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Sample records for al fe ca

  1. Observations of Al, Fe and Ca(+) in Mercury's Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bida, Thomas A.; Killen, Rosemary M.

    2011-01-01

    We report 5-(sigma) tangent column detections of Al and Fe, and strict 3-(sigma) tangent column upper limits for Ca(+) in Mercury's exosphere obtained using the HIRES spectrometer on the Keck I telescope. These are the first direct detections of Al and Fe in Mercury's exosphere. Our Ca(-) observation is consistent with that reported by The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft.

  2. Al-Ca and Al-Fe metal-metal composite strength, conductivity, and microstructure relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyong June

    2011-01-01

    Deformation processed metal-metal composites (DMMC’s) are composites formed by mechanical working (i.e., rolling, swaging, or wire drawing) of two-phase, ductile metal mixtures. Since both the matrix and reinforcing phase are ductile metals, the composites can be heavily deformed to reduce the thickness and spacing of the two phases. Recent studies have shown that heavily drawn DMMCs can achieve anomalously high strength and outstanding combinations of strength and conductivity. In this study, Al-Fe wire composite with 0.07, 0.1, and 0.2 volume fractions of Fe filaments and Al-Ca wire composite with 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09 volume fractions of Ca filaments were produced in situ, and their mechanical properties were measured as a function of deformation true strain. The Al-Fe composites displayed limited deformation of the Fe phase even at high true strains, resulting in little strengthening effect in those composites. Al-9vol%Ca wire was deformed to a deformation true strain of 13.76. The resulting Ca second-phase filaments were deformed to thicknesses on the order of one micrometer. The ultimate tensile strength increased exponentially with increasing deformation true strain, reaching a value of 197 MPa at a true strain of 13.76. This value is 2.5 times higher than the value predicted by the rule of mixtures. A quantitative relationship between UTS and deformation true strain was determined. X-ray diffraction data on transformation of Al + Ca microstructures to Al + various Al-Ca intermetallic compounds were obtained at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Electrical conductivity was measured over a range of true strains and post-deformation heat treatment schedules.

  3. CaFeAl mixed oxide derived heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Zaiwu; Xu, Yunfeng; Liu, Qiang; Qian, Guangren

    2015-08-01

    CaAl layered double oxides (LDO) were prepared by co-precipitation and calcined at 750°C, and then applied to biodiesel production by transesterification reaction between methanol and soybean oil. Compared with characteristics of CaFe/LDO and CaAl/LDO, CaFeAl/LDO had the best performance based on prominent catalytic activity and stability, and achieved over 90% biodiesel yield, which stayed stable (over 85%) even after 8 cycles of reaction. The optimal catalytic reaction condition was 12:1M-ratio of methanol/oil, reaction temperatures of 60°C, 270rpm stirring rate, 60min reaction time, and 6% weight-ratio of catalyst/oil. In addition, the CaFeAl/LDO catalyst is insoluble in both methanol and methyl esters and can be easily separated for further reaction, turning it into an excellent alternative for biodiesel synthesis.

  4. CaFeAl mixed oxide derived heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Zaiwu; Xu, Yunfeng; Liu, Qiang; Qian, Guangren

    2015-08-01

    CaAl layered double oxides (LDO) were prepared by co-precipitation and calcined at 750°C, and then applied to biodiesel production by transesterification reaction between methanol and soybean oil. Compared with characteristics of CaFe/LDO and CaAl/LDO, CaFeAl/LDO had the best performance based on prominent catalytic activity and stability, and achieved over 90% biodiesel yield, which stayed stable (over 85%) even after 8 cycles of reaction. The optimal catalytic reaction condition was 12:1M-ratio of methanol/oil, reaction temperatures of 60°C, 270rpm stirring rate, 60min reaction time, and 6% weight-ratio of catalyst/oil. In addition, the CaFeAl/LDO catalyst is insoluble in both methanol and methyl esters and can be easily separated for further reaction, turning it into an excellent alternative for biodiesel synthesis. PMID:25740001

  5. Observations of the Minor Species Al, Fe and Ca(+) in Mercury's Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bida, Thomas A.; Killen, Rosemary M.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of Al and Fe, and strict upper limits for Ca(+) in the exosphere of Mercury, using the HIRES spectrometer at the Keck I telescope. We report observed 4-sigma tangent columns of 1.5x10(exp 7) Al atoms per square centimeter at an altitude of 1220 km (1.5 Mercury radii (R(sub M)) from planet center), and that for Fe of 1.6 x 10 per square centimeter at an altitude of 950 km (1.4 R(sub M)). The observed 3-sigma Ca(+) column was 3.9x10(exp 6) ions per square centimeter at an altitude of 1630 km (1.67 R(sub M). A simple model for zenith column abundances of the neutral species were 9.5 x 10(exp 7) Al per square centimeter, and 3.0 x 10(exp 8) Fe per square centimeter. The observations appear to be consistent with production of these species by impact vaporization with a large fraction of the ejecta in molecular form. The scale height of the Al gas is consistent with a kinetic temperature of 3000 - 9000 K while that of Fe is 10500 K. The apparent high temperature of the Fe gas would suggest that it may be produced by dissociation of molecules. A large traction of both Al and Fe appear to condense in a vapor cloud at low altitudes.

  6. Magnesium doping on brownmillerite Ca{sub 2}FeAlO{sub 5}

    SciTech Connect

    Malveiro, J.; Ramos, T.; Ferreira, L.P.; Waerenborgh, J.C.

    2007-06-15

    Ca{sub 2}FeAl{sub 1-} {sub x} Mg {sub x} O{sub 5} (x=0, 0.05 and 0.1) compounds adopting the brownmillerite-type structure were prepared by a self-combustion route using two different fuels. Characterisation was performed using X-ray powder diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy, magnetisation measurements, chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy and 4-point dc conductivity measurements. Global results indicate that the solubility limit was reached for x=0.1. An antiferromagnetic behaviour was detected for all studied compositions, with magnetic ordering temperatures of 340 and 290 K for x=0 and 0.05, respectively. Mg doping increases the number of iron cations in tetrahedral sites, which induces magnetisation enhancement at low temperatures through the coupling between octahedral iron cations in different octahedral planes. The compounds exhibit semiconductor behaviour and Mg{sup 2+} doping yields a significant enhancement of the total conductivity, which can be essentially attributed to the presence of Fe{sup 4+} ions. - Graphical abstract: Ca{sub 2}FeAl{sub 1-} {sub x} Mg {sub x} O{sub 5} (x=0, 0.05, 0.1) compounds with the brownmillerite structure were prepared and characterised. The paramagnetic Moessbauer spectra presented were obtained at T=363 K (x=0); T=297 K (x=0.05) and T=353 K (x=0.1)

  7. Major soil element (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Al, Fe) distribution along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, H.; Ding, M.; Lin, X.

    2011-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP), which has been called the third polar region, is the highest plateau in the world. There are a series of special soils present in the TP, which are extremely important in soil sciences for their particularities. Soil chemical composition is one of the necessary indices of soil characteristics. The major element content of the soil, such as Ca, Mg, K, Na, not only can affect the soil pH value and soil fertility but also are the main drivers of soil geochemical processes. It is helpful to understand the TP environmental characteristics, to study the major soil element content.The Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) is the highest-elevation and the longest highland railway on earth. There are nearly all types of TP soil along the QTR. Most of the areas along the QTR are in fairly pristine condition. This offers a good platform to study the natural environmental characteristics of the soil. This study selected 240 soil samples from 28 sample areas along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, and the aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium content in the soil were measured with ICP-AES. The results indicated: (1) Compared with the national soil background values, the Ca content in soil was higher along the QTR and Al was lower; but the Fe, Mg, K and Na contents were similar. (2) Along the whole QTR, the soil Al, Fe and Mg content showed a decreasing trend from Xining to Lhasa, the changes in K and Na values were relatively complex, and the distribution of Ca could be divided three sections. (3) The soil element contents varied with different soil types and parent materials. Most of the six elements content was minimum in soil, which derived from debris materials for ice and water, and the elements content was maximum in soil, which evolved from debris for flood, and the content of soil Ca developed from debris for lake was maximum. The amount of each element present in the Hapli-Cryic Aridosols and Calci-Cryic Aridosols was relatively higher than

  8. Tululite, Ca14(Fe3+,Al)(Al,Zn,Fe3+,Si,P,Mn,Mg)15O36: a new Ca zincate-aluminate from combustion metamorphic marbles, central Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoury, Hani N.; Sokol, Ella V.; Kokh, Svetlana N.; Seryotkin, Yurii V.; Nigmatulina, Elena N.; Goryainov, Sergei V.; Belogub, Elena V.; Clark, Ian D.

    2016-02-01

    Tululite (Ca14(Fe3+,Al)(Al,Zn,Fe3+,Si,P,Mn,Mg)15O36 (the hypothetical end-member formula Ca14{Fe3+O6}[SiO4][Zn5Al9]O26) (IMA2014-065) is a new natural Ca zincate-aluminate, identified in medium-temperature (800-850 °C) combustion metamorphic (CM) spurrite-fluorellestadite marbles from central Jordan. The type locality (Tulul Al Hammam area) is situated in the northern part of the Siwaqa complex, the largest area of the "Mottled Zone" Formation in the Dead Sea region. The marbles originated from bitumen-rich chalky marine sediments of the Maastrichtian-Paleogene Muwaqqar Chalk Marl Formation, which have low clay content (and, consequently, low Al) and high Zn, Cd, and U enrichments. The bulk CM rocks derived from the low-Al protolith have unusually high (Zn + Cd)/Al ratios ( 0.2) and, as a result, a mineralogy with negligibly small percentages of Ca aluminates having low Ca:Al molar ratios (minerals of mayenite supergroup, Ca:Al = 6:7) common to most of calcareous CM rocks in the Mottled Zone. Instead, the mineral assemblage of the Zn-rich marbles contains tululite, with high Ca:Al = 2.55 molar ratios and Zn substituting for a large portion of Al (Zn:Al = 1.1). Tululite occurs in thin clusters as irregular grains with indented outlines (20-100 μm in size), having typical open-work textures associated with rock-forming calcite, fluorellestadite, spurrite, and accessory Zn-rich periclase, lime-monteponite solid solutions, calcium uranates, and zincite. Marbles also bear brownmillerite, dorrite, fluormayenite, high-fluorine Ca aluminate, and lakargiite. Secondary phases are brucite, gel-like calcium silicate hydrates and calcium silicate aluminate hydrates, including Zn- and U-bearing and Cd-rich compounds, Si-bearing hydrated compounds after calcium uranates, and basic Cd chlorides. The empirical formula of the holotype tululite (a mean of 32 analyses) is (Ca13.29Cd0.75)Σ14.04(Al5.46Zn5.20Fe3+ 2.23Si0.95Mn3+ 1.01Mg0.78P0.41)Σ16.04O36. Tululite is cubic, space

  9. Evaluation of thermochemical data on Fe-Mg olivine, orthopyroxene, spinel and Ca-Fe-Mg-Al garnet

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, N.

    1987-09-01

    Thermochemical data on Fe-Mg olivine, orthopyroxene, spinel and Ca-Fe-Mg garnet have been tested and reevaluated in reproducing experimental equilibrium data. All data (except of spinel) adjusted in this process lie within the error limits of original calorimetric experiments. For spinel, an enthalpy of -2307.2 kJmol and an entropy of 81.5 Jmol-K has been recommended. Recommended interaction parameters for the spinel-hercynite and forsterite-fayalite solutions are as follows: Spinel: W/sub (spinel-hercynite)/= 9124.0 Jmol. W/sub (hercynite-spinel)/ = 0.0 Jmol. Olivine: W = 4500.0 Jmol for 1 cation. Excess entropies (on 1 cation basis) necessary to reproduce phase equilibria for the pyrope-almandine and almandine-grossular solutions are as follows: Mg-Fe garnet: Wsub(pyrope-almandine) = 11.760 - 0.0016T Jmol-K. Wsub(almandine-pyrope) = -10.146 + 0.0037T Jmol-K. Fe-Ca garnet: W/sup s/ = -16.07 + 0.0126T Jmol-K.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of phosphates in molten systems Cs 2O-P 2O 5-CaO- MIII2O 3 ( MIII—Al, Fe, Cr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatovsky, Igor V.; Strutynska, Nataliya Yu.; Baumer, Vyacheslav N.; Slobodyanik, Nikolay S.; Ogorodnyk, Ivan V.; Shishkin, Oleg V.

    2011-03-01

    The crystallization of complex phosphates from the melts of Cs 2O-P 2O 5-CaO- MIII2O 3 ( MIII—Al, Fe, Cr) systems have been investigated at fixed value Cs/P molar ratios equal to 0.7, 1.0 and 1.3 and Са/Р=0.2 and Ca/ МIII=1. The fields of crystallization of CsCaP 3O 9, β-Ca 2P 2O 7, Cs 2CaP 2O 7, Cs 3CaFe(P 2O 7) 2, Ca 9MIII(PO 4) 7 ( MIII—Fe, Cr), Cs 0.63Ca 9.63Fe 0.37(PO 4) 7 and CsCa 10(PO 4) 7 were determined. Obtained phosphates were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. Novel whitlockite-related phases CsCa 10(PO 4) 7 and Cs 0.63Ca 9.63Fe 0.37(PO 4) 7 have been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction: space group R3c, a=10.5536(5) and 10.5221(4) Å, с=37.2283(19) and 37.2405(17) Å, respectively.

  11. Thermal equation of state of CaFe 2O 4-type MgAl 2O 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sueda, Yuichiro; Irifune, Tetsuo; Sanehira, Takeshi; Yagi, Takehiko; Nishiyama, Norimasa; Kikegawa, Takumi; Funakoshi, Ken-ichi

    2009-05-01

    In situ X-ray diffraction measurements of CaFe 2O 4-type MgAl 2O 4 have been conducted at pressures up to 42 GPa and temperatures to 2400 K using Kawai-type multianvil apparatus with sintered diamond anvils. Additional measurements have also been conducted at pressures to 12 GPa using diamond anvil cell with helium as a pressure medium at room temperature, and at temperatures to 836 K at the ambient pressure using a high-temperature X-ray diffractometer. The analysis of room-temperature data yielded V0 = 240.1(2) Å 3, K0 = 205(6) GPa, and K0=4.1(3). A fit of the present data to high-temperature Birch-Murnaghan equation of state (EOS) yielded (∂ K0/∂ T) P = -0.030(2) GPa/K and α0 = a0 + b0T with values of a0 = 1.96(13) × 10 -5 K -1 and b0 = 1.64(24) × 10 -8 K -2. The present data set was also fitted to Mie-Grüneisen-Debye (MGD) EOS and we obtained γ0 = 1.73(7), q = 2.03(37), and θ0 = 1546(104) K. Density changes of MORB have been estimated using the newly obtained thermoelastic parameters, assuming that the Al-rich phase in this composition possesses the CaFe 2O 4-type structure under the lower mantle P, T conditions. The calculated densities along geotherms for the normal mantle and subducting cold slabs are both significantly higher than those of typical seismological models, confirming the conclusion of some recent results on MORB by laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments.

  12. Lunar highland rocks - Element partitioning among minerals. II - Electron microprobe analyses of Al, P, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn and Fe in olivine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. V.; Hansen, E. C.; Steele, I. M.

    1980-01-01

    Lunar olivines from anorthosites, granulitic impactites, and rocks in the Mg-rich plutonic trend were subjected to electron probe measurements for Al, P, Ca, Ti, Cr and Mn, which show that the FeO/MnO ratio for lunar olivines lies between 80 and 110 with little difference among the rock types. The low values of Ca in lunar olivines indicate slow cooling to subsolidus temperatures, with blocking temperatures of about 750 C for 67667 and 1000 C for 60255,73-alpha determined by the Finnerty and Boyd (1978) experiments. An important paradox is noted in the low Ti content of Fe-rich olivines from anorthosites, although both Ti and Fe tend to become enriched in liquid during fractional distillation. Except for Ca and Mn, olivine from anorthosites has lower minor element values than other rock types. Formation from a chemically distinct system is therefore implied.

  13. Analysis of the Fe-Ce-O-C- M phase diagrams ( M = Ca, Mg, Al, Si) by constructing a component-solubility surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, G. G.; Makrovets, L. A.; Smirnov, L. A.; Dresvyankina, L. E.

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of the ternary phase diagrams of Ce2O3- and CeO2-containing oxide systems allowed us to find the oxide compounds that form during steel deoxidizing with cerium and with cerium together with aluminum, calcium, magnesium, or silicon. The temperature dependences of the equilibrium constants of formation of Ce2O3 oxides and Ce2O3 · Al2O3, Ce2O3 · 11Al2O3, Ce2O3 · 2SiO2, 7Ce2O3 · 9SiO2 and Ce2O3 · SiO2 compounds are found. Surfaces for the component solubility in metallic melts Fe-Al-Ce-O-C, Fe- Ca-Ce-O-C, Fe-Mg-Ce-O-C, and Fe-Si-Ce-O-C are constructed. Nonmetallic inclusions that form in the course of experimental melts of St20 steel after its deoxidizing with silicocalcium and rare-earth metal (REM)-containing master alloys in a ladle furnace after degassing are studied. Phase inhomogeneity of the inclusions is found. As a rule, they consist of phases classified into the following three groups: oxide-sulfide, sulfide-oxide, and multiphase oxide-sulfide melt. Calcium aluminates are found to be components of complex sulfide-oxide noncorrosive inclusions.

  14. Melts in the Deep Earth: Calculating the Densities of CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.; Guo, X.; Agee, C. B.; Asimow, P. D.; Lange, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    We present new equation of state (EOS) measurements for hedenbergite (Hd, CaFeSi2O6) and forsterite (Fo, Mg2SiO4) liquids. These liquid EOS add to the basis set in the CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMASF) oxide space at elevated temperatures and pressures; other liquids include: enstatite (En, MgSiO3), anorthite (An, CaAl2Si2O8), diopside (Di, CaMgSi2O6), and fayalite (Fa, Fe2SiO4). The Hd EOS measurement was a multi-technique collaboration using 1-atm double-bob Archimedean, ultrasonic, sink/float, and shock wave techniques. Un-weighted linear fitting of the shock data in shock velocity (US)-particle velocity (up) space defines a pre-heated (1400 °C) Hugoniot US = 2.628(0.024) + 1.54(0.01)up km/s. The slope corresponds to a K' of 5.16(0.04), consistent with piston-cylinder and multi-anvil sink/float experiments. The intercept is fixed at the ultrasonic sound speed (Co) since the unconstrained intercept is within the stated error. This behavior demonstrates consistency across methods and that the liquid is relaxed during shock compression. Shock compression of pre-heated (2000°C) single crystal Fo gives an un-weighted linear Hugoniot of US = 2.674(0.188) + 1.64(0.06)up km/s. The unconstrained Co falls below estimates based on extrapolation in both temperature and composition from two published partial molar sound speed models, 3.195m/s [1] and 3.126 m/s [2]. The shock-derived Co indicates that dC/dT is negative for Fo liquid, contrary to the positive [1] and zero [2] temperature dependences derived over relatively narrow temperature intervals. CMASF liquid isentropes were calculated using five end-members (En, Fo, Fa, An, Di). For modeling crystallization of a fictive magma ocean, we examined two liquids: peridotite [3] (P=.33En+.56Fo+.07Fa+.03An+.007Di) and simplified chondrite [4] (Ch=.62En+.24Fo+.08Fa+.04An+.02Di). Each end-member is defined by a 3rd or 4th order Birch-Murnaghan isentrope, Mie-Grüneisen thermal pressure and a constant heat capacity. The volumes are

  15. Structure and magnetic properties of Ca{sub 2}Fe{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}AlO{sub 5+{delta}}

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, M.D.; Waerenborgh, J.C.; Tsipis, E.; Godinho, M.

    2008-09-15

    Ca{sub 2}Fe{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}AlO{sub 5} (0{<=}x{<=}1) compounds were prepared by a self-combustion method under air (x=0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) and nitrogen (x=0.5, 0.7 and 1.0). The samples prepared under nitrogen were successfully oxidized after short annealing under air. Both X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) Rietveld analysis and electron diffraction revealed that all compounds adopt the brownmillerite-type structure. All samples present an overall antiferromagnetic behaviour and data from magnetic measurements and Moessbauer spectroscopy allowed to conclude that the transition temperature decreases as Mn content increases for x{<=}0.3 and increases in the case of the x{>=}0.5 compounds. Except for x=1, chemical disorder due to the occupancy of both octahedral and tetrahedral sites by different metals as well as the competition between different moments' orientation induce a complex magnetic behaviour characterized by magnetic frustration and canted antiferromagnetism. Moessbauer spectroscopy and chemical titrations also allowed to conclude about the preferential oxidation of Mn{sup 3+} over Fe{sup 3+}, obtained by thermal treatment under air of the x=0.5 and 0.7 compositions. - Graphical abstract: Structure of the Ca{sub 2}Fe{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}AlO{sub 5} compound and electron diffraction pattern obtained along the [1-bar 01] zone axis (x=0.2), showing a brownmillerite structure.

  16. CaFe interstellar clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondar, A.; Kozak, M.; Gnaciński, P.; Galazutdinov, G. A.; Beletsky, Y.; Krełowski, J.

    2007-07-01

    A new kind of interstellar cloud is proposed. These are rare (just a few examples among ~300 lines of sight) objects with the CaI 4227-Å, FeI 3720-Å and 3860-Å lines stronger than those of KI (near 7699 Å) and NaI (near 3302 Å). We propose the name `CaFe' for these clouds. Apparently they occupy different volumes from the well-known interstellar HI clouds where the KI and ultraviolet NaI lines are dominant features. In the CaFe clouds we have not found either detectable molecular features (CH, CN) or diffuse interstellar bands which, as commonly believed, are carried by some complex, organic molecules. We have found the CaFe clouds only along sightlines toward hot, luminous (and thus distant) objects with high rates of mass loss. In principle, the observed gas-phase interstellar abundances reflect the combined effects of the nucleosynthetic history of the material, the depletion of heavy elements into dust grains and the ionization state of these elements which may depend on irradiation by neighbouring stars. Based on data collected using the Maestro spectrograph at the Terskol 2-m telescope, Russia; and on data collected using the ESO Feros spectrograph; and on data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility acquired with the UVES spectrograph, Chile. E-mail: `arctur'@rambler.ru (AB); marizak@astri.uni.torun.pl (MK); pg@iftia.univ.gda.pl (PG); gala@boao.re.kr (GAG); ybialets@eso.org (YB); jacek@astri.uni.torun.pl (JK)

  17. The crystal and magnetic structures of LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 3-x}M{sub x}O{sub 8} (M=Al, Ga, In)

    SciTech Connect

    Goossens, D.J.; Henderson, L.S.F.; Trevena, S.; Hudspeth, J.M.; Avdeev, M.; Hester, J.R.

    2012-12-15

    LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 8} (A{sub 3}B{sub 3}O{sub 8}) is an example of a layered structure in that it consists of pairs of octahedral, perovskite-like layers alternating with a single tetrahedral layer. This work explores the doping of non-magnetic group 13 elements, M=Al, Ga and In, onto the B-site of LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 3-x}M{sub x}O{sub 8} as a function of x. The structural and magnetic effects are examined using a combination of neutron and X-ray diffraction. Solubility limits are established. It is found that for M=Ga the solubility limit occurs between x=1.0 and x=1.25, for the synthesis conditions used, while there is evidence for low (x<0.25) but non-zero substitution of Al. Structural refinements at x=1 suggest that Ga prefers neither the tetrahedral nor octahedral sites. The magnetic structure of LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}GaO{sub 8} has been examined using neutron diffraction at 3.2 K and room temperature. At low temperature the staggered moment per Fe{sup 3+} is 3.8(1){mu}{sub B} in LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 8} and 4.8(1){mu}{sub B} in LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}GaO{sub 8}. The magnetic space group (P{sub 2b}2{sub 1} Prime ma Prime ) and moment direction (along c) does not appear to change with Ga substitution. - Graphical abstract: Solubility limits for group 13 elements in LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solubility limits for group 13 elements in LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 8} are determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evolution of the magnetic structure with temperature and doping is explored using neutron scattering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic space group is quoted as P{sub 2b}2{sub 1}'ma' and the staggered moments are obtained for LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 8} and LaCa{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}GaO{sub 8}.

  18. Menzerite-(Y) a New Species {(Y REE)(Ca Fe2plus)2}[(Mg Fe2plus)(Fe3plus Al)](Si3)O12 from a Felsic Granulite Parry Sound Ontario and a New Garnet End-member (Y2Ca)Mg2(SiO4)3

    SciTech Connect

    E Grew; J Marsh; M Yates; B Lazic; T Armbruster; A Locock; S Bell; M Dyar; H Bernhardt; O Medenbach

    2011-12-31

    Menzerite-(Y), a new mineral species, forms reddish brown cores, n = 1.844 (20), up to 70 {micro}m across, rimmed successively by euhedral almandine containing up to 2.7 wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and by K-feldspar in a felsic granulite on Bonnet Island in the interior Parry Sound domain, Grenville Orogenic Province, Canada. It is named after Georg Menzer (1897-1989), the German crystallographer who solved the crystal structure of garnet. Single-crystal X-ray-diffraction results yielded space group Ia3d, a = 11.9947(6) {angstrom}. An electron-microprobe analysis of the grain richest in Y (16.93 wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) gave the following formula, normalized to eight cations and 12 oxygen atoms: {l_brace}Y{sub 0.83}Gd{sub 0.01}Dy{sub 0.05}Ho{sub 0.02}Er{sub 0.07}Tm{sub 0.01}Yb{sub 0.06}Lu{sub 0.02}Ca{sub 1.37}Fe{sub 0.49}{sup 2+}Mn{sub 0.07}{r_brace} [Mg{sub 0.55}Fe{sub 0.42}{sup 2+}Fe{sub 0.58}{sup 3+}Al{sub 0.35} V{sub 0.01}Sc{sub 0.01}Ti{sub 0.08}](Si{sub 2.82}Al{sub 0.18})O{sub 12}, or {l_brace}(Y,REE)(Ca,Fe{sup 2+}){sub 2}{r_brace}[(Mg,Fe{sup 2+})(Fe{sup 3+},Al)](Si{sub 3})O{sub 12}. Synchrotron micro-XANES data gave Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe = 0.56(10) versus 0.39(2) calculated from stoichiometry. The scattering power refined at the octahedral Y site, 17.68 epfu, indicates that a relatively light element contributes to its occupancy. Magnesium, as determined by electron-microprobe analyses, would be a proper candidate. In addition, considering the complex occupancy of this site, the average Y-O bond length of 2.0244(16) {angstrom} is in accord with a partial occupancy by Mg. The dominance of divalent cations with Mg > Fe{sup 2+} and the absence of Si at the octahedral Y site (in square brackets) are the primary criteria for distinguishing menzerite-(Y) from other silicate garnet species; the menzerite-(Y) end-member is {l_brace}Y{sub 2}Ca{r_brace}[Mg{sub 2}](Si{sub 3})O{sub 12}. The contacts of menzerite-(Y) with almandine are generally sharp and, in places, cuspate. It is

  19. Stable isotope studies of metasomatic Ca-Fe-Al-Si skarns and associated metamorphic and igneous rocks, Osgood Mountains, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, B.E.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Garnet-pyroxene skarns were formed 90 m.y. B.P. in the Osgood Mountains at or near contacts of grandiorite with calcareous rocks of the Cambrian Preble Formation. The metasomatic replacement followed contact metamorphic recrystallization of the Preble. The sources, temperature, and variation in H2O/CO2 ratios of the metasomatic fluid are interpreted from 269 analyses of oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur isotopes in whole rocks, minerals and inclusion fluids. Skarns formed in three mineralogical stages. Oxygen isotope data indicate that temperatures during the crystallization of garnet, pyroxene and wollastonite (Stage I) were least 550 ?? C, and that the metasomatic fluid had an {Mathematical expression} ??? 0.035 in the massive skarns, and ??? 0.12 in vein skarns up to 3 cm thick. Pore fluids in isotopic equilibrium with garnet in calc-silicate metamorphic rocks, on the other hand, had {Mathematical expression} ??? 0.15. The metasomatic fluids of Stage I were derived primarily from the crystallizing magma. The isotopic composition of magmatic water was ??18O =+9.0, ??D= -30 to -45. Oxygen isotope temperatures of greater than 620 ?? C were determined for the granodiorite. Isotopic and chemical equilibria between mineral surfaces and the metasomatic fluid were approached simultaneously in parts of the skarn several meters or more apart, while isotopic and chemical disequilibria (i.e. zoning) have been preserved between 20 to 40 ??m-thick zones in grandite garnet. More Fe-, or andradite-rich garnet crystallized in more H2O-rich C-O-H fluids ( {Mathematical expression} ??? 0.01) than present with grossularite-rich garnet ( {Mathematical expression}??? 0.035). Stage II was marked by the replacement of garnet and pyroxene by quartz, amphibole, plagioclase, epidote, magnetite, and calcite. Many of the replacement reactions took place over a relatively narrow range in temperature (480-550 ?? C), as indicated by 18O fractionations between quartz and amphibole. Meteoric

  20. Calcioferrite with composition (Ca3.94Sr0.06)Mg1.01(Fe2.93Al1.07)(PO4)6(OH)4·12H2O

    PubMed Central

    Lafuente, Barbara; Downs, Robert T.; Yang, Hexiong; Jenkins, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Calcioferrite, ideally Ca4MgFe3+ 4(PO4)6(OH)4·12H2O (tetra­calcium magnesium tetrairon(III) hexakis-phosphate tetra­hydroxide dodeca­hydrate), is a member of the calcioferrite group of hydrated calcium phosphate minerals with the general formula Ca4 AB 4(PO4)6(OH)4·12H2O, where A = Mg, Fe2+, Mn2+ and B = Al, Fe3+. Calcioferrite and the other three known members of the group, montgomeryite (A = Mg, B = Al), kingsmountite (A = Fe2+, B = Al), and zodacite (A = Mn2+, B = Fe3+), usually occur as very small crystals, making their structure refinements by conventional single-crystal X-ray diffraction challenging. This study presents the first structure determination of calcioferrite with composition (Ca3.94Sr0.06)Mg1.01(Fe2.93Al1.07)(PO4)6(OH)4·12H2O based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected from a natural sample from the Moculta quarry in Angaston, Australia. Calcioferrite is isostructural with montgomeryite, the only member of the group with a reported structure. The calcioferrite structure is characterized by (Fe/Al)O6 octa­hedra (site symmetries 2 and -1) sharing corners (OH) to form chains running parallel to [101]. These chains are linked together by PO4 tetra­hedra (site symmetries 2 and 1), forming [(Fe/Al)3(PO4)3(OH)2] layers stacking along [010], which are connected by (Ca/Sr)2+ cations (site symmetry 2) and Mg2+ cations (site symmetry 2; half-occupation). Hydrogen-bonding inter­actions involving the water mol­ecules (one of which is equally disordered over two positions) and OH function are also present between these layers. The relatively weaker bonds between the layers account for the cleavage of the mineral parallel to (010). PMID:24764934

  1. Effect of Sulfur on Liquidus Temperatures in the ZnO-"FeO"-Al2O3-CaO-SiO2-S System in Equilibrium with Metallic Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Baojun; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni

    2011-10-01

    The phase equilibria in the ZnO-"FeO"-Al2O3-CaO-SiO2-S system have been determined experimentally in equilibrium with metallic iron. A pseudoternary section of the form ZnO-"FeO"-(Al2O3+CaO+SiO2) for CaO/SiO2 = 0.71 (weight), (CaO+SiO2)/Al2O3 = 5.0 (weight), and fixed 2.0 wt pct S concentration has been constructed. It was found that the addition of 2.0 wt pct S to the liquid extends the spinel primary phase field significantly and decreases the size of the wustite primary phase field. The liquidus temperature in the wustite primary phase field is decreased by approximately 80 K and the liquidus temperature in the spinel primary phase field is decreased by approximately 10 K with addition of 2.0 wt pct S in the composition range investigated. It was also found that iron-zinc sulfides are present in some samples in the spinel primary phase field, which are matte appearing at low zinc concentrations and sphalerite (Zn,Fe)S at higher zinc concentrations. The presence of sulfur in the slag has a minor effect on the partitioning of ZnO between the wustite and liquid phases but no effect on the partitioning of ZnO between the spinel and liquid phases.

  2. Synthesis, characterization of double perovskite Ca{sub 2}MSbO{sub 6} (M = Dy, Fe, Cr, Al) materials via sol–gel auto-combustion and their catalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Feraru, S.; Samoila, P.; Borhan, A.I.; Ignat, M.; Iordan, A.R.; Palamaru, M.N.

    2013-10-15

    Double perovskite-type oxide Ca{sub 2}MSbO{sub 6} materials, where M = Dy, Fe, Cr, and Al, were prepared by using the sol–gel auto-combustion method. The role of different B-site cations on their synthesis, structures, morphologies and catalytic properties was investigated. The progress of double-perovskite type structure formation and the disappearance of the organic phases were monitored by infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR). Double perovskite oxide structures were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), while the microstructure of obtained compounds was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Also, BET surface areas were measured at the liquid nitrogen temperature by nitrogen adsorption. Catalytic properties of the obtained compounds were evaluated by test reaction of hydrogen peroxide decomposition. - Highlights: • Ca{sub 2}MSbO{sub 6} double perovskites were obtained by sol–gel auto-combustion method. • Ca{sub 2}MSbO{sub 6} (M = Dy, Fe, Cr and Al) as catalysts in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition • Strong relationship between particles' shape, BET area and catalytic performance • Ca{sub 2}FeSbO{sub 6} spherical grains show superior catalytic activity.

  3. Hillesheimite, (K,Ca,□)2(Mg,Fe,Ca,□)2[(Si,Al)13O23(OH)6](OH) · 8H2O, a new phyllosilicate mineral of the Günterblassite group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukanov, N. V.; Zubkova, N. V.; Pekov, I. V.; Belakovskiy, D. I.; Schüller, W.; Ternes, B.; Blass, G.; Pushcharovsky, D. Yu.

    2013-12-01

    A new mineral, hillesheimite, has been found in the Graulai basaltic quarry, near the town of Hillesheim, the Eifel Mountains, Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz), Germany. It occurs in the late assemblage comprising nepheline, augite, fluorapatite, magnetite, perovskite, priderite, götzenite, lamprophyllite-group minerals, and åkermanite. Colorless flattened crystals of hillesheimite reaching 0.2 × 1 × 1.5 mm in size and aggregates of the crystals occur in miarolitic cavities in alkali basalt. The mineral is brittle, with Mohs' hard-ness 4. Cleavage is perfect parallel to (010) and distinct on (100) and (001). D calc = 2.174 g/cm3, D meas = 2.16(1) g/cm3. IR spectrum is given. Hillesheimite is biaxial (-), α = 1.496(2), β = 1.498(2), γ = 1.499(2), 2 V meas = 80°. The chemical composition (electron microprobe, mean of 4 point analyses, H2O determined from structural data, wt %) is as follows: 0.24 Na2O, 4.15 K2O, 2.14 MgO, 2.90 CaO, 2.20 BaO, 2.41 FeO, 15.54 Al2O3, 52.94 SiO2, 19.14 H2O, total is 101.65. The empirical formula is: K0.96Na0.08Ba0.16Ca0.56Mg0.58Fe{0.37/2+}[Si9.62Al3.32O23(OH)6][(OH)0.82(H2O)0.18] · 8H2O. The crystal structure has been determined from X-ray single-crystal diffraction data, R = 0.1735. Hillesheimite is orthorhombic, space group Pmmn, the unit-cell dimensions are: a = 6.979(11), b = 37.1815(18), c = 6.5296(15) Å; V=1694(3) Å3, Z = 2. The crystal structure is based on the block [(Si,Al)13O25(OH)4] consisting of three single tetrahedral layers linked via common vertices and is topologically identical to the triple layers in günterblassite and umbrianite. The strong reflections [ d Å ( I %)] in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern are: 6.857(58), 6.545(100), 6.284(53), 4.787(96), 4.499(59), 3.065(86), 2.958(62), 2.767(62). The mineral was named after its type locality. Type specimens are deposited in the Fersman Mineralogical Museum, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, registration number 4174/1.

  4. Development of advanced batteries at Argonne National Laboratory. Summary report for 1979. [Li-Al/LiCl-KCl/FeS or FeS/sub 2/, 40 kWh; also Ca-Si/FeS/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    A summary for 1979 of Argonne National Laboratory's program on the development of advanced batteries is presented. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy-storage applications. The principal cells under investigation at present are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, facing negative electrodes of Li-Al alloy, and molten LiCl-KCl electrolyte; the cell operating temperature is 400 to 500/sup 0/C. A small effort on the development of a calcium/metal sulfide cell is also being conducted. During 1979, cell and battery development work continued at ANL and contractors' laboratories. A 40-kWh electric-vehicle battery (designated Mark IA) was fabricated and delivered by Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. to ANL for testing. During heat-up, one of the modules failed due to a short circuit. A failure analysis was conducted, and the Mark IA program, completed. Development work on the next electric-vehicle battery (Mark II) was initiated at Eagle-Picher and Gould, Inc. Work on stationary energy-storage batteries consisted primarily of conceptual design studies. 9 figures, 7 tables.

  5. A vibrational spectroscopic study of the phosphate mineral zanazziite - Ca2(MgFe2+)(MgFe2+Al)4Be4(PO4)6ṡ6(H2O)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; Xi, Yunfei; Scholz, Ricardo; Belotti, Fernanda M.; Dias Menezes Filho, Luiz Alberto

    2013-03-01

    Zanazziite is the magnesium member of a complex beryllium calcium phosphate mineral group named roscherite. The studied samples were collected from the Ponte do Piauí mine, located in Itinga, Minas Gerais. The mineral was studied by electron microprobe, Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The chemical formula can be expressed as Ca2.00(Mg3.15,Fe0.78,Mn0.16,Zn0.01,Al0.26,Ca0.14)Be4.00(PO4)6.09(OH)4.00ṡ5.69(H2O) and shows an intermediate member of the zanazziite-greinfeinstenite series, with predominance of zanazziite member. The molecular structure of the mineral zanazziite has been determined using a combination of Raman and infrared spectroscopy. A very intense Raman band at 970 cm-1 is assigned to the phosphate symmetric stretching mode whilst the Raman bands at 1007, 1047, 1064 and 1096 cm-1 are attributed to the phosphate antisymmetric stretching mode. The infrared spectrum is broad and the antisymmetric stretching bands are prominent. Raman bands at 559, 568, 589 cm-1 are assigned to the ν4 out of plane bending modes of the PO4 and HPO4 units. The observation of multiple bands supports the concept that the symmetry of the phosphate unit in the zanazziite structure is reduced in symmetry. Raman bands at 3437 and 3447 cm-1 are attributed to the OH stretching vibrations; Raman bands at 3098 and 3256 are attributed to water stretching vibrations. The width and complexity of the infrared spectral profile in contrast to the well resolved Raman spectra, proves that the pegmatitic phosphates are better studied with Raman spectroscopy.

  6. Effects of Al2O3 and MgO on Softening, Melting, and Permeation Properties of CaO-FeO-SiO2 on a Coke Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Shigeru; Kon, Tatsuya; Miki, Takahiro; Kim, Sun-Joong; Nogami, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    In ironmaking, maintaining gas permeability in blast furnace with low coke rate operation is essential to reduce carbon emissions. The high pressure loss in the cohesive zone decreases the gas permeability and affects the productivity of blast furnace. In order to increase the gas permeability in the cohesive zone, the thickness of the cohesive layer should be decreased. For this purpose, increasing softening temperature and decreasing dripping temperature of the iron ore are desired. In this study, softening, melting, and permeation of SiO2-FeO-CaO-Al2O3-MgO on a coke bed were investigated. The oxide sample in a tablet form was heated under CO/CO2 atmosphere, and the shape of the tablet was observed. The softening and melting temperatures of the SiO2-FeO-CaO system changed with the addition of Al2O3 and MgO. Oxide tablets with and without Al2O3 softened below and above the solidus temperature, respectively. The melting temperatures varied with the ratio of CO/CO2 in the gas. The permeation temperature was independent of the melting temperature, but dependent on the wettability.

  7. Crystal structure of the mineral (Na,Ca,K){sub 2}(Ca,Na){sub 4}(Mg,Fe){sub 5}(Mg,Fe,Ti){sub 5}[Si{sub 12}Al{sub 4}O{sub 44}](F,O){sub 4}: a triclinic representative of the amphibole family

    SciTech Connect

    Rastsvetaeva, R. K. Aksenov, S. M.

    2012-05-15

    A mineral belonging to the amphibole family found at the Rothenberg paleovolcano (Eifel, Germany) was studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The triclinic pseudomonoclinic unit-cell parameters are a = 5.3113(1) Angstrom-Sign , b = 18.0457(3) Angstrom-Sign ; c = 9.8684(2) Angstrom-Sign , {alpha} = 90.016(2) Degree-Sign , {beta} = 105.543(4) Degree-Sign , {gamma} = 89.985(2) Degree-Sign . The structure was solved by direct methods in sp. gr. P1 and refined to the R factor of 2.7% based on 6432 reflections with |F| > 3{sigma}(F) taking into account twinning. The mineral with the idealized formula (Na,Ca,K){sub 2}(Ca,Na){sub 4}(Mg,Fe){sub 5}(Mg,Fe,Ti){sub 5}[Si{sub 12}Al{sub 4}O{sub 44}](F,O){sub 4} has some symmetry and structural features that distinguish it from other minerals of this family.

  8. Thermoelectric properties of metallic antiperovskites AXD3 (A=Ge, Sn, Pb, Al, Zn, Ga; X=N, C; D=Ca, Fe, Co)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Asadabadi, Saeid Jalali; Ahmad, Rashid; Maqbool, Muhammad

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we communicate the thermoelectric properties of carbon and nitrogen based metallic antiperovskites ANCa3 (A=Ge, Sn, Pb), BCFe3 (B=Al, Zn, Ga) and SnCD3 (D=Co and Fe) using the ab-initio calculations to explore efficient metallic thermoelectric materials. The consistency of the calculated results of SnCCo3 and SnCFe3 with the experimental results confirms the reliability of our theoretical calculations for the other investigated metallic antiperovskites. The results indicate that the thermopower of these materials can be enhanced by changing the chemical potential. The dimensionless figure of merit for the three nitrides approaches 0.96 at room temperature, which proves the usefulness of these materials in thermoelectric generators. Furthermore, the thermal conductivity is minimum at room temperature for chemical potential values between -0.25 μ(eV) and 0.25 μ(eV), and provides the maximum values of dimensionless figure of merit in this range. The striking feature of these studies is identifying a metallic compound, SnNCa3, with the highest value of Seebeck coefficient at room temperature out of all metals. The results anticipate that these materials could be efficient in thermoelectric generators; however, this needs experimental verification.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Orientation relationship of eutectoid FeAl and FeAl2

    PubMed Central

    Scherf, A.; Kauffmann, A.; Kauffmann-Weiss, S.; Scherer, T.; Li, X.; Stein, F.; Heilmaier, M.

    2016-01-01

    Fe–Al alloys in the aluminium range of 55–65 at.% exhibit a lamellar microstructure of B2-ordered FeAl and triclinic FeAl2, which is caused by a eutectoid decomposition of the high-temperature Fe5Al8 phase, the so-called ∊ phase. The orientation relationship of FeAl and FeAl2 has previously been studied by Bastin et al. [J. Cryst. Growth (1978 ▸), 43, 745] and Hirata et al. [Philos. Mag. Lett. (2008 ▸), 88, 491]. Since both results are based on different crystallographic data regarding FeAl2, the data are re-evaluated with respect to a recent re-determination of the FeAl2 phase provided by Chumak et al. [Acta Cryst. (2010 ▸), C66, i87]. It is found that both orientation relationships match subsequent to a rotation operation of 180° about a 〈112〉 crystallographic axis of FeAl or by applying the inversion symmetry of the FeAl2 crystal structure as suggested by the Chumak data set. Experimental evidence for the validity of the previously determined orientation relationships was found in as-cast fully lamellar material (random texture) as well as directionally solidified material (∼〈110〉FeAl || solidification direction) by means of orientation imaging microscopy and global texture measurements. In addition, a preferential interface between FeAl and FeAl2 was identified by means of trace analyses using cross sectioning with a focused ion beam. On the basis of these habit planes the orientation relationship between the two phases can be described by (01)FeAl || (114) and [111]FeAl || [10]. There is no evidence for twinning within FeAl lamellae or alternating orientations of FeAl lamellae. Based on the determined orientation and interface data, an atomistic model of the structure relationship of Fe5Al8, FeAl and FeAl2 in the vicinity of the eutectoid decomposition is derived. This model is analysed with respect to the strain which has to be accommodated at the interface of FeAl and FeAl2. PMID:27047304

  10. A Sulfide Capacity Prediction Model of CaO-SiO2-MgO-FeO-MnO-Al2O3 Slags during the LF Refining Process Based on the Ion and Molecule Coexistence Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xue-Min; Zhang, Meng; Shi, Cheng-Bin; Chai, Guo-Ming; Zhang, Jian

    2012-04-01

    A sulfide capacity prediction model of CaO-SiO2-MgO-FeO-MnO-Al2O3 ladle furnace (LF) refining slags has been developed based on the ion and molecule coexistence theory (IMCT). The predicted sulfide capacity of the LF refining slags has better accuracy than the measured sulfide capacity of the slags at the middle and final stages during the LF refining process. Increasing slag binary basicity, optical basicity, and the Mannesmann index can lead to an increase of the predicted sulfide capacity for the LF refining slags as well as to an increase of the sulfur distribution ratio between the slags and molten steel at the middle and final stages during the LF refining process. The calculated equilibrium mole numbers, mass action concentrations of structural units or ion couples, rather than mass percentages of components, are recommended to represent the slag composition for correlating with the sulfide capacity of the slags. The developed sulfide capacity IMCT model can calculate not only the total sulfide capacity of the slags but also the respective sulfide capacity of free CaO, MgO, FeO, and MnO in the slags. The comprehensive contribution of the combined ion couples (Ca2+ + O2-) and (Mn2+ + O2-) on the desulfurization reactions accounts for 96.23 pct; meanwhile, the average contribution of the ion couple (Fe2+ + O2-) and (Mg2+ + O2-) only has a negligible contribution as 3.13 pct and 0.25 pct during the LF refining process, respectively. The oxygen activity of bulk molten steel in LF is controlled by the [Al]-[O] equilibrium, and the oxygen activity of molten steel at the slag-metal interface is controlled by the (FeO)-[O] equilibrium. The ratio of the oxygen activity of molten steel at the slag-metal interface to the oxygen activity of bulk molten steel will decrease from 37 to 5 at the initial stage, and further decrease from 28 to 4 at the middle stage, but will maintain at a reliable constant as 5 to 14 at the final stage during the LF refining process. The

  11. Bulk modulus and specific heat of B-site doped (La0.3Pr0.7)0.65Ca0.35Mn1-xBxO3 (B=Fe, Cr, Ru, Al, Ga)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Archana; Thakur, Rasna; Gaur, N. K.

    2014-04-01

    Specific heat (Cp) thermal expansion (α) and Bulk modulus (BT) of lightly doped Rare Earth manganites (La0.3Pr0.7)0.65Ca0.35Mn1-xBxO3 (B3+ = Fe3+,Cr3+,Ga3+,Al3+,Ru4+); (0.3Ca0.35Mn0.97Fe0.03O3 as a function of temperature (10K≤T≤ 200K) is found to be in agreement with the published data. The trend of variation of Debye temperature with B-site cationic radius is predicted probably for the first time for the B-site doped rare earth manganites.

  12. Thermodynamic modeling of non-ideal mineral-fluid equilibria in the system Si-Al-Fe-Mg-Ca-Na-K-H-O-Cl at elevated temperatures and pressures: Implications for hydrothermal mass transfer in granitic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolejš, David; Wagner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of thermodynamic modeling of fluid-rock interaction in the system Si-Al-Fe-Mg-Ca-Na-H-O-Cl using the GEM-Selektor Gibbs free energy minimization code. Combination of non-ideal mixing properties in solids with multicomponent aqueous fluids represents a substantial improvement and it provides increased accuracy over existing modeling strategies. Application to the 10-component system allows us to link fluid composition and speciation with whole-rock mineralogy, mass and volume changes. We have simulated granite-fluid interaction over a wide range of conditions (200-600 °C, 100 MPa, 0-5 m Cl and fluid/rock ratios of 10-2-104) in order to explore composition of magmatic fluids of variable salinity, temperature effects on fluid composition and speciation and to simulate several paths of alteration zoning. At low fluid/rock ratios (f/r) the fluid composition is buffered by the silicate-oxide assemblage and remains close to invariant. This behavior extends to a f/r of 0.1 which exceeds the amount of exsolved magmatic fluids controlled by water solubility in silicate melts. With increasing peraluminosity of the parental granite, the Na-, K- and Fe-bearing fluids become more acidic and the oxidation state increases as a consequence of hydrogen and ferrous iron transfer to the fluid. With decreasing temperature, saline fluids become more Ca- and Na-rich, change from weakly acidic to alkaline, and become significantly more oxidizing. Large variations in Ca/Fe and Ca/Mg ratios in the fluid are a potential geothermometer. The mineral assemblage changes from cordierite-biotite granites through two-mica granites to chlorite-, epidote- and zeolite-bearing rocks. We have carried out three rock-titration simulations: (1) reaction with the 2 m NaCl fluid leads to albitization, chloritization and desilication, reproducing essential features observed in episyenites, (2) infiltration of a high-temperature fluid into the granite at 400 °C leads to hydrolytic

  13. Phase Equilibria of ``Cu2O''-``FeO''-CaO-MgO-Al2O3 Slags at PO2 of 10-8.5 atm in Equilibrium with Metallic Copper for a Copper Slag Cleaning Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henao, Hector M.; Pizarro, Claudio; Font, Jonkion; Moyano, Alex; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni

    2010-12-01

    Limited data are available on phase equilibria of the multicomponent slag system at the oxygen partial pressures used in the copper smelting, converting, and slag-cleaning processes. Recently, experimental procedures have been developed and have been applied successfully to characterize several complex industrial slags. The experimental procedures involve high-temperature equilibration on a substrate and quenching followed by electron probe X-ray microanalysis. This technique has been used to construct the liquidus for the “Cu2O”-“FeO”-SiO2-based slags with 2 wt pct of CaO, 0.5 wt pct of MgO, and 4.0 wt pct of Al2O3 at controlled oxygen partial pressures in equilibrium with metallic copper. The selected ranges of compositions and temperatures are directly relevant to the copper slag-cleaning processes. The new experimental equilibrium results are presented in the form of ternary sections and as a liquidus temperature vs Fe/SiO2 weight ratio diagram. The experimental results are compared with the FactSage thermodynamic model calculations.

  14. Cross sections for the production of residual nuclides by low- and medium-energy protons from the target elements C, N, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba and Au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, R.; Bodemann, R.; Busemann, H.; Daunke, R.; Gloris, M.; Lange, H.-J.; Klug, B.; Krins, A.; Leya, I.; Lüpke, M.; Neumann, S.; Reinhardt, H.; Schnatz-Büttgen, M.; Herpers, U.; Schiekel, Th.; Sudbrock, F.; Holmqvist, B.; Condé, H.; Malmborg, P.; Suter, M.; Dittrich-Hannen, B.; Kubik, P.-W.; Synal, H.-A.; Filges, D.

    1997-07-01

    Cross sections for residual nuclide production by p-induced reactions were measured from thresholds up to 2.6 GeV using accelerators at CERN/Geneve, IPN/Orsay, KFA/Jülich, LANL/Los Alamos, LNS/Saclay, PSI/Villigen, TSL/Uppsala, LUC/Louvain La Neuve. The target elements C, N, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba and Au were investigated. Residual nuclides were measured by X- and γ-spectrometry and by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The measured cross sections were corrected for interfering secondary particles in experiments with primary proton energies above 200 MeV. Our consistent database covers presently ca 550 nuclear reactions and contains nearly 15000 individual cross sections of which about 10000 are reported here for the first time. They provide a basis for model calculations of the production of cosmogenic nuclides in extraterrestrial matter by solar and galactic cosmic ray protons. They are of importance for many other applications in which medium energy nuclear reactions have to be considered ranging from astrophysics over space and environmental sciences to accelerator technology and accelerator-based nuclear waste transmutation and energy amplification. The experimental data are compared with theoretical ones based on calculations using an INC/E model in form of the HETC/KFA2 code and on the hybrid model of preequilibrium reactions in form of the AREL code.>

  15. Ladle and Continuous Casting Process Models for Reduction of SiO2 in SiO2-Al2O3-CaO Slags by Al in Fe-Al(-Si) Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jiwon; Sridhar, S.; Fruehan, Richard J.

    2015-02-01

    Based on a mixed control or two-phase mass transfer model considering mass transport in the metal and the slag phases, process models for ladle and continuous castor mold were developed to predict the changes in the metal and the slag chemistry and viscosity. In the ladle process model, the rate of reaction is primarily determined by stirring gas flow rate, which greatly alters the mass transports of the metal and the slag phases. In the continuous casting process model, the effects of the Al, Si, and SiO2 contents in the incoming flow of the fluid phases, casting speed, mold flux consumption rate, and depth of the liquid mold flux pool on the steady-state compositions of the metal and the mold flux were assessed.

  16. Magnetism in Fe4Al13 and related FeAl intermetallics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Ji; Li, Yang; Gou, Weiping; Goruganti, V.; Rathnayaka, K. D. D.; Ross, Joseph H., Jr.

    2006-03-01

    We report the results of an experimental study of FeAl alloys, including Fe4Al13, FeAl2 and Fe2Al5. By using NMR, dc magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat, we found that Fe4Al13 and Fe2Al5 are non-magnetic with some dilute magnetic moments, while FeAl2 can be characterized as a concentrated local moment system. Fe4Al13 is a decagonal quasicrystal approximant with 102 atoms in its unit cell. The ^27Al NMR spin-lattice relaxation indicates a very narrow pseudogap in the electronic density of states [g(E)] in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. The observations could be fit assuming a parabolic variation of g(E), consistent with observations in other quasicrystals and approximants. NMR lineshape measurements also agree with this analysis, and show that the system is dilute-magnetic, in strong contrast to the FeAl2 ordered intermetallic. We use specific heat to analyze the dilute moment density. This work was supported by the Robert A. Welch Foundation, Grant No. A-1526, by the National Science Foundation (DMR-0103455), and by Texas A&M University through the Telecommunications and Informatics Task Force.

  17. Modulus measurements in ordered Co-Al, Fe-Al, and Ni-Al alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmouche, M. R.; Wolfenden, A.

    1985-01-01

    The composition and/or temperature dependence of the dynamic Young's modulus for the ordered B2 Co-Al, Fe-Al, and Ni-Al aluminides has been investigated using the piezoelectric ultrasonic composite oscillator technique (PUCOT). The modulus has been measured in the composition interval 48.49 to 52.58 at. pct Co, 50.87 to 60.2 at. pct Fe, and 49.22 to 55.95 at. pct Ni for Co-Al, Fe-Al, and Ni-Al, respectively. The measured values for Co-Al are in the temperature interval 300 to 1300 K, while those for the other systems are for ambient temperature only. The data points show that Co-Al is stiffer than Fe-Al, which is stiffer than Ni-Al. The data points for Fe-Al and Ni-Al are slightly higher than those reported in the literature.

  18. The mechanical properties of FeAl

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, I.; George, E.P.

    1996-12-31

    Only in the last few years has progress been made in obtaining reproducible mechanical properties data for FeAl. Two sets of observations are the foundation of this progress. The first is that the large vacancy concentrations that exist in FeAl at high temperature are easily retained at low temperature and that these strongly affect the low-temperature mechanical properties. The second is that RT ductility is adversely affected by water vapor. Purpose of this paper is not to present a comprehensive overview of the mechanical properties of FeAl but rather to highlight our understanding of key phenomena and to show how an understanding of the factors which control the yield strength and fracture behavior has followed the discovery of the above two effects. 87 refs, 9 figs.

  19. Melting, Processing, and Properties of Disordered Fe-Al and Fe-Al-C Based Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satya Prasad, V. V.; Khaple, Shivkumar; Baligidad, R. G.

    2014-09-01

    This article presents a part of the research work conducted in our laboratory to develop lightweight steels based on Fe-Al alloys containing 7 wt.% and 9 wt.% aluminum for construction of advanced lightweight ground transportation systems, such as automotive vehicles and heavy-haul truck, and for civil engineering construction, such as bridges, tunnels, and buildings. The melting and casting of sound, porosity-free ingots of Fe-Al-based alloys was accomplished by a newly developed cost-effective technique. The technique consists of using a special flux cover and proprietary charging schedule during air induction melting. These alloys were also produced using a vacuum induction melting (VIM) process for comparison purposes. The effect of aluminum (7 wt.% and 9 wt.%) on melting, processing, and properties of disordered solid solution Fe-Al alloys has been studied in detail. Fe-7 wt.% Al alloy could be produced using air induction melting with a flux cover with the properties comparable to the alloy produced through the VIM route. This material could be further processed through hot and cold working to produce sheets and thin foils. The cold-rolled and annealed sheet exhibited excellent room-temperature ductility. The role of carbon in Fe-7 wt.% Al alloys has also been examined. The results indicate that Fe-Al and Fe-Al-C alloys containing about 7 wt.% Al are potential lightweight steels.

  20. Fenton degradation of sulfanilamide in the presence of Al,Fe-pillared clay: Catalytic behavior and identification of the intermediates.

    PubMed

    Khankhasaeva, Sesegma Ts; Dambueva, Darima V; Dashinamzhilova, Elvira Ts; Gil, Antonio; Vicente, Miguel A; Timofeeva, Maria N

    2015-08-15

    Liquid phase catalytic degradation of sulfanilamide with H2O2 was carried out in the presence of Fe,Al/M-pillared clay (Fe,Al/M-MM, M=Na(+), Ca(2+) and Ba(2+)) as heterogeneous Fenton type catalyst. Fe,Al/M-MMs were prepared by swelling of layered aluminosilicate (90-95 wt.% montmorillonite) from a bed located in Mukhortala (Buryatia, Russia) in Na(+), Ca(2+) and Ba(2+) forms by means of the exchange of these cations with bulky Fe,Al-polyoxocations prepared at Al/Fe=10/1 and OH/(Al+Fe)=2.0, and then calcinated at 500°C. XRD method and chemical analysis demonstrated that the rate of crystalline swelling was dependent on the interlayer cations and decreased in the order: Fe,Al-/Na-MM>Fe,Al/Ca-MM>Fe,Al/Ba-MM. It was found that the catalytic properties of Fe,Al/M-MMs depended on the type of exchangeable cations. The effect of the H2O2/sulfanilamide molar ratio, the catalyst content, the reaction temperature and the reaction pH on the removal rate of sulfanilamide has been studied in the presence of Fe,Al/Na-MM. The catalyst can be applied for degradation of sulfanilamide with H2O2 for at least three successive cycles without loss of activity. HPLC analyses pointed out that the main degradation intermediate products were sulfanilic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, p-benzoquinone and aliphatic carboxylic acids.

  1. Boron strengthening in FeAl

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, I.; Li, X.; Xiao, H.; Klein, O.; Nelson, C.; Carleton, R.L.; George, E.P.

    1998-11-01

    The effect of boron on the strength of B2-structured FeAl is considered as a function of composition, grain size and temperature. Boron does not affect the concentrations of antisite atoms or vacancies present, with the former increasing and the latter decreasing with increasing deviation from the stoichiometric composition. When vacancies are absent, the strength increase per at. % B per unit lattice strain, {Delta}{sigma}/({Delta}c x {epsilon}) increases with increasing aluminum concentration, but when vacancies are present (>45 at. % Al), {Delta}{sigma}/({Delta}c x {epsilon}) decreases again. Boron increases grain size strengthening in FeAl. B strengthening is roughly independent of temperature up to the yield strength peak but above the point, when diffusion-assisted deformation occurs, boron strengthening increases dramatically.

  2. Atomic data from the iron project. 3: Rate coefficients for electron impact excitation of boron-like ions: Ne VI, Mg VIII, Al IX, Si X, S XII, Ar XIV, Ca XVI and Fe XXII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Hong Lin; Graziani, Mark; Pradhan, Anil K.

    1994-01-01

    Collison strengths and maxwellian averaged rate coefficients have been calculated for the 105 transitions among all 15 fine structure levels of the 8 LS terms 2s(sup 2) 2 P(P-2(sup 0 sub 1/, 3/2)), 2s2p(sup 2)(P-4(sub 1/2,3/2,5/2), D-2(sub 3/2, 5/2), S-2(sub 1/2), P-2(sub 1/2, 3/2)), 2p(sup 3)(S-4(sup 0)(sub 3/2), D-2(sup 0 sub 3/2, 5/2), P-2(sup 0 sub 1/2, 3/2)) in highly- charged B-like Ne, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ar, Ca and Fe. Rate coefficients have been tabulated at a wide range of temperatures, depending on the ion charge and abundance in plasma sources. Earlier work for O IV has also been extended to include the high temperature range. A brief discussion of the calculations, sample results, and comparison with earlier works is also given. While much of the new data should be applicable to UV spectral diagnostics, the new rates for the important ground state fine structure transition P-2(sup 0 sub 1/2)-P-2(sup 0 sub 3/2) should result in significant revision of the IR cooling rates in plasmas where B-like ions are prominent constituents, since the new rate coefficients are generally higher by several factors compared with the older data.

  3. Fabrication of Fe-Al nanoparticles by selective oxidation of Fe-Al thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Pyungwoo; Shin, Seungchan; Jung, Chip-Sup; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Seomoon, Kyu

    2013-04-01

    The possibility of a new technique for fabricating nanoparticles from thin films using selective oxidation in an atmosphere mixture of water vapor and hydrogen was investigated. Fe-5wt.%Al films were RF-sputtered and annealed in the atmosphere mixture at 900°C for up to 200 min, in order to oxidize aluminum selectively. Thermodynamics simulation showed that temperatures exceeding 800°C are necessary to prevent iron from being oxidized, as confirmed by the depth profile of XPS. As the annealing time increased, the morphology of the 200-nm Fe-Al films changed from the continuous to the discontinuous type; thus, particulate Fe-Al films formed after 100 min. The particulate 10- to 100-nm Fe-Al films showed super-paramagnetic behavior after the oxidation. Thus, a new technique for fabricating nanoparticles was successfully introduced using selective oxidation.

  4. Günterblassite, (K,Ca)3 - x Fe[(Si,Al)13O25(OH,O)4] · 7H2O, a new mineral: the first phyllosilicate with triple tetrahedral layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukanov, N. V.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Aksenov, S. M.; Pekov, I. V.; Zubkova, N. V.; Britvin, S. N.; Belakovskiy, D. I.; Schüller, W.; Ternes, B.

    2012-12-01

    A new mineral, günterblassite, has been found in the basaltic quarry at Mount Rother Kopf near Gerolstein, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany as a constituent of the late assemblage of nepheline, leucite, augite, phlogopite, åkermanite, magnetite, perovskite, a lamprophyllite-group mineral, götzenite, chabazite-K, chabazite-Ca, phillipsite-K, and calcite. Günterblassite occurs as colorless lamellar crystals up to 0.2 × 1 × 1.5 mm in size and their clusters. The mineral is brittle, with perfect cleavage parallel to (001) and less perfect cleavage parallel to (100) and (010). The Mohs hardness is 4. The calculated and measured density is 2.17 and 2.18(1) g/cm3, respectively. The IR spectrum is given. The new mineral is optically biaxial and positive as follows: α = 1.488(2), β = 1.490(2), γ = 1.493(2), 2 V meas = 80(5)°. The chemical composition (electron microprobe, average of seven point analyses, H2O is determined by gas chromatography, wt %) is as follows: 0.40 Na2O, 5.18 K2O, 0.58 MgO, 3.58 CaO, 4.08 BaO, 3.06 FeO, 13.98 Al2O3, 52.94 SiO2, 15.2 H2O, and the total is 98.99. The empirical formula is Na0.15K1.24Ba0.30Ca0.72Mg0.16F{0.48/2+}[Si9.91Al3.09O25.25(OH)3.75] · 7.29H2O. The crystal structure has been determined from a single crystal, R = 0.049. Günterblassite is orthorhombic, space group Pnm21; the unit-cell dimensions are a = 6.528(1), b = 6.970(1), c = 37.216(5) Å, V = 1693.3(4) Å3, Z = 2. Günterblassite is a member of a new structural type; its structure is based on three-layer block [Si13O25(OH,O)4]. The strong reflections in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern [ d Å ( I, %) are as follows: 6.532 (100), 6.263 (67), 3.244 (49), 3.062 (91), 2.996 (66), 2.955 (63), and 2.763 (60). The mineral was named in honor of Günter Blass (born in 1943), a well-known amateur mineralogist and specialist in electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction. The type specimen of günterblassite is deposited in the collections of the Fersman Mineralogical Museum of the

  5. Synthesis and characterization of phosphates in molten systems Cs{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-CaO-M{sup III}{sub 2}O{sub 3} (M{sup III}-Al, Fe, Cr)

    SciTech Connect

    Zatovsky, Igor V.; Strutynska, Nataliya Yu.; Baumer, Vyacheslav N.; Slobodyanik, Nikolay S.; Ogorodnyk, Ivan V.; Shishkin, Oleg V.

    2011-03-15

    The crystallization of complex phosphates from the melts of Cs{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-CaO-M{sup III}{sub 2}O{sub 3} (M{sup III}-Al, Fe, Cr) systems have been investigated at fixed value Cs/P molar ratios equal to 0.7, 1.0 and 1.3 and Sa/P=0.2 and Ca/M{sup III}=1. The fields of crystallization of CsCaP{sub 3}O{sub 9}, {beta}-Ca{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}, Cs{sub 2}CaP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, Cs{sub 3}CaFe(P{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sub 2}, Ca{sub 9}M{sup III}(PO{sub 4}){sub 7} (M{sup III}-Fe, Cr), Cs{sub 0.63}Ca{sub 9.63}Fe{sub 0.37}(PO{sub 4}){sub 7} and CsCa{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 7} were determined. Obtained phosphates were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. Novel whitlockite-related phases CsCa{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 7} and Cs{sub 0.63}Ca{sub 9.63}Fe{sub 0.37}(PO{sub 4}){sub 7} have been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction: space group R3c, a=10.5536(5) and 10.5221(4) A, c=37.2283(19) and 37.2405(17) A, respectively. -- Graphical Abstract: Structural relationships between {beta}-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} and synthesized compounds is shown in terms aliovalent substitution of calcium atoms, which residue on three-fold axis, by other metals in {beta}-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} framework. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Phase formation in the melts of Cs{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-CaO-M{sup III}{sub 2}O{sub 3} (M{sup III}-Al, Fe, Cr) systems were determined. {yields} The composition and structure of the compounds depend on the nature of M{sup III} and initial ratio of Cs/P. {yields} Obtained compounds have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. {yields} Crystal structures of CsCa{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 7} and Cs{sub 0.63}Ca{sub 9.63}Fe{sub 0.37}(PO{sub 4}){sub 7} were determined by single crystal XRD.

  6. Room temperature luminescence and ferromagnetism of AlN:Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Cai, G. M.; Wang, W. J.

    2016-06-01

    AlN:Fe polycrystalline powders were synthesized by a modified solid state reaction (MSSR) method. Powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy results reveal the single phase nature of the doped samples. In the doped AlN samples, Fe is in Fe2+ state. Room temperature ferromagnetic behavior is observed in AlN:Fe samples. Two photoluminescence peaks located at about 592 nm (2.09 eV) and 598 nm (2.07 eV) are observed in AlN:Fe samples. Our results suggest that AlN:Fe is a potential material for applications in spintronics and high power laser devices.

  7. Forging of FeAl intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, O.; Juarez, J.; Campillo, B.; Martinez, L.; Schneibel, J.H.

    1994-09-01

    Much activity has been concentrated on the development of intermetallic compounds with the aim of improving tensile ductility, fracture toughness and high notch sensitivity in order to develop an attractive combination of properties for high and low temperature applications. This paper reports experience in processing and forging of FeAl intermetallic of B2 type. During the experiments two different temperatures were employed, and the specimens were forged after annealing in air, 10{sup {minus}2} torr vacuum and argon. From the results it was learned that annealing FeAl in argon atmosphere prior to forging resulted in better deformation behavior than for the other two environments. For the higher forging temperature used in the experiments (700C), the as-cast microstructure becomes partially recrystallized.

  8. Melting in the system CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-FeO-Cr2O3 spanning the plagioclase-spinel lherzolite transition at 7 to 10 kbar: experiments versus thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshav, S.; Tirone, M.; Gudfinnsson, G.; Presnall, D.

    2008-12-01

    Voluminous basaltic magmas erupt at mid-oceanic ridges (mid-ocean ridge basalts, MORB) as a consequence of mantle upwelling and melting beneath spreading plates. However, because the geochemistry of MORB is distinct from OIB (ocean-island basalts), both have great petrogenetic significance and carry important information about the chemical and physical properties/dynamics of the mantle. In the context of MORB, a critical yet unresolved question is how phase transitions within a polybaric melting zone affect melt productivity and thereby, possibly exert control on major and trace element composition of erupted magmas. Currently, the disagreements on these issues are fundamental, with great consequences that extend beyond petrology to global issues of potential temperatures, mantle melting, mantle heterogeneity, and mantle dynamics. Thermodynamics show that melt productivity depends critically on the transition reaction, and melting can in principle increase, decrease, or even stop at a transition. Phase equilibrium work from both systems CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-Na2O (CMASN) and CMAS-FeO (CMASF) have been used to argue that melt productivity may increase at the plagioclase-spinel (pl-sp) transition because the univariant solidus transition reaction has a positive dT/dP slope in these systems, moving to higher pressure relative to the CMAS system. However, melting models derived on the basis of MELTS and pMELTS show that the solidus has a negative slope on the pl-sp transition. If correct, this would cause suppression of melting as the mantle decompresses along a pertinent adiabat. Owing to these vast discrepancies between experiments and thermodynamics and to further clarify MORB genesis, in this work we present melting phase relations in the system CMASFCr at the plagioclase-spinel lherzolite transition from 7 to 10 kbar. Cr was chosen since recent work has shown that the addition of Cr to CMAS has an unusually large effect on Ca/Al of melt compositions at 1.1 GPa. With

  9. Structure refinements of members in the brownmillerite solid solution series Ca{sub 2}Al{sub x}(Fe{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}){sub 2-x}O{sub 5+{delta}} with 1/2{<=}x{<=}4/3

    SciTech Connect

    Stoeber, Stefan; Schorr, Susan; Poellmann, Herbert

    2013-01-15

    Four different brownmillerite solid solutions Ca{sub 2}Al{sub x}(Fe{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}){sub 2-x}O{sub 5+{delta}} with 1/2{<=}x{<=}4/3 were synthesized by a solid oxide ceramic method. The phases crystallize either in a primitive centered orthorhombic cell with space group Pnma or in a body centered cell with space group I2mb dependent on the aluminum concentration present in the solid solution. Mn{sup 3+} ions occupy exclusively site 4a coordinated by six oxygen anions. Increasing Mn{sup 3+} concentrations cause a remarkable distortion of the octahedron and indirectly of the tetrahedron, resulting in twisted and tilted octahedral layers as well as buckled tetrahedral chains. The influences are discussed on the site 4a of trivalent manganese due to its Jahn-Teller activity, with regard to the occupation of octahedron and tetrahedron with different sized iron and aluminum ions. - Graphical Abstract: The coupled substitution Fe{sup 3+}>Mn{sup 3+}+Fe{sup 3+} <=>2 Al{sup 3+} in brownmillerite phases (Ca{sub 2}(Fe{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}){sub 2-x}Al{sub x}O{sub 5+{delta}}) changes predominantly their structural properties, which is essential for the hydration performance of the calcium aluminate cement, where brownmillerites occur as clinker phases. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present structural data of four Ca-Al-Fe-Mn-brownmillerites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn{sup 3+}-ions occupy exclusively the octahedrally coordinated site 0,0,0. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bonds and angles of the octahedrally coordinated site are distorted strongly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn{sup 3+}-ions influence indirectly the shape of the tetrahedron. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn{sup 3+}-ions stabilize Pnma instead of I2mb in Ca-Al-Fe-Mn-brownmillerites.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of polycrystalline brownmillerite cobalt doped Ca2Fe2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhankhar, Suchita; Bhalerao, Gopal; Baskar, K.; Singh, Shubra

    2016-05-01

    Brownmillerite compounds with general formula A2BB'O5 (BB' = Mn, Al, Fe, Co) have attracted attention in wide range of applications such as in solid oxide fuel cell, oxygen separation membrane and photocatalysis. Brownmillerite compounds have unique structure with alternate layers of BO6 octahedral layers and BO4 tetrahedral layers. Presence of dopants like Co in place of Fe increases oxygen vacancies. In the present work we have synthesized polycrystalline Ca2Fe2O5 and Ca2Fe1-xCoxO5 (x = 0.01, 0.03) by citrate combustion route. The as prepared samples were characterized by XRD using PANalytical X'Pert System, DRS (Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy) and SEM (Scanning electron microscopy).

  11. Overview of the development of FeAl intermetallic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P.J.; Liu, C.T.; Goodwin, G.M.

    1995-09-01

    B2-phase FeAl ordered intermetallic alloys based on an Fe-36 at.% Al composition are being developed to optimize a combination of properties that includes high-temperature strength, room-temperature ductility, and weldability. Microalloying with boron and proper processing are very important for FeAl properties optimization. These alloys also have the good to outstanding resistance to oxidation, sulfidation, and corrosion in molten salts or chlorides at elevated temperatures, characteristic of FeAl with 30--40 at.% Al. Ingot- and powder-metallurgy (IM and PM, respectively) processing both produce good properties, including strength above 400 MPa up to about 750 C. Technology development to produce FeAl components for industry testing is in progress. In parallel, weld-overlay cladding and powder coating technologies are also being developed to take immediate advantage of the high-temperature corrosion/oxidation and erosion/wear resistance of FeAl.

  12. First principles investigation of Fe and Al bearing phase H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, J.; Tsuchiya, T.

    2015-12-01

    The global circulation of water in the earth is important to investigate the evolution history and dynamics of the earth, since the physical properties (e.g. atomic diffusivity, melting temperature, electrical conductivity and seismic velocities) of the constituent minerals are considerably changed by the presence of water. It has been believed that water is carried into the deep Earth's interior by hydrous minerals such as the dense hydrous magnesium silicates (DHMSs) which are also known as alphabet phases (phase A, superhydrous phase B, and phase D etc.) in the descending cold plate. It has been thought that the relay of these hydrous phases was terminated at ~1200 km depth by the dehydration of phase D which was the highest pressure phase of DHMSs. Recently, we have theoretically predicted the high pressure phase of phase D and experimentally confirmed the existence of this new DHMS in lower mantle pressure conditions above ~45 GPa. This phase has MgSiO4H2chemical composition and named as phase H. At the lower mantle pressure conditions, Al and H-bearing SiO2, δ-AlOOH, ɛ-FeOOH and phase H may be the relevant hydrous phases in the subducting slabs. Interestingly, the crystal structure of these hydrous phases are almost same and have CaCl2type structure. This suggests that these hydrous phases may potentially be able to make the wide range of solid solution. Some experimental studies already reported that Al preferentially partitioned into phase H and the stability of phase H drastically increased by incorporation of Al (Nishi et al. 2014, Ohira et al. 2014). The density of subducted MORB is reported to be denser than that of pyrolite in the lower mantle (e.g. Kawai et al. 2009). Therefore, there is a possibility that phase H containing Al and Fe in subducted MORB survive down to the bottom of lower mantle and the melting of phase H at the core mantle boundary may contribute to the cause of ultra-low velocity zones. In this study, we further extends our

  13. Energetic ion bombarded Fe/Al multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Busaidy, M.S.; Crapper, M.D.

    2006-05-15

    The utility of ion-assisted deposition is investigated to explore the possibility of counteracting the deficiency of back-reflected current of Ar neutrals in the case of lighter elements such as Al. A range of energetically ion bombarded Fe/Al multilayers sputtered with applied surface bias of 0, -200, or -400 V were deposited onto Si(111) substrates in an argon atmosphere of 4 mTorr using a computer controlled dc magnetron sputtering system. Grazing incidence reflectivity and rocking curve scans by synchrotron x rays of wavelength of 1.38 A were used to investigate the structures of the interfaces produced. Substantial evidence has been gathered to suggest the gradual suppression of interfacial mixing and reduction in interfacial roughness with increases of applied bias. The densification of the Al microstructure was noticeable and may be a consequence of resputtering attributable to the induced ion bombardment. The average interfacial roughnesses were calculated for the 0, -200, and -400 V samples to be 7{+-}0.5, 6{+-}0.5, and 5{+-}0.5 A respectfully demonstrating a 30% improvement in interface quality. Data from rocking curve scans point to improved long-range correlated roughness in energetically deposited samples. The computational code based on the recursive algorithm developed by Parratt [Phys. Rev. 95, 359 (1954)] was successful in the simulation of the specular reflectivity curves.

  14. Removal of phosphate from water using six Al-, Fe-, and Al-Fe-modified bentonite adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Shanableh, Abdallah M; Elsergany, Moetaz M

    2013-01-01

    This study was part of a larger effort that involves evaluating alternatives to upgrading secondary treatment systems in the United Arab Emirates for the removal of nutrients. In this study, six modified bentonite (BNT) phosphate adsorbents were prepared using solutions that contained hydroxy-polycations of aluminum (Al-BNT), iron (Fe-BNT), and mixtures of aluminum and iron (Al-Fe-BNT). The adsorption kinetics and capacities of the six adsorbents were evaluated, and the adsorbents were used to remove phosphorus from synthetic phosphate solutions and from treated wastewater. The experimental adsorption kinetics results were well represented by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, with R(2) values ranging from 0.99 to 1.00. Similarly, the experimental equilibrium adsorption results were well represented by the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms, with R(2) values ranging from 0.98 to 1.00. The adsorption capacities of the adsorbents were dependent on the BNT preparation conditions; the types, quantities and combination of metals used; BNT particle size; and adsorption pH. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of the six adsorbents ranged from 8.9-14.5 mg P/g-BNT. The results suggested that the BNT preparations containing Fe alone or in combination with Al achieved higher adsorption capacities than the preparations containing only Al. However, the Al-BNT preparations exhibited higher adsorption rates than the Fe-BNT preparation. Three of the six adsorbents were used to remove phosphate from secondarily treated wastewater samples, and the removal results were comparable to those obtained using synthetic phosphate solutions. The BNT adsorbents also exhibited adequate settling characteristics and significant regeneration potential.

  15. High-pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy of CaFe2O4-type β-CaCr2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Shuangmeng; Yin, Yuan; Shieh, Sean R.; Shan, Shuangming; Xue, Weihong; Wang, Ching-Pao; Yang, Ke; Higo, Yuji

    2016-04-01

    In situ high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic studies of orthorhombic CaFe2O4-type β-CaCr2O4 chromite were carried out up to 16.2 and 32.0 GPa at room temperature using multi-anvil apparatus and diamond anvil cell, respectively. No phase transition was observed in this study. Fitting a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state to the P-V data yields a zero-pressure volume of V 0 = 286.8(1) Å3, an isothermal bulk modulus of K 0 = 183(5) GPa and the first pressure derivative of isothermal bulk modulus K 0' = 4.1(8). Analyses of axial compressibilities show anisotropic elasticity for β-CaCr2O4 since the a-axis is more compressible than the b- and c-axis. Based on the obtained and previous results, the compressibility of several CaFe2O4-type phases was compared. The high-pressure Raman spectra of β-CaCr2O4 were analyzed to determine the pressure dependences and mode Grüneisen parameters of Raman-active bands. The thermal Grüneisen parameter of β-CaCr2O4 is determined to be 0.93(2), which is smaller than those of CaFe2O4-type CaAl2O4 and MgAl2O4.

  16. Fenton degradation of sulfanilamide in the presence of Al,Fe-pillared clay: Catalytic behavior and identification of the intermediates.

    PubMed

    Khankhasaeva, Sesegma Ts; Dambueva, Darima V; Dashinamzhilova, Elvira Ts; Gil, Antonio; Vicente, Miguel A; Timofeeva, Maria N

    2015-08-15

    Liquid phase catalytic degradation of sulfanilamide with H2O2 was carried out in the presence of Fe,Al/M-pillared clay (Fe,Al/M-MM, M=Na(+), Ca(2+) and Ba(2+)) as heterogeneous Fenton type catalyst. Fe,Al/M-MMs were prepared by swelling of layered aluminosilicate (90-95 wt.% montmorillonite) from a bed located in Mukhortala (Buryatia, Russia) in Na(+), Ca(2+) and Ba(2+) forms by means of the exchange of these cations with bulky Fe,Al-polyoxocations prepared at Al/Fe=10/1 and OH/(Al+Fe)=2.0, and then calcinated at 500°C. XRD method and chemical analysis demonstrated that the rate of crystalline swelling was dependent on the interlayer cations and decreased in the order: Fe,Al-/Na-MM>Fe,Al/Ca-MM>Fe,Al/Ba-MM. It was found that the catalytic properties of Fe,Al/M-MMs depended on the type of exchangeable cations. The effect of the H2O2/sulfanilamide molar ratio, the catalyst content, the reaction temperature and the reaction pH on the removal rate of sulfanilamide has been studied in the presence of Fe,Al/Na-MM. The catalyst can be applied for degradation of sulfanilamide with H2O2 for at least three successive cycles without loss of activity. HPLC analyses pointed out that the main degradation intermediate products were sulfanilic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, p-benzoquinone and aliphatic carboxylic acids. PMID:25819990

  17. The molar volume of cubic garnets in the system SiO2-Al2O3-TiO2-Fe2O3-Cr2O3-FeO-MnO-MgO-CaO-Na2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamecher, E. A.; Antoshechkina, P. M.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Asimow, P. D.

    2012-12-01

    Garnet is a critical phase that controls major and trace element partitioning at pressures above ~3 GPa during partial melting of the Earth's upper mantle. A molar volume model is calibrated for cubic garnets (space group Ia3d) in the oxide system listed in the title. This model and a recent calibration of spinel molar volume (Hamecher et al., in press, CMP) will be used in calibration of thermodynamic activity-composition models of garnet and pyroxene solid solutions. The activity and molar volume models will be incorporated into the next generation MELTS (Ghiorso & Sack, 1995, CMP) model, xMELTS. A new garnet volume model calibrated with recent in situ high-P, T diffraction data is crucial for accurately modeling key mineralogical transitions in the mantle, e.g., the spinel-garnet transition and the mantle transition zone. Above 5 GPa a majorite component is an essential part of any thermodynamic model of mantle garnets, which to be useful must accurately predict garnet stability with respect to spinel, pyroxene, perovskites, and melt. Our model system contains nine independent end members: Ca3Al2Si3O12, Mg3Al2Si3O12, Fe2+3Al2Si3O12, Mg3Cr2Si3O12, Mg3Fe3+2Si3O12, Mn3Al2Si3O12, Na2(MgSi2)Si3O12, Mg3(TiMg)Si3O12, and cubic majorite component Mg3(MgSi)Si3O12. An inclusive set of end-member components is formed by linear combinations of these explicit end members. Approximately 950 published X-ray diffraction experiments performed on garnets at ambient and in situ high-P, T conditions are used to calibrate end-member equations of state and an excess volume model for this system. Optimal values of the bulk modulus and its pressure derivative are obtained by analyzing published compression and/or ultrasonic data for the end members for which such studies exist; for other end members, density functional theory results are used. For any cubic garnet in this chemical system, the model molar volume is obtained by adding excess volume terms to a linear combination of the

  18. Microstructure of the Al-La-Ni-Fe system

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil’ev, A. L.; Ivanova, A. G.; Bakhteeva, N. D.; Kolobylina, N. N.; Orekhov, A. S.; Presnyakov, M. Yu.; Todorova, E. V.

    2015-01-15

    The microstructure of alloys based on the Al-La-Ni-Fe system, which are characterized by a unique ability to form metal glasses and nanoscale composites in a wide range of compositions, has been investigated. Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 7}Fe{sub 4}La{sub 4} and Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 9}Fe{sub 2}La{sub 4} alloys have been analyzed by electron microscopy (including high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy), energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis, electron diffraction (ED), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is found that, along with fcc Al and Al{sub 4}La (Al{sub 11}La{sub 3}) particles, these alloys contain a ternary phase Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} (sp. gr. Pnma) isostructural to the Al{sub 3}Ni phase and a quaternary phase Al{sub 8}Fe{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}La isostructural to the Al{sub 8}Fe{sub 2}Eu phase (sp. gr. Pbam). The unit-cell parameters of the Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} and Al{sub 8}Fe{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}La compounds, determined by ED and refined by XRD, are a = 0.664(1) nm, b = 0.734(1) nm, and c = 0.490(1) nm for Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} and a = 1.258(3) nm, b = 1.448(3) nm, and c = 0.405(8) nm for Al{sub 8}Fe{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}La. In both cases Ni and Fe atoms are statistically arranged, and no ordering is found. Al{sub 8}Fe{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}La particles contain inclusions in the form of Al{sub 3}Fe δ layers.

  19. Chemical ordering and large tunnel magnetoresistance in Co2FeAl/MgAl2O4/Co2FeAl(001) junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheike, Thomas; Sukegawa, Hiroaki; Inomata, Koichiro; Ohkubo, Tadakatsu; Hono, Kazuhiro; Mitani, Seiji

    2016-05-01

    Epitaxial magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with a Co2FeAl/CoFe (0.5 nm)/MgAl2O4/Co2FeAl(001) structure were fabricated by magnetron sputtering. High-temperature in situ annealing led to a high degree of B2-order in the Co2FeAl layers and cation order of the MgAl2O4 barrier. Large tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) of up to 342% was obtained at room temperature (616% at 4 K), in contrast to the TMR ratio ( ≲ 160%) suppressed by the band-folding effect in Fe/cation-ordered MgAl2O4/Fe MTJs. The present study reveals that the high degree of B2-order and the resulting high spin polarization in the Co2FeAl electrodes enable us to bypass the band-folding problem in spinel barriers.

  20. Structure determination of Fe-Al-Ge alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargicevich, D.; Galván Josa, V. M.; Blanco, C.; Lambri, A.; Cuello, G. J.

    2015-11-01

    We studied the crystalline structure of Fe - 8at.%Al - 4at.%Ge alloy between 300 and 1300 K and its relation to the mechanical response by means of neutron diffraction and mechanical spectroscopy. At room temperature we observe a Fe3Al-type ordered structure with a deficiency of Al in the 8c sites. The Ge atoms are distributed in the 4a and Al atoms in 8c sites. At high temperature we observe an order-disorder transformation when the crystal structure becomes Fe-α type. This loss of order gives rise to the hysteresis behavior of damping between the heating and cooling runs.

  1. Phase Evolution and Ni-Fe Granular Growth of Saprolitic Laterite Ore-CaO Mixtures during Reductive Roasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jun; Li, Guanghui; Peng, Zhiwei; Rao, Mingjun; Zhang, Yuanbo; Jiang, Tao

    2016-10-01

    The correlations between phase evolution, fusion behavior, and Ni-Fe granules growth of laterite ore-CaO mixtures during reductive roasting have been investigated. The minimum melting point of 1220°C of the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system with 17-36 wt.% CaO is demonstrated via phase diagram analysis, and this point is decreased in the presence of FeO. This reveals that the fusion behavior in close association with the Fe-Ni granular growth can be regulated by altering the contents of CaO and FeO. Promoting the generation of diopside (CaMgSi2O6) may reduce the operating temperature from 1300-1350°C to 1150-1200°C, which ensures sufficient melting phase content. Moreover, reducing the CO partial fraction lowers the fusion temperature but hinders the growth of Ni-Fe grains. The average size of Ni-Fe granules in the reduced mixture with 17 wt.% CaO reaches nearly 20 μm at 1200°C for 1 h in a 100 vol.% CO atmosphere.

  2. Strength anomaly in B2 FeAl single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimi, K.; Hanada, S.; Yoo, M.H.; Matsumoto, N.

    1994-12-31

    Strength and deformation microstructure of B2 Fe-39 and 48%Al single crystals (composition given in atomic percent), which were fully annealed to remove frozen-in vacancies, have been investigated at temperatures between room temperature and 1073K. The hardness of as-homogenized Fe-48Al is higher than that of as-homogenized Fe-39Al while after additional annealing at 698K the hardness of Fe-48Al becomes lower than that of Fe-39Al. Fe-39Al single crystals slowly cooled after homogenizing at a high temperature were deformed in compression as a function of temperature and crystal orientation. A peak of yield strength appears around 0.5T{sub m} (T{sub m} = melting temperature). The orientation dependence of the critical resolved shear stress does not obey Schmid`s law even at room temperature and is quite different from that of b.c.c. metals and B2 intermetallics at low temperatures. At the peak temperature slip transition from <111>-type to <001>-type is found to occur macroscopically and microscopically, while it is observed in TEM that some of the [111] dislocations decompose into [101] and [010] on the (1096I) plane below the peak temperature. The physical sources for the positive temperature dependence of yield stress of B2 FeAl are discussed based on the obtained results.

  3. Development and quality assessments of commercial heat production of ATF FeCrAl tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2015-09-01

    Development and quality assessment of the 2nd generation ATF FeCrAl tube production with commercial manufacturers were conducted. The manufacturing partners include Sophisticated Alloys, Inc. (SAI), Butler, PA for FeCrAl alloy casting via vacuum induction melting, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for extrusion process to prepare the master bars/tubes to be tube-drawn, and Rhenium Alloys, Inc. (RAI), North Ridgeville, OH, for tube-drawing process. The masters bars have also been provided to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) who works with Century Tubes, Inc., (CTI), San Diego, CA, as parallel tube production effort under the current program.

  4. Fabric cutting application of FeAl-based alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Blue, C.A.; Sklad, S.P.; Deevi, S.C.; Shih, H.R.

    1998-11-01

    Four intermetallic-based alloys were evaluated for cutting blade applications. These alloys included Fe{sub 3}Al-based (FAS-II and FA-129), FeAl-based (PM-60), and Ni{sub 3}Al-based (IC-50). These alloys were of interest because of their much higher work-hardening rates than the conventionally used carbon and stainless steels. The FeAl-based PM-60 alloy was of further interest because of its hardening possibility through retention of vacancies. The vacancy retention treatment is much simpler than the heat treatments used for hardening of steel blades. Blades of four intermetallic alloys and commercially used M2 tool steel blades were evaluated under identical conditions to cut two-ply heavy paper. Comparative results under identical conditions revealed that the FeAl-based alloy PM-60 outperformed the other intermetallic alloys and was equal to or somewhat better than the commercially used M2 tool steel.

  5. Oxidation of Fe-Cr-Al and Fe-Cr-Al-Y Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabke, H. J.; Siegers, M.; Tolpygo, V. K.

    1995-03-01

    Single crystal samples of the alloy Fe-20%Cr-5%Al with and without Y-doping were used to study the "reactive element" (RE) effect, which causes improved oxidation behaviour and formation of a protective Al2O3 layer on this alloy. The oxidation was followed by AES at 10-7 mbar O2 up to about 1000 °C. Most observations were peculiar for this low pO2 environment, but yttrium clearly favors the formation of Al-oxide and stabilizes it also under these conditions, probably by favoring its nucleation. The oxides formed are surface compounds of about monolayer thickness, not clearly related to bulk oxides. Furthermore, the morphologies of oxide scales were investigated by SEM, after oxidation at 1000°C for 100 h at 133 mbar O2. On Fe-Cr-Al the scale is strongly convoluted and tends to spalling, whereas the presence of Y leads to flat scales which are well adherent. This difference is explained by a change in growth mechanism. The tendency for separation of oxide and metal was highest for the samples with low energy metal surface, i.e. (100) and (110), the scale was better adherent on the (111) oriented surface and on the polycrystalline specimen, since in the latter cases the overall energy for scale/metal separation is higher. All observations, from the low and from the high pO2 experiments, are discussed in relation to the approximately ten mechanisms proposed in the literature for explanation of the RE effects.

  6. Oxidation behavior of FeAl+Hf,Zr,B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Doychak, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of Fe-40Al-1Hf, Fe-40Al-1Hf-0.4B, and Fe-40Al-0.1Zr-0.4B (at. percent) alloys was characterized after 900, 1000, and 100 C exposures. Isothermal tests revealed parabolic kinetics after a period of transitional theta-alumina scale growth. The parabolic growth rates for the subsequent alpha-alumina scales were about five times higher than those for NiAl+0.1Zr alloys. The isothermally grown scales showed a propensity toward massive scale spallation due to both extensive rumpling from growth stresses and to an inner layer of HfO2. Cyclic oxidation for 200 1-hr cycles produced little degradation at 900 or 1000 C, but caused significant spallation at 1100 C in the form of small segments of the outer scale. The major difference in the cyclic oxidation of the three FeAl alloys was increased initial spallation for FeAl+Zr,B. Although these FeAl alloys showed many similarities to NiAl alloys, they were generally less oxidation resistant. It is believed that this resulted from nonoptimal levels of dopants and larger thermal expansion mismatch stresses.

  7. Thermal stability of Al-Cu-Fe icosahedral alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessière, M.; Quivy, A.; Lefebvre, S.; Devaud-Rzepski, J.; Calvayrac, Y.

    1991-12-01

    A stable ideally quasiperiodic phase exists in a small range of concentration, close to the composition Al{62}Cu{25.5}Fe{12.5}. Reducing the iron content, or replacing small amounts of copper by aluminium, lead to icosahedral alloys which exhibit around 650 ^{circ}C structural transformations of unclear nature: in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern, the peak profiles become purely Lorentzian (Al{62.3}Cu{25.3}Fe{12.4}) or diffuse “side-bands” appear in the tails of the Bragg peaks (Al{63}Cu{24.5}Fe{12.5}). In the last case long annealing treatments eventually transform the Bragg peaks into diffuse peaks located at positions clearly off the ideal icosahedral symmetry. Small deviations from this composition range lead to Bragg peaks with shoulders whatever the heat-treatment may be; perfect icosahedral order is never obtained for these compositions (Al{63,25}Cu{24,5}Fe{12,25}, Al{64}Cu{24}Fe{12}, Al{63}Cu{25}Fe{12}). Une phase stable idéalement quasipériodique existe dans un petit domaine de concentration, au voisinage de la composition Al{62}Cu{25,5}Fe{12,5}. La diminution de la teneur en fer, ou le remplacement de faibles quantités de cuivre par de l'aluminium, conduisent à des alliages icosaédriques qui subissent vers 650 ^{circ}C des transformations structurales dont la nature n'est pas clairement identifiée: dans le diagramme de diffraction des rayons X sur poudre, les profils de raies deviennent purement Lorentziens (Al{62,3}Cu{25,3}Fe{12,4}) ou bien des raies diffuses apparaissent dans le pied des pics de Bragg (Al{63}Cu{24,5}Fe{12,5}). Dans ce dernier cas un long traitement de recuit transforme finalement les pics de Bragg en des pics diffus localisés à des positions clairement en dehors de celles correspondant à la symétrie icosaédrique idéale. De faibles écarts à ce domaine de compositions conduisent à des diagrammes de rayons X où les pics de Bragg sont épaulés quel que soit le traitement thermique ; l'ordre icosaédrique parfait n

  8. Incommensurate magnetism in FeAs strips: neutron scattering from CaFe(4)As(3).

    PubMed

    Nambu, Yusuke; Zhao, Liang L; Morosan, Emilia; Kim, Kyoo; Kotliar, Gabriel; Zajdel, Pawel; Green, Mark A; Ratcliff, William; Rodriguez-Rivera, Jose A; Broholm, Collin

    2011-01-21

    Magnetism in the orthorhombic metal CaFe(4)As(3) was examined through neutron diffraction for powder and single crystalline samples. Incommensurate [q(m) ≈ (0.37-0.39) × b*] and predominantly longitudinally (|| b) modulated order develops through a 2nd order phase transition at TN = 89.63(6) K with a 3D Heisenberg-like critical exponent β = 0.365(6). A 1st order transition at T2 = 25.6(9)  K is associated with the development of a transverse component, locking q(m) to 0.375(2)b*, and increasing the moments from 2.1(1) to 2.2(3)  μ B for Fe2+ and from 1.3(3) to 2.4(4)  μB for Fe+. The ab initio Fermi surface is consistent with a nesting instability in cross-linked FeAs strips.

  9. Pressure Induced Superconductivity in CaFe2As2

    SciTech Connect

    Milton S. Torikachvili; Sergey L. Bud'ko; Ni Ni; Paul Canfield

    2008-08-01

    CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} has been found to be exceptionally sensitive to the application of hydrostatic pressure and can be tuned to reveal all the salient features associated with FeAs superconductivity without introducing any disorder. The ambient pressure, 170 K, structural/magnetic, first-order phase transition is suppressed to 128 K by 3.5 kbar. At 5.5 kbar a new transition is detected at 104 K, increasing to above 300 K by 19 kbar. A low temperature, superconducting dome (T{sub c} {approx} 12 K) is centered around 5 kbar, extending down to 2.3 kbar and up to 8.6 kbar. This superconducting phase appears to exist when the low pressure transition is suppressed sufficiently, but before the high pressure transition has reduced the resistivity too dramatically.

  10. Bulk modulus and specific heat of B-site doped (La{sub 0.3}Pr{sub 0.7}){sub 0.65}Ca{sub 0.35}Mn{sub 1−x}B{sub x}O{sub 3} (B=Fe, Cr, Ru, Al, Ga)

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Archana; Thakur, Rasna; Gaur, N. K.

    2014-04-24

    Specific heat (C{sub p}) thermal expansion (α) and Bulk modulus (B{sub T}) of lightly doped Rare Earth manganites (La{sub 0.3}Pr{sub 0.7}){sub 0.65}Ca{sub 0.35}Mn{sub 1−x}B{sub x}O{sub 3} (B{sup 3+} = Fe{sup 3+},Cr{sup 3+},Ga{sup 3+},Al{sup 3+},Ru4+); (0.3Ca{sub 0.35}Mn{sub 0.97}Fe{sub 0.03}O{sub 3} as a function of temperature (10K≤T≤ 200K) is found to be in agreement with the published data. The trend of variation of Debye temperature with B-site cationic radius is predicted probably for the first time for the B-site doped rare earth manganites.

  11. {sup 60}Fe AND {sup 26}Al IN CHONDRULES FROM UNEQUILIBRATED CHONDRITES: IMPLICATIONS FOR EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, R. K.; Goswami, J. N.; Rudraswami, N. G.; Tachibana, S.; Huss, G. R.

    2010-05-10

    The presence of about a dozen short-lived nuclides in the early solar system, including {sup 60}Fe and {sup 26}Al, has been established from isotopic studies of meteorite samples. An accurate estimation of solar system initial abundance of {sup 60}Fe, a distinct product of stellar nucleosynthesis, is important to infer the stellar source of this nuclide. Previous studies in this regard suffered from the lack of exact knowledge of the time of formation of the analyzed meteorite samples. We present here results obtained from the first combined study of {sup 60}Fe and {sup 26}Al records in early solar system objects to remove this ambiguity. Chondrules from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites belonging to low petrologic grades were analyzed for their Fe-Ni and Al-Mg isotope systematics. The Al-Mg isotope data provide the time of formation of the analyzed chondrules relative to the first solar system solids, the Ca-Al-rich inclusions. The inferred initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe values of four chondrules, combined with their time of formation based on Al-Mg isotope data, yielded a weighted mean value of (6.3 {+-} 2) x 10{sup -7} for solar system initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe. This argues for a high-mass supernova as the source of {sup 60}Fe along with {sup 26}Al and several other short-lived nuclides present in the early solar system.

  12. Stability relations in the system CaSiO3-CaMnSi2O6-CaFeSi2O6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrecht, Jürgen

    1980-10-01

    In the system CaSiO3-CaMnSi2O6-CaFeSi2O6 extensive miscibility gaps between pyroxenoids and clinopyroxenes are observed. The miscibility gap between Mn-bustamite and Mn-wollastonite has been determined experimentally by a hydrothermal technique between 400° and 1200° C at P f= 2 kbar. Further experiments have been performed at P f=9 kbar, which revealed a shifting of the miscibility gap towards more Ca-rich compositions. The bustamite phase is stabilized by high pressures and the wollastonite structure is the stable phase at high temperatures. Similar phase relations as along the join CaSiO3-CaMnSi2O6 exist along the join CaSiO3-CaFeSi2O6 but with a more extensive two-phase field of bustamite-clinopyroxene. Possible phase relations along the joins CaSiO3-CaMnSi2O6, CaSiO3-CaFeSi2O6 and CaFeSi2O6-CaMnSi2O6 are given in temperature-composition diagrams for low pressures, based on natural and experimental data.

  13. Alloy development and processing of FeAl: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P.J.; Goodwin, G.M.; Alexander, D.J.; Viswanathan, S.

    1997-03-01

    In the last few years, considerable progress has been made in developing B2-phase FeAl alloys with improved weldability, room-temperature ductility, and high-temperature strength. Controlling the processing-induced microstructure is also important, particularly for minimizing trade-offs in various properties. FeAl alloys have outstanding resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, and corrosion in various kinds of molten salts due to formation of protective Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scales. Recent work shows that FeAl alloys are carburization-resistant as well. Alloys with 36 to 40 at. % Al have the best combination of corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. Minor alloying additions of Mo, Zr, and C, together with microalloying additions of B, produce the best combination of weldability and mechanical behavior. Cast FeAl alloys, with 200 to 400 {mu}m grain size and finely dispersed ZrC, have 2 to 5% tensile ductility in air at room-temperature, and a yield strength > 400 MPa up to about 700 to 750{degrees}C. Extruded ingot metallurgy (I/M) and powder metallurgy (P/M) materials with refined grain sizes ranging from 2 to 50 {mu}m, can have 10 to 15% ductility in air and be much stronger, and can even be quite tough, with Charpy impact energies ranging from 25 to 105 J at room-temperature. This paper highlights progress made in refining the alloy composition and exploring processing effects on FeAl for monolithic applications. It also includes recent progress on developing FeAl weld-overlay technology, and new results on welding of FeAl alloys. It summarizes some of the current industrial testing and interest for applications.

  14. Post-magmatic solid solutions of CaCeAl2(Fe3+ 2/3□1/3)[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH), allanite-(Ce) and REE-bearing epidote in miarolitic pegmatites of Permian Baveno granite (Verbania, central-southern alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guastoni, Alessandro; Nestola, Fabrizio; Schiazza, Mariangela

    2016-09-01

    CaCeAl2(Fe3+ 2/3□1/3)[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH), allanite-(Ce) and rare earth element (REE)-bearing epidote occur as globular aggregates and platy prismatic crystals in miarolitic cavities in a niobium, yttrium, fluorine (NYF) granitic pegmatite at Baveno, Verbania, Southern Alps, Italy. These samples were investigated by means of an electron probe micro-analyser (EPMA) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Our EPMA results show that the globular aggregates have the highest REE content in the core portion and decreases to REE-bearing epidote towards the rim whereas the prismatic crystals are characterized by marked oscillatory zoning that have the highest REE contents at the rim of the crystal. The unit-cell parameters of "allanites" have an intermediate unit-cell between CaCeAl2(Fe3+ 2/3□1/3)[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH), allanite-(Ce) and REE-free epidote, because reflect the strong chemical heterogeneity of the samples which form complete solid solutions. Hydrothermal fluids control the activity and precipitation of incompatible elements like high field strength elements (HFSE), Sc and REE by hydrous F-rich fluids below the critical temperature which allow to deposit accessory minerals in the cavities with decreasing temperature. The source of REE and Y are the sheet and REE-silicates like siderophyllite-annite, and gadolinite-(Y) which underwent partial to complete decomposition by the activity of aggressive F-rich hydrothermal fluids.

  15. Oxidation Resistant Ti-Al-Fe Diffusion Barrier for FeCrAlY Coatings on Titanium Aluminides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Michael P. (Inventor); Smialke, James L. (Inventor); Brindley, William J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A diffusion barrier to help protect titanium aluminide alloys, including the coated alloys of the TiAl gamma + Ti3Al (alpha2) class, from oxidative attack and interstitial embrittlement at temperatures up to at least 1000 C is disclosed. The coating may comprise FeCrAlX alloys. The diffusion barrier comprises titanium, aluminum, and iron in the following approximate atomic percent: Ti-(50-55)Al-(9-20)Fe. This alloy is also suitable as an oxidative or structural coating for such substrates.

  16. Influence of FeCrAl Content on Microstructure and Bonding Strength of Plasma-Sprayed FeCrAl/Al2O3 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Liang; Luo, Fa; Zhou, Wancheng; Zhu, Dongmei

    2016-02-01

    Low-power plasma-sprayed FeCrAl/Al2O3 composite coatings with 1.5 mm thickness have been fabricated for radar absorption applications. The effects of FeCrAl content on the coating properties were studied. The FeCrAl presents in the form of a few thin lamellae and numerous particles, demonstrating relatively even distribution in all the coatings. Results show that the micro-hardness and porosity decrease with the increase in FeCrAl content. With FeCrAl content increasing from 28 to 47 wt.%, the bonding strength of the coatings with 1.5 mm thickness increases from 10.5 to 27 MPa, and the failure modes are composed of cohesive and adhesive failure, which are ascribed to the coating microstructure and the residual stress, respectively.

  17. Incorporation of Ba in Al and Fe pollucite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Eric R.; Gregg, Daniel J.; Griffiths, Grant J.; Gaugliardo, Paul R.; Grant, Charmaine

    2016-09-01

    Ba, the transmutation product of radioactive Cs, can be incorporated at levels of up to ∼0.07 formula units in Cs(1-2x)BaxAlSi2O6 aluminium pollucite formed by sol-gel methods and sintering at 1400 °C, with more Ba forming BaAl2Si2O8 phases. The effect of Ba substitution in pollucite-structured CsFeSi2O6 was also studied and no evidence of Ba substitution in the pollucite structure via cation vacancies or Fe2+ formation was obtained. The Ba entered a Fe-silicate glass structure. Charge compensation was also attempted with a Cs+ + Fe3+ ↔ Ba2+ + Ni2+ scheme but again the Ba formed a glass and NiO was evident. PCT leaching data showed CsFeSi2O6 to be very leach resistant.

  18. Constraints on Al, Fe and Li Abundances in Mercury's Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doressoundiram, Alain; Leblanc, F.

    2009-09-01

    Before the arrival of Messenger and Bepi Colombo at Mercury, the only source of information available on Mercury's environment is observations done from ground based observatories. We performed high spectral resolution observations of the Mercury's exosphere on the 30th and 31st October 2005 using the ESO-NTT telescope, La Silla, Chile. The large spectral range, 385-855 nm of the spectrograph EMMI provides a unique opportunity to search for non-identified species in the Hermian's environment. In this paper, we report a tentative detection of atomic aluminium in the exosphere of Mercury. This detection should be confirmed by further observations and can be used as an upper limit for this element in Mercury's exosphere. We also estimate upper limit for the column densities of Fe and Si exospheric atoms. Detection of Al, a refractory element, if confirmed, as well as its high exospheric abundance (between 2 to 18) with respect to Ca would suggest either an unexpected surface composition or a relation between exosphere and surface composition that is not well understood.

  19. Structural Origin of the Anomalous Temperature Dependence of the Local Magnetic Moments in the CaFe2As2 Family of Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortenzi, L.; Gretarsson, H.; Kasahara, S.; Matsuda, Y.; Shibauchi, T.; Finkelstein, K. D.; Wu, W.; Julian, S. R.; Kim, Young-June; Mazin, I. I.; Boeri, L.

    2015-01-01

    We report a combination of Fe K β x-ray emission spectroscopy and density functional reduced Stoner theory calculations to investigate the correlation between structural and magnetic degrees of freedom in CaFe2(As1-xPx) 2 . The puzzling temperature behavior of the local moment found in rare earth-doped CaFe2As2 [H. Gretarsson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 047003 (2013)] is also observed in CaFe2(As1-xPx) 2 . We explain this phenomenon based on first-principles calculations with scaled magnetic interaction. One scaling parameter is sufficient to describe quantitatively the magnetic moments in both CaFe2(As1-xPx) 2 (x =0.055 ) and Ca0.78La0.22Fe2As2 at all temperatures. The anomalous growth of the local moments with increasing temperature can be understood from the observed large thermal expansion of the c -axis lattice parameter combined with strong magnetoelastic coupling. These effects originate from the strong tendency to form As-As dimers across the Ca layer in the CaFe2As2 family of materials. Our results emphasize the dual local-itinerant character of magnetism in Fe pnictides.

  20. Structural origin of the anomalous temperature dependence of the local magnetic moments in the CaFe2As2 family of materials.

    PubMed

    Ortenzi, L; Gretarsson, H; Kasahara, S; Matsuda, Y; Shibauchi, T; Finkelstein, K D; Wu, W; Julian, S R; Kim, Young-June; Mazin, I I; Boeri, L

    2015-01-30

    We report a combination of Fe Kβ x-ray emission spectroscopy and density functional reduced Stoner theory calculations to investigate the correlation between structural and magnetic degrees of freedom in CaFe2(As1-xPx)2. The puzzling temperature behavior of the local moment found in rare earth-doped CaFe2As2 [H. Gretarsson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 047003 (2013)] is also observed in CaFe2(As1-xPx)2. We explain this phenomenon based on first-principles calculations with scaled magnetic interaction. One scaling parameter is sufficient to describe quantitatively the magnetic moments in both CaFe2(As1-xPx)2 (x=0.055) and Ca0.78La0.22Fe2As2 at all temperatures. The anomalous growth of the local moments with increasing temperature can be understood from the observed large thermal expansion of the c-axis lattice parameter combined with strong magnetoelastic coupling. These effects originate from the strong tendency to form As-As dimers across the Ca layer in the CaFe2As2 family of materials. Our results emphasize the dual local-itinerant character of magnetism in Fe pnictides. PMID:25679903

  1. Crystal structure of the NaCa(Fe{sup 2+}, Al, Mn){sub 5}[Si{sub 8}O{sub 19}(OH)](OH){sub 7} {center_dot} 5H{sub 2}O mineral: A new representative of the palygorskite group

    SciTech Connect

    Rastsvetaeva, R. K. Aksenov, S. M.; Verin, I. A.

    2012-01-15

    A specimen of a new representative of the palygorskite-sepiolite family from Aris phonolite (Namibia) is studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The parameters of the triclinic (pseudomonoclinic) unit cell are as follows: a = 5.2527(2) Angstrom-Sign , b = 17.901(1) Angstrom-Sign , c = 13.727(1) Angstrom-Sign , {alpha} = 90.018(3) Degree-Sign , {beta} = 97.278(4) Degree-Sign , and {gamma} = 89.952(3) Degree-Sign . The structure is solved by the direct methods in space group P1-bar and refined to R = 5.5% for 4168 |F| > 7{sigma}(F) with consideration for twinning by the plane perpendicular to y (the ratio of the twin components is 0.52: 0.48). The crystal chemical formula (Z = 1) is (Na{sub 1.6}K{sub 0.2}Ca{sub 0.2})[Ca{sub 2}(Fe{sub 3.6}{sup 2+}Al{sub 1.6}Mn{sub 0.8})(OH){sub 9}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}][(Fe{sub 3.9}{sup 2+}Ti{sub 0.1})(OH){sub 5} (H{sub 2}O){sub 2}][Si{sub 16}O{sub 38}(OH){sub 2}] {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O, where the compositions of two ribbons of octahedra and a layer of Si tetrahedra are enclosed in brackets. A number of specific chemical, symmetrical, and structural features distinguish this mineral from other minerals of this family, in particular, from tuperssuatsiaite and kalifersite, which are iron-containing representatives with close unit cell parameters.

  2. Magnetism and electronic structures of novel layered CaFeAs2 and Ca0.75(Pr/La)0.25FeAs2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Na; Yu, Xiang-Long; Liu, Da-Yong; Zou, Liang-Jian

    2015-05-01

    The magnetic and electronic properties of the parent material CaFeAs2 of new superconductors are investigated using first-principles calculations. We predict that the ground state of CaFeAs2 is a spin-density-wave (SDW)-type striped antiferromagnet driven by Fermi surface nesting. The magnetic moment around each Fe atom is about 2.1 μB. We also present electronic and magnetic structures of electron-doped phase Ca0.75(Pr/La)0.25FeAs2, the SDW order was suppressed by La/Pr substitution. The As in arsenic layers is negative monovalent and acts as blocking layers enhancing two-dimensional character by increasing the spacing distance between the FeAs layers. This favors strong antiferromagnetic fluctuations mediated pairing, implying higher Tc in Ca0.75(Pr/La)0.25FeAs2 than Ca0.75(Pr/La)0.25Fe2As2.

  3. Host Atom Diffusion in Ternary Fe-Cr-Al Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrberg, Diana; Spitzer, Karl-Heinz; Dörrer, Lars; Kulińska, Anna J.; Borchardt, Günter; Fraczkiewicz, Anna; Markus, Torsten; Jacobs, Michael H. G.; Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    In the Fe-rich corner of the Fe-Cr-Al ternary phase diagram, both interdiffusion experiments [1048 K to 1573 K (775 °C to 1300 °C)] and 58Fe tracer diffusion experiments [873 K to 1123 K (600 °C to 850 °C)] were performed along the Fe50Cr50-Fe50Al50 section. For the evaluation of the interdiffusion data, a theoretical model was used which directly yields the individual self-diffusion coefficients of the three constituents and the shift of the original interface of the diffusion couple through inverse modeling. The driving chemical potential gradients were derived using a phenomenological Gibbs energy function which was based on thoroughly assessed thermodynamic data. From the comparison of the individual self-diffusivities of Fe as obtained from interdiffusion profiles and independent 58Fe tracer diffusivities, the influence of the B2-A2 order-disorder transition becomes obvious, resulting in a slightly higher activation enthalpy for the bcc-B2 phase and a significantly lower activation entropy for this phase.

  4. Weldability of Fe3Al based iron aluminide alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharia, T.; Maziasz, P. J.; David, S. A.; McKamey, C. G.

    An investigation was carried out to determine the weldability of Fe3Al type alloys. Sigmajig tests of a commercial heat of FA-129 alloy indicate that hot-cracking may not be a problem for this alloy. Additionally, several new Fe3Al based iron aluminides were evaluated for weldability. The preliminary results are encouraging and suggest that some of these alloys have comparable or better weldability than FA-129 based iron-aluminides. For the first time, successful welds, without hot or cold cracking, were made on 13 mm (0.5 in.) thick plates from a commercial heat of FA-129 using the proper choice of welding conditions and parameters.

  5. Aluminum and silicon diffusion in Fe-Cr-Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Heesemann, A.; Schmidtke, E.; Faupel, F.; Kolb-Telieps, A.; Kloewer, J.

    1999-02-05

    Foils of Fe-Cr-Al alloys containing about 20 wt% Cr, 5 wt% Al and additions of Si and reactive elements like Ce, La, Y, Hf, Zr or Ti are widely used as a substrate in metal-supported automotive catalytic converters. In the present paper the authors report on measurements of Al and Si diffusion in Fe-Cr-Al alloys. Due to a lack of suitable radiotracers concentration profiles were obtained by means of electron microprobe analysis. In connection with data evaluation they present numerical calculations assessing the accuracy of the Matano analysis and the thin-film solution of Fick`s 2nd law as function of the thickness of the initial diffusant layer. The results are of general interest, particularly for the evaluation of diffusion measurements involving industrial specimens with given geometry.

  6. FeAl-TiC and FeAl-WC composites - melt infiltration processing, microstructure and mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, R.; Schneibel, J.H.

    1997-04-01

    TiC-based and WC-based cermets were processed with iron aluminide, an intermetallic, as a binder by pressureless melt infiltration to near full density (> 97 % theoretical density). Phase equilibria calculations in the quaternary Fe-Al-Ti-C and Fe-Al-W-C systems at 145{degrees}C were performed to determine the solubility of the carbide phases in liquid iron aluminide. This was done by using Thermocalc{trademark} and the results show that molten Fe-40 at.% Al in equilibrium with Ti{sub 0.512}C{sub 0.488} and graphite, dissolves 4.9 at% carbon and 64 atomic ppm titanium. In the Fe-Al-W-C system, liquid Fe-40 at.% Al in equilibrium with graphite dissolves about 5 at.% carbon and 1 at.% tungsten. Due to the low values for the solubility of the carbide phases in liquid iron aluminide, liquid phase sintering of mixed powders does not yield a dense, homogeneous microstructure for carbide volume fractions greater than 0.70. Melt infiltration of molten FeAl into TiC and WC preforms serves as a successful approach to process cermets with carbide contents ranging from 70 to 90 vol. %, to greater than 97% of theoretical density. Also, the microstructures of cermets prepared by melt infiltration were very homogeneous. Typical properties such as hardness, bend strength and fracture toughness are reported. SEM observations of fracture surfaces suggest the improved fracture toughness to result from the ductility of the intermetallic phase. Preliminary experiments for the evaluation of the oxidation resistance of iron aluminide bonded cermets indicate that they are more resistant than WC-Co cermets.

  7. Hibonite, Ca2/Al, Ti/24O38, from the Leoville and Allende chondritic meteorites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, K.; Fuchs, L. H.

    1971-01-01

    Hibonite was discovered in light-colored, Ca-Al-Ti-rich and Si-Fe-poor, achondritic inclusions of the Leoville and Allende HL-group chondrites. Two varieties of hibonite occur: one emits a bright red-orange luminescence under electron bombardment and has high amounts of Al2O3 (87.7; 87.9) and low amounts of MgO (0.65; 0.8) and TiO2 (0.68; 0.8). The other emits a bright blue luminescence and is low in Al2O3 (78.7; 79.2) and high in MgO (3.3; 3.7) and TiO2 (6.5; 7.9) (in wt. %). The oxide CaO is about the same in both varieties. It is suggested that the change in the color of the visible luminescence results from changes in composition. The origin of hibonite which occurs in complex mineral assemblages together with anorthite, gelhenite, wollastonite, aluminous diopside, andradite, Ca-pyroxene, perovskite, spinel, taenite, chromite, and pentlandite, and in close proximity to nodules containing calcite, whewellite, forsterite and many of the aforementioned phases, is discussed. The proposition that hibonite and associated phases originated by contact metamorphism and metasomatism of calcite-dolomite bearing assemblages cannot, at this time, be completely ruled out.

  8. LiCaAl/sub 6/:Cr/sup 3+/

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, S.A.; Chase, L.L.; Newkirk, H.W.; Smith, L.K.; Krupke, W.F. )

    1988-11-01

    The authors report the discovery of a new laser, LiCaAIF/sub 6/:Cr/sup 3/ (Cr/sup 3+/ :LiCAF). The intrinsic (extrapolated maximum) slope efficiency was found to be 67 percent. For comparison, they also measured the intrinsic slope efficiencies of BeAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/:Cr/sup 3+/ (alexandrite), Na/sub 3/Ga/sub 2/Li/sub 3/F/sub 12/:Cr/sup 3+/, and ScBO/sub 3/:Cr/sup 3+/, and obtained values of 65,28, and 26 percent, respectively. The tuning range of LiCaAIF/sub 6/:Cr/sup 3+/ was determined to be at least 720-840 nm. The conventional spectroscopic properties, such as the absorption, emission, and emission lifetimes as a function of temperature, are reported as well.

  9. First-principles study of Fe and FeAl defects in SiGe alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, A.; Coutinho, J.; Barroso, M.; Jones, R.; Goss, J.; Briddon, P. R.

    2008-09-15

    First-principles, spin-polarized local-density-functional calculations are used to model interstitial iron (Fe{sub i}) and its complexes with substitutional aluminum in dilute Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} alloys (x<8%). We considered both the effect of direct bonding between Fe{sub i} or Fe{sub i}Al with Ge atoms in the x{yields}0 limit and the evolution of the defect properties with the alloy composition. It is found that Fe{sub i} prefers Si-rich regions, but when placed near a Ge atom, its (0/+) level is shifted toward the conduction band. However, the ionization energy of Fe{sup (+/+2)}-Al{sup -} is only slightly changed by the presence of neighboring Ge atoms in the proximity. It is also found that indirect alloying effects shift the donor levels of Fe{sub i} and FeAl at a fast rate toward the valence band. The acceptor levels, however, remain approximately at the same distance from E{sub v}.

  10. Phosphorus Equilibrium Between Liquid Iron and CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-FeO-P2O5 Slag Part 1: Literature Review, Methodology, and BOF Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assis, Andre N.; Tayeb, Mohammed A.; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Fruehan, Richard J.

    2015-10-01

    Although the phosphorus reaction in steelmaking has been extensively studied, it continues to be a relevant topic as low phosphorus iron sources become less available and more expensive, necessitating the need for more accurate predictions of the partitioning of phosphorous as function of slag composition and temperature. The current study revisits some of the relevant literature on the topic and details the methodology and experimental setup used in recent studies on phosphorus equilibrium between liquid iron and slags. New data for BOF-type slags are presented, where equilibrium was approached from both metal and slag sides i.e., phosphorus was transferred from metal to slag and vice versa. It was found that slags with basicities higher than 2.5 and FeO contents around 20 to 25 wt pct can promote extensive dephosphorization, and high L P, ((pct P)/[pct P]), values were observed i.e., greater than 500.

  11. Chemical zoning and diffusion of Ca, Al, Mn, and Cr in olivine of springwater pallasite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Y.; Steele, Ian M.

    1993-01-01

    The pallasites, consisting mainly of Fe-Ni metal and olivine, are thought to represent the interior of a planetary body which slowly cooled from high temperature. Although the olivines are nearly homogeneous, ion microprobe studies revealed variations of Ca, Ti, Co, Cr, and Ni near grain edges. These variations were thought to represent diffusion in response to falling temperature of the parent body. Pallasite cooling rates have been estimated based on kamacite taenite textures but results differ by x100. In principle elemental profiles in olivine can allow estimates of cooling rate if diffusion coefficients are known; in addition, given a cooling rate, diffusion coefficients could be derived. Data are presented which show that apparent diffusion profiles can be measured for Al, Ca, Cr, and Mn which qualitatively agree with expected diffusion rates and have the potential of providing independent estimates of pallasite cooling rates.

  12. Processing and properties of FeAl-bonded composites

    SciTech Connect

    Schneibel, J.H.; Subramanian, R.; Alexander, K.B.; Becher, P.F.

    1996-12-31

    Iron aluminides are thermodynamically compatible with a wide range of ceramics such as carbides, borides, oxides, and nitrides, which makes them suitable as the matrix in composites or cermets containing fine ceramic particulates. For ceramic contents varying from 30 to 60 vol.%, composites of Fe-40 at. % Al with WC, TiC, TiB{sub 2}, and ZrB{sub 2} were fabricated by conventional liquid phase sintering of powder mixtures. For ceramic contents from 70 to 85 vol.%, pressureless melt infiltration was found to be a more suitable processing technique. In FeAl-60 vol.% WC, flexure strengths of up to 1.8 GPa were obtained, even though processing defects consisting of small oxide clusters were present. Room temperature fracture toughnesses were determined by flexure testing of chevron-notched specimens. FeAl/WC and FeAl/TiC composites containing 60 vol.% carbide particles exhibited K{sub Q} values around 20 MPa m{sup 1/2}. Slow crack growth measurements carried out in water and in dry oxygen suggest a relatively small influence of water-vapor embrittlement. It appears therefore that the mechanical properties of iron aluminides in the form of fine ligaments are quite different from their bulk properties. Measurements of the oxidation resistance, dry wear resistance, and thermal expansion of iron aluminide composites suggest many potential applications for these new materials.

  13. Carbon Nanostructures Grown on Fe-Cr-Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čaplovičová, Mária; Čaplovič, Ľubomír; Búc, Dalibor; Vinduška, Peter; Janík, Ján

    2010-11-01

    The morphology and nanostructure of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), synthesized directly on Fe-Cr-Al-based alloy substrate using an alcohol catalytic chemical vapour deposition method (ACCVD), were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The grown CNTs were entangled with chain-like, bamboo-like, and necklace-like morphologies. The CNT morphology was affected by the elemental composition of catalysts and local instability of deposition process. Straight and bended CNTs with bamboo-like nanostructure grew mainly on γ-Fe and Fe3C particles. The synthesis of necklace-like nanostructures was influenced by silicon oxide, and growth of chain-like nanostructures was supported by a catalysts consisting of Fe, Si, oxygen and trace of Cr. Most of nanotubes grew according to base growth mechanism.

  14. Development of ODS-Fe{sub 3}Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, I.G.; Pint, B.A.; Tortorelli, P.F.; McKamey, C.G.

    1997-12-01

    The overall goal of this program is to develop an oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) version of Fe{sub 3}Al that has sufficient creep strength and resistance to oxidation at temperatures in the range 1000 to 1200 C to be suitable for application as heat exchanger tubing in advanced power generation cycles. The main areas being addressed are: (a) alloy processing to achieve the desired alloy grain size and shape, and (b) optimization of the oxidation behavior to provide increased service life compared to semi-commercial ODS-FeCrAl alloys intended for the same applications. The recent studies have focused on mechanically-alloyed powder from a commercial alloy vendor. These starting alloy powders were very clean in terms of oxygen content compared to ORNL-produced powders, but contained similar levels of carbon picked up during the milling process. The specific environment used in milling the powder appears to exert a considerable influence on the post-consolidation recrystallization behavior of the alloy. A milling environment which produced powder particles having a high surface carbon content resulted in a consolidated alloy which readily recrystallized, whereas powder with a low surface carbon level after milling resulted in no recrystallization even at 1380 C. A feature of these alloys was the appearance of voids or porosity after the recrystallization anneal, as had been found with ORNL-produced alloys. Adjustment of the recrystallization parameters did not reveal any range of conditions where recrystallization could be accomplished without the formation of voids. Initial creep tests of specimens of the recrystallized alloys indicated a significant increase in creep strength compared to cast or wrought Fe{sub 3}Al, but the specimens failed prematurely by a mechanism that involved brittle fracture of one of the two grains in the test cross section, followed by ductile fracture of the remaining grain. The reasons for this behavior are not yet understood. The

  15. Effect of reaction time and (Ca+Mg)/Al molar ratios on crystallinity of Ca-Mg-Al layered double Hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heraldy, E.; Nugrahaningtyas, K. D.; Sanjaya, F. B.; Darojat, A. A.; Handayani, D. S.; Hidayat, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Ca-Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxides (Ca-Mg-Al-LDH) compounds were successfully synthesized from brine water and AlCl3.6H2O as the starting materials by coprecipitation method. The product result was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The effects of the reaction time and the molar ratios of the raw material on the crystallinity of Ca-Mg-Al-LDH were examining. Results show that increasing reaction time (30; 60 and 90 min.) could improve the crystallinity and monodispersity of layered double hydroxide compounds particles. The well-defined Ca-Mg- Al-LDH could be prepared with (Ca+Mg)/Al molar ratios 0.5.

  16. PEG/CaFe2O4 nanocomposite: Structural, morphological, magnetic and thermal analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Lavanya; Verma, Narendra K.

    2013-10-01

    The coating of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) on calcium ferrite (CaFe2O4) nanoparticles has been reported in the present study. The X-ray diffraction pattern revealed the formation of orthorhombic structure of bare CaFe2O4 nanoparticles, which was also retained after the PEG coating, along with additional characteristic peaks of PEG at 19° and 23°. The rings of CaFe2O4 nanoparticles were identified by the selected area electron diffraction pattern. The characteristic bands of PEG as observed in its Fourier transform infrared spectrum were also present in PEG coated CaFe2O4 nanoparticles, hence confirming its presence. In the thermal gravimetric studies, the complete thermal decomposition of PEG occurred in a one step process, but in case of PEG coated CaFe2O4 nanoparticles, the decomposition took place at a higher temperature owing to the formation of covalent bonds of PEG with CaFe2O4 nanoparticles. The presence of PEG on CaFe2O4 nanoparticles, spherical formation of PEG coated CaFe2O4 nanoparticles and reduced agglomeration in the CaFe2O4 nanoparticles were revealed by high resolution transmission electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope studies, respectively. In vibrating sample magnetometer analysis, both bare as well as coated CaFe2O4 nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic behavior. However, a drop in the magnetic saturation value was observed from 36.76 emu/g for CaFe2O4 nanoparticles to 6.74 emu/g for PEG coated CaFe2O4 nanoparticles, due to the formation of magnetically dead layer of PEG. In ZFC and FC analyses, superparamagnetic behavior with blocking temperature for bare and coated nanoparticles has been observed at ∼40 K and ∼60 K, respectively. The increase in the blocking temperature is attributed to the increase in the particle size after PEG coating.

  17. Development of Fe-Mn-Al-X-C alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuon, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    Development of a low cost Cr-free, iron-base alloy for aerospace applications involves both element substitution and enhancement of microstructural strengthening. When Mn is substituted for Ni and Al or Si is substituted for Cr, large changes occur in the mechanical and thermal stability of austenite in FeMnAlC alloys. The in situ strength of MC or M2C (M = Ti, V, Hf, Ta, or Mo) in FeMnAlC alloys was determined. The high temperature tensile strength depends more on the distribution of carbides than the carbide composition. Precipitation of a high volume percent-ordered phase was achieved in Fe2OMnlONi6Al6Ti (lC) alloys. As case, these alloys have a homogeneous austenitic structure. After solutioning at 1100 C for 5 hr followed by aging at 600 C for 16 hr, gamma prime or a perovskite carbide is precipitated. Overaging occurs at 900 C where eta is precipitated.

  18. Phonons and stability of infinite-layer iron oxides SrFeO2 and CaFeO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, M. K.; Mittal, R.; Chaplot, S. L.; Tassel, Cédric; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Tomiyasu, K.; Taylor, Jon

    2016-09-01

    We present detailed ab-initio lattice dynamical analysis of the Fe-O infinite-layer compounds CaFeO2 and SrFeO2 in various magnetic configurations. These indicate strong spin-phonon coupling in SrFeO2 in contrast to that in case of CaFeO2. From our ab-initio calculations in SrFeO2 as a function of volume, we suggest that the distortion in SrFeO2 above 300 K is similar to that in CaFeO2 at ambient conditions. The distortion of the planer structure of CaFeO2 involves doubling of the planer unit cell that may be usually expected to be due to a soft phonon mode at the M-point (1/2 1/2 0). However, our ab-initio calculations show quite unusually that all the M-point (1/2 1/2 0) phonons are stable, but two stable M3+ and M2- modes anharmonically couple with an unstable Bu mode at the zone center and lead to the cell doubling and the distorted structure. Magnetic exchange interactions in both the compounds have been computed on the basis of the ideal planar structure (P4/mmm space group) and with increasing amplitude of the Bu phonon mode. These reveal that the magnetic exchange interactions reduce significantly with increasing distortion. We have extended the ab-initio phonon calculation to high pressures, which reveal that, above 20 GPa of pressure, the undistorted planer CaFeO2 becomes dynamically stable. We also report computed phonon spectra in SrFeO3 that has a cubic structure, which is useful to understand the role of the difference in geometry of oxygen atoms around the Fe atom with respect to planer SrFeO2. Finally, powder neutron inelastic scattering experiments on SrFeO2 have also been performed at temperatures from 5 K to 353 K in the antiferromagnetic phase. The 5-K data are compared to the ab-initio calculations.

  19. Hole doping by pressure on the 1111 pnictides CaFeAsF and SrFeAsF.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Daniele C; Garbarino, Gastón; Weht, Ruben; Sow, Amadou; Zhu, Xiyu; Han, Fei; Cheng, Peng; Ju, Jing; Wen, Hai Hu; Núñez-Regueiro, Manuel

    2014-04-16

    We determine the pressure phase diagram of the 1111 compounds CaFeAsF and SrFeAsF, up to 20 GPa and down to 4 K by electrical resistivity measurements and the change of structure up to 40 GPa at room temperature. The antiferromagnetic transition temperature, as determined by the derivative peak, shows a minimum at ~5 GPa (10 GPa) for the Ca (Sr) compound. For CaFeAsF, superconductivity appears at this minimum, coincident with the development of a previously reported monoclinic phase. For SrFeAsF, where the orthorhombic and the monoclinic phase were reported to coexist, superconductivity exists above P≥1 GPa. Both phase diagrams can be scaled by a shift of ~10 GPa pressure at which the volume of SrFeAsF and that of CaFeAsF at ambient pressure coincide. The difference of our phase diagram with that of electron-doped 1111 samples is accounted for by hole doping under pressure, which we verified through electron band structure calculations. PMID:24675791

  20. Mechanically - induced disorder in CaFe2As2: a 57Fe Mössbauer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaoming; Ran, Sheng; Canfield, Paul C.; Bud'Ko, Sergey L.

    57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to study an extremely pressure and strain sensitive compound, CaFe2As2, with different degrees of strain introduced by grinding and annealing. At the base temperature, in the antiferromagnetic/orthorhombic phase, compared to a sharp sextet Mössbauer spectrum of single crystal CaFe2As2, which is taken as an un-strained sample, an obviously broadened sextet and an extra doublet were observed for ground CaFe2As2 powders with different degrees of strain. The Mössbauer results suggest that the magnetic phase transition of CaFe2As2 can be inhomogeneously suppressed by the grinding induced strain to such an extent that the antiferromagnetic order in parts of the grains forming the powdered sample remain absent all the way down to 4.6 K. However, strain has almost no effect on the temperature dependent hyperfine magnetic field in the grains with magnetic order. The quadrupole shift in the magnetic phase approachs zero with increasing degrees of strain, indicating that the strain reduces the average lattice asymmetry at Fe atom position. Supported by US DOE under the Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358 and by the China Scholarship Council.

  1. Microstructural study of phase equilibria in the Fe-Ca-O system involving CaFe/sub 5/O/sub 7/

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, B.; Song, C. )

    1989-08-01

    By microscopic studies it is found that CaFe/sub 5/O/sub 7/ (often represented by CW/sub 3/F) does not disappear by decomposition to three solid phases at about 1050{sup 0}C, as suggested by previous phase diagrams. Instead it disappears by melting at about 1100{sup 0}C. On cooling, part of the liquid solidifies to a eutectic structure, wustite + Ca/sub 2/Fe/sub 2/O/sub 5/ (often represented by C/sub 2/F). A revision of Turkdogan's oxygen potential-temperature diagram is proposed in order to account for the new information.

  2. Estimation Model for Electrical Conductivity of CaF2-CaO-Al2O3 Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Guan-yong; Zhang, Ting-an; Dou, Zhi-he; Niu, Li-ping

    2016-09-01

    Electrical conductivity is one of the most important properties of molten slags. It has an important influence on process parameter selection of the electroslag remelting process. In the present work, a new model for estimating electrical conductivity of high-temperature slags has been proposed via calculating the conductivity by electrical conductivity of pure substances and interaction parameters between the different components in the slag has been proposed. In this model, the Arrhenius law is used to describe the relationship between electrical conductivity and temperature of slags. This model has been successfully applied to the CaF2-Al2O3, CaF2-CaO, and CaO-Al2O3, as well as CaF2-CaO-Al2O3 systems, and the calculated results are in good agreement with the measured values.

  3. The structure of rapidly solidified Al- Fe- Cr alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yearim, R.; Shechtman, D.

    1982-11-01

    Four aluminum alloys, designed for use at elevated temperatures, were studied. The alloys were supersaturated with iron and chromium, and one of them contained small amounts of Ti, V, and Zr. The starting materials were alloy powders made by the RSR (Rapid Solidification Rate) centrifugal atomization process. Extrusion bars were made from the four powders. The as-extruded microstructure and the microstructure of the alloys after annealing at 482 °C were investigated by optical and transmission electron microscopy and by X-ray diffraction. The microstructure consists of equiaxed grains of aluminum matrix and two types of precipitates, namely, Al3(Fe ,Cr) and a metastable phase, Al6(Fe,Cr). The precipitates were different in their shape, size, distribution, and location within the grains.

  4. Actinide chemistry in Allende Ca-Al-rich inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murrell, M. T.; Burnett, D. S.

    1987-01-01

    Fission track radiography is used to investigate the U and Th microscale distribution in a set of Allende-meteorite Ca-Al-rich inclusions. In the Type B inclusions, the major phases melilite and fassaite are important actinide host phases, and on the rims of Type B inclusions and throughout all other inclusions studied, perovskite is the dominant actinide host phase. Results suggest that neither alteration nor loss or gain of an actinide-rich phase appears to have been an important Th/U fractionation mechanism, and that volatility differences may be the dominant factor. Th/U and rare earth element abundance patterns for the spinel and perovskite rim suggest rim formation by volatilization of interior material, and within the constraints of the brief time scale required for this heating, several mechanisms for spinel-perovskite rim formation are possible.

  5. Formation of Secondary Ca-Fe-Rich Assemblages in CV Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganino, C.; Libourel, G.

    2016-08-01

    Chondrites have multiplied evidences for metasomatic processes during the early solar system formation. Diversity in secondary Ca-Fe silicate provides information on T-X conditions and the open/closed-system behavior.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of Co2FeAl nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapkota, Keshab R.; Gyawali, Parshu; Forbes, Andrew; Pegg, Ian L.; Philip, John

    2012-06-01

    We report the growth and characterization of Co2FeAl nanowires. Nanowires are grown using electrospinning method and the diameters range from 50 to 500 nm. These nanowires exhibit cubic crystal structure with a lattice constant of a =5.639 Å. The nanowires exhibit ferromagnetic behavior with a very high Curie temperature. The temperature dependent magnetization behavior displays an anomaly in the temperature range 600-850 K, which disappears at higher external magnetic fields.

  7. Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Wilkening, D.; Liebetrau, J.; Mackey, B.

    1998-11-01

    The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the effect of chemistry on the microstructure and hardness of castings. It is concluded that the use of the Exo-Melt{trademark} process for melting and the proper selection of the aluminum melt stock can result in porosity-free castings. The FeAl alloys can be melted and cast from the virgin and revert stock. A large variation in carbon content of the alloys is possible before the precipitation of graphite flakes occurs. Titanium is a very potent addition to refine the grain size of castings. A range of complex sand castings and two different sizes of centrifugal cast tubes of the alloy have already been cast.

  8. Towards a Superplastic Forming of Fe-Mn-Al Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Guanabara, Paulo Jr.; Bueno, Levi de O.; Ferreira Batalha, Gilmar

    2011-01-17

    The aim is to study the characteristics of superplasticity, mostly on non qualified materials, such as austenitic steel of the Fe-Mn-Al alloy, which has some of the specific material parameters closely related to microstructural mechanisms. These parameters are used as indicators of material superplastic potentiality. The material was submitted to hot tensile testing, within a temperature range from 600 deg. C to 1000 deg. C and strain-rates varying from 10{sup -6} to 1 s{sup -1}. The strain rate sensitivity parameter (m) and observed maximum elongation until rupture ({epsilon}{sub r}) could be determined and also obtained from the hot tensile test. The experiments stated a possibility of superplastic behaviour in a Fe-Mn-Al alloy within a temperature range from 700 deg. C to 900 deg. C with grain size around 3 {mu}m (ASTM grain size 12) and average strain rate sensitivity of m {approx} 0.54, as well as a maximum elongation at rupture around 600%. The results are based on a more enhanced research from the authors; however, this paper has focused just on the hot tensile test, as further creep tests results are not available herein. There are rare examples of superplasticity study of an austenitic steel Fe-Mn-Al alloy, thus this work showed some possibility of exploring the potential use of such materials in this regime at temperatures {>=}700 deg. C.

  9. Al-matrix composite materials reinforced by Al-Cu-Fe particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneville, J.; Laplanche, G.; Joulain, A.; Gauthier-Brunet, V.; Dubois, S.

    2010-07-01

    Al-matrix material composites were produced using hot isostatic pressing technique, starting with pure Al and icosahedral (i) Al-Cu-Fe powders. Depending on the processing temperature, the final reinforcement particles are either still of the initial i-phase or transformed into the tetragonal ω-Al00.70Cu0.20Fe0.10 crystalline phase. Compression tests performed in the temperature range 293K - 823K on the two types of composite, i.e. Al/i and Al/ω, indicate that the flow stress of both composites is strongly temperature dependent and exhibit distinct regimes with increasing temperature. Differences exist between the two composites, in particul ar in yield stress values. In the low temperatureregime (T <= 570K), the yield stress of the Al/ω composite is nearly 75% higher than that of the Al/i composite, while for T > 570K both composites exhibit similar yield stress values. The results are interpreted in terms of load transfer contribution between the matrix and the reinforcement particles and elementary dislocation mechanisms in the Al matrix.

  10. Physical properties of Rh substituted CaFe2As2 tuned by annealing/quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Sheng; Bud'Ko, Sergey; Canfield, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Our previous work on CaFe2As2 single crystal grown out of FeAs flux has shown that a process of annealing and quenching can be used as an additional control parameter which can tune the ground state of CaFe2As2 systematically. We have also shown that CaFe2As2 is very pressure sensitive. Therefore, unlike the BaFe2As2 system, the effect of 4d transition metal substitution on CaFe2As2 is expected to be largely different from that of 3d transition metal substitution (e.g. cobalt or nickel substitution). In this talk we will present results of measurements on a Rh substituted CaFe2As2 system with different annealing/quenching temperatures. Phase diagrams with substitution level and annealing/quenching temperature as independent parameters are constructed and compared with that of other transition metal substitutions. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  11. Evolution of Fe Bearing Intermetallics During DC Casting and Homogenization of an Al-Mg-Si Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Grant, P. S.; O'Reilly, K. A. Q.

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of iron (Fe) bearing intermetallics (Fe-IMCs) during direct chill casting and homogenization of a grain-refined 6063 aluminum-magnesium-silicon (Al-Mg-Si) alloy has been studied. The as-cast and homogenized microstructure contained Fe-IMCs at the grain boundaries and within Al grains. The primary α-Al grain size, α-Al dendritic arm spacing, IMC particle size, and IMC three-dimensional (3D) inter-connectivity increased from the edge to the center of the as-cast billet; both α c-AlFeSi and β-AlFeSi Fe-IMCs were identified, and overall α c-AlFeSi was predominant. For the first time in industrial billets, the different Fe-rich IMCs have been characterized into types based on their 3D chemistry and morphology. Additionally, the role of β-AlFeSi in nucleating Mg2Si particles has been identified. After homogenization, α c-AlFeSi predominated across the entire billet cross section, with marked changes in the 3D morphology and strong reductions in inter-connectivity, both supporting a recovery in alloy ductility.

  12. FeAl and NbAl3 Intermetallic-HVOF Coatings: Structure and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilemany, J. M.; Cinca, N.; Dosta, S.; Cano, I. G.

    2009-12-01

    Transition metal aluminides in their coating form are currently being explored in terms of resistance to oxidation and mechanical behavior. This interest in transition metal aluminides is mainly due to the fact that their high Al content makes them attractive for high-temperature applications. This is also a reason to study their resistance to wear; they may be suitable for use in applications that produce a lot of wear in aggressive environments, thus replacing established coating materials. In this study, the microstructure, microhardness, and wear and oxidation performance of FeAl and NbAl3 coatings produced by high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying are evaluated with two main aims: (i) to compare these two coating systems—a commonly studied aluminide (FeAl) and, NbAl3, an aluminide whose deposition by thermal spraying has not been attempted to date—and (ii) to analyze the relationship between their microstructure, composition and properties, and so clarify their wear and oxidation mechanisms. In the present study, the higher hardness of niobium aluminide coatings did not correlate with a higher wear resistance and, finally, although pesting phenomena (disintegration in oxidizing environments) were already known of in bulk niobium aluminides, here their behavior in the coating form is examined. It was shown that such accelerated oxidation was inevitable with respect to the better resistance of FeAl, but further improvements are foreseen by addition of alloying elements in that alloy.

  13. Enthalpies of formation of CaAl4O7 and CaAl12O19 (hibonite) by high temperature, alkali borate solution calorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, C. A.; Kleppa, O. J.; Grossman, L.; Mysen, B. O.; Lattimer, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    Enthalpies of formation were determined for two calcium aluminate phases, CaAl4O7 and CaAl12O19, using high-temperature alkali borate solution calorimetry. The aluminates were synthesized by multiple-cycle heating and grinding stoichiometric mixtures of CaCO3 and Al2O3, and the products were characteized by X-ray diffraction and SEM microbeam analysis. The data on impurities (CaAl4O7 was found to be about 89.00 percent pure by weight and the CaAl12O19 samples about 91.48 percent pure) were used to correct the heat of solution values of the synthetic products. The enthalpies of formation, at 1063 K, from oxides, were found to be equal to -(25.6 + or - 4.7) kJ/g.f.w. for CaAl4O7 and -(33.0 + or - 9.7) kJ/g.f.w. for CaAl12O19; the respective standard enthalpies of formation from elements, at 298 K, were estimated to be -4007 + or - 5.2 kJ/g.f.w. and -10,722 + or - 12 kJ/g.f.w.

  14. EMP and SIMS studies on Mn/Ca and Fe/Ca systematics in benthic foraminifera from the Peruvian OMZ: a contribution to the identification of potential redox proxies and the impact of cleaning protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glock, N.; Eisenhauer, A.; Liebetrau, V.; Wiedenbeck, M.; Hensen, C.; Nehrke, G.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we present an initial dataset of Mn/Ca and Fe/Ca ratios in tests of benthic foraminifera from the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) determined with SIMS. These results are a contribution to a better understanding of the proxy potential of these elemental ratios for ambient redox conditions. Foraminiferal tests are often contaminated by diagenetic coatings, like Mn rich carbonate- or Fe and Mn rich (oxyhydr)oxide coatings. Thus, it is substantial to assure that the cleaning protocols are efficient or that spots chosen for microanalyses are free of contaminants. Prior to the determination of the element/Ca ratios, the distributions of several elements (Ca, Mn, Fe, Mg, Ba, Al, Si, P and S) in tests of the shallow infaunal species Uvigerina peregrina and Bolivina spissa were mapped with an electron microprobe (EMP). To visualize the effects of cleaning protocols uncleaned and cleaned specimens were compared. The cleaning protocol included an oxidative cleaning step. An Fe rich phase was found on the inner test surface of uncleaned U. peregrina specimens. This phase was also enriched in Al, Si, P and S. A similar Fe rich phase was found at the inner test surface of B. spissa. Specimens of both species treated with oxidative cleaning show the absence of this phase. Neither in B. spissa nor in U. peregrina were any hints found for diagenetic (oxyhydr)oxide or carbonate coatings. Mn/Ca and Fe/Ca ratios of single specimens of B. spissa from different locations have been determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Bulk analyses using solution ICP-MS of several samples were compared to the SIMS data. The difference between SIMS analyses and ICP-MS bulk analyses from the same sampling sites was 14.0-134.8 μmol mol-1 for the Fe/Ca and 1.68(±0.41) μmol mol-1 for the Mn/Ca ratios. This is in the same order of magnitude as the variability inside single specimens determined with SIMS at these sampling sites (1σ[Mn/Ca] = 0.35-2.07 μmol mol-1; 1σ[Fe/Ca

  15. Ca. 2.7 Ga ferropicritic magmatism: A record of Fe-rich heterogeneities during Neoarchean global mantle melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milidragovic, Dejan; Francis, Don

    2016-07-01

    Although terrestrial picritic magmas with FeOTOT ⩾13 wt.% are rare in the geological record, they were relatively common ca. 2.7 Ga during the Neoarchean episode of enhanced global growth of continental crust. Recent evidence that ferropicritic underplating played an important role in the ca. 2.74-2.70 Ga reworking of the Ungava craton provides the impetus for a comparison of ca. 2.7 Ga ferropicrite occurrences in the global Neoarchean magmatic record. In addition to the Fe-rich plutons of the Ungava craton, volumetrically minor ferropicritic flows, pyroclastic deposits, and intrusive rocks form parts of the Neoarchean greenstone belt stratigraphy of the Abitibi, Wawa, Wabigoon and Vermillion domains of the southern and western Superior Province. Neoarchean ferropicritic rocks also occur on five other Archean cratons: West Churchill, Slave, Yilgarn, Kaapvaal, and Karelia; suggesting that ca. 2.7 Ga Fe-rich magmatism was globally widespread. Neoarchean ferropicrites form two distinct groups in terms of their trace element geochemistry. Alkaline ferropicrites have fractionated REE profiles and show no systematic HFSE anomalies, broadly resembling the trace element character of modern-day ocean island basalt (OIB) magmas. Magmas parental to ca. 2.7 Ga alkaline ferropicrites also had high Nb/YPM (>2), low Al2O3/TiO2 (<8) and Sc/Fe (⩽3 × 10-4) ratios, and were enriched in Ni relative to primary pyrolite mantle-derived melts. The high Ni contents of the alkaline ferropicrites coupled with the low Sc/Fe ratios are consistent with derivation from olivine-free garnet-pyroxenite sources. The second ferropicrite group is characterized by decisively non-alkaline primary trace element profiles that range from flat to LREE-depleted, resembling Archean tholeiitic basalts and komatiites. In contrast to the alkaline ferropicrites, the magmas parental to the subalkaline ferropicrites had flat HREE, lower Nb/YPM (<2), higher Al2O3/TiO2 (8-25) and Sc/Fe (⩾4 × 10-4) ratios, and

  16. Elevated Temperature Deformation of Fe-39.8Al and Fe-15.6Mn-39.4Al

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The elevated temperature compressive properties of binary Fe-39.8 at % Al and Fe-15.6Mn-39.4Al have been measured between 1000 and 1300 K at strain rates between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 3)/ s. Although the Mn addition to iron aluminide did not change the basic deformation characteristics, the Mn-modified alloy was slightly weaker. In the regime where deformation of FeAl occurs by a high stress exponent mechanism (n = 6), strength increases as the grain size decreases at least for diameters between approx. 200 and approx. 10 microns. Due to the limitation in the grain size-flow stress-temperature-strain rate database, the influence of further reductions of the grain size on strength is uncertain. Based on the appearance of subgrains in deformed iron aluminide, the comparison of grain diameters to expected subgrain sizes, and the grain size exponent and stress exponent calculated from deformation experiments, it is believed that grain size strengthening is the result of an artificial limitation on subgrain size as proposed by Sherby, Klundt and Miller.

  17. Stabilization of Ca1-dFe2-xMnxO4 (0.44 lt x lt 2) with CaFe2O4-type Structure and Ca2plus Defects in 1D Channels

    SciTech Connect

    T Yang; M Croft; A Ignatov; I Nowik; R Cong; M Greenblatt

    2011-12-31

    Solid solutions of Ca{sub 1-{delta}}Fe{sub 2-x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 4} (0.45 {<=} x {<=} 2) were synthesized from CaCl{sub 2} as flux at 850 C in air. The entire series, even with x = 2, crystallizes in the CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-type structure (Pnma), rather than in the CaMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}-type structure (Pbcm). Rietveld refinements confirmed mixed-valency Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} and a substantial level of Ca{sup 2+} deficiency ({delta} {approx} 0.25) at high x. With increasing x, the unit-cell dimensions a and b decrease, while that of c increases. Detailed structural analyses, together with Mn K-edge X-ray absorption and {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy studies, revealed that the stabilization of CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-type structure, even at high values of x, is due to the existence of non-Jahn-Teller active Mn{sup 4+} (and Fe{sup 3+}), which is compensated by the formation of the Ca{sup 2+} deficiencies in the one-dimensional (1D) channels of Ca{sub 1-{delta}}Fe{sub 2-x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 4} during the flux synthesis. Antiferromagnetic (AFM) long-range ordering is achieved for all compounds at low temperature, because of strong AFM interactions between Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} and Fe{sup 3+}. In addition, a spin (or cluster) glass component was also observed, as expected, because of the extensive Mn/Fe structural and Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} charge disordering.

  18. Hydrogen permeation characteristics of some Fe-Cr-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Deventer, E. H.; Maroni, V. A.

    1983-01-01

    Hydrogen permeation data are reported for two Fe-Cr-Al alloys, Type-405 SS (Cr 14-A1 0.2) and a member of the Fecralloy family of alloys (Cr 16-A1 5). The hydrogen permeability of each alloy (in a partially oxidized condition) was measured over a period of several weeks at randomly selected temperatures (between 150 and 850°C) and upstream H 2 pressures (between 2 and 1.5 × 10 4 Pa). The permeabilities showed considerable scatter with both time and temperature and were 10 2 to 10 3 times lower than those of pure iron, even in strongly reducing environments. The exponent, n, for the relationship between upstream H 2 pressure, P, and permeability, φ, ( φ ~ Pn) was closer to 0.7 than to the expected 0.5, indicating a process limited by surface effects (e.g., surface oxide films) as opposed to bulk material effects. Comparison of these results with prior permeation measurements on other Fe-Cr-Al alloys, on Fe-Cr alloys, and on pure iron shows that the presence of a few weight percent aluminum offers the best prospects for achieving low tritium permeabilities with martensitic and ferritic steels used in fusion-reactor first wall and blanket applications.

  19. Mechanically-induced disorder in CaFe2As2: A 57Fe Mössbauer study

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Xiaoming; Ran, Sheng; Canfield, Paul C.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.

    2015-10-17

    57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to perform a microscopic study on the extremely pressure and strain sensitive compound, CaFe2As2, with different degrees of strain introduced by grinding and annealing. At the base temperature, in the antiferromagnetic/orthorhombic phase, compared to a sharp sextet Mössbauer spectrum of single crystal CaFe2As2, which is taken as an un-strained sample, an obviously broadened sextet and an extra doublet were observed for ground CaFe2As2 powders with different degrees of strain. The Mössbauer results suggest that the magnetic phase transition of CaFe2As2 can be inhomogeneously suppressed by the grinding induced strain to such an extent that themore » antiferromagnetic order in parts of the grains forming the powdered sample remain absent all the way down to 4.6 K. However, strain has almost no effect on the temperature dependent hyperfine magnetic field in the grains with magnetic order. Additional electronic and asymmetry information was obtained from the isomer shift and quadrupole splitting. Similar isomer shift values in the magnetic phase for samples with different degrees of strain, indicate that the stain does not bring any significant variation of the electronic density at 57Fe nucleus position. As a result, the absolute values of quadrupole shift in the magnetic phase decrease and approach zero with increasing degrees of strain, indicating that the strain reduces the average lattice asymmetry at Fe atom position.« less

  20. Phase relations in the greenschist-blueschist-amphibolite-eclogite facies in the system Na2O-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (NCFMASH), with application to metamorphic rocks from Samos, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Thomas; Okrusch, Martin; Schmädicke, Esther; Chen, Guoli

    Calculated phase equilibria among the minerals sodic amphibole, calcic amphibole, garnet, chloritoid, talc, chlorite, paragonite, margarite, omphacite, plagioclase, carpholite, zoisite/clinozoisite, lawsonite, pyrophyllite, kyanite, sillimanite, quartz and H2O are presented for the model system Na2O-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (NCFMASH), which is relevant for many greenschist, blueschist, amphibolite and eclogite facies rocks. Using the activity-composition relationships for multicomponent amphiboles constrained by Will and Powell (1992), equilibria containing coexisting calcic and sodic amphiboles could be determined. The blueschist-greenschist transition reaction in the NCFMASH system, for example, is defined by the univariant reaction sodic amphibole + zoisite=calcic amphibole + chlorite + paragonite + plagioclase (+ quartz + H2O) occurring between approximately 420 and 450°C at 9.5 to 10kbar. The calculated petrogenetic grid is a valuable tool for reconstructing the PT-evolution of metabasic rocks. This is shown for rocks from the island of Samos, Greece. On the basis of mineral and whole rock analyses, PT-pseudosections were calculated and, together with the observed mineral assemblages and reaction textures, are used to reconstruct PT-paths. For rocks from northern Samos, pseudomorphs after lawsonite preserved in garnet, the assemblage sodic amphibole-garnet-paragonite-chlorite-zoisite-quartz and the retrograde appearance of albitic plagioclase and the formation of calcic amphibole around sodic amphibole constrain a clockwise PT-path that reaches its thermal maximum at some 520°C and 19kbar. The derived PT-trajectory indicates cooling during exhumation of the rocks and is similar to paths for rocks from the western part of the Attic-Cycladic crystalline complex. Rocks from eastern Samos indicate lower pressures and are probably related to high-pressure rocks from the Menderes Massif in western Turkey.

  1. Mössbauer spectra of synthetic Ca-Fe pyroxenoids and lunar pyroxferroite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowty, Eric; Lindsley, D.H.

    1974-01-01

    Resolution of the iron sites in the Mössbauer spectra of Ca-Fe pyroxenoids is only partial, two doublets being apparent in each case, whereas there are up to nine cation sites in each structure. Thus the inner and outer doublets represent, respectively: two sites and two sites in Ca0.5Fe0.5SiO3(ferrobustamite); five sites and two sites in Ca0.15Fe0.85SiO3 (pyroxferroite); and five sites and four sites in FeSiO3 (ferrosolite III). Disorder of iron and calcium which exists in the two calcium-bearing pyroxenoids is not readily apparent in the spectra.

  2. Interlayer interaction in Ca-Fe layered double hydroxides intercalated with nitrate and chloride species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Jaberi, Muayad; Naille, Sébastien; Dossot, Manuel; Ruby, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Ca-Fe layered double hydroxide (LDH) intercalated with chloride and nitrate ions has been synthesized with varying CaII:FeIII molar ratios of the initial solution. Phase pure LDH is observed with CaII:FeIII molar ratio of 2:1 and a mixture of LDH and Ca(OH)2 is formed for CaII:FeIII molar ratios higher than 2:1. Vibrational spectroscopies (Raman and IR) were used successfully to understand the interaction between the cationic and anionic sheets. The Raman bands positions at lower frequencies (150-600 cm-1) are intimately correlated to the nature of the divalent and trivalent ions but also to the nature of the anions. Indeed, a shift of ˜9 cm-1 is observed for the Raman double bands situated in the 300-400 cm-1 region when comparing Raman spectra of CaFe-LDH containing either nitrate or chloride ions. Two types of nitrate environments are observed namely free (non-hydrogen bonded) nitrate and nitrate hydrogen bonded to the interlayer water or to the 'brucite-like' hydroxyl surface. Multiple types of water structure are observed and would result from different hydrogen bond structures. Water bending modes are identified at 1645 cm-1 greater than the one observed for LDH intercalated with chloride anions (1618 cm-1), indicating that the water is strongly hydrogen bonded to the nitrate anions.

  3. Co and Mn doping effect in polycrystalline (Ca,La) and (Ca,Pr)FeAs2 superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakita, Hiroyuki; Ogino, Hiraku; Sala, Alberto; Okada, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Kishio, Kohji; Iyo, Akira; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi

    2015-06-01

    The superconducting properties of Mn and Co doped (Ca,RE)FeAs2 ((Ca,RE)112: RE = La, Pr) were investigated. Co doping increased Tc of (Ca,Pr)112 while Mn doping suppressed the superconductivity of (Ca,RE)112. The Co doped (Ca,La)112 exhibited a large diamagnetic screening, as well as sharper superconducting transition than Co-free (Ca,La)112. Tc zero observed in the resistivity measurements increased from 14 to 30 K by Co doping, while {{T}c}onset was not increased. The critical current density, Jc, of Co doped (Ca,La)112 was approximately 2.1 × 104 A cm-2 and 3.2 × 103 A cm-2 at 2 K and 25 K, respectively, at near zero field. These relatively high Jc values and large diamagnetic screening observed in the susceptibility measurements of the polycrystalline bulks are evidence that Co doped (Ca,RE)112 compounds possess bulk superconductivity.

  4. Chemical mixing at “Al on Fe” and “Fe on Al” interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Süle, P.; Horváth, Z. E.; Kaptás, D.; Bujdosó, L.; Balogh, J.; Nakanishi, A.

    2015-10-07

    The chemical mixing at the “Al on Fe” and “Fe on Al” interfaces was studied by molecular dynamics simulations of the layer growth and by {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The concentration distribution along the layer growth direction was calculated for different crystallographic orientations, and atomically sharp “Al on Fe” interfaces were found when Al grows over (001) and (110) oriented Fe layers. The Al/Fe(111) interface is also narrow as compared to the intermixing found at the “Fe on Al” interfaces for any orientation. Conversion electron Mössbauer measurements of trilayers—Al/{sup 57}Fe/Al and Al/{sup 57}Fe/Ag grown simultaneously over Si(111) substrate by vacuum evaporation—support the results of the molecular dynamics calculations.

  5. Magnetotransport Properties of Co2FeAl Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapkota, Keshab; Gyawali, P.; Dahal, Bishnu; Dulal, R.; Pegg, I. L.; Philip, John

    2013-03-01

    Co2FeAl (CFA) nanowire (NW) exhibit interesting magnetic behavior with temperature, which arises from the granular structure.[2] To understand the magnetotransport properties, single CFA NW devices were fabricated using standard electron beam lithography. The magnetoresistance measurements of single CFA NW device were carried out at different temperatures. The magnetoresistance measurements show oscillations as a function of applied external magnetic field. This work has been supported by funding from NSF under CAREER Grant No. ECCS-0845501 and NSF-MRI, DMR-0922997.

  6. Zener Relaxation Peak in an Fe-Cr-Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zheng-Cun; Cheng, He-Fa; Gong, Chen-Li; Wei, Jian-Ning; Han, Fu-Sheng

    2002-11-01

    We have studied the temperature spectra of internal friction and relative dynamic modulus of the Fe-(25 wt%)Cr-(5 wt%)Al alloy with different grain sizes. It is found that a peak appears in the internal friction versus temperature plot at about 550°C. The peak is of a stable relaxation and is reversible, which occurs not only during heating but also during cooling. Its activation energy is 2.5 (+/- 0.15) eV in terms of the Arrhenius relation. In addition, the peak is not obvious in specimens with a smaller grain size. It is suggested that the peak originates from Zener relaxation.

  7. Preparation of iron aluminate (FeAl2O4) nanoparticles from FeAl2O4 hollow particles fabricated by using a spray pyrolysis process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Jaecheol; Kim, Yangdo; Park, Dahee; Yun, Jung-Yeul

    2015-05-01

    Iron aluminate (FeAl2O4) hollow particles with a spinel structure were synthesized by using a spray pyrolysis process. FeAl2O4 hollow particles were formed at a reaction temperature of 900 °C at a flow rate of 40 L/min as a result of the rapid solvent evaporation and decomposition gases from the droplets in the spray solution prepared from metal salts and organic reagents. FeAl2O4 hollow particles were fabricated at a reaction temperature of 900 °C with a flow rate of 40 L/min. The FeAl2O4 hollow particles were heat treated for 3 hours at 600 °C in a 5% H2/Ar atmosphere to form the crystal particles. Subsequently, FeAl2O4 nanoparticles were fabricated from the FeAl2O4 hollow particles by using the wet milling process. After milling for 60 minutes, transmission electron microscopy revealed the FeAl2O4 particles to have a mean size of approximately 50 nm. The FeAl2O4 nanoparticles were fabricated successfully by using a two-step process, spray pyrolysis and wet milling.

  8. Cyclic Oxidation of FeCrAlY/Al2O3 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, James A.; Draper, Susan L.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Three-ply FeCrAlY/Al2O3 composites and FeCrAlY matrix-only samples were cyclically oxidized at 1000 C and 1100 C for up to 1000 1-hr cycles. Fiber ends were exposed at the ends of the composite samples. Following cyclic oxidation, cracks running parallel to and perpendicular to the fibers were observed on the large surface of the composite. In addition, there was evidence of increased scale damage and spallation around the exposed fiber ends, particularly around the middle ply fibers. This damage was more pronounced at the higher temperature. The exposed fiber ends showed cracking between fibers in the outer plies, occasionally with Fe and Cr-rich oxides growing out of the cracks. Large gaps developed at the fiber/matrix interface around many of the fibers, especially those in the outer plies. Oxygen penetrated many of these gaps resulting in significant oxide formation at the fiber/matrix interface far within the composite sample. Around several fibers, the matrix was also internally oxidized showing Al2O3 precipitates in a radial band around the fibers. The results show that these composites have poor cyclic oxidation resistance due to the CTE mismatch and inadequate fiber/matrix bond strength at temperatures of 1000 C and above.

  9. Accelerated Removal of Fe-Antisite Defects while Nanosizing Hydrothermal LiFePO4 with Ca(2).

    PubMed

    Paolella, Andrea; Turner, Stuart; Bertoni, Giovanni; Hovington, Pierre; Flacau, Roxana; Boyer, Chad; Feng, Zimin; Colombo, Massimo; Marras, Sergio; Prato, Mirko; Manna, Liberato; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Demopoulos, George P; Armand, Michel; Zaghib, Karim

    2016-04-13

    Based on neutron powder diffraction (NPD) and high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), we show that calcium ions help eliminate the Fe-antisite defects by controlling the nucleation and evolution of the LiFePO4 particles during their hydrothermal synthesis. This Ca-regulated formation of LiFePO4 particles has an overwhelming impact on the removal of their iron antisite defects during the subsequent carbon-coating step since (i) almost all the Fe-antisite defects aggregate at the surface of the LiFePO4 crystal when the crystals are small enough and (ii) the concomitant increase of the surface area, which further exposes the Fe-antisite defects. Our results not only justify a low-cost, efficient and reliable hydrothermal synthesis method for LiFePO4 but also provide a promising alternative viewpoint on the mechanism controlling the nanosizing of LiFePO4, which leads to improved electrochemical performances.

  10. Accelerated Removal of Fe-Antisite Defects while Nanosizing Hydrothermal LiFePO4 with Ca(2).

    PubMed

    Paolella, Andrea; Turner, Stuart; Bertoni, Giovanni; Hovington, Pierre; Flacau, Roxana; Boyer, Chad; Feng, Zimin; Colombo, Massimo; Marras, Sergio; Prato, Mirko; Manna, Liberato; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Demopoulos, George P; Armand, Michel; Zaghib, Karim

    2016-04-13

    Based on neutron powder diffraction (NPD) and high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), we show that calcium ions help eliminate the Fe-antisite defects by controlling the nucleation and evolution of the LiFePO4 particles during their hydrothermal synthesis. This Ca-regulated formation of LiFePO4 particles has an overwhelming impact on the removal of their iron antisite defects during the subsequent carbon-coating step since (i) almost all the Fe-antisite defects aggregate at the surface of the LiFePO4 crystal when the crystals are small enough and (ii) the concomitant increase of the surface area, which further exposes the Fe-antisite defects. Our results not only justify a low-cost, efficient and reliable hydrothermal synthesis method for LiFePO4 but also provide a promising alternative viewpoint on the mechanism controlling the nanosizing of LiFePO4, which leads to improved electrochemical performances. PMID:26966938

  11. Structure, phase composition, and strengthening of cast Al-Ca-Mg-Sc alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, N. A.; Naumova, E. A.; Bazlova, T. A.; Alekseeva, E. V.

    2016-02-01

    The structure and phase composition of Al-Ca-Mg-Sc alloys containing 0.3 wt % Sc, up to 10 wt % Ca, and up to 10 wt % Mg have been investigated in the cast state and state after heat treatment. It has been shown that only binary phases Al4Ca, Al3Sc, and Al3Mg2 can be in equilibrium with the aluminum solid solution. It has been found that the maximum strengthening effect caused by the precipitation of Al3Sc nanoparticles for all investigated alloys is attained after annealing at 300-350°C.

  12. Phase Separation kinetics in an Fe-Cr-Al alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Capdevila, C.; Miller, Michael K; Chao, J.

    2012-01-01

    The {alpha}-{alpha}{prime} phase separation kinetics in a commercial Fe-20 wt.% Cr-6 wt.% Al oxide dispersion-strengthened PM 2000{trademark} steel have been characterized with the complementary techniques atom probe tomography and thermoelectric power measurements during isothermal aging at 673, 708, and 748 K for times up to 3600 h. A progressive decrease in the Al content of the Cr-rich {alpha}{prime} phase was observed at 708 and 748 K with increasing time, but no partitioning was observed at 673 K. The variation in the volume fraction of the {alpha}{prime} phase well inside the coarsening regime, along with the Avrami exponent 1.2 and activation energy 264 kJ mol{sup -1}, obtained after fitting the experimental results to an Austin-Rickett type equation, indicates that phase separation in PM 2000{trademark} is a transient coarsening process with overlapping nucleation, growth, and coarsening stages.

  13. Local formation of a Heusler structure in CoFe-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurmehl, S.; Jacobs, P. J.; Kohlhepp, J. T.; Swagten, H. J. M.; Koopmans, B.; Maat, S.; Carey, M. J.; Childress, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    We systematically study the changes in the local atomic environments of Co in CoFe-Al alloys as a function of Al content by means of nuclear magnetic resonance. We find that a Co2FeAl Heusler type structure is formed on a local scale. The observed formation of a highly spin-polarized Heusler compound may explain the improved magnetotransport properties in CoFe-Al based current-perpendicular-to-the-plane spin-valves.

  14. Role of hydrogen in the electronic properties of CaFeAsH-based superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. N.; Liu, D. Y.; Zou, L. J.; Pickett, W. E.

    2016-05-01

    The electronic and magnetic properties of the hydride superconductor CaFeAsH, which superconducts up to 47 K when electron doped with La, and the isovalent alloy system CaFeAsH1 -xFx are investigated using density functional based methods. The Q ⃗=(π ,π ,0 ) peak of the nesting function ξ (q ⃗) is found to be extremely strong and sharp, and the additional structure in ξ (q ⃗) associated with the near-circular Fermi surfaces (FSs) that may impact low energy excitations is quantified. The unusual band introduced by H, which shows strong dispersion perpendicular to the FeAs layers, is shown to be connected to a peculiar van Hove singularity just below the Fermi level. This band provides a three-dimensional electron ellipsoid Fermi surface not present in other Fe-based superconducting materials nor in CaFeAsF. Electron doping by 25% La or Co has a minor effect on this ellipsoid Fermi surface, but suppresses FS nesting strongly, consistent with the viewpoint that eliminating strong nesting and the associated magnetic order allows high Tc superconductivity to emerge. Various aspects of the isovalent alloy system CaFeAsH1 -xFx and means of electron doping are discussed in terms of influence of incipient bands.

  15. Distribution of Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in primary colorectal cancer and secondary colorectal liver metastases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ebraheem, A.; Mersov, A.; Gurusamy, K.; Farquharson, M. J.

    2010-07-01

    A microbeam synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (μSRXRF) technique has been used to determine the localization and the relative concentrations of Zn, Cu, Fe and Ca in primary colorectal cancer and secondary colorectal liver metastases. 24 colon and 23 liver samples were examined, all of which were formalin fixed tissues arranged as microarrays of 1.0 mm diameter and 10 μm thickness. The distribution of these metals was compared with light transmission images of adjacent sections that were H and E stained to reveal the location of the cancer cells. Histological details were provided for each sample which enable concentrations of all elements in different tissue types to be compared. In the case of liver, significant differences have been found for all elements when comparing tumour, normal, necrotic, fibrotic, and blood vessel tissues (Kruskal Wallis Test, P<0.0001). The concentrations of all elements have also been found to be significantly different among tumour, necrotic, fibrotic, and mucin tissues in the colon samples (Kruskal Wallis Test, P<0.0001). The concentrations of all elements have been compared between primary colorectal samples and colorectal liver metastases. Concentration of Zn, Cu, Fe and Ca are higher in all types of liver tissues compared to those in the colon tissues. Comparing liver tumour and colon tumour samples, significant differences have been found for all elements (Mann Whitney, P<0.0001). For necrotic tissues, significant increase has been found for Zn, Ca, Cu and Fe (Mann Whitney, P<0.0001 for Fe and Zn, 0.014 for Ca, and 0.001 for Cu). The liver fibrotic levels of Zn, Ca, Cu and Fe were higher than the fibrotic colon areas (independent T test, P=0.007 for Zn and Mann Whitney test P<0.0001 for Cu, Fe and Ca). For the blood vessel tissue, the analysis revealed that the difference was only significant for Fe ( P=0.009) from independent T test.

  16. Importance of doping and frustration in itinerant Fe-doped Cr2Al

    DOE PAGES

    Susner, M. A.; Parker, D. S.; Sefat, A. S.

    2015-05-12

    We performed an experimental and theoretical study comparing the effects of Fe-doping of Cr2Al, an antiferromagnet with a N el temperature of 670 K, with known results on Fe-doping of antiferromagnetic bcc Cr. (Cr1-xFex)2Al materials are found to exhibit a rapid suppression of antiferromagnetic order with the presence of Fe, decreasing TN to 170 K for x=0.10. Antiferromagnetic behavior disappears entirely at x≈0.125 after which point increasing paramagnetic behavior is exhibited. Moreover, this is unlike the effects of Fe doping of bcc antiferromagnetic Cr, in which TN gradually decreases followed by the appearance of a ferromagnetic state. Theoretical calculations explainmore » that the Cr2Al-Fe suppression of magnetic order originates from two effects: the first is band narrowing caused by doping of additional electrons from Fe substitution that weakens itinerant magnetism; the second is magnetic frustration of the Cr itinerant moments in Fe-substituted Cr2Al. In pure-phase Cr2Al, the Cr moments have an antiparallel alignment; however, these are destroyed through Fe substitution and the preference of Fe for parallel alignment with Cr. This is unlike bulk Fe-doped Cr alloys in which the Fe anti-aligns with the Cr atoms, and speaks to the importance of the Al atoms in the magnetic structure of Cr2Al and Fe-doped Cr2Al.« less

  17. Formation of layered Fe(II)-Al(III)-hydroxides during reaction of Fe(II) with aluminum oxide.

    PubMed

    Elzinga, Evert J

    2012-05-01

    The reactivity of aqueous Fe(II) with aluminum oxide in anoxic solutions was investigated with batch kinetic experiments combined with Fe K edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements to characterize Fe(II) sorption products. Formation of Fe(II)-Al(III)-layered double hydroxides with an octahedral sheet structure similar to nikischerite (NaFe(II)(6) Al(3)(SO(4))(2)(OH)(18) (H(2)O)(12)) was observed within a few hours during sorption at pH 7.5 and aqueous Fe(II) concentrations of 1-3 mM. These Fe(II) phases are composed of brucite-like Fe(II)(OH)(2) sheets with partial substitution of Al(III) for Fe(II), charge balanced by anions coordinated along the basal planes. Their fast rate of formation suggests that these previously unrecognized Fe(II) phases, which are structurally and compositionally similar to green rust, may be an important sink of Fe(II) in suboxic and anoxic geochemical environments, and impact the fate of structurally compatible trace metals, such as Co(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II), as well as redox-reactive species including Cr(VI) and U(VI). Further studies are required to assess the thermodynamics, formation kinetics, and stability of these Fe(II) minerals under field conditions. PMID:22409244

  18. Ca(2+) and CaM are involved in Al(3+) pretreatment-promoted fluoride accumulation in tea plants (Camellia sinesis L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian-Chen; Gao, Hong-Jian; Wu, Hong-Hong; Yang, Tian-Yuan; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Mao, Jing-Dong; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2015-11-01

    Tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. kuntze) is known to be a fluoride (F) and aluminum (Al(3+)) hyper-accumulator. Previous study showed that pre-treatment of Al(3+) caused a significant increase of F accumulation in tea plants. However, less is known about the intricate network of Al(3+) promoted F accumulation in tea plants. In this study, the involvement of endogenous Ca(2+) and CaM in Al(3+) pretreatment-promoted F accumulation in tea plants was investigated. Our results showed that Al(3+) induced the inverse change of intracellular Ca(2+) fluorescence intensity and stimulated Ca(2+) trans-membrane transport in the mature zone of tea root. Also, a link between internal Ca(2+) and CaM was found in tea roots under the presence of Al(3+). In order to investigate whether Ca(2+) and CaM were related to F accumulation promoted by Al(3+) pretreatment, Ca(2+) chelator EGTA and CaM antagonists CPZ and TFP were used. EGTA, CPZ, and TFP pretreatment inhibited Al(3+)-induced increase of Ca(2+) fluorescence intensity and CaM content in tea roots, and also significantly reduced Al(3+)-promoted F accumulation in tea plants. Taken together, our results suggested that the endogenous Ca(2+) and CaM are involved in Al(3+) pretreatment-promoted F accumulation in tea roots. PMID:26318146

  19. Study of new sheep bone and Zn/Ca ratio around TiAlV screw: PIXE RBS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guibert, G.; Munnik, F.; Langhoff, J. D.; Von Rechenberg, B.; Buffat, Ph. A.; Laub, D.; Faber, L.; Ducret, F.; Gerber, I.; Mikhailov, S.

    2008-03-01

    This study reports on in vivo particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) measurements combined with Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) analyses of new remodeled sheep bone formed around TiAlV screws. The implants (screws) were anodized by a modified TiMax™ process. The interface between the implant and the bone was carefully investigated. [Zn]/[Ca] in-depth composition profiles as well as Ca, Fe elemental maps were recorded. The thickness of new bone formed around the screw reached 300-400 μm. Osteon and Osteoid phases were identified in the new bone. A higher [Zn]/[Ca] ratio was observed in the new bone as compared to the mature bone. Blood vessels were observed in the bone in close contact with the screw. This study shows the potential of ion beam analysis for biological and biomedical characterization.

  20. Isotopic Fractionation of Mg2+(aq), Ca2+(aq), and Fe2+(aq) with Carbonate Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Rustad, James R.; Casey, William H.; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Bylaska, Eric J.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Bogatko, Stuart A.; Jackson, Virgil E.; Dixon, David A.

    2010-11-15

    Density functional electronic structure calculations are used to compute the equilibrium constant (the isotope fractionation factor) for 26Mg/24Mg and 44Ca/40Ca isotope exchange between carbonate minerals and uncomplexed divalent aquo ions. The most reliable calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p) level predict equilibrium constants K, reported as 103ln(K) at 25 °C, of -5.3, -1.1, and +1.1 for 26Mg/24Mg exchange between calcite (CaCO3), magnesite (MgCO3), and dolomite (Ca0.5Mg0.5CO3), respectively, and Mg2+(aq), with positive values indicating enrichment in the mineral phase. For 44Ca/40Ca exchange between calcite and Ca2+(aq), the calculations predict values of +1.5 for Ca2+(aq) in six-fold coordination and +4.1 for Ca2+(aq) in seven-fold coordination. We find that the reduced partition function ratios can be reliably computed from systems as small as M(CO3)610- and M2+(H2O)6 embedded in a set of fixed atoms representing the 2nd shell (and greater) coordination environment. We find that the aqueous cluster representing the aquo ion is much more sensitive to improvements in the basis set than the calculations on the mineral systems, and that fractionation factors should be computed using 2 the best possible basis set for the aquo complex, even if the reduced partition function ratio calculated with the same basis set is not available for the mineral system. The new calculations show that the previous discrepancies between theory and experiment for Fe3+-hematite and Fe2+-siderite fractionations arise from an insufficiently accurate reduced partition function ratio for the Fe3+(aq) and Fe2+(aq) species.

  1. Complex temperature evolution of the electronic structure of CaFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikary, Ganesh; Biswas, Deepnarayan; Sahadev, Nishaina; Bindu, R.; Kumar, Neeraj; Dhar, S. K.; Thamizhavel, A.; Maiti, Kalobaran

    2014-03-01

    Employing high resolution photoemission spectroscopy, we investigate the temperature evolution of the electronic structure of CaFe2As2, which is a parent compound of high temperature superconductors—CaFe2As2 exhibits superconductivity under pressure as well as doping of charge carriers. Photoemission results of CaFe2As2 in this study reveal a gradual shift of an energy band, α away from the chemical potential with decreasing temperature in addition to the spin density wave (SDW) transition induced Fermi surface reconstruction across SDW transition temperature. The corresponding hole pocket eventually disappears at lower temperatures, while the hole Fermi surface of the β band possessing finite p orbital character survives till the lowest temperature studied. These results, thus, reveal signature of complex charge redistribution among various energy bands as a function of temperature.

  2. [Matrix Effect of Fe and Ca on EDXRF Analysis of Ce Concentration in Bayan Obo Ores].

    PubMed

    Qi, Hai-jun; Wang, Jian-ying; Zhang, Xue-feng; Wang, Yang

    2015-12-01

    When Energy-Dispersive X-RayFluorescence (EDXRF) used for measuring cerium (Ce) content in the Bayan Obo ores, matrix effect mainly comes from iron (Fe) and calcium (Ca). Due to extensive concentration variability of the two elements, commonly employed standard sample method for matrix effect correction is invalid. To overcome the problem, testing samples were prepared based on the average contents of elements in the Bayan Obo ores, and the influence of Fe and Ca on the coefficient in a linear relationship between Ce content and XRF signal was determined by linear least squares fitting for multivariate analysis. The coefficients thus determined reflected the matrix effect on Ce emitted fluorescence from Fe emitted fluorescence and Ca absorption. When the coefficients were used in analyzing Ce content in Bayan Obo mine by EDXRF, the relative error is less than 10%. PMID:26964240

  3. A first principles study on newly proposed (Ca/Sr/Ba)Fe2Bi2 compounds with their parent compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundareswari, M.; Jayalakshmi, D. S.; Viswanathan, E.

    2016-02-01

    The structural, electronic, bonding and magnetic properties of newly proposed iron-based compounds viz., CaFe2Bi2, SrFe2Bi2, BaFe2Bi2 with their Fermi surface topology are reported here for the first time by means of first principles calculation. All these properties of newly proposed compounds are compared and analysed along with their respective parent compounds namely (Ca,Sr,Ba)Fe2As2.

  4. Ca2O3Fe2.6S2: an antiferromagnetic Mott insulator at proximity to bad metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Han; Wu, Xiaozhi; Li, Dandan; Jin, Shifeng; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Tao; Lin, Zhiping; Shen, Shijie; Yuan, Duanduan; Chen, Xiaolong

    2016-04-01

    We report here the first layered iron oxychalcogenide Ca2O3Fe2.6S2 that contains both planar [Ca2FeO2]2+ and [Fe2OS2]2- layers with the shortest Fe-Fe bond length. This compound is a narrow band gap (~0.073 eV) Mott insulator. The observed antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition at 77 K is due to the ordered Fe vacancies, which can be suppressed by partial substitution of Se for S. We show that the vacancy-free phase Ca2O3Fe3S2 may become a metal with moderate electron correlation comparable to the parent compound LaOFeAs of corresponding superconductors. Our results imply that iron oxychalcogenide can be converted from an AFM Mott insulator into a bad metal like iron pnictides through Fe-Fe bond length shrinking.

  5. Formation enthalpies of Al-Fe-Zr-Nd system calculated by using geometric and Miedema's models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Rongcheng; Tao, Xiaoma; Guo, Hui; Chen, Hongmei; Ouyang, Yifang

    2015-04-01

    Formation enthalpy is important for the phase stability and amorphous forming ability of alloys. The formation enthalpies of Fe17RE2 (RE=Ce, Pr, Nd, Gd and Er) obtained by Miedema's theory are in good agreement with those of the experiments. The dependence of formation enthalpy on concentration of Al for intermetallic (AlxFe1-x)17Nd2 have been calculated by Miedema's theory and the geometric model. The solid solubility of Al in (AlxFe1-x)17Nd2 is coincident with the concentration dependence of formation enthalpy. The mixing enthalpies of liquid alloys and formation enthalpies of alloys for Al-Fe-Zr-Nd system have been predicted. The calculated mixing enthalpy indicates that the adding of Fe or Nd decreases monotonously the magnitude of enthalpy. The formation enthalpies of Al-Fe-Zr-Nd system indicate that the shape of the enthalpy contour map changes when the content of Al is less than 50.0 at% and then it remains unchanged except the decrease of magnitude. The formation enthalpy of Al-Fe-Zr-Nd increases with the increase of Fe and/or Nd content. The negative formation enthalpy indicates that Al-Fe-Zr-Nd system has higher amorphous forming ability and wide amorphous forming range. The certain contents of Zr and/or Al are beneficial for the formation of Al-Fe-Zr-Nd intermetallics.

  6. Discovery of New Al-Cu-Fe Minerals in the Khatyrka CV3 Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C.; Lin, C.; Bindi, L.; Steinhardt, P. J.

    2016-08-01

    Our nanomineralogy investigation of Khatyrka has revealed two new alloy minerals (AlCu with a Pm-3m CsCl structure and Al3Fe with a C2/m structure) and associated icosahedrite (quasicrystal Al63Cu26Fe11 with a five-fold symmetry) in section 126A of USNM 7908.

  7. First-principles investigation of mechanical behavior of B2 type aluminides: FeAl and NiAl

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, C.L.; Yoo, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    First-principles calculations of the elastic constants, shear fault energies, and cleavage strength of NiAl and FeAl are presented. For NiAl, we find that the dissociation of {l angle}111{r angle} superdislocation into partial dislocations is unlikely, due to a high antiphase boundary energy and a weak repulsive elastic force between partial dislocations. FeAl has a high ideal cleavage strength as a result of the directional d-bond formation at the Fe sites. The strong ordering behavior of NiAl is explained in terms of the Al-to-Ni charge transfer and the repulsive interaction between Al atoms. The spontaneous glide decomposition of the {l angle}111{r angle} superdislocation in NiAl is also discussed. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Phase Compositions of Self Reinforcement Al2O3/CaAl12O19 Composite using X-ray Diffraction Data and Rietveld Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, D.; Low, I. M.; O'Connor, B.

    2008-03-01

    The analysis of x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns by the Rietveld technique was tested to the quantitatively phase compositions of self reinforcement Al2O3/CaAl12O19 composite. Room-temperature XRD patterns revealed that α-Al2O3 was the only phase presence in the CA0 sample, whereas the α-Al2O3 and CaAl12O19 phases were found for CA5, CA15, CA30, and CA50 samples. The peak intensity of CA6 in the self reinforcement Al2O3/CaAl12O19 composites increased in proportion with increase in CaAl12O19 content in contrast to α-Al2O3. The diffraction patterns for CA100 sample shows minor traces of α-Al2O3 even in relatively low peak intensity. It is suggesting that the in-situ reaction sintering of raw materials were not react completely to form 100 wt% CaAl12O19 at temperature 1650 °C. Quantitative phase compositions of self reinforcement Al2O3/CaAl12O19 composites by Rietveld analysis with XRD data has been well demonstrated. The results showed that the GOF values are relatively low and the fluctuation in the difference plots shows a reasonable fit between the observed and the calculated plot.

  9. Impact of Zn, Cu, Al and Fe on the partitioning and bioaccessibility of (14)C-phenanthrene in soil.

    PubMed

    Obuekwe, Ifeyinwa S; Semple, Kirk T

    2013-09-01

    This investigation considered the effects of Zn, Cu, Al and Fe (50 and 500 mg kg(-1)) on the loss, sequential extractability, using calcium chloride (CaCl2), hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and dichloromethane (DCM) and biodegradation of (14)C-phenanthrene in soil over 63 d contact time. The key findings were that the presence of Cu and Al (500 mg kg(-1)) resulted in larger amounts of (14)C-phenanthrene being extracted by CaCl2 and HPCD. Further, the CaCl2 + HPCD extractions directly predicted the biodegradation of the PAH in the presence of the metals, with the exception of 500 mg kg(-1) Cu and Zn. The presence of high concentrations of some metals can impact on the mobility and accessibility of phenanthrene in soil, which may impact on the risk assessment of PAH contaminated soil. PMID:23770460

  10. Ca,Al-rich inclusions, amoeboid olivine aggregates, and Al-rich chondrules from the unique carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094: I. mineralogy and petrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, Alexander N.; Fagan, Timothy J.; Keil, Klaus; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Sahijpal, Sandeep; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Petaev, Mikhail I.; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2004-05-01

    Based on their mineralogy and petrography, ˜200 refractory inclusions studied in the unique carbonaceous chondrite, Acfer 094, can be divided into corundum-rich (0.5%), hibonite-rich (1.1%), grossite-rich (8.5%), compact and fluffy Type A (spinel-melilite-rich, 50.3%), pyroxene-anorthite-rich (7.4%), and Type C (pyroxene-anorthite-rich with igneous textures, 1.6%) Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs), pyroxene-hibonite spherules (0.5%), and amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs, 30.2%). Melilite in some CAIs is replaced by spinel and Al-diopside and/or by anorthite, whereas spinel-pyroxene assemblages in CAIs and AOAs appear to be replaced by anorthite. Forsterite grains in several AOAs are replaced by low-Ca pyroxene. None of the CAIs or AOAs show evidence for Fe-alkali metasomatic or aqueous alteration. The mineralogy, textures, and bulk chemistry of most Acfer 094 refractory inclusions are consistent with their origin by gas-solid condensation and may reflect continuous interaction with SiO and Mg of the cooling nebula gas. It appears that only a few CAIs experienced subsequent melting. The Al-rich chondrules (ARCs; >10 wt% bulk Al 2O 3) consist of forsteritic olivine and low-Ca pyroxene phenocrysts, pigeonite, augite, anorthitic plagioclase, ± spinel, FeNi-metal, and crystalline mesostasis composed of plagioclase, augite and a silica phase. Most ARCs are spherical and mineralogically uniform, but some are irregular in shape and heterogeneous in mineralogy, with distinct ferromagnesian and aluminous domains. The ferromagnesian domains tend to form chondrule mantles, and are dominated by low-Ca pyroxene and forsteritic olivine, anorthitic mesostasis, and Fe,Ni-metal nodules. The aluminous domains are dominated by anorthite, high-Ca pyroxene and spinel, occasionally with inclusions of perovskite; have no or little FeNi-metal; and tend to form cores of the heterogeneous chondrules. The cores are enriched in bulk Ca and Al, and apparently formed from melting of CAI

  11. Oxidation Control of Atmospheric Plasma Sprayed FeAl Intermetallic Coatings Using Dry-Ice Blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bo; Dong, Shujuan; Coddet, Pierre; Hansz, Bernard; Grosdidier, Thierry; Liao, Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

    2013-03-01

    The performance of atmospheric plasma sprayed FeAl coatings has been remarkably limited because of oxidation and phase transformation during the high-temperature process of preparation. In the present work, FeAl intermetallic coatings were prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying combined with dry-ice blasting. The microstructure, oxidation, porosity, and surface roughness of FeAl intermetallic coatings were investigated. The results show that a denser FeAl coating with a lower content of oxide and lower degree of phase transformation can be achieved because of the cryogenic, the cleaning, and the mechanical effects of dry-ice blasting. The surface roughness value decreased, and the adhesive strength of FeAl coating increased after the application of dry-ice blasting during the atmospheric plasma spraying process. Moreover, the microhardness of the FeAl coating increased by 72%, due to the lower porosity and higher dislocation density.

  12. Structural investigation of the (010) surface of the Al13 Fe4 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ledieu, J; Gaudry, É; Loli, L N Serkovic; Villaseca, S Alarcón; de Weerd, M-C; Hahne, M; Gille, P; Grin, Y; Dubois, J-M; Fournée, V

    2013-02-15

    We have investigated the structure of the Al(13)Fe(4)(010) surface using both experimental and ab initio computational methods. The results indicate that the topmost surface layers correspond to incomplete puckered (P) planes present in the bulk crystal structure. The main building block of the corrugated termination consists of two adjacent pentagons of Al atoms, each centered by a protruding Fe atom. These motifs are interconnected via additional Al atoms referred to as "glue" atoms which partially desorb above 873 K. The surface structure of lower atomic density compared to the bulk P plane is explained by a strong Fe-Al-Fe covalent polar interaction that preserves intact clusters at the surface. The proposed surface model with identified Fe-containing atomic ensembles could explain the Al(13)Fe(4) catalytic properties recently reported in line with the site-isolation concept [M. Armbrüster et al., Nat. Mater. 11, 690 (2012)]. PMID:25166385

  13. Structural investigation of the (010) surface of the Al13 Fe4 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ledieu, J; Gaudry, É; Loli, L N Serkovic; Villaseca, S Alarcón; de Weerd, M-C; Hahne, M; Gille, P; Grin, Y; Dubois, J-M; Fournée, V

    2013-02-15

    We have investigated the structure of the Al(13)Fe(4)(010) surface using both experimental and ab initio computational methods. The results indicate that the topmost surface layers correspond to incomplete puckered (P) planes present in the bulk crystal structure. The main building block of the corrugated termination consists of two adjacent pentagons of Al atoms, each centered by a protruding Fe atom. These motifs are interconnected via additional Al atoms referred to as "glue" atoms which partially desorb above 873 K. The surface structure of lower atomic density compared to the bulk P plane is explained by a strong Fe-Al-Fe covalent polar interaction that preserves intact clusters at the surface. The proposed surface model with identified Fe-containing atomic ensembles could explain the Al(13)Fe(4) catalytic properties recently reported in line with the site-isolation concept [M. Armbrüster et al., Nat. Mater. 11, 690 (2012)].

  14. Thermoelasticity of Fe3+- and Al-bearing bridgmanite: Effects of iron spin crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Gaurav; Cococcioni, Matteo; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.

    2016-06-01

    We report ab initio (LDA + Usc) calculations of thermoelastic properties of ferric iron (Fe3+)- and aluminum (Al)-bearing bridgmanite (MgSiO3 perovskite), the main Earth forming phase, at relevant pressure and temperature conditions and compositions. Three coupled substitutions, namely, [Al]Mg-[Al]Si, [Fe3+]Mg-[Fe3+]Si, and [Fe3+]Mg-[Al]Si have been investigated. Aggregate elastic moduli and sound velocities are successfully compared with limited experimental data available. In the case of [Fe3+]Mg-[Fe3+]Si substitution, the high-spin (S = 5/2) to low-spin (S = 1/2) crossover in [Fe3+]Si induces a volume collapse and elastic anomalies across the transition region. However, the associated anomalies should disappear in the presence of aluminum in the most favorable substitution, i.e., [Fe3+]Mg-[Al]Si. Calculated elastic properties along a lower mantle model geotherm suggest that the elastic behavior of bridgmanite with simultaneous substitution of Fe2O3 and Al2O3 in equal proportions or with Al2O3 in excess should be similar to that of (Mg,Fe2+)SiO3 bridgmanite. However, excess of Fe2O3 should produce elastic anomalies in the crossover pressure region.

  15. Effect of nitrogen upon structural and magnetic properties of FePt in FePt/AlN multilayer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Tenghua Zhang, Cong; Sannomiya, Takumi; Muraishi, Shinji; Nakamura, Yoshio; Shi, Ji

    2014-09-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the addition of nitrogen in FePt layers for ultrathin FePt/AlN multilayer structures. X-ray diffraction results reveal that a compressive stress relaxation occurs after annealing owing to the release of interstitial nitrogen atoms in the FePt layers. The introduction of nitrogen also induces a large in-plane compressive strain during grain growth not seen in FePt deposited without nitrogen. This strain is considered to decrease the driving force for (111) grain growth and FePt ordering.

  16. Effect of adsorbed iron on thermoluminescence and electron spin resonance spectra of Ca-Fe-exchanged montmorillonite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyne, Lelia M.; Banin, Amos

    1986-01-01

    The ESR spectra and the natural and gamma-induced thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves of a series of variably cation-exchanged Fe-Ca-clays prepared from SWy-1 montmorillonite were examined. The ESR signal intensity associated with surface Fe increased linearly with surface Fe content up to a nominal concentration of 50 percent exchangeable Fe. At above 50 percent exchangeable Fe, no appreciable increase in the signal was noted. The TL intensity decreased linearly with increasing surface Fe up to 50 percent nominal exchangeable Fe. At above 50 percent, the signal was not appreciably further diminished. Possible effects of Fe on quenching of TL are considered.

  17. Magnetostrictive behaviors of Fe-Al(001) single-crystal films under rotating magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Tetsuroh; Abe, Tatsuya; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki

    2016-05-01

    Magnetostrictive behaviors of Fe100-x - Alx(x = 0 - 30 at.%)(001) single-crystal films under rotating magnetic fields are investigated along the two different crystallographic orientations, [100] and [110]. The behaviors of Fe and Fe90Al10 films show bath-tub like waveform along [100], easy magnetization axis, and triangular waveform along [110], hard magnetization axis, with respect to their four-fold magnetic anisotropy. On the other hand, the behaviors of Fe80Al20 film are different from those of Fe or Fe90Al10 film. The output of the film along [100] shows a strong magnetic field dependence. The Fe70Al30 film shows similar magnetostrictive behaviors along both [100] and [110] reflecting its magnetic properties, which are almost same for the both directions. The growth of ordered phase (B2) in Fe80Al20 and Fe70Al30 films is considered to have affected their magnetostrictive behaviors. The Al content dependence on λ100 and λ111 values shows similar tendency to that reported for the bulk samples but the values are slightly different. The Fe90Al10(001) single-crystal film shows a large magnetostriction along [100] under a very small magnetic field of 0.02 kOe, which is comparable to the saturated one, and changes the value abruptly in relation to the angle of applied magnetic field.

  18. Concentric nano rings observed on Al-Cu-Fe microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunfei; Wang, Limin; Hampikian, Helen; Bair, Matthew; Baker, Andrew; Hua, Mingjian; Wang, Qiongshu; Li, Dingqiang

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that when particle size is reduced, surface effect becomes important. As a result, micro/nanoparticles tend to have well defined geometric shapes to reduce total surface energy, as opposed to the irregular shapes observed in most bulk materials. The surface of such micro/nanostructures are smooth. Any deviation from a smooth surface implies an increased surface energy which is not energetically favorable. Here, we report an observation of spherical particles in an alloy of Al65Cu20Fe15 nominal composition prepared by arc melting. Such spherical particles stand out from those reported so far due to the decoration of concentric nanorings on the surface. Three models for the formation of these concentric ring patterns are suggested. The most prominent ones assume that the rings are frozen features of liquid motion which could open the door to investigate the kinetics of liquid motion on the micro/nanometer scale.

  19. Microstructure Evolution in Al-Cu-Fe Quasicrystalline Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widjaja, Edy; Marks, Laurence

    2003-03-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was performed to study the microstructure evolution in Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystalline thin films. Thin films were grown by magnetron sputtering on sodium chloride crystals which were subsequently dissolved in water to acquire free-standing films. Nanocrystalline films were found in the as-deposited sample. When annealed at 400oC the films changed to metastable crystalline phases that transformed into icosahedral phases upon further annealing at 500oC. TEM imaging combined with electron diffraction revealed various features associated with the phase evolution in the crystalline-quasicrystalline phase transformation. Some grains in the film functioned as sacrificial grains allowing others to grow into icosahedral phases. Elements near the boundary of the sacrificial grains diffused to form the icosahedral phases, resulting in fragments in the center of the grain. The oxide layer of the film was amorphous aluminum oxide that exhibited poor adhesion to the quasicrystalline films.

  20. Characterization of Co2FeAl nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapkota, Keshab R.; Pegg, I. L.; Philip, J.

    2011-03-01

    Heusler alloy, Co 2 FeAl (CFA) is a potentially useful material in the field of spintronics due to its high spin polarization. The CFA nanowires are grown for the first time by the electrospinning method. The diameters of the wires formed are ranging from 80 -- 100 nm. The structural characterization of the nanowires is done using X-Ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The nanowires exhibit cubic structure with a lattice constant, a = 2.44 Å. Parallel arrays of nanowires are grown for magnetic characterization using electric field applied at the collector plate. The nanowires exhibit ferromagnetic behavior with a Curie temperature higher than 400 K. Nanoscale devices are fabricated with single CFA nanowire to understand the magnetotransport properties. This work has been supported by funding from NSF under CAREER Grant No. ECCS-0845501 and NSF-MRI, DMR-0922997.

  1. Complex structures of different CaFe2As2 samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saparov, Bayrammurad; Cantoni, Claudia; Pan, Minghu; Hogan, Thomas C.; , William Ratcliff, II; Wilson, Stephen D.; Fritsch, Katharina; Gaulin, Bruce D.; Sefat, Athena S.

    2014-02-01

    The interplay between magnetism and crystal structures in three CaFe2As2 samples is studied. For the nonmagnetic quenched crystals, different crystalline domains with varying lattice parameters are found, and three phases (orthorhombic, tetragonal, and collapsed tetragonal) coexist between TS = 95 K and 45 K. Annealing of the quenched crystals at 350°C leads to a strain relief through a large (~1.3%) expansion of the c-parameter and a small (~0.2%) contraction of the a-parameter, and to local ~0.2 Å displacements at the atomic-level. This annealing procedure results in the most homogeneous crystals for which the antiferromagnetic and orthorhombic phase transitions occur at TN/TS = 168(1) K. In the 700°C-annealed crystal, an intermediate strain regime takes place, with tetragonal and orthorhombic structural phases coexisting between 80 to 120 K. The origin of such strong shifts in the transition temperatures are tied to structural parameters. Importantly, with annealing, an increase in the Fe-As length leads to more localized Fe electrons and higher local magnetic moments on Fe ions. Synergistic contribution of other structural parameters, including a decrease in the Fe-Fe distance, and a dramatic increase of the c-parameter, which enhances the Fermi surface nesting in CaFe2As2, are also discussed.

  2. P- T- X controls on Ca and Na distribution between Mg-Al tourmaline and fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryman, Eleanor J.; Wunder, Bernd; Rhede, Dieter; Schettler, Georg; Franz, Gerhard; Heinrich, Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    Ca-Na partitioning between tourmaline and a coexisting fluid is investigated in the system CaO-Na2O-B2O3-Al2O3-MgO-SiO2-H2O-Cl between 0.2-4.0 GPa and 500-700 °C. The synthesis experiments produced a mineral assemblage of tourmaline, coesite/quartz, and in some cases additional phases, typically comprising <1 wt% of the solid product. The synthesized tourmalines are solid solutions of dravite [NaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)], "oxy-uvite" (i.e. "Ca-Mg-O root name") [CaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3O], and magnesio-foitite [☐(Mg2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)]. Starting materials comprised a fluid of constant ionic strength (2.00 m) and an oxide mixture with a constant Mg/Al ratio. As a result, the number of vacancies at the X site and the Mg/Al ratio of tourmaline crystals synthesized at the same temperature vary only slightly. The major solid solution is Ca-Na exchange at the X site via the exchange vector X Ca W O[ X Na W (OH)]-1, with the exchange vector X (Ca☐)[ X Na2]-1 serving as a secondary Ca-incorporation mechanism. Tourmaline's X-site composition reflects the fluid composition, whereby the Ca (or Na) concentration in the fluid corresponds with the Ca (or Na) content in tourmaline at each pressure and temperature. At 0.2 GPa, 700 °C, Ca preferentially partitions into tourmaline, producing the most Ca-rich tourmaline crystals synthesized here. At pressures >1.0 GPa, Ca partitions preferentially into the fluid, resulting in Na-dominant tourmaline compositions. Temperature has a secondary effect on Ca-Na partitioning, with higher temperatures correlating with increased Ca incorporation in tourmaline. Based on the experimental findings, tourmaline is expected to have Ca-rich compositions when it forms in low pressure, high-temperature Ca-rich rocks, consistent with the current record of tourmaline occurrence. The bulk Mg/Al ratio and the pH of the tourmaline-forming system may also affect Ca incorporation in tourmaline, but remain to be investigated experimentally.

  3. Nanostructure evolution in joining of Al and Fe nanoparticles with femtosecond laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Z.; Huang, H.; Zhou, Y. E-mail: nzhou@uwaterloo.ca; Liu, L.; Hu, A.; Duley, W.; He, P. E-mail: nzhou@uwaterloo.ca

    2014-04-07

    The joining of Al-Fe nanoparticles (NPs) by femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation is reported in this paper. Fe and Al NPs were deposited on a carbon film in vacuum via fs laser ablation. Particles were then exposed to multiple fs laser pulses at fluences between 0.5 and 1.3 mJ/cm{sup 2}. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Electron Diffraction X-ray observations indicate that Al and Fe NPs bond to each other under these conditions. For comparison, bonding of Al to Al and Fe to Fe NPs was also investigated. The nanostructure, as observed using TEM, showed that individual Al NPs were monocrystalline while individual Fe NPs were polycrystalline prior to joining and that these structures are retained after the formation of Al-Al and Fe-Fe NPs. Al-Fe NPs produced by fs laser joining exhibited a mixed amorphous and crystalline phase at the interface. Bonding is suggested to originate from intermixing within a region of high field intensity between particles.

  4. Zirconium doped nano-dispersed oxides of Fe, Al and Zn for destruction of warfare agents

    SciTech Connect

    Stengl, Vaclav; Houskova, Vendula; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Murafa, Nataliya; Marikova, Monika; Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas

    2010-11-15

    Zirconium doped nano dispersive oxides of Fe, Al and Zn were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of the respective sulfate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized metal oxide hydroxides were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulfur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), soman (GD or (3,3'-Dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate) and VX agent (S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl-methylphosphonothionate). The presence of Zr{sup 4+} dopant can increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides, decreases their crystallites' sizes thereby it may contribute in enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface thus it can accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. Addition of Zr{sup 4+} converts the product of the reaction of ferric sulphate with urea from ferrihydrite to goethite. We found out that doped oxo-hydroxides Zr-FeO(OH) - being prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of ferric and zirconium oxo-sulfates mixture in aqueous solutions - exhibit a comparatively higher degradation activity towards chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Degradation of soman or VX agent on Zr-doped FeO(OH) containing ca. 8.3 wt.% of zirconium proceeded to completion within 30 min.

  5. The c/a Ratio in Quenched Fe-C and Fe-N steels - a Heuristic Story

    SciTech Connect

    Sherby, O; Wadsworth, J; Lesuer, D; Syn, C

    2006-01-31

    The body-centered tetragonal (BCT) structure in quenched Fe-C steels is usually illustrated to show a linear change in the c and a axes with an increase in carbon content from 0 to 1.4%C. The work of Campbell and Fink, however, shows that this continuous linear relationship is not correct. Rather, it was shown that the body-centered-cubic (BCC) structure is the stable structure from 0 to 0.6 wt%C with the c/a ratio equal to unity. An abrupt change in the c/a ratio to 1.02 occurs at 0.6 wt%C. The BCT structure forms, and the c/a ratio increases with further increase in carbon content. An identical observation is noted in quenched Fe-N steels. This discontinuity is explained by a change in the transformation process. It is proposed that a two-step transformation process occurs in the low carbon region, with the FCC first transforming to HCP and then from HCP to BCC. In the high carbon region, the FCC structure transforms to the BCT structure. The results are explained with the Engel-Brewer theory of valence and crystal structure of the elements. An understanding of the strength of quenched iron-carbon steels plays a key role in the proposed explanation of the c/a anomaly based on interstitial solutes and precipitates.

  6. Spectroscopic study of red-light-emitting centers in K2Al2B2O7: Fe single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogorodnikov, I. N.; Pustovarov, V. A.; Yakovlev, S. A.; Isaenko, L. I.

    2013-04-01

    We report on spectroscopic study of red-light-emitting centers in K2Al2B2O7 (KABO) single crystals containing ca. 2 ppm of Fe3+. Owing to the low Fe3+-concentration, KABO does not show noticeable absorption due to Fe3+d-d-transitions in the visible spectral region, but it exhibits the charge-transfer (CT) UV-absorption bands O-Fe at 4.7, 5.7 and 6.5 eV. The red photoluminescence at 1.675 eV (FWHM = 0.173 eV) is due to intracenter 4T1 (4G) → 6A1 (6S) transitions in Fe3+ ions. Because of partial overlapping of the fundamental absorption edge of the crystal, where mobile excitons are created, and a broad CT absorption band at 6.5 eV, the most intensive red emission occurs at 7 K upon excitation in the excitonic energy region. The presence of two nonequivalent Al2O7 clusters in KABO lattice provides two different types of red-light-emitting centers in the form of Fe3+ ion occupied the Al3+ tetrahedral site. Superposition of their luminescence bands determines both the spectrum and temperature dependence of red emission in KABO at T = 7-80 K: two bands with the ratio of intensities of ca. 2:1 are 20 meV-shifted relative to each other; two-stage thermal quenching obeys the Mott law with ET = 9 and 20 meV.

  7. Infrared spectroscopy of rare-earth-doped CaFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Zhen; Huffman, T. J.; Xu, Peng; Qazilbash, M. M.; Saha, S. R.; Drye, Tyler; Paglione, J.

    2014-03-01

    Recently, rare-earth doping in CaFe2As2 has been used to tune its electronic, magnetic, and structural properties. The substitution of rare-earth ions at the alkaline-earth sites leads to the suppression of the spin-density wave (SDW) phase transition in CaFe2As2. For example, Pr substitution results in a paramagnetic metal in the tetragonal phase that is susceptible to a low temperature structural transition to a collapsed tetragonal phase. However, La-doped CaFe2As2 remains in the uncollapsed tetragonal structure down to the lowest measured temperatures. Both the uncollapsed and collapsed tetragonal structures exhibit superconductivity with maximum Tc reaching 47 K, the highest observed in inter-metallics albeit with a small superconducting volume fraction. In this work, we perform ab-plane infrared spectroscopy of rare-earth-doped CaFe2As2 at different cryogenic temperatures. Our aim is to ascertain the contributions of electron doping and chemical pressure to the charge and lattice dynamics of this iron-arsenide system.

  8. Comparison of metals extractability from Al/Fe-based drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhui; Bai, Leilei; Pei, Yuansheng; Wendling, Laura A

    2014-12-01

    Recycling of drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) as environment amendments has attracted substantial interest due to their productive reuse concomitant with waste minimization. In the present study, the extractability of metals within six Al/Fe-hydroxide-comprised WTRs collected throughout China was investigated using fractionation, in vitro digestion and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). The results suggested that the major components and structure of the WTRs investigated were similar. The WTRs were enriched in Al, Fe, Ca, and Mg, also contained varying quantities of As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, V, and Zn, but Ag, Hg, Sb, and Se were not detected. Most of the metals within the WTRs were largely non-extractable using the European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) procedure, but many metals exhibited high bioaccessibility based on in vitro digestion. However, the WTRs could be classified as non-hazardous according to the TCLP assessment method used by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Further analysis showed the communication factor, which is calculated as the ratio of total extractable metal by BCR procedure to the total metal, for most metals in the six WTRs, was similar, whereas the factor for Ba, Mn, Sr, and Zn varied substantially. Moreover, metals in the WTRs investigated had different risk assessment code. In summary, recycling of WTRs is subject to regulation based on assessment of risk due to metals prior to practical application.

  9. Comparison of metals extractability from Al/Fe-based drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhui; Bai, Leilei; Pei, Yuansheng; Wendling, Laura A

    2014-12-01

    Recycling of drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) as environment amendments has attracted substantial interest due to their productive reuse concomitant with waste minimization. In the present study, the extractability of metals within six Al/Fe-hydroxide-comprised WTRs collected throughout China was investigated using fractionation, in vitro digestion and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). The results suggested that the major components and structure of the WTRs investigated were similar. The WTRs were enriched in Al, Fe, Ca, and Mg, also contained varying quantities of As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, V, and Zn, but Ag, Hg, Sb, and Se were not detected. Most of the metals within the WTRs were largely non-extractable using the European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) procedure, but many metals exhibited high bioaccessibility based on in vitro digestion. However, the WTRs could be classified as non-hazardous according to the TCLP assessment method used by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Further analysis showed the communication factor, which is calculated as the ratio of total extractable metal by BCR procedure to the total metal, for most metals in the six WTRs, was similar, whereas the factor for Ba, Mn, Sr, and Zn varied substantially. Moreover, metals in the WTRs investigated had different risk assessment code. In summary, recycling of WTRs is subject to regulation based on assessment of risk due to metals prior to practical application. PMID:25023656

  10. Optical properties of heusler alloys Co2FeSi, Co2FeAl, Co2CrAl, and Co2CrGa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shreder, E. I.; Svyazhin, A. D.; Belozerova, K. A.

    2013-11-01

    The results of an investigation of optical properties and the calculations of the electronic structure of Co2FeSi, Co2FeAl, Co2CrAl, and Co2CrGa Heusler alloys are presented. The main focus of our attention is the study of the spectral dependence of the real part (ɛ1) and imaginary part (ɛ2) of the dielectric constant in the range of wavelengths λ = 0.3-13 μm using the ellipsometric method. An anomalous behavior of the optical conductivity σ(ω) has been found in the infrared range in the Co2CrAl and Co2CrGa alloys, which differs substantially from that in the Co2FeSi and Co2FeAl alloys. The results obtained are discussed based on the calculations of the electronic structure.

  11. Ca-Fe and Alkali-Halide Alteration of an Allende Type B CAI: Aqueous Alteration in Nebular or Asteroidal Settings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.

    2012-01-01

    Ca-Fe and alkali-halide alteration of CAIs is often attributed to aqueous alteration by fluids circulating on asteroidal parent bodies after the various chondritic components have been assembled, although debate continues about the roles of asteroidal vs. nebular modification processes [1-7]. Here we report de-tailed observations of alteration products in a large Type B2 CAI, TS4 from Allende, one of the oxidized subgroup of CV3s, and propose a speculative model for aqueous alteration of CAIs in a nebular setting. Ca-Fe alteration in this CAI consists predominantly of end-member hedenbergite, end-member andradite, and compositionally variable, magnesian high-Ca pyroxene. These phases are strongly concentrated in an unusual "nodule" enclosed within the interior of the CAI (Fig. 1). The Ca, Fe-rich nodule superficially resembles a clast that pre-dated and was engulfed by the CAI, but closer inspection shows that relic spinel grains are enclosed in the nodule, and corroded CAI primary phases interfinger with the Fe-rich phases at the nodule s margins. This CAI also contains abundant sodalite and nepheline (alkali-halide) alteration that occurs around the rims of the CAI, but also penetrates more deeply into the CAI. The two types of alteration (Ca-Fe and alkali-halide) are adjacent, and very fine-grained Fe-rich phases are associated with sodalite-rich regions. Both types of alteration appear to be replacive; if that is true, it would require substantial introduction of Fe, and transport of elements (Ti, Al and Mg) out of the nodule, and introduction of Na and Cl into alkali-halide rich zones. Parts of the CAI have been extensively metasomatized.

  12. Annealing study of (Ca,R)Fe2 As2 single crystals synthesized using Sn flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roncaioli, Connor; Drye, Tyler; Saha, Shanta; Paglione, Johnpierre

    2014-03-01

    The superconducting parent compound CaFe2As2 displays an AFM transition at 168 K that is closely linked to an orthorhombic structural distortion. Studies on self-flux (FeAs) grown crystals have revealed the ability to tune the structural and magnetic properties of this system by annealing, resulting in a phase diagram that spans from tetragonal/orthorhombic antiferromagnetism to the non-magnetic collapsed tetragonal phase. In this study, we investigate the effects of annealing on (Ca,R)Fe2As2 (R =rare earth) crystals grown in Sn flux in order to understand the role of growth conditions on the resultant phase diagram. We present investigations of x-ray, EDS, electrical transport and magnetization measurements and compare the resultant phase diagram with that of the self-flux case.

  13. Pressure-induced amorphous-to-amorphous configuration change in Ca-Al metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Lou, H. B.; Fang, Y. K.; Zeng, Q. S.; Lu, Y. H.; Wang, X. D.; Cao, Q. P.; Yang, K.; Yu, X. H.; Zheng, L.; Zhao, Y. D.; Chu, W. S.; Hu, T. D.; Wu, Z. Y.; Ahuja, R.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Pressure-induced amorphous-to-amorphous configuration changes in Ca-Al metallic glasses (MGs) were studied by performing in-situ room-temperature high-pressure x-ray diffraction up to about 40 GPa. Changes in compressibility at about 18 GPa, 15.5 GPa and 7.5 GPa during compression are detected in Ca80Al20, Ca72.7Al27.3, and Ca66.4Al33.6 MGs, respectively, whereas no clear change has been detected in the Ca50Al50 MG. The transfer of s electrons into d orbitals under pressure, reported for the pressure-induced phase transformations in pure polycrystalline Ca, is suggested to explain the observation of an amorphous-to-amorphous configuration change in this Ca-Al MG system. Results presented here show that the pressure induced amorphous-to-amorphous configuration is not limited to f electron-containing MGs. PMID:22530094

  14. Ca and Fe modified biochars as adsorbents of arsenic and chromium in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Agrafioti, Evita; Kalderis, Dimitrios; Diamadopoulos, Evan

    2014-12-15

    This work investigated the production of Ca and Fe modified biochars in order to use them for the removal of arsenic As(V) and chromium Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. Rice husk was impregnated with CaO at an impregnation ratio 0.114, while both rice husk and the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes were impregnated with Fe(0) and Fe(3+) at impregnation ratios 0.114 and 0.23. The modified biochars exhibited high As(V) removal capacity (>95%), except for the case of rice husk impregnated with Fe(0), whose removal capacity reached only 58%. All modified biochars exhibited much better As(V) removal capacity compared to the non-impregnated biochars. However, the Cr(VI) removal rates were not as high as the As(V) ones. The maximum Cr(VI) removal was observed in the case of rice husk biochar impregnated with 2.3% w/w Fe(3+), whereas the majority of impregnation agents examined did not manage to enhance the biochars' Cr(VI) removal ability. The equilibrium study showed that the Freundlich model can adequately describe the sorption process for the majority of samples examined. Analysis of the amount of Fe present in the equilibrium solutions suggested that the main mechanisms of As(V) and Cr(VI) removal were possibly metal precipitation and electrostatic interactions between the modified biochars and the adsorbate.

  15. The microstructure-strength relationship in a deformation processed Al-Ca composite

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Liang; Kim, Hyongjune; Anderson, Iver; Russell, Alan

    2013-02-07

    An Al-9 vol% Ca composite was produced by powder metallurgy and deformation processing. The Al–Ca composite was extruded, swaged and wire drawn to a deformation true strain of 13.8. Both Al and Ca are face-centered cubic, so the Ca second phase deformed into continuous, nearly cylindrical filaments in the Al matrix. The formation of intermetallic compounds, filament coarsening, and spheriodization at elevated temperature was observed by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction. Both the thickness and spacing of the Ca filaments decreased exponentially with increasing deformation. The ultimate tensile strength of the composite increased rapidly with increased deformation, especially at high deformation processing strains. The relation between deformation true strain and ultimate tensile strength is underestimated by the rule of mixtures; a modified Hall–Petch barrier strengthening model was found to fit the data better.

  16. Enhanced spin signal in nonlocal devices based on a ferromagnetic CoFeAl alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridoux, G.; Costache, M. V.; Van de Vondel, J.; Neumann, I.; Valenzuela, S. O.

    2011-09-01

    We systematically study the nonlocal spin signal in lateral spin valves based on CoFeAl injectors and detectors and compare the results with identically fabricated devices based on CoFe. The devices are fabricated by electron beam evaporation at room temperature. We observe a > 10-fold enhancement of the spin signal in the CoFeAl devices. We explain this increase as due to the formation of a highly spin-polarized Co2FeAl Heusler compound with large resistivity. These results suggest that Heusler compounds are promising candidates as spin polarized electrodes in lateral spin devices for future spintronic applications.

  17. Preparation of Al-Cr-Fe Coatings by Heat Treatment of Electrodeposited Cr/Al Composite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Chang'an; Zhang, Guikai; Rao, Yongchu; Ling, Guoping

    Al-Cr-Fe coatings have been widely used in the surface engineering field of materials, due to their excellent corrosion resistance to water vapor and fused salt deposits. In this study, a new two-step approach was developed to prepare Al-Cr-Fe coatings on surfaces of SUS430 stainless steels. First, the Cr/Al composite coatings were prepared by electrodepositing Cr from aqueous solution then electrodepositing Al from AlCl3-1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride (AlCl3-EMIC) ionic liquid on SUS430 stainless steel substrate. In the second, heat treatment of the Cr/Al composite coatings was carried out to acquire Al-Cr-Fe coatings. Effects of the thickness of Cr/Al composite coatings, the time and temperature of heat treatment on composition and phase structure of alloy layers were studied by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), backscattered electron (BSE), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The structure transformation process and formation mechanism of Al-Cr-Fe coatings were discussed.

  18. Atmospheric reactive plasma sprayed Fe-Al 2 O 3 -FeAl 2 O 4 composite coating and its property evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; He, Jining; Yan, Dianran; Dong, Yanchun; Zhang, Jianxin; Li, Xiangzhi; Liao, Hanlin

    2011-09-01

    In the present study, Fe-Al2O3-FeAl2O4 composite coatings were successfully deposited by reactive plasma sprayed Al/Fe2O3 agglomerated powder. Phase composition and microstructure of the coatings were determined by XRD and SEM. The results indicated that the composite coatings were principally composed of three different phases, i.e. FeAl2O4 phase as main framework, dispersed ball-like Fe-rich phase, and small splats of Al2O3 phase, and it was thought that the in situ synthesized metal phase was helpful to toughen the coating matrix. According to the results of the indentation and frictional wear tests, the composite coating exhibited excellent toughness and anti-friction properties in comparison with conventional Al2O3 monophase coating, though its microhardness value was a little lower than that of Al2O3 coating. The formation mechanism and the toughening mechanism of the composite coating were clarified in detail.

  19. Interactions at the Al-S-Fe interface: S inhibition of aluminum oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Addepalli, S.G.; Lin, J.S.; Ekstrom, B.; Kelber, J.A.

    1999-08-01

    The deposition of aluminum on S/Fe(111) (1 x 1) at 300 K in UHV results in the formation of a disordered S-modified Al adlayer. Insertion of Al between the sulfur atoms and the Fe substrate is indicated by an increase of the S Auger signal with increasing Al deposition. Room-temperature oxidation of AlS/Fe(111) in UHV is inhibited compared to the oxidation of aluminum deposited on the sulfur-free Fe(111). The oxygen-uptake curves and variations in the S(LVV), Fe(MVV) intensities with oxygen exposure are also consistent with the insertion of the aluminum atoms between the S overlayer and the Fe substrate.

  20. Ca-rich Ca-Al-oxide, high-temperature-stable sorbents prepared from hydrotalcite precursors: synthesis, characterization, and CO2 capture capacity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Po-Hsueh; Chang, Yen-Po; Chen, San-Yuan; Yu, Ching-Tsung; Chyou, Yau-Pin

    2011-12-16

    We present the design and synthesis of Ca-rich Ca-Al-O oxides, with Ca(2+)/Al(3+) ratios of 1:1, 3:1, 5:1, and 7:1, which were prepared by hydrothermal decomposition of coprecipitated hydrotalcite-like Ca-Al-CO(3) precursors, for high-temperature CO(2) adsorption at 500-700 °C. In situ X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that the coprecipitated, Ca-rich, hydrotalcite-like powders with Ca(2+)/Al(3+) ratios of 5:1 and 7:1 contained Ca(OH)(2) and layered double hydroxide (LDH) phases. Upon annealing, LDH was first destroyed at approximately 200 °C to form an amorphous matrix, and then at 450-550 °C, the Ca(OH)(2) phase was converted into a CaO matrix with incorporated Al(3+) to form a homogeneous solid solution without a disrupted lattice structure. CaO nanocrystals were grown by thermal treatment of the weakly crystalline Ca-Al-O oxide matrix. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that a CO(2) adsorption capacity of approximately 51 wt. % can be obtained from Ca-rich Ca-Al-O oxides prepared by calcination of 7:1 Ca-Al-CO(3) LDH phases at 600-700 °C. Furthermore, a relatively high CO(2) capture capability can be achieved, even with gas flows containing very low CO(2) concentrations (CO(2)/N(2) = 10 %). Approximately 95.6 % of the initial CO(2) adsorption capacity of the adsorbent is retained after 30 cycles of carbonation-calcination. TEM analysis indicates that carbonation-promoted CaCO(3) formation in the Ca-Al-O oxide matrix at 600 °C, but a subsequent desorption in N(2) at 700 °C, caused the formation CaO nanocrystals of approximately 10 nm. The CaO nanocrystals are widely distributed in the weakly crystalline Ca-Al-O oxide matrix and are present during the carbonation-calcination cycles. This demonstrates that Ca-Al-O sorbents that developed through the synthesis and calcination of Ca-rich Ca-Al LDH phases are suitable for long-term cyclic operation in severe temperature environments.

  1. Complexation of pectin with macro- and microelements. Antianemic activity of Na, Fe and Na, Ca, Fe complexes.

    PubMed

    Minzanova, S T; Mironov, V F; Vyshtakalyuk, A B; Tsepaeva, O V; Mironova, L G; Mindubaev, A Z; Nizameev, I R; Kholin, K V; Milyukov, V A

    2015-12-10

    New water-soluble pectin complexes with Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+) on the basis of pectin biopolymer have been synthesized and successfully tested on white rats. For a starting, we have obtained a sodium pectate to enhance solubility of target complexes as a whole. Shortly afterwards, running the reaction of ligand exchange of Nа(+) ions with corresponding s-, d- metal cations we were able to synthesize new pectin complexes. The ranges of s-, d-metals salts concentrations were detected experimentally, in which the selective formation of water-soluble complexes occurred. Antianemic effect of new pectin complexes with Na, Fe and Na, Ca, Fe was investigated on white rats with posthemorrhagic anemia. Under the effect of complexes, the improvement of animals and prevention of erythropoiesis disorders were observed. Antianemic effect of the complexes manifested itself in the doses equivalent to 25% or 50% of the iron daily rate, recommended in the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia with the drugs based on iron sulphate. PMID:26428154

  2. Structure of Fe3Si/Al/Fe3Si thin film stacks on GaAs(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenichen, B.; Jahn, U.; Nikulin, A.; Herfort, J.; Kirmse, H.

    2015-11-01

    Fe3Si/Al/Fe3Si/GaAs(001) structures were deposited by molecular-beam epitaxy and characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The first Fe3Si film on GaAs(001) grew epitaxially as a (001) oriented single crystal. The subsequent Al film grew almost {111} oriented in a fibrous texture although the underlying Fe3Si is exactly (001) oriented. The growth in this orientation is triggered by a thin transition region which is formed at the Fe3Si/Al interface. In the end, after the growth of the second Fe3Si layer on top of the Al, the final properties of the whole stack depended on the substrate temperature T s during deposition of the last film. The upper Fe3Si films are mainly {110} oriented although they are poly-crystalline. At lower T s, around room temperature, all the films retain their original structural properties.

  3. Effect of FeO and CaO on the Sulfide Capacity of the Ferronickel Smelting Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki Deok; Huh, Wan Wook; Min, Dong Joon

    2014-06-01

    The effect of FeO and CaO on the sulfide capacity in MgO-SiO2-FeO based slags equilibrating with Fe-Ni alloys at 1773 K and 1873 K (1500 °C and 1600 °C) was investigated. The sulfide capacity in the MgO-SiO2-FeO and MgO-SiO2-CaO-FeO slags increased with higher FeO content and higher temperatures due to an increase in the activity of O2- and a decrease in the activity coefficient of sulfide ion in slag. The sulfide capacity of the MgO-SiO2-CaO-FeO slag also increased with an increase in the CaO content due largely to the increase in the activity of O2-. Furthermore, CaO and FeO seem to be more effective than MgO in increasing the sulfide capacity in the MgO-SiO2-CaO-FeO slag system. In addition, the comparison of the experimental results with the theoretical estimate using the modified empirical optical basicity showed relatively good linear agreement.

  4. Local structures of Ca, Ti and Fe in meteorite fusion crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobase, T.; Yoshiasa, A.; Hiratoko, T.; Hongu, H.; Isobe, H.; Nakatsuka, A.; Arima, H.; Sugiyama, K.

    2016-05-01

    The local structures of meteorite fusion crusts were studied by Ca, Ti and Fe K-edge XANES and EXAFS spectroscopy. The surface of meteorites were melted and volatilized with extreme high temperature and large temperature gradient when meteorites were rushed into atmosphere. This study indicated that meteorite fusion crusts have unique local structures. The local structures of fusion crusts differ from tektites especially in intensity of the shoulder in the rising flank of the edge in Ca XANES spectra. It is consistent with chemical composition change by the volatilization of Si at fusion during atmospheric entry. The high estimated Fe3+/ (Fe2++Fe3+) ratio in meteorite fusion crusts indicates that meteorite fusion crusts are formed into atmospheric oxidation condition. The Ca-O distances in meteorite fusion crusts are 2.612.66 A and are extremely longer than in other natural glasses. The fusion crusts have unique local structure since they experienced extremely high temperature and short quenching time. The XAFS method is effective in distinction of meteorite fusion crusts and classification of natural glass.

  5. Study of Al impurity induced magnetic instability in CeFe{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Rakesh; Srivastava, S. K.

    2015-05-15

    We report experimental and computational studies on Al impurity induced magnetic instabilities in CeFe{sub 2}. The work is based on the reported first order magneto-structural phase transition in Ce(Fe{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}){sub 2}, with 0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.08, below 90 K. We performed first-principles calculations of electronic and magnetic properties of Ce(Fe{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}){sub 2} for x = 0.031 and 0.25. A concentration dependence of Fe and Ce moments is observed, while the Al impurity does not carry any appreciable moment in either case. We investigated spin-polarised partial density of states of Ce(Fe{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}){sub 2} and their various hybridizations in order to find an answer for an antiferromagnetic kind of order at low temperatures.

  6. Vitality and chemistry of roots of red spruce in forest floors of stands with a gradient of soil Al/Ca ratios in the northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wargo, P.M.; Vogt, K.; Vogt, D.; Holifield, Q.; Tilley, J.; Lawrence, G.; David, M.

    2003-01-01

    Number of living root tips per branch, percent dead roots, percent mycorrhizae and mycorrhizal morphotype, response of woody roots to wounding and colonization by fungi, and concentrations of starch, soluble sugars, phenols, percent C and N and C/N ratio, and Al Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, and P were measured for 2 consecutive years in roots of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) in stands in the northeastern United States (nine in 1993 and two additional in 1994) dominated by red spruce and with a gradient of forest floor exchangeable Al/Ca ratios. Root vitality was measured for nonwoody and coarse woody roots; chemical variables were measured for nonwoody (<1 mm), fine woody (1 to <2 mm), and coarse woody (2 to <5 mm) roots. There were significant differences among sites for all variables, particularly in 1993, although few were related to the Al/Ca ratio gradient. Percent mycorrhizae decreased, while some morphotypes increased or decreased as the Al/Ca ratio increased. In nonwoody roots, N increased as the Al/Ca ratio increased. Most sampled trees appeared to be in good or fair health, suggesting that an adverse response of these root variables to high Al concentrations may be apparent only after a significant change in crown health.

  7. Ferrimagnetism in the double perovskite Ca2FeOsO6: A density functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongbo; Zhu, Shasha; Ou, Xuedong; Wu, Hua

    2014-08-01

    Using density functional calculations, we find that the newly synthesized Ca2FeOsO6 has the high-spin Fe3+ (3d5)-Os5+ (5d3) state. The octahedral Os5+ ion has a large intrinsic exchange splitting, and its t2g↑3 configuration makes the spin-orbit coupling ineffective. Moreover, there is a strong antiferromagnetic (AF) coupling between the neighboring Fe3+ (S=5/2) and Os5+ (S=-3/2), but the AF couplings within both the fcc Fe3+ and Os5+ sublattices are one order of magnitude weaker. Therefore a magnetic frustration is suppressed and a stable ferrimagnetic ground state appears. This ferrimagnetic order is due to the virtual hopping of the t2g electrons from Os5+ (t2g↓3) to Fe3+ (t2g↑3eg↑2). However, if the experimental bended Fe3+-O2--Os5+ exchange path gets straight, the eg hopping from Fe3+ (t2g↑3eg↑2) to Os5+ (t2g↑3) would be facilitated and then a ferromagnetic (FM) coupling would occur.

  8. The effect of H2O gas on volatilities of planet-forming major elements. I - Experimental determination of thermodynamic properties of Ca-, Al-, and Si-hydroxide gas molecules and its application to the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, Akihiko

    1992-01-01

    The vapor pressures of Ca(OH)2(g), Al(OH)3(g), and Si(OH)4(g) molecules in equilibrium with solid calcium-, aluminum, and silicon-oxides, respectively, were determined, and were used to derive the heats of formation and entropies of these species, which are expected to be abundant under the currently postulated physical conditions in the primordial solar nebula. These data, in conjunction with thermodynamic data from literature, were used to calculate the relative abundances of M, MO(x), and M(OH)n gas species and relative volatilities of Fe, Mg, Si, Ca, and Al for ranges of temperature, total pressure, and H/O abundance ratio corresponding to the plausible ranges of physical conditions in the solar nebula. The results are used to explain how Ca and Al could have evaporated from Ca,Al-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites, while Si, Mg, and Fe condensed onto them during the preaccretion alteration of CAIs.

  9. Aluminum Deoxidation Equilibria in Liquid Iron: Part III—Experiments and Thermodynamic Modeling of the Fe-Mn-Al-O System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paek, Min-Kyu; Do, Kyung-Hyo; Kang, Youn-Bae; Jung, In-Ho; Pak, Jong-Jin

    2016-10-01

    Deoxidation equilibria in high-Mn- and high-Al-alloyed liquid steels were studied over the entire Fe-Mn-Al composition range by both experiments and thermodynamic modeling. Effect of Mn on the Al deoxidation equilibria in liquid iron was measured by the different experimental techniques depending on the Al content. In order to confirm the reproducibility of the experimental results, the deoxidation experiments were carried out reversibly from high oxygen state by addition of Al as a deoxidizer, and from low oxygen state by addition of Fe2O3 or MnO as an oxygen source. For the Al-rich side, CaO flux was added on top of liquid iron in order to remove suspended Al2O3 inclusions in the melt. Based on the present experimental result and available critically evaluated literature data, the Al deoxidation equilibria in Fe-Mn-Al-O liquid alloy were thermodynamically modeled. The Modified Quasichemical Model was used in order to take into account a strong short-range ordering of atoms in molten state. Deoxidation equilibria and inclusion stability diagram for entire Fe-Mn-Al melt were successfully reproduced by the present model.

  10. Multiple diffraction in an icosahedral Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, C. Z.; Weber, Th.; Deloudi, S.; Steurer, W.

    2011-07-01

    In order to reveal its influence on quasicrystal structure analysis, multiple diffraction (MD) effects in an icosahedral Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystal have been investigated in-house on an Oxford Diffraction four-circle diffractometer equipped with an Onyx™ CCD area detector and MoKα radiation. For that purpose, an automated approach for Renninger scans (ψ-scans) has been developed. Two weak reflections were chosen as the main reflections (called P) in the present measurements. As is well known for periodic crystals, it is also observed for this quasicrystal that the intensity of the main reflection may significantly increase if the simultaneous (H) and the coupling (P-H) reflections are both strong, while there is no obvious MD effect if one of them is weak. The occurrence of MD events during ψ-scans has been studied based on an ideal structure model and the kinematical MD theory. The reliability of the approach is revealed by the good agreement between simulation and experiment. It shows that the multiple diffraction effect is quite significant.

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of compatibility of several reinforcement materials with FeAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    1988-01-01

    Chemical compatibility of several reinforcement materials with FeAl alloys within the concentration range 40 to 50 at pct Al have been analyzed from thermodynamic considerations at 1173 and 1273 K. The reinforcement materials considered in this study include carbides, borides, oxides, nitrides, and silicides. Although several chemically compatible reinforcement materials are identified, the coefficients of thermal expansion for none of these materials match closely with that of FeAl alloys and this might pose serious problems in the design of composite systems based on FeAl alloys.

  12. Third element effect in the surface zone of Fe-Cr-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airiskallio, E.; Nurmi, E.; Heinonen, M. H.; Väyrynen, I. J.; Kokko, K.; Ropo, M.; Punkkinen, M. P. J.; Pitkänen, H.; Alatalo, M.; Kollár, J.; Johansson, B.; Vitos, L.

    2010-01-01

    The third element effect to improve the high temperature corrosion resistance of the low-Al Fe-Cr-Al alloys is suggested to involve a mechanism that boosts the recovering of the Al concentration to the required level in the Al-depleted zone beneath the oxide layer. We propose that the key factor in this mechanism is the coexistent Cr depletion that helps to maintain a sufficient Al content in the depleted zone. Several previous experiments related to our study support that conditions for such a mechanism to be functional prevail in real oxidation processes of Fe-Cr-Al alloys.

  13. Phonons of Fe-based superconductor Ca10Pt4As8(Fe1-x Pt x As)10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeuchi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Itoh, M.; Kajimoto, R.; Bourges, P.; Christianson, A. D.; Nakamura, H.; Machida, M.; Sato, M.

    2015-11-01

    We report the results of inelastic neutron scattering measurements on particular phonons of a superconducting (SC) Ca10Pt4As8(Fe1-x Pt x As)10 with the onset transition temperature T c ~ 33 K to investigate mainly what roles orbital fluctuation plays in Cooper pairing, where we observed a slight softening of the in-plane transverse acoustic mode corresponding to the elastic constant C 66. This softening starts at temperature T well above the SC T c, as T decreases. An anomalously strong change of the scattering intensity of in-plane optical modes was observed at the M point of the pseudo tetragonal reciprocal space in the range of 35  <  ω  <  40 meV with decreasing T from far above T c. Because this ω region mainly corresponds to the motion of Fe and As atoms in the FeAs planes, the finding presents information on the coupling between the orbital fluctuation of Fe 3d electrons and the lattice system, useful for studying the possible roles of orbital fluctuation in the pairing mechanism and/or the appearance of the so-called nematic phase.

  14. Phonons of Fe-based superconductor Ca10Pt4As8(Fe1-x Pt x As)10.

    PubMed

    Ikeuchi, K; Kobayashi, Y; Suzuki, K; Itoh, M; Kajimoto, R; Bourges, P; Christianson, A D; Nakamura, H; Machida, M; Sato, M

    2015-11-25

    We report the results of inelastic neutron scattering measurements on particular phonons of a superconducting (SC) Ca10Pt4As8(Fe1-x Pt x As)10 with the onset transition temperature T c ~ 33 K to investigate mainly what roles orbital fluctuation plays in Cooper pairing, where we observed a slight softening of the in-plane transverse acoustic mode corresponding to the elastic constant C 66. This softening starts at temperature T well above the SC T c, as T decreases. An anomalously strong change of the scattering intensity of in-plane optical modes was observed at the M point of the pseudo tetragonal reciprocal space in the range of 35  <  ω  <  40 meV with decreasing T from far above T c. Because this ω region mainly corresponds to the motion of Fe and As atoms in the FeAs planes, the finding presents information on the coupling between the orbital fluctuation of Fe 3d electrons and the lattice system, useful for studying the possible roles of orbital fluctuation in the pairing mechanism and/or the appearance of the so-called nematic phase.

  15. Determination of Gibbs Free Energy of Formation from Elements for Ca4Fe9O17 by Solid-state Galvanic Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui-Yu; Guo, Xing-Min

    2015-02-01

    Aiming to fill the thermodynamic blank in CaO-FeO-Fe2O3 system, the determination of the Gibbs free energy of formation from elements for ternary Ca4Fe9O17 was carried out using a solid-state galvanic cell with air and calcium zirconate material, respectively, as the reference electrode and electrolyte. The ternary system Ca2Fe2O5-CaFe2O4-Ca4Fe9O17 was selected as the measuring electrode and its equilibrium was confirmed. The essential thermodynamic data of Ca2Fe2O5 and CaFe2O4 were cited from the reassessed data from a previous investigation. The reversible electromotive forces of the cell were determined from 1273 K to 1473 K (1000 °C to 1200 °C). The Gibbs free energy of formation from elements for Ca4Fe9O17 was derived and given by: The increment of enthalpy and entropy of formation from elements for Ca4Fe9O17 at 298 K (25 °C) are calculated to be and . The Ellingham diagram was developed in temperature range 1273 K to 1473 K (1000 °C to 1200 °C). The oxygen potential of Ca4Fe9O17 was found to be slightly higher than CaFe2O4 and much higher than Ca2Fe2O5.

  16. Structural disorder and magnetism in the spin-gapless semiconductor CoFeCrAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Renu; Kharel, Parashu; Valloppilly, Shah R.; Jin, Yunlong; O'Connell, Andrew; Huh, Yung; Gilbert, Simeon; Kashyap, Arti; Sellmyer, D. J.; Skomski, Ralph

    2016-05-01

    Disordered CoFeCrAl and CoFeCrSi0.5Al0.5 alloys have been investigated experimentally and by first-principle calculations. The melt-spun and annealed samples all exhibit Heusler-type superlattice peaks, but the peak intensities indicate a substantial degree of B2-type chemical disorder. Si substitution reduces the degree of this disorder. Our theoretical analysis also considers several types of antisite disorder (Fe-Co, Fe-Cr, Co-Cr) in Y-ordered CoFeCrAl and partial substitution of Si for Al. The substitution transforms the spin-gapless semiconductor CoFeCrAl into a half-metallic ferrimagnet and increases the half-metallic band gap by 0.12 eV. Compared CoFeCrAl, the moment of CoFeCrSi0.5Al0.5 is predicted to increase from 2.01 μB to 2.50 μB per formula unit, in good agreement with experiment.

  17. Stripes and antiphase boundaries in CaFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Chris; Rodriguez, Efrain; Green, Mark; Lee, Nara; Cheong, S.-W.

    2015-03-01

    We report on the magnetic structure and spin dynamics in CaFe2O4 based upon an orthorhombic structure. The magnetic structure consists of two competing magnetic phases based upon stripes of S =5/2 Fe3+ ions. The magnetic dynamics illustrate that the coupling is primarily two dimensional. On application of a magnetic field, antiphase magnetic boundaries can be introduced into the lattice and frozen in at low temperatures. We investigate the structure and dynamics of these domains using polarized and unpolarized neutron scattering and discuss how the triangular geometry allow these localized defects to be energetically favorable. Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland, Royal Society, and EPSRC.

  18. Mössbauer and XRD study of intercalated CaFe-layered double hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipiczki, Mónika; Kuzmann, Ernő; Pálinkó, István; Homonnay, Zoltán; Sipos, Pál; Kukovecz, Ákos; Kónya, Zoltán

    2014-04-01

    N-containing fully saturated (L-prolinate) or aromatic (indole-2-carboxylate) heterocyclic anions were immobilised in CaFe-layered double hydroxide with the dehydration-rehydration method from aqueous ethanol or acetone. The structure of the resulting organic-inorganic hybrids was characterised mainly with powder X-ray diffraction and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, and as supplementary analysis scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy with elemental mapping and molecular modelling were also applied. It was found that the solvent mixture used for the synthesis caused enormous difference in the interlayer spacings of the obtained inorganic-organic hybrids.

  19. Surface structures of Al-Pd-Mn and Al-Cu-Fe icosahedral quasicrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Z.

    1999-02-12

    In this dissertation, the author reports on the surface structure of i-Al-Pd-Mn twofold, threefold, fivefold and i-Al-Cu-Fe fivefold surfaces. The LEED studies indicate the existence of two distinct stages in the regrowth of all four surfaces after Ar{sup +} sputtering. In the first stage, upon annealing at relatively low temperature: 500K--800K (depending on different surfaces), a cubic phase appears. The cubic LEED patterns transform irreversibly to unreconstructed quasicrystalline patterns upon annealing to higher temperatures, indicating that the cubic overlayers are metastable. Based upon the data for three chemically-identical, but symmetrically-inequivalent surfaces, a model is developed for the relation between the cubic overlayers and the quasicrystalline substrate. The model is based upon the related symmetries of cubic close-packed and icosahedral-packed materials. These results may be general among Al-rich, icosahedral materials. STM study of Al-Pd-Mn fivefold surface shows that terrace-step-kink structures start to form on the surface after annealing above 700K. Large, atomic ally-flat terraces were formed after annealing at 900K. Fine structures with fivefold icosahedral symmetry were found on those terraces. Data analysis and comparison of the STM images and structure model of icosahedral Al-Pd-Mn suggest that the fine structures in the STM images may be the pseudo Mackay (PMI) clusters which are the structure units of the structure model. Based upon his results, he can conclude that quasicrystalline structures are the stable structures of quasicrystal surfaces. In other words, quasicrystalline structures extend from the bulk to the surface. As a result of the effort reported in this dissertation, he believes that he has increased his understanding of the surface structure of icosahedral quasicrystals to a new level.

  20. Ca(2+) -Induced Oxygen Generation by FeO4(2-) at pH 9-10.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Lam, William W Y; Lo, Po-Kam; Lau, Kai-Chung; Lau, Tai-Chu

    2016-02-24

    Although FeO4(2-) (ferrate(IV)) is a very strong oxidant that readily oxidizes water in acidic medium, at pH 9-10 it is relatively stable (<2 % decomposition after 1 h at 298 K). However, FeO4(2-) is readily activated by Ca(2+) at pH 9-10 to generate O2. The reaction has the following rate law: d[O2]/dt=kCa [Ca(2+) ][FeO4(2-)](2). (18)O-labeling experiments show that both O atoms in O2 come from FeO4(2-). These results together with DFT calculations suggest that the function of Ca(2+) is to facilitate O-O coupling between two FeO4 (2-) ions by bridging them together. Similar activating effects are also observed with Mg(2+) and Sr(2+). PMID:26798981

  1. CaFeAs2: A staggered intercalation of quantum spin Hall and high-temperature superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xianxin; Qin, Shengshan; Liang, Yi; Le, Congcong; Fan, Heng; Hu, Jiangping

    2015-02-01

    We predict that CaFeAs2, a newly discovered iron-based high-temperature (Tc) superconductor, is a staggered intercalation compound that integrates topological quantum spin Hall (QSH) and superconductivity (SC). CaFeAs2 has a structure with staggered CaAs and FeAs layers. While the FeAs layers are known to be responsible for high Tc superconductivity, we show that with spin orbital coupling each CaAs layer is a Z2 topologically nontrivial two-dimensional QSH insulator and the bulk is a three-dimensional weak topological insulator. In the superconducting state, the edge states in the CaAs layer are natural one-dimensional topological superconductors. The staggered intercalation of QSH and SC provides us a unique opportunity to realize and explore physics, such as Majorana modes and Majorana fermion chains.

  2. Phosphate-sulfide assemblages and Al/Ca ratios in type-3 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, A. E.; Grossman, J. N.

    1985-09-01

    Electron microscopic examinations were carried out on various chondrites to re-examine previously reported anomalously high Al/Ca ratios. Polished thin sections of the three CV3, two CO3 and the Krymka LL3 chondrites were scanned to characterize the phosphate-sulfide inclusions. The formation of the assemblages was interpreted as proceeding in five steps, starting with the formation of metal grains with early nebular material and finishing with a reaction between schreibersite with Ca, O and Cl to form merrillite and chloropatite. The abundances of the observed assemblages were not high enough to imply Al/Ca ratios similar to whole-rocks. It is concluded that the specimens were originally examined with a broader electron beam than used to examine standard samples, and resulted in the anomalously high Al/Ca ratios.

  3. Phosphate-sulfide assemblages and Al/Ca ratios in type-3 chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, A. E.; Grossman, J. N.

    1985-01-01

    Electron microscopic examinations were carried out on various chondrites to re-examine previously reported anomalously high Al/Ca ratios. Polished thin sections of the three CV3, two CO3 and the Krymka LL3 chondrites were scanned to characterize the phosphate-sulfide inclusions. The formation of the assemblages was interpreted as proceeding in five steps, starting with the formation of metal grains with early nebular material and finishing with a reaction between schreibersite with Ca, O and Cl to form merrillite and chloropatite. The abundances of the observed assemblages were not high enough to imply Al/Ca ratios similar to whole-rocks. It is concluded that the specimens were originally examined with a broader electron beam than used to examine standard samples, and resulted in the anomalously high Al/Ca ratios.

  4. The sulfur partition ratio with Fe-CSAT melts and the sulfide capacity of CaO-SiO2-Na2O- (Ai2O3) slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, A. H.; Fruehan, R. J.

    1989-02-01

    The sulfur partition ratio between slag and carbon saturated iron and the sulfide capacity of CaO-Na2O-SiO2 slags and a 48 pet CaO-45 pet Al2O3-7 pet SiO2-(Na2O) slag have been mea-sured at 1400 °C. The addition of Na2O to a CaO-SiO2 slag increases the sulfur partition ratio and the sulfide capacity; however, Na2O at low concentrations has no measurable effect on the sulfide capacity of a CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 slag. To convert the sulfur partition ratio to the sulfide capacity, the oxygen potential was calculated assuming equilibrium between iron in the alloy and FeO in the slag with the activity of FeO calculated via a regular solution model. The optical basicity may be used to correlate the data, but at high Na2O contents the data do not adhere to the correlation previously developed for CaO-based slags.

  5. Activities of the components in a spinel solid solution of the Fe-Al-O system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lykasov, A. A.; Kimyashev, A. A.

    2011-09-01

    The conditions of the equilibrium between the Fe3O4-FeAl2O4 solution and wustite are determined by measuring the EMF of galvanic cells containing a solid electrolyte, and the activities of the components in the Fe3O4-FeAl2O4 solution are calculated by treating the results of the experiment on the equilibrium between the spinel solution and wustite. Their properties are found to be different from those of ideal solutions at temperatures of 1000-1300 K. A significant positive deviation from the Raoult's law is believed to indicate the tendency of the solution to decompose. The experimental data are treated in terms of the theory of regular solutions, assuming the energy of mixing to be a function of temperature only. The critical temperature of decomposition for the Fe3O4-FeAl2O4 solution is found to be 1084 K.

  6. CaFe2As2 Under In-Plane Uniaxial Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frampton, Miles; Zieve, Rena; Dioguardi, Adam

    2014-03-01

    Many unconventional superconductors have a planar crystal structure, with a resulting two-dimensional character that favors superconductivity. They tend to have anisotropic behavior and can be very sensitive to uniaxial pressure. Since these materials often grow preferentially as platelets perpendicular to the crystalline c axis, applying in-plane pressure is challenging. We present a new setup for studying thin samples under uniaxial pressure and our results on CaFe2As2. CaFe2As2 undergoes a magnetic transition simultaneously with a tetragonal-to-orthorhombic structural transition. In-plane uniaxial pressure detwins the orthorhombic phase and accentuates the difference between the axes. We find a significant change in Ts as well as anisotropy of the in-plane resistivity that increases with pressure.

  7. Fermi-Surface Reconstruction and Complex Phase Equilibria in CaFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gofryk, K.; Saparov, B.; Durakiewicz, T.; Chikina, A.; Danzenbächer, S.; Vyalikh, D. V.; Graf, M. J.; Sefat, A. S.

    2014-05-01

    Fermi-surface topology governs the relationship between magnetism and superconductivity in iron-based materials. Using low-temperature transport, angle-resolved photoemission, and x-ray diffraction, we show unambiguous evidence of large Fermi-surface reconstruction in CaFe2As2 at magnetic spin-density-wave and nonmagnetic collapsed-tetragonal (cT) transitions. For the cT transition, the change in the Fermi-surface topology has a different character with no contribution from the hole part of the Fermi surface. In addition, the results suggest that the pressure effect in CaFe2As2 is mainly leading to a rigid-band-like change of the valence electronic structure. We discuss these results and their implications for magnetism and superconductivity in this material.

  8. High Pressure Synthesis and properties of (Ca,Pr)Fe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drye, Tyler; Taufour, Valentin; Kaluarachchi, Udhara; Ran, Sheng; Canfield, Paul; Paglione, Johnpierre

    2014-03-01

    Despite impressively high superconducting transition temperatures approaching 50 K, superconductivity in rare earth-doped CaFe2As2 appears to only involve a small volume fraction as determined by shielding fraction. In addition, the amount of Pr that can be doped into the system via ambient pressure flux synthesis is limited to <15%, due to a width of formation limitation. We report a study using high-pressure flux growth to substitute higher levels of Pr approaching 40% concentration. The superconducting properties of the resultant crystals are presented, including chemical composition, resistivity, and magnetization measurements. The final result is a complete phase diagram for the Pr-doped CaFe2As2 system. Work supported by an ICAM Junior Scientist Travel Award and an AFOSR MURI grant.

  9. Point defect concentrations and solid solution hardening in NiAl with Fe additions

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, L.M.; Chang, Y.A.; Liu, C.T.

    1997-08-01

    The solid solution hardening behavior exhibited when Fe is added to NiAl is investigated. This is an interesting problem to consider since the ternary Fe additions may choose to occupy either the Ni or the Al sublattice, affecting the hardness at differing rates. Moreover, the addition of Fe may affect the concentrations of other point defects such as vacancies and Ni anti-sites. As a result, unusual effects ranging from rapid hardening to solid solution softening are observed. Alloys with varying amounts of Fe were prepared in Ni-rich (40 at. % Al) and stoichiometric (50 at. % Al) compositions. Vacancy concentrations were measured using lattice parameter and density measurements. The site occupancy of Fe was determined using ALCHEMI. Using these two techniques the site occupancies of all species could be uniquely determined. Significant differences in the defect concentrations as well as the hardening behavior were encountered between the Ni-rich and stoichiometric regimes.

  10. Formation Mechanism of CaS-Bearing Inclusions and the Rolling Deformation in Al-Killed, Low-Alloy Steel with Ca Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guang; Jiang, Zhouhua; Li, Yang

    2016-08-01

    The existing form of CaS inclusion in Ca-treated, Al-killed steel during secondary refining process was investigated with scanning electron microscopy and an energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The results of 12 heats industrial tests showed that CaS has two kinds of precipitation forms. One form takes place by the direct reaction of Ca and S, and the other takes place by the reaction of CaO in calcium aluminates with dissolved Al and S in liquid steel. Thermodynamic research for different precipitation modes of CaS under different temperature was carried out. In particular, CaO-Al2O3-CaS isothermal section diagrams and component activities of calcium aluminates were calculated by the thermodynamic software FactSage. By thermodynamic calculation, a precipitation-area diagram of oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion was established by fixing the sulfur content. The quantity of CaS, which was precipitated in a reaction between [Al], [S] and (CaO), can be calculated and predicted based on the precipitation-area diagram of oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion. Electron probe microanalysis and EDS were used for observing rolling deformation of different types of CaS-bearing inclusions during the rolling process. Low modification of calcium aluminates wrapped by CaS has different degrees of harm to steel in the rolling process. A thick CaS layer can prevent some fragile calcium aluminates from being crushed during the rolling process. Some oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion contains little CaS performed better deformation during the rolling process, but when CaS in oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion becomes more, it will cause the whole inclusion to lose plastic yielding ability. The plastic deformation region of CaS-bearing inclusion in a CaO-Al2O3-CaS isothermal section diagram is confirmed.

  11. Investigation of Fe and Ca in non-stimulated human saliva using NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Medeiros, J. A. G.; Zamboni, C. B.; Kovacs, L.; Lewgoy, H. R.

    2015-07-01

    In this study we investigated non-stimulated human whole saliva of healthy subjects and patients with periodontal disease using Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA). The measurements were performed in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP. We found considerable metabolic changes mainly in Fe and Ca concentration in whole saliva of periodontal patients. These data are useful for identifying or preventing this oral disease in the Brazilian population.

  12. Development of ODS FeCrAl alloys for accident-tolerant fuel cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N.; Hoelzer, David T.; Pint, Bruce A.; Unocic, Kinga A.

    2015-09-18

    FeCrAl alloys are prime candidates for accident-tolerant fuel cladding due to their excellent oxidation resistance up to 1400 C and good mechanical properties at intermediate temperature. Former commercial oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys such as PM2000 exhibit significantly better tensile strength than wrought FeCrAl alloys, which would alloy for the fabrication of a very thin (~250 m) ODS FeCrAl cladding and limit the neutronic penalty from the replacement of Zr-based alloys by Fe-based alloys. Several Fe-12-Cr-5Al ODS alloys where therefore fabricated by ball milling FeCrAl powders with Y2O3 and additional oxides such as TiO2 or ZrO2. The new Fe-12Cr-5Al ODS alloys showed excellent tensile strength up to 800 C but limited ductility. Good oxidation resistance in steam at 1200 and 1400 C was observed except for one ODS FeCrAl alloy containing Ti. Rolling trials were conducted at 300, 600 C and 800 C to simulate the fabrication of thin tube cladding and a plate thickness of ~0.6mm was reached before the formation of multiple edge cracks. Hardness measurements at different stages of the rolling process, before and after annealing for 1h at 1000 C, showed that a thinner plate thickness could likely be achieved by using a multi-step approach combining warm rolling and high temperature annealing. Finally, new Fe-10-12Cr-5.5-6Al-Z gas atomized powders have been purchased to fabricate the second generation of low-Cr ODS FeCrAl alloys. The main goals are to assess the effect of O, C, N and Zr contents on the ODS FeCrAl microstructure and mechanical properties, and to optimize the fabrication process to improve the ductility of the 2nd gen ODS FeCrAl while maintaining good mechanical strength and oxidation resistance.

  13. Thin film growth of CaFe2As2 by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatano, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Fujimoto, R.; Nakamura, I.; Mori, Y.; Harada, S.; Ujihara, T.; Ikuta, H.

    2016-01-01

    Film growth of CaFe2As2 was realized by molecular beam epitaxy on six different substrates that have a wide variation in the lattice mismatch to the target compound. By carefully adjusting the Ca-to-Fe flux ratio, we obtained single-phase thin films for most of the substrates. Interestingly, an expansion of the CaFe2As2 lattice to the out-of-plane direction was observed for all films, even when an opposite strain was expected. A detailed microstructure observation of the thin film grown on MgO by transmission electron microscope revealed that it consists of cube-on-cube and 45°-rotated domains. The latter domains were compressively strained in plane, which caused a stretching along the c-axis direction. Because the domains were well connected across the boundary with no appreciable discontinuity, we think that the out-of-plane expansion in the 45°-rotated domains exerted a tensile stress on the other domains, resulting in the unexpectedly large c-axis lattice parameter, despite the apparently opposite lattice mismatch.

  14. Improved dielectric and magnetic properties of Ti modified BiCaFeO3 multiferroic ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reetu; Agarwal, Ashish; Sanghi, Sujata; Ashima; Ahlawat, Neetu

    2013-01-01

    Ti substituted BiCaFeO3 ceramics having compositions Bi0.8Ca0.2Fe1-xTixO3 (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2) were synthesized by the conventional solid state reaction method. Powder X-ray diffraction investigations performed at room temperature show that all samples possess a rhombohedrally distorted perovskite structure described by the space group R3c. Rietveld refinement presented a good agreement between the observed and calculated patterns. Dielectric response of these samples was analyzed in the frequency range 1 kHz-5 MHz at different temperatures. Dispersion in dielectric constant (έ) and dielectric loss factor (tanδ) values decreases with Ti substitution. έ increases and tanδ decreases significantly by Ti substitution. Magnetic measurements were carried out at room temperature up to a field of 20 kOe. Magnetic properties of Bi0.8Ca0.2FeO3 ceramic are greatly improved on Ti substitution along with a significant opening in the room temperature M-H hysteresis loop. The values of remnant magnetization (Mr) 0.08 and 0.13 emu/g; coercivity (Hc) 4.25 and 5.50 kOe are observed for samples with x = 0.1 and 0.2, respectively.

  15. Microstructural stability of Fe-Cr-Al alloys at 450-550 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejenstam, Jesper; Thuvander, Mattias; Olsson, Pär; Rave, Fernando; Szakalos, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Iron-Chromium-Aluminium (Fe-Cr-Al) alloys have been widely investigated as candidate materials for various nuclear applications. Albeit the excellent corrosion resistance, conventional Fe-Cr-Al alloys suffer from α-α‧ phase separation and embrittlement when subjected to temperatures up to 500 °C, due to their high Cr-content. Low-Cr Fe-Cr-Al alloys are anticipated to be embrittlement resistant and provide adequate oxidation properties, yet long-term aging experiments and simulations are lacking in literature. In this study, Fe-10Cr-(4-8)Al alloys and a Fe-21Cr-5Al were thermally aged in the temperature interval of 450-550 °C for times up to 10,000 h, and the microstructures were evaluated mainly using atom probe tomography. In addition, a Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) model of the Fe-Cr-Al system was developed. No phase separation was observed in the Fe-10Cr-(4-8)Al alloys, and the developed KMC model yielded results in good agreement with the experimental data.

  16. Electronic structure of (Ca0.85La0.15)FeAs2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.-H.; Kim, T. K.; Sala, A.; Ogino, H.; Shimoyama, J.; Büchner, B.; Borisenko, S. V.

    2015-02-01

    We report a comprehensive study of orbital character and tridimensional nature of the electronic structure of (Ca0.85La0.15)FeAs2 from recently discovered "112" family of Iron-based superconductors (IBS), with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We observed that the band structure is similar to that of "122" family, namely, there are three hole-like bands at the Brillouin zone (BZ) center and two electron-like bands at the BZ corner. The bands near the Fermi level (EF) are mainly derived from the Fe t2g orbitals. On the basis of our present and earlier studies, we classify IBS into the three types according to their crystal structures. We show that although the bands near EF mainly originate from Fe 3d electrons, they are significantly modified by the interaction between the superconducting slabs and the intermediate atoms.

  17. THE LICK/SDSS LIBRARY. II. [Ca/Fe] AND [Mg/Fe] IN F, G, AND K STARS FROM SDSS-DR7

    SciTech Connect

    Franchini, M.; Morossi, C.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Malagnini, M. L.; Chavez, M. E-mail: morossi@oats.inaf.it E-mail: malagnini@oats.inaf.it

    2011-04-01

    We analyzed the spectra of 17,600 F, G, and K stars extracted from the seventh Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release (SDSS-DR7) database in order to derive ([{alpha}/Fe]), [Ca/Fe], and [Mg/Fe] ratios. Particular attention has been devoted to estimating homogeneous and self-consistent atmospheric parameter values, T{sub eff}, log g, and [Fe/H], by comparing synthetic and observational Lick/SDSS indices. We present results for the sub-sample of more than 4000 spectra whose overall quality allowed us to derive fairly accurate stellar atmospheric parameter values and, therefore, reliable abundance ratios. A Monte Carlo approach was adopted to evaluate both the errors in the observational Lick/SDSS indices and in the derived parameter estimates. The analysis of the trends of [Ca/Fe] and [Mg/Fe] versus [Fe/H] pointed out that (1) the [Ca/Fe] and [Mg/Fe] ratios increase with decreasing [Fe/H] with different slopes reaching maximum average levels of +0.25 and +0.40 dex at [Fe/H] {approx_equal} -1.75, respectively; (2) our sample contains, at a given [Fe/H], stars characterized by significantly different amounts of {alpha}-enhancement, thus belonging to different Galactic populations; and (3) the analyzed sample shows a predominance of thick disk stars for [Fe/H] > - 0.5 and the presence of stars belonging to the 'high-{alpha}' halo population for -2.0 < [Fe/H] <-0.5.

  18. Studies on water transport through the sweet cherry fruit surface. 7. Fe3+ and Al3+ reduce conductance for water uptake.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Marco; Peschel, Stefanie; Weichert, Holger; Knoche, Moritz

    2002-12-18

    The effects of the chloride salts LiCl, CaCl(2), MgCl(2), AlCl(3), EuCl(3), and FeCl(3) and the iron salts FeCl(2), FeCl(3), Fe(NO(3))(3), FeSO(4), and Fe(2)(SO(4))(3) on water conductance of exocarp segments (ES) and rates of water uptake into detached sweet cherry fruit (Prunus avium L. cv. Adriana, Early Rivers, Namare, Namosa, and Sam) were studied. ES were excised from the cheek of mature fruit and mounted in stainless steel diffusion cell; water penetration was monitored gravimetrically from donor solutions containing the above mineral salts into a PEG 6000 (osmolality = 1.14 osM, pH 4.8, 25 degrees C) receiver solution. Conductance of ES was calculated from the amount of water taken up per unit of surface area and time by dividing by the gradient in water activity across ES. LiCl, CaCl(2), MgCl(2), FeCl(2), and FeSO(4) had no significant effect on conductance, but AlCl(3), FeCl(3), Fe(NO(3))(3), and Fe(2)(SO(4))(3) significantly reduced conductance compared to water only as a donor. Also, EuCl(3) lowered conductance; however, this effect was not always significant. Effects of salts on water conductance of ES and rates of water uptake into detached fruit were closely related (R 2 = 0.97***). Upon application of an FeCl(3)-containing donor conductance decreased instantaneously. FeCl(3) concentrations of <6.6 x 10(-)(4) M had no effect on conductance, but concentrations at or above this threshold decreased conductance. FeCl(3) lowered water conductance at a receiver pH of 4.8, but not at pH < or =2.6. The effect of FeCl(3) on conductance was largest in cv. Namare and smallest in cv. Adriana. There was no significant effect of FeCl(3) on conductance for transpiration. Formation of aluminum and iron oxides and hydroxides in the exocarp as a result of a pH gradient between donor and receiver solution is discussed as the potential mechanism for Fe(3+) and Al(3+) reducing conductance for water uptake. PMID:12475277

  19. Composition and mineralogy of refractory-metal-rich assemblages from a Ca,Al-rich inclusion in the Allende meteorite

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, A. Institut fuer Mineralogie, Muenster ); Palme, H. )

    1987-10-01

    The authors have separated four refractory metal-rich samples (10 {mu}g to 190 {mu}g) from a single Ca,Al-inclusion of the Allende meteorite. Chemical analyses were performed by INAA. From the analyzed samples polished sections were prepared. Mineral phases from six large Fremdlinge and the surrounding inclusion were analyzed by EDS. Three of the four separated samples have variable absolute but similar relative abundances of refractory metals. The pattern is controlled by volatility. The most refractory metals W, Os, and Re are enriched relative to the less refractory metals Ir, Mo, Ru, and Pt. This pattern can be reproduced by condensation calculations. A metal alloy in equilibrium with a gas of solar composition at a temperature of 1672 K, a pressure of 10{sup {minus}3} atm, and an H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}-ratio of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} would have the same abundance pattern. All six Fremdlinge have similar texture and mineralogy. They are composed of Ni-rich metal containing 2-9% Ir, surrounded by a fine-grained intergrowth of V-magnetite and FeS. The Ni-Fe metal poikilitically encloses tiny Os-particles, domains of a W- and Mo-rich solid solution (Ca(W,Mo)O{sub 4}) and V-magnetite. Based on chemical and textural information obtained in this study the formation of these aggregates in four steps is suggested: (1) condensation of a refractory metal alloys (W, Os, Re, Ir, Mo, Ru); (2) oxidation of the refractory metal alloy, allowing formation of Ca(W,Mo)O{sub 4}; (3) condensation of Ni-rich metal and V-magnetite at high oxygen fugacity (relative to the f{sub O{sub 2}} in a solar gas); (4) reaction of the existing assemblage with S to form FeS at lower temperatures.

  20. Assessing the elastic properties and ductility of Fe-Cr-Al alloys from ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurmi, E.; Wang, G.; Kokko, K.; Vitos, L.

    2016-01-01

    Fe-Al is one of the best corrosion resistant alloys at high temperatures. The flip side of Al addition to Fe is the deterioration of the mechanical properties. This problem can be solved by adding a suitable amount of third alloying component. In the present work, we use ab initio calculations based on density functional theory to study the elastic properties of Fe?Cr?Al? alloys for Al and Cr contents up to 20 at.%. We assess the ductility as a function of chemistry by making use of the semi-empirical correlations between the elastic parameters and mechanical properties. In particular, we derive the bulk modulus to shear modulus ratio and the Cauchy pressure and monitor their trends in terms of chemical composition. The present findings are contrasted with the previously established oxidation resistance of Fe-Cr-Al alloys.

  1. New photocathode materials for hydrogen evolution: CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and Sr/sub 7/Fe/sub 10/O/sub 22/

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Y.; Omae, M.; Sugiyama, K.; Sato, E.

    1987-01-29

    The photoelectrochemical properties of p-type CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and Sr/sub 7/Fe/sub 10/O/sub 22/ are studied in N/sub 2/-saturated 0.25 M K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ (pH 6.0). The differences between the Fermi level and the top of the valence band are determined to be 0.14 and 0.4 eV for Sr/sub 7/Fe/sub 10/O/sub 22/ and CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/, respectively, from the activation energies of the conductivities and the Seebeck coefficients. The cathodic photocurrents of the hydrogen evolution are observed in the potential region more positive than RHE by 0.7-0.8 V. The band gaps are 1.8 and 1.9 eV for Sr/sub 7/Fe/sub 10/O/sub 22/ and CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/, respectively. The flatband potential of Sr/sub 7/Fe/sub 10/O/sub 22/ is 0.1 V vs. SCE, but that of CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ cannot be determined because of the Fermi level pinning. Pt deposited on the surfaces of both electrodes accelerates the electrochemical process of the hydrogen evolution reaction. CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ is more stable than Sr/sub 7/Fe/sub 10/O/sub 22/ in the long-term test. The short circuit photocurrent of 0.3-0.4 ..mu..A/cm is observed in a Pt-deposited CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/(p type)/Zn/sub 1.2/Fe/sub 1.8/O/sub 4/ (n type) assembly under a xenon lamp illumination. The band structures of Sr/sub 7/Fe/sub 10/O/sub 22/ and CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and their photoelectrochemical processes are also discussed.

  2. Room-temperature serrated-flow behavior in Fe-rich FeAl under vacancy supersaturation

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimi, K.; Yoo, M.H.; Hanada, S.

    1998-11-01

    In Fe-rich FeAl, serrated plastic-flow behavior has been observed for the first time at room temperature. Serration on the tensile stress-strain curve occurs in single crystals that retained supersaturation of thermal vacancies after fast-cooling from the annealing temperature of 1173 K. In contrast to conventional serrated flow, the serrated flow in FeAl is associated with work hardening, and it becomes more pronounced with increasing Al content from 33 to 44 mol.%. The experimental results are interpreted in terms of the dynamic interaction of ({bar 1}01)[111] superdislocations with the excess thermal vacancies and their clusters, and the successive double cross-slip of screw superdislocations at the moving front of a slip band. The strong dependence on alloy composition and the lack of strain-rate sensitivity are discussed.

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of chemical compatibility of several compounds with Fe-Cr-Al alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical compatibility between Fe-19.8Cr-4.8Al (weight percent), which is the base composition for the commercial superalloy MA956, and several carbides, borides, nitrides, oxides, and silicides was analyzed from thermodynamic considerations. The effect of addition of minor alloying elements, such as Ti, Y, and Y2O3, to the Fe-Cr-Al alloy on chemical compatibility between the alloy and various compounds was also analyzed. Several chemically compatible compounds that can be potential reinforcement materials and/or interface coating materials for Fe-Cr-Al based composites were identified.

  4. The content of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg and Mn and antioxidant activity of green coffee brews.

    PubMed

    Stelmach, Ewelina; Pohl, Pawel; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna

    2015-09-01

    A simple and fast method of the analysis of green coffee infusions was developed to measure total concentrations of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg and Mn by high resolution-continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The precision of the method was within 1-8%, while the accuracy was within -1% to 2%. The method was used to the analysis of infusions of twelve green coffees of different geographical origin. It was found that Ca and Mg were leached the easiest, i.e., on average 75% and 70%, respectively. As compared to the mug coffee preparation, the rate of the extraction of elements was increased when infusions were prepared using dripper or Turkish coffee preparation methods. Additionally, it was established that the antioxidant activity of green coffee infusions prepared using the mug coffee preparation was high, 75% on average, and positively correlated with the total content of phenolic compounds and the concentration of Ca in the brew.

  5. The content of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg and Mn and antioxidant activity of green coffee brews.

    PubMed

    Stelmach, Ewelina; Pohl, Pawel; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna

    2015-09-01

    A simple and fast method of the analysis of green coffee infusions was developed to measure total concentrations of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg and Mn by high resolution-continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The precision of the method was within 1-8%, while the accuracy was within -1% to 2%. The method was used to the analysis of infusions of twelve green coffees of different geographical origin. It was found that Ca and Mg were leached the easiest, i.e., on average 75% and 70%, respectively. As compared to the mug coffee preparation, the rate of the extraction of elements was increased when infusions were prepared using dripper or Turkish coffee preparation methods. Additionally, it was established that the antioxidant activity of green coffee infusions prepared using the mug coffee preparation was high, 75% on average, and positively correlated with the total content of phenolic compounds and the concentration of Ca in the brew. PMID:25842341

  6. Temperature variation of the size effect in dilute AlMg and AlCa alloys: Measurement and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilder, H. M.; Asty, M.; Audit, Ph.

    1980-12-01

    Optical-interferometric-differential-length and x-ray lattice-parameter measurements performed at low temperatures in dilute AlMg and AlCa alloys indicate that the temperature variation of the size effect corresponds to a relatively large difference between the intrinsic coefficient of thermal expansion βi of the solute atom structure and that, β, of the solvent. This result is another example of the surprising expansive properties of point defects previously described by Gilder and co-workers (high-temperature vacancy diffusion) and more recently by Ganne (low-temperature dilatometry on irradiated specimens). Specifically, in the temperature range 0.2Ca)β~-4. This, as well as the fact that the sign of the change in the coefficient of thermal expansion Δβ of the host metal caused by the introduction of the solute atom is positive for Mg and negative for Ca, indicates that solute-solvent valence effects play a minor role in determining the coefficient of thermal expansion of the dilute alloy. It is also found, to within the experimental precision, that Δβ(Mg) and Δβ(Ca) are temperature independent, suggesting a type of Matthiessen's rule for thermal expansion. A model calculation of the size effect and its temperature variation in the infinitely dilute alloy is presented. The volume-dependent forces are treated by means of a term describing the elastic energy associated with the solute-solvent volume misfit, whereas the temperature-dependent potential of Dagens et al. is used to calculate the pairwise interaction between the solvent ions and the solute ion. Good agreement with the experimental data is obtained for the size effect in both AlMg and AlCa. The calculated values of Δβ(Mg)Ci, Ci being the solute concentration, and βi(Mg) fall between the measured values in the two AlMg alloys studied. The calculation of Δβ(Ca)Ci and βi(Ca) is not possible due to a lack of elastic-constants data for pure, metallic

  7. Effect of surface roughness on the development of protective Al 2O 3 on Fe-10Al (at.%) alloys containing 0-10 at.% Cr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. G.; Hou, P. Y.; Gesmundo, F.; Niu, Y.

    2006-11-01

    The effect of alloy surface roughness, achieved by different degrees of surface polishing, on the development of protective alumina layer on Fe-10 at.% Al alloys containing 0, 5, and 10 at.% Cr was investigated during oxidation at 1000 °C in 0.1 MPa oxygen. For alloys that are not strong Al 2O 3 formers (Fe-10Al and Fe-5Cr-10Al), the rougher surfaces increased Fe incorporation into the overall surface layer. On the Fe-10Al, more iron oxides were formed in a uniform layer of mixed aluminum- and iron-oxides since the layer was thicker. On the Fe-5Cr-10Al, more iron-rich nodules developed on an otherwise thin Al 2O 3 surface layer. These nodules nucleated preferentially along surface scratch marks but not on alloy grain boundaries. For the strong Al 2O 3-forming Fe-10Cr-10Al alloy, protective alumina surface layers were observed regardless of the surface roughness. These results indicate that the formation of a protective Al 2O 3 layer on Fe-Cr-Al surfaces is not dictated by Al diffusion to the surface. More cold-worked surfaces caused an enhanced Fe diffusion, hence produced more Fe-rich oxides during the early stage of oxidation.

  8. Elasticity of AlFeO3 and FeAlO3 perovskite and post-perovskite from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracas, R.

    2010-10-01

    We use state-of-the-art ab initio calculations based on the generalized gradient approximation of the density functional theory in the planar augmented wavefunction formalism to determine the elastic constants tensor of perovskite and post-perovskite with formulas AlFeO3 and FeAlO3 in which Fe or Al respectively occupy only octahedral sites, for the stable magnetic configurations. The phase transition between perovskite and post-perovskite is associated with a site exchange, during which Fe from the inter-octahedral site in perovskite moves into the octahedral site in post-perovskite. Following this transition path the elastic moduli show positive jumps, considerably larger than for MgSiO3. The phase transition is marked by a positive jump of 0.04 km/s (0.33%) in the velocity of the compressional waves and by a negative jump of -0.15 km/s (-1.87%) in shear wave velocity. We find that the effects of the Mg + Si <=> Al + Fe substitution on the seismic properties of MgSiO3 perovskite and post-perovskite depend on the crystallography of the substitution, namely the position the exchanged cations take in the structure.

  9. Tribological Properties of the Fe-Al-Cr Alloyed Layer by Double Glow Plasma Surface Metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xixi; Yao, Zhengjun; Zhang, Pingze; Zhou, Keyin; Wang, Zhangzhong

    2016-09-01

    A Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer was deposited onto the surface of Q235 low-carbon steel via double glow plasma surface metallurgy (DGPSM) to improve the steel's wear resistance. After the DGPSM treatment, the Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer grown on the Q235 low-carbon steel was homogeneous and compact and had a thickness of 25 µm. The layer was found to be metallurgically adhered to the substrate. The frictional coefficient and specific wear rate of the sample with a Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer (treated sample) were both lower than those of the bare substrate (untreated sample) at the measured temperatures (25, 250 and 450 °C). The results indicated that the substrate and the alloyed layer suffered oxidative wear and abrasive wear, respectively, and that the treated samples exhibited much better tribological properties than did the substrate. The formation of Fe2AlCr, Fe3Al(Cr), FeAl(Cr), Fe(Cr) sosoloid and Cr23C6 phases in the alloyed layer dramatically enhanced the wear resistance of the treated sample. In addition, the alloyed layer's oxidation film exhibited a self-healing capacity with lubrication action that also contributed to the improvement of the wear resistance at high temperature. In particular, at 450 °C, the specific wear rate of treated sample was 2.524 × 10-4 mm3/N m, which was only 45.2% of the untreated sample.

  10. Development of weldable, corrosion-resistant iron-aluminide (FeAl) alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P.J.; Goodwin, G.M.; Wang, X.L.; Alexander, D.J.

    1997-04-01

    A boron-microalloyed FeAl alloy (Fe-36Al-0.2Mo-0.05Zr-0.13C, at.%, with 100-400 appm B) with improved weldability and mechanical properties was developed in FY 1994. A new scale-up and industry technology development phase for this work began in FY 1995, pursuing two parallel paths. One path was developing monolithic FeAl component and application technology, and the other was developing coating/cladding technology for alloy steels, stainless steels and other Fe-Cr-Ni alloys. In FY 1995, it was found that cast FeAl alloys had good strength at 700-750{degrees}C, and some (2.5%) ductility in air at room-temperature. Hot-extruded FeAl with refined grain size was found to have ductility and to also have good impact-toughness at room-temperature. Further, it was discovered that powder-metallurgy (P/M) FeAl, consolidated by direct hot-extrusion at 950-1000{degrees}C to have an ultra fine-grained microstructure, had the highest ductility, strength and impact-toughness ever seen in such intermetallic alloys.

  11. Tribological Properties of the Fe-Al-Cr Alloyed Layer by Double Glow Plasma Surface Metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xixi; Yao, Zhengjun; Zhang, Pingze; Zhou, Keyin; Wang, Zhangzhong

    2016-07-01

    A Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer was deposited onto the surface of Q235 low-carbon steel via double glow plasma surface metallurgy (DGPSM) to improve the steel's wear resistance. After the DGPSM treatment, the Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer grown on the Q235 low-carbon steel was homogeneous and compact and had a thickness of 25 µm. The layer was found to be metallurgically adhered to the substrate. The frictional coefficient and specific wear rate of the sample with a Fe-Al-Cr alloyed layer (treated sample) were both lower than those of the bare substrate (untreated sample) at the measured temperatures (25, 250 and 450 °C). The results indicated that the substrate and the alloyed layer suffered oxidative wear and abrasive wear, respectively, and that the treated samples exhibited much better tribological properties than did the substrate. The formation of Fe2AlCr, Fe3Al(Cr), FeAl(Cr), Fe(Cr) sosoloid and Cr23C6 phases in the alloyed layer dramatically enhanced the wear resistance of the treated sample. In addition, the alloyed layer's oxidation film exhibited a self-healing capacity with lubrication action that also contributed to the improvement of the wear resistance at high temperature. In particular, at 450 °C, the specific wear rate of treated sample was 2.524 × 10-4 mm3/N m, which was only 45.2% of the untreated sample.

  12. Magnetism and electronic structures of novel layered CaFeAs{sub 2} and Ca{sub 0.75}(Pr/La){sub 0.25}FeAs{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yi-Na; Zou, Liang-Jian; Yu, Xiang-Long; Liu, Da-Yong

    2015-05-07

    The magnetic and electronic properties of the parent material CaFeAs{sub 2} of new superconductors are investigated using first-principles calculations. We predict that the ground state of CaFeAs{sub 2} is a spin-density-wave (SDW)-type striped antiferromagnet driven by Fermi surface nesting. The magnetic moment around each Fe atom is about 2.1 μ{sub B}. We also present electronic and magnetic structures of electron-doped phase Ca{sub 0.75}(Pr/La){sub 0.25}FeAs{sub 2}, the SDW order was suppressed by La/Pr substitution. The As in arsenic layers is negative monovalent and acts as blocking layers enhancing two-dimensional character by increasing the spacing distance between the FeAs layers. This favors strong antiferromagnetic fluctuations mediated pairing, implying higher T{sub c} in Ca{sub 0.75}(Pr/La){sub 0.25}FeAs{sub 2} than Ca{sub 0.75}(Pr/La){sub 0.25}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2}.

  13. Photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide on p-type CaFe[sub 2]O[sub 4] powder

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Yasumichi; Obata, Michio; Hombo, Jukichi )

    1994-03-17

    The photocatalytic reduction of CO[sub 2] on p-type CaFe[sub 2]O[sub 4] powder has been studied in water. CH[sub 3]OH and HCHO were produced under illumination. The additions of NaH[sub 2]PO[sub 2] and BaCO[sub 3] promoted the CO[sub 2] reduction reaction on the CaFe[sub 2]O[sub 4] photocatalyst. It was proven from the dependence of the amount of CH[sub 3]OH produced on the wavelength of the illuminated light that the electron produced in the conduction band of the CaFe[sub 2]O[sub 4] reduces CO[sub 2]. The mechanism for the photocatalytic reduction of CO[sub 2] on CaFe[sub 2]O[sub 4] is briefly discussed. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Theoretical analysis of compatibility of several reinforcement materials with NiAl and FeAl matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    1989-01-01

    Several potential reinforcement materials were assessed for their chemical, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), and mechanical compatibility with the intermetallic matrices based on NiAl and FeAl. Among the ceramic reinforcement materials, Al2O3, TiC, and TiB2, appear to be the optimum choices for NiAl and FeAl matrices. However, the problem of CTE mismatch with the matrix needs to be solved for these three reinforcement materials. Beryllium-rich intermetallic compounds can be considered as potential reinforcement materials provided suitable reaction barrier coatings can be developed for these. Based on preliminary thermodynamic calculations, Sc2O3 and TiC appear to be suitable as reaction barrier coatings for the beryllides. Several reaction barrier coatings are also suggested for the currently available SiC fibers.

  15. Corrosion Resistance of Fe-Al/Al2O3 Duplex Coating on Pipeline Steel X80 in Simulated Oil and Gas Well Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Min; Wang, Yu; Wang, Ping-Gu; Shi, Qin-Yi; Zhang, Meng-Xian

    2015-04-01

    Corrosion resistant Fe-Al/Al2O3 duplex coating for pipeline steel X80 was prepared by a combined treatment of low-temperature aluminizing and micro-arc oxidation (MAO). Phase composition and microstructure of mono-layer Fe-Al coating and Fe-Al/Al2O3 duplex coating were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Corrosion resistance of the coated pipeline steel X80 in a simulated oil and gas well condition was also investigated. Mono-layer Fe-Al coating consists of Fe2Al5 and FeAl, which is a suitable transitional layer for the preparation of ceramic coating by MAO on the surface of pipeline steel X80. Under the same corrosion condition at 373 K for 168 h with 1 MPa CO2 and 0.1 MPa H2S, corrosion weight loss rate of pipeline steel X80 with Fe-Al/Al2O3 duplex coating decreased to 23% of original pipeline steel X80, which improved by 10% than that of pipeline steel X80 with mono-layer Fe-Al coating. It cannot find obvious cracks and pits on the corrosion surface of pipeline steel X80 with Fe-Al/Al2O3 duplex coating.

  16. Effect of Ca addition on the corrosion behavior of Mg-Al-Mn alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiang; Peng, Jian; Nyberg, Eric A.; Pan, Fu-sheng

    2016-04-01

    The microstructures and corrosion resistance of magnesium-5 wt% aluminum-0.3 wt% manganese alloys (Mg-Al-Mn) with different Ca additions (0.2-4 wt%) were investigated. Results showed that with increasing Ca addition, the grain of the alloys became more refined, whereas the corrosion resistant ability of the alloys initially increased and then decreased. The alloy with 2 wt% Ca addition exhibited the best corrosion resistance, attributed to the effect of the oxide film and (Mg,Al)2Ca phases which were discontinuously distributed on the grain boundaries. These phases acted as micro-victims, they preferentially corroded to protect the α-Mg matrix. The oxide film formed on the alloy surface can hinder the solution further to protect the α-Mg matrix.

  17. Microstructure and mechanical behavior of Fe30Ni 20Mn35Al15 and modified Fe30Ni 20Mn35Al15 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fanling

    A novel alloy with nominal composition Fe30Ni 20Mn35Al15 has been found to show good room-temperature strength and significant ductility. The current project is to study the wear properties of as-cast Fe30Ni20Mn35Al 15 and discuss the possibility of further improving the mechanical properties of this alloy. The dry sliding wear of as-cast Fe30Ni20Mn 35Al15 was studied in in four different environments, i.e. air, dry oxygen, dry argon and a 4% hydrogen/nitrogen mixture. Two-body and three-body abrasive wear mechanism was found for tests in oxygen-containing environments, while plastic flow mechanisms dominated the wear behavior for tests in argon. Hydrogen embrittlement led to 1000% increase of wear loss by causing more rapid crack nucleation of the asperities. The effects of different additions of chromium (≤ 8 at. %) on both microstructure and fracture behavior of Fe30Ni20Mn 35Al15 were investigated. All alloys consisted of (Ni, Al)-rich B2 and (Fe, Mn)-rich f.c.c. phases with most of the Cr residing in the f.c.c. phase. The addition of 6 at. % Cr not only increased the room temperature ductility, but also completely suppressed the environmental embrittlement observed in the Cr-free alloy at low strain rates. The effects of varying the Al concentration on the microstructures and tensile properties of six two-phase FeNiMnAl alloys with a composition close to Fe30Ni20Mn35Al15 were studied. The increase in f.c.c. volume fraction and f.c.c. lamellar width led to an increase in ductility and a decrease in yield strength. The correlation between the yield stress and f.c.c. lamellar spacing lambda obeyed a Hall-Petch-type relationship, i.e. sigmay=252+0.00027lambda-1, where the units for sigmay and lambda are MPa and meter, respectively. FeNiMnAl alloy with B2 and f.c.c. phases aligned along was reported to show high strength at room temperature. The mechanical properties of Fe 28Ni18Mn33Al21, consisting of (Ni, Al)-enriched B2 and (Fe, Mn)-enriched f.c.c. phases with

  18. Alloy development of FeAl aluminide alloys for structural use in corrosive environments

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.; Sikka, V.K.; McKamey, C.G.

    1993-02-01

    Objectives include adequate ductilities ({ge}10%) at ambient temperature, high-temperature strength better than stainless steels (types 304 and 316), and fabricability and weldability by conventional techniques (gas tungsten arc). The alloys should be capable of being corrosion resistant in molten nitrate salts with rates lower than other iron-base structural alloys and coating materials (such as Fe-Cr-Al alloys). Such corrosion rates should be less than 0.3 mm per year. The FeAl aluminide containing 35.8 at. % Al was selected as base composition. Preliminary studies indicate that additions of B and Zr, increase the room-temperature ductility of FeAl. Further alloying with 0.2% Mo, and/or 5% Cr, improves the creep. Our preliminary alloying effort has led to identification of the following aluminide composition with promising properties: Fe - (35 {plus_minus} 2)Al - (0.3 {plus_minus} 0.2)Mo - (0.2 {plus_minus} 0.15)Zr - (0.3 {plus_minus} 0.2)B- up to 5Cr, at. %. However, this composition is likely to be modified in future work to improve the weldability of the alloy. The FeAl alloy FA-362 (Fe-35.8% Al-0.2% Mo-0.05% Zr-0.24% B) produced by hot extrusion at 900C showed a tensile ductility of more than 10% at room temperature and a creep rupture life longer than unalloyed FeAl by more than an order of magnitude at 593C at 138 MPa. Melting and processing of scaled-up heats of selected FeAl alloys are described. Forging, extruding, and hot-rolling processes for the scale-up heats are also described.

  19. Alloy development of FeAl aluminide alloys for structural use in corrosive environments

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.; Sikka, V.K.; McKamey, C.G.

    1993-02-01

    Objectives include adequate ductilities ([ge]10%) at ambient temperature, high-temperature strength better than stainless steels (types 304 and 316), and fabricability and weldability by conventional techniques (gas tungsten arc). The alloys should be capable of being corrosion resistant in molten nitrate salts with rates lower than other iron-base structural alloys and coating materials (such as Fe-Cr-Al alloys). Such corrosion rates should be less than 0.3 mm per year. The FeAl aluminide containing 35.8 at. % Al was selected as base composition. Preliminary studies indicate that additions of B and Zr, increase the room-temperature ductility of FeAl. Further alloying with 0.2% Mo, and/or 5% Cr, improves the creep. Our preliminary alloying effort has led to identification of the following aluminide composition with promising properties: Fe - (35 [plus minus] 2)Al - (0.3 [plus minus] 0.2)Mo - (0.2 [plus minus] 0.15)Zr - (0.3 [plus minus] 0.2)B- up to 5Cr, at. %. However, this composition is likely to be modified in future work to improve the weldability of the alloy. The FeAl alloy FA-362 (Fe-35.8% Al-0.2% Mo-0.05% Zr-0.24% B) produced by hot extrusion at 900C showed a tensile ductility of more than 10% at room temperature and a creep rupture life longer than unalloyed FeAl by more than an order of magnitude at 593C at 138 MPa. Melting and processing of scaled-up heats of selected FeAl alloys are described. Forging, extruding, and hot-rolling processes for the scale-up heats are also described.

  20. The distribution alloying elements in alnico 8 and 9 magnets: Site preference of ternary Ti, Fe, Co, and Ni additions in DO3 Fe3Al, Co3Al, and Ni3Al based intermetallic phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samolyuk, G. D.; Újfalussy, B.; Stocks, G. M.

    2014-11-01

    Recently, interest in alnico magnetic alloys has been rekindled due to their potential to substitute for rare-earth based permanent magnets provided modest improvements in their coercivity can be achieved without loss of saturation magnetization. Recent experimental studies have indicated that atomic and magnetic structure of the two phases (one AlNi-based, the other FeCo-based) that comprise these spinodally decomposed alloy is not as simple as previously thought. A key issue that arises is the distribution of Fe, Co, and Ti within the AlNi-based matrix phase. In this paper, we report the results of first-principles calculations of the site preference of ternary alloying additions in DO3 Fe3Al, Co3Al, and Ni3Al alloys, as models for the aluminide phase. For compound compositions that are Al rich, which correspond to experimental situation, Ti and Fe are found to occupy the α sites, while Co and Ni prefer the γ sites of the DO3 lattice. An important finding is that the magnetic moments of transition metals in Fe3Al and Co3Al are ordered ferromagnetically, whereas the Ni3Al were found to be nonmagnetic unless the Fe or Co is added as a ternary element.

  1. The distribution alloying elements in alnico 8 and 9 magnets: Site preference of ternary Ti, Fe, Co, and Ni additions in DO3 Fe3Al, Co3Al, and Ni3Al based intermetallic phases

    DOE PAGES

    Samolyuk, G. D.; Újfalussy, B.; Stocks, G. M.

    2014-11-07

    Recently, interest in alnico magnetic alloys has been rekindled due to their potential to substitute for rare-earth based permanent magnets provided modest improvements in their coercivity can be achieved without loss of saturation magnetization. Recent experimental studies have indicated that atomic and magnetic structure of the two phases (one AlNi-based, the other FeCo-based) that comprise these spinodally decomposed alloy is not as simple as previously thought. A key issue that arises is the distribution of Fe, Co and Ti within the AlNi-based matrix phase. In our paper we report the results of first-principles calculations of the site preference of ternarymore » alloying additions in DO3 Fe3Al, Co3Al and Ni3Al alloys, as models for the aluminide phase. For compound compositions that are Al rich, which corresponds to experimental situation, Ti and Fe are found to occupy the sites, while Co and Ni prefer the sites of the DO3 lattice. Finally, an important finding is that the magnetic moments of transition metals in Fe3Al and Co3Al are ordered ferromagnetically, whereas the Ni3Al were found to be nonmagnetic unless the Fe or Co are added as a ternary element.« less

  2. Catalytic ozonation of petroleum refinery wastewater utilizing Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O 3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunmao; Yoza, Brandon A; Wang, Yandan; Wang, Ping; Li, Qing X; Guo, Shaohui; Yan, Guangxu

    2015-04-01

    There is of great interest to develop an economic and high-efficient catalytic ozonation system (COS) for the treatment of biologically refractory wastewaters. Applications of COS require options of commercially feasible catalysts. Experiments in the present study were designed to prepare and investigate a novel manganese-iron-copper oxide-supported alumina-assisted COS (Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS) for the pretreatment of petroleum refinery wastewater. The highly dispersed composite metal oxides on the catalyst surface greatly promoted the performance of catalytic ozonation. Hydroxyl radical mediated oxidation is a dominant reaction in Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS. Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS enhanced COD removal by 32.7% compared with a single ozonation system and by 8-16% compared with Mn-Fe/Al2O3-COS, Mn-Cu/Al2O3-COS, and Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS. The O/C and H/C ratios of oxygen-containing polar compounds significantly increased after catalytic ozonation, and the biodegradability of petroleum refinery wastewater was significantly improved. This study illustrates potential applications of Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS for pretreatment of biologically refractory wastewaters.

  3. Catalytic ozonation of petroleum refinery wastewater utilizing Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O 3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunmao; Yoza, Brandon A; Wang, Yandan; Wang, Ping; Li, Qing X; Guo, Shaohui; Yan, Guangxu

    2015-04-01

    There is of great interest to develop an economic and high-efficient catalytic ozonation system (COS) for the treatment of biologically refractory wastewaters. Applications of COS require options of commercially feasible catalysts. Experiments in the present study were designed to prepare and investigate a novel manganese-iron-copper oxide-supported alumina-assisted COS (Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS) for the pretreatment of petroleum refinery wastewater. The highly dispersed composite metal oxides on the catalyst surface greatly promoted the performance of catalytic ozonation. Hydroxyl radical mediated oxidation is a dominant reaction in Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS. Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS enhanced COD removal by 32.7% compared with a single ozonation system and by 8-16% compared with Mn-Fe/Al2O3-COS, Mn-Cu/Al2O3-COS, and Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS. The O/C and H/C ratios of oxygen-containing polar compounds significantly increased after catalytic ozonation, and the biodegradability of petroleum refinery wastewater was significantly improved. This study illustrates potential applications of Mn-Fe-Cu/Al2O3-COS for pretreatment of biologically refractory wastewaters. PMID:25649390

  4. Thermodynamics of O, N, and S in liquid Fe equilibrated with CaO-AI2O3-MgO slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Ryo; Suito, Hideaki

    1994-04-01

    Nitrogen and S distribution ratios between CaO-Al2O3-MgO slags and liquid Fe were measured at 1873 K as a function of Al (or Mg, Ca) content in metal, using CaO, MgO, and A12O3 crucibles. Based on the results for the solubility product of MgO, the equilibrium constant, K Mg , for the reaction MgO = Mg + O and the first-order interaction parameter, e {O/Mg} ( e {Mg/O}), were estimated to be log K Mg = -7.8 ± 0.2 and e {O/Mg} = -190 ± 60 ( e {Mg/O} = -290 ± 90), respectively. The activities of A12O3 at the slag compositions double-saturated with CaO/MgO, MgO/ MgO A12O3, and MgO Al2O3/CaO 2A12O3 components were obtained from the S distribution ratios between slag and metal, coupled with the reported values of sulfide capacities. Nitride capacities were also estimated from the N distribution ratios and the activities of A12O3.

  5. Co2FeAl films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in multilayer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. Q.; Xu, X. G.; Yin, S. Q.; Zhang, D. L.; Miao, J.; Jiang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    We have fabricated Co2FeAl (CFA) films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in a (Co2FeAl/Ni)6 multilayer structure. The effects of underlayer Cu thickness (tCu), Co2FeAl thickness (tCFA) and Ni thickness (tNi) on the magnetic properties have been studied. The PMA is realized with a large anisotropy energy density K = 3.7×106 ergs/cm3, a high squareness Mr/Ms = 1 and a small perpendicular coercivity Hc = 60 Oe, while tCu, tCFA and tNi are 9 nm, 0.2 nm and 0.6 nm respectively. The PMA remains after 300 °C annealing, which demonstrates better thermal stability of the (Co2FeAl/Ni)6 multilayer than that of (Co/Ni)n.

  6. Density Measurements of Low Silica CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhmood, Luckman; Seetharaman, Seshadri

    2010-08-01

    Density measurements of a low-silica CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 system were carried out using the Archimedes principle. A Pt 30 pct Rh bob and wire arrangement was used for this purpose. The results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained from the model developed in the current group as well as with other results reported earlier. The density for the CaO-SiO2 and the CaO-Al2O3 binary slag systems also was estimated from the ternary values. The extrapolation of density values for high-silica systems also showed good agreement with previous works. An estimation for the density value of CaO was made from the current experimental data. The density decrease at high temperatures was interpreted based on the silicate structure. As the mole percent of SiO2 was below the 33 pct required for the orthosilicate composition, discrete {text{SiO}}4^{4 - } tetrahedral units in the silicate melt would exist along with O2- ions. The change in melt expansivity may be attributed to the ionic expansions in the order of {text{Al}}^{ 3+ } - {text{O}}^{ 2- } < {text{Ca}}^{ 2+ } - {text{O}}^{ 2- } < {text{Ca}}^{ 2+ } - {text{O}}^{ - } Structural changes in the ternary slag also could be correlated to a drastic change in the value of enthalpy of mixing.

  7. Donnan membrane speciation of Al, Fe, trace metals and REEs in coastal lowland acid sulfate soil-impacted drainage waters.

    PubMed

    Jones, Adele M; Xue, Youjia; Kinsela, Andrew S; Wilcken, Klaus M; Collins, Richard N

    2016-03-15

    Donnan dialysis has been applied to forty filtered drainage waters collected from five coastal lowland acid sulfate soil (CLASS) catchments across north-eastern NSW, Australia. Despite having average pH values<3.9, 78 and 58% of Al and total Fe, respectively, were present as neutral or negatively-charged species. Complementary isotope dilution experiments with (55)Fe and (26)Al demonstrated that only soluble (i.e. no colloidal) species were present. Trivalent rare earth elements (REEs) were also mainly present (>70%) as negatively-charged complexes. In contrast, the speciation of the divalent trace metals Co, Mn, Ni and Zn was dominated by positively-charged complexes and was strongly correlated with the alkaline earth metals Ca and Mg. Thermodynamic equilibrium speciation calculations indicated that natural organic matter (NOM) complexes dominated Fe(III) speciation in agreement with that obtained by Donnan dialysis. In the case of Fe(II), however, the free cation was predicted to dominate under thermodynamic equilibrium, whilst our results indicated that Fe(II) was mainly present as neutral or negatively-charged complexes (most likely with sulfate). For all other divalent metals thermodynamic equilibrium speciation calculations agreed well with the Donnan dialysis results. The proportion of Al and REEs predicted to be negatively-charged was also grossly underestimated, relative to the experimental results, highlighting possible inaccuracies in the stability constants developed for these trivalent Me(SO4)2(-) and/or Me-NOM complexes and difficulties in modeling complex environmental samples. These results will help improve metal mobility and toxicity models developed for CLASS-affected environments, and also demonstrate that Australian CLASS environments can discharge REEs at concentrations an order of magnitude greater than previously reported. PMID:26780135

  8. Donnan membrane speciation of Al, Fe, trace metals and REEs in coastal lowland acid sulfate soil-impacted drainage waters.

    PubMed

    Jones, Adele M; Xue, Youjia; Kinsela, Andrew S; Wilcken, Klaus M; Collins, Richard N

    2016-03-15

    Donnan dialysis has been applied to forty filtered drainage waters collected from five coastal lowland acid sulfate soil (CLASS) catchments across north-eastern NSW, Australia. Despite having average pH values<3.9, 78 and 58% of Al and total Fe, respectively, were present as neutral or negatively-charged species. Complementary isotope dilution experiments with (55)Fe and (26)Al demonstrated that only soluble (i.e. no colloidal) species were present. Trivalent rare earth elements (REEs) were also mainly present (>70%) as negatively-charged complexes. In contrast, the speciation of the divalent trace metals Co, Mn, Ni and Zn was dominated by positively-charged complexes and was strongly correlated with the alkaline earth metals Ca and Mg. Thermodynamic equilibrium speciation calculations indicated that natural organic matter (NOM) complexes dominated Fe(III) speciation in agreement with that obtained by Donnan dialysis. In the case of Fe(II), however, the free cation was predicted to dominate under thermodynamic equilibrium, whilst our results indicated that Fe(II) was mainly present as neutral or negatively-charged complexes (most likely with sulfate). For all other divalent metals thermodynamic equilibrium speciation calculations agreed well with the Donnan dialysis results. The proportion of Al and REEs predicted to be negatively-charged was also grossly underestimated, relative to the experimental results, highlighting possible inaccuracies in the stability constants developed for these trivalent Me(SO4)2(-) and/or Me-NOM complexes and difficulties in modeling complex environmental samples. These results will help improve metal mobility and toxicity models developed for CLASS-affected environments, and also demonstrate that Australian CLASS environments can discharge REEs at concentrations an order of magnitude greater than previously reported.

  9. Improvement of CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ photocathode by doping with Na and Mg

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Y.; Sugiyama, K.; Sato, E.

    1988-05-01

    The low conductivity of CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and the nonohmic contact in the CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4//metal interface, which lead to only a small photocurrent, were improved by doping with Na and Mg. The oxides of the Ca/sub 1-x/Na/sub x/Fe/sub 2-y/Mg/sub y/O/sub 4/ system gave the high conductivity and the ohmic contact of the oxide/Pt-Pd interface, but very small photocurrent. It was judged from the measurement of the Seebeck coefficient that the hopping mechanism is dominant for the conduction of the oxides containing Na. The hopping level is presumed to bring about the ohmic contact and the very small photocurrent because of the small band bending. The CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4//Na,Mg electrode, where one side of the surfaces was doped with Na and Mg and the interface of CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4//Na,Mg/Pt-Pd was ohmic contact, gave a large photocurrent. Photoelectrochemical dissolution was observed for the CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4//Na,Mg electrode in acidic solution but not in neutral solution. The mechanism of the dissolution is also discussed.

  10. Heat capacities of synthetic hedenbergite, ferrobustamite and CaFeSi2O6 glass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haselton, H.T.; Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    Heat capacities have been measured for synthetic hedenbergite (9-647 K), ferrobustamite (5-746 K) and CaFeSi2O6 glass (6-380 K) by low-temperature adiabatic and differential scanning calorimetry. The heat capacity of each of these structural forms of CaFeSiO6 exhibits anomalous behavior at low temperatures. The X-peak in the hedenbergite heat-capacity curve at 34.5 K is due to antiferromagnetic ordering of the Fe2+ ions. Ferrobustamite has a bump in its heat-capacity curve at temperatures less than 20 K, which could be due to weak cooperative magnetic ordering or to a Schottky anomaly. Surprisingly, a broad peak with a maximum at 68 K is present in the heat-capacity curve of the glass. If this maximum, which occurs at a higher temperature than in hedenbergite is caused by magnetic ordering, it could indicate that the range of distortions of the iron sites in the glass is quite small and that coupling between iron atoms is stronger in the glass than in the edge-shared octahedral chains of hedenbergite. The standard entropy change, So298.15 - So0, is 174.2 ?? 0.3, 180.5 ?? 0.3 and 185.7 ?? 0.4 J/mol??K for hedenbergite, ferrobustamite and CaFeSi2O6 glass, respectively. Ferrobustamite is partially disordered in Ca-Fe distribution at high temperatures, but the dependence of the configuratonal entropy on temperature cannot be evaluated due to a lack of information. At high temperatures (298-1600 K), the heat capacity of hedenbergite may be represented by the equation Cop(J/mol??K) = 3l0.46 + 0.01257T-2039.93T -1 2 - 1.84604?? l06T-2 and the heat capacity of ferrobustamite may be represented by Cop(J/mol??K) = 403.83-0.04444T+ 1.597?? 10-5T2-3757.3T -1 2. ?? 1987.

  11. Aluminum Coprecipitates with Fe (hydr)oxides: Does Isomorphous Substitution of Al3plus for Fe3plus in Goethite Occur

    SciTech Connect

    E Bazilevskaya; D Archibald; M Aryanpour; J Kubicki; C Martinez

    2011-12-31

    Iron (hydr)oxides are common in natural environments and typically contain large amounts of impurities, presumably the result of coprecipitation processes. Coprecipitation of Al with Fe (hydr)oxides occurs, for example, during alternating reduction-oxidation cycles that promote dissolution of Fe from Fe-containing phases and its re-precipitation as Fe-Al (hydr)oxides. We used chemical and spectroscopic analyses to study the formation and transformation of Al coprecipitates with Fe (hydr)oxides. In addition, periodic density functional theory (DFT) computations were performed to assess the structural and energetic effects of isolated or clustered Al atoms at 8 and 25 mol% Al substitution in the goethite structure. Coprecipitates were synthesized by raising the pH of dilute homogeneous solutions containing a range of Fe and Al concentrations (100% Fe to 100% Al) to 5. The formation of ferrihydrite in initial suspensions with {<=}20 mol% Al, and of ferrihydrite and gibbsite in initial suspensions with {>=}25 mol% Al was confirmed by infrared spectroscopic and synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction analyses. While base titrations showed a buffer region that corresponded to the hydrolysis of Fe in initial solutions with {<=}25 mol% Al, all of the Al present in these solutions was retained by the solid phases at pH 5, thus indicating Al coprecipitation with the primary Fe hydroxide precipitate. In contrast, two buffer regions were observed in solutions with 30 mol% Al (at pH {approx}2.25 for Fe{sup 3+} and at pH {approx}4 for Al{sup 3+}), suggesting the formation of Fe and Al (hydr)oxides as two separate phases. The Al content of initial coprecipitates influenced the extent of ferrihydrite transformation and of its transformation products as indicated by the presence of goethite, hematite and/or ferrihydrite in aged suspensions. DFT experiments showed that: (i) optimized unit cell parameters for Al-substituted goethites (8 and 25 Mol% Al) in clustered arrangement (i.e., the

  12. Phosphate-intercalated Ca-Fe-layered double hydroxides: Crystal structure, bonding character, and release kinetics of phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Myong A.; Woo Kim, Tae; Paek, Mi-Jeong; Ha, Hyung-Wook; Choy, Jin-Ho; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2011-01-15

    The nitrate-form of Ca-Fe-layered double hydroxide (Ca-Fe-LDH) was synthesized via co-precipitation method, and its phosphate-intercalates were prepared by ion-exchange reaction. According to X-ray diffraction analysis, the Ca-Fe-LDH-NO{sub 3}{sup -} compound and its H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -}-intercalate showed hexagonal layered structures, whereas the ion-exchange reaction with HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} caused a frustration of the layer ordering of LDH. Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy clearly demonstrated that the Ca-Fe-LDH lattice with trivalent iron ions was well-maintained after the ion-exchange with HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -}. Under acidic conditions, phosphate ions were slowly released from the Ca-Fe-LDH lattice and the simultaneous release of hydroxide caused the neutralization of acidic media. Fitting analysis based on kinetic models indicated a heterogeneous diffusion process of phosphates and a distinct dependence of release rate on the charge of phosphates. This study strongly suggested that Ca-Fe-LDH is applicable as bifunctional vector for slow release of phosphate fertilizer and for the neutralization of acid soil. -- Graphical abstract: We synthesized phosphate-intercalated Ca-Fe-LDH materials that can act as bifunctional inorganic vectors for the slow release of phosphate fertilizer and also the neutralization of acid soil. Fitting analysis based on kinetic models indicated a heterogeneous diffusion process of phosphates and a distinct dependence of release rate on the charge of phosphates. Display Omitted Research Highlights: {yields} The phosphate forms of Ca-Fe-layered double hydroxide (Ca-Fe-LDH) were synthesized via co-precipitation method. The crystal structure, bonding character, and release kinetics of phosphate of the phosphate-intercalates were investigated. These Ca-Fe-LDH materials are applicable as bifunctional vector for slow release of phosphate fertilizer and for the neutralization of acid soil.

  13. Impact of Al passivation and cosputter on the structural property of β-FeSi2 for Al-doped β-FeSi2/n-Si(100) based solar cells application.

    PubMed

    Dalapati, Goutam Kumar; Kumar, Avishek; Tan, Cheng Cheh; Liew, Siao Li; Sonar, Prashant; Seng, Hwee Leng; Hui, Hui Kim; Tripathy, Sudhiranjan; Chi, Dongzhi

    2013-06-26

    The aluminum (Al) doped polycrystalline p-type β-phase iron disilicide (p-β-FeSi2) is grown by thermal diffusion of Al from Al-passivated n-type Si(100) surface into FeSi2 during crystallization of amorphous FeSi2 to form a p-type β-FeSi2/n-Si(100) heterostructure solar cell. The structural and photovoltaic properties of p-type β-FeSi2/n-type c-Si structures is then investigated in detail by using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy analysis, and electrical characterization. The results are compared with Al-doped p-β-FeSi2 prepared by using cosputtering of Al and FeSi2 layers on Al-passivated n-Si(100) substrates. A significant improvement in the maximum open-circuit voltage (Voc) from 120 to 320 mV is achieved upon the introduction of Al doping through cosputtering of Al and amorphous FeSi2 layer. The improvement in Voc is attributed to better structural quality of Al-doped FeSi2 film through Al doping and to the formation of high quality crystalline interface between Al-doped β-FeSi2 and n-type c-Si. The effects of Al-out diffusion on the performance of heterostructure solar cells have been investigated and discussed in detail.

  14. Estimated daily intake of Fe, Cu, Ca and Zn through common cereals in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Kashian, S; Fathivand, A A

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the findings of study undertaken to estimate the dietary intake of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) through common cereals in Tehran, Iran. 100 samples of rice, wheat and barley were collected from various brands between August and October 2013. The samples were analyzed performing instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The dietary intake for adults was estimated by a total cereal study. Calculations were carried out on the basis of the reported adults' average food consumption rate data. The total daily intake estimated in mgd(-1) for Tehran population were 3.6 (Fe), 10.2 (Zn), 0.3 (Cu) and 234.5 (Ca). Wheat showed the highest contribution to Zn, Cu and Ca intakes. Furthermore, intakes were compared with recommended dietary allowance (RDA). Zn total intake (10.2mgd(-1)) was comparable with RDA values for males (11mgd(-1)) and was higher than recommended value for females (8mgd(-1)). The intakes of other studied elements were below the respective RDAs. PMID:25624223

  15. Influence of Ca amount on the synthesis of Nd2Fe14B particles in reduction-diffusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Qiang; Kim, Dongsoo; Choi, Chuljin

    2014-04-01

    Nd2Fe14B alloy particles with high coercivity of more than 10 kOe were successfully synthesized by adjusting the amount of Calcium (Ca) in reduction-diffusion (R-D) process. Calcium oxide (CaO) and unreacted Ca remained after R-D process in particles prepared by heat treatment in Hydrogen (H2) atmosphere at previous step. In the ratio of 0.4 of Ca to powders (Ca/powders, wt%), residual Ca was not detected from X-ray diffraction pattern. On the other hand, Ca appeared above the ratio of 1.0 and below the ratio of 0.2, amount of Ca was not enough to reduce Nd oxide. Moreover, excess Ca affected magnetic property of final products obtained after washing, because residual Ca gave rise to evolution of H2 gas during disintegration with water and it led to the formation of Nd2Fe14BHx (x=1-5). Finally, Nd2Fe14B magnetic particles were synthesized after washing in de-ionized water with a mean size of 2 μm and their maximum energy product showed 15.5 MGOe.

  16. A photoelectron spectroscopy and thermal desorption study of CO on FeAl(110) and polycrystalline TiAl and NiAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, N. R.; Strongin, D. R.

    1993-10-01

    Research presented in this paper investigates the electronic properties and surface reactivity of FeAl(110) and polycrystalline TiAl and NiAl toward carbon monoxide. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) have been used to characterize the electronic structure of the clean and CO-exposed surfaces. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) shows CO desorption states below 470 K on all the aluminide surfaces. UPS shows that CO adsorption is molecular on FeAl(110) and NiAl at 130 and 200 K, respectively. The majority of CO is found to be dissociated on TiAl at 200 K. Adsorption of CO on FeAl(110) at 315 K results in both molecular and dissociated species, as determined by XPS. Heating this CO/FeAl(110) system results in further dissociation and CO desorption near 430 K. XPS data suggests that surface oxygen, resulting from CO dissociation, preferentially binds to the aluminum component.

  17. Hydrogen permeation in FeCrAl alloys for LWR cladding application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xunxiang; Terrani, Kurt A.; Wirth, Brian D.; Snead, Lance L.

    2015-06-01

    FeCrAl, an advanced oxidation-resistant iron-based alloy class, is a highly prevalent candidate as an accident-tolerant fuel cladding material. Compared with traditional zirconium alloy fuel cladding, increased tritium permeation through FeCrAl fuel cladding to the primary coolant is expected, raising potential safety concerns. In this study, the hydrogen permeability of several FeCrAl alloys was obtained using a static permeation test station, which was calibrated and validated using 304 stainless steel. The high hydrogen permeability of FeCrAl alloys leads to concerns with respect to potentially significant tritium release when used for fuel cladding in LWRs. The total tritium inventory inside the primary coolant of a light water reactor was quantified by applying a 1-dimensional steady state tritium diffusion model to demonstrate the dependence of tritium inventory on fuel cladding type. Furthermore, potential mitigation strategies for tritium release from FeCrAl fuel cladding were discussed and indicate the potential for application of an alumina layer on the inner clad surface to serve as a tritium barrier. More effort is required to develop a robust, economical mitigation strategy for tritium permeation in reactors using FeCrAl clad fuel assemblies.

  18. Hydrogen permeation in FeCrAl alloys for LWR cladding application

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xunxiang; Terrani, Kurt A.; Wirth, Brian D.; Snead, Lance L.

    2015-03-19

    FeCrAl is an advanced oxidation-resistant iron-based alloy class, is a highly prevalent candidate as an accident-tolerant fuel cladding material. Compared with traditional zirconium alloy fuel cladding, increased tritium permeation through FeCrAl fuel cladding to the primary coolant is expected, raising potential safety concerns. In our study, the hydrogen permeability of several FeCrAl alloys was obtained using a static permeation test station, which was calibrated and validated using 304 stainless steel. The high hydrogen permeability of FeCrAl alloys leads to concerns with respect to potentially significant tritium release when used for fuel cladding in LWRs. Also, the total tritium inventory inside the primary coolant of a light water reactor was quantified by applying a 1-dimensional steady state tritium diffusion model to demonstrate the dependence of tritium inventory on fuel cladding type. Furthermore, potential mitigation strategies for tritium release from FeCrAl fuel cladding were discussed and indicate the potential for application of an alumina layer on the inner clad surface to serve as a tritium barrier. More effort is required to develop a robust, economical mitigation strategy for tritium permeation in reactors using FeCrAl clad fuel assemblies.

  19. Hydrogen permeation in FeCrAl alloys for LWR cladding application

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Xunxiang; Terrani, Kurt A.; Wirth, Brian D.; Snead, Lance L.

    2015-03-19

    FeCrAl is an advanced oxidation-resistant iron-based alloy class, is a highly prevalent candidate as an accident-tolerant fuel cladding material. Compared with traditional zirconium alloy fuel cladding, increased tritium permeation through FeCrAl fuel cladding to the primary coolant is expected, raising potential safety concerns. In our study, the hydrogen permeability of several FeCrAl alloys was obtained using a static permeation test station, which was calibrated and validated using 304 stainless steel. The high hydrogen permeability of FeCrAl alloys leads to concerns with respect to potentially significant tritium release when used for fuel cladding in LWRs. Also, the total tritium inventory insidemore » the primary coolant of a light water reactor was quantified by applying a 1-dimensional steady state tritium diffusion model to demonstrate the dependence of tritium inventory on fuel cladding type. Furthermore, potential mitigation strategies for tritium release from FeCrAl fuel cladding were discussed and indicate the potential for application of an alumina layer on the inner clad surface to serve as a tritium barrier. More effort is required to develop a robust, economical mitigation strategy for tritium permeation in reactors using FeCrAl clad fuel assemblies.« less

  20. Growth and characterization of insulating ferromagnetic semiconductor (Al,Fe)Sb

    SciTech Connect

    Anh, Le Duc Kaneko, Daiki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Hai, Pham Nam

    2015-12-07

    We investigate the crystal structure, transport, and magnetic properties of Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Al{sub 1−x},Fe{sub x})Sb thin films up to x = 14% grown by molecular beam epitaxy. All the samples show p-type conduction at room temperature and insulating behavior at low temperature. The (Al{sub 1−x},Fe{sub x})Sb thin films with x ≤ 10% maintain the zinc blende crystal structure of the host material AlSb. The (Al{sub 1−x},Fe{sub x})Sb thin film with x = 10% shows intrinsic ferromagnetism with a Curie temperature (T{sub C}) of 40 K. In the (Al{sub 1−x},Fe{sub x})Sb thin film with x = 14%, a sudden drop of the hole mobility and T{sub C} was observed, which may be due to the microscopic phase separation. The observation of ferromagnetism in (Al,Fe)Sb paves the way to realize a spin-filtering tunnel barrier that is compatible with well-established III-V semiconductor devices.

  1. Synthesis of Cd/(Al+Fe) layered double hydroxides and characterization of the calcination products

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, M.R.; Barriga, C.; Fernandez, J.M.; Rives, V.; Ulibarri, M.A.

    2007-12-15

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) containing Cd(II), Al(III), and Fe(III) in the brucite-like layers with different starting Fe/Al atomic ratios and with nitrate as counteranion have been prepared following the coprecipitation method at a constant pH value of 8. An additional Cd(II),Al(III)-LDH sample interlayered with hexacyanoferrate(III) ions has been prepared by ionic exchange at pH 9. The samples have been characterized by elemental chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and FT-IR spectroscopy. Their thermal stability has been assessed by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG-DTA) and mass spectrometric analysis of the evolved gases. The PXRD patterns of the solids calcined at 800 deg. C show diffraction lines corresponding to Cd(Al)O and spinel-type materials, which precise nature (CdAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Cd{sub 1-x}Fe{sub 2+x}O{sub 4}, or Cd{sub x}Fe{sub 2.66}O{sub 4}) depends on location and concentration of iron in the parent material or precursor. - Graphical abstract: Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) containing Cd(II), Al(III), and Fe(III) in the brucite-like layers with different starting Fe/Al atomic ratios and with nitrate as counteranion have been prepared following the coprecipitation method. An additional Cd(II),Al(III)-LDH sample interlayered with hexacyanoferrate(III) ions has been prepared by ionic exchange. Calcination at 800 deg. C shows diffraction lines corresponding to CdO and to spinel-type materials. SEM micrograph of sample CdAlFe-N-0.

  2. Preparation and properties of the Ni-Al/Fe-Al intermetallics composite coating produced by plasma cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li-Min; Liu, Bang-Wu; Sun, Dong-Bai

    2011-12-01

    A novel approach to produce an intermetallic composite coating was put forward. The microstructure, microhardness, and dry-sliding wear behavior of the composite coating were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) analysis, microhardness test, and ball-on-disc wear experiment. XRD results indicate that some new phases FeAl, Fe0.23Ni0.77Al, and Ni3Al exit in the composite coating with the Al2O3 addition. SEM results show that the coating is bonded with carbon steel metallurgically and exhibits typical rapid directional solidification structures. The Cr7C3 carbide and intermetallic compounds co-reinforced composite coating has a high average hardness and exhibits an excellent wear resistance under dry-sliding wear test compared with the Cr7C3 carbide-reinforced composite coating. The formation mechanism of the intermetallic compounds was also investigated.

  3. Thermal Stability of the Dynamic Magnetic Properties of FeSiAl-Al2O3 and FeSiAl-SiO2 Films Grown by Gradient-Composition Sputtering Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xiaoxi; Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Soh, Wee Tee; Ong, C. K.; Peng, Long; Li, Lezhong

    2016-08-01

    We carry out a systematic investigation of the dynamic magnetic properties of FeSiAl-Al2O3 and FeSiAl-SiO2 thin films prepared by gradient-composition deposition technique with respect to temperature in the range of 300 K to 420 K. It was found that the magnetic anisotropy field (H K) and ferromagnetic resonance frequency (f FMR) are increased with increasing deposition angle (β) due to the enhancement of stress (σ) when concentrations of Al and O or Si and O are increased. The thermal stability of FeSiAl-Al2O3 films show a very interesting behavior with the magnetic anisotropy increasing with temperature when the deposition angle is increased. In contrast, when the deposition angle is lower, the usual trend of decreasing magnetic anisotropy with increasing temperature is observed. Moreover, the temperature-dependent behaviors of the dynamic permeability and effective Gilbert damping coefficient (α eff) for FeSiAl-Al2O3 and FeSiAl-SiO2 films at different deposition angles are discussed in detail.

  4. Incorporation of Mg and Ca into nanostructured Fe2O3 improves Fe solubility in dilute acid and sensory characteristics in foods.

    PubMed

    Hilty, Florentine M; Knijnenburg, Jesper T N; Teleki, Alexandra; Krumeich, Frank; Hurrell, Richard F; Pratsinis, Sotiris E; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2011-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies worldwide. Food fortification can be an effective and sustainable strategy to reduce Fe deficiency but selection of iron fortificants remains a challenge. Water-soluble compounds, for example, FeSO(4), usually demonstrate high bioavailability but they often cause unacceptable sensory changes in foods. On the other hand, poorly acid-soluble Fe compounds, for example FePO(4), may cause fewer adverse sensory changes in foods but are usually not well bioavailable since they need to be dissolved in the stomach prior to absorption. The solubility and the bioavailability of poorly acid-soluble Fe compounds can be improved by decreasing their primary particle size and thereby increasing their specific surface area. Here, Fe oxide-based nanostructured compounds with added Mg or Ca were produced by scalable flame aerosol technology. The compounds were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fe solubility in dilute acid. Sensory properties of the Fe-based compounds were tested in 2 highly reactive, polyphenol-rich food matrices: chocolate milk and fruit yoghurt. The Fe solubility of nanostructured Fe(2)O(3) doped with Mg or Ca was higher than that of pure Fe(2)O(3). Since good solubility in dilute acid was obtained despite the inhomogeneity of the powders, inexpensive precursors, for example Fe- and Ca-nitrates, can be used for their manufacture. Adding Mg or Ca lightened powder color, while sensory changes when added to foods were less pronounced than for FeSO(4). The combination of high Fe solubility and low reactivity in foods makes these flame-made nanostructured compounds promising for food fortification. Practical Application: The nanostructured iron-containing compounds presented here may prove useful for iron fortification of certain foods; they are highly soluble in dilute acid and likely to be well absorbed in the gut but cause less severe

  5. Mott transition in CaFe2O4 at around 50 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Eran; Rozenberg, Gregory Kh.; Xu, Weiming; Pasternak, Moshe P.; McCammon, Catherine; Glazyrin, Konstantin; Dubrovinsky, Leonid S.

    2013-12-01

    Electrical transport and magnetic properties of CaFe2O4 have been studied at pressures up to 70 GPa using Fe57 Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS), Raman spectroscopy, and electrical resistance measurements. These studies have shown the onset of the Mott transition (MT) at a pressure of around 50 GPa, leading to the collapse of Fe3+ magnetic moments and to the insulator-metal (IM) transition. The observed onset of the MT corroborates with the recently reported isostructural transition accompanied by a 12% decrease in the Fe polyhedral volume. An analysis of the alterations of the electrical transport, magnetic, and structural properties with pressure increase and at the transition range suggests that the coinciding IM transition, magnetic moment, and volume collapse at around 50 GPa are caused by the closure of the Hubbard gap driven by the high-spin to low-spin (HS-LS) transition. At that, since MS did not reveal any evidence of a preceding LS state, it could be inferred that the HS-LS transition immediately leads to an IM transition and complete collapse of magnetism.

  6. Interaction of CaO-FeO-SiO[sub 2] slags with partially stabilized zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Yau Don; Schlesinger, M.E. . Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering)

    1994-03-01

    Calcia- and magnesia-partially-stabilized zirconia samples were corroded under static and dynamic conditions in three slags from the CaO-FeO-SiO[sub 2] system. Low-basicity and high-FeO slags corroded the samples by leaching magnesia from the cubic phase in the specimen, causing its destabilization and ultimate dissolution. However, a higher-basicity slag which proved the most corrosive of the three promoted bulk dissolution of the cubic phase instead, the rate of which was controlled by the thickness of the adjacent slag boundary layer. The levels of sample corrosion both at and below the slag line are used to illustrate the effects of experimental variables, including slag composition, specimen density, and slag motion.

  7. Character of magnetic instabilities in CaFe2As2

    SciTech Connect

    Samolyuk, G.; Antropov, V.

    2009-02-19

    The density-functional spin susceptibility has been analyzed in different phases of CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and compared with similar data for pure d metals. The conditions for the 'no local-moment' itinerant state with large frustrations are found for the 'collapsed' phase. This itineracy determines the instability versus the incommensurate magnetic order for the narrow region of wave vectors. For the ambient pressure phase, the local moments on Fe atoms with much less frustrated antiferromagnetic interactions are stabilized and a magnetic short-range or long-range order is developed. The system is close to the point of magnetic instability and spin fluctuations should be included to describe properties of this system.

  8. Composition and structure of Fe(III)-precipitates formed by Fe(II) oxidation in water at near-neutral pH: Interdependent effects of phosphate, silicate and Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senn, Anna-Caterina; Kaegi, Ralf; Hug, Stephan J.; Hering, Janet G.; Mangold, Stefan; Voegelin, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    We studied the interdependent effects of phosphate, silicate and Ca on the formation of Fe(III)-precipitates by oxidation of 0.5 mM Fe(II) in near-neutral bicarbonate-buffered aqueous solutions at concentrations relevant for natural water resources. Complementary results obtained by a suite of analytical techniques including X-ray absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the ratio of initially dissolved phosphate over Fe(II) ((P/Fe)init) had a major impact on precipitate formation. At (P/Fe)init above a critical ratio ((P/Fe)crit) of ∼0.5 in 8 mM NaHCO3 and ∼0.8 in 4 mM Ca(HCO3)2 electrolyte, Fe(II) oxidation led to exclusive formation of amorphous basic Fe(III)-phosphate or Ca-Fe(III)-phosphate ((Ca-)Fe(III)-phosphate) with maximum precipitate P/Fe ratios ((P/Fe)ppt) of ∼0.7 in Na and ∼1.1 in Ca electrolyte. Enhanced phosphate uptake in the presence of Ca was due to phosphate-Ca interactions coupled to Fe precipitation, mainly formation of mitridatite-like Ca-Fe(III)-phosphate polymers and Ca-phosphate polymers. At (P/Fe)init < (P/Fe)crit, in the absence of silicate, (Ca-)Fe(III)-phosphate precipitation was followed by the formation of poorly crystalline lepidocrocite and concomitant transformation of the (Ca-)Fe(III)-phosphate into a phosphate-rich ferrihydrite-type precipitate with a (P/Fe)ppt of ∼0.25. In the presence of 0.5 mM silicate, initially formed (Ca-)Fe(III)-phosphate nanoparticles became coated with silicate-rich ferrihydrite during continuing Fe(II) oxidation and only limited transformation of the (Ca-)Fe(III)-phosphate occurred. The results from this study indicate the complexity of Fe(III)-precipitate formation in the presence of interfering solutes and its consequences for precipitate structure and phosphate sequestration. The findings provide a solid basis for further studies of the reactivity of different Fe(III)-precipitate types and for the systematic assessment of their impact on Fe, phosphate and

  9. A systematic ALCHEMI study of Fe-doped NiAl alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, I.M.; Bentley, J.; Duncan, A.J.

    1995-06-01

    ALCHEMI site-occupation studies of alloying additions to ordered aluminide intermetallic alloys have been performed with varying degrees of success, depending on the ionization delocalization correction. This study examines the variation in the site-occupancy of Fe in B2-ordered NiAl vs solute concentration and alloy stoichiometry. The fraction of Fe on the `Ni` site is plotted vs Fe concentration. The good separation among the data from alloys of the three stoichiometries shows that the site occupancy of iron depends on the relative concentrations of the Ni and Al host elements; however a preference for the `Ni` site is clearly indicated.

  10. Determination of Gibbs Free Energy of Formation from Elements for Ca4Fe9O17 by Solid-state Galvanic Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui-Yu; Guo, Xing-Min

    2014-09-01

    Aiming to fill the thermodynamic blank in CaO-FeO-Fe2O3 system, the determination of the Gibbs free energy of formation from elements for ternary Ca4Fe9O17 was carried out using a solid-state galvanic cell with air and calcium zirconate material, respectively, as the reference electrode and electrolyte. The ternary system Ca2Fe2O5-CaFe2O4-Ca4Fe9O17 was selected as the measuring electrode and its equilibrium was confirmed. The essential thermodynamic data of Ca2Fe2O5 and CaFe2O4 were cited from the reassessed data from a previous investigation. The reversible electromotive forces of the cell were determined from 1273 K to 1473 K (1000 °C to 1200 °C). The Gibbs free energy of formation from elements for Ca4Fe9O17 was derived and given by: Δ_{{f}} G_{{m}}^{circ } ({{Ca}}4 {{Fe}}9 {{O}}_{17} ) = -6218.862 × 103 + 1247.762T + 31.32T ln T ± 2694({{J}} {{mol}}^{-1} ) The increment of enthalpy and entropy of formation from elements for Ca4Fe9O17 at 298 K (25 °C) are calculated to be Δ_{{f}} H_{{{{m}},298}}^{ circ } = -6209.529 × 103 ({{J}} {{mol}}^{-1} ) and Δ_{{f}} S_{{{{m}},298}}^{ circ } = -1038.009({{J}} {{mol}}^{-1} {{K}}^{-1} ) . The Ellingham diagram was developed in temperature range 1273 K to 1473 K (1000 °C to 1200 °C). The oxygen potential of Ca4Fe9O17 was found to be slightly higher than CaFe2O4 and much higher than Ca2Fe2O5.

  11. Chemical short-range order and the Meyer - Neldel rule for liquid alloys: AlCa and GaAlCa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, D.; Schnyders, H. S.; Van Zytveld, J. B.

    1997-02-01

    We have measured the electrical resistivity, 0953-8984/9/7/006/img1, its specific temperature dependence, 0953-8984/9/7/006/img2, and the thermopower, S, of two series of ternary liquid alloys: 0953-8984/9/7/006/img3 and 0953-8984/9/7/006/img4. We also provide new analysis for the binary liquid alloy AlCa. We do not see the unusually large values for S that were found earlier for amorphous solid ternary alloys of the approximate composition 0953-8984/9/7/006/img5. We do find that, while chemical short-range order (CSRO) appears to occur in the liquid binary alloy 0953-8984/9/7/006/img6, CSRO is apparently destroyed by substitution of one Ga atom for one Al per complex: 0953-8984/9/7/006/img7. CSRO may exist in the liquid alloy 0953-8984/9/7/006/img8. And we find that the activated conductivities of these ternary liquid alloys (and also of liquid AlCa) are consistent with the Meyer - Neldel rule (MNR), extending the range of applicability of the MNR to systems with activation energies about an order of magnitude smaller than previously observed. These results appear to rule out two physical models as universal bases for the MNR, but are consistent with one based on a hopping conductivity whose characteristic energy is that of a polaron shift.

  12. Impact of densification on microstructure and transport properties of CaFe5O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delacotte, C.; Hébert, S.; Hardy, V.; Bréard, Y.; Maki, R.; Mori, T.; Pelloquin, D.

    2016-04-01

    Monophasic CaFe5O7 ceramic has been synthesized by solid state route. Its microstructural features have been studied by diffraction techniques and electron microscopy images before and after Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) annealings. This work is completed by measurements of electrical and thermal properties. Especially, attention is focused around the structural and electronic transition at 360 K for which specific heat measurements have revealed a sharp peak. Densification by SPS techniques led to a significant improvement of electrical conductivity above 360 K.

  13. Local Inhomogeneity and Filamentary Superconductivity in Pr-Doped CaFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gofryk, Krzysztof; Pan, Minghu; Cantoni, Claudia; Saparov, Bayrammurad; Mitchell, Jonathan E.; Sefat, Athena S.

    2014-01-01

    We use multiscale techniques to determine the extent of local inhomogeneity and superconductivity in Ca0.86Pr0.14Fe2As2 single crystal. The inhomogeneity is manifested as a spatial variation of the praseodymium concentration, local density of states, and superconducting order parameter. We show that the high-Tc superconductivity emerges from cloverlike defects associated with Pr dopants. The highest Tc is observed in both the tetragonal and collapsed tetragonal phases, and its filamentary nature is a consequence of nonuniform Pr distribution that develops localized, isolated superconducting regions within the crystals.

  14. An NMR investigation of superconductivity and antiferromagnetism in CaFe2As2 under pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, Seung H; Lee, Han O; Bauer, E D; Ronning, F; Park, T; Thompson, J D; Brown, S E; Curro, N J

    2009-01-01

    We report {sup 75}As NMR measurements in CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, made under applied pressures up to 0.83 CPa produced by a standard clamp pressure cell. Our data reveal phase segregation of paramagnetic (PM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) phases over a range of pressures, with the AFM phase more than 90% dominant at low temperatures. In situ RF susceptibility measurements indicate the presence of superconductivity. {sup 75}As spin-lattice relaxation experiments indicate that the {sup 75}As nuclei sample the superconductivity while in the magnetically-ordered environment.

  15. Magnetism, structure and superconductivity in CaFe2As2

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Tuson O; Lee, Han; Ronning, Filip; Bauer, Eric D; Thompson, Joe D

    2008-01-01

    Tbe spin-density-wave (SDW) anti ferromagnet CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} becomes superconducting under pressure. By measuring electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility under pressure, we show that bulk superconductivity is present in a narrow pressure range where a collapsed tetrgaonal structure is favored. At higher pressures, a new low-temperature structure appears, with the boundary between this new structure and the collapsed tetragonal structure strongly dependent on pressure history. Magnetic fluctuations in the collapsed phase appear to be important for superconductivity.

  16. Local inhomogeneity and filamentary superconductivity in Pr-doped CaFe2As2.

    PubMed

    Gofryk, Krzysztof; Pan, Minghu; Cantoni, Claudia; Saparov, Bayrammurad; Mitchell, Jonathan E; Sefat, Athena S

    2014-01-31

    We use multiscale techniques to determine the extent of local inhomogeneity and superconductivity in Ca0.86Pr0.14Fe2As2 single crystal. The inhomogeneity is manifested as a spatial variation of the praseodymium concentration, local density of states, and superconducting order parameter. We show that the high-Tc superconductivity emerges from cloverlike defects associated with Pr dopants. The highest Tc is observed in both the tetragonal and collapsed tetragonal phases, and its filamentary nature is a consequence of nonuniform Pr distribution that develops localized, isolated superconducting regions within the crystals. PMID:24580484

  17. Nanofibers of Ca2Fe2O5: A novel material for aqueous supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundriyal, Sandeep Kumar; Bhagwan, Jai; Sharma, Yogesh

    2016-05-01

    Porous, aligned and high aspect ratio nanofibers of Ca2Fe2O5 (CFO) have been fabricated by varying various system and process parameter of electrospinning technique for the first time. CFO nanofibers are further characterized by XRD, FESEM and BET surface area. The diameter of as-spun nanofibers of CFO was found to be polymer concentration dependent. Heating profile is found to be responsible for alignment of CFO nanofibers. For the first time, novel CFO nanofibers were subjected to cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) cycling to investigate its energy storage performance as electrode material for aqueous supercapacitor, and accordingly preliminary results are discussed.

  18. An overview of the welding of Ni{sub 3}Al and Fe{sub 3}Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Santella, M.L.

    1996-12-31

    Weldability (degree to which defect formation is resisted when an alloy is welded) is an issue in fabrication of Ni{sub 3}Al and Fe{sub 3}Al. Work to define and improve welding of Ni{sub 3}Al and Fe{sub 3}Al alloys is reviewed and progress illustrated by examples of current activities. The cast Ni{sub 3}Al alloys currently under development, IC221M and IC396M, have low resistance to solidification cracking and hence difficult to weld. Modifications to the composition of both base alloys and weld deposits,however, increase their resistance to cracking. Crack-free, full-penetration welds were made in centrifugally cast tubes of IC221M. Tensile and stress- rupture properties of the weldments compare favorably with base metal properties. Weldability issues have limited the use of Fe{sub 3}Al alloys to weld overlay applications. Filler metal compositions suitable for weld overlay cladding were developed, and the preheat and postweld heat treatment needed to avoid cracking, were determined experimentally.

  19. Effects of Ca, Cu, Al and La on pectin gel strength: implications for plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Brigid A; Nicholson, Timothy M; Wehr, J Bernhard; Menzies, Neal W

    2010-06-16

    Rheology of Ca-pectate gels is widely studied, but the behaviour of pectate gels formed by Cu, Al and La is largely unknown. It is well known that gel strength increases with increasing Ca concentration, and it is hypothesised that this would also be the case for other cations. Pectins are a critical component of plant cell walls, imparting various physicochemical properties. Furthermore, the mechanism of metal toxicity in plants is hypothesised to be, in the short term, related to metal interactions with cell wall pectin. This study investigated the influence of Ca, Cu, Al and La ion concentrations at pH 4 on the storage modulus as a function of frequency for metal-pectin gels prepared from pectin (1%) with a degree of esterification of 30%. Gels were formed in situ over 6d in metal chloride solution adjusted daily to pH 4. Cation concentration was varied to develop a relationship between gel strength and cation concentration. At similar levels of cation saturation, gel strength increased in the order of La<Ca < or =AlCa gels being the most swollen.

  20. Effects of Ca, Cu, Al and La on pectin gel strength: implications for plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Brigid A; Nicholson, Timothy M; Wehr, J Bernhard; Menzies, Neal W

    2010-06-16

    Rheology of Ca-pectate gels is widely studied, but the behaviour of pectate gels formed by Cu, Al and La is largely unknown. It is well known that gel strength increases with increasing Ca concentration, and it is hypothesised that this would also be the case for other cations. Pectins are a critical component of plant cell walls, imparting various physicochemical properties. Furthermore, the mechanism of metal toxicity in plants is hypothesised to be, in the short term, related to metal interactions with cell wall pectin. This study investigated the influence of Ca, Cu, Al and La ion concentrations at pH 4 on the storage modulus as a function of frequency for metal-pectin gels prepared from pectin (1%) with a degree of esterification of 30%. Gels were formed in situ over 6d in metal chloride solution adjusted daily to pH 4. Cation concentration was varied to develop a relationship between gel strength and cation concentration. At similar levels of cation saturation, gel strength increased in the order of La<Ca < or =AlCa gels being the most swollen. PMID:20457449

  1. The Interplay of Fe and Ce Magnetism in Ca0.71 Ce0.29(Fe1-xCox)As2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shan; Liu, Lian; Cao, Huibo; Tian, Wei; Emmanuelidu, Eve; Shi, Aoshuang; Uemura, Yasutomo; Ni, Ni

    In this talk, we will present the synthesis and characterization of the Ca0.71 Ce0.29(Fe1-xCox)As2 single crystals. Elastic neutron scattering complemented by resistivity, susceptibility and heat capacity measurements has revealed a paramagnetic-to-antiferromagnetic phase transition of the Fe sublattice at 69K and a monoclinic-to-triclinic structural phase transition at 73 K in Ca0.71 Ce0.29FeAs2. In addition, Fe spin reorientation and Ce ordering at lower temperatures, reminiscent of the one in REFeAsO (RE=Ce, Pr, Nd) materials, exist. The Co substitution on the Fe sites completely suppresses the ordering of Fe sublattice at x=0.032. However, it only slightly affects the Ce ordering, which prevents the formation of superconductivity in Ca0.71 Ce0.29(Fe1-xCox)As2. Work at UCLA was supported by the NSF DMREF DMR-1435672. Work at Columbia and TRIUMF was supported by the NSF DMREF DMR- 1436095, PIRE project IIA 0968226 and DMR-1105961. Work at ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor was sponsored by DOE.

  2. Structural and magnetic phase transitions in triclinic Ca10(FeAs)10(Pt3As8).

    PubMed

    Stürzer, T; Friederichs, G M; Luetkens, H; Amato, A; Klauss, H-H; Johrendt, Dirk

    2013-03-27

    We report the structural and magnetic phase transitions of triclinic Ca10(FeAs)10(Pt3As8), which is the parent compound of the 1038-type iron-arsenide superconductors. High-resolution x-ray diffraction reveals splitting of the in-plane (a,b) lattice parameters at T(s) ≈ 120 K. Platinum-doping weakens the distortion and shifts the transition temperature to 80 K in Ca10(Fe(1-x)Pt(x)As)10(Pt3As8) with x = 0.03. μSR experiments show the onset of magnetic order near T and a broad magnetic phase transition. The structural transition involves no reduction of the space group symmetry in contrast to the other parent compounds of iron-arsenide superconductors; nevertheless the local fourfold symmetry of the FeAs-layers in Ca10(FeAs)10(Pt3As8) is broken.

  3. The CaCO3-Fe interaction: Kinetic approach for carbonate subduction to the deep Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martirosyan, N. S.; Yoshino, T.; Shatskiy, A.; Chanyshev, A. D.; Litasov, K. D.

    2016-10-01

    The CaCO3-Fe0 system, as a model for redox reactions between carbonates and reduced lithologies at the slab-mantle interface during subduction or at core-mantle boundary, was investigated systematically at temperatures from 650 to 1400 °C and pressures from 4 to 16 GPa using multianvil apparatus. CaCO3 reduction via reaction: 3 CaCO3 (aragonite) + 13 Fe0 (metal) = Fe7C3 (carbide) + 3 CaFe2O3 (Ca-wüstite) was observed. The thickness of the reaction-product layer (Δx) increases linearly with the square root of time in the time-series experiments (t), indicating diffusion-controlled process. The reaction rate constant (k = Δx2/2t) is log-linear relative to 1/T. Its temperature dependences was determined to be k [m2/s] = 2.1 × 10-7exp(-162[kJ/mol]/RT) at 4-6 GPa and k [m2/s] = 2.6 × 10-11exp(-65[kJ/mol]/RT) at 16 GPa. The sluggish kinetics of established CaCO3-Fe0 interaction suggests that significant amount of carbonates could survive during subduction from metal saturation boundary near 250 km depth down to the transition zone and presumably to the lower mantle if melting of carbonates is not involved.

  4. Optically stimulated luminescence in LiCaAlF6:Eu2+ phosphor.

    PubMed

    More, Y K; Wankhede, S P; Moharil, S V; Kumar, Munish; Chougaonkar, M P

    2015-09-01

    Results on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in LiCaAlF6:Eu(2+) are reported. Continuous wave OSL signal as recorded using blue (470 nm) stimulation was found to be ~31% that of standard phosphor lithium magnesium phosphate. The rate of OSL depletion for standard phosphor lithium magnesium phosphate is only three times less as compared with that of LiCaAlF6:Eu(2+). Strong photoluminescence (PL) in the near ultraviolet region is observed for LiCaAlF6:Eu(2+) with the characteristic Eu(2+) emission at 369 nm for 254 nm excitation. The thermoluminescence (TL) glow peak for LiCaAlF6:Eu(2+) was observed at around 180°C. The glow peak was about six times more intense compared with the dosimetric peak of the well known thermoluminescence dosimetric (TLD) phosphor LiF-TLD 100. Thus this phosphor deserves much more attention than it has received until now and may be useful as a dosimetric material in radiation dosimetry. PMID:25620581

  5. Interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and damping parameter in ultra thin Co2FeAl films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yishen; Khodadadi, Behrouz; Schäfer, Sebastian; Mewes, Tim; Lu, Jiwei; Wolf, Stuart A.

    2013-04-01

    B2-ordered Co2FeAl films were synthesized using an ion beam deposition tool. A high degree of chemical ordering ˜81.2% with a low damping parameter (α) less than 0.004 was obtained in a 50 nm thick film via rapid thermal annealing at 600 °C. The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) was optimized in ultra thin Co2FeAl films annealed at 350 °C without an external magnetic field. The reduced thickness and annealing temperature to achieve PMA introduced extrinsic factors thus increasing α significantly. However, the observed damping of Co2FeAl films was still lower than that of Co60Fe20B20 films prepared at the same thickness and annealing temperature.

  6. Formation Mechanism of CaS-Al2O3 Inclusions in Low Sulfur Al-Killed Steel After Calcium Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianfei; Huang, Fuxiang; Wang, Xinhua

    2016-04-01

    The laboratory experiments of alumina inclusions modified by calcium treatment in Al-killed steel were carried out at 1873 K (1600 °C), and the inclusions in steel samples were characterized at 1, 5, and 10 minutes after calcium addition. The results show that the type of inclusions after calcium treatment was determined by the sulfur and T.O contents of steel. CaS-Al2O3 inclusions were obtained in steels with high sulfur and low T.O contents. The mass ratio between CaS and Al2O3 was determined by T.Ca and T.O contents of steel. The influence of holding time after calcium addition on the composition of inclusions was negligible. The thermodynamics for the formation of CaS-Al2O3 inclusions after calcium treatment was discussed, and a simple formation mechanism was proposed. Moreover, the CaO, Al2O3, and CaS contents in the inclusions were predicted through the sulfur, total calcium (T.Ca), and T.O contents, and it was found that the CaO content decreases with increasing S/T.O, while (pctCaS)/(pctAl2O3)1/3 increases with increasing T.Ca/T.O.

  7. Ca-,Al-rich inclusions in the unique chondrite ALH85085 - Petrology, chemistry, and isotopic compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, M.; El Goresy, A.; Palme, H.; Zinner, E.

    1993-05-01

    A comprehensive study is performed for the Ca-,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in the unique chondrite ALH85085. The ALH85085 inclusions are smaller (5-80 microns) and more refractory than their counterparts in carbonaceous chondrites. The study includes 42 inclusions for petrography and mineralogy, 15 for bulk major and minor element chemical composition, six for Mg-Al isotopic systematics, 10 for Ca isotopes, nine for Ti isotopes, and six for trace element abundances. In addition, oxygen-isotopic compositions were determined in minerals from a single inclusion. No correlation is found between mineralogy, major element chemistry, and trace element abundances. It is further shown that the high-temperature geochemical behavior of ultrarefractory trace elements is decoupled from that of the major elements Ca and Ti (Ti is correlated with the relatively volatile elements Nb and Yb) implying that perovskite is of only minor importance as carrier of ultrarefractories.

  8. Atomic origin of the spin-polarization of the Co2FeAl Heusler compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jaw-Yeu; Lam, Tu-Ngoc; Lin, Yan-Cheng; Chang, Shu-Jui; Lin, Hong-Ji; Tseng, Yuan-Chieh

    2016-02-01

    Using synchrotron x-ray techniques, we studied the Co2FeAl spin-polarization state that generates the half-metallicity of the compound during an A2 (low-spin)  →  B2 (high-spin) phase transition. Given the advantage of element specificity of x-ray techniques, we could fingerprint the structural and magnetic cross-reactions between Co and Fe within a complex Co2FeAl structure deposited on a MgO (0 0 1) substrate. X-ray diffraction and extended x-ray absorption fine structure investigations determined that the Co atoms preferably populate the (1/4,1/4,1/4) and (3/4,3/4,3/4) sites during the development of the B2 phase. X-ray magnetic spectroscopy showed that although the two magnetic elements were ferromagnetically coupled, they interacted in a competing manner via a charge-transfer effect, which enhanced Co spin polarization at the expense of Fe spin polarization during the phase transition. This means that the spin-polarization of Co2FeAl was electronically dominated by Fe in A2 whereas the charge transfer turned the dominance to Co upon B2 formation. Helicity-dependent x-ray absorption spectra also revealed that only the minority state of Co/Fe was involved in the charge-transfer effect whereas the majority state was independent of it. Despite an overall increase of Co2FeAl magnetization, the charge-transfer effect created an undesired trade-off during the Co-Fe exchange interactions, because of the presence of twice as many X sites (Co) as Y sites (Fe) in the Heusler X 2 YZ formula. This suggests that the spin-polarization of Co2FeAl is unfortunately regulated by compromising the enhanced X (Co) sites and the suppressed Y (Fe) sites, irrespective of the development of the previously known high-spin-polarization phase of B2. This finding provides a possible cause for the limited half-metallicity of Co2FeAl discovered recently. Electronic tuning between the X and Y sites is necessary to further increase the spin-polarization, and likely the half

  9. The influence of cooling rate and Fe/Cr content on the evolution of Fe-rich compounds in a secondary Al-Si-Cu diecasting alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabrizi, A.; Timelli, G.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the morphological evolution of primary α-Al(Fe,Mn,Cr)Si phase in a secondary Al-Si-Cu alloy with respect to the initial Fe and Cr contents as well as to the cooling rate. The solidification experiments have been designed in order to cover a wide range of cooling rates, and the Fe and Cr contents have been varied over two levels. Metallographic and image analysis techniques have been used to quantitatively examine the microstructural changes occurring at different experimental conditions. The morphological evolution of the α-Fe phase has been also analysed by observing deep etched samples. By changing the cooling rate, α-Al15(Fe,Mn,Cr)3Si2 dodecahedron crystals, as well as Chinese- script, branched structures and dendrites form, while primary coarse β-Al5(Fe,Mn)Si needles appear in the alloy with the highest Fe content at low cooling rates.

  10. Methane oxidation over mixed-conducting SrFe(Al)O3-delta-SrAl2O4 composite.

    PubMed

    Yaremchenko, A A; Kharton, V V; Valente, A A; Veniaminov, S A; Belyaev, V D; Sobyanin, V A; Marques, F M B

    2007-06-01

    The steady-state CH4 conversion by oxygen permeating through mixed-conducting (SrFe)0.7(SrAl2)0.3Oz composite membranes, comprising strontium-deficient SrFe(Al)O3-delta perovskite and monoclinic SrAl2O4-based phases, occurs via different mechanisms in comparison to the dry methane interaction with the lattice oxygen. The catalytic behavior of powdered (SrFe)0.7(SrAl2)0.3Oz, studied by temperature-programmed reduction in dry CH4 at 523-1073 K, is governed by the level of oxygen nonstoichiometry in the crystal lattice of the perovskite component and is qualitatively similar to that of other perovskite-related ferrites, such as Sr0.7La0.3Fe0.8Al0.2O3-delta. While extensive oxygen release from the ferrite lattice at 700-900 K leads to predominant total oxidation of methane, significant selectivity to synthesis gas formation, with H2/CO ratios close to 2, is observed above 1000 K, when a critical value of oxygen deficiency is achieved. The steady-state oxidation over dense membranes at 1123-1223 K results, however, in prevailing total combustion, particularly due to excessive oxygen chemical potential at the membrane surface. In combination with surface-limited oxygen permeability, mass transport limitations in a porous layer at the membrane permeate side prevent reduction and enable stable operation of (SrFe)0.7(SrAl2)0.3Oz membranes under air/methane gradient. Taking into account the catalytic activity of SrFeO3-delta-based phases for the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas and the important role of mass transport-related effects, one promising approach for membrane development is the fabrication of thick layer of porous ferrite-based catalyst at the surface of dense (SrFe)0.7(SrAl2)0.3Oz composite. PMID:17627318

  11. Effect of alloying elements Al and Ca on corrosion resistance of plasma anodized Mg alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anawati, Asoh, Hidetaka; Ono, Sachiko

    2016-04-01

    Plasma anodizing is a surface treatment used to form a ceramic-type oxide film on Mg alloys by the application of a high anodic voltage to create intense plasma near the metal surface. With proper selection of the process parameters, the technique can produce high quality oxide with superior adhesion, corrosion resistance, micro-hardness, wear resistance and strength. The effect of alloying element Al on plasma anodizing process of Mg alloys was studied by comparing the anodizing curves of pure Mg, AZ31, and AZ61 alloys while the effect of Ca were studied on AZ61 alloys containing 0, 1, and 2 wt% Ca. Anodizing was performed in 0.5 M Na3PO4 solution at a constant current density of 200 Am-2 at 25°C. Anodic oxide films with lava-like structure having mix composition of amorphous and crystal were formed on all of the alloys. The main crystal form of the oxide was Mg3(PO4)2 as analyzed by XRD. Alloying elements Al and Ca played role in modifying the plasma lifetime during anodization. Al tended to extend the strong plasma lifetime and therefore accelerated the film thickening. The effect of Ca on anodizing process was still unclear. The anodic film thickness and chemical composition were altered by the presence of Ca in the alloys. Electrochemical corrosion test in 0.9% NaCl solution showed that the corrosion behavior of the anodized specimens depend on the behavior of the substrate. Increasing Al and Ca content in the alloys tended to increase the corrosion resistance of the specimens. The corrosion resistance of the anodized specimens improved significantly about two orders of magnitude relative to the bare substrate.

  12. Thermochemistry of glasses and liquids in the systems CaMgSi 2O 6-CaAl 2Si 2O 8-NaAlSi 3O 8, SiO 2-CaAl 2Si 2O 8-NaAlSi 3O 8 and SiO 2-Al 2O 3-CaO-Na 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navrotsky, A.; Hon, R.; Weill, D. F.; Henry, D. J.

    1980-10-01

    Enthalpies of solution in 2PbO· B 2O 3 at 712°C have been measured for glasses in the systems albite anorthite diopside, NaAlO 2-SiO 2, Ca 0.5AlO 2-SiO 2 and albite-anorthite-quartz. The systems albite-anorthite and diopside-anorthite show substantial negative enthalpies of mixing, albite-diopside shows significant positive heats of mixing. For compositions up to NaAlO2 = 0.42 (which includes the subsystem albite-silica) the system NaAlO 2-SiO 2 shows essentially zero heats of mixing. A negative ternary excess heat of mixing is found in the plagioclase-rich portion of the albite-anorthite-diopside system. The join Si 4O 8-CaAl 2Si 2O 8 shows small but significant heats of mixing. In albite-anorthite-quartz. ternary glasses, the ternary excess enthalpy of mixing is positive. Based on available heat capacity data and appropriate consideration of the glass transition, the enthalpy of the crystal-glass transition (vitrification) is a serious underestimate of the enthalpy of the crystal-liquid transition (fusion) especially when the melting point, Tf, is many hundreds of degrees higher than the glass transition temperature, Tg. On the other hand, the same heat capacity data suggest that the enthalpies of mixing in albite-anorthite-diopside liquids are calculated to be quite similar to those in the glasses. The enthalpies of mixing observed in general support the structural models proposed by TAYLOR and BROWN (1979a, b) and others for the structure of aluminosilicate glasses.

  13. CaFe{sub 4}As{sub 3} : a metallic iron arsenide with anisotropic magnetic and charge-transport properties.

    SciTech Connect

    Todorov, I.; Chung, D. Y.; Malliakas, C. D.; Li, Q.; Bakas, T.; Douvalis, A.; Trimarchi, G.; Gray, K.; Mitchell, J. F.; Freeman, A. J.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Materials Science Division; Northwestern Univ.; Univ. of Ioannina

    2009-03-01

    The iron arsenide CaFe{sub 4}As{sub 3} features a three-dimensional network derived from intergrown Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} layers and Ca ions in channels. Complex magnetic interactions between Fe atoms give rise to unexpected transitions and novel direction-dependent magnetic behavior.

  14. STM study of the atomic structure of the icosahedral Al-Cu-Fe fivefold surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, T.; Fournée, V.; Lograsso, T.; Ross, A.; Thiel, P. A.

    2002-04-01

    We use scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to investigate the atomic structure of the icosahedral (i-) Al-Cu-Fe fivefold surface in ultra high vacuum (UHV). Studies show that large, atomically flat terraces feature many ten-petal ``flowers'' with internal structure. The observed flower patterns can be associated with features on Al rich dense atomic planes generated from two-dimensional cuts of bulk models based on x-ray and neutron diffraction experiments. The results confirm that the fivefold surface of i-Al-Cu-Fe corresponds to a bulk-terminated plane.

  15. Stability of Fe,Al-bearing bridgmanite in the lower mantle and synthesis of pure Fe-bridgmanite.

    PubMed

    Ismailova, Leyla; Bykova, Elena; Bykov, Maxim; Cerantola, Valerio; McCammon, Catherine; Boffa Ballaran, Tiziana; Bobrov, Andrei; Sinmyo, Ryosuke; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia; Glazyrin, Konstantin; Liermann, Hanns-Peter; Kupenko, Ilya; Hanfland, Michael; Prescher, Clemens; Prakapenka, Vitali; Svitlyk, Volodymyr; Dubrovinsky, Leonid

    2016-07-01

    The physical and chemical properties of Earth's mantle, as well as its dynamics and evolution, heavily depend on the phase composition of the region. On the basis of experiments in laser-heated diamond anvil cells, we demonstrate that Fe,Al-bearing bridgmanite (magnesium silicate perovskite) is stable to pressures over 120 GPa and temperatures above 3000 K. Ferric iron stabilizes Fe-rich bridgmanite such that we were able to synthesize pure iron bridgmanite at pressures between ~45 and 110 GPa. The compressibility of ferric iron-bearing bridgmanite is significantly different from any known bridgmanite, which has direct implications for the interpretation of seismic tomography data. PMID:27453945

  16. Stability of Fe,Al-bearing bridgmanite in the lower mantle and synthesis of pure Fe-bridgmanite

    PubMed Central

    Ismailova, Leyla; Bykova, Elena; Bykov, Maxim; Cerantola, Valerio; McCammon, Catherine; Boffa Ballaran, Tiziana; Bobrov, Andrei; Sinmyo, Ryosuke; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia; Glazyrin, Konstantin; Liermann, Hanns-Peter; Kupenko, Ilya; Hanfland, Michael; Prescher, Clemens; Prakapenka, Vitali; Svitlyk, Volodymyr; Dubrovinsky, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    The physical and chemical properties of Earth’s mantle, as well as its dynamics and evolution, heavily depend on the phase composition of the region. On the basis of experiments in laser-heated diamond anvil cells, we demonstrate that Fe,Al-bearing bridgmanite (magnesium silicate perovskite) is stable to pressures over 120 GPa and temperatures above 3000 K. Ferric iron stabilizes Fe-rich bridgmanite such that we were able to synthesize pure iron bridgmanite at pressures between ~45 and 110 GPa. The compressibility of ferric iron–bearing bridgmanite is significantly different from any known bridgmanite, which has direct implications for the interpretation of seismic tomography data. PMID:27453945

  17. Investigation of slective laser melting of mecanically alloyed metastable Al5Fe2 powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montiel, Hugo

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM), an Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology, enables the production of complex structured metal products. Aluminum alloys are used in SLM as high-strength lightweight materials for weight reduction in structural components. Previous investigations report high laser powers (300 W) and slow scanning speeds (500 mm/s) to process aluminum alloys under SLM. This research investigates the SLM processing of Al-Fe alloy by utilizing metastable Al5Fe2 powder system produced by mechanical alloying. Metastable systems are thermodynamically activated with internal energy that can generate an energy shortcut when processing under SLM. The optimum laser power, scan speeds and scan distances were investigated by test series experiments. Results indicate that metastable Al5Fe2 alloy can be processed and stabilized under a 200 W laser scanning and a relative high scanning speed of 1000 mm/s. Thus, the internal energy of metastable powder contributes in reducing laser energy for SLM process for Al alloys.

  18. Optically pumped cerium-doped LiSrAlF.sub.6 and LiCaAlF.sub.6

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, Christopher D.; Payne, Stephen A.; Krupke, William F.

    1996-01-01

    Ce.sup.3+ -doped LiSrAlF.sub.6 crystals are pumped by ultraviolet light which is polarized along the c axis of the crystals to effectively energize the laser system. In one embodiment, the polarized fourth harmonic light output from a conventional Nd:YAG laser operating at 266 nm is arranged to pump Ce:LiSrAlF.sub.6 with the pump light polarized along the c axis of the crystal. The Ce:LiSrAlF.sub.6 crystal may be placed in a laser cavity for generating tunable coherent ultraviolet radiation in the range of 280-320 nm. Additionally, Ce-doped crystals possessing the LiSrAlF.sub.6 type of chemical formula, e.g. Ce-doped LiCaAlF.sub.6 and LiSrGaF.sub.6, can be used. Alternative pump sources include an ultraviolet-capable krypton or argon laser, or ultraviolet emitting flashlamps. The polarization of the pump light will impact operation. The laser system will operate efficiently when light in the 280-320 nm gain region is injected or recirculated in the system such that the beam is also polarized along the c axis of the crystal. The Ce:LiSrAlF.sub.6 laser system can be configured to generate ultrashort pulses, and it may be used to pump other devices, such as an optical parametric oscillator.

  19. Optically pumped cerium-doped LiSrAlF{sub 6} and LiCaAlF{sub 6}

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, C.D.; Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F.

    1996-05-14

    Ce{sup 3+}-doped LiSrAlF{sub 6} crystals are pumped by ultraviolet light which is polarized along the c axis of the crystals to effectively energize the laser system. In one embodiment, the polarized fourth harmonic light output from a conventional Nd:YAG laser operating at 266 nm is arranged to pump Ce:LiSrAlF{sub 6} with the pump light polarized along the c axis of the crystal. The Ce:LiSrAlF{sub 6} crystal may be placed in a laser cavity for generating tunable coherent ultraviolet radiation in the range of 280-320 nm. Additionally, Ce-doped crystals possessing the LiSrAlF{sub 6} type of chemical formula, e.g. Ce-doped LiCaAlF{sub 6} and LiSrGaF{sub 6}, can be used. Alternative pump sources include an ultraviolet-capable krypton or argon laser, or ultraviolet emitting flashlamps. The polarization of the pump light will impact operation. The laser system will operate efficiently when light in the 280-320 nm gain region is injected or recirculated in the system such that the beam is also polarized along the c axis of the crystal. The Ce:LiSrAlF{sub 6} laser system can be configured to generate ultrashort pulses, and it may be used to pump other devices, such as an optical parametric oscillator. 10 figs.

  20. The electronic structure and magnetism of CaFeAs2: First principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guangtao; Shi, Xianbiao; Zhang, Lin; Yi, Xia

    2014-12-01

    The electronic structure, magnetism and Fermi surface (FS) nesting of the recently discovered superconductive parent material CaFeAs2 are studied by the first-principles, based on the GGA and GGA+U methods. In the nonmagnetic state, the density of states at the Fermi level are mostly derived from the dxy, dyz and dzx orbits, just like LaOFeAs. The Fermi surfaces consist of four hole like FS sheets around the Γ-point, two electron like sheets near the Brillouin zone corner M-point, and small pockets near X-point. The hole like Fermi surfaces will strongly overlap with the electron like FS sheets, if they are shifted by the q-vector q=(π, π, 0). Such FS nesting will induce the magnetic instability and spin density wave (SDW), which has been confirmed to be more stable than other states by the calculated total energy. The calculated bare susceptibility χ0(q) peaked at M-point, and was obviously suppressed with the electron doping. This explains the emergence of the superconductivity in the electron-doped compound Ca1-xLaxFeAs2, because the electron doping suppressed the SDW and induced the superconductivity.

  1. Hydrogen sensitivity of Pt-Pd/rho-CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ diode

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Y.; Hombo, J. . Faculty of Engineering); Yoshikawa, T.; Sato, E. . Faculty of Engineering)

    1989-03-01

    Hydrogen sensitivity of the current at the Pt-Pd/rho-CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ diode has been studied and compared with that of the Pt-Pd/eta-TiO/sub 2/ diode. The current decreased by H/sub 2/-on in air, but was not recovered by H/sub 2/-off at room temperature. The latter result is different from that for the Pt-Pd/TiO/sub 2/ diode, indicating a mechanism other than the change of the work function of the metal is involved. The Schottky barrier was estimated from activation energy and photocurrent measurements. A surface state mechanism for the H/sub 2/ response of the Pt-Pd/CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ diode is proposed. In this case, the Pt-Pd acts as the catalyst for the reaction of H/sub 2/ with surface states. This mechanism is important for the diode type gas sensor using the semiconductors which show the Fermi level pinning.

  2. Comparative study of the Raman vibrational modes in pure and Fe-doped La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnache, O.; Osorio, J.

    2016-04-01

    A comparative study of Raman spectra at room temperature of La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 (LCMO) and La2/3Ca1/3Mn0.97Fe0.03O3 (LCMFO) thin films, grown on monocrystalline substrates LaAlO3, is presented. The films were grown with thickness between 30 and 130 nm under identical deposition conditions by DC magnetron sputtering system at high O2 pressure. In order to observe changes in the vibration modes of the lattice due to the substitution of Mn by Fe ions, we compared the different values of wave numbers obtained from the fittings of each Raman spectrum. The results show that the characteristic-and most intense-peak at ∼486 cm-1 corresponds to the substrate. In the LCMO thick films, Raman modes are very weak and mix up with the substrate one, whereas in LCMFO, these modes were found in three intervals around 220-250 cm-1 (υ1), 450-520 cm-1 (υ2) and 610-720 cm-1 (υ3). A mode at ∼717 cm-1 is associated to structural disorder due to Fe doping effect. In both LCMO and LCMFO films, the conduction mechanism are related with electron localization and the electronic transition is mediated by phonons. According to the T* values from resistivity data fit (Variable Range Model -VRH), it is observed once more that the Fe doping relaxes the strain effects.

  3. Combustion Synthesis of CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+, Dy3+ And CaSrAl2SiO7:Eu2+ Long After Glow Phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talwar, Gurjeet; Joshi, C. P.; Moharil, S. V.; Kondawar, V. K.

    2011-10-01

    CaSrAl2SiO7:Eu2+ and CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+, Dy3+ are prepared through modified combustion technique. The photoluminescence and long after glow decay characteristics are studied. PL emission spectra of both the phosphors are obtained in blue region.

  4. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation process of two-component Fe-Al alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przewlocka, H.; Siedlecka, J.

    1982-01-01

    The oxidation process of two-component Fe-Al alloys containing up to 7.2% Al and from 18 to 30% Al was studied. Kinetic measurements were conducted using the isothermal gravimetric method in the range of 1073-1223 K and 1073-1373 K for 50 hours. The methods used in studies of the mechanism of oxidation included: X-ray microanalysis, X-ray structural analysis, metallographic analysis and marker tests.

  5. Aluminum-Magnesium and Oxygen Isotope Study of Relict Ca-Al-rich Inclusions in Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, Alexander N.; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Huss, Gary R.; Liffman, Kurt; Sahijpal, Sandeep; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Srinivasan, Gopalan; Bischoff, Adolph; Keil, Klaus

    2006-03-01

    Relict Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondrules crystallized before their host chondrules and were subsequently partly melted together with chondrule precursors during chondrule formation. Like most CAIs, relict CAIs are 16O enriched (Δ17O<-20‰) compared to their host chondrules (Δ17O>-9‰). Hibonite in a relict CAI from the ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite Adelaide has a large excess of radiogenic 26Mg (26Mg*) from the decay of 26Al, corresponding to an initial 26Al/27Al ratio [(26Al/27Al)I] of (3.7+/-0.5)×10-5 in contrast, melilite in this CAI and plagioclase in the host chondrule show no evidence for 26Mg* [(26Al/27Al)I of <5×10-6]. Grossite in a relict CAI from the CH carbonaceous chondrite PAT 91546 has little 26Mg*, corresponding to a (26Al/27Al)I of (1.7+/-1.3)×10-6. Three other relict CAIs and their host chondrules from the ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094, CH chondrite Acfer 182, and H3.4 ordinary chondrite Sharps do not have detectable 26Mg* [(26Al/27Al)I<1×10-5, <(4-6)×10-6, and <1.3×10-5, respectively]. Isotopic data combined with mineralogical observations suggest that relict CAIs formed in an 16O-rich gaseous reservoir before their host chondrules, which originated in an 16O-poor gas. The Adelaide CAI was incorporated into its host chondrule after 26Al had mostly decayed, at least 2 Myr after the CAI formed, and this event reset 26Al-26Mg systematics.

  6. ACO-zeotype iron aluminum phosphates with variable Al/Fe ratios controlled by F⁻ ions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanyan; Li, Yi; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jingzhe; Yan, Yan; Li, Jiyang; Yu, Jihong; Wang, Jincheng; Xu, Ruren

    2011-03-01

    Three new iron aluminum phosphates |(C(2)H(10)N(2))(4)|[Fe(8 - x)Al(x)F(x)(H(2)O)(2 - x)(PO(4))(8)]·2H(2)O (χ = 1.64, 1.33, 0.80) with ACO-zeotype structures denoted as FeAPO-CJ66(a), FeAPO-CJ66(b), and FeAPO-CJ66(c), respectively, have been synthesized in the fluoride ion system. Their framework structures are made of double 4-ring (D4R) building units formed by the alternating connection of Fe(Al)O(4)F(O) trigonal bipyramids and PO(4) tetrahedra, which possess 3D intersecting 8-ring channels running along the [001], [010], and [100] directions. Fluoride ions or water molecules reside in the center of D4Rs, and diprotonated ethylenediamine cations and water molecules are occluded in the free space of channels to stabilize the whole structure. Notably, the Al/Fe ratios in the frameworks can be effectively controlled from 1/3.9 to 1/5.0 to 1/9.0 by adjusting the amounts of phosphoric acid and hydrofluoric acid added to the initial reaction mixture. Mössbauer and magnetic measurements show that the Fe ions in the compounds are bivalent and undergo antiferromagnetic ordering at room temperature.

  7. [Release of Si, Al and Fe in red soil under simulated acid rain].

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Song, Cun-yi; Li, Fa-sheng

    2007-10-01

    bstract:A laboratory leaching experiment on simulated acid rain was carried out using soil columns. The release of Si, Al and Fe from soils and pH values of eluates were investigated. The results showed that under the given leaching volume, the release amounts of cations were influenced by the pH value of simulated acid rain, while their response to acid rain was different. Acid rain led to Si release, nearly none of Fe. Within the range from pH 3.0 to 5.6, a little Al release but mass Al only release at the pH below 3.0, both Si and Al had a declining release ability with the undergoing eluviation. At pH 2.5, the release amounts of Si and Al, especially Al, increased significantly with the strengthened weathering process of soil mineral. With an increase of the leaching amount of acid rain, the release of Si and Al increased, but acceleration of Si was slower than Al which was slower and slower. When the soil pH falling down to a certain grade, there are negative correlation between pH and both Al and DOC concentration of eluate. released, but most of Al derived from the aluminosilicates dissolved. Acid deposition can result in solid-phase alumino-organics broken and Al released, but most of Al derived from the aluminosilicates dissolved.

  8. Lattice distortion and stripelike antiferromagnetic order in Ca10(Pt3As8)(Fe2As2)5

    SciTech Connect

    Sapkota, Aashish; Tucker, Gregory S; Ramazanoglu, Mehmet; Tian, Wei; Ni, N; Cava, R J; McQueeney, Robert J; Goldman, Alan I; Kreyssig, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    Ca10(Pt3As8)(Fe2As2)5 is the parent compound for a class of Fe-based high-temperature superconductors where superconductivity with transition temperatures up to 30 K can be introduced by partial element substitution. We present a combined high-resolution high-energy x-ray diffraction and elastic neutron scattering study on a Ca10(Pt3As8)(Fe2As2)5 single crystal. This study reveals the microscopic nature of two distinct and continuous phase transitions to be very similar to other Fe-based high-temperature superconductors: an orthorhombic distortion of the high-temperature tetragonal Fe-As lattice below TS=110(2) K followed by stripelike antiferromagnetic ordering of the Fe moments below TN=96(2) K. These findings demonstrate that major features of the Fe-based high-temperature superconductors are very robust against variations in chemical constitution as well as structural imperfection of the layers separating the Fe-As layers from each other and confirms that the Fe-As layers primarily determine the physics in this class of material.

  9. Electronic and magnetic properties of Ca(Fe1-xCox)2 As2 studied by 75As NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Yuji; Roy, Beas; Ran, Shen; Bud'Ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2014-03-01

    Recently much attention has been paid to CaFe2As2 because the magnetic and electronic properties of the system can be controlled by changing the heat treatment conditions. CaFe2As2 annealed at 400 C for 24 hours undergoes a phase transition from a high-temperature tetragonal paramagnetic state to a low temperature orthorhombic antiferromagnetic state at TN ~ 160K. On the other hand, CaFe2As2 quenched from 960 C to room temperature shows a transition to a collapsed tetragonal non-magnetic phase below Ts ~ 90 K. In order to investigate the difference in electronic and magnetic properties of the two different CaFe2As2 samples from a microscopic point of view, we have carried 75As-NMR spectra and spin-lattice relaxation measurements. We also performed 75As-NMR measurements on Co-doped CaFe2As2 superconductor. Based on our NMR data, we will discuss similarities and difference in magnetic fluctuations in the systems, and compare the NMR data with inelastic neutron scattering data. Supported by USDOE under the Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  10. Investigation of Ca substitution on the gas sensing potential of LaFeO3 nanoparticles towards low concentration SO2 gas.

    PubMed

    Palimar, Sowmya; Kaushik, S D; Siruguri, V; Swain, Diptikanta; Viegas, Alison E; Narayana, Chandrabhas; Sundaram, Nalini G

    2016-09-14

    The present work investigates the superior ability of LaFeO3 (LaFeO) and La0.8Ca0.2FeO2.95 (LaCaFeO) nanoparticles to detect 3 ppm SO2 gas. The influence of calcium substitution on the sensing behaviour of LaFeO has been studied. High resolution TEM images show that the particle sizes of LaFeO and LaCaFeO are less than 100 nm and SEM images show the agglomeration of interconnected nanoparticles. Both LaFeO and LaCaFeO crystallize in the orthorhombic crystal system with the space group Pbnm. Rietveld analysis of neutron diffraction data showed that LaCaFeO has lattice oxygen vacancies. In addition, magnetic refinements on both the samples have been carried out. The presence of lattice oxygen vacancies in LaCaFeO is qualitatively supported by Raman and XPS measurements. Electrical characterization showed increased conductivity for the LaCaFeO sample, influencing their sensing performance significantly. The LaCaFeO nanoparticles exhibit higher sensitivity, faster response time, rapid recovery time and good recyclability for sensing 3 ppm SO2 gas. This enhanced sensing behaviour is attributed to the increased oxygen vacancies in the lattice as well as the surface. As a consequence, increased active sites are created in LaCaFeO, promoting redox reaction between the analyte and the sensing material. The results demonstrated that while LaFeO is a good gas sensor, p-type substitution by Ca(2+) renders this material an improved resistivity based gas sensor to detect low concentration SO2.

  11. Large tunnel magnetoresistance at room temperature with a Co{sub 2}FeAl full-Heusler alloy electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, S.; Miyazaki, A.; Sugimoto, S.; Tezuka, N.; Inomata, K.

    2005-06-06

    Magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with a Co{sub 2}FeAl Heusler alloy electrode are fabricated by the deposition of the film using an ultrahigh vacuum sputtering system followed by photolithography and Ar ion etching. A tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) of 47% at room temperature (RT) are obtained in a stack of Co{sub 2}FeAl/Al-O{sub x}/Co{sub 75}Fe{sub 25} magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) fabricated on a thermally oxidized Si substrate despite the A2 type atomic site disorder for Co{sub 2}FeAl. There is no increase of TMR in MTJs with the B2 type Co{sub 2}FeAl, which is prepared by the deposition on a heated substrate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiles in Co{sub 2}FeAl single layer films reveal that Al atoms in Co{sub 2}FeAl are oxidized preferentially at the surfaces. On the other hand, at the interfaces in Co{sub 2}FeAl/Al-O{sub x}/Co{sub 75}Fe{sub 25} MTJs, the ferromagnetic layers are hardly oxidized during plasma oxidation for a formation of Al oxide barriers.

  12. Pressure-induced change of the electronic state in the tetragonal phase of CaFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, Yui; Ikeda, Shugo; Kuse, Tetsuji; Kobayashi, Hisao

    2014-07-01

    We have investigated the electronic states of single-crystal CaFe2As2 under hydrostatic pressure using 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. The center shift and the quadrupole splitting were refined from observed 57Fe Mössbauer spectra using the single-crystalline sample under pressure at room temperature. A discontinuous decrease in the pressure dependence of the refined center shift was observed at 0.33 GPa without any anomaly in the pressure dependence of the refined quadrupole splitting, indicating a purely electronic state change in CaFe2As2 with a tetragonal structure. Such a change is shown to be reflected in the peak-like anomalies observed in the pressure dependences of the magnetic susceptibility at 0.26 GPa above 150 K. Our results reveal that this pressure-induced electronic state change suppresses the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic structural phase transition accompanied by an antiferromagnetic ordering. We further observed superconductivity in CaFe2As2 below ˜8 K around 0.33 GPa although our sample was not in a single phase at this pressure. These findings suggest that the electronic state change observed in CaFe2As2 with the tetragonal structure is relevant to the appearance of the pressure-induced superconductivity in AFe2As2.

  13. Geochemistry of dissolved aluminum at low pH: Extent and significance of Al-Fe(III) coprecipitation below pH 4.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-España, Javier; Yusta, Iñaki; Gray, Jennifer; Burgos, William D.

    2016-02-01

    This work examines the geochemical behavior of dissolved aluminum in sulfate-rich acidic waters. Our observations were obtained during several years of geochemical and mineralogical research in the San Telmo acidic pit lake and other pit lakes of SW Spain. The work includes scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) of suspended mineral colloids found in deep lake waters. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) coupled to scanning and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (STEM, HRTEM) revealed not only the presence and formation of discrete, sub-micron Al solids like alunite, but also the abundance and distribution of Al into Fe(III) phases typical of acid mine drainage, such as schwertmannite and jarosite, at a nanometric resolution. The main conclusion emerging from our work is that the fate and transport of Al at low pH (<4.0) can be largely influenced by adsorption on and/or coprecipitation with both schwertmannite and jarosite. Under the geochemical conditions studied (SO42- = 10-2 M, Fe(III) ∼ Al = 10-3 M), alunite formation may occur at pH > 3.3, as suggested by mineralogical observations and geochemical modelling. Below this pH, and contrary to the extended assumption, Al is not truly conservative, and in the presence of ferric iron, both metals may co-precipitate at a substantial extent to form either particles of Al-rich schwertmannite (containing up to ca. 8 at.% Al with [Fe/(Fe + Al)] = 0.77) and/or crystals of H3O+- to K+-jarosite (containing up to ca. 10 at.% Al with [Fe/(Fe + Al)] = 0.54). This Al incorporation seems to take place by adsorption on particle surfaces in schwertmannite and by atomic substitution for Fe3+ in jarosite. Alunite is also unstable at this low pH range with respect to jarosite, which may lead either to isomorphic transformation and/or to chemically zoned crystals with jarositic rims around previously formed alunite cores. As a whole, the compositional spectrum of the analyzed jarosites and alunites

  14. Structural, electron transportation and magnetic behavior transition of metastable FeAlO granular films

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Guohua; Wu, Chen; Jin, Jiaying; Yan, Mi

    2016-01-01

    Metal-insulator granular film is technologically important for microwave applications. It has been challenging to obtain simultaneous high electrical resistivity and large saturation magnetization due to the balance of insulating non-magnetic and metallic magnetic components. FeAlO granular films satisfying both requirements have been prepared by pulsed laser deposition. The as-deposited film exhibits a high resistivity of 3700 μΩ∙cm with a negative temperature coefficient despite that Fe content (0.77) exceeds the percolation threshold. This originates from its unique microstructure containing amorphous Fe nanoparticles embedded in Al2O3 network. By optimizing the annealing conditions, superior electromagnetic properties with enhanced saturation magnetization (>1.05 T), high resistivity (>1200 μΩ∙cm) and broadened Δf (>3.0 GHz) are obtained. Phase separation with Al2O3 aggregating as inclusions in crystallized Fe(Al) matrix is observed after annealing at 673 K, resulting in a metallic-like resistivity. We provide a feasible way to achieve both high resistivity and large saturation magnetization for the FeAlO films with dominating metallic component and show that the microstructure can be tuned for desirable performance. PMID:27075955

  15. Exchange bias-like effect in TbFeAl induced by atomic disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Harikrishnan S.; Strydom, André M.

    2016-05-01

    The exchange bias-like effect observed in the intermetallic compound TbFeAl, which displays a magnetic phase transition at T^hc ≈ 198 \\text{K} and a second one at T^lc ≈ 154 \\text{K} , is reported. Jump-like features are observed in the isothermal magnetization, M (H) , at 2 K which disappear above 8 K. The field-cooled magnetization isotherms below 10 K show loop shifts that are reminiscent of exchange bias, also supported by the training effect. A significant coercive field, Hc ≈ 1.5 \\text{T} at 2 K, is observed in TbFeAl which, after an initial increase, shows a subsequent decrease with temperature. The exchange bias field, H eb , shows a slight increase and a subsequent leveling off with temperature. It is argued that the inherent crystallographic disorder among Fe and Al and the high magnetocrystalline anisotropy related to Tb3+ lead to the exchange bias effect. TbFeAl has been recently reported to show the magnetocaloric effect and the present discovery of exchange bias makes this compound a multifunctional one. The result obtained on TbFeAl generalizes the observation of exchange bias in crystallographically disordered materials and gives impetus for the search for materials with exchange bias induced by atomic disorder.

  16. Mechanical Properties of In-Situ FeAl-TiB2 Intermetallic Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jonghoon; Park, Bonggyu; Park, Yongho; Park, Ikmin; Lee, Heesoo

    Intermetallic matrix composites reinforced with ceramic particles have received a great deal of attention. Iron aluminide is known to be a good material for the matrix in such composites. Two processes were used to fabricate FeAl-TiB2 intermetallic matrix composites. One was liquid melt in-situ mixing, and the other was arc melting and suction casting processes. FeAl-TiB2 IMCs obtained by two different methods were investigated to elucidate the influence of TiB2 content. In both methods, the grain size in the FeAl alloy decreased with the presence of titanium diboride. The grain size of in-situ FeAl-TiB2 IMCs became smaller than that of arc FeAl-TiB2 IMCs. Significant increase in fracture stress and hardness was achieved in the composites. The in-situ process gives clean, contamination-free matrix/reinforcement interface which maintained good bonding causing high load bearing capability. This contributed to the increase in the mechanical properties of composites.

  17. Electronic structures and the spin polarization of Heusler alloy Co2FeAl surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoguang; Wang, Yankai; Zhang, Delin; Jiang, Yong

    2011-01-01

    The electronic structures of the Heusler alloy Co2FeAl surface are studied theoretically via first-principles calculations. The space localization of the surface states is the key effect on the electronic structures of the Co2FeAl surface. At the surface, the lattice parameter shrinks to minimize the total energy, and the minority spin gap disappears and shows a metallic band gap character. However, with the depth increasing, the lattice parameter equals to that of bulk phase, and there shows an energy gap opening at the Fermi level in the minority spin states. As a result, the spin polarization at the surface is lower than that of the bulk Co2FeAl, while it is close to that of bulk phase beneath the surface. According to the calculations, it is clear that the half-metallic property fading of the Co2FeAl films is caused by the surface states. Therefore, it is important to minimize the lattice mismatch at the interface of Co2FeAl in order to obtain a high tunneling magnetoresistance.

  18. Development of a new graded-porosity FeAl alloy by elemental reactive synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, P Z; He, Y H; Gao, H Y; Zou, J; Xu, N P; Jiang, Y; Huang, B; Lui, C T

    2009-01-01

    A new graded-porosity FeAl alloy can be fabricated through Fe and Al elemental reactive synthesis. FeAl alloy with large connecting open pores and permeability were used as porous supports. The coating was obtained by spraying slurries consisting of mixtures of Fe powder and Al powder with 3 5 m diameter onto porous FeAl support and then sintered at 1100 C. The performances of the coating were compared in terms of thickness, pore diameter and permeability. With an increase in the coating thickness up to 200 m, the changes of maximum pore size decreased from 23.6 m to 5.9 m and the permeability decreased from 184.2 m3m 2kPa 1h 1 to 76.2 m3m 2kPa 1h 1, respectively, for a sintering temperature equal to 1100 C. The composite membranes have potential application for excellent filters in severe environments.

  19. Structure evolution of Fe-50%Al coating prepared by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryanto, D.; Wismogroho, A. S.; Sudiro, T.

    2016-08-01

    The deposition of Fe-50%Al coating (in at%) on low carbon steel was successfully prepared by using mechanical alloying (MA). The coating process was performed in a shaker mill with variation of milling times from 30 minute to 180 minutes. The deposited coating was then heat treated at 600°C for 2 hour in a vacuum furnace of 5.6 Pa. The structure evolution of mechanical alloyed samples before and after heat treatment was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The results revealed that before heat treatment, the deposited coating on low carbon steel is composed of Fe and Al. The Fe(Al) solid solution was mostly formed after 180 minutes of milling time. Metallographic observation indicated that the surface of Fe-Al coating was rough and the coating thickness was increased with increasing milling time. Meanwhile, the heat treatment process led to structural evolution by forming FeAl intermetallic phase on the surface of low carbon steel.

  20. Synthesis of TiB2/Fe-Cr-Al nanocomposite powder.

    PubMed

    Sachan, Ritesh; Park, Jong-Woo

    2008-10-01

    In this study, a route for synthesizing TiB2/Fe-Cr-Al nanocomposite is proposed via high energy ball milling by using directly coarse powders of TiB2, Fe, Cr and Al. Various compositions of these powder mixtures are milled up to 48 hrs to investigate the effect of composition on the crystalline refinement. The crystalline size is analyzed by an X-ray diffractometer for powder samples containing 30 to 100 wt% TiB2 (the rest of the powder consists of Fe-20 wt%Cr-5 wt%Al composition). The crystalline size after 48 hrs of ball milling decreases with increasing TiB2, and then again increases after reaching a minimum value of 18 nm at 70% TiB2. By transmission electron microscopic analysis, it is confirmed that particles of TiB2 are significantly reduced and finely dispersed in the Fe-Cr-Al matrix. The particle size of TiB2 is found around 20-25 nm, reinforced in the matrix. Considering the results of this study, the proposed mechanical milling route can be recommended as a promising way for fabrication of TiB2/Fe-Cr-Al nanocomposite powder. PMID:19198473

  1. Crystal structure study of (Ca, Gd){sub 2}(Al, Ti)O{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada, Haruo; Marumo, Fumiyuki; Kodama, Nobuhiro

    1998-08-01

    The crystal structures of two crystals of (Ca, Gd){sub 2} (Al, Ti)O{sub 4} [tetragonal I4/mmm; Z = 4], one strongly fluorescent and the other weakly fluorescent, having minor differences in their precise compositions have been studied with single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The unit cell is significantly smaller for the weakly fluorescent crystal, which also shows alteration of the coordination polyhedraon around the (Ca, Gd) site, suggesting the formation of vacancies at an oxygen site.

  2. Laser cladding of quasi-crystal-forming Al-Cu-Fe-Bi on an Al-Si alloy substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Krishanu; Chattopadhyay, Kamanio; Galun, Rolf; Mordike, Barry L.

    2005-07-01

    We report here the results of an investigation aimed at producing coatings containing phases closely related to the quasi-crystalline phase with dispersions of soft Bi particles using an Al-Cu-Fe-Bi elemental powder mixture on Al-10.5 at. pct Si substrates. A two-step process of cladding followed by remelting is used to fine-tune the alloying, phase distribution, and microstructure. A powder mix of Al64Cu22.3Fe11.7Bi2 has been used to form the clads. The basic reason for choosing Bi lies in the fact that it is immiscible with each of the constituent elements. Therefore, it is expected that Bi will solidify in the form of dispersoids during the rapid solidification. A detailed microstructural analysis has been carried out by using the backscattered imaging mode in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The microstructural features are described in terms of layers of different phases. Contrary to our expectation, the quasi-crystalline phase could not form on the Al-Si substrate. The bottom of the clad and remelted layers shows the regrowth of aluminum. The formation of phases such as blocky hexagonal Al-Fe-Si and a ternary eutectic (Al + CuAl2 + Si) have been found in this layer. The middle layer shows the formation of long plate-shaped Al13Fe4 along with hexagonal Al-Fe-Si phase growing at the periphery of the former. The formation of metastable Al-Al6Fe eutectic has also been found in this layer. The top layer, in the case of the as-clad track, shows the presence of plate-shaped Al13Fe4 along with a 1/1 cubic rational approximant of a quasi-crystal. The top layer of the remelted track shows the presence of a significant amount of a 1/1 cubic rational approximant. In addition, the as-clad and remelted microstructures show a fine-scale dispersion of Bi particles of different sizes formed during monotectic solidification. The remelting is found to have a strong effect on the size and distribution of Bi particles. The dry

  3. Calcination temperature influenced multiferroic properties of Ca-doped BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Dhir, Gitanjali Uniyal, Poonam; Verma, N. K.

    2015-06-24

    The influence of Ca-doping and particle size on structural, morphological and magnetic properties of BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles has been studied. A sol-gel method was employed for the synthesis of nanoparticles and their particle size was tailored by varying the calcination temperature. Structural analysis revealed a rhombohedral distortion induced by Ca-substitution. The broadening of diffraction peaks with decreasing calcination temperature was indicative of reduction in crystallite size. The morphological analysis revealed the formation of agglomerated nanoparticles having average particle size ranging from 10-15 and 50-55 nm for C4 and C6, respectively. The agglomeration is attributed to high surface energy of nanoparticles. Ferromagnetism has been displayed by all the synthesized nanoparticles. Enhancement of saturation magnetization with Ca-substitution is attributed to suppression of spin cycloid structure by the reduction in size, lattice distortion and creation of oxygen vacancies by the substitution of divalent ion at trivalent site. Further, this value increases as a function of decreasing particle size. Strong particle size effects on magnetic properties of the synthesized nanoparticles are owed to increasing surface to volume ratio. All these observations are indicative of strong dependence of multiferroism on particle size.

  4. Doping effects of transition metals on superconducting properties of (Ca,RE)FeAs2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakita, Hiroyuki; Ogino, Hiraku; Okada, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Kishio, Kohji; Shimoyama, Jun-Ichi; Iyo, Akira; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Sala, Alberto

    2015-03-01

    At the previous March Meeting, we reported new iron based superconductors (Ca,RE)FeAs2 (Ca112) (RE = La-Nd, Sm-Gd)[ 1 , 2 ]. Superconducting transition was observed in all samples except for Ce-doped sample, and Tc of La-doped sample exceeded 30 K. In this study, we have synthesized transition metals (TM=Mn, Co, Ni) co-doped Ca112 samples. Mn co-doping suppressed superconductivity. On the contrary, enhancement of Tc with sharp superconducting transitions was observed in most of the Co or Ni co-doped samples. Tc of Co co-doped samples decreased with a decrease in ionic radii of RE3+ from 38 K for RE = La to 29 K for RE = Gd, though Eu doped sample showed exceptionally low Tc = 21 K. Jc value of La and Co co-doped sample estimated from magnetization measurement is approximately 2.0 x 104 Acm-2at 2 K suggesting bulk superconductivity.

  5. Calcination temperature influenced multiferroic properties of Ca-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhir, Gitanjali; Uniyal, Poonam; Verma, N. K.

    2015-06-01

    The influence of Ca-doping and particle size on structural, morphological and magnetic properties of BiFeO3 nanoparticles has been studied. A sol-gel method was employed for the synthesis of nanoparticles and their particle size was tailored by varying the calcination temperature. Structural analysis revealed a rhombohedral distortion induced by Ca-substitution. The broadening of diffraction peaks with decreasing calcination temperature was indicative of reduction in crystallite size. The morphological analysis revealed the formation of agglomerated nanoparticles having average particle size ranging from 10-15 and 50-55 nm for C4 and C6, respectively. The agglomeration is attributed to high surface energy of nanoparticles. Ferromagnetism has been displayed by all the synthesized nanoparticles. Enhancement of saturation magnetization with Ca-substitution is attributed to suppression of spin cycloid structure by the reduction in size, lattice distortion and creation of oxygen vacancies by the substitution of divalent ion at trivalent site. Further, this value increases as a function of decreasing particle size. Strong particle size effects on magnetic properties of the synthesized nanoparticles are owed to increasing surface to volume ratio. All these observations are indicative of strong dependence of multiferroism on particle size.

  6. Superconductivity in Sm-doped CaFe2As2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong-Yun, Chen; Bin-Bin, Ruan; Jia, Yu; Qi, Guo; Xiao-Chuan, Wang; Qing-Ge, Mu; Bo-Jin, Pan; Tong, Liu; Gen-Fu, Chen; Zhi-An, Ren

    2016-06-01

    In this article, the Sm-doping single crystals Ca1 - x Sm x Fe2As2 (x = 0 ˜ 0.2) were prepared by the CaAs flux method, and followed by a rapid quenching treatment after the high temperature growth. The samples were characterized by structural, resistive, and magnetic measurements. The successful Sm-substitution was revealed by the reduction of the lattice parameter c, due to the smaller ionic radius of Sm3+ than Ca2+. Superconductivity was observed in all samples with onset T c varying from 27 K to 44 K upon Sm-doping. The coexistence of a collapsed phase transition and the superconducting transition was found for the lower Sm-doping samples. Zero resistivity and substantial superconducting volume fraction only happen in higher Sm-doping crystals with the nominal x > 0.10. The doping dependences of the c-axis length and onset T c were summarized. The high-T c observed in these quenched crystals may be attributed to simultaneous tuning of electron carriers doping and strain effect caused by lattice reduction of Sm-substitution. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474339), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2010CB923000 and 2011CBA00100), and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB07020100).

  7. Thermal transformation of quaternary compounds in NaF-CaF{sub 2}-AlF{sub 3} system

    SciTech Connect

    Zaitseva, Julia N.; Yakimov, Igor S.; Kirik, Sergei D.

    2009-08-15

    Details of quaternary compounds formation in the system NaF-CaF{sub 2}-AlF{sub 3} are specified. To achieve this aim, the samples of phases NaCaAlF{sub 6} and Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}F{sub 14} have been obtained by high-temperature solid-phase synthesis. Their thermal behavior when heated up to 800 deg. C has been studied using the methods of high-temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis (TA). The system under consideration can be regarded as a quasibinary section CaF{sub 2}-NaAlF{sub 4}, where at T=745-750 deg. C invariant equilibrium is implemented with the phases CaF{sub 2}-NaCaAlF{sub 6}-Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}F{sub 14}-(liquid melt)-(NaAlF{sub 4}). The peculiarity of the equilibrium is NaAlF{sub 4} metastability at normal pressure. Below the equilibrium temperature the quaternary phase Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}F{sub 14} is stable and NaCaAlF{sub 6} above this temperature. The phase NaCaAlF{sub 6} fixed by rapid quenching from high temperatures and when heated up to 640 deg. C decomposes, yielding Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}F{sub 14}. Further heating in vacuum at temperature up to 740 deg. C results in decomposition of Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}F{sub 14} into CaF{sub 2} and Na{sub 3}AlF{sub 6}. The expected reverse transformation of Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}F{sub 14} into NaCaAlF{sub 6} has not been observed under experimental conditions. Transformations in bulk samples reveal direct and reverse transformation of quaternary phases. Synopsis: Thermal transformation of the quaternary compounds in system (NaF-CaF{sub 2}-AlF{sub 3}) was investigated using high-temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis (TA). In the system the invariant equilibrium is implemented with the phases CaF{sub 2}-NaCaAlF{sub 6}-Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}F{sub 14}-(liquid melt)-(NaAlF{sub 4}) at T=745-750 deg. C. - Graphical Abstract: The paper concerns of a small piece of the ternary system (NaF-CaF{sub 2}-AlF{sub 3}) which is very important for

  8. Large anisotropic Fe orbital moments in perpendicularly magnetized Co2FeAl Heusler alloy thin films revealed by angular-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabayashi, Jun; Sukegawa, Hiroaki; Wen, Zhenchao; Inomata, Koichiro; Mitani, Seiji

    2013-09-01

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in Heusler alloy Co2FeAl thin films sharing an interface with a MgO layer is investigated by angular-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Orbital and spin magnetic moments are deduced separately for Fe and Co 3d electrons. In addition, the PMA energies are estimated using the orbital magnetic moments parallel and perpendicular to the film surfaces. We found that PMA in Co2FeAl is determined mainly by the contribution of Fe atoms with large orbital magnetic moments, which are enhanced at the interface between Co2FeAl and MgO. Furthermore, element specific magnetization curves of Fe and Co are found to be similar, suggesting the existence of ferromagnetic coupling between Fe and Co PMA directions.

  9. Magnetization Dynamics Through Magnetoimpedance Effect in Isotropic Co2FeAl/Au/Co2FeAl Full-Heusler Alloy Trilayer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assolin Corrêa, Marcio; Montardo Escobar, Vivian; Trigueiro-Neto, Osvaldo; Bohn, Felipe; Daiane Sossmeier, Kelly; Gomes Bezerra, Claudionor; Chesman, Carlos; Pearson, John; Hoffmann, Axel

    2013-09-01

    We investigate the magnetization dynamics in low damping parameter α systems by measuring the magnetoimpedance effect over a wide range of frequencies, from 0.1 to 3.0 GHz, in Co2FeAl/Au/Co2FeAl full-Heusler alloy trilayer films grown by magnetron sputtering on glass and MgO substrates. We show that the film produced on the glass substrate presents high magnetoimpedance performance, while that grown on the MgO substrate has low magnetoimpedance performance. Since both films are polycrystalline and have isotropic in-plane magnetic properties, we interpret the magnetoimpedance results in terms of the low damping parameter α and strain effects in the films. Thus, we verified that our films present good magnetoimpedance performance and showed that high performance can be achieved even in films with isotropic in-plane magnetic properties, since they present low damping parameter α.

  10. Mechanically-induced disorder in CaFe2As2: A 57Fe Mössbauer study

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Xiaoming; Ran, Sheng; Canfield, Paul C.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.

    2015-10-17

    57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to perform a microscopic study on the extremely pressure and strain sensitive compound, CaFe2As2, with different degrees of strain introduced by grinding and annealing. At the base temperature, in the antiferromagnetic/orthorhombic phase, compared to a sharp sextet Mössbauer spectrum of single crystal CaFe2As2, which is taken as an un-strained sample, an obviously broadened sextet and an extra doublet were observed for ground CaFe2As2 powders with different degrees of strain. The Mössbauer results suggest that the magnetic phase transition of CaFe2As2 can be inhomogeneously suppressed by the grinding induced strain to such an extent that the antiferromagnetic order in parts of the grains forming the powdered sample remain absent all the way down to 4.6 K. However, strain has almost no effect on the temperature dependent hyperfine magnetic field in the grains with magnetic order. Additional electronic and asymmetry information was obtained from the isomer shift and quadrupole splitting. Similar isomer shift values in the magnetic phase for samples with different degrees of strain, indicate that the stain does not bring any significant variation of the electronic density at 57Fe nucleus position. As a result, the absolute values of quadrupole shift in the magnetic phase decrease and approach zero with increasing degrees of strain, indicating that the strain reduces the average lattice asymmetry at Fe atom position.

  11. Metal Nitrides Grown from Ca/Li Flux: Ca6Te3N2 and New Nitridoferrate(I) Ca6(LixFe1-x)Te2N3.

    PubMed

    Dickman, Matthew J; Latturner, Susan E

    2016-08-24

    Two new tellurium-containing nitrides were grown from reactions in molten calcium and lithium. The compound Ca6Te3N2 crystallizes in space group R3̅c (a = 12.000(3)Å, c = 13.147(4)Å; Z = 6); its structure is an anti-type of rinneite (K3NaFeCl6) and 2H perovskite related oxides such as Sr3Co2O6. The compound Ca6(LixFe1-x)Te2N3 where x ≈ 0.48 forms in space group P42/m (a = 8.718(3)Å, c = 6.719(2)Å; Z = 2) with a new stuffed anti-type variant of the Tl3BiCl6 structure. Band structure calculations and easily observable red/green dichroic behavior indicate that Ca6Te3N2 is a highly anisotropic direct band gap semiconductor (Eg = 2.5 eV). Ca6(LixFe1-x)Te2N3 features isolated linear N-Fe-N units with iron in the rare Fe(1+) state. The magnetic behavior of the iron site was characterized by magnetic susceptibility measurements, which indicate a very high magnetic moment (5.16μB) likely due to a high degree of spin-orbit coupling. Inherent disorder at the Fe/Li mixed site frustrates long-range communication between magnetic centers. PMID:27479366

  12. Effect of the Chalcogenide Element Doping on the Electronic Properties of Co2FeAl Heusler Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ting; Cheng, Xiao-min; Guan, Xia-wei; Miao, Xiang-shui

    2016-02-01

    The electronic properties of the typical Heusler compound Co2FeAl with chalcogenide element doping were investigated by means of first principles calculations within the local spin-density approximation (LSDA) + Hubbard U parameter (U). The calculations indicate that, only when 25% of the number of Al atoms is substituted by the chalcogenide element, the chalcogenide element-doped Co2FeAl shows the half metallic properties. The Fermi energy ( E F) of the 25% chalcogenide element-doped Co2FeAl is located in the middle of the gap of the minority states instead of around the top of the valence band as in Co2FeAl. Moreover, the band gap of 25% Te-doped Co2FeAl (0.80 eV) is wider than that of Co2FeAl (0.74 eV). These improved electronic structures will make 25% chalcogenide element-doped Co2FeAl more stable against temperature variation. Therefore, the expected excellent stability of the 25% chalcogenide element-doped Co2FeAl make it more suitable for spintronic applications than Co2FeAl.

  13. Origin of Ca-Al-rich inclusions. II - Sputtering and collisions in the three-ph8se interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    The theory put forward by Clayton (1977) for the formation of the Ca-Al-rich inclusions within C3 meteorites is extended to an evolutionary history in a three-phase interstellar medium. Widespread supersonic turbulence in the hot interstellar medium is maintained by supernova shock waves, giving rise to heavy sputtering of the refractory dust. Subsequent reaccumulation with varying dust/gas ratios or varying particle sizes produces isotopically fractionated Ca-Al-rich accumulates. It is thought that the Ca-Al-rich inclusions themselves are formed by the following sequence in the solar system: (1) cold accumulation of larger-than-average Ca-Al-rich particles containing supernova condensate cores into macroscopic (approximately 1 cm) Ca-Al-rich agglomerates, probably by sedimentation; and (2) fusion of the supernova condensates into macroscopic minerals by exothermic chemical reactions that begin when the accumulate has been warmed, thereby releasing energy from the unequilibrated forms accumulated from the interstellar medium.

  14. Flaky FeSiAl alloy-carbon nanotube composite with tunable electromagnetic properties for microwave absorption

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lina; Liu, Xiaofang; Chuai, Dan; Chen, Yaxin; Yu, Ronghai

    2016-01-01

    Flaky FeSiAl alloy/multi-wall carbon nanotube (FeSiAl/MWCNT) composite was fabricated by facile and scalable ball milling method. The morphology and electromagnetic properties of the FeSiAl alloy can be well tuned by controlling the milling time. It is found that the magnetic loss of the FeSiAl alloy is improved by optimizing the milling time due to the increased anisotropy field. Meanwhile the addition of MWCNTs enhances the dielectric loss of the composite by increasing the interfacial polarizations, dipolar polarizations and conductive paths. Relative to conventional FeSiAl absorbers, the FeSiAl/MWCNT composite exhibits greatly improved microwave absorption performance with advantages of strong absorption and small thickness. The minimum reflection loss of the composite reaches −42.8 dB at 12.3 GHz at a very thin thickness of 1.9 mm. PMID:27762327

  15. Speciation of Al, Fe, and P in recent sediment from three lakes in Maine, USA.

    PubMed

    Norton, Stephen A; Coolidge, Kyle; Amirbahman, Aria; Bouchard, Roy; Kopácek, Jirí; Reinhardt, Raquel

    2008-10-15

    Sequential extraction of sediments [Psenner R, Pucsko R. Die Fraktionierung organischer und anorganischer Phosphorverbindungen von Sedimenten. Arch Hydrobiol/Suppl 1988. 70(1): 111-155.] from short, (210)Pb-dated cores from three lakes in Maine USA demonstrates that sediment P is dominantly associated with the NaOH-extractable fraction (P-NaOH(25)) and less with the bicarbonate-dithionite extractable fraction (P-BD). The ratios (Al-NaOH(25))/(Fe-BD) and (Al-NaOH(25))/(P-NH(4)Cl+P-BD) for upper sediment for two oligo-mesotrophic lakes exceeded 3 and 25, the thresholds for preventing substantial release of P from sediments during hypolimnetic anoxia [Kopácek J, Borovec J, Hejzlar J, Ulrich K-U, Norton SA, Amirbahman A. Aluminum control of phosphorus sorption by lake sediments. Environ Sci Technol 2005a;39:8784-8789.]. Hypolimnetic water chemistry verifies this effect. The third lake, currently eutrophic, has values for the ratios that are below the thresholds and this lake has substantial release of P from recent sediment. The sediment characteristics remain relatively constant over the last 150+ years, indicating that the processes responsible for P retention have operated long before atmospheric acidification of watersheds might have influenced the flux of Al and Fe to the lake. In 2002, the pH of inlets and the lakes was generally between 6 and 8. Input to the lakes had high concentrations of acid-soluble particulate and dissolved Al, Fe, and P, and dissolved Al and Fe complexed with dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Lake water column and outlet Al, Fe, and P were typically 90-95% lower than inlet concentrations over a 12 month period. Photo-oxidation of Al-DOC and Fe-DOC in the lake, liberation of inorganic Al and Fe, precipitation of Al(OH)(3) and Fe(OH)(3), adsorption of P by the hydroxides, and sedimentation are responsible for the changes in water quality and long-term sediment characteristics. PMID:18440053

  16. Complex temperature evolution of the electronic structure of CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikary, Ganesh; Biswas, Deepnarayan; Sahadev, Nishaina; Bindu, R.; Kumar, Neeraj; Dhar, S. K.; Thamizhavel, A.; Maiti, Kalobaran

    2014-03-28

    Employing high resolution photoemission spectroscopy, we investigate the temperature evolution of the electronic structure of CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, which is a parent compound of high temperature superconductors—CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} exhibits superconductivity under pressure as well as doping of charge carriers. Photoemission results of CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} in this study reveal a gradual shift of an energy band, α away from the chemical potential with decreasing temperature in addition to the spin density wave (SDW) transition induced Fermi surface reconstruction across SDW transition temperature. The corresponding hole pocket eventually disappears at lower temperatures, while the hole Fermi surface of the β band possessing finite p orbital character survives till the lowest temperature studied. These results, thus, reveal signature of complex charge redistribution among various energy bands as a function of temperature.

  17. Shape memory behavior in Fe3Al-modeling and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, A.; Alkan, S.; Patriarca, L.; Sehitoglu, H.; Chumlyakov, Y.

    2015-08-01

    The Fe3Al alloy with D03 structure exhibits large recoverable strains due to reversible slips. Tension and compression experiments were conducted on single crystals of Fe3Al, and the onset of slip in forward and reverse directions were obtained utilizing high-resolution digital image correlation technique. The back stress provides the driving force for reversal of deformation upon unloading, resulting in a superelastic phenomenon as in shape memory alloys. Using density functional theory simulations, we obtain the energy barriers (GSFE - generalized stacking fault energy) for {1 1 0}<1 1 1> and {1 1 2}<1 1 1> slips in D03 Fe3Al and the elastic moduli tensor, and undertake anisotropic continuum calculations to obtain the back stress and the frictional stress responsible for reversible slip. We compare the theoretically obtained slip stress magnitudes (friction and back stress) with the experimental measurements disclosing excellent agreement.

  18. Irradiation-enhanced α' precipitation in model FeCrAl alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Edmondson, Philip D.; Briggs, Samuel A.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Howard, Richard H.; Sridharan, Kumar; Terrani, Kurt A.; Field, Kevin G.

    2016-02-17

    Model FeCrAl alloys with varying compositions (Fe(10–18)Cr(10–6)Al at.%) have been neutron irradiated at ~ 320 to damage levels of ~ 7 displacements per atom (dpa) to investigate the compositional influence on the formation of irradiation-induced Cr-rich α' precipitates using atom probe tomography. In all alloys, significant number densities of these precipitates were observed. Cluster compositions were investigated and it was found that the average cluster Cr content ranged between 51.1 and 62.5 at.% dependent on initial compositions. This is significantly lower than the Cr-content of α' in binary FeCr alloys. As a result, significant partitioning of the Al from themore » α' precipitates was also observed.« less

  19. Spin-orbit torque in Cr/CoFeAl/MgO and Ru/CoFeAl/MgO epitaxial magnetic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Zhenchao; Kim, Junyeon; Sukegawa, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Masamitsu; Mitani, Seiji

    2016-05-01

    We study the spin-orbit torque (SOT) effective fields in Cr/CoFeAl/MgO and Ru/CoFeAl/MgO magnetic heterostructures using the adiabatic harmonic Hall measurement. High-quality perpendicular-magnetic-anisotropy CoFeAl layers were grown on Cr and Ru layers. The magnitudes of the SOT effective fields were found to significantly depend on the underlayer material (Cr or Ru) as well as their thicknesses. The damping-like longitudinal effective field (ΔHL) increases with increasing underlayer thickness for all heterostructures. In contrast, the field-like transverse effective field (ΔHT) increases with increasing Ru thickness while it is almost constant or slightly decreases with increasing Cr thickness. The sign of ΔHL observed in the Cr-underlayer devices is opposite from that in the Ru-underlayer devices while ΔHT shows the same sign with a small magnitude. The opposite directions of ΔHL indicate that the signs of spin Hall angle in Cr and Ru are opposite, which are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. These results show sizable contribution from SOT even for elements with small spin orbit coupling such as 3d Cr and 4d Ru.

  20. Polymorphism of the borophosphate anion in K(Fe,Al)[BP2O8(OH)] and Rb(Al, Fe)[BP2O8(OH)] crystal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakubovich, O. V.; Steele, I. M.; Dimitrova, O. V.

    2010-09-01

    The crystal structure of two borophosphates, Rb(Al,Fe)[BP2O8(OH)] ( a = 9.381(6), b = 8.398(5), c = 9.579(6) Å, β = 102.605(10)°, sp. gr. P21/ c) and K(Fe,Al)[BP2O8(OH)] ( a = 5.139(2), b = 8.065(4), c = 8.290(4)Å, α = 86.841(8)°, β = 80.346(8)°, γ = 86.622(8)°, sp. gr. P bar 1 ), obtained by hydrothermal synthesis in the AlCl3: FeCl3: K3PO4(Rb3PO4): B2O3: H2O system has been established using X-ray diffraction (Bruker Smart diffractometer, T = 100 K). Hydrogen atoms are located and their coordinates and thermal parameters are refined. It is shown that the polymorphism of the [BP2O8(OH)]4- borophosphate anion has a morphotropic nature and is related to the substitutions both in the cationic part of the structure and in the octahedral position of the anionic mixed framework. The synthesis of new isotypic triclinic compounds under hydrothermal conditions is predicted.

  1. Electrochemical deposition and microstructural characterization of AlCrFeMnNi and AlCrCuFeMnNi high entropy alloy thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soare, V.; Burada, M.; Constantin, I.; Mitrică, D.; Bădiliţă, V.; Caragea, A.; Târcolea, M.

    2015-12-01

    Al-Cr-Fe-Mn-Ni and Al-Cr-Cu-Fe-Mn-Ni high entropy alloy thin films were prepared by potentiostatic electrodeposition and the microstructure of the deposits was investigated. The thin films were co-deposited in an electrolyte based on a DMF (N,N-dimethylformamide)-CH3CN (acetonitrile) organic compound. The energy dispersive spectrometry investigation (EDS) indicated that all the five respectively six elements were successfully co-deposited. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that the film consists of compact and uniform particles with particle sizes of 500 nm to 4 μm. The X-ray diffractometry (XRD) patterns indicated that the as-deposited thin films were amorphous. Body-centered-cubic (BCC) structures were identified by XRD after the films were annealed at various temperatures under inert Ar atmosphere. The alloys adhesion on the substrate was determined by the scratch-testing method, with higher values obtained for the Al-Cr-Cu-Fe-Mn-Ni alloy.

  2. Analysis of Valence Electron Structure on Fe3AlCx Precipitated from C-Alloyed Iron Aluminides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Wei-Ke; Qi, Yu

    2013-12-01

    Carbides of Fe3AlCx precipitated from iron aluminides can strengthen the matrix; the empirical electron theory (EET) was applied to analyze the attribute of carbides in the paper, giving theoretical explanation on the matrix and precipitation. Valence electron structure (VES) of Fe3AlCx was studied in detail, comparison with the iron aluminides matrix, the hard and brittle phase of Fe3AlCx can be interpreted form the viewpoint of valence electron structure.

  3. Influence of recrystallization on phase separation kinetics of oxide dispersion strengthened Fe Cr Al alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Capdevila, C.; Miller, Michael K; Pimentel, G.; Chao, J.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different starting microstructures on the kinetics of Fe-rich ({alpha}) and Cr-rich ({alpha}') phase separation during aging of Fe-Cr-Al oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys has been analyzed with a combination of atom probe tomography and thermoelectric power measurements. The results revealed that the high recrystallization temperature necessary to produce a coarse grained microstructure in Fe-base ODS alloys affects the randomness of Cr-atom distributions and defect density, which consequently affect the phase separation kinetics at low annealing temperatures.

  4. Magnetotransport and magnetothermal properties of the ternary intermetallic compound TbFe2Al10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, Ashish; Chattopadhyay, M. K.; Roy, S. B.

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the temperature and field dependences of electrical resistivity and heat capacity of TbFe2Al10, and have also complimented the above studies with low field magnetization measurements. In zero magnetic field, TbFe2Al10 exhibits paramagnetic (PM) to ferrimagnetic (Ferri-I) and Ferri-I to antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase transitions below 17.6 and 10 K respectively. We have found that the electrical resistivity of TbFe2Al10 exhibits a sharp rise across the PM to Ferri-I phase transition in this compound. Our analysis indicates that this sharp rise of electrical resistivity is related to the formation of new zone boundaries (across the PM to Ferri-I phase transition) that reduce the area of the Fermi surface. We have found that TbFe2Al10 exhibits large magnetoresistance (MR) below 100 K. Overall, the MR behaviour of TbFe2Al10 below 17.6 K in different magnetic fields reveals strong competition between AFM and ferromagnetic (FM) correlations, which seems to be quite intrinsic to the magnetic structure of the compound. Our analysis indicates that the large MR and magnetocaloric effect persisting deep inside the PM regime of TbFe2Al10 is mainly related to the presence of FM spin fluctuations and the formation of a Griffiths like (GL) phase consisting of FM clusters within the PM regime. The formation of the GL phase may be mediated by the static crystal defects in the midst of the competing inter and intra layer magnetic interactions.

  5. Interstitial trapping in Fe-implanted Al after excimer laser annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, M. L.; Howe, L. M.; Quenneville, A. F.; Nilson, J. A.

    1983-12-01

    Laser annealing was used to create a supersaturated solution of Fe atoms in Al, in order that channeling measurements of self-interstitial trapping could be made. A single crystal of Al was implanted with 40 keV 56Fe to a fluence of 1.6×10 15 ions cm -2. A 4 mm diameter region of the crystal was annealed in air with a XeCl excimer laser at an energy density of ˜ 6 J cm -2. This treatment produced a relatively perfect crystal; the normalized yield of 1 MeV He + ions from near-surface Al atoms for <110> alignment at 35 K was 0.04. The Fe atoms were ˜ 90% substitutional, corresponding to a solubility of ˜ 0.3 at%, as compared with only ˜ 0.02 at% obtained by a water quench from 873 K. The crystal was then irradiated with 1 MeV He + at 70 K to a fluence of ˜ 5 × 10 15 ions cm -2, in order to create mobile Al self-interstitial atoms which could be trapped by the Fe atoms. A channeling analysis of the resulting displacement of Fe atoms indicated that they trapped self-interstitials strongly, as observed for other small solute atoms in Al. As no flux peaking in the backscattering yield from Fe atoms was observed for a <110> angular scan, the results indicate that the trapping configuration may differ from that observed for Cr, Mn or Cu solute atoms in Al. The trapped interstitials were annihilated by vacancy migration near 200 K.

  6. Arsenate uptake and arsenite simultaneous sorption and oxidation by Fe-Mn binary oxides: influence of Mn/Fe ratio, pH, Ca2+, and humic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gaosheng; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Jefferson, William

    2012-01-15

    Arsenate retention, arsenite sorption and oxidation on the surfaces of Fe-Mn binary oxides may play an important role in the mobilization and transformation of arsenic, due to the common occurrence of these oxides in the environment. However, no sufficient information on the sorption behaviors of arsenic on Fe-Mn binary oxides is available. This study investigated the influences of Mn/Fe molar ratio, solution pH, coexisting calcium ions, and humic acids have on arsenic sorption by Fe-Mn binary oxides. To create Fe-Mn binary oxides, simultaneous oxidation and co-precipitation methods were employed. The Fe-Mn binary oxides exhibited a porous crystalline structure similar to 2-line ferrihydrite at Mn/Fe ratios 1:3 and below, whereas exhibited similar structures to δ-MnO(2) at higher ratios. The As(V) sorption maximum was observed at a Mn/Fe ratio of 1:6, but As(III) uptake maximum was at Mn/Fe ratio 1:3. However, As(III) adsorption capacity was much higher than that of As(V) at each Mn/Fe ratio. As(V) sorption was found to decrease with increasing pH, while As(III) sorption edge was different, depending on the content of MnO(2) in the binary oxides. The presence of Ca(2+) enhanced the As(V) uptake under alkaline pH, but did not significantly influence the As(III) sorption by 1:9 Fe-Mn binary oxide; whereas the presence of humic acid slightly reduced both As(V) and As(III) uptake. These results indicate that As(III) is more easily immobilized than As(V) in the environment, where Fe-Mn binary oxides are available as sorbents and they represent attractive adsorbents for both As(V) and As(III) removal from water and groundwater.

  7. Static and dynamic magnetic property of MBE-grown Co2FeAl films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Shuang; Nie, Shuaihua; Huo, Yan; Zhao, Jianhua; Wu, Yizheng; Zhang, Xinhui

    2014-08-01

    In this work, the static and dynamic magnetic properties of Co2FeAl films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) were studied by employing the magneto-optical Kerr rotation and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements. The growth temperature dependent magnetocrystalline anisotropy of MBE-grown Co2FeAl films were first investigated by employing the rotating magneto-optical Kerr effect. Then the magnetization dynamics and Gilbert damping property for high quality Co2FeAl films were investigated in detail by combining both the FMR and time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr rotation techniques. The apparent damping parameter was found to show strong dependence on the strength of the applied magnetic field at low-field regime, but decrease drastically with increasing magnetic field and eventually become a constant value of 0.004 at high-field regime. The inhomogeneity of magnetocrystalline anisotropy and two-magnon scattering are suggested to be responsible for the observed abnormal damping properties observed especially at low field regime. The intrinsic damping parameter of 0.004 is deduced for our highly-ordered Co2FeAl film. Our results provide essential information for highly-ordered MBE-grown Co2FeA film and its possible application in spintronic devices.

  8. Gilbert damping parameter characterization in perpendicular magnetized Co2FeAl films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yishen; Lu, Jiwei; Khodadadi, Behrouz; Schäfer, Sebastian; Mewes, Tim; Wolf, Stuart

    2013-03-01

    Materials with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy(PMA) have gotten extensive recent attention because of their potential application in spintronic devices such as spin transfer torque random access memory (STT-RAM). It was shown that a much lower switching current density(JC) is required to write STT-RAM tunnel junctions with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy ferromagnetic electrodes (p-MTJ). Additionally Heusler alloy Co2FeAl is expected to further reduce JC due to its ultra low Gilbert damping parameter. In our study, Heusler alloy Co2FeAl films were prepared using a Biased Target Ion Beam Deposition (BTIBD) technique. We demonstrated a low Gilbert damping parameter achieved in thick B2-Co2FeAl films. Besides, we achieved an interfacial PMA in ultra thin Co2FeAl films by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) with no external field presented. Annealing conditions were carefully adjusted to maximize the interfacial PMA. However it was noticed that a higher annealing temperature was required for a low damping parameter which to some extent sacrificed the interfacial PMA. We also deposited ultra thin CoFeB films and characterized their damping parameters for comparison. We acknowledge the financial support from DARPA.

  9. Phase Separation Mediated Devitrification of Al88Y7Fe5 Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sahu, K. K.; Mauro, N. A.; Longstreth-Spoor, Lydia; Saha, D.; Miller, Michael K; Nussinova, Z; Kelton, K. F.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the nanoscale devitrification of Al-based metallic glasses are unclear. A particularly well-studied case is Al{sub 88}Y{sub 7}Fe{sub 5}, where non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements show an exothermic peak that is consistent with glass devitrification to {alpha}-Al, but with no glass transition. Additionally, isothermal DSC studies show a monotonic decrease in enthalpy release with annealing, a feature generally taken to indicate grain coarsening. The results of coordinated DSC, bright field transmission electron microscopy, in situ electrical resistivity and atom probe tomography (APT) studies of Al{sub 88}Y{sub 7}Fe{sub 5} support a nucleation/growth-based crystallization process. The APT data indicate the presence of sub-nanometer pure Al zones and coarser scale (separation distance -74-126nm) Al-rich regions in the glass. The pure Al zones dispersed in the Al-rich regions appear to catalyze {alpha}-Al nucleation, explaining the high nucleation rates. The solute-rich regions between the Al-rich regions inhibit long-range diffusion, explaining the low growth rates.

  10. Sr isotopic fractionation in Ca-Al inclusions from the Allende meteorite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patchett, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    True relative Sr isotopic compositions, determined by double spiking on Ca-Al inclusions from the Allende meteorite show up to 1.5??? per mass unit mass fractionation relative to the Earth and bulk chondrites. All abnormal inclusions are light-isotope enriched. A lack of isotopically heavy Sr in inclusions would place constraints on the time, place and mechanism of origin of these objects. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  11. Electrochemical corrosion behavior and elasticity properties of Ti-6Al-xFe alloys for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jinwen; Zhao, Yongqing; Niu, Hongzhi; Zhang, Yusheng; Du, Yuzhou; Zhang, Wei; Huo, Wangtu

    2016-05-01

    The present study is to investigate the microstructural characteristics, electrochemical corrosion behavior and elasticity properties of Ti-6Al-xFe alloys with Fe addition for biomedical application, and Ti-6Al-4V alloy with two-phase (α+β) microstructure is also studied as a comparison. Microstructural characterization reveals that the phase and crystal structure are sensitive to the Fe content. Ti-6Al alloy displays feather-like hexagonal α phase, and Ti-6Al-1Fe exhibits coarse lath structure of hexagonal α phase and a small amount of β phase. Ti-6Al-2Fe and Ti-6Al-4Fe alloys are dominated by elongated, equiaxed α phase and retained β phase, but the size of α phase particle in Ti-6Al-4Fe alloy is much smaller than that in Ti-6Al-2Fe alloy. The corrosion resistance of these alloys is determined in SBF solution at 37 °C. It is found that the alloys spontaneously form a passive oxide film on their surface after immersion for 500 s, and then they are stable for polarizations up to 0 VSCE. In comparison with Ti-6Al and Ti-6Al-4V alloys, Ti-6Al-xFe alloys exhibit better corrosion resistance with lower anodic current densities, larger polarization resistances and higher open-circuit potentials. The passive layers show stable characteristics, and the wide frequency ranges displaying capacitive characteristics occur for high iron contents. Elasticity experiments are performed to evaluate the elasticity property at room temperature. Ti-6Al-4Fe alloy has the lowest Young's modulus (112 GPa) and exhibits the highest strength/modulus ratios as large as 8.6, which is similar to that of c.p. Ti (8.5). These characteristics of Ti-6Al-xFe alloys form the basis of a great potential to be used as biomedical implantation materials. PMID:26952395

  12. Spin Hall magnetoresistance in an ultrathin Co2FeAl system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-qing; Fu, Hua-rui; Sun, Niu-yi; Che, Wen-ru; Ding, Ding; Qin, Juan; You, Cai-yin; Shan, Rong; Zhu, Zhen-gang

    2016-08-01

    Spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) is observed in an ultrathin Co2FeAl layer covered by a thin Pt film. The Co2FeAl layer grown on a MgO substrate should be too thin to be continuous. The result reveals that the magnetic insulator layer, such as yttrium iron garnet (YIG) substrate which is frequently used so far, is actually not a requisite for the observation of SMR. This work may greatly help to understand the true nature of SMR effect.

  13. Elastic Modulus Measurement of ORNL ATF FeCrAl Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Zachary T.; Terrani, Kurt A.; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2015-10-01

    Elastic modulus and Poisson’s ratio for a number of wrought FeCrAl alloys, intended for accident tolerant fuel cladding application, are determined via resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy. The results are reported as a function of temperature from room temperature to 850°C. The wrought alloys were in the fully annealed and unirradiated state. The elastic modulus for the wrought FeCrAl alloys is at least twice that of Zr-based alloys over the temperature range of this study. The Poisson’s ratio of the alloys was 0.28 on average and increased very slightly with increasing temperature.

  14. Solid state amorphization in the Al-Fe binary system during high energy milling

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, P. Montes, J. M.; Cintas, J.

    2013-12-16

    In the present study, mechanical alloying (MA) of Al75Fe25 elemental powders mixture was carried out in argon atmosphere, using a high energy attritor ball mill. The microstructure of the milled products at different stages of milling was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that the amorphous phase content increased by increasing the milling time, and after 50 hours the amorphization process became complete. Heating the samples resulted in the crystallization of the synthesized amorphous alloys and the appearance of the equilibrium intermetallic compounds Al{sub 5}Fe{sub 2}.

  15. ALCHEMI of Fe-doped B2-ordered NiAl alloys with different doping levels

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, I.M.; Bentley, J.; Duncan, A.J.

    1994-09-01

    The ALCHEMI technique yields exact expressions for best-fit parameters in terms of ionization localization constants and site distributions of 3 elements distributed over two sublattices. In this paper, a graphical plotting technique is applied to Fe-doped NiAl B2-ordered alloys Ni{sub 0.5-x}Fe{sub x}Al{sub 0.5}, with x=0.02 or 0.10. The thin foil samples were examined in an electron microscope with an x-ray spectrometer.

  16. Preparation and physical properties of (M1-xYbx) Fe2As2 (M = Ca, Ba) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. C.; Syu, K. J.; Lee, W. H.; Chen, Y. Y.

    2014-03-01

    As judged by x-ray diffraction data, single crystals in the series (M1-xYbx) Fe2As2 (M = Ca, Ba) with 0 < x <0.22 have been made by flux method. Magnetic and electrical properties as well as the specific heat data in the systems (M1-xYbx) Fe2As2 (M = Ca, Ba) investigated will be discussed. Supported by the National Science Council of Republic of China under Contract Number NSC-102-2112-M-194-005-MY3.

  17. Superconducting fluctuation effect in CaFe0.88Co0.12AsF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, H.; Gao, B.; Ma, Y. H.; Li, X. J.; Mu, G.; Hu, T.

    2016-11-01

    Out-of-plane angular dependent torque measurements were performed on CaFe0.88Co0.12AsF single crystals. Superconducting fluctuations, featured by magnetic field enhanced and exponential temperature dependent diamagnetism, are observed above the superconducting transition temperature T c, which is similar to that of cuprate superconductors, but less pronounced. In addition, the ratio of T c versus superfluid density follows well the Uemura line of high-T c cuprates, which suggests the exotic nature of the superconductivity in CaFe0.88Co0.12AsF.

  18. Superconducting fluctuation effect in CaFe0.88Co0.12AsF.

    PubMed

    Xiao, H; Gao, B; Ma, Y H; Li, X J; Mu, G; Hu, T

    2016-11-16

    Out-of-plane angular dependent torque measurements were performed on CaFe0.88Co0.12AsF single crystals. Superconducting fluctuations, featured by magnetic field enhanced and exponential temperature dependent diamagnetism, are observed above the superconducting transition temperature T c, which is similar to that of cuprate superconductors, but less pronounced. In addition, the ratio of T c versus superfluid density follows well the Uemura line of high-T c cuprates, which suggests the exotic nature of the superconductivity in CaFe0.88Co0.12AsF. PMID:27619794

  19. Magnetic damping and spin polarization of highly ordered B2 Co2FeAl thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yishen; Lu, Jiwei; Schäfer, Sebastian; Khodadadi, Behrouz; Mewes, Tim; Osofsky, Mike; Wolf, Stuart A.

    2014-08-01

    Epitaxial Co2FeAl films were synthesized using the Biased Target Ion Beam Deposition technique. Post annealing yielded Co2FeAl films with an improved B2 chemical ordering. Both the magnetization and the Gilbert damping parameter were reduced with increased B2 ordering. A low damping parameter, ˜0.002, was attained in B2 ordered Co2FeAl films without the presence of the L21 Heusler phase, which suggests that the B2 structure is sufficient for providing low damping in Co2FeAl. The spin polarization was ˜53% and was insensitive to the chemical ordering.

  20. Oxide scales formed on Fe-Cr-Al-based model alloys exposed to oxygen containing molten lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisenburger, A.; Jianu, A.; Doyle, S.; Bruns, M.; Fetzer, R.; Heinzel, A.; DelGiacco, M.; An, W.; Müller, G.

    2013-06-01

    Based on the state of the art oxide maps concerning oxidation behavior of Fe-Cr-Al model alloys at 800 and 1000 °C in oxygen atmosphere, ten compositions, belonging to this alloy system, were designed in order to tap the borders of the alumina stability domain, during their exposure to oxygen (10-6 wt.%) containing lead, at 400, 500 and 600 °C. Eight alloys, Fe-6Cr-6Al, Fe-8Cr-6Al, Fe-10Cr-5Al, Fe-14Cr-4Al, Fe-16Cr-4Al, Fe-6Cr-8Al, Fe-10Cr-7Al and Fe-12Cr-5Al, were found to be protected against corrosion in oxygen containing lead, either by a duplex layer (Fe3O4 + (Fe1-x-yCrxAly)3O4) or by (Fe1-x-yCrxAly)3O4, depending on the temperature at which they were exposed. Two alloys namely Fe-12Cr-7Al and Fe-16Cr-6Al were found to form transient aluminas, κ-Al2O3 (at 400 and 500 °C) and θ-Al2O3 (at 600 °C), as protective oxide scale against corrosion in oxygen containing lead. An oxide map illustrating the stability domain of alumina, grown on Fe-Cr-Al alloys when exposed to molten, oxygen containing lead, was drawn. The map includes also additional points, extracted from literature and corresponding to alumina forming alloys, when exposed to HLMs, which fit very well with our findings. Chromium and aluminium contents of 12.5-17 wt.% and 6-7.5 wt.%, respectively, are high enough to obtain thin, stable and protective alumina scales on Fe-Cr-Al-based alloys exposed to oxygen containing lead at 400, 500 and 600 °C. For the temperature range and exposure times used during the current evaluation, the growth rate of the alumina scale was low. No area with detached scale was observed and no trace of α-Al2O3 was detected.

  1. Phase constitution characteristics of the Fe-Al alloy layer in the HAZ of calorized steel pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yajiang; Zou Zengda; Wei Xing

    1997-09-01

    Mechanical properties of the welding region and phase constitution characteristics in the iron-aluminum (Fe-Al) alloy layer of calorized steel pipes were researched by means of metallography, which included the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and an X-ray diffractometer. Experimental results indicated that the Fe-Al alloy layer of calorized steel pipe was mainly composed of an FeAl phase, an Fe{sub 3}Al phase and an {alpha}-Fe(Al) solid solution, and the microhardness in the Fe-Al coating was 600--310 HM from the surface layer to the inside. There were no higher aluminum content phases, such as brittle FeAl{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} and FeAl{sub 3}. By controlling the aluminizing process parameters, the ability to bear deformation and weld-ability of the calorized steel pipe were remarkably improved.

  2. Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy of Full-Heusler Films in Pt/Co2FeAl/MgO Trilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoqi; Yin, Shaoqian; Liu, Yupeng; Zhang, Delin; Xu, Xiaoguang; Miao, Jun; Jiang, Yong

    2011-04-01

    We report on perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in a Pt/Co2FeAl/MgO sandwiched structure with a thick Co2FeAl layer of 2-2.5 nm. The PMA is thermally stable and the anisotropy energy density Ku is 1.3×106 erg/cm3 for the structure with 2 nm Co2FeAl after annealing at 350 °C. The annealing temperature and Co2FeAl thickness greatly affect the PMA. Our results provide an effective way to realize relatively thick perpendicularly magnetized Heusler alloy films.

  3. Electromechanical and magnetic properties of BiFeO3-LaFeO3-CaTiO3 ceramics near the rhombohedral-orthorhombic phase boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpinsky, D. V.; Troyanchuk, I. O.; Sikolenko, V.; Efimov, V.; Kholkin, A. L.

    2013-05-01

    BiFeO3-LaFeO3-CaTiO3 ceramics have been studied by X-ray diffraction, magnetization measurements, and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). The compositional ranges of the polar, antipolar, and non-polar phases have been estimated. PFM measurements testify gradual decrease of piezoelectric response in Bi0.85-xLa0.15CaxFe1-xTixO3 system with Ca/Ti content increase, except a narrow concentration region near polar-antipolar phase boundary where piezoelectric signal shows maximum value. It is found that increase of dopant concentration leads to apparent decrease of the off-center Bi-O displacement and, consequently, causes a reduction of piezoelectric response. It is concluded that notable remanent magnetization in polar and non-polar structural phases is a result of the Dzyaloshinsky-Moria interaction.

  4. Inhibitory effects of CaO/Fe2O3 on arsenic emission during sewage sludge pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Han, Hengda; Hu, Song; Lu, Chaofeng; Wang, Yi; Jiang, Long; Xiang, Jun; Su, Sheng

    2016-10-01

    This work aimed to investigate effects and reaction mechanisms of CaO/Fe2O3 on emission behaviors of arsenic during sewage sludge pyrolysis. The results showed that 24.8-54.2%, 26.4-60.4% and 27.7-63.1% of arsenic escaped from three samples when pyrolysis process happened at 723, 923 and 1123K respectively. And the sludge which contained higher calcium and iron contents released less arsenic than others. External CaO and Fe2O3 were added into the sewage sludge to study their effects on arsenic emissions during pyrolysis, where both of them inhibited arsenic emission effectively, especially at high temperatures. With the help of thermogravimetry analysis and X-ray fluorescence, inhibitory mechanisms of CaO/Fe2O3 on arsenic emission during sewage sludge pyrolysis were studied. CaO could react with As2O3, As2S3 and NaAsO2 to form nonvolatile substances, such as Ca(AsO2)2; while Fe2O3 could react with NaAsO2 to generate certain substances which was stable below 1123K.

  5. Crystal growth, polarized spectra, and laser performance of Yb:CaGdAlO4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, J. Q.; Xu, X. D.; Xia, C. T.; Zheng, L. H.; Aka, G.; Yu, H. H.; Sai, Q. L.; Guo, X. Y.; Zhu, L.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the crystal growth, polarized spectra, and laser performance of Yb:CaGdAlO4 crystal were reported. The segregation coefficient of Yb3+ ions was calculated to be 0.47. The cell parameters were determined to be a  =  b  =  0.3658 nm, c  =  1.1985 nm. The peak absorption cross-section was calculated to be 2.65  ×  10-20 cm2 at 979 nm and the peak stimulated emission cross-section was 2.23  ×  10-20 cm2 at 980 nm for the π polarization. The continuous-wave (CW) laser operations of uncoated Yb:CaGdAlO4 crystals with 5  ×  5  ×  3 mm3 in size were demonstrated. A maximum output power of 1.6 W at 1048 nm was obtained with a slope efficiency of 28%. The results show that Yb:CaGdAlO4 crystal is a promising laser medium.

  6. Polymer Coated CaAl-Layered Double Hydroxide Nanomaterials for Potential Calcium Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-A; Choi, Soo-Jin; Oh, Jae-Min

    2014-01-01

    We have successfully prepared layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanomaterials containing calcium and aluminum ions in the framework (CaAl-LDH). The surface of CaAl-LDH was coated with enteric polymer, Eudragit®L 100 in order to protect nanomaterials from fast dissolution under gastric condition of pH 1.2. The X-ray diffraction patterns, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the pristine LDH was well prepared having hydrocalumite structure, and that the polymer effectively coated the surface of LDH without disturbing structure. From thermal analysis, it was determined that only a small amount (less than 1%) of polymer was coated on the LDH surface. Metal dissolution from LDH nanomaterials was significantly reduced upon Eudragit®L 100 coating at pH 1.2, 6.8 and 7.4, which simulates gastric, enteric and plasma conditions, respectively, and the dissolution effect was the most suppressed at pH 1.2. The LDH nanomaterials did not exhibit any significant cytotoxicity up to 1000 μg/mL and intracellular calcium concentration significantly increased in LDH-treated human intestinal cells. Pharmacokinetic study demonstrated absorption efficiency of Eudragit®L 100 coated LDH following oral administration to rats. Moreover, the LDH nanomaterials did not cause acute toxic effect in vivo. All the results suggest the great potential of CaAl-LDH nanomaterials as a calcium supplement. PMID:25490138

  7. Solitary Magnons in the S =5/2 Antiferromagnet CaFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, C.; Rodriguez, E. E.; Lee, N.; Green, M. A.; Demmel, F.; Ewings, R. A.; Fouquet, P.; Laver, M.; Niedermayer, Ch.; Su, Y.; Nemkovski, K.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; Cheong, S.-W.

    2016-07-01

    CaFe2O4 is a S =5/2 anisotropic antiferromagnet based upon zig-zag chains having two competing magnetic structures, denoted as the A (↑↑↓↓) and B (↑↓↑↓) phases, which differ by the c -axis stacking of ferromagnetic stripes. We apply neutron scattering to demonstrate that the competing A and B phase order parameters result in magnetic antiphase boundaries along c which freeze on the time scale of ˜1 ns at the onset of magnetic order at 200 K. Using high resolution neutron spectroscopy, we find quantized spin wave levels and measure 9 such excitations localized in regions ˜1 - 2 c -axis lattice constants in size. We discuss these in the context of solitary magnons predicted to exist in anisotropic systems. The magnetic anisotropy affords both competing A +B orders as well as localization of spin excitations in a classical magnet.

  8. Excellent fluoride decontamination and antibacterial efficacy of Fe-Ca-Zr hybrid metal oxide nanomaterial.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Ankita; Nair, Manjula; Bhargava, Suresh K; Kumar, Dinesh

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to develop an efficient nanomaterial for the removal of fluoride and disinfection of harmful bacteria in order to make water potable according to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. Hydrous hybrid Fe-Ca-Zr oxide nanoadsorbent presented a marked fluoride adsorption capacity of 250 mg/g at pH 7.0 (±0.1) much greater than other commercially accessible adsorbents for both synthetic and real water samples. The adsorption isotherms, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) fitted reasonably well fine having high coefficient of regression values. The adsorption of fluoride was established well using pseudo-second-order kinetics. The fluoride loaded adsorbent was efficiently regenerated by using an alkali solution. Interestingly, the developed nanomaterial not only showed excellent fluoride removal capacity but also demonstrated good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with IC50 (25 μg/mL). PMID:26196712

  9. Doping-enhanced antiferromagnetism in Ca1 -xLaxFeAs2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Shinji; Mabuchi, Tomosuke; Maeda, Satoki; Adachi, Tomoki; Mizukami, Tasuku; Kudo, Kazutaka; Nohara, Minoru; Zheng, Guo-qing

    2015-11-01

    In iron pnictides, high temperature superconductivity emerges after suppressing antiferromagnetism by doping. Here, we show that antiferromagnetism in Ca1 -xLaxFeAs2 is robust against and even enhanced by doping. Using 75As-nuclear magnetic resonance and nuclear quadrupole resonance techniques, we find that an antiferromagnetic order occurs below the Néel temperature TN=62 K at a high doping concentration (x =0.15 ) where superconductivity sets in at the transition temperature Tc=35 K. In the superconducting state coexisting with antiferromagnetism, the nuclear-spin-lattice relaxation rate 1 /T1 becomes proportional to T , indicating gapless excitations. Unexpectedly, TN is enhanced with increasing doping, rising up to TN=70 K at x =0.24 . The obtained phase diagram of this system enriches the physics of iron-based high-Tc superconductors.

  10. Itinerant Magnetic Excitations in Antiferromagnetic CaFe2As2

    SciTech Connect

    Diallo, S.; Antropov, V.; Perring, T.; Broholm, C.; Pulikkotil, J.; Ni, N.; Bud'ko, S.; Canfield, P.; Kreyssig, A.; Goldman, A.; McQueeney, R.

    2009-05-07

    Neutron scattering measurements of the magnetic excitations in single crystals of antiferromagnetic CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} reveal steeply dispersive and well-defined spin waves up to an energy of {approx}100 meV. Magnetic excitations above 100 meV and up to the maximum energy of 200 meV are however broader in energy and momentum than the experimental resolution. While the low energy modes can be fit to a Heisenberg model, the total spectrum cannot be described as arising from excitations of a local moment system. Ab initio calculations of the dynamic magnetic susceptibility suggest that the high energy behavior is dominated by the damping of spin waves by particle-hole excitations.

  11. Phase transformations in multiferroics Bi1- x Ca x Fe1- x Mn x O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troyanchuk, I. O.; Bushinsky, M. V.; Karpinsky, D. V.; Chobot, A. N.; Tereshko, N. V.; Franz, A.

    2016-09-01

    The crystal structure and the magnetic properties of multiferroics Bi1- x Ca x Fe1- x Mn x O3 ( x ≤ 0.22) have been studied. It has been found that the stoichiometric compositions undergo a crystal-structure transformation from the rhombohedral (space group R3 c) polar phase ( x ≤ 0.18) to the orthorhombic (space group Pnma) nonpolar phase ( x ≥ 0.20) via a two-phase structural state. The polar phase is antiferromagnetic at x < 0.10 and exhibits a metamagnetic behavior. The polar ( x ≥ 0.10) and nonpolar phases are weak ferromagnets at room temperature with a spontaneous magnetization close to 0.07 emu/g ( x = 0.18 and 0.22). A decrease in temperature leads to the transition to a state close to an antiferromagnetic one.

  12. High T(c) electron doped Ca10(Pt3As8)(Fe2As2)5 and Ca10(Pt4As8)(Fe2As2)5 superconductors with skutterudite intermediary layers.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ni; Allred, Jared M; Chan, Benny C; Cava, Robert Joseph

    2011-11-01

    It has been argued that the very high transition temperatures of the highest T(c) cuprate superconductors are facilitated by enhanced CuO(2) plane coupling through heavy metal oxide intermediary layers. Whether enhanced coupling through intermediary layers can also influence T(c) in the new high T(c) iron arsenide superconductors has never been tested due the lack of appropriate systems for study. Here we report the crystal structures and properties of two iron arsenide superconductors, Ca(10)(Pt(3)As(8))(Fe(2)As(2))(5) (the "10-3-8 phase") and Ca(10)(Pt(4)As(8))(Fe(2)As(2))(5) (the "10-4-8 phase"). Based on -Ca-(Pt(n)As(8))-Ca-Fe(2)As(2)- layer stacking, these are very similar compounds for which the most important differences lie in the structural and electronic characteristics of the intermediary platinum arsenide layers. Electron doping through partial substitution of Pt for Fe in the FeAs layers leads to T(c) of 11 K in the 10-3-8 phase and 26 K in the 10-4-8 phase. The often-cited empirical rule in the arsenide superconductor literature relating T(c) to As-Fe-As bond angles does not explain the observed differences in T(c) of the two phases; rather, comparison suggests the presence of stronger FeAs interlayer coupling in the 10-4-8 phase arising from the two-channel interlayer interactions and the metallic nature of its intermediary Pt(4)As(8) layer. The interlayer coupling is thus revealed as important in enhancing T(c) in the iron pnictide superconductors.

  13. Electrical and optical properties of Fe doped AlGaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Polyakov, A. Y.; Smirnov, N. B.; Govorkov, A. V.; Kozhukhova, E. A.; Dabiran, A. M.; Chow, P. P.; Wowchak, A. M.; Pearton, S. J.

    2010-01-15

    Electrical and optical properties of AlGaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy were studied in the Al composition range 15%-45%. Undoped films were semi-insulating, with the Fermi level pinned near E{sub c}-0.6-0.7 eV. Si doping to (5-7)x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} rendered the 15% Al films conducting n-type, but a large portion of the donors were relatively deep (activation energy 95 meV), with a 0.15 eV barrier for capture of electrons giving rise to strong persistent photoconductivity (PPC) effects. The optical threshold of this effect was {approx}1 eV. Doping with Fe to a concentration of {approx}10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} led to decrease in concentration of uncompensated donors, suggesting compensation by Fe acceptors. Addition of Fe strongly suppressed the formation of PPC-active centers in favor of ordinary shallow donors. For higher Al compositions, Si doping of (5-7)x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} did not lead to n-type conductivity. Fe doping shifted the bandedge luminescence by 25-50 meV depending on Al composition. The dominant defect band in microcathodoluminescence spectra was the blue band near 3 eV, with the energy weakly dependent on composition.

  14. The Molar Volume of FeO-MgO-Fe2O3-Cr2O3-Al2O3-TiO2 Spinels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamecher, E. A.; Antoshechkina, P. M.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Asimow, P. D.

    2011-12-01

    will include some minor components, including Ti4+ and Cr3+. Because most constraints on the activity of garnet and pyroxene at high-P are derived from experiments with coexisting spinel, we must be confident in the ability of our spinel model to realistically reproduce thermodynamic behavior over all applicable compositions. Additionally, producing a spinel molar volume model calibrated with recent in situ high-P, T diffraction data is crucial to our ability to accurately model the spinel-garnet transition in Earth's upper mantle. For example, we recently calibrated Cr-Al exchange equilibria for garnet and spinel. When this new calibration is used with the current MELTS model, a region of garnet-spinel coexistence in lherzolites is predicted with width in pressure comparable to experimental constraints. The transition occurs, however, at the unexpectedly low pressure of ~1.7 GPa. The improved model of spinel molar volume presented here, along with a new garnet molar volume model in the system FeO-MgO-CaO-Fe2O3-Cr2O3-Al2O3-TiO2-Na2O-SiO2 currently being calibrated, will enable coupled recalibration of the garnet and pyroxene models to match both the absolute pressure and width of this key transition in mantle lithology.

  15. Formation Mechanisms of Alloying Element Nitrides in Recrystallized and Deformed Ferritic Fe-Cr-Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhlaghi, Maryam; Meka, Sai Ramudu; Jägle, Eric A.; Kurz, Silke J. B.; Bischoff, Ewald; Mittemeijer, Eric J.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of the initial microstructure (recrystallized or cold-rolled) on the nitride precipitation process upon gaseous nitriding of ternary Fe-4.3 at. pct Cr-8.1 at. pct Al alloy was investigated at 723 K (450 °C) employing X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atom probe tomography (APT), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). In recrystallized Fe-Cr-Al specimens, one type of nitride develops: ternary, cubic, NaCl-type mixed Cr1- x Al x N. In cold-rolled Fe-Cr-Al specimens, precipitation of two types of nitrides occurs: ternary, cubic, NaCl-type mixed Cr1- x Al x N and binary, cubic, NaCl-type AlN. By theoretical analysis, it was shown that for the recrystallized specimens an energy barrier for the nucleation of mixed Cr1- x Al x N exists, whereas in the cold-rolled specimens no such energy barriers for the development of mixed Cr1- x Al x N and of binary, cubic AlN occur. The additional development of the cubic AlN in the cold-rolled microstructure could be ascribed to the preferred heterogeneous nucleation of cubic AlN on dislocations. The nitrogen concentration-depth profile of the cold-rolled specimen shows a stepped nature upon prolonged nitriding as a consequence of instantaneous nucleation of nitride upon arrival of nitrogen and nitride growth rate-limited by nitrogen transport through the thickening nitrided zone.

  16. Synthesis of Vertically-Aligned Carbon Nanotubes from Langmuir-Blodgett Films Deposited Fe Nanoparticles on Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si Substrate.

    PubMed

    Takagiwa, Shota; Kanasugi, Osamu; Nakamura, Kentaro; Kushida, Masahito

    2016-04-01

    In order to apply vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) to a new Pt supporting material of polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), number density and outer diameter of CNTs must be controlled independently. So, we employed Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique for depositing CNT growth catalysts. A Fe nanoparticle (NP) was used as a CNT growth catalyst. In this study, we tried to thicken VA-CNT carpet height and inhibit thermal aggregation of Fe NPs by using Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si substrate. Fe NP LB films were deposited on three typed of substrates, SiO2/Si, as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si and annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si at 923 K in Ar atmosphere of 16 Pa. It is known that Al2O3/Al catalyzes hydrocarbon reforming, inhibits thermal aggregation of CNT growth catalysts and reduces CNT growth catalysts. It was found that annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si exerted three effects more strongly than as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si. VA-CNTs were synthesized from Fe NPs-C16 LB films by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. As a result, at the distance between two nearest CNTs 28 nm or less, VA-CNT carpet height on annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si was about twice and ten times thicker than that on SiO2/Si and that on as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si, respectively. Moreover, distribution of CNT outer diameter on annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si was inhibited compared to that on SiO2/Si. These results suggest that since thermal aggregation of Fe NPs is inhibited, catalyst activity increases and distribution of Fe NP size is inhibited.

  17. 3D characterization by tomography of beta Al9Fe2Si2 phase precipitation in a Al6.5Si1Fe alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdian, D.; Salvo, L.; Lacaze, J.; Tenailleau, C.; Duployer, B.; Malard, B.

    2016-03-01

    The microstructure evolution of beta phase during solidification of a synthetic Al6.5Si1Fe (wt.%) alloy has been investigated by in-situ synchrotron micro-tomography and post-mortem tomography. In-situ solidification was observed at a constant cooling rate of 10°C min-1, from above the alloy's liquidus with the melt at 618°C down to 575°C which is just above the (Al)-Si-beta invariant eutectic reaction. Primary (Al) dendrites nucleated at 608°C, followed by the formation of beta-Al9Fe2Si2 phase starting at 593°C. After a rapid growth stage until 587°C as thin plates, beta phase continued to grow at a paced rate. Thickening of the plates was also evaluated and it was observed that the decrease in the lateral growth rate of the plates did not lead to an increase of their thickening rate. It was noted that the interconnectivity between beta precipitates increased as the solidification progressed. While nucleation of beta phase has previously been reported to occur on the alumina scale formed at the outer surface of the material, it is shown from post mortem tomography that bulk nucleation can occur as well.

  18. Molecular Structures of Al/Si and Fe/Si Coprecipitates and the Implication for Selenite Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Ya-Ting; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Tzou, Yu-Min; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Liu, Yu-Ting; Wang, Ming-Kuang; Teah, Heng-Yi

    2016-04-01

    Aluminum and iron oxides have been often used in the coagulation processes during water purification due to their unique surface properties toward anions. In the presence of silica, the coprecipitation of Al/Si or Fe/Si might decrease the efficiency of wastewater purification and reuse. In this study, surface properties and molecular structures of Al/Si and Fe/Si coprecipitates were characterized using spectroscopic techniques. Also, the selenite removal efficiency of Al/Si and Fe/Si coprecipitates in relation to their surface and structural properties was investigated. While dissolved silicate increased with increasing pH from Fe/Si coprecipitates, less than 7% of silicate was discernible from Al/Si samples over the range from acidic to alkaline conditions. Our spectroscopic results showed that the associations between Al and Si were relatively stronger than that between Fe and Si in coprecipitates. In Al/Si coprecipitates, core-shell structures were developed with AlO6/AlO4 domains as the shells and Si frameworks polymerized from the SiO2 as the cores. However, Si framework remained relatively unchanged upon coprecipitation with Fe hydroxides in Fe/Si samples. The Si core with Al shell structure of Al/Si coprecipitates shielded the negative charges from SiO2 and thereby resulted in a higher adsorption capacity of selenite than Fe/Si coprecipitates.

  19. Molecular Structures of Al/Si and Fe/Si Coprecipitates and the Implication for Selenite Removal

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ya-Ting; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Tzou, Yu-Min; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Liu, Yu-Ting; Wang, Ming-Kuang; Teah, Heng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum and iron oxides have been often used in the coagulation processes during water purification due to their unique surface properties toward anions. In the presence of silica, the coprecipitation of Al/Si or Fe/Si might decrease the efficiency of wastewater purification and reuse. In this study, surface properties and molecular structures of Al/Si and Fe/Si coprecipitates were characterized using spectroscopic techniques. Also, the selenite removal efficiency of Al/Si and Fe/Si coprecipitates in relation to their surface and structural properties was investigated. While dissolved silicate increased with increasing pH from Fe/Si coprecipitates, less than 7% of silicate was discernible from Al/Si samples over the range from acidic to alkaline conditions. Our spectroscopic results showed that the associations between Al and Si were relatively stronger than that between Fe and Si in coprecipitates. In Al/Si coprecipitates, core-shell structures were developed with AlO6/AlO4 domains as the shells and Si frameworks polymerized from the SiO2 as the cores. However, Si framework remained relatively unchanged upon coprecipitation with Fe hydroxides in Fe/Si samples. The Si core with Al shell structure of Al/Si coprecipitates shielded the negative charges from SiO2 and thereby resulted in a higher adsorption capacity of selenite than Fe/Si coprecipitates. PMID:27095071

  20. Molecular Structures of Al/Si and Fe/Si Coprecipitates and the Implication for Selenite Removal.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ya-Ting; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Tzou, Yu-Min; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Liu, Yu-Ting; Wang, Ming-Kuang; Teah, Heng-Yi

    2016-04-20

    Aluminum and iron oxides have been often used in the coagulation processes during water purification due to their unique surface properties toward anions. In the presence of silica, the coprecipitation of Al/Si or Fe/Si might decrease the efficiency of wastewater purification and reuse. In this study, surface properties and molecular structures of Al/Si and Fe/Si coprecipitates were characterized using spectroscopic techniques. Also, the selenite removal efficiency of Al/Si and Fe/Si coprecipitates in relation to their surface and structural properties was investigated. While dissolved silicate increased with increasing pH from Fe/Si coprecipitates, less than 7% of silicate was discernible from Al/Si samples over the range from acidic to alkaline conditions. Our spectroscopic results showed that the associations between Al and Si were relatively stronger than that between Fe and Si in coprecipitates. In Al/Si coprecipitates, core-shell structures were developed with AlO6/AlO4 domains as the shells and Si frameworks polymerized from the SiO2 as the cores. However, Si framework remained relatively unchanged upon coprecipitation with Fe hydroxides in Fe/Si samples. The Si core with Al shell structure of Al/Si coprecipitates shielded the negative charges from SiO2 and thereby resulted in a higher adsorption capacity of selenite than Fe/Si coprecipitates.

  1. Molecular Structures of Al/Si and Fe/Si Coprecipitates and the Implication for Selenite Removal.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ya-Ting; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Tzou, Yu-Min; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Liu, Yu-Ting; Wang, Ming-Kuang; Teah, Heng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum and iron oxides have been often used in the coagulation processes during water purification due to their unique surface properties toward anions. In the presence of silica, the coprecipitation of Al/Si or Fe/Si might decrease the efficiency of wastewater purification and reuse. In this study, surface properties and molecular structures of Al/Si and Fe/Si coprecipitates were characterized using spectroscopic techniques. Also, the selenite removal efficiency of Al/Si and Fe/Si coprecipitates in relation to their surface and structural properties was investigated. While dissolved silicate increased with increasing pH from Fe/Si coprecipitates, less than 7% of silicate was discernible from Al/Si samples over the range from acidic to alkaline conditions. Our spectroscopic results showed that the associations between Al and Si were relatively stronger than that between Fe and Si in coprecipitates. In Al/Si coprecipitates, core-shell structures were developed with AlO6/AlO4 domains as the shells and Si frameworks polymerized from the SiO2 as the cores. However, Si framework remained relatively unchanged upon coprecipitation with Fe hydroxides in Fe/Si samples. The Si core with Al shell structure of Al/Si coprecipitates shielded the negative charges from SiO2 and thereby resulted in a higher adsorption capacity of selenite than Fe/Si coprecipitates. PMID:27095071

  2. Iron spin state and site distribution in FeAlO3-bearing bridgmanite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohn, Chris E.; Trønnes, Reidar G.

    2016-04-01

    DFT at the GGA, GGA + U and hybrid functional levels were used to investigate thousands of different Al and Fe3+ configurations of MgSiO3-FeAlO3 (MS-FA) and MgSiO3-FeAlO3-Al2O3 bridgmanite at deep mantle conditions. Comparison of the different functionals and atomic charge analysis suggests that GGA, frequently used to explain high to low spin transitions observed in several Mössbauer and X-ray emission spectroscopy experiments, is hampered by spurious self-interaction errors in the exchange-correlation energy. Configurational Boltzmann averaging shows that the B site is thermally inaccessible to Fe3+ at the GGA + U and hybrid levels, and we find no evidence for a spin-pairing transition in fully (thermodynamically) equilibrated samples of bridgmanite, even at the lowermost mantle conditions. The comparison of the cation radii of Fe3+ and Mg supports a spin transition accompanied by a site exchange, but the flexibility of Fesbnd O bonds to locally adapt promotes the incorporation of iron in the irregularly coordinated A-site. The concept of ionic radii is therefore unsuitable for analysis of spin state and site exchange in bridgmanite at these conditions. Consistent with previous computational work and experimental studies with glass and gel as starting material, we find that ferric iron kinetically trapped at the B site undergoes a spin transition under lowermost mantle conditions. In bridgmanite with mole fraction of Fe3+ >Al a charge-balancing amount of low spin Fe3+ will be thermodynamically stable at the B site, but because bridgmanite in peridotitic and basaltic lithologies mostly has Al/Fetotal above unity, FA with high spin Fe3+ in the A-site will be the dominant iron component. The lack of a Fe3+ spin transition in the FA-component has important implications for bridgmanite-ferropericlase partitioning of iron and magnesium and the mineral physics of the lowermost mantle.

  3. Observation of Precipitation Evolution in Fe-Ni-Mn-Ti-Al Maraging Steel by Atom Probe Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereloma, E. V.; Stohr, R. A.; Miller, M. K.; Ringer, S. P.

    2009-12-01

    We describe the full decomposition sequence in an Fe-Ni-Mn-Ti-Al maraging steel during isothermal annealing at 550 °C. Following significant pre-precipitation clustering reactions within the supersaturated martensitic solid solution, (Ni,Fe)3Ti and (Ni,Fe)3(Al,Mn) precipitates eventually form after isothermal aging for ~60 seconds. The morphology of the (Ni,Fe)3Ti particles changes gradually during aging from predominantly plate-like to rod-like, and, importantly, Mn and Al were observed to segregate to these precipitate/matrix interfaces. The (Ni,Fe)3(Al,Mn) precipitates occurred at two main locations: uniformly within the matrix and at the periphery of the (Ni,Fe)3Ti particles. We relate this latter mode of precipitation to the Mn-Al segregation.

  4. Multiferroicity in Mn-deficient Ca3CoMnO6: The consequence of Fe substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, L.; Xie, Y. L.; Liu, M. F.; Guo, Y. J.; Yan, Z. B.; Liu, J.-M.

    2013-07-01

    We present careful experiments on the multiferroicity in Ca3CoMn0.92O6 by Fe substitution of Mn. It is revealed that a proper Fe substitution modulates the Co/Mn spin order, favoring the ferroelectricity. The multifold interactions between the intra-chain spins and inter-chain spins are analyzed. It is suggested that the Mn deficiency and Fe substitution can break the inter-chain interactions to some extent, resulting in the delicate competition between these mutual interactions. The modulation of the ionic (charge) disorder and spin frustration order is the core physics for improving the ferroelectric performance.

  5. Preparation and Charge Density in (Co, Fe)-Doped La-Ca-Based Chromite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, R.; Thenmozhi, N.; Fu, Yen-Pei

    2016-08-01

    Transition metal-doped lanthanum chromites (La0.8Ca0.2)(Cr0.9- x Co0.1Fe x )O3 ( x = 0.03, 0.06, 0.09, 0.12) have been synthesized by solid state reaction method. The synthesized samples were characterized for their structural properties using powder x-ray diffraction analysis, which shows that the grown samples are orthorhombic in structure with single phase. The nature of bonding and the charge distribution of the grown samples have been analyzed by maximum entropy method. Further, the samples were characterized for their optical and magnetic properties using ultraviolet-visible spectra and vibrating sample magnetometry. The microstructural studies were carried by scanning electron microscopy/electron dispersive x-ray spectroscopy techniques. From the optical absorption spectra, it was found that the energy band gap of the samples ranges from 2.135 eV to 2.405 eV. From vibrating sample magnetometer measurements, ferromagnetic like behaviour with large coercive field was observed for Fe doping concentration of x = 0.12. Since the doped lanthanum chromites have good mechanical properties and electrical conductivity at high temperature, these materials are used in solid oxide fuel cells.

  6. The cyclic oxidation resistance at 1200 C of beta-NiAl, FeAl, and CoAl alloys with selected third element additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, C. A.; Titran, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The intermetallic compounds Beta-NiAl, FeAl, and CoAl were tested in cyclic oxidation with selected third element alloy additions. Tests in static air for 200 1-hr cycles at 1200 C indicated by specific weight change/time data and x-ray diffraction analysis that the 5 at percent alloy additions did not significantly improve the oxidation resistance over the alumina forming baseline alloys without the additions. Many of the alloy additions were actually deleterious. Ta and Nb were the only alloy additions that actually altered the nature of the oxide(s) formed and still maintained the oxidation resistance of the protective alumina scale.

  7. Interstitial precipitation in Fe-Cr-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spear, W. S.; Polonis, D. H.

    1994-06-01

    Two separate stages of precipitation have been identified during the aging of ternary Fel8Cr3Al and Fel8Cr5Al alloys at temperatures in the vicinity of 475 °C. The first stage involves the formation of interstitial precipitates resulting from C and N impurities; the second and slower stage is the formation of the Cr-rich α' phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show that carbonitride precipitation occurs preferentially at dislocations, stacking faults, and grain boundaries, and also uniformly through the matrix. Aging for times in excess of 400 hours at 475 °C promotes coarsening of the heterogeneous precipitates and dissolution of the uniformly distributed matrix particles. A resistometric analysis shows that the kinetics of the initial stages of precipitation can be described by a (time)2/3 relation. This kinetic behavior is explained in terms of stress-assisted diffusion in the highly stressed matrix resulting from coherency strains accompanying carbonitride precipitation. Experimental values of the activation energy for the first stage reaction correlate closely with those reported for the interstitial diffusion of C and N in alpha iron.

  8. Effect of phosphate, silicate, and Ca on Fe(III)-precipitates formed in aerated Fe(II)- and As(III)-containing water studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voegelin, Andreas; Kaegi, Ralf; Frommer, Jakob; Vantelon, Delphine; Hug, Stephan J.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the local coordination and structure of Fe(III)-precipitates formed in aerated Fe(II)- and As(III)-containing water (buffered to pH 7 by 8 mM bicarbonate) using synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the K-edges of Fe, P, Ca, and As. Dissolved phosphate, silicate, and Ca at different ratios relative to each other and to Fe affect the forming Fe(III)-phases in a complex manner. The high affinity of phosphate for Fe(III) results in the predominant precipitation of Fe(III)-phosphate as long as dissolved phosphate is present, with Fe(III) polymerization limited to small oligomers. In Ca-containing solution, Ca uptake by Fe(III)-Ca-phosphate involves the linkage and coagulation of negatively charged Fe(III)-phosphate oligomers via Ca-O-P bonds. In the absence of phosphate, dissolved silicate at Si/Fe ratios above ˜0.5 results in the formation of hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) with mainly edge-sharing Fe-Fe linkage. At lower Si/Fe ratios of ˜0.5-0.1, mainly 2-line ferrihydrite (2L-Fh) with both edge- and corner-sharing Fe-Fe linkage forms. Only in the absence of phosphate at low Si/Fe ratio, lepidocrocite (Lp) forms. In solutions containing sufficient Fe(II), aeration results in the sequential precipitation of Fe(III)-(Ca-)phosphate, HFO or 2L-Fh (depending on solution Si/Fe), and finally Lp. The amount and oxidation state of As co-precipitated with Fe(III) are controlled by the co-oxidation of As(III) with Fe(II), which increases with initial Fe/As ratio, and the competitive uptake of phosphate, As(V) and less strongly sorbing silicate and As(III). This study demonstrates that the diversity and sequence of short-range-ordered Fe(III)-precipitates forming by Fe(II) oxidation in near-neutral natural waters depend on water chemistry. Because differences in the colloidal stability and biogeochemical reactivity of these phases will affect the fate of associated major and trace elements, the different Fe(III)-precipitates and their specific

  9. Al-Fe interactions and growth enhancement in Melastoma malabathricum and Miscanthus sinensis dominating acid sulphate soils.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Toshihiro; Jansen, Steven; Osaki, Mitsuru

    2006-12-01

    Plants growing in acid sulphate soils are subject to high levels of Al availability, which may have effects on the growth and distribution of these species. Although Fe availability is also high in acid sulphate soils, little is known about the effect of Fe on the growth of native plants in these soils. Two species dominating this soil type in Asia, viz. Melastoma malabathricum and Miscanthus sinensis were grown hydroponically in a nutrient solution with different concentrations of Al and Fe. Melastoma malabathricum is found to be sensitive to Fe (40 and 100 microm). Application of 500 microm Al, however, completely ameliorates Fe toxicity and is associated with a decrease of Fe concentration in shoots and roots. The primary reason for the Al-induced growth enhancement of M. malabathricum is considered to be the Al-induced reduction of toxic Fe accumulation in roots and shoots. Therefore, Al is nearly essential for M. malabathricum when growing in acid sulphate soils. In contrast, application of both Fe and Al does not reduce the growth of M. sinensis, and Al application does not result in lower shoot concentrations of Fe, suggesting that this grass species has developed different mechanisms for adaptation to acid sulphate soils. PMID:17081246

  10. Al-Fe interactions and growth enhancement in Melastoma malabathricum and Miscanthus sinensis dominating acid sulphate soils.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Toshihiro; Jansen, Steven; Osaki, Mitsuru

    2006-12-01

    Plants growing in acid sulphate soils are subject to high levels of Al availability, which may have effects on the growth and distribution of these species. Although Fe availability is also high in acid sulphate soils, little is known about the effect of Fe on the growth of native plants in these soils. Two species dominating this soil type in Asia, viz. Melastoma malabathricum and Miscanthus sinensis were grown hydroponically in a nutrient solution with different concentrations of Al and Fe. Melastoma malabathricum is found to be sensitive to Fe (40 and 100 microm). Application of 500 microm Al, however, completely ameliorates Fe toxicity and is associated with a decrease of Fe concentration in shoots and roots. The primary reason for the Al-induced growth enhancement of M. malabathricum is considered to be the Al-induced reduction of toxic Fe accumulation in roots and shoots. Therefore, Al is nearly essential for M. malabathricum when growing in acid sulphate soils. In contrast, application of both Fe and Al does not reduce the growth of M. sinensis, and Al application does not result in lower shoot concentrations of Fe, suggesting that this grass species has developed different mechanisms for adaptation to acid sulphate soils.

  11. Formation and Yield of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized via Chemical Vapour Deposition Routes Using Different Metal-Based Catalysts of FeCoNiAl, CoNiAl and FeNiAl-LDH

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Mohamad Jaafar, Adila; Hj. Yahaya, Asmah; Masarudin, Mas Jaffri; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2014-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using a series of different catalysts, derived from FeCoNiAl, CoNiAl and FeNiAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Catalyst-active particles were obtained by calcination of LDHs at 800 °C for 5 h. Nitrogen and hexane were used as the carrier gas and carbon source respectively, for preparation of MWCNTs using CVD methods at 800 °C. MWCNTs were allowed to grow for 30 min on the catalyst spread on an alumina boat in a quartz tube. The materials were subsequently characterized through X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, surface area analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was determined that size and yield of MWCNTs varied depending on the type of LDH catalyst precursor that is used during synthesis. MWCNTs obtained using CoNiAl-LDH as the catalyst precursor showed smaller diameter and higher yield compared to FeCoNiAl and FeNiAl LDHs. PMID:25380526

  12. Formation and yield of multi-walled carbon nanotubes synthesized via chemical vapour deposition routes using different metal-based catalysts of FeCoNiAl, CoNiAl and FeNiAl-LDH.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Jaafar, Adila Mohamad; Yahaya, Asmah Hj; Masarudin, Mas Jaffri; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2014-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using a series of different catalysts, derived from FeCoNiAl, CoNiAl and FeNiAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Catalyst-active particles were obtained by calcination of LDHs at 800 °C for 5 h. Nitrogen and hexane were used as the carrier gas and carbon source respectively, for preparation of MWCNTs using CVD methods at 800 °C. MWCNTs were allowed to grow for 30 min on the catalyst spread on an alumina boat in a quartz tube. The materials were subsequently characterized through X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, surface area analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was determined that size and yield of MWCNTs varied depending on the type of LDH catalyst precursor that is used during synthesis. MWCNTs obtained using CoNiAl-LDH as the catalyst precursor showed smaller diameter and higher yield compared to FeCoNiAl and FeNiAl LDHs. PMID:25380526

  13. Unique local structures of Ca, Ti, Fe and Zr in natural glasses formed by meteorite impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshiasa, Akira; Tobase, Tsubasa; Okube, Maki; Wang, Ling; Isobe, Hiroshi; Mashimo, Tsutomu; Graduate School of Science; Technology Collaboration; Materials; Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    The local structures of cation in tektite from six strewn fields, impact-related glass, and non-impact-related glass were studied by Ca, Ti, Fe and Zr K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). Shock compression also causes local structural changes of gest and minor elements as well as transition of host structures. How to be left a record is peculiar by each element. The XAFS measurements were performed at the beam lines BL-NW10A and BL-9C, KEK, Japan. The comparison of XANES spectra and bonding distances between crystalline reference minerals and natural glasses was done. Based on the different valence states of iron, the degrees of oxidation states were estimated. The local structures of Ca, Ti and Zr ions are useful probe for physical conditions and formation process of glasses. Tektites experienced high quenching rates and a reduced atmospheric environment when they were ejected into outer space. Other impact-related glass, which was remained close to the crater, experienced a more complicated environment. The local structural changes of cation in the impact-related glass are rich in a variety. Analysis of local structure is help to compare their formation process and distinguish them.

  14. Hafnium influence on the microstructure of FeCrAl alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geanta, V.; Voiculescu, I.; Stanciu, E.-M.

    2016-06-01

    Due to their special properties at high temperatures, FeCrAl alloys micro-alloyed with Zr can be regarded as potential materials for use at nuclear power plants, generation 4R. These materials are resistant to oxidation at high temperatures, to corrosion, erosion and to the penetrating radiations in liquid metal environments. Also, these are able to form continuously, by the self-generation process of an oxide coating with high adhesive strength. The protective oxide layers must be textured and regenerable, with a good mechanical strength, so that crack and peeling can not appear. To improve the mechanical and chemical characteristics of the oxide layer, we introduced limited quantities of Zr, Ti, Y, Hf, Ce in the range of 1-3%wt in the FeCrAl alloy. These elements, with very high affinity to the oxygen, are capable to stabilize the alumina structure and to improve the oxide adherence to the metallic substrate. FeCrAl alloys microalloyed with Hf were prepared using VAR (Vacuum Arc Remelting) unit, under high argon purity atmosphere. Three different experimental alloys have been prepared using the same metallic matrix of Fe-14Cr-5Al, by adding of 0.5%wt Hf, 1.0%wt Hf and respectively 1.5%wt Hf. The microhardness values for the experimental alloys have been in the range 154 ... 157 HV0.2. EDAX analyses have been performed to determine chemical composition on the oxide layer and in the bulk of sample and SEM analyze has been done to determine the microstructural features. The results have shown the capacity of FeCrAl alloy to form oxide layers, with different texture and rich in elements such as Al and Hf.

  15. Hot Tear Susceptibility of Al-Mg-Si-Fe Alloys with Varying Iron Contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, Lisa; Easton, Mark A.; Taylor, John A.; Grandfield, John F.; Davidson, Cameron J.; Lu, Liming; Couper, Malcolm J.; StJohn, David H.

    2013-12-01

    Hot tear susceptibility in cast Al-0.52Si-0.34Mg- xFe 6060 aluminum alloys was investigated using a hot tearing test apparatus to simulate hot tearing in DC casting. The test apparatus has two cast bars, one that is used to measure the load response and one which is fixed at both ends to restrain thermal contraction so that hot tearing can be observed and rated where it occurred. The iron (Fe) content, ranging from 0.02 to 0.5 wt pct, was seen to have a major influence on the load response during solidification and the tear rating of these alloys. The findings are discussed in terms of Rappaz-Drezet-Gremaud (RDG) model sensitivity analysis and related to the effect of Fe content on the morphology and prevalence of the β-Al5FeSi and α-AlFeSi intermetallic phases and their influence on the coherency and coalescence of the microstructure.

  16. Stabilization of microbial residues by co-precipitation with Fe and Al oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miltner, Anja; Achtenhagen, Jan; Kästner, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that microbial residues contribute significantly to soil organic matter (SOM) formation. This material, however, is readily degradable and thus needs to be stabilized in soil. We hypothesize that the interaction with minerals, in particular co-precipitation with metal oxyhydroxides, plays an important role in stabilization of cell envelope material. We therefore analyzed the mineralization of 14C-labelled Escherichia coli cells and cell envelope fragments during incubation of the cell materials alone or after co-precipitation with either Fe or Al oxyhydroxide. We also tested the effect of environmental conditions, in particular oxygen supply and redox potential, on the stabilizing effect of the mineral phases. Co-precipitation with both Fe and Al oxyhydroxides decreased the mineralization significantly, indicating strong protection of biomass and biomass-derived fragments. Surprisingly, the mineralization of intact cells was higher than that of cell envelope fragments. This points to a higher recalcitrance of the cell envelope fragments, which therefore may be selectively enriched in SOM. Reductive conditions obtained after water-logging combined with excessive supply of an easily available carbon source resulted in increased mineralization in the treatments containing Fe oxyhydroxides, due to reductive dissolution of the Fe oxyhydroxide and thus loss of the stabilizing agent. We therefore conclude that co-precipitation with and incrustation by Fe or Al oxyhydroxides is a relevant stabilization mechanism for microbial residues. The same mechanism also may apply for SOM in general.

  17. Why Tc of (CaFeAs)10Pt3.58As8 is twice as high as (CaFe0.95Pt0.05As)10Pt3As8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirupathaiah, S.; Stürzer, T.; Zabolotnyy, V. B.; Johrendt, D.; Büchner, B.; Borisenko, S. V.

    2013-10-01

    Recently discovered (CaFe1-xPtxAs)10Pt3As8 and (CaFeAs)10Pt4-yAs8 superconductors are very similar materials having the same elemental composition and structurally similar superconducting FeAs slabs. Yet the maximal critical temperature achieved by changing Pt concentration is approximately twice higher in the latter. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) we compare the electronic structure of their optimally doped compounds and find drastic differences. Our results highlight the sensitivity of critical temperature to the details of fermiology and point to the decisive role of band-edge singularities in the mechanism of high-Tc superconductivity.

  18. Assessment of Post-eutectic Reactions in Multicomponent Al-Si Foundry Alloys Containing Cu, Mg, and Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidani, Mousa; Larouche, Daniel; Grant Chen, X.

    2015-07-01

    Post-eutectic reactions occurring in Al-Si hypoeutectic alloys containing different proportions of Cu, Mg, and Fe were thoroughly investigated in the current study. As-cast microstructures were initially studied by optical and electron microscopy to investigate the microconstituents of each alloy. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was then used to examine the phase transformations occurring during the heating and cooling processes. Thermodynamic calculations were carried out to assess the phase formation under equilibrium and in nonequilibrium conditions. The Q-Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 phase was predicted to precipitate from the liquid phase, either at the same temperature or earlier than the θ-Al2Cu phase depending on the Cu content of the alloy. The AlCuFe-intermetallic, which was hardly observed in the as-cast microstructure, significantly increased after the solution heat treatment in the alloys containing high Cu and Fe contents following a solid-state transformation of the β-Al5FeSi phase. After the solution heat treatment, the AlCuFe-intermetallics were mostly identified with the stoichiometry of the Al7Cu2Fe phase. Thermodynamic calculations and microstructure analysis helped in determining the DSC peak corresponding to the melting temperature of the N-Al7Cu2Fe phase. The effect of Cu content on the formation temperature of π-Al8Mg3FeSi6 is also discussed.

  19. Iron-base superalloys - A phase analysis of the multicomponent system (Fe-Mn-Cr-Mo-Nb-Al-Si-C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, H.; Nowotny, H.; Lemkey, F. D.

    1988-01-01

    In the course of studies on the iron-rich multicomponent system Fe-Mn-Cr-Mo-Nb-Al-Si-C, work was concentrated on pertinent quinary and six-component combinations namely Fe-Mn-Al-Si-C, Fe-Cr-Al-Si-C and Fe-Mn-Cr-Al-Si-C which had been elaborated at 65, 72, and 80 wt pct Fe. Manganese acts as a strong stabilizer for the cementite carbide. Chromium seems to stabilize the iron aluminide Fe2Al5 which forms in a considerable amount within an alloy of nominal composition Fe(65)Mn(15)Cr(12)Al(5)Si(2)C(1) (percent by weight). Although the Mn3AlC carbide is, like Fe3AlC, a perovskite carbide, manganese does not appear to favor the formation of the perovskite carbide. Because of the relatively low sintering temperature (700 C), for al large portion of the samples equilibria conditions are not always reached.

  20. Heat capacity and phase equilibria of almandine, Fe 3Al 2Si 3O 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anovitz, L. M.; Essene, E. J.; Metz, G. W.; Bohlen, S. R.; Westrum, E. F., Jr.; Hemingway, B. S.

    1993-09-01

    The heat capacity of a synthetic almandine, Fe 3Al 2Si 3O 12, was measured from 6 to 350 K using equilibrium, intermittent-heating quasi-adiabatic calorimetry and from 420 to 1000 K using differential scanning calorimetry. These measurements yield Cp298 = 342.80 ± 1.4 J/mol · K and S298o = 342.60 J/mol · K. Mössbauer characterizations show the almandine to contain less than 2 ± 1% of the total iron as Fe 3+. X-ray diffraction studies of this synthetic almandine yield a = 11.521 ± 0.001 Å and V298o = 115.11 +- 0.01 cm 3/mol, somewhat smaller than previously reported. The low-temperature Cp data indicate a lambda transition at 8.7 K related to an antiferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition with TN = 7.5 K. Modeling of the lattice contribution to the total entropy suggests the presence of entropy in excess of that attributable to the effects of lattice vibrations and the magnetic transition. This probably arises from a low-temperature electronic transition (Schottky contribution). Combination of the Cp data with existing thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data on almandine yields ΔGf,298 o = -4938.3 kJ/mol and ΔHf,298 o= - 5261.3 kJ/mol for almandine when calculated from the elements. The equilibrium almandine = hercynite + fayalite + quartz limits the upper T/P for almandine and is metastably located at ca. 570°C at P = 1 bar, with a dP/dT of +17 bars/°C. This agrees well with reversed experiments on almandine stability when they are corrected for magnetite and hercynite solid-solutions. In ‖ O2- T space, almandine oxidizes near QFM by the reactions almandine + O2 = magnetite + sillimanite + quartzandalmandine + 02 = hercynite + magnetite + quartz. With suitable correction for reduced activities of solid phases, these equilibria provide useful oxygen barometers for medium- to high-grade metamorphic rocks.

  1. Heat capacity and phase equilibria of almandine, Fe3Al2Si3O12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Essene, E.J.; Metz, G.W.; Bohlen, S.R.; Westrum, E.F.; Hemingway, B.S.

    1993-01-01

    The heat capacity of a synthetic almandine, Fe3Al2Si3O12, was measured from 6 to 350 K using equilibrium, intermittent-heating quasi-adiabatic calorimetry and from 420 to 1000 K using differential scanning calorimetry. These measurements yield Cp298 = 342.80 ?? 1.4 J/mol ?? K and S298o = 342.60 J/mol ?? K. Mo??ssbauer characterizations show the almandine to contain less than 2 ?? 1% of the total iron as Fe3+. X-ray diffraction studies of this synthetic almandine yield a = 11.521 ?? 0.001 A?? and V298o = 115.11 +- 0.01 cm3/mol, somewhat smaller than previously reported. The low-temperature Cp data indicate a lambda transition at 8.7 K related to an antiferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition with TN = 7.5 K. Modeling of the lattice contribution to the total entropy suggests the presence of entropy in excess of that attributable to the effects of lattice vibrations and the magnetic transition. This probably arises from a low-temperature electronic transition (Schottky contribution). Combination of the Cp data with existing thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data on almandine yields ??Gf,298o = -4938.3 kJ/mol and ??Hf,298o= -5261.3 kJ/mol for almandine when calculated from the elements. The equilibrium almandine = hercynite + fayalite + quartz limits the upper T P for almandine and is metastably located at ca. 570??C at P = 1 bar, with a dP dT of +17 bars/??C. This agrees well with reversed experiments on almandine stability when they are corrected for magnetite and hercynite solid-solutions. In {norm of matrix}O2-T space, almandine oxidizes near QFM by the reactions almandine + O2 = magnetite + sillimanite + quartz and almandine + 02 = hercynite + magnetite + quartz. With suitable correction for reduced activities of solid phases, these equilibria provide useful oxygen barometers for medium- to high-grade metamorphic rocks. ?? 1993.

  2. Dry etching of NiFe/Co and NiFe/Al-O/Co multilayers in an inductively coupled plasma of Cl{sub 2}/Ar mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Ra, H.-W.; Hahn, Y.B.; Song, K.S.; Park, M.H.; Hong, Y.K.

    2004-11-01

    Dry etching of NiFe/Co and NiFe/Al-O/Co multilayers was carried out in inductively coupled Cl{sub 2}/Ar plasmas. An ion-enhanced etch mechanism took a critical role for desorption of chlorine etch products. NiFe/Al-O/Co showed a faster etch rate than NiFe/Co at various etch conditions. Anisotropic and smooth features were obtained using a photoresist mask. Sidewall contamination with etch products was observed at a higher Cl{sub 2} concentration (>50%). Postetch cleaning of the etched samples in deionized water reduced the chlorine residues substantially.

  3. Local structure study of Fe dopants in Ni-deficit Ni3Al alloys

    DOE PAGES

    V. N. Ivanovski; Umicevic, A.; Belosevic-Cavor, J.; Lei, Hechang; Li, Lijun; Cekic, B.; Koteski, V.; Petrovic, C.

    2015-08-24

    We found that the local electronic and magnetic structure, hyperfine interactions, and phase composition of polycrystalline Ni–deficient Ni 3-x FexAl (x = 0.18 and 0.36) were investigated by means of 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The samples were characterized by X–ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. The ab initio calculations performed with the projector augmented wave method and the calculations of the energies of iron point defects were done to elucidate the electronic structure and site preference of Fe doped Ni 3 Al. Moreover, the value of calculated electric field gradient tensor Vzz=1.6 1021Vm-2 matches well with the results of Mössbauer spectroscopymore » and indicates that the Fe atoms occupy Ni sites.« less

  4. The internal-nitriding behavior of Co-Fe-Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, I.C.; Douglass, D.L.

    1999-10-01

    Co-10Fe, Co-20Fe, and Co-40Fe alloys containing 3 at.% Al were internally nitrided in NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2} mixtures over the range 700--1000 C. The kinetics of thickening of the internal-reaction zone followed the parabolic rate law, suggesting that solid-state diffusion was rate controlling. Nitrogen permeabilities were obtained for each alloy. AlN was the only nitride to form for all materials and at all temperatures. At high temperature, the nitride precipitates formed hexagonal plates near the surface, the precipitates becoming more blocky near the reaction front. Precipitate size increased with increasing depth in the alloy and increasing temperature, because of competition between nucleation and growth processes. Increasing iron content increased the reaction kinetics due to increased nitrogen solubility with increasing iron content.

  5. Tetragonal To Collapsed Tetragonal Phase Transition In BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, R.; Mishra, S. K.; Chaplot, S. L.; Ovsyannikov, S. V.; Trots, D. M.; Dubrovinsky, L.; Greenberg, E.; Su, Y.; Brueckel, Th.; Matsuishi, S.; Hosono, H.; Garbarino, G.

    2010-12-01

    Superconductivity in MFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (M = Ba, Ca) compounds appears either at a critical doping level at ambient pressure or in the parent compound itself by application of pressure above a critical value. We report high pressure powder x-ray diffractions studies for these compounds at 300 K up to about 56 GPa using membrane diamond anvil cells. The measurements for BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} show a new tetragonal to collapsed tetragonal phase transition at about 22 GPa that remains stable upto 56 GPa. CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} is already known to transform to collapsed phase at 1.7 GPa at 300 K. Our measurements on CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} do not show any post collapsed phase transition on increase of pressure 50 GPa at 300 K. It is important to note that the transition in both compounds occurs when they are compressed to almost the same value of the unit cell volume and attain similar c{sub t}/a{sub t} ratios. We present a detailed analysis of the pressure dependence and structure phase transitions as well as equation of state in these important FeAs compounds that should be useful in the context of possible superconductivity in the collapsed phase.

  6. Spin freezing in the spin-liquid compound FeAl2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Harikrishnan S.; Ramesh Kumar, K.; Strydom, André M.

    2015-02-01

    Spin freezing in the A -site spinel FeAl2O4 , which is a spin-liquid candidate, is studied using remnant magnetization and nonlinear magnetic susceptibility and isofield cooling and heating protocols. The remnant magnetization behavior of FeAl2O4 differs significantly from that of a canonical spin glass, which is also supported by analysis of the nonlinear magnetic susceptibility term χ3(T ) . Through the power-law analysis of χ3(T ) , a spin-freezing temperature Tg=11.4 ±0.9 K and critical exponent γ =1.48 ±0.59 are obtained. A Cole-Cole analysis of magnetic susceptibility shows the presence of broad spin relaxation times in FeAl2O4 , however, the irreversible dc susceptibility plot discourages an interpretation based on conventional spin-glass features. The magnetization measured using the cooling-and-heating-in-unequal-fields protocol brings more insight into the magnetic nature of this frustrated magnet and reveals unconventional glassy behavior. Combining our results, we arrive at the conclusion that the present sample of FeAl2O4 consists of a majority spin-liquid phase with "glassy" regions embedded.

  7. Ductility and fracture in B2 FeAl alloys. Ph.D. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crimp, Martin A.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of B2FeAl alloys was studied. Stoichiometric Fe-50Al exhibits totally brittle behavior while iron-rich Fe-40Al yields and displays about 3% total strain. This change in behavior results from large decreases in the yield strength with iron-rich deviations from stoichiometry while the fracture stress remains essentially constant. Single crystal studies show that these yield strength decreases are directly related to decreases in the critical resolved shear stress for a group of zone axes /111/ set of (110) planes slip. This behavior is rationalized in terms of the decrease in antiphase boundary energy with decreasing aluminum content. The addition of boron results in improvements in the mechanical behavior of alloys on the iron-rich side of stoichiometry. These improvements are increased brittle fracture stresses of near-stoichiometric alloys, and enhanced ductility of up to 6% in Fe-40Al. These effects were attributed to increased grain boundary adhesion as reflected by changes in fracture mode from intergranular to transgranular failure. The increases in yield strength, which are observed in both polycrystals and single crystals, result from the quenching in of large numbers of thermal vacancies. Hall-Petch plots show that the cooling rate effects are a direct result of changes in the Hall-Petch intercept/lattice resistance flow.

  8. Detection of Fe[superscript 3+] and Al[superscript 3+] by Test Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Lili; Xiang, Haifeng; Zhou, Xiangge; Li, Menglong; Wu, Di

    2012-01-01

    A porphyrin-based test paper has been designed and prepared. It can be used to analyze for Al[superscript 3+] and Fe[superscript 3+] in aqueous solution. An experiment employing the test paper can help students understand basic principles of spectrophotometry and how spectrophotometry is used in analyzing for metal ions. (Contains 1 scheme and 1…

  9. Understanding phase stability of Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni high entropy alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Chuan; Zhang, Fan; Diao, Haoyan; Gao, Michael C.; Tang, Zhi; Poplawsky, Jonathan D.; Liaw, Peter K.

    2016-07-19

    The concept of high entropy alloy (HEA) opens a vast unexplored composition range for alloy design. As a well-studied system, Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni has attracted tremendous amount of attention to develop new-generation low-density structural materials for automobile and aerospace applications. In spite of intensive investigations in the past few years, the phase stability within this HEA system is still poorly understood and needs to be clarified, which poses obstacles to the discovery of promising Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni HEAs. In the present work, the CALPHAD approach is employed to understand the phase stability and explore the phase transformation within the Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni system. As a result,more » the phase-stability mapping coupled with density contours is then constructed within the composition - temperature space, which provides useful guidelines for the design of low-density Al-Co-Cr-Fe-Ni HEAs with desirable properties.« less

  10. Ion irradiation testing and characterization of FeCrAl candidate alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Anderoglu, Osman; Aydogan, Eda; Maloy, Stuart Andrew; Wang, Yongqiang

    2014-10-29

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program’s Advanced Fuels Campaign has initiated a multifold effort aimed at facilitating development of accident tolerant fuels. This effort involves development of fuel cladding materials that will be resistant to oxidizing environments for extended period of time such as loss of coolant accident. Ferritic FeCrAl alloys are among the promising candidates due to formation of a stable Al₂O₃ oxide scale. In addition to being oxidation resistant, these promising alloys need to be radiation tolerant under LWR conditions (maximum dose of 10-15 dpa at 250 – 350°C). Thus, in addition to a number of commercially available alloys, nuclear grade FeCrAl alloys developed at ORNL were tested using high energy proton irradiations and subsequent characterization of irradiation hardening and damage microstructure. This report summarizes ion irradiation testing and characterization of three nuclear grade FeCrAl cladding materials developed at ORNL and four commercially available Kanthal series FeCrAl alloys in FY14 toward satisfying FCRD campaign goals.

  11. FeAl and Mo-Si-B Intermetallic Coatings Prepared by Thermal Spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Totemeier, T.C.; Wright, R.N.; Swank, W.D.

    2003-04-22

    FeAl and Mo-Si-B intermetallic coatings for elevated temperature environmental resistance were prepared using high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and air plasma spray (APS) techniques. For both coating types, the effect of coating parameters (spray particle velocity and temperature) on the microstructure and physical properties of the coatings was assessed. Fe-24Al (wt.%) coatings were prepared using HVOF thermal spraying at spray particle velocities varying from 540 m/s to 700 m/s. Mo-13.4Si-2.6B coatings were prepared using APS at particle velocities of 180 and 350 m/s. Residual stresses in the HVOF FeAl coatings were compressive, while stresses in the APS Mo-Si-B coatings were tensile. In both cases, residual stresses became more compressive with increasing spray particle velocity due to increased peening imparted by the spray particles. The hardness and elastic moduli of FeAl coatings also increased with increasing particle velocity, again due to an increased peening effect. For Mo-Si-B coatings, plasma spraying at 180 m/s resulted in significant oxidation of the spray particles and conversion of the T1 phase into amorphous silica and {alpha}-Mo. The T1 phase was retained after spraying at 350 m/s.

  12. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites containing Fe, Nb and Zr aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, D.E.; Schicker, S.; Bruhn, J.; Krupp, A.; Janssen, R.; Claussen, N.

    1997-12-31

    A reactive powder-processing technique involving controlled exothermic solid-state reactions between Al and oxides has been used to produce nearly fully dense composites with interpenetrating networks of aluminides and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The process consists of the in situ formation of aluminides and Al{sub 2}O{sub 32} from compacts of intensively milled oxide-Al powder mixtures followed by pressureless sintering. The reactions take place usually at temperatures below the melting point of Al. At temperatures >1,000 C, the reaction product start to sinter yielding microstructures with very fine and uniform phase distribution. The present paper discusses processing parameters such as attrition milling, heating cycle and atmosphere controlling microstructural development and mechanical properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites containing Fe, Nb and Zr aluminides.

  13. Importance of doping and frustration in itinerant Fe-doped Cr2Al

    SciTech Connect

    Susner, M. A.; Parker, D. S.; Sefat, A. S.

    2015-05-12

    We performed an experimental and theoretical study comparing the effects of Fe-doping of Cr2Al, an antiferromagnet with a N el temperature of 670 K, with known results on Fe-doping of antiferromagnetic bcc Cr. (Cr1-xFex)2Al materials are found to exhibit a rapid suppression of antiferromagnetic order with the presence of Fe, decreasing TN to 170 K for x=0.10. Antiferromagnetic behavior disappears entirely at x≈0.125 after which point increasing paramagnetic behavior is exhibited. Moreover, this is unlike the effects of Fe doping of bcc antiferromagnetic Cr, in which TN gradually decreases followed by the appearance of a ferromagnetic state. Theoretical calculations explain that the Cr2Al-Fe suppression of magnetic order originates from two effects: the first is band narrowing caused by doping of additional electrons from Fe substitution that weakens itinerant magnetism; the second is magnetic frustration of the Cr itinerant moments in Fe-substituted Cr2Al. In pure-phase Cr2Al, the Cr moments have an antiparallel alignment; however, these are destroyed through Fe substitution and the preference of Fe for parallel alignment with Cr. This is unlike bulk Fe-doped Cr alloys in which the Fe anti-aligns with the Cr atoms, and speaks to the importance of the Al atoms in the magnetic structure of Cr2Al and Fe-doped Cr2Al.

  14. Phosphate enrichment mechanism in CaO-SiO2-FeO-Fe2O3-P2O5 steelmaking slags with lower binary basicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin-yan; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min; Yang, Xue-min

    2016-05-01

    The addition of silica to steelmaking slags to decrease the binary basicity can promote phosphate enrichment in quenched slag samples. In this study, we experimentally investigated phosphate enrichment behavior in CaO-SiO2-FeO-Fe2O3-P2O5 slags with a P2O5 content of 5.00% and the binary basicity B ranging from 1.0 to 2.0, where the (%Fe t O)/(%CaO) mass percentage ratio was maintained at 0.955. The experimental results are explained by the defined enrichment degree R_{C_2 S - C_3 P} of solid solution 2CaO·SiO2-3CaO·P2O5 (C2S-C3P), where R_{C_2 S - C_3 P} is a component of the developed ion and molecule coexistence theory (IMCT)- N i model for calculating the mass action concentrations N i of structural units in the slags on the basis of the IMCT. The asymmetrically inverse V-shaped relation between phosphate enrichment and binary basicity B was observed to be correlated in the slags under applied two-stage cooling conditions. The maximum content of P2O5 in the C2S-C3P solid solution reached approximately 30.0% when the binary basicity B was controlled at 1.3.

  15. Microdefects and 3 d electrons in ordered B2-FeAl alloys investigated by positron annihilation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuyang, Huang; Yanqiong, Lu; Yanyan, Zhu; Yuxia, Li; Wen, Deng

    2009-09-01

    Microdefects and 3d electrons in B2-FeAl alloys with different chemical composition, single crystal of Fe and cold-rolled Fe has been studied by positron lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy. The coincidence Doppler broadening spectrum of the single crystal of Fe shows the highest 3d electron signal in the spectra of all tested samples. The 3d electron signal in the spectrum of Fe50Al50 alloy is much lower than that of the cold-rolled Fe. This indicates that some of the 3d electrons of Fe atoms and 3p electrons of Al atoms in B2-FeAl alloy are localized to form strong covalent bonds, thus decreasing the probability of positron annihilation with 3d electrons of Fe atoms. With the increase of Al content in B2-FeAl alloys, the 3d electron signal in the spectrum of the alloy decreases, while the open volume of defect increases.

  16. Structural and magnetic properties of Co68Fe24Zr8/Al2O3 multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidbaum, Hans; Raanaei, Hossein; Papaioannou, Evangelos Th.; Leifer, Klaus; Hjörvarsson, Björgvin

    2010-02-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of Co68Fe24Zr8/Al2O3 multilayers grown by using magnetron sputtering were investigated with X-ray reflectivity, transmission electron microscopy and magneto-optical Kerr effect. The Co68Fe24Zr8 form amorphous islands when the nominal thickness of the Co68Fe24Zr8 layers is 10 Å, exhibiting an isotropic superparamagnetic behavior. Continuous layers with mostly a nano-crystalline structure are instead formed when the nominal thickness of the Co68Fe24Zr8 layers is increased to 20 Å. The continuous layers exhibit random, in-plane, magnetic anisotropy resulting from the growth process. However, induced uniaxial anisotropy is obtained when growing the sample in the presence of an applied magnetic field, regardless of the combination of amorphous and nano-crystalline material.

  17. Structural and textural properties of Al,Fe-pillared clay catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banković, P.; Milutinović-Nikolić, A.; Rosić, A.; Jović-Jovičić, N.; Jovanović, D.

    2009-09-01

    Metal oxide pillared interlayered clays (PILCs) represent a new class of materials that have found a wide range of potential applications including catalytic oxidative degradation of organic pollutants in water. Al,Fe-pillared smectite clays with different Fe content were synthesized for possible catalytic application. Starting clay and the obtained PILCs were characterized. Phase composition, textural and morphological properties of the starting clay and synthesized PILCs were determined using X-ray diffraction, physisorption of nitrogen and scanning electron microscopy. Chemical composition of the PILCs was determined using EDX. It was found that the synthesized PILCs have similar phasal composition, textural and morphological properties differing only in Fe content in accordance with the amount of Fe introduced to clay during the pillaring process.

  18. The structure-property relationships of powder processed Fe-Al-Si alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Prichard, P.D.

    1998-02-23

    Iron-aluminum alloys have been extensively evaluated as semi-continuous product such as sheet and bar, but have not been evaluated by net shape P/M processing techniques such as metal injection molding. The alloy compositions of iron-aluminum alloys have been optimized for room temperature ductility, but have limited high temperature strength. Hot extruded powder alloys in the Fe-Al-Si system have developed impressive mechanical properties, but the effects of sintering on mechanical properties have not been explored. This investigation evaluated three powder processed Fe-Al-Si alloys: Fe-15Al, Fe-15Al-2.8Si, Fe-15Al-5Si (atomic %). The powder alloys were produced with a high pressure gas atomization (HPGA) process to obtain a high fraction of metal injection molding (MIM) quality powder (D{sub 84} < 32 {micro}m). The powders were consolidated either by P/M hot extrusion or by vacuum sintering. The extruded materials were near full density with grain sizes ranging from 30 to 50 {micro}m. The vacuum sintering conditions produced samples with density ranging from 87% to 99% of theoretical density, with an average grain size ranging from 26 {micro}m to 104 {micro}m. Mechanical property testing was conducted on both extruded and sintered material using a small punch test. Tensile tests were conducted on extruded bar for comparison with the punch test data. Punch tests were conducted from 25 to 550 C to determine the yield strength, and fracture energy for each alloy as a function of processing condition. The ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) was observed to increase with an increasing silicon content. The Fe-15Al-2.8Si alloy was selected for more extensive testing due to the combination of high temperature strength and low temperature toughness due to the two phase {alpha} + DO{sub 3} structure. This investigation provided a framework for understanding the effects of silicon in powder processing and mechanical property behavior of Fe-Al-Si alloys.

  19. Solvent-free synthesis and application of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO4] composite for dual separation and immobilization of stable and radioactive cesium in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Okuda, Tetsuji; Simion, Cristian; Lee, Byeong Kyu

    2015-10-30

    This study assessed the synthesis and application of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO-based composite material for use as a separation and immobilizing treatment of dry soil contaminated by stable ((133)Cs) and radioactive cesium species ((134)Cs and (137)Cs). After grinding with nano-Fe/CaO, nano-Fe/Ca/CaO, and nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO4], approximately 31, 25, and 22 wt% of magnetic fraction soil was separated. Their resultant (133)Cs immobilization values were about 78, 81, and 100%, respectively. When real radioactive cesium contaminated soil obtained from Fukushima was treated with nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO4], approximately 27.3 wt% of magnetic and 72.75% of non-magnetic soil fractions were separated. The highest amount of entrapped (134)Cs and (137)Cs was found in the lowest weight of the magnetically separated soil fraction (i.e., 80% in 27.3% of treated soil). Results show that (134)Cs and (137)Cs either in the magnetic or non-magnetic soil fractions was 100% immobilized. The morphology and mineral phases of the nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO4] treated soil were characterized using SEM-EDS, EPMA, and XRD analysis. The EPMA and XRD patterns indicate that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials on treated soil included Ca/PO4 associated crystalline complexes. These results suggest that simple grinding treatment with nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO4] under dry conditions might be an extremely efficient separation and immobilization method for radioactive cesium contaminated soil. PMID:25942697

  20. Solvent-free synthesis and application of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO4] composite for dual separation and immobilization of stable and radioactive cesium in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Okuda, Tetsuji; Simion, Cristian; Lee, Byeong Kyu

    2015-10-30

    This study assessed the synthesis and application of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO-based composite material for use as a separation and immobilizing treatment of dry soil contaminated by stable ((133)Cs) and radioactive cesium species ((134)Cs and (137)Cs). After grinding with nano-Fe/CaO, nano-Fe/Ca/CaO, and nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO4], approximately 31, 25, and 22 wt% of magnetic fraction soil was separated. Their resultant (133)Cs immobilization values were about 78, 81, and 100%, respectively. When real radioactive cesium contaminated soil obtained from Fukushima was treated with nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO4], approximately 27.3 wt% of magnetic and 72.75% of non-magnetic soil fractions were separated. The highest amount of entrapped (134)Cs and (137)Cs was found in the lowest weight of the magnetically separated soil fraction (i.e., 80% in 27.3% of treated soil). Results show that (134)Cs and (137)Cs either in the magnetic or non-magnetic soil fractions was 100% immobilized. The morphology and mineral phases of the nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO4] treated soil were characterized using SEM-EDS, EPMA, and XRD analysis. The EPMA and XRD patterns indicate that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials on treated soil included Ca/PO4 associated crystalline complexes. These results suggest that simple grinding treatment with nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO4] under dry conditions might be an extremely efficient separation and immobilization method for radioactive cesium contaminated soil.

  1. Performance of Al-Rich Oxidation Resistant Coatings For Fe-Base Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, Bruce A

    2010-01-01

    Aluminum-rich coatings made by chemical vapor deposition and pack cementation on ferritic (e.g. Fe-9Cr-1Mo) and austenitic (Type 304L) substrates are being evaluated at 650-800 C. For oxidation testing, a humid air environment was used to quantify coating performance, as uncoated substrates experience rapid oxidation at these temperatures. A main goal of this work is to demonstrate the potential benefits and problems with alumina-forming coatings. The higher exposure temperatures were selected to accelerate the degradation of the coating by interdiffusion with the substrate. A general conclusion of this testing was that coatings with less Al and a ferritic Fe(Al) structure could be more durable than higher Al content aluminide coatings which have a large thermal expansion mismatch with these substrates. A lifetime model has been developed using diffusion and oxidation observations to predict coating performance as a function of temperature and initial coating composition. To test and improve the model, additional experiments are now being conducted to determine the effect of substrate composition (e.g. Cr content using Fe-12Cr and Fe-9Cr-2W substrates) and exposure temperature on the critical Al content for coating failure. Because of the unexpectedly low level of Al measured at coating failure ({approx}3.5at.% at 700 C), exposures of specimens with thick ({approx}200 {mu}m) high Al content coatings were stopped after 10kh at 800 C and 20kh at 700 C because extremely long times to failure were predicted. Post-exposure Al concentration profiles for these specimens were measured using electron microprobe.

  2. Performance of Al-rich Oxidation Resistant Coatings for Fe-Base Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, Bruce A; Zhang, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum-rich coatings made by chemical vapor deposition and pack cementation on ferritic (e.g. Fe-9Cr-1Mo) and austenitic (Type 304L) substrates are being evaluated at 650-800 C. For oxidation testing, a humid air environment was used to quantify coating performance, as uncoated substrates experience rapid oxidation at these temperatures. A main goal of this work is to demonstrate the potential benefits and problems with alumina-forming coatings. The higher exposure temperatures were selected to accelerate the degradation of the coating by interdiffusion with the substrate. A general conclusion of this testing was that coatings with less Al and a ferritic Fe(Al) structure could be more durable than higher Al content aluminide coatings which have a large thermal expansion mismatch with these substrates. A lifetime model has been developed using diffusion and oxidation observations to predict coating performance as a function of temperature and initial coating composition. To test and improve the model, additional experiments are now being conducted to determine the effect of substrate composition (e.g. Cr content using Fe-12Cr and Fe-9Cr-2W substrates) and exposure temperature on the critical Al content for coating failure. Because of the unexpectedly low level of Al measured at coating failure ({approx}3.5 at.% at 700 C), exposures of specimens with thick ({approx}200 {micro}m) high Al content coatings were stopped after 10kh at 800 C and 20kh at 700 C because extremely long times to failure were predicted. Post-exposure Al concentration profiles for these specimens were measured using electron microprobe.

  3. Effect of boron in Fe 70 Al 30 nanostructured alloys produced by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rico, M. M.; Pérez Alcázar, G. A.; Greneche, J. M.

    2013-04-01

    The substitution of aluminum by boron in the Fe70Al30 system prepared by high energy ball milling is studied when the B content ranged from 0 up to 20 at. %, and the milling times were 24, 48 and 72 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of Fe70Al30 showed a predominant bcc structural phase with a lattice parameter larger than that of α-Fe. A second (tetragonal) phase arose with the addition of boron. It is associated to the existence of (Fe, Al)2B, although the values of the lattice parameters are slightly different from those found in the literature. This phase shows high stability; its lattice parameters and the Mössbauer parameters do not show notable variations, either with milling time or composition. It was also evidenced that an increase of boron content and of milling time produced a decrease of the lattice parameter of the Fe-Al bcc structure. This is in agreement with the small atomic radius of boron in comparison with that of aluminum. This also allows boron to occupy interstitial sites in the lattice, increasing the grain size and giving rise to the ductile character of the alloy. On the other hand, 300 K transmission Mössbauer spectra (TMS) were fitted, for low boron concentrations (<8 at.%), with a hyperfine field distribution (HFD) associated with the bcc phase. For high boron content (≥8 at.%), a magnetic component related to the tetragonal phase is added and its broadened lines are attributed to the disordered character of Fe2B, probably induced by the milling process.

  4. Effect of boron in Fe 70 Al 30 nanostructured alloys produced by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rico, M. M.; Pérez Alcázar, G. A.; Greneche, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The substitution of aluminum by boron in the Fe70Al30 system prepared by high energy ball milling is studied when the B content ranged from 0 up to 20 at. %, and the milling times were 24, 48 and 72 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of Fe70Al30 showed a predominant bcc structural phase with a lattice parameter larger than that of α-Fe. A second (tetragonal) phase arose with the addition of boron. It is associated to the existence of (Fe, Al)2B, although the values of the lattice parameters are slightly different from those found in the literature. This phase shows high stability; its lattice parameters and the Mössbauer parameters do not show notable variations, either with milling time or composition. It was also evidenced that an increase of boron content and of milling time produced a decrease of the lattice parameter of the Fe-Al bcc structure. This is in agreement with the small atomic radius of boron in comparison with that of aluminum. This also allows boron to occupy interstitial sites in the lattice, increasing the grain size and giving rise to the ductile character of the alloy. On the other hand, 300 K transmission Mössbauer spectra (TMS) were fitted, for low boron concentrations (<8 at.%), with a hyperfine field distribution (HFD) associated with the bcc phase. For high boron content (≥8 at.%), a magnetic component related to the tetragonal phase is added and its broadened lines are attributed to the disordered character of Fe2B, probably induced by the milling process.

  5. Development of a high-rate, rechargeable bipolar LiAl/FeS{sub 2} battery

    SciTech Connect

    Kaun, T.D.; Jansen, A.N.; Hash, M.C.; Prakash, J.; Turner, R.L.; Henriksen, G.L.

    1996-06-01

    Materials refinements have improved bipolar Li-Al/FeS{sub 2} batteries for power-demand applications. Current technology uses a two-phase Li-alloy cathode, LiCl-LiBr-KBr electrolyte, and an upper-plateau (UP) FeS{sub 2} anode for a battery operated at 440 C; the battery is in sealed bipolar form. The two-phase Li alloy ({alpha}+{beta} Li-Al and Li{sub 5}Al{sub 5}Fe{sub 2}) cathode provides in situ overcharge tolerance that makes the bipolar design viable. The use of LiCl-rich LiCl-LiBr-KBr electrolyte in ``electrolyte-starved`` cells achieves low-burdened cells with low area-specific impedance, with MgO powder separator. Combining dense UP FeS{sub 2} electrodes with a CuFeS{sub 2} additive and a LiI-modified electrolyte produces a stable and reversible couple, with high power capabilities. Long cycle life depends on peripheral seals for each cell in the bipolar stack. Seal composition is based on stable sulfide ceramic/sealant materials that produce strong bonds between metals and ceramics. Using these seals, bipolar Li-Al/FeS{sub 2} cells and four-cell stacks are being built and tested (25 Ah, 13-cm dia). Adding 5 mol% LiI to the electrolyte increased specific energy by 50% under a 140 W/kg, constant power C/1 rate and a 544 W/kg power pulse (8-s) schedule. Cell capacity under the high-power pulse-demand approximates the C/3 rate discharge capacity. Cell specific energy is 155 Wh/kg at the C/3 rate.

  6. New type of Al-based decagonal quasicrystal in Al60Cr20Fe10Si10 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhanbing; Ma, Haikun; Li, Hua; Li, Xingzhong; Ma, Xiuliang

    2016-03-01

    A new kind of decagonal quasicrystal (DQC) with a periodicity of 1.23 nm was observed in the as-cast quaternary Al60Cr20Fe10Si10 alloy. The intensity distribution of some spots in the selected-area electron diffraction pattern along the tenfold zone axis was found to be different from other Al-based DQCs. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy was adopted to reveal the structural features at an atomic level. Both the tenfold symmetry and symmetry-broken decagonal (D) clusters of 1.91 nm in diameter were found, but with structural characteristics different from the corresponding D clusters in the other Al-based DQCs. The neighboring D clusters are connected by sharing one edge rather than covering, suggesting the tiling model is better than the covering model for structural description.

  7. Wear Behavior of High Velocity Arc Spraying FeNiCrAlBRE/Ni95Al Composite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, H. L.; Wei, S. C.; Chen, Y. X.; Tong, H.; Liu, Y.; Xu, B. S.

    Wear-resistant FeNiCrAlBRE/Ni95Al composite coatings were deposited on carbon steel plate by high velocity arc spraying. Adhesive strength of the composite coating was improved by spraying Ni95Al cored wires as transition layer between working coating and substrate. Scanning electron microscopy and Vickers hardness testing were used to evaluate coatings structure and mechanical properties. For quantitative investigation of porosity, a computer image analyzer was used. The forming, the wear resistance and its mechanism of the coatings were studied. The results show that coating has relatively high average hardness about 550 HV0.1 and adhesive strength is 47 MPa. The worn surface characterized shallow grooves and few of debris on the coating manifested that the coating has better wear resistance under dry sliding conditions.

  8. New type of Al-based decagonal quasicrystal in Al60Cr20Fe10Si10 alloy

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhanbing; Ma, Haikun; Li, Hua; Li, Xingzhong; Ma, Xiuliang

    2016-01-01

    A new kind of decagonal quasicrystal (DQC) with a periodicity of 1.23 nm was observed in the as-cast quaternary Al60Cr20Fe10Si10 alloy. The intensity distribution of some spots in the selected-area electron diffraction pattern along the tenfold zone axis was found to be different from other Al-based DQCs. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy was adopted to reveal the structural features at an atomic level. Both the tenfold symmetry and symmetry-broken decagonal (D) clusters of 1.91 nm in diameter were found, but with structural characteristics different from the corresponding D clusters in the other Al-based DQCs. The neighboring D clusters are connected by sharing one edge rather than covering, suggesting the tiling model is better than the covering model for structural description. PMID:26928759

  9. Complex Formation Between Ca(II), Mg(II), Al(III) Ions and Salicylglycine

    PubMed Central

    Kilyén, Melinda; Labádi, lmre; Tombácz, Etelka; Kiss, Tamás

    2003-01-01

    For modelling the interactions of proteins/peptides with hard metal ions the complex formation of salicylglycine (SalGly) with Ca(II), Mg(ll) and AI(III) ions was studied in aqueous solution using pHpotentiometric and UV-vis spectroscopic techniques. Al(lll) ion was found to form more stable complexes with SalGiy than Ca(ll) or Mg(ll) ions. While AI(III) ion forms various 1:1 complexes of different protonation states in the pH range 2-7, Ca(ll), Mg(ll) ions seem to interact with SalGly only in the basic pH range and form mixed hydroxo species MLH-1 at pH ~ 8. According to the UV-vis spectroscopic measurements in the species MLH-1 the carboxylate-O- atom and the phenolate-O- coordinate to the metal ions. SaIGiy is able to keep Al(lll) in solution through inner and outer sphere coordination to metastable amorphous AI(OH)3 particles. Deprotonation of the peptide amide Nil does not occur in these systems. PMID:18365063

  10. Structural and Magnetic Phase Coexistence in Oxygen Deficient Perovskites (Sr,Ca)FeO 2 . 5 + δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlo, J. P.; Evans, M. E.; Anczarski, J. A.; Ock, J.; Boyd, K.; Pollichemi, J. R.; Leahy, I. A.; Vogel, W.; Viescas, A. J.; Papaefthymiou, G. C.

    A variety of compounds crystallize into perovskite and similar structures, making them versatile laboratories for many phenomena and applications, including multiferroicity, superconductivity, and photovoltaics. Oxygen-deficient perovskites ABOx have attracted interest for use in fuel cells and related applications due to high oxygen mobility and the possibility of charge disproportionation. Vast chemical flexibility is obtained through reductions in lattice symmetry and rotation/distortion of the BO6 octahedra, as well as ordering of oxygen vacancies. We have synthesized and studied the structural and magnetic properties of oxygen-deficient perovskites (Sr,Ca)FeO2 . 5 + δ using x-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy. While the ideal perovskite has δ = 0.5, this requires Fe4+, and hence strongly oxidizing environments. When grown in air, Fe3+ is favored, yielding δ ~ 0. SrFeO2 . 5 + δ exhibits cubic symmetry and paramagnetism at 300K, but CaFeO2 . 5 + δ crystallizes into the orthorhombic brownmillerite structure, and is magnetically ordered at 300K. In the doped intermediaries we find coexistence of cubic/paramagnetic and orthorhombic/magnetic phases over a wide range of Ca content. Financial support from the Villanova Undergraduate Research Fellowship program and the Research Corporation for Science Advancement.

  11. Network topology for the formation of solvated electrons in binary CaO-Al2O3 composition glasses.

    PubMed

    Akola, Jaakko; Kohara, Shinji; Ohara, Koji; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Masuno, Atsunobu; Usuki, Takeshi; Kubo, Takashi; Nakahira, Atsushi; Nitta, Kiyofumi; Uruga, Tomoya; Weber, J K Richard; Benmore, Chris J

    2013-06-18

    Glass formation in the CaO-Al2O3 system represents an important phenomenon because it does not contain typical network-forming cations. We have produced structural models of CaO-Al2O3 glasses using combined density functional theory-reverse Monte Carlo simulations and obtained structures that reproduce experiments (X-ray and neutron diffraction, extended X-ray absorption fine structure) and result in cohesive energies close to the crystalline ground states. The O-Ca and O-Al coordination numbers are similar in the eutectic 64 mol % CaO (64CaO) glass [comparable to 12CaO·7Al2O3 (C12A7)], and the glass structure comprises a topologically disordered cage network with large-sized rings. This topologically disordered network is the signature of the high glass-forming ability of 64CaO glass and high viscosity in the melt. Analysis of the electronic structure reveals that the atomic charges for Al are comparable to those for Ca, and the bond strength of Al-O is stronger than that of Ca-O, indicating that oxygen is more weakly bound by cations in CaO-rich glass. The analysis shows that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals occurs in cavity sites, suggesting that the C12A7 electride glass [Kim SW, Shimoyama T, Hosono H (2011) Science 333(6038):71-74] synthesized from a strongly reduced high-temperature melt can host solvated electrons and bipolarons. Calculations of 64CaO glass structures with few subtracted oxygen atoms (additional electrons) confirm this observation. The comparable atomic charges and coordination of the cations promote more efficient elemental mixing, and this is the origin of the extended cage structure and hosted solvated (trapped) electrons in the C12A7 glass.

  12. Elastic moduli of nanocrystalline binary Al alloys with Fe, Co, Ti, Mg and Pb alloying elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babicheva, Rita I.; Bachurin, Dmitry V.; Dmitriev, Sergey V.; Zhang, Ying; Kok, Shaw Wei; Bai, Lichun; Zhou, Kun

    2016-05-01

    The paper studies the elastic moduli of nanocrystalline (NC) Al and NC binary Al-X alloys (X is Fe, Co, Ti, Mg or Pb) by using molecular dynamics simulations. X atoms in the alloys are either segregated to grain boundaries (GBs) or distributed randomly as in disordered solid solution. At 0 K, the rigidity of the alloys increases with decrease in atomic radii of the alloying elements. An addition of Fe, Co or Ti to the NC Al leads to increase in the Young's E and shear μ moduli, while an alloying with Pb decreases them. The elastic moduli of the alloys depend on a distribution of the alloying elements. The alloys with the random distribution of Fe or Ti demonstrate larger E and μ than those for the corresponding alloys with GB segregations, while the rigidity of the Al-Co alloy is higher for the case of the GB segregations. The moduli E and μ for polycrystalline aggregates of Al and Al-X alloys with randomly distributed X atoms are estimated based on the elastic constants of corresponding single-crystals according to the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation, which neglects the contribution of GBs to the rigidity. The results show that GBs in NC materials noticeably reduce their rigidity. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of μ for the NC Al-X alloys is analyzed. Only the Al-Co alloy with GB segregations shows the decrease in μ to the lowest extent in the temperature range of 0-600 K in comparison with the NC pure Al.

  13. Dependence of catalytic properties of Al/Fe2O3 thermites on morphology of Fe2O3 particles in combustion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ningning; He, Cuicui; Liu, Jianbing; Gong, Hujun; An, Ting; Xu, Huixiang; Zhao, Fengqi; Hu, Rongzu; Ma, Haixia; Zhang, Jinzhong

    2014-11-01

    Three Fe2O3 particle samples with the same crystal structure but different morphologies were prepared by the hydrothermal method and then combined with Al nanoparticles to produce Al/Fe2O3 thermites using ultrasonic mixing. The properties of Fe2O3 and Al/Fe2O3 were studied using a combination of experimental techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The influences of the three Al/Fe2O3 thermites on the combustion properties of the AP/HTPB (ammonium perchlorate/hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene) composite propellant were investigated in comparison to those of Fe2O3. The results show that the Al/Fe2O3 thermites are better than Fe2O3 in enhancing the combustion performance of AP/HTPB. Furthermore, the surface area, which depends on size and mophology, of Fe2O3 particles was found to play a vital role in improving the burning rate of the thermites-containing propellant formulation, with the smallest particles with the largest surface-to-volume (S/V) ratio performing the best. The enhanced catalytic property of the granular-shape Fe2O3 and the corresponding thermite is attributed to the large specific surface area of Fe2O3. The different thermal behaviors of these three superthemites were supposed to be attributed to the surface site of Fe2O3 particles. This work provides a better understanding on the catalytic properties of thermites that are important for combustion applications.

  14. Optimization of High Temperature Hoop Creep Response in ODS-Fe3Al Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Kad, B.K.; Heatherington, J.H.; McKamey, C.; Wright, I.; Sikka, V.; Judkins, R.

    2003-04-22

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Fe3Al alloys are currently being developed for heat-exchanger tubes for eventual use at operating temperatures of up to 1100 C in the power generation industry. The development challenges include (a) efforts to produce thin walled ODS-Fe3Al tubes, employing powder extrusion methodologies, with (b) adequate increased strength for service at operating temperatures to (c) mitigate creep failures by enhancing the as-processed grain size. A detailed and comprehensive research and development methodology is prescribed to produce ODS-Fe3Al thin walled tubes. Current single step extrusion consolidation methodologies typically yield 8ft. lengths of 1-3/8 inch diameter, 1/8 inch wall thickness ODS-Fe3Al tubes. The process parameters for such consolidation methodologies have been prescribed and evaluated as being routinely reproducible. Recrystallization treatments at 1200 C produce elongated grains (with their long axis parallel to the extrusion axis), typically 200-2000 {micro}m in diameter, and several millimeters long. The dispersion distribution is unaltered on a micro scale by recrystallization, but the high aspect ratio grain shape typically obtained limits grain spacing and consequently the hoop creep response. Improving hoop creep in ODS-alloys requires an understanding and manipulating the factors that control grain alignment and recrystallization behavior. Current efforts are focused on examining the processing dependent longitudinal vs. transverse creep anisotropy, and exploring post-extrusion methods to improve hoop creep response in ODS-Fe3Al alloy tubes. In this report we examine the mechanisms of hoop creep failure and describe our efforts to improve creep performance via variations in thermal-mechanical treatments.

  15. A potentially new type of nonchondritic interplanetary dust particle with hematite, organic carbon, amorphous Na,Ca-aluminosilicate, and FeO-spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz Caro, Guillermo M.; Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Valles-González, Maria Pilar

    2012-02-01

    We used a combination of different analytical techniques to study particle W7190-D12 using microinfrared spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The particle consists mainly of hematite (α-Fe2O3) with considerable variations in structural disorder. It further contains amorphous (Na,K)-bearing Ca,Al-silicate and organic carbon. Iron-bearing spherules (<150 nm in diameter) cover the surface of this particle. At local sites of structural disorder at the hematite surface, the hematite spheres were reduced to FeO in the presence of organic carbons forming FeO-spheres. However, metallic Fe spheres cannot be excluded based on the available data. To the best of our knowledge, this particle is the first detection of such spherules at the surface of a stratospheric dust particle. Although there is no definitive evidence for an extraterrestrial origin of particle W7190-D12, we suggest that it could be an IDP that had moved away from the asteroid-forming region of the early solar system into the outer solar system of the accreting Kuiper Belt objects. After it was released from a Jupiter family comet, this particle became part of the zodiacal cloud. Atmospheric entry flash-heating caused (1) the formation of microenvironments of reduced iron oxide when indigenous carbon materials reacted with hematite covering its surface resulting in the formation of FeO-spheres and (2) Na-loss from Na,Al-plagioclase. The particle of this study, and other similar particles on this collector, may represent a potentially new type of nonchondritic IDPs associated with Jupiter family comets, although an origin in the asteroid belt cannot be ignored.

  16. First order magnetic transition in single crystal CaFe2As2 detected by 75As NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, Seung Ho; Curro, Nicholas J

    2008-01-01

    We report {sup 75}As Nuclear Magnetic Resonance data in a single crystal of CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. The Knight shift, the electric field gradient, and the spin lattice relaxation rate are strongly temperature dependent in the paramagnetic state, and change discontinuously at the structural transition temperature, T{sub S} = T{sub N} = 167 K. Immediately below, the NMR spectra reveal an internal field at the As site associated with the presence of a commensurate magnetic order. These results indicate that the structural and magnetic transitions in CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} are first order and strongly coupled, and that the electron density in the FeAs plane is highly sensitive to the out-of-plane structure.

  17. Signatures in magnetites formed by (Ca,Mg,Fe)CO3 thermal decomposition: Terrestrial and extraterrestrial implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Lopez, Concepcion; Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro; Perez-Gonzalez, Teresa; Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Lauer, Howard V.; Romanek, Christopher S.

    2012-06-01

    It has never been demonstrated whether magnetite synthesized through the heat-dependent decomposition of carbonate precursors retains the chemical and structural features of the carbonates. In this study, synthetic (Ca,Mg,Fe)CO3 was thermally decomposed by heating from 25 to 700 °C under 1 atm CO2, and by in situ exposure under vacuum to the electron beam of a transmission electron microscope. In both cases, the decomposition of the carbonate was topotactic and resulted in porous pseudomorphs composed of oriented aggregates of magnetite nanocrystals. Both calcium and magnesium were incorporated into nanophase magnetite, forming (Ca,Mg)-magnetites and (Ca,Mg)-ferrites when these elements were present in the parent material, thus preserving the chemical signature of the precursor. These results show that magnetites synthesized in this way acquire a chemical and structural inheritance from their carbonate precursor that indicates how they were produced. These results are not only important in the determination of the origin of chemically-impure, oriented nanophase magnetite crystals in general, but they also provide important insights into the origin of the large, euhedral, chemically-pure, [111]-elongated magnetites found within Ca-, Mg- and Fe-rich carbonates of the Martian meteorite ALH84001. Based on our experimental results, the chemically-pure magnetites within ALH84001 cannot be genetically related to the Ca-, Mg- and Fe-rich carbonate matrix within which they are embedded, and an alternative explanation for their occurrence is warranted.

  18. Dependences on RE of superconducting properties of transition metal co-doped (Ca, RE)FeAs2 with RE = La-Gd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakita, H.; Ogino, H.; Sala, A.; Okada, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Kishio, K.; Iyo, A.; Eisaki, H.; Shimoyama, J.

    2015-11-01

    Dependence of superconducting properties of (Ca, RE)(Fe, TM)As2 [(Ca, RE)112, TM: Co, Ni)] on RE elements (RE = La-Gd) was systematically investigated. Improvement of superconducting properties by Co or Ni co-doping was observed for all (Ca, RE)112, which is similar to Co-co-doped (Ca, La)112 or (Ca, Pr)112. Tc of Co-co-doped samples decreased from 38 K for RE = La to 29 K for RE = Gd with decreasing ionic radii of RE3+. However, Co-co-doped (Ca, Eu)112 showed exceptionally low Tc = 21 K probably due to the co-existence of Eu3+ and Eu2+ suggested by longer interlayer distance dFe-Fe of (Ca, Eu)112 than other (Ca, RE)112.

  19. Low-temperature heat capacities of CaAl2SiO6 glass and pyroxene and thermal expansion of CaAl2SiO6 pyroxene.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haselton, H.T.; Hemingway, B.S.; Robie, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Low-T heat capacities (5-380 K) have been measured by adiabatic calorimetry for synthetic CaAl2SiO6 glass and pyroxene. High-T unit cell parameters were measured for CaAl2SiO6 pyroxene by means of a Nonius Guinier-Lenne powder camera in order to determine the mean coefficient of thermal expansion in the T range 25-1200oC. -J.A.Z.

  20. Nqrs Data for AlCa2ClH10O8 [AlCa2ClO3·5(H2O)] (Subst. No. 0020)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for AlCa2ClH10O8 [AlCa2ClO3·5(H2O)] (Subst. No. 0020)

  1. Unusual superconducting state at 49 K in electron-doped CaFe2As2 at ambient pressure.

    PubMed

    Lv, Bing; Deng, Liangzi; Gooch, Melissa; Wei, Fengyan; Sun, Yanyi; Meen, James K; Xue, Yu-Yi; Lorenz, Bernd; Chu, Ching-Wu

    2011-09-20

    We report the detection of unusual superconductivity up to 49 K in single crystalline CaFe(2)As(2) via electron-doping by partial replacement of Ca by rare-earth. The superconducting transition observed suggests the possible existence of two phases: one starting at 49 K, which has a low critical field < 4 Oe, and the other at 21 K, with a much higher critical field > 5 T. Our observations are in strong contrast to previous reports of doping or pressurizing layered compounds AeFe(2)As(2) (or Ae122), where Ae = Ca, Sr, or Ba. In Ae122, hole-doping has been previously observed to generate superconductivity with a transition temperature (T(c)) only up to 38 K and pressurization has been reported to produce superconductivity with a T(c) up to 30 K. The unusual 49 K phase detected will be discussed. PMID:21911404

  2. Surface micromorphology of dental composites [CE-TZP]-[Al2O3] with Ca(+2) modifier.

    PubMed

    Berezina, Sofia; Il'icheva, Alla Alexandrovna; Podzorova, Lyudmila Ivanovna; Ţălu, Ştefan

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the three-dimensional (3D) surface micromorphology of the ceramics produced from nanoparticles of alumina and tetragonal zirconia (t-ZrO2) with addition of Ca(+2) for sintering improvement. The 3D surface roughness of samples was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), fractal analysis of the 3D AFM-images, and statistical analysis of surface roughness parameters. Cube counting method, based on the linear interpolation type, applied for AFM data was used for fractal analysis. The morphology of non-modified ceramic sample was characterized by the rather big (1-2 μm) grains of α-Al2O3 phase with a habit close to hexagonal drowned in solid solution of t-ZrO2 with smooth surface. The pattern surfaces of modified composite content a little amount of elongated prismatic grains with composition close to the phase of СаСеAl3О7 as well as hexahedral α-Al2O3-grains. Fractal dimension, D, as well as height values distribution have been determined for the surfaces of the samples with and without modifying. It can be concluded that the smoothest surface is of the modified samples with Ca(+2) modifier but the most regular one is of the non-modified samples. A connection was observed between the surface morphology and the physical properties as assessed in previous works. PMID:26190812

  3. CaMn2Al10: Itinerant Mn magnetism on the verge of magnetic order

    DOE PAGES

    Steinke, L.; Simonson, J. W.; Yin, W. -G.; Smith, G. J.; Kistner-Morris, J. J.; Zellman, S.; Puri, A.; Aronson, M. C.

    2015-07-24

    We report the discovery of CaMn2Al10, a metal with strong magnetic anisotropy and moderate electronic correlations. Magnetization measurements find a Curie-Weiss moment of 0.83μB/Mn, significantly reduced from the Hund's rule value, and the magnetic entropy obtained from specific heat measurements is correspondingly small, only ≈ 9% of Rln2. These results imply that the Mn magnetism is highly itinerant, a conclusion supported by density functional theory calculations that find strong Mn-Al hybridization. Consistent with the layered nature of the crystal structure, the magnetic susceptibility χ is anisotropic below 20 K, with a maximum ratio of χ[010]/χ[001] ≈ 3.5. A strong power-lawmore » divergence χ(T) ~ T–1.2 below 20 K implies incipient ferromagnetic order, an Arrott plot analysis of the magnetization suggests a vanishing low Curie temperature TC ~ 0. Our experiments indicate that CaMn2Al10 is a rare example of a system where the weak and itinerant Mn-based magnetism is poised on the verge of order.« less

  4. Glycerol Steam Reforming Over Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 Catalyst: Effect of Cerium.

    PubMed

    Go, Gwang-Sub; Go, Yoo-Jin; Lee, Hong-Joo; Moon, Dong-Ju; Park, Nam-Cook; Kim, Young-Chul

    2016-02-01

    In this work, hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming was studied using Ni-metal oxide catalysts. Ni-based catalyst becomes deactivated during steam reforming reactions because of coke deposits and sintering. Therefore, the aim of this study was to reduce carbon deposits and sintering on the catalyst surface by adding a promoter. Ni-metal oxide catalysts supported on Al2O3 were prepared via impregnation method, and the calcined catalyst was reduced under H2 flow for 2 h prior to the reaction. The characteristics of the catalysts were examined by XRD, TPR, TGA, and SEM. The Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 catalyst, which contained less than 2 wt% Ce, showed the highest hydrogen selectivity and glycerol conversion. Further analysis of the catalysts revealed that the Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 catalyst required a lower reduction temperature and produced minimum carbon deposit. PMID:27433687

  5. Glycerol Steam Reforming Over Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 Catalyst: Effect of Cerium.

    PubMed

    Go, Gwang-Sub; Go, Yoo-Jin; Lee, Hong-Joo; Moon, Dong-Ju; Park, Nam-Cook; Kim, Young-Chul

    2016-02-01

    In this work, hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming was studied using Ni-metal oxide catalysts. Ni-based catalyst becomes deactivated during steam reforming reactions because of coke deposits and sintering. Therefore, the aim of this study was to reduce carbon deposits and sintering on the catalyst surface by adding a promoter. Ni-metal oxide catalysts supported on Al2O3 were prepared via impregnation method, and the calcined catalyst was reduced under H2 flow for 2 h prior to the reaction. The characteristics of the catalysts were examined by XRD, TPR, TGA, and SEM. The Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 catalyst, which contained less than 2 wt% Ce, showed the highest hydrogen selectivity and glycerol conversion. Further analysis of the catalysts revealed that the Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 catalyst required a lower reduction temperature and produced minimum carbon deposit.

  6. The effect of various oxide dispersions on the oxidation resistance of Fe{sub 3}Al

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, B.A.; Alexander, K.B.; Tortorelli, P.F.

    1996-10-01

    Oxide-dispersed Fe-28at.%Al-2%Cr alloys were produced by a powder metallurgy technique followed by hot extrusion. Yttria and ceria were added to the base alloy to assess the effect of these dopants on the oxidation behavior. The amount of dopant was varied from 0.05-0.5 at.% Y in a series of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-dispersed alloys. isothermal and cyclic oxidation testing was conducted at temperatures from 800{degrees} to 1300{degrees}C. A CeO{sub 2} addition was detrimental to the oxidation behavior. The Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} improved the {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale adhesion relative to an undoped alloy, but was not as effective as similar additions to an oxide-dispersed FeCrAl alloy.

  7. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Studies of Surface Structures of Icosahedral Al-Cu-Fe Quasicrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Tanhong Cai

    2002-12-31

    Three papers are included in this dissertation. The first paper: ''Structural aspects of the fivefold quasicrystalline Al-Cu-Fe surface from STM and dynamical LEED studies'', is in press with ''Surface Science''. The second paper: ''An STM study of the atomic structure of the icosahedral Al-Cu-Fe fivefold surface'' is submitted to ''Physical Review B, Rapid Communication''. The third paper: ''Pseudomorphic starfish: arrangement of extrinsic metal atoms on a quasicrystalline substrate'' is submitted to ''Nature''. Following the third paper are general conclusions and appendices that document the published paper ''Structural aspects of the three-fold surface of icosahedral Al-Pd-Mn'' (appearing in volume 461, issue 1-3 of ''Surface Science'' on page L521-L527, 2000), the design as well as the specifications of the aluminum evaporator used in the aluminum deposition study in this dissertation, an extended discussion of the aluminum deposition on the quasicrystalline surface, and the STM database.

  8. Influence of doping on the physical properties of Ca10-xRExPt3As8(Fe2-yPtyAs2)5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jiayun; Karki, Amar; Jin, Rongying

    2015-03-01

    Ca10-xRExPt3As8(Fe2-yPtyAs2)5 is a new FeAs-based superconductor. We report the change of its superconducting transition temperature Tc and physical properties upon chemical doping in either Ca (using La or Gd) or Fe (using Pt) site. While partial replacement of Fe by Pt results in Tc up to 21 K , we find that the substitution of Ca by La is most effective pushing Tc to 30 K. The doping in both sites reduces the in-plane resistivity and anisotropy. The doping dependance of electrical transport properties will be presented and discussed.

  9. The Microstructure-Processing-Property Relationships in an Al Matrix Composite System Reinforced by Al-Cu-Fe Alloy Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Fei

    2004-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC), especially Al matrix composites, received a lot of attention during many years of research because of their promise for the development of automotive and aerospace materials with improved properties and performance, such as lighter weight and better structural properties, improved thermal conductivity and wear resistance. In order to make the MMC materials more viable in various applications, current research efforts on the MMCs should continue to focus on two important aspects, including improving the properties of MMCs and finding more economical techniques to produce MMCs. Solid state vacuum sintering was studied in tap densified Al powder and in hot quasi-isostatically forged samples composed of commercial inert gas atomized or high purity Al powder, generated by a gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) technique. The GARS process results in spherical Al powder with a far thinner surface oxide. The overall results indicated the enhanced ability of GARS-processed Al and Al alloy powders for solid state sintering, which may lead to simplification of current Al powder consolidation processing methods. Elemental Al-based composites reinforced with spherical Al-Cu-Fe alloy powders were produced by quasi-isostatic forging and vacuum hot pressing (VHP) consolidation methods. Microstructures and tensile properties of AYAl-Cu-Fe composites were characterized. It was proved that spherical Al-Cu-Fe alloy powders can serve as an effective reinforcement particulate for elemental Al-based composites, because of their high hardness and a preferred type of matrix/reinforcement interfacial bonding, with reduced strain concentration around the particles. Ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of the composites were increased over the corresponding Al matrix values, far beyond typical observations. This remarkable strengthening was achieved without precipitation hardening and without severe strain hardening during consolidation because of

  10. Analysis of mutant quantity and quality in human-hamster hybrid AL and AL-179 cells exposed to 137Cs-gamma or HZE-Fe ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldren, C.; Vannais, D.; Drabek, R.; Gustafson, D.; Kraemer, S.; Lenarczyk, M.; Kronenberg, A.; Hei, T.; Ueno, A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    We measured the number of mutants and the kinds of mutations induced by 137Cs-gamma and by HZE-Fe (56Fe [600 MeV/amu, LET = 190 KeV/micrometer) in standard AL human hamster hybrid cells and in a new variant hybrid, AL-179. We found that HZE-Fe was more mutagenic than 137Cs-gamma per unit dose (about 1.6 fold), but was slightly less mutagenic per mean lethal dose, DO, at both the S1 and hprt- loci of AL cells. On the other hand, HZE-Fe induced about nine fold more complex S1- mutants than 137Cs-gamma rays, 28% vs 3%. 137Cs-gamma rays induced about twice as many S1- mutants and hprt-mutants in AL-179 as in AL cells, and about nine times more of the former were complex, and potentially unstable kinds of mutations.

  11. Removal of arsenic (V) from water using hierarchical flower-shaped AlOOH/Fe micro/nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakina, O. V.; Glazkova, E. A.; Svarovskaya, N. V.; Berenda, A. V.; Lozhkomoev, A. S.; Lerner, M. I.

    2015-10-01

    Hierarchical AlOOH/Fe micro/nanostructures with flower-shaped morphology were fabricated by the reaction of Al/Fe nanoparticles with water. Al/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles have been obtained using the method of simultaneous electrical explosion of metal pairs in a nitrogen atmosphere. The nanoparticles are chemically active and interact with water at 60°C forming the flower-shaped hierarchical pore structures with a high specific surface area. Al/Fe product transformations are presented by the flower-shaped pseudoboehmite surrounded by the lamellar structures enriched with ferric oxides. Flower-shaped AlOOH/Fe micro/nanostructure with flower-shaped morphology is found to serve as an effective adsorbent medium to remove As(V) from water. The adsorption capacity was 43 mg/g (pH = 6.7).

  12. Dielectric properties of CaNdAlO sub 4 at microwave frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Konopka, J.; Wolff, I. ); Lewandowski, S.J. )

    1992-07-01

    Dielectric properties of CaNdAlO{sub 4} monocrystals, a prospective substrate material for the deposition of high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} superconductors, were measured with high accuracy at microwave frequencies from 8 to 40 GHz in the temperature range from 10 to 300 K by measuring the resonant frequencies of a completely filled resonant cavity. The material was found to be highly anisotropic. At 300 K it exhibits the dielectric constant along {ital c} axis {epsilon}{sup {prime}}{sub {ital c}} = 17.68, while the dielectric constant in the {ital a}-{ital b} plane is {epsilon}{prime}=19.62, and loss tangent tan {delta}{sub {ital c}} {congruent} tan {delta} {congruent} 5.1{times} 10{sup {minus}4}. Both {epsilon}{sup {prime}}{sub {ital c}} and {epsilon}{prime} depend strongly on temperature and their thermal coefficients have opposite signs, apparently a unique property of CaNdAlO{sub 4}. Below 160 K microwave losses caused by electric field perpendicular to the optical {ital c} axis increase with decreasing temperature, exhibiting a maximum near 65 K followed by a minimum at 30 K. It is suggested that neodymium ions in CaNdAlO{sub 4} at lower temperatures become magnetically ordered, causing an increase of magnetic permeability {mu}{sup {prime}}{sub {ital c}} {gt} 1 and a significant increase of magnetic losses at microwave frequencies. A crystallographic phase transition below 60 K cannot also be excluded.

  13. Processing, properties, and wear resistance of aluminides. [Fe[sub 3]Al; Al[sub 3]Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.N.; Rabin, B.H.; Wright, J.K.

    1993-03-01

    Fully dense alloys based on Fe[sub 3]Al were produced by reaction synthesis from low cost elemental powders using hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing or Ceracon process. The reaction proceeds by outward spreading of a transient liquid phase from the initial aluminum particle site and precipitation of the compound phase from the liquid. Combustion synthesized material has a very fine grain size that is resistant to coarsening at high temperature because of a high density of fine oxides from the prior particle boundaries. The fine grain size results in approximately twice the yield strength in the reaction synthesized material compared to hot extruded pre-alloyed powder. Combustion synthesis has also been successfully applied to joining Fe[sub 3]Al and to forming coatings on carbon steel substrates. Combustion synthesis has been shown to be viable for fabricating trialuminides from elemental powder compacts. Al[sub 3]Ti, Al[sub 73]Ti[sub 24]Cr[sub 3] and Al[sub 67]Ti[sub 25]Cr[sub 8] were examined. Fully dense, homogeneous materials exhibiting an equiaxed grain structure were produced by conducting reaction and homogenization under pressure, or in a furnace at ambient pressure and subsequently densifying the porous preform by hot consolidation. The tetragonal DO[sub 22] structure was the primary reaction product for all compositions. Most of the Cr remained undissolved after reaction and a homogenization heat treatment at 1200C or above was used to put the Cr into solution and form the desired L1[sub 2] phase.

  14. A nuclear microscopy study of trace elements Ca, Fe, Zn and Cu in atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, F.; Rajendran, R.; Ren, M. Q.; Tan, B. K. H.; Halliwell, B.

    2006-08-01

    Quantitative mapping of trace elements Ca, Fe, Zn and Cu can be achieved in biological tissue using a nuclear microprobe. Presented here is a brief review of the work we have carried out in the last decade using the nuclear microscope to try and elucidate the role of trace elements Fe, Zn, Cu and Ca in induced atherosclerosis in New Zealand White rabbits fed on a 1% cholesterol diet. The lesions were studied using nuclear microscopy, incorporating a combination of ion beam techniques: particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM). Iron is present in early lesions at concentrations around seven times higher than the artery wall. Measurements of localized lesion iron concentrations were observed to be highly correlated with the depth of the lesion in the artery wall for each individual animal, implying that local elevated concentrations may provide an accelerated process of atherosclerosis in specific regions of the artery. When the rabbits were kept mildly anaemic, thereby reducing iron levels in the lesion, the progression of the disease was significantly slowed. Iron chelation using desferal showed that early treatment (three weeks into the high fat diet) for relatively long periods (nine weeks) significantly retarded the progression of the disease. Zinc is depleted in the lesion and is also observed to be anti-correlated with local lesion development and feeding the rabbits on a high fat diet with zinc supplements inhibited lesion development, although since no significant increase in lesion zinc levels was measured, this anti-atherosclerotic effect may be indirect. Copper, measured at low levels (∼3 ppm) in the early lesion, is also depleted compared to the artery wall, suggesting that it is not a major factor in atherogenesis. Calcium is also depleted in early lesions, although at a later stage mineral deposition (hydroxyapatite) is observed to take place in the lesion

  15. Structural stability of the icosahedral AlCuFe quasicrystal under high-pressure and high-temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, S.; Kyono, A.; Nakamoto, Y.; Hirao, N.

    2015-12-01

    We report high-pressure and high-temperature in-situ X-ray diffraction study of icosahedral (i)-AlCuFe quasicrystal "icosahedrite" which is the first known naturally occurring quasicrystal mineral discovered in the Khatyrka meteorite. The i-AlCuFe quasicrystal was synthesized in laboratory from a powder mixture with an atomic ratio of Al : Cu : Fe = 65 : 20 : 15. The high-temperature and high-pressure X-ray diffraction experiments were performed using the laser-heated diamond anvil cell system installed at BL10XU, SPring-8, Japan. The i-AlCuFe showed a characteristic X-ray diffraction pattern of quasicrystal. With only compression, the diffraction patterns of the i-AlCuFe were continued until 75 GPa. At a pressure of 87 GPa two small new peaks occurred and then kept up to the maximum pressure of 104 GPa in the study. The results indicate that the pressure-induced structural phase transition of the i-AlCuFe occurs above 87 GPa, and the structure of the i-AlCuFe remains unchanged at least up to 75 GPa. Under simultaneously high pressure and high temperature, on the other hand, the i-AlCuFe was readily transformed to crystalline phase. It can be characterized by an irreversible transformation process. The structure of the i-AlCuFe is therefore more affected by thermal metamorphism than by pressure metamorphism. The present high-pressure and high-temperature experiments clearly revealed the thermal and pressure stability of the i-AlCuFe quasicrystal which may help to explain the formation of the naturally occurring quasicrystal in the solar system.

  16. Thermoelectric Properties of Fe2VAl and Fe2V0.75M0.25Al (M = Mo, Nb, Ta) Alloys: First-Principles Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Yamani, H.; Hamad, B.

    2016-02-01

    Ab initio investigations of the structural, electronic, and thermoelectric properties of stoichiometric Fe2VAl full-Heusler alloy and Fe2V0.75M0.25Al (M = Mo, Nb, Ta) nonstoichiometric alloys have been performed using density functional theory on the basis of the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method with the generalized gradient approximation. The thermoelectric properties are calculated using semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory within the constant-relaxation-time approximation. Fe2VAl, Fe2V0.75Nb0.25Al, and Fe2V0.75Ta0.25Al alloys are found to exhibit a semimetallic behavior, while Fe2V0.75Mo0.25Al acts as a metal. We found that Fe2VAl has a pseudogap of about -0.13 eV, whereas Fe2V0.75Nb0.25Al and Fe2V0.75Ta0.25Al are characterized by a zero energy gap around the Fermi level. Thermoelectric calculations showed that Fe2VAl has both p- and n-type thermoelectric properties, where the p-type thermopower values are found to be higher than those of n-type. The Seebeck coefficient S has maximum values from 20 μV K-1 to 125 μV K-1 and from 19 μV K-1 to 90 μV K-1 in the temperature range of 100 K to 800 K for p- and n-type, respectively. The maximum thermoelectric properties can be obtained at carrier concentration of the order of 1020 cm-3 for p- or n-type doping. Substitution of Nb and Ta atoms enhanced the thermoelectric properties to 150 μV K-1 at 800 K. The optimum concentrations for the three partially substituted alloys were found to be between 1020 cm-3 and 1021 cm-3.

  17. Partition coefficients for Al, Ca, Ti, Cr, and Ni in olivine obtained by melting experiment on an LL6 chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyamoto, M.; Mikouchi, T.; Mckay, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    We report the partition coefficients for Ca, Al, Ti, Cr, and Ni in olivine obtained through a series of melting experiments on an LL6 chondrite under varying conditions of temperature and oxygen fugacity. It is necessary to examine the variation of partition coefficients up to extremely reducing conditions in order to study meteoritic olivines. For Ca, Al, and Cr, the partition coefficients tend to decrease as temperature increases, but do not change even under extremely reducing conditions.

  18. Galvanomagnetic properties of Fe{sub 2}YZ (Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni; Z = Al, Si) heusler alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kourov, N. I. Marchenkov, V. V.; Belozerova, K. A.; Weber, H. W.

    2015-11-15

    The Hall effect and the magnetoresistance of Fe{sub 2}YZ Heusler alloys, where Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni, are the 3d transition metals and Z = Al and Si are the s, p elements of the third period of the periodic table, are studied at T = 4.2 K in magnetic fields H ≤ 100 kOe. It is shown that, in the high-field limit (H > 10 kOe), the value and the sign of the normal (R{sub 0}) and anomalous (R{sub s}) Hall coefficients change anomalously during transition from paramagnetic (Y = Ti, V) to ferromagnetic (Y = Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni) alloys. These coefficients have different signs for all alloys. Constant R{sub s} in the ferromagnetic alloys is positive, proportional to the residual resistivity ratio (R{sub s} ∝ ρ{sub 0}{sup 3.1}), and inversely proportional to spontaneous magnetization. The magnetoresistance of the alloys is a few percent and has a negative sign. A positive addition to transverse magnetoresistance is only detected in high magnetic fields, H > 10 kOe.

  19. Galvanomagnetic properties of Fe2YZ (Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni; Z = Al, Si) heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourov, N. I.; Marchenkov, V. V.; Belozerova, K. A.; Weber, H. W.

    2015-11-01

    The Hall effect and the magnetoresistance of Fe2YZ Heusler alloys, where Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni, are the 3 d transition metals and Z = Al and Si are the s, p elements of the third period of the periodic table, are studied at T = 4.2 K in magnetic fields H ≤ 100 kOe. It is shown that, in the high-field limit ( H > 10 kOe), the value and the sign of the normal ( R 0) and anomalous ( R s ) Hall coefficients change anomalously during transition from paramagnetic (Y = Ti, V) to ferromagnetic (Y = Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni) alloys. These coefficients have different signs for all alloys. Constant R s in the ferromagnetic alloys is positive, proportional to the residual resistivity ratio ( R s ∝ ρ 0 3.1 ), and inversely proportional to spontaneous magnetization. The magnetoresistance of the alloys is a few percent and has a negative sign. A positive addition to transverse magnetoresistance is only detected in high magnetic fields, H > 10 kOe.

  20. Thermoelastic Martensitic Transformations in Single Crystals of FeNiCoAlX(B) Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumlyakov, Yu. I.; Kireeva, I. V.; Kuts, O. A.; Platonova, Yu. N.; Poklonov, V. V.; Kukshauzen, I. V.; Kukshauzen, D. A.; Panchenko, M. Yu.; Reunova, K. A.

    2016-03-01

    Using single crystals of Fe-based disordered alloys (Fe - 28% Ni - 17% Co - 11.5% Al - 2.5% X (0.05% B) (at.%) (X = Ti, Nb(B), (Ti + Nb)B), undergoing thermoelastic γ-α '-martensitic transformations (MTs), it is shown that precipitation of particles of the ordered γ'-phase in the course of aging at T = 973 K for 5 h results in the development of shape memory (SME) and superelasticity (SE) effects. It is experimentally found that variation in chemical composition and size of disperse particles of the γ'-phase allows controlling both mechanical and functional properties - SME and SE.

  1. Acid precipitation and food quality: Effects of dietary Al, Ca and P on bone and liver characteristics in American black ducks and mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos) were fed diets varying in concentrations of aluminum (Al). calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) for 10 weeks to identify toxic effects of Al under conditions representative of areas with acid precipitation. Femur and liver tissues were analyzed for Al. Ca, and P concentrations and structural characteristics. At two weeks of age, both species demonstrated pronounced differences in femur Al and P concentrations and femur mass from dietary Al and interaction between Ca:P regimen and Al:Low Ca:Low P enhanced Al storage and decreased P and mass in femurs. Femur Ca was lowest in the Low Ca:Low P regimen but was not affected by dietary Al. At 10 weeks, femur and liver Al continued to vary with dietary Al. Elevated Al and reduced Ca lowered modulus of elasticity. Femur P increased with elevated dietary P in black ducks. Elevated dietary P negated some of the effects of dietary A! on femur mass in black ducks. Reduced Ca concentrations weakened bones of both species and lowered both Ca and P. An array of clinical signs including lameness, discoloration of the upper mandible, complete and greenstick fractures, and death were responses to elevated Al and Ca:P regimen. Black ducks seemed to display these signs over a wider range of diets than mallards. Diets of 1,000 mg/kg Al had toxic effects on both species, particularly when combined with diets low in Ca and P.

  2. Nanocomposite Fe-Al Intermetallic Coating Obtained by Gas Detonation Spraying of Milled Self-Decomposing Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senderowski, Cezary

    2014-10-01

    The nanocomposite structure of Fe-Al intermetallic coating, created in situ during gas detonation spraying (GDS) of as-milled self-decomposing powder and containing disordered 8 nm FeAl nanocrystals, was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), and x-ray diffraction methods. It is found that the Fe-Al coating is characterized by a sublayer morphology consisting of flattened and partially melted splats containing a wide Al range from about 26 to 52 at.%, as well as Al2O3 oxides, created in situ at the internal interfaces of splats during the GDS process. The complex oxide films, identified as amorphous Al2O3, which are formed in the nanocrystalline Fe-Al matrix of the GDS coating behave like a composite reinforcement in the intermetallic Fe-Al coating. The combined presence of nanosized subgrains in the Fe-Al matrix and the Al2O3 nanoceramic dispersoids significantly increases the microhardness of the coating.

  3. A method for Ca, Fe, Ga, Na, Si and Zn determination in alumina by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry after aluminum precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Alexandre L.; Lemos, Sherlan G.; Oliveira, Pedro V.

    2011-05-01

    In this present work a method for the determination of Ca, Fe, Ga, Na, Si and Zn in alumina (Al 2O 3) by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) with axial viewing is presented. Preliminary studies revealed intense aluminum spectral interference over the majority of elements and reaction between aluminum and quartz to form aluminosilicate, reducing drastically the lifetime of the torch. To overcome these problems alumina samples (250 mg) were dissolved with 5 mL HCl + 1.5 mL H 2SO 4 + 1.5 mL H 2O in a microwave oven. After complete dissolution the volume was completed to 20 mL and aluminum was precipitated as Al(OH) 3 with NH 3 (by bubbling NH 3 into the solution up to a pH ~ 8, for 10 min). The use of internal standards (Fe/Be, Ga/Dy, Zn/In and Na/Sc) was essential to obtain precise and accurate results. The reliability of the proposed method was checked by analysis of alumina certified reference material (Alumina Reduction Grade-699, NIST). The found concentrations (0.037% w w -1 CaO, 0.013% w w -1 Fe 2O 3, 0.012% w w -1 Ga 2O 3, 0.49% w w -1 Na 2O, 0.014% w w -1 SiO 2 and 0.013% w w -1 ZnO) presented no statistical differences compared to the certified values at a 95% confidence level.

  4. Why are the Tcs so high in rare-earth doped CaFe2As2 single crystals and ultrathin FeSe epi-films?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, C. W.

    2015-03-01

    Recent reports of non-bulk superconductivity with unexpectedly high onset-Tcs up to 49 K in the Pr-doped CaFe2As2 [(Ca,Pr)122] single crystals and up to 100 K in one-unit-cell (1UC) FeSe epi-films, respectively, offer an unusual opportunity to seek an answer to the question posed in the title. Through systematic compositional, structural, resistive, and magnetic investigations on (Ca,R)122 single crystals with R = La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, we have observed a doping-level-independent Tc, a large magnetic anisotropy, and the existence of mesoscopic-2D structures in these crystals, thus providing evidence consistent with the proposed interface-enhanced Tc in these naturally assembled Fe-based superconductors. Similar resistive and magnetic measurements were also made on the 1-4UC FeSe ultra thin epi-films. We have detected a Meissner state below 1 Oe with extensive weak-links up to ~ 20 K, unconnected small superconducting patches up to ~ 40 K, and an unusual dispersion of diamagnetic moment with frequency up to 80 K. The unusual frequency dependences of the diamagnetic moment observed in the films at different temperature ranges suggest that collective excitations of electron and/or spin nature may exist in the FeSe films below 20 K and 40-80 K. The experimental results will be presented and the implications discussed. Collaborators: Liangzi Deng, Bing Lv, Fengyan Wei, and Yu-Yi Xue, University of Houston; Li-Li Wang, Xu-Cun Ma, and Qi-Kun Xue, Tsinghua University, Beijing.

  5. The Effect of Laves Phase (Fe,Al)2Zr on the High-Temperature Strength of Carbon-Alloyed Fe3Al Aluminide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratochvíl, Petr; Vodičková, Věra; Král, Robert; Švec, Martin

    2016-03-01

    The effects of carbon on the phase structure and on the yield stress σ 0.2 in the temperature range from 873 K to 1073 K (600 °C to 800 °C) of the Fe3Al type aluminides alloyed by Zr are analyzed. Four alloys with Zr and C in ranging from 1.0 to 5.0 at. pct of additives were used. The appearing of either Laves phase (Fe,Al)2Zr and/or carbides depend on the difference in concentrations, c Zr - c C. This parameter ( c Zr - c C) has been selected instead of the concentration ratio c Zr/ c C used in previous works since it exhibits a significantly better correlation with the Laves phase concentration which influences the high-temperature yield stress, σ 0.2, of the tested alloys. The presence of Laves phase or eutectic (matrix—Laves phase), respectively, enhances the value of the yield stress σ 0.2. The amount of Laves phase is decreased by the presence of C due to the affinity of carbon to Zr.

  6. Radiation tolerance of neutron-irradiated model Fe-Cr-Al alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Field, Kevin G.; Hu, Xunxiang; Littrell, Kenneth C.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-07-14

    The Fe Cr Al alloy system has the potential to form an important class of enhanced accident-tolerant cladding materials in the nuclear power industry owing to the alloy system's higher oxidation resistance in high-temperature steam environments compared with traditional zirconium-based alloys. However, radiation tolerance of Fe Cr Al alloys has not been fully established. In this study, a series of Fe Cr Al alloys with 10 18 wt % Cr and 2.9 4.9 wt % Al were neutron irradiated at 382 C to 1.8 dpa to investigate the irradiation-induced microstructural and mechanical property evolution as a function of alloy composition.more » Dislocation loops with Burgers vector of a/2 111 and a 100 were detected and quantified. Results indicate precipitation of Cr-rich is primarily dependent on the bulk chromium composition. Mechanical testing of sub-size-irradiated tensile specimens indicates the hardening response seen after irradiation is dependent on the bulk chromium composition. Furthermore, a structure property relationship was developed; it indicated that the change in yield strength after irradiation is caused by the formation of these radiation-induced defects and is dominated by the large number density of Cr-rich α' precipitates at sufficiently high chromium contents after irradiation.« less

  7. Radiation tolerance of neutron-irradiated model Fe-Cr-Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Hu, Xunxiang; Littrell, Kenneth C.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-07-14

    The Fe Cr Al alloy system has the potential to form an important class of enhanced accident-tolerant cladding materials in the nuclear power industry owing to the alloy system's higher oxidation resistance in high-temperature steam environments compared with traditional zirconium-based alloys. However, radiation tolerance of Fe Cr Al alloys has not been fully established. In this study, a series of Fe Cr Al alloys with 10 18 wt % Cr and 2.9 4.9 wt % Al were neutron irradiated at 382 C to 1.8 dpa to investigate the irradiation-induced microstructural and mechanical property evolution as a function of alloy composition. Dislocation loops with Burgers vector of a/2 111 and a 100 were detected and quantified. Results indicate precipitation of Cr-rich is primarily dependent on the bulk chromium composition. Mechanical testing of sub-size-irradiated tensile specimens indicates the hardening response seen after irradiation is dependent on the bulk chromium composition. Furthermore, a structure property relationship was developed; it indicated that the change in yield strength after irradiation is caused by the formation of these radiation-induced defects and is dominated by the large number density of Cr-rich α' precipitates at sufficiently high chromium contents after irradiation.

  8. Radiation tolerance of neutron-irradiated model Fe-Cr-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Kevin G.; Hu, Xunxiang; Littrell, Kenneth C.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Snead, Lance L.

    2015-10-01

    The Fe-Cr-Al alloy system has the potential to form an important class of enhanced accident-tolerant cladding materials in the nuclear power industry owing to the alloy system's higher oxidation resistance in high-temperature steam environments compared with traditional zirconium-based alloys. However, radiation tolerance of Fe-Cr-Al alloys has not been fully established. In this study, a series of Fe-Cr-Al alloys with 10-18 wt % Cr and 2.9-4.9 wt % Al were neutron irradiated at 382 °C to 1.8 dpa to investigate the irradiation-induced microstructural and mechanical property evolution as a function of alloy composition. Dislocation loops with Burgers vector of a/2<111> and a<100> were detected and quantified. Results indicate precipitation of Cr-rich α‧ is primarily dependent on the bulk chromium composition. Mechanical testing of sub-size-irradiated tensile specimens indicates the hardening response seen after irradiation is dependent on the bulk chromium composition. A structure-property relationship was developed; it indicated that the change in yield strength after irradiation is caused by the formation of these radiation-induced defects and is dominated by the large number density of Cr-rich α‧ precipitates at sufficiently high chromium contents after irradiation.

  9. Magnetic properties of the FeAl1 - xCux system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, A. S.; Mankikar, R. M.; Yoon, S.; Okpalugo, D. E.; Booth, J. G.

    1985-04-01

    The substitution of a 3d transition metal (T) for Al in the equiatomic intermetallic compound FeAl results in the onset of ferromagnetism beyond a certain critical concentration of (T). The system appears magnetically and structurally similar to the equivalent Co(GaT) alloys for which the critical concentration appeared to be related to an average electron concentration parameter. The present paper discusses Cu substitution in FeAl, i.e., the series FeAl1-xCux. It was found using x-ray and neutron diffraction techniques that the alloys remain single phase up to x=0.35 and that the crystallographic order remains B2 throughout. The site occupancy has also been determined and compared with the predictions of theoretical models. Ferromagnetism is observed to occur in the alloys with x>0.2. For these ferromagnetic alloys the inverse susceptibility against temperature curves (for T>TC) all have the same slope independent of composition suggesting an interpretation in terms of an itinerant model. This interpretation is also supported by a Rhodes-Wohlfarth plot. A region of superparamagnetism presages the onset of ferromagnetism and from this the size of the magnetic clusters is estimated to be 20-25 Å in radius.

  10. The high coercivity mechanism for Nd 16Fe 77-xAl x>B 7 magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jifan; Wang, Yizhong; Feng, Minying; Dai, Daoyang; Wang, Zhenxi; Cao, Yongjing

    1989-10-01

    Nd 16Fe 77- xAl xB 7 ( x = 0-7) sintered magnets with the maximum coercivity iHc = 20.5 kOe at x = 5 were obtained. The magnetic anisotropy fields of these magnets decrease with the addition of Al. The initial magnetizing field dependence of the coercivity for Nd 16Fe 77- xAl xB 7 sintered magnets in the thermally demagnetized state was determined. The result clearly indicates that the Nd 16Fe 77- xAl xB 7 sintered magnets are nucleation-hardened. The result of SEM shows that the grain boundary of the main phase in the Nd 16Fe 77B 7 magnet is clear, but not in the Nd 16Fe 77- xAl xB 7 ( x = 5) magnet with a high coercivity of 20.5 kOe. The results of SEM for Nd 16Fe 77- xAl xB 7 ( x = 5) magnet also show that there a new floss shaped phase is precipitated within the Nd-rich phase. With energy dispersive X-ray spectra, we determined the composition of this precipitation: Nd: Fe: Al = 76: 3.4: 20.6. The increase of coercivity iHc with Al can be attributed to better magnetic decoupling of the grains.

  11. A Fe-C-Ca big cycle in modern carbon-intensive industries: toward emission reduction and resource utilization

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Wang, Hao; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2016-01-01

    Herein a big Fe-C-Ca cycle, clarifying the basic element flows and energy flows in modern carbon-intensive industries including the metallurgical industry and the cement industry, was proposed for the first time in the contexts of emission reduction and iron ore degradation nowadays. This big cycle was focused on three industrial elements of Fe, C and Ca and thus it mainly comprised three interdependent loops, i.e., a C-cycle, a Fe-cycle and a Ca-path. As exemplified, we started from the integrated disposal of hot steel slags, a man-made iron resource via char gasification and the employment of hematite, a natural iron resource greatly extended the application area of this idea. Accordingly, based on this concept, the theoretical potentials for energy saving, emission reduction and Fe resource recovery achieved in modern industry are estimated up to 7.66 Mt of standard coal, 63.9 Mt of CO2 and 25.2 Mt of pig iron, respectively. PMID:26923104

  12. Evidence for interface superconductivity in rare-earth doped CaFe2As2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Bing; Deng, L. Z.; Wei, F. Y.; Xue, Y. Y.; Chu, C. W.

    2014-03-01

    To unravel to the mysterious non-bulk superconductivity up to 49K observed in rare-earth (R =La, Ce, Pr and Nd) doped CaFe2As2 single-crystals whose Tc is higher than that of any known compounds consisting of one or more of its constituent elements of R, Ca, Fe, and As at ambient or under pressures, systematic magnetic, compositional and structural have carried out on different rare-earth-doped (Ca1-xRx) Fe2As2 samples. We have detected extremely large magnetic anisotropy, doping-level independent Tc, unexpected superparamagnetic clusters associated with As vacancies and their close correlation with the superconducting volume fraction, the existence of mesoscopic-2D structures and Josephson-junction arrays in this system. These observations lead us to conjecture that the Tc enhancement may be associated with naturally occurring chemical interfaces and thus provided evidence for the possible interface-enhanced Tc in naturally-grown single crystals of Fe-based superconductors.

  13. A Fe-C-Ca big cycle in modern carbon-intensive industries: toward emission reduction and resource utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Wang, Hao; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2016-02-01

    Herein a big Fe-C-Ca cycle, clarifying the basic element flows and energy flows in modern carbon-intensive industries including the metallurgical industry and the cement industry, was proposed for the first time in the contexts of emission reduction and iron ore degradation nowadays. This big cycle was focused on three industrial elements of Fe, C and Ca and thus it mainly comprised three interdependent loops, i.e., a C-cycle, a Fe-cycle and a Ca-path. As exemplified, we started from the integrated disposal of hot steel slags, a man-made iron resource via char gasification and the employment of hematite, a natural iron resource greatly extended the application area of this idea. Accordingly, based on this concept, the theoretical potentials for energy saving, emission reduction and Fe resource recovery achieved in modern industry are estimated up to 7.66 Mt of standard coal, 63.9 Mt of CO2 and 25.2 Mt of pig iron, respectively.

  14. A Fe-C-Ca big cycle in modern carbon-intensive industries: toward emission reduction and resource utilization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Wang, Hao; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2016-01-01

    Herein a big Fe-C-Ca cycle, clarifying the basic element flows and energy flows in modern carbon-intensive industries including the metallurgical industry and the cement industry, was proposed for the first time in the contexts of emission reduction and iron ore degradation nowadays. This big cycle was focused on three industrial elements of Fe, C and Ca and thus it mainly comprised three interdependent loops, i.e., a C-cycle, a Fe-cycle and a Ca-path. As exemplified, we started from the integrated disposal of hot steel slags, a man-made iron resource via char gasification and the employment of hematite, a natural iron resource greatly extended the application area of this idea. Accordingly, based on this concept, the theoretical potentials for energy saving, emission reduction and Fe resource recovery achieved in modern industry are estimated up to 7.66 Mt of standard coal, 63.9 Mt of CO2 and 25.2 Mt of pig iron, respectively. PMID:26923104

  15. Thermal decomposition and reconstruction of CaFe-layered double hydroxide studied by X-ray diffractometry and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugris, Valéria; Ádok-Sipiczki, Mónika; Anitics, Tamás; Kuzmann, Ernő; Homonnay, Zoltán; Kukovecz, Ákos; Kónya, Zoltán; Sipos, Pál; Pálinkó, István

    2015-06-01

    In spite of numerous investigations on the various processes of the thermal decomposition and rehydration of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) by a variety sophisticated experimental means, many details are still unexplored and some contradictions are still unresolved. In this work, our efforts were focussed on clarifying the composition, structure and properties of thermally decomposed metaphases originating from CaFe-LDH, heat treated in the 373-973 K temperature range. The structure reconstruction ability of mixed metal oxide phases obtained after heat treatments was also investigated, mainly concentrating on the changes in the microenvironment of Fe(III), in the presence of controlled amount of water vapour (i.e., at different relative humidities). All samples were characterised by X-ray diffractometry, and the iron-containing phases were studied by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  16. Biochemical responses of the mycorrhizae in Pinus massoniana to combined effects of Al, Ca and low pH.

    PubMed

    Kong, F X; Liu, Y; Hu, W; Shen, P P; Zhou, C L; Wang, L S

    2000-02-01

    Biochemical responses of Pinus massoniana, with and without the inoculation mycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius at the root, to artificial acid rain (pH 2.0) and various Ca/Al ratios were investigated. Some enzymes associated with the nutritive metabolism, such as acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, nitrate reductase, mannitol dehydrogenase and trehalase, in the roots, stems and leaves of plant were obviously inhibited by the artificial acid rain and Al. After treatment with pH 2.0 + Ca/Al (0/1 or 1/10) artificial acid rain, the protein content in the organs was decreased. However, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations were induced. It demonstrated that acid rain and Al could induce oxygen radicals in plant. Compared with the treatments with lower pH or Al, respectively, the combination of lower pH and Al concentration was more toxic to P. massoniana. Al toxicity could be ameliorated by the addition of Ca and the amelioration was the most when the ratio was 1/1 among the various Ca/Al ratio. Infection with mycorrhizal fungus P. tinctorius at the root of P. massoniana increased the ability of the plant to resist the toxicity of artificial acid rain and Al stress.

  17. Compression studies on particulate composites of ternary Al-Ti-Fe, and quaternary Al-Ti-Fe-Nb and Al-Ti-Fe-Mn L1(2) compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. S.; Dipietro, M. S.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    Compression studies were conducted on monolithic and TiB2 particulate-reinforced composites of Al22Fe3Ti8, both with and without minor quaternary alloying additions (2 at. pct Nb and 2 at. pct Mn) as a function of temperature and as a function of strain rate at high temperature. The volume fraction of reinforcement was varied between 0 and 20 percent. The particulate reinforcements were found to be effective in increasing ambient- and warm-temperature strength; at high temperatures, the monolithic material is stronger than the composites, although the composites are superior at slow strain rates. The microstructures of the monolithic and composite specimens were examined before and after deformation to explain these observations.

  18. Investigation on Tool Life and Surface Integrity when Drilling Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-5Al-4V-Mo/Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim, Erween Abd.; Sharif, Safian

    Machinability study on the drilling of two alpha beta titanium alloy series, Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-5Al-4V-0.6Mo-0.4Fe were conducted using an uncoated carbide drill. The effect of cutting speed on tool life, tool failure mode, cutting force and surface integrity of the drilled surface were discussed. Results showed that Ti-6Al-4V exhibited a more superior machinability property when compared to the Ti-5Al-4V-Mo/Fe alloy system. The tool wear progression when drilling Ti-6Al-4V was lower than that of Ti-5Al-4V-Mo/Fe. The tool experienced similar failure mechanisms which were non uniform wear and chipping when drilling both alloys. At high cutting speed and after prolonged machining, excessive plastic deformation was observed on the subsurface layer of the drilled surface which resulted in increase in the hardness value.

  19. Transition to collapsed tetragonal phase in CaFe2As2 single crystals as seen by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Ma, Xiaoming; Tomić, Milan; Ran, Sheng; Valentí, Roser; Canfield, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Temperature dependent measurements of 57Fe Mössbauer spectra on CaFe2As2 single crystals in the tetragonal and collapsed tetragonal phases are reported. Clear features in the temperature dependencies of the isomer shift, relative spectra area, and quadrupole splitting are observed at the transition from the tetragonal to the collapsed tetragonal phase. From the temperature dependent isomer shift and spectral area data, an average stiffening of the phonon modes in the collapsed tetragonal phase is inferred. The quadrupole splitting increases by ˜25 % on cooling from room temperature to ˜100 K in the tetragonal phase and is only weakly temperature dependent at low temperatures in the collapsed tetragonal phase, in agreement with the anisotropic thermal expansion in this material. In order to gain microscopic insight about these measurements, we perform ab initio density functional theory calculations of the electric field gradient and the electron density of CaFe2As2 in both phases. By comparing the experimental data with the calculations we are able to fully characterize the crystal structure of the samples in the collapsed-tetragonal phase through determination of the As z coordinate. Based on the obtained temperature dependent structural data we are able to propose charge saturation of the Fe-As bond region as the mechanism behind the stabilization of the collapsed-tetragonal phase at ambient pressure.

  20. Transition to collapsed tetragonal phase in CaFe2As2 single crystals as seen by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Ma, Xiaoming; Tomić, Milan; Ran, Sheng; Valentí, Roser; Canfield, Paul C.

    2016-01-21

    Temperature dependent measurements of 57Fe Mössbauer spectra on CaFe2As2 single crystals in the tetragonal and collapsed tetragonal phases are reported. Clear features in the temperature dependencies of the isomer shift, relative spectra area, and quadrupole splitting are observed at the transition from the tetragonal to the collapsed tetragonal phase. From the temperature dependent isomer shift and spectral area data, an average stiffening of the phonon modes in the collapsed tetragonal phase is inferred. The quadrupole splitting increases by ~25% on cooling from room temperature to ~100 K in the tetragonal phase and is only weakly temperature dependent at low temperaturesmore » in the collapsed tetragonal phase, in agreement with the anisotropic thermal expansion in this material. In order to gain microscopic insight about these measurements, we perform ab initio density functional theory calculations of the electric field gradient and the electron density of CaFe2As2 in both phases. By comparing the experimental data with the calculations we are able to fully characterize the crystal structure of the samples in the collapsed-tetragonal phase through determination of the As z coordinate. Furthermore, based on the obtained temperature dependent structural data we are able to propose charge saturation of the Fe-As bond region as the mechanism behind the stabilization of the collapsed-tetragonal phase at ambient pressure.« less

  1. In quest of cathode materials for Ca ion batteries: the CaMO3 perovskites (M = Mo, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni).

    PubMed

    Arroyo-de Dompablo, M E; Krich, C; Nava-Avendaño, J; Palacín, M R; Bardé, F

    2016-07-20

    Basic electrochemical characteristics of CaMO3 perovskites (M = Mo, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni) as cathode materials for Ca ion batteries are investigated using first principles calculations at the Density Functional Theory level (DFT). Calculations have been performed within the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) and GGA+U methodologies, and considering cubic and orthorhombic perovskite structures for CaxMO3 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1). The analysis of the calculated voltage-composition profile and volume variations identifies CaMoO3 as the most promising perovskite compound. It combines good electronic conductivity, moderate crystal structure modifications, and activity in the 2-3 V region with several intermediate CaxMoO3 phases. However, we found too large barriers for Ca diffusion (around 2 eV) which are inherent to the perovskite structure. The CaMoO3 perovskite was synthesized, characterized and electrochemically tested, and results confirmed the predicted trends. PMID:27398629

  2. Network topology for the formation of solvated electrons in binary CaO–Al2O3 composition glasses

    PubMed Central

    Akola, Jaakko; Kohara, Shinji; Ohara, Koji; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Masuno, Atsunobu; Usuki, Takeshi; Kubo, Takashi; Nakahira, Atsushi; Nitta, Kiyofumi; Uruga, Tomoya; Weber, J. K. Richard; Benmore, Chris J.

    2013-01-01

    Glass formation in the CaO–Al2O3 system represents an important phenomenon because it does not contain typical network-forming cations. We have produced structural models of CaO–Al2O3 glasses using combined density functional theory–reverse Monte Carlo simulations and obtained structures that reproduce experiments (X-ray and neutron diffraction, extended X-ray absorption fine structure) and result in cohesive energies close to the crystalline ground states. The O–Ca and O–Al coordination numbers are similar in the eutectic 64 mol % CaO (64CaO) glass [comparable to 12CaO·7Al2O3 (C12A7)], and the glass structure comprises a topologically disordered cage network with large-sized rings. This topologically disordered network is the signature of the high glass-forming ability of 64CaO glass and high viscosity in the melt. Analysis of the electronic structure reveals that the atomic charges for Al are comparable to those for Ca, and the bond strength of Al–O is stronger than that of Ca–O, indicating that oxygen is more weakly bound by cations in CaO-rich glass. The analysis shows that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals occurs in cavity sites, suggesting that the C12A7 electride glass [Kim SW, Shimoyama T, Hosono H (2011) Science 333(6038):71–74] synthesized from a strongly reduced high-temperature melt can host solvated electrons and bipolarons. Calculations of 64CaO glass structures with few subtracted oxygen atoms (additional electrons) confirm this observation. The comparable atomic charges and coordination of the cations promote more efficient elemental mixing, and this is the origin of the extended cage structure and hosted solvated (trapped) electrons in the C12A7 glass. PMID:23723350

  3. Solitary Magnons in the S=5/2 Antiferromagnet CaFe_{2}O_{4}.

    PubMed

    Stock, C; Rodriguez, E E; Lee, N; Green, M A; Demmel, F; Ewings, R A; Fouquet, P; Laver, M; Niedermayer, Ch; Su, Y; Nemkovski, K; Rodriguez-Rivera, J A; Cheong, S-W

    2016-07-01

    CaFe_{2}O_{4} is a S=5/2 anisotropic antiferromagnet based upon zig-zag chains having two competing magnetic structures, denoted as the A (↑↑↓↓) and B (↑↓↑↓) phases, which differ by the c-axis stacking of ferromagnetic stripes. We apply neutron scattering to demonstrate that the competing A and B phase order parameters result in magnetic antiphase boundaries along c which freeze on the time scale of ∼1  ns at the onset of magnetic order at 200 K. Using high resolution neutron spectroscopy, we find quantized spin wave levels and measure 9 such excitations localized in regions ∼1-2 c-axis lattice constants in size. We discuss these in the context of solitary magnons predicted to exist in anisotropic systems. The magnetic anisotropy affords both competing A+B orders as well as localization of spin excitations in a classical magnet.

  4. Research Update: Structural and transport properties of (Ca,La)FeAs2 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caglieris, F.; Sala, A.; Fujioka, M.; Hummel, F.; Pallecchi, I.; Lamura, G.; Johrendt, D.; Takano, Y.; Ishida, S.; Iyo, A.; Eisaki, H.; Ogino, H.; Yakita, H.; Shimoyama, J.; Putti, M.

    2016-02-01

    Structural and transport properties in the normal and superconducting states are investigated in a Ca0.8La0.2FeAs2 single crystal with Tc = 27 K, belonging to the newly discovered 112 family of iron based superconductors. The transport critical current density Jc for both field directions measured in a focused ion beam patterned microbridge reveals a weakly field dependent and low anisotropic behaviour with a low temperature value as high as Jc(B = 0) ˜ 105 A/cm2. This demonstrates not only bulk superconductivity but also the potential of 112 superconductors towards applications. Interestingly, this superconducting compound undergoes a structural transition below 100 K which is evidenced by temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction measurements. Data analysis of Hall resistance and magnetoresistivity indicate that magnetotransport properties are largely dominated by an electron band, with a change of regime observed in correspondence of the onset of a structural transition. In the low temperature regime, the contribution of a hole band to transport is suggested, possibly playing a role in determining the superconducting state.

  5. Mechanochemical synthesis and intercalation of Ca(II)Fe(III)-layered double hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferencz, Zs.; Szabados, M.; Varga, G.; Csendes, Z.; Kukovecz, Á.; Kónya, Z.; Carlson, S.; Sipos, P.; Pálinkó, I.

    2016-01-01

    A mechanochemical method (grinding the components without added water - dry grinding, followed by further grinding in the presence of minute amount of water or NaOH solution - wet grinding) was used in this work for the preparation and intercalation of CaFe-layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Both the pristine LDHs and the amino acid anion (cystinate and tyrosinate) intercalated varieties were prepared by the two-step grinding procedure in a mixer mill. By systematically changing the conditions of the preparation method, a set of parameters could be determined, which led to the formation of close to phase-pure LDH. The optimisation procedure was also applied for the intercalation processes of the amino acid anions. The resulting materials were structurally characterised by a range of methods (X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis, thermogravimetry, X-ray absorption and infra-red spectroscopies). It was proven that this simple mechanochemical procedure was able to produce complex organic-inorganic nanocomposites: LDHs intercalated with amino acid anions.

  6. Solitary Magnons in the S=5/2 Antiferromagnet CaFe_{2}O_{4}.

    PubMed

    Stock, C; Rodriguez, E E; Lee, N; Green, M A; Demmel, F; Ewings, R A; Fouquet, P; Laver, M; Niedermayer, Ch; Su, Y; Nemkovski, K; Rodriguez-Rivera, J A; Cheong, S-W

    2016-07-01

    CaFe_{2}O_{4} is a S=5/2 anisotropic antiferromagnet based upon zig-zag chains having two competing magnetic structures, denoted as the A (↑↑↓↓) and B (↑↓↑↓) phases, which differ by the c-axis stacking of ferromagnetic stripes. We apply neutron scattering to demonstrate that the competing A and B phase order parameters result in magnetic antiphase boundaries along c which freeze on the time scale of ∼1  ns at the onset of magnetic order at 200 K. Using high resolution neutron spectroscopy, we find quantized spin wave levels and measure 9 such excitations localized in regions ∼1-2 c-axis lattice constants in size. We discuss these in the context of solitary magnons predicted to exist in anisotropic systems. The magnetic anisotropy affords both competing A+B orders as well as localization of spin excitations in a classical magnet. PMID:27419585

  7. Crystal structure of the Fe-member of usovite

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Crystals of the title compound, with the idealized composition Ba2CaFeAl2F14, dibarium calcium iron(II) dialuminium tetra­deca­fluoride, were obtained serendipitously by reacting a mixture of the binary fluorides BaF2, CaF2 and AlF3 in a leaky steel reactor. The compound crystallizes in the usovite structure type (Ba2CaMgAl2F14), with Fe2+ cations replacing the Mg2+ cations. The principal building units are distorted [CaF8] square-anti­prisms (point group symmetry 2), [FeF6] octa­hedra (point group symmetry -1) and [AlF6] octa­hedra that are condensed into undulating 2 ∞[CaFeAl2F14]4− layers parallel (100). The Ba2+ cations separate the layers and exhibit a coordination number of 12. Two crystal structure models with a different treatment of the disordered Fe site [mixed Fe/Ca occupation, model (I), versus underoccupation of Fe, model (II)], are discussed, leading to different refined formulae Ba2Ca1.310 (15)Fe0.690 (15)Al2F14 [model (I)] and Ba2CaFe0.90 (1)Al2F14 [model (II)]. PMID:26090139

  8. Dissolution Behavior of Indium in CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Kyu Yeol; Park, Joo Hyun

    2011-12-01

    The solubility of indium in a molten CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 system was measured at 1773 K (1500 °C) to establish the dissolution mechanism of indium under a highly reducing atmosphere. The solubility of indium increases with increasing oxygen potential, whereas it decreases with increased activity of basic oxide. Therefore, a dissolution mechanism of indium can be constructed according to the following equation: {{In}}({{s}}) + 1/4{{O}}2 ({{g}}) = ({{In}}^{ + } ) + 1/2({{O}}^{2 - } ) The relationship between indium capacity and sulfide capacity shows a good correlation that is consistent with theoretical expectations. The enthalpy change of the indium dissolution reaction is negative, which indicates that the dissolution is an exothermic reaction. The heat of dissolution into high-silica melts is greater than that into low-silica melts. The solubility of indium is strongly dependent on the silica content. The activity coefficient, and thus the excess free energy of In2O, decreases linearly with increasing silica content, indicating that the In2O is believed to behave as a weak basic oxide in the current CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 ternary system under reducing conditions.

  9. Improved structure stability, optical and magnetic properties of Ca and Ti co-substituted BiFeO3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vijay; Singh, Satyendra

    2016-11-01

    We report the optical and magnetic properties of single-crystalline Ca and Ti co-substituted bismuth ferrite, Bi1-xCaxFe1-xTixO3, nanoparticles, synthesized by a facile sol-gel methodology in the compositional range wherein 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations show that all samples possess a rhombohedrally distorted perovskite structure with space group R3c. Ca and Ti co-substitution controls the formation of secondary phases and improved the stability of perovskite phase of BiFeO3. The average particle size was estimated by Williamson Hall plot, confirmed by TEM, and found to be about 59, 50, 46, 41, 40 and 38 nm of Bi1-xCaxFe1-xTixO3 for x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25, respectively. The UV-vis absorption study reveal the strong absorption of visible light with a small optical band gap (1.77-2.25 eV) for 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25 indicates a possibility of utilizing for photocatalytic activities. The magnetic study at room-temperature displays the improved magnetization and coercive field in Bi1-xCaxFe1-xTixO3 nanoparticles due to the release of the latent magnetization locked within the toroidal spin structure of BiFeO3.

  10. Dependence of BiFeO3 thickness on exchange bias in BiFeO3/ Co2FeAl multiferroic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zhang, D. L.; Wang, Y. H.; Miao, J.; Xu, X. G.; Jiang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    We have grown BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films with different thickness on Si/SiO2/Ti/Pt(111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Half-metallic Co2FeAl (CFA) films with a thickness of 5 nm were then grown on the BFO films by magnetron sputtering. Through the magnetic hysteresis loops of the BFO/CFA heterostructure, we observe a direct correlation between the thickness of the BFO film and exchange bias (EB) field. The EB field exhibits fluctuation behavior with a cyclical BFO thickness of 60 nm, which is close to the spiral modulation wavelength (62 nm) of BFO. It indicates the influence of spiral modulation on the EB in the BFO/CFA multiferroic structure.

  11. Glass Forming Ability of Hard Magnetic Nd55Al20Fe25 Bulk Glassy Alloy with Distinct Glass Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Jo, C. L.; Dong, Y. D.

    Nd55Al20Fe25 bulk sample was prepared in the shape of rods 3 mm in diameter by suction casting. The sample exhibits typical amorphous characters in XRD pattern, distinct glass transition in DSC traces and hard magnetic properties. The distinct glass transition, which is invisible in DSC traces of previously reported Nd—Al—Fe ternary BMGs, allows us to investigate the glass forming ability (GFA) of Nd55Al20Fe25 alloy using the reduced glass transition temperature Trg and the recently defined parameter γ. However, it is found that the obtained diameter of the Nd55Al20Fe25 glassy rod is much larger than the critical section thickness of the BMG predicted by either Trg or γ. The microstructure of Nd55Al20 Fe25 as-cast rod was studied and the apparent GFA of the alloy was supposed to be enhanced by the metastable nano-precipitates dispersed within the glassy matrix.

  12. Preliminary study of heavy metal pollution from Fe-Al oxides in Peihuang Creek, North Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, B.

    2012-12-01

    Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) is not active since late Pleistocene but the post-volcanic activities, such as hot spring and sulfur gas, still widespread around the volcano province. Peihuang Creek is the main watershed system in TVG. The creek water is characterized by higher temperature, low pH values (3.0-4.5) and high SO4 content (60-400 ppm) due to the mixing of hotspring. This would promote the geochemical interaction between water and andesitic rocks and results in waters with highly enriched iron, aluminum and silica. These elements prefer to form suspended colloidal particles in water and adsorb heavy metals. Once the pH of water increases under oxidation condition, the colloid would precipitate in the form of ochre colored powder on the riverbed. The previous study reports that the arsenic content can reach as high as hundreds ppm. It is very important to evaluate the desorption behavior of heavy metals, especially for the study area with highly developed agriculture. For the preliminary analysis, five samples of ochre colored powder were sampled along the creek. The results of XRF demonstrate that the powder is mainly composed of iron, aluminum and silica, which is Fe-Al hydroxide. The iron content of Fe-Al hydroxide decreases from 63% to 25% while the aluminum and silica contents gradually increase from 5% to 20% and from 9% to 30%, respectively. To evaluate the desorption of heavy metals, the sequential extraction procedure was conducted. In the first step for determining leachable metals, the Fe-Al oxides were extracted with deionized water in the room temperature for one week. All of the metals are in ppb level except copper. For determining reducible phase, Step 2 used reagent solution of 0.5 mol/L hydroxylamine hydrochloride, which was adjusted to pH=2 with ultrapure nitric acid, for one week. The extracted chromium, arsenic, lead and copper are in the dangerous level of tens to hundreds ppm. It is believed that only very small amounts of heavy metals

  13. Substituting Al for Fe in Pr(AlxFe1-x)1.9 alloys: Effects on magnetic and magnetostrictive properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yan-Mei; Chen, Le-Yi; Wei, Jun; Tang, Shao-Long; Du, You-Wei

    2014-07-01

    The magnetostrictive effects of substituting Al for Fe in Pr(AlxFe1-x)1.9 (x = 0.0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.10) alloys between 5 K and 300 K were investigated. The substitution decreases the Curie temperature and the value of λ111. Fortunately, the substitution slightly increases the magnetostriction in a low magnetic field, which imbues these materials with potential advantages for applications. Rotation of the easy magnetization direction (EMD) from [111] to [100] in the Pr(Al0.02Fe0.98)1.9 alloy as temperature decreases was detected by step scanned XRD reflections.

  14. Self-reactivated mesostructured Ca-Al-O composite for enhanced high-temperature CO2 capture and carbonation/calcination cycles performance.

    PubMed

    Chang, Po-Hsueh; Huang, Wei-Chen; Lee, Tai-Jung; Chang, Yen-Po; Chen, San-Yuan

    2015-03-25

    In this study, highly efficient high-temperature CO2 sorbents of calcium aluminate (Ca-Al-O) mesostructured composite were synthesized using presynthesized mesoporous alumina (MA) as a porous matrix to react with calcium nitrate through a microwave-assisted process. Upon annealing at 600 °C, a highly stable mesoporous structure composed of poorly crystalline Ca12Al14O33 phase and the CaO matrix was obtained. The Ca-Al-O mesostructured sorbents with a Ca(2+)/Al(3+) ratio of 5:1 exhibit an enhanced increasing CO2 absorption kinetics in the CO2 capture capacity from 37.2 wt % to 48.3 wt % without apparent degradation with increasing carbonation/calcination cycling up to 50 at 700 °C due to the strong self-reactivation effect of the mesoporous Ca-Al-O microstructure. Remarkable improvements in the CaO-CaCO3 conversion attained from the mesostructured Ca-Al-O composite can be explained using the concept combined with available mesoporous structure and Ca12Al14O33 phase content. However, a high Ca(2+)/Al(3+) =8:1 Ca-Al-O composite causes degradation because the pores become blocked and partial sintering induces CaO agglomeration. PMID:25730384

  15. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of disordered Co{sub 2}FeAl Heusler alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Vishal Jain, Vivek Sudheesh, V. D. Lakshmi, N. Venugopalan, K.

    2014-04-24

    The effects of disorder on the magnetic properties of Co{sub 2}FeAl alloy are reported. X-ray diffraction exhibit A2-type disordered structure. Room temperature Mössbauer studies show the presence of two sextets with hyperfine field values of 31T and 30T along with a nonmagnetic singlet. The electronic structure of ordered and disordered Co{sub 2}FeAl alloys, investigated by means of the KKR Green's-function method shows that the magnetic moment of the ordered structure is 5.08μ{sub B} and is 5.10μ{sub B} when disordered. However, a much higher magnetic moment of 5.74μ{sub B} is observed experimentally.

  16. Behavior of Fe-Mn-Al-C steels during cyclic tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikov, I. S.; Acselrad, O.; Pereira, L. C.; Kalichak, T.; Khadyyev, M. S.

    2000-06-01

    Alloys of the FeMnAlC system have been used for cryogenic purposes and for applications up to 673 K. At low temperatures, they have in general a better performance than austenitic Cr-Ni steels as far as fatigue is concerned, but are inferior to martensitic Cr steels. However, since the fatigue strength of FeMnAlC alloys in the temperature range of 523 to 823 K is higher than at room temperature, the present work has been conducted to describe the behavior of such alloys under the action of cyclic loading, including elasto-plastic deformation and cyclic temperatures. It has been concluded that components can be successfully subjected to cyclic loads in the elasto-plastic regime and to periodic changes in temperature under normal service conditions.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and physical properties of Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystalline plasma sprayed coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, S.

    1995-11-09

    Our lab has been working with plasma spraying of both high pressure gas atomized (HPGA) and cast and crushed quasicrystal powders. A major component of this research includes comparative studies of PAS coatings formed with starting powders prepared by both techniques. In addition, a thorough investigation of the effects of starting powder particle size on coating microstructure is included. During the course of the overall research, an interest developed in forming Al-Cu-Fe materials with finer grain sizes. Therefore, a brief study was performed to characterize the effect of adding boron to Al-Cu-Fe materials prepared by different techniques. In addition to characterizing the microstructural features of the above materials, oxidation and wear behavior was also examined.

  18. Tensile behavior of Fe-40Al alloys with B and Zr additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaydosh, D. J.; Nathal, M. V.

    1986-01-01

    Both Fe-40Al and Fe-40Al-0.1Zr with and without B were produced by the hot extrusion of powdered metal. Tensile properties were determined from room temperature to 1100 K in air. All of the materials possessed some ductility at room temperature, and addition of B caused an increase in ductility and a change in fracture mode from intergranular to transgranular cleavage. At high temperatures, failure was caused primarily by the formation of grain boundary cavities in all of the alloys. The effect of Zr addition was unclear because of the complexity of the various microstructures. Comparison of air and vacuum testing at high temperatures revealed that an apparent oxidation assisted mechanism reduced high temperature ductility in these alloys, especially at 900 K.

  19. Fuel Performance Calculations for FeCrAl Cladding in BWRs

    SciTech Connect

    George, Nathan; Sweet, Ryan; Maldonado, G. Ivan; Wirth, Brian D.; Powers, Jeffrey J.; Worrall, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This study expands upon previous neutronics analyses of the reactivity impact of alternate cladding concepts in boiling water reactor (BWR) cores and directs focus toward contrasting fuel performance characteristics of FeCrAl cladding against those of traditional Zircaloy. Using neutronics results from a modern version of the 3D nodal simulator NESTLE, linear power histories were generated and supplied to the BISON-CASL code for fuel performance evaluations. BISON-CASL (formerly Peregrine) expands on material libraries implemented in the BISON fuel performance code and the MOOSE framework by providing proprietary material data. By creating material libraries for Zircaloy and FeCrAl cladding, the thermomechanical behavior of the fuel rod (e.g., strains, centerline fuel temperature, and time to gap closure) were investigated and contrasted.

  20. Al0.52In0.48P 55Fe x-ray-photovoltaic battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butera, S.; Lioliou, G.; Krysa, A. B.; Barnett, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    An Al0.52In0.48P 55Fe radioisotope microbattery is demonstrated over the temperature range  -20 °C to 160 °C. Al0.52In0.48P p+-i-n+ mesa structures were used to collect the photons from a 238 MBq 55Fe radioisotope x-ray source. The effects of temperature on the key microbattery parameters were studied. Increasing the temperature, the saturation current increased; whilst the open circuit voltage, the maximum power and the conversion efficiency decreased. An open circuit voltage of 0.97 V and a conversion efficiency of 22% were measured in a single p+-i-n+ mesa structure at  -20 °C. The highest total microbattery maximum output power using two mesa structures was 1.2 pW at  -20 °C.