Science.gov

Sample records for al exp fluids

  1. Science ExpOlympics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Fred J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Science ExpOlympics, an outreach program of competitive and noncompetitive events for high school students. Involves competitive activities, activities and demonstrations, and a science bowl competition for regional high school students. Lists events taking place at the Science ExpOlympics. (JRH)

  2. Calcul couple fluide/structure avec ANSYS : étude numérique et expérimentale d'une plaque élastique en contact avec un fluide lourd compressible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigrist, J. F.; Laine, C.; Peseux, B.

    2002-12-01

    Une préoccupation constante de tout industriel est la maîtrise des marges de dimensionnement de ses structures. Le recours aux techniques de calcul scientifique permet en phase de conception détaillée un dimensionnement au plus juste des structures, tout en respectant les différentes contraintes de conception (exigences fonctionnelles, conditions d'environnement, aspects réglementaires). Une meilleure maîtrise des marges passe donc par une meilleure connaissance de l'outil de calcul (précision intrinsèque, mise en œuvre de techniques de calcul plus ou moins élaborées) et la prise en compte d'une réalité physique plus complexe (avec par exemple un couplage entre différents phénomènes physiques) pour une meilleure représentativité du calcul. Une démarche globale de recherche et développement a été mise en place au sein du Service Scientifique et Technique de l'établissement DCN de Nantes Indret pour répondre à ce besoin. Nous présentons ici un exemple d'application pour le calcul de structures en présence de fluide. Cette étude numérique et expérimentale nous permet de valider conjointement le processus de calcul en bureau d'étude et les méthodes de mesure sur site dans le domaine de l'analyse fréquentielle de structures mouillées.

  3. TBD(exp 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughan, Jim; Calta, David; Cross, Victor; Habashi, Mozhi; Mathias, Donovan; Northrup, Patti

    1992-01-01

    When asked by the Aeronautical Engineering staff to design a viable supersonic commercial transport, most of the students were well aware that Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, and other aircraft companies had been studying a cadre of transports for more than 30 years and had yet to present a viable aircraft. In the spirit of aviation progress and with much creative license, the TBD design team spearheaded the problem with the full intention of presenting a marketable high speed civil transport in spring of 1992. The project commenced with various studies of future market demands. With the market expansion of American business overseas, the airline industry projects a boom of over 200 million passengers by the year 2000. This will create a much higher demand for time efficient and cost effective inter-continental travel; this is the challenge of the high speed civil transport. The TBD(exp 3), a 269 passenger, long-range civil transport was designed to cruise at Mach 3.0 utilizing technology predicted to be available in 2005. Unlike other contemporary commercial airplane designs, the TBD(exp 3) incorporates a variable geometry wing for optimum performance. This design characteristic enabled the TBD(exp 3) to be efficient in both subsonic and supersonic flight. The TBD(exp 3) was designed to be economically viable for commercial airline purchase, be comfortable for passengers, meet FAR Part 25, and the current FAR 36 Stage 3 noise requirements. The TBD(exp 3) was designed to exhibit a long service life, maximize safety, ease of maintenance, as well as be fully compatible with all current high-traffic density airport facilities.

  4. Comment to: "Spontaneous transformation of adult mesenchymal stem cells from cynomolgus macaques in vitro" by Z. Ren et al. Exp. Cell Res. 317 (2011) 2950-2957: spontaneous transformation of mesenchymal stem cells in culture: facts or fiction?

    PubMed

    Torsvik, Anja; Røsland, Gro V; Bjerkvig, Rolf

    2012-03-10

    There is at present a controversy in the literature whether MSCs are susceptible to spontaneous in vitro transformation or not. Several groups have reported spontaneous transformation of MSCs from various species. However, some of these reports were not true transformations and later proven to be due to cross-contaminating cancer cells. To date there is no solid evidence that MSCs can undergo spontaneous transformation in culture. Only two groups used DNA fingerprinting to authenticate their transformed cells, and both groups later showed cross-contamination of cancer cells in their cultures. In this commentary, we address the paper "Spontaneous transformation of adult mesenchymal stem cells from cynomolgus macaques in vitro" by Z. Ren et al. Exp. Cell Res. 317 (2011) 2950-2957. In this article the authors characterize the transformed mesenchymal cells (TMCs) and claim to have verified their origin. We question the authentication of the TMCs made by the authors and we also believe it is in the interest of the scientific community, that a highly controversial finding, such as spontaneous transformation of MSCs, should be properly verified by stringent methods, preferably DNA fingerprinting, in order to validate if an actual transformation event has occurred.

  5. P- T- X controls on Ca and Na distribution between Mg-Al tourmaline and fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryman, Eleanor J.; Wunder, Bernd; Rhede, Dieter; Schettler, Georg; Franz, Gerhard; Heinrich, Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    Ca-Na partitioning between tourmaline and a coexisting fluid is investigated in the system CaO-Na2O-B2O3-Al2O3-MgO-SiO2-H2O-Cl between 0.2-4.0 GPa and 500-700 °C. The synthesis experiments produced a mineral assemblage of tourmaline, coesite/quartz, and in some cases additional phases, typically comprising <1 wt% of the solid product. The synthesized tourmalines are solid solutions of dravite [NaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)], "oxy-uvite" (i.e. "Ca-Mg-O root name") [CaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3O], and magnesio-foitite [☐(Mg2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)]. Starting materials comprised a fluid of constant ionic strength (2.00 m) and an oxide mixture with a constant Mg/Al ratio. As a result, the number of vacancies at the X site and the Mg/Al ratio of tourmaline crystals synthesized at the same temperature vary only slightly. The major solid solution is Ca-Na exchange at the X site via the exchange vector X Ca W O[ X Na W (OH)]-1, with the exchange vector X (Ca☐)[ X Na2]-1 serving as a secondary Ca-incorporation mechanism. Tourmaline's X-site composition reflects the fluid composition, whereby the Ca (or Na) concentration in the fluid corresponds with the Ca (or Na) content in tourmaline at each pressure and temperature. At 0.2 GPa, 700 °C, Ca preferentially partitions into tourmaline, producing the most Ca-rich tourmaline crystals synthesized here. At pressures >1.0 GPa, Ca partitions preferentially into the fluid, resulting in Na-dominant tourmaline compositions. Temperature has a secondary effect on Ca-Na partitioning, with higher temperatures correlating with increased Ca incorporation in tourmaline. Based on the experimental findings, tourmaline is expected to have Ca-rich compositions when it forms in low pressure, high-temperature Ca-rich rocks, consistent with the current record of tourmaline occurrence. The bulk Mg/Al ratio and the pH of the tourmaline-forming system may also affect Ca incorporation in tourmaline, but remain to be investigated experimentally.

  6. Corrosion behavior of Cu and the Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy in simulated uterine fluid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bangyi; Liang, Chenghao; Fu, Daojun; Ren, Deming

    2005-09-01

    Chemical immersion tests, electrochemical methods and atomic absorption spectrometry were employed to investigate the corrosion behavior of Cu and the Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy (SMA) in simulated uterine fluid. The effect of pH on corrosion rate and corrosion potential was also investigated. The results indicated that in the static state in simulated uterine fluid, dealuminumification of the Cu-Zn-Al alloy occurred with Cl- combining with aluminum ions to form hydroxyl aluminum chloride. The hydroxyl aluminum chloride hydrolyzed readily and facilitated further dealuminumification corrosion. The corrosion process of Cu and Cu-Zn-Al SMA in simulated uterine fluid was controlled by cathodic reduction of oxygen. Because the tendency for surface ionization is greater for aluminum than for zinc, a compact protective aluminum layer was formed, which inhibited the cathodic reduction of oxygen. Hence, the corrosion rate of Cu-Zn-Al SMA was smaller than that of Cu in simulated uterine fluid. With increasing pH, the corrosion rate of Cu and Cu-Zn-Al SMA in simulated uterine fluid decreased and the open-circuit potential moved in a positive direction. PMID:16102560

  7. Implementation of a model of bodily fluids regulation.

    PubMed

    Fontecave-Jallon, Julie; Thomas, S Randall

    2015-09-01

    The classic model of blood pressure regulation by Guyton et al. (Annu Rev Physiol 34:13-46, 1972a; Ann Biomed Eng 1:254-281, 1972b) set a new standard for quantitative exploration of physiological function and led to important new insights, some of which still remain the focus of debate, such as whether the kidney plays the primary role in the genesis of hypertension (Montani et al. in Exp Physiol 24:41-54, 2009a; Exp Physiol 94:382-388, 2009b; Osborn et al. in Exp Physiol 94:389-396, 2009a; Exp Physiol 94:388-389, 2009b). Key to the success of this model was the fact that the authors made the computer code (in FORTRAN) freely available and eventually provided a convivial user interface for exploration of model behavior on early microcomputers (Montani et al. in Int J Bio-med Comput 24:41-54, 1989). Ikeda et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 7:135-166, 1979) developed an offshoot of the Guyton model targeting especially the regulation of body fluids and acid-base balance; their model provides extended renal and respiratory functions and would be a good basis for further extensions. In the interest of providing a simple, useable version of Ikeda et al.'s model and to facilitate further such extensions, we present a practical implementation of the model of Ikeda et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 7:135-166, 1979), using the ODE solver Berkeley Madonna.

  8. Implementation of a model of bodily fluids regulation.

    PubMed

    Fontecave-Jallon, Julie; Thomas, S Randall

    2015-09-01

    The classic model of blood pressure regulation by Guyton et al. (Annu Rev Physiol 34:13-46, 1972a; Ann Biomed Eng 1:254-281, 1972b) set a new standard for quantitative exploration of physiological function and led to important new insights, some of which still remain the focus of debate, such as whether the kidney plays the primary role in the genesis of hypertension (Montani et al. in Exp Physiol 24:41-54, 2009a; Exp Physiol 94:382-388, 2009b; Osborn et al. in Exp Physiol 94:389-396, 2009a; Exp Physiol 94:388-389, 2009b). Key to the success of this model was the fact that the authors made the computer code (in FORTRAN) freely available and eventually provided a convivial user interface for exploration of model behavior on early microcomputers (Montani et al. in Int J Bio-med Comput 24:41-54, 1989). Ikeda et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 7:135-166, 1979) developed an offshoot of the Guyton model targeting especially the regulation of body fluids and acid-base balance; their model provides extended renal and respiratory functions and would be a good basis for further extensions. In the interest of providing a simple, useable version of Ikeda et al.'s model and to facilitate further such extensions, we present a practical implementation of the model of Ikeda et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 7:135-166, 1979), using the ODE solver Berkeley Madonna. PMID:25935135

  9. Peralkaline fluid composition in equilibrium with K-feldspar, muscovite and quartz at 10 kbar and 700°C: Al transport in crustal fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlers, A.; Manning, C. E.

    2012-04-01

    Aluminum is commonly regarded as one of the least soluble elements during metamorphic and metasomatic processes. However, abundant field evidence suggests that aluminum transport can occur in natural hydrothermal processes. For example, late formed aluminumsilicate-bearing and muscovite-bearing veins are widely observed in high-grade metamorphic rocks, and provide a persuasive argument for considerable mobility of aluminum in aqueous fluid. The present study explores the fluid composition coexisting with K-feldspar (K-fsp), muscovite (ms), corundum (co) and quartz (qz) at deep crustal metamorphic conditions, using a piston cylinder device at 10 kbar and 700°C. Starting materials of natural microcline, quartz, synthetic corundum, reagent Al2O3 and KSi3O6.5 glass was used. Ms and K-fsp dissolve incongruently to co + fluid and ms + fluid, respectively. Fluid composition in equilibrium with co + ms and ms + K-fsp were located in experiments with and without qz. In quartz-absent experiments fluid composition with co+ms (I1) is mAl = 0.11, mK = 0.15, mSi = 0.44, and with K-fsp + ms (I2) mAl = 0.18, mK = 0.28 and mSi = 0.81, where mi is molality of the subscripted element. Fluid compositions with qz are: mAl = 0.08, mK = 0.11 and mSi = 1.18 (co + ms + qtz; II1) and mAl = 0.18, mK = 0.29 and mSi = 1.58 for (K-fsp + ms +qtz; II2). Measured fluid compositions are peralkaline (K/Al < 1.4). Bulk solubility of Al in pure H2O at this P and T is reported to be ~0.3 wt% [1], and increase to ~1.9 wt % Al in the presence of SiO2 [2]. This study shows that Al solubility is further enhanced by the presence of K and Si, increasing from ~4.07 wt% for (I1) to ~ 7.14 wt% at (I2). Presence of quartz enhances the bulk solubility from ~ 7.63 wt% (II1) to ~ 12.05 wt % at (II2). Results indicate that substantial aluminum transfer may occur at deep-crust metamorphic conditions in aqueous solutions equilibrated with common crustal bulk compositions such as metapelites and granites. Such high Al

  10. The role of fluid flow and intermetallic phases in the formation of the primary Al-phase in AlSi alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikołajczak, P.; Ratke, L.

    2012-01-01

    In secondary AlSi alloys, the presence of small amounts of Fe causes the formation of intermetallic phases, which have a negative effect on mechanical and physical properties of castings. To understand the effect of fluid flow on the microstructure and intermetallic phases, Al-5/7/9 wt pet Si 0.2/0.5/1.0 wt pet Fe alloys have been directionally solidified under defined thermal (gradient 3 K/mm, solidification velocity 0.04 mm/s) and fluid flow (rotating magnetic field 6 mT) conditions. The primary α-Al phase and intermetallic phases were studied using light microscopy and SEM with EDX. The influence of fluid flow and intermetallic phases (β-Al5FeSi) on microstructure was characterized by changes of primary and secondary dendrite arm spacing and specific surface area of the dendrites. We observe a pronounced effect of flow on the length of the intermetallic precipitates, a macro-segregation Fe and Si and even small amounts of iron and thus intermetallics reduce possible effects of flow on microstructural parameters.

  11. Numerical study of effect parameter fluid flow nanofluid Al2O3-water on heat transfer in corrugated tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadhan, Anwar Ilmar; Diniardi, Ery; Dermawan, Erwin

    2016-06-01

    Heating or cooling fluid is a major requirement in the industrial sector, including transport, energy and production needs of the field and the field of electronics. It is known that the thermal properties of the working fluid hold an important role in the development of energy efficiency of heat transfer equipment. The cooling system can be improved either by replacing conventional cooling fluid from the fluid into the fluid of water mixed with nanoparticles (nanofluid). The method of this research is to analyze the calculations and numerical simulations of the nanofluid Al2O3- Water with the volume fraction of 1% and 3% coolant fluid using CFD Codes. The results of this research show the rate of heat transfer at the increasing velocity of fluid flow, with the velocity of 5 [m/s]. Whereas the 3% nanofluid have greater value than the 1% nanofluid and water, as well as for the velocity of 10 [m/s] which has almost the same pattern. Shown that the concentration of nanofluid has a value effective for improving heat release along the fluid flow rate.

  12. Electrodeposition of HAp coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy and its electrochemical behavior in simulated body fluid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanh Dinh, Thi Mai; Thom Nguyen, Thi; Pham, Thi Nam; Phuong Nguyen, Thu; Thu Trang Nguyen, Thi; Hoang, Thai; Grossin, David; Bertrand, Ghislaine; Drouet, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings were prepared on Ti6Al4V substrate by electrodeposition method from electrolyte solution containing Ca(NO3)2, NH4H2PO4 and NaNO3. The results show that the HAp coatings were single phase crystals of HAp. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images present that HAp/Ti6Al4V have flake shapes which arrange to form like-coral agglomerates. In vitro test of the Ti6Al4V and HAp/Ti6Al4V in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution was investigated with different immersion times. pH of SBF solution decreased and the mass of materials increased. SEM images prove the formation of apatite on the surface of Ti6Al4V and HAp/Ti6Al4V. The corrosion current density during immersion time of substrate is always higher than the one of HAp/Ti6Al4V because the deposited HAp can protect well for the substrate.

  13. Radiative lifetime of the 3s3p exp 3(exp 5 S sub 2 exp 0) metastable level of P(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calamai, Anthony G.; Han, Xiaofeng; Parkinson, William H.

    1992-01-01

    The present experimental and theoretical results for the radiative lifetime of the 3s3p exp 3(exp 5 S sub 2 exp 0) metastable level of P(+) encompass an experimental determination of the (exp 5 S sub 2 exp 0) lifetime which represents the first measured lifetime of a low charge-state ion in the Si I sequence. This constitutes a fundamental test of the theoretical methods used to determine transition possibilities for intercombination lines involving this level, and suggests that theoretical techniques used to determine such transition probabilities in low-Z species of the Si I isoelectronic sequence should be reevaluated.

  14. Teaching Fluid Shifts during Orthostasis Using a Classic Paper by Foux et al.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Nandu; Batzel, Jerry J.; Loeppky, Jack A.; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Hypovolemic and orthostatic challenge can be simulated in humans by the application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP), because this perturbation leads to peripheral blood pooling and, consequently, central hypovolemia. The classic paper by Foux and colleagues clearly shows the effects of orthostasis simulated by LBNP on fluid shifts and…

  15. Comparative dissolution of electrospun Al2O3 nanofibres in artificial human lung fluids

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyeon Ung; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Stojilovic, Nenad

    2016-01-01

    Sub-micron sized alumina fibres were fabricated by electrospinning and calcination of a polymer template fibre. In the calcination step, different controlled temperature heating cycles were conducted to obtain fibres of different crystalline structures. Their biodurabilities were tested at pH 7.4 with lung airway epithelial lining fluid or serum ultrafiltrate (SUF) and at pH 4.5 with macrophage phagolysosomal simulant fluid (PSF). Potential to generate free radicals was tested in vitro. Through the variation in the soak temperature from 650 °C to 950 °C (experiments S650–S950), the heating protocol affected the morphological characteristics, crystal structure, surface area, and density of the alumina fibres while their dissolution half-times were not significantly affected in SUF or PSF. Fibre samples formed at different heating ramp rates (experiments R93–R600) showed significant variation in the dissolution rates with the highest ramp rate corresponding to the highest dissolution rate. Thus, by increasing the calcination temperature ramp rate the alumina fibres may be produced that have reduced biodurability and lower inflammogenic potential. The fibres with the highest dissolution rated had the least aluminium content. The solubility half-times of the alumina fibres were shortest for fibres calcined at the fastest temperature ramp rate (though soak temperature did not have an effect). The ramp rates also affected the aluminium content of the fibres suggesting that the content may affect the structural strength of the fibres and control the dissolution. PMID:26807259

  16. Discovery of a biomarker and lead small molecules to target r(GGGGCC)-associated defects in c9FTD/ALS.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhaoming; Zhang, Yongjie; Gendron, Tania F; Bauer, Peter O; Chew, Jeannie; Yang, Wang-Yong; Fostvedt, Erik; Jansen-West, Karen; Belzil, Veronique V; Desaro, Pamela; Johnston, Amelia; Overstreet, Karen; Oh, Seok-Yoon; Todd, Peter K; Berry, James D; Cudkowicz, Merit E; Boeve, Bradley F; Dickson, Dennis; Floeter, Mary Kay; Traynor, Bryan J; Morelli, Claudia; Ratti, Antonia; Silani, Vincenzo; Rademakers, Rosa; Brown, Robert H; Rothstein, Jeffrey D; Boylan, Kevin B; Petrucelli, Leonard; Disney, Matthew D

    2014-09-01

    A repeat expansion in C9ORF72 causes frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (c9FTD/ALS). RNA of the expanded repeat (r(GGGGCC)exp) forms nuclear foci or undergoes repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation, producing "c9RAN proteins." Since neutralizing r(GGGGCC)exp could inhibit these potentially toxic events, we sought to identify small-molecule binders of r(GGGGCC)exp. Chemical and enzymatic probing of r(GGGGCC)8 indicate that it adopts a hairpin structure in equilibrium with a quadruplex structure. Using this model, bioactive small molecules targeting r(GGGGCC)exp were designed and found to significantly inhibit RAN translation and foci formation in cultured cells expressing r(GGGGCC)66 and neurons transdifferentiated from fibroblasts of repeat expansion carriers. Finally, we show that poly(GP) c9RAN proteins are specifically detected in c9ALS patient cerebrospinal fluid. Our findings highlight r(GGGGCC)exp-binding small molecules as a possible c9FTD/ALS therapeutic and suggest that c9RAN proteins could potentially serve as a pharmacodynamic biomarker to assess efficacy of therapies that target r(GGGGCC)exp. PMID:25132468

  17. Lucas–Kanade fluid trajectories for time-resolved PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yegavian, Robin; Leclaire, Benjamin; Champagnat, Frédéric; Illoul, Cédric; Losfeld, Gilles

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a new method for estimating fluid trajectories in time-resolved PIV. It relies on a Lucas–Kanade paradigm and consists in a simple and direct extension of a two-frame estimation with FOLKI-PIV (Champagnat et al 2011 Exp. Fluids 50 1169–82). The so-called Lucas–Kanade Fluid Trajectories (LKFT) are assumed to be polynomial in time, and are found as the minimizer of a global functional, in which displacements are sought so as to match the intensities of a series of images pairs in the sequence, in the least-squares sense. All pairs involve the central image, similar to other recent time-resolved approaches (FTC (Lynch and Scarano 2013 Meas. Sci. Technol. 24 035305) and FTEE (Jeon et al 2014 Exp. Fluids 55 1–16)). As switching from a two-frame to a time-resolved objective simply amounts to adding terms in a functional, no significant additional algorithmic element is required. Similar to FOLKI-PIV the method is very well suited for GPU acceleration, which is an important feature as computational complexity increases with the image sequence size. Tests on synthetic data exhibiting peak-locking show that increasing the image sequence size strongly reduces both associated bias and random error, and that LKFT has a remaining total error comparable to that of FTEE on this case. Results on case B of the third PIV challenge (Stanislas et al 2008 Exp. Fluids 45 27–71) also show its ability to drastically reduce the error in situations with low signal-to-noise ratio. These results are finally confirmed on experimental images acquired in the near-field of a low Reynolds number jet. Strong reductions in peak-locking, spatial and temporal noise compared to two-frame estimation are also observed, on the displacement components themselves, as well as on spatial or temporal derivatives, such as vorticity and material acceleration.

  18. Lucas-Kanade fluid trajectories for time-resolved PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yegavian, Robin; Leclaire, Benjamin; Champagnat, Frédéric; Illoul, Cédric; Losfeld, Gilles

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a new method for estimating fluid trajectories in time-resolved PIV. It relies on a Lucas-Kanade paradigm and consists in a simple and direct extension of a two-frame estimation with FOLKI-PIV (Champagnat et al 2011 Exp. Fluids 50 1169-82). The so-called Lucas-Kanade Fluid Trajectories (LKFT) are assumed to be polynomial in time, and are found as the minimizer of a global functional, in which displacements are sought so as to match the intensities of a series of images pairs in the sequence, in the least-squares sense. All pairs involve the central image, similar to other recent time-resolved approaches (FTC (Lynch and Scarano 2013 Meas. Sci. Technol. 24 035305) and FTEE (Jeon et al 2014 Exp. Fluids 55 1-16)). As switching from a two-frame to a time-resolved objective simply amounts to adding terms in a functional, no significant additional algorithmic element is required. Similar to FOLKI-PIV the method is very well suited for GPU acceleration, which is an important feature as computational complexity increases with the image sequence size. Tests on synthetic data exhibiting peak-locking show that increasing the image sequence size strongly reduces both associated bias and random error, and that LKFT has a remaining total error comparable to that of FTEE on this case. Results on case B of the third PIV challenge (Stanislas et al 2008 Exp. Fluids 45 27-71) also show its ability to drastically reduce the error in situations with low signal-to-noise ratio. These results are finally confirmed on experimental images acquired in the near-field of a low Reynolds number jet. Strong reductions in peak-locking, spatial and temporal noise compared to two-frame estimation are also observed, on the displacement components themselves, as well as on spatial or temporal derivatives, such as vorticity and material acceleration.

  19. EXP-1 is an excitatory GABA-gated cation channel.

    PubMed

    Beg, Asim A; Jorgensen, Erik M

    2003-11-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) mediates fast inhibitory neurotransmission by activating anion-selective ligand-gated ion channels. Although electrophysiological studies indicate that GABA may activate cation-selective ligand-gated ion channels in some cell types, such a channel has never been characterized at the molecular level. Here we show that GABA mediates enteric muscle contraction in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans via the EXP-1 receptor, a cation-selective ligand-gated ion channel. The EXP-1 protein resembles ionotropic GABA receptor subunits in almost all domains. In the pore-forming domain of EXP-1, however, the residues that confer anion selectivity are exchanged for those that specify cation selectivity. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, EXP-1 forms a GABA receptor that is permeable to cations and not anions. We conclude that some of the excitatory functions assigned to GABA are mediated by cation channels rather than by anion channels.

  20. The distribution of Na, K, Rb, Sr, Al, Ge, Cu, W, Mo, La, and Ce between granitic melts and coexisting aqueous fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, T.B.; Koster van Groos, A.F.

    1999-04-01

    The distribution of Na, K, Rb, Sr, Al, Ge, Cu, W, Mo, La, and Ce between H{sub 2}O, NaCl, NaCl + KCl, HCl, NaF, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, or Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} aqueous fluids and granitic melts was determined at 750--800 C and 1--4 kbar. The distribution coefficients D{sub Na}, D{sub K}, D{sub Rb}, and D{sub Cu} (D{sub i} = C{sub iv}/C{sub im}, where C{sub iv} and C{sub im} are the concentrations of element i in the aqueous fluid and the melt, respectively) increase linearly with the (Na, K)Cl concentration in the fluid, indicating the presence of (Na, K, Rb, or Cu)Cl complexes. D{sub Sr} shows a quadratic relation with the chloride concentration, suggesting a SrCl{sub 2} complex in these fluids. With the (Na, K)Cl-bearing aqueous fluids, Na, K, and Rb, and especially Cu strongly partition toward the fluid. D{sub K} and D{sub Rb} are about half of D{sub Na} at comparable Cl concentrations. In contrast, Al, Ge, Mo, W, La, and Ce strongly partition toward the melt. NaF has little effect on the partitioning of these elements, except for Al, W, and Mo. D{sub Al} increases with increasing NaF content. At low NaF concentrations, W and Mo are enriched in the aqueous fluid, but at higher NaF contents they partition toward the silicate melt. With (Na,K){sub 2}CO{sub 3}, all elements except Mo and Cu partition strongly towards the silicate melt, although Ge is slightly more soluble in the carbonated aqueous fluid. The quenched glasses are highly peralkaline in the experiments with (Na,K){sub 2}CO{sub 3}, slightly peralkaline with NaF, slightly peraluminous with pure H{sub 2}O or (Na,K)Cl, and highly peraluminous with HCl. D{sub Al} and D{sub Ge} increase slightly in peralkaline melts. In the experiments with highly peraluminous melts, the distribution coefficient for all the elements, except Al, Ge, and W, is {much_gt} 1. With an increase of the (Na + K)/Al ratio to 0.3, the distribution coefficients become < 1, except for Cu and Mo. Raising pressure to 4 kbars

  1. Thermal evolution behavior and fluid dynamics during laser additive manufacturing of Al-based nanocomposites: Underlying role of reinforcement weight fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Dongdong; Yuan, Pengpeng

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a three-dimensional transient computational fluid dynamics model was established to investigate the influence of reinforcement weight fraction on thermal evolution behavior and fluid dynamics during selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing of TiC/AlSi10Mg nanocomposites. The powder-to-solid transition and nonlinear variation of thermal physical properties of as-used materials were considered in the numerical model, using the Gaussian distributed volumetric heat source. The simulation results showed that the increase of operating temperature and the resultant formation of larger melt pool were caused by the increase of weight fraction of reinforcement. The Marangoni convection was intensified using a larger reinforcement content, accelerating the coupled motion of fluid and solid particles. The circular flows appeared when the TiC content reached 5.0 wt. % and the larger-sized circular flows were present as the reinforcement content increased to 7.5 wt. %. The experimental study on surface morphologies and microstructures on the polished sections of SLM-processed TiC/AlSi10Mg nanocomposite parts was performed. A considerably dense and smooth surface free of any balling effect and pore formation was obtained when the reinforcement content was optimized at 5.0 wt. %, due to the sufficient liquid formation and moderate Marangoni flow. Novel ring-structured reinforcing particulates were tailored because of the combined action of the attractive effect of centripetal force and repulsive force, which was consistent with the simulation results.

  2. Formation of intermetallic phases in AlSi7Fe1 alloy processed under microgravity and forced fluid flow conditions and their influence on the permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbach, S.; Ratke, L.; Zimmermann, G.; Budenkova, O.

    2016-03-01

    Ternary Al-6.5wt.%Si-0.93wt.%Fe alloy samples were directionally solidified on-board of the International Space Station ISS in the ESA payload Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) equipped with Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) under both purely diffusive and stimulated convective conditions induced by a rotating magnetic field. Using different analysis techniques the shape and distribution of the intermetallic phase β-Al5SiFe in the dendritic microstructure was investigated, to study the influence of solidification velocity and fluid flow on the size and spatial arrangement of intermetallics. Deep etching as well as 3-dimensional computer tomography measurements characterized the size and the shape of β-Al5SiFe platelets: Diffusive growth results in a rather homogeneous distribution of intermetallic phases, whereas forced flow promotes an increase in the amount and the size of β-Al5SiFe platelets in the centre region of the samples. The β-Al5SiFe intermetallics can form not only simple platelets, but also be curved, branched, crossed, interacting with dendrites and porosity located. This leads to formation of large and complex groups of Fe-rich intermetallics, which reduce the melt flow between dendrites leading to lower permeability of the mushy zone and might significantly decrease feeding ability in castings.

  3. The Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Modeling of the Horizontal Single Belt Casting (HSBC) Processing of Al-Mg-Sc-Zr Alloy Strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, S.; Isac, M.; Guthrie, R. I. L.

    2015-10-01

    Al-Mg-Sc-Zr alloys have shown exceptional potential as structural materials for transportation applications. These alloys have proved to be good candidates to be processed as thin strips via the horizontal single belt casting (HSBC) process. The HSBC process is a near-net-shape casting technology, which involves casting molten metal directly into thin strips, close to the final product thickness, at higher cooling rates than conventional continuous casting and thin-slab casting processes. It offers an efficient, economical, and environmentally friendly approach to the production of metal strips. Fluid mechanics and associated heat transfer are important aspects of any casting process, and the novel HSBC process is no exception. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations using ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 were performed, in order to assess the importance and effects of the various operational conditions of the HSBC process. This enabled process parameter optimization. Numerical predictions were validated against experimental casting results.

  4. A Multiplex Protein Panel Applied to Cerebrospinal Fluid Reveals Three New Biomarker Candidates in ALS but None in Neuropathic Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Freyhult, Eva; Bodolea, Constantin; Ekegren, Titti; Larsson, Anders; Gustafsson, Mats G.; Katila, Lenka; Bergquist, Jonas; Gordh, Torsten; Landegren, Ulf; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and apply a novel multiplex panel of solid-phase proximity ligation assays (SP-PLA) requiring only 20 μL of samples, as a tool for discovering protein biomarkers for neurological disease and treatment thereof in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We applied the SP-PLA to samples from two sets of patients with poorly understood nervous system pathologies amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and neuropathic pain, where patients were treated with spinal cord stimulation (SCS). Forty-seven inflammatory and neurotrophic proteins were measured in samples from 20 ALS patients and 15 neuropathic pain patients, and compared to normal concentrations in CSF from control individuals. Nineteen of the 47 proteins were detectable in more than 95% of the 72 controls. None of the 21 proteins detectable in CSF from neuropathic pain patients were significantly altered by SCS. The levels of the three proteins, follistatin, interleukin-1 alpha, and kallikrein-5 were all significantly reduced in the ALS group compared to age-matched controls. These results demonstrate the utility of purpose designed multiplex SP-PLA panels in CSF biomarker research for understanding neuropathological and neurotherapeutic mechanisms. The protein changes found in the CSF of ALS patients may be of diagnostic interest. PMID:26914813

  5. AlSb/InAs/AlSb quantum wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroemer, Herbert

    1990-01-01

    Researchers studied the InAs/AlSb system recently, obtaining 12nm wide quantum wells with room temperature mobilities up to 28,000 cm(exp 2)/V center dot S and low-temperature mobilities up to 325,000 cm(exp 2)/V center dot S, both at high electron sheet concentrations in the 10(exp 12)/cm(exp 2) range (corresponding to volume concentrations in the 10(exp 18)/cm(exp 2) range). These wells were not intentionally doped; the combination of high carrier concentrations and high mobilities suggest that the electrons are due to not-intentional modulation doping by an unknown donor in the AlSb barriers, presumably a stoichiometric defect, like an antisite donor. Inasmuch as not intentionally doped bulk AlSb is semi-insulating, the donor must be a deep one, being ionized only by draining into the even deeper InAs quantum well. The excellent transport properties are confirmed by other observations, like excellent quantum Hall effect data, and the successful use of the quantum wells as superconductive weak links between Nb electrodes, with unprecendentedly high critical current densities. The system is promising for future field effect transistors (FETs), but many processing problems must first be solved. Although the researchers have achieved FETs, the results so far have not been competitive with GaAs FETs.

  6. Heat transfer and fluid flow during electron beam welding of 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn steel and Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, R.; Burgardt, P.; Milewski, J. O.; Lienert, T. J.; Roy, T. Deb

    2009-01-01

    Electron beam welding (EBW) of two important engineering alloys, Ti-6Al-4V and 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn, was studied experimentally and theoretically. The temperatures at several monitoring locations in the specimens were measured as a function of time during welding and the cross-sections of the welds were examined by optical microscopy. The theoretical research involved numerical simulation of heat transfer and fluid flow during EBW. The model output included temperature and velocity fields, fusion zone geometry and temperature versus time results. The numerically computed fusion zone geometry and the temperature versus time plots were compared with the corresponding experimentally determined values for each weld. Both the experimental and the modelling results were compared with the corresponding results for the keyhole mode laser beam welding (LBW). Both experimental and modelling results demonstrate that the fusion zone size in Ti-6Al-4V alloy was larger than that of the 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn stainless steel during both the electron beam and laser welding. Higher boiling point and lower solid state thermal conductivity of Ti-6Al-4V contributed to higher peak temperatures in Ti-6Al-4V welds compared with 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn stainless steel welds. In the EBW of both the alloys, there were significant velocities of liquid metal along the keyhole wall driven by the Marangoni convection. In contrast, during LBW, the velocities along the keyhole wall were negligible. Convective heat transfer was important in the transport of heat in the weld pool during both the laser and the EBW. The computed keyhole wall temperatures during EBW at low pressures were lower than those during the LBW at atmospheric pressure for identical heat input.

  7. Cyclic delamination behavior of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating on Ti-6Al-4V substrates in simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Yuichi; Kawaguchi, Hayato; Mutoh, Yoshiharu

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effect of a simulated body fluid (SBF) on the cyclic delamination behavior of a plasma-sprayed hydroxapatite (HAp) coating. A HAp coating is deposited on the surfaces of surgical metallic materials in order to enhance the bond between human bone and such surfaces. However, the HAp coating is susceptible to delamination by cyclic loading from the patient's gait. Although hip joints are subjected to both positive and negative moments, only the effects of tensile bending stresses on vertical crack propagation behavior have been investigated. Thus, the cyclic delamination behavior of a HAp coating was observed at the stress ratio R=-1 in order to determine the effects of tensile/compressive loading on the delamination behavior. The delamination growth rate increased with SBF immersion, which decreased the delamination life. Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed that the selective phase dissolution in the HAp coating was promoted at interfaces. Finite element analysis revealed that the energy release rate Gmax showed a positive value even in cases with compressive loading, which is a driving force for the delamination of a HAp coating. A prediction model for the delamination growth life was developed that combines a fracture mechanics parameter with the assumed stress-dependent dissolution rate. The predicted delamination life matched the experimental data well in cases of lower stress amplitudes with SBF. PMID:27287152

  8. Cyclic delamination behavior of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating on Ti-6Al-4V substrates in simulated body fluid.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Yuichi; Kawaguchi, Hayato; Mutoh, Yoshiharu

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effect of a simulated body fluid (SBF) on the cyclic delamination behavior of a plasma-sprayed hydroxapatite (HAp) coating. A HAp coating is deposited on the surfaces of surgical metallic materials in order to enhance the bond between human bone and such surfaces. However, the HAp coating is susceptible to delamination by cyclic loading from the patient's gait. Although hip joints are subjected to both positive and negative moments, only the effects of tensile bending stresses on vertical crack propagation behavior have been investigated. Thus, the cyclic delamination behavior of a HAp coating was observed at the stress ratio R=-1 in order to determine the effects of tensile/compressive loading on the delamination behavior. The delamination growth rate increased with SBF immersion, which decreased the delamination life. Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed that the selective phase dissolution in the HAp coating was promoted at interfaces. Finite element analysis revealed that the energy release rate Gmax showed a positive value even in cases with compressive loading, which is a driving force for the delamination of a HAp coating. A prediction model for the delamination growth life was developed that combines a fracture mechanics parameter with the assumed stress-dependent dissolution rate. The predicted delamination life matched the experimental data well in cases of lower stress amplitudes with SBF.

  9. A geodetic laser radar rangefinder with 10(exp -7) resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizushima, Y.; Takeichi, M.; Warashima, Y.; Takeshima, A.; Ogawa, I.; Ichie, K.; Schiller, N. H.

    1992-01-01

    A novel geodetic laser radar rangefinder (GLRR) unit utilizing a pair of synchronized 10-psec streak camera systems was developed for displacement measurements of the earth's plates. In order to achieve minimum computing error and assure extremely high spatial resolution, an optical pulse registration clock was developed and used to register a fiducial mark on the time scale of the system. Conventional optical rangefinders have been limited to a relative resolution of 10(exp -6) even for short distances. The system to be reported on today has the capability of measuring a 50km range with an accuracy of 4mm corresponding to a relative resolution of 10(exp -7). With a gain of greater than 3 x 10(exp 3), the system has the capability of detecting extremely weak signals on the order of photon counting. This combined with temporal gating makes daytime measurements comparable in signal-to-noise ratio to nighttime viewing. This is useful for measuring faint signals returning over a range of several tens of kilometers. The present ranging system was designed to observe the mutual displacement of geodetic plates and was employed to measure the boundary between the Philippine and Asian geodetic plates that pass beneath the Suruga Bay near Hamamatsu City, Japan. The system has been in operation for over 3 years. In addition, the system has the ability of producing and detecting optical ranging pulses of several wavelengths simultaneously, making this a complete multicolor system. The basic GLRR system consists of a frequency stabilizing crystal, optical clock, YAG laser, KDP doubling crystal, DK*P tripling crystal, two matched streak cameras (A and B), a control computer, and an output/input periscope system.

  10. Thermodynamic modeling of non-ideal mineral-fluid equilibria in the system Si-Al-Fe-Mg-Ca-Na-K-H-O-Cl at elevated temperatures and pressures: Implications for hydrothermal mass transfer in granitic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolejš, David; Wagner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of thermodynamic modeling of fluid-rock interaction in the system Si-Al-Fe-Mg-Ca-Na-H-O-Cl using the GEM-Selektor Gibbs free energy minimization code. Combination of non-ideal mixing properties in solids with multicomponent aqueous fluids represents a substantial improvement and it provides increased accuracy over existing modeling strategies. Application to the 10-component system allows us to link fluid composition and speciation with whole-rock mineralogy, mass and volume changes. We have simulated granite-fluid interaction over a wide range of conditions (200-600 °C, 100 MPa, 0-5 m Cl and fluid/rock ratios of 10-2-104) in order to explore composition of magmatic fluids of variable salinity, temperature effects on fluid composition and speciation and to simulate several paths of alteration zoning. At low fluid/rock ratios (f/r) the fluid composition is buffered by the silicate-oxide assemblage and remains close to invariant. This behavior extends to a f/r of 0.1 which exceeds the amount of exsolved magmatic fluids controlled by water solubility in silicate melts. With increasing peraluminosity of the parental granite, the Na-, K- and Fe-bearing fluids become more acidic and the oxidation state increases as a consequence of hydrogen and ferrous iron transfer to the fluid. With decreasing temperature, saline fluids become more Ca- and Na-rich, change from weakly acidic to alkaline, and become significantly more oxidizing. Large variations in Ca/Fe and Ca/Mg ratios in the fluid are a potential geothermometer. The mineral assemblage changes from cordierite-biotite granites through two-mica granites to chlorite-, epidote- and zeolite-bearing rocks. We have carried out three rock-titration simulations: (1) reaction with the 2 m NaCl fluid leads to albitization, chloritization and desilication, reproducing essential features observed in episyenites, (2) infiltration of a high-temperature fluid into the granite at 400 °C leads to hydrolytic

  11. Accurate estimation of sigma(exp 0) using AIRSAR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holecz, Francesco; Rignot, Eric

    1995-01-01

    During recent years signature analysis, classification, and modeling of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data as well as estimation of geophysical parameters from SAR data have received a great deal of interest. An important requirement for the quantitative use of SAR data is the accurate estimation of the backscattering coefficient sigma(exp 0). In terrain with relief variations radar signals are distorted due to the projection of the scene topography into the slant range-Doppler plane. The effect of these variations is to change the physical size of the scattering area, leading to errors in the radar backscatter values and incidence angle. For this reason the local incidence angle, derived from sensor position and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data must always be considered. Especially in the airborne case, the antenna gain pattern can be an additional source of radiometric error, because the radar look angle is not known precisely as a result of the the aircraft motions and the local surface topography. Consequently, radiometric distortions due to the antenna gain pattern must also be corrected for each resolution cell, by taking into account aircraft displacements (position and attitude) and position of the backscatter element, defined by the DEM data. In this paper, a method to derive an accurate estimation of the backscattering coefficient using NASA/JPL AIRSAR data is presented. The results are evaluated in terms of geometric accuracy, radiometric variations of sigma(exp 0), and precision of the estimated forest biomass.

  12. Fluid imbalance

    MedlinePlus

    ... fluid imbalance; Hypernatremia - fluid imbalance; Hypokalemia - fluid imbalance; Hyperkalemia - fluid imbalance ... of sodium or potassium is present as well. Medicines can also affect fluid balance. The most common ...

  13. Surface Modification and In Vitro Characterization of Cp-Ti and Ti-5Al-2Nb-1Ta Alloy in Simulated Body Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasikumar, Y.; Rajendran, N.

    2012-10-01

    Ti and its alloys are widely used in manufacturing orthopedic implants as prostheses for joint replacement because of their high corrosion resistance and excellent biocompatibility. However, they lack in bone-bonding ability and leads to higher rate of osteolysis and subsequent loosening of implants. In order to enhance the bone-bonding ability of these alloys, various surface-modification techniques are generally employed. The present investigation is mainly concerned with the surface modification of Cp-Ti and Ti-5Al-2Nb-1Ta alloy using a mixture of alkali and hydrogen peroxide followed by subsequent heat treatment to produce a porous gel layer with anatase structure, which enhances osseointegration. The morphological behavior was examined by x-ray diffractometer (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX). The in vitro characterization of all the specimens was evaluated by immersing the specimens in simulated body fluid solution to assess the apatite formation over the metal surface. The apatite formation was confirmed by XRD, SEM-EDX, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Further, the electrochemical corrosion behaviors of both the untreated and treated specimens were evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results revealed that the surface-modified and heat-treated specimens exhibited higher corrosion resistance and excellent biocompatibility when compared to the chemical and untreated specimens.

  14. Chemical Passivation of Li(exp +)-Conducting Solid Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, William; Whitacre, Jay; Lim, James

    2008-01-01

    Plates of a solid electrolyte that exhibits high conductivity for positive lithium ions can now be passivated to prevent them from reacting with metallic lithium. Such passivation could enable the construction and operation of high-performance, long-life lithium-based rechargeable electrochemical cells containing metallic lithium anodes. The advantage of this approach, in comparison with a possible alternative approach utilizing lithium-ion graphitic anodes, is that metallic lithium anodes could afford significantly greater energy-storage densities. A major impediment to the development of such cells has been the fact that the available solid electrolytes having the requisite high Li(exp +)-ion conductivity are too highly chemically reactive with metallic lithium to be useful, while those solid electrolytes that do not react excessively with metallic lithium have conductivities too low to be useful. The present passivation method exploits the best features of both extremes of the solid-electrolyte spectrum. The basic idea is to coat a higher-conductivity, higher-reactivity solid electrolyte with a lower-conductivity, lower-reactivity solid electrolyte. One can then safely deposit metallic lithium in contact with the lower-reactivity solid electrolyte without incurring the undesired chemical reactions. The thickness of the lower-reactivity electrolyte must be great enough to afford the desired passivation but not so great as to contribute excessively to the electrical resistance of the cell. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated in experiments on plates of a commercial high-performance solid Li(exp +)- conducting electrolyte. Lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) was the solid electrolyte used for passivation. LiPON-coated solid-electrolyte plates were found to support electrochemical plating and stripping of Li metal. The electrical resistance contributed by the LiPON layers were found to be small relative to overall cell impedances.

  15. A Two-Fluid, MHD Coronal Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Wang, A.-H.; Wu, S. T.; Poletto, G.; McComas, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    We describe first results from a numerical two-fluid MHD model of the global structure of the solar Corona. The model is two-fluid in the sense that it accounts for the collisional energy exchange between protons and electrons. As in our single-fluid model, volumetric heat and Momentum sources are required to produce high speed wind from Corona] holes, low speed wind above streamers, and mass fluxes similar to the empirical solar wind. By specifying different proton and electron heating functions we obtain a high proton temperature in the coronal hole and a relatively low proton temperature above the streamer (in comparison with the electron temperature). This is consistent with inferences from SOHO/UltraViolet Coronagraph Spectrometer instrument (UVCS), and with the Ulysses/Solar Wind Observations Over the Poles of the Sun instrument (SWOOPS) proton and electron temperature measurements which we show from the fast latitude scan. The density in the coronal hole between 2 and 5 solar radii (2 and 5 R(sub S)) is similar to the density reported from SPARTAN 201.-01 measurements by Fisher and Guhathakurta [19941. The proton mass flux scaled to 1 AU is 2.4 x 10(exp 8)/sq cm s, which is consistent with Ulysses observations. Inside the closed field region, the density is sufficiently high so that the simulation gives equal proton and electron temperatures due to the high collision rate. In open field regions (in the coronal hole and above the streamer) the proton and electron temperatures differ by varying amounts. In the streamer the temperature and density are similar to those reported empirically by Li et al. [1998], and the plasma beta is larger than unity everywhere above approx. 1.5 R(sub S), as it is in all other MHD coronal streamer models [e.g., Steinolfson et al., 1982; also G. A. Gary and D. Alexander, Constructing the coronal magnetic field, submitted to Solar Physics, 1998].

  16. Heat transfer and fluid flow during keyhole mode laser welding of tantalum, Ti 6Al 4V, 304L stainless steel and vanadium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, R.; Elmer, J. W.; Palmer, T. A.; Roy, T. Deb

    2007-09-01

    Because of the complexity of several simultaneous physical processes, most heat transfer models of keyhole mode laser welding require some simplifications to make the calculations tractable. The simplifications often limit the applicability of each model to the specific materials systems for which the model is developed. In this work, a rigorous, yet computationally efficient, keyhole model is developed and tested on tantalum, Ti-6Al-4V, 304L stainless steel and vanadium. Unlike previous models, this one combines an existing model to calculate keyhole shape and size with numerical fluid flow and heat transfer calculations in the weld pool. The calculations of the keyhole profile involved a point-by-point heat balance at the keyhole walls considering multiple reflections of the laser beam in the vapour cavity. The equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy are then solved in three dimensions assuming that the temperatures at the keyhole wall reach the boiling point of the different metals or alloys. A turbulence model based on Prandtl's mixing length hypothesis was used to estimate the effective viscosity and thermal conductivity in the liquid region. The calculated weld cross-sections agreed well with the experimental results for each metal and alloy system examined here. In each case, the weld pool geometry was affected by the thermal diffusivity, absorption coefficient, and the melting and boiling points, among the various physical properties of the alloy. The model was also used to better understand solidification phenomena and calculate the solidification parameters at the trailing edge of the weld pool. These calculations indicate that the solidification structure became less dendritic and coarser with decreasing weld velocities over the range of speeds investigated in this study. Overall, the keyhole weld model provides satisfactory simulations of the weld geometries and solidification sub-structures for diverse engineering metals and alloys.

  17. The study of pressure measurement techniques and devices in the range of 10(exp -1) to 10(exp -5) torr (2 millipsi to 0.2 micropsi)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, John H.

    1990-01-01

    The atmospheric pressure range was studied in a region where conventional pressure sensing devices do not provide meaningful measurements. However, a hot filament gauge was developed and miniaturized which will measure the pressure in the 10(exp -1) to 10(exp -5) torr (2 millipsi to 0.2 micropsi) region, hence the name Micropsi gauge. Laboratory studies were made comparing the currently available devices with the newly developed miniature low power 'Micropsi' pressure sensor.

  18. CRN5EXP: Expert system for statistical quality control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hentea, Mariana

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the Expert System CRN5EXP is to assist in checking the quality of the coils at two very important mills: Hot Rolling and Cold Rolling in a steel plant. The system interprets the statistical quality control charts, diagnoses and predicts the quality of the steel. Measurements of process control variables are recorded in a database and sample statistics such as the mean and the range are computed and plotted on a control chart. The chart is analyzed through patterns using the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) and a forward chaining technique to reach a conclusion about the causes of defects and to take management measures for the improvement of the quality control techniques. The Expert System combines the certainty factors associated with the process control variables to predict the quality of the steel. The paper presents the approach to extract data from the database, the reason to combine certainty factors, the architecture and the use of the Expert System. However, the interpretation of control charts patterns requires the human expert's knowledge and lends to Expert Systems rules.

  19. New Soliton Solutions of Chaffee-Infante Equations Using the Exp-Function Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakthivel, Rathinasamy; Chun, Changbum

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, the exp-function method is applied by using symbolic computation to construct a variety of new generalized solitonary solutions for the Chaffee-Infante equation with distinct physical structures. The results reveal that the exp-function method is suited for finding travelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations arising in mathematical physics

  20. Helium Isotopic Ratios of Core Samples from IODP Exp. 319 (NanTroSEIZE Stage 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiguchi, K.; Matsuda, J.; Wiersberg, T.; Shimo, Y.; Tamura, H.; Kumagai, H.; Suzuki, K.; Saito, S.; Kinoshita, M.; Araki, E.; Byrne, T.; McNeill, L. C.; Saffer, D.; Takahashi, K.; Eguchi, N. O.; Toczko, S.

    2009-12-01

    IODP Exp.319 of Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Drilling Program Stage 2 started at May 2009. Various advanced technologies including first riser-based scientific ocean drilling were carried out at this cruise. The Hole C0009A (Site C0009/ Hole A) recovered cutting and partly core samples from 703.9-1604 mbsf by riser-drilling. The core samples were collected between the depth of 1510.5 and 1593.9 mbsf. Here we report preliminary helium isotopic ratios of these cores. We collected three types of samples for our study: (1) gas of cores, (2) whole round cores (100 cc) and (3) small whole round cores (10 cc). The gas samples were taken immediately after the core recovery. The gas samples were collected from each core section by using a syringe, and it was transferred to the glass bottle using the water displacement method. The glass bottle was made by Pyrex glass with vacuum valve at each end. We collected two sizes of whole round core samples (100 cc and 10 cc) The 100 cc cores were collected from the bottom and top sections of coring. The 10 cc cores were taken from the other sections. The outer parts of these samples were carefully removed to avoid contaminations from drilling fluid. After the removal of contamination, we immediately stored the 100 cc samples into vacuum container and 10 cc samples into plastic bag under a dry condition, respectively. The gas samples were measured for helium isotopic ratios. The noble gas measurement was carried out at Osaka University by using VG5400 mass spectrometer. We measured helium isotopic ratio and 4He/20Ne ratio. The latter is useful for making correction of the air contamination. The obtained result of helium isotopic ratios shows that the radiogenic helium is prominent in all samples. In addition, the helium isotope ratios show a trend that the ratio at shallower part is slightly higher than that at deeper part. It is conceivable that this trend is due to the larger radiogenic ingrowths at the deeper part. However, the

  1. A Two-Fluid, MHD Coronal Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, Steven T.; Wang, A.-H.; Wu, S. T.; Poletto, G.; McComas, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    We describe first results from a numerical two-fluid MHD model of the global structure of the solar corona. The model is two-fluid in the sense that it accounts for the collisional energy exchange between protons and electrons. As in our single-fluid model, volumetric heat and momentum sources are required to produce high speed wind from coronal holes, low speed wind above streamers, and mass fluxes similar to the empirical solar wind. By specifying different proton and electron heating functions we obtain a high proton temperature in the coronal hole and a relatively low proton temperature in the streamer (in comparison with the electron temperature). This is consistent with inferences from SOHO/UVCS, and with the Ulysses/SWOOPS proton and electron temperature measurements which we show from the fast latitude scan. The density in the coronal hole between 2 solar radii and 5 solar radii (2RS and 5RS) is similar to the density reported from SPARTAN 201-01 measurements by Fisher and Guhathakurta. The proton mass flux scaled to 1 AU is 2.4 x 10(exp 8)/sq cm s, which is consistent with Ulysses observations. Inside the closed field region, the density is sufficiently high so that the simulation gives equal proton and electron temperatures due to the high collision rate. In open field regions (in the coronal hole and above the streamer) the proton and electron temperatures differ by varying amounts. In the streamer, the temperature and density are similar to those reported empirically by Li et al and the plasma beta is larger than unity everywhere above approx. 1.5 R(sub s), as it is in all other MHD coronal streamer models.

  2. Diffusivity in Alumina Scales Grown on Al-MAX Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Ti3AlC2, Ti2AlC, and Cr2AlC are oxidation resistant MAX phase compounds distinguished by the formation of protective Al2O3 scales with well controlled kinetics. A modified Wagner treatment was used to obtain interfacial grain boundary diffusivity, deltaD(sub gb,O,int.), from scale growth rates and corresponding grain size. It is based on the p(O2)(exp -1/6) dependency of the double charged oxygen vacancy and oxygen diffusivity, coupled with the effective diffusion constant for short circuit grain boundary paths. Data from the literature for MAX phases was analyzed accordingly, and deltaD(sub gb,O,int.) was found to nearly coincide with the Arrhenius line developed for Zr-doped FeCrAl, where: deltaD(sub gb,O,int.) = 1.8x10(exp -10) exp(-375 kJ/RT) cubic meters/s. Furthermore, this oxidation relation suggests the more general format applicable to bulk samples under ambient conditions: deltaD(sub gb,O) = 7.567x10(exp -8) exp(-544 kJ/RT) p(O2)(exp -1/6) cubic meters/[s x Pa(exp -1/6)]. Data from many other FeCrAl(X) studies were similarly assessed to show general agreement with the relation for deltaD(sub gb,O,int.). This analysis reinforces the view that protective alumina scales grow by similar mechanisms for these Al-MAX phases and oxidation resistant FeCrAl alloys.

  3. Overexpression of sweetpotato expansin cDNA (IbEXP1) increases seed yield in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jung Myung; Kwak, Man Sup; Noh, Seol Ah; Oh, Mi-Joung; Kim, Youn-Sung; Shin, Jeong Sheop

    2014-08-01

    Results of transcriptome analyses suggest that expansin genes play an active role in seed development and yield, but gain- or loss-of-function studies have not yet elucidated the functional role(s) of the expansin gene(s) in these processes. We have overexpressed a sweetpotato expansin gene (IbEXP1) in Arabidopsis under the control of cauliflower mosaic 35S promoter in an attempt to determine the effect of the expansin gene in seed development and yield in heterologous plants. The growth rate was enhanced in IbEXP1-overexpressing (ox) plants relative to wild-type Col-0 plants during early vegetative growth stage. At the reproductive stage, the number of rosette leaves was higher in IbEXP1-ox plants than that in Col-0 plants, and siliques were thicker. IbEXP1-ox plants produced larger seeds, accumulated more protein and starch in each seed, and produced more inflorescence stems and siliques than Col-0 plants, leading to a 2.1-2.5-fold increase in total seed yield per plant. The transcript level of IbEXP1 was up-regulated in response to brassinosteroid (BR) treatment in sweetpotato, and the transcript levels of three BR-responsive genes, fatty acid elongase 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase 1, HAIKU1 and MINISEED3, were also increased in IbEXP1-ox Arabidopsis plants, suggesting a possible involvement of IbEXP1 in at least one of the BR signaling pathways. Based on these results, we suggest that overexpression of IbEXP1 gene in heterologous plants is effective in increasing seed size and number and, consequently, seed yield.

  4. Thermal stability of Ag, Al, Sn, Pb, and Hg films reinforced by 2D (C, Si) crystals and the formation of interfacial fluid states in them upon heating. MD experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polukhin, V. A.; Kurbanova, E. D.

    2016-02-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation is used to study the thermal stability of the interfacial states of metallic Al, Ag, Sn, Pb, and Hg films (i.e., the structural elements of superconductor composites and conducting electrodes) reinforced by 2D graphene and silicene crystals upon heating up to disordering and to analyze the formation of nonautonomous fluid pseudophases in interfaces. The effect of perforation defects in reinforcing 2D-C and 2D-Si planes with passivated edge covalent bonds on the atomic dynamics is investigated. As compared to Al and Ag, the diffusion coefficients in Pd and Hg films increase monotonically with temperature during thermally activated disordering processes, the interatomic distances decrease, the sizes decrease, drops form, and their density profile grows along the normal. The coagulation of Pb and Hg drops is accompanied by a decrease in the contact angle, the reduction of the interface contact with graphene, and the enhancement of its corrugation (waviness).

  5. Deformation microstructures and timing of a large submarine landslide drilled offshore Martinique (IODP Exp. 340)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyard, H.; Le Friant, A.; Brunet, M.; Boudon, G.; Emmanuel, L.; Caron, B.; Villemant, B.; Feuillet, N.

    2015-12-01

    Flank-instabilities constitute a recurrent process in the long-term evolution of many volcanoes. A very large submarine landslide deposit (~2100 km2, ~300 km3) drilled southwest Martinique island during the IODP Exp. 340 in 2012 is likely associated with one (or more) major volcanic flank collapse of Mount Pelée during the Late Pleistocene. A recent study revealed that this D1/D2 deposit is emergent in its central part, frontally confined, and mainly comprises remobilized seafloor sediments rather than debris avalanche material from the volcanic edifice (Brunet et al., subm). Here, we investigate the sedimentary microstructures and timing of deformation from the central (Hole 1400B, ~37 km from the coastline) and distal (Hole 1399A, ~70 km from the coastline) units of the D1/D2 deposit, in order to better understand the emplacement dynamics of such potentially tsunamigenic submarine landslides. High resolution CT-Scan analyses were continuously performed on more than 300 m of sediment cores, in order to characterize and distinguish the internal architecture and the complex deformation features of the sediments at each drilling site. The establishment of the stratigraphy, based on δ18O measurements and AMS 14C dating, is still in progress and may confirm the possible link between the submarine landslide deposits and the flank collapse scars observed on the subaerial part of Martinique. These new insights into the timing and emplacement processes of this large submarine landslide will have important implications for tsunami hazards. ReferenceBrunet, M., Le Friant, A., Boudon, G., Lafuerza, S., Talling, P., Hornbach, M., Lebas, E., Guyard, H., and IODP Expedition 340 science party, submitted. Composition, geometry and emplacement dynamics of a large volcanic island landslide offshore Martinique: from volcano flank-collapse to seafloor sediment failure? Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems.

  6. Electron Excitation Cross Sections for the C II Transitions 2s(exp 2)2p P-2(exp 0) yields 2s2p(exp 2) P-4, D-2, and S-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steven J.; Zuo, M.; Chutjian, A.; Tayal, S. S.; Williams, I. D.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical excitation cross sections are reported for the transitions 2s(exp 2) 2p-2(exp 0) yield 2s2p(exp 2)P-4, D-2, and S-2 in C II. The transition wavelengths (energies) are 2324 A (5.34 eV), 1335 x (9.29 eV), and 1036 A (11.97 eV), respectively. Use is made of electron energy-loss and merged beams methods. The energy range covered is from below each threshold (4 - 11 eV) to 15-24 eV. As in previous work with O II, care was taken to assess and minimize the metastable fraction in the C II beam, to account for contributions from nearby energy-loss features, and to collect the full angular range of inelastically scattered electrons. A comparison is made for each transition between experiment and new 8-state R-matrix calculations. Subject headings: atomic data ultraviolet: general

  7. Fluid fertilizers. [Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Potts, J.M.

    1984-09-01

    The use of fertilizer in the United States has increased spectacularly in the past 20 years. In 1981 plant nutrient use (N + P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ + K/sub 2/O) totaled 23.5 million short tons - compared with only 7.5 million tons in 1960 (table 2). Nutrient use doubled from 1960 to 1970 and tripled from 1960 to 1981. In 1981 fluid nutrient use (mixtures plus nitrogen solutions) totaled 4.1 million tons, more than doubling since 1970 and increasing from 6.3% to 17.5% of the total nutrient use since 1960. Fluid mixtures (NPK) use in 1981 totaled 1.8 million tons of nutrients - about 17% of total mixed fertilizers or 7.5% of total nutrients used. The proportion of total fertilizer nutrients applied in fluid from increases greatly if anhydrous ammonia is included. The 4.6 million tons of nitrogen applied as anhydrous ammonia in 1981 increases total fluid nutrients to 8.1 million tons - 34.5% of the total nutrients applied in the United States. Fluid fertilizer use has grown nearly twice as fast as total fertilizer use, averaging more than 15% per year increase between 1960 and 1970, and an 11% increase between 1960 and 1980. A large part of this increase occurred during the introductory stages of the new product form and was aided by rapid advances in technology.

  8. Induced mutations in tomato SlExp1 alter cell wall metabolism and delay fruit softening.

    PubMed

    Minoia, Silvia; Boualem, Adnane; Marcel, Fabien; Troadec, Christelle; Quemener, Bernard; Cellini, Francesco; Petrozza, Angelo; Vigouroux, Jacqueline; Lahaye, Marc; Carriero, Filomena; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

    2016-01-01

    Fruit ripening and softening are key traits for many fleshy fruit. Since cell walls play a key role in the softening process, expansins have been investigated to control fruit over ripening and deterioration. In tomato, expression of Expansin 1 gene, SlExp1, during fruit ripening was associated with fruit softening. To engineer tomato plants with long shelf life, we screened for mutant plants impaired in SlExp1 function. Characterization of two induced mutations, Slexp1-6_W211S, and Slexp1-7_Q213Stop, showed that SlExp1 loss of function leads to enhanced fruit firmness and delayed fruit ripening. Analysis of cell wall polysaccharide composition of Slexp1-7_Q213Stop mutant pointed out significant differences for uronic acid, neutral sugar and total sugar contents. Hemicelluloses chemistry analysis by endo-β-1,4-d-glucanase hydrolysis and MALDI-TOF spectrometry revealed that xyloglucan structures were affected in the fruit pericarp of Slexp1-7_Q213Stop mutant. Altogether, these results demonstrated that SlExp1 loss of function mutants yield firmer and late ripening fruits through modification of hemicellulose structure. These SlExp1 mutants represent good tools for breeding long shelf life tomato lines with contrasted fruit texture as well as for the understanding of the cell wall polysaccharide assembly dynamics in fleshy fruits. PMID:26566837

  9. Induced mutations in tomato SlExp1 alter cell wall metabolism and delay fruit softening.

    PubMed

    Minoia, Silvia; Boualem, Adnane; Marcel, Fabien; Troadec, Christelle; Quemener, Bernard; Cellini, Francesco; Petrozza, Angelo; Vigouroux, Jacqueline; Lahaye, Marc; Carriero, Filomena; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

    2016-01-01

    Fruit ripening and softening are key traits for many fleshy fruit. Since cell walls play a key role in the softening process, expansins have been investigated to control fruit over ripening and deterioration. In tomato, expression of Expansin 1 gene, SlExp1, during fruit ripening was associated with fruit softening. To engineer tomato plants with long shelf life, we screened for mutant plants impaired in SlExp1 function. Characterization of two induced mutations, Slexp1-6_W211S, and Slexp1-7_Q213Stop, showed that SlExp1 loss of function leads to enhanced fruit firmness and delayed fruit ripening. Analysis of cell wall polysaccharide composition of Slexp1-7_Q213Stop mutant pointed out significant differences for uronic acid, neutral sugar and total sugar contents. Hemicelluloses chemistry analysis by endo-β-1,4-d-glucanase hydrolysis and MALDI-TOF spectrometry revealed that xyloglucan structures were affected in the fruit pericarp of Slexp1-7_Q213Stop mutant. Altogether, these results demonstrated that SlExp1 loss of function mutants yield firmer and late ripening fruits through modification of hemicellulose structure. These SlExp1 mutants represent good tools for breeding long shelf life tomato lines with contrasted fruit texture as well as for the understanding of the cell wall polysaccharide assembly dynamics in fleshy fruits.

  10. L'effet Casimir : théorie et expériences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrecht, A.; Genet, C.; Intravaia, F.; Reynaud, S.

    2004-11-01

    L'existence de fluctuations irréductibles de champ dans le vide est une prédiction importante de la théorie quantique. Ces fluctuations ont de nombreuses conséquences observables comme l'effet Casimir, qui est maintenant mesuré avec une bonne précision et un bon accord avec la théorie, pourvu que celle-ci tienne compte des différences entre les expériences rélles et la situation idéale considérée par H.G.B. Casimir. Nous présenterons quelqu'unes des expériences récentes et discuterons les principales corrections à la force de Casimir liées à la situation expérimentale.

  11. Modified Chebyshev pseudospectral method with O(N exp -1) time step restriction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosloff, Dan; Tal-Ezer, Hillel

    1989-01-01

    The extreme eigenvalues of the Chebyshev pseudospectral differentiation operator are O(N exp 2) where N is the number of grid points. As a result of this, the allowable time step in an explicit time marching algorithm is O(N exp -2) which, in many cases, is much below the time step dictated by the physics of the partial differential equation. A new set of interpolating points is introduced such that the eigenvalues of the differentiation operator are O(N) and the allowable time step is O(N exp -1). The properties of the new algorithm are similar to those of the Fourier method. The new algorithm also provides a highly accurate solution for non-periodic boundary value problems.

  12. Explicit Solution of Nonlinear ZK-BBM Wave Equation Using Exp-Function Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudi, J.; Tolou, N.; Khatami, I.; Barari, A.; Ganji, D. D.

    This study is devoted to studying the (2+1)-dimensional ZK-BBM (Zakharov-Kuznetsov-Benjamin-Bona-Mahony) wave equation in an analytical solution. The analysis is based on the implementation a new method, called Exp-function method. The obtained results from the proposed approximate solution have been verified with those obtained by the extended tanh method. It shows that the obtained results of these methods are the same; while Exp-function method, with the help of symbolic computation, provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear partial differential equations of engineering problems in the terms of accuracy and efficiency.

  13. Laboratory Demonstration of Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) Coronagraph with Better than 10(exp -9) Contrast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Brian; Guyon, Olivier; Kuhnert, Andreas; Niessner, Albert; Martinache, Frantz; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham

    2013-01-01

    We present coronagraphic images from the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph on NASA's High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Lab, showing contrasts of 5x10(exp -1) averaged from 2-4 lambda/D, in monochromatic light at 808 nm. In parallel with the coronagraph and its deformable mirror and coronagraphic wavefront control, we also demonstrate a low-order wavefront control system, giving 100 x rms suppression of introduced tip/tilt disturbances down to residual levels of 10(exp -3) lambda/D. Current limitations, as well as broadband (10% fractional bandpass) preliminary results are discussed.

  14. Iodp Exp 345: Orthopyroxene Omnipresent in Layered Gabbros from the Hess Deep, EPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepke, J.; Abe, N.; Akizawa, N.; Falloon, T.; Hoshide, T.; Jean, M. M.; Maeda, J.; Snow, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Drilling studies of the lower oceanic crust in the framework of the IODP (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program) have the objective of understanding the construction processes of the ocean crust. Currently, much attention is focused on the relatively inaccessible fast spreading lower ocean crust (IODP Hole 1256D, ODP Hole 894G, this study). At the Hess Deep Rift, propagation of the Cocos Nazca Ridge into young, fast-spreading East Pacific Rise crust generates extensive exposures of the plutonic lower crust. IODP Exp. 345 drilled a dismembered section of lower crust at ~4850 m water depth under challenging borehole conditions. We drilled three main holes between 35-110 mbsf with ~30% recovery, returning cores relevant to the igneous evolution of the lower crust. The drilled cores show spectacular modal and/or grain size layering present in >50% of the recovered core. Typical rocks are primitive (Mg# 75-89) olivine gabbro, troctolitic gabbro and olivine gabbronorite. A very significant first-order observation from this expedition is that orthopyroxene was found as an abundant phase in many of the layered primitive gabbroic rocks. This was unexpected, since experiments on the liquid line of descent of MORB show that orthopyroxene always crystallizes late, at low melt fractions, and commonly interstitially. Recovered rocks at Site U1415, however, show that orthopyroxene crystallization is common: both as an interstitial phase in primitive troctolite (crystallization even before clinopyroxene), as a cumulus phase coexisting with clinopyroxene in primitive olivine gabbros and as monomineralic bands in primitive gabbros of the Multitextured Layered Gabbro series in Hole U1415P. None of these features are commonly observed in ocean floor gabbros. The discovery of orthopyroxene in primitive lithologies in high quantities in the lower crustal section at Hess Deep is a novel finding, although the presence of orthopyroxene in one primitive gabbro sample from Hess Deep was reported

  15. VitisExpDB: A Database Resource for Grape Functional Genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    VitisExpDB is an online MySQL-PHP driven relational database that houses annotated EST and gene expression data for Vitis vinifera and non-vinifera grape varieties. Currently, the database stores ~320,000 EST sequences derived from 8 species/hybrids, their annotation details and gene ontology based...

  16. The Utility of the Lambert Function W[a exp(a - bt)] in Chemical Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Brian Wesley

    2010-01-01

    The mathematical Lambert function W[a exp(a - bt)] is used to find integrated rate laws for several examples, including simple enzyme and Lindemann-Christiansen-Hinshelwood (LCH) unimolecular decay kinetics. The results derived here for the well-known LCH mechanism as well as for a dimer-monomer reaction mechanism appear to be novel. A nonlinear…

  17. Reconstruction of 10(exp 20)ev Showers in EUSO and JEM EUSO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, V.; Adams, J.; Cline, D.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the procedure to reconstruct 10(exp 20) ev showers in Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO). We show the angular and energy resolution is excellent. We now apply this to the newly proposed Japanese JEM-EUSO and will present results at the meeting.

  18. expVIP: a Customizable RNA-seq Data Analysis and Visualization Platform1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The majority of transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) expression studies in plants remain underutilized and inaccessible due to the use of disparate transcriptome references and the lack of skills and resources to analyze and visualize these data. We have developed expVIP, an expression visualization and integration platform, which allows easy analysis of RNA-seq data combined with an intuitive and interactive interface. Users can analyze public and user-specified data sets with minimal bioinformatics knowledge using the expVIP virtual machine. This generates a custom Web browser to visualize, sort, and filter the RNA-seq data and provides outputs for differential gene expression analysis. We demonstrate expVIP’s suitability for polyploid crops and evaluate its performance across a range of biologically relevant scenarios. To exemplify its use in crop research, we developed a flexible wheat (Triticum aestivum) expression browser (www.wheat-expression.com) that can be expanded with user-generated data in a local virtual machine environment. The open-access expVIP platform will facilitate the analysis of gene expression data from a wide variety of species by enabling the easy integration, visualization, and comparison of RNA-seq data across experiments. PMID:26869702

  19. sinI- and expR-dependent quorum sensing in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mengsheng; Chen, Hancai; Eberhard, Anatol; Gronquist, Matthew R; Robinson, Jayne B; Rolfe, Barry G; Bauer, Wolfgang D

    2005-12-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) in Sinorhizobium meliloti, the N-fixing bacterial symbiont of Medicago host plants, involves at least half a dozen different N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals and perhaps an equal number of AHL receptors. The accumulation of 55 proteins was found to be dependent on SinI, the AHL synthase, and/or on ExpR, one of the AHL receptors. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry identified 3-oxo-C(14)-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C(14)-HSL), C(16)-HSL, 3-oxo-C(16)-HSL, C(16:1)-HSL, and 3-oxo-C(16:1)-HSL as the sinI-dependent AHL QS signals accumulated by the 8530 expR(+) strain under the conditions used for proteome analysis. The 8530 expR(+) strain secretes additional, unidentified QS-active compounds. Addition of 200 nM C(14)-HSL or C(16:1)-HSL, two of the known SinI AHLs, affected the levels of 75% of the proteins, confirming that their accumulation is QS regulated. A number of the QS-regulated proteins have functions plausibly related to symbiotic interactions with the host, including ExpE6, IdhA, MocB, Gor, PckA, LeuC, and AglE. Seven of 10 single-crossover beta-glucuronidase (GUS) transcriptional reporters in genes corresponding to QS-regulated proteins showed significantly different activities in the sinI and expR mutant backgrounds and in response to added SinI AHLs. The sinI mutant and several of the single-crossover strains were significantly delayed in the ability to initiate nodules on the primary root of the host plant, Medicago truncatula, indicating that sinI-dependent QS regulation and QS-regulated proteins contribute importantly to the rate or efficiency of nodule initiation. The sinI and expR mutants were also defective in surface swarming motility. The sinI mutant was restored to normal swarming by 5 nM C(16:1)-HSL.

  20. sinI- and expR-Dependent Quorum Sensing in Sinorhizobium meliloti†

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Mengsheng; Chen, Hancai; Eberhard, Anatol; Gronquist, Matthew R.; Robinson, Jayne B.; Rolfe, Barry G.; Bauer, Wolfgang D.

    2005-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) in Sinorhizobium meliloti, the N-fixing bacterial symbiont of Medicago host plants, involves at least half a dozen different N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals and perhaps an equal number of AHL receptors. The accumulation of 55 proteins was found to be dependent on SinI, the AHL synthase, and/or on ExpR, one of the AHL receptors. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry identified 3-oxo-C14-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C14-HSL), C16-HSL, 3-oxo-C16-HSL, C16:1-HSL, and 3-oxo-C16:1-HSL as the sinI-dependent AHL QS signals accumulated by the 8530 expR+ strain under the conditions used for proteome analysis. The 8530 expR+ strain secretes additional, unidentified QS-active compounds. Addition of 200 nM C14-HSL or C16:1-HSL, two of the known SinI AHLs, affected the levels of 75% of the proteins, confirming that their accumulation is QS regulated. A number of the QS-regulated proteins have functions plausibly related to symbiotic interactions with the host, including ExpE6, IdhA, MocB, Gor, PckA, LeuC, and AglE. Seven of 10 single-crossover β-glucuronidase (GUS) transcriptional reporters in genes corresponding to QS-regulated proteins showed significantly different activities in the sinI and expR mutant backgrounds and in response to added SinI AHLs. The sinI mutant and several of the single-crossover strains were significantly delayed in the ability to initiate nodules on the primary root of the host plant, Medicago truncatula, indicating that sinI-dependent QS regulation and QS-regulated proteins contribute importantly to the rate or efficiency of nodule initiation. The sinI and expR mutants were also defective in surface swarming motility. The sinI mutant was restored to normal swarming by 5 nM C16:1-HSL. PMID:16291666

  1. IODP Exp 331: Iron-oxidizing Bacteria from the Okinawa Trough Deep Subsurface Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, C. L.; McAllister, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Communities of Fe-oxidizing Bacteria (FeOB) are common at sites of hydrothermal venting and are known to form complex communities in microbial mats, hydrothermal sediments, and borehole fluids. Studies at sites around the Pacific Ocean have found the Zetaproteobacteria to be dominant members of these FeOB communities. Preliminary culture-independent analyses indicate that borehole fluids from the deep subsurface may support several novel and distinct Zetaproteobacteria phylotypes (McAllister et al., 2011). Sampling from the deep subsurface at the Iheya North hydrothermal field has provided an opportunity to explore the microbial biodiversity of this unique subsurface habitat. Onboard enrichment experiments for FeOB were carried out at several sites over a wide range of depths as part of IODP Expedition 331. Enrichment experiments were carried out in both microaerophilic and anaerobic environments, with oxygen and nitrate as terminal electron acceptors, respectively. Although tested for the presence of FeOB from 0.23 to 42.45 meters below the seafloor (mbsf), Site C0014 showed little growth except for in the top half meter of hydrothermally unaltered, weakly oxidized sediment. Site C0015, which was diffusely venting and had a relatively low-temperature (~15°C), showed growth throughout the hole with both microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions to a depth of nine mbsf. Growth at this low-temperature site is consistent with previous studies of iron-oxidizing communities, and may correlate best with the borehole community at the Southern Mariana Trough (Kato et al., 2009). At Site C0017, a potential zone of recharge flow (down-welling of cold oxygenated seawater) was traversed from ~26 to 35 mbsf, and at the top of this zone the microaerophilic enrichment experiments showed growth. Growth in this recharge zone represents the deepest subsurface cultivation of FeOB to date, and may lend insight into the colonization of low-temperature vent systems via subsurface fluid

  2. Improved perfluoroalkylether fluid development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciorek, K. L.; Masuda, S. R.; Nakahara, J. H.; Kratzer, R. H.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this program was to optimize and scale up the linear perfluoroalkylether stabilization process and to provide test data regarding the fluids' thermal oxidative stability in the presence of metal alloys. The stabilization of Fomblin Z-25 was scaled up to 300 g of fluid. The modified fluid was stable at 316 C in oxygen in the presence of M-50 alloy for more than 24 hrs but less than 40 hrs; the amount of volatiles produced after 24 hrs was 5.5 mg/g. In the presence of Ti(4Al,4Mn) alloy, under the above conditions, following an exposure of 24 hrs, the amount of volatiles formed was 6.2 mg/g; 56 hrs exposure yielded 13.9 mg/g. The commercial fluid at 288 C (in oxygen) in the presence of M-50 after 15 hrs of exposure decomposed extensively, 342 mg/g; in the presence of Ti(4Al,4Mn) alloy after only 8 hrs at 288 C, the amount of volatiles was 191 mg/g. Formulation of the commercial fluid with C2PN3 additive was not as effective as the stabilization processing. All the perfluoroalkylether fluids studied were stable in nitrogen at 343 C. The thermal oxidative stability in the absence of metal alloys varied, with Aflunox exhibiting the best behavior. All the fluids were degraded in oxygen at 316 C during 24 hrs exposure to Ti(4Al,4Mn) alloy with the exception of a perfluoroalkylether substituted triazine and the modified Z-25.

  3. Improved perfluoroalkylether fluid development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Paciorek, K.; Nakahara, J.; Smythe, M.; Kratzer, R.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of transforming a commercial linear perfluoroalkylether fluid into a material stable in the presence of metals and metal alloys in oxidizing atmospheres at 300 C without the loss of the desirable viscosity temperature characteristics was determined. The approach consisted of thermal oxidative treatment in the presence of catalyst to remove weak links, followed by transformation of the created functional groups into phospha-s-triazine linkages. It it found that the experimental material obtained in 66% yield from the commercial fluid exhibits, over an 8 hr period at 300 C in the presence of Ti(4Al, 4Mn) alloy, thermal oxidative stability better by a factor of 2.6x1000 based on volatiles evolved than the commercial product. The viscosity and molecular weight of the developed fluid are unchanged and are essentially identical with the commercial material. No metal corrosion occurs with the experimental fluid at 300 C.

  4. Fluid Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  5. EXP-PAC: providing comparative analysis and storage of next generation gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Church, Philip C; Goscinski, Andrzej; Lefèvre, Christophe

    2012-07-01

    Microarrays and more recently RNA sequencing has led to an increase in available gene expression data. How to manage and store this data is becoming a key issue. In response we have developed EXP-PAC, a web based software package for storage, management and analysis of gene expression and sequence data. Unique to this package is SQL based querying of gene expression data sets, distributed normalization of raw gene expression data and analysis of gene expression data across experiments and species. This package has been populated with lactation data in the international milk genomic consortium web portal (http://milkgenomics.org/). Source code is also available which can be hosted on a Windows, Linux or Mac APACHE server connected to a private or public network (http://mamsap.it.deakin.edu.au/~pcc/Release/EXP_PAC.html).

  6. Exploring the RNA editing potential of RNA-Seq data by ExpEdit.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, Mattia; Picardi, Ernesto; Castrignanò, Tiziana; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Pesole, Graziano

    2015-01-01

    Revealing the impact of A-to-I RNA editing in RNA-Seq experiments is relevant in humans because RNA editing can influence gene expression. In addition, its deregulation has been linked to a variety of human diseases. Exploiting the RNA editing potential in complete RNA-Seq datasets, however, is a challenging task. Indeed, no dedicated software is available, and sometimes deep computational skills and appropriate hardware resources are required. To explore the impact of known RNA editing events in massive transcriptome sequencing experiments, we developed the ExpEdit web service application. In the present work, we provide an overview of ExpEdit as well as methodologies to investigate known RNA editing in human RNA-Seq datasets.

  7. Application of the k-epsilon-v(exp 2) model to multi-component airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iaccarino, G.; Durbin, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    Flow computations around two-element and three-element configurations are presented and compared to detailed experimental measurements. The k-epsilon-v(exp 2)(bar) model has been applied and the ability of the model to capture streamline curvature effects, wake-boundary layer confluence, and laminar/turbulent transition is discussed. The numerical results are compared to experimental datasets that include mean quantities (velocity and pressure coefficient) and turbulent quantities (Reynolds normal and shear stresses).

  8. The 1200 K compressive properties of N-containing NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Noebe, R. D.; Wheeler, D. R.

    1995-01-01

    As part of a series of experiments to understand the role of N on the strength of NiAl, a heat of NiAl was enriched with N by melting and atomization to powder in a nitrogen atmosphere. Following consolidation of the powder by hot extrusion, 1200 K compressive properties were measured in air. Within the range of strain rates examined, 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -9) s(exp -1), the strength of the N-enriched NiAl was greater than that of a simple 15 micron grain size polycrystalline, binary NiAl alloy. For the most part the overall improvement in strength is ascribed to the fine grain size of the N-doped NiAl rather than the alloy chemistry; however, the alloy displayed a complex behavior exhibiting both weakening effects as well as strengthening ones.

  9. Cryogenic liquid-jet breakup in two-fluid atomizers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, Robert D.

    1991-01-01

    A two-fluid atomizer was used to study the breakup of liquid-nitrogen jets in nitrogen, argon, and helium atomizing gas flows. A scattered-light scanner particle sizing instrument previously developed at NASA Lewis Research Center was further developed and used to determine characteristic drop diameters for the cryogenic sprays. In the breakup regime of aerodynamic-stripping, i.e., sonic-velocity conditions, the following correlation of the reciprocal Sauter mean diameter, D(sub 32)exp -1, with the atomizing-gas flowrate, W(g), was obtained: D(sub 32)exp -1 = k(sub c)(W(g)exp 1.33), where k(sub c) is a proportionality constant evaluated for each atomizing gas. Values of k(sub c) = 120, 220, and 1100 were obtained for argon, nitrogen, and helium gasflows, respectively. The reciprocal Sauter mean diameter and gas flowrate have the units of 1/cm and g/sec, respectively. In the regime of capillary-wave breakup, or subsonic conditions, it was found that D(sub 32)exp -1 = k(g)(W(g)exp 0.75), where k = 270, 390, and 880 for argon, nitrogen, and helium gasflows, respectively.

  10. Analytic equation of state and thermodynamic properties for He-H 2 fluid mixtures over a wide range of pressures and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xinying; Sun, Jiuxun

    2007-08-01

    The analytical expressions for the equation of state and thermo-physical quantities of Exp-6 fluid are derived based on the Ross variational perturbation theory and with the quantum effect taken into account. The formalism developed is applied to the He-H 2 mixtures. The agreement of numerical results of pressure and internal energy with MC simulations is shown far better than the analytic equation of state developed by [I. Ali, S.M. Osman, N. Sulaiman, R.N. Singh, Phys. Rev. E 69 (2004) 0561045]. The isotherms for pressure, internal energy and packing factor for five concentrations and four temperatures versus volume are calculated and analyzed. The numerical results for excess Gibbs free energy and entropy of mixing are presented. The variation of the excess Gibbs free energy of mixing, and the variation of the excess entropy of mixing versus temperature and pressure are different from and similar to that of Ali et al., respectively.

  11. The measurement of elemental abundances above 10 exp 15 eV at a lunar base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swordy, S. P.

    1990-03-01

    At about 10 exp 15 eV the slope of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays becomes significantly steeper than at lower energies. The measurement of relative elemental abundances at these energies is expected to provide a means to resolve the origin of this feature and greatly contribute to the understanding of the sources of cosmic rays. A moon-based detector for making well-resolved elemental measurements at these energies is described using hadronic calorimetry. This detector is particularly well suited for a site on the lunar surface because there is no overlying layer of atmosphere and the large mass required can be provided by the lunar regolith.

  12. Evaluation of Coseismic Fluid-Rock Interaction in Fault Zones on the Basis of Geochemistry of Fault Rocks in Accretionary Prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, T.; Hirono, T.; Honda, G.

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies revealed that concentration and isotopic composition of fluid-mobile trace elements such as Li, Rb, Cs and Sr in slip-zone rocks can change significantly during coseismic fluid-rock interaction at high temperatures (e.g., Ishikawa et al., 2008). In this study, we summarize the results obtained for fault-zone rocks recovered from various depths of the subduction zones. Analysis of a slip-zone sample recovered from shallow portion (0.27 km bsf) of the magasplay fault at Site C0004, IODP Exp. 316, Nankai Trough showed no clear fluid-induced geochemical signals, although a peak temperature over 300 deg. C is estimated on the basis of vitrinite reflectance data (Sakaguchi et al., 2011). In contrast, a major reverse fault in a fossil accretionary prism, the Emi Group (burial depth, 1-2 km) exhibited marked decreases of Li, Rb and Cs relative to adjacent host rocks, suggesting coseismic fluid-rock interactions at >350 deg. C. Geochemical signals observed in the Emi slip zone have a strong resemblance to those observed in the Taiwan chelungpu fault at comparable depths (1.1-1.2 km). Slip-zone samples collected from a fossil out-of-sequence thrust at greater depth (2.5-5.5 km) adjacent to the Kure Melange in the Shimanto accretionary prism showed unique geochemical characteristics, in which effects from disequilibrium flash melting to generate pseudotachylyte coexist with those from fluid-rock interactions at >350 deg. C. In the cases of Emi and Chelungpu, it is possible that the fluid-induced geochemical signatures, together with fluidization structures observed in these samples, resulted from thermal pressurization. On the other hand, the Kure data suggest a slip process in which high-temperature pore fluids were generated by frictional slip, but the thermally-enhanced pressure might not have reached a sufficient level to cause thermal pressurization, and the temperature continued to increase to attain melting. Kinetic estimation suggests that fluid

  13. Turbidity of a binary fluid mixture: Determining eta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Donald T.

    1994-01-01

    A ground based (1-g) experiment is in progress that will measure the turbidity of a density-matched, binary fluid mixture extremely close to the critical point. By covering the range of reduced temperatures t is equivalent to (T-T(sub c))/T(sub c) from 10(exp -8) to 10(exp -2), the turbidity measurements will allow the critical exponent eta to be determined. No experiment has determined a value of the critical exponent eta, yet its value is significant to theorists in critical phenomena. Interpreting the turbidity correctly is important if future NASA flight experiments use turbidity as an indirect measurement of relative temperature in shuttle experiments on critical phenomena in fluids.

  14. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Lauriie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Ribeiro, L.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Johnston, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 50% of ISS astronauts experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's preflight conditions and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. METHODS: We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by

  15. Fluid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.; Firouzjahi, H.; Namjoo, M.H.; Sasaki, M. E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2013-09-01

    In this work we present an inflationary mechanism based on fluid dynamics. Starting with the action for a single barotropic perfect fluid, we outline the procedure to calculate the power spectrum and the bispectrum of the curvature perturbation. It is shown that a perfect barotropic fluid naturally gives rise to a non-attractor inflationary universe in which the curvature perturbation is not frozen on super-horizon scales. We show that a scale-invariant power spectrum can be obtained with the local non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} = 5/2.

  16. ALS Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... toward a world without ALS! Walk to Defeat ALS® Walk to Defeat ALS® draws people of all ... We need your help. I Will Advocate National ALS Registry The National ALS Registry is a congressionally ...

  17. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael B.; Hargens, Alan R.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Ebert, Douglas J.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Laurie, Steven S.; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Martin, David S.; Liu, John; Macias, Brandon R.; Arbeille, Philippe; Danielson, Richard; Chang, Douglas; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Johnston, Smith L.; Westby, Christian M.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.; Smith, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesize that microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shifts elevate intracranial pressure (ICP) and contribute to VIIP. We will test this hypothesis and a possible countermeasure in ISS astronauts.

  18. Amniotic fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... baby is born), or gestational diabetes . Too little amniotic fluid is known as oligohydramnios. This condition may occur with late pregnancies, ruptured membranes, placental dysfunction , or fetal abnormalities. Abnormal amounts of ...

  19. Drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B.L.

    1984-01-10

    Polyethylene glycols in combination with at least one water-dispersible polymeric viscosifier comprising cellulose ethers, cellulose sulfate esters, polyacrylamides, guar gum, or heteropolysaccharides improve the water loss properties of water-based drilling fluids, particularly in hard brine environments.

  20. Amniotic Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Heather C.; Muglia, Louis J.; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to review the use of high-dimensional biology techniques, specifically transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, in amniotic fluid to elucidate the mechanisms behind preterm birth or assessment of fetal development. We performed a comprehensive MEDLINE literature search on the use of transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic technologies for amniotic fluid analysis. All abstracts were reviewed for pertinence to preterm birth or fetal maturation in human subjects. Nineteen articles qualified for inclusion. Most articles described the discovery of biomarker candidates, but few larger, multicenter replication or validation studies have been done. We conclude that the use of high-dimensional systems biology techniques to analyze amniotic fluid has significant potential to elucidate the mechanisms of preterm birth and fetal maturation. However, further multicenter collaborative efforts are needed to replicate and validate candidate biomarkers before they can become useful tools for clinical practice. Ideally, amniotic fluid biomarkers should be translated to a noninvasive test performed in maternal serum or urine. PMID:23599373

  1. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Laurie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Gunga, H.; Johnston, S.; Westby, C.; Ribeiro, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mechanisms responsible for the ocular structural and functional changes that characterize the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (ICP) syndrome (VIIP) are unclear, but hypothesized to be secondary to the cephalad fluid shift experienced in spaceflight. This study will relate the fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight with VIIP symptoms. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, can be predicted preflight with acute hemodynamic manipulations, and also if lower body negative pressure (LBNP) can reverse the VIIP effects. METHODS: Physiologic variables will be examined pre-, in- and post-flight in 10 International Space Station crewmembers including: fluid compartmentalization (D2O and NaBr dilution); interstitial tissue thickness (ultrasound); vascular dimensions and dynamics (ultrasound and MRI (including cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility)); ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, ultrasound); and ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, otoacoustic emissions). Pre- and post-flight measures will be assessed while upright, supine and during 15 deg head-down tilt (HDT). In-flight measures will occur early and late during 6 or 12 month missions. LBNP will be evaluated as a countermeasure during HDT and during spaceflight. RESULTS: The first two crewmembers are in the preflight testing phase. Preliminary results characterize the acute fluid shifts experienced from upright, to supine and HDT postures (increased stroke volume, jugular dimensions and measures of ICP) which are reversed with 25 millimeters Hg LBNP. DISCUSSION: Initial results indicate that acute cephalad fluid shifts may be related to VIIP symptoms, but also may be reversible by LBNP. The effect of a chronic fluid shift has yet to be evaluated. Learning Objectives: Current spaceflight VIIP research is described

  2. Electrorheological fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, T.C.; Martin, J.E.

    1993-10-01

    An electrorheological fluid is a substance whose form changes in the presence of electric fields. Depending on the strength of the field to which it is subjected, an electrorheological fluid can run freely like water, ooze like honey or solidify like gelatin. Indeed, the substance can switch from ne state to another within a few milliseconds. Electrorheological fluids are easy to make; they consist of microscopic particles suspended in an insulating liquid. Yet they are not ready for most commercial applications. They tend to suffer from a number of problems, including structural weakness as solids, abrasiveness as liquids and chemical breakdown, especially at high temperatures. Automotive engineers could imagine, for instance, constructing an electrorheological clutch. It was also hoped that electrorheological fluids would lead to valveless hydraulic systems, in which solidifying fluid would shut off flow through a thin section of pipe. Electrorheological fluids also offer the possibility of a shock absorber that provides response times of milliseconds and does not require mechanical adjustments. 3 refs.

  3. Fluid Flow in An Evaporating Droplet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, H.; Larson, R.

    1999-01-01

    Droplet evaporation is a common phenomenon in everyday life. For example, when a droplet of coffee or salt solution is dropped onto a surface and the droplet dries out, a ring of coffee or salt particles is left on the surface. This phenomenon exists not only in everyday life, but also in many practical industrial processes and scientific research and could also be used to assist in DNA sequence analysis, if the flow field in the droplet produced by the evaporation could be understood and predicted in detail. In order to measure the fluid flow in a droplet, small particles can be suspended into the fluid as tracers. From the ratio of gravitational force to Brownian force a(exp 4)(delta rho)(g)/k(sub B)T, we find that particle's tendency to settle is proportional to a(exp 4) (a is particle radius). So, to keep the particles from settling, the droplet size should be chosen to be in a range 0.1 -1.0 microns in experiments. For such small particles, the Brownian force will affect the motion of the particle preventing accurate measurement of the flow field. This problem could be overcome by using larger particles as tracers to measure fluid flow under microgravity since the gravitational acceleration g is then very small. For larger particles, Brownian force would hardly affect the motion of the particles. Therefore, accurate flow field could be determined from experiments in microgravity. In this paper, we will investigate the fluid flow in an evaporating droplet under normal gravity, and compare experiments to theories. Then, we will present our ideas about the experimental measurement of fluid flow in an evaporating droplet under microgravity.

  4. A vacuum (10(exp -9) Torr) friction apparatus for determining friction and endurance life of MoSx films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Honecy, Frank S.; Abel, Phillip B.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Spalvins, Talivaldis; Wheeler, Donald R.

    1992-01-01

    The first part of this paper describes an ultrahigh vacuum friction apparatus (tribometer). The tribometer can be used in a ball-on-disk configuration and is specifically designed to measure the friction and endurance life of solid lubricating films such as MoS(x) in vacuum at a pressure of 10 exp -7 Pa. The sliding mode is typically unidirectional at a constant rotating speed. The second part of this paper presents some representative friction and endurance life data for magnetron sputtered MoS(x) films (110 nm thick) deposited on sputter-cleaned 440 C stainless-steel disk substrates, which were slid against a 6-mm-diameter 440 C stainless-steel bearing ball. All experiments were conducted with loads of 0.49 to 3.6 N (average Hertzian contact pressure, 0.33 to 0.69 GPa), at a constant rotating speed of 120 rpm (sliding velocity ranging from 31 to 107 mm/s due to the range of wear track radii involved in the experiments), in a vacuum of 7 x 10 exp -7 Pa and at room temperature. The results indicate that there are similarities in friction behavior of MoS(x) films overs their life cycles regardless of load applied. The coefficient of friction (mu) decreases as load W increases according to mu = kW exp -1/3. The endurance life E of MoS(x) films decreases as the load W increases according to E = KW exp -1.4 for the load range. The load- (or contract-pressure-) dependent endurance life allows us to reduce the time for wear experiments and to accelerate endurance life testing of MoS(x) films. For the magnetron-sputtered MoS(x) films deposited on 440 C stainless-steel disks: the specific wear rate normalized to the load and the number of revolutions was 3 x 10 exp -8 mm exp 3/N-revolution; the specific wear rate normalized to the load and the total sliding distance was 8 x 10 exp -7 mm exp 3/N-m; and the nondimensional wear coefficient of was approximately 5 x 10 exp -6. The values are almost independent of load in the range 0.49 to 3.6 N (average Hertzian contact

  5. Scalability Test of multiscale fluid-platelet model for three top supercomputers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Na; Gao, Chao; Zhang, Li; Gao, Yuxiang; Deng, Yuefan; Bluestein, Danny

    2016-07-01

    We have tested the scalability of three supercomputers: the Tianhe-2, Stampede and CS-Storm with multiscale fluid-platelet simulations, in which a highly-resolved and efficient numerical model for nanoscale biophysics of platelets in microscale viscous biofluids is considered. Three experiments involving varying problem sizes were performed: Exp-S: 680,718-particle single-platelet; Exp-M: 2,722,872-particle 4-platelet; and Exp-L: 10,891,488-particle 16-platelet. Our implementations of multiple time-stepping (MTS) algorithm improved the performance of single time-stepping (STS) in all experiments. Using MTS, our model achieved the following simulation rates: 12.5, 25.0, 35.5 μs/day for Exp-S and 9.09, 6.25, 14.29 μs/day for Exp-M on Tianhe-2, CS-Storm 16-K80 and Stampede K20. The best rate for Exp-L was 6.25 μs/day for Stampede. Utilizing current advanced HPC resources, the simulation rates achieved by our algorithms bring within reach performing complex multiscale simulations for solving vexing problems at the interface of biology and engineering, such as thrombosis in blood flow which combines millisecond-scale hematology with microscale blood flow at resolutions of micro-to-nanoscale cellular components of platelets. This study of testing the performance characteristics of supercomputers with advanced computational algorithms that offer optimal trade-off to achieve enhanced computational performance serves to demonstrate that such simulations are feasible with currently available HPC resources.

  6. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Platts, S.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 30% of ISS astronauts experience more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the space flight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration space flight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during space flight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight condition and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound

  7. An Instrument to Measure Elemental Energy Spectra of Cosmic Ray Nuclei Up to 10(exp 16) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Chilingarian, A.; Drury, L.; Egorov, N.; Golubkov,S.; Korotkova, N.; Panasyuk, M.; Podorozhnyi, D.; Procqureur, J.

    2000-01-01

    A longstanding goal of cosmic ray research is to measure the elemental energy spectra of cosmic rays up to and through the "knee" (approx. equal to 3 x 10 (exp 15) eV. It is not currently feasible to achieve this goal with an ionization calorimeter because the mass required to be deployed in Earth orbit is very large (at least 50 tonnes). An alternative method will be presented. This is based on measuring the primary particle energy by determining the angular distribution of secondaries produced in a target layer using silicon microstrip detector technology. The proposed technique can be used over a wide range of energies (10 (exp 11)- 10 (exp 16) eV) and gives an energy resolution of 60% or better. Based on this technique, a design for a new lightweight instrument with a large aperture (KLEM) will be described.

  8. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) using the expansin 10 (CsEXP10) gene.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y D; Luo, W R; Sun, S Y; Ni, L

    2015-12-08

    The cucumber expansin 10 (CsEXP10) gene was previously cloned from young cucumber fruits but its role has not been defined. To determine the role of this gene in plant growth and development, a CsEXP10 gene transformation system was established. The open reading frame of the gene was inserted behind the CaMV35S promoter of vector pCAMBIA1301, and the construct was introduced into tomato plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. In total, 19 kanamycin-positive lines were produced and nine independent transgenic lines were identified by β-glucuronidase and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that levels of the CsEXP10 transcript were higher in transgenic lines than in a non-transgenic line.

  9. Thermal conductivity of nanoparticle-fluid mixture.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Xu, X.; Choi, S. U.-S.; Energy Technology; Purdue Univ.

    1999-10-01

    Effective thermal conductivity of mixtures of fluids and nanometer-size particles is measured by a steady-state parallel-plate method. The tested fluids contain two types of nanoparticles, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CuO, dispersed in water, vacuum pump fluid, engine oil, and ethylene glycol. Experimental results show that the thermal conductivities of nanoparticle-fluid mixtures are higher than those of the base fluids. Using theoretical models of effective thermal conductivity of a mixture, we have demonstrated that the predicted thermal conductivities of nanoparticle-fluid mixtures are much lower than our measured data, indicating the deficiency in the existing models when used for nanoparticle-fluid mixtures. Possible mechanisms contributing to enhancement of the thermal conductivity of the mixtures are discussed. A more comprehensive theory is needed to fully explain the behavior of nanoparticle-fluid mixtures.

  10. Titan's Far-Infrared 220 cm(exp -1) Cloud Seen for the First Time in the South

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald; Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, Robert; Nixon, Conor; Flasar, Michael; Teanby, Nick; deKok, Remco; Coustenis, Athena; Vinatier, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    In 2012 an emission feature at 220 cm(exp -1) in Titan's far-infrared spectrum was seen for the first time in the south. Attributed to a stratosphere ice cloud formed at the winter pole, the 220 (exp -1) emission had previously been seen only at high northern latitudes where it bad been decreasing since the arrival of Cassini in 2004. Our far-infrared observations were performed With the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Caasini. Although it bad been expected that the 220 cm(exp -1) emission would eventnal1y appear in the south, the emission appeared rather suddenly, increasing by a factor of at least four between February (when it was not detected) and July 2012. At the time of our observations, one Titan month after equinox, the 220 cm(exp -1) feature was present in both the north and south and showed a trend of continued slow decrease in the north and steep increase in the south. As has been the case in the north, the emission in the south was confined to high latitudes associated with winter polar shadowing. Our spectroscopic detection of the southern 220 cm(exp -1) ice cloud coincided with the rapid formation in 2012 of a haze hood and vortex at the south pole as seen in Cassini image. The 220 cm(exp -1) feature was first observed by the Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) on Voyager I and has been extensively studied in the north by CIRS. Until now the 220 cm(exp -1) emission, like the polar hood, has been associated solely with the north, owing to the fact that Voyager and Cassini have viewed Titan only during winter-spring. In 2012 we witnessed the start of a seasonal shift of this pattern to the south. The 220 cm(exp -1) emission arises from altitudes of 80-150 km and peaks sharply near 140 km. The material responsible for the spectral feature is not known, but indirect evidence hints at a condensate arising from complex nitriles, which also tend to be present only at high winter latitudes.

  11. Improvement of the Exp-function method for solving the BBM equation with time-dependent coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahani, Maghsoud; Manafian, Jalil

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we establish the exact solutions for the BBM equation with time-dependent coefficients. The Exp-function method (EFM) and improvement of the Exp-function method (IEFM) are used to construct solitary and soliton solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. These methods are developed for searching exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations. The exact particular solutions are of four types: the hyperbolic function solution, trigonometric function solution, exponential solution and rational solution. It is shown that the EFM and IEFM, with the help of symbolic computation, provide a straightforward and powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  12. ALS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Registry -- ...

  13. Seawater recharge into oceanic crust: IODP Exp 327 Site U1363 Grizzly Bare outcrop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheat, C. Geoffrey; Hulme, Samuel M.; Fisher, Andrew T.; Orcutt, Beth N.; Becker, Keir

    2013-06-01

    Systematic differences in sediment thermal and pore water chemical profiles from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1363 document mixing and reaction within the basaltic crust adjacent to Grizzly Bare outcrop, a site of hydrothermal recharge into 3.6 My-old basaltic crust. A transect of seven holes was drilled ~50 m to ~750 m away from the base of the outcrop. Temperatures at the sediment-basement interface increase from ~6°C to >30°C with increasing distance from the outcrop, and heat flow is suppressed within several hundred meters from the outcrop. Calculated fluid compositions at the sediment-basement interface are generally explained by mixing between bottom seawater and altered crustal basement fluids, with a composition similar but not identical to fluids from seeps at Baby Bare outcrop, located ~45 km to the northeast. Reactions within upper basement and overlying sediment affect a variety of ions (Mn, Fe, Mo, Si, PO43-, V, and U) and δ13DIC, indicating a diagenetic influence and diffusive exchange with overlying sediment pore waters. The apparent 14C age of basal pore fluids is much older than bottom seawater. Collectively, these results are consistent with seawater recharge at Grizzly Bare outcrop; however, there are strong gradients in fluid composition within 50 m of the outcrop, providing evidence for complex flow paths and vigorous mixing of young, recently recharged seawater with much older, more reacted basement fluid. The proximity of these altered fluids to the edge of the outcrop raises the possibility for fluid seepage from the outcrop in addition to seawater recharge.

  14. Multigrid methods for a semilinear PDE in the theory of pseudoplastic fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henson, Van Emden; Shaker, A. W.

    1993-01-01

    We show that by certain transformations the boundary layer equations for the class of non-Newtonian fluids named pseudoplastic can be generalized in the form the vector differential operator(u) + p(x)u(exp -lambda) = 0, where x is a member of the set Omega and Omega is a subset of R(exp n), n is greater than or equal to 1 under the classical conditions for steady flow over a semi-infinite flat plate. We provide a survey of the existence, uniqueness, and analyticity of the solutions for this problem. We also establish numerical solutions in one- and two-dimensional regions using multigrid methods.

  15. Validation of an All-Pressure Fluid Drop Model: Heptane Fluid Drops in Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harstad, K.; Bellan, J.; Bulzan, Daniel L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Despite the fact that supercritical fluids occur both in nature and in industrial situations, the fundamentals of their behavior is poorly understood because supercritical fluids combine the characteristics of both liquids and gases, and therefore their behavior is not intuitive. There are several specific reasons for the lack of understanding: First, data from (mostly optical) measurements can be very misleading because regions of high density thus observed are frequently identified with liquids. A common misconception is that if in an experiment one can optically identify "drops" and "ligaments", the observed fluid must be in a liquid state. This inference is incorrect because in fact optical measurements detect any large change (i.e. gradients) in density. Thus, the density ratio may be well below Omicron(10(exp 3)) that characterizes its liquid/gas value, but the measurement will still identify a change in the index of refraction providing that the change is sudden (steep gradients). As shown by simulations of supercritical fluids, under certain conditions the density gradients may remain large during the supercritical binary fluids mixing, thus making them optically identifiable. Therefore, there is no inconsistency between the optical observation of high density regions and the fluids being in a supercritical state. A second misconception is that because a fluid has a liquid-like density, it is appropriate to model it as a liquid. However, such fluids may have liquid-like densities while their transport properties differ from those of a liquid. Considering that the critical pressure of most fuel hydrocarbons used in Diesel and gas turbine engines is in the range of 1.5 - 3 MPa, and the fact that the maximum pressure attained in these engines is about 6 Mps, it is clear that the fuel in the combustion chamber will experience both subcritical and supercritical conditions. Studies of drop behavior over a wide range of pressures were performed in the past

  16. Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pnueli, David; Gutfinger, Chaim

    1997-01-01

    This text is intended for the study of fluid mechanics at an intermediate level. The presentation starts with basic concepts, in order to form a sound conceptual structure that can support engineering applications and encourage further learning. The presentation is exact, incorporating both the mathematics involved and the physics needed to understand the various phenomena in fluid mechanics. Where a didactical choice must be made between the two, the physics prevails. Throughout the book the authors have tried to reach a balance between exact presentation, intuitive grasp of new ideas, and creative applications of concepts. This approach is reflected in the examples presented in the text and in the exercises given at the end of each chapter. Subjects treated are hydrostatics, viscous flow, similitude and order of magnitude, creeping flow, potential flow, boundary layer flow, turbulent flow, compressible flow, and non-Newtonian flows. This book is ideal for advanced undergraduate students in mechanical, chemical, aerospace, and civil engineering. Solutions manual available.

  17. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  18. Diffraction des neutrons : principe, dispositifs expérimentaux et applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, C.

    2003-02-01

    La diffraction de neutrons, sur monocristal ou sur échantillon polycristallin (ou poudre), est une technique très largement utilisée, en science des matériaux comme en biologie, lorsque l'on souhaite déterminer la structure cristalline d'un composé ou d'une molécule. Toutefois, le degré de précision de la détermination structurale est très corrélé au choix de l'instrument utilisé. Il s'en suit que la question “comment choisir l'instrument le mieux adapté au composé et à la problématique ?" apparaît comme fondamentale. L'objectif de ce cours est de tenter de répondre à cette question en décrivant brièvement les caractéristiques instrumentales de différents diffractomètres, en exposant les avantages spécifiques des expériences de diffraction de neutrons et en donnant quelques exemples d'application.

  19. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing a grass PpEXP1 gene exhibit enhanced tolerance to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Xu, Xiao; Shi, Yang; Xu, Jichen; Huang, Bingru

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress is a detrimental abiotic stress limiting the growth of many plant species and is associated with various cellular and physiological damages. Expansins are a family of proteins which are known to play roles in regulating cell wall elongation and expansion, as well as other growth and developmental processes. The in vitro roles of expansins regulating plant heat tolerance are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to isolate and clone an expansin gene in a perennial grass species (Poa pratensis) and to determine whether over-expression of expansin may improve plant heat tolerance. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was used as the model plant for gene transformation and an expansin gene PpEXP1 from Poa pratensis was cloned. Sequence analysis showed PpEXP1 belonged to α-expansins and was closely related to two expansin genes in other perennial grass species (Festuca pratensis and Agrostis stolonifera) as well as Triticum aestivum, Oryza sativa, and Brachypodium distachyon. Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing PpEXP1 were generated through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Under heat stress (42°C) in growth chambers, transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing the PpEXP1 gene exhibited a less structural damage to cells, lower electrolyte leakage, lower levels of membrane lipid peroxidation, and lower content of hydrogen peroxide, as well as higher chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, relative water content, activity of antioxidant enzyme, and seed germination rates, compared to the wild-type plants. These results demonstrated the positive roles of PpEXP1 in enhancing plant tolerance to heat stress and the possibility of using expansins for genetic modification of cool-season perennial grasses in the development of heat-tolerant germplasm and cultivars.

  20. Transgenic Tobacco Plants Overexpressing a Grass PpEXP1 Gene Exhibit Enhanced Tolerance to Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qian; Xu, Xiao; Shi, Yang; Xu, Jichen; Huang, Bingru

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress is a detrimental abiotic stress limiting the growth of many plant species and is associated with various cellular and physiological damages. Expansins are a family of proteins which are known to play roles in regulating cell wall elongation and expansion, as well as other growth and developmental processes. The in vitro roles of expansins regulating plant heat tolerance are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to isolate and clone an expansin gene in a perennial grass species (Poa pratensis) and to determine whether over-expression of expansin may improve plant heat tolerance. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was used as the model plant for gene transformation and an expansin gene PpEXP1 from Poa pratensis was cloned. Sequence analysis showed PpEXP1 belonged to α-expansins and was closely related to two expansin genes in other perennial grass species (Festuca pratensis and Agrostis stolonifera) as well as Triticum aestivum, Oryza sativa, and Brachypodium distachyon. Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing PpEXP1 were generated through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Under heat stress (42°C) in growth chambers, transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing the PpEXP1 gene exhibited a less structural damage to cells, lower electrolyte leakage, lower levels of membrane lipid peroxidation, and lower content of hydrogen peroxide, as well as higher chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, relative water content, activity of antioxidant enzyme, and seed germination rates, compared to the wild-type plants. These results demonstrated the positive roles of PpEXP1 in enhancing plant tolerance to heat stress and the possibility of using expansins for genetic modification of cool-season perennial grasses in the development of heat-tolerant germplasm and cultivars. PMID:25003197

  1. Observations of the Minor Species Al, Fe and Ca(+) in Mercury's Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bida, Thomas A.; Killen, Rosemary M.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of Al and Fe, and strict upper limits for Ca(+) in the exosphere of Mercury, using the HIRES spectrometer at the Keck I telescope. We report observed 4-sigma tangent columns of 1.5x10(exp 7) Al atoms per square centimeter at an altitude of 1220 km (1.5 Mercury radii (R(sub M)) from planet center), and that for Fe of 1.6 x 10 per square centimeter at an altitude of 950 km (1.4 R(sub M)). The observed 3-sigma Ca(+) column was 3.9x10(exp 6) ions per square centimeter at an altitude of 1630 km (1.67 R(sub M). A simple model for zenith column abundances of the neutral species were 9.5 x 10(exp 7) Al per square centimeter, and 3.0 x 10(exp 8) Fe per square centimeter. The observations appear to be consistent with production of these species by impact vaporization with a large fraction of the ejecta in molecular form. The scale height of the Al gas is consistent with a kinetic temperature of 3000 - 9000 K while that of Fe is 10500 K. The apparent high temperature of the Fe gas would suggest that it may be produced by dissociation of molecules. A large traction of both Al and Fe appear to condense in a vapor cloud at low altitudes.

  2. Turbidity of a Binary Fluid Mixture: Determining Eta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Donald T.

    1996-01-01

    A ground based (1-g) experiment is in progress that will measure the turbidity of a density-matched, binary fluid mixture extremely close to its liquid-liquid critical point. By covering the range of reduced temperatures t equivalent to (T-T(sub c)) / T(sub c) from 10(exp -8) to 10(exp -2), the turbidity measurements will allow the critical exponent eta to be determined. No experiment has precisely determined a value of the critical exponent eta, yet its value is significant to theorists in critical phenomena. Relatively simple critical phenomena, as in the liquid-liquid system studied here, serve as model systems for more complex systems near a critical point.

  3. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pleural Fluid Analysis , Pericardial Fluid ...

  4. Pleural Fluid Analysis Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Pleural Fluid Analysis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Pleural Fluid Analysis Related tests: Pericardial Fluid Analysis , Peritoneal Fluid ...

  5. The C IV Mass Density of the Universe at Redshift 5(exp 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettini, Max; Madau, Piero; Bolte, Michael; Prochaska, Jason X.; Ellison, Sara L.; Fan, Xiao-Hui

    2003-01-01

    In order to search for metals in the Ly alpha forest at redshifts z(sub abs) > 4, we have obtained spectra of high signal-to-noise ratio and moderately high resolution of three QSOs at z(sub em) > 5.4 discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These data allow us to probe to metal enrichment of the intergalactic medium at early times with higher sensitivity than previous studies. We find 16 C IV absorption systems with column densities logN(C IV) = 12.50-13.98 over a total redshift path Delta X = 3.29. In the redshift interval z = 4.5-5.0, where our statistics are most reliable, we deduce a comoving mass density of C(3+) ions Omega(sub C IV) = (4.3 +/- 2.5) x 10(exp -8) (90% confidence limits) for absorption systems with log N(C IV) > or = 13.0 (for an Einstein-de Sitter cosmology with h = 0.65). This value of Omega(sub C IV) is entirely consistent with those measured at z < 4; we confirm the earlier finding by Songaila that neither the column density distribution of C IV absorbers nor its integral show significant redshift evolution over a period of time that stretches from approx. 1.25 to approx. 4.5 Gyr after the big bang. This somewhat surprising conclusion may be an indication that the intergalactic medium was enriched in metals at z >> 5, perhaps by the sources responsible for its reionization. Alternatively, the C IV systems we see may be associated with outflows from massive star-forming galaxies at later times, while the truly intergalactic metals may reside in regions of the Ly alpha forest of lower density than those probed up to now.

  6. Intermediate Temperature Fluids Life Tests - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarau, Calin; Sarraf, David B.; Locci, Ivan E.; Anderson, William G.

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of different applications that could use heat pipes or loop heat pipes (LHPs) in the intermediate temperature range of 450 to 750 K, including space nuclear power system radiators, and high temperature electronics cooling. Potential working fluids include organic fluids, elements, and halides, with halides being the least understood, with only a few life tests conducted. Potential envelope materials for halide working fluids include pure aluminum, aluminum alloys, commercially pure (CP) titanium, titanium alloys, and corrosion resistant superalloys. Life tests were conducted with three halides (AlBr3, SbBr3, and TiCl4) and water in three different envelopes: two aluminum alloys (Al-5052, Al-6061) and Cp-2 titanium. The AlBr3 attacked the grain boundaries in the aluminum envelopes, and formed TiAl compounds in the titanium. The SbBr3 was incompatible with the only envelope material that it was tested with, Al-6061. TiCl4 and water were both compatible with CP2-titanium. A theoretical model was developed that uses electromotive force differences to predict the compatibility of halide working fluids with envelope materials. This theory predicts that iron, nickel, and molybdenum are good envelope materials, while aluminum and titanium halides are good working fluids. The model is in good agreement with results form previous life tests, as well as the current life tests.

  7. Initial conditions implied by t exp 1/2 solidification of a sphere with capillarity and interfacial kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekerka, R. F.; Voorhees, P. W.; Coriel, S. R.; Mcfadden, G. B.

    1988-01-01

    The paper explores the initial conditions implied by t exp 1/2 growth of a spherical crystal solidifying from a pure, undercooled melt, including the effects of both capillarity and interface kinetics, and relates the findings to initial conditions that would be expected on the basis of classical nucleation theory. For crystal sizes near the nucleation radius, the calculated temperature profiles show a cold region ahead of the advancing interface that is even more undercooled than the undercooled bath. This cold region acts as a local heat sink that compensates for the reduced growth speed that would otherwise result from capillarity and kinetics, leading to precisely the same t exp 1/2 growth law that would have been obtained had both capillarity and kinetics been neglected.

  8. A vacuum (10 exp -9 torr) friction apparatus for determining friction and endurance life of MoS(x) films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Honecy, Frank S.; Abel, Phillip B.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Spalvins, Talivaldis; Wheeler, Donald R.

    1993-01-01

    An ultrahigh-vacuum tribometer for use in a ball-on-disk configuration was specially designed for measuring the friction and endurance life of magnetron-sputtered solid lubricating MoS(x) films deposited on sputter-cleaned 400 C stainless-steel disks, when slid against a 6-mm-diameter 440 C stainless-steel ball. The results of tests showed that the tribometer performs satisfactorily in unidirectional rotation in vacuum at a pressure of 10 exp -7 Pa, 10 exp -9 torr. Similarities are observed in the life cycle friction behavior and the coefficient of friction as a function of the number of disk revolutions, for MoS(x) films at average Hertzian contact from 0.33 to 0.69 GPa.

  9. Gyroelastic fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Kerbel, G.D.

    1981-01-20

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch.

  10. Viscous fingering with partial miscible fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiaojing; Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis; Juanes, Ruben

    2015-11-01

    When a less viscous fluid displaces a more viscous fluid, the contrast in viscosity destabilizes the interface between the two fluids, leading to the formation of fingers. Studies of viscous fingering have focused on fluids that are either fully miscible or perfectly immiscible. In practice, however, the miscibility of two fluids can change appreciably with temperature and pressure, and often falls into the case of partial miscibility, where two fluids have limited solubility in each other. Following our recent work for miscible (Jha et al., PRL 2011, 2013) and immiscible systems (Cueto-Felgueroso and Juanes, PRL 2012, JFM 2014), here we propose a phase-field model for fluid-fluid displacements in a Hele-Shaw cell, when the two fluids have limited (but nonzero) solubility in one another. Partial miscibility is characterized through the design of thermodynamic free energy of the two-fluid system. We elucidate the key dimensionless groups that control the behavior of the system. We present high-resolution numerical simulations of the model applied to the viscous fingering problem. On one hand, we demonstrate the effect of partial miscibility on the hydrodynamic instability. On the other, we elucidate the role of the degree of fingering on the rate of mutual fluid dissolution.

  11. Analytical Treatment of Some Partial Differential Equations Arising in Mathematical Physics by Using the Exp-FUNCTION Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghan, Mehdi; Manafian, Jalil; Saadatmandi, Abbas

    The Exp-function method with the aid of symbolic computational system can be used to obtain the generalized solitary solutions and periodic solutions for nonlinear evolution equations arising in mathematical physics. In this paper, we study the analytic treatment of the Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation, the modified ZK equation, and the generalized forms of these equations. Exact solutions with solitons and periodic structures are obtained.

  12. Fluid channeling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald Y. (Inventor); Hitch, Bradley D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A fluid channeling system includes a fluid ejector, a heat exchanger, and a fluid pump disposed in series flow communication The ejector includes a primary inlet for receiving a primary fluid, and a secondary inlet for receiving a secondary fluid which is mixed with the primary fluid and discharged therefrom as ejector discharge. Heat is removed from the ejector discharge in the heat exchanger, and the heat exchanger discharge is compressed in the fluid pump and channeled to the ejector secondary inlet as the secondary fluid In an exemplary embodiment, the temperature of the primary fluid is greater than the maximum operating temperature of a fluid motor powering the fluid pump using a portion of the ejector discharge, with the secondary fluid being mixed with the primary fluid so that the ejector discharge temperature is equal to about the maximum operating temperature of the fluid motor.

  13. Market memory and fat tail consequences in option pricing on the expOU stochastic volatility model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelló, Josep

    2007-08-01

    The expOU stochastic volatility model is capable of reproducing fairly well most important statistical properties of financial markets daily data. Among them, the presence of multiple time scales in the volatility autocorrelation is perhaps the most relevant which makes appear fat tails in the return distributions. This paper wants to go further on with the expOU model we have studied in Ref. [J. Masoliver, J. Perelló, Quant. Finance 6 (2006) 423] by exploring an aspect of practical interest. Having as a benchmark the parameters estimated from the Dow Jones daily data, we want to compute the price for the European option. This is actually done by Monte Carlo, running a large number of simulations. Our main interest is to “see” the effects of a long-range market memory from our expOU model in its subsequent European call option. We pay attention to the effects of the existence of a broad range of time scales in the volatility. We find that a richer set of time scales brings the price of the option higher. This appears in clear contrast to the presence of memory in the price itself which makes the price of the option cheaper.

  14. InAlAs/InGaAs/InP sub-micron HEMTs grown by CBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munns, G. O.; Sherwin, M. E.; Brock, T.; Haddad, G. I.; Kwon, Y.; Ng, G. I.; Pavlidis, D.

    1992-05-01

    The paper describes the growth of InGaAs/InAlAs and InP/InAlAs high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs), using InAlAs grown by chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) with trimethyl amine alane (TMAA). The InAlAs bulk layers showed background carrier concentrations of 2 x 10 exp 14/cu cm, with 15 K photoluminescence FWHM of only 18.5 meV. Planar doped InAlAs/InGaAS HEMTs grown by CBE showed f(t) values of 150 GHz and f(max) values of 160 GHz.

  15. The Global Response Regulator ExpA Controls Virulence Gene Expression through RsmA-Mediated and RsmA-Independent Pathways in Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193

    PubMed Central

    Broberg, M.; Lee, G. W.; Nykyri, J.; Lee, Y. H.; Pirhonen, M.

    2014-01-01

    ExpA (GacA) is a global response regulator that controls the expression of major virulence genes, such as those encoding plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) in the model soft rot phytopathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae SCC3193. Several studies with pectobacteria as well as related phytopathogenic gammaproteobacteria, such as Dickeya and Pseudomonas, suggest that the control of virulence by ExpA and its homologues is executed partly by modulating the activity of RsmA, an RNA-binding posttranscriptional regulator. To elucidate the extent of the overlap between the ExpA and RsmA regulons in P. wasabiae, we characterized both regulons by microarray analysis. To do this, we compared the transcriptomes of the wild-type strain, an expA mutant, an rsmA mutant, and an expA rsmA double mutant. The microarray data for selected virulence-related genes were confirmed through quantitative reverse transcription (qRT-PCR). Subsequently, assays were performed to link the observed transcriptome differences to changes in bacterial phenotypes such as growth, motility, PCWDE production, and virulence in planta. An extensive overlap between the ExpA and RsmA regulons was observed, suggesting that a substantial portion of ExpA regulation appears to be mediated through RsmA. However, a number of genes involved in the electron transport chain and oligogalacturonide metabolism, among other processes, were identified as being regulated by ExpA independently of RsmA. These results suggest that ExpA may only partially impact fitness and virulence via RsmA. PMID:24441162

  16. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2004-05-03

    The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

  17. Magnetized drive fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Rosensweig, R.E.; Zahn, M.

    1986-04-01

    A process is described for recovering a first fluid from a porous subterranean formation which comprises injecting a displacement fluid in an effective amount to displace the first fluid, injecting a ferrofluid, applying a magnetic field containing a gradient of field intensity within the formation, driving the displacement fluid through the formation with the ferrofluid and recovering first fluid.

  18. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid-sampling tool for obtaining a fluid sample from a container. When used in combination with a rotatable drill, the tool bores a hole into a container wall, withdraws a fluid sample from the container, and seals the borehole. The tool collects fluid sample without exposing the operator or the environment to the fluid or to wall shavings from the container.

  19. Application of Krylov exponential propagation to fluid dynamics equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saad, Y.; Semeraro, B. D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an application of matrix exponentiation via Krylov subspace projection, to the solution of fluid dynamics problems. The main idea is to approximate the operation exp(A)v by means of a projection-like process onto a Krylov subspace. This results in a computation of an exponential matrix vector product similar to the one above but of a much smaller size. Time integration schemes can then be devised to exploit this basic computational kernel. The motivation of this approach is to provide time-integration schemes that are essentially of an explicit nature but which have good stability properties.

  20. Application of Krylov exponential propagation to fluid dynamics equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saad, Youcef; Semeraro, David

    1991-01-01

    An application of matrix exponentiation via Krylov subspace projection to the solution of fluid dynamics problems is presented. The main idea is to approximate the operation exp(A)v by means of a projection-like process onto a krylov subspace. This results in a computation of an exponential matrix vector product similar to the one above but of a much smaller size. Time integration schemes can then be devised to exploit this basic computational kernel. The motivation of this approach is to provide time-integration schemes that are essentially of an explicit nature but which have good stability properties.

  1. Ciliary fluid transport enhanced by viscoelastic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hanliang; Kanso, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Motile cilia encounter complex, non-Newtonian fluids as they beat to gain self-propulsion of cells, transport fluids, and mix particles. Recently there have been many studies on swimming in complex fluids, both experimentally and theoretically. However the role of the non-Newtonian fluid in the ciliary transport system remains largely unknown. Here we use a one-way-coupled immersed boundary method to evaluate the impacts of viscoelastic fluid (Oldroyd-B fluid) on the fluid transport generated by an array of rabbit tracheal cilia beating in a channel at low Reynolds number. Our results show that the viscoelasticity could enhance the fluid transport generated by the rabbit tracheal cilia beating pattern and the flow is sensitive to the Deborah number in the range we investigate.

  2. Salt-Finger Convection in a Stratified Fluid Layer Induced by Thermal and Solutal Capillary Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chuan F.; Chan, Cho Lik

    1996-01-01

    Salt-finger convection in a double-diffusive system is a motion driven by the release of gravitational potential due to different diffusion rates. Normally, when the gravitational field is reduced, salt-finger convection together with other convective motions driven by buoyancy forces will be rapidly suppressed. However, because the destabilizing effect of the concentration gradient is amplified by the Lewis number, with values varying from 10(exp 2) for aqueous salt solutions to 10 (exp 4) for liquid metals, salt-finger convection may be generated at much reduced gravity levels. In the microgravity environment, the surface tension gradient assumes a dominant role in causing fluid motion. In this paper, we report on some experimental results showing the generation of salt-finger convection due to capillary motio on the surface of a stratified fluid layer. A numerical simulation is presented to show the cause of salt-finger convection.

  3. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dilley, Lorie

    2013-01-01

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  4. Synovial fluid analysis

    MedlinePlus

    Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...

  5. Pleural fluid Gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    Gram stain of pleural fluid ... lungs fill a person's chest with air. If fluid builds up in the space outside the lungs ... chest, it can cause many problems. Removing the fluid can relieve a person's breathing problems and help ...

  6. Pericardial fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - pericardial fluid ... the heart (the pericardium). A small amount of fluid is removed. You may have an ECG and ... x-ray after the test. Sometimes the pericardial fluid is taken during open heart surgery. The sample ...

  7. Pleural fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - pleural fluid ... is used to get a sample of pleural fluid. The sample is sent to a laboratory and ... the chest wall into the pleural space. As fluid drains into a collection bottle, you may cough ...

  8. Possible Detection of Pi(exp 0)-Decay Gamma-Ray Emission from Cyg OB2 by EGRET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, W.; White, R. L.; Bertsch, D.

    1996-01-01

    We report possible detection of pi (exp 0) decay radiation from Cyg OB2, a nearby (1.7 kpc) massive OB star association. The EGRET flux (greater than 100 MeV) maps clearly indicate a point source whose error circle includes both Cyg OB2 and Cyg X-3. We show that Cyg X-3 is unlikely to be the counterpart for the EGRET source, because of the marginal spatial consistency and the lack of the 4.8 hour modulation seen in other high energy emissions from Cyg X-3. If confirmed, this will be the first detection by EGRET of massive stars.

  9. The Chemical Behavior of Fluids Released during Deep Subduction Based on Fluid Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frezzotti, M. L.; Ferrando, S.

    2014-12-01

    We present a review of current research on fluid inclusions in (HP-) UHP metamorphic rocks that, combined with existing experimental research and thermodynamic models, allow us to investigate the chemical and physical properties of fluids released during deep subduction, their solvent and element transport capacity, and the subsequent implications for the element recycling in the mantle wedge. An impressive number of fluid inclusion studies indicate three main populations of fluid inclusions in HP and UHP metamorphic rocks: i) aqueous and/or non-polar gaseous fluid inclusions (FI), ii) multiphase solid inclusions (MSI), and iii) melt inclusions (MI). Chemical data from preserved fluid inclusions in rocks match with and implement "model" fluids by experiments and thermodynamics, revealing a continuity behind the extreme variations of physico-chemical properties of subduction-zone fluids. From fore-arc to sub-arc depths, fluids released by progressive devolatilization reactions from slab lithologies change from relatively diluted chloride-bearing aqueous solutions (± N2), mainly influenced by halide ligands, to (alkali) aluminosilicate-rich aqueous fluids, in which polymerization probably governs the solubility and transport of major (e.g., Si and Al) and trace elements (including C). Fluid inclusion data implement the petrological models explaining deep volatile liberation in subduction zones, and their flux into the mantle wedge.

  10. Magnetic Fluid Friction and Wear Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The friction and wear properties of two groups of magnetic fluids, one developed at NASA Lewis Research Center and a commercial fluid, were evaluated for boundary lubrication. Friction and wear measurements were made using a pin-on-disk apparatus. Three different ball materials were evaluated, (1) 440C, (2) Al2O3, and (3) Si3N4 against 440C disks. The first class of magnetic fluids have a low vapor pressure hydrocarbon base oil and are suitable for space application. Four variations of this fluid were evaluated: (1) the base oil, (2) base oil with anti-wear additives, (3) a 100 Gauss strength magnetic fluid, and (4) a 400 gauss magnetic fluid. The commercial fluid base oil and four different magnetic particle concentration levels have been evaluated. A space qualified fluorinated lubricant was tested for base line comparison. Hardness, optical microscopy, surface profilometry, and surface analysis were used to characterize the test specimens. Friction was unaffected by the concentration of magnetic particles. Wear rates for magnetic fluids were slightly higher than the base oil. The low vapor pressure magnetic fluid has better wear characteristics than the space qualified fluorinated lubricant.

  11. Hyperthermia classic commentary: 'Inductive heating of ferrimagnetic particles and magnetic fluids: Physical evaluation of their potential for hyperthermia' by Andreas Jordan et al., International Journal of Hyperthermia, 1993;9:51-68.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Andreas

    2009-11-01

    In order to increase the specific power absorption (SAR) in deep seated tumors, the idea was born to use AC magnetic fields in combination with magnetic particles instead of conventional E-field dominant systems. It was found, that nanoscaled particles were superior to micron-sized, multi-domain particles in terms of SAR due to different mechanisms how the field energy is converted into heat. Crucial parameters were identified for the human application of the method, such as the AC magnetic field amplitude and frequency, the nanoparticle composition and size distribution. Based on these physical and chemical relationships, a new thermotherapy method has been developed to heat up deep regional tumors using aqueous dispersions of iron oxide nanoparticles (magnetic fluids). Several clinical studies were initiated using this new heating technology. The results of the most advanced efficacy study for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme patients in combination with conventional radiation therapy are expected at the end of this year, 16 years after publication of this fundamental paper.

  12. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Howard

    2012-07-01

    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases.

  13. Al Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandanayaka, Tharaka; Azarmi, Fardad

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, cold spraying technique was used to fabricate a metal matrix composite (MMC) that consists of Ni matrix and 20 vol.% Ni3Al particles at two different particle sizes as reinforcement. This study intends to investigate the effect of reinforcement particle size on microstructural and mechanical properties of cold sprayed MMCs. Two different Ni3Al powders with nominal particle size of -45 to +5 and +45 to 100 μm were used as reinforcement in this study. Cold sprayed Ni-Ni3Al samples were subjected to the microstructural observation and characterization prior to any mechanical testing. Then, samples were tested using nano-indentation, Knoop hardness, Vickers hardness, and Resonance frequency to evaluate their mechanical properties. No significant changes were observed in microstructural characteristics due to different particle sizes. The results obtained from a variety of mechanical testings indicated that the increasing reinforcement particle size resulted in the slight reduction of mechanical properties such as elastic modulus and hardness in cold sprayed MMCs. The mechanical interlock between deposited particles defines the bonding strength in cold sprayed samples. Small size particles have a higher velocity and impact resulting in stronger interlock between deformed particles.

  14. Numerical Solution to Generalized Burgers'-Fisher Equation Using Exp-Function Method Hybridized with Heuristic Computation

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Suheel Abdullah; Qureshi, Ijaz Mansoor; Amir, Muhammad; Malik, Aqdas Naveed; Haq, Ihsanul

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new heuristic scheme for the approximate solution of the generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation is proposed. The scheme is based on the hybridization of Exp-function method with nature inspired algorithm. The given nonlinear partial differential equation (NPDE) through substitution is converted into a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (NODE). The travelling wave solution is approximated by the Exp-function method with unknown parameters. The unknown parameters are estimated by transforming the NODE into an equivalent global error minimization problem by using a fitness function. The popular genetic algorithm (GA) is used to solve the minimization problem, and to achieve the unknown parameters. The proposed scheme is successfully implemented to solve the generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation. The comparison of numerical results with the exact solutions, and the solutions obtained using some traditional methods, including adomian decomposition method (ADM), homotopy perturbation method (HPM), and optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM), show that the suggested scheme is fairly accurate and viable for solving such problems. PMID:25811858

  15. Characterizing slab inputs in the earliest stages of subduction: Preliminary evidence from fluid-mobile element systematics for IODP Expedition 352 recovered volcanic samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanatan, Keir; Ryan, Jeffrey; Atlas, Zachary; Reagan, Mark

    2016-04-01

    . Serpentinites generally show marked enrichments in B, As, and Cs, but lesser enrichments in Pb, Li and other alkaline species (e.g., Savov et al 2005; 2007; Deschamps et al 2011). The pattern of relative fluid-mobile species enrichment in the Exp. 352 boninites differs from that of IBM forearc serpentinites, indicating that either serpentinites are not be the source for the enriching fluids, or if they are that the serpentinites are of shallower or deeper origins than those recovered by ODP drilling, which can result in different elemental enrichment patterns (e.g., Mottl et al 2003; Hattori and Guillot 2007).

  16. Fluid transport container

    DOEpatents

    DeRoos, Bradley G.; Downing, Jr., John P.; Neal, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitment for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container.

  17. Fluid transport container

    DOEpatents

    DeRoos, B.G.; Downing, J.P. Jr.; Neal, M.P.

    1995-11-14

    An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitting for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container. 13 figs.

  18. Freezing of Lennard-Jones-type fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Khrapak, Sergey A.; Chaudhuri, Manis; Morfill, Gregor E.

    2011-02-07

    We put forward an approximate method to locate the fluid-solid (freezing) phase transition in systems of classical particles interacting via a wide range of Lennard-Jones-type potentials. This method is based on the constancy of the properly normalized second derivative of the interaction potential (freezing indicator) along the freezing curve. As demonstrated recently it yields remarkably good agreement with previous numerical simulation studies of the conventional 12-6 Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluid [S.A.Khrapak, M.Chaudhuri, G.E.Morfill, Phys. Rev. B 134, 052101 (2010)]. In this paper, we test this approach using a wide range of the LJ-type potentials, including LJ n-6 and exp-6 models, and find that it remains sufficiently accurate and reliable in reproducing the corresponding freezing curves, down to the triple-point temperatures. One of the possible application of the method--estimation of the freezing conditions in complex (dusty) plasmas with ''tunable'' interactions--is briefly discussed.

  19. Quelques diagnostics X pour les expériences d'interaction laser-matière

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troussel, Ph.

    2002-05-01

    Since the early 1990s, advances in laser-driven inertial confinement fusion research have been on the rise. This report provides a description of the experimental techniques which are used to study the interaction of laser light with matter and high density plasmas. To understand the physical processes involved in this interaction, we need high performance instrumentation (diagnostics) for the observation of X-ray radiation in the energy range from a few eV to a few keV. This paper is divided into three chapters: the first part describes the metrology of the diagnostics developed around various X-ray sources (synchrotron, laser-produced-plasmas, ...), the second part synthesizes theoretical and experimental X-ray optics studies. It shows the interest for applications such as X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray imaging, the third part is a review of the use of advances X-ray imaging diagnostics in laser-produced plasma physics experiments. Ce rapport est une revue de travaux réalisés au CEA/DAM de 1990 à 1999, dans le cadre de la fusion thermonucléaire inertielle par laser. Il est relatif aux techniques expérimentales utilisées pour l'étude de l'interaction du rayonnement laser avec la matière et des plasmas à très haute densité d'énergie. La compréhension de cette physique a nécessité le développement d'une instrumentation de premier plan notamment de diagnostics dans le domaine des rayonsX. Il est articulé en trois chapitres: la première concerne la métrologie de ces diagnostics réalisée auprès de différentes sources de rayonnement X (synchrotron, plasma laser, tube RX...), la seconde synthétise les études théoriques et expérimentales d'optiques RX et montre comment ces optiques ont trouvé des applications directes en instrumentationX (spectroscopie, imagerie) auprès des lasers, la troisième est une revue des diagnostics marquants d'imagerie, de radiographieX, ayant un intérêt pour la physique des plasmas, à travers quelques expériences.

  20. Sources de photons uniques et expérience à choix retardé de Wheeler : la dualité onde corpuscule à l'épreuve de l'expérience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, V.

    ésentations classiques de la réalité physique incompatibles. Le travail décrit dans cet ouvrage s'inscrit dans l'étude de la dualité onde-corpuscule pour un photon unique à l'aide d'une source de photons uniques fondée sur l'excitation impulsionnelle d'un centre coloré NV individuel dans un nanocristal de diamant. Nous présentons dans un premier temps une expérience d'interférence à un photon très proche dans sa conception de celle des trous d'Young. Cette expérience nous permettra de discuter de la complémentarité entre interférence et connaissance du chemin suivi par la particule dans l'interféromètre. Pour aller un peu plus au cÅ`ur des problèmes conceptuels soulevés par la dualité onde-corpuscule, nous décrivons par la suite la réalisation expérimentale de l'expérience de pensée dite de “choix retardé” proposée par Wheeler au début des années soixante-dix. Dans cette expérience, la décision de fermer ou non l'interféromètre, et donc d'observer soit les interférences (associé à une propriété ondulatoire) soit le chemin suivi par le photon dans l'interféromètre (associé à une propriété de type corpusculaire), n'est prise qu'une fois que le photon a franchi l'élément séparateur à l'entrée de l'interféromètre. Les résultats de cette expérience nous permettront de conclure qu'aucune réalité physique classique ne saurait être attribuée au photon indépendamment de l'appareil de mesure, comme le stipule le principe de complémentarité.

  1. Microbial Metabolism in Serpentinite Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo-Medina, M.; Brazelton, W. J.; Twing, K. I.; Kubo, M.; Hoehler, T. M.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    Serpentinization is the process in which ultramafic rocks, characteristic of the upper mantle, react with water liberating mantle carbon and reducing power to potenially support chemosynthetic microbial communities. These communities may be important mediators of carbon and energy exchange between the deep Earth and the surface biosphere. Our work focuses on the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (CROMO) in Northern California where subsurface fluids are accessible through a series of wells. Preliminary analyses indicate that the highly basic fluids (pH 9-12) have low microbial diversity, but there is limited knowledge about the metabolic capabilities of these communties. Metagenomic data from similar serpentine environments [1] have identified Betaproteobacteria belonging to the order Burkholderiales and Gram-positive bacteria from the order Clostridiales as key components of the serpentine microbiome. In an effort to better characterize the microbial community, metabolism, and geochemistry at CROMO, fluids from two representative wells (N08B and CSWold) were sampled during recent field campaigns. Geochemical characterization of the fluids includes measurements of dissolved gases (H2, CO, CH4), dissolved inorganic and organic carbon, volatile fatty acids, and nutrients. The wells selected can be differentiated in that N08B had higher pH (10-11), lower dissolved oxygen, and cell counts ranging from 105-106 cells mL-1 of fluid, with an abundance of the betaproteobacterium Hydrogenophaga. In contrast, fluids from CSWold have slightly lower pH (9-9.5), DO, and conductivity, as well as higher TDN and TDP. CSWold fluid is also characterized for having lower cell counts (~103 cells mL-1) and an abundance of Dethiobacter, a taxon within the phylum Clostridiales. Microcosm experiments were conducted with the purpose of monitoring carbon fixation, methanotrophy and metabolism of small organic compounds, such as acetate and formate, while tracing changes in fluid

  2. Saline Fluids in Subduction Channels and Mantle Wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamoto, T.; Hertwig, A.; Schertl, H. P.; Maresch, W. V.; Shigeno, M.; Mori, Y.; Nishiyama, T.

    2015-12-01

    Saline fluids can transport large-ion-lithophile elements and carbonate. Subduction-zone fluids contain salts with various amounts of NaCl equivalent similar to that of the present and/or Phanerozoic seawater (about 3.5 wt% NaCl). The salinity of aqueous fluids in the mantle wedge decreases from trench side to back-arc side, although available data have been limited. Such saline fluids from mantle peridotite underneath Pinatubo, a frontal volcano of the Luzon arc, contain 5.1 wt% NaCl equivalent and CO2 [Kawamoto et al., 2013 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] and in Ichinomegeta, a rear-arc volcano of the Northeast Japan arc, contain 3.7 wt% NaCl equivalent and CO2 [Kumagai et al., Contrib Mineral Petrol 2014]. Abundances of chlorine and H2O in olivine-hosted melt inclusions also suggest that aqueous fluids to produce frontal basalts have higher salinity than rear-arc basalts in Guatemala arc [Walker et al., Contrib Mineral Petrol 2003]. In addition to these data, quartz-free jadeitites contain fluid inclusions composed of aqueous fluids with 7 wt% NaCl equivalent and quartz-bearing jadeitite with 4.6 wt% NaCl equivalent in supra-subduction zones in Southwest Japan [Mori et al., 2015, International Eclogite Conference] and quartz-bearing jadeitite and jadeite-rich rocks contain fluid inclusions composed of aqueous fluids with 4.2 wt% NaCl equivalent in Rio San Juan Complex, Dominica Republic [Kawamoto et al., 2015, Goldschmidt Conference]. Aqueous fluids generated at pressures lower than conditions for albite=jadeite+quartz occurring at 1.5 GPa, 500 °C may contain aqueous fluids with higher salinity than at higher pressures.

  3. IODP Exp 345: Primitive Layered Gabbros From Fast-Spreading Lower Oceanic Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, K. M.; Snow, J. E.; Klaus, A.

    2013-12-01

    fast-spreading ridge. Simple crystallization models using this bulk crustal composition as the parental melt accurately predict the composition of both the lavas and plutonics. However, the recovered plutonic rocks show unanticipated early crystallization of orthopyroxene, challenging current models of melt extraction from the mantle and mid-ocean ridge basalt differentiation. The core recovered at Site U1415 originated at a stratigraphic level at least 2 km beneath the sheeted dike-plutonic transition, representing intervals of the lower half to one third of the EPR plutonic crust. A more precise depth cannot be assigned as the results of Expedition 345 (e.g., magnetic inclinations) and site survey data (Ferrini et al., 2013) indicate that the southern slope of the intrarift ridge formed by mass wasting. However, sampling four large blocks of relatively fresh rocks proved advantageous, as it facilitated observations of the wide variety and complexity of rock types and textures present in fast spread primitive lowermost crust. [Ferrini et al., Mar. Geol., 339, 13-21, 2013

  4. Air-Broadening of H2O as a Function of Temperature: 696 - 2163 cm(exp -1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toth, R. A.; Brown, L. R.; Smith, M. A. H.; Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Dulick, M.

    2006-01-01

    The temperature dependence of air-broadened halfwidths are reported for some 500 transitions in the (000)-(000) and (010)-(000) bands of H2(16)O using gas sample temperatures ranging from 241 to 388 K. These observations were obtained from infrared laboratory spectra recorded at 0.006 to 0.011 cm(exp-1) resolution with the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer located at Kitt Peak. The experimental values of the temperature dependence exponents, eta, were grouped into eight subsets and fitted to empirical functions in a semi-global procedure. Overall, the values of eta were found to decrease with increasing rotational quantum number J. The number of measurements (over 2200) and transitions (586) involved exceeds by a large margin that of any other comparable reported study.

  5. Démonstration expérimentale d'une distribution quantique de clé par codage temporel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, W.; Debuisschert, T.

    2006-10-01

    Nous avons démontré expérimentalement la transmission quantique de clé par codage temporel. Alice envoie des impulsions cohérentes atténuées. La clé est codée dans l'instant de détection des photons chez Bob. Une mesure de la durée de cohérence par moyen interférométrique permet d'assurer un fonctionnement en régime quantique. Nous avons mesuré un taux d'erreur quantique de 3.3% et une chute relative de contraste de l'interféromètre de 8.4%. Ces valeurs permettent d'évaluer un avantage d'information de 0.49 bit/impulsion pour Alice et Bob par rapport à un espion éventuel.

  6. Effets du Parecoxib dans la Prévention des Adhérences abdominales postopératoires: étude expérimentale randomisée chez les rats

    PubMed Central

    Arung, Willy; Tshilombo, François; Odimba, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bien d’études ont été menées sur les adhérences intrapéritonéales, mais aucune unanimité n'est encore acquise sur leur prévention. Le but de notre étude a été d’évaluer le potentiel effet d'un antiinflammatoire, parecoxib dans la prévention des adhérences ainsi que sur la cicatrisation chez des rats. Méthodes Dans un modèle expérimental d'adhérences postopératoires secondaires à des lésions péritonéales par brûlure, 30 rats furent randomisés en trois groupes suivant le mode d'administration de parecoxib (groupe contrôle; intrapéritonéal; intramusculaire. Résultats Le parecoxib a significativement diminué la quantité (p < .05) et la sévérité (p < .01) des adhérences postopératoires dans les deux modèles expérimentaux. Au total, 21 rats ont développé des adhérences, respectivement 9 (100%) dans le groupe A, 5 (50%) dans le groupe B et 7 (70%) dans le groupe C (p = 0.05). Du point de vue de la formation des adhérences au site du traumatisme, dix-neuf rats en ont développé: 9 (100%) dans le groupe A et 5 (50%) pour chacun de deux autres groupes B et C. Une différence significative a été constatée en comparant ces groupes deux à deux: A vs B (p < 0.05); A vs C (p < 0,05). Parecoxib n'a pas compromis la cicatrisation intestinale, ni cutanée. Conclusion Cette étude a montré que le parecoxib pouvait réduire la formation des adhérences postopératoires. La confirmation de la sécurité du parecoxib sur les anastomoses intestinales doit être investiguée au cours d'autres expérimentations. PMID:26966478

  7. Electric fluid pump

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  8. Peritoneal fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... based on more than just the peritoneal fluid culture (which may be negative even if you have ...

  9. Amniotic fluid (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Amniotic fluid surrounds the growing fetus in the womb and protects the fetus from injury and temperature changes. ... of fetal movement and permits musculoskeletal development. The amniotic fluid can be withdrawn in a procedure called amniocentsis ...

  10. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R. E.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    2001-09-25

    The invention includes a rotatable tool for collecting fluid through the wall of a container. The tool includes a fluid collection section with a cylindrical shank having an end portion for drilling a hole in the container wall when the tool is rotated, and a threaded portion for tapping the hole in the container wall. A passageway in the shank in communication with at least one radial inlet hole in the drilling end and an opening at the end of the shank is adapted to receive fluid from the container. The tool also includes a cylindrical chamber affixed to the end of the shank opposite to the drilling portion thereof for receiving and storing fluid passing through the passageway. The tool also includes a flexible, deformable gasket that provides a fluid-tight chamber to confine kerf generated during the drilling and tapping of the hole. The invention also includes a fluid extractor section for extracting fluid samples from the fluid collecting section.

  11. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-07-06

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  12. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-01-01

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  13. The fluids in salt.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roedder, E.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of fluid inclusions in salt, the geological processes through which these fluids evolve, and the possible problems such inclusions pose for nuclear waste disposal in salt beds or domes are reviewed.-J.A.Z.

  14. Pleural fluid analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside of the ... the chest. When fluid collects in the pleural space, the condition is called pleural effusion .

  15. Pleural fluid smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... the fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside of the ... the chest. When fluid collects in the pleural space, the condition is called pleural effusion .

  16. Analytical solution of two-fluid electro-osmotic flows of viscoelastic fluids.

    PubMed

    Afonso, A M; Alves, M A; Pinho, F T

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an analytical model that describes a two-fluid electro-osmotic flow of stratified fluids with Newtonian or viscoelastic rheological behavior. This is the principle of operation of an electro-osmotic two-fluid pump as proposed by Brask et al. [Tech. Proc. Nanotech., 1, 190-193, 2003], in which an electrically non-conducting fluid is transported by the interfacial dragging viscous force of a conducting fluid that is driven by electro-osmosis. The electric potential in the conducting fluid and the analytical steady flow solution of the two-fluid electro-osmotic stratified flow in a planar microchannel are presented by assuming a planar interface between the two immiscible fluids with Newtonian or viscoelastic rheological behavior. The effects of fluid rheology, shear viscosity ratio, holdup and interfacial zeta potential are analyzed to show the viability of this technique, where an enhancement of the flow rate is observed as the shear-thinning effects are increased.

  17. Fluid force transducer

    DOEpatents

    Jendrzejczyk, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    An electrical fluid force transducer for measuring the magnitude and direction of fluid forces caused by lateral fluid flow, includes a movable sleeve which is deflectable in response to the movement of fluid, and a rod fixed to the sleeve to translate forces applied to the sleeve to strain gauges attached to the rod, the strain gauges being connected in a bridge circuit arrangement enabling generation of a signal output indicative of the magnitude and direction of the force applied to the sleeve.

  18. Fluid Movement and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slepian, Michael L.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation,…

  19. 39 photons/bit direct detection receiver at 810 nm, BER = 1 x 10 exp -6, 60 Mb/s QPPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, Andrew; Dion, Bruno; Noeldeke, Christoph; Duchmann, Olivier

    1991-06-01

    39 photons/bit direct detection receiver sensitivity is reported, at a BER of 1 x 10 exp -6, for a 2-percent extinction ratio, 810 nm, 60 Mb/s QPPM signal. The sensitivity is 68 photons/bit at a BER of 1 x 10 exp -9. These figures represent a record sensitivity for a direct detection receiver. They are achieved by a combination of a novel silicon avalanche photodiode, an optimized preamplifier and a maximum likelihood demodulator. The work was a part of Phase B Breadboarding activities for the European Space Agency (ESA) SILEX (Semiconductor Intersatellite Link EXperiment) program on Intersatellite Optical Links.

  20. Fluid Overpressure Distribution and Permeability Structure in the Cascadia Subduction Zone Under Southern Vancouver Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, G. A.; Wada, I.

    2012-12-01

    We develop hydrogeologic models to examine the fluid overpressure distribution in the northern Cascadia subduction zone resulting from dewatering of the subducting Juan de Fuca slab. Anomalous seismic velocities indicative of relatively high Poisson's ratios observed in the subducting crust at subduction zones, such as Cascadia and Nankai, have been interpreted to indicate fluid overpressure (Shelly et al., 2006; Audet et al., 2009; Peacock et al., 2011). In northern Cascadia, the inferred fluid overpressure beneath Vancouver Island disappears farther landward. One of the proposed mechanisms for the distribution of fluid overpressure is the down-dip change in the permeability of the plate boundary fault. In this scenario, permeability is low under Vancouver Island, limiting fluid escape from the slab; permeability increases farther landward, allowing more efficient fluid migration out of the subducting slab (Audet et al., 2009). We test this conceptual hydrogeologic model with numerical models of fluid transport. Our models include fluid sources from porosity loss and mineral dehydration reactions. The volume of dehydration-derived fluid release from the subducting crust is calculated using a thermal model for Cascadia and the thermodynamic calculation code Perple_X. Modeled fluid source magnitudes are highest in a ~50 km wide region of upper oceanic crust under Vancouver Island. The cessation of these fluid sources in the subducting slab further landward combined with fluid flow from the slab contribute to the landward dissipation of fluid overpressure, even in the absence of enhanced fault zone permeability landward of Vancouver Island.

  1. Monitoring artificially stimulated fluid movement in the Cretaceous Dakota aquifer, western Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macfarlane, Allen; Förster, Andrea; Merriam, Daniel; Schrötter, Jörg; Healey, John

    2002-10-01

    Aquifer properties can be evaluated by monitoring artificially stimulated fluid movements between wells, if the fluid is heated. Changes in the temperature profile recorded in observation wells indicate the flow path of the heated fluid, which in effect acts as a tracer. A fluid-flow experiment in the Cretaceous Dakota Formation at the Hodgeman County site, west-central Kansas, demonstrated the advantage of using the distributed optical-fiber temperature sensing method for monitoring transient temperature conditions in this hydrological application. The fluid flow in the aquifer was increased by producing water from a pumping well and injecting heated water in an injection well 13 m (43 ft) distant from the pumping well. The time-temperature series data obtained and compared with results from previous pumping tests point to interwell heterogeneity of the aquifer and to a zone in the sandstone aquifer of high hydraulic conductivity. However, the experiment would have allowed further clarification of aquifer heterogeneity and thermal properties if at least one observation well had been present between the injection and production wells. Résumé. Les caractéristiques d'un aquifère peuvent être évaluées en effectuant un suivi des mouvements du fluide stimulés artificiellement entre des puits, si le fluide est chauffé. Les variations de profils de température enregistrés dans les puits d'observation donnent des informations sur les directions d'écoulement du fluide chauffé, qui en fait se comporte comme un traceur. Réalisée dans la formation crétacée de Dakota, sur le site du Comté de Hodgeman (centre-ouest du Kansas), une expérience a démontré l'intérêt d'utiliser la méthode de détection distribuée de température par fibres optiques pour suivre les variations de température dans cette application hydrologique. L'écoulement du fluide dans l'aquifère a été favorisé en extrayant de l'eau par pompage et en injectant de l'eau chaude dans un

  2. Diffusion of chromium and manganese in γ-TiAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad Tiwari, Gyanendra; Iijima, Yoshiaki; Lee, Chan-Gyu; Koo, Bon-Heun

    2011-02-01

    The γ-TiAl intermetallic compound with suitable alloying additions has shown considerable promise as a material for high-temperature applications. Diffusion studies in this alloy system are useful in assessment of their creep behaviour and structural stability in service conditions. Tracer diffusion coefficients of 51Cr and 54Mn in a γ-TiAl intermetallic compound containing 54.1 at. % aluminium were determined in the temperature range from 1095 to 1470 K. The temperature dependence of both the diffusing species follows a linear Arrhenius behaviour and can be expressed as D Cr = 4.4 × 10-3exp(-350 kJ mol-1/RT) m2 s-1 and D Mn = 1.2 × 10-3 ×exp(-326 kJ mol-1/RT) m2 s-1. The data are analysed on the basis of empirical correlations between the diffusion and melting parameters applicable for conventional mono-vacancy diffusion mechanism in metals. It is concluded that impurity diffusion in γ-TiAl occurs through the migration of thermal vacancies via nearest-neighbour or next-nearest neighbour jumps.

  3. A summary of existing and planned experiment hardware for low-gravity fluids research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Myron E.; Omalley, Terence F.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of (1) existing ground-based, low gravity research facilities, with examples of hardware capabilities, and (2) existing and planned space-based research facilities, with examples of current and past flight hardware. Low-gravity, ground-based facilities, such as drop towers and aircraft, provide the experimenter with quick turnaround time, easy access to equipment, gravity levels ranging from 10(exp -2) to 10(exp -6) G, and low-gravity durations ranging from 2 to 30 sec. Currently, the only operational space-based facility is the Space Shuttle. The Shuttle's payload bay and middeck facilities are described. Existing and planned low-gravity fluids research facilities are also described with examples of experiments and hardware capabilities.

  4. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    DOEpatents

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  5. Spinning fluids reactor

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  6. InGaAsSb/AlGaAsSb Heterojunction Phototransistors for Infrared Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Abedin, M. N.; Sulima, Oleg V.; Ismail, Syed; Singh, Upendra N.

    2006-01-01

    High quality infrared (IR) quantum detectors are important for several applications, such as atmospheric remote sensing, chemical detection and absorption spectroscopy. Although several IR detectors are commercially available, with different materials and structures, they provide limited performance regarding the signal-to-noise ratio and the corresponding minimum detectable signal. InGaAsSb/AlGaAsSb heterojunction based phototransistors show strong potential for developing IR sensors with improved performance. In this paper, the performance of a novel npn InGaAsSb/AlGaAsSb heterojunction phototransistor is presented. This performance study is based on experimental characterization of the device dark current, noise and spectral response. Detectivity of 1.7x10(exp 9) cmHz(exp 1/2)/W at 2 microns was obtained at 100 C temperature and 2 V bias voltage. This corresponds to a responsivity of 94.7 A/W and an internal gain of 156 with about 37.7% quantum efficiency. Reducing the temperature to -30 C allows to increase the bias to 3V and enhance the detectivity to 8.7x10(exp 10) cmHz(exp 1/2)/W at the same wavelength, which corresponds to a responsivity of 386.5 A/W and an internal gain of 288.2 with about 83.3% quantum efficiency. The device impulse response and linearity, including the corresponding dynamic range, also are presented. Impulse response analysis indicated a settling time of about 1.1 s at 2V and 100 C, while linearity measurements indicated a constant responsivity in the radiation intensity range of 1.6x10(exp -7) W/sq cm and 31.6 mW/sq cm.

  7. On Al-26 and other short-lived interstellar radioactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, Donald D.; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Leising, Mark D.

    1993-01-01

    Several authors have shown that massive stars exploding at a rate of about three per century can account for a large portion, if not all, of the observed interstellar Al-26. In a separate argument using models of Galactic chemical evolution, Clayton (1984) showed that the Al-26/Al-27 production ratio was not large enough to maintain enough Al-26 in the Galactic disk gas of about 10 exp 10 solar masses having solar composition. We present a resolution of those conflicting arguments. A past history of Galactic infall growing the Galactic disk so dilutes the stable Al-27 concentration that the two approaches can be brought into near agreement. If massive stars dominate the production of Al-26, we suggest that the apparent shortfall of their Al-26/Al-27 yield ratio is to be interpreted as evidence for significant growth of the Galactic disk. We also discuss the implications of these arguments for other extinct radioactivities in meteorites, using I-129 and Sm-146 as examples.

  8. Elevated Temperature Deformation of Fe-39.8Al and Fe-15.6Mn-39.4Al

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The elevated temperature compressive properties of binary Fe-39.8 at % Al and Fe-15.6Mn-39.4Al have been measured between 1000 and 1300 K at strain rates between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 3)/ s. Although the Mn addition to iron aluminide did not change the basic deformation characteristics, the Mn-modified alloy was slightly weaker. In the regime where deformation of FeAl occurs by a high stress exponent mechanism (n = 6), strength increases as the grain size decreases at least for diameters between approx. 200 and approx. 10 microns. Due to the limitation in the grain size-flow stress-temperature-strain rate database, the influence of further reductions of the grain size on strength is uncertain. Based on the appearance of subgrains in deformed iron aluminide, the comparison of grain diameters to expected subgrain sizes, and the grain size exponent and stress exponent calculated from deformation experiments, it is believed that grain size strengthening is the result of an artificial limitation on subgrain size as proposed by Sherby, Klundt and Miller.

  9. Highly Accurate Potential Energy Surface, Dipole Moment Surface, Rovibrational Energy Levels, and Infrared Line List for (32)S(16)O2 up to 8000 cm(exp -1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Xinchuan; Schwenke, David W.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    A purely ab initio potential energy surface (PES) was refined with selected (32)S(16)O2 HITRAN data. Compared to HITRAN, the root-mean-squares error (RMS) error for all J=0-80 rovibrational energy levels computed on the refined PES (denoted Ames-1) is 0.013 cm(exp -1). Combined with a CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV(Q+d)Z dipole moment surface (DMS), an infrared (IR) line list (denoted Ames-296K) has been computed at 296K and covers up to 8,000 cm(exp -1). Compared to the HITRAN and CDMS databases, the intensity agreement for most vibrational bands is better than 85-90%. Our predictions for (34)S(16)O2 band origins, higher energy (32)S(16)O2 band origins and missing (32)S(16)O2 IR bands have been verified by most recent experiments and available HITRAN data. We conclude that the Ames-1 PES is able to predict (32/34)S(16)O2 band origins below 5500 cm(exp -1) with 0.01-0.03 cm(exp -1) uncertainties, and the Ames-296K line list provides continuous, reliable and accurate IR simulations. The Ka-dependence of both line position and line intensity errors is discussed. The line list will greatly facilitate SO2 IR spectral experimental analysis, as well as elimination of SO2 lines in high-resolution astronomical observations.

  10. 75 FR 9418 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Reinstatement of OMB No. 0925-0601/exp. 02/28/2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... of OMB No. 0925-0601/exp. 02/28/2010, Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To Be Approved for... currently valid OMB control number. Proposed Collection: Title: Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line...: The form is used by applicants to request that human embryonic stem cell lines be approved for use...

  11. 75 FR 11185 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Reinstatement of OMB No. 0925-0601/exp. 02/28/2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... of OMB No. 0925-0601/exp. 02/28/2010, Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line To Be Approved for... Health published a notice in the Federal Register (75 FR 9418) with a 30-day comment period seeking public comment for an information collection entitled ``Request for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line to...

  12. 78 FR 63570 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms W-8BEN, W-8BEN-E, W-8ECI, W-8EXP, and W-8IMY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... (sections 1471-1474) in T.D. 9610 (78 FR 5874). The general requirements of an FFI Agreement are described... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Forms W-8BEN, W-8BEN-E, W-8ECI, W-8EXP, and W-8IMY AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for...

  13. Influence of compound danshen tablet on the pharmacokinetics of losartan and its metabolite EXP3174 by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yongfang; Zhang, Hai; Ma, Weina; Sun, Sen; Wang, Benwei; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Guoqing; Chai, Yifeng

    2013-09-01

    Losartan is an effective anti-hypotension drug frequently used in clinic. Compound danshen tablet (CDST) is an important traditional Chinese multiherbal formula composed of Danshen, Sanqi and Bingpian, which is widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in China. More often, losartan and CDST are simultaneously used for the treatment of anti-hypertension in the clinic. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of losartan and EXP3174 after oral administration of single losartan and both losartan and CDST, and to investigate the influence of CDST on the pharmacokinetics of losartan and its metabolite EXP3174. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups: a losartan-only group and a losartan and CDST group. Plasma concentrations of losartan and EXP3174 were determined by LC-MS at designated points after drug administration, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. It was found that there were significant differences (p < 0.05) between the pharmacokinetic parameters of losartan and EXP3174, which showed that CDST influenced the metabolism and excretion of losartan in vivo. The result could be used for clinical medication guidance of losartan and CDST to avoid the occurrence of adverse reactions.

  14. Viscous fingering with partially miscible fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, X.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.; Juanes, R.

    2015-12-01

    When a less viscous fluid displaces a more viscous fluid, the contrast in viscosity destabilizes the interface between the two fluids, leading to the formation of fingers. Experimental and numerical studies of viscous fingering have focused on fluids that are either fully miscible (e.g. water and glycerol) or perfectly immiscible (e.g. water and oil). In practice, however, the miscibility of two fluids can change appreciably with temperature and pressure, and often falls into the case of partial miscibility, where two fluids have limited solubility in each other (e.g. CO2 and water). Following our recent work for miscible systems (Jha et al., PRL 2011, 2013) and immiscible systems (Cueto-Felgueroso and Juanes, PRL 2012, JFM 2014), here we propose a phase-field model for fluid-fluid displacements in a porous medium, when the two fluids have limited (but nonzero) solubility in one another. In our model, partial miscibility is characterized through the design of the thermodynamic free energy of the two-fluid system. We express the model in dimensionless form and elucidate the key dimensionless groups that control the behavior of the system. We present high-resolution numerical simulations of the model applied to the viscous fingering problem. On one hand, we demonstrate the effect of partial miscibility on the hydrodynamic instability. On the other, we elucidate the role of the degree of fingering on the rate of mutual fluid dissolution. Figure caption: final snapshots in simulations of viscous fingering with a two-fluid system mimicking that of CO2 and water. The colormap corresponds to the concentration of CO2. A band of less viscous gas phase rich in CO2 (red) displaces through the more viscous liquid phase that is undersaturated with CO2 (blue). At the fluid interface, an exchange of CO2 occurs as a result of local chemical potentials that drives the system towards thermodynamic equilibrium. This results in a shrinkage of gas phase as well as a local increase in

  15. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOEpatents

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  16. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOEpatents

    Angel, S. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

  17. Microwave fluid flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.

    1976-01-01

    A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

  18. Solar heat transport fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The progress made on the development and delivery of noncorrosive fluid subsystems is reported. These subsystems are to be compatible with closed-loop solar heating or combined heating and hot water systems. They are also to be compatible with both metallic and non-metallic plumbing systems. At least 100 gallons of each type of fluid recommended by the contractor will be delivered under the contract. The performance testing of a number of fluids is described.

  19. Fluid movement and creativity.

    PubMed

    Slepian, Michael L; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-11-01

    Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation, cognitive flexibility, and remote associations. Alternative mechanisms such as enhanced mood and motivation were also examined. These results suggest that creativity can be influenced by certain types of physical movement.

  20. Metalworking and machining fluids

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  1. Spiral fluid separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A fluid separator for separating particulate matter such as contaminates is provided which includes a series of spiral tubes of progressively decreasing cross sectional area connected in series. Each tube has an outlet on the outer curvature of the spiral. As fluid spirals down a tube, centrifugal force acts to force the heavier particulate matter to the outer wall of the tube, where it exits through the outlet. The remaining, and now cleaner, fluid reaches the next tube, which is smaller in cross sectional area, where the process is repeated. The fluid which comes out the final tube is diminished of particulate matter.

  2. Electrodeposition from supercritical fluids.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, P N; Cook, D A; George, M W; Hector, A L; Ke, J; Levason, W; Reid, G; Smith, D C; Zhang, W

    2014-05-28

    Recent studies have shown that it is possible to electrodeposit a range of materials, such as Cu, Ag and Ge, from various supercritical fluids, including hydrofluorocarbons and mixtures of CO2 with suitable co-solvents. In this perspective we discuss the relatively new field of electrodeposition from supercritical fluids. The perspective focuses on some of the underlying physical chemistry and covers both practical and scientific aspects of electrodeposition from supercritical fluids. We also discuss possible applications for supercritical fluid electrodeposition and suggest some key developments that are required to take the field to the next stage.

  3. Electrorheological fluids and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.

    2015-06-02

    Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.

  4. Sphere based fluid systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Systems are described for using multiple closely-packed spheres. In one system for passing fluid, a multiplicity of spheres lie within a container, with all of the spheres having the same outside diameter and with the spheres being closely nested in one another to create multiple interstitial passages of a known size and configuration and smooth walls. The container has an inlet and outlet for passing fluid through the interstitial passages formed between the nested spheres. The small interstitial passages can be used to filter out material, especially biological material such as cells in a fluid, where the cells can be easily destroyed if passed across sharp edges. The outer surface of the spheres can contain a material that absorbs a constitutent in the flowing fluid, such as a particular contamination gas, or can contain a catalyst to chemically react the fluid passing therethrough, the use of multiple small spheres assuring a large area of contact of these surfaces of the spheres with the fluid. In a system for storing and releasing a fluid such as hydrogen as a fuel, the spheres can include a hollow shell containing the fluid to be stored, and located within a compressable container that can be compressed to break the shells and release the stored fluid.

  5. How to Avoid Fluid Overload

    PubMed Central

    Ogbu, Ogbonna C.; Murphy, David J.; Martin, Greg S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the review This review highlights recent evidence describing the outcomes associated with fluid overload in critically ill patients and provides an overview of fluid management strategies aimed at preventing fluid overload during the resuscitation of patients with shock. Recent findings Fluid overload is a common complication of fluid resuscitation and is associated with increased hospital costs, morbidity and mortality. Summary Fluid management goals differ during the resuscitation, optimization, stabilization and evacuation phases of fluid resuscitation. To prevent fluid overload, strategies that reduce excessive fluid infusions and emphasize the removal of accumulated fluids should be implemented. PMID:26103147

  6. Fluid Physics in a Fluctuating Acceleration Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, J. Ross; Drolet, Francois; Vinals, Jorge

    1996-01-01

    We summarize several aspects of an ongoing investigation of the effects that stochastic residual accelerations (g-jitter) onboard spacecraft can have on experiments conducted in a microgravity environment. The residual acceleration field is modeled as a narrow band noise, characterized by three independent parameters: intensity (g(exp 2)), dominant angular frequency Omega, and characteristic correlation time tau. Realistic values for these parameters are obtained from an analysis of acceleration data corresponding to the SL-J mission, as recorded by the SAMS instruments. We then use the model to address the random motion of a solid particle suspended in an incompressible fluid subjected to such random accelerations. As an extension, the effect of jitter on coarsening of a solid-liquid mixture is briefly discussed, and corrections to diffusion controlled coarsening evaluated. We conclude that jitter will not be significant in the experiment 'Coarsening of solid-liquid mixtures' to be conducted in microgravity. Finally, modifications to the location of onset of instability in systems driven by a random force are discussed by extending the standard reduction to the center manifold to the stochastic case. Results pertaining to time-modulated oscillatory convection are briefly discussed.

  7. Heat Transfer in Complex Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Mehrdad Massoudi

    2012-01-01

    Amongst the most important constitutive relations in Mechanics, when characterizing the behavior of complex materials, one can identify the stress tensor T, the heat flux vector q (related to heat conduction) and the radiant heating (related to the radiation term in the energy equation). Of course, the expression 'complex materials' is not new. In fact, at least since the publication of the paper by Rivlin & Ericksen (1955), who discussed fluids of complexity (Truesdell & Noll, 1992), to the recently published books (Deshpande et al., 2010), the term complex fluids refers in general to fluid-like materials whose response, namely the stress tensor, is 'non-linear' in some fashion. This non-linearity can manifest itself in variety of forms such as memory effects, yield stress, creep or relaxation, normal-stress differences, etc. The emphasis in this chapter, while focusing on the constitutive modeling of complex fluids, is on granular materials (such as coal) and non-linear fluids (such as coal-slurries). One of the main areas of interest in energy related processes, such as power plants, atomization, alternative fuels, etc., is the use of slurries, specifically coal-water or coal-oil slurries, as the primary fuel. Some studies indicate that the viscosity of coal-water mixtures depends not only on the volume fraction of solids, and the mean size and the size distribution of the coal, but also on the shear rate, since the slurry behaves as shear-rate dependent fluid. There are also studies which indicate that preheating the fuel results in better performance, and as a result of such heating, the viscosity changes. Constitutive modeling of these non-linear fluids, commonly referred to as non-Newtonian fluids, has received much attention. Most of the naturally occurring and synthetic fluids are non-linear fluids, for example, polymer melts, suspensions, blood, coal-water slurries, drilling fluids, mud, etc. It should be noted that sometimes these fluids show Newtonian

  8. Modeling the Migration of Fluids in Subduction Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. R.; Spiegelman, M.; Van Keken, P. E.; Vrijmoed, J. C.; Hacker, B. R.

    2011-12-01

    Fluids play a major role in the formation of arc volcanism and the generation of continental crust. Progressive dehydration reactions in the downgoing slab release fluids to the hot overlying mantle wedge, causing flux melting and the migration of melts to the volcanic front. While the qualitative concept is well established, the quantitative details of fluid release and especially that of fluid migration and generation of hydrous melting in the wedge is still poorly understood. Here we present new models of the fluid migration through the mantle wedge for subduction zones. We use an existing set of high resolution metamorphic models (van Keken et al, 2010) to predict the regions of water release from the sediments, upper and lower crust, and upper most mantle. We use this water flux as input for the fluid migration calculation based on new finite element models built on advanced computational libraries (FEniCS/PETSc) for efficient and flexible solution of coupled multi-physics problems. The first generation of one-way coupled models solves for the evolution of porosity and fluid-pressure/flux throughout the slab and wedge given solid flow, viscosity and thermal fields from separate solutions to the incompressible Stokes and energy equations in the mantle wedge. These solutions are verified by comparing to previous benchmark studies (van Keken et al, 2008) and global suites of thermal subduction models (Syracuse et al, 2010). Fluid flow depends on both permeability and the rheology of the slab-wedge system as interaction with rheological variability can induce additional pressure gradients that affect the fluid flow pathways. These non-linearities have been shown to explain laboratory-scale observations of melt band orientation in labratory experiments and numerical simulations of melt localization in shear bands (Katz et al 2006). Our second generation of models dispense with the pre-calculation of incompressible mantle flow and fully couple the now compressible

  9. Space Station fluid management logistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  10. Fluids and Combustion Facility: Fluids Integrated Rack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corban, Robert R.; Winsa, Edward A.

    1998-01-01

    The Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) is a modular, multi-user facility to accommodate a wide variety of microgravity fluid physics science experiments on-board the US Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS). The FIR is one of three racks comprising the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). The FCF is being designed to increase the amount and quality of scientific data and decrease the development cost of an individual experiment relative to the era of Space Shuttle experiments. The unique, long-term, microgravity environment and long operational times on the ISS will offer experimenters the opportunity to modify experiment parameters based on their findings similar to what can be accomplished in ground laboratories. The FIR concept has evolved over time to provide a flexible, 'optics bench' approach to meet the wide variety of anticipated research needs. The FIR's system architecture presented is designed to meet the needs of the fluid physics community while operating within the constraints of the available ISS resources.

  11. Fluid delivery control system

    DOEpatents

    Hoff, Brian D.; Johnson, Kris William; Algrain, Marcelo C.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2006-06-06

    A method of controlling the delivery of fluid to an engine includes receiving a fuel flow rate signal. An electric pump is arranged to deliver fluid to the engine. The speed of the electric pump is controlled based on the fuel flow rate signal.

  12. Computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    An overview of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) activities at the Langley Research Center is given. The role of supercomputers in CFD research, algorithm development, multigrid approaches to computational fluid flows, aerodynamics computer programs, computational grid generation, turbulence research, and studies of rarefied gas flows are among the topics that are briefly surveyed.

  13. Fluid-loss control

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, C.W.; Trittipo, B.L. ); Hutchinson, B.H. )

    1989-08-01

    Acid fluid loss is extremely difficult to control and is generally considered to be the major factor limiting the effectiveness of acid fracturing treatments. Chemical erosion of fracture faces and the development of wormholes are largely responsible for the reduced efficiency of acid fracturing fluids. The creation of acid wormholes increases the effective area from which leakoff occurs, thus reducing the acid hydraulic efficiency. Once wormholes form, most acid fluid loss originates from these wormholes rather than penetrating uniformly into the fracture face. Methods of acid fluid-loss control are discussed and evaluated with an improved fluid-loss test procedure. This procedure uses limestone cores of sufficient length to contain wormhole growth. Studies demonstrate that if wormhole growth can be controlled, acid fluid loss approaches that of nonreactive fluids. An improved acid fracturing fluid having unique rheological characteristics is described. This acid has a low initial viscosity but temporarily becomes extremely viscous during leakoff. This high leakoff viscosity blocks wormhole development and prevents acid entry into natural fractures. After the treatment, spent-acid viscosity declines rapidly to ensure easier cleanup.

  14. Solar heat transport fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The development and delivery of noncorrosive fluid subsystems are reported that are compatible with closed-loop solar heating or combined heating and hot water systems. They are also compatible with both metallic and non-metallic plumbing systems. The performance testing of a number of fluids is described.

  15. Time Independent Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collyer, A. A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses theories underlying Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids by explaining flow curves exhibited by plastic, shear-thining, and shear-thickening fluids and Bingham plastic materials. Indicates that the exact mechanism governing shear-thickening behaviors is a problem of further study. (CC)

  16. Fluid Bubble Eliminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Tsao, Yow-Min (Inventor); Lee, Wenshan (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A gas-liquid separator uses a helical passageway to impart a spiral motion to a fluid passing therethrough. The centrifugal fore generated by the spiraling motion urges the liquid component of the fluid radially outward which forces the gas component radially inward. The gas component is then filtered through a gas-permeable, liquid-impervious membrane and discharged through a central passageway.

  17. Fluid bubble eliminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Tsao, Yow-Min D. (Inventor); Lee, Wenshan (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A gas-liquid separator uses a helical passageway to impart a spiral motion to a fluid passing therethrough. The centrifugal fore generated by the spiraling motion urges the liquid component of the fluid radially outward which forces the gas component radially inward. The gas component is then filtered through a gas-permeable, liquid-impervious membrane and discharged through a central passageway.

  18. Fluid Power Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2008-01-01

    Fluid power technicians, sometimes called hydraulic and pneumatic technicians, work with equipment that utilizes the pressure of a liquid or gas in a closed container to transmit, multiply, or control power. Working under the supervision of an engineer or engineering staff, they assemble, install, maintain, and test fluid power equipment.…

  19. Solar heat transport fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The progress made in the development and delivery of noncorrosive fluid subsystems is discussed. These subsystems are to be compatible with closed-loop solar heating or combined heating and hot water systems. They are also to be compatible with both metallic and non-metallic plumbing systems. The performance testing of a number of fluids is described.

  20. FLUID SELECTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Stinson, W.J.

    1958-09-16

    A valve designed to selectively sample fluids from a number of sources is described. The valve comprises a rotatable operating lever connected through a bellows seal to a rotatable assembly containing a needle valve, bearings, and a rotational lock. The needle valve is connected through a flexible tube to the sample fluid outlet. By rotating the lever the needle valve is placed over . one of several fluid sources and locked in position so that the fluid is traasferred through the flexible tubing and outlet to a remote sampling system. The fluids from the nonselected sources are exhausted to a waste line. This valve constitutes a simple, dependable means of selecting a sample from one of several scurces.

  1. Fluid blade disablement tool

    SciTech Connect

    Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos; Hughs, Chance G.; Todd, Steven N.

    2012-01-10

    A fluid blade disablement (FBD) tool that forms both a focused fluid projectile that resembles a blade, which can provide precision penetration of a barrier wall, and a broad fluid projectile that functions substantially like a hammer, which can produce general disruption of structures behind the barrier wall. Embodiments of the FBD tool comprise a container capable of holding fluid, an explosive assembly which is positioned within the container and which comprises an explosive holder and explosive, and a means for detonating. The container has a concavity on the side adjacent to the exposed surface of the explosive. The position of the concavity relative to the explosive and its construction of materials with thicknesses that facilitate inversion and/or rupture of the concavity wall enable the formation of a sharp and coherent blade of fluid advancing ahead of the detonation gases.

  2. Microgravity Fluid Management Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Fluid Management Symposium, held at the NASA Lewis Research Center, September 9 to 10, 1986, focused on future research in the microgravity fluid management field. The symposium allowed researchers and managers to review space applications that require fluid management technology, to present the current status of technology development, and to identify the technology developments required for future missions. The 19 papers covered three major categories: (1) fluid storage, acquisition, and transfer; (2) fluid management applications, i.e., space power and thermal management systems, and environmental control and life support systems; (3) project activities and insights including two descriptions of previous flight experiments and a summary of typical activities required during development of a shuttle flight experiment.

  3. Constraining the dark fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David; Gao Changjun

    2009-10-15

    Cosmological observations are normally fit under the assumption that the dark sector can be decomposed into dark matter and dark energy components. However, as long as the probes remain purely gravitational, there is no unique decomposition and observations can only constrain a single dark fluid; this is known as the dark degeneracy. We use observations to directly constrain this dark fluid in a model-independent way, demonstrating, in particular, that the data cannot be fit by a dark fluid with a single constant equation of state. Parametrizing the dark fluid equation of state by a variety of polynomials in the scale factor a, we use current kinematical data to constrain the parameters. While the simplest interpretation of the dark fluid remains that it is comprised of separate dark matter and cosmological constant contributions, our results cover other model types including unified dark energy/matter scenarios.

  4. Magnetic reconnection in incompressible fluids. [of solar atmosphere and interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deluca, Edward E.; Craig, Ian J.

    1992-01-01

    The paper investigates the dynamical relaxation of a disturbed X-type magnetic neutral point in a periodic geometry, with an ignorable coordinate, for an incompressible fluid. It is found that the properties of the current sheet cannot be understood in terms of steady state reconnection theory or more recent linear dynamical solutions. Accordingly, a new scaling law for magnetic reconnection is presented, consistent with fast energy dissipation (i.e., the dissipation rate at current maximum is approximately independent of magnetic diffusivity (eta)). The flux annihilation rate, however, scales at eta exp 1/4, faster than the Sweet-Parker rate of sq rt eta but asymptotically much slower than the dissipation rate. These results suggest a flux pile-up regime in which the bulk of the free magnetic energy is released as heat rather than as kinetic energy of mass motion. The implications of our results for reconnection in the solar atmosphere and interior are discussed.

  5. Computational fluid dynamics for defect control in semiconductor processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempka, S. N.; Geller, A. S.

    Finite element simulations of mixed convection flow (Re less than 100, Gr less than 10(exp 6)) are presented for two gas flow reactors characteristic of those used in the manufacture of microchips. The simulations demonstrate the usefulness of FIDAP (a finite element, Navier-Stokes code developed by Fluid Dynamics International, Inc.) as a tool to design new reactors and to assess the effects of varying operating conditions in present reactors. The calculations predict the existence of thermal plumes and recirculation regions within reactors. These flow nonuniformities are important since they can result in fatal defects in microchips. Comparisons between solutions obtained using a Boussinesq model and FIDAP's variable density model are presented. The FIDAP calculations agree with previous simulations using more detailed models, supporting the use of FIDAP as a design tool in the semiconductor industry.

  6. Deformation behavior of a Ni-30Al-20Fe-0.05Zr intermetallic alloy in the temperature range 300 to 1300 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.; Noebe, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    The deformation properties of an extruded Ni-30Al-20Fe-0.05Zr (at. pct) alloy in the temperature range 300-1300 K were investigated under initial tensile strain rates that varied between 10 exp -6 and 10 exp -3/sec and in constant load compression creep between 1073 and 1300 K. Three deformation regimes were observed: region I, occurring between 400 and 673 K, which consisted of an athermal regime of less than 0.3 percent tensile ductility; region II, between 673 and 1073, where exponential creep was dominant; and region III, between 1073 and 1300 K, where a significant improvement in tensile ductility was observed.

  7. Fluid transport in reaction induced fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulven, Ole Ivar; Sun, WaiChing; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders

    2015-04-01

    The process of fracture formation due to a volume increasing chemical reaction has been studied in a variety of different settings, e.g. weathering of dolerites by Røyne et al. te{royne}, serpentinization and carbonation of peridotite by Rudge et al. te{rudge} and replacement reactions in silica-poor igneous rocks by Jamtveit et al. te{jamtveit}. It is generally assumed that fracture formation will increase the net permeability of the rock, and thus increase the reactant transport rate and subsequently the total rate of material conversion, as summarised by Kelemen et al. te{kelemen}. Ulven et al. te{ulven_1} have shown that for fluid-mediated processes the ratio between chemical reaction rate and fluid transport rate in bulk rock controls the fracture pattern formed, and Ulven et al. te{ulven_2} have shown that instantaneous fluid transport in fractures lead to a significant increase in the total rate of the volume expanding process. However, instantaneous fluid transport in fractures is clearly an overestimate, and achievable fluid transport rates in fractures have apparently not been studied in any detail. Fractures cutting through an entire domain might experience relatively fast advective reactant transport, whereas dead-end fractures will be limited to diffusion of reactants in the fluid, internal fluid mixing in the fracture or capillary flow into newly formed fractures. Understanding the feedback process between fracture formation and permeability changes is essential in assessing industrial scale CO2 sequestration in ultramafic rock, but little is seemingly known about how large the permeability change will be in reaction-induced fracturing. In this work, we study the feedback between fracture formation during volume expansion and fluid transport in different fracture settings. We combine a discrete element model (DEM) describing a volume expanding process and the related fracture formation with different models that describe the fluid transport in the

  8. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall.

  9. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, A.R.; Johnston, R.G.; Martinez, R.K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool is described for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall. 6 figs.

  10. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  11. Application of multivariate outlier detection to fluid velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, John; Schultz, Todd; Holman, Ryan; Ukeiley, Lawrence S.; Cattafesta, Louis N.

    2010-07-01

    A statistical-based approach to detect outliers in fluid-based velocity measurements is proposed. Outliers are effectively detected from experimental unimodal distributions with the application of an existing multivariate outlier detection algorithm for asymmetric distributions (Hubert and Van der Veeken, J Chemom 22:235-246, 2008). This approach is an extension of previous methods that only apply to symmetric distributions. For fluid velocity measurements, rejection of statistical outliers, meaning erroneous as well as low probability data, via multivariate outlier rejection is compared to a traditional method based on univariate statistics. For particle image velocimetry data, both tests are conducted after application of the current de facto standard spatial filter, the universal outlier detection test (Westerweel and Scarano, Exp Fluids 39:1096-1100, 2005). By doing so, the utility of statistical outlier detection in addition to spatial filters is demonstrated, and further, the differences between multivariate and univariate outlier detection are discussed. Since the proposed technique for outlier detection is an independent process, statistical outlier detection is complementary to spatial outlier detection and can be used as an additional validation tool.

  12. Thermal emission measurements 2000-400 cm(exp -1) (5-25 microns) of Hawaiian palagonitic soils and their implications for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, Ted L.; Bell, James F., III

    1995-01-01

    The thermal emission of two palagonitic soils, common visible and near infrared spectral analogs for bright soils on Mars, was measured over the wavelength range of 5 to 25 microns (2000 to 400 cm(exp -1) for several particle size separates. All spectra exhibit emissivity features due to vibrations associated with H2O and SiO. The maximum variability of emissivity is approx. = 20% in the short wavelength region (5 to 6.5 microns, 2000 to 1500 cm(exp -1)), and is more subdued, < 4%, at longer wavelengths. The strengths of features present in infrared spectra of Mars cannot be solely provided by emissivity variations of palagonite; some other material or mechanism must provide additional absorption(s).

  13. Tribological evaluation of PS300: A new chrome oxide based solid lubricant coating sliding against Al2O3 From 25 to 650 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, C.; Laskowski, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the tribological characteristics of Al203 sliding against PS300; a chrome oxide based self lubricating coating. Al203 pins were slid against PS300 coated superalloy disks in air, under a 4.9 N load at velocities of 1 to 8 m/s. At a sliding velocity of 1 m/s, friction ranged from 0.6 at 25 C to 0.2 at 650 C. Wear factors for the Al203 pins were in the 10(exp -7) mm(exp 3)/N-m range and for the PS300 coating was in the 10(exp -5) mm(exp 3)/N-m range. The test results suggest that increased surface temperature resulting from either frictional heating, generated by increased sliding velocity, or ambient heating caused a reduction in friction and wear of the sliding couple. Based upon these results, the tested material combination is a promising candidate for high temperature wear applications.

  14. Fundamentals of fluid lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, Bernard J.

    1991-01-01

    The aim is to coordinate the topics of design, engineering dynamics, and fluid dynamics in order to aid researchers in the area of fluid film lubrication. The lubrication principles that are covered can serve as a basis for the engineering design of machine elements. The fundamentals of fluid film lubrication are presented clearly so that students that use the book will have confidence in their ability to apply these principles to a wide range of lubrication situations. Some guidance on applying these fundamentals to the solution of engineering problems is also provided.

  15. Relativistic fluid dynamics. Proceedings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anile, A. M.; Choquet-Bruhat, Y.

    Contents: 1. Covariant theory of conductivity in ideal fluid or solid media (B. Carter). 2. Hamiltonian techniques for relativistic fluid dynamics and stability theory (D. D. Holm). 3. Covariant fluid mechanics and thermodynamics: an introduction (W. Israel). 4. Relativistic plasmas (H. Weitzner). 5. An improved relativistic warm plasma model (A. M. Anile, S. Pennisi). 6. Relativistic extended thermodynamics II (I. Müller). 7. Relativistic extended thermodynamics: general assumptions and mathematical procedure (T. Ruggeri). 8. Relativistic hydrodynamics and heavy ion reactions (D. Strottman). 9. Some problems in relativistic hydrodynamics (C. G. van Weert).

  16. Synthetic Base Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M.; Fotheringham, J. D.; Hoyes, T. J.; Mortier, R. M.; Orszulik, S. T.; Randles, S. J.; Stroud, P. M.

    The chemical nature and technology of the main synthetic lubricant base fluids is described, covering polyalphaolefins, alkylated aromatics, gas-to-liquid (GTL) base fluids, polybutenes, aliphatic diesters, polyolesters, polyalkylene glycols or PAGs and phosphate esters.Other synthetic lubricant base oils such as the silicones, borate esters, perfluoroethers and polyphenylene ethers are considered to have restricted applications due to either high cost or performance limitations and are not considered here.Each of the main synthetic base fluids is described for their chemical and physical properties, manufacture and production, their chemistry, key properties, applications and their implications when used in the environment.

  17. Supercritical fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  18. Multiphase fluid characterization system

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    2014-09-02

    A measurement system and method for permitting multiple independent measurements of several physical parameters of multiphase fluids flowing through pipes are described. Multiple acoustic transducers are placed in acoustic communication with or attached to the outside surface of a section of existing spool (metal pipe), typically less than 3 feet in length, for noninvasive measurements. Sound speed, sound attenuation, fluid density, fluid flow, container wall resonance characteristics, and Doppler measurements for gas volume fraction may be measured simultaneously by the system. Temperature measurements are made using a temperature sensor for oil-cut correction.

  19. Fundamentals of fluid sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamentals of fluid sealing, including seal operating regimes, are discussed and the general fluid-flow equations for fluid sealing are developed. Seal performance parameters such as leakage and power loss are presented. Included in the discussion are the effects of geometry, surface deformations, rotation, and both laminar and turbulent flows. The concept of pressure balancing is presented, as are differences between liquid and gas sealing. Mechanisms of seal surface separation, fundamental friction and wear concepts applicable to seals, seal materials, and pressure-velocity (PV) criteria are discussed.

  20. The expression of MaEXP1, a Melilotus alba expansin gene, is upregulated during the sweetclover-Sinorhizobium meliloti interaction.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Walter; Hirsch, Ann M

    2004-06-01

    Expansins are a highly conserved group of cell wall-localized proteins that appear to mediate changes in cell wall plasticity during cell expansion or differentiation. The accumulation of expansin protein or the mRNA for specific expansin gene family members has been correlated with the growth of various plant organs. Because expansin proteins are closely associated with plant cell wall expansion, and as part of a larger study to determine the role of different gene products in the legume-Rhizobium spp. symbiosis, we investigated whether a Melilotus alba (white sweetclover) expansin gene is expressed during nodule development. A cDNA fragment encoding an expansin gene (EXP) was isolated from Sinorhizobium meliloti-inoculated sweetclover root RNA by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction using degenerate primers, and a full-length sweetclover expansin sequence (MaEXP1) was obtained using 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA end cloning. The predicted amino acid of the sweetclover expansin is highly conserved with the various alpha-expansins in the GenBank database. MaEXP1 contains a series of eight cysteines and four tryptophans that are conserved in the alpha-expansin protein family. Northern analysis and whole-mount in situ hybridization analyses indicate that MaEXP1 mRNA expression is enhanced in roots within hours after inoculation with S. meliloti and in nodules. Western and immunolocalization studies using a cucumber expansin antibody demonstrated that a cross-reacting protein accumulated in the expanding cells of the nodule.

  1. Magnetic Fluids--Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoon, S. R.; Tanner, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    Basic physical concepts of importance in understanding magnetic fluids (fine ferromagnetic particles suspended in a liquid) are discussed. They include home-made magnetic fluids, stable magnetic fluids, and particle surfactants. (DH)

  2. Survey of geothermal completion fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Childers, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of oil field fluids companies indicates that there are no geothermal completion fluids on the market. It is recommended that development of a completion fluid and appropriate support testing be funded.

  3. Particle dynamics in fluids with random interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shagolsem, Lenin S.; Rabin, Yitzhak

    2016-05-01

    We study the dynamics of particles in a multi-component 2d Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluid in the limiting case where all the particles are different (APD). The equilibrium properties of this APD system were studied in our earlier work [L. S. Shagolsem et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 051104 (2015).]. We use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the statistical properties of particle trajectories in a temperature range covering both the fluid and the solid-fluid coexistence region. We calculate the mean-square displacement as well as displacement, angle, and waiting time distributions, and compare the results with those for one-component LJ fluid. As temperature is lowered, the dynamics of the APD system becomes increasingly complex, as the intrinsic difference between the particles is amplified by neighborhood identity ordering and by the inhomogeneous character of the solid-fluid coexistence region. The ramifications of our results for the analysis of protein tracking experiments in living cells are discussed.

  4. Grands principes de symétrie à l'épreuve de l'expérience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depommier, P.

    of nuclear forces. Cet article est une version révisée d'un cours donné à l'Ecole Joliot-Curie de Physique Nucléaire, en 1986, et destiné à des physiciens nucléaires. Le texte a été remanié et complété pour le rendre plus conforme à un article de synthèse. Après un court préambule (chapitre 1), on rappelle quelques définitions et théorèmes dans le chapitre 2. Une courte introduction historique est donnée dans le chapitre 3. Dans le chapitre 4 on expose le formalisme du modèle standard qui servira de cadre théorique pour l'ensemble de l'article. Le chapitre 5 est consacré à la violation de la parité, due aux interactions faibles, et qui se manifeste dans divers domaines : physique nucléaire, physique des particules, mais aussi physique atomique. On passe en revue les effets dus aux courants faibles chargés et neutres, en insistant sur les aspects expérimentaux. Le chapitre 6 est consacré à la violation de l'invariance CP, qui n'a été observée que dans le système des mésons K. En postulant l'invariance CPT on est conduit à se poser la question de la validité de l'invariance sous le renversement du temps. On discute des expériences qui ont été effectuées pour rechercher une violation de cette invariance, en physique nucléaire notamment. Dans le chapitre 7 on introduit à la grande unification des interactions faibles, électromagnétiques et fortes, dont une conséquence spectaculaire est la nonconservation du nombre baryonique, avec comme conséquences expérimentales l'instabilité du nucléon et les oscillations neutron-antineutron. Le chapitre 8 s'adresse à la violation du nombre leptonique. Cette question est importante dans le cadre des théories unificatrices et elle se rattache à la nature du neutrino (particule de Dirac ou particule de Majorana massive). La recherche de la double désintégration β est devenue une activité expérimentale de très grande importance. Le chapitre 9 traite de la non-conservation des

  5. Basic fluid system trainer

    DOEpatents

    Semans, Joseph P.; Johnson, Peter G.; LeBoeuf, Jr., Robert F.; Kromka, Joseph A.; Goron, Ronald H.; Hay, George D.

    1993-01-01

    A trainer, mounted and housed within a mobile console, is used to teach and reinforce fluid principles to students. The system trainer has two centrifugal pumps, each driven by a corresponding two-speed electric motor. The motors are controlled by motor controllers for operating the pumps to circulate the fluid stored within a supply tank through a closed system. The pumps may be connected in series or in parallel. A number of valves are also included within the system to effect different flow paths for the fluid. In addition, temperature and pressure sensing instruments are installed throughout the closed system for measuring the characteristics of the fluid, as it passes through the different valves and pumps. These measurements are indicated on a front panel mounted to the console, as a teaching aid, to allow the students to observe the characteristics of the system.

  6. Computational fluid dynamic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Tom T.; Deabreu-Garcia, Alex

    1989-01-01

    A general technique is presented for modeling fluid, or gas, dynamic systems specifically for the development of control systems. The numerical methods which are generally used in computational fluid dynamics are borrowed to create either continuous-time or discrete-time models of the particular fluid system. The resulting equations can be either left in a nonlinear form, or easily linearized about an operating point. As there are typically very many states in these systems, the usual linear model reduction methods can be used on them to allow a low-order controller to be designed. A simple example is given which typifies many internal flow control problems. The resulting control is termed computational fluid dynamic control.

  7. Culture - joint fluid

    MedlinePlus

    Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...

  8. Windshield washer fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... liquid made of methanol, a poisonous alcohol. Sometimes small amounts of other toxic alcohols such as ethylene glycol are added to the mixture. Some young children may mistake the fluid for juice, which ...

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a laboratory test to look for bacteria, fungi, and viruses in the fluid that moves in ... culture medium. Laboratory staff then observe if bacteria, fungi, or viruses grow in the dish. Growth means ...

  10. Polymer Fluid Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, R. Byron

    1980-01-01

    Problems in polymer fluid dynamics are described, including development of constitutive equations, rheometry, kinetic theory, flow visualization, heat transfer studies, flows with phase change, two-phase flow, polymer unit operations, and drag reduction. (JN)

  11. Our World: Fluid Shift

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn about the circulatory system and how gravity aids blood flow in our bodies here on Earth. Find out how NASA flight surgeons help the astronauts deal with the fluid shift that happens during s...

  12. Lighter fluid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... in lighter fluids are called hydrocarbons. They include: Benzene Butane Hexamine Lacolene Naptha Propane ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 158. Mirkin DB. Benzene and related aromatic hydrocarbons. In: Shannon MW, Borron ...

  13. Cellular fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamm, Roger D.

    The coupling of fluid dynamics and biology at the level of the cell is an intensive area of investigation because of its critical role in normal physiology and disease. Microcirculatory flow has been a focus for years, owing to the complexity of cell-cell or cell-glycocalyx interactions. Noncirculating cells, particularly those that comprise the walls of the circulatory system, experience and respond biologically to fluid dynamic stresses. In this article, we review the more recent studies of circulating cells, with an emphasis on the role of the glycocalyx on red-cell motion in small capillaries and on the deformation of leukocytes passing through the microcirculation. We also discuss flows in the vicinity of noncirculating cells, the influence of fluid dynamic shear stress on cell biology, and diffusion in the lipid bi-layer, all in the context of the important fluid-dynamic phenomena.

  14. Joint fluid Gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    Gram stain of joint fluid ... result means no bacteria are present on the Gram stain. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among ... Abnormal results mean bacteria were seen on the Gram stain. This may be a sign of a ...

  15. Fluid pumping apparatus

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2006-01-17

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  16. Le traitement conservateur du cancer du sein: expérience d'une équipe tunisienne

    PubMed Central

    Dimassi, Kaouther; Gharsa, Anissa; Chanoufi, Mohammed Badis; Sfar, Ezzeddine; Chelli, Dalenda

    2014-01-01

    En Tunisie, le cancer du sein touche des femmes jeunes avec une taille moyenne au moment du diagnostic à 5 cm. Ces particularités font que la chirurgie radicale reste prédominante. Nous présentons dans ce travail l'expérience de notre équipe en matière de chirurgie conservatrice du cancer du sein. Le but de ce travail est d’évaluer les résultats de ce traitement. Etude rétrospective longitudinale, sur une période de 75 mois. Nous avons inclus toutes les patientes ayant bénéficié d'un traitement conservateur pour une tumeur maligne du sein. Ont été analysés: les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, les aspects radiologiques et histologiques. Le suivi des malades s'est basé sur la détection des récidives. Nous avons évalué le résultat esthétique à la fin de la radiothérapie. Le traitement conservateur a été réalisé dans 23.8% des cas. Le taux de récidives locales était de 6.8% avec une corrélation significative pour une taille tumorale > 30 mm (p= 0.009), l'association d'une composante intracanalaire (p= 0.035), le statut triple négatif (p= 0.003) et des marges d'exérèse < 5mm sans recoupes per-opératoires (p = 0.045). Les facteurs suivants étaient significativement liés au risque de survenue de métastases à distance: le statut triple négatif (p= 0.003), taille tumorale > 30mm (p = 0.006) et l'atteinte ganglionnaire (p = 0.001). Le résultat esthétique était satisfaisant dans 90% des cas. L'augmentation du nombre de patientes pouvant bénéficier d'une chirurgie conservatrice, doit passer impérativement par le développement et la promotion du diagnostic précoce et du dépistage par la mammographie. PMID:25810795

  17. Complexation of Sr in aqueous fluids equilibrated with silicate melts: effect of melt and fluid composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchert, Manuela; Wilke, Max; Schmidt, Christian; Kvashnina, Kristina

    2010-05-01

    At crustal conditions, the fluid-melt partitioning of Sr is mainly controlled by the salinity of the fluid and the composition of the melt (Borchert et al., 2010). The data show a sharp increase in the Sr partition coefficient with the alumina saturation index (ASI) to a maximum of 0.3 at an ASI of 1.05. Because fluid-melt partitioning of a given element depends on its complexation in the fluid and its incorporation in the melt, these data imply a change in the Sr speciation at least one of the two phases. For silicate melts, Kohn et al. (1990) found only small changes in the first coordination shell of Sr in a suite of melts with various degrees of polymerization, and argued that incorporation of Sr in the melt should not play a major role in controlling Sr partitioning. For the aqueous fluid, Bai and Koster van Groos (1999) and Webster et al. (1989) suggested a control of the Sr partition coefficient by SrCl2 complexes based on the correlation between partition coefficient and Cl concentration in the fluid after quenching. Both hypotheses cannot explain our partitioning data. Thus, new information on Sr complexation is required. Here, we studied the complexation of Sr in peraluminous or peralkaline melt dissolved in aqueous fluids in-situ at elevated PT conditions using hydrothermal diamond-anvil cells (HDAC) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The starting materials were peraluminous or peralkaline glass and H2O or a chloridic solution. The glass was doped with high concentrations of 5000 or 10000 ppm Sr. We used bulk compositions with 10 to 15 wt.% glass to ensure that the melt was completely dissolved in the fluid at high PT conditions. For qualitative evaluation, we analyzed the starting glasses and various crystalline compounds and standard solutions. The experiments were performed at beamline ID26 at ESRF (Grenoble, France) using a high resolution emission spectrometer and Si(311) monochromator crystals for high resolution and Si

  18. Kinetics of Static Strain Aging in Polycrystalline NiAl-based Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, M. L.; Kaufman, M. J.; Noebe, R. D.

    1996-01-01

    The kinetics of yield point return have been studied in two NiAl-based alloys as a function of aging time at temperatures between 300 and 700 K. The results indicate that the upper yield stress increment, Delta sigma(sub u) (i.e., stress difference between the upper yield point and the final flow stress achieved during prestraining), in conventional purity (CP-NiAl) and in high purity carbon-doped (NiAl-C) material first increased with a t(exp 2/3) relationship before reaching a plateau. This behavior suggests that a Cottrell locking mechanism is the cause for yield points in NiAl. In addition, positive y-axis intercepts were observed in plots of Delta sigma(sub u) versus t(exp 2/3) suggesting the operation of a Snoek mechanism. Analysis according to the Cottrell Bilby model of atmosphere formation around dislocations yields an activation energy for yield point return in the range 70 to 76 kJ/mol which is comparable to the activation energy for diffusion of interstitial impurities in bcc metals. It is, thus, concluded that the kinetics of static strain aging in NiAl are controlled by the locking of dislocations by Cottrell atmospheres of carbon atoms around dislocations.

  19. An experimental palladium-103 seed (OptiSeed{sup exp}) in a biocompatible polymer without a gold marker: Characterization of dosimetric parameters including the interseed effect

    SciTech Connect

    Abboud, F.; Scalliet, P.; Vynckier, S.

    2008-12-15

    Permanent implantation of {sup 125}I (iodine) or {sup 103}Pd (palladium) sources is a popular treatment option in the management of early stage prostate cancer. New sources are being developed, some of which are being marketed for different clinical applications. A new technique of adjuvant stereotactic permanent seed breast implant, similar to that used in the treatment of prostate cancer, has been proposed by [N. Jansen et al., Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 67, 1052-1058 (2007)] with encouraging results. The presence of artifacts from the metallic seeds, however, can disturb follow-up imaging. The development of plastic seeds has reduced these artifacts. This paper presents a feasibility study of the advantages of palladium-103 seeds, encapsulated with a biocompatible polymer, for future clinical applications, and on the effect of the gold marker on the dosimetric characteristics of such seeds. Experimental palladium seeds, OptiSeed{sup exp}, were manufactured by International Brachytherapy (IBt), Seneffe, Belgium, from a biocompatible polymer, including the marker. Apart from the absence of a gold marker, the studied seed has an identical design to the OptiSeed{sup 103}[Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 1493-1504 (2005)]; [Appl. Radiat. Isot. 63, 311-321 (2005)]. Polymer encapsulation was preferred by IBt in order to reduce the quantity of radioactive material needed for a given dose rate and to reduce the anisotropy of the radiation field around the seed. In addition, this design is intended to decrease the interseed effects that can occur as a result of the marker and the encapsulation. Dosimetric measurements were performed using LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters (1 mm{sup 3}) in solid water phantoms (WT1). Measured data were compared to Monte Carlo simulated data in solid water using the MCNP code, version 4C. Updated cross sections [Med. Phys. 30, 701-711 (2003)] were used. As the measured and calculated data were in agreement, Monte Carlo calculations were then

  20. In situ gas concentrations in the Kumano forearc basin from drilling mud gas monitoring and sonic velocity data (IODP NanTroSEIZE Exp. 319 Site C0009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersberg, T.; Doan, M.-L.; Schleicher, A. M.; Horiguchi, K.; Eguchi, N.; Erzinger, J.

    2012-04-01

    Conventional IODP shipboard methods of gas investigations comprise gas sampling from core voids and headspace gas sampling followed by shipboard gas analysis. These methods possibly underestimate the in situ gas concentration due to core degassing during retrieval and handling on deck. In few cases, a Pressure Core Sampler (PCS) was used in the past to overcome this problem, providing gas concentrations one or two order of magnitude higher than headspace gas analysis from corresponding depths. Here, we describe two new techniques applied during IODP NanTroSEIZE Exp. 319 Site C0009 riser drilling in the Kumano forearc basin to estimate in situ gas concentrations without drill core recovery. During riser drilling of site C0009 between 703 to 1594 mbsf, gas was continuously extracted from returing drilling mud and analysed in real-time (drill mud gas monitoring). This method results in information on the gas composition and gas concentration at depth. The chemical (C1-C3) and isotope (δ13C, H/D) composition of hydrocarbons, the only formation-derived gases identified in drill mud, demonstrate a microbial hydrocarbon gas source mixing with small but increasing amounts of thermogenic gas at greater depth. Methane content in drilling mud semi-quantitatively correlates with visible allochtonous material (wood, lignite) in drilling cuttings. In situ gas concentration determination from drill mud gas monitoring based on the assumption that gas is either liberated from the rock into the drilling mud during drilling and ascent with the mud column or remains in the pore space of the drilling cuttings. Drilling mud gas data were calibrated with a defined amount of C2H2 (175 l [STP]) from a carbide test and result in methane concentrations reaching up to 24 lgas/lsediment, in good agreement with findings from other IODP Legs using the PCS. Hydrocarbon gas concentrations in drilling cuttings from C0009 are significantly lower, indicating cuttings outgassing during ascent of the

  1. [Diagnosis: synovial fluid analysis].

    PubMed

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Synovial fluid analysis in rheumatological diseases allows a more accurate diagnosis in some entities, mainly infectious and microcrystalline arthritis. Examination of synovial fluid in patients with osteoarthritis is useful if a differential diagnosis will be performed with other processes and to distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory forms. Joint aspiration is a diagnostic and sometimes therapeutic procedure that is available to primary care physicians.

  2. Valve for fluid control

    SciTech Connect

    Oborny, Michael C.; Paul, Phillip H.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Manginell, Ronald P.

    2001-01-01

    A valve for controlling fluid flows. This valve, which includes both an actuation device and a valve body provides: the ability to incorporate both the actuation device and valve into a unitary structure that can be placed onto a microchip, the ability to generate higher actuation pressures and thus control higher fluid pressures than conventional microvalves, and a device that draws only microwatts of power. An electrokinetic pump that converts electric potential to hydraulic force is used to operate, or actuate, the valve.

  3. Fluid property measurements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devaney, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Fluid properties of refrigerant-21 were investigated at temperatures from the freezing point to 423 Kelvin and at pressures to 1.38 x 10 to the 8th power N/sq m (20,000 psia). The fluid properties included were: density, vapor pressure, viscosity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, freezing point and bulk modulus. Tables of smooth values are reported.

  4. Fluid infusion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Performance testing carried out in the development of the prototype zero-g fluid infusion system is described and summarized. Engineering tests were performed in the course of development, both on the original breadboard device and on the prototype system. This testing was aimed at establishing baseline system performance parameters and facilitating improvements. Acceptance testing was then performed on the prototype system to verify functional performance. Acceptance testing included a demonstration of the fluid infusion system on a laboratory animal.

  5. Artificial Intelligence In Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Alison Andrews

    1991-01-01

    Paper compares four first-generation artificial-intelligence (Al) software systems for computational fluid dynamics. Includes: Expert Cooling Fan Design System (EXFAN), PAN AIR Knowledge System (PAKS), grid-adaptation program MITOSIS, and Expert Zonal Grid Generation (EZGrid). Focuses on knowledge-based ("expert") software systems. Analyzes intended tasks, kinds of knowledge possessed, magnitude of effort required to codify knowledge, how quickly constructed, performances, and return on investment. On basis of comparison, concludes Al most successful when applied to well-formulated problems solved by classifying or selecting preenumerated solutions. In contrast, application of Al to poorly understood or poorly formulated problems generally results in long development time and large investment of effort, with no guarantee of success.

  6. [Fluid management: estimation of fluid status].

    PubMed

    Renner, Jochen; Broch, Ole; Bein, Berthold

    2012-07-01

    Cardiac filling pressures alone are not appropriate to estimate the effect of a volume challenge on the corresponding change in stroke volume. Dynamic variables of fluid responsiveness have been shown to discriminate with acceptable sensitivity and specificity between responders and non-responders to a volume challenge. However, several clinical confounders have been indentified which potentially influence the predictive power of these variables. Sound knowledge of these confounders and the acknowledgement that there is no unique threshold value for volume optimisation but a considerable "gray zone" is necessary to fully exploit the advantages of functional haemodynamic monitoring.

  7. Influence of two levels of enzyme preparation on ruminal fermentation, particulate and fluid passage and cell wall digestion in wether lambs consuming either a 10% or 25% grain diet.

    PubMed

    Judkins, M B; Stobart, R H

    1988-04-01

    Effects of a fungal enzyme preparation on ruminal fermentation, digesta kinetics and cell wall digestion were studied. Either 0, 22 or 25 g/d of enzyme preparation was offered to nine ruminally cannulated Rambouillet or Columbia wether lambs (avg wt 28.6 kg) in two randomized complete block experiments. An alfalfa hay-corn mixture at 2.1% of body weight (10% corn) was used in Exp. 1. In Exp. 2, 2.7% of body weight (25% corn; Exp. 2) was fed. Ruminal samples were collected at 0, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h postfeeding on d 17 of each 22-d period to measure fluid dilution rate and fermentation characteristics. An intraruminal dose of Yb-labeled hay followed by fecal sampling on d 19 through 22 was used to estimate particulate passage and fecal output. Ruminal pH, NH3 concentrations, total volatile fatty acid and proportion of individual acids were not influenced (P greater than .10) by the addition of either level of enzyme preparation in either Exp. 1 or 2. Dry matter digestibility also showed no effect (P greater than .10) of enzyme preparation added to either diet. In Exp. 1, wethers receiving 35 g/d of the enzyme preparation had greater cell wall digestion (49.8%; P less than .05) than wethers receiving either 22 g/d or no enzyme preparation (45.7 and 42.9%, respectively). In Exp. 2, with a 25% corn diet, no influence (P greater than .10) of enzyme preparation was noted on cell wall digestibility. Particulate and ruminal fluid passage rate parameters remained unchanged (P greater than .10) by the addition of either level of enzyme preparation, regardless of the diet fed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. A two-fluid, MHD coronal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suess, S. T.; Wang, A.-H.; Wu, S. T.; Poletto, G.; McComas, D. J.

    1999-03-01

    We describe first results from a numerical two-fluid MHD model of the global structure of the solar corona. The model is two-fluid in the sense that it accounts for the collisional energy exchange between protons and electrons. As in our single-fluid model, volumetric heat and momentum sources are required to produce high speed wind from coronal holes, low speed wind above streamers, and mass fluxes similar to the empirical solar wind. By specifying different proton and electron heating functions we obtain a high proton temperature in the coronal hole and a relatively low proton temperature above the streamer (in comparison with the electron temperature). This is consistent with inferences from SOHO/UltraViolet Coronagraph Spectrometer instrument (UVCS) [Kohl et al., 1997], and with the Ulysses/Solar Wind Observations Over the Poles of the Sun instrument (SWOOPS) proton and electron temperature measurements which we show from the fast latitude scan. The density in the coronal hole between 2 and 5 solar radii (2 and 5RS) is similar to the density reported from SPARTAN 201-01 measurements by Fisher and Guhathakurta [1994]. The proton mass flux scaled to 1 AU is 2.4×108cm-2s-1, which is consistent with Ulysses observations [Phillips et al., 1995]. Inside the closed field region, the density is sufficiently high so that the simulation gives equal proton and electron temperatures due to the high collision rate. In open field regions (in the coronal hole and above the streamer) the proton and electron temperatures differ by varying amounts. In the streamer the temperature and density are similar to those reported empirically by Li et al. [1998], and the plasma β is larger than unity everywhere above ~1.5RS, as it is in all other MHD coronal streamer models [e.g., Steinolfson et al., 1982; also G. A. Gary and D. Alexander, Constructing the coronal magnetic field, submitted to Solar Physics, 1998].

  9. Orbital Fluid Transfer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. S., (Nick); Ryder, Mel; Tyler, Tony R.

    1998-01-01

    An automated fluid and power interface system needs to be developed for future space missions which require on orbit consumable replenishment. Current method of fluid transfer require manned vehicles and extravehicular activity. Currently the US does not have an automated capability for consumable transfer on-orbit. This technology would benefit both Space Station and long duration satellites. In order to provide this technology the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) was developed. The AFIS project was an advanced development program aimed at developing a prototype satellite servicer for future space operations. This mechanism could transfer propellants, cryogens, fluids, gasses, electrical power, and communications from a tanker unit to the orbiting satellite. The development of this unit was a cooperative effort between Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and Moog, Inc. in East Aurora, New York. An engineering model was built and underwent substantial development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). While the AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit. The lessons learned from testing the AFIS provided the foundation for the next generation fluid transfer mechanism, the Orbital Fluid Transfer System (OFTS). The OFTS project was a study contract with MSFC and Moog, Inc. The OFTS was designed for the International Space Station (ISS), but its flexible design could used for long duration satellite missions and other applications. The OFTS was designed to be used after docking. The primary function was to transfer bipropellants and high pressure gases. The other items addressed by this task included propellant storage, hardware integration, safety and control system issues. A new concept for high pressure couplings was also developed. The results of the AFIS testing provided an excellent basis for the OFTS design. The OFTS

  10. Intravenous Fluid Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John; McKay, Terri; Brown, Daniel; Zoldak, John

    2013-01-01

    The ability to stabilize and treat patients on exploration missions will depend on access to needed consumables. Intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as required consumables. A review of the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) lists over 400 medical conditions that could present and require treatment during ISS missions. The Intravenous Fluid Generation System (IVGEN) technology provides the scalable capability to generate IV fluids from indigenous water supplies. It meets USP (U.S. Pharmacopeia) standards. This capability was performed using potable water from the ISS; water from more extreme environments would need preconditioning. The key advantage is the ability to filter mass and volume, providing the equivalent amount of IV fluid: this is critical for remote operations or resource- poor environments. The IVGEN technology purifies drinking water, mixes it with salt, and transfers it to a suitable bag to deliver a sterile normal saline solution. Operational constraints such as mass limitations and lack of refrigeration may limit the type and volume of such fluids that can be carried onboard the spacecraft. In addition, most medical fluids have a shelf life that is shorter than some mission durations. Consequently, the objective of the IVGEN experiment was to develop, design, and validate the necessary methodology to purify spacecraft potable water into a normal saline solution, thus reducing the amount of IV fluids that are included in the launch manifest. As currently conceived, an IVGEN system for a space exploration mission would consist of an accumulator, a purifier, a mixing assembly, a salt bag, and a sterile bag. The accumulator is used to transfer a measured amount of drinking water from the spacecraft to the purifier. The purifier uses filters to separate any air bubbles that may have gotten trapped during the drinking water transfer from flowing through a high-quality deionizing cartridge that removes the impurities in

  11. Inverse magnetorheological fluids.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arco, L; López-López, M T; Zubarev, A Y; Gdula, K; Durán, J D G

    2014-09-01

    We report a new kind of field-responsive fluid consisting of suspensions of diamagnetic (DM) and ferromagnetic (FM) microparticles in ferrofluids. We designate them as inverse magnetorheological (IMR) fluids for analogy with inverse ferrofluids (IFFs). Observations on the particle self-assembly in IMR fluids upon magnetic field application showed that DM and FM microparticles were assembled into alternating chains oriented along the field direction. We explain such assembly on the basis of the dipolar interaction energy between particles. We also present results on the rheological properties of IMR fluids and, for comparison, those of IFFs and bidispersed magnetorheological (MR) fluids. Interestingly, we found that upon magnetic field application, the rheological properties of IMR fluids were enhanced with respect to bidispersed MR fluids with the same FM particle concentration, by an amount greater than the sum of the isolated contribution of DM particles. Furthermore, the field-induced yield stress was moderately increased when up to 30% of the total FM particle content was replaced with DM particles. Beyond this point, the dependence of the yield stress on the DM content was non-monotonic, as expected for FM concentrations decreasing to zero. We explain these synergistic results by two separate phenomena: the formation of exclusion areas for FM particles due to the perturbation of the magnetic field by DM particles and the dipole-dipole interaction between DM and FM particles, which enhances the field-induced structures. Based on the second phenomenon, we present a theoretical model for the yield stress that semi-quantitatively predicts the experimental results. PMID:25022363

  12. ALS 2883: Analysis of spectroscopic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. R.; Levenhagen, R. S.; Künzel, R.; Leister, N. V.

    2014-10-01

    ALS 2883 (RA 13^{h} 02^{m} 47^{s}, DEC -63^{o} 50' 08'', M_{v} 10.1) is the first known radio pulsar with an emission B-type companion system, discovered in 1992. The Be companion of ALS 2883 has all line profiles in the visible range in emission. This emission is a common hallmark among many Be stars, and this effect is thought to be due to the presence of a circumstellar environment. Also, the star is orbiting a X-ray source as has been detected by the XMM-Newton Science Operation Center. In this study, we present the observations of ALS 2883 made at the OPD/LNA 1.60 m telescope with the Coudé spectrograph in the range 4000 to 5000 Å and S/N simeq 200, performed in April 2011. First-order estimations of T_{eff} and log g parameters have been performed through Johnson's UBV and JHK photometric calibrations. Projected rotation velocity V sin i has been estimated through the mean of the first zeroes of the Fourier transforms of neutral helium rotation profiles adopting linear, quadratic and square-root limb-darkening laws. The physical conditions of the circumstellar envelope were estimated through the solution of the radiative transport equation assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium within a disk-shaped circumstellar environment with a Keplerian velocity field. The radiative transport equation is solved assuming the Roche model as a boundary condition in the circumstellar environment. Iterating the computations with a downhill-simplex algorithm, this analysis leads to a best solution for an envelope with T simeq 9500 K, gas density ρ simeq 2 × 10^{-15} g.cm^{-3}, internal radius r_{i} simeq 8 R_{odot} and external radius r_e simeq 30 R_{odot}, rotating with V_{rot} simeq 140 km.s^{-1} and expanding with V_{exp} simeq 90 km.s^{-1}.

  13. Fluid driven reciprocating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, J.C.

    1997-04-01

    An apparatus is described comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached. 13 figs.

  14. Amniotic fluid embolism.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Bhardwaj, Mamta; Kumar, Prashant; Singhal, Suresh; Singh, Tarandeep; Hooda, Sarla

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%.

  15. Fluid driven recipricating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, John C.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached.

  16. Amniotic fluid embolism

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Bhardwaj, Mamta; Kumar, Prashant; Singhal, Suresh; Singh, Tarandeep; Hooda, Sarla

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%. PMID:27275041

  17. Boiler using combustible fluid

    DOEpatents

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  18. Amniotic fluid embolism.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Bhardwaj, Mamta; Kumar, Prashant; Singhal, Suresh; Singh, Tarandeep; Hooda, Sarla

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%. PMID:27275041

  19. Fluorescent fluid interface position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2004-02-17

    A new fluid interface position sensor has been developed, which is capable of optically determining the location of an interface between an upper fluid and a lower fluid, the upper fluid having a larger refractive index than a lower fluid. The sensor functions by measurement, of fluorescence excited by an optical pump beam which is confined within a fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the lower fluid, but escapes from the fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the upper fluid.

  20. Intermediate Temperature Fluids Life Tests - Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, William G.; Bonner, Richard W.; Dussinger, Peter M.; Hartenstine, John R.; Sarraf, David B.; Locci, Ivan E.

    2007-01-01

    There are a number of different applications that could use heat pipes or loop heat pipes (LHPs) in the intermediate temperature range of 450 to 725 K (170 to 450 C), including space nuclear power system radiators, fuel cells, and high temperature electronics cooling. Historically, water has been used in heat pipes at temperatures up to about 425 K (150 C). Recent life tests, updated below, demonstrate that titanium/water and Monel/water heat pipes can be used at temperatures up to 550 K (277 C), due to water's favorable transport properties. At temperatures above roughly 570 K (300 C), water is no longer a suitable fluid, due to high vapor pressure and low surface tension as the critical point is approached. At higher temperatures, another working fluid/envelope combination is required, either an organic or halide working fluid. An electromotive force method was used to predict the compatibility of halide working fluids with envelope materials. This procedure was used to reject aluminum and aluminum alloys as envelope materials, due to their high decomposition potential. Titanium and three corrosion resistant superalloys were chosen as envelope materials. Life tests were conducted with these envelopes and six different working fluids: AlBr3, GaCl3, SnCl4, TiCl4, TiBr4, and eutectic diphenyl/diphenyl oxide (Therminol VP-1/Dowtherm A). All of the life tests except for the GaCl3 are ongoing; the GaCl3 was incompatible. As the temperature approaches 725 K (450 C), cesium is a potential heat pipe working fluid. Life tests results are also presented for cesium/Monel 400 and cesium/70-30 copper/nickel heat pipes operating near 750 K (477 C). These materials are not suitable for long term operation, due to copper transport from the condenser to the evaporator.

  1. Supercritical fluid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Gere, D.R.

    1983-10-21

    Chromatographic separations with a supercritical fluid as the mobile phase were suggested more than 20 years ago. Availability of commercial hardware makes this technique more widely usable today. Many separations by this method are now carried out with supercritical carbon dioxide as the mobile phase and packed liquid-chromatography columns as the stationary phase. Although carbon dioxide has many practical advantages, including its near-ambient critical temperature and minimal interference with spectrometric detection, the use of other supercritical fluids or addition of modifiers to carbon dioxide may extend the applications of this technique. Some mixtures that are difficult to analyze by other chromatographic methods may be susceptible to separation by supercritical fluid chromatography. Mixtures that have been separated with supercritical carbon dioxide include resin acids with the empirical formula C/sub 20/H/sub 30/O/sub 2/ and ubiquinones from bacterial cell wall extracts of Legionella pneumophila. 60 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Asymptotically free fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarski, Robert D.

    1982-12-01

    I study the field theory of a scalar field ω with solely cubic interactions in three dimensions-(ω3)3. I insist that the ω field represents the density of a fluid, so ω must always be >=0. If there are long-range couplings in the fluid such that the inverse ω propagator is linear rather than quadratic in momentum, then (ω3)3 theory is asymptotically free. The asymptotic freedom of (ω3)3 theory is closely related to the existence of a nonzero, ultraviolet-stable fixed point in large-N (φ¯6)3 theory. There are also analogies between the asymptotic freedom of fluids (in three and six dimensions) and that of non-Abelian gauge fields (in four dimensions).

  3. Fluid lubricated bearing construction

    DOEpatents

    Dunning, John R.; Boorse, Henry A.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-01-01

    1. A fluid lubricated thrust bearing assembly comprising, in combination, a first bearing member having a plain bearing surface, a second bearing member having a bearing surface confronting the bearing surface of said first bearing member and provided with at least one spiral groove extending inwardly from the periphery of said second bearing member, one of said bearing members having an axial fluid-tight well, a source of fluid lubricant adjacent to the periphery of said second bearing member, and means for relatively rotating said bearing members to cause said lubricant to be drawn through said groove and to flow between said bearing surfaces, whereby a sufficient pressure is built up between said bearing surfaces and in said well to tend to separate said bearing surfaces.

  4. Universal fluid droplet ejector

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Eric R.; Perl, Martin L.

    1999-08-24

    A droplet generator comprises a fluid reservoir having a side wall made of glass or quartz, and an end cap made from a silicon plate. The end cap contains a micromachined aperture through which the fluid is ejected. The side wall is thermally fused to the end cap, and no adhesive is necessary. This means that the fluid only comes into contact with the side wall and the end cap, both of which are chemically inert. Amplitudes of drive pulses received by reservoir determine the horizontal displacements of droplets relative to the ejection aperture. The drive pulses are varied such that the dropper generates a two-dimensional array of vertically-falling droplets. Vertical and horizontal interdroplet spacings may be varied in real time. Applications include droplet analysis experiments such as Millikan fractional charge searches and aerosol characterization, as well as material deposition applications.

  5. Universal fluid droplet ejector

    DOEpatents

    Lee, E.R.; Perl, M.L.

    1999-08-24

    A droplet generator comprises a fluid reservoir having a side wall made of glass or quartz, and an end cap made from a silicon plate. The end cap contains a micromachined aperture through which the fluid is ejected. The side wall is thermally fused to the end cap, and no adhesive is necessary. This means that the fluid only comes into contact with the side wall and the end cap, both of which are chemically inert. Amplitudes of drive pulses received by reservoir determine the horizontal displacements of droplets relative to the ejection aperture. The drive pulses are varied such that the dropper generates a two-dimensional array of vertically-falling droplets. Vertical and horizontal inter-droplet spacings may be varied in real time. Applications include droplet analysis experiments such as Millikan fractional charge searches and aerosol characterization, as well as material deposition applications. 8 figs.

  6. Electrorheological Fluids: Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, D. S.; Eftekhari, A.; Belvin, K. W.; Singh, J. J.

    1996-01-01

    Electrorheological fluids (ERF) are an intriguing class of non-Newtonian industrial fluids. They consist of fine dielectric particles suspended in liquids of low dielectric constants. The objectives of this research were to select a particulate system such that: (1) its density can be varied to match that of the selected liquid, and (2) the dielectric constant of the particles and the liquids should be such that the critical fields needed for asymptotic increase in viscosity are less than or equal to 10 KV/cm. Synthetic Zeolite particles were selected as the solute/suspensions. Octoil oil was selected as the solvent. The results are summarized here.

  7. High temperature drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Stong, R.E.; Walinsky, S.W.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes an aqueous drilling fluid suitable for high-temperature use. This fluid is composed of a water base. Clay is suspended in the base and from about 0.01-25 pounds per barrel total composition of a hydrolyzed terpolymer of maleic anhydride, styrene and a third monomer selected from acrylamide, methacrylamide, acrylic acid and metacrylic acid. The molar ratio of maleic anhydride to styrene to the third monomer is from about 30:10:60 to 50:40:10, and the alkali metal, ammonium and lower aliphatic amine salts thereof, the weight-average molecular weight of the hydrolyzed terpolymer is from about 500-10,000.

  8. Nanoscale Structure at Mineral-Fluid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturchio, N. C.; Sturchio, N. C.; Fenter, P.; Cheng, L.; Park, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Nagy, K. L.; Schlegel, M. L.

    2001-12-01

    The nature of nanoparticles and their role in the natural environment is currently a subject of renewed interest. The high surface area (and surface area-to-volume ratio) of nanoparticles exerts a widespread influence on geochemical reactions and transport processes. A thorough understanding of the nanoscale world remains largely hypothetical, however, because of the challenges associated with characterizing nanoscale structures and processes. Recent insights gained from high-resolution synchrotron x-ray reflectivity measurements at the solid-fluid interfaces of macroscopic (i.e., mm-scale) mineral particles may provide relevant guidelines for expected nanoparticle surface structures. For example, at calcite-water and barite-water interfaces, undercoordinated surface cations bond with water species of variable protonation, and modest relaxations (to several hundredths of a nanometer) affect the outermost unit cells [1,2]. Undercoordinated tetrahedral ions at aluminosilicate surfaces also bond with water species, whereas interstitial or interlayer alkali or alkaline earth ions at the surface may readily exchange with hydronium or other ions; modest relaxations also affect the outermost unit cells [3,4]. Modulation of liquid water structure out to about one nanometer has been observed at the (001) cleavage surface of muscovite in deionized water, and may be present at other mineral-fluid interfaces [4]. Dissolution mechanisms at the orthoclase-water interface have been clarified by combining x-ray reflectivity and scanning force microscopy measurements [5]. Further progress in understanding nanoscale structures and processes at macroscopic mineral-water interfaces is likely to benefit nanoparticle studies. [1] Fenter et al. (2000) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64, 1221-1228. [2] Fenter et al. (2001) J. Phys. Chem. B 105(34), 8112-8119. [3] Fenter et al. (2000) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64, 3663-3673. [4] Cheng et al. (2001) Phys. Rev. Lett., (in press). [5] Teng et al

  9. Stable Translocation Intermediates Jam Global Protein Export in Plasmodium falciparum Parasites and Link the PTEX Component EXP2 with Translocation Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mesén-Ramírez, Paolo; Reinsch, Ferdinand; Blancke Soares, Alexandra; Bergmann, Bärbel; Ullrich, Ann-Katrin; Tenzer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Protein export is central for the survival and virulence of intracellular P. falciparum blood stage parasites. To reach the host cell, exported proteins cross the parasite plasma membrane (PPM) and the parasite-enclosing parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM), a process that requires unfolding, suggestive of protein translocation. Components of a proposed translocon at the PVM termed PTEX are essential in this phase of export but translocation activity has not been shown for the complex and questions have been raised about its proposed membrane pore component EXP2 for which no functional data is available in P. falciparum. It is also unclear how PTEX mediates trafficking of both, soluble as well as transmembrane proteins. Taking advantage of conditionally foldable domains, we here dissected the translocation events in the parasite periphery, showing that two successive translocation steps are needed for the export of transmembrane proteins, one at the PPM and one at the PVM. Our data provide evidence that, depending on the length of the C-terminus of the exported substrate, these steps occur by transient interaction of the PPM and PVM translocon, similar to the situation for protein transport across the mitochondrial membranes. Remarkably, we obtained constructs of exported proteins that remained arrested in the process of being translocated across the PVM. This clogged the translocation pore, prevented the export of all types of exported proteins and, as a result, inhibited parasite growth. The substrates stuck in translocation were found in a complex with the proposed PTEX membrane pore component EXP2, suggesting a role of this protein in translocation. These data for the first time provide evidence for EXP2 to be part of a translocating entity, suggesting that PTEX has translocation activity and provide a mechanistic framework for the transport of soluble as well as transmembrane proteins from the parasite boundary into the host cell. PMID:27168322

  10. The final stage of gravitational collapse for high density fluid medium

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, R. G.; De Campos, M.

    2013-03-25

    The High density high density fluids can be represented by a stiff matter state equation P={rho} and also by the Hagedorn state equation. The first is constructed using a lagrangian that allows bare nucleons to interact attractively via scalar meson exchange, and repulsively by a more massive vector meson exchange; the second consider that for large mass the spectrum of hadrons grows exponentially, namely {rho}(m) {approx}exp(m/T{sub H}), where T{sub H} is the Hagedorn temperature, resulting the state equation P = P{sub 0}+{rho}{sub 0}ln({rho}/{rho}{sub 0}). We study the gravitational collapse for a high density fluid, considering a Hagedorn state equation in a presence of a vacuum component.

  11. Low temperature fluid blender

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repas, G. A.

    1971-01-01

    Blender supplies hydrogen at temperatures from 289 deg K to 367 deg K. Hydrogen temperature is controlled by using blender to combine flow from liquid hydrogen tank /276 deg K/ and gaseous hydrogen cylinder /550 deg K/. Blenders are applicable where flow of controlled low-temperature fluid is desired.

  12. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

    MedlinePlus

    ... the foods you eat and the fluids you drink. Levels of electrolytes in your body can become too low or too high. That can happen when the amount of water in your body changes, causing dehydration or overhydration. Causes include some medicines, vomiting, diarrhea, ...

  13. Cryogenic fluid management experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.; Fester, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The cryogenic fluid management experiment (CFME), designed to characterize subcritical liquid hydrogen storage and expulsion in the low-q space environment, is discussed. The experiment utilizes a fine mesh screen fluid management device to accomplish gas-free liquid expulsion and a thermodynamic vent system to intercept heat leak and control tank pressure. The experiment design evolved from a single flight prototype to provision for a multimission (up to 7) capability. A detailed design of the CFME, a dynamic test article, and dedicated ground support equipment were generated. All materials and parts were identified, and components were selected and specifications prepared. Long lead titanium pressurant spheres and the flight tape recorder and ground reproduce unit were procured. Experiment integration with the shuttle orbiter, Spacelab, and KSC ground operations was coordinated with the appropriate NASA centers, and experiment interfaces were defined. Phase 1 ground and flight safety reviews were conducted. Costs were estimated for fabrication and assembly of the CFME, which will become the storage and supply tank for a cryogenic fluid management facility to investigate fluid management in space.

  14. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-15

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  15. Fluid dynamics test method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayman, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Test method and apparatus determine fluid effective mass and damping in frequency range where effective mass may be considered as total mass less sum of slosh masses. Apparatus is designed so test tank and its mounting yoke are supported from structural test wall by series of flexures.

  16. Time Dependent Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collyer, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the flow characteristics of thixotropic and negative thixotropic fluids; various theories underlying the thixotropic behavior; and thixotropic phenomena exhibited in drilling muds, commercial paints, pastes, and greases. Inconsistencies in the terminology used to label time dependent effects are revealed. (CC)

  17. A Fluid Block Schedule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubben, Gerald C.

    1976-01-01

    Achieving flexibility without losing student accountability is a challenge that faces every school. With a fluid block schedule, as described here, accountability is maintained without inhibiting flexibility. An additional advantage is that three levels of schedule decision making take some of the pressure off the principal. (Editor)

  18. Peritoneal fluid analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the fluid to measure: Albumin Protein Red and white blood cell counts Tests will also check for bacteria and other ... be a sign of tumor or injury. High white blood cell counts may be a sign of peritonitis . Milk-colored ...

  19. Orbital Fluid Resupply Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, Ralph N.

    1989-01-01

    Orbital fluid resupply can significantly increase the cost-effectiveness and operational flexibility of spacecraft, satellites, and orbiting platforms and observatories. Reusable tankers are currently being designed for transporting fluids to space. A number of options exist for transporting the fluids and propellant to the space-based user systems. The fluids can be transported to space either in the Shuttle cargo bay or using expendable launch vehicles (ELVs). Resupply can thus be accomplished either from the Shuttle bay, or the tanker can be removed from the Shuttle bay or launched on an ELV and attached to a carrier such as the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) or Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) for transport to the user to be serviced. A third option involves locating the tanker at the space station or an unmanned platform as a quasi-permanent servicing facility or depot which returns to the ground for recycling once its tanks are depleted. Current modular tanker designs for monopropellants, bipropellants, and water for space station propulsion are discussed. Superfluid helium tankers are addressed, including trade-offs in tanker sizes, shapes to fit the range of ELVs currently available, and boil-off losses associated with longer-term (greater than 6-month) space-basing. It is concluded that the mixed fleet approach to on-orbit consumables resupply offers significant advantages to the overall logistics requirements.

  20. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.

    PubMed

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  1. The composition of fluids generated during deep continental subduction estimated from fluid inclusions in UHP rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrando, S.; Frezzotti, M.; Compagnoni, R.

    2009-12-01

    Composition and provenance of slab-derived hydrous fluids and melts represent a key parameter in understanding the geochemical variations of subduction-related magmas. Chemical and physical characteristics of the slab components may be strongly reliant upon both the thermal structure of the mantle wedge, and the nature of the subducted lithosphere. While fluids are well known to play a key role in element recycling during subduction of oceanic crust, it is less clear how dehydration and/or melting occur during subduction of continental crust. A direct approach to get information on the nature of fluids is provided by fluid inclusion analysis. Two examples of peak fluid inclusions in UHP metamorphic rocks from the Su-Lu Terrane (China) and the Dora-Maira Massif (Alps) are discussed. In the Su-Lu terrane, primary multiphase solid (MS) inclusions within UHP quartzites represent fluids internally generated through dehydration reactions at pressure above 3.5 GPa. Inclusions contain paragonite, muscovite, sulfates, carbonates, phosphates, and oxides. Calculated compositions indicate aqueous fluids (H2O = 25 - 50 wt %) containing tens of wt % of Si, Al, and alkalies. Trace element patterns show enrichments in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE; K, Sr, Rb, Cs, Ba, Pb, U) and light rare earth elements (LREE). In the Dora-Maira whiteschists, MS inclusions formed at 730°C and ≤ 4GPa have rather complex compositions and consist of Mg-chlorite, Na-phlogopite, Cl-rich apatite, Zn-rich pyrite, and chlorides, with subordinate talc and magnesite. Although water is absent, IR-synchrotron-radiation mapping revealed significant H+ diffusion from MS inclusions to host garnet. Peak aqueous solutions are Si, Al, and Na-rich, and contain significant amounts of Mg, Ca, P, S, and LILE, supporting an open system fluid generation with significant contribution from external brines derived from dehydration of oceanic lithosphere during subduction. Although the studied rocks have been

  2. Fluid Transport in Lineaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerrich, R.

    1986-04-01

    Fluid infiltration into fault zones and their deeper level counterparts, brittle-ductile shear zones, is examined in five different tectonic environments. In the 2.7 Ga Abitibi Greenstone Belt major tectonic discontinuities have lateral extents of hundreds of kilometres. These structures, initiated as listric normal faults accommodating rift extension of the greenstone belt, acted as sites for the extrusion of komatiitic magmas, and formed submarine scarps which delimit linear belts of clastic and chemical sediments. During reverse motion on the structures, accommodating shortening of the belt, these transcrustal faults were used as a conduit for the ascent of trondhjemitic magmas from the base of the crust, alkaline magmas from the asthenosphere, and for discharge of hundreds of cubic kilometres of hydrothermal fluids. Such fluids were characterized by δ 18O = 6 ± 2, δ D = -50 ± 20, δ 13C = -4 ± 3, and temperatures of 270-450 degrees C, probably derived from devolatilization of crustal rocks undergoing prograde metamorphism. Hydrothermal fluids were more radiogenic (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7010-0.7040) and possessed higher values of μ than contemporaneous mantle, komatiites or tholeiites, and thus carried a contribution from older sialic basement. Mineralized faults possess enrichments of l.i.l. elements, including K, Rb, Li, Cs, B and CO2, as well as rare elements such as Au, Ag, As, Sb, Se, Te, Bi, W. Fluids were characterized by XCO_{2}≈ 0.1, neutral to slightly acidic pH, low salinity (less than 3% by mass), and K/Na ≈ 0.1, carried minor CH4, CO and N2, and underwent transient effervescence of CO2 during decompression. At Yellowknife, a series of large-scale shear zones developed by brittle-ductile mechanisms, involving volume dilation with the migration of ca. 5% (by mass) volatiles into the shear zone from surrounding metabasalts. This early deformation involved no departures in redox state or whole-rock δ 18O from background states of Fe2+/ɛ Fe = 0.7 and

  3. Ultrasonic fluid densitometry and densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Lail, Jason C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge having an acoustic impedance that is near the acoustic impedance of the fluid, specifically less than a factor of 11 greater than the acoustic impedance of the fluid. The invention also includes a wedge having at least two transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface.

  4. Ultrasonic fluid densitometry and densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Greenwood, M.S.; Lail, J.C.

    1998-01-13

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge having an acoustic impedance that is near the acoustic impedance of the fluid, specifically less than a factor of 11 greater than the acoustic impedance of the fluid. The invention also includes a wedge having at least two transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  5. Magnetic fluids and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeynaetjoki, M.

    1991-02-01

    Magnetic fluids consist of carrier fluid, magnetically active particles and surfactant on each particle preventing the agglomeration of the particles. The fluids acting in the presence of the magnetic field like the ferromagnetic materials, but remaining their fluid properties, are prepared in this way. Potential applications of these fluids are magnetic separation, ink jet printing, sealing, damping, lubrication and heat transfer. So far, the industrial applications of the magnetic fluids are in the seals and bearings of the computer hard disk drives, in the heat transfer and damping of loudspeakers and in the damping of step motors. The other applications are in laboratory and research stage.

  6. Failure Mechanisms During Isothermal Fatigue of SiC/Ti-24Al-11Nb Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, P. K.; Bartolotta, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Failure mechanisms during isothermal fatigue of unidirectional SiC/Ti-24Al-11Nb (at.%) composites have been determined by microstructural analysis of samples from tests interrupted prior to the end of life and from tests conducted to failure. Specimens from three regions of life were examined based on the maximum strain from a fatigue life diagram: Region 1 (high strain), Region 2 (mid-strain) and Region 3 (low strain). Crack lengths were also measured from interrupted samples and compared based on temperature (23-815 C), region of life and numbers of cycles. Region 1 was controlled by fiber-dominated failure. A transition zone was observed between Regions 1 and 2 due to competition between failure mechanisms. Failure in Region 2 was generally described as surface-initiated cracking with varying amounts of fiber bridging. However, the specific descriptions of crack propagation through the fibers and matrix varied with strain and temperature over this broad region. Region 3 exhibited endurance behaviour at 23 C with no cracking after lO(exp 6) cycles. However at 425 C, surface-initiated cracking was observed after 10(exp 6) cycles with fractured fibers in the crack wake. If endurance behaviour exists for conditions of isothermal fatigue in air at temperatures of greater than or equal to 425 C, it may only be found at very low strains and at greater than 10(exp 6) cycles.

  7. Control of fluid dynamics by nanoparticles in laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chao; Chen, Lianyi; Xu, Jiaquan; Zhao, Jingzhou; Li, Xiaochun

    2015-03-01

    Effective control of fluid dynamics is of remarkable scientific and practical significance. It is hypothesized that nanoparticles could offer a novel means to control fluid dynamics. In this study, laser melting was used to investigate the feasibility of tuning fluid dynamics by nanoparticles and possibly breaking existing limits of conventional laser processing techniques. Alumina nanoparticles reinforced nickel samples, fabricated through electrocodeposition, were used for laser melting experiments. Since the melt pool surface is controlled by the fluid dynamics, surface topographies were carefully studied to reveal the nanoparticle effect on the fluid dynamics. Characterizations of surface topographies and microstructures of pure Ni and Ni/Al2O3 nanocomposite were carried out before and after laser melting. The surface roughness of the Ni/Al2O3 nanocomposite sample was reduced significantly by laser melting, which broke the existing limit of laser surface polishing of pure Ni. It is believed that the nanoparticles increased the viscosity of the molten metal, thereby enhancing the viscous damping of the capillary oscillations in the melt pool, to produce a much smoother surface. Moreover, the experimental study also revealed that the viscosity enhancement by the nanoparticles effectively suppressed the thermocapillary flows which would introduce artificial asperities on a surface. The experimental results suggest that nanoparticles are effective in controlling melt pool dynamics and overcoming the existing limits of laser processing. The new methodology, fluid dynamics control by nanoparticles, opens a new pathway to enrich liquid based processes for broad applications.

  8. The detection of a new strong band near 3590 cm(exp -1) (2.79 microns) in the spectrum of Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, F.; Allamandola, L. J.; Sandford, S. A.; Bregman, Jesse D.; Witteborn, F. C.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    1995-01-01

    A strong absorption band at 3590 +/- 20 cm(exp -1) (2.790 +/- 0.015 microns) has been discovered in the spectrum of Io using the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The 2 nu(sub 1) + nu(sub 3) combination mode of solid SO2 falls at this position. Since SO2 is abundant on Io it must contribute to the new band. However, a band due to H2O was also predicted near this frequency in Io's spectrum based on laboratory experiments of H2O:SO2 mixed Io ice analogs which were used to assign the two weak, variable features at 3370 and 3170 cm(exp -1) (2.97 and 3.15 microns) to trace amounts of H2O frozen in solid SO2 on Io. The new band probably originates from both SO2 and H2O. Unfortunately, the spectral resolution of the data is insufficient to settle the issue of whether or not there are two resolvable components.

  9. Constraints from fluid inclusions in mantle minerals on the composition of subduction-zone fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiano, P.; Provost, A.; Cluzel, N.

    2013-12-01

    -carbonates. Step-heating experiments were performed using a heating stage placed under the Raman microscope to estimate the initial composition of the trapped fluid. At 930°C, the final homogenization temperature of the associated melt inclusions, the fluid inclusions are homogeneous and composed of H2O, H2S and CO2. Salinities in the H2O-NaCl system calculated using freezing point depression relationship indicate that total salt of less than 10 wt% NaCl-equivalent is dissolved in the aqueous fluids. Trace-element data for Cl-bearing H2O-rich fluid inclusions are obtained using LA-ICPMS at Clermont-Ferrand. Comparison with compositions of the associated silicate melt inclusions allows determination of fluid/melt partition coefficients Dfluid/melt for the slab-released phases. The resultant coefficients are compared with experimentally determined Dfluid/melt, discussed in terms of recycling rates of key elements in subduction zones, and considered for the generation of trace element patterns typical for calc-alkaline magmas. [1] Schiano et al. (1995) Nature 377, 595-600 ; [2] Eiler et al. (2007) G3 8(9) doi :10.1029/2006GC001503

  10. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    ScienceCinema

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2016-07-12

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  11. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  12. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-03-06

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  13. Double Helical Fluid Containment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, Brian

    2003-11-01

    In the absence of gravity or at micro-scales, helical wires can support cylindrical volumes of fluid of infinite length, making them convenient as conduits. However, fixed contact line double helical fluid volumes have the additional property that they can be drained to zero volume without loss of stability to constant pressure disturbances. Thus the two-wire support is a convenient microgravity or micro-scale container as well as conduit. For evenly spaced wires, continuous draining of a cylindrical volume to zero is possible for double helices ranging from moderate pitch to the parallel wire case. Double helices of steeper pitch are stable as cylinders and at zero volume, but are unstable for some range of intermediate volumes. This unstable zone is very strongly dependent on the offset between the helical wires, varying rapidly for offsets other than 180 degrees. Preliminary experimental results validate the theoretical predictions.

  14. Canonical fluid thermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    The space-time integral of the thermodynamic pressure plays the role of the thermodynamic potential for compressible, adiabatic flow in the sense that the pressure integral for stable flow is less than for all slightly different flows. This stability criterion can be converted into a variational minimum principle by requiring the molar free-enthalpy and the temperature, which are the arguments of the pressure function, to be generalized velocities, that is, the proper-time derivatives of scalar spare-time functions which are generalized coordinates in the canonical formalism. In a fluid context, proper-time differentiation must be expressed in terms of three independent quantities that specify the fluid velocity. This can be done in several ways, all of which lead to different variants (canonical transformations) of the same constraint-free action integral whose Euler-Lagrange equations are just the well-known equations of motion for adiabatic compressible flow.

  15. Production of MHD fluid

    DOEpatents

    Lacey, James J.; Kurtzrock, Roy C.; Bienstock, Daniel

    1976-08-24

    A hot gaseous fluid of low ash content, suitable for use in open-cycle MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) power generation, is produced by means of a three-stage process comprising (1) partial combustion of a fossil fuel to produce a hot gaseous product comprising CO.sub.2 CO, and H.sub.2 O, (2) reformation of the gaseous product from stage (1) by means of a fluidized char bed, whereby CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O are converted to CO and H.sub.2, and (3) combustion of CO and H.sub.2 from stage (2) to produce a low ash-content fluid (flue gas) comprising CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O and having a temperature of about 4000.degree. to 5000.degree.F.

  16. Drilling fluid filter

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Garner, Kory

    2007-01-23

    A drilling fluid filter for placement within a bore wall of a tubular drill string component comprises a perforated receptacle with an open end and a closed end. A hanger for engagement with the bore wall is mounted at the open end of the perforated receptacle. A mandrel is adjacent and attached to the open end of the perforated receptacle. A linkage connects the mandrel to the hanger. The linkage may be selected from the group consisting of struts, articulated struts and cams. The mandrel operates on the hanger through the linkage to engage and disengage the drilling fluid filter from the tubular drill string component. The mandrel may have a stationary portion comprising a first attachment to the open end of the perforated receptacle and a telescoping adjustable portion comprising a second attachment to the linkage. The mandrel may also comprise a top-hole interface for top-hole equipment.

  17. Body Fluids Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siconolfi, Steven F. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are described for determining volumes of body fluids in a subject using bioelectrical response spectroscopy. The human body is represented using an electrical circuit. Intra-cellular water is represented by a resistor in series with a capacitor; extra-cellular water is represented by a resistor in series with two parallel inductors. The parallel inductors represent the resistance due to vascular fluids. An alternating, low amperage, multifrequency signal is applied to determine a subject's impedance and resistance. From these data, statistical regression is used to determine a 1% impedance where the subject's impedance changes by no more than 1% over a 25 kHz interval. Circuit component, of the human body circuit are determined based on the 1% impedance. Equations for calculating total body water, extra-cellular water, total blood volume, and plasma volume are developed based on the circuit components.

  18. Metallization of fluid hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Nellis, W.J.; Louis, A.A.; Ashcroft, N.W.

    1997-05-14

    The electrical activity of liquid hydrogen has been measured at the high dynamic pressures, and temperatures that can be achieved with a reverberating shock wave. The resulting data are most naturally interpreted in terms of a continuous transition from a semiconducting to a metallic, largely diatomic fluid, the latter at 140 CPa, (ninefold compression) and 3000 K. While the fluid at these conditions resembles common liquid metals by the scale of its resistivity of 500 micro-ohm-cm, it differs by retaining a strong pairing character, and the precise mechanism by which a metallic state might be attained is still a matter of debate. Some evident possibilities include (i) physics of a largely one-body character, such as a band-overlap transition, (ii) physics of a strong-coupling or many-body character,such as a Mott-Hubbard transition, and (iii) process in which structural changes are paramount.

  19. Oscillating fluid power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, David C

    2014-02-25

    A system and method for harvesting the kinetic energy of a fluid flow for power generation with a vertically oriented, aerodynamic wing structure comprising one or more airfoil elements pivotably attached to a mast. When activated by the moving fluid stream, the wing structure oscillates back and forth, generating lift first in one direction then in the opposite direction. This oscillating movement is converted to unidirectional rotational movement in order to provide motive power to an electricity generator. Unlike other oscillating devices, this device is designed to harvest the maximum aerodynamic lift forces available for a given oscillation cycle. Because the system is not subjected to the same intense forces and stresses as turbine systems, it can be constructed less expensively, reducing the cost of electricity generation. The system can be grouped in more compact clusters, be less evident in the landscape, and present reduced risk to avian species.

  20. The Mechanism of Fluid Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonkarman, T.; Rubach, H.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanism of fluid resistance within the limit of the square law is presented. It was concluded that the investigations should be extended and completed in two directions, namely: by an investigation of stable vortex configurations in space, and by considering the perfect fluid as the limiting case of a viscous fluid and then limiting the law of vortex of formation with the condition that only those fluid particles which were in contact with the surface of the body can receive rotation.

  1. Corrosion in supercritical fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Propp, W.A.; Carleson, T.E.; Wai, Chen M.; Taylor, P.R.; Daehling, K.W.; Huang, Shaoping; Abdel-Latif, M.

    1996-05-01

    Integrated studies were carried out in the areas of corrosion, thermodynamic modeling, and electrochemistry under pressure and temperature conditions appropriate for potential applications of supercritical fluid (SCF) extractive metallurgy. Carbon dioxide and water were the primary fluids studied. Modifiers were used in some tests; these consisted of 1 wt% water and 10 wt% methanol for carbon dioxide and of sulfuric acid, sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium nitrate at concentrations ranging from 0.00517 to 0.010 M for the aqueous fluids. The materials studied were Types 304 and 316 (UNS S30400 and S31600) stainless steel, iron, and AISI-SAE 1080 (UNS G10800) carbon steel. The thermodynamic modeling consisted of development of a personal computer-based program for generating Pourbaix diagrams at supercritical conditions in aqueous systems. As part of the model, a general method for extrapolating entropies and related thermodynamic properties from ambient to SCF conditions was developed. The experimental work was used as a tool to evaluate the predictions of the model for these systems. The model predicted a general loss of passivation in iron-based alloys at SCF conditions that was consistent with experimentally measured corrosion rates and open circuit potentials. For carbon-dioxide-based SCFs, measured corrosion rates were low, indicating that carbon steel would be suitable for use with unmodified carbon dioxide, while Type 304 stainless steel would be suitable for use with water or methanol as modifiers.

  2. Astrophysical fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2016-06-01

    > These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is `frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, including shocks and other discontinuities, are discussed. The spherical blast wave resulting from a supernova, and involving a strong shock, is a classic problem that can be solved analytically. Steady solutions with spherical or axial symmetry reveal the physics of winds and jets from stars and discs. The linearized equations determine the oscillation modes of astrophysical bodies, as well as their stability and their response to tidal forcing.

  3. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Turner

    2006-11-28

    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  4. Supercritical fluids cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, S.; Hjeresen, D.; Silva, L.; Spall, D.; Stephenson, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed multi-party research and development program which seeks to develop supercritical fluid cleaning technology as an alternative to existing solvent cleaning applications. While SCF extraction technology has been in commercial use for several years, the use of these fluids as cleaning agents poses several new technical challenges. Problems inherent in the commercialization of SCF technology include: the cleaning efficacy and compatibility of supercritical working fluids with the parts to be cleaned must be assessed for a variety of materials and components; process parameters and equipment design Have been optimized for extractive applications and must be reconsidered for application to cleaning; and co-solvents and entrainers must be identified to facilitate the removal of polar inorganic and organic contaminants, which are often not well solvated in supercritical systems. The proposed research and development program would address these issues and lead to the development and commercialization of viable SCF-based technology for precision cleaning applications. This paper provides the technical background, program scope, and delineates the responsibilities of each principal participant in the program.

  5. Fluid handling equipment: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Devices and techniques used in fluid-handling and vacuum systems are described. Section 1 presents several articles on fluid lines and tubing. Section 2 describes a number of components such as valves, filters, and regulators. The last section contains descriptions of a number of innovative fluid-handling systems.

  6. Microwave Propagation in Dielectric Fluids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonc, W. P.

    1980-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate experiment designed to verify quantitatively the effect of a dielectric fluid's dielectric constant on the observed wavelength of microwave radiation propagating through the fluid. The fluid used is castor oil, and results agree with the expected behavior within 5 percent. (Author/CS)

  7. The Viscosity of Polymeric Fluids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, J. E.; Martin, G. C.

    1983-01-01

    To illustrate the behavior of polymeric fluids and in what respects they differ from Newtonian liquids, an experiment was developed to account for the shear-rate dependence of non-Newtonian fluids. Background information, procedures, and results are provided for the experiment. Useful in transport processes, fluid mechanics, or physical chemistry…

  8. Microstructural Evolution of Ti-6Al-4V during High Strain Rate Conditions of Metal Cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dong, Lei; Schneider, Judy

    2009-01-01

    The microstructural evolution following metal cutting was investigated within the metal chips of Ti-6Al-4V. Metal cutting was used to impose a high strain rate on the order of approx.10(exp 5)/s within the primary shear zone as the metal was removed from the workpiece. The initial microstructure of the parent material (PM) was composed of a bi-modal microstructure with coarse prior grains and equiaxed primary located at the boundaries. After metal cutting, the microstructure of the metal chips showed coarsening of the equiaxed primary grains and lamellar. These metallographic findings suggest that the metal chips experienced high temperatures which remained below the transus temperature.

  9. Slow decay of photoconductivity caused by tin-related DX centers in AlGaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žďánský, K.; Hawkins, I. D.

    1999-05-01

    Capacitance decay after termination of light was measured on Al x Ga1 - x As/GaAs heterostructures with p-n junctions. It has been shown that the decay can be well expressed by two curves of stretched exponential forms; exp[-( t/ τ)β]. The temperature dependence of the characteristic time τ of each of the two curves was determined in the range from 15K to 60K. The dependence follows the theoretical relation for electron capture dominated by tunneling via multiphonon emission. The estimated capture parameters show a strong electron-phonon coupling of two DX centers. Possible relation of these centers to tin is discussed.

  10. Volatile Exsolution Experiments: Sampling Exsolved Magmatic Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tattitch, B.; Blundy, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    In magmatic arcs the conditions of volatile exsolution exert a direct control on the composition of exsolved magmatic volatiles phases (MVPs), as well as on their parental magmas. The ability to accurately assess the exchange of major and trace elements between MVPs and magmas is key to understanding the evolution of arc magmas. The trace element signatures measured in arc volcanoes, fumaroles, and hydrothermal ore deposits are greatly influenced by the role of MVPs. In order to investigate the interplay and evolution of melts and MVPs we need experimental methods to simulate MVP exsolution that impose minimal external constraints on their equilibration. Previous experiments have focused on evaluating the exchange of elements between aqueous fluids and silicate melts under equilibrium conditions[1,2]. However, the large mass proportion of fluid to melt in these experiment designs is unrealistic. As a result, the idealized compositions of the aqueous fluids may exert a strong control on melt compositions for which they are out of equilibrium, especially at low melt fractions. In contrast, other experiments have focused on the melt during crystallization but must calculate MVP compositions by mass balance[3]. In order to investigate MVPs and magmas during this critical period of MVP exsolution, we present a new two-stage fluid-melt experimental design. Stage one experiments generate super-liquidus hydrous melts using Laguna del Maule rhyolites and dactites, as analogues for ascending arc magmas. Stage two experiments allow aliquots of stage one melt/glass to crystallize and exsolve MVPs. The design then uses pressure cycling to promote infiltration of in-situ fractured quartz[4] and traps the MVPs as synthetic fluid inclusions. We present results from trial stage 2 experiments, which produced synthetic fluid inclusions consistent with literature values of fluid-melt Cl partitioning[5] and of sufficient size for LA-ICPMS analysis. Trace element partitioning for Li, Na

  11. Fluid mechanics revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Howard

    2006-10-01

    Öttinger's recent nontraditional incorporation of fluctuations into the formulation of the friction matrix appearing in the phenomenological GENERIC theory of nonequilibrium irreversible processes is shown to furnish transport equations for single-component gases and liquids undergoing heat transfer which support the view that revisions to the Navier-Stokes-Fourier (N-S-F) momentum/energy equation set are necessary, as empirically proposed by the author on the basis of an experimentally supported theory of diffuse volume transport. The hypothesis that the conventional N-S-F equations prevail without modification only in the case of “incompressible” fluids, where the density ρ of the fluid is uniform throughout, serves to determine the new phenomenological parameter α‧ appearing in the GENERIC friction matrix. In the case of ideal gases the consequences of this constitutive hypothesis are shown to yield results identical to those derived theoretically by Öttinger on the basis of a “proper” coarse-graining of Boltzmann's kinetic equation. A major consequence of the present work is that the fluid's specific momentum density v is equal to its volume velocity vv, rather than to its mass velocity vm, contrary to current views dating back 250 years to Euler. In the case of rarefied gases the proposed modifications are also observed to agree with those resulting from Klimontovich's molecularly based, albeit ad hoc, self-diffusion addendum to Boltzmann's collision integral. Despite the differences in their respective physical models-molecular vs. phenomenological-the role played by Klimontovich's collisional addition to Boltzmann's equation in modifying the N-S-F equations is noted to constitute a molecular counterpart of Öttinger's phenomenological fluctuation addition to the GENERIC friction matrix. Together, these two theories collectively recognize the need to address multiple- rather than single- encounter collisions between a test molecule and its

  12. Seismic swarms and fluid flow offshore Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierma, Yvonne; Thorwart, Martin; Hensen, Christian; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Wolf, Florian

    2010-05-01

    Offshore Nicaragua and Northern Costa Rica, the Cocos Plate subducts beneath the Caribbean Plate, carrying with it a large amount of fluids and volatiles. While some of these are set free at great depth beneath the volcanic arc, causing the extremely high water content observed in Nicaraguan mafic magmas (Carr et al., 2003; Kutterolf et al., 2007), some early dehydration reactions already release fluids from the subducting plate underneath the continental slope. Unlike in accretionary margins, where these fluids migrate up along the decollement towards the deformation front, fluid release at erosional margins seems to occur through fractures in the overriding plate (Ranero et al., 2008). Fluid seeps in this region have be observed at seafloor mounds, appearing as side-scan sonar backscatter anomalies or revealed by the presence of chemosynthetic communities (Sahling et al., 2008). In the framework of the General Research Area SFB 574 "Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones", a network of 20 ocean-bottom-stations was deployed offshore Sta Elena Peninsula, Northern Costa Rica, from December 2005 to June 2006. Several distinct swarms of small earthquakes were observed at the seismic stations, which occurred clustered over a time period of several days and have very similar seismic waveforms. Since a correlation of fluid-release sites with the occurrence of sporadic seismic swarms would indicate that fluid migration and fracturing is the mechanism responsible for triggering the earthquake swarms, the events are re-analysed by double-difference localisation to enhance the resolution of the earthquake locations. The results are then considered to estimate the migration velocity and direction and compare the localisations with the known mound sites. Carr, M., Feigenson, M. D., Patino, L. C., and Walker, J. A., 2003: Volcanism and geochemistry in Central America: Progress and problems, in Eiler, J. (ed.), Inside the subduction factory, pp. 153-179, American Geophysical

  13. L'Oréal and UNESCO Award Women Physicists $500 000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feder, Toni

    2003-03-01

    Not just cosmetic: L'Oréal and UNESCO are rewarding five women from around the globe for their scientific contributions in crystallography, disordered materials, scaling laws of fluids and complex systems, and electron microscopy of crystals and quasicrystals.

  14. Effect of Growth Rate on Elevated Temperature Plastic Flow and Room Temperature Fracture Toughness of Directionally Solidified NiAl-31Cr-3Mo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.; Salem, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    The eutectic system Ni-33Al-31Cr-3Mo was directionally solidified at rates ranging from 7.6 to 508 mm/h. Samples were examined for microstructure and alloy chemistry, compression tested at 1200 and 1300 K, and subjected to room temperature fracture toughness measurements. Lamellar eutectic grains were formed at 12.7 mm/h; however cellular structures with a radial eutectic pattern developed at faster growth rates. Elevated temperature compression testing between 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -7)/s did not reveal an optimum growth condition, nor did any single growth condition result in a significant fracture toughness advantage. The mechanical behavior, taken together, suggests that Ni-33Al-31Cr-3Mo grown at rates from 25.4 to 254 mm/h will have nominally equivalent properties.

  15. Sliding wear of self-mated Al2O3-SiC whisker reinforced composites at 23-1200 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Serene C.; Book, Patricia O.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1991-01-01

    Microstructural changes occurring during sliding wear of self-mated Al2O3-SiC whisker reinforced composites were studied using optical, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Pin-on-disk specimens were slid in air at 2.7 m/sec sliding velocity under a 26.5 N load for 1 hr. Wear tests were conducted at 23, 600, 800, and 1200 C. Mild wear with a wear factor of 2.4 times 10(exp -7) to 1.5 times 10(exp -6) cu mm/Nm was experienced at all test temperatures. The composite shows evidence of wear by fatigue mechanisms at 800 C and below. Tribochemical reaction (SiC oxidation and reaction of SiO2 and Al2O3) leads to intergranular failure at 1200 C. Distinct microstructural differences existing at each test temperature are reported.

  16. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    DOEpatents

    Fulton, John L.; Smith, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W.sub.o that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W.sub.o of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions.

  17. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    DOEpatents

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

    1993-11-30

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  18. Young asteroidal fluid activity revealed by absolute age from apatite in carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ai-Cheng; Li, Qiu-Li; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Li, Xian-Hua; Hu, Sen; Lin, Yang-Ting; Wang, Ru-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Chondritic meteorites, consisting of the materials that have formed in the early solar system (ESS), have been affected by late thermal events and fluid activity to various degrees. Determining the timing of fluid activity in ESS is of fundamental importance for understanding the nature, formation, evolution and significance of fluid activity in ESS. Previous investigations have determined the relative ages of fluid activity with short-lived isotope systematics. Here we report an absolute 207Pb/206Pb isochron age (4,450+/-50 Ma) of apatite from Dar al Gani (DaG) 978, a type ~3.5, ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite. The petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical features suggest that the apatite in DaG 978 should have formed during metamorphism in the presence of a fluid. Therefore, the apatite age represents an absolute age for fluid activity in an asteroidal setting. An impact event could have provided the heat to activate this young fluid activity in ESS.

  19. Cr-Al Diffusion in Chromite Spinel at High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, A.; Yasuda, A.; Ozawa, K.

    2005-12-01

    Compositional zoning in chromite spinel gives us important information to constrain thermal and deformation history of ultramafic-mafic rocks. For the quantitative estimation, diffusivity of elements in spinel is a critical parameter. Although the Mg-Fe2+ interdiffusion coefficient in MgAl2O4 spinel has experimentally studied by Freer & O'Reilly (1980) and Liemann & Ganguly (2002), Cr-Al interdiffusion coefficient has not been determined yet. In this study, we have experimentally determined Cr-Al interdiffusion coefficient in chromite spinel at temperatures ranging 1400-1700 °C and pressures ranging 3-7 GPa, by using diffusion couple of natural single crystals of spinel and chromite. Experiments were carried out with a multi-anvil type (MA-8 type) high-pressure apparatus at the Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo. After experiments, the samples were cut perpendicular to the contact plane and analyzed with EPMA and EBSD. The elemental mapping showed that Cr, Al, Fe3+, Fe2+, and Mg diffused perpendicular to the contact plane. The Cr-Al diffusion profiles are complementary with each other and asymmetric with steeper profile in the spinel side suggesting a compositional dependence of Cr-Al diffusion in spinel. The Cr-Al interdiffusion coefficient was estimated by the Boltzmann-Matano method. The coefficient decreases with Cr# (=Cr/(Cr+Al)) of spinel, which varies more than one order of magnitude as the Cr# changes from 0.1 to 0.85 at 3 GPa and 1600 °C. It is concluded that the self-diffusion coefficient of Al is more than one order of magnitude larger than that of Cr. The Cr-Al interdiffusion coefficient is expressed by D=D0exp(-Q/RT), where D0=2.8×10-2 m2/s and Q=498 kJ/mol at Cr#=0.2. This relation is applicable up to Cr#=0.5. Extrapolation of the self-diffusion coefficient of Cr to the lower temperature shows that Cr is the slowest diffusion species in chromite spinel including oxygen. This extremely slow Cr self-diffusion is consistent with the Cr-Al

  20. Plane waves in noncommutative fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, M. C. B.; Holender, L.; Santos, M. A.; Vancea, I. V.

    2013-08-01

    We study the dynamics of the noncommutative fluid in the Snyder space perturbatively at the first order in powers of the noncommutative parameter. The linearized noncommutative fluid dynamics is described by a system of coupled linear partial differential equations in which the variables are the fluid density and the fluid potentials. We show that these equations admit a set of solutions that are monochromatic plane waves for the fluid density and two of the potentials and a linear function for the third potential. The energy-momentum tensor of the plane waves is calculated.

  1. Fluid bed material transfer method

    DOEpatents

    Pinske, Jr., Edward E.

    1994-01-01

    A fluidized bed apparatus comprising a pair of separated fluid bed enclosures, each enclosing a fluid bed carried on an air distributor plate supplied with fluidizing air from below the plate. At least one equalizing duct extending through sidewalls of both fluid bed enclosures and flexibly engaged therewith to communicate the fluid beds with each other. The equalizing duct being surrounded by insulation which is in turn encased by an outer duct having expansion means and being fixed between the sidewalls of the fluid bed enclosures.

  2. Heat transfer fluids containing nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Routbort, Jules; Routbort, A.J.; Yu, Wenhua; Timofeeva, Elena; Smith, David S.; France, David M.

    2016-05-17

    A nanofluid of a base heat transfer fluid and a plurality of ceramic nanoparticles suspended throughout the base heat transfer fluid applicable to commercial and industrial heat transfer applications. The nanofluid is stable, non-reactive and exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties relative to the base heat transfer fluid, with only minimal increases in pumping power required relative to the base heat transfer fluid. In a particular embodiment, the plurality of ceramic nanoparticles comprise silicon carbide and the base heat transfer fluid comprises water and water and ethylene glycol mixtures.

  3. Fluids in high- to ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism along collisional sutures: Record from fluid inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Santosh, M.

    2011-08-01

    Petrographic studies and microthermometric investigations on fluid inclusions associated with high- to ultrahigh-temperature metamorphic rocks in three major Precambrian suture zones on the globe demonstrate the dominant occurrence of CO 2-rich fluids. These rocks form part of hot orogens developed along collisional plate boundaries. The sapphirine-quartz-bearing Mg-Al-rich rock from the Palghat-Cauvery Suture Zone, a trace of the Cambrian Gondwana suture zone in southern India, preserves evidence for a prograde high-pressure event and subsequent peak ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism along a clockwise path, and contains abundant CO 2-rich inclusions in corundum, garnet, and sapphirine. Most of the fluid inclusions are either primary or secondary and preserve low-density CO 2-rich fluids (0.569-0.807 g/cm 3). Similar low-density CO 2-rich fluid inclusions (0.853-0.953 g/cm 3) are also present in pelitic granulites from the Limpopo Complex of southern Africa, a Neoarchean granulite-facies orogen formed by continent-continent collision. In contrast, the garnet-orthopyroxene granulite from Tonagh Island in the Neoarchean Napier Complex in East Antarctica contains very high-density primary (1.095-1.129 g/cm 3) and secondary (0.960-1.179 g/cm 3) carbonic inclusions in garnet and quartz. The calculated isochores for the fluid inclusions from the Palghat-Cauvery Suture Zone and the Limpopo Complex yield significantly lower-pressure estimates than those predicted from peak metamorphic conditions. We interpret this as a result of significant density decrease due to rapid decompression along a clockwise P- T trajectory. In contrast, the estimated isochores for primary inclusions in garnet-orthopyroxene granulites from the Napier Complex are consistent with the peak P- T conditions estimated from mineral phase equilibria for the Tonagh Island rocks, suggesting that most of the fluid inclusions in these rocks did not undergo any marked effect of volume change and density

  4. La singularité du patient tuberculeux dans le système de santé: l'expérience du Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Zerbo, Roger

    2013-01-01

    La démarche pluridisciplinaire s'impose de plus en plus dans le secteur de la santé dans le contexte africain, où les parcours thérapeutiques sont pluriels et les rapports des usagers des centres de santé sont complexes et peu satisfaisants. La compréhension des représentations de la maladie est nécessaire pour offrir des soins appropriés certes, mais l'expérience individuelle des malades représente également une source de savoir. Les données ont été collectées à travers des entretiens semi-directifs, le recueil des récits de vie et des observations participantes. Cet article rend compte d'une expérience d'implication de socio-anthropologue dans la mise en œuvre d'un programme de santé publique au Burkina Faso en vue d'une amélioration de la prise en charge des malades tuberculeux. L'analyse des données à été conduite dans une visée réflexive. Les perspectives socio-anthropologiques ont révélé que l'expérience des anciens malades tuberculeux peut être mise à profit afin d'apporter des changements dans les relations thérapeutiques et l'intégration sociale des autres malades. Cette idée à été mise en application pour tenir lieu d'une traduction des analyses anthropologiques en actes pour un changement. L'article évoque la manière dont l'approche socio-anthropologique au sein d'un programme de santé, peut mettre en évidence le potentiel des malades à être des acteurs importants dans le fonctionnement des services de soins et leur propre bien-être. Dans cette situation, la démarche théorique implique la réflexivité de l'anthropologue, mais également un regard critique sur les modes d'intervention en santé publique. PMID:24009798

  5. Seismic evidence for deep fluid circulation in the overriding plate of subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauzin, B.; Reynard, B.; Bodin, T.; Perrillat, J. P.; Debayle, E.

    2015-12-01

    In subduction zones, non-volcanic tremors are associated with fluid circulations (Obara, 2002). Their sources are often located on the interplate boundary (Rogers and Dragert, 2003; Shelly et al, 2006; La Rocca, 2009), consistent with fluids released by the dehydration of subducted plates (Hacker et al., 2003). Reports of tremors in the overriding continental crust of several subduction zones in the world (Kao et al., 2005; Payero et al., 2008; Ide, 2012) suggest fluid circulation at shallower depths but potential fluid paths are poorly documented. Here we obtained seismic observations from receiver functions that evidence the close association between the shallow tremor zone, electrical conductivity, and tectonic features of the Cascadia overriding plate. A seismic discontinuity near 15 km depth in the crust of the overriding North American plate is attributed to the Conrad discontinuity. This interface is segmented, and its interruption is spatially correlated with conductive regions and shallow swarms of seismicity and non-volcanic tremors. These observations suggest that shallow fluid circulation, tremors and seismicity are controlled by fault zones limiting blocks of accreted terranes in the overriding plate (Brudzinski and Allen, 2007). These zones constitute fluid "escape" routes that may contribute unloading fluid pressure on the megathrust. Obara, K. (2002). Science, 296, 1679-1681. Rogers, G., & Dragert, H. (2003). Science, 300, 1942-1943. Shelly, D. R., et al. (2006). Nature, 442, 188-191. La Rocca, M., et al. (2009). Science, 323, 620-623. Kao, H., et al. (2005). Nature, 436, 841-844. Payero, J. S., et al. (2008). Geophysical Research Letters, 35. Ide, S. (2012). Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 117. Brudzinski, M. R., & Allen, R. M. (2007). Geology, 35, 907-910.

  6. New integral equation for simple fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hong Seok; Ree, Francis H.

    1995-09-01

    We present a new integral equation for the radial distribution function of classical fluids. It employs the bridge function for a short-range repulsive reference system which was used earlier in our dense fluid perturbation theory. The bridge function is evaluated using Ballone et al.'s closure relation. Applications of the integral equation to the Lennard-Jones and inverse nth-power (n=12, 9, 6, and 4) repulsive systems show that it can predict thermodynamic and structural properties in close agreement with results from computer simulations and the reference-hypernetted-chain equation. We also discuss thermodynamic consistency tests on the new equation and comparisons with the integral equations of Rogers and Young and of Zerah and Hansen. The present equation has no parameter to adjust. This unique feature offers a significant advantage as it eliminates a time-consuming search to optimize such parameters appearing in other theories. It permits practical applications needing complex intermolecular potentials and for multicomponent systems.

  7. Numerical Analysis of Temperature Gradients and Interface Shape During Directional Solidification of Al and Al-Cu Alloy Under Microgravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bune, Andris V.; Sen, Subhayu; Mukherjee, Sundeep; Catalina, Adrian; Stefanescu, Doru M.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical modeling was undertaken to analyze the influence of radial thermal gradient on solid/liquid (s/1) interface shape and convection patterns during solidification of pure Al and Al-4 wt% Cu alloy. The objective of the numerical task was to predict the influence of convective velocity on an insoluble particle near a s/l interface. These predictions would then be used to define the minimum gravity level (g) required to investigate the fundamental physics of interaction between a particle and a s/I interface. To satisfy this objective, steady state calculations were performed for different gravity levels and orientations with the gravity vector. ne furnace configuration used in this analysis is the proposed International Space Station Furnace, Quench Module Insert (QMI) 1. Results from a thermal model of the furnace core were used as initial boundary conditions for solidification modeling. General model of binary alloy solidification was based on the finite element code FIDAP. It was found that for the worst case orientation of 90 degrees with the gravity vector and a g level of 10(exp -4)g(sub o) (g(sub o) = 9.8 m/s(exp 2)) the dominant forces acting on the particle would be the fundamental drag and interfacial forces.

  8. Task rules, working memory, and fluid intelligence.

    PubMed

    Duncan, John; Schramm, Moritz; Thompson, Russell; Dumontheil, Iroise

    2012-10-01

    Many varieties of working memory have been linked to fluid intelligence. In Duncan et al. (Journal of Experimental Psychology:General 137:131-148, 2008), we described limited working memory for new task rules: When rules are complex, some may fail in their control of behavior, though they are often still available for explicit recall. Unlike other kinds of working memory, load is determined in this case not by real-time performance demands, but by the total complexity of the task instructions. Here, we show that the correlation with fluid intelligence is stronger for this aspect of working memory than for several other, more traditional varieties-including simple and complex spans and a test of visual short-term memory. Any task, we propose, requires construction of a mental control program that aids in segregating and assembling multiple task parts and their controlling rules. Fluid intelligence is linked closely to the efficiency of constructing such programs, especially when behavior is complex and novel.

  9. Local fluid transport by planktonic swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Ortiz, Monica; Dabiri, John

    2013-11-01

    Energy transport in the ocean occurs through an intricate set of pathways mainly powered by physical phenomena. The hypothesis that vertical migrations of aquatic fauna may contribute to this process through the action of the induced drift mechanism has been investigated in recent years. Microscale measurements by Kunze et al. (1), in Saanich Inlet have shown the presence of high kinetic energy dissipation rates in the vicinity of vertically migrating krill swarms. However, it remains uncertain if energy is being introduced at scales large enough to induce the transport of fluid across surfaces of equal density. Within this context, the present study aims to provide experimental insight of fluid transport by planktonic swarms. The vertical migration of Artemia salina is triggered and controlled by means of a system of stationary and translating luminescent signals. High speed flow visualizations elucidate the competing effects of upward drift by the passive sections of the organisms and downward flow induced by the appendages. The resulting fluid transport is assessed by using PIV at different stages of the migration. The kinetic energy spectrum is computed using velocity correlation functions to determine the length scales at which the animals introduce energy to the flow.

  10. Drag in a resonantly driven polariton fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berceanu, A. C.; Cancellieri, E.; Marchetti, F. M.

    2012-06-01

    We study the linear response of a coherently driven polariton fluid in the pump-only configuration scattering against a point-like defect and evaluate analytically the drag force exerted by the fluid on the defect. When the system is excited near the bottom of the lower polariton dispersion, the sign of the interaction-renormalised pump detuning classifies the collective excitation spectra into three different categories (Ciuti and Carusotto 2005 Phys. Status Solidi b 242 2224): linear for zero, diffusive-like for positive and gapped for negative detuning. We show that both cases of zero and positive detuning share a qualitatively similar crossover of the drag force from the subsonic to the supersonic regime as a function of the fluid velocity, with a critical velocity given by the speed of sound found for the linear regime. In contrast, for gapped spectra, we find that the critical velocity exceeds the speed of sound. In all cases, the residual drag force in the subcritical regime depends on the polariton lifetime only. Also, well below the critical velocity, the drag force varies linearly with the polariton lifetime, in agreement with previous work (Cancellieri et al 2010 Phys. Rev. B 82 224512), where the drag was determined numerically for a finite-size defect.

  11. Drag in a resonantly driven polariton fluid.

    PubMed

    Berceanu, A C; Cancellieri, E; Marchetti, F M

    2012-06-13

    We study the linear response of a coherently driven polariton fluid in the pump-only configuration scattering against a point-like defect and evaluate analytically the drag force exerted by the fluid on the defect. When the system is excited near the bottom of the lower polariton dispersion, the sign of the interaction-renormalised pump detuning classifies the collective excitation spectra into three different categories (Ciuti and Carusotto 2005 Phys. Status Solidi b 242 2224): linear for zero, diffusive-like for positive and gapped for negative detuning. We show that both cases of zero and positive detuning share a qualitatively similar crossover of the drag force from the subsonic to the supersonic regime as a function of the fluid velocity, with a critical velocity given by the speed of sound found for the linear regime. In contrast, for gapped spectra, we find that the critical velocity exceeds the speed of sound. In all cases, the residual drag force in the subcritical regime depends on the polariton lifetime only. Also, well below the critical velocity, the drag force varies linearly with the polariton lifetime, in agreement with previous work (Cancellieri et al 2010 Phys. Rev. B 82 224512), where the drag was determined numerically for a finite-size defect.

  12. Magnetic power piston fluid compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasser, Max G. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A compressor with no moving parts in the traditional sense having a housing having an inlet end allowing a low pressure fluid to enter and an outlet end allowing a high pressure fluid to exit is described. Within the compressor housing is at least one compression stage to increase the pressure of the fluid within the housing. The compression stage has a quantity of magnetic powder within the housing, is supported by a screen that allows passage of the fluid, and a coil for selectively providing a magnetic field across the magnetic powder such that when the magnetic field is not present the individual particles of the powder are separated allowing the fluid to flow through the powder and when the magnetic field is present the individual particles of the powder pack together causing the powder mass to expand preventing the fluid from flowing through the powder and causing a pressure pulse to compress the fluid.

  13. Fluid dynamics of heart development.

    PubMed

    Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Miller, Laura A

    2011-09-01

    The morphology, muscle mechanics, fluid dynamics, conduction properties, and molecular biology of the developing embryonic heart have received much attention in recent years due to the importance of both fluid and elastic forces in shaping the heart as well as the striking relationship between the heart's evolution and development. Although few studies have directly addressed the connection between fluid dynamics and heart development, a number of studies suggest that fluids may play a key role in morphogenic signaling. For example, fluid shear stress may trigger biochemical cascades within the endothelial cells of the developing heart that regulate chamber and valve morphogenesis. Myocardial activity generates forces on the intracardiac blood, creating pressure gradients across the cardiac wall. These pressures may also serve as epigenetic signals. In this article, the fluid dynamics of the early stages of heart development is reviewed. The relevant work in cardiac morphology, muscle mechanics, regulatory networks, and electrophysiology is also reviewed in the context of intracardial fluid dynamics. PMID:21327946

  14. Particles at fluid-fluid interfaces: A new Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard surface- phase-field-crystal model.

    PubMed

    Aland, Sebastian; Lowengrub, John; Voigt, Axel

    2012-10-01

    Colloid particles that are partially wetted by two immiscible fluids can become confined to fluid-fluid interfaces. At sufficiently high volume fractions, the colloids may jam and the interface may crystallize. The fluids together with the interfacial colloids form an emulsion with interesting material properties and offer an important route to new soft materials. A promising approach to simulate these emulsions was presented in Aland et al. [Phys. Fluids 23, 062103 (2011)], where a Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard model for the macroscopic two-phase fluid system was combined with a surface phase-field-crystal model for the microscopic colloidal particles along the interface. Unfortunately this model leads to spurious velocities which require very fine spatial and temporal resolutions to accurately and stably simulate. In this paper we develop an improved Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard-surface phase-field-crystal model based on the principles of mass conservation and thermodynamic consistency. To validate our approach, we derive a sharp interface model and show agreement with the improved diffuse interface model. Using simple flow configurations, we show that the new model has much better properties and does not lead to spurious velocities. Finally, we demonstrate the solid-like behavior of the crystallized interface by simulating the fall of a solid ball through a colloid-laden multiphase fluid. PMID:23214691

  15. Particles at fluid-fluid interfaces: A new Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard surface-phase-field-crystal model

    PubMed Central

    Aland, Sebastian; Lowengrub, John; Voigt, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Colloid particles that are partially wetted by two immiscible fluids can become confined to fluid-fluid interfaces. At sufficiently high volume fractions, the colloids may jam and the interface may crystallize. The fluids together with the interfacial colloids form an emulsion with interesting material properties and offer an important route to new soft materials. A promising approach to simulate these emulsions was presented in Aland et al. [Phys. Fluids 23, 062103 (2011)], where a Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard model for the macroscopic two-phase fluid system was combined with a surface phase-field-crystal model for the microscopic colloidal particles along the interface. Unfortunately this model leads to spurious velocities which require very fine spatial and temporal resolutions to accurately and stably simulate. In this paper we develop an improved Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard-surface phase-field-crystal model based on the principles of mass conservation and thermodynamic consistency. To validate our approach, we derive a sharp interface model and show agreement with the improved diffuse interface model. Using simple flow configurations, we show that the new model has much better properties and does not lead to spurious velocities. Finally, we demonstrate the solid-like behavior of the crystallized interface by simulating the fall of a solid ball through a colloid-laden multiphase fluid. PMID:23214691

  16. FLUID- THERMODYNAMIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    The accurate computation of the thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids is a necessity for many engineering calculations. The FLUID program was developed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids in both the liquid and gas phases. Fluid properties are calculated using a simple gas model, empirical corrections, and an efficient numerical interpolation scheme. FLUID produces results that are in very good agreement with measured values, while being much faster than older more complex programs developed for the same purpose. A Van der Waals equation of state model is used to obtain approximate state values. These values are corrected for real-gas effects by model correction factors obtained from tables based on experimental data. These tables also accurately compensate for the special circumstances which arise whenever phase conditions occur. Viscosity and thermal conductivity values are computed directly from tables. Interpolation within tables is based on Lagrange's three point formula. A set of tables must be generated for each fluid implemented. FLUID currently contains tables for nine fluids including dry air and steam. The user can add tables for any fluid for which adequate thermal property data is available. The FLUID routine is structured so that it may easily be incorporated into engineering programs. The IBM 360 version of FLUID was developed in 1977. It is written in FORTRAN IV and has been implemented on an IBM 360 with a central memory requirement of approximately 222K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID is written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77 and has been implemented on an IBM PC with a memory requirement of 128K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID was developed in 1986.

  17. FLUID- THERMODYNAMIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS (IBM VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    The accurate computation of the thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids is a necessity for many engineering calculations. The FLUID program was developed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids in both the liquid and gas phases. Fluid properties are calculated using a simple gas model, empirical corrections, and an efficient numerical interpolation scheme. FLUID produces results that are in very good agreement with measured values, while being much faster than older more complex programs developed for the same purpose. A Van der Waals equation of state model is used to obtain approximate state values. These values are corrected for real-gas effects by model correction factors obtained from tables based on experimental data. These tables also accurately compensate for the special circumstances which arise whenever phase conditions occur. Viscosity and thermal conductivity values are computed directly from tables. Interpolation within tables is based on Lagrange's three point formula. A set of tables must be generated for each fluid implemented. FLUID currently contains tables for nine fluids including dry air and steam. The user can add tables for any fluid for which adequate thermal property data is available. The FLUID routine is structured so that it may easily be incorporated into engineering programs. The IBM 360 version of FLUID was developed in 1977. It is written in FORTRAN IV and has been implemented on an IBM 360 with a central memory requirement of approximately 222K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID is written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77 and has been implemented on an IBM PC with a memory requirement of 128K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID was developed in 1986.

  18. Fluid and Electrolyte Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Smith, Scott M.; Leach, Carolyn S.; Rice, Barbara L.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis have been completed since the early human space flight programs, with comprehensive research completed on the Spacelab Life Sciences missions SLS-1 and SLS-2 flights, and more recently on the Mir 18 mission. This work documented the known shifts in fluids, the decrease in total blood volume, and indications of reduced thirst. Data from these flights was used to evaluate the nutritional needs for water, sodium, and potassium. Interpretations of the data are confounded by the inadequate energy intakes routinely observed during space flight. This in turn results in reduced fluid intake, as food provides approximately 70% water intake. Subsequently, body weight, lean body mass, total body water, and total body potassium may decrease. Given these issues, there is evidence to support a minimum required water intake of 2 L per day. Data from previous Shuttle flights indicated that water intake is 2285 +/- 715 ml/day (mean +/- SD, n=26). There are no indications that sodium intake or homeostasis is compromised during space flight. The normal or low aldosterone and urinary sodium levels suggest adequate sodium intake (4047 +/- 902 mg/day, n=26). Because excessive sodium intake is associated with hypercalciuria, the recommended maximum amount of sodium intake during flight is 3500 mg/day (i.e., similar to the Recommended Dietary Allowance, RDA). Potassium metabolism appears to be more complex. Data indicate loss of body potassium related to muscle atrophy and low dietary intake (2407 +/- 548 mg/day, n=26). Although possibly related to measurement error, the elevations in blood potassium suggest alterations in potassium homeostasis. The space RDA for minimum potassium intake is 3500 mg/day. With the documented inadequate intakes, efforts are being made to increase dietary consumption of potassium.

  19. Aerodynamic Characterization of a Thin, High-Performance Airfoil for Use in Ground Fluids Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Lee, Sam; Clark, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The FAA has worked with Transport Canada and others to develop allowance times for aircraft operating in ice-pellet precipitation. Wind-tunnel testing has been carried out to better understand the flowoff characteristics and resulting aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids contaminated with ice pellets using a thin, high-performance wing section at the National Research Council of Canada Propulsion and Icing Wind Tunnel. The objective of this paper is to characterize the aerodynamic behavior of this wing section in order to better understand the adverse aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination. Aerodynamic performance data, boundary-layer surveys and flow visualization were conducted at a Reynolds number of approximately 6.0 x 10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 0.12. The clean, baseline model exhibited leading-edge stall characteristics including a leading-edge laminar separation bubble and minimal or no separation on the trailing edge of the main element or flap. These results were consistent with expected 2-D aerodynamics and showed no anomalies that could adversely affect the evaluation of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination on the wing. Tests conducted with roughness and leading-edge flow disturbances helped to explain the aerodynamic impact of the anti-icing fluids and contamination. The stalling characteristics of the wing section with fluid and contamination appear to be driven at least partially by the effects of a secondary wave of fluid that forms near the leading edge as the wing is rotated in the simulated takeoff profile. These results have provided a much more complete understanding of the adverse aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination on this wing section. This is important since these results are used, in part, to develop the ice-pellet allowance times that are applicable to many different airplanes.

  20. Aerodynamic Characterization of a Thin, High-Performance Airfoil for Use in Ground Fluids Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Lee, Sam; Clark, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The FAA has worked with Transport Canada and others to develop allowance times for aircraft operating in ice-pellet precipitation. Wind-tunnel testing has been carried out to better understand the flowoff characteristics and resulting aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids contaminated with ice pellets using a thin, high-performance wing section at the National Research Council of Canada Propulsion and Icing Wind Tunnel. The objective of this paper is to characterize the aerodynamic behavior of this wing section in order to better understand the adverse aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination. Aerodynamic performance data, boundary-layer surveys and flow visualization were conducted at a Reynolds number of approximately 6.0×10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 0.12. The clean, baseline model exhibited leading-edge stall characteristics including a leading-edge laminar separation bubble and minimal or no separation on the trailing edge of the main element or flap. These results were consistent with expected 2-D aerodynamics and showed no anomalies that could adversely affect the evaluation of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination on the wing. Tests conducted with roughness and leading-edge flow disturbances helped to explain the aerodynamic impact of the anti-icing fluids and contamination. The stalling characteristics of the wing section with fluid and contamination appear to be driven at least partially by the effects of a secondary wave of fluid that forms near the leading edge as the wing is rotated in the simulated takeoff profile. These results have provided a much more complete understanding of the adverse aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination on this wing section. This is important since these results are used, in part, to develop the ice-pellet allowance times that are applicable to many different airplanes.

  1. Fluid flow and particle transport in mechanically ventilated airways. Part I. Fluid flow structures.

    PubMed

    Van Rhein, Timothy; Alzahrany, Mohammed; Banerjee, Arindam; Salzman, Gary

    2016-07-01

    A large eddy simulation-based computational study of fluid flow and particle transport in upper tracheobronchial airways is carried out to investigate the effect of ventilation parameters on pulmonary fluid flow. Respiratory waveforms commonly used by commercial mechanical ventilators are used to study the effect of ventilation parameters and ventilation circuit on pulmonary fluid dynamics. A companion paper (Alzahrany et al. in Med Biol Eng Comput, 2014) reports our findings on the effect of the ventilation parameters and circuit on particle transport and aerosolized drug delivery. The endotracheal tube (ETT) was found to be an important geometric feature and resulted in a fluid jet that caused an increase in turbulence and created a recirculation zone with high wall shear stress in the main bronchi. Stronger turbulence was found in lower airways than would be found under normal breathing conditions due to the presence of the jet caused by the ETT. The pressure-controlled sinusoidal waveform induced the lowest wall shear stress on the airways wall. PMID:26563199

  2. Heat pipe with dual working fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlosinger, A. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A heat pipe design is offered that utilizes an auxiliary working fluid. The fluid, although being less efficient than the main working fluid, remains liquid at low heat loads when the main working fluid freezes.

  3. Electrochemistry in supercritical fluids

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Jack A.; Bartlett, Philip N.

    2015-01-01

    A wide range of supercritical fluids (SCFs) have been studied as solvents for electrochemistry with carbon dioxide and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) being the most extensively studied. Recent advances have shown that it is possible to get well-resolved voltammetry in SCFs by suitable choice of the conditions and the electrolyte. In this review, we discuss the voltammetry obtained in these systems, studies of the double-layer capacitance, work on the electrodeposition of metals into high aspect ratio nanopores and the use of metallocenes as redox probes and standards in both supercritical carbon dioxide–acetonitrile and supercritical HFCs. PMID:26574527

  4. Reliability of fluid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopáček, Jaroslav; Fojtášek, Kamil; Dvořák, Lukáš

    2016-03-01

    This paper focuses on the importance of detection reliability, especially in complex fluid systems for demanding production technology. The initial criterion for assessing the reliability is the failure of object (element), which is seen as a random variable and their data (values) can be processed using by the mathematical methods of theory probability and statistics. They are defined the basic indicators of reliability and their applications in calculations of serial, parallel and backed-up systems. For illustration, there are calculation examples of indicators of reliability for various elements of the system and for the selected pneumatic circuit.

  5. Rotational fluid flow experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This project which began in 1986 as part of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) Advanced Space Design Program focuses on the design and implementation of an electromechanical system for studying vortex behavior in a microgravity environment. Most of the existing equipment was revised and redesigned by this project team, as necessary. Emphasis was placed on documentation and integration of the electrical and mechanical subsystems. Project results include reconfiguration and thorough testing of all hardware subsystems, implementation of an infrared gas entrainment detector, new signal processing circuitry for the ultrasonic fluid circulation device, improved prototype interface circuits, and software for overall control of experiment operation.

  6. Mixture of Anisotropic Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florkowski, W.; Maj, R.

    The recently introduced approach describing coupled quark and gluon anisotropic fluids is generalized to include explicitly the transitions between quarks and gluons. We study the effects of such processes on the thermalization rate of anisotropic systems. We find that the quark-gluon transitions may enhance the overall thermalization rate in the cases where the initial momentum anisotropies correspond to mixed oblate-prolate or prolate configurations. On the other hand, no effect on the thermalization rate is found in the case of oblate configurations. The observed regularities are connected with the late-time behavior of the analyzed systems which is described either by the exponential decay or the power law.

  7. Electrochemistry in supercritical fluids.

    PubMed

    Branch, Jack A; Bartlett, Philip N

    2015-12-28

    A wide range of supercritical fluids (SCFs) have been studied as solvents for electrochemistry with carbon dioxide and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) being the most extensively studied. Recent advances have shown that it is possible to get well-resolved voltammetry in SCFs by suitable choice of the conditions and the electrolyte. In this review, we discuss the voltammetry obtained in these systems, studies of the double-layer capacitance, work on the electrodeposition of metals into high aspect ratio nanopores and the use of metallocenes as redox probes and standards in both supercritical carbon dioxide-acetonitrile and supercritical HFCs.

  8. Spin waves in fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kistler, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    A working report is presented in order to document early results of research on the stability of laminar boundary layers. The report shows that constitutive equations for a structured continua may be derived by the technique of reinterpreting velocity in the conventional stress to rate-of-strain relationship so as to account for effects of particle rotation. It is demonstrated that accounting for particle structure even at a molecular level makes the fluid viscoelastic with the ability to propagate vector waves. It is shown that particle structure modifies the basic stability equation for the system, which in turn would alter values for critical Reynolds number.

  9. Fluid catalytic cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, R.H.; Bartley, B.H.

    1984-05-01

    A fluid catalytic cracking process is disclosed for sulfur-containing petroleum charge stocks. Sulfur contained in coke deposited on the fluidized cracking catalyst in the reactor is converted to sulfur oxides in the regenerator and removed from regenerator off-gases by incorporating a composite of alumina and bismuth oxides in a particulate cracking catalyst. Sulfur oxides produced during regeneration of the catalyst by burning the coke with air in the regenerator are captured by the alumina-bismuth oxides composite and converted to hydrogen sulfide in the cracking reactor. The hydrogen sulfide so produced is readily separated from petroleum products of the catalytic cracking reaction process.

  10. Measurements of Line Positions and Strengths of HD O-18 and D2 O-18 in the 2500-4280 cm(exp -1) Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toth, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of line positions and strengths of D2 O-18 and HD O-18 were obtained with a Fourier transform spectrometer. The data were analyzed to obtain energy levels of the (100), (020), and (001) vibrational states of HD O-18 and the (001) and (011) states of D2 O-18 and the vibrational bands of these states connected to the ground state covered the spectral region from 2500 to 4278 cm(exp -1). 456 absorption lines of D2 O-18 and 856 lines of HD O-18 were assigned from the spectra. The measurements were of oxygen-18 enriched samples of deuterated water vapor and the spectra also contained features of HD O-16, D2 O-16, H2 O-16, H2 O-17 and H2 O-18 of which several were used as frequency calibration standards.

  11. Pore fluid ‘ages’ suggest fluid replacement events across the San Andreas Fault at Depth, Parkfield, CA (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, S.; Stute, M.; Torgersen, T.; Hemming, S. R.; Fleisher, M. Q.; Winckler, G.

    2009-12-01

    The presence of aqueous reaction produced low strength mineral surfaces is linked to low friction slip along the San Andreas Fault Zone (SAFZ) as shown in core samples recovered from the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) in Parkfield, CA. These mineral phases are a product of fluid-rock interaction in the fault zone. SAFOD drill cores show multiple zones of alteration and deformation due to fluid-rock interaction (Schleicher et. al, 2008), which requires transport of fluids into the fault zone. We present pore fluid ages, age gradients, as well as 3He and 4He isotope profiles of matrix fluids obtained from drill core samples during SAFOD phases 1, 2, and 3 to constrain fluid flow across the SAFZ. Helium and argon concentration profiles in the pore fluids suggest the fault represents a sink for 3He, 4He and 40Ar. The 3He/4He profile across the SAFZ confirms the mantle helium signature is introduced from the North American Plate side of the SAFOD drillhole and the lack of mantle-derived fluid component through the fault zone. Noble gas measurements on the solid phase indicate that more than 90% of in situ produced He has entered the fluid phase. The presence of mantle-derived He in both plates and the fault zone suggests that the fluids are accumulating both locally produced and externally produced He. Apparent maximum pore fluid ages range from ˜300,000-700,000 years (3050m-measured depth (MD)) in the Pacific Plate and ˜300,000 -500,000 years (3989m-MD) in the North American Plate, compared to relatively younger ages of <200,000 years in the actively creeping trace of the SAFZ at 3300m-MD. The pore fluid ages suggest fluid flow events on these or shorter timescales in the respective zones. Each fluid event results into further dissolution and precipitation in the SAFZ creating a new layer of minerals, which in turn can enhance further slip along the fault.

  12. Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow

    DOEpatents

    Ward, Michael D.; Kaduchak, Gregory

    2010-11-23

    An apparatus for acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.

  13. Precision Cleaning Verification of Fluid Components by Air/Water Impingement and Total Carbon Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barile, Ronald G.; Fogarty, Chris; Cantrell, Chris; Melton, Gregory S.

    1995-01-01

    NASA personnel at Kennedy Space Center's Material Science Laboratory have developed new environmentally sound precision cleaning and verification techniques for systems and components found at the center. This technology is required to replace existing methods traditionally employing CFC-113. The new patent-pending technique of precision cleaning verification is for large components of cryogenic fluid systems. These are stainless steel, sand cast valve bodies with internal surface areas ranging from 0.2 to 0.9 m(exp 2). Extrapolation of this technique to components of even larger sizes (by orders of magnitude) is planned. Currently, the verification process is completely manual. In the new technique, a high velocity, low volume water stream impacts the part to be verified. This process is referred to as Breathing Air/Water Impingement and forms the basis for the Impingement Verification System (IVS). The system is unique in that a gas stream is used to accelerate the water droplets to high speeds. Water is injected into the gas stream in a small, continuous amount. The air/water mixture is then passed through a converging-diverging nozzle where the gas is accelerated to supersonic velocities. These droplets impart sufficient energy to the precision cleaned surface to place non-volatile residue (NVR) contaminants into suspension in the water. The sample water is collected and its NVR level is determined by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis at 880 C. The TOC, in ppm carbon, is used to establish the NVR level. A correlation between the present gravimetric CFC-113 NVR and the IVS NVR is found from experimental sensitivity factors measured for various contaminants. The sensitivity has the units of ppm of carbon per mg-ft(exp 2) of contaminant. In this paper, the equipment is described and data are presented showing the development of the sensitivity factors from a test set including four NVR's impinged from witness plates of 0.05 to 0.75 m(exp 2).

  14. The incompressible Rindler fluid versus the Schwarzschild-AdS fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Yoshinori; Natsuume, Makoto; Ohta, Masahiro; Okamura, Takashi

    2013-02-01

    We study the proposal by Bredberg et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 1103, 141 (2011)], where the fluid is defined by the Brown-York tensor on a timelike surface at r = rc in black hole backgrounds. We consider both Rindler space and the Schwarzschild-AdS (SAdS) black hole. The former describes an incompressible fluid, whereas the latter describes the vanishing bulk viscosity at arbitrary rc. Although the near-horizon limit of the SAdS black hole is Rindler space, these two results do not contradict each other. We also find an interesting "coincidence" with the black hole membrane paradigm that gives a negative bulk viscosity. In order to show these results, we rewrite the hydrodynamic stress tensor via metric perturbations using the conservation equation. The resulting expressions are suitable to compare with the Brown-York tensor.

  15. Well completion and workover fluid having low fluid loss

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, P.W.; Gallus, J.P.; Pye, D.S.

    1980-03-11

    A description is given of a non-damaging variable-density low fluid loss well completion and workover fluid composition which is a dispersion of finely divided slowly oil-soluble, water-insoluble solid particulate matter in a thickened aqueous salt solution. The fluid composition is a mixture of an aqueous solution of a watersoluble inorganic salt, a first high softening point resin fluid loss control additive, a microemulsion fluid loss control additive, and, optionally, a water-dispersible thickening agent and/or a ph control agent. The microemulsion contains water, an oil-soluble surface active agent, a water-dispersible surface active agent, and, as a fluid loss control additive, a mixture of a wax and a second low softening point resin. The microemulsion also optionally contains an additive to prevent phase separation and/or a bactericide. Also disclosed is a method for using this composition in various well drilling, completion and treating operations.

  16. Null fluids: A new viewpoint of Galilean fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Dutta, Suvankar; Jain, Akash

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we study a Galilean fluid with a conserved U (1 ) current up to anomalies. We construct a relativistic system, which we call a null fluid and show that it is in one-to-one correspondence with a Galilean fluid living in one lower dimension. The correspondence is based on light cone reduction, which is known to reduce the Poincaré symmetry of a theory to Galilean in one lower dimension. We show that the proposed null fluid and the corresponding Galilean fluid have exactly same symmetries, thermodynamics, constitutive relations, and equilibrium partition to all orders in the derivative expansion. We also devise a mechanism to introduce U (1 ) anomaly in even dimensional Galilean theories using light cone reduction, and study its effect on the constitutive relations of a Galilean fluid.

  17. Fluid injection microvalve

    DOEpatents

    Renzi, Ronald F.

    2005-11-22

    A microvalve for extracting small volume samples into analytical devices, e.g., high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) column, includes: a first body having a first interior surface and two or more outlet ports at the first interior surface that are in fluid communication with two or more first channels; a second body having a second interior surface and two or more inlet ports at the second interior surface that are in fluid communication with two or more second channels wherein the outlet ports of the first body are coaxial with the corresponding inlet ports of the second body such that there are at least two sets of coaxial port outlets and port inlets; a plate member, which has a substantially planar first mating surface and a substantially planar second mating surface, that is slidably positioned between the first interior surface and the second interior surface wherein the plate member has at least one aperture that traverses the height of the plate member, and wherein the aperture can be positioned to be coaxial with any of the at least two sets of coaxial port outlets and port inlets; and means for securing the first surface of the first body against the first mating surface and for securing the second surface of the second body against the second mating surface.

  18. A Fluid Mechanics Hypercourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, James A.; Sonwalkar, Nishikant

    1996-05-01

    This CD-ROM is designed to accompany James Fay's Introduction to Fluid Mechanics. An enhanced hypermedia version of the textbook, it offers a number of ways to explore the fluid mechanics domain. These include a complete hypertext version of the original book, physical-experiment video clips, excerpts from external references, audio annotations, colored graphics, review questions, and progressive hints for solving problems. Throughout, the authors provide expert guidance in navigating the typed links so that students do not get lost in the learning process. System requirements: Macintosh with 68030 or greater processor and with at least 16 Mb of RAM. Operating System 6.0.4 or later for 680x0 processor and System 7.1.2 or later for Power-PC. CD-ROM drive with 256- color capability. Preferred display 14 inches or above (SuperVGA with 1 megabyte of VRAM). Additional system font software: Computer Modern postscript fonts (CM/PS Screen Fonts, CMBSY10, and CMTT10) and Adobe Type Manager (ATM 3.0 or later). James A. Fay is Professor Emeritus and Senior Lecturer in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at MIT.

  19. Fluid lubricated bearing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Boorse, Henry A.; Boeker, Gilbert F.; Menke, John R.

    1976-01-01

    1. A support for a loaded rotatable shaft comprising in combination on a housing having a fluid-tight cavity encasing an end portion of said shaft, a thrust bearing near the open end of said cavity for supporting the axial thrust of said shaft, said thrust bearing comprising a thrust plate mounted in said housing and a thrust collar mounted on said shaft, said thrust plate having a central opening the peripheral portion of which is hermetically sealed to said housing at the open end of said cavity, and means for supplying a fluid lubricant to said thrust bearing, said thrust bearing having a lubricant-conducting path connecting said lubricant supplying means with the space between said thrust plate and collar intermediate the peripheries thereof, the surfaces of said plate and collar being constructed and arranged to inhibit radial flow of lubricant and, on rotation of said thrust collar, to draw lubricant through said path between the bearing surfaces and to increase the pressure therebetween and in said cavity and thereby exert a supporting force on said end portion of said shaft.

  20. Visualization in quantum fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathrop, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The motion of quantized vortices, which are topological phase defects analogous to crystalline dislocations, substantially controls the dynamics of quantum fluids. Quantized vortices have been observed in superfluid 4He and AMO trapped atom systems, and have been inferred in superfluid 3He and neutron stars. Long-range quantum order underlies a number of related physical phenomena, including superfluidity, trapped-atom Bose-Einstein condensates, superconductivity, ferromagnetism, anti-ferromagnetism, lasers, and the Higgs mechanism. While superfluidity in 4He is one of the first discovered of these phenomena, it is one of the least understood, given that the strongly interacting nature of helium makes theory difficult, and that development of local experimental probes is lagging. The advent of flow visualization of particles that trace quantized vortices has led to many advances. That progress was caused by repeated suggestions from Russ Donnelly, Joe Niemela, and Joe Vinen. Those suggestions led the team, including Gregory P. Bewley, K.R. Sreenivasan and myself, to venture into the quantum fluid realm. We acknowledge the support of NSF DMR/CMP 0906109 and 1407472.

  1. [Environmental factors in ALS].

    PubMed

    Juntas-Morales, Raul; Pageot, Nicolas; Corcia, Philippe; Camu, William

    2014-05-01

    ALS is likely to be a disorder of multifactorial origin. Among all the factors that may increase the risk of ALS, environmental ones are being studied for many years, but in the recent years, several advances have pointed to a new interest in their potential involvement in the disease process, especially for the cyanotoxin BMAA. Food containing BMAA has been found on Guam, a well-known focus of ALS/parkinsonism/dementia and high levels of BMAA have been identified into the brain of these patients. The BMAA cyanotoxin is potentially ubiquitous and have also been found into the food of patients who died from ALS both in Europe and USA. BMAA can be wrongly integrated into the protein structure during mRNA traduction, competing with serine. This may induce abnormal protein folding and a subsequent cell death. Heavy metals, such as lead or mercury may be directly toxic for neuronal cells. Several works have suggested an increased risk of ALS in individuals chronically exposed to these metals. Exposure to pesticides has been suggested to be linked to an increased risk of developing ALS. The mechanism of their toxicity is likely to be mediated by paraoxonases. These proteins are in charge of detoxifying the organism from toxins, and particularly organophosphates. To date, there are insufficient scientific data to suggest that exposure to electromagnetic fields may increase the risk of having ALS. We are particularly missing longitudinal cohorts to demonstrate that risk.

  2. Zircon solubility and of Zr species in subduction zone fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, M.; Schmidt, C.; Rickers, K.; Pascarelli, S.; Manning, C. E.; Stechern, A.

    2009-12-01

    The geochemical signature of igneous rocks at convergent plate margins is thought to result from complex melt formation processes involving aqueous solutions derived from dehydration of the subducted slab. In these processes, the depletion of high-field-strength elements (HFSE) may be controlled by the presence of accessory phases such as zircon and rutile, which can strongly fractionate these elements; however, the stability and solubility of these phases depends strongly on the fluid composition, including concentration and stoichiometry of Na-Al silicate components. Here we present new data on the influence of the fluid composition on zircon solubility as well as data on the Zr complexation in these fluids at P&T. Experiments were conducted using a modified hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC). Zr contents at P&T were determined using SR-µXRF spectra. Zr K-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectra were acquired to investigate the Zr complexation in-situ at P&T. A grain of synthetic crystalline zircon was equilibrated with an aqueous fluid containing Na2Si2O5 or Na2Si2O5 + Al2O3 components. XAFS and SR-µXRF spectra were taken at the dispersive beamline ID24 of the ESRF, Grenoble, France. Some additional SR-µXRF spectra were taken at HASYLAB, Hamburg, beamline L. The observed Zr concentrations in fluids containing 7-33 wt% Na2Si2O5 and variable Al contents were between 75 and 720 ppm at 500 to 750°C and ~300 MPa to ~700 MPa. These values match expected solubilities calculated from linear interpolation of the maximum solubility in pure H2O (from the detection limit) and the solubility in the most alkaline high-silica melts reported by Ellison and Hess (1986, CMP, 94, 343). The high Zr solubility in sodium silicate-bearing solutions signifies that aqueous fluids with alkali silicates offer an efficient mechanism for HFSE transport. This can be explained by complexation of HFSE with Si, Na, and perhaps also Al, via formation of polymerized solutes

  3. A new and effective method for thermostatting confined fluids

    SciTech Connect

    De Luca, Sergio; Todd, B. D.; Hansen, J. S.; Daivis, Peter J.

    2014-02-07

    We present a simple thermostatting method suitable for nanoconfined fluid systems. Two conventional strategies involve thermostatting the fluid directly or employing a thermal wall that couples only the wall atoms with the thermostat. When only a thermal wall is implemented, the temperature control of the fluid is true to the actual experiment and the heat is transferred from the fluid to the walls. However, for large or complex systems it can often be computationally prohibitive to employ thermal walls. To overcome this limitation many researchers choose to freeze wall atoms and instead apply a synthetic thermostat to the fluid directly through the equations of motion. This, however, can have serious consequences for the mechanical, thermodynamic, and dynamical properties of the fluid by introducing unphysical behaviour into the system [Bernardi et al., J. Chem. Phys. 132, 244706 (2010)]. In this paper, we propose a simple scheme which enables working with both frozen walls and naturally thermostatted liquids. This is done by superimposing the walls with oscillating particles, which vibrate on the edge of the fluid control volume. These particles exchange energy with the fluid molecules, but do not interact with wall atoms or each other, thus behaving as virtual particles. Their displacements violate the Lindemann criterion for melting, in such a way that the net effect would not amount to an additional confining surface. One advantage over standard techniques is the reduced computational cost, particularly for large walls, since they can be kept rigid. Another advantage over accepted strategies is the opportunity to freeze complex charged walls such as β-cristobalite. The method furthermore overcomes the problem with polar fluids such as water, as thermalized charged surfaces require higher spring constants to preserve structural stability, due to the effects of strong Coulomb interactions, thus inevitably degrading the thermostatting efficiency.

  4. Suction blister fluid as potential body fluid for biomarker proteins.

    PubMed

    Kool, Jeroen; Reubsaet, Léon; Wesseldijk, Feikje; Maravilha, Raquel T; Pinkse, Martijn W; D'Santos, Clive S; van Hilten, Jacobus J; Zijlstra, Freek J; Heck, Albert J R

    2007-10-01

    Early diagnosis is important for effective disease management. Measurement of biomarkers present at the local level of the skin could be advantageous in facilitating the diagnostic process. The analysis of the proteome of suction blister fluid, representative for the interstitial fluid of the skin, is therefore a desirable first step in the search for potential biomarkers involved in biological pathways of particular diseases. Here, we describe a global analysis of the suction blister fluid proteome as potential body fluid for biomarker proteins. The suction blister fluid proteome was compared with a serum proteome analyzed using identical protocols. By using stringent criteria allowing less than 1% false positive identifications, we were able to detect, using identical experimental conditions and amount of starting material, 401 proteins in suction blister fluid and 240 proteins in serum. As a major result of our analysis we construct a prejudiced list of 34 proteins, relatively highly and uniquely detected in suction blister fluid as compared to serum, with established and putative characteristics as biomarkers. We conclude that suction blister fluid might potentially serve as a good alternative biomarker body fluid for diseases that involve the skin.

  5. Axisymmetric flows from fluid injection into a confined porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bo; Zheng, Zhong; Celia, Michael A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2016-02-01

    We study the axisymmetric flows generated from fluid injection into a horizontal confined porous medium that is originally saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. Neglecting the effects of surface tension and fluid mixing, we use the lubrication approximation to obtain a nonlinear advection-diffusion equation that describes the time evolution of the sharp fluid-fluid interface. The flow behaviors are controlled by two dimensionless groups: M, the viscosity ratio of displaced fluid relative to injected fluid, and Γ, which measures the relative importance of buoyancy and fluid injection. For this axisymmetric geometry, the similarity solution involving R2/T (where R is the dimensionless radial coordinate and T is the dimensionless time) is an exact solution to the nonlinear governing equation for all times. Four analytical expressions are identified as asymptotic approximations (two of which are new solutions): (i) injection-driven flow with the injected fluid being more viscous than the displaced fluid (Γ ≪ 1 and M < 1) where we identify a self-similar solution that indicates a parabolic interface shape; (ii) injection-driven flow with injected and displaced fluids of equal viscosity (Γ ≪ 1 and M = 1), where we find a self-similar solution that predicts a distinct parabolic interface shape; (iii) injection-driven flow with a less viscous injected fluid (Γ ≪ 1 and M > 1) for which there is a rarefaction wave solution, assuming that the Saffman-Taylor instability does not occur at the reservoir scale; and (iv) buoyancy-driven flow (Γ ≫ 1) for which there is a well-known self-similar solution corresponding to gravity currents in an unconfined porous medium [S. Lyle et al. "Axisymmetric gravity currents in a porous medium," J. Fluid Mech. 543, 293-302 (2005)]. The various axisymmetric flows are summarized in a Γ-M regime diagram with five distinct dynamic behaviors including the four asymptotic regimes and an intermediate regime

  6. Elastic effects in superposed fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Amey

    2014-02-01

    A non-uniform electric field of suitable gradient can make specific weights of two superposed dielectric fluids identical. If the fluids are Newtonian, this choice of electric field makes the interface resilient to small perturbations, even if the fluid on the top is heavier than the one at bottom. On the other hand, if the fluids are viscoelastic, the interface continues to remain unstable. We point out that although the right choice of electric field succeeds in overcoming the effects of gravity, the fluids' elasticity makes the interface unstable. The same effect can be achieved in the case of paramagnetic or ferro-fluids in presence of a non-uniform magnetic field.

  7. [Fluid therapy in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    de-Madaria, Enrique

    2013-12-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (AP) is associated with an increased need for fluids due to fluid sequestration and, in the most severe cases, with decreased peripheral vascular tone. For several decades, clinical practice guidelines have recommended aggressive fluid therapy to improve the prognosis of AP. This recommendation is based on theoretical models, animal studies, and retrospective studies in humans. Recent studies suggest that aggressive fluid administration in all patients with AP could have a neutral or harmful effect. Fluid therapy based on Ringer's lactate could improve the course of the disease, although further studies are needed to confirm this possibility. Most patients with AP do not require invasive monitoring of hemodynamic parameters to guide fluid therapy administration. Moreover, the ability of these parameters to improve prognosis has not been demonstrated.

  8. Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing.

    PubMed

    Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H

    2016-06-01

    Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process. PMID:27070765

  9. Squirming through shear thinning fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datt, Charu; Zhu, Lailai; Elfring, Gwynn J.; Pak, On Shun

    2015-11-01

    Many microorganisms find themselves surrounded by fluids which are non-Newtonian in nature; human spermatozoa in female reproductive tract and motile bacteria in mucosa of animals are common examples. These biological fluids can display shear-thinning rheology whose effects on the locomotion of microorganisms remain largely unexplored. Here we study the self-propulsion of a squirmer in shear-thinning fluids described by the Carreau-Yasuda model. The squirmer undergoes surface distortions and utilizes apparent slip-velocities around its surface to swim through a fluid medium. In this talk, we will discuss how the nonlinear rheological properties of a shear-thinning fluid affect the propulsion of a swimmer compared with swimming in Newtonian fluids.

  10. Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing.

    PubMed

    Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H

    2016-06-01

    Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process.

  11. Oil well fluid processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.R.

    1988-10-25

    This patent describes an oil well fluid processing system, comprising: a skid having a first skid section and a second skid section separable from the first skid section; means for connecting one end of the first skid section to one end of the second skid section; a cylindrical fluid processing apparatus pivotally mounted at a lower end thereof on the first skid section for pivoting movement between a raised position wherein the fluid processing apparatus extends vertically from the first skid section and a lowered position wherein the fluid processing apparatus overlays the second skid section at such times that the two sections of the skid are connected together; and means mounted on the second skid section and connectable to the fluid processing apparatus for moving the fluid processing apparatus between the raised and lowered positions at such times that the two sections of the skid are connected together.

  12. Oxygen isotopes in circumstellar Al203 grains from meteorites and stellar nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huss, Gary R.; Fahey, Albert J.; Gallino, Roberto; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1994-01-01

    We have found a approximately 3 micrometer Al2O3 grain (B39) in the Bishunpur LL3.1 chondrite that is enriched in 0-17 by a factor of approximately 6.8 (0-16/0-17 = 385 +/- 9) and depleted in 0-18 by almost 60% (0-16/0-18 = 853 +/- 30) relative to solar system oxygen and has an initial Al-26/Al-27 = 1.7 +/- 0.2 x 10 (exp 3), approximately 34 times greater than the initial solar system value. The isotopic compositions of B39 and two other Al2O3 grains previously reported from the Orgueil and Murchison meteorites show that these grains formed directly from the ejecta of low-mass AGB stars with C/O less than 1. A simple theoretical analysis is presented showing that the oxygen systematics of the grains are a natural consequence of main-sequence evolution followed by first dredge-up Al-26 is the result of third dredge-up. Circumstellar Al2O3 grains provide very precise isotopic data for stellar ejecta that complement spectroscopic observations of oxygen-rich stars. Isotopic differences indicate that the Al2O3 grains come from separate stars of different mass and intital oxygen composition that originated in molecular clouds different from the one in which the solar system formed.

  13. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pictures of ALS Mutant Proteins Support Two Major Theories About How the Disease is Caused May 2003 ... All NINDS-prepared information is in the public domain and may be freely copied. Credit to the ...

  14. Genetic Testing for ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved Donate Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (FALS) and Genetic Testing By Deborah Hartzfeld, MS, CGC, Certified Genetic ... guarantee a person will develop symptoms of ALS. Genetic Counseling If there is more than one person ...

  15. All About ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe All About ALS Understanding a Devastating Disorder In the ... a coffee pot, or button a shirt. Eventually, all muscles under voluntary control are affected, and people ...

  16. What Is ALS?

    MedlinePlus

    ... scarring or hardening ("sclerosis") in the region. Motor neurons reach from the brain to the spinal cord ... the body. The progressive degeneration of the motor neurons in ALS eventually leads to their demise. When ...

  17. Ultrasonic Fluid Quality Sensor System

    DOEpatents

    Gomm, Tyler J.; Kraft, Nancy C.; Phelps, Larry D.; Taylor, Steven C.

    2003-10-21

    A system for determining the composition of a multiple-component fluid and for determining linear flow comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the multiple-component fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the multiple-component fluid. A system for determining flow uses two of the inventive circuits, one of which is set at an angle that is not perpendicular to the direction of flow.

  18. Ultrasonic fluid quality sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Gomm, Tyler J.; Kraft, Nancy C.; Phelps, Larry D.; Taylor, Steven C.

    2002-10-08

    A system for determining the composition of a multiple-component fluid and for determining linear flow comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the multiple-component fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the multiple-component fluid. A system for determining flow uses two of the inventive circuits, one of which is set at an angle that is not perpendicular to the direction of flow.

  19. Fluid/Gas Process Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramos, Sergio

    1989-01-01

    Fluid/gas controller, or "Super Burper", developed to obtain precise fill quantities of working fluid and noncondensable gas in heat pipe by incorporating detachable external reservoir into system during processing stage. Heat pipe filled with precise quantities of working fluid and noncondensable gas, and procedure controlled accurately. Application of device best suited for high-quality, high performance heat pipes. Device successfully implemented with various types of heat pipes, including vapor chambers, thermal diodes, large space radiators, and sideflows.

  20. The Fluids and Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, Sampa

    2004-01-01

    Microgravity is an environment with very weak gravitational effects. The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) on the International Space Station (ISS) will support the study of fluid physics and combustion science in a long-duration microgravity environment. The Fluid Combustion Facility's design will permit both independent and remote control operations from the Telescience Support Center. The crew of the International Space Station will continue to insert and remove the experiment module, store and reload removable data storage and media data tapes, and reconfigure diagnostics on either side of the optics benches. Upon completion of the Fluids Combustion Facility, about ten experiments will be conducted within a ten-year period. Several different areas of fluid physics will be studied in the Fluids Combustion Facility. These areas include complex fluids, interfacial phenomena, dynamics and instabilities, and multiphase flows and phase change. Recently, emphasis has been placed in areas that relate directly to NASA missions including life support, power, propulsion, and thermal control systems. By 2006 or 2007, a Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) and a Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) will be installed inside the International Space Station. The Fluids Integrated Rack will contain all the hardware and software necessary to perform experiments in fluid physics. A wide range of experiments that meet the requirements of the international space station, including research from other specialties, will be considered. Experiments will be contained in subsystems such as the international standard payload rack, the active rack isolation system, the optics bench, environmental subsystem, electrical power control unit, the gas interface subsystem, and the command and data management subsystem. In conclusion, the Fluids and Combustion Facility will allow researchers to study fluid physics and combustion science in a long-duration microgravity environment. Additional information is

  1. Fluid chemistry in the fault propataion zone in the mid-crust -fluid inclusion chemistry from the Lishan fault, Taiwan-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, K.; Iijima, C.; Kurosawa, M.; Chan, Y.; Terabayashi, M.

    2011-12-01

    Liberation of CO2-rich gas from fluid preserved in the fault propagation zone would be important phenomena in the earthquake and aftershock process. We have detected that injected fluid in link thrust would cause fault propagation and fault lubrication due to vapor-separation [1]. Recently, one of the authors, Yu-Chang Chan found unusual quartz vein on the great link-thrust, Lishan fault, in Taiwan orogenic belt [1]. The quartz vein is spherical shape and is composed of large crystals. The transparent quartz grains contain large primary fluid inclusions over 100 microns in diameters. The fluid inclusion is classified as three kinds of group. That is, two phase, vapor phase and three phase inclusion. Homogenization temperature is 260 oC and NaCl weight pecent is estimated to be 7.41. In order to measure the fluid chemistry, PIXE analysis was done at Tsukuba University. Analytical procedure is shown in [2]. The result is summarized as follows. 1. Br/Cr ratio is lower than that in seawater. 2. Ti, Cr, and Ni contents are high, suggesting that fluid is related to magma activity. 3. Vapor-phase inclusion contains considerable amount of metal elements (Ti, Zn, Ge, Mn, Ca, Fe, Pb, Rb, and Cu) as well as K, and Br. Fractionation between the vapor and the fluid would be useful tool to detect vapor separation due to fault propagation. References [1] Chan, Y. et al., Terra Nova 17, 439-499 (2005) [2] Kurosawa M. et al.,Island Arc, 19, 17-29 (2010)

  2. Extensive genetics of ALS

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Andrea; Mazzini, Letizia; Cantello, Roberto; Mora, Gabriele; Moglia, Cristina; Corrado, Lucia; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Majounie, Elisa; Renton, Alan; Pisano, Fabrizio; Ossola, Irene; Brunetti, Maura; Traynor, Bryan J.; Restagno, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the frequency and clinical characteristics of patients with mutations of major amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) genes in a prospectively ascertained, population-based epidemiologic series of cases. Methods: The study population includes all ALS cases diagnosed in Piemonte, Italy, from January 2007 to June 2011. Mutations of SOD1, TARDBP, ANG, FUS, OPTN, and C9ORF72 have been assessed. Results: Out of the 475 patients included in the study, 51 (10.7%) carried a mutation of an ALS-related gene (C9ORF72, 32; SOD1, 10; TARDBP, 7; FUS, 1; OPTN, 1; ANG, none). A positive family history for ALS or frontotemporal dementia (FTD) was found in 46 (9.7%) patients. Thirty-one (67.4%) of the 46 familial cases and 20 (4.7%) of the 429 sporadic cases had a genetic mutation. According to logistic regression modeling, besides a positive family history for ALS or FTD, the chance to carry a genetic mutation was related to the presence of comorbid FTD (odds ratio 3.5; p = 0.001), and age at onset ≤54 years (odds ratio 1.79; p = 0.012). Conclusions: We have found that ∼11% of patients with ALS carry a genetic mutation, with C9ORF72 being the commonest genetic alteration. Comorbid FTD or a young age at onset are strong indicators of a possible genetic origin of the disease. PMID:23100398

  3. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) collection

    MedlinePlus

    Spinal tap; Ventricular puncture; Lumbar puncture; Cisternal puncture; Cerebrospinal fluid culture ... brain stem. It is always done with fluoroscopy. Ventricular puncture may be recommended in people with possible ...

  4. Fluid therapy in critical illness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Major surgery and critical illnesses such as sepsis and trauma all disturb normal physiological fluid handling. Intravenous fluid therapy for resuscitation and fluid maintenance is a central part of medical care during these conditions, yet the evidence base supporting practice in this area lacks answers to a number of important questions. Recent research developments include a refinement of our knowledge of the endothelial barrier structure and function and a focus on the potential harm that may be associated with intravenous fluid therapy. Here, we briefly describe the contemporary view of fluid physiology and how this may be disrupted by pathological processes. The important themes in critical illness fluid research are discussed, with a particular focus on two emerging ideas: firstly, that individualising fluid treatment to the patient, their underlying disease state and the phase of that illness may be key to improving clinical outcomes using fluid interventions and, secondly, that fluids should be considered to be drugs, with specific indications and contraindications, dose ranges and potential toxicities. PMID:25276346

  5. Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Astronaut Mike Fincke places droplets of honey onto the strings for the Fluid Merging Viscosity Measurement (FMVM) investigation onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The FMVM experiment measures the time it takes for two individual highly viscous fluid droplets to coalesce or merge into one droplet. Different fluids and droplet size combinations were tested in the series of experiments. By using the microgravity environment, researchers can measure the viscosity or 'thickness' of fluids without the influence of containers and gravity using this new technique. Understanding viscosity could help scientists understand industrially important materials such as paints, emulsions, polymer melts and even foams used to produce pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic products.

  6. Fluid relief and check valve

    DOEpatents

    Blaedel, K.L.; Lord, S.C.; Murray, I.

    1986-07-17

    A passive fluid pressure relief and check valve allows the relief pressure to be slaved to a reference pressure independently of the exhaust pressure. The pressure relief valve is embodied by a submerged vent line in a sealing fluid, the relief pressure being a function of the submerged depth. A check valve is embodied by a vertical column of fluid (the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of fluid). The pressure is vented into an exhaust system which keeps the exhaust out of the area providing the reference pressure.

  7. Abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocysts.

    PubMed

    Erşahin, Y; Mutluer, S; Tekeli, G

    1996-12-01

    Abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst in an infrequent complication of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts. We reviewed ten patients with abdominal pseudocyst. There were five girls and five boys, aged between 4 months and 14 years. The number of shunt procedures prior to the presentation varied between one and five. Only one patient had had a previous shunt infection. No patients had undergone prior abdominal surgery other than VP shunting. The time from the last shunting procedure to the development of abdominal pseudocyst ranged from 3 weeks to 5 years. Presenting symptoms and signs were mainly related to abdominal complaints in all patients. Three patients also had signs of shunt malfunction. The diagnosis was made by ultrasound in all patients. Shunt infection was determined in six patients. Repositioning if the peritoneal catheter seemed to have a higher rate of recurrence. The diagnosis of abdominal pseudocyst should be considered in VP-shunted patients presenting with abdominal complaints.

  8. FLUID CONTACTOR APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Spence, R.; Streeton, R.J.W.

    1956-04-17

    The fluid contactor apparatus comprises a cylindrical column mounted co- axially and adapted to rotate within a cylindrical vessel, for the purpose of extracting a solute from am aqueous solution by means of an organic solvent. The column is particularly designed to control the vortex pattern so as to reduce the height of the vortices while, at the same time, the width of the annular radius in the radial direction between the vessel and column is less than half the radius of the column. A plurality of thin annular fins are spaced apart along the rotor approximately twice the radial dimension of the column such that two contrarotating substantially circular vortices are contained within each pair of fins as the column is rotated.

  9. Fluid quantity gaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mord, Allan J.; Snyder, Howard A.; Kilpatrick, Kathleen A.; Hermanson, Lynn A.; Hopkins, Richard A.; Vangundy, Donald A.

    1988-12-01

    A system for measuring the mass of liquid in a tank on orbit with 1 percent accuracy was developed and demonstrated. An extensive tradeoff identified adiabatic compression as the only gaging technique that is independent of gravity or its orientation, and of the size and distribution of bubbles in the tank. This technique is applicable to all Earth-storable and cryogenic liquids of interest for Space Station use, except superfluid helium, and can be applied to tanks of any size, shape, or internal structure. Accuracy of 0.2 percent was demonstrated in the laboratory, and a detailed analytical model was developed and verified by testing. A flight system architecture is presented that allows meeting the needs of a broad range of space fluid systems without custom development for each user.

  10. Respiratory fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotberg, James B.

    2011-02-01

    This article covers several aspects of respiratory fluid mechanics that have been actively investigated by our group over the years. For the most part, the topics involve two-phase flows in the respiratory system with applications to normal and diseased lungs, as well as therapeutic interventions. Specifically, the topics include liquid plug flow in airways and at airway bifurcations as it relates to surfactant, drug, gene, or stem cell delivery into the lung; liquid plug rupture and its damaging effects on underlying airway epithelial cells as well as a source of crackling sounds in the lung; airway closure from "capillary-elastic instabilities," as well as nonlinear stabilization from oscillatory core flow which we call the "oscillating butter knife;" liquid film, and surfactant dynamics in an oscillating alveolus and the steady streaming, and surfactant spreading on thin viscous films including our discovery of the Grotberg-Borgas-Gaver shock.

  11. Fluid Mechanics of Taste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, Alexis; Bhatia, Nitesh; Carter, Taren; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Saliva plays a key role in digestion, speech and tactile sensation. Lack of saliva, also known as dry mouth syndrome, increases risk of tooth decay and alters sense of taste; nearly 10% of the general population suffer from this syndrome. In this experimental study, we investigate the spreading of water drops on wet and dry tongues of pigs and cows. We find that drops spread faster on a wet tongue than a dry tongue. We rationalize the spreading rate by consideration of the tongue microstructure, such as as papillae, in promoting wicking. By investigating how tongue microstructure affects spreading of fluids, we may begin to how understand taste receptors are activated by eating and drinking.

  12. Nonlinear Acoustics in Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauterborn, Werner; Kurz, Thomas; Akhatov, Iskander

    At high sound intensities or long propagation distances at in fluids sufficiently low damping acoustic phenomena become nonlinear. This chapter focuses on nonlinear acoustic wave properties in gases and liquids. The origin of nonlinearity, equations of state, simple nonlinear waves, nonlinear acoustic wave equations, shock-wave formation, and interaction of waves are presented and discussed. Tables are given for the nonlinearity parameter B/A for water and a range of organic liquids, liquid metals and gases. Acoustic cavitation with its nonlinear bubble oscillations, pattern formation and sonoluminescence (light from sound) are modern examples of nonlinear acoustics. The language of nonlinear dynamics needed for understanding chaotic dynamics and acoustic chaotic systems is introduced.

  13. Fluid quantity gaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mord, Allan J.; Snyder, Howard A.; Kilpatrick, Kathleen A.; Hermanson, Lynn A.; Hopkins, Richard A.; Vangundy, Donald A.

    1988-01-01

    A system for measuring the mass of liquid in a tank on orbit with 1 percent accuracy was developed and demonstrated. An extensive tradeoff identified adiabatic compression as the only gaging technique that is independent of gravity or its orientation, and of the size and distribution of bubbles in the tank. This technique is applicable to all Earth-storable and cryogenic liquids of interest for Space Station use, except superfluid helium, and can be applied to tanks of any size, shape, or internal structure. Accuracy of 0.2 percent was demonstrated in the laboratory, and a detailed analytical model was developed and verified by testing. A flight system architecture is presented that allows meeting the needs of a broad range of space fluid systems without custom development for each user.

  14. Fluid infusion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    Development of a fluid infusion system was undertaken in response to a need for an intravenous infusion device operable under conditions of zero-g. The initial design approach, pursued in the construction of the first breadboard instrument, was to regulate the pressure of the motive gas to produce a similar regulated pressure in the infusion liquid. This scheme was not workable because of the varying bag contact area, and a major design iteration was made. A floating sensor plate in the center of the bag pressure plate was made to operate a pressure regulator built into the bellows assembly, effectively making liquid pressure the directly controlled variable. Other design changes were made as experience was gained with the breadboard. Extensive performance tests were conducted on both the breadboard and the prototype device; accurately regulated flows from 6 m1/min to 100 m1/min were achieved. All system functions were shown to operate satisfactorily.

  15. Supercritical fluid technology

    SciTech Connect

    Penninger, J.M.L.; McHugh, M.A.; Radosz, M.; Krukonis, V.J.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in the science and technology of supercritical fluid (scf) processing. Current research as described in the book, focuses on developments in equations of state for binary and multicomponent mixtures (including polymer solutions), solubility measurements at near-critical conditions, measurements of critical properties of binary mixtures and their correlation with equations of state. Progress in thermodynamics, coupled with advances in the design and construction of high pressure equipment, has opened up a wide avenue of commercial application (e.g. decaffeination of coffee beans, extractions of flavours and spices, purification of pharmaceutical products, separations of polymeric materials, deodorization and deacidification of vegetable oils, fractionation of fatty acids, coal liquefaction, wood delignitication, etc.)

  16. Fluid catalytic cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Bartley, B.H.; Petty, R.H.

    1982-08-17

    Gaseous sulfur compounds are removed from a sulfur-containing gas mixture by reacting sulfur oxides in the gas mixture with alumina in association with bismuth. The process is particularly useful in fluid catalytic cracking of sulfur-containing petroleum charge stocks wherein sulfur is contained in coke deposited on the fluidized cracking catalyst. By the process of this invention, sulfur oxides may be removed from regenerator off-gases from a fluidized catalytic cracking unit by incorporating particulate alumina impregnated with bismuth in particulate cracking catalyst whereby sulfur oxides generated in the regeneration of the catalyst are reacted with bismuth-impregnated alumina. Sulfur oxides produced during regeneration of the catalyst by burning the coke with air are captured and converted to hydrogen sulfide in the cracking reactor. The hydrogen sulfide so produced is readily separated from petroleum products of the catalytic cracking reaction process.

  17. Respiratory fluid mechanics.

    PubMed

    Grotberg, James B

    2011-02-01

    This article covers several aspects of respiratory fluid mechanics that have been actively investigated by our group over the years. For the most part, the topics involve two-phase flows in the respiratory system with applications to normal and diseased lungs, as well as therapeutic interventions. Specifically, the topics include liquid plug flow in airways and at airway bifurcations as it relates to surfactant, drug, gene, or stem cell delivery into the lung; liquid plug rupture and its damaging effects on underlying airway epithelial cells as well as a source of crackling sounds in the lung; airway closure from "capillary-elastic instabilities," as well as nonlinear stabilization from oscillatory core flow which we call the "oscillating butter knife;" liquid film, and surfactant dynamics in an oscillating alveolus and the steady streaming, and surfactant spreading on thin viscous films including our discovery of the Grotberg-Borgas-Gaver shock.

  18. Fluid-operated piston

    SciTech Connect

    Ledermen, F.E.

    1987-01-13

    An improvement is described in a friction torque transmitting device having a piston slidably disposed in a cylinder and being selectively pressurized therein for controlling the engagement of frictional plates. The improvement comprises: a rigid piston body generally U-shaped in cross section; an elastomeric covering portion bonded on the piston body and incorporating therein a pair of lip seal portions for engaging the cylinder and cooperating therewith to form a fluid tight joint; valve means formed in the bonded portion for permitting air bleed from the cylinder; a reaction ring bonded to the elastomeric covering; and a spring portion integral with the elastomeric portion operatively disposed between the piston body and the reaction ring.

  19. Electrochemical deposition of Al on semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laperashvili, Tinatin; Khachidze, Manana; Imerlishvili, Iliy

    2002-11-01

    Samples used for the fabrication of M-S diodes were growing by Chochralski method especially undoped n-type GaP into (III) oriented wafers. The thickness and carrier concentration was 200-250 mimic and (2-4). 10 exp17 atom/cm3 respectively. At first ohmical contact to the one side of wafer was formed by alloying of indium at the temperature 600°C during 5 min in hydrogen. Then the sample with ohmical contact and wire for preceding the power was covered with chemical stable polystyrene solution except the area where the metal will be deposited. The wafers were then ached chemically, rinsed in distilled water and were transferred immediately into electrolyte. Deposition of metal was done by the usual electrochemical method. Electrolyte was poured into quartz glass. The semiconductors wafer was used as the one electrode and as another electrode was used aluminum. For deposition Al the aqueous solution of chlorides have been used as an electrolyte, which consisted also NaOCI. At first, semiconductor"s wafer was used as the anode and cleaning of semiconductors surface was done. Then the potential was immediately changed in opposite direction and deposition of metal on freshly cleaned surface was done in the same solution in a united technological process. After the process of realization the samples were washed in distilled water. The polystyrene film was removed mechanically and boiling in acetone. Then samples were cut into pieces of area 1-3 mm, and were measured electric and photoelectric characteristics. The electrical and photoelectric characteristics have been studded and they were analyzed in the usual way to calculate the ideality factor (n) and barrier height (o). The values of coefficient n and SB height were 1.05-1.07 and 1.1 eV respectively.

  20. Characterization of the porcine synovial fluid proteome and a comparison to the plasma proteome

    PubMed Central

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Barnaby, Omar; Steen, Hanno; Stensballe, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Synovial fluid is present in all joint cavities, and protects the articular cartilage surfaces in large by lubricating the joint, thus reducing friction. Several studies have described changes in the protein composition of synovial fluid in patients with joint disease. However, the protein concentration, content, and synovial fluid volume change dramatically during active joint diseases and inflammation, and the proteome composition of healthy synovial fluid is incompletely characterized. We performed a normative proteomics analysis of porcine synovial fluid, and report data from optimizing proteomic methods to investigate the proteome of healthy porcine synovial fluid (Bennike et al., 2014 [1]). We included an evaluation of different proteolytic sample preparation techniques, and an analysis of posttranslational modifications with a focus on glycosylation. We used pig (Sus Scrofa) as a model organism, as the porcine immune system is highly similar to human and the pig genome is sequenced. Furthermore, porcine model systems are commonly used large animal models to study several human diseases. In addition, we analyzed the proteome of human plasma, and compared the proteomes to the obtained porcine synovial fluid proteome. The proteome of the two body fluids were found highly similar, underlining the detected plasma derived nature of many synovial fluid components. The healthy porcine synovial fluid proteomics data, human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid proteomics data used in the method optimization, human plasma proteomics data, and search results, have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD000935. PMID:26543887

  1. A FLUID SORBENT RECYCLING DEVICE FOR INDUSTRIAL FLUID USERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A roller compression Extractor® that extracts fluids from reusable sorbent pads was evaluated as a method of waste reduction. The extraction device, evaluated for industrial fluid users in New Jersey, was found to be effective in recycling unpleated sorbent pads, especially ...

  2. Fluid dynamics in developmental biology: moving fluids that shape ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Julyan H.E.; Piro, Oreste; Tuval, Idan

    2009-01-01

    Human conception, indeed fertilization in general, takes place in a fluid, but what role does fluid dynamics have during the subsequent development of an organism? It is becoming increasingly clear that the number of genes in the genome of a typical organism is not sufficient to specify the minutiae of all features of its ontogeny. Instead, genetics often acts as a choreographer, guiding development but leaving some aspects to be controlled by physical and chemical means. Fluids are ubiquitous in biological systems, so it is not surprising that fluid dynamics should play an important role in the physical and chemical processes shaping ontogeny. However, only in a few cases have the strands been teased apart to see exactly how fluid forces operate to guide development. Here, we review instances in which the hand of fluid dynamics in developmental biology is acknowledged, both in human development and within a wider biological context, together with some in which fluid dynamics is notable but whose workings have yet to be understood, and we provide a fluid dynamicist’s perspective on possible avenues for future research. PMID:19794816

  3. A numerical model for dynamic crustal-scale fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachau, Till; Bons, Paul; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Koehn, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Fluid flow in the crust is often envisaged and modeled as continuous, yet minimal flow, which occurs over large geological times. This is a suitable approximation for flow as long as it is solely controlled by the matrix permeability of rocks, which in turn is controlled by viscous compaction of the pore space. However, strong evidence (hydrothermal veins and ore deposits) exists that a significant part of fluid flow in the crust occurs strongly localized in both space and time, controlled by the opening and sealing of hydrofractures. We developed, tested and applied a novel computer code, which considers this dynamic behavior and couples it with steady, Darcian flow controlled by the matrix permeability. In this dual-porosity model, fractures open depending on the fluid pressure relative to the solid pressure. Fractures form when matrix permeability is insufficient to accommodate fluid flow resulting from compaction, decompression (Staude et al. 2009) or metamorphic dehydration reactions (Weisheit et al. 2013). Open fractures can close when the contained fluid either seeps into the matrix or escapes by fracture propagation: mobile hydrofractures (Bons, 2001). In the model, closing and sealing of fractures is controlled by a time-dependent viscous law, which is based on the effective stress and on either Newtonian or non-Newtonian viscosity. Our simulations indicate that the bulk of crustal fluid flow in the middle to lower upper crust is intermittent, highly self-organized, and occurs as mobile hydrofractures. This is due to the low matrix porosity and permeability, combined with a low matrix viscosity and, hence, fast sealing of fractures. Stable fracture networks, generated by fluid overpressure, are restricted to the uppermost crust. Semi-stable fracture networks can develop in an intermediate zone, if a critical overpressure is reached. Flow rates in mobile hydrofractures exceed those in the matrix porosity and fracture networks by orders of magnitude

  4. Alumino-silicate speciation in aqueous fluids at deep crustal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mookherjee, M.; Keppler, H.; Manning, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    Alumina and silica are major oxides in most crustal rocks. While SiO2 is quite soluble in aqueous fluids at metamorphic conditions, behavior of Al2O3 in crustal metamorphic fluids has been poorly understood. It is known that alumina is dramatically less soluble in aqueous fluids and hence it is difficult to explain the common occurrence of quartz with aluminous minerals in metamorphic veins. In order to understand this complex behavior of alumina, we investigated aluminum speciation in aqueous fluids in equilibrium with corundum using in situ Raman spectroscopy in hydrothermal diamond anvil cells to 20 kbar and 1000 oC. In order to better understand the spectral features of the aqueous fluids, we used first principles simulations based on density functional theory to calculate and predict the energetics and vibrational spectra for various aluminum species that are likely to be present in aqueous solutions. The Raman spectra of pure water in equilibrium with Al2O3 are devoid of any characteristic spectral features. In contrast, aqueous fluids with KOH solution in equilibrium with Al2O3 show a sharp band at ~620 cm-1 which could be attributed to the [Al(OH)4]1- species. The band grows in intensity with temperature along an isochore. In the limited pressure, temperature and density explored in the present study, we do not find any evidence for the polymerization of the [Al(OH)4]1- species to dimers [(OH)2-Al-O2-Al(OH)2]2- or [(OH)3-Al-O-Al(OH)3]2-. This is likely due to the relatively low concentration of Al in the solutions and does not rule out significant polymerization at higher pressures and temperatures. We are also investigating the effect of SiO2 on the solubility of Al2O3 and the relative energetics of formation of pure alumina dimer [(OH)3-Al-O-Al(OH)3]2- vs. the aluminosilicate dimers, [(OH)3-Al-O-Si(OH)3]2- at deep crustal conditions. Acknowledgement- MM is supported by the US National Science Foundation grant (EAR-1250477).

  5. Lubrication performance and mechanisms of Mg/Al-, Zn/Al-, and Zn/Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide nanoparticles as lubricant additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuo; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-08-01

    Solid lubricant particles are commonly used as oil additives for low friction and wear. Mg/Al-, Zn/Al-, and Zn/Mg/Al-layered double hydroxides (LDH) were synthesized by coprecipitation method. The benefits of LDH nanoparticles are that they can be synthesized using chemical methods where size and shape can be controlled, and can be modified organically to allow dispersal in fluids. The LDH nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry. A pin-on-disk friction and wear tester was used for evaluating the friction and wear properties of LDH nanoparticles as lubricant additives. LDH nanoparticles have friction-reducing and anti-wear properties compared to oil without LDHs. Mg/Al-LDH has the best lubrication, possibly due to better thermal stability in severe conditions.

  6. IBA analysis and corrosion resistance of TiAlPtN/TiAlN/TiAl multilayer films deposited over a CoCrMo using magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canto, C. E.; Andrade, E.; de Lucio, O.; Cruz, J.; Solís, C.; Rocha, M. F.; Alemón, B.; Flores, M.; Huegel, J. C.

    2016-03-01

    The corrosion resistance and the elemental profile of multilayer coatings of TiAlPtN/TiAlN/TiAl synthesized by Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) reactive magnetron sputtering over a CoCrMo alloy substrate in 10 periods of 30 min each were analyzed and compared to those of the substrate alone and to that of a TiAlPtN single layer coating of the same thickness. The objective of the present work was to create multilayers with different amounts of Pt to enhance the corrosion resistance of a biomedical alloy of CoCrMo. Corrosion tests were performed using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) using potentiodynamic polarization tests at typical body temperature. The elemental composition and thickness of the coatings were evaluated with the combination of two ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques: a Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) with alpha beam and a Nuclear Reaction Analysis with a deuteron beam.

  7. Fluid Creep and Over-resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Saffle, Jeffrey R

    2016-10-01

    Fluid creep is the term applied to a burn resuscitation, which requires more fluid than predicted by standard formulas. Fluid creep is common today and is linked to several serious edema-related complications. Increased fluid requirements may accompany the appropriate resuscitation of massive injuries but dangerous fluid creep is also caused by overly permissive fluid infusion and the lack of colloid supplementation. Several strategies for recognizing and treating fluid creep are presented. PMID:27600130

  8. Two-fluid Hydrodynamic Model for Fluid-Flow Simulation in Fluid-Solids Systems

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-20

    FLUFIX is a two-dimensional , transient, Eulerian, and finite-difference program, based on a two-fluid hydrodynamic model, for fluid flow simulation in fluid-solids systems. The software is written in a modular form using the Implicit Multi-Field (IMF) numerical technique. Quantities computed are the spatial distribution of solids loading, gas and solids velocities, pressure, and temperatures. Predicted are bubble formation, bed frequencies, and solids recirculation. Applications include bubbling and circulating atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed reactors, combustors, gasifiers, and FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracker) reactors.

  9. Two-fluid Hydrodynamic Model for Fluid-Flow Simulation in Fluid-Solids Systems

    1994-06-20

    FLUFIX is a two-dimensional , transient, Eulerian, and finite-difference program, based on a two-fluid hydrodynamic model, for fluid flow simulation in fluid-solids systems. The software is written in a modular form using the Implicit Multi-Field (IMF) numerical technique. Quantities computed are the spatial distribution of solids loading, gas and solids velocities, pressure, and temperatures. Predicted are bubble formation, bed frequencies, and solids recirculation. Applications include bubbling and circulating atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed reactors, combustors,more » gasifiers, and FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracker) reactors.« less

  10. Petrographical records of multiple fluid-infiltration during HP-LT metamorphism (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimori, T.

    2013-12-01

    In the subduction zone, flow of slab-derived fluids enriched in Si, Al, Na, and Ca enhances metamorphic + metasomatic reactions and precipitation of HP-LT minerals, and in some cases, the intraslab flow causes extensive elemental leaching (cf., Spandler & Pirard 2013). How does HP-LT rocks and minerals record subduction-zone fluid flow? Syn-metamorphic vein networks consisting of HP-LT minerals have been known in various blueschist- and low-temperature eclogites. The monomineralic and bimineralic veins includes a wide variety of HP-LT minerals: metamorphic pyroxenes, phengite, hydrous Ca-Al-silicate, and even rare garnet and rutile; oscillatory and sector zonings with resorption are common, suggesting precipitation from aqueous fluids. Natural observations imply that brittle fracturing and fluid infiltration during blueschist-to-eclogite-facies metamorphism are common phenomenon in the subducting oceanic crust attending progressive eclogitization. Another peculiar example of HP-LT rock preserving evidence of multiple fluid-infiltration is "lawsonitite", which is a metasomatic rock consisting of ~70-90 vol% lawsonite. Lawsonitite from the South Motagua Mélange consists principally of fluid precipitates and represents the extreme of lithological variation of "P-type" jadeitite (Tsujimori & Harlow 2012; Flores et al. 2013). Lawsonites show sector- and oscillatory-growth zoning on a millimeter to submicrometer scale. The rock shows millimeter-scale flow paths of Cr-rich fluids cross-cutting lawsonite crystals; the texture indicates that the fluid infiltration occurred after lawsonite crystallization/precipitation. The Cr-rich fluid flow-paths follow the track of Cr-bearing pinkish locally metasomatized lawsonite with inclusions of Cr-rich (kosmochloric) jadeite and Cr-rich phengite. These microtextures and mineral compositions indicate a chronological sequence of fluid infiltration events: lawsonite grains precipitated from subduction-zone aqueous fluids within

  11. Fluid jet electric discharge source

    DOEpatents

    Bender, Howard A.

    2006-04-25

    A fluid jet or filament source and a pair of coaxial high voltage electrodes, in combination, comprise an electrical discharge system to produce radiation and, in particular, EUV radiation. The fluid jet source is composed of at least two serially connected reservoirs, a first reservoir into which a fluid, that can be either a liquid or a gas, can be fed at some pressure higher than atmospheric and a second reservoir maintained at a lower pressure than the first. The fluid is allowed to expand through an aperture into a high vacuum region between a pair of coaxial electrodes. This second expansion produces a narrow well-directed fluid jet whose size is dependent on the size and configuration of the apertures and the pressure used in the reservoir. At some time during the flow of the fluid filament, a high voltage pulse is applied to the electrodes to excite the fluid to form a plasma which provides the desired radiation; the wavelength of the radiation being determined by the composition of the fluid.

  12. Compact fluid-flow restrictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheere, R. W.

    1970-01-01

    Fluid-flow restrictor has degree of restriction easily and accurately controlled during manufacture. Restrictor's flow channel is machined square thread around a solid slug which is shrink-fitted to cylindrical case. One end of case is closed, open end capped, and both ends tapped for tube fittings for fluid flow.

  13. Magnetic Fluids--Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoon, S. B.; Tanner, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    Continues a discussion of magnetic fluids by providing background information on and procedures for conducting several demonstrations. Indicates that, with a little patience and ingenuity, only modest magnetic fields and about 20 ml of low-viscosity, commercial magnetite-water-based magnetic fluid are required. (JN)

  14. Fluid absorption solar energy receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, Edward J.

    1993-01-01

    A conventional solar dynamic system transmits solar energy to the flowing fluid of a thermodynamic cycle through structures which contain the gas and thermal energy storage material. Such a heat transfer mechanism dictates that the structure operate at a higher temperature than the fluid. This investigation reports on a fluid absorption receiver where only a part of the solar energy is transmitted to the structure. The other part is absorbed directly by the fluid. By proportioning these two heat transfer paths the energy to the structure can preheat the fluid, while the energy absorbed directly by the fluid raises the fluid to its final working temperature. The surface temperatures need not exceed the output temperature of the fluid. This makes the output temperature of the gas the maximum temperature in the system. The gas can have local maximum temperatures higher than the output working temperature. However local high temperatures are quickly equilibrated, and since the gas does not emit radiation, local high temperatures do not result in a radiative heat loss. Thermal radiation, thermal conductivity, and heat exchange with the gas all help equilibrate the surface temperature.

  15. Applied Fluid Mechanics. Lecture Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Newton D.

    This set of lecture notes is used as a supplemental text for the teaching of fluid dynamics, as one component of a thermodynamics course for engineering technologists. The major text for the course covered basic fluids concepts such as pressure, mass flow, and specific weight. The objective of this document was to present additional fluids…

  16. La dialyse péritonéale chez les patients de moins de vingt ans: expérience d'un centre hospitalier universitaire marocain

    PubMed Central

    Haddiya, Intissar; Rhou, Hakima; Ezaitouni, Fatima; Ouzeddoun, Naima; Bayahia, Rabia; Benamar, Loubna

    2012-01-01

    Introduction La dialyse péritonéale (DP) est une méthode d'épuration extra-rénale qui offre plusieurs avantages chez l'enfant et l'adolescent. Le but de cette étude est de rapporter notre expérience de DP chez des patients jeunes âgés de moins de vingt ans, et soulever l'intérêt et les avantages de cette technique chez cette catégorie de patients. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective incluant tous les dialysés péritonéaux âgés de moins de vingt ans au début du traitement par DP. Les paramètres de DP ainsi que les données cliniques et biologiques ont été recueillit et analysés. Résultats Parmi 41 dialysés péritonéaux dans notre centre, huit sont des enfants et adolescents. L'âge moyen de nos patients est 16,1±2,6. Le sexe ratio M/F est égal à 1,6. 37,5% de nos patients ont une activité professionnelle et 62,5% ont une activité scolaire. Ils ont tous gardé leur activité toute la durée du traitement par DP. A l'initiation de la DP, 62,5% étaient hypertendus alors qu'actuellement 25% seulement sont hypertendus et aucun patient ne présente de signes cliniques de surcharge. Le maintien de la fonction rénale et résiduelle (FRR) et une amélioration de l'anémie a été noté chez nos patients. Conclusion Notre expérience de DP chez l'enfant et l'adolescent est globalement satisfaisante. La DP a procuré plusieurs avantages dont le maintien d'une FRR, l'équilibre hydro-électrolytique, ainsi qu'une vie sociale éducative pour l'enfant et un maximum d'indépendance chez l'adolescent. Cette technique doit donc être encouragée surtout chez cette catégorie de patients. PMID:22937185

  17. Al2O3-based nanofluids: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhara, Veeranna; Satapathy, Lakshmi Narayan

    2011-07-01

    Ultrahigh performance cooling is one of the important needs of many industries. However, low thermal conductivity is a primary limitation in developing energy-efficient heat transfer fluids that are required for cooling purposes. Nanofluids are engineered by suspending nanoparticles with average sizes below 100 nm in heat transfer fluids such as water, oil, diesel, ethylene glycol, etc. Innovative heat transfer fluids are produced by suspending metallic or nonmetallic nanometer-sized solid particles. Experiments have shown that nanofluids have substantial higher thermal conductivities compared to the base fluids. These suspended nanoparticles can change the transport and thermal properties of the base fluid. As can be seen from the literature, extensive research has been carried out in alumina-water and CuO-water systems besides few reports in Cu-water-, TiO2-, zirconia-, diamond-, SiC-, Fe3O4-, Ag-, Au-, and CNT-based systems. The aim of this review is to summarize recent developments in research on the stability of nanofluids, enhancement of thermal conductivities, viscosity, and heat transfer characteristics of alumina (Al2O3)-based nanofluids. The Al2O3 nanoparticles varied in the range of 13 to 302 nm to prepare nanofluids, and the observed enhancement in the thermal conductivity is 2% to 36%.

  18. Al2O3-based nanofluids: a review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Ultrahigh performance cooling is one of the important needs of many industries. However, low thermal conductivity is a primary limitation in developing energy-efficient heat transfer fluids that are required for cooling purposes. Nanofluids are engineered by suspending nanoparticles with average sizes below 100 nm in heat transfer fluids such as water, oil, diesel, ethylene glycol, etc. Innovative heat transfer fluids are produced by suspending metallic or nonmetallic nanometer-sized solid particles. Experiments have shown that nanofluids have substantial higher thermal conductivities compared to the base fluids. These suspended nanoparticles can change the transport and thermal properties of the base fluid. As can be seen from the literature, extensive research has been carried out in alumina-water and CuO-water systems besides few reports in Cu-water-, TiO2-, zirconia-, diamond-, SiC-, Fe3O4-, Ag-, Au-, and CNT-based systems. The aim of this review is to summarize recent developments in research on the stability of nanofluids, enhancement of thermal conductivities, viscosity, and heat transfer characteristics of alumina (Al2O3)-based nanofluids. The Al2O3 nanoparticles varied in the range of 13 to 302 nm to prepare nanofluids, and the observed enhancement in the thermal conductivity is 2% to 36%. PMID:21762528

  19. Fluid Dynamics of Bottle Filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGough, Patrick; Gao, Haijing; Appathurai, Santosh; Basaran, Osman

    2011-11-01

    Filling of bottles is a widely practiced operation in a large number of industries. Well known examples include filling of ``large'' bottles with shampoos and cleaners in the household products and beauty care industries and filling of ``small'' bottles in the pharmaceutical industry. Some bottle filling operations have recently drawn much attention from the fluid mechanics community because of the occurrence of a multitude of complex flow regimes, transitions, and instabilities such as mounding and coiling that occur as a bottle is filled with a fluid. In this talk, we present a primarily computational study of the fluid dynamical challenges that can arise during the rapid filling of bottles. Given the diversity of fluids used in filling applications, we consider four representative classes of fluids that exhibit Newtonian, shear-thinning, viscoelastic, and yield-stress rheologies. The equations governing the dynamics of bottle filling are solved either in their full 3D but axisymmetric form or using the slender-jet approximation.

  20. Second Microgravity Fluid Physics Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The conference's purpose was to inform the fluid physics community of research opportunities in reduced-gravity fluid physics, present the status of the existing and planned reduced gravity fluid physics research programs, and inform participants of the upcoming NASA Research Announcement in this area. The plenary sessions provided an overview of the Microgravity Fluid Physics Program information on NASA's ground-based and space-based flight research facilities. An international forum offered participants an opportunity to hear from French, German, and Russian speakers about the microgravity research programs in their respective countries. Two keynote speakers provided broad technical overviews on multiphase flow and complex fluids research. Presenters briefed their peers on the scientific results of their ground-based and flight research. Fifty-eight of the sixty-two technical papers are included here.

  1. Squirming propulsion in viscoelastic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Corato, Marco; Greco, Francesco; Maffettone, Pier Luca

    2015-11-01

    The locomotion of organisms in Newtonian fluids at low-Reynolds numbers displays very different features from that at large Reynolds numbers; indeed, in this regime the viscous forces are dominant over the inertial ones and propulsion is possible only with non-time-reversible swimming strokes. In many situations of biological interest, however, small organisms are propelling themselves through non-Newtonian fluids such as mucus or biofilms, which display highly viscoelastic properties. Fluid viscoelasticity affects in a complex way both the micro-organisms' swimming velocity and dissipated power, possibly affecting their collective behavior. In our work, we employ the so called ``squirmer'' model to study the motion of spherical ciliated organisms in a viscoelastic fluid. We derive analytical formulas for the squirmer swimming velocity and dissipated power that show a complex interplay between the fluid constitutive behavior and the propulsion mechanism.

  2. Effective perfect fluids in cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Ballesteros, Guillermo; Bellazzini, Brando E-mail: brando.bellazzini@pd.infn.it

    2013-04-01

    We describe the cosmological dynamics of perfect fluids within the framework of effective field theories. The effective action is a derivative expansion whose terms are selected by the symmetry requirements on the relevant long-distance degrees of freedom, which are identified with comoving coordinates. The perfect fluid is defined by requiring invariance of the action under internal volume-preserving diffeomorphisms and general covariance. At lowest order in derivatives, the dynamics is encoded in a single function of the entropy density that characterizes the properties of the fluid, such as the equation of state and the speed of sound. This framework allows a neat simultaneous description of fluid and metric perturbations. Longitudinal fluid perturbations are closely related to the adiabatic modes, while the transverse modes mix with vector metric perturbations as a consequence of vorticity conservation. This formalism features a large flexibility which can be of practical use for higher order perturbation theory and cosmological parameter estimation.

  3. Stability analysis of self-similar behaviors in perfect fluid gravitational collapse

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsuda, Eiji; Tomimatsu, Akira

    2006-06-15

    Stability of self-similar solutions for gravitational collapse is an important problem to be investigated from the perspectives of their nature as an attractor, critical phenomena, and instability of a naked singularity. In this paper we study spherically symmetric non-self-similar perturbations of matter and metrics in spherically symmetric self-similar backgrounds. The collapsing matter is assumed to be a perfect fluid with the equation of state P={alpha}{rho}. We construct a single wave equation governing the perturbations, which makes their time evolution in arbitrary self-similar backgrounds analytically tractable. Further we propose an analytical application of this master wave equation to the stability problem by means of the normal mode analysis for the perturbations having the time dependence given by exp(i{omega}log vertical t vertical bar), and present some sufficient conditions for the absence of nonoscillatory unstable normal modes with purely imaginary {omega}.

  4. New Fluid Prevents Railway Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Through a licensing agreement between NASA's Ames Research Center and Midwest Industrial Supply, Inc. (MIS), two MIS products have been enhanced with NASA's anti-icing fluid technology. MIS offers the new fluid in two commercial products, the Zero Gravity(TM) Third Rail Anti-Icer/Deicer and the Ice Free Switch(R). Using NASA's fluid technology, these products form a protective-coating barrier that prevents the buildup of ice and snow. Applying the fluid to the railway components prior to ice or snowstorm works as an anti-icing fluid, remaining in place to melt precipitation as it hits the surface. It also functions as a deicing fluid. If applied to an already frozen switch or rail, it will quickly melt the ice, free the frozen parts, and then remain in place to prevent refreezing. Additional benefits include the ability to cling to vertical rail surfaces and resist the effects of rain and wind. With the Ice Free Switch, it takes only five minutes to treat the switch by spraying, brushing, or pouring on the product. Ice Free Switch requires as little as one gallon per switch whereas other deicing fluids require five to ten gallons of liquid to effectively melt ice. Zero Gravity serves the same anti-icing/deicing purposes but applies fluid to the third rail through a system that is easily installed onto mass transit cars. A tank of fluid and a dispensing system are placed underneath the train car and the fluid is applied as the train runs its route.

  5. Heating production fluids in a wellbore

    DOEpatents

    Orrego, Yamila; Jankowski, Todd A.

    2016-07-12

    A method for heating a production fluid in a wellbore. The method can include heating, using a packer fluid, a working fluid flowing through a first medium disposed in a first section of the wellbore, where the first medium transfers heat from the packer fluid to the working fluid. The method can also include circulating the working fluid into a second section of the wellbore through a second medium, where the second medium transfers heat from the working fluid to the production fluid. The method can further include returning the working fluid to the first section of the wellbore through the first medium.

  6. Fluid sampling system

    DOEpatents

    Houck, Edward D.

    1994-01-01

    An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank.

  7. Fluid sampling system

    DOEpatents

    Houck, E.D.

    1994-10-11

    An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to be decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank. 4 figs.

  8. Computational fluid dynamic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.-L.; Lottes, S. A.; Zhou, C. Q.

    2000-04-03

    The rapid advancement of computational capability including speed and memory size has prompted the wide use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes to simulate complex flow systems. CFD simulations are used to study the operating problems encountered in system, to evaluate the impacts of operation/design parameters on the performance of a system, and to investigate novel design concepts. CFD codes are generally developed based on the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy that govern the characteristics of a flow. The governing equations are simplified and discretized for a selected computational grid system. Numerical methods are selected to simplify and calculate approximate flow properties. For turbulent, reacting, and multiphase flow systems the complex processes relating to these aspects of the flow, i.e., turbulent diffusion, combustion kinetics, interfacial drag and heat and mass transfer, etc., are described in mathematical models, based on a combination of fundamental physics and empirical data, that are incorporated into the code. CFD simulation has been applied to a large variety of practical and industrial scale flow systems.

  9. Fluid shifts in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William E.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of leg volumes in space by multiple girth measurements showed reductions of 1.9 l (12.8 percent of leg volume), with 1.1 l from the nondominant leg, on Skylab 4. On landing, 65 percent of postflight leg volume increase was complete at 1.5 h. Measurement of the dominant leg during the equivalent period on Shuttle showed a mean loss of 0.9 l which was 90-percent complete at 150 min. Postflight increases were 87-percent complete at 1.5 h postlanding. Mass measurements during and after Skylab 4 showed a loss of 2.5 kg over the first 4 d on orbit, with a gain of 2.7 kg over the first 4 d of recovery. These changes are assumed to be tissue fluids secondary to changes in hydrostatic pressures and are much greater than those seen in bed rest. Rate and magnitude of inflight and postflight changes have significant operational impact.

  10. Fluid flow monitoring device

    DOEpatents

    McKay, Mark D.; Sweeney, Chad E.; Spangler, Jr., B. Samuel

    1993-01-01

    A flow meter and temperature measuring device comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips.

  11. Catenaries in viscous fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Brato; Hanna, J. A.

    2016-10-01

    This work explores a simple model of a slender, flexible structure in a uniform flow, providing analytical solutions for the translating, axially flowing equilibria of strings subjected to a uniform body force and drag forces linear in the velocities. The classical catenaries are extended to a five-parameter family of curves. A sixth parameter affects the tension in the curves. Generic configurations are planar, represented by a single first order equation for the tangential angle. The effects of varying parameters on representative shapes, orbits in angle-curvature space, and stress distributions are shown. As limiting cases, the solutions include configurations corresponding to "lariat chains" and the towing, reeling, and sedimentation of flexible cables in a highly viscous fluid. Regions of parameter space corresponding to infinitely long, semi-infinite, and finite length curves are delineated. Almost all curves subtend an angle less than $\\pi$ radians, but curious special cases with doubled or infinite range occur on the borders between regions. Separate transitions in the tension behavior, and counterintuitive results regarding finite towing tensions for infinitely long cables, are presented. Several physically inspired boundary value problems are solved and discussed.

  12. Viscous dark fluid universe

    SciTech Connect

    Hipolito-Ricaldi, W. S.; Velten, H. E. S.; Zimdahl, W.

    2010-09-15

    We investigate the cosmological perturbation dynamics for a universe consisting of pressureless baryonic matter and a viscous fluid, the latter representing a unified model of the dark sector. In the homogeneous and isotropic background the total energy density of this mixture behaves as a generalized Chaplygin gas. The perturbations of this energy density are intrinsically nonadiabatic and source relative entropy perturbations. The resulting baryonic matter power spectrum is shown to be compatible with the 2dFGRS and SDSS (DR7) data. A joint statistical analysis, using also Hubble-function and supernovae Ia data, shows that, different from other studies, there exists a maximum in the probability distribution for a negative present value q{sub 0{approx_equal}}-0.53 of the deceleration parameter. Moreover, while previous descriptions on the basis of generalized Chaplygin-gas models were incompatible with the matter power-spectrum data since they required a much too large amount of pressureless matter, the unified model presented here favors a matter content that is of the order of the baryonic matter abundance suggested by big-bang nucleosynthesis.

  13. Computational Fluid Dynamics Library

    2005-03-04

    CFDLib05 is the Los Alamos Computational Fluid Dynamics LIBrary. This is a collection of hydrocodes using a common data structure and a common numerical method, for problems ranging from single-field, incompressible flow, to multi-species, multi-field, compressible flow. The data structure is multi-block, with a so-called structured grid in each block. The numerical method is a Finite-Volume scheme employing a state vector that is fully cell-centered. This means that the integral form of the conservation lawsmore » is solved on the physical domain that is represented by a mesh of control volumes. The typical control volume is an arbitrary quadrilateral in 2D and an arbitrary hexahedron in 3D. The Finite-Volume scheme is for time-unsteady flow and remains well coupled by means of time and space centered fluxes; if a steady state solution is required, the problem is integrated forward in time until the user is satisfied that the state is stationary.« less

  14. Critical fluid light scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The objective is to measure the decay rates of critical density fluctuations in a simple fluid (xenon) very near its liquid-vapor critical point using laser light scattering and photon correlation spectroscopy. Such experiments were severely limited on Earth by the presence of gravity which causes large density gradients in the sample when the compressibility diverges approaching the critical point. The goal is to measure fluctuation decay rates at least two decades closer to the critical point than is possible on earth, with a resolution of 3 microK. This will require loading the sample to 0.1 percent of the critical density and taking data as close as 100 microK to the critical temperature. The minimum mission time of 100 hours will allow a complete range of temperature points to be covered, limited by the thermal response of the sample. Other technical problems have to be addressed such as multiple scattering and the effect of wetting layers. The experiment entails measurement of the scattering intensity fluctuation decay rate at two angles for each temperature and simultaneously recording the scattering intensities and sample turbidity (from the transmission). The analyzed intensity and turbidity data gives the correlation length at each temperature and locates the critical temperature. The fluctuation decay rate data from these measurements will provide a severe test of the generalized hydrodynamic theories of transport coefficients in the critical regions. When compared to equivalent data from binary liquid critical mixtures they will test the universality of critical dynamics.

  15. Incompressible Viscous Fluid Dynamics

    1992-02-13

    NACHOS2 is a finite element program designed for the analysis of two-dimensional, incompressible viscous fluid flow problems. The basic flows considered may be isothermal, nonisothermal, or may involve other physical processes, such as mass transport. Both steady and transient flows may be analyzed. The class of problems treated are those described by the two-dimensional (plane or axisymmetric) incompressible form of the Navier-Stokes equations. An energy transport equation is included in the formulation for problems inmore » which heat transfer effects are important. Two auxiliary transport equations can be added to describe other physical processes,e.g. mass transfer, chemical reactions. Among the specific types of flow problems treated are: isothermal flow; forced, free, or mixed convection; conjugate heat transfer; flow in saturated porous media with or without heat transfer; and inelastic, non-Newtonian flows with or without heat transfer. Other problem classes are possible depending on the specific definitions applied to the auxiliary transport equations.« less

  16. Fluid shifts in weightlessness.

    PubMed

    Thornton, W E; Moore, T P; Pool, S L

    1987-09-01

    Studies of leg volumes in space by multiple girth measurements showed reductions of 1.9 L (12.8% of leg volume) with 1.1 L from the non-dominant leg on Skylab 4. On landing, 65% of postflight leg volume increase was complete at 1.5 h. Measurement of the dominant leg during the equivalent period on Shuttle showed a mean loss of 0.9 L which was 90% complete at 150 min. Postflight increases were 87% complete at 1.5 h postlanding. Mass measurements during and after Skylab 4 showed a loss of 2.5 kg over the first 4 d on-orbit with a gain of 2.7 kg over the first 4 d of recovery. These changes are assumed to be tissue fluids secondary to changes in hydrostatic pressures and are much greater than those seen in bed rest. Rate and magnitude of inflight and postflight changes have significant operational impact. PMID:3675511

  17. Fluid flow monitoring device

    DOEpatents

    McKay, M.D.; Sweeney, C.E.; Spangler, B.S. Jr.

    1993-11-30

    A flow meter and temperature measuring device are described comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips. 7 figures.

  18. Fluid sampling system

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, E.D.

    1993-12-31

    This invention comprises a fluid sampling system which allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped up into a sampling jet of venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to decrease, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodicially leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank.

  19. Retrograde fluids in granulites: Stable isotope evidence of fluid migration

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J. ); Valley, J.W. )

    1991-07-01

    Widespread retrograde alteration assemblages document the migration of mixed H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2} fluids into granulite facies rocks in the Adirondack Mountains. Fluid migration is manifest by (1) veins and patchy intergrowths of chlorite {plus minus} sericite {plus minus} calcite, (2) small veins of calcite, many only identifiable by cathodoluminescence, and (3) high-density, CO{sub 2}-rich or mixed H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2} fluid inclusions. The distinct and varied textural occurrences of the alteration minerals indicate that fluid-rock ratios were low and variable on a local scale. Stable isotope ratios of C, O, and S have been determined in retrograde minerals from samples of the Marcy anorthosite massif and adjacent granitic gneisses (charnockites). Retrograde calcite in the anorthosite has a relatively small range in both {delta}{sup 18}O{sub SMOW} and {delta}{sup 13}C{sub PDB} (8.6 to 14.9% and {minus}4.1 to 0.4%, respectively), probably indicating that the hydrothermal fluids that precipitated the calcite had exchanged with a variety of crustal lithologies including marbles and orthogneisses, and that calcite was precipitated over a relatively narrow temperature interval. Values of {delta}{sup 34}S{sub CDT} that range from 2.8 to 8.3% within the anorthosite can also be interpreted to reflect exchange between orthogneisses and metasediments. The recognition of retrograde fluid migration is particularly significant in granulite facies terranes because the controversy surrounding the origin of granulites arises in part from differing interpretations of fluid inclusion data, specifically, the timing of entrapment of high-density, CO{sub 2}-rich inclusions. Results indicate that retrograde fluid migration, which in some samples may leave only cryptic petrographic evidence, is a process capable of producing high-density, CO{sub 2}-rich fluid inclusions.

  20. ALS superbend magnet system

    SciTech Connect

    Zbasnik, J.; Wang, S.T.; Chen, J.Y.; DeVries, G.J.; DeMarco, R.; Fahmie, M.; Geyer, A.; Green, M.A.; Harkins, J.; Henderson, T.; Hinkson, J.; Hoyer, E.H.; Krupnick, J.; Marks, S.; Ottens, F.; Paterson, J.A.; Pipersky, P.; Portmann, G.; Robin, D.A.; Schlueter, R.D.; Steier, C.; Taylor, C.E.; Wahrer, R.

    2000-09-15

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is preparing to upgrade the Advanced Light Source (ALS) with three superconducting dipoles (Superbends). In this paper we present the final magnet system design which incorporates R&D test results and addresses the ALS operational concerns of alignment, availability, and economy. The design incorporates conduction-cooled Nb-Ti windings and HTS current leads, epoxy-glass suspension straps, and a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler to supply steady state refrigeration. We also present the current status of fabrication and testing.

  1. Evaluation of Degradation Inhibitors in Poly(Hexafluoropropene Oxide) Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Paciorek, Kazimiera J. L.; Lin, Wen-Huey; Masuda, Steven R.; Nakahara, James H.

    1996-01-01

    The action of various alloys: 440C steel, M-50 steel, Pyrowear 675, Cronidur 30 and Ti(4Al,4Mn); the effect of decradation inhibitors: mono- and diphospha-s-triazines, diphosphatetraazacyclooctatetraene, phosphate esters, phosphate/ diester rust inhibiting mixtures, and a phosphine were evaluated in two poly(hexafluoropropene oxide) fluids (143AC and 16256). The degradation promoting action of the ferrous alloys in 16256 fluid were comparable; Ti(4Al,4Mn) alloy was significantly more detrimental. The overall rating of the additives was: phosphates (greater than) phosphate/diester mixture (greater than) phosphine (greater than or equal to) phospha-s-triazines. The 16256 fluid was less responsive to additive inhibition than 143AC. Phosphate esters were fully effective over 24 hour exposure in the 16256/440C steel and the 16256/Ti(4Al,4Mn) systems at 330 C. In general, the phosphine was less effective in the presence of ferrous alloys than the phosphates and phospha-s-triazines.

  2. Modulus measurements in ordered Co-Al, Fe-Al, and Ni-Al alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmouche, M. R.; Wolfenden, A.

    1985-01-01

    The composition and/or temperature dependence of the dynamic Young's modulus for the ordered B2 Co-Al, Fe-Al, and Ni-Al aluminides has been investigated using the piezoelectric ultrasonic composite oscillator technique (PUCOT). The modulus has been measured in the composition interval 48.49 to 52.58 at. pct Co, 50.87 to 60.2 at. pct Fe, and 49.22 to 55.95 at. pct Ni for Co-Al, Fe-Al, and Ni-Al, respectively. The measured values for Co-Al are in the temperature interval 300 to 1300 K, while those for the other systems are for ambient temperature only. The data points show that Co-Al is stiffer than Fe-Al, which is stiffer than Ni-Al. The data points for Fe-Al and Ni-Al are slightly higher than those reported in the literature.

  3. Configurational temperature profile in confined fluids. II. Molecular fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delhommelle, Jerome; Evans, Denis J.

    2001-04-01

    In an earlier paper, we applied configurational expressions of the temperature to the calculation of temperature profiles within a confined atomic fluid. This paper focuses on the application of these expressions to confined molecular fluids using ethane and hexane as examples. We first give configurational expressions for the temperature for these constrained systems. The configurational temperature profiles so obtained are compared to the kinetic temperature calculated using the equipartition principle, in equilibrium systems. These expressions are then used in nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations of fluids undergoing planar Poiseuille flow. We show that these configurational expressions provide a direct and accurate determination of the temperature profile for these systems.

  4. Fluids and Combustion Facility: Fluids Integrated Rack Modal Model Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Suarez, Vicente J.; Sullivan, Timothy L.; Otten, Kim D.; Akers, James C.

    2005-01-01

    The Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) is one of two racks in the Fluids and Combustion Facility on the International Space Station. The FIR is dedicated to the scientific investigation of space system fluids management supporting NASA s Exploration of Space Initiative. The FIR hardware was modal tested and FIR finite element model updated to satisfy the International Space Station model correlation criteria. The final cross-orthogonality results between the correlated model and test mode shapes was greater than 90 percent for all primary target modes.

  5. Extended Jarosite Lifetimes in High Salinity Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elwood Madden, M. E.; Madden, A. S.

    2008-12-01

    Particle lifetime calculations utilizing olivine (Olsen and Rimstidt, 2007; Stopar et al., 2006) and jarosite (Elwood Madden et al. 2008) dissolution rates have been used to constrain the duration of aqueous environments on the surface of Mars. Previous rate experiments have shown that jarosite dissolves relatively quickly in dilute aqueous solutions leading to short particle lifetimes. However, mineralogy and bulk chemistry of outcrops containing jarosite at Meridiani Planum suggest high salinity fluids were active in the region. The goal of this study is to determine the effects of high salinity (low activity of water) on jarosite dissolution rates. K-jarosite was synthesized using the methods of Baron and Palmer (1996) and characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, BET surface area analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microcopy. Dissolution experiments were conducted by adding 0.5 g K- jarosite to 500 g ultrapure water at 293K. Samples were collected from the continuously-stirred batch reaction at predetermined intervals and filtered using 0.2 micron filters. K+ concentrations in the resulting supernatants were measured using atomic adsorption spectroscopy to determine the rate of jarosite dissolution. Jarosite dissolution experiments in halite saturated brine result in dissolution rates over one order of magnitude slower than similar experiments conducted in dilute solutions. Dissolution in ultrapure water proceeds at log k= -8.5. Jarosite dissolution in halite saturated brine is significantly slower: log k = -10. Using a shrinking sphere model to calculate particle lifetimes, the lifetime of a 10 micron diameter jarosite particle is extended from 1-2 years in dilute solutions to 100 years in high salinity brine. This suggests that while jarosite is an ephemeral phase in dilute solutions, it may persist for significantly longer time periods in high salinity waters, such as those interpreted at Meridiani Planum based on bulk chemistry

  6. Electrical conductivity of fluid-bearing quartzite under lower crustal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimojuku, Akira; Yoshino, Takashi; Yamazaki, Daisuke; Okudaira, Takamoto

    2012-05-01

    The electrical conductivity of fluid-bearing quartzite was determined as function of temperature and fluid fraction at 1 GPa in order to assess the origin of the high conductivity anomalies observed in the middle to lower crustal levels. Dihedral angles of quartz-fluid-quartz determined from recovered samples were below 60°, suggesting that fluid forms an interconnected network through the quartz aggregate. The electrical conductivity of quartzite increases with increasing temperature, which can be approximately expressed by Arrhenius equation. The apparent activation enthalpy decreases from 0.70 to 0.25 eV with increasing fluid fraction in volume from 0.00043 to 0.32. The electrical conductivity (σ) of the fluid-bearing quartzite increased with fluid fraction (ϕ) proportionally to a power law (σ ∝ ϕ0.56-0.71) within the temperature range of 900-1000 K. The electrical conductivity of the aqueous fluid-bearing quartzite with the maximum fluid fraction (0.32) was found to be about three orders of magnitude higher than that of dry quartzite at 1000 K. However, its electrical conductivity was definitely lower than the geophysically observed values of high-conductivity anomalies, even if the quartzite contained large fluid fractions (0.32). The present results suggest that fluid-bearing quartzite is unable to account for the high-conductivity anomalies in terms of fluid fraction. A significant amount of other ionic species, such as Na, Cl, and Al in aqueous fluid, in addition to silica phases dissolved in fluid, is required to increase conductivity.

  7. New class of turbulence in active fluids.

    PubMed

    Bratanov, Vasil; Jenko, Frank; Frey, Erwin

    2015-12-01

    Turbulence is a fundamental and ubiquitous phenomenon in nature, occurring from astrophysical to biophysical scales. At the same time, it is widely recognized as one of the key unsolved problems in modern physics, representing a paradigmatic example of nonlinear dynamics far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Whereas in the past, most theoretical work in this area has been devoted to Navier-Stokes flows, there is now a growing awareness of the need to extend the research focus to systems with more general patterns of energy injection and dissipation. These include various types of complex fluids and plasmas, as well as active systems consisting of self-propelled particles, like dense bacterial suspensions. Recently, a continuum model has been proposed for such "living fluids" that is based on the Navier-Stokes equations, but extends them to include some of the most general terms admitted by the symmetry of the problem [Wensink HH, et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:14308-14313]. This introduces a cubic nonlinearity, related to the Toner-Tu theory of flocking, which can interact with the quadratic Navier-Stokes nonlinearity. We show that as a result of the subtle interaction between these two terms, the energy spectra at large spatial scales exhibit power laws that are not universal, but depend on both finite-size effects and physical parameters. Our combined numerical and analytical analysis reveals the origin of this effect and even provides a way to understand it quantitatively. Turbulence in active fluids, characterized by this kind of nonlinear self-organization, defines a new class of turbulent flows.

  8. Nematode locomotion in unconfined and confined fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilbao, Alejandro; Wajnryb, Eligiusz; Vanapalli, Siva A.; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2013-08-01

    The millimeter-long soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans propels itself by producing undulations that propagate along its body and turns by assuming highly curved shapes. According to our recent study [V. Padmanabhan et al., PLoS ONE 7, e40121 (2012), 10.1371/journal.pone.0040121] all these postures can be accurately described by a piecewise-harmonic-curvature model. We combine this curvature-based description with highly accurate hydrodynamic bead models to evaluate the normalized velocity and turning angles for a worm swimming in an unconfined fluid and in a parallel-wall cell. We find that the worm moves twice as fast and navigates more effectively under a strong confinement, due to the large transverse-to-longitudinal resistance-coefficient ratio resulting from the wall-mediated far-field hydrodynamic coupling between body segments. We also note that the optimal swimming gait is similar to the gait observed for nematodes swimming in high-viscosity fluids. Our bead models allow us to determine the effects of confinement and finite thickness of the body of the nematode on its locomotion. These effects are not accounted for by the classical resistive-force and slender-body theories.

  9. Upper mantle fluids involved in diamond formation and mantle metasomatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sverjensky, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Diamond formation coupled with metasomatic reactions involving the interaction of fluids with silicate host rocks provides important clues about the deep carbon cycle. However, quantitative modeling of diamond formation with silicate rock metasomatism has not been possible. Here the Deep Water (DEW) model [1] was used to generate equilibrium constants for irreversible chemical mass transfer calculations monitoring evolving fluid chemistry during diamond formation and coupled silicate reactions. Conceptual models for diamond formation in two environments were constructed for the purpose of illustrating the role of pH in diamond-forming systems. For cratonic diamonds, fluid at 900°C and 5.0 GPa was derived in equilibrium with a carbonated mafic part of a subducting slab consisting of pure diopside, enstatite, pyrope, phlogopite, magnesite, diamond and pyrite. The fluid was assumed to infiltrate and react at constant T and P with a model metasedimentary eclogite (jadeite, pyrope, kyanite and coesite). Abundant diamond was predicted to precipitate as reactant silicate minerals were destroyed and secondary pyrope, jadeite and kyanite were precipitated, which could represent the solid inclusions in natural diamonds. The final fluid chemistry was extremely enriched in Si and depleted in Ca relative to the initial fluid, consistent with the worldwide fluid inclusion trend from carbonatitic fluid to silicic fluid. The logfO2 changed by only 0.2, whereas pH continuously decreased as reaction with jadeite and kyanite and precipitation of secondary pyrope removed Mg2+ and added H+ to the fluid. Most of the carbon precipitated as diamond was derived from decreasing concentrations of formate and propionate. In the UHPM scenario, fluid at 600°C and 5.0 GPa in carbonated peridotite (forsterite, antigorite, clinochlore, magnesite, and pyrrhotite) in a subducting slab was assumed to infiltrate and react at constant T and P with a different model metasedimentary eclogite (jadeite

  10. Isotopic Constraints on the Chemical Evolution of Geothermal Fluids, Long Valley, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Shaun; Kennedy, Burton; DePaolo, Donald; Evans, William

    2008-08-01

    A spatial survey of the chemical and isotopic composition of fluids from the Long Valley hydrothermal system was conducted. Starting at the presumed hydrothermal upwelling zone in the west moat of the caldera, samples were collected from the Casa Diablo geothermal field and a series of monitoring wells defining a nearly linear, ~;;14 km long, west-to-east trend along the proposed fluid flow path (Sorey et al., 1991). Samples were analyzed for the isotopes of water, Sr, Ca, and noble gases, the concentrations of major cations and anions and total CO2. Our data confirm earlier models in which the variations in water isotopes along the flow path reflect mixing of a single hydrothermal fluid with local groundwater. Variations in Sr data are poorly constrained and reflect fluid mixing, multiple fluid-pathways or water-rock exchange along the flow path as suggested by Goff et al. (1991). Correlated variations among total CO2, noble gases and the concentration and isotopic composition of Ca suggest progressive fluid degassing (loss of CO2, noble gases) driving calcite precipitation as the fluid flows west-to-east across the caldera. This is the first evidence that Ca isotopes may trace and provide definitive evidence of calcite precipitation along fluid flow paths in geothermal systems.

  11. Krauklis Wave in Rock Fractures Filled with Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneev, V. A.; Danilovskaya, L.; Kashtan, B. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Krauklis wave is a slow dispersive mode that propagates in a fluid layer bounded by elastic media. This wave was first reported by Krauklis (1962) who, in studying single fractures, found its analytical form and described its main properties, such as dominant polarization along the walls, high dispersion, and a propagation velocity going to zero at the zero frequency limit. Independently, Lloyd and Redwood (1965) and later Paillet and White (1982) found this wave numerically, as a root of the correspondent determinant for a linear system representing boundary conditions. Since then, many authors have reported on interesting properties of this slow fluid wave, including its high amplitude and its central role in wave propagation within fractures (Ferrazzini and Aki, 1987; Groenenboom and Falk, 2000; Groenenboom and Fokkema, 1998; Ziatdinov et al., 2006; Korneev, 2008; Korneev et al., 2009; Frehner and Schmalholz, 2010; Derov et al., 2009). (Note that some authors-Bell and Fletcher, 2004; Elliott, 2007) suggest that these slow fluid waves play a key role in hearing physiology.) The Krauklis wave has been observed in the laboratory (Tang and Cheng, 1988; Hassan and Nagy, 1997), in field data during hydrofracturing (Ferrazzini et al., 1990), and in cross-well seismic (Goloshubin et al., 1994). Chouet (1996) suggested that low-frequency seismic tremors taking place before volcano eruptions can be explained by this wave propagating in molten lava. Analytical and numerical results suggest that Krauklis wave has dominant amplitudes compared to all other waves and can store most of the energy of seismic waves in fractured media. At the laboratory scale (less that 1 m ) models it is possible to observe resonances caused by the Krauklis wave at frequencies below 10 Hz.

  12. Thermal Forces in Simple and Complex Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazza, Roberto; Giglio, Marzio

    2004-11-01

    common, and no model is so far able to give a general prediction of the direction of thermodiffusive motion. Efforts in understanding the physical origin of the Soret effect in model systems like colloidal systems will probably be of great relevance. At the same time, analyzing Soret-driven hydrodynamic effects in complex fluids, and exploiting thermophoresis as a macromolecular separation/concentration method (as already done by Thermal Field-Flow Fractionation) are promising research topics. This renovated interest in Soret-related phenomena is mirrored by the rather diversified list of contributions that appear in the present issue. These papers have been presented at the International Meeting IMT6 - Thermal Forces held in Villa Cipressi (Varenna, Italy) in July 2004, as the sixth edition of a series of conferences run under the auspices of the European Group of Research in Thermodiffusion (EGRT). The conference falls on the hundredth anniversary of Charles Soret death. Very duly, a commemorative contribution by Jean Platten and Pierre Costesèque, on behalf of EGRT, opens this issue. In detail, the contributions cover the following topics. Soret effects in simple fluid mixtures are discussed in the first two papers: subtle problems related to thermal diffusion in multicomponent mixtures are addressed by Saghir et al., while convection-free measurements of the Soret coefficient in porous media are described by Costesèque et al. The paper by Parola and Piazza presents a general theoretical approach to particle thermophoresis in liquids, while Enge and Köhler give a detailed analysis of thermal diffusion in polymer blends. Blums reviews coupled magnetic and Soret effects in ferrofluids, while Duhr et al. describe microfluidics methods for measuring DNA thermophoresis, and Steinbach et al. design an optical trap for studying particle thermophoresis in gases under microgravity conditions. The second part of the issue is dedicated to thermal diffusion effects on

  13. Body fluid identification in forensics.

    PubMed

    An, Ja Hyun; Shin, Kyoung-Jin; Yang, Woo Ick; Lee, Hwan Young

    2012-10-01

    Determination of the type and origin of the body fluids found at a crime scene can give important insights into crime scene reconstruction by supporting a link between sample donors and actual criminal acts. For more than a century, numerous types of body fluid identification methods have been developed, such as chemical tests, immunological tests, protein catalytic activity tests, spectroscopic methods and microscopy. However, these conventional body fluid identification methods are mostly presumptive, and are carried out for only one body fluid at a time. Therefore, the use of a molecular genetics-based approach using RNA profiling or DNA methylation detection has been recently proposed to supplant conventional body fluid identification methods. Several RNA markers and tDMRs (tissue-specific differentially methylated regions) which are specific to forensically relevant body fluids have been identified, and their specificities and sensitivities have been tested using various samples. In this review, we provide an overview of the present knowledge and the most recent developments in forensic body fluid identification and discuss its possible practical application to forensic casework. PMID:23101507

  14. Fluid Flow Phenomena during Welding

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    MOLTEN WELD POOLS are dynamic. Liquid in the weld pool in acted on by several strong forces, which can result in high-velocity fluid motion. Fluid flow velocities exceeding 1 m/s (3.3 ft/s) have been observed in gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds under ordinary welding conditions, and higher velocities have been measured in submerged arc welds. Fluid flow is important because it affects weld shape and is related to the formation of a variety of weld defects. Moving liquid transports heat and often dominates heat transport in the weld pool. Because heat transport by mass flow depends on the direction and speed of fluid motion, weld pool shape can differ dramatically from that predicted by conductive heat flow. Temperature gradients are also altered by fluid flow, which can affect weld microstructure. A number of defects in GTA welds have been attributed to fluid flow or changes in fluid flow, including lack of penetration, top bead roughness, humped beads, finger penetration, and undercutting. Instabilities in the liquid film around the keyhole in electron beam and laser welds are responsible for the uneven penetration (spiking) characteristic of these types of welds.

  15. Body fluid identification in forensics.

    PubMed

    An, Ja Hyun; Shin, Kyoung-Jin; Yang, Woo Ick; Lee, Hwan Young

    2012-10-01

    Determination of the type and origin of the body fluids found at a crime scene can give important insights into crime scene reconstruction by supporting a link between sample donors and actual criminal acts. For more than a century, numerous types of body fluid identification methods have been developed, such as chemical tests, immunological tests, protein catalytic activity tests, spectroscopic methods and microscopy. However, these conventional body fluid identification methods are mostly presumptive, and are carried out for only one body fluid at a time. Therefore, the use of a molecular genetics-based approach using RNA profiling or DNA methylation detection has been recently proposed to supplant conventional body fluid identification methods. Several RNA markers and tDMRs (tissue-specific differentially methylated regions) which are specific to forensically relevant body fluids have been identified, and their specificities and sensitivities have been tested using various samples. In this review, we provide an overview of the present knowledge and the most recent developments in forensic body fluid identification and discuss its possible practical application to forensic casework.

  16. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Outreach Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurnou, J. M.; Schwarz, J. W.; Noguez, G.

    2012-12-01

    Here we will present high definition films of laboratory experiments demonstrating basic fluid motions similar to those occurring in atmospheres and oceans. In these experiments, we use water to simulate the fluid dynamics of both the liquid (oceans) and gaseous (atmospheric) envelopes. To simulate the spinning of the earth, we carry out the experiments on a rotating table. For each experiment, we begin by looking at our system first without the effects of rotation. Then, we include rotation to see how the behavior of the fluid changes due to the Coriolis accelerations. Our hope is that by viewing these experiments one will develop a sense for how fluids behave both in rotating and non-rotating systems. By noting the differences between the experiments, it should then be possible to establish a basis to think about large-scale fluid motions that exist in Earth's oceans and atmospheres as well as on planets other than Earth.Plan view image of vortices in a rotating tank of fluid. Movies of such flows make accessible the often difficult to comprehend fluid dynamical processes that occur in planetary atmospheres and oceans.

  17. Al Shanker Remembers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Educator, 2000

    2000-01-01

    In a 1996 interview shortly before his death, Al Shanker, longtime president of the American Federation of Teachers, discussed such topics as: his own educational experiences; how he learned about political fighting in the Boy Scouts; the appeal of socialism; multinational corporations and the nation state; teaching tough students; and John Dewey…

  18. Fosetyl-al

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Fosetyl - al ; CASRN 39148 - 24 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  19. ALS renewal moves forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcone, R. W.; Feinberg, B.; Hussain, Z.; Kirz, J.; Krebs, G. F.; Padmore, H. A.; Robin, D. S.; Robinson, A. L.

    2007-11-01

    As the result of an extensive long-term planning process involving all its stakeholders—management, staff, and users—the ALS has seen its future and is aggressively moving ahead to implement its vision for keeping the facility at the cutting edge for the next 2-3 decades. The evolving strategic plan now in place aims to renew the ALS so it can address a new generation of fundamental questions about size dependent and dimensional-confinement phenomena at the nanoscale; correlation and complexity in physical, biological, and environmental systems; and temporal evolution, assembly, dynamics and ultrafast phenomena. The renewal spans three areas: (1) increased staffing at beamlines to support the growing user community and safety professionals to keep an increasingly complex facility hazard free; (2) implementing advances in accelerator, insertion device, beamline, and detector technology that will make it possible for ALS users to address emerging grand scientific and technological challenges with incisive world-class tools; and (3) construction of a user support building and guest housing that will increase the safety and user friendliness of the ALS by providing users office, meeting, experiment staging, and laboratory space for their work and on-site accommodations at reasonable rates.

  20. Artificial Heart Fluid Dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mussivand, Tofigh Varcaneh

    Flow characteristics within pneumatic, pulsatile, and pusher plate prosthetic hearts were studied. The blood pumps evaluated were duplicates of pumps used for in vivo calf and for clinical implantation at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation. Human dura mater bioprosthetic, caged disk, and Bjork-Shiley tilting disk valves were employed in the pumps. Dual camera video tape and synchronized still photography were used to study flow patterns. Diffused light and a planar laser source provided illumination. The laser light was fanned into a plane with a thickness of 0.2 mm to 10 mm. Magnesium oxide and Amberlite particles were used as tracers. Aqueous-glycerol, aqueous-sucrose solutions and mineral oil were used as blood analog fluids. Inflow, outflow, drive, and afterload pressures, diaphragm motion, cardiac output, and heart rate were measured and recorded. An electrical circuit was developed to synchronize pump diaphragm motion with captured images of flow trajectories. After digitizing the trajectories, velocities, global and local turbulence, and shear stresses were obtained. Disturbed and recirculating zones were identified. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed using data obtained from the digitization of flow trajectories. Simultaneous turbulence and stasis were observed during most phases of the cardiac cycles in all the pumps tested. A maximum Reynold's shear stress of 2889 dynes/cm ^2 occurred at 120 beats per minute (bpm). The peak velocity was 146 cm/sec during systole. The identified regions of recirculation, low velocity and disturbed flow were shown to correlate with thrombosed areas of explanted blood pumps. The maximum calculated turbulence intensity was 106 cm/sec which occurred at 120 bpm during systole.

  1. Detachment energies of spheroidal particles from fluid-fluid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Gary B.; Krüger, Timm; Coveney, Peter V.; Harting, Jens

    2014-10-01

    The energy required to detach a single particle from a fluid-fluid interface is an important parameter for designing certain soft materials, for example, emulsions stabilised by colloidal particles, colloidosomes designed for targeted drug delivery, and bio-sensors composed of magnetic particles adsorbed at interfaces. For a fixed particle volume, prolate and oblate spheroids attach more strongly to interfaces because they have larger particle-interface areas. Calculating the detachment energy of spheroids necessitates the difficult measurement of particle-liquid surface tensions, in contrast with spheres, where the contact angle suffices. We develop a simplified detachment energy model for spheroids which depends only on the particle aspect ratio and the height of the particle centre of mass above the fluid-fluid interface. We use lattice Boltzmann simulations to validate the model and provide quantitative evidence that the approach can be applied to simulate particle-stabilized emulsions, and highlight the experimental implications of this validation.

  2. Amniotic fluid index: correlation with amniotic fluid volume.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, I A; McGovern, P G; Ordorica, S A; Frieden, F J; Young, B K

    1992-01-01

    We calculated the amniotic fluid indexes (AFIs) of 310 women on 459 occasions. Normative data were analyzed and compared with data in several high-risk groups. In the normal gestations there was a progressive increase in AFI with advancing gestation until 32 weeks, after which there was a decline. The mean AFIs in abnormal gestations varied with the clinical diagnoses. These values were compared to those obtained by assessing amniotic fluid volume (AFV), that is a pocket more than 2 cm. There were 51 patients with abnormal AFVs. Forty-two had decreased fluid, six also had decreased AFIs; nine had increased AFVs and five (all with diabetes) also had increased AFIs. Thus, AFIs in normal pregnancies showed an orderly pattern of change with gestational age, and there was no accurate correlation between AFI and AFV. Thus, using AFV alone may lead to false interpretations of amniotic fluid status. PMID:1418123

  3. Finite element computational fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Finite element analysis as applied to the broad spectrum of computational fluid mechanics is analyzed. The finite element solution methodology is derived, developed, and applied directly to the differential equation systems governing classes of problems in fluid mechanics. The heat conduction equation is used to reveal the essence and elegance of finite element theory, including higher order accuracy and convergence. The algorithm is extended to the pervasive nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations. A specific fluid mechanics problem class is analyzed with an even mix of theory and applications, including turbulence closure and the solution of turbulent flows.

  4. Spinning fluids in general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, J. R.; Smalley, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    General relativity field equations are employed to examine a continuous medium with internal spin. A variational principle formerly applied in the special relativity case is extended to the general relativity case, using a tetrad to express the spin density and the four-velocity of the fluid. An energy-momentum tensor is subsequently defined for a spinning fluid. The equations of motion of the fluid are suggested to be useful in analytical studies of galaxies, for anisotropic Bianchi universes, and for turbulent eddies.

  5. Quantum field theory of fluids.

    PubMed

    Gripaios, Ben; Sutherland, Dave

    2015-02-20

    The quantum theory of fields is largely based on studying perturbations around noninteracting, or free, field theories, which correspond to a collection of quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillators. The quantum theory of an ordinary fluid is "freer", in the sense that the noninteracting theory also contains an infinite collection of quantum-mechanical free particles, corresponding to vortex modes. By computing a variety of correlation functions at tree and loop level, we give evidence that a quantum perfect fluid can be consistently formulated as a low-energy, effective field theory. We speculate that the quantum behavior is radically different from both classical fluids and quantum fields.

  6. Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Automated remote fluid servicing will be necessary for future space missions, as future satellites will be designed for on-orbit consumable replenishment. In order to develop an on-orbit remote servicing capability, a standard interface between a tanker and the receiving satellite is needed. The objective of the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) program is to design, fabricate, and functionally demonstrate compliance with all design requirements for an automated fluid interface system. A description and documentation of the Fairchild AFIS design is provided.

  7. Fluid distribution in amphibolitic lower crust: Experimental constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, M.; Abe, M.

    2011-12-01

    Recent magnetotelluric observations have revealed extensive distribution of non-magmatic, low-electrical-resistivity regions in the lower crust of island arcs, indicating the grain-scale interconnection of aqueous fluid. However, previous experimental studies on the pore geometry of analogous monomineralic systems showed that the dihedral angles are larger than 60° (in anorthosite, Yoshino et al., 2002) or the grains are strongly facetted (in F-tremolite, Price et al., 2002), leading to the conclusion that the fluid networks will not be established. In order to solve this paradox, we have carried out synthetic experiments on aqueous fluid-bearing amphibolites at lower crustal pressure and temperature and have investigated the fluid interconnections by considering the effect of surface energy anisotropy. The experiments were performed using piston-cylinder apparatus at 0.7 GPa and 600°C for 1-2 weeks. Fine powder of natural amphibolite consisting mainly of pargasite (Par) and anorthite (An) from Ichinomegata Maar, NE Japan, was used as the starting material. An and Par grains were separated from the coarsely crushed powder of amphibolite. The starting material was loaded into a Ag capsule with ca. 1 wt% of deionized distilled water. Oxalic acid dihydrate and brine were used to examine the effect of CO2 and NaCl, respectively. The polished surface of the run products were observed by FE-SEM. The triple junctions were classified into three types: faceted-faceted (FF), faceted-curved (FC), and curved-curved (CC). Further, the apparent dihedral angles were measured for each type. The cumulative frequency of the apparent dihedral angles was used to estimate the range of the true dihedral angles. In the An-fluid system, the percentage of CC-type triple junctions was ca. 45% irrespective of the fluid composition. Because their median dihedral angles were larger than 60° for H2O, C-H-O fluid and 6 wt% NaClaq, the intergranular fluid will not be connected as long as the

  8. Extension of Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program's Fluid Property Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Kishan

    2011-01-01

    This internship focused on the development of additional capabilities for the General Fluid Systems Simulation Program (GFSSP). GFSSP is a thermo-fluid code used to evaluate system performance by a finite volume-based network analysis method. The program was developed primarily to analyze the complex internal flow of propulsion systems and is capable of solving many problems related to thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. GFSSP is integrated with thermodynamic programs that provide fluid properties for sub-cooled, superheated, and saturation states. For fluids that are not included in the thermodynamic property program, look-up property tables can be provided. The look-up property tables of the current release version can only handle sub-cooled and superheated states. The primary purpose of the internship was to extend the look-up tables to handle saturated states. This involves a) generation of a property table using REFPROP, a thermodynamic property program that is widely used, and b) modifications of the Fortran source code to read in an additional property table containing saturation data for both saturated liquid and saturated vapor states. Also, a method was implemented to calculate the thermodynamic properties of user-fluids within the saturation region, given values of pressure and enthalpy. These additions required new code to be written, and older code had to be adjusted to accommodate the new capabilities. Ultimately, the changes will lead to the incorporation of this new capability in future versions of GFSSP. This paper describes the development and validation of the new capability.

  9. Standardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, Rudiger; Casella, Francesco; Sielemann, Michael; Proelss, Katrin; Otter, Martin; Wetter, Michael

    2009-09-01

    This article discusses the Modelica.Fluid library that has been included in the Modelica Standard Library 3.1. Modelica.Fluid provides interfaces and basic components for the device-oriented modeling of onedimensional thermo-fluid flow in networks containing vessels, pipes, fluid machines, valves and fittings. A unique feature of Modelica.Fluid is that the component equations and the media models as well as pressure loss and heat transfer correlations are decoupled from each other. All components are implemented such that they can be used for media from the Modelica.Media library. This means that an incompressible or compressible medium, a single or a multiple substance medium with one or more phases might be used with one and the same model as long as the modeling assumptions made hold. Furthermore, trace substances are supported. Modeling assumptions can be configured globally in an outer System object. This covers in particular the initialization, uni- or bi-directional flow, and dynamic or steady-state formulation of mass, energy, and momentum balance. All assumptions can be locally refined for every component. While Modelica.Fluid contains a reasonable set of component models, the goal of the library is not to provide a comprehensive set of models, but rather to provide interfaces and best practices for the treatment of issues such as connector design and implementation of energy, mass and momentum balances. Applications from various domains are presented.

  10. Deformation and Fluid Flow in the Etendeka Plateau, NW Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Eric; Koehn, Daniel; Passchier, Cees; Davis, Jennifer; Salvona, Aron; Chung, Peter

    2014-05-01

    We studied deformation bands in sandstone and breccia veins in overlying basalts of the Etendeka Plateau, NW Namibia, regarding their development and history of fluid flow within. The studied deformation bands can be divided into disaggregation bands and cataclastic bands. The former appear to develop in unsorted sandstone, whereas the latter form in well sorted sandstone. We estimated the porosity of the bands and host rock in thin sections using a simple image analysis software (ImageJ). Results show, that no or only a minor decrease in porosity occur in disaggregation bands, while the porosity in cataclastic bands is decreased by up to 82 % with respect to the host rock. These observations are in agreement with results of existing studies (e.g. Fossen et al., 2007). Hence the cataclastic bands form a seal to fluid flow in the host rock, yet it is observed in outcrops that deformation bands can develop into open fractures which in turn increase the permeability of the rock. Breccia veins in the overlying basalts show intense fracturing where the basalt is locally fractured into elongated chips. Mineral precipitation in these breccia veins indicates a hydrothermal origin of the fluids since the precipitates consist of extremely fine-grained quartz aggregates. Secondary mineralization with large crystals indicates that a long-lived fluid circulation through tubular networks was active at a later stage, which eventually sealed the veins completely. We propose that the Etendeka basalts on top of the sandstone formation produced a localized deformation along deformation bands and heated up fluid below the lavas. At a later stage fluid pressures were either high enough to break through the basalt or fracturing due to ongoing extension produced fluid pathways. References Fossen, H., Schultz, R., Shipton, Z. and Mair, K. (2007). Deformation bands in sandstone: a review. J. Geol. Soc., 164, 755-769.

  11. The Analytical Solutions for Magnetohydrodynamic Flow of a Third Order Fluid in a Porous Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Ellahi, Rahmat; Mahomed, Fazal Mehmood

    2009-10-01

    An analysis has been carried out for flow and heat transfer characteristics in a third grade fluid between two porous plates. The electrically conducting fluid fills the porous medium. The solutions have been developed for small porosity and magnetic field. Three flow problems are investigated and analytical expressions for the velocity field and temperature distribution are given for each case. Moreover, we recover and extend the results of Siddiqui et al. [1] by presenting exact solutions for the governing equations derived in [1].

  12. Dynamic scaling and large scale effects in turbulence in compressible stratified fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pharasi, Hirdesh K.; Bhattacharjee, Jayanta K.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the propagation of sound in a turbulent fluid which is confined between two horizontal parallel plates, maintained at different temperatures. In the homogeneous fluid, Staroselsky et al. had predicted a divergent sound speed at large length scales. Here we find a divergent sound speed and a vanishing expansion coefficient at large length scales. Dispersion relation and the question of scale invariance at large distance scales lead to these results.

  13. The origin of massive hydrothermal alterations: what drives fluid flow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Bons, Paul D.; Martín-Martín, Juan-Diego; Corbella, Mercè; Stafford, Sherry L.; Griera, Albert; Teixell, Antonio; Salas, Ramón; Travé, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Hydrothermal alterations form when fluids warmer than the host rocks flow through them dissolving and precipitating minerals. These fluids typically flow upwards from deeper geologic units using faults as major conduits. In some cases, hydrothermal alterations affect large (km-scale) rock volumes. One example of such process is the massive high-temperature dolostones that crop out at the Benicàssim outcrop analogue (Maestrat Basin, E Spain). In this area, seismic-scale fault-controlled stratabound dolostone bodies extend over several kilometres away from large-scale faults, replacing Lower Cretaceous limestones. The fluid responsible for such alteration is a seawater-derived brine that interacted with underlying Permian-Triassic and Paleozoic basement rocks. The estimated volume of fluid required to produce the Benicàssim dolomitization is huge, with fluid-rock ratios in the order of several tens to a few hundreds, depending on composition and reaction temperature (Gomez-Rivas et al., 2014). An open key question is what brought this warm fluid (80 - 150 ºC) upwards to a depth of less than 1 km, where the dolomitization reaction took place. The driving forces should have been able not only to provide sufficient fluid volumes at shallow depths but also to heat up the whole host rock, including the non-replaced limestones. There are two hyphoteses for driving a warm fluid upwards in the Maestrat Basin: (a) rapid release through faults of overpressured solutions in recurrent pulses and (b) thermal convection. We present a series of heat and fluid flow numerical simulations to constrain the dolomitization conditions under these two end-member cases. The results indicate that in a pulsating model the fluid must flow upwards at velocities higher than cm/s to keep their elevated temperature. Otherwise they cool down quickly, and the host rocks cannot be heated. Such velocities can be reached if the fluid flow velocity equals that of fracture propagation, as in mobile

  14. Oil emulsions of fluorosilicone fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Keil, J. W.

    1985-08-27

    Emulsions of fluorosilicone fluids in mineral oil are disclosed. These emulsions are stabilized by a polydimethylsiloxane-polybutadiene copolymer or a polydimethylsiloxane-hydrogenated polybutadiene copplymer. The emulsions are an effective foam suppressant for organic liquids, especially crude petroleum.

  15. Fluid management systems technology summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, J. A.; Blatt, M. H.; Bennett, F. O., Jr.; Campbell, B. J.

    1974-01-01

    A summarization and categorization of the pertinent literature associated with fluid management systems technology having potential application to in-orbit fluid transfer and/or associated storage are presented. A literature search was conducted to obtain pertinent documents for review. Reports determined to be of primary significance were summarized in the following manner: (1) report identification, (2) objective(s) of the work, (3) description of pertinent work performed, (4) major results, and (5) comments of the reviewer. Pertinent figures are presented on a single facing page separate from the text. Specific areas covered are: fluid line dynamics and thermodynamics, low-g mass gauging, other instrumentation, stratification/pressurization, low-g vent systems, fluid mixing refrigeration and reliquefaction, and low-g interface control and liquid acquisition systems. Reports which were reviewed and not summarized, along with reasons for not summarizing, are also listed.

  16. Updated, expanded, fluid properties handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gershman, R.; Osugi, J. T.; Sherman, A. L.

    1971-01-01

    Revised handbook presents quantitative data, in the form of graphs and charts, pertaining to thermodynamic properties of specific cryogenic fluids and several metals. References to sources of data are cited.

  17. Fluid operated quick release mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Gas operated release mechanism releases load by fluid pressure to provide positive action quick release. Method can be used with large loads and is useful in repetitive cycling functions where shear pins and similar devices would be cumbersome.

  18. Liquidlike Behavior of Supercritical Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelli, F.; Santoro, M.; Scopigno, T.; Krisch, M.; Ruocco, G.

    2006-12-01

    The high frequency dynamics of fluid oxygen has been investigated by inelastic x-ray scattering, at high pressures and room temperature. In spite of the markedly supercritical conditions (T≈2Tc, P>102Pc), the sound velocity exceeds the hydrodynamic value of about 20%, a feature which is the fingerprint of liquidlike dynamics. The comparison of the present results with literature data obtained in several fluids allow us to identify the extrapolation of the liquid-vapor-coexistence line in the (P/Pc, T/Tc) plane as the relevant edge between liquidlike and gaslike dynamics. More interestingly, this extrapolation is very close to the non-metal-metal transition in hot dense fluids, at pressure and temperature values as obtained by shock wave experiments. This result points to the existence of a connection between structural modifications and transport properties in dense fluids.

  19. Fluid Dynamics with Free Surfaces

    1992-02-01

    RIPPLE is a two-dimensional, transient, free surface incompressible fluid dynamics program. It allows multiple free surfaces with surface tension and wall adhesion forces and has a partial cell treatment which allows curved boundaries and interior obstacles.

  20. PREFACE: XXI Fluid Mechanics Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmyd, Janusz S.; Fornalik-Wajs, Elzbieta; Jaszczur, Marek

    2014-08-01

    This Conference Volume contains the papers presented at the 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference (XXI FMC) held at AGH - University of Science and Technology in Krakow, Poland, 15-18 June 2014, and accepted for Proceedings published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Fluid Mechanics Conferences have been taking place every two years since 1974, a total of forty years. The 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference (XXI FMC) is being organized under the auspices of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee of Mechanics. The goal of this conference is to provide a forum for the exposure and exchange of ideas, methods and results in fluid mechanics. Conference topics include, but are not limited to Aerodynamics, Atmospheric Science, Bio-Fluids, Combustion and Reacting Flows, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Flow Machinery, General Fluid Dynamics, Hydromechanics, Heat and Fluid Flow, Measurement Techniques, Micro- and Nano- Flow, Multi-Phase Flow, Non-Newtonian Fluids, Rotating and Stratified Flows, Turbulence. Within the general subjects of this conference, the Professor Janusz W. Elsner Competition for the best fluid mechanics paper presented during the Conference is organized. Authors holding a M.Sc. or a Ph.D. degree and who are not older than 35 years of age may enter the Competition. Authors with a Ph.D. degree must present individual papers; authors with a M.Sc. degree may present papers with their supervisor as coauthor, including original results of experimental, numerical or analytic research. Six state-of-the-art keynote papers were delivered by world leading experts. All contributed papers were peer reviewed. Recommendations were received from the International Scientific Committee, reviewers and the advisory board. Accordingly, of the 163 eligible extended abstracts submitted, after a review process by the International Scientific Committee, 137 papers were selected for presentation at the 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference, 68

  1. FLUID TRANSPORT THROUGH POROUS MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluid transport through porous media is a relevant topic to many scientific and engineering fields. Soil scientists, civil engineers, hydrologists and hydrogeologists are concerned with the transport of water, gases and nonaqueous phase liquid contaminants through porous earth m...

  2. Fluid Instabilities inside Astrophysical Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Woosley, Stan; Heger, Alexander; Almgren, Ann; Zheng, Weiqun

    2014-11-01

    We present our results from the simulations of fluid instabilities inside supernovae with a new radiation-hydrodynamic code, CASTRO. Massive stars are ten times more massive than Sun. Observational and theoretical studies suggest that these massive stars tend to end their lives with energetic explosions, so-called supernovae. Many fluid instabilities occur during the supernova explosions. The fluid instabilities can be driven by hydrodynamics, nuclear burning, or radiation. In this talk, we discuss about the possible physics of fluid instabilities found in our simulations and how the resulting mixing affects the observational signatures of supernovae. This work was supported by the DOE HEP Program under contract DE-SC0010676; the National Science Foundation (AST 0909129) and the NASA Theory Program (NNX14AH34G).

  3. The handbook of fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.W.

    1998-07-01

    This book provides professionals in the field of fluid dynamics with a comprehensive guide and resource. The book balances three traditional areas of fluid mechanics--theoretical, computational, and experimental--and expounds on basic science and engineering techniques. Each chapter introduces a topic, discusses the primary issues related to this subject, outlines approaches taken by experts, and supplies references for further information. Topics discussed include: (1) basic engineering fluid dynamics; (2) classical fluid dynamics; (3) turbulence modeling; (4) reacting flows; (5) multiphase flows; (6) flow and porous media; (7) high Reynolds number asymptotic theories; (8) finite difference method; (9) finite volume method; (10) finite element methods; (11) spectral element methods for incompressible flows; (12) experimental methods, such as hot-wire anemometry, laser-Doppler velocimetry, and flow visualization; and (13) applications, such as axial-flow compressor and fan aerodynamics, turbomachinery, airfoils and wings, atmospheric flows, and mesoscale oceanic flows.

  4. Fluid Mechanics Can Be Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanks, Robert F.

    1979-01-01

    A humanistic approach to teaching fluid mechanics is described which minimizes lecturing, increases professor-student interaction, uses group and individual problem solving sessions, and allows for student response. (BB)

  5. Electrokinetic effects and fluid permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    G. Berryman, James

    2003-10-01

    Fluid permeability of porous media depends mainly on connectivity of the pore space and two physical parameters: porosity and a pertinent length-scale parameter. Electrical imaging methods typically establish connectivity and directly measure electrical conductivity, which can then often be related to porosity by Archie's law. When electrical phase measurements are made in addition to the amplitude measurements, information about the pertinent length scale can then be obtained. Since fluid permeability controls the ability to flush unwanted fluid contaminants from the subsurface, inexpensive maps of permeability could improve planning strategies for remediation efforts. Detailed knowledge of fluid permeability is also important for oil field exploitation, where knowledge of permeability distribution in three dimensions is a common requirement for petroleum reservoir simulation and analysis, as well as for estimates on the economics of recovery.

  6. The Variety of Fluid Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Francis; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Discusses three research topics which are concerned with eminently practical problems and deal at the same time with fundamental fluid dynamical problems. These research topics come from the general areas of chemical and biological engineering, geophysics, and pure mathematics. (HM)

  7. Stellar Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Michael J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen

    2003-05-01

    Preface; 1. A selective overview Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard and Michael J. Thompson; Part I. Stellar Convection and Oscillations: 2. On the diversity of stellar pulsations Wojciech A. Dziembowski; 3. Acoustic radiation and mode excitation by turbulent convection Günter Houdek; 4. Understanding roAp stars Margarida S. Cunha; 5. Waves in the magnetised solar atmosphere Colin S. Rosenthal; Part II. Stellar Rotation and Magnetic Fields: 6. Stellar rotation: a historical survey Leon Mestel; 7. The oscillations of rapidly rotating stars Michel Rieutord; 8. Solar tachocline dynamics: eddy viscosity, anti-friction, or something in between? Michael E. McIntyre; 9. Dynamics of the solar tachocline Pascale Garaud; 10. Dynamo processes: the interaction of turbulence and magnetic fields Michael Proctor; 11. Dynamos in planets Chris Jones; Part III. Physics and Structure of Stellar Interiors: 12. Solar constraints on the equation of state Werner Däppen; 13. 3He transport and the solar neutrino problem Chris Jordinson; 14. Mixing in stellar radiation zones Jean-Paul Zahn; 15. Element settling and rotation-induced mixing in slowly rotating stars Sylvie Vauclair; Part IV. Helio- and Asteroseismology: 16. Solar structure and the neutrino problem Hiromoto Shibahashi; 17. Helioseismic data analysis Jesper Schou; 18. Seismology of solar rotation Takashi Sekii; 19. Telechronohelioseismology Alexander Kosovichev; Part V. Large-Scale Numerical Experiments: 20. Bridges between helioseismology and models of convection zone dynamics Juri Toomre; 21. Numerical simulations of the solar convection zone Julian R. Elliott; 22. Modelling solar and stellar magnetoconvection Nigel Weiss; 23. Nonlinear magnetoconvection in the presence of a strong oblique field Keith Julien, Edgar Knobloch and Steven M. Tobias; 24. Simulations of astrophysical fluids Marcus Brüggen; Part VI. Dynamics: 25. A magic electromagnetic field Donald Lynden-Bell; 26. Continuum equations for stellar dynamics Edward A

  8. Stellar Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Michael J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen

    2008-02-01

    Preface; 1. A selective overview Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard and Michael J. Thompson; Part I. Stellar Convection and Oscillations: 2. On the diversity of stellar pulsations Wojciech A. Dziembowski; 3. Acoustic radiation and mode excitation by turbulent convection Günter Houdek; 4. Understanding roAp stars Margarida S. Cunha; 5. Waves in the magnetised solar atmosphere Colin S. Rosenthal; Part II. Stellar Rotation and Magnetic Fields: 6. Stellar rotation: a historical survey Leon Mestel; 7. The oscillations of rapidly rotating stars Michel Rieutord; 8. Solar tachocline dynamics: eddy viscosity, anti-friction, or something in between? Michael E. McIntyre; 9. Dynamics of the solar tachocline Pascale Garaud; 10. Dynamo processes: the interaction of turbulence and magnetic fields Michael Proctor; 11. Dynamos in planets Chris Jones; Part III. Physics and Structure of Stellar Interiors: 12. Solar constraints on the equation of state Werner Däppen; 13. 3He transport and the solar neutrino problem Chris Jordinson; 14. Mixing in stellar radiation zones Jean-Paul Zahn; 15. Element settling and rotation-induced mixing in slowly rotating stars Sylvie Vauclair; Part IV. Helio- and Asteroseismology: 16. Solar structure and the neutrino problem Hiromoto Shibahashi; 17. Helioseismic data analysis Jesper Schou; 18. Seismology of solar rotation Takashi Sekii; 19. Telechronohelioseismology Alexander Kosovichev; Part V. Large-Scale Numerical Experiments: 20. Bridges between helioseismology and models of convection zone dynamics Juri Toomre; 21. Numerical simulations of the solar convection zone Julian R. Elliott; 22. Modelling solar and stellar magnetoconvection Nigel Weiss; 23. Nonlinear magnetoconvection in the presence of a strong oblique field Keith Julien, Edgar Knobloch and Steven M. Tobias; 24. Simulations of astrophysical fluids Marcus Brüggen; Part VI. Dynamics: 25. A magic electromagnetic field Donald Lynden-Bell; 26. Continuum equations for stellar dynamics Edward A

  9. Variable flexure-based fluid filter

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Steve B.; Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Marshall, Graham; Wolcott, Duane

    2007-03-13

    An apparatus and method for filtering particles from a fluid comprises a fluid inlet, a fluid outlet, a variable size passage between the fluid inlet and the fluid outlet, and means for adjusting the size of the variable size passage for filtering the particles from the fluid. An inlet fluid flow stream is introduced to a fixture with a variable size passage. The size of the variable size passage is set so that the fluid passes through the variable size passage but the particles do not pass through the variable size passage.

  10. Apparatus for Pumping a Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boeyen, Robert Van; Reeh, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    A fluid pump has been developed for mechanically pumped fluid loops for spacecraft thermal control. Lynntech's technology utilizes a proprietary electrochemically driven pumping mechanism. Conventional rotodynamic and displacement pumps typically do not meet the stringent power and operational reliability requirements of space applications. Lynntech's developmental pump is a highly efficient solid-state pump with essentially no rotating or moving components (apart from metal bellows).

  11. Some Studies on Viscous Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Aibin

    In this thesis, we study several issues involving incompressible viscous fluids with the slip boundary conditions and the motions of fluid-solid interactions. In the first part, we study the issue of the inviscid limit of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on the general smooth domains for completely slip boundary conditions. We verify an asymptotic expansion which involves a weak amplitude boundary layer with the same thickness as in the Prantle's theory. We improve the better regularity for the boundary layer and obtain the uniform Lp--estimates (3 < p ≤ 6) of the remainder. Then we improved these estimates to H 1--estimates. It is shown that the viscous solution converges to the solution of Euler equation in C([0, T]; H1(O)) as the viscosity tends to zero. In the second part, we consider the non-stationary problems of a class of non-Newtonian fluid which is a power law fluid with p > 3nn+2 in the half space with slip boundary conditions. We present the local pressure estimate with the Navier's slip boundary conditions. Using these estimates and an Linfinity -- truncation method, we can obtain that this system has at least one required weak solution. Finally, we investigate the motion of a general form rigid body with smooth boundary by an incompressible perfect fluid occupying R3 . Due to the domain occupied by the fluid depending on the time, this problem can be transformed into a new systems of the fluid in a fixed domain by the frame attached with the body. With the aid of Kato-Lai's theory, we construct a sequence of successive solutions to this problem in some unform time interval. Then by a fixed point argument, we have proved that the existence, uniqueness and persistence of the regularity for the solutions of original fluid-structure interaction problem.

  12. Computational fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    Two papers are included in this progress report. In the first, the compressible Navier-Stokes equations have been used to compute leading edge receptivity of boundary layers over parabolic cylinders. Natural receptivity at the leading edge was simulated and Tollmien-Schlichting waves were observed to develop in response to an acoustic disturbance, applied through the farfield boundary conditions. To facilitate comparison with previous work, all computations were carried out at a free stream Mach number of 0.3. The spatial and temporal behavior of the flowfields are calculated through the use of finite volume algorithms and Runge-Kutta integration. The results are dominated by strong decay of the Tollmien-Schlichting wave due to the presence of the mean flow favorable pressure gradient. The effects of numerical dissipation, forcing frequency, and nose radius are studied. The Strouhal number is shown to have the greatest effect on the unsteady results. In the second paper, a transition model for low-speed flows, previously developed by Young et al., which incorporates first-mode (Tollmien-Schlichting) disturbance information from linear stability theory has been extended to high-speed flow by incorporating the effects of second mode disturbances. The transition model is incorporated into a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver with a one-equation turbulence model. Results using a variable turbulent Prandtl number approach demonstrate that the current model accurately reproduces available experimental data for first and second-mode dominated transitional flows. The performance of the present model shows significant improvement over previous transition modeling attempts.

  13. A Kinetic-fluid Model

    SciTech Connect

    First Author = C.Z. Cheng; Jay R. Johnson

    1998-07-10

    A nonlinear kinetic-fluid model for high-beta plasmas with multiple ion species which can be applied to multiscale phenomena is presented. The model embeds important kinetic effects due to finite ion Larmor radius (FLR), wave-particle resonances, magnetic particle trapping, etc. in the framework of simple fluid descriptions. When further restricting to low frequency phenomena with frequencies less than the ion cyclotron frequency the kinetic-fluid model takes a simpler form in which the fluid equations of multiple ion species collapse into single-fluid density and momentum equations and a low frequency generalized Ohm's law. The kinetic effects are introduced via plasma pressure tensors for ions and electrons which are computed from particle distribution functions that are governed by the Vlasov equation or simplified plasma dynamics equations such as the gyrokinetic equation. The ion FLR effects provide a finite parallel electric field, a perpendicular velocity that modifies the ExB drift, and a gyroviscosity tensor, all of which are neglected in the usual one-fluid MHD description. Eigenmode equations are derived which include magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling effects for low frequency waves (e.g., kinetic/inertial Alfven waves and ballooning-mirror instabilities).

  14. Tracing time scales of fluid residence and migration in the crust (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokochi, R.; Sturchio, N. C.; Purtschert, R.; Jiang, W.; Lu, Z.; Müller, P.; Yang, G.; Kennedy, B. M.

    2013-12-01

    Crustal fluids (water, gas and oil) mediate chemical reactions, and they may transport, concentrate or disperse elements in the crust; the fluids are often valuable resources in their own right. In this context, determining the time scales of fluid transport and residence time is essential for understanding geochemical cycle of elements, as well as risk and resource management. Crustal fluids contain stable and radioactive noble gases indigenous to the fluid, which may be of magmatic or atmospheric origin of various ages. In addition, radiogenic and nucleogenic noble gases (both stable and radioactive) are continuously produced by the decay of U, Th and K and related nuclear reactions in the crust at known rates and in known relative proportions. They may be released from their production sites and incorporated into the fluid, acting as natural spikes to trace fluid flow. The concentrations of a noble gas isotope in a crustal fluid in a system devoid of phase separation or mixing varies as a function of decay time and supply from the production sites into the fluids. The release rate of noble gases from the production sites in minerals to the fluid phase may be determined uniquely through the studies of noble gas radionuclides (Yokochi et al., 2012), which is fundamental to the behavior of volatile elements in geochemistry. A pilot study of noble gas radionuclides in an active geothermal system was performed at Yellowstone National Park (Yokochi et al., 2013). Prior studies of the Yellowstone system using stable noble gas isotopes show that the thermal fluids contain a mixture of atmospheric, mantle, and crustal components. Noble gas radionuclide measurements provide new chronometric constraints regarding the subsurface residence times of Yellowstone thermal fluids. Upper limits on deep thermal fluid mean residence times, estimated from 39Ar/40Ar* ratios, range from 118 to 137 kyr for features in the Gibbon and Norris Geyser Basin areas, and are about 16 kyr in

  15. Fluid-driven Metasomatism in the Middle and Lower Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ague, J.

    2012-12-01

    Metasomatic fluid-rock interactions can exert fundamental controls on mineral reactions, fluid chemistry, and rock volume change during metamorphism. Mass transfer involving fluids occurs via advective fluid flow, diffusion, mechanical dispersion, and coupled dissolution-reprecipitation. A range of modeling studies show that mid-to-deep crustal regional fluid flow is likely to have a strong upward component. This flow can occur pervasively through the pore space between grains in the rock matrix, or be channelized into microcracks or larger fractures. Flow may be relatively continuous or involve more transient pulses due to, for example, seismically-induced fracturing and permeability enhancement, or the passage of porosity waves. Literature data show that fluid-rock interaction timescales can be as short as 102 to 104 years; these are associated with fracturing or other highly transient phenomena. Timescales of the order of 105 to 106 years correspond to, for example, regional thermal (e.g., magmatism) or tectonic (e.g., burial, exhumation) pulses. Long-term devolatilization of orogenic belts can result in integrated fluid-rock reaction histories of the order of 107 years. Field-based and modeling results demonstrate that time-integrated fluid fluxes vary over several orders of magnitude. Small regional fluxes (<103 m3 m-2) are recorded where fluid availability is limited or flow is predominantly pervasive and distributed over a wide area. Larger average fluxes ~103-104 m3 m-2 result from devolatilization of common metasediments in collisional orogenic belts. The largest fluxes (104-106 m3 m-2) are generally associated with conduits including fracture systems, fold hinges, and shear zones. Fluxes of the order of 104 m3 m-2 can result in substantial alkali and alkaline earth (K-Na-Ca) exchange between rocks and fluids at outcrop and larger scales. Still larger fluxes of ca. 105 m3 m-2 are capable of transporting significant mass and may give rise to substantial Na

  16. Ausbildung als zentrale Aufgabe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krämer, Walter; Schmerbach, Sibylle

    Anders als Lesen und Schreiben zählen Grundkenntnisse in Statistik heute noch nicht zu den Voraussetzungen einer sinnvollen Teilhabe am Sozialgeschehen. Und auch in der akademischen Statistik-Ausbildung gibt es noch einiges zu tun. Das vorliegende Kapitel zeichnet die Geschichte dieser akademischen Ausbildung an deutschen Universitäten nach dem zweiten Weltkrieg nach, stellt aktuelle Defizite vor und weist auf mögliche Verbesserungen hin.

  17. Wettability Control on Fluid-Fluid Displacements in Patterned Microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, B.; Trojer, M.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.; Juanes, R.

    2014-12-01

    Two-phase flow in porous media is important in many natural and industrial processes like geologic CO2 sequestration, enhanced oil recovery, and water infiltration in soil. While it is well known that the wetting properties of porous media can vary drastically depending on the type of media and the pore fluids, the effect of wettability on fluid displacement continues to challenge our microscopic and macroscopic descriptions. Here we study this problem experimentally, starting with the classic experiment of two-phase flow in a capillary tube. We image the shape of the meniscus and measure the associated capillary pressure for a wide range of capillary numbers. We confirm that wettability exerts a fundamental control on meniscus deformation, and synthesize new observations on the dependence of the dynamic capillary pressure on wetting properties (contact angle) and flow conditions (viscosity contrast and capillary number). We compare our experiments to a macroscopic phase-field model of two-phase flow. We use the insights gained from the capillary tube experiments to explore the viscous fingering instability in the Hele-Shaw geometry in the partial-wetting regime. A key difference between a Hele-Shaw cell and a porous medium is the existence of micro-structures (i.e. pores and pore throats). To investigate how these micro-structrues impact fluid-fluid displacement, we conduct experiments on a planar microfluidic device patterned with vertical posts. We track the evolution of the fluid-fluid interface and elucidate the impact of wetting on the cooperative nature of fluid displacement during pore invasion events. We use the insights gained from the capillary tube and patterned microfluidics experiments to elucidate the effect of wetting properties on viscous fingering and capillary fingering in a Hele-Shaw cell filled with glass beads, where we observe a contact-angle-dependent stabilizing behavior for the emerging flow instabilities, as the system transitions from

  18. The longitudinal cerebrospinal fluid metabolomic profile of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Elizabeth; Larkin, James R.; Claridge, Tim D. W.; Talbot, Kevin; Sibson, Nicola R.; Turner, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    Neurochemical biomarkers are urgently sought in ALS. Metabolomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy is a highly sensitive method capable of revealing nervous system cellular pathology. The 1H-NMR CSF metabolomic signature of ALS was sought in a longitudinal cohort. Six-monthly serial collection was performed in ALS patients across a range of clinical sub-types (n = 41) for up to two years, and in healthy controls at a single time-point (n = 14). A multivariate statistical approach, partial least squares discriminant analysis, was used to determine differences between the NMR spectra from patients and controls. Significantly predictive models were found using those patients with at least one year's interval between recruitment and the second sample. Glucose, lactate, citric acid and, unexpectedly, ethanol were the discriminating metabolites elevated in ALS. It is concluded that 1H-NMR captured the CSF metabolomic signature associated with derangements in cellular energy utilization connected with ALS, and was most prominent in comparisons using patients with longer disease duration. The specific metabolites identified support the concept of a hypercatabolic state, possibly involving mitochondrial dysfunction specifically. Endogenous ethanol in the CSF may be an unrecognized novel marker of neuronal tissue injury in ALS. PMID:26121274

  19. The longitudinal cerebrospinal fluid metabolomic profile of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gray, Elizabeth; Larkin, James R; Claridge, Tim D W; Talbot, Kevin; Sibson, Nicola R; Turner, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    Neurochemical biomarkers are urgently sought in ALS. Metabolomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy is a highly sensitive method capable of revealing nervous system cellular pathology. The (1)H-NMR CSF metabolomic signature of ALS was sought in a longitudinal cohort. Six-monthly serial collection was performed in ALS patients across a range of clinical sub-types (n = 41) for up to two years, and in healthy controls at a single time-point (n = 14). A multivariate statistical approach, partial least squares discriminant analysis, was used to determine differences between the NMR spectra from patients and controls. Significantly predictive models were found using those patients with at least one year's interval between recruitment and the second sample. Glucose, lactate, citric acid and, unexpectedly, ethanol were the discriminating metabolites elevated in ALS. It is concluded that (1)H-NMR captured the CSF metabolomic signature associated with derangements in cellular energy utilization connected with ALS, and was most prominent in comparisons using patients with longer disease duration. The specific metabolites identified support the concept of a hypercatabolic state, possibly involving mitochondrial dysfunction specifically. Endogenous ethanol in the CSF may be an unrecognized novel marker of neuronal tissue injury in ALS.

  20. Retour vers le futur: l'expérience des patients et le lien avec la qualité, la sécurité et le rendement financier.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Bonnie S; Hagins, Mitch; King, John A; Picciano, Gino; McCafferty, Maureen M; Nelson, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Au Canada, l'amélioration de l'expérience des patients est devenue une priorité des politiques de santé. Le perfectionnement et la normalisation des outils et systèmes pour surveiller les mesures de l'expérience des patients augmentent, tandis que la tendance vers une plus grande reddition de compte sur des améliorations durables et abordables se confirme. Pour de nombreux professionnels de la santé, ce phénomène fait foi d'un intérêt renouvelé pour les besoins et priorités fondamentaux des patients, après des décennies où les changements structurels et technologiques ont dominé les programmes de santé. Pour les leaders en santé canadiens, l'amélioration de l'expérience des patients comporte actuellement de grands défis et de belles possibilités. À cet égard, l'expérience des organisations partenaires du groupe Studer au Canada est à la fois pertinente et instructive. Ces organisations ont adopté un modèle, du nom de Evidence-Based Leadership (EBL, ou leadership fondé sur des données probantes), qui favorise et soutient l'harmonisation de l'ensemble des activités et des comportements, conformément à des objectifs organisationnels précis, y compris des améliorations mesurables de l'expérience des patients. Le présent article expose des études de cas d'organisations qui ont adopté l'EBL. Ces organisations ont réalisé des progrès rapides en matière d'indicateurs de l'expérience des patients, ainsi que dans des secteurs essentiels comme les résultats cliniques, la sécurité et le rendement financier. Les données émergentes sur les facteurs et processus qui sous-tendent ces améliorations sont également abordées.