability properties of the procedures to be used.

  2. A fiber optic probe for measurement of an autonomic dysreflexia event on SCI patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramella-Roman, J. C.; Hidler, J. M.

    2008-02-01

    Autonomic Dysreflexia (AD) is an inappropriate response of the sympathetic nervous system that often occurs in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI ) at or above the sixth thoracic vertebrae (T6) level when a noxius stimulus is applied below the level of injury. An AD event can be put into motion by something as simple as an ingrown toenail or a full bladder, with symptoms such as headache, elevated blood pressure, reduced heart rate, decreases in blood flow below the level of injury, and in extreme cases, stroke. We have developed a quantitative method of measuring skin oxygen levels during AD using a fiber optics based probe. Two such probes were located above and below the injury level (on the patient forearm and thigh respectively) and were connected to a dual channel spectrophotometer. Oxygen saturation was calculated using the reflectance spectra and an algorithm based on melanin and hemoglobin absorption. We found that during an AD event, the amount of oxygen in the skin below the injury level drops by as much as 40%, while above the injury level skin oxygenation remains constant. Additionally, we observed elevated persperation levels below the injury level. We hypothesize that the combination of AD-related ischemia with pressure related ischemia and increased perspiration places individuals with injury level at T6 or above at significant risk for developing a pressure sore below the injury site.

  3. OptoSci educator kits: an immediate solution to photonics teaching laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Douglas; Moodie, David; Mauchline, Iain; Johnstone, Walter; Culshaw, Brian

    2003-10-01

    The burgeoning growth of the worldwide photonics and optical communications industry has imposed ever increasing demands on the supply of suitably skilled engineers and scientists who can design, install and operate modern photonics systems. In recognition of this need OptoSci, in collaboration with university academics, has commercially developed a series of hardware based teaching packages in optics, optoelectronics and optical communications. Each educator kit is fully self-contained, including all of the optoelectronic hardware and comprehensive literature support. This saves the academic tutor considerable development time and enables the kits to be immediately installed in the photonics teaching laboratory to support accompanying lecture courses. A fundamental design objective of our educator kits is to provide students with hands-on practical experience of photonics components, instruments and systems and allow them to investigate essential physical principles and key technical issues relevant to their lecture courses. This paper will outline the design philosophy behind the products to meet the desired educational aims, and then examine the specific educational objectives and topics investigated in each educator kit.

  4. Lambda Station: Alternate network path forwarding for production SciDAC applications

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Maxim; Bobyshev, Andrey; Crawford, Matt; DeMar, Phil; Grigaliunas, Vyto; Moibenko, Alexander; Petravick, Don; Newman, Harvey; Steenberg, Conrad; Thomas, Michael; /Caltech

    2007-09-01

    The LHC era will start very soon, creating immense data volumes capable of demanding allocation of an entire network circuit for task-driven applications. Circuit-based alternate network paths are one solution to meeting the LHC high bandwidth network requirements. The Lambda Station project is aimed at addressing growing requirements for dynamic allocation of alternate network paths. Lambda Station facilitates the rerouting of designated traffic through site LAN infrastructure onto so-called 'high-impact' wide-area networks. The prototype Lambda Station developed with Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach in mind will be presented. Lambda Station has been successfully integrated into the production version of the Storage Resource Manager (SRM), and deployed at US CMS Tier1 center at Fermilab, as well as at US-CMS Tier-2 site at Caltech. This paper will discuss experiences using the prototype system with production SciDAC applications for data movement between Fermilab and Caltech. The architecture and design principles of the production version Lambda Station software, currently being implemented as Java based web services, will also be presented in this paper.

  5. Exploration tools for drug discovery and beyond: applying SciFinder to interdisciplinary research.

    PubMed

    Haldeman, Margaret; Vieira, Barbara; Winer, Fred; Knutsen, Lars J S

    2005-06-01

    Chemists have long recognized the value of online databases for surveying the literature of their field. Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) databases covering almost a century's worth of journal articles and patent documents are among the best known and widely used for searching information on compounds. Today's research presents a new challenge, however, as the boundaries of chemistry and biological sciences overlap increasingly. This trend is especially true in the drug discovery field where published findings relating to both chemical and biological entities and their interactions are examined. CAS has expanded its resources to meet the requirements of the new, interdisciplinary challenges faced by today's researchers. This is evident both in the content of CAS databases, which have been expanded to include more biology-related information, and in the technology of the search tools now available to researchers on their desktop. It is the integration of content and search-and-retrieval technology that enables new insights to be made in the vast body of accumulated information. CAS's SciFinder is a widely used research tool for this purpose.

  6. Sci-Fin: Visual Mining Spatial and Temporal Behavior Features from Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Jiansu; Teng, Zhiyao; Gong, Rui; Wen, Changjiang; Xu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Check-in records are usually available in social services, which offer us the opportunity to capture and analyze users’ spatial and temporal behaviors. Mining such behavior features is essential to social analysis and business intelligence. However, the complexity and incompleteness of check-in records bring challenges to achieve such a task. Different from the previous work on social behavior analysis, in this paper, we present a visual analytics system, Social Check-in Fingerprinting (Sci-Fin), to facilitate the analysis and visualization of social check-in data. We focus on three major components of user check-in data: location, activity, and profile. Visual fingerprints for location, activity, and profile are designed to intuitively represent the high-dimensional attributes. To visually mine and demonstrate the behavior features, we integrate WorldMapper and Voronoi Treemap into our glyph-like designs. Such visual fingerprint designs offer us the opportunity to summarize the interesting features and patterns from different check-in locations, activities and users (groups). We demonstrate the effectiveness and usability of our system by conducting extensive case studies on real check-in data collected from a popular microblogging service. Interesting findings are reported and discussed at last. PMID:27999398

  7. Measurement of the absolute vμ-CCQE cross section at the SciBooNE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aunion, Jose Luis Alcaraz

    2010-07-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleon cross section at neutrino energies around 1 GeV. This measurement has two main physical motivations. On one hand, the neutrino-nucleon interactions at few GeV is a region where existing old data are sparse and with low statistics. The current measurement populates low energy regions with higher statistics and precision than previous experiments. On the other hand, the CCQE interaction is the most useful interaction in neutrino oscillation experiments. The CCQE channel is used to measure the initial and final neutrino fluxes in order to determine the neutrino fraction that disappeared. The neutrino oscillation experiments work at low neutrino energies, so precise measurement of CCQE interactions are essential for flux measurements. The main goal of this thesis is to measure the CCQE absolute neutrino cross section from the SciBooNE data. The SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment (SciBooNE) is a neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering off experiment. The neutrino energy spectrum works at energies around 1 GeV. SciBooNE was running from June 8th 2007 to August 18th 2008. In that period, the experiment collected a total of 2.65 x 1020 protons on target (POT). This thesis has used full data collection in neutrino mode 0.99 x 1020 POT. A CCQE selection cut has been performed, achieving around 70% pure CCQE sample. A fit method has been exclusively developed to determine the absolute CCQE cross section, presenting results in a neutrino energy range from 0.2 to 2 GeV. The results are compatible with the NEUT predictions. The SciBooNE measurement has been compared with both Carbon (MiniBoonE) and deuterium (ANL and BNL) target experiments, showing a good agreement in both cases.

  8. Bibliometric analysis of the Korean Journal of Parasitology: measured from SCI, PubMed, Scopus, and Synapse databases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choon Shil

    2009-10-01

    The Korean Journal of Parasitology (KJP) is the official journal of the Korean Society for Parasitology which is celebrating its 50th anniversary in 2009. To assess the contributions and achievements of the KJP, bibliometric analysis was conducted based on the citation data retrieved from 4 major databases; SCI, PubMed, Synapse, and Scopus. It was found that the KJP articles were constantly cited by the articles published in major international journals represented in these databases. More than 60% of 1,370 articles published in the KJP from 1963 to June 2009 were cited at least once by SCI articles. The overall average times cited by SCI articles are 2.6. The rate is almost 3 times higher for the articles published in the last 10 years compared to 1.0 for the articles of the 1960s. The SCI journal impact factor for 2008 is calculated as 0.871. It is increasing and it is expected to increase further with the introduction of the KJP in the database in 2008. The more realistic h-indices were measured from the study data set covering all the citations to the KJP; 17 for SCI, 6 for PubMed, 19 for Synapse, and 17 for Scopus. Synapse extensively picked up the citations to the earlier papers not retrievable from the other 3 databases. It identified many papers published in the 1960s and in the 1980s which have been cited heavily, proving the central role of the KJP in the dissemination of the important research findings over the last 5 decades.

  9. Bibliometric Analysis of the Korean Journal of Parasitology: Measured from SCI, PubMed, Scopus, and Synapse Databases

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The Korean Journal of Parasitology (KJP) is the official journal of the Korean Society for Parasitology which is celebrating its 50th anniversary in 2009. To assess the contributions and achievements of the KJP, bibliometric analysis was conducted based on the citation data retrieved from 4 major databases; SCI, PubMed, Synapse, and Scopus. It was found that the KJP articles were constantly cited by the articles published in major international journals represented in these databases. More than 60% of 1,370 articles published in the KJP from 1963 to June 2009 were cited at least once by SCI articles. The overall average times cited by SCI articles are 2.6. The rate is almost 3 times higher for the articles published in the last 10 years compared to 1.0 for the articles of the 1960s. The SCI journal impact factor for 2008 is calculated as 0.871. It is increasing and it is expected to increase further with the introduction of the KJP in the database in 2008. The more realistic h-indixes were measured from the study data set covering all the citations to the KJP; 17 for SCI, 6 for PubMed, 19 for Synapse, and 17 for Scopus. Synapse extensively picked up the citations to the earlier papers not retrievable from the other 3 databases. It identified many papers published in the 1960s and in the 1980s which have been cited heavily, proving the central role of the KJP in the dissemination of the important research findings over the last 5 decades. PMID:19885331

  10. SCY-635, a Novel Nonimmunosuppressive Analog of Cyclosporine That Exhibits Potent Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus RNA Replication In Vitro ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Sam; Scorneaux, Bernard; Huang, Zhuhui; Murray, Michael G.; Wring, Stephen; Smitley, Craig; Harris, Richard; Erdmann, Frank; Fischer, Gunter; Ribeill, Yves

    2010-01-01

    SCY-635 is a novel nonimmunosuppressive cyclosporine-based analog that exhibits potent suppression of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in vitro. SCY-635 inhibited the peptidyl prolyl isomerase activity of cyclophilin A at nanomolar concentrations but showed no detectable inhibition of calcineurin phosphatase activity at concentrations up to 2 μM. Metabolic studies indicated that SCY-635 did not induce the major cytochrome P450 enzymes 1A2, 2B6, and 3A4. SCY-635 was a weak inhibitor and a poor substrate for P-glycoprotein. Functional assays with stimulated Jurkat cells and stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells indicated that SCY-635 is a weaker inhibitor of interleukin-2 secretion than cyclosporine. A series of two-drug combination studies was performed in vitro. SCY-635 exhibited synergistic antiviral activity with alpha interferon 2b and additive antiviral activity with ribavirin. SCY-635 was shown to be orally bioavailable in multiple animal species and produced blood and liver concentrations of parent drug that exceeded the 50% effective dose determined in the bicistronic con1b-derived replicon assay. These results suggest that SCY-635 warrants further investigation as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of individuals who are chronically infected with HCV. PMID:19933795

  11. GeoSci: Practices to Collaboratively Build Online Resources for Geophysics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heagy, L. J.; Cockett, R.; Oldenburg, D.

    2016-12-01

    What happens when you apply best practices of software development to the development of educational resources? GeoSci (http://geosci.xyz) is our experiment examining this question. In 2007, a web-based "textbook" resource: Geophysics for Practicing Geoscientists (GPG, https://www.eoas.ubc.ca/courses/eosc350/content/index.htm) was created to serve as the primary resource for an undergraduate applied geophysics course at UBC taken primarily by non-geophysics majors. The web-based resource, allowed students to navigate through the concepts in a nonlinear way using hyperlinks, and enabled interactive content to be embedded. Subsequent to the web-based release for our UBC course, this resource has also seen widespread international use across the geophysical community. The available resources and best practices have advanced significantly since 2007. The format in which the GPG was originally developed (raw html and css) hindered improvements and thus maintenance and development of the resource was essentially reduced to correcting typos. Bringing this resource to sustainable state in which it can be built upon, edited and adapted has required looking to other disciplines such as software maintenance and development. By applying leading practices from open source software development, including versioning, testing, automated deployment as well as open development practices, such as issue tracking and employing creative commons licensing, we have worked to create a revamped GPG (http://gpg.geosci.xyz) that can be collaborated on and extended. The GPG and a companion resource for electromagnetics have been worked on by over 25 people, with much of the development happening in parallel. In this presentation, we will share our experience, identify what we see as some of the key learnings that have enabled collaboration in resource development, and present a vision for how we see these resources being sustained in the future.

  12. The BiSciCol Triplifier: bringing biodiversity data to the Semantic Web.

    PubMed

    Stucky, Brian J; Deck, John; Conlin, Tom; Ziemba, Lukasz; Cellinese, Nico; Guralnick, Robert

    2014-07-29

    Recent years have brought great progress in efforts to digitize the world's biodiversity data, but integrating data from many different providers, and across research domains, remains challenging. Semantic Web technologies have been widely recognized by biodiversity scientists for their potential to help solve this problem, yet these technologies have so far seen little use for biodiversity data. Such slow uptake has been due, in part, to the relative complexity of Semantic Web technologies along with a lack of domain-specific software tools to help non-experts publish their data to the Semantic Web. The BiSciCol Triplifier is new software that greatly simplifies the process of converting biodiversity data in standard, tabular formats, such as Darwin Core-Archives, into Semantic Web-ready Resource Description Framework (RDF) representations. The Triplifier uses a vocabulary based on the popular Darwin Core standard, includes both Web-based and command-line interfaces, and is fully open-source software. Unlike most other RDF conversion tools, the Triplifier does not require detailed familiarity with core Semantic Web technologies, and it is tailored to a widely popular biodiversity data format and vocabulary standard. As a result, the Triplifier can often fully automate the conversion of biodiversity data to RDF, thereby making the Semantic Web much more accessible to biodiversity scientists who might otherwise have relatively little knowledge of Semantic Web technologies. Easy availability of biodiversity data as RDF will allow researchers to combine data from disparate sources and analyze them with powerful linked data querying tools. However, before software like the Triplifier, and Semantic Web technologies in general, can reach their full potential for biodiversity science, the biodiversity informatics community must address several critical challenges, such as the widespread failure to use robust, globally unique identifiers for biodiversity data.

  13. Towards flash flood disaster prevention: the SciNetNat Haz proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinos, Papatheodorou; Elena, Tzanou; Carmen, Maftei; Ozgur, Kirca; Hafzullah, Aksoy

    2015-04-01

    Floods occur with a continuously increasing frequency due to climatic changes and cause serious damage in the wider Black Sea area, endangering human life and property. As societies continuously expand, these phenomena are expected to play an increasingly important role, blocking sustainable development unless properly tackled. Flash flood prevention seems at this point, to be the target of effectively mitigating the potential threat. Since in many cases, there is a cross-border character of the problem, collaborative efforts have to be made involving cooperation between countries. To this end, a variety of problems exist, including the "information gap" related to the unavailability of data and the multitude of methodologies used to assess flood hazard; a fact that renders comparison of hazard assessment results and cross border cooperation ineffective. An effort made within the context of the SciNetNatHaz project, suggests a two step approach to produce reliable the results which can lead to decision making regarding designing preventive measures. The first step aims at defining the flood prone areas on a regional scale, using geomorphometric models and readily available topographic data; thus overcoming the problem of data availability for any region of interest. The second step follows a vulnerability and risk assessment of the flood prone areas of interest and focuses on the calculation of flood parameters on a local scale using hydraulic models. Implementation of the full process is based on Open Source software tools so that it can be implemented with minimal costs by anyone interested. Implementation of the proposed procedure in three different cases in Greece and in Romania shows that it can provide accurate and reliable results to support decision making regarding the design of preventive measures. Keywords: Flash floods, hazard assessment, flood disaster prevention, HEC-RAS, SAGA GIS . Acknowledgements: This work is partially funded by the EU through the

  14. Analyzing How We Do Analysis and Consume Data, Results from the SciDAC-Data Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, P.; Aliaga, L.; Mubarak, M.; Tsaris, A.; Norman, A.; Lyon, A.; Ross, R.

    2016-10-10

    One of the main goals of the Dept. of Energy funded SciDAC-Data project is to analyze the more than 410,000 high energy physics datasets that have been collected, generated and defined over the past two decades by experiments using the Fermilab storage facilities. These datasets have been used as the input to over 5.6 million recorded analysis projects, for which detailed analytics have been gathered. The analytics and meta information for these datasets and analysis projects are being combined with knowledge of their part of the HEP analysis chains for major experiments to understand how modern computing and data delivery is being used. We present the first results of this project, which examine in detail how the CDF, D0, NOvA, MINERvA and MicroBooNE experiments have organized, classified and consumed petascale datasets to produce their physics results. The results include analysis of the correlations in dataset/file overlap, data usage patterns, data popularity, dataset dependency and temporary dataset consumption. The results provide critical insight into how workflows and data delivery schemes can be combined with different caching strategies to more efficiently perform the work required to mine these large HEP data volumes and to understand the physics analysis requirements for the next generation of HEP computing facilities. In particular we present a detailed analysis of the NOvA data organization and consumption model corresponding to their first and second oscillation results (2014-2016) and the first look at the analysis of the Tevatron Run II experiments. We present statistical distributions for the characterization of these data and data driven models describing their consumption

  15. Secretory expression and surface display of a new and biologically active single-chain insulin (SCI-59) analog by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mao, Ruifeng; Wu, Dongli; Hu, Shimeng; Zhou, Kangping; Wang, Man; Wang, Yefu

    2017-04-01

    Insulin plays an important role in drug therapies for diabetes mellitus and as the main route of insulin delivery, subcutaneous injection may cause local discomfort, hypoglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and patient non-compliance. Therefore, oral delivery of insulin is more preferred. However, there is a low bioavailability due to insulin degradation by proteolytic enzymes and severe pH conditions along the gastrointestinal tract. In order to use the food-grade bacteria lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as oral delivery vehicles, a new and bioactive single-chain insulin (SCI-59) analog, containing the insulin B- and A-chains connected by an eight-residue linker (RSRGLPFR), was secretory expressed in Lactococcus lactis NZ3900 without using an antibiotic resistance gene and displayed onto the surface of various non-viable bacteria (NVBs) without genetic modification. Both the free SCI-59 and SCI-59 displayed on the surface of NVBs are biologically active as assayed by their ability to stimulate Akt signaling in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Modification of the pH of the medium by NaOH addition at early time during induction can enhance the bioactivity of SCI-59. The C-terminal fused anchoring domain, three LysM repeats, does not affect the formation of disulfide bonds and/or the folding of SCI-59, and SCI-59 could be exposed properly and fully when SCI-59-3LysM bound to the surface of NVBs. Compared to the free form SCI-59, SCI-59 displayed on the surface of NVBs is more stable in simulate gastric juice. It may open new prospects for possible oral treatments of diabetes using live LAB secreting or NVBs carrying bioactive SCI analogs.

  16. Measuring depression after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Depression item bank and linkage with PHQ-9

    PubMed Central

    Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Kalpakjian, Claire Z.; Bombardier, Charles H.; Pohlig, Ryan T.; Heinemann, Allen W.; Carle, Adam; Choi, Seung W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a calibrated spinal cord injury-quality of life (SCI-QOL) item bank, computer adaptive test (CAT), and short form to assess depressive symptoms experienced by individuals with SCI, transform scores to the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) metric, and create a crosswalk to the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9. Design We used grounded-theory based qualitative item development methods, large-scale item calibration field testing, confirmatory factor analysis, item response theory (IRT) analyses, and statistical linking techniques to transform scores to a PROMIS metric and to provide a crosswalk with the PHQ-9. Setting Five SCI Model System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States. Participants Adults with traumatic SCI. Main Outcome Measures Spinal Cord Injury – Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Depression Item Bank Results Individuals with SCI were involved in all phases of SCI-QOL development. A sample of 716 individuals with traumatic SCI completed 35 items assessing depression, 18 of which were PROMIS items. After removing 7 non-PROMIS items, factor analyses confirmed a unidimensional pool of items. We used a graded response IRT model to estimate slopes and thresholds for the 28 retained items. The SCI-QOL Depression measure correlated 0.76 with the PHQ-9. Conclusions The SCI-QOL Depression item bank provides a reliable and sensitive measure of depressive symptoms with scores reported in terms of general population norms. We provide a crosswalk to the PHQ-9 to facilitate comparisons between measures. The item bank may be administered as a CAT or as a short form and is suitable for research and clinical applications. PMID:26010968

  17. Altered Perspectives: Immersive Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.

    2016-12-01

    Immersive environments provide an exciting experiential technology to visualize the natural world. Given the increasing accessibility of 360o cameras and virtual reality headsets we are now able to visualize artistic principles and scientific concepts in a fully immersive environment. The technology has become popular for photographers as well as designers, industry, educational groups, and museums. Here we show a sci-art perspective on the use of optics and light in the capture and manipulation of 360o images and video of geologic phenomena and cultural heritage sites in Alaska, England, and France. Additionally, we will generate intentionally altered perspectives to lend a surrealistic quality to the landscapes. Locations include the Catacombs of Paris, the Palace of Versailles, and the Northern Lights over Fairbanks, Alaska. Some 360o view cameras now use small portable dual lens technology extending beyond the 180o fish eye lens previously used, providing better coverage and image quality. Virtual reality headsets range in level of sophistication and cost, with the most affordable versions using smart phones and Google Cardboard viewers. The equipment used in this presentation includes a Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera. Here we will demonstrate the use of 360o imaging with attendees being able to be part of the immersive environment and experience our locations as if they were visiting themselves.

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of the phase transitions and local environments of α-alum NH 4Al(SO 4) 2·12H 2O single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Ae Ran; Moon, Hyun-Gon; Chang, Jin-Hae

    2010-05-01

    The NMR spectrum, the spin-lattice relaxation time, T1, and the spin-spin relaxation time, T2, of NH 4Al(SO 4) 2·12H 2O crystals were studied as a function of temperature; this crystal was found to undergo increasing loss of H 2O with increasing temperature. Two groups of Al resonance lines were observed below Td (=335 K), whereas above Td the resonance lines of the two groups were reduced to one Al signal. The presence of only one 27Al resonance line Td is due to the structural phase transition. The changes in the temperature dependences of the T1 and T2 near Td are related to the loss of H 2O, which probably disrupts the forms of the octahedral of water molecules surrounding Al 3+. In addition, the α-alum NH 4Al(SO 4) 2·12H 2O can be distinguished from the α-alum RbAl(SO 4) 2·12H 2O and the β-alum CsAl(SO 4) 2·12H 2O on the basis of the temperature dependences of T1.

  19. [Letters to the editor published in Peruvian biomedical journals indexed in SciELO-Peru 2006-2013].

    PubMed

    Montenegro-Idrogo, Juan José; Mejía-Dolores, Jhon William; Chalco-Huamán, Joel L

    2015-01-01

    This bibliometric study describes the characteristics of letters to the editor published between 2006-2013 in biomedical journals indexed in SciELO-Peru.253 letters (10.3% of total publications) were collected. Most letters (139) were in the Peruvian Journal of Experimental Medicine and Public Health, with marked increase throughout those years. 25% of letters submitted included medical student participation. 14% of authors presented with international affiliations and 27% with endogenous affiliation - common in university journals (Anales de la Facultad de Medicina, Revista Médica Herediana).The usual criteria justifying the publication of letters were: opinion of medical fact or public domain (35.6%) and discussion of results, methodological flaws or interpretation (22.9%). In biomedical journals indexed in SciELO Peru the letters to the editor comprise a percentage of publications that has increased in recent years, with low publication of letters of findings or primary data, compared with opinion or criticism.

  20. Reactivity of stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCI) from isoprene and monoterpene ozonolysis toward SO2 and organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipilä, M.; Jokinen, T.; Berndt, T.; Richters, S.; Makkonen, R.; Donahue, N. M.; Mauldin, R. L., III; Kurten, T.; Paasonen, P.; Sarnela, N.; Ehn, M.; Junninen, H.; Rissanen, M. P.; Thornton, J.; Stratmann, F.; Herrmann, H.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Petäjä, T.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation processes in Earth's atmosphere are tightly connected to many environmental and human health issues and are essential drivers for biogeochemistry. Until the recent discovery of the atmospheric relevance of stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCI), atmospheric oxidation processes were thought to be dominated by few main oxidants: ozone, hydroxyl radicals (OH), nitrate radicals and, e.g. over oceans, halogen atoms such as chlorine. Here, we report results from laboratory experiments at 293 K and atmospheric pressure focusing on sCI formation from the ozonolysis of isoprene and the most abundant monoterpenes (α-pinene and limonene), and subsequent reactions of the resulting sCIs with SO2 producing sulphuric acid (H2SO4). The measured sCI yields were (0.15 ± 0.07), (0.27 ± 0.12) and (0.58 ± 0.26) for the ozonolysis of α-pinene, limonene and isoprene, respectively. The ratio between the rate coefficient for the sCI loss (including thermal decomposition and the reaction with water vapour) and the rate coefficient for the reaction of sCI with SO2, k(loss) / k(sCI + SO2), was determined at relative humidities of 10% and 50%. Observed values represent the average reactivity of all sCIs produced from the individual alkene used in the ozonolysis. For the monoterpene derived sCIs, the relative rate coefficients k(loss) / k(sCI + SO2) were in the range (2.0-2.4) × 1012 molecule cm-3 and nearly independent on the relative humidity. This fact points to a minor importance of the sCI + H2O reaction in the case of the sCI arising from α-pinene and limonene. For the isoprene sCIs, however, the ratio k(loss) / k(sCI + SO2) was strongly dependent on the relative humidity. To explore whether sCIs could have a more general role in atmospheric oxidation, we investigated as an example the reactivity of acetone oxide (sCI from the ozonolysis of 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene) toward small organic acids, i.e. formic and acetic acid. Acetone oxide was found to react faster with the

  1. Evaluating the Impact of Data Placement to Spark and SciDB with an Earth Science Use Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doan, Khoa; Oloso, Amidu; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Clune, Thomas; Yu, Hongfeng; Nelson, Brian; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the impact of data placement for two Big Data technologies, Spark and SciDB, with a use case from Earth Science where data arrays are multidimensional. Simultaneously, this investigation provides an opportunity to evaluate the performance of the technologies involved. Two datastores, HDFS and Cassandra, are used with Spark for our comparison. It is found that Spark with Cassandra performs better than with HDFS, but SciDB performs better yet than Spark with either datastore. The investigation also underscores the value of having data aligned for the most common analysis scenarios in advance on a shared nothing architecture. Otherwise, repartitioning needs to be carried out on the fly, degrading overall performance.

  2. Clinical Trials Network / Building Infrastructure to Accelerate Transfer of Basic Research in Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) to Clinical Practice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    optic nerve axons. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 90, 6976–6980. 3. Tator, C., and Fehlings, M. (1991). Review of the secondary injury theory of acute... Lumbar /Sacral 42 6.1 SCIWORA 3 0.4 1Highest level report when injury involved multiple levels May 12th, 2015 5 Table 8. Surgical by AIS Grade...cervical, thoracic, lumbar ); associated injuries; length of hospital stay, ventilator time, intensive care time; disposition including death

  3. Clinical Trial of AC105 (Mg/PEG) for Treatment of Acute Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    505-9. Kwon BK, Roy J, Lee JH, Okon E, Zhang H, Marx JC, Kindy MS. (2009) Magnesium chloride in a polyethylene glycol formulation as a...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Acorda Therapeutics, Inc. is developing the polymer formulation of magnesium , known as AC-105...15. SUBJECT TERMS AC-105, Magnesium , Mg, Spinal Cord Injury, SCI 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF

  4. Development of a Small Molecule P2X7R Antagonist as a Treatment for Acute SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    microglia in response to SCI, and of the role of P2X7 receptor activation in that process . Indeed, in parallel work using uninjured human brain tissue...distinct glial fates are instructed, and how that process may be manipulated for therapeutic purposes. Thus, on the basis of the injury-associated...autocrine loop for the self -maintenance of glial progenitors, the perturbation of which might dictate progenitor recruitment as either reactive glia or

  5. Development of Novel Combinatorial Treatment to Prevent Chemotherapeutic Resistance and Enhance Efficacy of Riluzole in a Rodent Model of SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    spinal cord injury (SCI) in order to enhance the bioavailability and efficacy of riluzole, an FDA- approved neuroprotective drug . In a previously...amount of a wide range of substances, both endogenous as well as exogenous (such as drugs ) from tissues. Pgp is a significant contributor to the...process of chemotherapeutic resistance in many forms of cancer that blocks access of systemically-administered drugs into tumors, reducing their

  6. Development of a Small Molecule P2X7R Antagonist as a Treatment for Acute SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    evaluated the impact of deletion of connexins (Cx30/Cx43) in astrocytes on post-traumatic ATP release. In vivo bioluminescence imaging showed a...Introduction The proposed studies were based on the observati on that ATP release and activation of P2X7 receptors drives the innate inf lammatory...tissue swelling. Prior studies have shown that excess ive ATP release from peri-traumatic regions contributes to the inflammatory response to SCI by

  7. Development of a Small Molecule P2X7R Antagonist as a Treatment for Acute SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    impact of deletion of connexins (Cx30/Cx43) in astrocytes on post-traumatic ATP release. In vivo bioluminescence imaging showed a significant reduction...the observation that ATP release and activation of P2X7 receptors drives the innate inflammatory response initiated by spinal cord injury. P2X7R...swelling. Prior studies have shown that excessive ATP release from peri-traumatic regions contributes to the inflammatory response to SCI by

  8. Efficient Assessment of the Environment for Integral Urban Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rost, Grit; Londong, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    required subjects/disciplines implies first sight expert knowledge or provided open access data. In the case of the need for a more detailed screening the next steps consist of scientifically based analysis and legal statutory analysis. Indexes (indicators) or benchmarks for each assessment scale will be summarized and linked to suitable measures. The trans- and interdisciplinary approach makes sure that technical, informative and administrative measures will be involved. A rating between the current situation and the determined target situation will help for effective derivation of measures. Conclusion: The claim of the stepwise assessment is to make the data possible to handle, and to summarize the knowledge of expert's effective environmental assessment methods. The universe, comprehensive assessment will be feasible by using the toolbox. The toolbox will be a planning tool for sustainable urban water management and closed loop recycling water management. GWP, INBO (2009) A Handbook for Integrated Water Resources Management in Basins. 104. Karthe D, Heldt S, Rost G, et al (2014) Modular Concept for Municipal Water Management in the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia. Environ. Sci. Price RK, Vojinović Z (2011) Urban Hydroinformatics Data, Models and Decision Support for Integrated Urban Water Management. 520. Rost G, Londong J, Dietze S, Osor G (2013) Integrated urban water management - an adapted management approach for planning and implementing measures: Case study area Darkhan , Kharaa catchment, Mongolia. Submitt to Environ Earth Sci 19. Stäudel J, Schalkwyk B Van, Gibbens M (2014) Methods and strategies for community-based enhancement & up-scaling of sanitation & waste management in peri-urban areas in South Africa. SANO. Rhombos-Verlag, Weimar, pp 1-13

  9. Comparison of predicted pesticide concentrations in groundwater from SCI-GROW and PRZM-GW models with historical monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Estes, Tammara L; Pai, Naresh; Winchell, Michael F

    2016-06-01

    A key factor in the human health risk assessment process for the registration of pesticides by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is an estimate of pesticide concentrations in groundwater used for drinking water. From 1997 to 2011, these estimates were obtained from the EPA empirical model SCI-GROW. Since 2012, these estimates have been obtained from the EPA deterministic model PRZM-GW, which has resulted in a significant increase in estimated groundwater concentrations for many pesticides. Historical groundwater monitoring data from the National Ambient Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program (1991-2014) were compared with predicted groundwater concentrations from both SCI-GROW (v.2.3) and PRZM-GW (v.1.07) for 66 different pesticides of varying environmental fate properties. The pesticide environmental fate parameters associated with over- and underprediction of groundwater concentrations by the two models were evaluated. In general, SCI-GROW2.3 predicted groundwater concentrations were close to maximum historically observed groundwater concentrations. However, for pesticides with soil organic carbon content values below 1000 L kg(-1) and no simulated hydrolysis, PRZM-GW overpredicted, often by greater than 100 ppb. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Solubility of pharmaceuticals: A comparison between SciPharma, a PC-SAFT-based approach, and NRTL-SAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouillot, Baptiste; Spyriouni, Theodora; Teychené, Sébastien; Biscans, Béatrice

    2017-04-01

    The solubility of seven pharmaceutical compounds (paracetamol, benzoic acid, 4-aminobenzoic acid, salicylic acid, ibuprofen, naproxen and temazepam) in pure and mixed solvents as a function of temperature is calculated with SciPharma, a semi-empirical approach based on PC-SAFT, and the NRTL-SAC model. To conduct a fair comparison between the approaches, the parameters of the compounds were regressed against the same solubility data, chosen to account for hydrophilic, polar and hydrophobic interactions. Only these solubility data were used by both models for predicting solubility in other pure and mixed solvents for which experimental data were available for comparison. A total of 386 pure solvent data points were used for the comparison comprising one or more temperatures per solvent. SciPharma is found to be more accurate than NRTL-SAC on the pure solvent data used especially in the description of the temperature dependence. This is due to the appropriate parameterization of the pharmaceuticals and the temperature-dependent description of the activity coefficient in PC-SAFT. The solubility in mixed solvents is predicted satisfactorily with SciPharma. NRTL-SAC tends to overestimate the solubility in aqueous solutions of alcohols or shows invariable solubility with composition in other cases.

  11. Solubility of pharmaceuticals: A comparison between SciPharma, a PC-SAFT-based approach, and NRTL-SAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouillot, Baptiste; Spyriouni, Theodora; Teychené, Sébastien; Biscans, Béatrice

    2016-09-01

    The solubility of seven pharmaceutical compounds (paracetamol, benzoic acid, 4-aminobenzoic acid, salicylic acid, ibuprofen, naproxen and temazepam) in pure and mixed solvents as a function of temperature is calculated with SciPharma, a semi-empirical approach based on PC-SAFT, and the NRTL-SAC model. To conduct a fair comparison between the approaches, the parameters of the compounds were regressed against the same solubility data, chosen to account for hydrophilic, polar and hydrophobic interactions. Only these solubility data were used by both models for predicting solubility in other pure and mixed solvents for which experimental data were available for comparison. A total of 386 pure solvent data points were used for the comparison comprising one or more temperatures per solvent. SciPharma is found to be more accurate than NRTL-SAC on the pure solvent data used especially in the description of the temperature dependence. This is due to the appropriate parameterization of the pharmaceuticals and the temperature-dependent description of the activity coefficient in PC-SAFT. The solubility in mixed solvents is predicted satisfactorily with SciPharma. NRTL-SAC tends to overestimate the solubility in aqueous solutions of alcohols or shows invariable solubility with composition in other cases.

  12. SciStarter 2.0: A Digital Platform to Foster and Study Sustained Engagement in Citizen Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, C.

    2016-12-01

    SciStarter is a popular online hotspot for citizen science. As a Match.com meets Amazon for citizen science projects, we connect the millions of citizen scientists to thousands of projects and events, and to the resources they need to participate. These opportunities represent ways for the general public from kids to adults to get involved in scientific research. Recently, SciStarter developed a new digital infrastructure to support sustained engagement in citizen science, and research into the behaviors and motivations of participants. The new digital infrastructure of SciStarter includes contribution tracking tools to make it easier to participate in multiple projects, enhanced GIS information to promote locally relevant projects, an online personal dashboard to keep track of contributions, and the use of these tools (contribution tracking, GIS, dashboard) by project owners and researchers to better understand and respond to the needs and interests of citizen science participants. We will provide an overview of these tools and the research behind their development. We will then explore how these new tools advance citizen science towards a future with more pathways to participatory policymaking, expanded access to informal STEM experiences, and lowered barriers to citizen science. Finally, we will present the research questions that can and will be answered through the site by practitioners in the diverse science and citizen science fields.

  13. SCI1, the first member of the tissue-specific inhibitors of CDK (TIC) class, is probably connected to the auxin signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    DePaoli, Henrique; Goldman, Gustavo; Goldman, Maria-Helena

    2012-01-01

    The recent finding of a tissue-specific cell cycle regulator (SCI1) that inhibits cell proliferation/differentiation in the upper pistil points to an unanticipated way of controlling plant morphogenesis. The similarity between the SCI1 RNAi-silenced plants and some auxin-related phenotypes suggested that SCI1 could be involved in the auxin signaling pathway. To address this hypothesis, we analyzed the expression of three auxin-related genes in transgenic plants in which SCI1 was silenced and overexpressed. The results showed that the expression levels of the auxin-related genes largely correlated with the SCI1 expression level. Additionally, we analyzed the Arabidopsis SCI1 upstream regulatory region and found putative cis-acting elements also present in the AtCYCB1;1 AtYUC1, AtYUC2 and AtYUC4 URRs, suggesting a cell cycle- and auxin-related transcriptional regulation. Based on our previous and the current studies, we propose SCI1 as a signal transducer engaging auxin signaling and cell division/differentiation. PMID:22301969

  14. Draft Genome Sequences of the Aerobic Strains Lactobacillus gasseri AL3 and AL5.

    PubMed

    Maresca, Diamante; De Filippis, Francesca; Tytgat, Hanne L P; de Vos, Willem M; Mauriello, Gianluigi

    2017-05-04

    Adaptation to the aerobic environment has been investigated in heterofermentative lactobacilli, while data on how homofermentative lactobacilli adapt to oxygen are limited. We report here the draft genome sequences of the aerobic strains Lactobacillus gasseri AL3 and AL5 that allow an in-depth investigation of the genes involved in oxidative metabolism and the stress response. Copyright © 2017 Maresca et al.

  15. Measuring anxiety after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Anxiety item bank and linkage with GAD-7

    PubMed Central

    Kisala, Pamela A.; Tulsky, David S.; Kalpakjian, Claire Z.; Heinemann, Allen W.; Pohlig, Ryan T.; Carle, Adam; Choi, Seung W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a calibrated item bank and computer adaptive test to assess anxiety symptoms in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), transform scores to the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) metric, and create a statistical linkage with the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)-7, a widely used anxiety measure. Design Grounded-theory based qualitative item development methods; large-scale item calibration field testing; confirmatory factor analysis; graded response model item response theory analyses; statistical linking techniques to transform scores to a PROMIS metric; and linkage with the GAD-7. Setting Five SCI Model System centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in the United States. Participants Adults with traumatic SCI. Main Outcome Measures Spinal Cord Injury-Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Anxiety Item Bank Results Seven hundred sixteen individuals with traumatic SCI completed 38 items assessing anxiety, 17 of which were PROMIS items. After 13 items (including 2 PROMIS items) were removed, factor analyses confirmed unidimensionality. Item response theory analyses were used to estimate slopes and thresholds for the final 25 items (15 from PROMIS). The observed Pearson correlation between the SCI-QOL Anxiety and GAD-7 scores was 0.67. Conclusions The SCI-QOL Anxiety item bank demonstrates excellent psychometric properties and is available as a computer adaptive test or short form for research and clinical applications. SCI-QOL Anxiety scores have been transformed to the PROMIS metric and we provide a method to link SCI-QOL Anxiety scores with those of the GAD-7. PMID:26010966

  16. De Novo Acquisition of Resistance to SCY-078 in Candida glabrata Involves FKS Mutations That both Overlap and Are Distinct from Those Conferring Echinocandin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ortigosa, Cristina; Perez, Winder B; Angulo, David; Borroto-Esoda, Katyna; Perlin, David S

    2017-09-01

    SCY-078 is an orally active antifungal whose target is the β-(1,3)-d-glucan synthase (GS). We evaluated the spontaneous emergence of SCY-078-resistant Candida glabrata isolates following drug exposure in vitro Resistant isolates were analyzed using broth microdilution methodology and FKS sequencing. The kinetic inhibition parameter IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) was also determined from GS complexes. The spectrum of resistance mutations found suggested a partially overlapping but independent binding site for SCY-078 relative to echinocandins on GS. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. How to reduce the Al-texture in AlN films during film preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Ju-qian; Chen, Xi-ming; Yang, Bao-he; Zhang, Qian; Wu, Xiao-guo

    2012-09-01

    The preparation of aluminum nitrogen (AlN) film without Al texture is of great significance for the manufacture of high-performance surface acoustic wave (SAW) device. We research the process factors which bring Al into AlN film due to radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system, and discuss how the process parameters influence the AlN thin film containing Al. In the research, it is found that the high sputtering power, the low deposition pressures and low partial pressure of Ar can lead to growing Al-texture during AlN thin film preparation, and the experiment also shows that filling the chamber with nitrogen gas can recrystallize a small amount of Al composition into AlN film during the annealing process in the high temperature environment.

  18. SciJourn Is Magic: Construction of a Science Journalism Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, Celeste R.

    2017-01-01

    This article is the first to describe the discoursal construction of an adolescent community of practice (CoP) in a non-school setting. CoPs can provide optimal learning environments. The adolescent community centered around science journalism and positioned itself dichotomously in relationship to school literacy practices. The analysis focuses on…

  19. From Sci-Fi to Reality--Mobile Robots Get the Job Done

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2006-01-01

    Robots are simply computers that can interact with their environment. Some are fixed in place in industrial assembly plants for cars, appliances, micro electronic circuitry, and pharmaceuticals. Another important category of robots is the mobiles, machines that can be driven to the workplace, often designed for hazardous duty operation or…

  20. 26Al Production in the Early Solar Nebula by Neutral High-Energy Plasma Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spergel, M. S.

    1995-09-01

    In the light of recent observations, I believe that the sources for the presence of ^26Al within the solar nebula must be reconsidered [2,3]. Recent low observational estimates of the probability of encounters between mass-losing evolved stars and molecular clouds [4] for the production of ^26Al and the observed low production [5] of 26 Al from AGB (Asymptotic Giant Branch stars) along with the predicted low abundance of cosmic ray induced local production [6] in the early solar nebula all support continued investigation for additional sources of the solar nebula ^26Al presence. It is suggested based on the presences of new cross section data [7], that an important source of this ^26Al presence might be from enhanced interactions from the collisions of the local "T. Tauri" like plasma winds with the atomic and molecular Early Solar Nebula (ESN). Interactions like ^26Mg (p,n) ^26Al in this "neutral" electrical setting may provide the needed selective production. The ESN provides an environment where plasma winds can lead to such nucleosynthesis. Stellar winds of 300-700 km/s (about 3x10^7 K) are seen to T. Tauri like stars, presumed precursor to solar like stars, and also within the Solar heliosphere [8.9]. These winds provide the source of Solar High Energy Particles which can interact with such in situ targets such as ^26Mg to produce the ^26Al. The presence of the atomic and molecular environments, will enhance [10] nucleosynthesis over that seen in scattering of protons off bare nuclei. Such enhancement has been recently observed in low energy scattering on electrically shield targets [7]. There it was also suggested that in stellar convective zones, electron clouds of the plasma shield may also shield bare target nuclei. Measured values of low energy proton scattered on atomic and molecular targets indicated [7] that fusion cross sections are enlarged and elastic cross sections are reduced, therefore simple extrapolation of accelerator data can lead to an

  1. Patient-cooperative control increases active participation of individuals with SCI during robot-aided gait training

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Manual body weight supported treadmill training and robot-aided treadmill training are frequently used techniques for the gait rehabilitation of individuals after stroke and spinal cord injury. Current evidence suggests that robot-aided gait training may be improved by making robotic behavior more patient-cooperative. In this study, we have investigated the immediate effects of patient-cooperative versus non-cooperative robot-aided gait training on individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Methods Eleven patients with iSCI participated in a single training session with the gait rehabilitation robot Lokomat. The patients were exposed to four different training modes in random order: During both non-cooperative position control and compliant impedance control, fixed timing of movements was provided. During two variants of the patient-cooperative path control approach, free timing of movements was enabled and the robot provided only spatial guidance. The two variants of the path control approach differed in the amount of additional support, which was either individually adjusted or exaggerated. Joint angles and torques of the robot as well as muscle activity and heart rate of the patients were recorded. Kinematic variability, interaction torques, heart rate and muscle activity were compared between the different conditions. Results Patients showed more spatial and temporal kinematic variability, reduced interaction torques, a higher increase of heart rate and more muscle activity in the patient-cooperative path control mode with individually adjusted support than in the non-cooperative position control mode. In the compliant impedance control mode, spatial kinematic variability was increased and interaction torques were reduced, but temporal kinematic variability, heart rate and muscle activity were not significantly higher than in the position control mode. Conclusions Patient-cooperative robot-aided gait training with free timing of movements

  2. The Fulldome Curriculum for the Spitz SciDome Digital Planetarium: A New Age for Planetarium Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradstreet, David H.; Huggins, S. L.

    2010-01-01

    Astronomy education received a huge boost from the Space Program in the 1960's and early 1970's as evidenced by a large increase in school planetariums built nationwide at that time. But with the waning of manned explorations so also went the push for astronomy in the schools, and many school planetariums are underutilized or not used at all. This poster will discuss and illustrate some of the new Fulldome Curriculum that has been developed specifically for the Spitz SciDome digital planetarium powered by Starry Night. It is now possible to teach astronomical concepts in new and exciting ways and present topics that were extremely difficult to convey to lay audiences in the past. One of the strongest advantages of the SciDome is that, since it uses Starry Night as its astronomical engine, students can create their own astronomical configurations in the computer lab or at home using the PC or Mac version and then simply load them onto the SciDome planetarium system and display them for the class on the dome. Additionally, the instructor can create artificial bodies to pose "What if” scenarios, for example, "What would the Moon look like if it didn't rotate synchronously?", or "What would the analemma look like if the Earth's orbit were circular and not an ellipse?" Topics covered in the series include The Moon, Seasons, Coordinate Systems, Roemer's Method of Measuring the Speed of Light, Analemmas in the Solar System, Precession, Mimas and the Cassini Division, Halley's Comet in 1910, Dog Days, Galactic Distributions of Celestial Bodies, Retrograde Paths of Mars, Mercury's Orbit and the Length of the Mercurian Day, Altitude of the North Celestial Pole, Why Polaris Appears Mostly Stationary, Circumpolar Contellations, Planet Definition, Scale of the Solar System, Stonehenge, The Changing Aspect of Saturn's Appearance and Scorpio's Claws.

  3. Patient-cooperative control increases active participation of individuals with SCI during robot-aided gait training.

    PubMed

    Duschau-Wicke, Alexander; Caprez, Andrea; Riener, Robert

    2010-09-10

    Manual body weight supported treadmill training and robot-aided treadmill training are frequently used techniques for the gait rehabilitation of individuals after stroke and spinal cord injury. Current evidence suggests that robot-aided gait training may be improved by making robotic behavior more patient-cooperative. In this study, we have investigated the immediate effects of patient-cooperative versus non-cooperative robot-aided gait training on individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Eleven patients with iSCI participated in a single training session with the gait rehabilitation robot Lokomat. The patients were exposed to four different training modes in random order: During both non-cooperative position control and compliant impedance control, fixed timing of movements was provided. During two variants of the patient-cooperative path control approach, free timing of movements was enabled and the robot provided only spatial guidance. The two variants of the path control approach differed in the amount of additional support, which was either individually adjusted or exaggerated. Joint angles and torques of the robot as well as muscle activity and heart rate of the patients were recorded. Kinematic variability, interaction torques, heart rate and muscle activity were compared between the different conditions. Patients showed more spatial and temporal kinematic variability, reduced interaction torques, a higher increase of heart rate and more muscle activity in the patient-cooperative path control mode with individually adjusted support than in the non-cooperative position control mode. In the compliant impedance control mode, spatial kinematic variability was increased and interaction torques were reduced, but temporal kinematic variability, heart rate and muscle activity were not significantly higher than in the position control mode. Patient-cooperative robot-aided gait training with free timing of movements made individuals with iSCI participate

  4. Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Chronic SCI: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Treatment Impact on Cognition, Quality of Life, and Cardiovascular Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0479 TITLE: Sleep -Disordered Breathing in Chronic SCI: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Treatment Impact on...October 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual Report 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Sleep -Disordered...randomized controlled trial, we will objectively measure sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in chronic SCI patients using portable sleep studies, and

  5. Sleep Disordered Breathing in Chronic SCI: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Treatment Impact on Cognition, Quality of Life, and Cardiovascular Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-30

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0479 TITLE: Sleep -Disordered Breathing in Chronic SCI: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Treatment Impact on...October 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual Report 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Sleep -Disordered...randomized controlled trial, we will objectively measure sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in chronic SCI patients using portable sleep studies, and

  6. Sediment geochemistry of Al, Fe, and P for two historically acidic, oligotrophic Maine lakes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Tiffany A; Norton, Stephen A; Lake, Bjorn A; Amirbahman, Aria

    2008-10-15

    Al:P fractions greatly exceeds 25, and molar ratio of specific Al:Fe fractions greatly exceeds 3, the thresholds proposed by Kopácek et al. [Kopácek J, Borovec J, Hejzlar J, Ulrich K-U, Norton SA, Amirbahman A. Aluminum control of phosphorus sorption by lake sediments. Environ Sci Technol 2005; 39: 8784-89.] for P release during anoxia. The data illustrate a continuous association of P with Al in both ponds during the last two centuries, likely due to the persistent natural acidity of the catchments.

  7. DOE's SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies -- Strategy for Petascale Visual Data Analysis Success

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E Wes; Johnson, Chris; Aragon, Cecilia; Rubel, Oliver; Weber, Gunther; Pascucci, Valerio; Childs, Hank; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Whitlock, Brad; Ahern, Sean; Meredith, Jeremey; Ostrouchov, George; Joy, Ken; Hamann, Bernd; Garth, Christoph; Cole, Martin; Hansen, Charles; Parker, Steven; Sanderson, Allen; Silva, Claudio; Tricoche, Xavier

    2007-10-01

    The focus of this article is on how one group of researchersthe DOE SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies (VACET) is tackling the daunting task of enabling knowledgediscovery through visualization and analytics on some of the world slargest and most complex datasets and on some of the world's largestcomputational platforms. As a Center for Enabling Technology, VACET smission is the creation of usable, production-quality visualization andknowledge discovery software infrastructure that runs on large, parallelcomputer systems at DOE's Open Computing facilities and that providessolutions to challenging visual data exploration and knowledge discoveryneeds of modern science, particularly the DOE sciencecommunity.

  8. The effect of complex rehabilitation training for 12 weeks on trunk muscle function and spine deformation of patients with SCI.

    PubMed

    Sung, Dong-Hun; Yoon, Seong-Deok; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] It is important for patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) to strengthen their muscle strength and return to the work force one of the ultimate objectives of rehabilitation. This study reports how a single patient with SCI became stabilized in terms of abdominal muscles and back extension muscles, as well as returning the back to the neutral position from spinal deformation, as result of complex exercises performed for 12 weeks. [Subjects] The degree of damage of the subject was rated as C grade. The subject of this study had unstable posture due to paralysis in the lower extremities of the left side after removal of a malignant tumor by surgical operation, and tilting and torsion in the pelvis increased followed by increase of kyphosis in the thoracolumbar spine. The subject was more than two years since diagnosis of incomplete SCI after surgery. [Methods] Using isokinetic lumbar muscle strength measurement equipment, peak torque/weight, total work and average power in flexion and extension of the lumbar region were measured. A trunk measurement system (Formetric 4D, DIERS, Germany), which is a 3D image processing apparatus with high resolution for vertebrae, was used in order to measure 3D vertebrae and pelvis deformation as well as static balance abilities. As an exercise method, a foam roller was used to conduct fascia relaxation massage for warming-up, and postural kyphosis was changed into postural lordosis by lat pull-down using equipment, performed in 5 sets of 15 times preset at 60% intensity of 1RM 4 set of 10 crunch exercises per set using Togu's were done while sitting at the end of Balance pad, and 4 sets of 15 bridge exercises. [Results] All angular speed tests showed a gradual increase in muscle strength. Flexion and extension showed 10% and 3% improvements, respectively. The spine deformation test showed that isokinetic exercise and lat pull-down exercise for 12 weeks resulted in improved spinal shape. [Conclusion] In this study

  9. NQR experiments on Sc-Y alloys at very low temperatures. [Absolute thermometry below 500[mu]K

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, L.; Smith, E.N.; Richardson, R.C. )

    1992-10-01

    The authors performed Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) experiments on an alloy of scandium and yttrium. They find that the characteristic resonance frequencies in zero external field are 50% larger than in pure scandium. This increase in frequency makes the Sc-Y alloy a better candidate for absolute thermometry below 500 [mu]K. However, the spin-lattice relaxation time of this alloy is more than an order of magnitude longer than in the pure scandium. In addition, an abrupt increase in the Korringa constant was observed for temperatures below 5mK.

  10. Observation of cosmic ray hadrons at the top of the Sierra Negra volcano in Mexico with the SciCRT prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, E.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Matsubara, Y.; Nagai, Y.; Hurtado, A.; Musalem, O.; García, R.; Anzorena, M. A.; González, L. X.; Itow, Y.; Sako, T.; Lopez, D.; Sasai, Y.; Munakata, K.; Kato, C.; Kozai, M.; Shibata, S.; Takamaru, H.; Kojima, H.; Watanabe, K.; Tsuchiya, H.; Koi, T.

    2016-02-16

    In this study we report the flux of protons and neutral emission measured at the top of the Sierra Negra volcano at 4600 m.a.s.l. (575 g/cm2), in Eastern Mexico. As an example of the capability of the mini-SciCR as a cosmic ray detector we present the Forbush decrease recorded on March 7, 2012. These data were obtained with a cosmic ray detector prototype called mini-SciCR that was operating from October 2010 to July 2012. Our main aims were to measure the hadronic component flux of the secondary cosmic ray and to show the appropriate performance of all system of the detector. To separate the signals of protons from other charged particles we obtained the energy deposition pattern when they cross the detector using a Monte Carlo simulation, and to separate the signals of neutral emission we used an anticoincidence system between the edge bars and the internal bars of the detector. The mini-SciCR is a prototype of a new cosmic ray detector called SciBar Cosmic Ray Telescope (SciCRT) installed in the same place, which is in the process of calibration. The SciCRT will work mainly as a Solar Neutron and Muon Telescope, it is designed to achieve: (1) larger effective area than the current Solar Neutron Telescope, (2) higher energy resolution to determine the energy spectrum of solar neutrons, (3) lower energy threshold, and (4) higher particle identification ability.

  11. Observation of cosmic ray hadrons at the top of the Sierra Negra volcano in Mexico with the SciCRT prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, E.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Matsubara, Y.; Nagai, Y.; Hurtado, A.; Musalem, O.; García, R.; Anzorena, M. A.; González, L. X.; Itow, Y.; Sako, T.; Lopez, D.; Sasai, Y.; Munakata, K.; Kato, C.; Kozai, M.; Shibata, S.; Takamaru, H.; Kojima, H.; Watanabe, K.; Tsuchiya, H.; Koi, T.

    2016-11-01

    In this work we report the flux of protons and neutral emission measured at the top of the Sierra Negra volcano at 4600 m.a.s.l. (575 g/cm2), in Eastern Mexico. As an example of the capability of the mini-SciCR as a cosmic ray detector we present the Forbush decrease recorded on March 7, 2012. These data were obtained with a cosmic ray detector prototype called mini-SciCR that was operating from October 2010 to July 2012. Our main aims were to measure the hadronic component flux of the secondary cosmic ray and to show the appropriate performance of all system of the detector. To separate the signals of protons from other charged particles we obtained the energy deposition pattern when they cross the detector using a Monte Carlo simulation, and to separate the signals of neutral emission we used an anticoincidence system between the edge bars and the internal bars of the detector. The mini-SciCR is a prototype of a new cosmic ray detector called SciBar Cosmic Ray Telescope (SciCRT) installed in the same place, which is in the process of calibration. The SciCRT will work mainly as a Solar Neutron and Muon Telescope, it is designed to achieve: (1) larger effective area than the current Solar Neutron Telescope, (2) higher energy resolution to determine the energy spectrum of solar neutrons, (3) lower energy threshold, and (4) higher particle identification ability.

  12. Observation of cosmic ray hadrons at the top of the Sierra Negra volcano in Mexico with the SciCRT prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, E.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Matsubara, Y.; Nagai, Y.; Hurtado, A.; Musalem, O.; García, R.; Anzorena, M. A.; González, L. X.; Itow, Y.; Sako, T.; Lopez, D.; Sasai, Y.; Munakata, K.; Kato, C.; Kozai, M.; Shibata, S.; Takamaru, H.; Kojima, H.; Watanabe, K.; Tsuchiya, H.; Koi, T.

    2016-11-01

    In this work we report the flux of protons and neutral emission measured at the top of the Sierra Negra volcano at 4600 m.a.s.l. (575 g/cm2), in Eastern Mexico. As an example of the capability of the mini-SciCR as a cosmic ray detector we present the Forbush decrease recorded on March 7, 2012. These data were obtained with a cosmic ray detector prototype called mini-SciCR that was operating from October 2010 to July 2012. Our main aims were to measure the hadronic component flux of the secondary cosmic ray and to show the appropriate performance of all system of the detector. To separate the signals of protons from other charged particles we obtained the energy deposition pattern when they cross the detector using a Monte Carlo simulation, and to separate the signals of neutral emission we used an anticoincidence system between the edge bars and the internal bars of the detector. The mini-SciCR is a prototype of a new cosmic ray detector called SciBar Cosmic Ray Telescope (SciCRT) installed in the same place, which is in the process of calibration. The SciCRT will work mainly as a Solar Neutron and Muon Telescope, it is designed to achieve: (1) larger effective area than the current Solar Neutron Telescope, (2) higher energy resolution to determine the energy spectrum of solar neutrons, (3) lower energy threshold, and (4) higher particle identification ability.

  13. Suicide: Incidence or Prevalence? Comments on Hernández-Alvarado et al. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 552.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    I recently reviewed the paper published in this journal by Hernández-Alvarado et al., titled "Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012" [1], and I noticed that the epidemiological concept "prevalence" is not correctly used.[...].

  14. Magnetism of Al-substituted magnetite reduced from Al-hematite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhaoxia; Liu, Qingsong; Zhao, Xiang; Roberts, Andrew P.; Heslop, David; Barrón, Vidal; Torrent, José

    2016-06-01

    Aluminum-substituted magnetite (Al-magnetite) reduced from Al-substituted hematite or goethite (Al-hematite or Al-goethite) is an environmentally important constituent of magnetically enhanced soils. In order to characterize the magnetic properties of Al-magnetite, two series of Al-magnetite samples were synthesized through reduction of Al-hematite by a mixed gas (80% CO2 and 20% CO) at 395°C for 72 h in a quartz tube furnace. Al-magnetite samples inherited the morphology of their parent Al-hematite samples, but only those transformed from Al-hematite synthesized at low temperature possessed surficial micropores, which originated from the release of structural water during heating. Surface micropores could thus serve as a practical fingerprint of fire or other high-temperature mineralogical alteration processes in natural environments, e.g., shear friction in seismic zones. In addition, Al substitution greatly affects the magnetic properties of Al-magnetite. For example, coercivity (Bc) increases with increasing Al content and then decreases slightly, while the saturation magnetization (Ms), Curie temperature (Tc), and Verwey transition temperature (Tv) all decrease with increasing Al content due to crystal defect formation and dilution of magnetic ions caused by Al incorporation. Moreover, different trends in the correlation between Tc and Bc can be used to discriminate titanomagnetite from Al-magnetite, which is likely to be important in environmental and paleomagnetic studies, particularly in soil.

  15. 26Al-26Mg systematics in chondrules from Kaba and Yamato 980145 CV3 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Komatsu, Mutsumi

    2017-03-01

    We report the mineralogy, petrography, and in situ measured 26Al-26Mg systematics in chondrules from the least metamorphosed CV3 (Vigarano-type) chondrites, Kaba and Yamato (Y) 980145. Two Y 980145 chondrules measured show no resolvable excesses in 26Mg (26Mg∗), a decay product of a short-lived (t1/2 ∼0.7 Ma) radionuclide 26Al. Plagioclase in one of the chondrules is replaced by nepheline, indicative of thermal metamorphism. The lack of 26Mg∗ in the Y 980145 chondrules is most likely due to disturbance of their 26Al-26Mg systematics during the metamorphism. Although Kaba experienced extensive metasomatic alteration (<300 °C), it largely avoided subsequent thermal metamorphism, and the 26Al-26Mg systematics of its chondrules appear to be undisturbed. All eight Kaba chondrules measured show 26Mg∗, corresponding to the initial 26Al/27Al ratios [(26Al/27Al)0] ranging from (2.9 ± 1.7) × 10-6 to (6.3 ± 2.7) × 10-6. If CV parent asteroid accreted rapidly after chondrule formation, the inferred (26Al/27Al)0 ratios in Kaba chondrules provide an upper limit on 26Al available in this asteroid at the time of its accretion. The estimated initial abundance of 26Al in the CV asteroid is too low to melt it and contradicts the existence of a molten core in this body suggested from the paleomagnetic records of Allende [Carporzen et al. (2011) Magnetic evidence for a partially differentiated carbonaceous chondrite parent body. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA108, 6386-6389] and Kaba [Gattacceca et al. (2013) More evidence for a partially differentiated CV parent body from the meteorite Kaba. Lunar Planet. Sci.44, abstract#1721].

  16. Segregation-Induced Subsurface Restructuring of FeAl(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kottche, M.; Graupner, H.; Hammer, L.; Heinz, K.; Zehner, D. M.

    1996-03-01

    For FeAl, the stacking sequence in the [100] direction of the bulk crystal (CsCl structure) consists of alternating, single element planes. After sputtering, the selvedge region is depleted in Al. Following annealing to 350 ^circC, Al segregates to the surface region and a c(2 x 2) structure develops.(H. Graupner, L. Hammer, K. Müller, and D. M. Zehner, Surf. Sci. 322 (1995) 103. Research is sponsored by the *University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany and DAAD, and the **Division of Materials Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy, under contract DE-AC05-84OR21400 with Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc.) We have used low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Auger electron spectroscopy to investigate the structure and composition of this surface. From a detailed LEED I-V analysis, it has been determined that the subsurface region of the (100) surface orders with annealing, to form a stable Fe_3Al slab which is capped by an Al top layer and acts as an interface to the bulk FeAl. Within the limits of error, the interfacial Fe_3Al is similar to the bulk phase with some slight geometric rippling of the layers containing both elements. Annealing to higher temperatures leads to additional Al diffusion and eliminates the restructuring, resulting in a (1 x 1) phase.

  17. The effects of locomotor training with a robotic-gait orthosis (Lokomat) on neuromuscular properties in persons with chronic SCI.

    PubMed

    Mirbagheri, Mehdi M; Niu, Xun; Kindig, Matt; Varoqui, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effects of robotic-assisted locomotor (LOKOMAT) training on neuromuscular abnormality associated with spasticity in persons with incomplete Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). LOKOMAT training was performed 3 days/week for 4 weeks, with up to 45 minutes of training per session. Subjects were evaluated before and after 1, 2, and 4 weeks of training, and the effects of training on the intrinsic (muscular) and reflexive components of the neuromuscular properties were quantified over the ankle range-of-motion. A linear (slope&intercept) regression was fit to the stiffness-angle curve. "Growth mixture" modeling was used to identify recovery classes for these parameters over the training period. Two distinct classes were observed. Class 1 subjects had initially higher reflex stiffness parameters (i.e., intercept and slope vs. ankle position) and reduced significantly over the training period. Class 2 subjects initially had lower reflex stiffness parameters and experienced non-significant reductions. Similar results were observed for the intrinsic stiffness intercept; however, intrinsic slope showed no significant improvement over training for either class. These findings demonstrate that LOKOMAT training is effective in reducing reflex and intrinsic stiffness (which abnormally increase in SCI) and improving the abnormal modulation of reflexes over the ankle range-of-motion.

  18. Abu al-Layth al-Libi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    jihadi doctrine, al-Libi enrolled himself in the recently erected and highly popular al-Faruq 2 “Al-Sahab Releases ‘Winds of Paradise , Part III...February 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7220823.stm. 3 “Al-Sahab Releases ‘Winds of Paradise , Part III,’” Global Terrorism Research Project...5 “Al-Sahab Releases ‘Winds of Paradise , Part III,’” Global Terrorism Research Project. 6 Ibid. The date provided in the video is 1410

  19. What Is ALS?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javits, actor David Niven, “Sesame Street” creator Jon Stone, boxing champion Ezzard Charles, NBA Hall of Fame ... Help for People with ALS and Caregivers Read stories from families living with ALS Forms of ALS ...

  20. Challenges of animal models in SCI research: Effects of pre-injury task-specific training in adult rats before lesion

    PubMed Central

    May, Zacnicte; Fouad, Karim; Shum-Siu, Alice; Magnuson, David S. K.

    2015-01-01

    A rarely explored subject in animal research is the effect of pre-injury variables on behavioural outcome post-SCI. Low reporting of such variables may underlie some discrepancies in findings between laboratories. Particularly, intensive task-specific training before a SCI might be important, considering that sports injuries are one of the leading causes of SCI. Thus, individuals with SCI often underwent rigorous training before their injuries. In the present study, we asked whether training before SCI on a grasping task or a swimming task would influence motor recovery in rats. Swim pre-training impaired recovery of swimming 2 and 4 weeks post-injury. This result fits with the idea of motor learning interference, which posits that learning something new may disrupt learning of a new task; in this case, learning strategies to compensate for functional loss after SCI. In contrast to swimming, grasp pre-training did not influence grasping ability after SCI at any time point. However, grasp pre-trained rats attempted to grasp more times than untrained rats in the first 4 weeks post-injury. Also, lesion volume of grasp pretrained rats was greater than that of untrained rats, a finding which may be related to stress or activity. The increased participation in rehabilitative training of the pre-trained rats in the early weeks post-injury may have potentiated spontaneous plasticity in the spinal cord and counteracted the deleterious effect of interference and bigger lesions. Thus, our findings suggest that pre-training plays a significant role in recovery after CNS damage and needs to be carefully controlled for. PMID:25975172