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Sample records for al film deposited

  1. Property transformation of graphene with Al2O3 films deposited directly by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Li; Cheng, Xinhong; Cao, Duo; Wang, Zhongjian; Xia, Chao; Yu, Yuehui; Shen, Dashen

    2014-01-01

    Al2O3 films are deposited directly onto graphene by H2O-based atomic layer deposition (ALD), and the films are pinhole-free and continuously cover the graphene surface. The growth process of Al2O3 films does not introduce any detective defects in graphene, suppresses the hysteresis effect and tunes the graphene doping to n-type. The self-cleaning of ALD growth process, together with the physically absorbed H2O and oxygen-deficient ALD environment consumes OH- bonds, suppresses the p-doping of graphene, shifts Dirac point to negative gate bias and enhances the electron mobility.

  2. Preparation of γ-Al2O3 films by laser chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ming; Ito, Akihiko; Goto, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    γ- and α-Al2O3 films were prepared by chemical vapor deposition using CO2, Nd:YAG, and InGaAs lasers to investigate the effects of varying the laser wavelength and deposition conditions on the phase composition and microstructure. The CO2 laser was found to mostly produce α-Al2O3 films, whereas the Nd:YAG and InGaAs lasers produced γ-Al2O3 films when used at a high total pressure. γ-Al2O3 films had a cauliflower-like structure, while the α-Al2O3 films had a dense and columnar structure. Of the three lasers, it was the Nd:YAG laser that interacted most with intermediate gas species. This promoted γ-Al2O3 nucleation in the gas phase at high total pressure, which explains the cauliflower-like structure of nanoparticles observed.

  3. Interfacial development of electrophoretically deposited graphene oxide films on Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Sumin; Dickerson, James H.; Pham, Viet Hung; Brochu, Mathieu

    2015-07-28

    Adhesion between film and substrate is critical for electronic device and coating applications. Interfacial development between electrophoretically deposited graphene oxide films on Al 1100 and Al 5052 alloys were investigated using FT-IR and XPS depth profiling techniques. Obtained results suggest metal ion permeation from the substrates into deposited graphene oxide films. The interface between the films and the substrates were primarily composed of Al-O-C bonds from oxygenated defects on graphene oxide plane rather than expected Al-C formation. Films heat treated at 150 °C had change in microstructure and peak shifts in XPS spectra suggesting change in chemical structure of bonds between the films and the substrates.

  4. Interfacial development of electrophoretically deposited graphene oxide films on Al alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Jin, Sumin; Dickerson, James H.; Pham, Viet Hung; Brochu, Mathieu

    2015-07-28

    Adhesion between film and substrate is critical for electronic device and coating applications. Interfacial development between electrophoretically deposited graphene oxide films on Al 1100 and Al 5052 alloys were investigated using FT-IR and XPS depth profiling techniques. Obtained results suggest metal ion permeation from the substrates into deposited graphene oxide films. The interface between the films and the substrates were primarily composed of Al-O-C bonds from oxygenated defects on graphene oxide plane rather than expected Al-C formation. Films heat treated at 150 °C had change in microstructure and peak shifts in XPS spectra suggesting change in chemical structure of bondsmore » between the films and the substrates.« less

  5. Atomic layer controlled deposition of Al 2O 3 films using binary reaction sequence chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, A. W.; McCarley, K. C.; Klaus, J. W.; Way, J. D.; George, S. M.

    1996-11-01

    Al 2O 3 films with precise thicknesses and high conformality were deposited using sequential surface chemical reactions. To achieve this controlled deposition, a binary reaction for Al 2O 3 chemical vapor deposition (2Al(CH 3) 3 + 3H 2O → Al 2O 3 + 6CH 4) was separated into two half-reactions: (A) AlOH ∗ + Al(CH 3) 3 → AlOAl(CH 3) 2∗ + CH 4, (B) AlCH 3∗ + H 2O → AlOH ∗ + CH 4, where the asterisks designate the surface species. Trimethylaluminum (Al(CH 3) 3) (TMA) and H 2O reactants were employed alternately in an ABAB … binary reaction sequence to deposit Al 2O 3 films on single-crystal Si(100) and porous alumina membranes with pore diameters of ˜ 220 Å. Ellipsometric measurements obtained a growth rate of 1.1 Å/AB cycle on the Si(100) substrate at the optimal reaction conditions. The Al 2O 3 films had an index of refraction of n = 1.65 that is consistent with a film density of ϱ = 3.50 g/cm 3. Atomic force microscope images revealed that the Al 2O 3 films were exceptionally flat with a surface roughness of only ±3 Å ( rms) after the deposition of ˜ 270 Å using 250 AB reaction cycles. Al 2O 3 films were also deposited inside the pores of Anodisc alumina membranes. Gas flux measurements for H 2 and N 2 were consistent with a progressive pore reduction versus number of AB reaction cycles. Porosimetry measurements also showed that the original pore diameter of ˜ 220 Å was reduced to ˜ 130 Å after 120 AB reaction cycles.

  6. Structure and properties of TiAlLaN films deposited at various bias voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hao; Xiong, Ji; Zhao, Haibo; Wu, Yuemei; Wan, Weicai; Wang, Linlin

    2014-02-01

    The TiAlLaN films were deposited on YG8 and silicon (1 1 1) substrates by a hybrid PVD coater which is combined with medium frequency reactive magnetron sputtering and ion-plating evaporation. The effects of lanthanum addition and bias voltages on the composition, crystal morphology, microstructure, mechanical properties, and oxidation resistance of the TiAlLaN films were investigated systematically. With lanthanum addition in the TiAlN film, the crystal morphology changed from columnar to equiaxial, and the grain refinement accompanied by the increase of hardness and elastic modulus was found. The indentation adhesion test showed that the adhesion strength was deteriorated by adding lanthanum in the deposited film; however, the scratch adhesion test expressed a better morphology of the scratch track line for the TiAlLaN film. With the substrate bias increasing, the elements concentration of films were alternated, and the equiaxial crystals were turned to columnar crystals. The oxidation resistance of the deposited films increased with the increase of bias voltage. The adhesion qualities, which are affected by the increasing hardness and elastic modulus, were worse for the TiAlLaN films under higher bias voltages. The TiAlLaN film under the bias of -10 V showed the highest H/E ratio.

  7. Pulsed laser deposition of AlMgB14 thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Britson, Jason Curtis

    2008-11-18

    Hard, wear-resistant coatings of thin film borides based on AlMgB14 have the potential to be applied industrially to improve the tool life of cutting tools and pump vanes and may account for several million dollars in savings as a result of reduced wear on these parts. Past work with this material has shown that it can have a hardness of up to 45GPa and be fabricated into thin films with a similar hardness using pulsed laser deposition. These films have already been shown to be promising for industrial applications. Cutting tools coated with AlMgB14 used to mill titanium alloys have been shown to substantially reduce the wear on the cutting tool and extend its cutting life. However, little research into the thin film fabrication process using pulsed laser deposition to make AlMgB14 has been conducted. In this work, research was conducted into methods to optimize the deposition parameters for the AlMgB14 films. Processing methods to eliminate large particles on the surface of the AlMgB14 films, produce films that were at least 1m thick, reduce the surface roughness of the films, and improve the adhesion of the thin films were investigated. Use of a femtosecond laser source rather than a nanosecond laser source was found to be effective in eliminating large particles considered detrimental to wear reduction properties from the films. Films produced with the femtosecond laser were also found to be deposited at a rate 100 times faster than those produced with the nanosecond laser. However, films produced with the femtosecond laser developed a relatively high RMS surface roughness around 55nm. Attempts to decrease the surface roughness were largely unsuccessful. Neither increasing the surface temperature of the substrate during deposition nor using a double pulse to ablate the material was found to be extremely successful to reduce the surface roughness. Finally, the adhesion of the thin films to M2 tool steel

  8. Effects of Al Doping on the Properties of ZnO Thin Films Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Chen-Hui; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Chen, Xin; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Song-You; Liu, Juan; Dai, Ning; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2016-12-01

    The tuning of structural, optical, and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films deposited by atomic layer deposition technique is reported in this work. With the increasing Al doping level, the evolution from (002) to (100) diffraction peaks indicates the change in growth mode of ZnO films. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been applied to study the thickness, optical constants, and band gap of AZO films. Due to the increasing carrier concentration after Al doping, a blue shift of band gap and absorption edge can be observed, which can be interpreted by Burstein-Moss effect. The carrier concentration and resistivity are found to vary significantly among different doping concentration, and the optimum value is also discussed. The modulations and improvements of properties are important for Al-doped ZnO films to apply as transparent conductor in various applications.

  9. Effects of Al Doping on the Properties of ZnO Thin Films Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Chen-Hui; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Chen, Xin; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Song-You; Liu, Juan; Dai, Ning; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2016-09-01

    The tuning of structural, optical, and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films deposited by atomic layer deposition technique is reported in this work. With the increasing Al doping level, the evolution from (002) to (100) diffraction peaks indicates the change in growth mode of ZnO films. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been applied to study the thickness, optical constants, and band gap of AZO films. Due to the increasing carrier concentration after Al doping, a blue shift of band gap and absorption edge can be observed, which can be interpreted by Burstein-Moss effect. The carrier concentration and resistivity are found to vary significantly among different doping concentration, and the optimum value is also discussed. The modulations and improvements of properties are important for Al-doped ZnO films to apply as transparent conductor in various applications.

  10. Effects of Al Doping on the Properties of ZnO Thin Films Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Chen-Hui; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Chen, Xin; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Song-You; Liu, Juan; Dai, Ning; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2016-12-01

    The tuning of structural, optical, and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films deposited by atomic layer deposition technique is reported in this work. With the increasing Al doping level, the evolution from (002) to (100) diffraction peaks indicates the change in growth mode of ZnO films. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been applied to study the thickness, optical constants, and band gap of AZO films. Due to the increasing carrier concentration after Al doping, a blue shift of band gap and absorption edge can be observed, which can be interpreted by Burstein-Moss effect. The carrier concentration and resistivity are found to vary significantly among different doping concentration, and the optimum value is also discussed. The modulations and improvements of properties are important for Al-doped ZnO films to apply as transparent conductor in various applications. PMID:27639580

  11. Deposition of highly textured AlN thin films by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, Milena A.; Törndahl, Tobias; Katardjiev, Ilia; Kubart, Tomas

    2015-03-15

    Aluminum nitride thin films were deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and pulsed direct-current on Si (100) and textured Mo substrates, where the same deposition conditions were used for both techniques. The films were characterized by x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The results show a pronounced improvement in the AlN crystalline texture for all films deposited by HiPIMS on Si. Already at room temperature, the HiPIMS films exhibited a strong preferred (002) orientation and at 400 °C, no contributions from other orientations were detected. Despite the low film thickness of only 200 nm, an ω-scan full width at half maximum value of 5.1° was achieved on Si. The results are attributed to the high ionization of sputtered material achieved in HiPIMS. On textured Mo, there was no significant difference between the deposition techniques.

  12. Cubic AlN thin film formation on quartz substrate by pulse laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biju, Zheng; Wen, Hu

    2016-06-01

    Cubic AlN thin films were obtained on quartz substrate by pulse laser deposition in a nitrogen reactive atmosphere. A Nd-YAG laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm was used as the laser source. In order to study the influence of the process parameters on the deposited AlN film, the experiments were performed at various technique parameters of laser energy density from 70 to 260 J/cm2, substrate temperature from room temperature to 800 °C and nitrogen pressure from 0.1 to 50 Pa. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were applied to characterize the structure and surface morphology of the deposited AlN films. It was found that the structure of AlN films deposited in a vacuum is rocksalt under the condition of substrate temperature 600-800 °C, nitrogen pressure 10-0.1 Pa and a moderate laser energy density (190 J/cm2). The high quality AlN film exhibited good optical property. Project supported by the Yunnan Provincial Natural of Science Foundation of China (No. KKSY201251089).

  13. Electrical characterization of Si doped AlN films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonov, Simeon; Bakalova, Silvia; Szekeres, Anna; Minkov, Ivaylo; Socol, Gabriel; Ristoscu, Carmen; Mihailescu, Ion

    2015-04-01

    The electrical properties of thin AlN films doped with Si (AlN:Si) have been investigated. The films were synthesized on Si substrates at 800 °C by pulsed laser deposition in low-pressure nitrogen ambient. The AlN:Si films exhibit non-ohmic I-V characteristics and the current through these films is controlled by space charge limited current. The C-V dependence of metal-insulator-silicon (MIS) structures with AlN:Si films exhibits an excess capacitance around zero bias voltage. This excess capacitance indicates the presence of deep acceptor levels situated at the boundaries of adjacent grains in the AlN:Si films. The Si donor density in the AlN:Si films, estimated from the 1 MHz C-V characteristics, is of the order of 1018 cm-3. The impedance measurements of these AlN:Si structures at different test voltage frequencies reveal that the charge transport mechanism is dominated by either thermally-activated hopping or electron tunneling from occupied to nearest unoccupied deep levels.

  14. Grain growth in thin Al films during deposition from partially ionized vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, I. V.; Mokhniuk, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    Grain growth in thin Al films during deposition from partially ionized vapor flux with simultaneous self-ion bombardment was studied in this work. The films were deposited at constant ion energy of 940 eV and total specific power of 0.4 W/cm2 while the deposition time t of 6 s to 246 s and the resulting substrate temperature (Ts/Tm of 0.35-0.96) were varied. Thin continuous Al films exhibited normal grain growth through the entire experimental range of deposition time without limitation of grain growth by the film thickness effect. Three kinetic stages of the grain growth were observed within 100 s of deposition time: the first one exhibits very slow grain growth, accelerated grain growth occurs in the second stage and then it rapidly changes to a retardation and stagnation mode in the third stage. Large average grain sizes Dg up to 11.3 μm at film thickness of 1.4 μm and integral grain growth rates up to 0.16 μm/s were observed in this study. The experimental results were evaluated against various mechanisms of inhibition of grain growth. An estimate of the effective activation energy of the grain growth yields a value of 0.27 eV which is lower than that of the bulk Al and much higher than the activation energy of surface self-diffusion on (1 1 1)Al monocrystal. The power law Dg = (k t)0.5 gives good match with experimental results in the initial deposition phase preceding the grain growth retardation, while another model that is based on the grain size dependent pinning force adequately explains the entire grain size dependence on time. It is deemed both ion enhanced film/surface interaction and impurities on one side and thermal grooves on another side contribute to the rapid retardation of the grain grooves commencing the second growth stage.

  15. Pulsed laser deposition of Al-doped ZnO films on glass and polycarbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Kwan Chu; Lee, Yen Sian; Yap, Seong Ling; Kok, Soon Yie; Nee, Chen Hon; Siew, Wee Ong; Tou, Teck Yong; Yap, Seong Shan

    2014-01-01

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films were deposited on glass and polycarbonate (PC) at room temperature by using pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 355 nm. AZO thin films were obtained for both substrates at laser fluences from 2 to 5 J/cm2 in O2 partial pressure of 2.1 Pa. The effects of laser fluence on the structural, electrical, and optical properties of the films were investigated. The films with lowest resistivity and highest transmittance have been obtained at 2 J/cm2. The resistivities were 2.29×10-3 Ω cm for AZO on glass and 1.49×10-3 Ω cm for AZO on PC. With increasing laser fluence, the deposited films have lower crystallinity, higher resistivity, and smaller optical bandgap.

  16. Enhanced Barrier Performance of Engineered Paper by Atomic Layer Deposited Al2O3 Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Mirvakili, Mehr Negar; Van Bui, Hao; van Ommen, J Ruud; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G; Englezos, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Surface modification of cellulosic paper is demonstrated by employing plasma assisted atomic layer deposition. Al2O3 thin films are deposited on paper substrates, prepared with different fiber sizes, to improve their barrier properties. Thus, a hydrophobic paper is created with low gas permeability by combining the control of fiber size (and structure) with atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 films. Papers are prepared using Kraft softwood pulp and thermomechanical pulp. The cellulosic wood fibers are refined to obtain fibers with smaller length and diameter. Films of Al2O3, 10, 25, and 45 nm in thickness, are deposited on the paper surface. The work demonstrates that coating of papers prepared with long fibers efficiently reduces wettability with slight enhancement in gas permeability, whereas on shorter fibers, it results in significantly lower gas permeability. Wettability studies on Al2O3 deposited paper substrates have shown water wicking and absorption over time only in papers prepared with highly refined fibers. It is also shown that there is a certain fiber size at which the gas permeability assumes its minimum value, and further decrease in fiber size will reverse the effect on gas permeability.

  17. Enhanced Barrier Performance of Engineered Paper by Atomic Layer Deposited Al2O3 Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Mirvakili, Mehr Negar; Van Bui, Hao; van Ommen, J Ruud; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G; Englezos, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Surface modification of cellulosic paper is demonstrated by employing plasma assisted atomic layer deposition. Al2O3 thin films are deposited on paper substrates, prepared with different fiber sizes, to improve their barrier properties. Thus, a hydrophobic paper is created with low gas permeability by combining the control of fiber size (and structure) with atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 films. Papers are prepared using Kraft softwood pulp and thermomechanical pulp. The cellulosic wood fibers are refined to obtain fibers with smaller length and diameter. Films of Al2O3, 10, 25, and 45 nm in thickness, are deposited on the paper surface. The work demonstrates that coating of papers prepared with long fibers efficiently reduces wettability with slight enhancement in gas permeability, whereas on shorter fibers, it results in significantly lower gas permeability. Wettability studies on Al2O3 deposited paper substrates have shown water wicking and absorption over time only in papers prepared with highly refined fibers. It is also shown that there is a certain fiber size at which the gas permeability assumes its minimum value, and further decrease in fiber size will reverse the effect on gas permeability. PMID:27165172

  18. Structural and mechanical properties of Al-C-N films deposited at room temperature by plasma focus device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Z, A. Umar; R, Ahmad; R, S. Rawat; M, A. Baig; J, Siddiqui; T, Hussain

    2016-07-01

    The Al-C-N films are deposited on Si substrates by using a dense plasma focus (DPF) device with aluminum fitted central electrode (anode) and by operating the device with CH4/N2 gas admixture ratio of 1:1. XRD results verify the crystalline AlN (111) and Al3CON (110) phase formation of the films deposited using multiple shots. The elemental compositions as well as chemical states of the deposited Al-C-N films are studied using XPS analysis, which affirm Al-N, C-C, and C-N bonding. The FESEM analysis reveals that the deposited films are composed of nanoparticles and nanoparticle agglomerates. The size of the agglomerates increases at a higher number of focus deposition shots for multiple shot depositions. Nanoindentation results reveal the variation in mechanical properties (nanohardness and elastic modulus) of Al-C-N films deposited with multiple shots. The highest values of nanohardness and elastic modulus are found to be about 11 and 185 GPa, respectively, for the film deposited with 30 focus deposition shots. The mechanical properties of the films deposited using multiple shots are related to the Al content and C-N bonding.

  19. Property transformation of graphene with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited directly by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Li; Cao, Duo; Wang, Zhongjian; Xia, Chao; Cheng, Xinhong Yu, Yuehui; Shen, Dashen

    2014-01-13

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films are deposited directly onto graphene by H{sub 2}O-based atomic layer deposition (ALD), and the films are pinhole-free and continuously cover the graphene surface. The growth process of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films does not introduce any detective defects in graphene, suppresses the hysteresis effect and tunes the graphene doping to n-type. The self-cleaning of ALD growth process, together with the physically absorbed H{sub 2}O and oxygen-deficient ALD environment consumes OH{sup −} bonds, suppresses the p-doping of graphene, shifts Dirac point to negative gate bias and enhances the electron mobility.

  20. Structural and optical properties of Al/ZnO thin films deposited by radio frequency sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osanyinlusi, O.; Mukolu, A. I.; Zebaze Kana, M. G.

    2016-09-01

    The effects of annealing temperature and variation of sample thickness on the structural and optical properties of zinc oxide thin films with aluminium contact (Al/ZnO) have been investigated. The study involved the synthesis of a bilayer thin film of Al/ZnO with varied thicknesses on a glass slide substrate by using radio frequency magnetron sputtering deposition technique. 99.99% pure ZnO and aluminium were used as the sputtering target. The films were then annealed in vacuum at annealing temperatures of 200 °C and 400 °C. The structural and optical properties of Al/ZnO thin films grown were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical measurements respectively. The results obtained from the XRD patterns showed that Al/ZnO films (both as-deposited and annealed), exhibits a crystalline structure with (002) preferred orientation. The peak intensity of the preferred plane increases as the annealing temperature increases. The optical studies of the Al/ZnO films showed a maximum value of transmittance ranging from 82% to 91% depending on the condition of the films. A decrease in transmittance as the thickness of the films increases was observed. The transmittance also increased with increasing annealing temperature. The energy gaps (E g) were determined from the transmittance data and found to be in the range 3.73-3.83 eV. The results obtained from the experiment also show that the optical band gap increases as the thickness and annealing temperature increase.

  1. Atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 thin films using dimethylaluminum isopropoxide and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Wontae; Sung, Kiwhan; An, Ki-Seok; Sook Lee, Sun; Chung, Taek-Mo; Kim, Yunsoo

    2003-07-01

    Dimethylaluminum isopropoxide (DMAI), (CH3)2AlOCH(CH3)2, a precursor originally developed for the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of alumina, was adopted as a new precursor for growing aluminum oxide thin films on HF-treated Si(001) substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD). This precursor is stable for a prolonged period of storage time under inert atmosphere (such as in nitrogen or argon) and does not react vigorously in air, and therefore is easy to handle and safe, without causing hazards. The self-limiting ALD process by alternate surface reactions of DMAI and H2O was confirmed by thicknesses of the grown aluminum oxide films measured as functions of the DMAI pulse time and the number of DMAI-H2O cycles. A maximum growth rate of ~1.06 Å/cycle was achieved in the substrate temperature range ~120-150 °C. Growth of stoichiometric Al2O3 thin films without appreciable carbon incorporation was verified by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Atomic force microscopy images showed atomically flat and uniform surfaces. In particular, a cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy image of an Al2O3 film shows that there is no distinguishable interfacial oxide layer between the Al2O3 film and the Si substrate. These results prove the validity of DMAI as a new ALD source for aluminum oxide.

  2. Current transport mechanisms in plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited AlN thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Altuntas, Halit E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Donmez, Inci; Biyikli, Necmi E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr

    2015-04-21

    Here, we report on the current transport mechanisms in AlN thin films deposited at a low temperature (i.e., 200 °C) on p-type Si substrates by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition. Structural characterization of the deposited AlN was carried out using grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, revealing polycrystalline films with a wurtzite (hexagonal) structure. Al/AlN/ p-Si metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor structures were fabricated and investigated under negative bias by performing current-voltage measurements. As a function of the applied electric field, different types of current transport mechanisms were observed; i.e., ohmic conduction (15.2–21.5 MV/m), Schottky emission (23.6–39.5 MV/m), Frenkel-Poole emission (63.8–211.8 MV/m), trap-assisted tunneling (226–280 MV/m), and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling (290–447 MV/m). Electrical properties of the insulating AlN layer and the fabricated Al/AlN/p-Si MIS capacitor structure such as dielectric constant, flat-band voltage, effective charge density, and threshold voltage were also determined from the capacitance-voltage measurements.

  3. Atomic Layer Deposition Al2O3 Thin Films in Magnetized Radio Frequency Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingcun; Chen, Qiang; Sang, Lijun; Yang, Lizhen; Liu, Zhongwei; Wang, Zhenduo

    Self-limiting deposition of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin films were accomplished by the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using trimethyl aluminum (TMA) and O2 as precursor and oxidant, respectively, where argon was kept flowing in whole deposition process as discharge and purge gas. In here we present a novel plasma source for the atomic layer deposition technology, magnetized radio frequency (RF) plasma. Difference from the commercial RF source, magnetic coils were amounted above the RF electrode, and the influence of the magnetic field strength on the deposition rate and morphology are investigated in detail. It concludes that a more than 3 Å/ purging cycle deposition rate and the good quality of ALD Al2O3 were achieved in this plasma source even without extra heating. The ultra-thin films were characterized by including Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The high deposition rates obtained at ambient temperatures were analyzed after in-situ the diagnostic of plasmas by Langmuir probe.

  4. Zr, ZrN and Zr/Al Thin Films Deposition Using Arc Evaporation and Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čyvienė, J.; Dudonis, J.

    2008-10-01

    The chemical reactions are widely used for the layers of different composition formation. However, synthesis mechanism is a complicated process in thin films/layers system, and is not completely studied. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the kinetics of chemical compounds in reaction, to produce ZrO2 thin films using arc evaporation and annealing (post-deposition), and to analyze them. The pure zirconium (Zr) and zirconium nitride (ZrN) were deposited using arc evaporation. 10% mol of aluminum was evaporated on a few Zr films. All deposited films were annealed in the air atmosphere gradually changing the temperature from 400ºC to 1100ºC in order to produce ZrO2 films. The formation processes of the new phase were studied. Activation energy of the reactions was calculated. Structural properties were measured using X-ray diffraction, optical properties - using ellipsometry. Tetragonal phase of ZrO2 was obtained in the annealing process of ZrO2/Al thin film in the air atmosphere of 800ºC.

  5. Sputter-Deposited AlTiO Thin Films for Semi-Transparent Silicon Thin Film Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Yun; Bang, Ki Su; Lim, Jung Wook

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports on sputter-deposited AlTiO (ATO) thin films and their effects on the performance of semi-transparent silicon thin film solar cells. The electrical resistivity and the transparency of the ATO films depend significantly on the flow ratio of oxygen to argon during the reactive sputtering process. With highly transparent ATO films, transmittances of over 80% were obtained by increasing this flow ratio. When the ATO films were used on silicon substrates, they exhibited an anti-reflection property, where the minimum reflectance at visible light wavelength was decreased to 1.2%. The introduction of ATO thin film layers into solar cells resulted in a 24% increase in transmittance at wavelengths of around 700 nm, due to the film's anti-reflection characteristic. In addition, the color of the cells changed from green to bright red as the ATO layers were adopted. These beneficial effects of the sputter-deposited ATO films suggest an effective pathway towards the semi-transparent silicon thin film solar cells for building-integrated photovoltaic system applications.

  6. Influence of argon plasma on the deposition of Al2O3 film onto the PET surfaces by atomic layer deposition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) films with and without plasma pretreatment were modified by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD). It demonstrates that the Al2O3 films are successfully deposited onto the surface of PET films. The cracks formed on the deposited Al2O3 films in the ALD, plasma pretreated ALD, and PA-ALD were attributed to the energetic ion bombardment in plasmas. The surface wettability in terms of water contact angle shows that the deposited Al2O3 layer can enhance the wetting property of modified PET surface. Further characterizations of the Al2O3 films suggest that the elevated density of hydroxyl -OH group improve the initial growth of ALD deposition. Chemical composition of the Al2O3-coated PET film was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which shows that the content of C 1s reduces with the growing of O 1s in the Al2O3-coated PET films, and the introduction of plasma in the ALD process helps the normal growth of Al2O3 on PET in PA-ALD. PMID:23413804

  7. Properties of AlN films deposited by reactive ion-plasma sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Bert, N. A.; Bondarev, A. D.; Zolotarev, V. V.; Kirilenko, D. A.; Lubyanskiy, Ya. V.; Lyutetskiy, A. V.; Slipchenko, S. O.; Petrunov, A. N.; Pikhtin, N. A. Ayusheva, K. R.; Arsentyev, I. N.; Tarasov, I. S.

    2015-10-15

    The properties of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and AlN dielectric coatings deposited by reactive ion-plasma sputtering are studied. The refractive indices of the dielectric coatings are determined by optical ellipsometry. It is shown that aluminum nitride is the optimal material for achieving maximum illumination of the output mirror of a semiconductor laser. A crystalline phase with a hexagonal atomic lattice and oxygen content of up to 10 at % is found by transmission electron microscopy in the aluminum-nitride films. It is found that a decrease in the concentration of residual oxygen in the chamber of the reactive ion-plasma sputtering installation makes it possible to eliminate the appearance of vertical pores in the bulk of the aluminum-nitride film.

  8. Growth dynamics of reactive-sputtering-deposited AlN films

    SciTech Connect

    Auger, M.A.; Vazquez, L.; Sanchez, O.; Jergel, M.; Cuerno, R.; Castro, M.

    2005-06-15

    We have studied the surface kinetic roughening of AlN films grown on Si(100) substrates by dc reactive sputtering within the framework of the dynamic scaling theory. Films deposited under the same experimental conditions for different growth times were analyzed by atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The AlN films display a (002) preferred orientation. We have found two growth regimes with a crossover time of 36 min. In the first regime, the growth dynamics is unstable and the films present two types of textured domains, well textured and randomly oriented, respectively. In contrast, in the second regime the films are homogeneous and well textured, leading to a relative stabilization of the surface roughness characterized by a growth exponent {beta}=0.37{+-}0.03. In this regime a superrough scaling behavior is found with the following exponents: (i) Global exponents: roughness exponent {alpha}=1.2{+-}0.2 and {beta}=0.37{+-}0.03 and coarsening exponent 1/z=0.32{+-}0.05; (ii) local exponents: {alpha}{sub loc}=1, {beta}{sub loc}=0.32{+-}0.01. The differences between the growth modes are found to be related to the different main growth mechanisms dominating their growth dynamics: sticking anisotropy and shadowing, respectively.

  9. Investigation of thermal atomic layer deposited TiAlX (X = N or C) film as metal gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Jinjuan; Zhang, Yanbo; Li, Tingting; Wang, Xiaolei; Gao, Jianfeng; Yin, Huaxiang; Li, Junfeng; Wang, Wenwu; Ding, Yuqiang; Xu, Chongying; Zhao, Chao

    2016-08-01

    TiAlX (X = N or C) films are developed by thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique as metal gate. The TiAlX films are deposited by using four different combinations of precursors: A: TiCl4-NH3-TMA-NH3, B: TiCl4-TMA-NH3, C: TiCl4-NH3-TMA and D: TiCl4-TMA. The physical characteristics of the TiAlX films such as chemical composition, growth rate, resistivity and surface roughness are estimated by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, four point probe method and atomic force microscopy respectively. Additionally, the electrical characteristics of the TiAlX films are investigated by using metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor structure. It is shown that NH3 presence in the reaction makes the film more like TiAlN(C) while NH3 absence makes the film more like TiAlC. The TiAlC film deposited by TiCl4-TMA has effective work function close to mid-gap of Si, which is rather potential for low power FinFET device application.

  10. Sputter deposition of Al-doped ZnO films with various incident angles

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Yasushi; Yanagisawa, Kei; Oka, Nobuto; Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2009-09-15

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films were sputter deposited on glass substrates heated at 200 degree sign C under incident angles of sputtered particles at 0 degree sign (incidence normal to substrate), 20 deg., 40 deg., 60 deg., and 80 deg. In the case of normal incidence, x-ray diffraction pole figures show a strong [001] preferred orientation normal to the film surface. In contrast, in the case wherein the incident angles were higher than 60 degree sign , the [001] orientation inclined by 25 deg. - 35 deg. toward the direction of sputtered particles. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the tilt angle of the [001] orientation increased with increasing angle of the incident sputtered particles, whereas the columnar structure did not show any sign of inclination with respect to the substrate plane.

  11. Influences of different structures on the characteristics of H2O-based and O3-based La x Al y O films deposited by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen-Xi, Fei; Hong-Xia, Liu; Xing, Wang; Dong-Dong, Zhao; Shu-Long, Wang; Shu-Peng, Chen

    2016-05-01

    H2O-based and O3-based La x Al y O nanolaminate films were deposited on Si substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Structures and performances of the films were changed by different barrier layers. The effects of different structures on the electrical characteristics and physical properties of the La x Al y O films were studied. Chemical bonds in the La x Al y O films grown with different structures and different oxidants were also investigated with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The preliminary testing results indicate that the La x Al y O films with different structures and different oxidants show different characteristics, including dielectric constant, equivalent oxide thickness (EOT), electrical properties, and stability. Project supported supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61376099 and 61434007).

  12. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition of Amorphous Al2O3 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yuqing; Sang, Lijun; Chen, Qiang; Yang, Lizhen; Wang, Zhengduo; Liu, Zhongwei

    2013-01-01

    Without extra heating, Al2O3 thin films were deposited on a hydrogen-terminated Si substrate etched in hydrofluoric acid by using a self-built electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) device with Al(CH3)3 (trimethylaluminum; TMA) and O2 used as precursor and oxidant, respectively. During the deposition process, Ar was introduced as a carrier and purging gas. The chemical composition and microstructure of the as-deposited Al2O3 films were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), an X-ray photoelectric spectroscope (XPS), a scanning electron microscope (SEM), an atomic force microscope (AFM) and a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). It achieved a growth rate of 0.24 nm/cycle, which is much higher than that deposited by thermal ALD. It was found that the smooth surface thin film was amorphous alumina, and an interfacial layer formed with a thickness of ca. 2 nm was observed between the Al2O3 film and substrate Si by HRTEM. We conclude that ECR plasma-assisted ALD can grow Al2O3 films with an excellent quality at a high growth rate at ambient temperature.

  13. Structural and electrical properties of ternary Ru-AlN thin films prepared by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Yu-Ri; Kwack, Won-Sub; Park, Yun Chang; Kim, Jin-Hyock; Shin, Seung-Yong; Moon, Kyoung Il; Lee, Hyung-Woo; Kwon, Se-Hun

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ru-AlN thin films were grown by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural properties were systematically investigated by XRD, BF-STEM and EDX. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A drastic decrease in resistivity was due to the microstructural change of the films. -- Abstract: Ruthenium-aluminum-nitride (Ru-AlN) thin films were grown by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) at 300 Degree-Sign C. The Ru intermixing ratio of Ru-AlN thin films was controlled by the number of Ru unit cycles, while the number of AlN unit cycles was fixed to one cycle. The electrical resistivity of Ru-AlN thin film decreased with increasing the Ru intermixing ratio, but a drastic decrease in electrical resistivity was observed when the Ru intermixing ratio was around 0.58-0.78. Bright-field scanning transmission electron microscope (BF-STEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) element mapping analysis revealed that the electrical resistivity of Ru-AlN thin film was strongly dependent on the microstructures as well as on the Ru intermixing ratio. Although the electrical resistivity of Ru-AlN thin films decreased with increasing the Ru intermixing ratio, a drastic decrease in electrical resistivity occurred where the electrical paths formed as a result of the coalescence of Ru nanocrystals.

  14. Current-Voltage Characteristics and Deposition of AlTiN Thin Films by High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wan-Yu; Su, Amei; Liu, Yawei; Yeh, Chi-Ming; Chen, Wei-Chih; Chang, Chi-Lung

    2015-09-01

    In this study, AlTiN thin films were deposited using a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) process under a unipolar mode. The AlTi target had a composition of 70 at% Al and 30 at% Ti. Nitrogen was used as the reactive gas to deposite AlTiN thin films along with Ar gas at a working pressure of 1 ×10-3 torr. The target voltage and current were measured at different conditions including various duty cycles from 1 to 5%, pulse durations from 50 to 400 μs, target powers from 0.6 to 1.8 kW, and N2/Ar ratios from 0 to 1. Depending on the deposition condition, peak powers in the range of 104 to 105 W were observed. The effect of deposition conditions were discussed. For film deposition, the pulse duration and the duty cycle were fixed at 100 μs and 3%, respectively. A fixed bias of -150 V was applied to the substrates, including Si wafer, 304 stainless steel, and tungsten carbide.It was found that the nitrogen content increases with the N2/Ar ratio and then saturates. With increasing target power, a higher N2/Ar ratio was required for the AlTiN thin films to have a better mechanical properties. Meanwhile, the hardness of the AlTiN thin films also increases with the target power. The highest hardness of 41 GPa was observed as the N2/Ar ratio was 0.9 and the power was 1.8 kW. It was found that the amount Al-N bonding and the distribution of AlN phase within the AlTiN thin films play an important role in determining the mechanical properties.

  15. Texture of Al thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering onto epitaxial W(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, Lynnette D.; Svedberg, Erik B.; Bergstrom, Daniel B.; Petrov, Ivan; Greene, Joseph E.

    2000-01-01

    Highly textured epitaxial metallizations will be required for the next generation of devices with the main driving force being a reduction in electromigration. Herein a model system of 190 nm of Al on a 140 nm layer of W grown on MgO <00l> substrates was studied. The W layer was <00l> oriented and rotated 45 degree sign with respect to the MgO substrate to minimize the misfit; the remaining strain was accommodated by dislocations, evident in transmission electron microscopy images. From high-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, the out-of-plane lattice parameter was determined to be 3.175 Aa, and the in-plane parameter was 3.153 Aa, i.e., the W film sustained a strain resulting in a tetragonal distortion of the lattice. XRD pole figures showed that the Al had four fold symmetry and two dominant orientations, <016> and <3 9 11>, which were twinned with multiple placements on the epitaxial W layer. The driving force for the tilted <001> and <011> orientations of Al on W is due to strain minimization through lattice matching. These results show that <00l> Al deposited at ambient conditions onto W is difficult to achieve and implies that electromigration difficulties are inherent. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  16. Thermoelectric properties of Al-doped Mg2Si thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-jian; Zhou, Bai-yang; Li, Jian-xin; Wen, Cui-lian

    2016-11-01

    The Al-doped Mg2Si thin films were fabricated by two-target alternative magnetron sputtering technique, and the influences of different Al doping contents on the thermoelectric properties of Al-doped Mg2Si thin films were investigated. The compositions, crystal structures, electronic transport properties and thermoelectric properties of the thin films were examined using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Hall coefficient measurement and Seebeck coefficient measurement system, respectively. The EDS results show that the thin films doped with Al target sputtering power of 30 W, 60 W and 90 W have the Al content of 0.68 at.%, 1.56 at.% and 2.85 at.%, respectively. XRD results indicate that the diffraction peaks of Mg2Si become stronger with increasing Al dopant. The results of Hall coefficient measurement and Seebeck coefficient measurement system reveal that all the samples are n-type. The conductivities of Al-doped Mg2Si thin films are significantly greater than that of undoped Mg2Si thin film, and increase with increasing Al doping content. With the increase of temperature, the absolute value of the Seebeck coefficients of Mg2Si base thin films increase firstly and then decrease. The maximum power factor obtained is 3.8 mW m-1 k-2 for 1.56 at.% Al-doped Mg2Si thin film at 573 K.

  17. Hydrophobicity enhancement of Al2O3 thin films deposited on polymeric substrates by atomic layer deposition with perfluoropropane plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Kamran; Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Kim, Chang Young; Doh, Yang Hoi; Jo, Jeongdai

    2014-06-01

    The optoelectronics devices such as organic light emitting diodes are greatly vulnerable to moisture, which reduces their functionality and life cycle. The Al2O3 thin films are mostly used as barrier coatings in such electronic devices to protect them from water vapors. The performance of the Al2O3 barrier films can be improved by enhancing their hydrophobicity. Greater the hydrophobicity of the barrier films, greater will be their protection against water vapors. This paper reports on the enhancement of hydrophobicity of Al2O3 thin films through perfluoropropane (C3F8) plasma treatment. Firstly, good quality Al2O3 films have been fabricated through atomic layer deposition (ALD) on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates at different temperatures. The fabricated films are then plasma treated with C3F8 to enhance their hydrophobicity. Hydrophobic Al2O3 thin films have shown good morphological and optical properties. Low average arithmetic roughness (Ra) of 1.90 nm, 0.93 nm and 0.88 nm have been recorded for the C3F8 plasma treated films deposited at room temperature (RT), 50 °C and 150 °C, respectively. Optical transmittance of more than 90% has been achieved for the C3F8 plasma treated films grown at 50 °C and 150 °C. The contact angle has been increased from 48° ± 3 to 158° ± 3 for the films deposited at RT and increased from 41° ± 3 to 148° ± 3 for the films deposited at 150 °C.

  18. Synthesis of Vertically-Aligned Carbon Nanotubes from Langmuir-Blodgett Films Deposited Fe Nanoparticles on Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si Substrate.

    PubMed

    Takagiwa, Shota; Kanasugi, Osamu; Nakamura, Kentaro; Kushida, Masahito

    2016-04-01

    In order to apply vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) to a new Pt supporting material of polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), number density and outer diameter of CNTs must be controlled independently. So, we employed Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique for depositing CNT growth catalysts. A Fe nanoparticle (NP) was used as a CNT growth catalyst. In this study, we tried to thicken VA-CNT carpet height and inhibit thermal aggregation of Fe NPs by using Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si substrate. Fe NP LB films were deposited on three typed of substrates, SiO2/Si, as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si and annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si at 923 K in Ar atmosphere of 16 Pa. It is known that Al2O3/Al catalyzes hydrocarbon reforming, inhibits thermal aggregation of CNT growth catalysts and reduces CNT growth catalysts. It was found that annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si exerted three effects more strongly than as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si. VA-CNTs were synthesized from Fe NPs-C16 LB films by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. As a result, at the distance between two nearest CNTs 28 nm or less, VA-CNT carpet height on annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si was about twice and ten times thicker than that on SiO2/Si and that on as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si, respectively. Moreover, distribution of CNT outer diameter on annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si was inhibited compared to that on SiO2/Si. These results suggest that since thermal aggregation of Fe NPs is inhibited, catalyst activity increases and distribution of Fe NP size is inhibited.

  19. Ellipsometry and XPS comparative studies of thermal and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited Al2O3-films

    PubMed Central

    Haeberle, Jörg; Gargouri, Hassan; Naumann, Franziska; Gruska, Bernd; Arens, Michael; Tallarida, Massimo; Schmeißer, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Summary We report on results on the preparation of thin (<100 nm) aluminum oxide (Al2O3) films on silicon substrates using thermal atomic layer deposition (T-ALD) and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) in the SENTECH SI ALD LL system. The T-ALD Al2O3 layers were deposited at 200 °C, for the PE-ALD films we varied the substrate temperature range between room temperature (rt) and 200 °C. We show data from spectroscopic ellipsometry (thickness, refractive index, growth rate) over 4” wafers and correlate them to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results. The 200 °C T-ALD and PE-ALD processes yield films with similar refractive indices and with oxygen to aluminum elemental ratios very close to the stoichiometric value of 1.5. However, in both also fragments of the precursor are integrated into the film. The PE-ALD films show an increased growth rate and lower carbon contaminations. Reducing the deposition temperature down to rt leads to a higher content of carbon and CH-species. We also find a decrease of the refractive index and of the oxygen to aluminum elemental ratio as well as an increase of the growth rate whereas the homogeneity of the film growth is not influenced significantly. Initial state energy shifts in all PE-ALD samples are observed which we attribute to a net negative charge within the films. PMID:24367741

  20. High quality ZnO:Al transparent conducting oxide films synthesized by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Lim, Sunnie H.N.; Yu, Kin Man; Andersson, Joakim; Rosen, Johanna; McFarland, Mike; Brown, Jeff

    2009-04-24

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide, ZnO:Al or AZO, is a well-known n-type transparent conducting oxide with great potential in a number of applications currently dominated by indium tin oxide (ITO). In this study, the optical and electrical properties of AZO thin films deposited on glass and silicon by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition are systematically studied. In contrast to magnetron sputtering, this technique does not produce energetic negative ions, and therefore ion damage can be minimized. The quality of the AZO films strongly depends on the growth temperature while only marginal improvements are obtained with post-deposition annealing. The best films, grown at a temperature of about 200?C, have resistivities in the low to mid 10-4 Omega cm range with a transmittance better than 85percent in the visible part of the spectrum. It is remarkable that relatively good films of small thickness (60 nm) can be fabricated using this method.

  1. Characterization of AlN:Mn thin film phosphors prepared by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Ayumu; Azumada, Kyoko; Atsumori, Toshiyuki; Hara, Kazuhiko

    2007-01-01

    The structural and luminescent properties of AlN:Mn films, which showed red-orange luminescence originated from the transition of 3d-electrons in a Mn ion, were investigated. The samples were grown on sapphire (0 0 0 1) wafers by an atmospheric-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition at 1050 °C. The grown films were polycrystal oriented preferentially towards the <0 0 0 1> direction of wurtzite structure. It is suggested from the dependence of Mn concentration (CMn) on the lattice constant and the low-temperature photoluminescence spectrum that most of the Mn atoms occupy the lattice sites for CMn up to about 1×1020 cm-3. The samples exhibited bright cathodoluminescence reflecting the improved crystalline quality compared to that of the low-temperature-grown samples. The highest luminance, 245 cd/m 2, has been obtained from the layer with CMn of 3×1019 cm-3 under the excitation conditions of 5 kV and 0.1 mA/cm 2 as an accelerating voltage and a current density, respectively.

  2. Tunable optoelectronic properties of pulsed dc sputter-deposited ZnO:Al thin films: Role of growth angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohit; Singh, Ranveer; Nandy, Suman; Ghosh, Arnab; Rath, Satchidananda; Som, Tapobrata

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the role of deposition angle on the physical properties and work function of pulsed dc sputter-deposited Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films. It is observed that average grain size and crystal quality increase with higher angle of deposition, yielding improved optical properties. A systematic blue shift as well as a decrease in the resistivity takes place with the increasing growth angle up to 70°, while an opposite trend is observed beyond that. In addition, the work function of AZO films is also measured using Kelvin probe force microscopy, which corroborates well with the optical and structural properties. The observed results are explained in the framework of growth angle induced diffusion and shadowing effects. The films deposited at higher angles will be important for rapid incorporation into new technological applications that require a transparent conductive oxide.

  3. Deposition and Characterization of Al:ZnO Thin Films for Optoelectronic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, R. K.; Mishra, Swati; Bajpai, P. K.

    2016-07-01

    Transparent aluminum-doped zinc oxide (Al:ZnO) thin films have been successfully synthesized on silicon substrates at room temperature using a sol-gel spin-coating method. The structural and optical properties and surface morphology of the synthesized films were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The prepared Al:ZnO retained the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO. FTIR and Raman spectra clearly revealed a major peak at 437 cm-1, associated with the ZnO bond. UV-Vis spectra showed that the Al:ZnO films were transparent from the near-ultraviolet to near-infrared region. The effect of film thickness on the physical and optical properties of the Al:ZnO thin films for 2.0 at.% aluminum concentration was investigated. Measurements revealed that the film transparency, optical energy bandgap, Urbach energy, extinction coefficient, and porosity varied with the film thickness. The energy bandgap values for the prepared thin films increased in the range of 3.18 eV to 3.2 eV with increasing film thickness.

  4. Deposition and Characterization of Al:ZnO Thin Films for Optoelectronic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, R. K.; Mishra, Swati; Bajpai, P. K.

    2016-11-01

    Transparent aluminum-doped zinc oxide (Al:ZnO) thin films have been successfully synthesized on silicon substrates at room temperature using a sol-gel spin-coating method. The structural and optical properties and surface morphology of the synthesized films were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The prepared Al:ZnO retained the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO. FTIR and Raman spectra clearly revealed a major peak at 437 cm-1, associated with the ZnO bond. UV-Vis spectra showed that the Al:ZnO films were transparent from the near-ultraviolet to near-infrared region. The effect of film thickness on the physical and optical properties of the Al:ZnO thin films for 2.0 at.% aluminum concentration was investigated. Measurements revealed that the film transparency, optical energy bandgap, Urbach energy, extinction coefficient, and porosity varied with the film thickness. The energy bandgap values for the prepared thin films increased in the range of 3.18 eV to 3.2 eV with increasing film thickness.

  5. Passivation Effect of Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 Film on HgCdTe Infrared Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Ye, Zhen-Hua; Sun, Chang-Hong; Chen, Yi-Yu; Zhang, Tian-Ning; Chen, Xin; Lin, Chun; Ding, Ring-Jun; He, Li

    2016-09-01

    The passivation effect of atomic layer deposition of (ALD) Al2O3 film on a HgCdTe infrared detector was investigated in this work. The passivation effect of Al2O3 film was evaluated by measuring the minority carrier lifetime, capacitance versus voltage ( C- V) characteristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor devices, and resistance versus voltage ( R- V) characteristics of variable-area photodiodes. The minority carrier lifetime, C- V characteristics, and R- V characteristics of HgCdTe devices passivated by ALD Al2O3 film was comparable to those of HgCdTe devices passivated by e-beam evaporation of ZnS/CdTe film. However, the baking stability of devices passivated by Al2O3 film is inferior to that of devices passivated by ZnS/CdTe film. In future work, by optimizing the ALD Al2O3 film growing process and annealing conditions, it may be feasible to achieve both excellent electrical properties and good baking stability.

  6. Epitaxial growth of 2 inch diameter homogeneous AlN single-crystalline films by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Wang, Wenliang; Liu, Zuolian; Li, Guoqiang

    2013-03-01

    2 inch diameter homogeneous AlN films are epitaxially grown on sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). By optimizing laser rastering and PLD growth conditions, the 2 inch diameter single-crystalline AlN films exhibit excellent thickness uniformity with root-mean-square (RMS) inhomogeneity less than 4.5% and very smooth surface with RMS roughness less than 1.53 nm. There is a maximum of 1.5 nm thick interfacial layer, if there is any, existing between the as-grown AlN and the pre-nitrided sapphire substrate, and the as-grown AlN films are almost fully relaxed only with a 0.26% in-plane compressive strain. The achievement of high-quality large-scale AlN films with uniform thickness and atomically abrupt interface is of great interest for the commercial development of AlN-based devices, particularly acoustic filters where abrupt heterointerfaces with substrates and flat surfaces for AlN films are highly desired.

  7. Roughness reduction of large-area high-quality thick Al films for echelle gratings by multi-step deposition method.

    PubMed

    Li, Zizheng; Gao, Jinsong; Yang, Haigui; Wang, Tongtong; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2015-09-01

    Generally, echelle grating ruling is performed on a thick Al film. Consequently, high-quality large-area thick Al films preparation becomes one of the most important factors to realize a high-performance large-size echelle grating. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-step deposition process to improve thick Al films quality. Compared with the traditional single-step deposition process, it is found that the multi-step deposition process can effectively suppress large-size grains growth resulting in a low surface roughness and high internal compactness of thick Al films. The differences between single- and multi-step deposition processes are discussed in detail. By using multi-step deposition process, we prepared high-quality large-area Al films with a thickness more than 10 μm on a 520 mm × 420 mm neoceramic glass substrate.

  8. Initial growth, refractive index, and crystallinity of thermal and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition AlN films

    SciTech Connect

    Van Bui, Hao Wiggers, Frank B.; Gupta, Anubha; Nguyen, Minh D.; Aarnink, Antonius A. I.; Jong, Michel P. de; Kovalgin, Alexey Y.

    2015-01-01

    The authors have studied and compared the initial growth and properties of AlN films deposited on Si(111) by thermal and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) using trimethylaluminum and either ammonia or a N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} mixture as precursors. In-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry was employed to monitor the growth and measure the refractive index of the films during the deposition. The authors found that an incubation stage only occurred for thermal ALD. The linear growth for plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) started instantly from the beginning due to the higher nuclei density provided by the presence of plasma. The authors observed the evolution of the refractive index of AlN during the growth, which showed a rapid increase up to a thickness of about 30 nm followed by a saturation. Below this thickness, higher refractive index values were obtained for AlN films grown by PEALD, whereas above that the refractive index was slightly higher for thermal ALD films. X-ray diffraction characterization showed a wurtzite crystalline structure with a (101{sup ¯}0) preferential orientation obtained for all the layers with a slightly better crystallinity for films grown by PEALD.

  9. Nano-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} multilayer film deposition on cotton fabrics by layer-by-layer deposition method

    SciTech Connect

    Ugur, Sule S.; Sariisik, Merih; Aktas, A. Hakan

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Cationic charges were created on the cotton fibre surfaces with 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride. {yields} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were deposited on the cotton fabrics by layer-by-layer deposition. {yields} The fabrics deposited with the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles exhibit better UV-protection and significant flame retardancy properties. {yields} The mechanical properties were improved after surface film deposition. -- Abstract: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were used for fabrication of multilayer nanocomposite film deposition on cationic cotton fabrics by electrostatic self-assembly to improve the mechanical, UV-protection and flame retardancy properties of cotton fabrics. Cotton fabric surface was modified with a chemical reaction to build-up cationic charge known as cationization. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy were used to verify the presence of deposited nanolayers. Air permeability, whiteness value, tensile strength, UV-transmittance and Limited Oxygen Index properties of cotton fabrics were analyzed before and after the treatment of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles by electrostatic self-assemblies. It was proved that the flame retardancy, tensile strength and UV-transmittance of cotton fabrics can be improved by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticle additive through electrostatic self-assembly process.

  10. Electrochemical deposition and microstructural characterization of AlCrFeMnNi and AlCrCuFeMnNi high entropy alloy thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soare, V.; Burada, M.; Constantin, I.; Mitrică, D.; Bădiliţă, V.; Caragea, A.; Târcolea, M.

    2015-12-01

    Al-Cr-Fe-Mn-Ni and Al-Cr-Cu-Fe-Mn-Ni high entropy alloy thin films were prepared by potentiostatic electrodeposition and the microstructure of the deposits was investigated. The thin films were co-deposited in an electrolyte based on a DMF (N,N-dimethylformamide)-CH3CN (acetonitrile) organic compound. The energy dispersive spectrometry investigation (EDS) indicated that all the five respectively six elements were successfully co-deposited. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that the film consists of compact and uniform particles with particle sizes of 500 nm to 4 μm. The X-ray diffractometry (XRD) patterns indicated that the as-deposited thin films were amorphous. Body-centered-cubic (BCC) structures were identified by XRD after the films were annealed at various temperatures under inert Ar atmosphere. The alloys adhesion on the substrate was determined by the scratch-testing method, with higher values obtained for the Al-Cr-Cu-Fe-Mn-Ni alloy.

  11. Optical characteristics of nanocrystalline Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N thin films deposited by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Goldenberg, Eda; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Biyikli, Necmi; Kemal Okyay, Ali

    2014-05-15

    Gallium nitride (GaN), aluminum nitride (AlN), and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films have been deposited by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition at 200 °C on c-plane sapphire and Si substrates. The dependence of film structure, absorption edge, and refractive index on postdeposition annealing were examined by x-ray diffraction, spectrophotometry, and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements, respectively. Well-adhered, uniform, and polycrystalline wurtzite (hexagonal) GaN, AlN, and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films were prepared at low deposition temperature. As revealed by the x-ray diffraction analyses, crystallite sizes of the films were between 11.7 and 25.2 nm. The crystallite size of as-deposited GaN film increased from 11.7 to 12.1 and 14.4 nm when the annealing duration increased from 30 min to 2 h (800 °C). For all films, the average optical transmission was ∼85% in the visible (VIS) and near infrared spectrum. The refractive indices of AlN and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N were lower compared to GaN thin films. The refractive index of as-deposited films decreased from 2.33 to 2.02 (λ = 550 nm) with the increased Al content x (0 ≤ x ≤ 1), while the extinction coefficients (k) were approximately zero in the VIS spectrum (>400 nm). Postdeposition annealing at 900 °C for 2 h considerably lowered the refractive index value of GaN films (2.33–1.92), indicating a significant phase change. The optical bandgap of as-deposited GaN film was found to be 3.95 eV, and it decreased to 3.90 eV for films annealed at 800 °C for 30 min and 2 h. On the other hand, this value increased to 4.1 eV for GaN films annealed at 900 °C for 2 h. This might be caused by Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} formation and following phase change. The optical bandgap value of as-deposited Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films decreased from 5.75 to 5.25 eV when the x values decreased from 1 to 0.68. Furthermore, postdeposition annealing did not

  12. Characterization and film properties of electrophoretically deposited nanosheets of anionic titanate and cationic MgAl-layered double hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Atsunori; Sakamoto, Hisatoshi; Mohd Nor, Mohd Arif Bin; Kawamura, Go; Muto, Hiroyuki

    2013-02-14

    Anionic hydrated titanate (H(n)TiO(m): HTO) nanosheets and cationic magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al LDH) nanosheets were electrophoretically deposited on positively and negatively charged indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates, respectively. The HTO nanosheets and Mg-Al LDH nanosheets obtained were identified in neutral water as H(2)Ti(4)O(9)·nH(2)O with a ζ-potential of -23 mV and Mg(6)Al(2)(OH)(18)·4.5H(2)O with a ζ-potential of +41 mV, respectively. Dense and smooth HTO and Mg-Al LDH films with layered structures with thicknesses of about 10-15 μm were prepared in 300 s at 7.5 V by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) from the nanosheet suspensions. Both EPD HTO and LDH films showed elasticity because of their layered laminate structures. The HTO thick films demonstrated large adsorption properties and high photocatalytic activity, while the Mg-Al LDH thick films showed relatively high ionic conductivity of 10(-5) S cm(-1) at 80 °C and 80% relative humidity.

  13. Effects of Al concentration on microstructural characteristics and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films on Si substrates by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Ho; Lee, Jae-Won; Hwang, Sooyeon; Kim, Sang Yun; Cho, Hyung Koun; Lee, Jeong Yong; Park, Jin-Seong

    2012-07-01

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films with various Al concentrations were synthesized on Si(001) substrates with native oxide layers by atomic layer deposition process. The effects of the Al concentration on the microstructural characteristics of the AZO thin films grown at 250 degrees C and the correlation between their microstructural characteristics and electrical properties of the AZO thin films were investigated by AFM, XRD, HRTEM and Hall measurements. The XRD and HRTEM results revealed that the crystallinity and electrical properties of the undoped ZnO thin films were enhanced by 2.48 at% Al doping. However, 12.62 at% Al doping induced the deterioration of their crystallinity and electrical properties due to the formation of nano-sized metallic Al clusters and randomly oriented ZnO-based nano-crystals. To enhance the electrical properties of the AZO thin films while maintaining their crystallinity and electrical properties, a moderate Al concentration has to be chosen under the solubility limit of Al in ZnO.

  14. Low substrate temperature deposition of transparent and conducting ZnO:Al thin films by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waykar, Ravindra; Amit, Pawbake; Kulkarni, Rupali; Jadhavar, Ashok; Funde, Adinath; Waman, Vaishali; Dewan, Rupesh; Pathan, Habib; Jadkar, Sandesh

    2016-04-01

    Transparent and conducting Al-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) films were prepared on glass substrate using the RF sputtering method at different substrate temperatures from room temperature (RT) to 200 °C. The structural, morphological, electrical and optical properties of these films were investigated using a variety of characterization techniques such as low angle XRD, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Hall measurement and UV–visible spectroscopy. The electrical properties showed that films deposited at RT have the lowest resistivity and it increases with an increase in the substrate temperature whereas carrier mobility and concentration decrease with an increase in substrate temperature. Low angle XRD and Raman spectroscopy analysis reavealed that films are highly crystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and a preferred orientation along the c-axis. The FE-SEM analysis showed that the surface morphology of films is strongly dependent on the substrate temperature. The band gap decreases from 3.36 to 3.29 eV as the substrate temperature is increased from RT to 200 °C. The fundamental absorption edge in the UV region shifts towards a longer wavelength with an increase in substrate temperature and be attributed to the Burstein-Moss shift. The synthesized films showed an average transmission (> 85%) in the visible region, which signifies that synthesized ZnO:Al films can be suitable for display devices and solar cells as transparent electrodes.

  15. Low substrate temperature deposition of transparent and conducting ZnO:Al thin films by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waykar, Ravindra; Amit, Pawbake; Kulkarni, Rupali; Jadhavar, Ashok; Funde, Adinath; Waman, Vaishali; Dewan, Rupesh; Pathan, Habib; Jadkar, Sandesh

    2016-04-01

    Transparent and conducting Al-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) films were prepared on glass substrate using the RF sputtering method at different substrate temperatures from room temperature (RT) to 200 °C. The structural, morphological, electrical and optical properties of these films were investigated using a variety of characterization techniques such as low angle XRD, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Hall measurement and UV-visible spectroscopy. The electrical properties showed that films deposited at RT have the lowest resistivity and it increases with an increase in the substrate temperature whereas carrier mobility and concentration decrease with an increase in substrate temperature. Low angle XRD and Raman spectroscopy analysis reavealed that films are highly crystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and a preferred orientation along the c-axis. The FE-SEM analysis showed that the surface morphology of films is strongly dependent on the substrate temperature. The band gap decreases from 3.36 to 3.29 eV as the substrate temperature is increased from RT to 200 °C. The fundamental absorption edge in the UV region shifts towards a longer wavelength with an increase in substrate temperature and be attributed to the Burstein-Moss shift. The synthesized films showed an average transmission (> 85%) in the visible region, which signifies that synthesized ZnO:Al films can be suitable for display devices and solar cells as transparent electrodes.

  16. Influence of dosing sequence and film thickness on structure and resistivity of Al-ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, Evan B. Lad, Robert J.

    2014-07-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were deposited onto amorphous silica substrates using an atomic layer deposition process with diethyl zinc (DEZ), trimethyl aluminum (TMA), and deionized water at 200 °C. Three different Al doping sequences were used at a ZnO:Al ratio of 11:1 within the films. A minimum film resistivity of 1.6 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm was produced using sequential dosing of DEZ, TMA, DEZ, followed by H{sub 2}O for the Al doping step. This “ZAZW” sequence yielded an AZO film resistivity that is independent of film thickness, crystallographic texture, and grain size, as determined by high resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD). A pseudo-Voigt analysis method yields values for grain sizes that are smaller than those calculated using other XRD methods. Anisotropic grain sizes or variations in crystallographic texture have minimal influence on film resistivity, which suggests that factors other than film texture, such as intragrain scattering, may be important in influencing film resistivity.

  17. Electrical and optical properties of Al-doped ZnO and ZnAl2O4 films prepared by atomic layer deposition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    ZnO/Al2O3 multilayers were prepared by alternating atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 150°C using diethylzinc, trimethylaluminum, and water. The growth process, crystallinity, and electrical and optical properties of the multilayers were studied with a variety of the cycle ratios of ZnO and Al2O3 sublayers. Transparent conductive Al-doped ZnO films were prepared with the minimum resistivity of 2.4 × 10−3 Ω·cm at a low Al doping concentration of 2.26%. Photoluminescence spectroscopy in conjunction with X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the thickness of ZnO sublayers plays an important role on the priority for selective crystallization of ZnAl2O4 and ZnO phases during high-temperature annealing ZnO/Al2O3 multilayers. It was found that pure ZnAl2O4 film was synthesized by annealing the specific composite film containing alternative monocycle of ZnO and Al2O3 sublayers, which could only be deposited precisely by utilizing ALD technology. PMID:23537274

  18. Synthesis of Vertically-Aligned Carbon Nanotubes from Langmuir-Blodgett Films Deposited Fe Nanoparticles on Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si Substrate.

    PubMed

    Takagiwa, Shota; Kanasugi, Osamu; Nakamura, Kentaro; Kushida, Masahito

    2016-04-01

    In order to apply vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) to a new Pt supporting material of polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), number density and outer diameter of CNTs must be controlled independently. So, we employed Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique for depositing CNT growth catalysts. A Fe nanoparticle (NP) was used as a CNT growth catalyst. In this study, we tried to thicken VA-CNT carpet height and inhibit thermal aggregation of Fe NPs by using Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si substrate. Fe NP LB films were deposited on three typed of substrates, SiO2/Si, as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si and annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si at 923 K in Ar atmosphere of 16 Pa. It is known that Al2O3/Al catalyzes hydrocarbon reforming, inhibits thermal aggregation of CNT growth catalysts and reduces CNT growth catalysts. It was found that annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si exerted three effects more strongly than as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si. VA-CNTs were synthesized from Fe NPs-C16 LB films by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. As a result, at the distance between two nearest CNTs 28 nm or less, VA-CNT carpet height on annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si was about twice and ten times thicker than that on SiO2/Si and that on as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si, respectively. Moreover, distribution of CNT outer diameter on annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si was inhibited compared to that on SiO2/Si. These results suggest that since thermal aggregation of Fe NPs is inhibited, catalyst activity increases and distribution of Fe NP size is inhibited. PMID:27451619

  19. Atomic layer deposited alumina (Al2O3) thin films on a high-Q mechanical silicon oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahtela, O.; Sievilä, P.; Chekurov, N.; Tittonen, I.

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, the influence of the atomic layer deposited alumina (Al2O3) thin films on the dynamics of a high-Q mechanical silicon oscillator was experimentally studied. The resonance frequency and Q value of uncoated oscillators used in this work were about f0 = 27 kHz and Q = 100 000 at p < 10-2 mbar and T = 300 K. Deposited alumina film thicknesses varied from 5 to 662 nm. It is demonstrated that the resonance frequency of the mechanical oscillator increases with the film thickness because the added alumina films effectively stiffen the oscillator structure. In addition, it is shown that alumina thin films with thickness up to 100 nm can be deposited on microfabricated mechanical resonant structures without degrading the initially high quality (Q value) of the resonance. The resonance frequency of the silicon oscillator was less sensitive to the changes in ambient temperature with thicker alumina coatings. The reflectivity of silicon at 633 nm was reduced from RSi = 0.35 to RAR = 0.035 by coating the silicon oscillator with an alumina film whose thickness corresponds to the quarter of the optical wavelength serving as a single-layer anti-reflection coating.

  20. Atomic layer deposition of Al-incorporated Zn(O,S) thin films with tunable electrical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Helen Hejin; Jayaraman, Ashwin; Heasley, Rachel; Yang, Chuanxi; Hartle, Lauren; Gordon, Roy G.; Mankad, Ravin; Haight, Richard; Gunawan, Oki; Mitzi, David B.

    2014-11-17

    Zinc oxysulfide, Zn(O,S), films grown by atomic layer deposition were incorporated with aluminum to adjust the carrier concentration. The electron carrier concentration increased up to one order of magnitude from 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} with aluminum incorporation and sulfur content in the range of 0 ≤ S/(Zn+Al) ≤ 0.16. However, the carrier concentration decreased by five orders of magnitude from 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 14} cm{sup −3} for S/(Zn+Al) = 0.34 and decreased even further when S/(Zn+Al) > 0.34. Such tunable electrical properties are potentially useful for graded buffer layers in thin-film photovoltaic applications.

  1. Photo-, cathodo-, and electroluminescence studies of sputter deposited AlN:Er thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, V. I.; Van Patten, P. G.; Richardson, H.; Kordesch, M. E.

    2001-05-01

    Green cathodoluminescence (CL), photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) have been obtained from Er-doped amorphous AlN thin films, 200 nm thick, prepared by rf magnetron sputtering. All films were activated by annealing at 750°C for 10 min in a nitrogen atmosphere. Three sharp bands at about 479, 538 and 559 nm corresponding to the 4F7/2→ 4I15/2, 2H11/2→ 4I15/2 and 4S3/2→ 4I15/2 transitions are observed. Fine structure is seen on the major transitions that does not change with temperature indicating that this structure is related to different local environments of the Er 3+ ion. The PL spectrum revealed sharp peaks from Er 3+ ions and a broad spectral profile that might be from defect states in the amorphous AlN. The results from EL measurements show that Er-doped amorphous AlN films can be used as a phosphor layer in alternating-current thin-film electroluminescent (ACTFEL) devices.

  2. Oxidation precursor dependence of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 films in a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 surface passivation stacks.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yuren; Zhou, Chunlan; Jia, Endong; Wang, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    In order to obtain a good passivation of a silicon surface, more and more stack passivation schemes have been used in high-efficiency silicon solar cell fabrication. In this work, we prepared a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stacks on KOH solution-polished n-type solar grade mono-silicon(100) wafers. For the Al2O3 film deposition, both thermal atomic layer deposition (T-ALD) and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) were used. Interface trap density spectra were obtained for Si passivation with a-Si films and a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stacks by a non-contact corona C-V technique. After the fabrication of a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stacks, the minimum interface trap density was reduced from original 3 × 10(12) to 1 × 10(12) cm(-2) eV(-1), the surface total charge density increased by nearly one order of magnitude for PE-ALD samples and about 0.4 × 10(12) cm(-2) for a T-ALD sample, and the carrier lifetimes increased by a factor of three (from about 10 μs to about 30 μs). Combining these results with an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, we discussed the influence of an oxidation precursor for ALD Al2O3 deposition on Al2O3 single layers and a-Si:H(i)/Al2O3 stack surface passivation from field-effect passivation and chemical passivation perspectives. In addition, the influence of the stack fabrication process on the a-Si film structure was also discussed in this study.

  3. Electrical performance of Al2O3 gate dielectric films deposited by atomic layer deposition on 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Carey M.; Perng, Ya-Chuan; Frewin, Christopher; Saddow, Stephen E.; Chang, Jane P.

    2007-11-01

    Stoichiometric and pure Al2O3 gate dielectric films were grown on n-type 4H-SiC by a thermal atomic layer deposition process. The electrical properties of both amorphous and epitaxial Al2O3 films were studied by capacitance-voltage and current-voltage measurements of metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors. A dielectric constant of 9 and a flatband voltage shift of +1.3V were determined. A leakage current density of 10-3A/cm2 at 8MV/cm was obtained for the amorphous Al2O3 films, lower than that of any high-κ gate oxide on 4H-SiC reported to date. A Fowler-Nordheim tunneling mechanism was used to determine an Al2O3/4H-SiC barrier height of 1.58eV. Higher leakage current was obtained for the epitaxial γ-Al2O3 films, likely due to grain boundary conduction.

  4. The influence of varying sputter deposition conditions on the wet chemical etch rate of AlN thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ababneh, A.; Kreher, H.; Seidel, H.; Schmid, U.

    2007-05-01

    Aluminium nitride (AlN) reactively sputter deposited from an aluminium target is an interesting compound material due to its CMOS compatible fabrication process and its piezoelectric properties. For the implementation in micromachined sensors and actuators an appropriate patterning technique is needed to form AlN-based elements. Therefore, the influence of different sputtering conditions on the vertical etch rate of AlN thin films with a typical thickness of 600 nm in phosphoric acid (H 3PO 4) is investigated. Under comparable conditions, such as temperature and concentration of the etchant, thin films with a high c-axis orientation are etched substantially slower compared to films with a low degree of orientation. When a high c-axis orientation is present detailed analyses of the etched topologies reveal surface characteristics with a low porosity and hence, low roughness values. From temperature dependant etching experiments an activation energy of 800 (+/- 30) meV is determined showing a reaction-controlled etching regime independent of sputter deposition conditions.

  5. Substrate Heating Effect on c-Axis Texture and Piezoelectric Properties of AlN Thin Films Deposited by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasheminiasari, Masood; Lin, Jianliang

    2016-06-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films with highly preferred (002) orientations have been reactively deposited by a pulsed-closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system using TiN/Ti as the seed/adhesion layer with various substrate temperatures. The texture, orientation and piezoelectric properties of AlN films were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction, rocking curves and laser interferometry. A Michelson laser interferometer was designed and built to obtain the converse piezoelectric response of the deposited AlN thin films. It was found that a slight substrate temperature increase would significantly affect the (002) orientation and the piezoelectric coefficient of AlN thin films compared to the coating obtained with no intentional substrate heating, while higher temperature applications on substrate deteriorated the c-axis texture of the coatings without significant improvement in the piezoelectric response of AlN films.

  6. Influence of Postdeposition Cooling Atmosphere on Thermoelectric Properties of 2% Al-Doped ZnO Thin Films Grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, S.; Mele, P.; Honda, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Miyazaki, K.; Luna, L. Molina; Hopkins, P. E.

    2015-06-01

    We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of 2% Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films depending on the postdeposition cooling atmosphere [in oxygen pressure (AZO-O) or vacuum (AZO-V)]. Thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on sapphire () substrates at various deposition temperatures ( to ). All films were c-axis oriented. The electrical conductivity of AZO-V thin films was higher than that of AZO-O thin films across the whole temperature range from 300 K to 600 K, due to the optimal carrier concentration () of AZO-V samples. Furthermore, the thermoelectric performance of AZO-V films increased with the deposition temperature; for instance, the highest power factor of and dimensionless figure of merit of 0.07 at 600 K were found for AZO-V thin film deposited at.

  7. Characteristics of AZO thin films prepared at various Al target input current deposited on PET substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yun-Hae; Park, Chang-Wook; Lee, Jin-Woo; Lee, Dong Myung

    2015-03-01

    Transparent conductive oxide is a thin film to be used in numerous applications throughout the industry in general. Transparent electrode materials used in these industries are in need of light transmittance with excellent high and low electrical characteristics, substances showing the most excellent physical properties while satisfying all the characteristics such as indium tin oxide film. However, reserves of indium are very small, there is an environmental pollution problem. So the study of zinc oxide (ZnO) is actively carried out in an alternative material. This study analyzed the characteristics by using a direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering system. The electric and optical properties of these films were studied by Hall measurement and optical spectroscopy, respectively. When the Al target input current is 2 mA and 4 mA, it demonstrates about 80% transmittance in the range of the visible spectrum. Also, when Al target input current was 6 mA, sheet resistance was the smallest on PET substrate. The minimum resistivity is 3.96×10-3 ohm/sq.

  8. Passivation mechanism of thermal atomic layer-deposited Al2O3 films on silicon at different annealing temperatures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Thermal atomic layer-deposited (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al2O3) acquires high negative fixed charge density (Qf) and sufficiently low interface trap density after annealing, which enables excellent surface passivation for crystalline silicon. Qf can be controlled by varying the annealing temperatures. In this study, the effect of the annealing temperature of thermal ALD Al2O3 films on p-type Czochralski silicon wafers was investigated. Corona charging measurements revealed that the Qf obtained at 300°C did not significantly affect passivation. The interface-trapping density markedly increased at high annealing temperature (>600°C) and degraded the surface passivation even at a high Qf. Negatively charged or neutral vacancies were found in the samples annealed at 300°C, 500°C, and 750°C using positron annihilation techniques. The Al defect density in the bulk film and the vacancy density near the SiOx/Si interface region decreased with increased temperature. Measurement results of Qf proved that the Al vacancy of the bulk film may not be related to Qf. The defect density in the SiOx region affected the chemical passivation, but other factors may dominantly influence chemical passivation at 750°C. PMID:23452508

  9. Impact of the surface-near silicon substrate properties on the microstructure of sputter-deposited AlN thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.; Bittner, A.; Patocka, F.; Schmid, U.; Stoeger-Pollach, M.

    2012-11-26

    In micro-/nanomachined devices and systems, aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films are widely used due to their piezoelectric properties. This work evaluates the potential of modifying the interface between the AlN thin film and the silicon (Si) wafer serving as bottom electrode for optimized crystallographic orientation and, hence, improved electrical and piezoelectric properties. The films were analyzed using temperature-dependant leakage current measurements, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. By preconditioning of the Si substrate surface applying sputter etching prior to film deposition, leakage current levels are substantially decreased and an increased (002) orientation of the AlN grains is observed.

  10. Low resistivity aluminum nitride: Carbon (AlN:C) films grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wongchotiqul, K.; Chen, N.; Zhang, D.P.; Tang, X.; Spencer, M.G.

    1996-11-01

    Low resistivity single crystal aluminum nitride-carbon (AlN:C) films were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The growth system used ammonia (NH{sub 3}), trimethylaluminum (TMA), hydrogen (H{sub 2}), and propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}) precursors. Films produced with high partial pressure of propane during growth exhibited high conductivity. Van der Paw measurements indicated that the resistivity of the as grown films changed dramatically from 10{sup 8} ohm-cm for unintentionally doped samples to less than .2 ohm-cm for partial pressures of propane greater than 0.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} torr. Reflection electron diffraction (RHEED) measurements performed in situ just after film growth indicated that the material is single crystal up to a propane partial pressure of 2.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} torr. P-n junctions of n-type 6H-SiC and p-type AlN:C were fabricated, blue emission (centered at 490 nm) was observed from the heterojunction under forward bias.

  11. Structural, morphological and optical characterizations of ZnO:Al thin films grown on silicon substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alyamani, A.; Sayari, A.; Albadri, A.; Albrithen, H.; El Mir, L.

    2016-09-01

    The pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique is used to grow Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films at 500 ° C on silicon substrates under vacuum or oxygen gas background from ablating AZO nanoparticle targets synthesized via the sol-gel process. The structural, morphological and optical properties were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) techniques. XRD and TEM images show that AZO powder has a wurtzite-type structure and is composed of small prismatic-like shape nanoparticles with an average size of 30nm. The structural properties of the AZO films grown under oxygen show no significant changes compared to those of the film grown under vacuum. However, the optical properties show a dependence on the growth conditions of the AZO films. Highly c -axis-oriented AZO thin films were obtained with grain size ˜ 15 nm. The stress in the AZO films is tensile as measured from the c -parameter. The dielectric function, the refractive index and the extinction coefficient as a function of the photon energy for the AZO films were determined by using spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements in the photon energy region from 1 to 6eV. The band gap energy was observed to slightly decrease in the presence of the O2 gas background and this may be attributed to the stress. The surface and volume energy loss functions are calculated and exhibit different behaviors in the energy range 1-6eV. Refractive indices of 1.9-2.1 in the visible region were obtained for the AZO films. Also, the electronic carrier concentration appears to be related to the presence of O2 during the growth process.

  12. Isotope analysis of diamond-surface passivation effect of high-temperature H2O-grown atomic layer deposition-Al2O3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Saito, Tatsuya; Matsumura, Daisuke; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    The Al2O3 film formed using an atomic layer deposition (ALD) method with trimethylaluminum as Al precursor and H2O as oxidant at a high temperature (450 °C) effectively passivates the p-type surface conduction (SC) layer specific to a hydrogen-terminated diamond surface, leading to a successful operation of diamond SC field-effect transistors at 400 °C. In order to investigate this excellent passivation effect, we carried out an isotope analysis using D2O instead of H2O in the ALD and found that the Al2O3 film formed at a conventional temperature (100 °C) incorporates 50 times more CH3 groups than the high-temperature film. This CH3 is supposed to dissociate from the film when heated afterwards at a higher temperature (550 °C) and causes peeling patterns on the H-terminated surface. The high-temperature film is free from this problem and has the largest mass density and dielectric constant among those investigated in this study. The isotope analysis also unveiled a relatively active H-exchange reaction between the diamond H-termination and H2O oxidant during the high-temperature ALD, the SC still being kept intact. This dynamic and yet steady H termination is realized by the suppressed oxidation due to the endothermic reaction with H2O. Additionally, we not only observed the kinetic isotope effect in the form of reduced growth rate of D2O-oxidant ALD but found that the mass density and dielectric constant of D2O-grown Al2O3 films are smaller than those of H2O-grown films. This is a new type of isotope effect, which is not caused by the presence of isotopes in the films unlike the traditional isotope effects that originate from the presence of isotopes itself. Hence, the high-temperature ALD is very effective in forming Al2O3 films as a passivation and/or gate-insulation layer of high-temperature-operation diamond SC devices, and the knowledge of the aforementioned new isotope effect will be a basis for further enhancing ALD technologies in general.

  13. Laser damage properties of TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Yaowei; Liu Hao; Sheng Ouyang; Liu Zhichao; Chen Songlin; Yang Liming

    2011-08-20

    Research on thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) for laser damage resistance is rare. In this paper, it has been used to deposit TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films at 110 deg. C and 280 deg. C on fused silica and BK7 substrates. Microstructure of the thin films was investigated by x-ray diffraction. The laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of samples was measured by a damage test system. Damage morphology was studied under a Nomarski differential interference contrast microscope and further checked under an atomic force microscope. Multilayers deposited at different temperatures were compared. The results show that the films deposited by ALD had better uniformity and transmission; in this paper, the uniformity is better than 99% over 100 mm {Phi} samples, and the transmission is more than 99.8% at 1064 nm. Deposition temperature affects the deposition rate and the thin film microstructure and further influences the LIDT of the thin films. As to the TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films, the LIDTs were 6.73{+-}0.47 J/cm{sup 2} and 6.5{+-}0.46 J/cm{sup 2} at 110 deg. C on fused silica and BK7 substrates, respectively. The LIDTs at 110 deg. C are notably better than 280 deg. C.

  14. Enhanced water vapor barrier properties for biopolymer films by polyelectrolyte multilayer and atomic layer deposited Al 2 O 3 double-coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirvikorpi, Terhi; Vähä-Nissi, Mika; Harlin, Ali; Salomäki, Mikko; Areva, Sami; Korhonen, Juuso T.; Karppinen, Maarit

    2011-09-01

    Commercial polylactide (PLA) films are coated with a thin (20 nm) non-toxic polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) film made from sodium alginate and chitosan and additionally with a 25-nm thick atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al 2O 3 layer. The double-coating of PEM + Al 2O 3 is found to significantly enhance the water vapor barrier properties of the PLA film. The improvement is essentially larger compared with the case the PLA film being just coated with an ALD-grown Al 2O 3 layer. The enhanced water vapor barrier characteristics of the PEM + Al 2O 3 double-coated PLA films are attributed to the increased hydrophobicity of the surface of these films.

  15. Spectroscopic characterization of the plasmas formed during the deposition of ZnO and Al-doped ZnO films by plasma-assisted pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Peipei; Cai, Hua; Yang, Xu; Li, Hui; Zhang, Wu; Xu, Ning; Sun, Jian; Wu, Jiada

    2016-11-01

    An oxygen-zinc plasma and an oxygen-zinc-aluminum plasma are formed by pulsed laser ablation of a Zn target or pulsed laser co-ablation of a Zn target and an Al target in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge-generated oxygen plasma for the deposition of ZnO and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films. The plasmas are characterized spectroscopically by time-integrated and time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy. Both the oxygen-zinc plasma and the oxygen-zinc-aluminum plasma contain excited species originally present in the working O2 gas and energetic species ablated from the targets. The optical emission of the oxygen-zinc-aluminum plasma is abundant in the emission bands of oxygen molecular ions and the emission lines of mono-atomic oxygen, zinc and aluminum atoms and atomic ions. The time-integrated spectra as well as the time-resolved spectra of the plasma emission indicate that the oxygen species in the ECR oxygen plasma experience additional excitation by the expanding ablation plumes, and the ablated species are excited frequently when traveling accompanying the plume expansion in the oxygen plasma, making the formed plasma highly excited and very reactive, which plays an important role in the reactive growth of ZnO matrix and the in-situ doping of Al into the growing ZnO matrix. The deposited ZnO and AZO films were evaluated for composition analysis by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, structure characterization by X-ray diffraction and optical transmission measurement. The deposited ZnO is slightly rich in O. The Al concentration of the AZO films can be controlled and varied simply by changing the repetition rate of the laser used for Al target ablation. Both the ZnO and the AZO films are featured with hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure and exhibit high optical transparency in a wide spectral region. Al doping results in an improvement in the ultraviolet transparency, a blue shift in the absorption edge and a widening of the band gap.

  16. Mechanical properties of Ta-Al-N thin films deposited by cylindrical DC magnetron sputtering: Influence of N2% in the gas mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darabi, Elham; Moghaddasi, Naghmeh; Reza Hantehzadeh, Mohammad

    2016-06-01

    Ta-Al-N thin films were deposited by cylindrical DC magnetron sputtering on a stainless steel substrate under varying nitrogen flow ratios ( N2 with respect to N2 + Ar in the range of 1.5%-9%. The effect of the N2 content in the reactive gas mixture on crystalline structure, surface morphology, and mechanical properties of Ta-Al-N thin films was investigated. The amount of Al and Ta in deposited films was obtained by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis and films thickness was measured by surface step profilometer. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) revealed that the crystalline structure of the Ta-Al-N polycrystalline thin film is a mixture of TaAl, TaN, and AlN crystalline phases. Surface morphology, roughness, and grain size were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The nano hardness of Ta-Al-N thin films, measured by the nanoindentation method, was about 9GPa maximum for samples prepared under 3% N2 , and the friction coefficient, obtained by nanoscratch analysis, was approximately 0.2 for all Ta-Al-N thin films. Other results were found to be affected considerably by increasing the N2 amount.

  17. Atomic layer deposition for fabrication of HfO2/Al2O3 thin films with high laser-induced damage thresholds.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yaowei; Pan, Feng; Zhang, Qinghua; Ma, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on the laser damage resistance of thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is rare. In this work, the ALD process for thin film generation was investigated using different process parameters such as various precursor types and pulse duration. The laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) was measured as a key property for thin films used as laser system components. Reasons for film damaged were also investigated. The LIDTs for thin films deposited by improved process parameters reached a higher level than previously measured. Specifically, the LIDT of the Al2O3 thin film reached 40 J/cm(2). The LIDT of the HfO2/Al2O3 anti-reflector film reached 18 J/cm(2), the highest value reported for ALD single and anti-reflect films. In addition, it was shown that the LIDT could be improved by further altering the process parameters. All results show that ALD is an effective film deposition technique for fabrication of thin film components for high-power laser systems.

  18. Microstructure and property of diamond-like carbon films with Al and Cr co-doping deposited using a hybrid beams system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wei; Liu, Jingmao; Geng, Dongsen; Guo, Peng; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Qimin

    2016-12-01

    DLC films with weak carbide former Al and carbide former Cr co-doping (Al:Cr-DLC) were deposited by a hybrid beams system comprising an anode-layer linear ion beam source (LIS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering using a gas mixture of C2H2 and Ar as the precursor. The doped Al and Cr contents were controlled via adjusting the C2H2 fraction in the gas mixture. The composition, microstructure, compressive stress, mechanical properties and tribological behaviors of the Al:Cr-DLC films were researched carefully using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, stress-tester, nanoindentation and ball-on-plate tribometer as function of the C2H2 fraction. The results show that the Al and Cr contents in the films increased continuously as the C2H2 fraction decreased. The doped Cr atoms preferred to bond with the carbon while the Al atoms mainly existed in metallic state. Structure modulation with alternate multilayer consisted of Al-poor DLC layer and Al-rich DLC layer was found in the films. Those periodic Al-rich DLC layers can effectively release the residual stress of the films. On the other hand, the formation of the carbide component due to Cr incorporation can help to increase the film hardness. Accordingly, the residual stress of the DLC films can be reduced without sacrificing the film hardness though co-doping Al and Cr atoms. Furthermore, it was found that the periodic Al-rich layer can greatly improve the elastic resilience of the DLC films and thus decreases the film friction coefficient and wear rate significantly. However, the existence of the carbide component would cause abrasive wear and thus deteriorate the wear performance of the films.

  19. Stoichiometry of LaAlO{sub 3} films grown on SrTiO{sub 3} by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Golalikhani, M.; Lei, Q. Y.; Xi, X. X.; Chen, G.; Spanier, J. E.; Ghassemi, H.; Johnson, C. L.; Taheri, M. L.

    2013-07-14

    We have studied the stoichiometry of epitaxial LaAlO{sub 3} thin films on SrTiO{sub 3} substrate grown by pulsed laser deposition as a function of laser energy density and oxygen pressure during the film growth. Both x-ray diffraction ({theta}-2{theta} scan and reciprocal space mapping) and transmission electron microscopy (geometric phase analysis) revealed a change of lattice constant in the film with the distance from the substrate. Combined with composition analysis using x-ray fluorescence we found that the nominal unit-cell volume expanded when the LaAlO{sub 3} film was La-rich, but remained near the bulk value when the film was La-poor or stoichiometric. La excess was found in all the films deposited in oxygen pressures lower than 10{sup -2} Torr. We conclude that the discussion of LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfacial properties should include the effects of cation off-stoichiometry in the LaAlO{sub 3} films when the deposition is conducted under low oxygen pressures.

  20. Effect of sputtering pressure on crystalline quality and residual stress of AlN films deposited at 823 K on nitrided sapphire substrates by pulsed DC reactive sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsuka, Makoto; Takeuchi, Hiroto; Fukuyama, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) is a promising material for use in applications such as deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) and surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. In the present study, the effect of sputtering pressure on the surface morphology, crystalline quality, and residual stress of AlN films deposited at 823 K on nitrided a-plane sapphire substrates, which have high-crystalline-quality c-plane AlN thin layers, by pulsed DC reactive sputtering was investigated. The c-axis-oriented AlN films were homoepitaxially grown on nitrided sapphire substrates at sputtering pressures of 0.4–1.5 Pa. Surface damage of the AlN sputtered films increased with increasing sputtering pressure because of arcing (abnormal electrical discharge) during sputtering. The sputtering pressure affected the crystalline quality and residual stress of AlN sputtered films because of a change in the number and energy of Ar+ ions and Al sputtered atoms. The crystalline quality of AlN films was improved by deposition with lower sputtering pressure.

  1. Room temperature photoluminescence from In{sub x}Al{sub (1−x)}N films deposited by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, W. Jiao, W. Y.; Kim, T. H.; Brown, A. S.; Mohanta, A.; Roberts, A. T.; Fournelle, J.; Losurdo, M.; Everitt, H. O.

    2014-09-29

    InAlN films deposited by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy exhibited a lateral composition modulation characterized by 10–12 nm diameter, honeycomb-shaped, columnar domains with Al-rich cores and In-rich boundaries. To ascertain the effect of this microstructure on its optical properties, room temperature absorption and photoluminescence characteristics of In{sub x}Al{sub (1−x)}N were comparatively investigated for indium compositions ranging from x = 0.092 to 0.235, including x = 0.166 lattice matched to GaN. The Stokes shift of the emission was significantly greater than reported for films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, possibly due to the phase separation in these nanocolumnar domains. The room temperature photoluminescence also provided evidence of carrier transfer from the InAlN film to the GaN template.

  2. Controlled direct growth of Al2O3-doped HfO2 films on graphene by H2O-based atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Li; Cheng, Xinhong; Yu, Yuehui; Xie, Yahong; Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Zhongjian

    2015-02-01

    Graphene has been drawing worldwide attention since its discovery in 2004. In order to realize graphene-based devices, thin, uniform-coverage and pinhole-free dielectric films with high permittivity on top of graphene are required. Here we report the direct growth of Al2O3-doped HfO2 films onto graphene by H2O-based atom layer deposition (ALD). Al2O3-onto-HfO2 stacks benefited the doping of Al2O3 into HfO2 matrices more than HfO2-onto-Al2O3 stacks did due to the micro-molecular property of Al2O3 and the high chemical activity of trimethylaluminum (TMA). Al2O3 acted as a network modifier, maintained the amorphous structure of the film even to 800 °C, and made the film smooth with a root mean square (RMS) roughness of 0.8 nm, comparable to the surface of pristine graphene. The capacitance and the relative permittivity of Al2O3-onto-HfO2 stacks were up to 1.18 μF cm(-2) and 12, respectively, indicating the high quality of Al2O3-doped HfO2 films on graphene. Moreover, the growth process of Al2O3-doped HfO2 films introduced no detective defects into graphene confirmed by Raman measurements. PMID:25519447

  3. Growth and characterisation of NiAl and N-doped NiAl films deposited by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering ion plating using elemental ni and Al targets.

    PubMed

    Said, R; Ahmed, W; Abuain, T; Abuazza, A; Gracio, J

    2010-04-01

    Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering Ion Plating (CFUBMSIP) has been used to deposit undoped and nitrogen doped NiAI thin films onto glass and stainless steel 316 substrates. These films have potential applications in tribological, electronic media and thermal barrier coatings. The surface characteristics, composition, mechanical and structural properties have been investigated using stylus profilometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX), Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nanoindentation. The average thickness of the films was approximately 1 microm. The X-ray diffraction spectra revealed the presence of the beta NiAl phase. The EDAX results revealed that all of the undoped and nitrogen doped NiAl thin films exhibited the near equiatomic NiAl composition with the best results being achieved using 300 Watts DC power for Ni and 400 Watts DC power for Al targets respectively. AFM results of both types of films deposited on glass samples exhibited a surface roughness of less than 100 nm. The nanoindenter results for coatings on glass substrates displayed hardness and elastic modulus of 7.7 GPa and 100 GPa respectively. The hardest coatings obtained were obtained at 10% of nitrogen.

  4. Influence of plasma density on the chemical composition and structural properties of pulsed laser deposited TiAlN thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Quiñones-Galván, J. G.; Camps, Enrique; Muhl, S.; Flores, M.; Campos-González, E.

    2014-05-15

    Incorporation of substitutional Al into the TiN lattice of the ternary alloy TiAlN results in a material with improved properties compared to TiN. In this work, TiAlN thin films were grown by the simultaneous ablation of Ti and Al targets in a nitrogen containing reactive atmosphere. The deposit was formed on silicon substrates at low deposition temperature (200 °C). The dependence of the Al content of the films was studied as a function of the ion density of the plasma produced by the laser ablation of the Al target. The plasma parameters were measured by means of a planar Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy. The chemical composition of the films was measured by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results showed a strong dependence of the amount of aluminum incorporated in the films with the plasma density. The structural characterization of the deposits was carried out by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy, where the substitutional incorporation of the Al into the TiN was demonstrated.

  5. Atomic layer deposition of Al-doped ZnO films using ozone as the oxygen source: A comparison of two methods to deliver aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Hai; Luo Bing; Yu Dan; Cheng, An-jen; Campbell, Stephen A.; Gladfelter, Wayne L.

    2012-01-15

    Aluminum-doped ZnO films were prepared by atomic layer deposition at 250 deg. C using diethylzinc (DEZ), trimethylaluminum (TMA), and ozone as the precursors. Two deposition methods were compared to assess their impact on the composition, structural, electrical, and optical properties as a function of Al concentration. The first method controlled the Al concentration by changing the relative number of Al to Zn deposition cycles; a process reported in the literature where water was used as the oxygen source. The second method involved coinjection of the DEZ and TMA during each cycle where the partial pressures of the precursors control the aluminum concentration. Depth profiles of the film composition using Auger electron spectroscopy confirmed a layered microstructure for the films prepared by the first method, whereas the second method led to a homogeneous distribution of the aluminum throughout the ZnO film. Beneath the surface layer the carbon concentrations for all of the films were below the detection limit. Comparison of their electrical and optical properties established that films deposited by coinjection of the precursors were superior.

  6. Increased upper critical field for nanocrystalline MoN thin films deposited on AlN buffered substrates at ambient temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskaran, R.; Thanikai Arasu, A. V.; Amaladass, E. P.; Vaidhyanathan, L. S.; Baisnab, D. K.

    2016-05-01

    Molybdenum nitride (MoN) thin films have been deposited using reactive DC magnetron sputtering on aluminum nitride buffered oxidized silicon substrates at ambient temperature. GIXRD of aluminum nitride (AlN) deposited under similar conditions has revealed the formation of wurtzite phase AlN. GIXRD characterization of molybdenum thin films deposited on AlN buffered oxidized silicon substrates has indicated the formation of nanocrystalline MoN thin films. The electrical resistivity measurements indicate MoN thin films have a superconducting transition temperature of ~8 K. The minimum transition width of the MoN thin film is 0.05 K at 0 T. The inferred upper critical field B c2(0) for these nanocrystalline MoN thin films obtained by fitting the temperature dependence of critical field with Werthamer, Helfand and Hohenberg theory lies in the range of 17-18 T which is the highest reported in literature for MoN thin films.

  7. IBA analysis and corrosion resistance of TiAlPtN/TiAlN/TiAl multilayer films deposited over a CoCrMo using magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canto, C. E.; Andrade, E.; de Lucio, O.; Cruz, J.; Solís, C.; Rocha, M. F.; Alemón, B.; Flores, M.; Huegel, J. C.

    2016-03-01

    The corrosion resistance and the elemental profile of multilayer coatings of TiAlPtN/TiAlN/TiAl synthesized by Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) reactive magnetron sputtering over a CoCrMo alloy substrate in 10 periods of 30 min each were analyzed and compared to those of the substrate alone and to that of a TiAlPtN single layer coating of the same thickness. The objective of the present work was to create multilayers with different amounts of Pt to enhance the corrosion resistance of a biomedical alloy of CoCrMo. Corrosion tests were performed using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) using potentiodynamic polarization tests at typical body temperature. The elemental composition and thickness of the coatings were evaluated with the combination of two ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques: a Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) with alpha beam and a Nuclear Reaction Analysis with a deuteron beam.

  8. Pulsed laser deposition of hydroxyapatite thin films on Ti-5Al-2.5Fe substrates with and without buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelea, V.; Ristoscu, C.; Chiritescu, C.; Ghica, C.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Pelletier, H.; Mille, P.; Cornet, A.

    2000-12-01

    We present a method for processing hydroxyapatite (HA) thin films on Ti-5Al-2.5Fe substrates. The films were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in vacuum at room temperature, using a KrF∗ excimer laser. The amorphous as-deposited HA films were recrystallized in ambient air by a thermal treatment at 550°C. The best results have been obtained when inserting a buffer layer of ceramic materials (TiN, ZrO2 or Al2O3). The films were characterized by complementary techniques: grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cross-section transmission electron microscopy (XTEM), SAED, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and nanoindentation. The samples with buffer interlayer preserve the stoichiometry are completely recrystallized and present better mechanical characteristics as compared with that without buffer interlayer.

  9. Atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 thin films with thin SiO2 layers grown by in situ O3 oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Keun; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2004-08-01

    The growth, thermal annealing behaviors, and electrical properties of Al2O3 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on bare (100)Si and various oxidized Si wafers, by in situ O3 oxidation at 400°C and ex situ rapid thermal annealing (RTA) under O2 atmosphere at 900°C, were investigated. The ALD process was performed using Al(CH3)3 and high concentration of O3(400gm3). The high oxidation potential of O3 oxidized the Si surface at a very early stage of film growth and eliminated the incubation period even on a bare Si surface. The as-grown Al2O3 films had excess oxygen in the films, which diffused to the film Si interface and increased the interfacial layer by oxidizing the Si substrates during postannealing. The Al2O3 films grown on a bare Si substrate had the highest concentration of excess oxygen which resulted in the largest increase in the interfacial layer thickness during postannealing. As a result, the initial oxidation of the Si wafer did not significantly decrease the capacitance density compared to the films grown on a nonoxidized Si wafer at the as-deposited and postannealed states. Therefore, the Al2O3 layers grown using a high concentration of O3 oxidant on the in situ O3 oxidized Si wafers showed real high-k gate dielectric performance although the dielectric constants of the Al2O3 films were rather small (˜9) compared to other high-k gate dielectric films.

  10. Solution based prompt inorganic condensation and atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films: A side-by-side comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Sean W.; Conley, John F.; Wang, Wei; Keszler, Douglas A.

    2014-07-15

    A comparison was made of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited on Si via prompt inorganic condensation (PIC) and atomic layer deposition (ALD). Current–voltage measurements as a function of annealing temperature indicate that the solution-processed PIC films, annealed at 500 °C, exhibit lower leakage and roughly equivalent breakdown strength in comparison to ALD films. PIC films are less dense than as-deposited ALD films and capacitance–voltage measurements indicate a lower relative dielectric constant. On the basis of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, it is found that the 500 °C anneal results in the formation of a ∼6 nm thick interfacial SiO{sub 2} layer at the Si interface. This SiO{sub 2} interfacial layer significantly affects the electrical performance of PIC Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited on Si.

  11. Electrical conduction and dielectric relaxation properties of AlN thin films grown by hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altuntas, Halit; Bayrak, Turkan; Kizir, Seda; Haider, Ali; Biyikli, Necmi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films were deposited at 200 °C, on p-type silicon substrates utilizing a capacitively coupled hollow-cathode plasma source integrated atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor. The structural properties of AlN were characterized by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, by which we confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite single-phase crystalline structure. The films exhibited an optical band edge around ˜5.7 eV. The refractive index and extinction coefficient of the AlN films were measured via a spectroscopic ellipsometer. In addition, to investigate the electrical conduction mechanisms and dielectric properties, Al/AlN/p-Si metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor structures were fabricated, and current density-voltage and frequency dependent (7 kHz-5 MHz) dielectric constant measurements (within the strong accumulation region) were performed. A peak of dielectric loss was observed at a frequency of 3 MHz and the Cole-Davidson empirical formula was used to determine the relaxation time. It was concluded that the native point defects such as nitrogen vacancies and DX centers formed with the involvement of Si atoms into the AlN layers might have influenced the electrical conduction and dielectric relaxation properties of the plasma-assisted ALD grown AlN films.

  12. Electrical conduction and dielectric relaxation properties of AlN thin films grown by hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altuntas, Halit; Bayrak, Turkan; Kizir, Seda; Haider, Ali; Biyikli, Necmi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films were deposited at 200 °C, on p-type silicon substrates utilizing a capacitively coupled hollow-cathode plasma source integrated atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor. The structural properties of AlN were characterized by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, by which we confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite single-phase crystalline structure. The films exhibited an optical band edge around ∼5.7 eV. The refractive index and extinction coefficient of the AlN films were measured via a spectroscopic ellipsometer. In addition, to investigate the electrical conduction mechanisms and dielectric properties, Al/AlN/p-Si metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor structures were fabricated, and current density–voltage and frequency dependent (7 kHz–5 MHz) dielectric constant measurements (within the strong accumulation region) were performed. A peak of dielectric loss was observed at a frequency of 3 MHz and the Cole–Davidson empirical formula was used to determine the relaxation time. It was concluded that the native point defects such as nitrogen vacancies and DX centers formed with the involvement of Si atoms into the AlN layers might have influenced the electrical conduction and dielectric relaxation properties of the plasma-assisted ALD grown AlN films.

  13. Interface Properties of Atomic-Layer-Deposited Al2O3 Thin Films on Ultraviolet/Ozone-Treated Multilayer MoS2 Crystals.

    PubMed

    Park, Seonyoung; Kim, Seong Yeoul; Choi, Yura; Kim, Myungjun; Shin, Hyunjung; Kim, Jiyoung; Choi, Woong

    2016-05-11

    We report the interface properties of atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 thin films on ultraviolet/ozone (UV/O3)-treated multilayer MoS2 crystals. The formation of S-O bonds on MoS2 after low-power UV/O3 treatment increased the surface energy, allowing the subsequent deposition of uniform Al2O3 thin films. The capacitance-voltage measurement of Au-Al2O3-MoS2 metal oxide semiconductor capacitors indicated n-type MoS2 with an electron density of ∼10(17) cm(-3) and a minimum interface trap density of ∼10(11) cm(-2) eV(-1). These results demonstrate the possibility of forming a high-quality Al2O3-MoS2 interface by proper UV/O3 treatment, providing important implications for their integration into field-effect transistors.

  14. Low-temperature atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on blown polyethylene films with plasma-treated surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Beom Lee, Gyeong; Sik Son, Kyung; Won Park, Suk; Hyung Shim, Joon; Choi, Byoung-Ho

    2013-01-15

    In this study, a layer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was deposited on blown polyethylene films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at low temperatures, and the surface characteristics of these Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-coated blown polyethylene films were analyzed. In order to examine the effects of the plasma treatment of the surfaces of the blown polyethylene films on the properties of the films, both untreated and plasma-treated film samples were prepared under various processing conditions. The surface characteristics of the samples were determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as by measuring their surface contact angles. It was confirmed that the surfaces of the plasma-treated samples contained a hydroxyl group, which helped the precursor and the polyethylene substrate to bind. ALD of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was performed through sequential exposures to trimethylaluminum and H{sub 2}O at 60 Degree-Sign C. The surface morphologies of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-coated blown polyethylene films were observed using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Further, it was confirmed that after ALD, the surface of the plasma-treated film was covered with alumina grains more uniformly than was the case for the surface of the untreated polymer film. It was also confirmed via the focused ion beam technique that the layer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} conformed to the surface of the blown polyethylene film.

  15. Growth modes and epitaxy of FeAl thin films on a-cut sapphire prepared by pulsed laser and ion beam assisted deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Xiang; Trautvetter, Moritz; Ziemann, Paul; Wiedwald, Ulf

    2014-01-14

    FeAl films around equiatomic composition are grown on a-cut (112{sup ¯}0) sapphire substrates by ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at ambient temperature. Subsequent successive annealing is used to establish chemical order and crystallographic orientation of the films with respect to the substrate. We find a strongly [110]-textured growth for both deposition techniques. Pole figures prove the successful preparation of high quality epitaxial films by PLD with a single in-plane orientation. IBAD-grown films, however, exhibit three in-plane orientations, all of them with broad angular distributions. The difference of the two growth modes is attributed to the existence of a metastable intermediate crystalline orientation as concluded from nonassisted sputter depositions at different substrate temperatures. The formation of the chemically ordered crystalline B2 phase is accompanied by the expected transition from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic behavior of the films. In accordance with the different thermally induced structural recovery, we find a step-like magnetic transition to paramagnetic behavior after annealing for 1 h at T{sub A} = 300 °C for IBAD deposition, while PLD-grown films show a gradual decrease of ferromagnetic signals with rising annealing temperatures.

  16. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Rieke, P.R.; Graff, G.E.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.; Baskaran, S.; Song, L.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Fryxell, G.E.

    1995-09-01

    Biological mineral deposition for the formation of bone, mollusk shell and other hard tissues provides materials scientists with illustrative materials processing strategies. This presentation will review the key features of biomineralization and how these features can be of technical importance. We have adapted existing knowledge of biomineralization to develop a unique method of depositing inorganic thin films and coating. Our approach to thin film deposition is to modify substrate surfaces to imitate the proteins found in nature that are responsible for controlling mineral deposition. These biomimetic surfaces control the nucleation and growth of the mineral from a supersaturated aqueous solution. This has many processing advantages including simple processing equipment, environmentally benign reagents, uniform coating of highly complex shapes, and enhanced adherence of coating. Many different types of metal oxide, hydroxide, sulfide and phosphate materials with useful mechanical, optical, electronic and biomedical properties can be deposited.

  17. Structural evolution and the control of defects in atomic layer deposited HfO2-Al2O3 stacked films on GaAs.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yu-Seon; Kim, Dae-Kyoung; Jeong, Kwang-Sik; Cho, Mann-Ho; Kim, Chung Yi; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Kim, Hyoungsub; Kim, Dong-Chan

    2013-03-01

    The structural characteristics and interfacial reactions of bilayered dielectric stacks of 3 nm HfO2/2 nm Al2O3 and 3 nm Al2O3/2 nm HfO2 on GaAs, prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD), were examined during film growth and the postannealing process. During the postdeposition annealing (PDA) of the Al2O3/HfO2/GaAs structures at 700 °C, large amounts of Ga oxides were generated between the Al2O3 and HfO2 films as the result of interfacial reactions between interdiffused oxygen impurities and out-diffused atomic Ga. However, in the case of the HfO2/Al2O3/GaAs structures, the presence of an Al2O3 buffer layer effectively blocked the out-diffusion of atomic Ga, thus suppressing the formation of Ga oxide. Microstructural analyses showed that HfO2 films that were deposited on Al2O3/GaAs had completely crystallized during the PDA process, even at 700 °C, because of the Al2O3 diffusion barrier. Capacitance-voltage measurements showed a relatively large frequency dispersion of the Al2O3/HfO2/GaAs structure in accumulation capacitance compared to the HfO2/Al2O3/GaAs structure due to a higher interface state density. Conductance results revealed that the Al2O3 buffer layer on GaAs resulted in a significant reduction in gap states in GaAs. The induced gap state in the Al2O3/HfO2/GaAs structure originated from the out-diffusion of atomic Ga into the HfO2 film. Density functional theory calculations supported this conclusion.

  18. Low-frequency dielectric properties of intrinsic and Al-doped rutile TiO2 thin films grown by the atomic layer deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassmi, M.; Pointet, J.; Gonon, P.; Bsiesy, A.; Vallée, C.; Jomni, F.

    2016-06-01

    Dielectric spectroscopy is carried out for intrinsic and aluminum-doped TiO2 rutile films which are deposited on RuO2 by the atomic layer deposition technique. Capacitance and conductance are measured in the 0.1 Hz-100 kHz range, for ac electric fields up to 1 MVrms/cm. Intrinsic films have a much lower dielectric constant than rutile crystals. This is ascribed to the presence of oxygen vacancies which depress polarizability. When Al is substituted for Ti, the dielectric constant further decreases. By considering Al-induced modification of polarizability, a theoretical relationship between the dielectric constant and the Al concentration is proposed. Al doping drastically decreases the loss in the very low frequency part of the spectrum. However, Al doping has almost no effect on the loss at high frequencies. The effect of Al doping on loss is discussed through models of hopping transport implying intrinsic oxygen vacancies and Al related centers. When increasing the ac electric field in the MVrms/cm range, strong voltage non-linearities are evidenced in undoped films. The conductance increases exponentially with the ac field and the capacitance displays negative values (inductive behavior). Hopping barrier lowering is proposed to explain high-field effects. Finally, it is shown that Al doping strongly improves the high-field dielectric behavior.

  19. Preparation of Sr2AlTaO6 Insulating Films on YBa2Cu3O7-δ by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition with Purified Sr Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Zama, Hideaki; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Nobuyoshi; Wu, Yuan; Morishita, Tadataka; Tanabe, Keiichi

    2002-02-01

    200-nm-thick Sr2AlTaO6 (SAT) insulating films were prepared on 10-μm-thick superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). By employing a purified Sr(thd)2 metalorganic source, instead of Sr(thd)2-2tetraene, and a higher evaporation temperature, we could reproducibly obtain stoichiometric SAT films with high crystallinity as revealed by the full-width at half maximum value of the SAT (004) X-ray rocking curve which was as small as 0.2°. Moreover, a 200-nm-thick c-axis-oriented YBCO film with a Tc of 90 K and a Jc higher than 107 A/cm2 below 60 K could be grown on the SAT film. These results confirm that the SAT films prepared by MOCVD are suitable for use as insulating layers in high-Tc multilayer electronic devices.

  20. Photoresponse and photocapacitor properties of Au/AZO/p-Si/Al diode with AZO film prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alyamani, A.; Tataroğlu, A.; El Mir, L.; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Dahman, H.; Farooq, W. A.; Yakuphanoğlu, F.

    2016-04-01

    The electrical and photoresponse properties of Au/nanostructure AZO/p-Si/Al diode were investigated. Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were deposited via pulsed laser deposition method on silicon substrate. Structural properties of the films were performed by using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The XRD patterns showed that the AZO films are polycrystalline with hexagonal wurtzite structure preferentially oriented in (002) direction. Electrical and photoresponse properties of the diode were analyzed under in a wide range of frequencies and illumination intensities. It is observed that the reverse current of the diode increases with increasing illumination intensity. This result confirms that the diode exhibits both photoconducting and photovoltaic behavior. Also, the transient photocurrent, photocapacitance and photoconductance measured as a function of time highly depend on transient illumination. In addition, the frequency dependence of capacitance and conductance is attributed to the presence of interface states.

  1. Structural and luminescence properties of yellow Y3Al5012:Ce3+ thin-film phosphors prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejene, F. B.

    2016-04-01

    Recently oxide phosphors have gained much attention because of the variety of materials available and chemical stability as compared to sulphide phosphors. Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ crystal is an excellent host material which is able to compatibly accept divalent and/or trivalent activators from both rare earth and transition metal groups. It is well known that YAG is a highly efficient yellow phosphor. However, these phosphors in the form of thin films have not yet been fully realized due to technical difficulties. We prepared thin-film-type YAG phosphors on silicon (110) substrate using a pulsed laser deposition technique. The luminescent and structural properties of thin-film phosphors were monitored as a function of key processing parameter which is the deposition temperature. The surface morphology of the grown thin films was strongly affected by the growth temperature. Electron diffraction spectroscopy confirms the presence of the Y, Al, O and Si. Even though we could not obtain homogenous phases, by optimizing processing parameters, thin films with large homogenous areas and a high photoluminescence could be produced. XRD measurements revealed Y3Al5O12 structure when grown at temperatures from room temperature to 750 °C; however, other phases such as Y4Al2O9 and YAlO3 are observed as impurities. The PL results, which are in good agreement with the XRD data, showed that Y3Al5O12 phase was relatively dominant in the film deposited at 750 °C, so emission spectra are strong at around 570 nm.

  2. A Study on the Growth Behavior and Stability of Molecular Layer Deposited Alucone Films Using Diethylene Glycol and Trimethyl Aluminum Precursors, and the Enhancement of Diffusion Barrier Properties by Atomic Layer Deposited Al2O3 Capping.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-Won; Yoo, Mi; Lee, Hyuck Mo; Park, Jozeph; Kim, Hyun You; Park, Jin-Seong

    2016-05-18

    As a route to the production of organic-inorganic hybrid multilayers, the growth behavior of molecular layer deposited (MLD) alucone and atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 films on top of each other was examined. MLD alucone films were prepared using trimethyl aluminum and diethylene glycol precursors, the latter resulting in faster growth rates than ethylene glycol precursors. The sensitivity of individual alucone films with respect to ambient exposure was found to be related to moisture permeation and hydration reactions, of which the mechanism is studied by density functional theory calculations. Deleterious effects such as thickness reduction over time could be suppressed by applying a protective Al2O3 layer on top of alucone. A preliminary nucleation period was required in the ALD process of Al2O3 films on alucone surfaces, prior to reaching a linear regime where the thickness increases linearly with respect to the number of ALD cycles. The same behavior was observed for alucone growing on Al2O3. The protective Al2O3 films were found to effectively suppress moisture permeation, thus isolating the underlying alucone from the surrounding environment. The water vapor transmission rate was greatly reduced when an Al2O3/alucone/Al2O3 multilayer stack was formed, which suggests that proper combinations of organic/inorganic hybrid structures may provide chemically stable platforms, especially for mechanically flexible applications. PMID:27117392

  3. Process monitoring during AlN{sub x}O{sub y} deposition by reactive magnetron sputtering and correlation with the film's properties

    SciTech Connect

    Borges, Joel Vaz, Filipe; Marques, Luis; Martin, Nicolas

    2014-03-15

    In this work, AlN{sub x}O{sub y} thin films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering, using an aluminum target and an Ar/(N{sub 2}+O{sub 2}) atmosphere. The direct current magnetron discharge parameters during the deposition process were investigated by optical emission spectroscopy and a plasma floating probe was used. The discharge voltage, the electron temperature, the ion flux, and the optical emission lines were recorded for different reactive gas flows, near the target and close to the substrate. This information was correlated with the structural features of the deposits as a first step in the development of a system to control the structure and properties of the films during reactive magnetron sputtering. As the target becomes poisoned, the discharge voltage suffers an important variation, due to the modification of the secondary electron emission coefficient of the target, which is also supported by the evolution of the electron temperature and ion flux to the target. The sputtering yield of the target was also affected, leading to a reduction of the amount of Al atoms arriving to the substrate, according to optical emission spectroscopy results for Al emission line intensity. This behavior, together with the increase of nonmetallic elements in the films, allowed obtaining different microstructures, over a wide range of compositions, which induced different electrical and optical responses of films.

  4. Structural, electrical, optical, thermoelectrical and photoconductivity properties of the SnO2-Al2O3 binary transparent conducting films deposited by the spray pyrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moharrami, F.; Bagheri-Mohagheghi, M.-M.; Azimi-Juybari, H.; Shokooh-Saremi, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the SnO2-Al2O3 binary thin-film system has been deposited on a glass substrate by the spray pyrolysis technique. The effect of aluminum concentration on the structural, electrical, thermoelectrical, optical and photoconductivity properties of films was studied. The [Al]/[Sn] atomic ratio was in the range 0-100 at.% in solution. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that all films with different doping levels have polycrystalline SnO2 cassiterite phase. At doping levels of 40 at.% and above, the Al2O3 phase was observed and the sheet resistance of the films increased with increasing Al doping in the ranges from 5 at.% to less than 40 at.% and more than 60 at.% due to the substitution of Al3+ with Sn4+. Minimum sheet resistance of films was found in the range 40-60 at.%. Using Hall effect measurements, the majority carriers concentration obtained was of the order of 1018 cm-3. Hall effect and thermoelectrical measurements show that at doping levels between 10 and 20% and also higher than 60 at.%, majority carriers change from electrons (n-type conduction) to holes (p-type conduction). Also, a higher Seebeck coefficient value equal to -341 μV K-1 was obtained for the 30 at.% Al-doping level. The average transmittance of the films at low doping levels was about 75-90%. The photoconductivity properties of SnO2-Al2O3 thin films increased with increasing doping level.

  5. Microstructures and growth mechanisms of GaN films epitaxially grown on AlN/Si hetero-structures by pulsed laser deposition at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenliang; Yang, Weijia; Lin, Yunhao; Zhou, Shizhong; Li, Guoqiang

    2015-11-13

    2 inch-diameter GaN films with homogeneous thickness distribution have been grown on AlN/Si(111) hetero-structures by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with laser rastering technique. The surface morphology, crystalline quality, and interfacial property of as-grown GaN films are characterized in detail. By optimizing the laser rastering program, the ~300 nm-thick GaN films grown at 750 °C show a root-mean-square (RMS) thickness inhomogeneity of 3.0%, very smooth surface with a RMS surface roughness of 3.0 nm, full-width at half-maximums (FWHMs) for GaN(0002) and GaN(102) X-ray rocking curves of 0.7° and 0.8°, respectively, and sharp and abrupt AlN/GaN hetero-interfaces. With the increase in the growth temperature from 550 to 850 °C, the surface morphology, crystalline quality, and interfacial property of as-grown ~300 nm-thick GaN films are gradually improved at first and then decreased. Based on the characterizations, the corresponding growth mechanisms of GaN films grown on AlN/Si hetero-structures by PLD with various growth temperatures are hence proposed. This work would be beneficial to understanding the further insight of the GaN films grown on Si(111) substrates by PLD for the application of GaN-based devices.

  6. Negative charge trapping effects in Al2O3 films grown by atomic layer deposition onto thermally oxidized 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilirò, Emanuela; Lo Nigro, Raffaella; Fiorenza, Patrick; Roccaforte, Fabrizio

    2016-07-01

    This letter reports on the negative charge trapping in Al2O3 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition onto oxidized silicon carbide (4H-SiC). The films exhibited a permittivity of 8.4, a breakdown field of 9.2 MV/cm and small hysteresis under moderate bias cycles. However, severe electron trapping inside the Al2O3 film (1 × 1012 cm-2) occurs upon high positive bias stress (>10V). Capacitance-voltage measurements at different temperatures and stress conditions have been used to determine an activation energy of 0.1eV. The results provide indications on the possible nature of the trapping defects and, hence, on the strategies to improve this technology for 4H-SiC devices.

  7. Influences of defects evolvement on the properties of sputtering deposited ZnO:Al films upon hydrogen annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Shiliu; Shirolkar, Mandar M.; Li, Jieni; Li, Ming; Song, Xiao; Dong, Xiaolei; Wang, Haiqian

    2016-06-01

    Understanding how the defects interact with each other and affect the properties of ZnO:Al films is very important for improving their performance as a transparent conductive oxide (TCO). In the present work, we studied the effects of hydrogen annealing on the structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO:Al films prepared by magnetron sputtering. High resolution transmission electron microscopy observations reveal that annealing at ˜300 oC induces the formation of partial dislocations (PD) and stacking faults (SF), which disrupt the lattice periodicity leading to decreased grain size. Annealing at temperatures above ˜500 oC can remove the PD and SF, but large number of zinc vacancies will be generated. Our results show that when films are annealed at ˜500 oC, the oxygen-related defects (interstitials Oi, etc.) in the as-grown films can be remarkably removed or converted, which lead to increments in the carrier concentration, mobility, and the transmittance in the visible range. At annealing temperatures above 550 oC, the hydrogen etching effect becomes predominant, and Al donors are deactivated by zinc vacancies. We also find an abnormal endothermic process by thermal analysis and an abnormal increase in the resistivity during heating the sample under hydrogen atmosphere, based on which the interaction of Oi with the defects (mainly Al donors and PD) is discussed. It is also demonstrated that by annealing the as-grown AZO films at ˜500 oC under hydrogen atmosphere, high performance TCO films with a low resistivity of 4.48 × 10-4 Ωcm and high transmittance of above 90% in the visible light are obtained.

  8. Controlling the electronic properties of SWCNT FETs via modification of the substrate surface prior to atomic layer deposition of 10 nm thick Al2O3 film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joonsung; Yoon, Jangyeol; Na, Junhong; Yee, Seongmin; Kim, Gyu Tae; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate the controllability of the electronic transport properties of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) field effect transistors (FETs) via the use of 10 nm thick atomic-layer-deposited aluminum oxide (Al2O3) gate dielectric films, where the substrate surfaces were modified with differently functionalized self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) prior to their growth, namely SAMs with hydrophobic (-CH3) or hydrophilic (-OH) groups. Al2O3 grown on a hydrophilic surface causes the SWCNT FETs to keep their intrinsic p-type transfer characteristics by alleviating the electron-doping effect originating from defects in the Al2O3 film. However, the SAM with methyl groups increases the defect density of the Al2O3 film, enhancing the n-type transfer characteristics and inducing ambipolar to n-type behavior in the SWCNT FETs. In this work, we find clues about the distribution of charged defects in the Al2O3 film, which strongly influences the transfer characteristics of the SWCNT FETs, by measuring the thickness-dependent flat band voltages.

  9. Study on nanocomposite Ti-Al-Si-Cu-N films with various Si contents deposited by cathodic vacuum arc ion plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, J.; Muders, C. M.; Kumar, A.; Jiang, X.; Pei, Z. L.; Gong, J.; Sun, C.

    2012-10-01

    In this study, nanocomposite Ti-Al-Si-Cu-N films were deposited on high speed steel substrates by the vacuum cathode arc ion plating (AIP) technique. By virtue of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), the influence of silicon content on the film microstructure and characteristics was investigated systematically, including the chemical composition, crystalline structure as well as cross-section morphologies. With increasing the silicon content, a deterioration of the preferred orientation and a dense globular structure were detected. In the meanwhile, atomic force microscopy (AFM), nano-indentation, Rockwell indenter and reciprocating test were also utilized to analyze the hardness, elastic modulus, H3/E2, friction coefficient, adhesive strength and wear rate of the Ti-Al-Si-Cu-N films. The results showed that an optimal silicon content correlated with the best mechanical and tribological properties of the presented Ti-Al-Si-Cu-N films existed. With increasing the silicon content, the hardness, elastic modulus and the ratio H3/E2 first were improved gradually, and then were impaired sharply again. When the silicon content reached to 6 at.%, the film possessed the highest hardness, elastic modulus and ratio H3/E2 of approximately 24 GPa, 218 GPa and 0.31, respectively. Besides, films containing both 6 at.% and 10 at.% Si contents obtained a relatively low friction coefficient and a good adhesive strength. The wear rate decreased with an increase in hardness, with the highest hardness corresponding to a wear rate around 1.3 × 10-5 mm3/(N m) of the film with 6 at.% Si content. The correlations between hardness and tribological properties for the films were also examined. The essence of above phenomena was attributed to the variations of microstructure and morphologies in the films induced by the increasing silicon content.

  10. Raman Spectroscopy of the Reaction of Thin Films of Solid-State Benzene with Vapor-Deposited Ag, Mg, and Al

    SciTech Connect

    Schalnat, Matthew C.; Hawkridge, Adam M.; Pemberton, Jeanne E.

    2011-07-21

    Thin films of solid-state benzene at 30 K were reacted with small quantities of vapor-deposited Ag, Mg, and Al under ultrahigh vacuum, and products were monitored using surface Raman spectroscopy. Although Ag and Mg produce small amounts of metal–benzene adduct products, the resulting Raman spectra are dominated by surface enhancement of the normal benzene modes from metallic nanoparticles suggesting rapid Ag or Mg metallization of the film. In contrast, large quantities of Al adduct products are observed. Vibrational modes of the products in all three systems suggest adducts that are formed through a pathway initiated by an electron transfer reaction. The difference in reactivity between these metals is ascribed to differences in ionization potential of the metal atoms; ionization potential values for Ag and Mg are similar but larger than that for Al. These studies demonstrate the importance of atomic parameters, such as ionization potential, in solid-state metal–organic reaction chemistry.

  11. Narrow growth window for stoichiometric, layer-by-layer growth of LaAlO3 thin films using pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golalikhani, M.; Lei, Q. Y.; Wolak, M. A.; Davidson, B. A.; Xi, X. X.

    2016-06-01

    We study the structure and surface morphology of the 100 nm homoepitaxial LaAlO3 films grown by pulsed laser deposition in a broad range of growth parameters. We show that there is a narrow window of growth conditions in which the stoichiometric, bulk-like structure is obtained while maintaining a 2-dimensional (2D) layer-by-layer growth mode. In our system, these optimum growth conditions are 100 mTorr background pressure with laser energy density 1.5-2 J/cm2. The sensitivity to growth conditions of the stoichiometry and structure of LaAlO3 films can have a crucial role in the 2-D electron gas formed at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface.

  12. Structure Evolution and Electric Properties of TaN Films Deposited on Al2O3-BASED Ceramic and Glass Substrates by Magnetron Reactive Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan Ming; Ma, Yang Zhao; Xie, Zhong; He, Ming Zhi

    2014-03-01

    Structure evolution and electric properties of tantalum nitride (TaN) films deposited on Al2O3-based ceramic and glass substrates by magnetron reactive sputtering were carried out as a function of the N2-to-Ar flow ratio. The TaN thin films on Al2O3-based ceramic substrates grow with micronclusters composed of numerous nanocrystallites, contains from single-phase of Ta2N grains to TaN, and exhibits high defect density, sheet resistance and negative TCR as the N2-to-Ar flow ratio continuously increases. However, the films on the glass substrates grow in the way of sandwich close-stack, contains from single-phase of Ta2N grains to TaN and Ta3N5 phases with the increase of N2-to-Ar flow ratio. These results indicate that the N2-to-Ar flow ratio and surface characteristic difference of substrates play a dominant effect on the structure and composition of the TaN films, resulting in different electrical properties for the films on Al2O3-based ceramic and the samples on glass substrates.

  13. Effects of ozone post deposition treatment on interfacial and electrical characteristics of atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 and HfO2 films on GaSb substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lianfeng; Tan, Zhen; Wang, Jing; Xu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 and HfO2 films on GaSb substrates were treated by in-situ ozone post deposition treatment (PDT). The effects of ozone PDT on the interfacial and electrical properties of Al2O3 and HfO2 gate dielectric films on GaSb substrates were investigated carefully. It is found that the dielectric quality and the interfacial properties of the Al2O3 and HfO2 films are improved by ozone PDT. After in-situ ozone PDT for 5 min, the Al2O3 and HfO2 films on GaSb substrates exhibit improved electrical and interfacial properties, such as reduced frequency dispersion, gate leakage current, border traps and interface traps. Interface trap density is reduced by ∼24% for the Al2O3/GaSb stacks and ∼27% for the HfO2/GaSb stacks. In-situ ozone PDT is proved to be a promising technique in improving the quality of high-k gate stacks on GaSb substrates.

  14. Microstructure and mechanical properties of sputter deposited Ni/Ni3Al multilayer films at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Feng, Kai; Li, Zhuguo; Lu, Fenggui; Huang, Jian; Wu, Yixiong

    2016-08-01

    Nano-structured Ni/Ni3Al multilayer was prepared by magnetron sputtering, with individual layer thicknesses h varying from 10 to 160 nm. The microstructure and hardness of Ni/Ni3Al multilayer were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nanoindentation. The results show that the hardness increases with decreasing h for as-deposited and 500 °C annealed multilayers. When annealed at 700 °C, the hardness approach a peak value at h = 40 nm with followed by softening at smaller h. The influence of individual layer thickness, grain size as well as formation of ordered Ni3Al on strengthening mechanisms of Ni/Ni3Al multilayers at elevated temperature are discussed.

  15. On the reliability of nanoindentation hardness of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films grown on Si-wafer by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xuwen Haimi, Eero; Hannula, Simo-Pekka; Ylivaara, Oili M. E.; Puurunen, Riikka L.

    2014-01-15

    The interest in applying thin films on Si-wafer substrate for microelectromechanical systems devices by using atomic layer deposition (ALD) has raised the demand on reliable mechanical property data of the films. This study aims to find a quick method for obtaining nanoindentation hardness of thin films on silicon with improved reliability. This is achieved by ensuring that the film hardness is determined under the condition that no plastic deformation occurs in the substrate. In the study, ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films having thickness varying from 10 to 600 nm were deposited on a single-side polished silicon wafer at 300 °C. A sharp cube-corner indenter was used for the nanoindentation measurements. A thorough study on the Si-wafer reference revealed that at a specific contact depth of about 8 nm the wafer deformation in loading transferred from elastic to elastic–plastic state. Furthermore, the occurrence of this transition was associated with a sharp increase of the power-law exponent, m, when the unloading data were fitted to a power-law relation. Since m is only slightly material dependent and should fall between 1.2 and 1.6 for different indenter geometry having elastic contact to common materials, it is proposed that the high m values are the results from the inelastic events during unloading. This inelasticity is linked to phase transformations during pressure releasing, a unique phenomenon widely observed in single crystal silicon. Therefore, it is concluded that m could be used to monitor the mechanical state of the Si substrate when the whole coating system is loaded. A suggested indentation depth range can then be assigned to each film thickness to provide guidelines for obtaining reliable property data. The results show good consistence for films thicker than 20 nm and the nanoindentation hardness is about 11 GPa independent of film thickness.

  16. Comparison of the microstructure and magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrite films deposited on Al2O3(0001), Si(100)/Pt(111) and Si(100) substrates by pulsed laser technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoudpanah, S. M.; Seyyed Ebrahimi, S. A.; Ong, C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Strontium hexaferrite SrFe12O19 (SrM) films have been deposited on Al2O3(0001), Si(100)/Pt(111) and Si(100) substrates. The (001) oriented SrFe12O19 films deposited on the Al2O3(0001) and Si(100)/Pt(111) substrates have been confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns. Higher coercivity in perpendicular direction rather than in-plane direction of the SrM/Al2O3(0001) and SrM/Pt(111) films showed that the films had perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The (001) orientation and similar microstructure and magnetic properties of the SrM/Al2O3(0001) and SrM/Pt(111) films show the Al2O3(0001) substrate can be replaced by the Si(100)/Pt(111) substrate.

  17. Interface Properties of Atomic-Layer-Deposited Al2O3 Thin Films on Ultraviolet/Ozone-Treated Multilayer MoS2 Crystals.

    PubMed

    Park, Seonyoung; Kim, Seong Yeoul; Choi, Yura; Kim, Myungjun; Shin, Hyunjung; Kim, Jiyoung; Choi, Woong

    2016-05-11

    We report the interface properties of atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 thin films on ultraviolet/ozone (UV/O3)-treated multilayer MoS2 crystals. The formation of S-O bonds on MoS2 after low-power UV/O3 treatment increased the surface energy, allowing the subsequent deposition of uniform Al2O3 thin films. The capacitance-voltage measurement of Au-Al2O3-MoS2 metal oxide semiconductor capacitors indicated n-type MoS2 with an electron density of ∼10(17) cm(-3) and a minimum interface trap density of ∼10(11) cm(-2) eV(-1). These results demonstrate the possibility of forming a high-quality Al2O3-MoS2 interface by proper UV/O3 treatment, providing important implications for their integration into field-effect transistors. PMID:27117229

  18. Investigations of nanodimensional Al{sup 2}O{sup 3} films deposited by ion-plasma sputtering onto porous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Seredin, P. V. Lenshin, A. S.; Goloshchapov, D. L.; Lukin, A. N.; Arsentyev, I. N. Bondarev, A. D.; Tarasov, I. S.

    2015-07-15

    The purpose of this study is the deposition of nanodimensional Al{sup 2}O{sup 3} films on the surface of nanoporous silicon and also fundamental investigations of the structural, optical, and morphological properties of these materials. Analyzing the results obtained here, it is possible to state that ultrathin nanostructured Al{sup 2}O{sup 3} films can be obtained in the form of threads oriented in one direction and located at a distance of 300–500 nm from each other using ion-plasma sputtering on a layer of porous silicon. Such a mechanism of aluminum-oxide growth is conditioned by the crystallographic orientation of the initial single-crystalline silicon wafer used to fabricate the porous layer. The results of optical spectroscopy show that the Al{sup 2}O{sup 3}/por-Si/Si(111) heterophase structure perfectly transmits electromagnetic radiation in the range of 190–900 nm. The maximum in the dispersion of the refractive index obtained for the Al{sup 2}O{sup 3} film grown on por-Si coincides with the optical-absorption edge for aluminum oxide and is located in the region of ∼5.60 eV. This fact is confirmed by the results of calculations of the optical-absorption spectrum of the Al{sup 2}O{sup 3}/por-Si/Si(lll) heterophase structure. The Al{sup 2}O{sup 3} films formed on the heterophase-structure surface in the form of nanodimensional structured threads can serve as channels of optical conduction and can be rather efficiently introduced into conventional technologies, which are of great importance in microelectronics and optoelectronics.

  19. Deposition temperature dependence of material and Si surface passivation properties of O{sub 3}-based atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based films and stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Bordihn, Stefan; Mertens, Verena; Müller, Jörg W.; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2014-01-15

    The material composition and the Si surface passivation of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) films prepared by atomic layer deposition using Al(CH{sub 3}){sub 3} and O{sub 3} as precursors were investigated for deposition temperatures (T{sub Dep}) between 200 °C and 500 °C. The growth per cycle decreased with increasing deposition temperature due to a lower Al deposition rate. In contrast the material composition was hardly affected except for the hydrogen concentration, which decreased from [H] = 3 at. % at 200 °C to [H] < 0.5 at. % at 400 °C and 500 °C. The surface passivation performance was investigated after annealing at 300 °C–450 °C and also after firing steps in the typical temperature range of 800 °C–925 °C. A similar high level of the surface passivation performance, i.e., surface recombination velocity values <10 cm/s, was obtained after annealing and firing. Investigations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiN{sub x} stacks complemented the work and revealed similar levels of surface passivation as single-layer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films, both for the chemical and field-effect passivation. The fixed charge density in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiN{sub x} stacks, reflecting the field-effect passivation, was reduced by one order of magnitude from 3·10{sup 12} cm{sup −2} to 3·10{sup 11} cm{sup −2} when T{sub Dep} was increased from 300 °C to 500 °C. The level of the chemical passivation changed as well, but the total level of the surface passivation was hardly affected by the value of T{sub Dep}. When firing films prepared at of low T{sub Dep}, blistering of the films occurred and this strongly reduced the surface passivation. These results presented in this work demonstrate that a high level of surface passivation can be achieved for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based films and stacks over a wide range of conditions when the combination of deposition temperature and annealing or firing temperature is carefully chosen.

  20. Investigation on dielectric properties of atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric films

    SciTech Connect

    Yıldız, Dilber Esra; Yıldırım, Mert; Gökçen, Muharrem

    2014-05-15

    Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/p-Si Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) were fabricated using atomic layer deposition technique in order to investigate dielectric properties of SBDs. For this purpose, admittance measurements were conducted at room temperature between −1 V and 3 V in the frequency range of 10 kHz and 1 MHz. In addition to the investigation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} morphology using atomic force microscope, dielectric parameters; such as dielectric constant (ε′), dielectric loss (ε″), dielectric loss tangent (tan δ), and real and imaginary parts of dielectric modulus (M′ and M″, respectively), were calculated and effect of frequency on these parameters of Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/p-Si SBDs was discussed. Variations in these parameters at low frequencies were associated with the effect of interface states in low frequency region. Besides dielectric parameters, ac electrical conductivity of these SBDs was also investigated.

  1. Effect of atomic layer deposition temperature on current conduction in Al2O3 films formed using H2O oxidant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Matsumura, Daisuke; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    To develop high-performance, high-reliability gate insulation and surface passivation technologies for wide-bandgap semiconductor devices, the effect of atomic layer deposition (ALD) temperature on current conduction in Al2O3 films is investigated based on the recently proposed space-charge-controlled field emission model. Leakage current measurement shows that Al2O3 metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors formed on the Si substrates underperform thermally grown SiO2 capacitors at the same average field. However, using equivalent oxide field as a more practical measure, the Al2O3 capacitors are found to outperform the SiO2 capacitors in the cases where the capacitors are negatively biased and the gate material is adequately selected to reduce virtual dipoles at the gate/Al2O3 interface. The Al2O3 electron affinity increases with the increasing ALD temperature, but the gate-side virtual dipoles are not affected. Therefore, the leakage current of negatively biased Al2O3 capacitors is approximately independent of the ALD temperature because of the compensation of the opposite effects of increased electron affinity and permittivity in Al2O3. By contrast, the substrate-side sheet of charge increases with increasing ALD temperature above 210 °C and hence enhances the current of positively biased Al2O3 capacitors more significantly at high temperatures. Additionally, an anomalous oscillatory shift of the current-voltage characteristics with ALD temperature was observed in positively biased capacitors formed by low-temperature (≤210 °C) ALD. This shift is caused by dipoles at the Al2O3/underlying SiO2 interface. Although they have a minimal positive-bias leakage current, the low-temperature-grown Al2O3 films cause the so-called blisters problem when heated above 400 °C. Therefore, because of the absence of blistering, a 450 °C ALD process is presently the most promising technology for growing high-reliability Al2O3 films.

  2. Characterization of high-{kappa} LaLuO{sub 3} thin film grown on AlGaN/GaN heterostructure by molecular beam deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Shu; Huang Sen; Chen Hongwei; Chen, Kevin J.; Schnee, Michael; Zhao Qingtai; Schubert, Juergen

    2011-10-31

    We report the study of high-dielectric-constant (high-{kappa}) dielectric LaLuO{sub 3} (LLO) thin film that is grown on AlGaN/GaN heterostructure by molecular beam deposition (MBD). The physical properties of LLO on AlGaN/GaN heterostrucure have been investigated with atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and TEM. It is revealed that the MBD-grown 16 nm-thick LLO film is polycrystalline with a thin ({approx}2 nm) amorphous transition layer at the LLO/GaN interface. The bandgap of LLO is derived as 5.3 {+-} 0.04 eV from O1s energy loss spectrum. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of a Ni-Au/LLO/III-nitride metal-insulator-semiconductor diode exhibit small frequency dispersion (<2%) and reveal a high effective dielectric constant of {approx}28 for the LLO film. The LLO layer is shown to be effective in suppressing the reverse and forward leakage current in the MIS diode. In particular, the MIS diode forward current is reduced by 7 orders of magnitude at a forward bias of 1 V compared to a conventional Ni-Au/III-nitride Schottky diode.

  3. Fast epitaxial growth of a-axis- and c-axis-oriented YBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ films on (1 0 0) LaAlO 3 substrate by laser chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Pei; Ito, Akihiko; Tu, Rong; Goto, Takashi

    2011-02-01

    a-axis- and c-axis-oriented YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films were epitaxially grown on (1 0 0) LaAlO3 substrates by laser chemical vapor deposition. The preferred orientation in the YBCO film changed from the a-axis to the c-axis with increasing laser powers from 77 to 158 W (the deposition temperatures from 951 to 1087 K). The a-axis-oriented YBCO film showed in-plane epitaxial growth of YBCO [0 0 1]//LAO [0 0 1], and the c-axis-oriented YBCO film showed that of YBCO [0 1 0]//LAO [0 0 1]. A c-axis-oriented YBCO film with a high critical temperature of 90 K was prepared at a deposition rate of 90 μm h-1, about 2-1000 times higher than that of metalorganic chemical vapor deposition.

  4. Effect of different dopant elements (Al, Mg and Ni) on microstructural, optical and electrochemical properties of ZnO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis (SP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzarouk, Hayet; Drici, Abdelaziz; Mekhnache, Mounira; Amara, Abdelaziz; Guerioune, Mouhamed; Bernède, Jean Christian; Bendjffal, Hacen

    2012-09-01

    In the present work we studied the influence of the dopant elements and concentration on the microstructural and electrochemical properties of ZnO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis. Transparent conductive thin films of zinc oxide (ZnO) were prepared by the spray pyrolysis process using an aqueous solution of zinc acetate dehydrate [Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O] on soda glass substrate heated at 400 ± 5 °C. AlCl3, MgCl2 and NiCl2 were used as dopant. The effect of doping percentage (2-4%) has been investigated. Afterwards the samples were thermally annealed in an ambient air during one hour at 500 °C. X-ray diffraction showed that films have a wurtzite structure with a preferential orientation along the (0 0 2) direction for doped ZnO. The lattice parameters a and c are estimated to be 3.24 and 5.20 Ǻ, respectively. Transmission allowed to estimate the band gaps of ZnO layers. The electrochemical studies revealed that the corrosion resistance of the films depended on the concentration of dopants.

  5. Ti-Cr-Al-O Thin Film Resistors

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A F; Hayes, J P

    2002-03-21

    Thin films of Ti-Cr-Al-O are produced for use as an electrical resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O{sub 2}. Vertical resistivity values from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 10} Ohm-cm are measured for Ti-Cr-Al-O films. The film resistivity can be design selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The Ti-Cr-Al-O thin film resistor is found to be thermally stable unlike other metal-oxide films.

  6. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xiaonan; Sheldon, Peter

    1998-01-01

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  7. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

    1998-01-27

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  8. Poole-Frenkel effect on electrical characterization of Al-doped ZnO films deposited on p-type GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Bohr-Ran; Liao, Chung-Chi; Ke, Wen-Cheng Chang, Yuan-Ching; Huang, Hao-Ping; Chen, Nai-Chuan

    2014-03-21

    This paper presents the electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films directly grown on two types of p-type GaN thin films. The low-pressure p-GaN thin films (LP-p-GaN) exhibited structural properties of high-density edge-type threading dislocations (TDs) and compensated defects (i.e., nitrogen vacancy). Compared with high-pressure p-GaN thin films (HP-p-GaN), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy of Ga 3d core levels indicated that the surface Fermi-level shifted toward the higher binding-energy side by approximately 0.7 eV. The high-density edge-type TDs and compensated defects enabled surface Fermi-level shifting above the intrinsic Fermi-level, causing the surface of LP-p-GaN thin films to invert to n-type semiconductor. A highly nonlinear increase in leakage current regarding reverse-bias voltage was observed for AZO/LP-p-GaN. The theoretical fits for the reverse-bias voltage region indicated that the field-assisted thermal ionization of carriers from defect associated traps, which is known as the Poole-Frenkel effect, dominated the I-V behavior of AZO/LP-p-GaN. The fitting result estimated the trap energy level at 0.62 eV below the conduction band edge. In addition, the optical band gap increased from 3.50 eV for as-deposited AZO films to 3.62 eV for 300 °C annealed AZO films because of the increased carrier concentration. The increasing Fermi-level of the 300 °C annealed AZO films enabled the carrier transport to move across the interface into the LP-p-GaN thin films without any thermal activated energy. Thus, the Ohmic behavior of AZO contact can be achieved directly on the low-pressure p-GaN films at room temperature.

  9. Reduced impurities and improved electrical properties of atomic-layer-deposited HfO2 film grown at a low temperature (100 °C) by Al2O3 incorporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Tae Joo; Byun, Youngchol; Wallace, Robert M.; Kim, Jiyoung

    2016-05-01

    The HfO2 films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at a low temperature (100 °C) necessarily has a large amount of residual impurities due to lack of thermal energy for stable ALD reactions such as ligand removal and oxidation, which degrades various properties. However, Al2O3 incorporation into the film significantly decreased the residual impurities despite of a low growth temperature. The decrease in C impurity is attributed to the reduced oxygen vacancies by the incorporated Al2O3 phase or the high reactivity of Al precursor. Consequently, the electronic band structure of the film, and thereby the electrical properties were improved significantly.

  10. The influence of the number of pulses on the morphological and photoluminescence properties of SrAl 2O 4:Eu 2+,Dy 3+ thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nsimama, P. D.; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.; Coetsee, E.; Swart, H. C.

    2009-12-01

    The current work reports on the influence of the number of laser pulses on the morphological and photoluminescence properties of SrAl 2O 4:Eu 2+,Dy 3+ thin films prepared by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the surface topography and morphology of the films. The AFM data showed that the film deposited using a higher number of laser pulses was packed with a uniform layer of coarse grains. In addition, the surface of this film was shown to be relatively rougher than the films deposited at a lower number of pulses. Photoluminescence (PL) data were collected using the Cary Eclipse fluorescence spectrophotometer equipped with a monochromatic xenon lamp. An intense green photoluminescence was observed at 517 nm from the films prepared using a higher number of laser pulses. Consistent with the PL data, the decay time of the film deposited using a higher number of pulses was characteristically longer than those of the other films. The effects of laser pulses on morphology, topography and photoluminescence intensity of the SrAl 2O 4:Eu 2+,Dy 3+ thin films are discussed.

  11. Electrochemically assisted deposition of hydroxyapatite on Ti6Al4V substrates covered by CVD diamond films - Coating characterization and first cell biological results.

    PubMed

    Strąkowska, Paulina; Beutner, René; Gnyba, Marcin; Zielinski, Andrzej; Scharnweber, Dieter

    2016-02-01

    Although titanium and its alloys are widely used as implant material for orthopedic and dental applications they show only limited corrosion stability and osseointegration in different cases. The aim of the presented research was to develop and characterize a novel surface modification system from a thin diamond base layer and a hydroxyapatite (HAp) top coating deposited on the alloy Ti6Al4V widely used for implants in contact with bone. This coating system is expected to improve both the long-term corrosion behavior and the biocompatibility and bioactivity of respective surfaces. The diamond base films were obtained by Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MW-PACVD); the HAp coatings were formed in aqueous solutions by electrochemically assisted deposition (ECAD) at varying polarization parameters. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman microscopy, and electrical conductivity measurements were applied to characterize the generated surface states; the calcium phosphate coatings were additionally chemically analyzed for their composition. The biological properties of the coating system were assessed using hMSC cells analyzing for cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation. Varying MW-PACVD process conditions resulted in composite coatings containing microcrystalline diamond (MCD/Ti-C), nanocrystalline diamond (NCD), and boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) with the NCD coatings being dense and homogeneous and the B-NCD coatings showing increased electrical conductivity. The ECAD process resulted in calcium phosphate coatings from stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric HAp. The deposition of HAp on the B-NCD films run at lower cathodic potentials and resulted both in the highest coating mass and the most homogenous appearance. Initial cell biological investigations showed an improved cell adhesion in the order B-NCD>HAp/B-NCD>uncoated substrate. Cell proliferation was improved for both investigated coatings whereas ALP

  12. Electrochemically assisted deposition of hydroxyapatite on Ti6Al4V substrates covered by CVD diamond films - Coating characterization and first cell biological results.

    PubMed

    Strąkowska, Paulina; Beutner, René; Gnyba, Marcin; Zielinski, Andrzej; Scharnweber, Dieter

    2016-02-01

    Although titanium and its alloys are widely used as implant material for orthopedic and dental applications they show only limited corrosion stability and osseointegration in different cases. The aim of the presented research was to develop and characterize a novel surface modification system from a thin diamond base layer and a hydroxyapatite (HAp) top coating deposited on the alloy Ti6Al4V widely used for implants in contact with bone. This coating system is expected to improve both the long-term corrosion behavior and the biocompatibility and bioactivity of respective surfaces. The diamond base films were obtained by Microwave Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (MW-PACVD); the HAp coatings were formed in aqueous solutions by electrochemically assisted deposition (ECAD) at varying polarization parameters. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman microscopy, and electrical conductivity measurements were applied to characterize the generated surface states; the calcium phosphate coatings were additionally chemically analyzed for their composition. The biological properties of the coating system were assessed using hMSC cells analyzing for cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation. Varying MW-PACVD process conditions resulted in composite coatings containing microcrystalline diamond (MCD/Ti-C), nanocrystalline diamond (NCD), and boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) with the NCD coatings being dense and homogeneous and the B-NCD coatings showing increased electrical conductivity. The ECAD process resulted in calcium phosphate coatings from stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric HAp. The deposition of HAp on the B-NCD films run at lower cathodic potentials and resulted both in the highest coating mass and the most homogenous appearance. Initial cell biological investigations showed an improved cell adhesion in the order B-NCD>HAp/B-NCD>uncoated substrate. Cell proliferation was improved for both investigated coatings whereas ALP

  13. Vapor deposition of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Smith, David C.; Pattillo, Stevan G.; Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Sattelberger, Alfred P.

    1992-01-01

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  14. Preparation and characterization of Al{sub 2x}In{sub 2−2x}O{sub 3} films deposited on MgO (1 0 0) by MOCVD

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhao; Ma, Jin Zhao, Cansong; Du, Xuejian; Mi, Wei; Luan, Caina; Feng, Xianjin

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Ternary Al{sub 2x}In{sub 2−2x}O{sub 3} alloy films were deposited on MgO (1 0 0) by MOCVD. • The microstructure of the Al{sub 2x}In{sub 2−2x}O{sub 3} films were studied upon HRTEM. • Al{sub 2x}In{sub 2−2x}O{sub 3} alloy films exhibited great optical transparency in the visible wavelength range. • The band gap of the Al{sub 2x}In{sub 2−2x}O{sub 3} films can be modulated by controlling the Al contents in the samples. - Abstract: The ternary Al{sub 2x}In{sub 2−2x}O{sub 3} films with different compositions x[Al/(Al + In) atomic ratio] have been fabricated on the MgO (1 0 0) substrates by the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. The influence of different Al contents on the structural, optical and electrical properties of Al{sub 2x}In{sub 2−2x}O{sub 3} films has been studied. The structural studies reveal a change from single crystalline structure of cubic In{sub 2}O{sub 3} to amorphous as the Al content increases. The average transmittances of all samples in the visible range are over 80%. The optical band gap is observed to increase monotonically from 3.67 to 5.38 eV as the Al content increases from 0.1 to 0.9.

  15. In situ study of the photodegradation of carbofuran deposited on TiO2 film under UV light, using ATR-FTIR coupled to HS-MCR-ALS.

    PubMed

    Atifi, Abderrahman; Czarnecki, Kazimierz; Mountacer, Hafida; Ryan, Michael D

    2013-08-01

    The in situ study of the photodegradation of carbofuran deposited on a TiO2 catalyst film under UV light was carried out using the ATR-FTIR technique. The data were analyzed using a Hard-Soft Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (HS-MCR-ALS) methodology. Using S-MCR-ALS, four factors were deduced from the evolving factor analysis of the data, and their concentrations and spectra were determined. These results were used to draw qualitative and quantitative analyses of the major products of carbofuran photodegradation. The results of this analysis were in good agreement with GC-MS results and with reported mechanisms. Hard-MCR-ALS was then used to refine the spectra and concentrations, using a multistep kinetic model. The rate constant for the first step in the photodegradation of carbofuran was found to be 2.9 × 10(-3) min(-1). The higher magnitude of the correlation (96.87%), the explained variance (99.87%) and LOF (3.01), are good indicators of the reliability of the outcome of this approach. This method has been shown to be an efficient approach to study in situ photodegradation of pesticides on a solid surface.

  16. Deposited films with improved microstructures

    DOEpatents

    Patten, James W.; Moss, Ronald W.; McClanahan, Edwin D.

    1984-01-01

    Methods for improving microstructures of line-of-sight deposited films are described. Columnar growth defects ordinarily produced by geometrical shadowing during deposition of such films are eliminated without resorting to post-deposition thermal or mechanical treatments. The native, as-deposited coating qualities, including homogeneity, fine grain size, and high coating-to-substrate adherence, can thus be retained. The preferred method includes the steps of emitting material from a source toward a substrate to deposit a coating non-uniformly on the substrate surface, removing a portion of the coating uniformly over the surface, again depositing material onto the surface, but from a different direction, and repeating the foregoing steps. The quality of line-of-sight deposited films such as those produced by sputtering, progressively deteriorates as the angle of incidence between the flux and the surface becomes increasingly acute. Depositing non-uniformly, so that the coating becomes progressively thinner as quality deteriorates, followed by uniformly removing some of the coating, such as by resputtering, eliminates the poor quality portions, leaving only high quality portions of the coating. Subsequently sputtering from a different direction applies a high quality coating to other regions of the surface. Such steps can be performed either simultaneously or sequentially to apply coatings of a uniformly high quality, closed microstructure to three-dimensional or large planar surfaces.

  17. Enhanced photoelectrocatalytic performance of α-Fe2O3 thin films by surface plasmon resonance of Au nanoparticles coupled with surface passivation by atom layer deposition of Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuting; Xu, Zhen; Yin, Min; Fan, Haowen; Cheng, Weijie; Lu, Linfeng; Song, Ye; Ma, Jing; Zhu, Xufei

    2015-09-01

    The short lifetime of photogenerated charge carriers of hematite (α-Fe2O3) thin films strongly hindered the PEC performances. Herein, α-Fe2O3 thin films with surface nanowire were synthesized by electrodeposition and post annealing method for photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) water splitting. The thickness of the α-Fe2O3 films can be precisely controlled by adjusting the duration of the electrodeposition. The Au nanoparticles (NPs) and Al2O3 shell by atom layer deposition were further introduced to modify the photoelectrodes. Different constructions were made with different deposition orders of Au and Al2O3 on Fe2O3 films. The Fe2O3-Au-Al2O3 construction shows the best PEC performance with 1.78 times enhancement by localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of NPs in conjunction with surface passivation of Al2O3 shells. Numerical simulation was carried out to investigate the promotion mechanisms. The high PEC performance for Fe2O3-Au-Al2O3 construction electrode could be attributed to the Al2O3 intensified LSPR, effective surface passivation by Al2O3 coating, and the efficient charge transfer due to the Fe2O3-Au Schottky junctions.

  18. TI--CR--AL--O thin film resistors

    DOEpatents

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Schmid, Anthony P.

    2000-01-01

    Thin films of Ti--Cr--Al--O are used as a resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O.sub.2. Resistivity values from 10.sup.4 to 10.sup.10 Ohm-cm have been measured for Ti--Cr--Al--O film <1 .mu.m thick. The film resistivity can be discretely selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The application of Ti--Cr--Al--O as a thin film resistor has been found to be thermodynamically stable, unlike other metal-oxide films. The Ti--Cr--Al--O film can be used as a vertical or lateral resistor, for example, as a layer beneath a field emission cathode in a flat panel display; or used to control surface emissivity, for example, as a coating on an insulating material such as vertical wall supports in flat panel displays.

  19. Ion beam sputter deposited diamond like films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Rutledge, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    A single argon ion beam source was used to sputter deposit carbon films on fused silica, copper, and tantalum substrates under conditions of sputter deposition alone and sputter deposition combined with simultaneous argon ion bombardment. Simultaneously deposited and ion bombarded carbon films were prepared under conditions of carbon atom removal to arrival ratios of 0, 0.036, and 0.71. Deposition and etch rates were measured for films on fused silica substrates. Resulting characteristics of the deposited films are: electrical resistivity of densities of 2.1 gm/cu cm for sputter deposited films and 2.2 gm/cu cm for simultaneously sputter deposited and Ar ion bombarded films. For films approximately 1700 A thick deposited by either process and at 5550 A wavelength light the reflectance was 0.2, the absorptance was 0.7, the absorption coefficient was 67,000 cm to the -1 and the transmittance was 0.1.

  20. Passivation properties of aluminum oxide films deposited by mist chemical vapor deposition for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, Shohei; Iguchi, Koji; Kitano, Sho; Hayakashi, Koki; Hotta, Yasushi; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Ogura, Atsushi; Satoh, Shin-ichi; Arafune, Koji

    2015-08-01

    Aluminum oxide (AlOx) films were deposited by mist chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) in air for p-type crystalline silicon, and the effects of the deposition temperature (Tdep) and AlOx film thickness on the maximum surface recombination velocities (Smax) were evaluated. It was found that Smax was improved with increasing Tdep. The AlOx film deposited at 400 °C exhibited the best Smax value of 2.8 cm/s, and the passivation quality was comparable to that of AlOx deposited by other vacuum-based techniques. Smax was also improved with increasing film thickness. When the film thickness was above 10 nm, Smax was approximately 10 cm/s. From the Fourier transform infrared spectra, it was found that the AlOx films deposited by MCVD consisted of an AlOx layer and a Si-diffused AlOx layer. In addition, it is important for the layers to be thick enough to obtain high-quality passivation.

  1. Sputtering characteristics, crystal structures, and transparent conductive properties of TiOxNy films deposited on α-Al2O3(0 0 0 1) and glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akazawa, Housei

    2012-12-01

    Adding N2 gas during reactive sputtering of a Ti target prevented the target surface from being severely poisoned by oxygen atoms and sustained a high deposition rate for titanium oxynitride films under metal-mode-like sputtering conditions. With progress in the degree of oxidization, films deposited onto a glass substrate varied from TiO1-xNx having a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure to TiO2-xNx having an anatase structure. Titanium oxynitride films deposited on an Al2O3(0 0 0 1) substrate were epitaxial with major orientations toward the (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) directions for fcc-TiO1-xNx and (1 1 2) for anatase-TiO2-xNx. Intermediately oxidized films between TiO1-xNx and TiO2-xNx were amorphous on the glass substrate but crystallized into a Magneli phase, TinO(N)2n-1, on the Al2O3(0 0 0 1) substrate. Partially substituting oxygen in TiO2 with nitrogen as well as continuously irradiating the growing film surface with a Xe plasma stream preferentially formed anatase rather than rutile. However, the occupation of anion sites with enough oxygen rather than nitrogen was the required condition for anatase crystals to form. The transparent conductive properties of epitaxial TiO2-xNx films on Al2O3(0 0 0 1) were superior to those of microcrystalline films on the glass substrate. Since resistivity and optical transmittance of TiOxNy films vary continuously with changing N2 flow rate, their transparent conductive properties can be controlled more easily than TiOx. Nb5+ ions could be doped as donors in TiO2-xNx anatase crystals.

  2. Morphology and magneto-transport properties of electron doped La{sub 0.85}Te{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} thin film deposited on LaAlO{sub 3} substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, Irshad; Husain, Shahid; Patil, S.I.

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Resistivity versus temperature plots of La{sub 0.85}Te{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} thin film under the applied magnetic field of 0 T, 5 T and 8 T. - Highlights: • La{sub 0.85}Te{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} manganite thin film is deposited on LaAlO{sub 3} using PLD technique. • Film is deposited at 750 °C, and is highly crystalline, single phase and c-axis oriented. • The film consists of grains with an average diameter of 60 nm. • Resistivity plots display double insulator-metal transitions. • XPS results confirm the electron doped (n-type) nature of the film. - Abstract: We report the structural, electronic transport and X-ray photoemission spectroscopic study of 100 nm thin film of La{sub 0.85}Te{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} grown on (0 0 1) LaAlO{sub 3} single crystal substrate by pulsed laser deposition. XRD results confirm that the film has good crystalline quality, single phase, and has a c-axis orientation. The atomic force microscopic (AFM) results showed that the film consists of grains with an average diameter of 60 nm. The resistivity measurement showed double insulator-metal transitions in absence and as well as in presence of the magnetic field. The resistivity peaks are ascribed to the intrinsic contribution of LTMO film and the tunnelling of spin-polarized electrons at grain boundaries. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements suggest that Te ions are in the Te{sup 4+} state, while the Mn ions are forced to stay in the Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+} valence state.

  3. The reaction of vapor-deposited Al with Cu oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.N.; Martin, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Interfaces formed by controlled deposition of Al on Cu oxides at 300K have been characterized using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). When Al is deposited onto a thin oxide grown on Cu(110) by atmospheric exposure, it completely scavenges the oxygen from the substrate material, increasing the O(1s) binding energy by 2.0 eV to give the value found for atmospheric oxidation of a thin Al film. Similar oxygen behavior is seen for Al deposition on sputter-deposited CuO with an enriched oxygen surface region, where multilayers of Al erase the shakeup satellites in the Cu(2p) region of the XPS spectrum to give features like those exhibited by Cu{sub 2}O or metallic Cu. Having calibrated the fluence of the Al source with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, the attenuation of the Cu 2p{sub 1/2} satellite after approximately one monolayer of Al deposition is associated with the removal of oxygen from the top 20 {angstrom} of the CuO. Approximately 7--8 equivalent monolayers of Al are converted to an oxide in the initial rapid reaction process. Further deposition leads to progressive development of the metallic Al signature in both the XPS and AES spectra. These measurements clearly demonstrate the dominant role played by Al, a strong oxide former, when it is placed in intimate contact with the distinctively weaker Cu oxide. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Effect of deposition parameters on the photocatalytic activity and bioactivity of TiO2 thin films deposited by vacuum arc on Ti-6Al-4V substrates.

    PubMed

    Lilja, Mirjam; Welch, Ken; Astrand, Maria; Engqvist, Håkan; Strømme, Maria

    2012-05-01

    This article evaluates the influence of the main parameters in a cathodic arc deposition process on the microstructure of titanium dioxide thin coatings and correlates these to the photocatalytic activity (PCA) and in vitro bioactivity of the coatings. Bioactivity of all as deposited coatings was confirmed by the growth of uniform layers of hydroxyapatite (HA) after 7 days in phosphate buffered saline at 37°C. Comparison of the HA growth after 24 h indicated enhanced HA formation on coatings with small titanium dioxide grains of rutile and anatase phase. The results from the PCA studies showed that coatings containing a mixed microstructure of both anatase and rutile phases, with small grain sizes in the range of 26-30 nm and with a coating thickness of about 250 nm, exhibited enhanced activity as compared with other microstructures and higher coating thickness. The results of this study should be valuable for the development of new bioactive implant coatings with photocatalytically induced on-demand antibacterial properties.

  5. Diamond/AlN Thin Films for Optical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Knoebber, F.; Bludau, O.; Williams, O. A.; Sah, R. E.; Kirste, L.; Baeumler, M.; Nebel, C. E.; Ambacher, O.; Cimalla, V.; Lebedev, V.; Leopold, S.; Paetz, D.

    2010-11-01

    In this work we report on membranes made of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) and AlN for the use in tunable micro-optics. For the growth of the AlN and NCD thin films, magnetron sputtering and chemical vapor deposition techniques have been used, respectively. A chemical-mechanical polishing process of NCD layers has been introduced, which is crucial for the growth of c-oriented, fiber textured AlN films. AlN layers deposited on as grown and polished nanocrystalline diamond along with free standing membranes have been compared by studying microstructure, surface morphology, piezoelectrical response as well as optical properties.

  6. Effect of AC target power on AlN film quality

    SciTech Connect

    Knisely, Katherine Grosh, Karl

    2014-09-01

    The influence of alternating current (AC) target power on film stress, roughness, and x-ray diffraction rocking curve full width half maximum (FWHM) was examined for AlN films deposited using S-gun magnetron sputtering on insulative substrates consisting of Si wafers with 575 nm thermal oxide. As the AC target power was increased from 5 to 8 kW, the deposition rate increased from 9.3 to 15.9 A/s, film stress decreased from 81 to −170 MPa, and the rocking curve FWHM increased from 0.98 to 1.03°. AlN film behavior is observed to change with target life; films deposited at 200 kWh target life were approximately 40 MPa more compressive and had 0.02° degree higher rocking curve FWHM values than films deposited at 130 kWh. AlN films deposited in two depositions were compared with films deposited in a single deposition, in order to better characterize the growth behavior and properties of AlN films deposited on an existing AlN film, which is not well understood. Two deposition films, when compared with single deposition films, showed no variation in residual stress trends or grain size behavior, but the average film roughness increased from 0.7 to 1.4 nm and rocking curve FWHM values increased by more than 0.25°.

  7. Nanohardness, corrosion and protein adsorption properties of CuAlO2 films deposited on 316L stainless steel for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shih-Hang; Chen, Jian-Zhang; Hsiao, Sou-Hui; Lin, Guan-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study preliminarily assesses the biomedical applications of CuAlO2 coatings according to nanoindentation, electrochemical, and protein adsorption tests. Nanoindentation results revealed that the surface hardness of 316L stainless steel increased markedly after coating with CuAlO2 films. Electrochemical tests of corrosion potential, breakdown potential, and corrosion current density showed that the corrosion resistance properties of 316L stainless steel are considerably improved by CuAlO2 coatings. Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein assay results revealed that the protein adsorption behavior of 316L stainless steel did not exhibit notable differences with or without CuAlO2 coatings. A CuAlO2 coating of 100 nm thickness improved the surface nanohardness and corrosion resistance ability of 316L stainless steel. CuAlO2 is a potential candidate for biomaterial coating applications, particularly for surface modification of fine, delicate implants.

  8. Electrical properties of (Al2O3)x(TiO2)1-x films deposited on a silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitanov, P.; Alexieva, Z.; Harizanova, A.; Horvath, Z.; Dozsa, L.

    2008-05-01

    Direct current conductance in Al/(Al2O3)X(TiO2)1-X/silicon structure was studied, the dielectric layers being deposited by the chemical solution deposition method. The measurements were carried out at room temperature and 320, 340 and 360 K. The results correspond to bulk-limited conduction of the Poole-Frenkel type. High voltages and temperature lead to an additional current rise, explained by thermal excitation and tunneling of electrons through the lowered Poole-Frenkel barrier.

  9. Charge trapping characteristics of Au nanocrystals embedded in remote plasma atomic layer-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film as the tunnel and blocking oxides for nonvolatile memory applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jaesang; Kim, Hyungchul; Park, Taeyong; Ko, Youngbin; Ryu, Jaehun; Jeon, Heeyoung; Park, Jingyu; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2012-01-15

    Remote plasma atomic layer deposited (RPALD) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were investigated to apply as tunnel and blocking layers in the metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor memory utilizing Au nanocrystals (NCs) for nonvolatile memory applications. The interface stability of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film deposited by RPALD was studied to observe the effects of remote plasma on the interface. The interface formed during RPALD process has high oxidation states such as Si{sup +3} and Si{sup +4}, indicating that RPALD process can grow more stable interface which has a small amount of fixed oxide trap charge. The significant memory characteristics were also observed in this memory device through the electrical measurement. The memory device exhibited a relatively large memory window of 5.6 V under a 10/-10 V program/erase voltage and also showed the relatively fast programming/erasing speed and a competitive retention characteristic after 10{sup 4} s. These results indicate that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited via RPALD can be applied as the tunnel and blocking oxides for next-generation flash memory devices.

  10. Depositing Adherent Ag Films On Ti Films On Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honecy, Frank S.

    1995-01-01

    Report discusses cleaning of ceramic (principally, alumina) substrates in preparation for sputter deposition of titanium intermediate films on substrates followed by sputter deposition of outer silver films. Principal intended application, substrates sliding parts in advanced high-temperature heat engines, and outer silver films serve as solid lubricants: lubricating properties described in "Solid Lubricant for Alumina" (LEW-15495).

  11. Electrochemical deposition of Al on semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laperashvili, Tinatin; Khachidze, Manana; Imerlishvili, Iliy

    2002-11-01

    Samples used for the fabrication of M-S diodes were growing by Chochralski method especially undoped n-type GaP into (III) oriented wafers. The thickness and carrier concentration was 200-250 mimic and (2-4). 10 exp17 atom/cm3 respectively. At first ohmical contact to the one side of wafer was formed by alloying of indium at the temperature 600°C during 5 min in hydrogen. Then the sample with ohmical contact and wire for preceding the power was covered with chemical stable polystyrene solution except the area where the metal will be deposited. The wafers were then ached chemically, rinsed in distilled water and were transferred immediately into electrolyte. Deposition of metal was done by the usual electrochemical method. Electrolyte was poured into quartz glass. The semiconductors wafer was used as the one electrode and as another electrode was used aluminum. For deposition Al the aqueous solution of chlorides have been used as an electrolyte, which consisted also NaOCI. At first, semiconductor"s wafer was used as the anode and cleaning of semiconductors surface was done. Then the potential was immediately changed in opposite direction and deposition of metal on freshly cleaned surface was done in the same solution in a united technological process. After the process of realization the samples were washed in distilled water. The polystyrene film was removed mechanically and boiling in acetone. Then samples were cut into pieces of area 1-3 mm, and were measured electric and photoelectric characteristics. The electrical and photoelectric characteristics have been studded and they were analyzed in the usual way to calculate the ideality factor (n) and barrier height (o). The values of coefficient n and SB height were 1.05-1.07 and 1.1 eV respectively.

  12. Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Diamond Film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1999-01-01

    This chapter describes the nature of clean and contaminated diamond surfaces, Chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond film deposition technology, analytical techniques and the results of research on CVD diamond films, and the general properties of CVD diamond films. Further, it describes the friction and wear properties of CVD diamond films in the atmosphere, in a controlled nitrogen environment, and in an ultra-high-vacuum environment.

  13. Electrical transport in amorphous semiconducting AlMgB14 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Y.; Li, G.; Shinar, J.; Wang, N. L.; Cook, B. A.; Anderegg, J. W.; Constant, A. P.; Russell, A. M.; Snyder, J. E.

    2004-08-01

    The electrical transport properties of semiconducting AlMgB14 films deposited at room temperature and 573K are reported in this letter. The as-deposited films are amorphous, and they exhibit high n-type electrical conductivity, which is believed to stem from the conduction electrons donated by Al, Mg, and/or Fe impurities in these films. The film deposited at 573K is less conductive than the room-temperature-deposited film. This is attributed to the nature of donor or trap states in the band gap related to the different deposition temperatures.

  14. Enhanced quality of epitaxial AlN thin films on 6H-SiC by ultra-high-vacuum ion-assisted reactive dc magnetron sputter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tungasmita, S.; Birch, J.; Persson, P. O. A.˚.; Järrendahl, K.; Hultman, L.

    2000-01-01

    Epitaxial AlN thin films have been grown on 6H-SiC substrates by ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) ion-assisted reactive dc magnetron sputtering. The low-energy ion-assisted growth (Ei=17-27 eV) results in an increasing surface mobility, promoting domain-boundary annihilation and epitaxial growth. Domain widths increased from 42 to 135 nm and strained-layer epitaxy was observed in this energy range. For Ei>52 eV, an amorphous interfacial layer of AlN was formed on the SiC, which inhibited epitaxial growth. Using UHV condition and very pure nitrogen sputtering gas yielded reduced impurity levels in the films (O: 3.5×1018cm-3). Analysis techniques used in this study are in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction, secondary-ion-mass spectroscopy, atomic-force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and cross-section high-resolution electron microscopy.

  15. Vacuum ultraviolet photochemical selective area atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalker, P. R.; Marshall, P. A.; Dawson, K.; Brunell, I. F.; Sutcliffe, C. J.; Potter, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    We report the photochemical atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 thin films and the use of this process to achieve area-selective film deposition. A shuttered vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source is used to excite molecular oxygen and trimethyl aluminum to deposit films at 60°C. In-situ QCM and post-deposition ellipsometric measurements both show that the deposition rate is saturative as a function of irradiation time. Selective area deposition was achieved by projecting the VUV light through a metalized magnesium fluoride photolithographic mask and the selectivity of deposition on the illuminated and masked regions of the substrate is a logarithmic function of the UV exposure time. The Al2O3 films exhibit dielectric constants of 8 - 10 at 1 MHz after forming gas annealing, similar to films deposited by conventional thermal ALD.

  16. Pulsed laser deposition: Prospects for commercial deposition of epitaxial films

    SciTech Connect

    Muenchausen, R.E.

    1999-03-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique for the deposition of thin films. The vapor source is induced by the flash evaporation that occurs when a laser pulse of sufficient intensity (about 100 MW/cm{sup 2}) is absorbed by a target. In this paper the author briefly defines pulsed laser deposition, current applications, research directed at gaining a better understanding of the pulsed laser deposition process, and suggests some future directions to enable commercial applications.

  17. Mirrorlike pulsed laser deposited tungsten thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Mostako, A. T. T.; Khare, Alika; Rao, C. V. S.

    2011-01-15

    Mirrorlike tungsten thin films on stainless steel substrate deposited via pulsed laser deposition technique in vacuum (10{sup -5} Torr) is reported, which may find direct application as first mirror in fusion devices. The crystal structure of tungsten film is analyzed using x-ray diffraction pattern, surface morphology of the tungsten films is studied with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The film composition is identified using energy dispersive x-ray. The specular and diffuse reflectivities with respect to stainless steel substrate of the tungsten films are recorded with FTIR spectra. The thickness and the optical quality of pulsed laser deposition deposited films are tested via interferometric technique. The reflectivity is approaching about that of the bulk for the tungsten film of thickness {approx}782 nm.

  18. Mirrorlike pulsed laser deposited tungsten thin film.

    PubMed

    Mostako, A T T; Rao, C V S; Khare, Alika

    2011-01-01

    Mirrorlike tungsten thin films on stainless steel substrate deposited via pulsed laser deposition technique in vacuum (10(-5) Torr) is reported, which may find direct application as first mirror in fusion devices. The crystal structure of tungsten film is analyzed using x-ray diffraction pattern, surface morphology of the tungsten films is studied with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The film composition is identified using energy dispersive x-ray. The specular and diffuse reflectivities with respect to stainless steel substrate of the tungsten films are recorded with FTIR spectra. The thickness and the optical quality of pulsed laser deposition deposited films are tested via interferometric technique. The reflectivity is approaching about that of the bulk for the tungsten film of thickness ∼782 nm. PMID:21280810

  19. Mechanistic study of atomic layer deposition of Al{sub x}Si{sub y}O thin film via in-situ FTIR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Jea; Kim, Taeseung; Seegmiller, Trevor; Chang, Jane P.

    2015-09-15

    A study of surface reaction mechanism on atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum silicate (Al{sub x}Si{sub y}O) was conducted with trimethylaluminum (TMA) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as precursors and H{sub 2}O as the oxidant. In-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was utilized to elucidate the underlying surface mechanism that enables the deposition of Al{sub x}Si{sub y}O by ALD. In-situ FTIR study revealed that ineffective hydroxylation of the surface ethoxy (–OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}) groups prohibits ALD of SiO{sub 2} by TEOS/H{sub 2}O. In contrast, effective desorption of the surface ethoxy group was observed in TEOS/H{sub 2}O/TMA/H{sub 2}O chemistry. The presence of Al-OH* group in vicinity of partially hydroxylated ethoxy (–OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}) group was found to propagate disproportionation reaction, which results in ALD of Al{sub x}Si{sub y}O. The maximum thickness from incorporation of SiO{sub x} from alternating exposures of TEOS/H{sub 2}O chemistry in Al{sub x}Si{sub y}O was found to be ∼2 Å, confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements.

  20. Determination of structural, mechanical and corrosion properties of Nb2O5 and (NbyCu 1-y)Ox thin films deposited on Ti6Al4V alloy substrates for dental implant applications.

    PubMed

    Mazur, M; Kalisz, M; Wojcieszak, D; Grobelny, M; Mazur, P; Kaczmarek, D; Domaradzki, J

    2015-02-01

    In this paper comparative studies on the structural, mechanical and corrosion properties of Nb2O5/Ti and (NbyCu1-y)Ox/Ti alloy systems have been investigated. Pure layers of niobia and niobia with a copper addition were deposited on a Ti6Al4V titanium alloy surface using the magnetron sputtering method. The physicochemical properties of the prepared thin films were examined with the aid of XRD, XPS SEM and AFM measurements. The mechanical properties (i.e., nanohardness, Young's modulus and abrasion resistance) were performed using nanoindentation and a steel wool test. The corrosion properties of the coatings were determined by analysis of the voltammetric curves. The deposited coatings were crack free, exhibited good adherence to the substrate, no discontinuity of the thin film was observed and the surface morphology was homogeneous. The hardness of pure niobium pentoxide was ca. 8.64GPa. The obtained results showed that the addition of copper into pure niobia resulted in the preparation of a layer with a lower hardness of ca. 7.79 GPa (for niobia with 17 at.% Cu) and 7.75 GPa (for niobia with 25 at.% Cu). The corrosion properties of the tested thin films deposited on the surface of titanium alloy depended on the composition of the thin layer. The addition of copper (i.e. a noble metal) to Nb2O5 film increased the corrosion resistance followed by a significant decrease in the value of corrosion currents and, in case of the highest Cu content, the shift of corrosion potential towards the noble direction. The best corrosion properties were obtained from a sample of Ti6Al4V coated with (Nb0.75Cu0.25)Ox thin film. It seems that the tested materials could be used in the future as protection coatings for Ti alloys in biomedical applications such as implants.

  1. Atomic Layer Deposition of Gallium Oxide Films as Gate Dielectrics in AlGaN/GaN Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor High-Electron-Mobility Transistors.

    PubMed

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Chu, Fu-Chuan; Das, Atanu; Lee, Chia-Yu; Chen, Ming-Jang; Lin, Ray-Ming

    2016-12-01

    In this study, films of gallium oxide (Ga2O3) were prepared through remote plasma atomic layer deposition (RP-ALD) using triethylgallium and oxygen plasma. The chemical composition and optical properties of the Ga2O3 thin films were investigated; the saturation growth displayed a linear dependence with respect to the number of ALD cycles. These uniform ALD films exhibited excellent uniformity and smooth Ga2O3-GaN interfaces. An ALD Ga2O3 film was then used as the gate dielectric and surface passivation layer in a metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistor (MOS-HEMT), which exhibited device performance superior to that of a corresponding conventional Schottky gate HEMT. Under similar bias conditions, the gate leakage currents of the MOS-HEMT were two orders of magnitude lower than those of the conventional HEMT, with the power-added efficiency enhanced by up to 9 %. The subthreshold swing and effective interfacial state density of the MOS-HEMT were 78 mV decade(-1) and 3.62 × 10(11) eV(-1) cm(-2), respectively. The direct-current and radio-frequency performances of the MOS-HEMT device were greater than those of the conventional HEMT. In addition, the flicker noise of the MOS-HEMT was lower than that of the conventional HEMT. PMID:27129687

  2. Atomic Layer Deposition of Gallium Oxide Films as Gate Dielectrics in AlGaN/GaN Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor High-Electron-Mobility Transistors.

    PubMed

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Chu, Fu-Chuan; Das, Atanu; Lee, Chia-Yu; Chen, Ming-Jang; Lin, Ray-Ming

    2016-12-01

    In this study, films of gallium oxide (Ga2O3) were prepared through remote plasma atomic layer deposition (RP-ALD) using triethylgallium and oxygen plasma. The chemical composition and optical properties of the Ga2O3 thin films were investigated; the saturation growth displayed a linear dependence with respect to the number of ALD cycles. These uniform ALD films exhibited excellent uniformity and smooth Ga2O3-GaN interfaces. An ALD Ga2O3 film was then used as the gate dielectric and surface passivation layer in a metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistor (MOS-HEMT), which exhibited device performance superior to that of a corresponding conventional Schottky gate HEMT. Under similar bias conditions, the gate leakage currents of the MOS-HEMT were two orders of magnitude lower than those of the conventional HEMT, with the power-added efficiency enhanced by up to 9 %. The subthreshold swing and effective interfacial state density of the MOS-HEMT were 78 mV decade(-1) and 3.62 × 10(11) eV(-1) cm(-2), respectively. The direct-current and radio-frequency performances of the MOS-HEMT device were greater than those of the conventional HEMT. In addition, the flicker noise of the MOS-HEMT was lower than that of the conventional HEMT.

  3. Atomic Layer Deposition of Gallium Oxide Films as Gate Dielectrics in AlGaN/GaN Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor High-Electron-Mobility Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Chu, Fu-Chuan; Das, Atanu; Lee, Chia-Yu; Chen, Ming-Jang; Lin, Ray-Ming

    2016-04-01

    In this study, films of gallium oxide (Ga2O3) were prepared through remote plasma atomic layer deposition (RP-ALD) using triethylgallium and oxygen plasma. The chemical composition and optical properties of the Ga2O3 thin films were investigated; the saturation growth displayed a linear dependence with respect to the number of ALD cycles. These uniform ALD films exhibited excellent uniformity and smooth Ga2O3-GaN interfaces. An ALD Ga2O3 film was then used as the gate dielectric and surface passivation layer in a metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistor (MOS-HEMT), which exhibited device performance superior to that of a corresponding conventional Schottky gate HEMT. Under similar bias conditions, the gate leakage currents of the MOS-HEMT were two orders of magnitude lower than those of the conventional HEMT, with the power-added efficiency enhanced by up to 9 %. The subthreshold swing and effective interfacial state density of the MOS-HEMT were 78 mV decade-1 and 3.62 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2, respectively. The direct-current and radio-frequency performances of the MOS-HEMT device were greater than those of the conventional HEMT. In addition, the flicker noise of the MOS-HEMT was lower than that of the conventional HEMT.

  4. Deposition and characterization of aluminum magnesium boride thin film coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yun

    Boron-rich borides are a special group of materials possessing complex structures typically comprised of B12 icosahedra. All of the boron-rich borides sharing this common structural unit exhibit a variety of exceptional physical and electrical properties. In this work, a new ternary boride compound AlMgB14, which has been extensively studied in bulk form due to its novel mechanical properties, was fabricated into thin film coatings by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technology. The effect of processing conditions (laser operating modes, vacuum level, substrate temperature, and postannealing, etc.) on the composition, microstructure evolution, chemical bonding, and surface morphology of AlMgB14 thin film coatings has been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry; the mechanical, electrical, and optical properties of AlMgB14 thin films have been characterized by nanoindentation, four-point probe, van der Pauw Hall measurement, activation energy measurement, and UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer. Experimental results show that AlMgB14 films deposited in the temperature range of 300 K - 873 K are amorphous. Depositions under a low vacuum level (5 x 10-5 Torr) can introduce a significant amount of C and O impurities into AlMgB14 films and lead to a complex oxide glass structure. Orthorhombic AlMgB14 phase cannot be obtained by subsequent high temperature annealing. By contrast, the orthorhombic AlMgB 14 crystal structure can be attained via high temperature-annealing of AlMgB14 films deposited under a high vacuum level (< 3 x 10-6 Torr), accompanied by strong texture formation. Low vacuum level-as deposited AlMgB14 films have low hardness (10 GPa), but high vacuum level-as deposited AlMgB14 films exhibit an extremely high hardness (45 GPa - 51 GPa), and the higher deposition temperature results in still higher hardness

  5. Electrically programmable-erasable In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistor memory with atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3/Pt nanocrystals/Al2O3 gate stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Shi-Bing; Zhang, Wen-Peng; Liu, Wen-Jun; Ding, Shi-Jin

    2015-12-01

    Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) memory is very promising for transparent and flexible system-on-panel displays; however, electrical erasability has always been a severe challenge for this memory. In this article, we demonstrated successfully an electrically programmable-erasable memory with atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3/Pt nanocrystals/Al2O3 gate stack under a maximal processing temperature of 300 oC. As the programming voltage was enhanced from 14 to 19 V for a constant pulse of 0.2 ms, the threshold voltage shift increased significantly from 0.89 to 4.67 V. When the programmed device was subjected to an appropriate pulse under negative gate bias, it could return to the original state with a superior erasing efficiency. The above phenomena could be attributed to Fowler-Nordheim tunnelling of electrons from the IGZO channel to the Pt nanocrystals during programming, and inverse tunnelling of the trapped electrons during erasing. In terms of 0.2-ms programming at 16 V and 350-ms erasing at -17 V, a large memory window of 3.03 V was achieved successfully. Furthermore, the memory exhibited stable repeated programming/erasing (P/E) characteristics and good data retention, i.e., for 2-ms programming at 14 V and 250-ms erasing at -14 V, a memory window of 2.08 V was still maintained after 103 P/E cycles, and a memory window of 1.1 V was retained after 105 s retention time.

  6. Electrically programmable-erasable In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistor memory with atomic-layer-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Pt nanocrystals/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate stack

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Shi-Bing; Zhang, Wen-Peng; Liu, Wen-Jun; Ding, Shi-Jin

    2015-12-15

    Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) memory is very promising for transparent and flexible system-on-panel displays; however, electrical erasability has always been a severe challenge for this memory. In this article, we demonstrated successfully an electrically programmable-erasable memory with atomic-layer-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Pt nanocrystals/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate stack under a maximal processing temperature of 300 {sup o}C. As the programming voltage was enhanced from 14 to 19 V for a constant pulse of 0.2 ms, the threshold voltage shift increased significantly from 0.89 to 4.67 V. When the programmed device was subjected to an appropriate pulse under negative gate bias, it could return to the original state with a superior erasing efficiency. The above phenomena could be attributed to Fowler-Nordheim tunnelling of electrons from the IGZO channel to the Pt nanocrystals during programming, and inverse tunnelling of the trapped electrons during erasing. In terms of 0.2-ms programming at 16 V and 350-ms erasing at −17 V, a large memory window of 3.03 V was achieved successfully. Furthermore, the memory exhibited stable repeated programming/erasing (P/E) characteristics and good data retention, i.e., for 2-ms programming at 14 V and 250-ms erasing at −14 V, a memory window of 2.08 V was still maintained after 10{sup 3} P/E cycles, and a memory window of 1.1 V was retained after 10{sup 5} s retention time.

  7. Comparisons of SiN Passivation Film Deposited by PE-CVD and T-CVD Method for AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on SiC Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okita, Hideyuki; Marui, Toshiharu; Hoshi, Shinichi; Itoh, Masanori; Toda, Fumihiko; Morino, Yoshiaki; Tamai, Isao; Sano, Yoshiaki; Seki, Shohei

    Current collapse phenomenon is a well known obstacle in the AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. In order to improve the surface stability of HEMTs, we have investigated the SiN passivation film deposited by T-CVD, and we found that it improves both gate leakage current and current collapse phenomenon [1]. Moreover, we compared the T-CVD and PE-CVD passivation films, on high electric field DC and RF characteristics. We found that T-CVD SiN passivation film improves BVds-off by 30% because of the reduction of gate leakage current. It also improved ηd in the output power characteristics by load-pull measurement, which indicates the decrease of the current collapse phenomenon. Also we fabricated a multi-fingered 50W-class AlGaN/GaN HEMT with T-CVD SiN passivation film and achieved 61.2% of high drain efficiency at frequency of 2.14GHz, which was 3.6 points higher than that with PE-CVD SiN passivation film.

  8. Isotope analysis of diamond-surface passivation effect of high-temperature H{sub 2}O-grown atomic layer deposition-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraiwa, Atsushi E-mail: qs4a-hriw@asahi-net.or.jp; Saito, Tatsuya; Matsumura, Daisuke; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2015-06-07

    The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film formed using an atomic layer deposition (ALD) method with trimethylaluminum as Al precursor and H{sub 2}O as oxidant at a high temperature (450 °C) effectively passivates the p-type surface conduction (SC) layer specific to a hydrogen-terminated diamond surface, leading to a successful operation of diamond SC field-effect transistors at 400 °C. In order to investigate this excellent passivation effect, we carried out an isotope analysis using D{sub 2}O instead of H{sub 2}O in the ALD and found that the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film formed at a conventional temperature (100 °C) incorporates 50 times more CH{sub 3} groups than the high-temperature film. This CH{sub 3} is supposed to dissociate from the film when heated afterwards at a higher temperature (550 °C) and causes peeling patterns on the H-terminated surface. The high-temperature film is free from this problem and has the largest mass density and dielectric constant among those investigated in this study. The isotope analysis also unveiled a relatively active H-exchange reaction between the diamond H-termination and H{sub 2}O oxidant during the high-temperature ALD, the SC still being kept intact. This dynamic and yet steady H termination is realized by the suppressed oxidation due to the endothermic reaction with H{sub 2}O. Additionally, we not only observed the kinetic isotope effect in the form of reduced growth rate of D{sub 2}O-oxidant ALD but found that the mass density and dielectric constant of D{sub 2}O-grown Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films are smaller than those of H{sub 2}O-grown films. This is a new type of isotope effect, which is not caused by the presence of isotopes in the films unlike the traditional isotope effects that originate from the presence of isotopes itself. Hence, the high-temperature ALD is very effective in forming Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films as a passivation and/or gate-insulation layer of high-temperature-operation diamond SC devices, and the knowledge of

  9. Polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, Thomas M.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Jia, Quanxi; Lin, Yuan

    2008-04-29

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures to yield metal oxide films. Such films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  10. Polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, Thomas M.; Burrell; Anthony K.; Jia; Quanxi; Lin; Yuan

    2009-10-20

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films and the like is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures to yield metal oxide films and the like. Such films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  11. Microstructure Evolution in Al-Cu-Fe Quasicrystalline Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widjaja, Edy; Marks, Laurence

    2003-03-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was performed to study the microstructure evolution in Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystalline thin films. Thin films were grown by magnetron sputtering on sodium chloride crystals which were subsequently dissolved in water to acquire free-standing films. Nanocrystalline films were found in the as-deposited sample. When annealed at 400oC the films changed to metastable crystalline phases that transformed into icosahedral phases upon further annealing at 500oC. TEM imaging combined with electron diffraction revealed various features associated with the phase evolution in the crystalline-quasicrystalline phase transformation. Some grains in the film functioned as sacrificial grains allowing others to grow into icosahedral phases. Elements near the boundary of the sacrificial grains diffused to form the icosahedral phases, resulting in fragments in the center of the grain. The oxide layer of the film was amorphous aluminum oxide that exhibited poor adhesion to the quasicrystalline films.

  12. Semiconducting properties of Al doped ZnO thin films.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A; Al-Hartomy, Omar A; El Okr, M; Nawar, A M; El-Gazzar, S; El-Tantawy, Farid; Yakuphanoglu, F

    2014-10-15

    Aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were successfully deposited via spin coating technique onto glass substrates. Structural properties of the films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction results reveal that all the films are polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure with a preferential orientation according to the direction (002) plane. The crystallite size of ZnO and AZO films was determined from Scherrer's formula and Williamson-Hall analysis. The lattice parameters of the AZO films were found to decrease with increasing Al content. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) results indicate that Zn, Al and O elements are present in the AZO thin films. The electrical conductivity, mobility carriers and carrier concentration of the films are increased with increasing Al doping concentration. The optical band gap (Eg) of the films is increased with increasing Al concentration. The AZO thin films indicate a high transparency in the visible region with an average value of 86%. These transparent AZO films may be open a new avenue for optoelectronic and photonic devices applications in near future. PMID:24840493

  13. Phase-separated Al-Si thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Fukutani, Kazuhiko; Tanji, Koichi; Saito, Tatsuya; Den, Tohru

    2005-08-01

    Phase-separated Al-Si films composed of Al nanocylinders embedded in an amorphous-Si matrix have been prepared by a sputtering method. By controlling the deposition rate, substrate temperature, and film composition, the average diameter of the Al cylinders can be varied systematically from less than 5 to 13 nm with a cylinder density ranging from 10{sup 15} to in excess of 10{sup 16} cylinders m{sup -2}. A three-dimensional simulation of phase separation in binary thin films was performed using a modified Cahn-Hilliard [J. Chem. Phys. 28, 258 (1958)] equation to understand the growth mechanism. The simulation studies indicate that the surface diffusion length and film composition are important factors which determine film morphology. Experimental and simulation studies are compared and discussed.

  14. Pulsed Laser Deposition of High Temperature Protonic Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, Fred W.; Berger, M. H.; Sayir, Ali

    2006-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition has been used to fabricate nanostructured BaCe(0.85)Y(0.15)O3- sigma) films. Protonic conduction of fabricated BaCe(0.85)Y(0.15)O(3-sigma) films was compared to sintered BaCe(0.85)Y(0.15)O(3-sigma). Sintered samples and laser targets were prepared by sintering BaCe(0.85)Y(0.15)O(3-sigma) powders derived by solid state synthesis. Films 1 to 8 micron thick were deposited by KrF excimer laser on porous Al2O3 substrates. Thin films were fabricated at deposition temperatures of 700 to 950 C at O2 pressures up to 200 mTorr using laser pulse energies of 0.45 - 0.95 J. Fabricated films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and electrical impedance spectroscopy. Single phase BaCe(0.85)Y(0.15)O(3-sigma) films with a columnar growth morphology are observed with preferred crystal growth along the [100] or [001] direction. Results indicate [100] growth dependence upon laser pulse energy. Electrical conductivity of bulk samples produced by solid state sintering and thin film samples were measured over a temperature range of 100 C to 900 C. Electrical conduction behavior was dependent upon film deposition temperature. Maximum conductivity occurs at deposition temperature of 900 oC; the electrical conductivity exceeds the sintered specimen. All other deposited films exhibit a lower electrical conductivity than the sintered specimen. Activation energy for electrical conduction showed dependence upon deposition temperature, it varied

  15. Observation of positive and small electron affinity of Si-doped AlN films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on n-type 6H–SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Liang; Ping, Chen; De-Gang, Zhao; De-Sheng, Jiang; Zhi-Juan, Zhao; Zong-Shun, Liu; Jian-Jun, Zhu; Jing, Yang; Wei, Liu; Xiao-Guang, He; Xiao-Jing, Li; Xiang, Li; Shuang-Tao, Liu; Hui, Yang; Li-Qun, Zhang; Jian-Ping, Liu; Yuan-Tao, Zhang; Guo-Tong, Du

    2016-05-01

    We have investigated the electron affinity of Si-doped AlN films (N Si = 1.0 × 1018–1.0 × 1019 cm‑3) with thicknesses of 50, 200, and 400 nm, synthesized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) under low pressure on the n-type (001)6H–SiC substrates. The positive and small electron affinity of AlN films was observed through the ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) analysis, where an increase in electron affinity appears with the thickness of AlN films increasing, i.e., 0.36 eV for the 50-nm-thick one, 0.58 eV for the 200-nm-thick one, and 0.97 eV for the 400-nm-thick one. Accompanying the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis on the surface contaminations, it suggests that the difference of electron affinity between our three samples may result from the discrepancy of surface impurity contaminations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61574135, 61574134, 61474142, 61474110, 61377020, 61376089, 61223005, and 61321063), the One Hundred Person Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Basic Research Project of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20130362).

  16. Film synthesis on powders by cathodic arc plasma deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, A.; Anders, S.; Brown, I.G.; Ivanov, I.C.

    1995-04-01

    Cathodic arc plasma deposition was used to coat Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder (mesh size 60) with platinum. The power particles were moved during deposition using a mechanical system operating at a resonance frequency of 20 Hz. Scanning electron microscopy and Auger electron microscopy show that all particles are completely coated with a platinum film having a thickness of about 100 nm. The actual deposition time was only 20 s, thus the deposition rate was very high (5 nm/s).

  17. Deposition of thin films of multicomponent materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Composite films of multicomponent materials, such as oxides and nitrides, e.g., lead zirconate titanate, are deposited by dc magnetron sputtering, employing a rotating substrate holder, which rotates relative to a plurality of targets, one target for each metal element of the multicomponent material. The sputtering is carried out in a reactive atmosphere. The substrates on which the layers are deposited are at ambient temperature. Following deposition of the composite film, the film is heated to a temperature sufficient to initiate a solid state reaction and form the final product, which is substantially single phase and substantially homogeneous.

  18. Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, Alan R.; Auciello, Orlando

    1990-01-01

    Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams.

  19. Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, A.R.; Auciello, O.

    1990-05-08

    Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams. 10 figs.

  20. Polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey,Thomas M.; Burrell,Anthony K.; Jia,Quanxi; Lin,Yuan

    2012-02-28

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal nitride films and the like is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures under a suitable atmosphere to yield metal nitride films and the like. Such films can be conformal on a variety of substrates including non-planar substrates. In some instances, the films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  1. Interface properties of atomic layer deposited TiO2/Al2O3 films on In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As/InP substrates.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, C; Das, T; Mahata, C; Maiti, C K; Chia, C K; Chiam, S Y; Chi, D Z; Dalapati, G K

    2014-03-12

    Electrical and interfacial properties of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors fabricated using atomic layer deposited bilayer TiO2/Al2O3 films on In0.53Ga0.47As/InP substrates are reported. Vacuum annealing at 350 °C is shown to improve the interface quality. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics with higher accumulation capacitance, negligible frequency dispersion, small hysteresis and low interface state density (∼1.5 × 10(11) cm(-2) eV(-1)) have been observed for MOS capacitors. Low frequency (1/f) noise characterization and inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) studies have been performed to determine defects and interface traps and explain the lattice dynamics and trap state generation mechanisms. Both the IETS and 1/f noise studies reveal the spatial locations of the traps near the interface and also the nature of the traps. The IETS study further revealed the dynamic evolution of trap states related to low frequency noise sources in the deposited TiO2/Al2O3 stacks. It is shown that deposition of an ultrathin layer of TiO2 on Al2O3 can effectively control the diffusion of As in the dielectric and the oxidation states of In and Ga at the In0.53Ga0.47As surface. PMID:24472090

  2. Role of Ge and Si substrates in higher-k tetragonal phase formation and interfacial properties in cyclical atomic layer deposition-anneal Hf1-xZrxO2/Al2O3 thin film stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sonal; Tapily, Kandabara; Consiglio, Steven; Clark, Robert D.; Wajda, Cory S.; Leusink, Gert J.; Woll, Arthur R.; Diebold, Alain C.

    2016-09-01

    Using a five-step atomic layer deposition (ALD)-anneal (DADA) process, with 20 ALD cycles of metalorganic precursors followed by 40 s of rapid thermal annealing at 1073 K, we have developed highly crystalline Hf1-xZrxO2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) thin films (<7 nm) on ˜1 nm ALD Al2O3 passivated Ge and Si substrates for applications in higher-k dielectric metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors below 10 nm technology node. By applying synchrotron grazing incidence x-ray d-spacing maps, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and angle-resolved XPS, we have identified a monoclinic to tetragonal phase transition with increasing ZrO2 content, elucidated the role of the Ge vs Si substrates in complete tetragonal phase formation (CTPF), and determined the interfacial characteristics of these technologically relevant films. The ZrO2 concentration required for CTPF is lower on Ge than on Si substrates (x ˜ 0.5 vs. x ˜ 0.86), which we attribute as arising from the growth of an ultra-thin layer of metal germanates between the Hf1-xZrxO2 and Al2O3/Ge, possibly during the first deposition and annealing cycle. Due to Ge-induced tetragonal phase stabilization, the interfacial metal germanates could act as a template for the subsequent preferential growth of the tetragonal Hf1-xZrxO2 phase following bottom-up crystallization during the DADA ALD process. We surmise that the interfacial metal germanate layer also function as a diffusion barrier limiting excessive Ge uptake into the dielectric film. An ALD Al2O3 passivation layer of thickness ≥1.5 nm is required to minimize Ge diffusion for developing highly conformal and textured HfO2 based higher-k dielectrics on Ge substrates using the DADA ALD process.

  3. Perovskite thin films via atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Brandon R; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Adachi, Michael M; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Wong, Chris T O; McDowell, Jeffrey J; Xu, Jixian; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Ning, Zhijun; Houtepen, Arjan J; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-01-01

    A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3 NH3 PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm(-1) .

  4. X-ray reflectivity measurements of vacuum deposited thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Chason, M.; Chason, E.

    1992-12-31

    X-ray reflectivity using energy dispersive X-ray detection, a nondestructive probe of surface roughness over the region of {approximately} 1--50 {Angstrom}, has been used to investigate the characteristicsof vacuum deposited thin films. With a surface roughness sensitivity better than 1 {Angstrom} X-ray reflectivity is sensitive to interfaces between different materials for sample thicknesses up to approximately2000 {Angstrom} (depending on material density). We have investigated discrete Cr/Al deposits on quartz substrates and determined the surface roughness at the interfaces. We have also monitored the evolution ofthe Cr/Al interface following annealing. The experimental data is presented and discussed. The use of the technique for studying thin film deposits is addressed.

  5. X-ray reflectivity measurements of vacuum deposited thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Chason, M. ); Chason, E. )

    1992-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity using energy dispersive X-ray detection, a nondestructive probe of surface roughness over the region of [approximately] 1--50 [Angstrom], has been used to investigate the characteristicsof vacuum deposited thin films. With a surface roughness sensitivity better than 1 [Angstrom] X-ray reflectivity is sensitive to interfaces between different materials for sample thicknesses up to approximately2000 [Angstrom] (depending on material density). We have investigated discrete Cr/Al deposits on quartz substrates and determined the surface roughness at the interfaces. We have also monitored the evolution ofthe Cr/Al interface following annealing. The experimental data is presented and discussed. The use of the technique for studying thin film deposits is addressed.

  6. Ion beam sputter deposited zinc telluride films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Zinc telluride is of interest as a potential electronic device material, particularly as one component in an amorphous superlattice, which is a new class of interesting and potentially useful materials. Some structural and electronic properties of ZnTe films deposited by argon ion beam sputter deposition are described. Films (up to 3000 angstroms thick) were deposited from a ZnTe target. A beam energy of 1000 eV and a current density of 4 mA/sq cm resulted in deposition rates of approximately 70 angstroms/min. The optical band gap was found to be approximately 1.1 eV, indicating an amorphous structure, as compared to a literature value of 2.26 eV for crystalline material. Intrinsic stress measurements showed a thickness dependence, varying from tensile for thicknesses below 850 angstroms to compressive for larger thicknesses. Room temperature conductivity measurement also showed a thickness dependence, with values ranging from 1.86 x 10 to the -6th/ohm cm for 300 angstrom film to 2.56 x 10 to the -1/ohm cm for a 2600 angstrom film. Measurement of the temperature dependence of the conductivity for these films showed complicated behavior which was thickness dependent. Thinner films showed at least two distinct temperature dependent conductivity mechanisms, as described by a Mott-type model. Thicker films showed only one principal conductivity mechanism, similar to what might be expected for a material with more crystalline character.

  7. Femtosecond pulsed laser deposition of amorphous, ultrahard boride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Michael; Molian, Pal

    2004-05-01

    Amorphous thin films (300-500 nm) of ultrahard AlMgB10 with oxygen and carbon impurities were grown on Si (100) substrates at 300 K using a solid target of AlMgB14 containing a spinel phase (MgAl2O4) and using a 120 fs pulsed, 800 nm wavelength Ti:sapphire laser. The films were subsequently annealed in argon gas up to 1373 K for 2 h. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the particulate formation, atomic force microscopy was employed to characterize the film surface topography, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to determine the microstructure, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was performed to examine the film composition, and nanoindentation was employed to study the hardness of thin films. The as-deposited and postannealed films (up to 1273 K) had a stochiometry of AlMgB10 with a significant amount of oxygen and carbon impurities and exhibited amorphous structures for a maximum hardness of 40+/-3 GPa. However, postannealing at higher temperatures led to crystallization and transformation of the film to SiB6 with a substantial loss in hardness. Results are also compared with our previous study on 23 ns, 248 nm wavelength (KrF excimer) pulsed laser deposition of AlMgB14 reported in this journal [Y. Tian, A. Constant, C. C. H. Lo, J. W. Anderegg, A. M. Russell, J. E. Snyder, and P. A. Molian, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, 1055 (2003)]. .

  8. Excimer laser modification of thin AlN films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, D. G.; Rosenberger, L. W.; Danylyuk, Y. V.; Baird, R. J.; Newaz, G.; Shreve, G.; Auner, G.

    2005-08-01

    The potential of excimer laser micro-processing for surface modification of aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films was studied. Thin films of AlN were deposited by plasma-source molecular beam epitaxy (PSMBE) on silicon and sapphire substrates. These films were then exposed to different fluence levels of KrF ( λ = 248 nm) excimer laser radiation in an ambient air environment, and the changes in the film surface were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and optical spectrophotometry. The results show that there is a narrow range of laser fluences, just above 1.0 J/cm 2, within which mostly photochemical transformations of the film surface take place. These transformations consist of both oxidation and decomposition to metallic Al of the original film within a very thin sub-surface layer with thickness of several tens of nanometers. No changes were observed at fluences below 1.0 J/cm 2. Above a fluence of 1.0 J/cm 2, severe photomechanical damage consisting of film cracking and detachment was found to accompany the photochemical and photothermal changes in the film.

  9. Ion beam sputter deposited zinc telluride films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Zinc telluride is of interest as a potential electronic device material, particularly as one component in an amorphous superlattice, which is a new class of interesting and potentially useful materials. Some structural and electronic properties of ZnTe films deposited by argon ion beam sputter depoairion are described. Films (up to 3000 angstroms thick) were deposited from a ZnTe target. A beam energy of 1000 eV and a current density of 4 mA/sq. cm. resulted in deposition rates of approximately 70 angstroms/min. The optical band gap was found to be approximately 1.1 eV, indicating an amorphous structure, as compared to a literature value of 2.26 eV for crystalline material. Intrinsic stress measurements showed a thickness dependence, varying from tensile for thicknesses below 850 angstroms to compressive for larger thicknesses. Room temperature conductivity measurement also showed a thickness dependence, with values ranging from 1.86 x to to the -6/ohm. cm. for 300 angstrom film to 2.56 x 10 to the -1/ohm. cm. for a 2600 angstrom film. Measurement of the temperature dependence of the conductivity for these films showed complicated behavior which was thickness dependent. Thinner films showed at least two distinct temperature dependent conductivity mechanisms, as described by a Mott-type model. Thicker films showed only one principal conductivity mechanism, similar to what might be expected for a material with more crystalline character.

  10. Structural, optical and electronic structure studies of Al doped ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, Vanita; Kumar, Manish; Shukla, D. K.; Choudhary, R. J.; Phase, D. M.; Kumar, Ravindra; Joshi, B. C.

    2015-07-01

    Structural, optical and electronic structure of Al doped ZnO thin films grown using pulsed laser deposition on glass substrate are investigated. X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that all the films are textured along the c-axis and have wurtzite structure. Al doping in ZnO films leads to increase in grain size due to relaxation in compressive stress. Enhancement in band gap of ZnO films with the Al doping is also noticed which can be ascribed to the Brustein-Moss shift. The changes in the electronic structure caused by Al in the doped thin film samples are understood through X-ray absorption measurements.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of electron doped La{sub 0.85}Te{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} thin film grown on LaAlO{sub 3} substrate by pulsed laser deposition technique

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, Irshad Husain, Shahid; Patil, S. I.; Khan, Wasi; Ali, S. Asad

    2015-06-24

    We report the structural, morphological and magneto-transport properties of electron doped La{sub 0.85}Te{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3} (LTMO) thin film grown on (001) LaAlO{sub 3} single crystal substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm that the film has good crystalline quality, single phase, and c-axis orientation. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) results have revealed that the film consists of grains with the average size in a range of 20–30 nm and root-mean square (rms) roughness of 0.27nm. The resistivity versus temperature measurement exhibits an insulator to metal transition (MIT). We have noticed a huge value of magnetoresistance (∼93%) close to MIT in presence of 8T field. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy confirms the electron doping and suggests that Te ions could be in the Te{sup 4+} state, while the Mn ions stay in the Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+} valence state.

  12. Iron films deposited on porous alumina substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro; Tanabe, Kenichi; Nishida, Naoki; Kobayashi, Yoshio

    2016-12-01

    Iron films were deposited on porous alumina substrates using an arc plasma gun. The pore sizes (120 - 250 nm) of the substrates were controlled by changing the temperature during the anodic oxidation of aluminum plates. Iron atoms penetrated into pores with diameters of less than 160 nm, and were stabilized by forming γ-Fe, whereas α-Fe was produced as a flat plane covering the pores. For porous alumina substrates with pore sizes larger than 200 nm, the deposited iron films contained many defects and the resulting α-Fe had smaller hyperfine magnetic fields. In addition, only a very small amount of γ-Fe was obtained. It was demonstrated that the composition and structure of an iron film can be affected by the surface morphology of the porous alumina substrate on which the film is grown.

  13. Ultrashort pulse laser deposition of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Michael D.; Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.

    2002-01-01

    Short pulse PLD is a viable technique of producing high quality films with properties very close to that of crystalline diamond. The plasma generated using femtosecond lasers is composed of single atom ions with no clusters producing films with high Sp.sup.3 /Sp.sup.2 ratios. Using a high average power femtosecond laser system, the present invention dramatically increases deposition rates to up to 25 .mu.m/hr (which exceeds many CVD processes) while growing particulate-free films. In the present invention, deposition rates is a function of laser wavelength, laser fluence, laser spot size, and target/substrate separation. The relevant laser parameters are shown to ensure particulate-free growth, and characterizations of the films grown are made using several diagnostic techniques including electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Raman spectroscopy.

  14. Photoemission of Alq{sub 3} and C{sub 60} films on Al and LiF/Al substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Joensson, S.K.M.; Salaneck, W.R.; Fahlman, M.

    2005-07-01

    Photoemission studies of thin films of Alq{sub 3} and C{sub 60} deposited on Al and LiF/Al substrates have been performed in order to deduce the interactions of the organic films with the substrates. For all cases there is evidence of strong interaction resulting in the formation of interfacial dipoles. Attempts to explain the origin of these interfacial dipoles and the type of interface formed in each case have been done through analysis of the valence electronic structure and core levels of the materials. The origin of the interfacial dipoles is mainly covalent interaction when the organic films are deposited on Al substrates, and charge transfer between the organic molecules and the metal through the LiF sandwich layer when the organic films are deposited on LiF/Al substrates. For thick-enough LiF films, however, there is no interaction between the organic films and the substrates. In no case does the LiF dissociate, unlike what is found for the reverse order of deposition. Two charge-transfer-induced gap states are found for (sub)monolayer films of Alq{sub 3} deposited on LiF/Al. We propose that the formation of two gap states corresponds to negatively charged fac-Alq{sub 3}.

  15. Vacuum ultraviolet photochemical selective area atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Chalker, P. R. Marshall, P. A.; Dawson, K.; Brunell, I. F.; Sutcliffe, C. J.; Potter, R. J.

    2015-01-15

    We report the photochemical atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films and the use of this process to achieve area-selective film deposition. A shuttered vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source is used to excite molecular oxygen and trimethyl aluminum to deposit films at 60°C. In-situ QCM and post-deposition ellipsometric measurements both show that the deposition rate is saturative as a function of irradiation time. Selective area deposition was achieved by projecting the VUV light through a metalized magnesium fluoride photolithographic mask and the selectivity of deposition on the illuminated and masked regions of the substrate is a logarithmic function of the UV exposure time. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films exhibit dielectric constants of 8 – 10 at 1 MHz after forming gas annealing, similar to films deposited by conventional thermal ALD.

  16. Growth of Metastable β-AlN by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshitake, Tsuyoshi; Mohri, Satoshi; Hara, Takeshi; Nagayama, Kunihito

    2008-05-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films were prepared on sapphire (0001) in ambient nitrogen by pulsed laser deposition using a sintered AlN target, and the film structure was evaluated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The central area of the film was partially studded with cubic AlN (β-AlN) crystallites with obvious facets. This area was located on the normal of the irradiation spot on the target, and it corresponded to the region on the film where the highly energetic and dense species were deposited. A nonequilibrium condition and large supply of nitrogen are both important factors for the growth of metastable β-AlN.

  17. Ultrasound-Assisted Deposition Of Dielectric Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwangbo, C. K.; Jacobson, M. R.; Macleod, H. A.; Potoff, R. H.

    1986-12-01

    The effects of ultrasound-assisted deposition (UAD) of ZrOx , Ta0x , and MgFx films on their optical properties have been investigated. The direction of vibration is transverse to the direction of growing films on substrates that are glued to tubular piezoelectric transducers driven by a power amplifier. Results indicate that ultrasonic powers above 20 W/cm2 are required to induce detectable changes in UV absorption and vacuum-to-air shifts of spectral profiles. UAD is likely to induce oxygen and fluoride deficiencies in oxide and fluoride films and increase the packing density of films. No significant changes between UAD and conventional films were observed in x-ray diffraction analysis, humidity testing, and Nomarski microscopy.

  18. Process for producing Ti-Cr-Al-O thin film resistors

    DOEpatents

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Schmid, Anthony P.

    2001-01-01

    Thin films of Ti-Cr-Al-O are used as a resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O.sub.2. Resistivity values from 10.sup.4 to 10.sup.10 Ohm-cm have been measured for Ti-Cr-Al-O film <1 .mu.m thick. The film resistivity can be discretely selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The application of Ti-Cr-Al-O as a thin film resistor has been found to be thermodynamically stable, unlike other metal-oxide films. The Ti-Cr-Al-O film can be used as a vertical or lateral resistor, for example, as a layer beneath a field emission cathode in a flat panel display; or used to control surface emissivity, for example, as a coating on an insulating material such as vertical wall supports in flat panel displays.

  19. Flat panel display using Ti-Cr-Al-O thin film

    DOEpatents

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Schmid, Anthony P.

    2002-01-01

    Thin films of Ti--Cr--Al--O are used as a resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O.sub.2. Resistivity values from 10.sup.4 to 10.sup.10 Ohm-cm have been measured for Ti--Cr--Al--O film <1 .mu.m thick. The film resistivity can be discretely selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The application of Ti--Cr--Al--O as a thin film resistor has been found to be thermodynamically stable, unlike other metal-oxide films. The Ti--Cr--Al--O film can be used as a vertical or lateral resistor, for example, as a layer beneath a field emission cathode in a flat panel display; or used to control surface emissivity, for example, as a coating on an insulating material such as vertical wall supports in flat panel displays.

  20. Semiconductor and ceramic nanoparticle films deposited by chemical bath deposition.

    PubMed

    Hodes, Gary

    2007-06-14

    Chemical bath deposition (CBD) has been used to deposit films of metal sulfides, selenides and oxides, together with some miscellaneous compounds, beginning nearly 140 years ago. While it is a well-known technique in a few specific areas (notably photoconductive lead salt detectors, photoelectrodes and more recently, thin film solar cells), it is by and large an under-appreciated technique. The more recent interest in all things 'nano' has provided a boost for CBD: since it is a low temperature, solution (almost always aqueous) technique, crystal size is often very small. This is evidenced by the existence of size quantization commonly found in CBD semiconductor films. The intention of this review is to provide readers, many of whom may not even be aware of the CBD technique, with an overview of how the technique has been used to fabricate nanocrystalline semiconductor (this terminology also includes oxides often classified as ceramics) films and some properties of these films. The review begins, after a short introduction, with a general description of the CBD method, designed to give the reader a basic knowledge of the technique. The rest of the review then focuses on nanocrystalline (or, in the few cases of amorphous deposits, nanoparticle) films. The various factors which determine crystal size are first discussed. This is followed by some of the many examples of size quantization observed in the films. Since CBD films are usually porous, surface effects can be very important, and various surface-dependent properties (light emission and surface states) as well as surface modification, are treated: (although some properties, like emission, can be strongly dependent on both surface and 'bulk'). Because of the fact that many CBD films have been made specifically for use as photoelectrodes in photoelectrochemical cells, there is next a chapter on this topic with a few examples of such photoelectrodes. Film structure and morphology follows with examples of

  1. Photobiomolecular deposition of metallic particles and films

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2005-02-08

    The method of the invention is based on the unique electron-carrying function of a photocatalytic unit such as the photosynthesis system I (PSI) reaction center of the protein-chlorophyll complex isolated from chloroplasts. The method employs a photo-biomolecular metal deposition technique for precisely controlled nucleation and growth of metallic clusters/particles, e.g., platinum, palladium, and their alloys, etc., as well as for thin-film formation above the surface of a solid substrate. The photochemically mediated technique offers numerous advantages over traditional deposition methods including quantitative atom deposition control, high energy efficiency, and mild operating condition requirements.

  2. (Chemically vapor deposited diamond films)

    SciTech Connect

    Clausing, R.E.; Heatherly, L. Jr.

    1990-09-22

    The NATO-ASI on Diamond and Diamond-Like Films and Coatings'' was an opportunity for us to learn the latest research results from ongoing programs in the leading laboratories of the world and relate them to our work. Specific examples are given in the comprehensive report which follows. The meeting format provided an ideal environment to meet and interact with our international counterparts. It is clear that our studies are well regarded, and that we have established an excellent reputation in a short time. New opportunities for collaboration were identified. A panel discussion at the end of the meeting addressed the needs and opportunities in the synthesis of CVD diamond. The key scientific needs are those related to modeling the nucleation and growth processes and to elucidation of the critical roles of atomic hydrogen and the mechanisms of carbon addition to the growing surfaces. The development and more extensive use of in situ diagnostics for both surface and gas phases are important to solving these issues. The more immediate practical questions concern the identification of the growth-rate-limiting steps, the relation of growth parameters to the resulting film structure, and the dependence of properties on structure.

  3. Spatial atmospheric atomic layer deposition of Al(x)Zn(1-x)O.

    PubMed

    Illiberi, A; Scherpenborg, R; Wu, Y; Roozeboom, F; Poodt, P

    2013-12-26

    The possibility of growing multicomponent oxides by spatial atmospheric atomic layer deposition has been investigated. To this end, Al(x)Zn(1-x)O films have been deposited using diethyl zinc (DEZ), trimethyl aluminum (TMA), and water as Zn, Al, and O precursors, respectively. When the metal precursors (i.e., TMA and DEZ) are coinjected in the deposition region, the Al/(Al + Zn) ratio can be accurately controlled by either varying the TMA flow to the reactor or the exposure time of the substrate to the precursors. A high doping efficiency level (up to 70%) is achieved in Al-doped ZnO, resulting in films with a high carrier density (5 × 10(20) cm(-3)), low resistivity (2 × 10(-3) Ω cm), and good optical transparency (>85%) in the visible range. The morphology of the films changes from polycrystalline, in conductive i-ZnO and Al-doped ZnO, to amorphous, in highly resistive Al-rich films. The unique combination of the fine tuning of the composition, morphology, and electrical properties of the films with high deposition rates (>0.2 nm/s) paves the way for spatial ALD as an emerging disruptive technique for the growth of multicomponent oxides over large areas.

  4. Photochemical Deposition of Patterned Gold Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaran, Abbu Udaiyar Senthil; Miyawaki, Tetsuya; Ichimura, Masaya

    2006-12-01

    We present a novel route for patterned gold thin-film deposition on glass substrates with the help of UV-light irradiation. Chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) is used as a source material and sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) acts as a reducing agent in an aqueous solution. Ethylene diamine (EDA) is added to increase the solution stability. The deposition solution is injected on the substrate. A patterned metal mask is placed 5 mm above the substrate, and the solution is illuminated for 15 min by an ultrahigh-pressure mercury arc lamp. A patterned Au film with a thickness of 0.1-0.2 μm is deposited.

  5. Studies of Niobium Thin Film Produced by Energetic Vacuum Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Genfa Wu; Anne-Marie Valente; H. Phillips; Haipeng Wang; Andy Wu; T. J. Renk; P Provencio

    2004-05-01

    An energetic vacuum deposition system has been used to study deposition energy effects on the properties of niobium thin films on copper and sapphire substrates. The absence of working gas avoids the gaseous inclusions commonly seen with sputtering deposition. A biased substrate holder controls the deposition energy. Transition temperature and residual resistivity ratio of the niobium thin films at several deposition energies are obtained together with surface morphology and crystal orientation measurements by AFM inspection, XRD and TEM analysis. The results show that niobium thin films on sapphire substrate exhibit the best cryogenic properties at deposition energy around 123 eV. The TEM analysis revealed that epitaxial growth of film was evident when deposition energy reaches 163 eV for sapphire substrate. Similarly, niobium thin film on copper substrate shows that film grows more oriented with higher deposition energy and grain size reaches the scale of the film thickness at the deposition energy around 153 eV.

  6. Nano-oxide thin films deposited via atomic layer deposition on microchannel plates.

    PubMed

    Yan, Baojun; Liu, Shulin; Heng, Yuekun

    2015-01-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP) as a key part is a kind of electron multiplied device applied in many scientific fields. Oxide thin films such as zinc oxide doped with aluminum oxide (ZnO:Al2O3) as conductive layer and pure aluminum oxide (Al2O3) as secondary electron emission (SEE) layer were prepared in the pores of MCP via atomic layer deposition (ALD) which is a method that can precisely control thin film thickness on a substrate with a high aspect ratio structure. In this paper, nano-oxide thin films ZnO:Al2O3 and Al2O3 were prepared onto varied kinds of substrates by ALD technique, and the morphology, element distribution, structure, and surface chemical states of samples were systematically investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Finally, electrical properties of an MCP device as a function of nano-oxide thin film thickness were firstly studied, and the electrical measurement results showed that the average gain of MCP was greater than 2,000 at DC 800 V with nano-oxide thin film thickness approximately 122 nm. During electrical measurement, current jitter was observed, and possible reasons were preliminarily proposed to explain the observed experimental phenomenon.

  7. Nano-oxide thin films deposited via atomic layer deposition on microchannel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Baojun; Liu, Shulin; Heng, Yuekun

    2015-04-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP) as a key part is a kind of electron multiplied device applied in many scientific fields. Oxide thin films such as zinc oxide doped with aluminum oxide (ZnO:Al2O3) as conductive layer and pure aluminum oxide (Al2O3) as secondary electron emission (SEE) layer were prepared in the pores of MCP via atomic layer deposition (ALD) which is a method that can precisely control thin film thickness on a substrate with a high aspect ratio structure. In this paper, nano-oxide thin films ZnO:Al2O3 and Al2O3 were prepared onto varied kinds of substrates by ALD technique, and the morphology, element distribution, structure, and surface chemical states of samples were systematically investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Finally, electrical properties of an MCP device as a function of nano-oxide thin film thickness were firstly studied, and the electrical measurement results showed that the average gain of MCP was greater than 2,000 at DC 800 V with nano-oxide thin film thickness approximately 122 nm. During electrical measurement, current jitter was observed, and possible reasons were preliminarily proposed to explain the observed experimental phenomenon.

  8. Nano-oxide thin films deposited via atomic layer deposition on microchannel plates.

    PubMed

    Yan, Baojun; Liu, Shulin; Heng, Yuekun

    2015-01-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP) as a key part is a kind of electron multiplied device applied in many scientific fields. Oxide thin films such as zinc oxide doped with aluminum oxide (ZnO:Al2O3) as conductive layer and pure aluminum oxide (Al2O3) as secondary electron emission (SEE) layer were prepared in the pores of MCP via atomic layer deposition (ALD) which is a method that can precisely control thin film thickness on a substrate with a high aspect ratio structure. In this paper, nano-oxide thin films ZnO:Al2O3 and Al2O3 were prepared onto varied kinds of substrates by ALD technique, and the morphology, element distribution, structure, and surface chemical states of samples were systematically investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Finally, electrical properties of an MCP device as a function of nano-oxide thin film thickness were firstly studied, and the electrical measurement results showed that the average gain of MCP was greater than 2,000 at DC 800 V with nano-oxide thin film thickness approximately 122 nm. During electrical measurement, current jitter was observed, and possible reasons were preliminarily proposed to explain the observed experimental phenomenon. PMID:25883544

  9. Microstructure evolution of Al-Mg-B thin films by thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Y.; Constant, A.; Lo, C. C. H.; Anderegg, J. W.; Russell, A. M.; Snyder, J. E.; Molian, P.

    2003-07-01

    The growth of Al-Mg-B thin films on SiO2/Si(100) substrates was performed by nanosecond pulsed laser deposition at three different substrate temperatures (300 K, 573 K, and 873 K). The as-deposited films were then annealed at 1173 K or 1273 K for 2 h. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and atomic force microscope were employed to investigate the effects of processing conditions on the composition, microstructure evolution, and surface morphology of the Al-Mg-B films. The substrate temperatures were found to affect the composition of as-deposited films in that the Mg content decreases and C content increases at higher substrate temperatures, in particular for the 873 K-deposited film. XRD results show that the as-deposited films were amorphous, and this structure may be stable up to 1173 K. Annealing at 1273 K was found to fully crystallize the room temperature and 573 K-deposited Al-Mg-B films with the formation of the polycrystalline orthorhombic AlMgB14 phase, accompanied by the development of a pronounced (011) preferred orientation. Nevertheless, high C incorporation in the 873 K-deposited Al-Mg-B film inhibits the crystallization and the amorphous structure remains stable even during 1273 K annealing. The presence of Si in the room-temperature-deposited 1273 K-annealed film due to the interdiffusion between the substrate and film leads to the formation of an additional tetragonal α-FeSi2 phase, which is thought to cause the surface cracking and microstructural instability observed in this film.

  10. Structural properties of Al-rich AlInN grown on c-plane GaN substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The attractive prospect for AlInN/GaN-based devices for high electron mobility transistors with advanced structure relies on high-quality AlInN epilayer. In this work, we demonstrate the growth of high-quality Al-rich AlInN films deposited on c-plane GaN substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy show that the films lattice-matched with GaN can have a very smooth surface with good crystallinity and uniform distribution of Al and In in AlInN. PMID:25489282

  11. Excimer laser deposition of hydroxyapatite thin films.

    PubMed

    Singh, R K; Qian, F; Nagabushnam, V; Damodaran, R; Moudgil, B M

    1994-06-01

    We have demonstrated a new and simple in situ method to fabricate adherent and dense hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings at relatively low deposition temperatures (500-600 degrees C). Under optimum processing conditions, the HA coatings possess a nominal Ca:P ratio of 1.65 and exhibit a fully crystalline single-phase structure. This deposition technique is based on the application of a pulsed excimer laser (wavelength lambda = 248 nm, pulse duration tau = 25 x 10(-9) s) to ablate a dense stoichiometric HA target. The HA target was prepared by standard ceramic coprecipitation techniques followed by cold pressing and further sintering at 1200 degrees C in air. High substrate temperatures (> or = 600 degrees C) during film deposition led to phosphorus deficient coatings because of re-evaporation of phosphorus during the deposition process. The stabilization of various calcium and phosphorus phases in the film was controlled by a number of process parameters such as substrate temperature, chamber pressure and presence of water vapour in the chamber. This is particularly advantageous for production of HA coatings, since it is known that HA decomposes at high temperatures due to the uncertainty in the starting material stoichiometry. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques were employed to determine the structure-processing relationships. Qualitative scratch measurements were conducted to determine the adhesion strength of the films.

  12. Silicon carbide and other films and method of deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehregany, Mehran (Inventor); Zorman, Christian A. (Inventor); Fu, Xiao-An (Inventor); Dunning, Jeremy L. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method of depositing a ceramic film, particularly a silicon carbide film, on a substrate is disclosed in which the residual stress, residual stress gradient, and resistivity are controlled. Also disclosed are substrates having a deposited film with these controlled properties and devices, particularly MEMS and NEMS devices, having substrates with films having these properties.

  13. Silicon carbide and other films and method of deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehregany, Mehran (Inventor); Zorman, Christian A. (Inventor); Fu, Xiao-An (Inventor); Dunning, Jeremy (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method of depositing a ceramic film, particularly a silicon carbide film, on a substrate is disclosed in which the residual stress, residual stress gradient, and resistivity are controlled. Also disclosed are substrates having a deposited film with these controlled properties and devices, particularly MEMS and NEMS devices, having substrates with films having these properties.

  14. Apparatus for laser assisted thin film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; McLean, W. II

    1996-02-13

    A pulsed laser deposition apparatus uses fiber optics to deliver visible output beams. One or more optical fibers are coupled to one or more laser sources, and delivers visible output beams to a single chamber, to multiple targets in the chamber or to multiple chambers. The laser can run uninterrupted if one of the deposition chambers ceases to operate because other chambers can continue their laser deposition processes. The laser source can be positioned at a remote location relative to the deposition chamber. The use of fiber optics permits multi-plexing. A pulsed visible laser beam is directed at a generally non-perpendicular angle upon the target in the chamber, generating a plume of ions and energetic neutral species. A portion of the plume is deposited on a substrate as a thin film. A pulsed visible output beam with a high pulse repetition frequency is used. The high pulse repetition frequency is greater than 500 Hz, and more preferably, greater than about 1000 Hz. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is one of the thin films produced using the apparatus. 9 figs.

  15. Apparatus for laser assisted thin film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; McLean, II, William

    1996-01-01

    A pulsed laser deposition apparatus uses fiber optics to deliver visible output beams. One or more optical fibers are coupled to one or more laser sources, and delivers visible output beams to a single chamber, to multiple targets in the chamber or to multiple chambers. The laser can run uninterrupted if one of the deposition chambers ceases to operate because other chambers can continue their laser deposition processes. The laser source can be positioned at a remote location relative to the deposition chamber. The use of fiber optics permits multi-plexing. A pulsed visible laser beam is directed at a generally non-perpendicular angle upon the target in the chamber, generating a plume of ions and energetic neutral species. A portion of the plume is deposited on a substrate as a thin film. A pulsed visible output beam with a high pulse repetition frequency is used. The high pulse repetition frequency is greater than 500 Hz, and more preferably, greater than about 1000 Hz. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is one of the thin films produced using the apparatus.

  16. Molecular layer deposition of alucone films using trimethylaluminum and hydroquinone

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Devika; Sarkar, Shaibal K.; Mahuli, Neha

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid organic–inorganic polymer film grown by molecular layer deposition (MLD) is demonstrated here. Sequential exposures of trimethylaluminum [Al(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}] and hydroquinone [C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(OH){sub 2}] are used to deposit the polymeric films, which is a representative of a class of aluminum oxide polymers known as “alucones.” In-situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies are employed to determine the growth characteristics. An average growth rate of 4.1 Å per cycle at 150 °C is obtained by QCM and subsequently verified with x-ray reflectivity measurements. Surface chemistry during each MLD-half cycle is studied in depth by in-situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) vibration spectroscopy. Self limiting nature of the reaction is confirmed from both QCM and FTIR measurements. The conformal nature of the deposit, typical for atomic layer deposition and MLD, is verified with transmission electron microscopy imaging. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements confirm the uniform elemental distribution along the depth of the films.

  17. Atomic layer deposition of sodium and potassium oxides: evaluation of precursors and deposition of thin films.

    PubMed

    Østreng, E; Sønsteby, H H; Øien, S; Nilsen, O; Fjellvåg, H

    2014-11-28

    Thin films of sodium and potassium oxides have for the first time been deposited using atomic layer deposition. Sodium and potassium complexes of tert-butanol, trimethylsilanol and hexamethyldisilazide have been evaluated as precursors by characterising their thermal properties as well as tested in applications for thin film depositions. Out of these, sodium and potassium tert-butoxide and sodium trimethylsilanolate and hexamethyldisilazide were further tested as precursors together with the Al(CH3)3 + H2O/O3 process to form aluminates and together with ozone to form silicates. Sodium and potassium tert-butoxide and sodium trimethylsilanolate showed self-limiting growth and proved useable at deposition temperatures from 225 to 375 or 300 °C, respectively. The crystal structures of NaO(t)Bu and KO(t)Bu were determined by single crystal diffraction revealing hexamer- and tetramer structures, respectively. The current work demonstrates the suitability of the ALD technique to deposit thin films containing alkaline elements even at 8'' wafer scale.

  18. Substrate heater for thin film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Steve R.

    1996-01-01

    A substrate heater for thin film deposition of metallic oxides upon a target substrate configured as a disk including means for supporting in a predetermined location a target substrate configured as a disk, means for rotating the target substrate within the support means, means for heating the target substrate within the support means, the heating means about the support means and including a pair of heating elements with one heater element situated on each side of the predetermined location for the target substrate, with one heater element defining an opening through which desired coating material can enter for thin film deposition and with the heating means including an opening slot through which the target substrate can be entered into the support means, and, optionally a means for thermal shielding of the heating means from surrounding environment is disclosed.

  19. Ion-assisted deposition of optical thin films. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Targove, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The columnar microstructure of most thermally evaporated thin films detrimentally affects many of their properties through a reduction in packing density. In this work, the author investigated ion-assisted deposition as a means of disrupting this columnar growth for a number of coating materials. A Kaufman hot-cathode ion source bombarded thermally evaporated films with low-energy (<1000 eV) positive ions during deposition in a cryopumped box coater. The author investigated MgF/sub 2/, Na/sub 3/AlF/sub 6/, AlF/sub 3/, LaF/sub 3/,CeF/sub 3/,NdF/sub 3/,Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and AlN. Argon ion bombardment of the fluoride coatings increased their packing densities dramatically. He achieved packing densities near unity without significant absorption for MgF/sub 2/,LaF/sub 3/, and NdF/sub 3/, while Na/sub 3/AlF/sub 6/,AlF/sub 3/, and CeF/sub 3/ began to absorb before unity packing density could be achieved. Fluorine was preferentially sputtered by the ion bombardment, creating anion vacancies. The films adsorbed water vapor and hydroxyl radicals from the residual chamber atmosphere. These filled the vacancy sites, eliminating absorption in the visible, but the oxygen complexes caused increased absorption in the ultraviolet. For LaF/sub 3/ and NdF/sub 3/, a sufficient amount of oxygen caused a phase transformation from the fluoride phase to an oxyfluoride phase.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of chemically deposited CdS thin films without toxic precursors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Pérez, A.; Sandoval-Paz, M. G.

    2016-05-01

    Al doped and undoped CdS thin films (CdS:Al) were deposited on glass, copper and bronze substrates by chemical bath deposition technique in an ammonia-free cadmium-sodium citrate system. The structural and optical properties of the CdS films were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and simultaneous transmission- reflection spectroscopy. It was found that the properties of the films depend on the amount of Al in the growth solutions and deposition time. The increase in Al content in the reaction solution led to a smaller crystallite size and higher energy band gap that varies in the range 2.42 eV - 2.59 eV depending on the Al content.

  1. Strain and Cohesive Energy of TiN Deposit on Al(001) Surface: Density Functional Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yuan; Liu, Xuejie

    2016-07-01

    To apply the high hardness of TiN film to soft and hard multilayer composite sheets, we constructed a new type of composite structural material with ultra-high strength. The strain of crystal and cohesive energy between the atoms in the eight structures of N atom, Ti atom, 2N2Ti island and TiN rock salt deposited on the Al(001) surface were calculated with the first-principle ultra-soft pseudopotential approach of the plane wave based on the density functional theory. The calculations of the cohesive energy showed that N atoms could be deposited in the face-centered-cubic vacancy position of the Al(001) surface and results in a cubic structure AlN surface. The TiN film could be deposited on the interface of β-AlN. The calculations of the strains showed that the strain in the TiN film deposited on the Al(001) surface was less than that in the 2N2Ti island deposited on the Al(001) surface. The diffusion behavior of interface atom N was investigated by a nudged elastic band method. Diffusion energy calculation showed that the N atom hardly diffused to the substrate Al layer.

  2. The impact of thickness and thermal annealing on refractive index for aluminum oxide thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi-Yi; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Lu, Hong-Liang; Chen, Xin; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Yun; Wei, Yan-Feng; Xu, Ji-Ping; Wang, Song-You; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2015-01-01

    The aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin films with various thicknesses under 50 nm were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on silicon substrate. The surface topography investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that the samples were smooth and crack-free. The ellipsometric spectra of Al2O3 thin films were measured and analyzed before and after annealing in nitrogen condition in the wavelength range from 250 to 1,000 nm, respectively. The refractive index of Al2O3 thin films was described by Cauchy model and the ellipsometric spectra data were fitted to a five-medium model consisting of Si substrate/SiO2 layer/Al2O3 layer/surface roughness/air ambient structure. It is found that the refractive index of Al2O3 thin films decrease with increasing film thickness and the changing trend revised after annealing. The phenomenon is believed to arise from the mechanical stress in ALD-Al2O3 thin films. A thickness transition is also found by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and SE after 900°C annealing. PMID:25852343

  3. CrAIN film deposited by magnetron sputtering for the inkjet printer head.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seon-Cheol; Kim, Sang Ho

    2014-12-01

    CrAIN film has advantages of stability and multifunctionality over the commercial TaN0.8. This study investigated the characteristics of CrAIN film deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering as a function of Al content after deposition heat treatment. With a 600 degrees C heat treatment and 20% Al content, the low temperature coefficient of resistance (-2670.6 ppm/k), high oxidation resistance, and thermal conductivity were acquired. This was found due to the high-density columnar NaCI structure with 20% Al and the recrystallization utilized by heat treatment.

  4. Graphene-assisted growth of high-quality AlN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Qing; Chen, Zhaolong; Zhao, Yun; Wei, Tongbo; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Yun; Yuan, Guodong; Li, Jinmin

    2016-08-01

    High-quality AlN films were directly grown on graphene/sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The graphene layers were directly grown on sapphire by atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD), a low-cost catalyst-free method. We analyzed the influence of the graphene layer on the nucleation of AlN at the initial stage of growth and found that sparse AlN grains on graphene grew and formed a continuous film via lateral coalescence. Graphene-assisted AlN films are smooth and continuous, and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) values for (0002) and (10\\bar{1}2) reflections are 360 and 622.2 arcsec, which are lower than that of the film directly grown on sapphire. The high-resolution TEM images near the AlN/sapphire interface for graphene-assisted AlN films clearly show the presence of graphene, which kept its original morphology after the 1200 °C growth of AlN.

  5. NH3 sensing characteristics of nano-WO3 thin films deposited on porous silicon.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fengyun; Hu, Ming; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Bo

    2010-11-01

    The NH3 sensing characteristics of nano-tungsten trioxide (WO3) thin films deposited on porous silicon (PS) were investigated in the present study. Porous silicon layer was first prepared by electrochemical etching in an HF-based solution on a p(+)-type silicon substrate. Then, WO3 nano-films were deposited on the porous silicon layer by DC magnetron sputtering. Pt electrodes were deposited on the top surface of the WO3 films to obtain the WO3/PS gas sensor. The WO3 films deposited on PS were characterized by SEM, XRD and XPS. The NH3 sensing characteristics for WO3/PS gas sensor were tested at room temperature and 50 degrees C. The results showed that the NH3 sensing characteristics of WO3/PS were superior to WO3/Al2O3 at room temperature. The sensing mechanism of the nano-WO3 thin films based on PS was also discussed. PMID:21138022

  6. Effect of Al Doping Concentration on Microstructure, Photoelectric Properties and Doped Mechanism of Azo Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ying; Cai, Yanqing; Hou, Linyan; Ma, Penghua

    2014-05-01

    Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were deposited on a glass substrate by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) method. Effect of Al doping concentration on microstructure, photoelectric properties and doped mechanism of AZO thin films were investigated. The analysis results revealed that the structural properties of the films possessed crystalline structure with a preferred (002) orientation. The best crystallization quality and minimum electrical resistivity was obtained at 5 at.% Al doped films and the minimum resistivity was 6.6 × 10-4 Ω ṡ cm. Uniform granular grains were observed on the surface of AZO films, and the average optical transmittance was above 80% in the visible range. The doped mechanism of AZO films was analyzed as follows. With Al doping in ZnO films, AlZn substitute and Ali interstice were produced, which decreased the resistivity of films. While after the limit value and with the continuing increase of Al doping concentration, free electrons were consumed and the resistivity of films increased.

  7. Structural and optical properties of SrCu2O2 films deposited on sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambunan, Octolia Togibasa; Tukiman, Hadiyawarman; Parwanta, Kadek Juliana; Jeong, Da Woon; Jung, Chang Uk; Rhee, Seuk Joo; Liu, Chunli

    2012-10-01

    We deposited SrCu2O2 (SCO) films on sapphire (Al2O3) (0 0 0 1) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The crystallographic orientation of the SCO thin film showed clear dependence on the growth temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed that the film deposited at 400 °C was mainly oriented in the SCO [2 0 0] direction, whereas when the growth temperature was increased to 600 °C, the SCO film showed a dominant orientation of SCO [1 1 2]. The SCO film deposited at 500 °C was obvious polycrystalline, showing multi peaks from (2 0 0), (1 1 2), and (2 1 1) diffraction in the XRD spectrum. The SCO film deposited at 600 °C showed a band gap energy of 3.3 eV and transparency up to 80% around 500 nm. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the SCO films grown at 500 °C and 600 °C mainly showed blue-green emission, which was attributed to the intra-band transition of the isolated Cu+ and Cu+-Cu+ pairs according to the temperature dependent-PL analysis.

  8. Electro-deposition of superconductor oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.

    2001-01-01

    Methods for preparing high quality superconducting oxide precursors which are well suited for further oxidation and annealing to form superconducting oxide films. The method comprises forming a multilayered superconducting precursor on a substrate by providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a substrate electrode, and providing to the bath a plurality of precursor metal salts which are capable of exhibiting superconducting properties upon subsequent treatment. The superconducting precursor is then formed by electrodepositing a first electrodeposited (ED) layer onto the substrate electrode, followed by depositing a layer of silver onto the first electrodeposited (ED) layer, and then electrodepositing a second electrodeposited (ED) layer onto the Ag layer. The multilayered superconducting precursor is suitable for oxidation at a sufficient annealing temperature in air or an oxygen-containing atmosphere to form a crystalline superconducting oxide film.

  9. Encapsulation of pentacene/C60 organic solar cells with Al2O3 deposited by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potscavage, W. J.; Yoo, S.; Domercq, B.; Kippelen, B.

    2007-06-01

    Organic solar cells based on pentacene/C60 heterojunctions were encapsulated using a 200-nm-thick film of Al2O3 deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Encapsulated devices maintained power conversion efficiency after exposure to ambient atmosphere for over 6000h, while devices with no encapsulation degraded rapidly after only 10h of air exposure. In addition, thermal annealing associated with the ALD deposition is shown to improve the open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency of the solar cells.

  10. Infrared reflectance of AlN-GaN short period superlattice films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMillan, M. F.; Devaty, R. P.; Choyke, W. J.; Khan, M. Asif; Kuznia, J.

    1996-08-01

    The room-temperature infrared reflectance of AlN-GaN short period superlattice films has been measured. These superlattice films were deposited by switched atomic layer metalorganic chemical vapor deposition onto GaN or AlN buffer layers deposited on basal plane sapphire substrates. The measured reflectance spectra are compared to calculated spectra using an effective medium theory to model the dielectric function of the superlattice. The optical properties of the individual materials making up the samples are modeled with Lorentz oscillators using only bulk input parameters. The effects of film and substrate anisotropy and off-normal incidence are included in the calculation. Using this modeling technique, it is possible to obtain thickness estimates for the superlattice film and the buffer layer. The complicated structures seen in the reststrahl region reflectance of these films are also analyzed by comparison to the calculated spectra.

  11. Electrophoretically-deposited solid film lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Dugger, M.T.; Panitz, J.K.J.; Vanecek, C.W.

    1995-04-01

    An aqueous-based process that uses electrophoresis to attract powdered lubricant in suspension to a charged target was developed. The deposition process yields coatings with low friction, complies with environmental safety regulations, requires minimal equipment, and has several advantages over processes involving organic binders or vacuum techniques. This work focuses on development of the deposition process, includes an analysis of the friction coefficient of the material in sliding contact with stainless steel under a range of conditions, and a functional evaluation of coating performance in a precision mechanical device application. Results show that solid lubricant films with friction coefficients as low as 0.03 can be produced. A 0.03 friction coefficient is superior to solid lubricants with binder systems and is comparable to friction coefficients generated with more costly vacuum techniques.

  12. Calcium phosphate thin film processing by pulsed laser deposition and in situ assisted ultraviolet pulsed laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Nelea, V; Pelletier, H; Iliescu, M; Werckmann, J; Craciun, V; Mihailescu, I N; Ristoscu, C; Ghica, C

    2002-12-01

    Calcium orthophosphates (CaP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were intensively studied in order to design and develop a new generation of bioactive and osteoconductive bone prostheses. The main drawback now in the CaP and HA thin films processing persists in their poor mechanical characteristics, namely hardness, tensile and cohesive strength, and adherence to the metallic substrate. We report here a critical comparison between the microstructure and mechanical properties of HA and CaP thin films grown by two methods. The films were grown by KrF* pulsed laser deposition (PLD) or KrF* pulsed laser deposition assisted by in situ ultraviolet radiation emitted by a low pressure Hg lamp (UV-assisted PLD). The PLD films were deposited at room temperature, in vacuum on Ti-5Al-2.5Fe alloy substrate previously coated with a TiN buffer layer. After deposition the films were annealed in ambient air at 500-600 degrees C. The UV-assisted PLD films were grown in (10(-2)-10(-1) Pa) oxygen directly on Ti-5Al-2.5Fe substrates heated at 500-600 degrees C. The films grown by classical PLD are crystalline and stoichiometric. The films grown by UV-assisted PLD were crystalline and exhibit the best mechanical characteristics with values of hardness and Young modulus of 6-7 and 150-170 GPa, respectively, which are unusually high for the calcium phosphate ceramics. To the difference of PLD films, in the case of UV-assisted PLD, the GIXRD spectra show the decomposition of HA in Ca(2)P(2)O(7), Ca(2)P(2)O(9) and CaO. The UV lamp radiation enhanced the gas reactivity and atoms mobility during processing, increasing the tensile strength of the film, while the HA structure was destroyed.

  13. Real-Time Deposition Monitor for Ultrathin Conductive Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    A device has been developed that can be used for the real-time monitoring of ultrathin (2 or more) conductive films. The device responds in less than two microseconds, and can be used to monitor film depositions up to about 60 thick. Actual thickness monitoring capability will vary based on properties of the film being deposited. This is a single-use device, which, due to the very low device cost, can be disposable. Conventional quartz/crystal microbalance devices have proven inadequate to monitor the thickness of Pd films during deposition of ultrathin films for hydrogen sensor devices. When the deposited film is less than 100 , the QCM measurements are inadequate to allow monitoring of the ultrathin films being developed. Thus, an improved, high-sensitivity, real-time deposition monitor was needed to continue Pd film deposition development. The new deposition monitor utilizes a surface acoustic wave (SAW) device in a differential delay-line configuration to produce both a reference response and a response for the portion of the device on which the film is being deposited. Both responses are monitored simultaneously during deposition. The reference response remains unchanged, while the attenuation of the sensing path (where the film is being deposited) varies as the film thickness increases. This device utilizes the fact that on high-coupling piezoelectric substrates, the attenuation of an SAW undergoes a transition from low to very high, and back to low as the conductivity of a film on the device surface goes from nonconductive to highly conductive. Thus, the sensing path response starts with a low insertion loss, and as a conductive film is deposited, the film conductivity increases, causing the device insertion loss to increase dramatically (by up to 80 dB or more), and then with continued film thickness increases (and the corresponding conductivity increases), the device insertion loss goes back down to the low level at which it started. This provides a

  14. Chemical vapor deposition of copper films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgharkar, Narendra Shamkant

    We have studied the kinetics of copper chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for interconnect metallization using hydrogen (Hsb2) reduction of the Cu(hfac)sb2 (copper(II) hexafluoroacetylacetonate) precursor. Steady-state deposition rates were measured using a hot-wall microbalance reactor. For base case conditions of 2 Torr Cu(hfac)sb2, 40 Torr Hsb2, and 300sp°C, a growth rate of 0.5 mg cmsp{-2} hrsp{-1} (ca. 10 nm minsp{-1}) is observed. Reaction order experiments suggest that the deposition rate passes through a maximum at partial pressure of 2 Torr of Cu(hfac)sb2. The deposition rate has an overall half-order dependence on Hsb2 partial pressure. A Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate expression is used to describe the observed kinetic dependencies on Cu(hfac)sb2, Hsb2, and H(hfac). Based on the rate expression a mechanism is proposed in which the overall rate is determined by the surface reaction of adsorbed Cu(hfac)sb2 and H species. Additionally, the role of alcohols in enhancing the deposition rate has been investigated. Addition of isopropanol results in a six fold enhancement to yield a deposition rate of 3.3 mg cmsp{-2} hrsp{-1} (ca. 60 nm minsp{-1}) at 5 Torr of isopropanol, 0.4 Torr Cu(hfac)sb2, 40 Torr Hsb2, and 300sp°C. Ethanol and methanol give lower enhancements of 1.75 and 1.1 mg cmsp{-2} hrsp{-1}, respectively. A mechanism based on the ordering of the aqueous pKsba values of the alcohols is proposed to explain the observed results. Lastly, we have built a warm-wall Pedestal reactor apparatus to demonstrate copper CVD on TiN/Si substrates. The apparatus includes a liquid injection system for transport of isopropanol-diluted precursor solutions. At optimized conditions of precursor and substrate pre-treatments, we have deposited uniform films of copper on TiN/Si substrates at an average deposition rate of 3.0 mg cmsp{-2} hrsp{-1} (ca. 60 nm minsp{-1}).

  15. Fabrication of Al-Doped ZnO Film with High Conductivity Induced by Photocatalytic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jeongsoo; Katsumata, Ken-ichi; Matsushita, Nobuhiro

    2016-06-01

    We have fabricated Al-doped ZnO films by a spin-spray method, achieving high conductivity by Al-ion doping and photocatalytic activity of the ZnO. The surface morphology of the as-deposited films was varied by changing the Al concentration and addition of citrate ions. As-deposited Al-doped ZnO film without citrate ions showed rod array structure with increasing rod width as the Al concentration was increased. Meanwhile, Al-doped ZnO film deposited with addition of citrate ions changed to exhibit dense and continuous surface morphology with high transmittance of 85%. The lowest resistivity recorded for undoped and Al-doped ZnO film was 2.1 × 10-2 Ω cm and 5.9 × 10-3 Ω cm, after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The reason for the decreased resistivity is thought to be that Al-ion doping and the photocatalytic activity of ZnO contributed to improve the conductivity.

  16. Fabrication of Al-Doped ZnO Film with High Conductivity Induced by Photocatalytic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jeongsoo; Katsumata, Ken-ichi; Matsushita, Nobuhiro

    2016-10-01

    We have fabricated Al-doped ZnO films by a spin-spray method, achieving high conductivity by Al-ion doping and photocatalytic activity of the ZnO. The surface morphology of the as-deposited films was varied by changing the Al concentration and addition of citrate ions. As-deposited Al-doped ZnO film without citrate ions showed rod array structure with increasing rod width as the Al concentration was increased. Meanwhile, Al-doped ZnO film deposited with addition of citrate ions changed to exhibit dense and continuous surface morphology with high transmittance of 85%. The lowest resistivity recorded for undoped and Al-doped ZnO film was 2.1 × 10-2 Ω cm and 5.9 × 10-3 Ω cm, after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The reason for the decreased resistivity is thought to be that Al-ion doping and the photocatalytic activity of ZnO contributed to improve the conductivity.

  17. Recrystallisation of electrophoretically deposited CdTe films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, P. C.; Bocking, S.; Duke, S.; Miles, R. W.; Carter, M. J.; Latimer, I. D.; Hill, R.

    1996-02-01

    Films of CdTe have been produced by a novel low cost process based on electrophoretic deposition using polar organic solvents. The main advantage of this method is the high rate of deposition, greater than 20 μm/min. Details of the deposition process are given and the effects of post-deposition annealing of the samples have also been investigated using XRD, SEM and EDAX. Laser annealing resulted in melting of CdTe producing more compact and robust films.

  18. Influence of Content of Al2O3 on Structure and Properties of Nanocomposite Nb-B-Al-O films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Dong, Lei; Dong, Lei; Yu, Jiangang; Pan, Yupeng; Wan, Rongxin; Gu, Hanqing; Li, Dejun

    2015-12-01

    Nb-B-Al-O nanocomposite films with different power of Al2O3 were successfully deposited on the Si substrate via multi-target magnetron co-sputtering method. The influences of Al2O3's content on structure and properties of obtained nanocomposite films through controlling Al2O3's power were investigated. Increasing the power of Al2O3 can influence the bombarding energy and cause the momentum transfer of NbB2. This can lead to the decreasing content of Al2O3. Furthermore, the whole films showed monocrystalline NbB2's (100) phase, and Al2O3 shaded from amorphous to weak cubic-crystalline when decreasing content of Al2O3. This structure and content changes were proof by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). When NbB2 grains were far from each other in lower power of Al2O3, the whole films showed a typical nanocomposite microstructure with crystalline NbB2 grains embedded in a matrix of an amorphous Al2O3 phase. Continuing increasing the power of Al2O3, the less content of Al2O3 tended to cause crystalline of cubic-Al2O3 between the close distances of different crystalline NbB2 grains. The appearance of cubic-crystallization Al2O3 can help to raise the nanocomposite films' mechanical properties to some extent. The maximum hardness and elastic modulus were up to 21.60 and 332.78 GPa, which were higher than the NbB2 and amorphous Al2O3 monolithic films. Furthermore, this structure change made the chemistry bond of O atom change from the existence of O-Nb, O-B, and O-Al bonds to single O-Al bond and increased the specific value of Al and O. It also influenced the hardness in higher temperature, which made the hardness variation of different Al2O3 content reduced. These results revealed that it can enhance the films' oxidation resistance properties and keep the mechanical properties at high temperature. The study highlighted the importance of controlling the Al2O3's content to prepare

  19. Hydroxyapatite thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition and radio-frequency magnetron sputtering: comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelea, V.; Morosanu, C.; Iliescu, M.; Mihailescu, I. N.

    2004-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) thin films for applications in the biomedical field were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and radio-frequency magnetron sputtering (RF-MS) techniques. The depositions were performed from pure hydroxyapatite targets on Ti-5Al-2.5Fe (TiAlFe) alloys substrates. In order to prevent the HA film penetration by Ti atoms or ions diffused from the Ti-based alloy during and after deposition, the substrates were pre-coated with a thin buffer layer of TiN. In both cases, TiN was introduced by reactive PLD from TiN targets in low-pressure N 2. The PLD films were grown in vacuum onto room temperature substrates. The RF-MS films were deposited in low-pressure argon on substrates heated at 550 °C. The initially amorphous PLD thin films were annealed at 550 °C for 1 h in ambient air in order to restore the initial crystalline structure of HA target. The thickness of the PLD and RF-MS films were ˜1 μm and ˜350 nm, respectively. All films were structurally studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and white light confocal microscopy (WLCM). The mechanical properties of the films were tested by Berkovich nano-indentation. Both PLD and RF-MS films mostly contain HA phase and exhibit good mechanical characteristics. Peaks of CaO were noticed as secondary phase in the GIXRD patterns only for RF-MS films. By its turn, the sputtered films were smoother as compared to the ones deposited by PLD (50 nm versus 250 nm average roughness). The RF-MS films were harder, more mechanically resistant and have a higher Young modulus.

  20. SnS2 Thin Film Deposition by Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahia Jaber, Abdallah; Noaiman Alamri, Saleh; Salah Aida, Mohammed

    2012-06-01

    Tin disulfide (SnS2) thin films have been synthesized using a simplified spray pyrolysis technique using a perfume atomizer. The films were deposited using two different solutions prepared by the dilution of SnCl2 and thiourea in distilled water and in methanol. The obtained films have a microcrystalline structure. The film deposited using methanol as the solvent is nearly stochiometric SnS2 with a spinel phase having a (001) preferential orientation. The film prepared with an aqueous solution is Sn-rich. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) images reveal that the film deposited with the aqueous solution is rough and is formed with large wires. However, the film deposited with methanol is dense and smooth. Conductivity measurements indicate that the aqueous solution leads to an n-type semiconductor, while methanol leads to a p-type semiconductor.

  1. Synthesis of c-axis oriented AlN thin films on different substrates: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Iriarte, G.F.

    2010-09-15

    Highly c-axis oriented AlN thin films have been deposited by reactive sputtering on different substrates. The crystallographic properties of layered film structures consisting of a piezoelectric layer, aluminum nitride (AlN), synthesized on a variety of substrates, have been examined. Aluminum nitride thin films have been deposited by reactive pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering using an aluminum target in an Ar/N{sub 2} gas mixture. The influence of the most critical deposition parameters on the AlN thin film crystallography has been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the rocking curve Full-Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of the AlN-(0 0 0 2) peak. The relationship between the substrate, the synthesis parameters and the crystallographic orientation of the AlN thin films is discussed. A guide is provided showing how to optimize these conditions to obtain highly c-axis oriented AlN thin films on substrates of different nature.

  2. Atomic Oxygen Sensors Based on Nanograin ZnO Films Prepared by Pulse Laser Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yunfei; Chen Xuekang; Li Zhonghua; Zheng Kuohai; Wang Lanxi; Feng Zhanzu; Yang Shengsheng

    2009-01-05

    High-quality nanograin ZnO thin films were deposited on c-plane sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates by pulse laser deposition (PLD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the samples. The structural and morphological properties of ZnO films under different deposition temperature have been investigated before and after atomic oxygen (AO) treatment. XRD has shown that the intensity of the (0 0 2) peak increases and its FWHM value decreases after AO treatment. The AO sensing characteristics of nano ZnO film also has been investigated in a ground-based atomic oxygen simulation facility. The results show that the electrical conductivity of nanograin ZnO films decreases with increasing AO fluence and that the conductivity of the films can be recovered by heating.

  3. Metalcone Chemistry: In pursuit of improved mechanical properties in thin film deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Robert A.

    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) and its subset, Molecular layer deposition (MLD), is a thin film deposition technique using alternating self-limiting precursors to grow thin films on a substrates. Recent research has expanded MLD to use reactive metal alkyls/halides and organic fragments containing alcohol groups such as ethylene glycol for use in protective barriers. Unfortunately using ethylene glycol as a precursor causes film stability issues and does not provide adequate mechanical properties for projected uses. The current research looks into the investigation of using different metal alkyls and metal halides with the trifunctional precursor glycerol. The three main films investigated were the AlGL using trimethylaluminum and glycerol, ZnGL using diethyl zinc and glycerol and TIGL using titanium (IV) chloride and glycerol. The films were investigated using quartz crystal microbalance, X-ray reflectivity, and spectroscopic ellipsometry for characterization of their film growth. All films exhibited linear growth at a range of temperatures above 130°C with AlGL, ZnGL and TiGL displaying a growth rate at 150°C of ˜2.34A/cycle, ˜1.29A/cycle, and ˜2.2A/cycle respectfully. Initially film growth was investigated in situ using quartz crystal microbalance and then the growth rates confirmed ex situ using X-ray reflectivity. Once the film growth and mechanism were investigated, the mechanical properties were investigated to determine if there was an improvement in cross-linking in the films. The mechanical properties of these MLD films were also investigated using a mechanical testing system and nanoindenter. The mechanical properties for AlGL and ZnGL showed a large improvement from 0.69% to 1.2% for their critical tensile strain compared to previous MLD films. The films also showed an increase in mechanical properties from their nanoindentation results consistent with an increase in cross-linking.

  4. High loading of nanostructured ceramics in polymer composite thick films by aerosol deposition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Low temperature fabrication of Al2O3-polyimide composite substrates was carried out by an aerosol deposition process using a mixture of Al2O3 and polyimide starting powders. The microstructures and dielectric properties of the composite thick films in relation to their Al2O3 contents were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. As a result, the crystallite size of α-Al2O3 calculated from Scherrer's formula was increased from 26 to 52 nm as the polyimide ratio in the starting powders increased from 4 to 12 vol.% due to the crushing of the Al2O3 powder being reduced by the shock-absorbing effect of the polyimide powder. The Al2O3-polyimide composite thick films showed a high loss tangent with a large frequency dependence when a mixed powder of 12 vol.% polyimide was used due to the nonuniform microstructure with a rough surface. The Al2O3-polyimide composite thick films showed uniform composite structures with a low loss tangent of less than 0.01 at 1 MHz and a high Al2O3 content of more than 75 vol.% when a mixed powder of 8 vol.% polyimide was used. Moreover, the Al2O3-polyimide composite thick films had extremely high Al2O3 contents of 95 vol.% and showed a dense microstructure close to that of the Al2O3 thick films when a mixed powder of 4 vol.% polyimide was used. PMID:22283973

  5. Influence of aluminium incorporation on the structure of ZrN films deposited at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araiza, J. J.; Sánchez, O.

    2009-06-01

    We have studied the influence of Al incorporation in the crystalline structure of ZrN thin films deposited by dc magnetron sputtering at low temperature. The amount of aluminium in the films depends directly on the power applied to the aluminium cathode during the deposition. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to obtain the chemical composition and crystalline structure of the films, respectively. When Al atoms are incorporated into the ZrN coatings, the strong ZrN (2 0 0) orientation is modified by a combination of other ones such as ZrN (1 1 1), Zr3N4 (2 1 1) and hexagonal AlN (1 0 0) as detected from the XRD spectra for high aluminium concentrations. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy allowed us to identify oxides and nitrides, ZrO, AlO and AlN, incorporated into the deposited films. The effect of a bias voltage applied to the substrate has also been investigated and related to the changes in the microstructure and in the nanohardness values of the ZrAlN films.

  6. Low-temperature roll-to-roll atmospheric atomic layer deposition of Al₂O₃ thin films.

    PubMed

    Ali, Kamran; Choi, Kyung-Hyun

    2014-12-01

    The Al2O3 thin films deposition through conventional ALD systems is a well-established process. The process under low temperatures has been studied by few research groups. In this paper, we report on the detailed study of low-temperature Al2O3 thin films deposited via a unique in-house built system of roll-to-roll atmospheric atomic layer deposition (R2R-AALD) using a multiple-slit gas source head. Al2O3 thin films have been grown on polyethylene terephthalate substrates under a very low-temperature zone of room temperature to 50 °C and working pressure of 750 Torr, which is very near to atmospheric pressure (760 Torr). Al2O3 thin films with superior properties were achieved in the temperature range of the ALD window. An appreciable growth rate of 0.97 Å/cycle was observed for the films deposited at 40 °C. The films have good morphological features with a very low average arithmetic roughness (Ra) of 0.90 nm. The films also showed good chemical, electrical, and optical characteristics. It was observed that the film characteristics improve with the increase in deposition temperature to the range of the ALD window. The fabrication of Al2O3 films was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis with the appearance of Al 2p, Al 2s, and O 1s peaks at the binding energies of 74, 119, and 531 eV, respectively. The chemical composition was also supported by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The fabricated Al2O3 films demonstrate good insulating properties and optical transmittance of more than 85% in the visible region. The results state that Al2O3 thin films can be effectively fabricated through the R2R-AALD system at temperatures as low as 40 °C.

  7. Microstructure and mechanical properties of (Ti,Al,Zr)N/(Ti,Al,Zr,Cr)N films on cemented carbide substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shi-lu; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Shuang-hong; Zhang, Zheng-gui

    2014-01-01

    (Ti,Al,Zr)N/(Ti,Al,Zr,Cr)N bilayer films were deposited on cemented carbide (WC-8%Co) substrates by multi-arc ion plating (MAIP) using two Ti-Al-Zr alloy targets and one pure Cr target. To investigate the composition, morphology, and crystalline structure of the bilayer films, a number of complementary methods of elemental and structural analysis were used, namely, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy disperse X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Adhesive strength and mechanical properties of the films were evaluated by scratch testing and Vickers microindentation, respectively. It is shown that the resulting films have a TiN-type face-centered cubic (FCC) structure. The films exhibit fully dense, uniform, and columnar morphology. Furthermore, as the bias voltages vary from -50 to -200 V, the microhardness (max. Hv0.01 4100) and adhesive strength (max. > 200 N) of the bilayer films are superior to those of the (Ti,Al,Zr)N and (Ti,Al,Zr,Cr)N monolayer films.

  8. Thermally Diffused Al:ZnO Thin Films for Broadband Transparent Conductor.

    PubMed

    Tong, Chong; Yun, Juhyung; Chen, Yen-Jen; Ji, Dengxin; Gan, Qiaoqiang; Anderson, Wayne A

    2016-02-17

    Here, we report an approach to realize highly transparent low resistance Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films for broadband transparent conductors. Thin Al films are deposited on ZnO surfaces, followed by thermal diffusion processes, introducing the Al doping into ZnO thin films. By utilizing the interdiffusion of Al, Zn, and O, the chemical state of Al on the surfaces can be converted to a fully oxidized state, resulting in a low sheet resistance of 6.2 Ω/sq and an excellent transparency (i.e., 96.5% at 550 nm and higher than 85% up to 2500 nm), which is superior compared with some previously reported values for indium tin oxide, solution processed AZO, and many transparent conducting materials using novel nanostructures. Such AZO films are also applied as transparent conducting layers for AZO/Si heterojunction solar cells, demonstrating their applications in optoelectronic devices. PMID:26807664

  9. Energetic igniters realized by integrating Al/CuO reactive multilayer films with Cr films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Peng; Shen, Ruiqi; Ye, Yinghua; Zhou, Xiang; Hu, Yan

    2011-10-01

    This paper deals with the energetic igniters realized by integrating Al/CuO reactive multilayer films (RMFs) with Cr Films, which could be used in micro-ignition system. The as-deposited Al/CuO RMFs has been characterized with varied analytical techniques. Results show that distinct Al/CuO RMFs is sputter deposited in a layered geometry, and the Al/CuO RMFs gives a heat of reaction equal to 2760 J/g. The structure of igniter is similar to a capacitor, which may place an electric field across the igniter and allow the instantaneous large-current to drift through the igniter. Firing characteristics of the igniter were accomplished using constant voltage firing set. The experiment shows that the ignition delay time and total released energy of the igniter discharged in 40 V are 0.7 ms and 482.34 mJ, respectively. In addition, the explosion temperature could keep an approximately constant value of 3500 °C for 1.4 ms.

  10. Pulsed laser deposition of Mg-Al layered double hydroxide with Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matei, A.; Birjega, R.; Vlad, A.; Luculescu, C.; Epurescu, G.; Stokker-Cheregi, F.; Dinescu, M.; Zavoianu, R.; Pavel, O. D.

    2013-03-01

    Powdered layered double hydroxides (LDHs)—also known as hydrotalcite-like (HT)—compounds have been widely studied due to their applications as catalysts, anionic exchangers or host materials for inorganic or organic molecules. Assembling thin films of nano-sized LDHs onto flat solid substrates is an expanding area of research, with promising applications as sensors, corrosion-resistant coatings, components in optical and magnetic devices. The exploitation of LDHs as vehicles to carry dispersed metal nanoparticles onto a substrate is a new approach to obtain composite thin films with prospects for biomedical and optical applications. We report the deposition of thin films of Ag nanoparticles embedded in a Mg-Al layered double hydroxide matrix by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The Ag-LDH powder was prepared by co-precipitation at supersaturation and pH = 10 using aqueous solutions of Mg and Al nitrates, Na hydroxide and carbonate, and AgNO3, having atomic ratios of Mg/Al = 3 and Ag/Al = 0.55. The target to be used in laser ablation experiments was a dry pressed pellet obtained from the prepared Ag-LDH powder. Three different wavelengths of a Nd:YAG laser (266, 532 and 1064 nm) working at a repetition rate of 10 Hz were used. X-Ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and secondary ions mass spectrometry (SIMS) were used to investigate the structure, surface morphology and composition of the deposited films.

  11. Growth of ZnO:Al thin films onto different substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Prepelita, Petronela; Medianu, R.; Garoi, F.; Moldovan, A.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we present some results regarding undoped and doped ZnO thin films deposited on various substrates like glass, silicon and kapton by rf magnetron sputtering. The influence of the amount of aluminum as well as the usage of different substrates on the final photovoltaic properties of the thin films is studied. For this, structural-morphological and optical investigations on the thin films are conducted. It was found that three important factors must be taken into account for adjusting the final desired application intended for the deposited thin films. These factors are: deposition conditions, the nature of both the dopant material and the substrate. A comparison study between undoped and doped case is also realized. Smooth Al doped ZnO thin films with a polycrystalline structure and a lower roughness than undoped ZnO are obtained.

  12. Pulsed laser deposition of CdWO4 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodu, M.; Avarmaa, T.; Jaaniso, R.; Leemets, K.; Mändar, H.; Nagirnyi, V.

    2016-10-01

    Thin CdWO4 films were produced on various substrates by pulsed laser deposition. A method of producing transparent films of high structural and optical quality on MgO substrate was developed. It is based on deposition of an amorphous film from a non-stoichiometric CdWO4-CdO target and a consequent crystallization of the film in oxygen atmosphere at 750 °C. The quality of the films produced was verified by x-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis, scanning electron microscopy, Raman and optical spectroscopy.

  13. Radio-frequency sputter deposition of boron nitride based thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Mitterer, C.; Rodhammer, P.; Stori, H.; Jeglitsch, F.

    1989-07-01

    Thin films (approx.2 ..mu..m) of boron nitride, titanium boron nitride, and titanium aluminum boron nitride have been grown on molybdenum, niobium, and cemented carbide substrates employing nonreactive as well as reactive rf magnetron sputter deposition from either a BN, a TiN-BN, or a TiN--AlN--BN target. Substrates have been rf biased, with dc potentials up to /minus/200 V. By means of /ital nonreactive/ sputtering mixed-phase structures with dominant phases B/sub 48/B/sub 2/N/sub 2/ (using a BN target), or B/sub 48/B/sub 2/N/sub 2/ and hexagonal Ti--B--N (using a TiN--BN or a TiN--AlN--BN target) are formed. /ital Reactive/ deposition leads to the existence of hexagonal BN in all deposition modes. In the cases of Ti--B--N and Ti--Al--B--N films this phase is accompanied by fcc Ti--B--N. SEM cross sections revealed very fine grained to fracture-amorphous film structures. Hardness measurements gave the following maximum HV 0.02 values: B--N films 2800, Ti--B--N films 2750, and Ti--Al--B--N films 1650.

  14. Influence of the normalized ion flux on the constitution of alumina films deposited by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kurapov, Denis; Reiss, Jennifer; Trinh, David H.; Hultman, Lars; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2007-07-15

    Alumina thin films were deposited onto tempered hot working steel substrates from an AlCl{sub 3}-O{sub 2}-Ar-H{sub 2} gas mixture by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. The normalized ion flux was varied during deposition through changes in precursor content while keeping the cathode voltage and the total pressure constant. As the precursor content in the total gas mixture was increased from 0.8% to 5.8%, the deposition rate increased 12-fold, while the normalized ion flux decreased by approximately 90%. The constitution, morphology, impurity incorporation, and the elastic properties of the alumina thin films were found to depend on the normalized ion flux. These changes in structure, composition, and properties induced by normalized ion flux may be understood by considering mechanisms related to surface and bulk diffusion.

  15. Precursors for the polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, Thomas M.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Jia, Quanxi; Lin, Yuan

    2013-09-10

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures to yield metal oxide films. Such films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  16. Electron beam physical vapor deposition of thin ruby films for remote temperature sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Coppens, Zachary J.; Greg Walker, D.; Valentine, Jason G.

    2013-04-01

    Thermographic phosphors (TGPs) possessing temperature-dependent photoluminescence properties have a wide range of uses in thermometry due to their remote access and large temperature sensitivity range. However, in most cases, phosphors are synthesized in powder form, which prevents their use in high resolution micro and nanoscale thermal microscopy. In the present study, we investigate the use of electron beam physical vapor deposition to fabricate thin films of chromium-doped aluminum oxide (Cr-Al2O3, ruby) thermographic phosphors. Although as-deposited films were amorphous and exhibited weak photoluminescence, the films regained the stoichiometry and α-Al2O3 crystal structure of the combustion synthesized source powder after thermal annealing. As a consequence, the annealed films exhibit both strong photoluminescence and a temperature-dependent lifetime that decreases from 2.9 ms at 298 K to 2.1 ms at 370 K. Ruby films were also deposited on multiple substrates. To ensure a continuous film with smooth surface morphology and strong photoluminescence, we use a sapphire substrate, which is thermal expansion coefficient and lattice matched to the film. These thin ruby films can potentially be used as remote temperature sensors for probing the local temperatures of micro and nanoscale structures.

  17. Theoretical investigation of acoustic wave devices based on different piezoelectric films deposited on silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Li; Zhang, Shu-yi; Ge, Huan; Zhang, Hui

    2013-07-01

    Performances of acoustic wave (AW) devices based on silicon carbide (SiC) substrates are theoretically studied, in which two types of piezoelectric films of ZnO and AlN deposited on 4H-SiC and 3C-SiC substrates are adopted. The phase velocities (PV), electromechanical coupling coefficients (ECC), and temperature coefficients of frequency (TCF) for three AW modes (Rayleigh wave, A0 and S0 modes of Lamb wave) often used in AW devices are calculated based on four types of configurations of interdigital transducers (IDTs). It is found that that the ZnO piezoelectric film is proper for the AW device operating in the low-frequency range because a high ECC can be realized using a thin ZnO film. The AlN piezoelectric film is proper for the device operating in the high-frequency range in virtue of the high PV of AlN, which can increase the finger width of the IDT. Generally, in the low-frequency Lamb wave devices using ZnO piezoelectric films with small normalized thicknesses of films to wavelengths hf/λ, thin SiC substrates can increase ECCs but induce high TCFs simultaneously. In the high-frequency device with a large hf/λ, the S0 mode of Lamb wave based on the AlN piezoelectric film deposited on a thick SiC substrate exhibits high performances by simultaneously considering the PV, ECC, and TCF.

  18. Microstructural, transport, and RF properties of multilayer-deposited YBCO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavrao, L. R.; Track, E. K.; Drake, R. E.; Patt, R.; Hohenwarter, G. K. G.

    1991-03-01

    Thin films of Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-x) (YBCO) have been fabricated by sequential multilayer RF magnetron sputter-deposition from Y2O3, BaCo3, and CuO targets and postannealing in oxygen. This approach readily allows precise control of the film stoichiometry and is promising for applications that require deposition over large areas. Films on different substrates-including SrTiO3, LaAlO3, MgO and sapphire-are found to be c-axis oriented for film thicknesses between 300 A and 10,000 A. Transport current densities in the range of 106 A/sq cm are obtained on SrTiO3 and LaAlO3 substrates and in the range of 105 A/sq cm on MgO and sapphire. Transition temperatures of 89 K (resistive) and 87 K (inductive) are obtained repeatably with LaAlO3 substrates. Copper cavity end wall measurements at 77 K and 35.6 GHz set an upper limit for the surface resistance of the YBCO films on LaAlO3 that is equal to the surface resistance of high-quality silver films. The fabrication and properties of these films are discussed.

  19. Embedded argon as a tool for sampling local structure in thin plasma deposited aluminum oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Prenzel, Marina; Kortmann, Annika; Keudell, Achim von; Arcos, Teresa de los; Winter, Joerg

    2012-11-15

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films, either amorphous or of varying degrees of crystallinity, were deposited by two-frequency radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. Film crystallinity was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to determine the amount of Ar naturally trapped within the films during the deposition process. A clear correlation was found between the existence of crystalline phases, as determined by XRD, and a shift towards lower binding energy positions of the Ar2p core levels of embedded gas. The shift is due to differences in the local Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix (amorphous or crystalline) of the embedded gas, thus, providing an XPS fingerprint that can be used to qualitatively determine the presence or absence of crystalline phases in very thin films.

  20. Nanostructured zinc oxide films synthesized by successive chemical solution deposition for gas sensor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lupan, O. Chow, L.; Shishiyanu, S.; Monaico, E.; Shishiyanu, T.; Sontea, V.; Roldan Cuenya, B.; Naitabdi, A.; Park, S.; Schulte, A.

    2009-01-08

    Nanostructured ZnO thin films have been deposited using a successive chemical solution deposition method. The structural, morphological, electrical and sensing properties of the films were studied for different concentrations of Al-dopant and were analyzed as a function of rapid photothermal processing temperatures. The films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Electrical and gas sensitivity measurements were conducted as well. The average grain size is 240 and 224 A for undoped ZnO and Al-doped ZnO films, respectively. We demonstrate that rapid photothermal processing is an efficient method for improving the quality of nanostructured ZnO films. Nanostructured ZnO films doped with Al showed a higher sensitivity to carbon dioxide than undoped ZnO films. The correlations between material compositions, microstructures of the films and the properties of the gas sensors are discussed.

  1. Interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and damping parameter in ultra thin Co2FeAl films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yishen; Khodadadi, Behrouz; Schäfer, Sebastian; Mewes, Tim; Lu, Jiwei; Wolf, Stuart A.

    2013-04-01

    B2-ordered Co2FeAl films were synthesized using an ion beam deposition tool. A high degree of chemical ordering ˜81.2% with a low damping parameter (α) less than 0.004 was obtained in a 50 nm thick film via rapid thermal annealing at 600 °C. The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) was optimized in ultra thin Co2FeAl films annealed at 350 °C without an external magnetic field. The reduced thickness and annealing temperature to achieve PMA introduced extrinsic factors thus increasing α significantly. However, the observed damping of Co2FeAl films was still lower than that of Co60Fe20B20 films prepared at the same thickness and annealing temperature.

  2. Electrochromic lithium nickel oxide thin film by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, S.J.; Rottkay, K. von; Rubin, M.

    1996-10-01

    * Thin films of lithium nickel oxide were deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) from targets of pressed LiNiO{sub 2} powder with layered structure. The composition, structure and surface air sensitivity of these films were analyzed using a variety of techniques, such as nuclear reaction analysis, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Optical properties were measured using a combination of variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry and IP spectroradiometry. Crystalline structure, surface morphology and chemical composition of Li{sub x}Ni{sub 1-x}O thin films depend strongly on deposition oxygen pressure, temperature as well as substrate target distance. The films produced at temperatures lower than 600 degrees C spontaneously absorb CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O at their surface once they are exposed to the air. The films deposited at 600 degrees C proved to be stable in air over a long period. Even when deposited at room temperature the PLD films are denser and more stable than sputtered films. RBS determined that the best electrochromic films had the stoichiometric composition L{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.5}O when deposited at 60 mTorr O{sub 2} pressure. Electrochemical tests show that the films exhibit excellent reversibility in the range 1.0 V to 3.4 V versus lithium and long cyclic life stability in a liquid electrolyte half cell. Electrochemical formatting which is used to develop electrochromism in other films and nickel oxide films is not needed for these stoichiometric films. The optical transmission range is almost 70% at 550 nm for 120 nm thick films.

  3. Effect of Post Deposition Annealing Treatments on Properties of AZO Thin Films for Schottky Diode Applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shaivalini; Park, Si-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    High-quality aluminum (Al) doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were deposited on silicon substrates by RF sputtering at room temperature. The deposited films were annealed from the temperatures 350 °C to 650 °C in pure nitrogen (N₂) ambient. The effects of annealing on the microstructural, optical and electrical properties of the AZO films were investigated. A detailed analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Four Probe and Hall measurements was performed to study the properties of these AZO thin films. It was observed that all of the as-deposited and annealed AZO films have homogenous surfaces and hexagonal wurtzite structures with good crystalline quality. The study also suggested that there was an intermediate post annealing temperature (450 °C) at which the deposited ZnO film exhibit best surface characteristics. Pd/AZO Schottky devices were fabricated with 450 °C annealed AZO thin films and the parameters of Schottky devices were extracted from I-V characteristics. These results indicated that the Pd/AZO films were very much suitable for various optoelectronics applications particularly for metal semiconductor metal based UV detector application. PMID:27398537

  4. Properties of vaccum arc deposited amorphous hard carbon films

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Raoux, S.

    1995-12-31

    Amorphous hard carbon films formed by vacuum arc deposition are, hydrogen-free, dense, and very hard. The properties of amorphous hard carbon films depend strongly on the energy of the incident ions. A technique which is called Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation can be applied to vacuum arc deposition of amorphous hard carbon films to influence the ion energy. We have studied the influence of the ion energy on the elastic modulus determined by an ultrasonic method, and have measured the optical gap for films with the highest sp{sup 3} content we have obtained so far with this deposition technique. The results show an elastic modulus close to that of diamond, and an optical gap of 2.1 eV which is much greater than for amorphous hard carbon films deposited by other techniques.

  5. Polyimide films from vapor deposition: toward high strength, NIF capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R C; Hsieh, E J; Letts, S A; Roberts, C C; Saculla, M

    1998-10-16

    The focus of recent efforts at LLNL has been to demonstrate that vapor deposition processing is a suitable technique to form polyimide fnms with sufficient strength for current national ignition facility target specifications. Production of polyimide films with controlled stoichiometry was acccomplished by: 1) depositing a novel co-functional monomer and 2) matching the vapor pressure of each monomer in PMDA/ODA co-depositions. The sublimation and deposition rate for the monomers was determined over a range of temperatures. Polyimide films with thicknesses up to 30 p.m were fabricated. Composition, structure and strength were assessed using FTIR, SEM and biaxial burst testing. The best films had a tensile strength of approximately 100 MPa. A qualitative relationship between the stoichiometry and tensile strength of the film was demonstrated. Thin films ({approximately}3.5 {micro}m) were typically smooth with an rms of 1.5 nm.

  6. Properties of vacuum arc deposited amorphous hard carbon films

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Raoux, S.

    1995-04-01

    Amorphous hard carbon films formed by vacuum arc deposition are hydrogen-free, dense, and very hard. The properties of amorphous hard carbon films depend strongly on the energy of the incident ions. A technique which is called Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation can be applied to vacuum arc deposition of amorphous hard carbon films to influence the ion energy. The authors have studied the influence of the ion energy on the elastic modulus determined by an ultrasonic method, and have measured the optical gap for films with the highest sp{sup 3} content they have obtained so far with this deposition technique. The results show an elastic modulus close to that of diamond, and an optical gap of 2.1 eV which is much greater than for amorphous hard carbon films deposited by other techniques.

  7. Al doped ZnO thin films - microstructure, physical and sensor properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starbov, N.; Balabanov, S.; Bineva, I.; Rachkova, A.; Krumov, E.; Starbova, K.

    2012-12-01

    Thin ZnO films doped with Al are deposited by spray pyrolysis onto glass substrates using starting solution of Zn-acetate + n.AlCl (where 0.1 < n < 30 at.%). The ZnO phase composition and surface morphology are revealed via X-ray diffraction or atomic force and scanning electron microscopy respectively. UV/VIS transmittance/reflectance, as well as DC-conductivity measurements are applied in order to reveal the influence of the Al doping on the optical and electrical transport properties of the films studied. The sensing efficiency of the pure as well as of doped ZnO films for detection of noxious gases is checked via resistivity measurements under saturated vapours of ethanol, acetone, ammonia, dimethylamine and formalin at room temperature. Finally the results obtained are discussed concerning the application of the ZnO:Al films studied in the field of sensor technique.

  8. Thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of AlN-based thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, V.; Riedl, H.; Rachbauer, R.; Kolozsvári, S.; Ikeda, M.; Prochaska, L.; Paschen, S.; Mayrhofer, P. H.

    2016-06-01

    While many research activities concentrate on mechanical properties and thermal stabilities of protective thin films, only little is known about their thermal properties being essential for the thermal management in various industrial applications. Based on the 3ω-method, we show the influence of Al and Cr on the temperature dependent thermal conductivity of single-phase cubic structured TiN and single-phase wurtzite structured AlN thin films, respectively, and compare them with the results obtained for CrN thin films. The dc sputtered AlN thin films revealed a highly c-axis oriented growth for deposition temperatures of 250 to 700 °C. Their thermal conductivity was found to increase strongly with the film thickness, indicating progressing crystallization of the interface near amorphous regions during the sputtering process. For the 940 nm AlN film, we found a lower boundary for the thermal conductivity of 55.3 W m-1 K-1 . By the substitution of only 10 at. % Al with Cr, κ significantly reduces to ˜5.0 W m-1 K-1 , although the single-phase wurtzite structure is maintained. The single-phase face centered cubic TiN and Ti0.36Al0.64N thin films exhibit κ values of 3.1 W m-1 K-1 and 2.5 W m-1 K-1 , respectively, at room temperature. Hence, also here, the substitutional alloying reduces the thermal conductivity, although at a significantly lower level. Single-phase face centered cubic CrN thin films show κ values of 3.6 W m-1 K-1 . For all nitride based thin films investigated, the thermal conductivity slightly increases with increasing temperature between 200 and 330 K. This rather unusual behavior is based on the high defect density (especially point defects) within the thin films prepared by physical vapor deposition.

  9. Crystalline Indium Sulphide thin film by photo accelerated deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanya, A. C.; Preetha, K. C.; Deepa, K.; Remadevi, T. L.

    2015-02-01

    Indium sulfide thin films deserve special attention because of its potential application as buffer layers in CIGS based solar cells. Highly transparent indium sulfide (InS) thin films were prepared using a novel method called photo accelerated chemical deposition (PCD). Ultraviolet source of 150 W was used to irradiate the solution. Compared to all other chemical methods, PCD scores its advantage for its low cost, flexible substrate and capable of large area of deposition. Reports on deposition of high quality InS thin films at room temperature are very rare in literature. The precursor solution was initially heated to 90°C for ten minutes and then deposition was carried out at room temperature for two hours. The appearance of the film changed from lemon yellow to bright yellow as the deposition time increased. The sample was characterized for its structural and optical properties. XRD profile showed the polycrystalline behavior of the film with mixed phases having crystallite size of 17 nm. The surface morphology of the films exhibited uniformly distributed honey comb like structures. The film appeared to be smooth and the value of extinction coefficient was negligible. Optical measurements showed that the film has more than 80% transmission in the visible region. The direct band gap energy was 2.47eV. This method is highly suitable for the synthesis of crystalline and transparent indium sulfide thin films and can be used for various photo voltaic applications.

  10. SnS thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition, dip coating and SILAR techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaki, Sunil H.; Chaudhary, Mahesh D.; Deshpande, M. P.

    2016-05-01

    The SnS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD), dip coating and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) techniques. In them, the CBD thin films were deposited at two temperatures: ambient and 70 °C. The energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the thin films. The electrical transport properties studies on the as-deposited thin films were done by measuring the I-V characteristics, DC electrical resistivity variation with temperature and the room temperature Hall effect. The obtained results are deliberated in this paper.

  11. Growth process of nanosized aluminum thin films by pulsed laser deposition for fluorescence enhancement.

    PubMed

    Abdellaoui, N; Pillonnet, A; Berndt, J; Boulmer-Leborgne, C; Kovacevic, E; Moine, B; Penuelas, J; Pereira, A

    2015-03-20

    Pulsed laser deposition was used to deposit aluminum thin films of various thicknesses (tAl) ranging from 5 to 40 nm and to investigate their growth process when they are deposited onto SiO2 and Y2O3. Atomic force microscopy and x-ray reflectivity measurements show that the structure of the Al films are related to the wettability properties of the underlaying layer. Onto SiO2, ultra-smooth layers of aluminum are obtained, due to a perfect wetting of SiO2 by Al. In contrast when deposited onto Y2O3, percolated Al layers are observed with apparent pore size decreasing from 200 to 82 nm as t(Al) is increased from 5 to 40 nm, respectively. This particular morphology is related to partial dewetting of Al on Y2O3. These two different growth mechanisms of aluminum depend therefore on the surface properties of SiO2 and Y2O3. The plasmon resonance of such Al nanostructures in the UV region was then analyzed by studying the coupling between Eu(3+) rare earth emitters and Al. PMID:25712708

  12. Effects of mechanical properties of polymer on ceramic-polymer composite thick films fabricated by aerosol deposition.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh-Yun; Na, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Lee, Dong-Won; Nam, Song-Min

    2012-01-01

    Two types of ceramic-polymer composite thick films were deposited on Cu substrates by an aerosol deposition process, and their properties were investigated to fabricate optimized ceramic-based polymer composite thick films for application onto integrated substrates with the advantage of plasticity. When polymers with different mechanical properties, such as polyimide (PI) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), are used as starting powders together with α-Al2O3 powder, two types of composite films are formed with different characteristics - surface morphologies, deposition rates, and crystallite size of α-Al2O3. Through the results of micro-Vickers hardness testing, it was confirmed that the mechanical properties of the polymer itself are associated with the performances of the ceramic-polymer composite films. To support and explain these results, the microstructures of the two types of polymer powders were observed after planetary milling and an additional modeling test was carried out. As a result, we could conclude that the PMMA powder is distorted by the impact of the Al2O3 powder, so that the resulting Al2O3-PMMA composite film had a very small amount of PMMA and a low deposition rate. In contrast, when using PI powder, the Al2O3-PI composite film had a high deposition rate due to the cracking of PI particles. Consequently, it was revealed that the mechanical properties of polymers have a considerable effect on the properties of the resulting ceramic-polymer composite thick films.

  13. Detection of copper ions from aqueous solutions using layered double hydroxides thin films deposited by PLD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlad, A.; Birjega, R.; Matei, A.; Luculescu, C.; Nedelcea, A.; Dinescu, M.; Zavoianu, R.; Pavel, O. D.

    2015-10-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) thin films with Mg-Al were deposited using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. We studied the ability of our films to detect copper ions in aqueous solutions. Copper is known to be a common pollutant in water, originating from urban and industrial waste. Clay minerals, including layered double hydroxides (LDHs), can reduce the toxicity of such wastes by adsorbing copper. We report on the uptake of copper ions from aqueous solution on LDH thin films obtained via PLD. The obtained thin films were characterized using X-ray Diffraction, Atomic Force Microscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis. The results in this study indicate that LDHs thin films obtained by PLD have potential as an efficient adsorbent for removing copper from aqueous solution.

  14. Chemical deposition and characterization of copper indium disulphide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathan, H. M.; Lokhande, C. D.

    2004-12-01

    A simple chemical deposition method was used to prepare copper indium disulphide thin films. The method is based on sequential immersion of substrate into different cationic and anionic precursor solutions and rinsing before every immersion with double distilled water. In the present investigation, CuInS 2 films have been deposited using chemical deposition method. These films were characterized for their structural, surface morphological, compositional and electrical properties by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Rutherford back scattering (RBS), electrical resistivity and thermoemf measurement techniques.

  15. Optical Films Deposited By A Reactive Ion Plating Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulker, H. K.; BUhler, M.; Hora, R.

    1986-12-01

    Oxide films on glass substrates, both single and multilayers, were produced by a special reactive ion plating process in the new automatic plating system BALZERS BAP 800. Structure, optical and mechanical film properties have been examined as a function of the deposition parameters. Multilayer systems consisting of TiO2 and Si02 films were deposited, and tests were made concerning optical characteristics, reproducibility and stability. Because of the unique characteristics of the films ion plating promises to become the new technology for the production of optical coatings.

  16. Novel hard, tough HfAlSiN multilayers, defined by alternating Si bond structure, deposited using modulated high-flux, low-energy ion irradiation of the growing film

    SciTech Connect

    Fager, Hanna Greczynski, Grzegorz; Jensen, Jens; Lu, Jun; Hultman, Lars; Howe, Brandon M.; Mei, A. B.; Greene, J. E.; Petrov, Ivan

    2015-09-15

    Hf{sub 1−x−y}Al{sub x}Si{sub y}N (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.14, 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.12) single layer and multilayer films are grown on Si(001) at 250 °C using ultrahigh vacuum magnetically unbalanced reactive magnetron sputtering from a single Hf{sub 0.6}Al{sub 0.2}Si{sub 0.2} target in mixed 5%-N{sub 2}/Ar atmospheres at a total pressure of 20 mTorr (2.67 Pa). The composition and nanostructure of Hf{sub 1−x−y}Al{sub x}Si{sub y}N films are controlled by varying the energy E{sub i} of the ions incident at the film growth surface while maintaining the ion-to-metal flux ratio constant at eight. Switching E{sub i} between 10 and 40 eV allows the growth of Hf{sub 0.78}Al{sub 0.10}Si{sub 0.12}N/Hf{sub 0.78}Al{sub 0.14}Si{sub 0.08}N multilayers with similar layer compositions, but in which the Si bonding state changes from predominantly Si–Si/Si–Hf for films grown with E{sub i} = 10 eV, to primarily Si–N with E{sub i} = 40 eV. Multilayer hardness values, which vary inversely with bilayer period Λ, range from 20 GPa with Λ = 20 nm to 27 GPa with Λ = 2 nm, while fracture toughness increases directly with Λ. Multilayers with Λ = 10 nm combine relatively high hardness, H ∼ 24 GPa, with good fracture toughness.

  17. Impedance spectroscopy of manganite films prepared by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toshihiro; Homma, Kohei; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2011-09-01

    Polycrystalline Pr(1-x)CaxMnO3 (PCMO) films were prepared by liquid source metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using in situ infrared spectroscopic monitoring. The electric properties of the PCMO-based devices with Ni and Al electrodes (Ni-PCMO-Ni and Al-PCMO-Al devices) were studied by dc current-voltage (I-V) measurements and ac impedance spectroscopy. The current varied linearly with the applied voltage in Ni-PCMO-Ni devices, while nonlinear behavior was observed in I-V curves for Al-PCMO-Al devices. Impedance spectra were also different between Ni-PCMO-Ni and Al-PCMO-Al devices. The Cole-Cole plots for the Ni-PCMO-Ni devices showed only a single semicircular arc, which was assigned to the PCMO bulk impedance. Impedance spectra for the Al-PCMO-Al devices had two distinct components, which could be attributed to the PCMO bulk and to the interface between the PCMO film and the Al electrode, respectively. The bias dependence of the impedance spectra suggested that the resistance switching in the Al-PCMO-Al devices was mainly due to the resistance change in the interface between the film and the electrode. The metal electrode plays an important role in the resistance switching in the PCMO-based devices. The choice of the optimum metal electrodes is essential to the ReRAM application of the manganite-based devices.

  18. Molecular beam deposition of high quality silicon oxide dielectric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, Naresh; Johnson, J. E.; Osenbach, J. W.; Liang, W. C.; Feldman, L. C.; Tsang, W. T.; Krautter, H. W.; Passlack, M.; Hull, R.; Swaminathan, V.

    1995-03-01

    We report a method for depositing clean, uniform and stable SiO x dielectric films with high control and reproducibility. The technique uses a molecular or chemical beam epitaxy system (MBE or CBE). The technique offers many advantages over the conventional methods such as load lock facility, accurate determination of the flux, low background contamination, in-situ process monitoring tools, and heating, rotation and tilting of the substrate. Rutherford backscattering (RBS) shows that the films deposited without oxygen are stoichiometric, 50% oxygen and 50% Si, irrespective of the deposition rate or temperature. Such SiO films have a resistivity of ≥10 13 Ω · cm and a nominal refractive index of 2 at 632.8 nm. The refractive index can be reduced by introducing a controlled amount of oxygen into the chamber to result in SiO x ( x = 1-2) films. The SiO films have uniform density and composition, and are free from voids, or any inclusions of different crystalline or amorphous phases. These SiO films are easy to pattern and their erosion rate is slower than that of SiO 2 deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). During 192 h soak in 99°C deionized (DI) water, no moisture absorption was observed in SiO films deposited at a rate of 2 Å/s. Even in films deposited at 11 Å/s, the moisture content after 192 h soak in 99°C DI water was about one third the moisture content of an as-deposited typical PECVD SiO 2 film, indicating that the SiO films are highly resistant to moisture absorption and the film quality improves with reducing deposition rate. The insulating, mechanical and optical properties of SiO x films make them suitable for many applications such as surface passivation, mask for processing and facet coating of lasers. The process can be easily integrated with MBE/CBE which would greatly simplify and improve the III-V semiconductor processing. It may also be possible to deposit such dielectric films by CBE using gaseous compound sources.

  19. Corrosion resistance of sintered NdFeB coated with SiC/Al bilayer thin films by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yiqin; Li, Heqin; Zuo, Min; Tao, Lei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Tang, Qiong; Bai, Peiwen

    2016-07-01

    The poor corrosion resistance of sintered NdFeB imposes a great challenge in industrial applications. In this work, the SiC/Al bilayer thin films with the thickness of 510 nm were deposited on sintered NdFeB by magnetron sputtering to improve the corrosion resistance. A 100 nm Al buffer film was used to reduce the internal stress between SiC and NdFeB and improve the surface roughness of the SiC thin film. The morphologies and structures of SiC/Al bilayer thin films and SiC monolayer film were investigated with FESEM, AFM and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion behaviors of sintered NdFeB coated with SiC monolayer film and SiC/Al bilayer thin films were analyzed by polarization curves. The magnetic properties were measured with an ultra-high coercivity permanent magnet pulse tester. The results show that the surface of SiC/Al bilayer thin films is more compact and uniform than that of SiC monolayer film. The corrosion current densities of SiC/Al bilayer films coated on NdFeB in acid, alkali and salt solutions are much lower than that of SiC monolayer film. The SiC/Al bilayer thin films have little influence to the magnetic properties of NdFeB.

  20. Characterization and study of antibacterial activity of spray pyrolysed ZnO:Al thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoharan, C.; Pavithra, G.; Bououdina, M.; Dhanapandian, S.; Dhamodharan, P.

    2016-08-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates using spray pyrolysis technique with the substrate temperature of 400 °C. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the films were polycrystalline with hexagonal wurtzite structure preferentially oriented along (002) direction. Surface morphology of the films obtained by scanning electron microscopy showed that the grains were of nanoscale size with porous nature for 6 at.% of Al. Atomic force microscopy observations revealed that the particles size and surface roughness of the films decreased with Al-doping. Optical measurements indicated that ZnO:Al (6 at.%) exhibited a band gap of 3.11 eV, which is lower than that of pure ZnO film, i.e. 3.42 eV. Photoluminescence analysis showed weak NBE emission at 396 nm for Al-doped films. The low resistivity, high hall mobility and carrier concentration values were obtained at a doping ratio of 6 at.% of Al. The effective incorporation of 6 at.% of Al into ZnO lattice by occupying Zn sites yielded a well-pronounced antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

  1. Helical structured thin films deposited at a glancing angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, Yi-Jun; Jheng, Ci-Yao; Chan, San; Tseng, Chien-Hoa

    2015-08-01

    Gold nanohelical structured thin films (NHFs) were tried to be deposited on a glass substrate using glancing angle deposition technique. At a deposition angle of 89°, gold NHFs were fabricated by introducing liquid nitrogen to flow under the backside of BK7 glass substrate holder. The temperature of substrate was reduced to be less than -140°C before deposition. The spin rate was controlled with respect to the deposition rate to grow three different sized nanohelices. The morphology and optical properties of Au NHFs were measured and compared between the three samples. The strong g-factor implies high sensitivity of deposited helixes in biosensing in the future.

  2. Atomic layer deposition of amorphous niobium carbide-based thin film superconductors.

    SciTech Connect

    Klug, J. A.; Prolier, T.; Elam, J. W.; Becker, N. G.; Pellin, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Niobium carbide thin films were synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using trimethylaluminum (TMA), NbF{sub 5}, and NbCl{sub 5} precursors. In situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements performed at 200 and 290 C revealed controlled, linear deposition with a high growth rate of 5.7 and 4.5 {angstrom}/cycle, respectively. The chemical composition, growth rate, structure, and electronic properties of the films were studied over the deposition temperature range 125-350 C. Varying amounts of impurities, including amorphous carbon (a-C), AlF{sub 3}, NbF{sub x}, and NbCl{sub x}, were found in all samples. A strong growth temperature dependence of film composition, growth rate, and room temperature DC resistivity was observed. Increasing film density, decreasing total impurity concentration, and decreasing resistivity were observed as a function of increasing deposition temperature for films grown with either NbF{sub 5} or NbCl{sub 5}. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry measurements down to 1.2 K revealed a superconducting transition at T{sub c} = 1.8 K in a 75 nm thick film grown at 350 C with TMA and NbF{sub 5}. The superconducting critical temperature could be increased up to 3.8 K with additional use of NH{sub 3} during ALD film growth.

  3. atomic layer deposition of amorphous niobium carbide-based thin film superconductors.

    SciTech Connect

    Prolier, T.; Klug, J. A.; Elam, J. W.; Claus, H.; Becker, N. G.; Pellin, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Niobium carbide thin films were synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using trimethylaluminum (TMA), NbF{sub 5}, and NbCl{sub 5} precursors. In situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements performed at 200 and 290 C revealed controlled, linear deposition with a high growth rate of 5.7 and 4.5 {angstrom}/cycle, respectively. The chemical composition, growth rate, structure, and electronic properties of the films were studied over the deposition temperature range 125-350 C. Varying amounts of impurities, including amorphous carbon (a-C), AlF{sub 3}, NbF{sub x}, and NbCl{sub x}, were found in all samples. A strong growth temperature dependence of film composition, growth rate, and room temperature DC resistivity was observed. Increasing film density, decreasing total impurity concentration, and decreasing resistivity were observed as a function of increasing deposition temperature for films grown with either NbF{sub 5} or NbCl{sub 5}. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry measurements down to 1.2 K revealed a superconducting transition at T{sub c} = 1.8 K in a 75 nm thick film grown at 350 C with TMA and NbF{sub 5}. The superconducting critical temperature could be increased up to 3.8 K with additional use of NH{sub 3} during ALD film growth.

  4. Characteristic properties of the Casimir free energy for metal films deposited on metallic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.

    2016-04-01

    The Casimir free energy and pressure of thin metal films deposited on metallic plates are considered using the Lifshitz theory and the Drude and plasma model approaches to the role of conduction electrons. The bound electrons are taken into account by using the complete optical data of film and plate metals. It is shown that for films of several tens of nanometers thickness the Casimir free energy and pressure calculated using these approaches differ by hundreds and thousands percent and can be easily discriminated experimentally. According to our results, the free energy of a metal film does not vanish in the limiting case of ideal metal if the Drude model approach is used in contradiction with the fact that the fluctuating field cannot penetrate in its interior. Numerical computations of the Casimir free energy and pressure of Ag and Au films deposited on Cu and Al plates have been performed using both theoretical approaches. It is shown that the free energy of a film can be both negative and positive depending on the metals used. For a Au film on a Ag plate and vice versa the Casimir energy of a film changes its sign with increasing film thickness. Applications of the obtained results for resolving the Casimir puzzle and the problem of stability of thin films are discussed.

  5. Surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Sykora, Milan; Koposov, Alexey; Fuke, Nobuhiro

    2015-02-03

    Provided are methods of surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition so as to exchange the native ligands of the quantum dots for exchange ligands that result in improvement in charge extraction from the nanocrystals.

  6. Influence of Al/CuO reactive multilayer films additives on exploding foil initiator

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Xiang; Shen Ruiqi; Ye Yinghua; Zhu Peng; Hu Yan; Wu Lizhi

    2011-11-01

    An investigation on the influence of Al/CuO reactive multilayer films (RMFs) additives on exploding foil initiator was performed in this paper. Cu film and Cu/Al/CuO RMFs were produced by using standard microsystem technology and RF magnetron sputtering technology, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy characterization revealed the distinct layer structure of the as-deposited Al/CuO RMFs. Differential scanning calorimetry was employed to ascertain the amount of heat released in the thermite reaction between Al films and CuO films, which was found to be 2024 J/g. Electrical explosion tests showed that 600 V was the most matching voltage for our set of apparatus. The explosion process of two types of films was observed by high speed camera and revealed that compared with Cu film, an extra distinct combustion phenomenon was detected with large numbers of product particles fiercely ejected to a distance of about six millimeters for Cu/Al/CuO RMFs. By using the atomic emission spectroscopy double line technique, the reaction temperature was determined to be about 6000-7000 K and 8000-9000 K for Cu film and Cu/Al/CuO RMFs, respectively. The piezoelectricity of polyvinylidene fluoride film was employed to measure the average velocity of the slapper accelerated by the explosion of the films. The average velocities of the slappers were calculated to be 381 m/s and 326 m/s for Cu film and Cu/Al/CuO RMFs, respectively, and some probable reasons were discussed with a few suggestions put forward for further work.

  7. Atomic layer deposition of MoS2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, Robert; Padigi, Prasanna; Solanki, Raj; Tweet, Douglas J.; Schuele, Paul; Evans, David

    2015-03-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to grow thin films of MoS2 over 5 × 5 cm areas of silicon oxide coated silicon wafers. Smooth, uniform, and continuous films were produced over a temperature range of 350 °C-450 °C. The as-grown films were analyzed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and x-ray diffraction. Electrical characteristics of the films were evaluated by fabricating a back gated field effect transistor. These analyses indicate that ALD technique can produce large area, high quality MoS2 films.

  8. Nano-meter bridge with epitaxially deposited NbN on MgO film

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, T.; Hamasaki, K.; Kodaira, Y.; Komata, T.

    1985-03-01

    Nano-meter(nm)-bridges with high-T /SUB c/ materials hold great technological interest because of their smaller capacitance and expected higher I /SUB o/ R /SUB n/ -product. They are promising especially for applications such as high speed logic and high frequency radiation detectors. Also they can operate over a wide temperature range and are stable against thermal cycles as are incorporating the refractory high-T /SUB c/ superconductors. One of the essential ingredient for high quality bridges is to have NbN films. Ultra-thin NbN films have been prepared by rf reactive-sputtering. NbN films deposited epitaxially on rf sputtered MgO films have high superconducting transition temperature T /SUB c/ . T /SUB c/ value of the film with thickness of about 5nm was about 14K, and is much higher than those deposited on Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ films and Si substrates. Two types of nm-bridges were reproducibly fabricated with NbN films deposited epitaxially on MgO films. The obtained I /SUB o/ R /SUB n/ -products were in a range of 0.5 to 3.6mV. The microwaveinduced voltage steps were observed up to the voltage comparable to I /SUB o/ R /SUB n/ - product. The dc and ac quantum effects of the dc SQUIDS were observed in quite wide range of temperature, 4.2 to 11.4K.

  9. Deposition of diamond-like films by ECR microwave plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shing, Yuh-Han (Inventor); Pool, Frederick S. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Hard amorphous hydrogenated carbon, diamond-like films are deposited using an electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma with a separate radio frequency power bias applied to a substrate stage. The electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma yields low deposition pressure and creates ion species otherwise unavailable. A magnetic mirror configuration extracts special ion species from a plasma chamber. Different levels of the radio frequency power bias accelerate the ion species of the ECR plasma impinging on a substrate to form different diamond-like films. During the deposition process, a sample stage is maintained at an ambient temperature of less than 100.degree. C. No external heating is applied to the sample stage. The deposition process enables diamond-like films to be deposited on heat-sensitive substrates.

  10. Self-forming Al oxide barrier for nanoscale Cu interconnects created by hybrid atomic layer deposition of Cu–Al alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jae-Hyung; Han, Dong-Suk; Kang, You-Jin; Shin, So-Ra; Park, Jong-Wan

    2014-01-15

    The authors synthesized a Cu–Al alloy by employing alternating atomic layer deposition (ALD) surface reactions using Cu and Al precursors, respectively. By alternating between these two ALD surface chemistries, the authors fabricated ALD Cu–Al alloy. Cu was deposited using bis(1-dimethylamino-2-methyl-2-butoxy) copper as a precursor and H{sub 2} plasma, while Al was deposited using trimethylaluminum as the precursor and H{sub 2} plasma. The Al atomic percent in the Cu–Al alloy films varied from 0 to 15.6 at. %. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that a uniform Al-based interlayer self-formed at the interface after annealing. To evaluate the barrier properties of the Al-based interlayer and adhesion between the Cu–Al alloy film and SiO{sub 2} dielectric, thermal stability and peel-off adhesion tests were performed, respectively. The Al-based interlayer showed similar thermal stability and adhesion to the reference Mn-based interlayer. Our results indicate that Cu–Al alloys formed by alternating ALD are suitable seed layer materials for Cu interconnects.

  11. Characterization of Nanoporous WO3 Films Grown via Ballistic Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Smid, Bretislav; Li, Zhenjun; Dohnalkova, Alice; Arey, Bruce W.; Smith, R. Scott; Matolin, Vladimir; Kay, Bruce D.; Dohnalek, Zdenek

    2012-05-17

    We report on the preparation and characterization of high surface area, supported nanoporous tungsten oxide films prepared under different conditions on polished polycrystalline Ta and Pt(111) substrates via direct sublimation of monodispersed gas phase of cyclic (WO3)3 clusters. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy were used to investigate the film morphology on a nanometer scale. The films consist of arrays of separated filaments that are amorphous. The chemical composition and the thermal stability of the films were investigated by means of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The surface area and the distribution of binding sites on the films are measured as functions of growth temperature, deposition angle, and annealing conditions using temperature programmed desorption of Kr. Films deposited at 20 K and at an incident angle of 65{sup o} from substrate normal display the greatest specific surface area of {approx}560 m2/g.

  12. Optimization of Transparent Conducting ZnO Films Deposited on PVC Substrate by PLD Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Tsuyoshi; Agura, Hideaki; Aoki, Takanori; Suzuki, Akio; Matsushita, Tatsuhiko; Okuda, Masahiro

    Approximately 300 nm-thick Al-doped transparent conducting zinc oxide films (AZO(Al2O3:1.5 wt.%)) have been deposited on glass and PVC substrates by a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using ArF excimer laser (λ=193 nm) with energy of 40-100 mJ at the repetition frequency of 50 Hz. When fabricated with the laser energy of 40-100 mJ, similar characteristics of electrical properties and optical transmittance were obtained for the AZO films deposited on glass or PVC substrates. Namely, the lowest resistivity obtained was 6.34×10-4Ω·cm and an average optical transmittance was more than 80 % in the visible range. But, when prepared with the laser energy of 80-100 mJ, surface roughness for the AZO films fabricated on PVC substrates decreased compared to the films deposited on glass substrates. Moreover, for the AZO films fabricated on PVC substrates, an average optical transmittance in the visible range was reduced to 30-50 %.

  13. Polymer-assisted aqueous deposition of metal oxide films

    DOEpatents

    Li, DeQuan; Jia, Quanxi

    2003-07-08

    An organic solvent-free process for deposition of metal oxide thin films is presented. The process includes aqueous solutions of necessary metal precursors and an aqueous solution of a water-soluble polymer. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is fired at high temperatures to yield optical quality metal oxide thin films.

  14. Epitaxial niobium dioxide thin films by reactive-biased target ion beam deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuhan; Comes, Ryan B.; Kittiwatanakul, Salinporn; Wolf, Stuart A.; Lu, Jiwei

    2015-03-01

    Epitaxial NbO2 thin films were synthesized on Al2O3 (0001) substrates via reactive bias target ion beam deposition. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra were used to confirm the tetragonal phase of pure NbO2. Through XPS, it was found that there was a ~ 1.3 nm thick Nb2O5 layer on the surface and the bulk of the thin film was NbO2. The epitaxial relationship between NbO2 film and substrate was determined. Electrical transport measurement as a function of temperature showed that the conduction mechanism could be described by variable range hopping mechanism.

  15. Magnetic damping and spin polarization of highly ordered B2 Co2FeAl thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yishen; Lu, Jiwei; Schäfer, Sebastian; Khodadadi, Behrouz; Mewes, Tim; Osofsky, Mike; Wolf, Stuart A.

    2014-08-01

    Epitaxial Co2FeAl films were synthesized using the Biased Target Ion Beam Deposition technique. Post annealing yielded Co2FeAl films with an improved B2 chemical ordering. Both the magnetization and the Gilbert damping parameter were reduced with increased B2 ordering. A low damping parameter, ˜0.002, was attained in B2 ordered Co2FeAl films without the presence of the L21 Heusler phase, which suggests that the B2 structure is sufficient for providing low damping in Co2FeAl. The spin polarization was ˜53% and was insensitive to the chemical ordering.

  16. Enhancement of photoluminescence properties in ZnO/AlN bilayer heterostructures grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Shang-Bin; Lu, Hong-Liang Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Qing-Qing; Zhou, Peng; Ding, Shi-Jin; Zhang, David Wei; Zhang, Qiu-Xiang

    2015-01-15

    The AlN/ZnO bilayer heterostructures were deposited on Si (100) substrate by thermal atomic layer deposition. X-ray diffraction results show that the crystallinity of polycrystalline ZnO layer is enhanced by amorphous AlN capping layer. Compared with ZnO thin film, ZnO/AlN bilayer with 10.7 nm AlN capping layer exhibits three times enhanced near band edge (NBE) emission from the photoluminescence measurements. In addition, the near band edge emission from the ZnO can be further increased by ∼10 times through rapid thermal annealing at 600 °C. The underlying mechanisms for the enhancement of the NBE emission after coating AlN capping layer and thermal treatment are discussed. These results suggest that coating of a thin AlN layer and sequential thermal treatments can effectively tailor the luminescence properties of ZnO film.

  17. Phase transition and thermal expansion studies of alumina thin films prepared by reactive pulsed laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, G; Thirumurugesan, R; Mohandas, E; Sastikumar, D; Kuppusami, P; Songl, J I

    2014-10-01

    Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) thin films were deposited on Si (100) substrates at an optimized oxygen partial pressure of 3 x 10(-3) mbar at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The films were characterized by high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The HTXRD pattern showed the cubic y-Al2O3 phase in the temperature range 300-973 K. At temperatures ≥ 1073 K, the δ and θ-phases of Al2O3 were observed. The mean linear thermal expansion coefficient and volume thermal expansion coefficient of γ-Al2O3 was found to be 12.66 x 10(-6) K(-1) and 38.87 x 10(-6) K(-1) in the temperature range 300 K-1073 K. The field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed a smooth and structureless morphology of the films deposited on Si (100). The atomic force microscopy study indicated the increased crystallinity and surface roughness of the films after annealing at high temperature.

  18. Optical Thin Films Prepared by Ion-Assisted and Ultrasound-Assisted Deposition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwangbo, Chang Kwon

    Optical, electrical, and microstructural effects of Ar ion bombardment and Ar incorporation on thermally evaporated Ag and Al thin films were investigated. The results show that as the momentum supplied to the growing films by the bombarding Ar ions per arriving metal atom increases, refractive index at 632.8 nm increases and extinction coefficient decreases, lattice spacing expands, grain size decreases, electrical resistivity increases, and trapped Ar increases slightly. The reversal of stress from tensile to compressive in Ag films requires a threshold level of momentum. The increase in electrical resistivity is related to the increase in the void fraction, decrease in the grain size, and increase in trapped Ar in both types of films. Many of these properties correlate well with the momentum transferred, suggesting that the momentum is an important physical parameter in describing the influence of ion beams on growing thin films and determining the characteristics of thin metal films prepared by ion-assisted deposition (IAD). With a low energy ion beam, the Ar concentration in IAD Ag films was negligible. When the bombarded film thickness was less than 5 nm, the electrical resistivity of IAD Ag films tended to decrease slightly from that of the non-IAD film. Using the Bruggeman effective medium theory, a formula for the void fraction at any given wavelength was derived. We investigated optical properties, stoichiometry, chemical bonding states, and structure of aluminum oxynitride thin films prepared by reactive ion-assisted deposition. Variations of optical constants and chemical bonding states are related to the stoichiometry. We found that our amorphous aluminum oxynitride film is not simply a mixture of aluminum oxide and nitride but a compound. A rugate filter using a step -index profile of aluminum oxynitride films was fabricated by nitrogen ion beam bombardment of a growing Al film with backfilled oxygen pressure as the sole variable. The effects of

  19. Characterization of CdTe Films Deposited at Various Bath Temperatures and Concentrations Using Electrophoretic Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Daud, Mohd Norizam Md; Zakaria, Azmi; Jafari, Atefeh; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd; Abdullah, Wan Rafizah Wan; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2012-01-01

    CdTe film was deposited using the electrophoretic deposition technique onto an ITO glass at various bath temperatures. Four batch film compositions were used by mixing 1 to 4 wt% concentration of CdTe powder with 10 mL of a solution of methanol and toluene. X-ray Diffraction analysis showed that the films exhibited polycrystalline nature of zinc-blende structure with the (111) orientation as the most prominent peak. From the Atomic Force Microscopy, the thickness and surface roughness of the CdTe film increased with the increase of CdTe concentration. The optical energy band gap of film decreased with the increase of CdTe concentration, and with the increase of isothermal bath temperature. The film thickness increased with respect to the increase of CdTe concentration and bath temperature, and following, the numerical expression for the film thickness with respect to these two variables has been established. PMID:22754325

  20. Electrically Insulative Performances of Ceramic and Clay Films Deposited via Supersonic Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Gun; Kim, Do-Yeon; Joshi, Bhavana N.; Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Kim, Jang-soo; Yang, Dae-ho; Kim, Woo-Young; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; Yoon, Sam S.

    2016-04-01

    Supersonic spray coating techniques were applied to deposit ceramic and clay particles as films for use in electrical insulation. TiO2 and Al2O3 ceramics were aerosol-deposited under vacuum while kaolinite, montmorillonite, and bentonite clays were deposited by cold spraying in open air. The electrical resistivity of Al2O3 and TiO2 were ~109 and ~108 Ω cm, respectively. The resistivity of kaolinite and montmorillonite were ~1012 Ω cm. Bentonite showed the lowest electrical resistivity of ~109 Ω cm among the clays because of the high cation exchange capacity of the material. The film surface morphologies and mechanical properties in the form of hardness and scratchability were also investigated.

  1. Microstructural evaluation of NiTi-based films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Crăciunescu, Corneliu M. Mitelea, Ion Budău, Victor; Ercuţa, Aurel

    2014-11-24

    Shape memory alloy films belonging to the NiTi-based systems were deposited on heated and unheated substrates, by magnetron sputtering in a custom made system, and their structure and composition was analyzed using electron microscopy. Several substrates were used for the depositions: glass, Cu-Zn-Al, Cu-Al-Ni and Ti-NiCu shape memory alloy ribbons and kapton. The composition of the Ti-Ni-Cu films showed limited differences, compared to the one of the target and the microstructure for the DC magnetron sputtering revealed crystallized structure with features determined on peel off samples from a Si wafer. Both inter and transcrystalline fractures were observed and related to the interfacial stress developed on cooling from deposition temperature.

  2. Microstructural evaluation of NiTi-based films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crǎciunescu, Corneliu M.; Mitelea, Ion; Budǎu, Victor; ErcuÅ£a, Aurel

    2014-11-01

    Shape memory alloy films belonging to the NiTi-based systems were deposited on heated and unheated substrates, by magnetron sputtering in a custom made system, and their structure and composition was analyzed using electron microscopy. Several substrates were used for the depositions: glass, Cu-Zn-Al, Cu-Al-Ni and Ti-NiCu shape memory alloy ribbons and kapton. The composition of the Ti-Ni-Cu films showed limited differences, compared to the one of the target and the microstructure for the DC magnetron sputtering revealed crystallized structure with features determined on peel off samples from a Si wafer. Both inter and transcrystalline fractures were observed and related to the interfacial stress developed on cooling from deposition temperature.

  3. Thick aluminium nitride films deposited by room-temperature sputtering for ultrasonic applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, C K; Cochran, S; Abrar, A; Kirk, K J; Placido, F

    2004-04-01

    Materials in film form for electromechanical transduction have a number of potential applications in ultrasound. They are presently under investigation in flexural transducers for air-coupled ultrasound and underwater sonar operating at frequencies up to a few megahertz. At higher frequencies, they have the potential to be integrated with electronics for applications of ultrasound requiring high spatial resolution. However, a number of fabrication difficulties have arisen in studies of such films. These include the high temperatures required in many thick and thin film deposition processes, making them incompatible with other stages in transducer fabrication, and difficulties maintaining film quality when thin film--typically sub-1 microm--processes are extended to higher thicknesses. In this paper, we first outline a process which has allowed us to deposit aluminium nitride (AlN) films capable of electromechanical transduction at thicknesses up to more than 5 microm without substrate heating. As an ultrasonic transduction material, AlN has functional disadvantages, particularly a high acoustic velocity and weak electromechanical transduction. However, it also has a number of advantages relating to practicality of fabrication and functionality. These include the ability to be deposited on a variety of amorphous substrates, a very high Curie temperature, low permittivity, and low electrical and mechanical losses. Here, we present experimental results highlighting the transduction capabilities of AlN deposited on aluminium electrodes on glass and lithium niobate. We compare the results with those from standard simulation processes, highlighting the reasons for discrepancies and discussing the implications for incorporation of AlN into standard ultrasonic transducer design processes.

  4. Resonant infrared pulsed laser deposition of cyclic olefin copolymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singaravelu, S.; Klopf, J. M.; Schriver, K. E.; Park, H. K.; Kelley, M. J.; Haglund, R. F.

    2014-03-01

    Barrier materials on thin-film organic optoelectronic devices inhibit the uptake of water, oxygen, or environmental contaminants, and fabricating them is a major challenge. By definition, these barrier layers must be insoluble, so the usual routes to polymer- or organic-film deposition by spin coating are not problematic. In this paper, we report comparative studies of pulsed laser deposition of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC), an excellent moisture barrier and a model system for a larger class of protective materials that are potentially useful in organic electronic devices, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Thin films of COC were deposited by resonant and nonresonant infrared pulsed laser ablation of solid COC targets, using a free-electron laser tuned to the 3.43 μm C-H stretch of the COC, and a high-intensity nanosecond Q-switched laser operated at 1064 nm. The ablation craters and deposited films were characterized by scanning-electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry, atomic-force microscopy, high-resolution optical microscopy, and surface profilometry. Thermal-diffusion calculations were performed to determine the temperature rise induced in the film at the C-H resonant wavelength. The results show that resonant infrared pulsed laser deposition (RIR-PLD) is an effective, low-temperature thin-film deposition technique that leads to evaporation and deposition of intact molecules in homogeneous, smooth films. Nonresonant PLD, on the other hand, leads to photothermal damage, degradation of the COC polymers, and to the deposition only of particulates.

  5. Resonant infrared pulsed laser deposition of cyclic olefin copolymer films

    SciTech Connect

    Singaravelu, Senthil R.; Klopf, John M.; Schriver, Kenneth E.; Park, HyeKyoung; Kelley, Michael J.; Haglund, Jr., Richard F.

    2013-08-01

    Barrier materials on thin-film organic optoelectronic devices inhibit the uptake of water, oxygen, or environmental contaminants, and fabricating them is a major challenge. By definition, these barrier layers must be insoluble, so the usual routes to polymer- or organic-film deposition by spin coating are not problematic. In this paper, we report comparative studies of pulsed laser deposition of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC), an excellent moisture barrier and a model system for a larger class of protective materials that are potentially useful in organic electronic devices, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Thin films of COC were deposited by resonant and nonresonant infrared pulsed laser ablation of solid COC targets, using a free-electron laser tuned to the 3.43 μm C–H stretch of the COC, and a high-intensity nanosecond Q-switched laser operated at 1064 nm. The ablation craters and deposited films were characterized by scanning-electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry, atomic-force microscopy, high-resolution optical microscopy, and surface profilometry. Thermal-diffusion calculations were performed to determine the temperature rise induced in the film at the C–H resonant wavelength. The results show that resonant infrared pulsed laser deposition (RIR-PLD) is an effective, low-temperature thin-film deposition technique that leads to evaporation and deposition of intact molecules in homogeneous, smooth films. Nonresonant PLD, on the other hand, leads to photothermal damage, degradation of the COC polymers, and to the deposition only of particulates.

  6. Ubiquitous pentacene monolayer on metals deposited onto pentacene films.

    PubMed

    Jaeckel, B; Sambur, J B; Parkinson, B A

    2007-11-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS) was used to study the deposition of metal layers (Ag, Cu, and Au) onto pentacene films. Very low work functions were measured (PhiAg = 3.91 eV, PhiCu = 3.93 eV, and PhiAu = 4.3 eV) for all of the metals, in agreement with results from the literature. The intensities of the C 1s core-level signals from pentacene that were monitored during stepwise metal deposition leveled off at a value of about 30% of a thick pentacene film. This C 1s intensity is comparable to that of one monolayer of pentacene deposited onto the respective metal. The valence band spectra of metals deposited onto pentacene and spectra collected for pentacene deposited onto bare metal surfaces are very similar. These findings lead to the conclusion that approximately one monolayer of pentacene is always present on top of the freshly deposited metal film, which explains the very low work function of the metals when they are deposited onto organic films. We expect similar behavior with other nonreactive metals deposited onto stable organic layers.

  7. Influence of hydrogen and hydrogen/methane plasmas on AlN thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Pobedinskas, P. Hardy, A.; Van Bael, M. K.; Haenen, K.; Degutis, G.; Dexters, W.

    2014-02-24

    Polycrystalline aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films are exposed to hydrogen and hydrogen/methane plasmas at different conditions. The latter plays an indispensable role in the subsequent deposition of nanocrystalline diamond thin films on AlN. The changes of AlN properties are investigated by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopies as well as atomic force microscopy. The E{sub 1}(TO) and E{sub 2}{sup 2} phonon mode frequencies blue-shift after the exposure to plasmas. The damping constant of E{sub 1}(TO) phonon, calculated from FTIR transmission spectra using the factorized model of a damped oscillator, and the width of E{sub 2}{sup 2} peak in Raman spectra decrease with increasing substrate temperature till the decomposition of AlN thin film becomes notable. It is proven that these changes are driven by the plasmas as annealing in vacuum does not induce them.

  8. Influence of hydrogen and hydrogen/methane plasmas on AlN thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pobedinskas, P.; Degutis, G.; Dexters, W.; Hardy, A.; Van Bael, M. K.; Haenen, K.

    2014-02-01

    Polycrystalline aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films are exposed to hydrogen and hydrogen/methane plasmas at different conditions. The latter plays an indispensable role in the subsequent deposition of nanocrystalline diamond thin films on AlN. The changes of AlN properties are investigated by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopies as well as atomic force microscopy. The E1(TO) and E22 phonon mode frequencies blue-shift after the exposure to plasmas. The damping constant of E1(TO) phonon, calculated from FTIR transmission spectra using the factorized model of a damped oscillator, and the width of E22 peak in Raman spectra decrease with increasing substrate temperature till the decomposition of AlN thin film becomes notable. It is proven that these changes are driven by the plasmas as annealing in vacuum does not induce them.

  9. Vacuum deposition of stoichiometric crystalline PbS films: The effect of sulfurizing environment during deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, B. P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, A.; Tyagi, R. C.

    2015-10-01

    Thin film of lead sulfide (PbS) was deposited onto highly cleaned glass and quartz substrates using a vacuum thermal evaporation technique. The effect of the sulfurizing environment on the growth and properties of vacuum-deposited PbS thin film was studied. The ambient sulfurizing environment was created by thermal decomposition of thiourea inside the vacuum chamber during deposition to maintain the stoichiometry and quality of the PbS film. The sulfurizing gas H2S, produced in the thermal decomposition of the solid sulfur containing thiourea readily combines with the cations (Pb2+) without leaving any anions (S2-) at the substrates and also has not produced any excess of sulfur at the substrates. The deposited film was characterized by optical spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction patterns, scanning electron micrographs with energy dispersive analysis of x-rays, and atomic force micrographs. The physical characterization of the deposited PbS film revealed that the surface of film grown in the sulfurizing environment improved and contained more stoichiometric sulfur in comparison to film deposited without the sulfurizing environment.

  10. AlScN thin film based surface acoustic wave devices with enhanced microfluidic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. B.; Fu, Y. Q.; Chen, J. J.; Xuan, W. P.; Chen, J. K.; Wang, X. Z.; Mayrhofer, P.; Duan, P. F.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U.; Luo, J. K.

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the characterization of scandium aluminum nitride (Al1-x Sc x N, x  =  27%) films and discusses surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices based on them. Both AlScN and AlN films were deposited on silicon by sputtering and possessed columnar microstructures with (0 0 0 2) crystal orientation. The AlScN/Si SAW devices showed improved electromechanical coupling coefficients (K 2, ~2%) compared with pure AlN films (<0.5%). The performance of the two types of devices was also investigated and compared, using acoustofluidics as an example. The AlScN/Si SAW devices achieved much lower threshold powers for the acoustic streaming and pumping of liquid droplets, and the acoustic streaming and pumping velocities were 2  ×  and 3  ×  those of the AlN/Si SAW devices, respectively. Mechanical characterization showed that the Young’s modulus and hardness of the AlN film decreased significantly when Sc was doped, and this was responsible for the decreased acoustic velocity and resonant frequency, and the increased temperature coefficient of frequency, of the AlScN SAW devices.

  11. AlScN thin film based surface acoustic wave devices with enhanced microfluidic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. B.; Fu, Y. Q.; Chen, J. J.; Xuan, W. P.; Chen, J. K.; Wang, X. Z.; Mayrhofer, P.; Duan, P. F.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U.; Luo, J. K.

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the characterization of scandium aluminum nitride (Al1‑x Sc x N, x  =  27%) films and discusses surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices based on them. Both AlScN and AlN films were deposited on silicon by sputtering and possessed columnar microstructures with (0 0 0 2) crystal orientation. The AlScN/Si SAW devices showed improved electromechanical coupling coefficients (K 2, ~2%) compared with pure AlN films (<0.5%). The performance of the two types of devices was also investigated and compared, using acoustofluidics as an example. The AlScN/Si SAW devices achieved much lower threshold powers for the acoustic streaming and pumping of liquid droplets, and the acoustic streaming and pumping velocities were 2  ×  and 3  ×  those of the AlN/Si SAW devices, respectively. Mechanical characterization showed that the Young’s modulus and hardness of the AlN film decreased significantly when Sc was doped, and this was responsible for the decreased acoustic velocity and resonant frequency, and the increased temperature coefficient of frequency, of the AlScN SAW devices.

  12. Anomalous hysteresis properties of iron films deposited on liquid surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Quanlin; Feng Chunmu; Xu Xiaojun; Jin Jinsheng; Xia Agen; Ye Gaoxiang

    2005-07-01

    A nearly free sustained iron film system, deposited on silicone oil surfaces by vapor-phase deposition method, has been fabricated and its crystal structure as well as magnetic properties has been studied. Both the temperature-dependent coercivity H{sub c}(T) and exchange anisotropy field H{sub E}(T) of the iron films possess a maximum peak around the critical temperature T{sub crit}=10-15 and 4 K, respectively. Our experimental results show that the anomalous hysteresis properties mainly result from the oxide surfaces of the films with spin-glass-like phase below freezing temperature T{sub f}=30-50 K.

  13. Anomalous hysteresis properties of iron films deposited on liquid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Quan-Lin; Feng, Chun-Mu; Xu, Xiao-Jun; Jin, Jin-Sheng; Xia, A.-Gen; Ye, Gao-Xiang

    2005-07-01

    A nearly free sustained iron film system, deposited on silicone oil surfaces by vapor-phase deposition method, has been fabricated and its crystal structure as well as magnetic properties has been studied. Both the temperature-dependent coercivity Hc(T) and exchange anisotropy field HE(T) of the iron films possess a maximum peak around the critical temperature Tcrit=10-15 and 4K, respectively. Our experimental results show that the anomalous hysteresis properties mainly result from the oxide surfaces of the films with spin-glass-like phase below freezing temperature Tf=30-50K.

  14. Development of a Co-deposition method for Deposition of Low-Contamination Pyrite Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walimbe, Aditya

    Pyrite is a 0.95 eV bandgap semiconductor which is purported to have great potential in widespread, low--cost photovoltaic cells. A thorough material selection process was used in the design of a pyrite sequential vapor deposition chamber aimed at reducing and possibly eliminating contamination during thin film growth. The design process focused on identifying materials that do not produce volatile components when exposed to high temperatures and high sulfur pressures. Once the materials were identified and design was completed, the ultra--high vacuum growth system was constructed and tested. Pyrite thin films were deposited using the upgraded sequential vapor deposition chamber by varying the substrate temperature from 250°C to 420°C during deposition, keeping sulfur pressure constant at 1 Torr. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) results showed that all contaminants in the films were reduced in concentration by orders of magnitude from those grown with the previous system. Characterization techniques of Rutherford Back--scattering Spectrometry (RBS), X--Ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Optical Profilometry and UV/Vis/Near--IR Spectroscopy were performed on the deposited thin films. The results indicate that stoichiometric ratio of S:Fe, structural--quality (epitaxy), optical roughness and percentage of pyrite in the deposited thin films improve with increase in deposition temperature. A Tauc plot of the optical measurements indicates that the pyrite thin films have a bandgap of 0.94 eV.

  15. Effect of Hydrogen on the Properties of RF-Magnetron Sputtering ZnO:Al Films as an Alternative to Commercially Available TCO Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Rajesh; Sekhar Das, Himadri

    2016-09-01

    Transparent conducting ZnO:Al thin films with lowest electrical resistivity and sheet resistance 3.89 × 10-4 Ω cm and 7.65 Ω/□ were developed by RF-magnetron sputtering using Ar + H2 as sputtering gas at 250 °C. ZnO:Al films are highly polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite, (002) oriented and grain size are around 30 nm. The highest carrier concentration and mobility of our lab deposited ZnO:Al films are (~1021 cm-3) and 8.93 cm2/V s respectively. RF-sputtered ZnO:Al films are self textured and surface roughness of ZnO:Al films varies with H2 dilution ratio and ultimately affects on Haze factor. Haze factor varies from 36 to 42.8 for introducing different gas ambient during deposition. Blue and green photoluminescence emission peaks are observed at 432 nm (2.87 eV) and 541.5 nm (2.29 eV) respectively in H2 gas deposited ZnO:Al films. Both ZnO:Al and commercial TCO films have almost similar electrical properties except mobility and visible optical transmittance maxima, but still show 30 % higher optical transmittance at longer wavelength region of solar spectrum and U-type surface morphology. Systematic analysis of different materials properties, elemental analysis and surface texture of non-stoichiometric ZnO:Al films are studied and latest status on electrical, optical as well as morphological studies of magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al films are reported. Finally, the possible solutions for expected outcomes are discussed.

  16. Characterization of Al/CuO nanoenergetic multilayer films integrated with semiconductor bridge for initiator applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Peng; Shen, Ruiqi; Ye, Yinghua; Fu, Shuai; Li, Dongle

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the ignition characteristics of Al/CuO nanoenergetic multilayer films (nEMFs) integrated with semiconductor bridge (SCB). The as-deposited Al/CuO nEMFs were identified with SEM and differential scanning calorimetry. Results show that distinct Al/CuO nEMFs are sputter deposited in a layered geometry, and the Al/CuO nEMFs gives a reaction heat equal to 2181 J/g. The firing experiments show that Al/CuO nEMFs have no influence on the electrical properties of SCB. Furthermore, the rapid combustion of Al/CuO nEMFs is able to assist SCB generating high-temperature plasma and products, such that enhance the ignition reliability.

  17. Thermodynamics and kinetic behaviors of thickness-dependent crystallization in high-k thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, Xianglong; Ma, Fei; Ma, Dayan; Xu, Kewei

    2015-01-15

    Atomic layer deposition is adopted to prepare HfO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} high-k thin films. The HfO{sub 2} thin films are amorphous at the initial growth stage, but become crystallized when the film thickness (h) exceeds a critical value (h{sub critical}{sup *}). This phase transition from amorphous to crystalline is enhanced at higher temperatures and is discussed, taking into account the effect of kinetic energy. At lower temperatures, the amorphous state can be maintained even when h>h{sub critical}{sup *} owing to the small number of activated atoms. However, the number of activated atoms increases with the temperature, allowing crystallization to occur even in films with smaller thickness. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films, on the other hand, maintain their amorphous state independent of the film thickness and temperature owing to the limited number of activated atoms. A thermodynamic model is proposed to describe the thickness-dependent phase transition.

  18. Measuring Thicknesses Of Vacuum-Deposited Organic Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David, Carey E.

    1996-01-01

    Method of measuring thickness of thin organic liquid film deposited in vacuum involves use of quartz-crystal monitor (QCM) calibrated by use of witness plate that has, in turn, calibrated by measurement of absorption of infrared light in deposited material. Present procedure somewhat tedious, but once calibration accomplished, thicknesses of organic liquid deposits monitored in real time and in situ by use of QCM.

  19. Chemical vapor deposition reactor. [providing uniform film thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, S. S.; Maserjian, J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An improved chemical vapor deposition reactor is characterized by a vapor deposition chamber configured to substantially eliminate non-uniformities in films deposited on substrates by control of gas flow and removing gas phase reaction materials from the chamber. Uniformity in the thickness of films is produced by having reactive gases injected through multiple jets which are placed at uniformally distributed locations. Gas phase reaction materials are removed through an exhaust chimney which is positioned above the centrally located, heated pad or platform on which substrates are placed. A baffle is situated above the heated platform below the mouth of the chimney to prevent downdraft dispersion and scattering of gas phase reactant materials.

  20. Plasma deposition of polymer composite films incorporating nanocellulose whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samyn, P.; Airoudj, A.; Laborie, M.-P.; Mathew, A. P.; Roucoules, V.

    2011-11-01

    In a trend for sustainable engineering and functionalization of surfaces, we explore the possibilities of gas phase processes to deposit nanocomposite films. From an analysis of pulsed plasma polymerization of maleic anhydride in the presence of nanocellulose whiskers, it seems that thin nanocomposite films can be deposited with various patterns. By specifically modifying plasma parameters such as total power, duty cycle, and monomer gas pressure, the nanocellulose whiskers are either incorporated into a buckled polymer film or single nanocellulose whiskers are deposited on top of a polymeric film. The density of the latter can be controlled by modifying the exact positioning of the substrate in the reactor. The resulting morphologies are evaluated by optical microscopy, AFM, contact angle measurements and ellipsometry.

  1. Deposition and investigation of lanthanum-cerium hexaboride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzanyan, A.S. . E-mail: akuzan@ipr.sci.am; Harutyunyan, S.R.; Vardanyan, V.O.; Badalyan, G.R.; Petrosyan, V.A.; Kuzanyan, V.S.; Petrosyan, S.I.; Karapetyan, V.E.; Wood, K.S.; Wu, H.-D.

    2006-09-15

    Thin films of lanthanum-cerium hexaboride, the promising thermoelectric material for low-temperature applications, are deposited on various substrates by the electron-beam evaporation, pulsed laser deposition and magnetron sputtering. The influence of the deposition conditions on the films X-ray characteristics, composition, microstructure and physical properties, such as the resistivity and Seebeck coefficient, is studied. The preferred (100) orientation of all films is obtained from XRD traces. In the range of 780-800 deg. C deposition temperature the highest intensity of diffractions peaks and the highest degree of the preferred orientation are observed. The temperature dependence of the resistivity and the Seebeck coefficient of films are investigated in the temperature range of 4-300 K. The features appropriate to Kondo effect in the dependences {rho}(T) and S(T) are detected at temperatures below 20 K. Interplay between the value of the Seebeck coefficient, metallic parameters and Kondo scattering of investigated films is discussed. - Graphical abstract: Kondo scattering in (La,Ce)B{sub 6} films: temperature dependence of the resistivity of (La,Ce)B{sub 6} films on various substrates and the ceramics La{sub 0.99}Ce{sub 0.01}B{sub 6}.

  2. Design, Construction and Operation of a Chemical Vapor Deposition System for the Growth of Metal Oxide Thin Films.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumgarner, John Wesley

    1995-01-01

    A unique low pressure, organometallic chemical vapor deposition system has been designed and constructed for the growth of polycrystalline metal oxide thin films. Control of system variables and in situ monitoring of the process via laser reflectance interferometry and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy allowed reproducible production of thin films and provided the capability for closed loop control of the deposition process. The films deposited onto Si(100) and Si(111) substrates included titanium dioxide, a representative next generation sensor material; alumina, a common ceramic surface useful in containment; and iron oxide, a potential next generation catalyst surface. Film growth was monitored in situ using LRI, and the films were subsequently analyzed using SEM, EDS, FTIR, Raman, XPS, Auger, SIMS, XRD and ellipsometry. Stoichiometric polycrystalline films of TiO _2 were deposited from TTIP precursor without the addition of O_2 onto Si(100) and Si(111) substrates. Deposition occurred readily at temperatures above 400^circC. The film growth rate increased with temperature to a maximum of 36 nm/min. at 550^circC, and then decreased again at higher temperatures. The overall C content of the films was <10 ^{18} cm^{ -3}. The phase of TiO_2 deposited was found to be anatase or, in a few cases, a mixture of anatase with a lesser proportion of rutile, in agreement with literature reports. Thin films of rm Al_2O_3 were deposited onto Si(100) substrates using ATIP as the precursor and without the addition of oxygen. Bubbler temperatures of at least 140^circ C were required to provide sufficient vapor for film deposition. Depending on the deposition temperature used, the amorphous films produced appeared smooth or granular. Polycrystalline iron oxide thin films were deposited using Fe(CO)_5 + O_2 onto Si(100) and Si(111) substrates. Film quality depended heavily on deposition temperature. Depositions at 350^circC and above were of poor quality, sooty in appearance

  3. UV laser deposition of metal films by photogenerated free radicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, R. K.; Mantei, T. D.

    1986-01-01

    A novel photochemical method for liquid-phase deposition of metal films is described. In the liquid phase deposition scheme, a metal containing compound and a metal-metal bonded carbonyl complex are dissolved together in a polar solvent and the mixture is irradiated using a UV laser. The optical arrangement consists of a HeCd laser which provides 7 mW of power at a wavelength of 325 nm in the TEM(OO) mode. The beam is attenuated and may be expanded to a diameter of 5-20 mm. Experiments with photochemical deposition of silver films onto glass and quartz substrates are described in detail. Mass spectrometric analysis of deposited silver films indicated a deposition rate of about 1 A/s at incident power levels of 0.01 W/sq cm. UV laser-induced copper and palladium films have also been obtained. A black and white photograph showing the silver Van Der Pauw pattern of a solution-deposited film is provided.

  4. Characteristics and Mechanism of Cu Films Fabricated at Room Temperature by Aerosol Deposition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Won; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Cho, Won-Ju; Song, Jun-Kwang; Kim, Yong-Nam

    2016-12-01

    We were successful in growing a dense Cu film on Al2O3 substrates at room temperature using an aerosol deposition (AD) method. The characteristics of Cu films were investigated through electrical resistivity and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The resistivity of Cu films was low (9.2-12.5 μΩ cm), but it was five to seven times higher than that of bulk copper. The deterioration of the resistivity indicates that a Cu2O phase with CuO occurs due to a particle-to-particle collision. Moreover, the growth of Cu films was investigated by observing their microstructures. At the initial stage in the AD process, the impacted particles were flattened and deformed on a rough Al2O3 substrate. The continuous collision of impacted particles leads to the densification of deposited coating layers due to the plastic deformation of particles. The bonding between the Cu particles and the rough Al2O3 substrate was explained in terms of the adhesive properties on the surface roughness of Al2O3 substrates. It was revealed that the roughness of substrates was considerably associated with the mechanical interlocking between Cu particles and rough Al2O3 substrate. PMID:27009529

  5. Characteristics and Mechanism of Cu Films Fabricated at Room Temperature by Aerosol Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Won; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Cho, Won-Ju; Song, Jun-Kwang; Kim, Yong-Nam

    2016-03-01

    We were successful in growing a dense Cu film on Al2O3 substrates at room temperature using an aerosol deposition (AD) method. The characteristics of Cu films were investigated through electrical resistivity and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The resistivity of Cu films was low (9.2-12.5 μΩ cm), but it was five to seven times higher than that of bulk copper. The deterioration of the resistivity indicates that a Cu2O phase with CuO occurs due to a particle-to-particle collision. Moreover, the growth of Cu films was investigated by observing their microstructures. At the initial stage in the AD process, the impacted particles were flattened and deformed on a rough Al2O3 substrate. The continuous collision of impacted particles leads to the densification of deposited coating layers due to the plastic deformation of particles. The bonding between the Cu particles and the rough Al2O3 substrate was explained in terms of the adhesive properties on the surface roughness of Al2O3 substrates. It was revealed that the roughness of substrates was considerably associated with the mechanical interlocking between Cu particles and rough Al2O3 substrate.

  6. thin films by an hybrid deposition configuration: pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar-Alarcón, L.; Solís-Casados, D. A.; Perez-Alvarez, J.; Romero, S.; Morales-Mendez, J. G.; Haro-Poniatowski, E.

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to report the application of an hybrid deposition configuration to deposit Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films modified with different amounts of bismuth (Bi:TiO2). The samples were synthesized combining a TiO2 laser ablation plasma with a flux of vapor of bismuth produced by thermal evaporation. By varying the deposition rate of Bi it was possible to control the amount of Bi incorporated in the film and consequently the film properties. A detailed compositional, structural, and optical characterization by XPS, RBS, Raman spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectrometry techniques is discussed. Photocatalytic response of the deposited thin films was studied through the degradation of a malachite green solution.

  7. SEM Analysis of Electrophoretically-Deposited Nanoparticle Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Neil

    Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (20 nm) were synthesized and electrophoretically deposited onto aluminum foil, graphite paper, and carbon felt in order to study its potential as a cost-effective electrocatalyst for the oxidation of ammonium sulfite to ammonium sulfate in a proposed sulfur ammonia thermochemical cycle. Scanning electron microscopy and linear sweep voltammetry were used to characterize the deposited films and investigate their electrochemical activity. Furthermore, the effects of electrophoretic deposition conditions on deposit morphology and subsequently the effects of deposit morphology on electrochemical activity in 2 M ammonium sulfite were studied to better understand how to improve electrocatalysts. It was found that there is a critical deposit thickness for each substrate, where additional deposited particles reduce overall electrocatalytic activity of the deposits. For graphite paper, this thickness was estimated to be 3 particle layers for the EPD conditions studied. The 3 particle layer film on graphite paper resulted in a 5.5 fold increase in current density from a blank graphite paper substrate. For carbon felt, the deposit thickness threshold was calculated to be 0.13 of a particle layer for the EPD conditions studied. Moreover, this film was found to have a 4.3 fold increase in current density from a blank carbon felt substrate.

  8. Chromium carbide thin films deposited by ultra-short pulse laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teghil, R.; Santagata, A.; De Bonis, A.; Galasso, A.; Villani, P.

    2009-06-01

    Pulsed laser deposition performed by a laser with a pulse duration of 250 fs has been used to deposit films from a Cr 3C 2 target. Due to the different processes involved in the laser ablation when it is performed by an ultra-short pulse source instead of a conventional short pulse one, it has been possible to obtain in vacuum films containing only one type of carbide, Cr 3C 2, as shown by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. On the other hand, Cr 3C 2 is not the only component of the films, since a large amount of amorphous carbon is also present. The films, deposited at room temperature, are amorphous and seem to be formed by the coalescence of a large number of particles with nanometric size. The film composition can be explained in terms of thermal evaporation from particles ejected from the target.

  9. Chemical vapour deposition of zeolitic imidazolate framework thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassen, Ivo; Styles, Mark; Grenci, Gianluca; Gorp, Hans Van; Vanderlinden, Willem; Feyter, Steven De; Falcaro, Paolo; Vos, Dirk De; Vereecken, Philippe; Ameloot, Rob

    2016-03-01

    Integrating metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in microelectronics has disruptive potential because of the unique properties of these microporous crystalline materials. Suitable film deposition methods are crucial to leverage MOFs in this field. Conventional solvent-based procedures, typically adapted from powder preparation routes, are incompatible with nanofabrication because of corrosion and contamination risks. We demonstrate a chemical vapour deposition process (MOF-CVD) that enables high-quality films of ZIF-8, a prototypical MOF material, with a uniform and controlled thickness, even on high-aspect-ratio features. Furthermore, we demonstrate how MOF-CVD enables previously inaccessible routes such as lift-off patterning and depositing MOF films on fragile features. The compatibility of MOF-CVD with existing infrastructure, both in research and production facilities, will greatly facilitate MOF integration in microelectronics. MOF-CVD is the first vapour-phase deposition method for any type of microporous crystalline network solid and marks a milestone in processing such materials.

  10. Modified chemical route for deposition of molybdenum disulphide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, Akshay N. Sartale, S. D.

    2014-04-24

    Molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub 2}) thin films were deposited on quartz substrates using a modified chemical route. Sodium molybdate and sodium sulphide were used as precursors for molybdenum and sulphur respectively. The route involves formation of tetrathiomolybdate ions (MoS{sub 4}{sup 2−}) and further reduction by sodium borohydride to form MoS{sub 2}. The deposition was performed at room temperature. The deposited films were annealed in argon atmosphere at 1073 K for 1 hour to improve its crystallinity. The deposited films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphology, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy for optical studies and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for structure determination.

  11. Impact of titanium layer and silicon substrate properties on the microstructure of c-axis oriented AlN thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wistrela, E.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U.

    2015-05-01

    Highly c-axis orientated sputter deposited aluminium nitride (AlN) thin films are widely used as piezoelectric layers in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Therefore, stable and reliable deposition and patterning of the AlN thin films in the fabrication process of such devices is of utmost importance. In this work, we study the wet chemical etching behavior of highly c-axis oriented AlN layers as well as the film-related residuals after the etching procedure. To investigate the impact of the underlying material on the quality of the AlN films they are either deposited on pure silicon (Si) substrates or on Si substrates covered with a sputter-deposited thin titanium (Ti) film. The 620 nm thin AlN layers are synthesized simultaneously onto both substrate types and subsequently wet-chemical etched in a phosphorous acid based etching solution at a temperature of 80°C. We demonstrate a significant difference in surface roughness of the untreated AlN films when sputter-deposited on Ti or pure Si. Furthermore, we analyze the piezoelectric properties of the deposited films. Although the XRD analyses indicate a high c-axis orientated wurtzite structure for all deposited films, the absolute value of the piezoelectric coefficients |d33| of AlN thin films synthesized on Ti are 0.4-4.3 pC/N, whereas corresponding values of 5.2-6 pC/N are determined at those deposited on pure Si substrates,. Finally, after wet chemically etching a porous, but homogeneous AlN microstructure is observed for samples synthesized onto Ti layers, whereas AlN layers deposited directly on Si substrate are either etched very inhomogenously or almost completely with some etch resistant pyramidal-shaped residues. This might be due to a local change in polarity within the AlN layer.

  12. Chemical and Magnetic Order in Vapor-Deposited Metal Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney, Peter Wiliam

    1995-01-01

    A stochastic Monte Carlo model of vapor deposition and growth of a crystalline, binary, A_3 B metallic alloy with a negative energy of mixing has been developed which incorporates deposition and surface diffusion in a physically correct manner and allows the simulation of deposition rates that are experimentally realizable. The effects of deposition rate and growth temperature on the development of short range order (SRO) in vapor-deposited films have been examined using this model. SRO in the simulated films increases with growth temperature up to the point at which the temperature corresponds to the energy of mixing, but we see no corresponding development of anisotropic SRO (preferential ordering of A-B pairs along the growth direction). Epitaxial (100) and (111) CoPt_3 films have been deposited over a range of growth temperatures from -50^circ C to 800^circC. Curie temperature (T_{rm c}) and saturation magnetization are dramatically enhanced in those films grown near 400^circ C over the values expected for the chemically homogeneous alloy. Magnetization data indicates that the high T _{rm c} films are inhomogeneous. These phenomena are interpreted as evidence of a previously unobserved magnetically driven miscibility gap in the Co-Pt phase diagram. Films grown near 400^circ C exhibit large uniaxial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy that cannot be accounted for by strain. The observed anisotropy coincides with the chemical phase separation and it seems likely that these two phenomena are related. Long range order (LRO) in the as-deposited films peaks at a growth temperature of 630^circC and then decreases with decreasing growth temperature. The decrease in LRO is either due to kinetic frustration or to competition from magnetically induced Co clustering. Theoretical phase diagrams based on the appropriate Blume-Emery-Griffiths Hamiltonian suggest the latter.

  13. Sputter deposited Terfenol-D thin films for multiferroic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanchandra, K. P.; Prikhodko, S. V.; Wetzlar, K. P.; Sun, W. Y.; Nordeen, P.; Carman, G. P.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we study the sputter deposition and crystallization process to produce high quality Terfenol-D thin film (100 nm) with surface roughness below 1.5 nm. The Terfenol-D thin film was produced using DC magnetron sputtering technique with various sputtering parameters and two different crystallization methods, i.e. substrate heating and post-annealing. Several characterization techniques including WDS, XRD, TEM, AFM, SQUID and MOKE were used to determine the physical and magnetic properties of the Terfenol-D films. TEM studies reveal that the film deposited on the heated substrate has large grains grown along the film thickness producing undesirable surface roughness while the film crystallized by post-annealing method shows uniformly distributed small grains producing a smooth surface. The Terfenol-D film was also deposited onto (011) cut PMN-PT single crystal substrate. With the application of an electric field the film exhibited a 1553 Oe change in coercivity with an estimated saturation magnetostriction of λs = 910 x 10-6.

  14. Heat treatment of cathodic arc deposited amorphous hard carbon films

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, S.; Ager, J.W. III; Brown, I.G.

    1997-02-01

    Amorphous hard carbon films of varying sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} fractions have been deposited on Si using filtered cathodic are deposition with pulsed biasing. The films were heat treated in air up to 550 C. Raman investigation and nanoindentation were performed to study the modification of the films caused by the heat treatment. It was found that films containing a high sp{sup 3} fraction sustain their hardness for temperatures at least up to 400 C, their structure for temperatures up to 500 C, and show a low thickness loss during heat treatment. Films containing at low sp{sup 3} fraction graphitize during the heat treatment, show changes in structure and hardness, and a considerable thickness loss.

  15. Electrophoretic deposition of tannic acid-polypyrrolidone films and composites.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Zhang, Tianshi; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2016-05-01

    Thin films of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-tannic acid (TA) complexes were prepared by a conceptually new strategy, based on electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Proof of concept investigations involved the analysis of the deposition yield, FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy of the deposited material, and electron microscopy studies. The analysis of the deposition mechanism indicated that the limitations of the EPD in the deposition of small phenolic molecules, such as TA, and electrically neutral polymers, similar to PVP, containing hydrogen-accepting carbonyl groups, can be avoided. The remarkable adsorption properties of TA and film forming properties of the PVP-TA complexes allowed for the EPD of materials of different types, such as huntite mineral platelets and hydrotalcite clay particles, TiO2 and MnO2 oxide nanoparticles, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, TiN and Pd nanoparticles. Moreover, PVP-TA complexes were used for the co-deposition of different materials and formation of composite films. In another approach, TA was used as a capping agent for the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods, which were then deposited by EPD using PVP-TA complexes. The fundamental adsorption and interaction mechanisms of TA involved chelation of metal atoms on particle surfaces with galloyl groups, π-π interactions and hydrogen bonding. The films prepared by EPD can be used for various applications, utilizing functional properties of TA, PVP, inorganic and organic materials of different types and their composites.

  16. Electrophoretic deposition of tannic acid-polypyrrolidone films and composites.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Zhang, Tianshi; Zhitomirsky, Igor

    2016-05-01

    Thin films of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-tannic acid (TA) complexes were prepared by a conceptually new strategy, based on electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Proof of concept investigations involved the analysis of the deposition yield, FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopy of the deposited material, and electron microscopy studies. The analysis of the deposition mechanism indicated that the limitations of the EPD in the deposition of small phenolic molecules, such as TA, and electrically neutral polymers, similar to PVP, containing hydrogen-accepting carbonyl groups, can be avoided. The remarkable adsorption properties of TA and film forming properties of the PVP-TA complexes allowed for the EPD of materials of different types, such as huntite mineral platelets and hydrotalcite clay particles, TiO2 and MnO2 oxide nanoparticles, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, TiN and Pd nanoparticles. Moreover, PVP-TA complexes were used for the co-deposition of different materials and formation of composite films. In another approach, TA was used as a capping agent for the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods, which were then deposited by EPD using PVP-TA complexes. The fundamental adsorption and interaction mechanisms of TA involved chelation of metal atoms on particle surfaces with galloyl groups, π-π interactions and hydrogen bonding. The films prepared by EPD can be used for various applications, utilizing functional properties of TA, PVP, inorganic and organic materials of different types and their composites. PMID:26878711

  17. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and characterization of (Al,Si)O dielectrics for GaN–based devices

    DOE PAGES

    Chan, Silvia; Mishra, Umesh K.; Tahhan, Maher; Liu, Xiang; Bisi, David; Gupta, Chirag; Koksaldi, Onur; Li, Haoran; Mates, Tom; DenBaars, Steven P.; et al

    2016-01-20

    In this study, we report on the growth and electrical characterization of (Al,Si)O dielectrics grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using trimethylaluminum, oxygen, and silane as precursors. The growth rates, refractive indices, and composition of (Al,Si)O films grown on Si(001) were determined from ellipsometry and XPS measurements. Crystallinity and electrical properties of (Al,Si)O films grown in situ on c-plane GaN were characterized using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and capacitance–voltage with current–voltage measurements, respectively. Si concentration in the films was found to be tunable by varying the trimethylaluminum and/or oxygen precursor flows. The Si incorporation suppressed the formation of crystallinemore » domains, leading to amorphous films that resulted in reduced interfacial trap density, low gate leakage and ultra-low hysteresis in (Al,Si)O/n-GaN MOS-capacitors.« less

  18. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and characterization of (Al,Si)O dielectrics for GaN-based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Silvia H.; Tahhan, Maher; Liu, Xiang; Bisi, Davide; Gupta, Chirag; Koksaldi, Onur; Li, Haoran; Mates, Tom; DenBaars, Steven P.; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the growth and electrical characterization of (Al,Si)O dielectrics grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using trimethylaluminum, oxygen, and silane as precursors. The growth rates, refractive indices, and composition of (Al,Si)O films grown on Si(001) were determined from ellipsometry and XPS measurements. Crystallinity and electrical properties of (Al,Si)O films grown in situ on c-plane GaN were characterized using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and capacitance-voltage with current-voltage measurements, respectively. Si concentration in the films was found to be tunable by varying the trimethylaluminum and/or oxygen precursor flows. The Si incorporation suppressed the formation of crystalline domains, leading to amorphous films that resulted in reduced interfacial trap density, low gate leakage and ultra-low hysteresis in (Al,Si)O/n-GaN MOS-capacitors.

  19. Characterization of nanocrystalline ZnO:Al films by sol-gel spin coating method

    SciTech Connect

    Gareso, P. L. Rauf, N. Juarlin, E.; Sugianto,; Maddu, A.

    2014-09-25

    Nanocrystalline ZnO films doped with aluminium by sol-gel spin coating method have been investigated using optical transmittance UV-Vis and X-ray diffraction (X-RD) measurements. ZnO films were prepared using zinc acetate dehydrate (Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}@@‡2H{sub 2}O), ethanol, and diethanolamine (DEA) as a starting material, solvent, and stabilizer, respectively. For doped films, AlCl{sub 3} was added to the mixture. The ZnO:Al films were deposited on a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) substrate using spin coating technique at room temperature with a rate of 3000 rpm in 30 sec. The deposited films were annealed at various temperatures from 400°C to 600°C during 60 minutes. The transmittance UV-Vis measurement results showed that after annealing at 400°C, the energy band gap profile of nanocrystalline ZnO:Al film was a blue shift. This indicated that the band gap of ZnO:Al increased after annealing due to the increase of crystalline size. As the annealing temperature increased the bandgap energy was a constant. In addition to this, there was a small oscillation occurring after annealing compared to the as–grown samples. In the case of X-RD measurements, the crystalinity of the films were amorphous before annealing, and after annealing the crystalinity became enhance. Also, X-RD results showed that structure of nanocrystalline ZnO:Al films were hexagonal polycrystalline with lattice parameters are a = 3.290 Å and c = 5.2531 Å.

  20. Pulsed laser deposition of ITO thin films and their characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Zuev, D. A. Lotin, A. A.; Novodvorsky, O. A.; Lebedev, F. V.; Khramova, O. D.; Petuhov, I. A.; Putilin, Ph. N.; Shatohin, A. N.; Rumyanzeva, M. N.; Gaskov, A. M.

    2012-03-15

    The indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films are grown on quartz glass substrates by the pulsed laser deposition method. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of ITO films are studied as a function of the substrate temperature, the oxygen pressure in the vacuum chamber, and the Sn concentration in the target. The transmittance of grown ITO films in the visible spectral region exceeds 85%. The minimum value of resistivity 1.79 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} {Omega} cm has been achieved in the ITO films with content of Sn 5 at %.

  1. Large-Scale Graphene Film Deposition for Monolithic Device Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-shurman, Khaled

    Since 1958, the concept of integrated circuit (IC) has achieved great technological developments and helped in shrinking electronic devices. Nowadays, an IC consists of more than a million of compacted transistors. The majority of current ICs use silicon as a semiconductor material. According to Moore's law, the number of transistors built-in on a microchip can be double every two years. However, silicon device manufacturing reaches its physical limits. To explain, there is a new trend to shrinking circuitry to seven nanometers where a lot of unknown quantum effects such as tunneling effect can not be controlled. Hence, there is an urgent need for a new platform material to replace Si. Graphene is considered a promising material with enormous potential applications in many electronic and optoelectronics devices due to its superior properties. There are several techniques to produce graphene films. Among these techniques, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) offers a very convenient method to fabricate films for large-scale graphene films. Though CVD method is suitable for large area growth of graphene, the need for transferring a graphene film to silicon-based substrates is required. Furthermore, the graphene films thus achieved are, in fact, not single crystalline. Also, graphene fabrication utilizing Cu and Ni at high growth temperature contaminates the substrate that holds Si CMOS circuitry and CVD chamber as well. So, lowering the deposition temperature is another technological milestone for the successful adoption of graphene in integrated circuits fabrication. In this research, direct large-scale graphene film fabrication on silicon based platform (i.e. SiO2 and Si3N4) at low temperature was achieved. With a focus on low-temperature graphene growth, hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HF-CVD) was utilized to synthesize graphene film using 200 nm thick nickel film. Raman spectroscopy was utilized to examine graphene formation on the bottom side of the Ni film

  2. Deposition, characterization, and thermomechanical fatigue of nickel aluminide and ruthenium aluminide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Jane A.

    Intermetallic thin films have properties that make them attractive for applications such as metallizations, high temperature coatings, microelectromechanical systems, and diffusion barrier layers. In this study B2 aluminide films (NiAl and RuAl) have been deposited and characterized. Both intermetallics could be deposited at temperatures near room temperature using cosputtering with an as-deposited resistivity of 45.5 +/- 1.5 muOcm for NiAl and 157 +/- 4 muOcm for RuAl. Ni/Al multilayers with a wavelength of 30 nm and below were fully reacted to form NiAl after annealing for 2 h at 400°C. These films had a resistivity of 15.5-26.7 muOcm (wavelengths from 15.4-30 nm) after a 4 h anneal at 400°C, and the lower values of resistivity correspond to films with larger wavelengths. In order for Ru/Al multilayers to be fully reacted at 400°C, wavelengths of less than 10 nm were required as well as longer annealing times (more than 11 h). RuAl from the 400°C reaction of Ru/Al multilayers had a resistivity of 71.6-123 muOcm. The lowest resistivity obtained for the B2 thin films was 11 +/- 0.1 muOcm, which was obtained for NiAl after a 20 min anneal at 800°C. Both NiAl and RuAl have excellent bulk oxidation resistance, and in this study it was found that the oxidation resistance of the intermetallic thin films was superior to Al, Ni, and Ru metal films. The intermetallic films showed no observable surface changes (light microscopy) up to 500ºC in flowing oxygen and were conductive to higher oxidation temperatures (800°C for RuAl, 850ºC for NiAl) than Ni (500ºC), Al (600ºC), and Ru (800ºC, although vaporization may have begun at ˜700ºC). The intermetallics NiAl and RuAl along with Ru and Au have been patterned into thin line structures and then tested using an alternating current (100 Hz) to induce thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) with 200 thermal cycles per second. RuAl samples were able to withstand higher cyclic values of Delta T than NiAl for comparable times to

  3. Pit initiation in AlO{sub x}/Al thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Son, K.A.; Barbour, J.C.; Missert, N.; Wall, F.D.; Copeland, R.G.; Martinez, M.A.; Minor, K.G.; Buchheit, R.G.; Isaacs, H.S.

    1998-12-31

    The electrochemical responses of AlO{sub x}/Al thin films have been investigated as a function of film growth conditions which produce films with different grain orientation, size and morphology. Films with smooth, 150 nm diameter, randomly oriented grains show a higher pitting potential and lower passive current than those films with large grain-boundary grooving from a mixture of smooth micron-sized, (200)-oriented grains and 300--500 nm diameter, (220)-oriented grains. These results suggest that surface roughness from grain-boundary grooving affects the pitting resistance more strongly than does the grain boundary density.

  4. Characterization of mixed Ti/Al oxide thin films prepared by ion-beam-induced CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitán, M. J.; Stabel, A.; Sánchez-López, J. C.; Justo, A.; González-Elipe, A. R.; Lefebvre, S.; Fernández, A.

    2000-07-01

    The ion-beam-induced chemical vapor deposition (IBICVD) method has been used for the preparation of TiO 2, Al 2O 3 and mixed oxide Al nTi mO x amorphous films on silica substrates. Also, a double-layer Al 2O 3/TiO 2 film has been prepared. The reflectivity (low angle X-ray diffraction) technique, together with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, have been used to get information about thickness, roughness and electronic density of the films. It has been found that the films are homogeneous and flat being the Al 2O 3 layers less dense than the TiO 2 layers. In particular, Al nTi mO x films can be prepared with variable composition and refraction index. The values obtained for electronic density by X-ray reflectivity have been correlated with the compaction degree of the films as stated from TEM and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy studies.

  5. Parametric study on electrochemical deposition of copper nanoparticles on an ultrathin polypyrrole film deposited on a gold film electrode.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X J; Harmer, A J; Heinig, N F; Leung, K T

    2004-06-01

    Monoshaped and monosized copper nanostructured particles have been prepared by potentiostatic electrochemical deposition on an ultrathin polypyrrole (PPY) film, electrochemically grown on a Si(100) substrate sputter-coated with a thin gold film or gold-film electrode (GFE). The crystal size and the number density of the copper nanocrystals have been examined by varying several deposition parameters, including the thickness of the gold film, the PPY film thickness, the applied potential, and the Cu2+ and the electrolyte concentrations for copper deposition. Optimal conditions for uniform growth ofnanocrystals well-dispersed on the GFE have been determined, along with insight into the mechanism of crystal growth. A minimum gold film thickness of 80 nm is required to eliminate the effects of the gold-silicon interface. The PPY film thickness and homogeneity principally affect the shape uniformity of the nanocrystals, while the copper deposition potential could be used to regulate the size and number density of the nanocrystals. Both the Cu2+ and electrolyte concentrations are also found to play important roles in controlling the electrodeposition of nanocrystal growth.

  6. Growth Mechanisms and Structural Properties of Lead Chalcogenide Films Grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virt, I. S.; Rudyi, I. O.; Lopatynskyi, I. Ye.; Dubov, Yu.; Tur, Y.; Lusakowska, E.; Luka, G.

    2016-09-01

    Three lead chalcogenide films, PbTe, PbSe, and PbS, with a high structural quality were grown by pulsed lased deposition (PLD). The films were grown on single crystal substrates (Si, KCl, Al2O3) and on Si covered with a Si3N4 buffer layer. The Si3N4 layer latter facilitated the lead chalcogenide layer nucleation during the first growth stages and resulted in a more homogeneous surface morphology and a lower surface roughness. The surface geometry (roughness) of the films grown on Si3N4 was studied by means of the power spectral density analysis. Different growth modes, ranging from plasma plume condensation to bulk diffusion, resulting in observed film morphologies were identified. The investigations were complemented by electrical characterization of the chalcogenide films.

  7. Methods for making deposited films with improved microstructures

    DOEpatents

    Patten, James W.; Moss, Ronald W.; McClanahan, Edwin D.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for improving microstructures of line-of-sight deposited films are described. Columnar growth defects ordinarily produced by geometrical shadowing during deposition of such films are eliminated without resorting to post-deposition thermal or mechanical treatments. The native, as-deposited coating qualities, including homogeneity, fine grain size, and high coating-to-substrate adherence, can thus be retained. The preferred method includes the steps of emitting material from a source toward a substrate to deposit a coating non-uniformly on the substrate surface, removing a portion of the coating uniformly over the surface, again depositing material onto the surface, but from a different direction, and repeating the foregoing steps. The quality of line-of-sight deposited films such as those produced by sputtering, progressively deteriorates as the angle of incidence between the flux and the surface becomes increasingly acute. Depositing non-uniformly, so that the coating becomes progressively thinner as quality deteriorates, followed by uniformly removing some of the coating, such as by resputtering, eliminates the poor quality portions, leaving only high quality portions of the coating. Subsequently sputtering from a different direction applies a high quality coating to other regions of the surface. Such steps can be performed either simultaneously or sequentially to apply coatings of a uniformly high quality, closed microstructure to three-dimensional or larger planar surfaces.

  8. Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Kevin C.; Kodas, Toivo T.

    1994-01-01

    A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to the field of film coating deposition techniques, and more particularly to the deposition of multicomponent metal oxide films by aerosol chemical vapor deposition. This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

  9. Optical and electrical properties of polycrystalline and amorphous Al-Ti thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canulescu, S.; Borca, C. N.; Rechendorff, K.; Davidsdóttir, S.; Pagh Almtoft, K.; Nielsen, L. P.; Schou, J.

    2016-04-01

    The structural, optical, and transport properties of sputter-deposited Al-Ti thin films have been investigated as a function of Ti alloying with a concentration ranging from 2% to 46%. The optical reflectivity of Al-Ti films at visible and near-infrared wavelengths decreases with increasing Ti content. X-ray absorption fine structure measurements reveal that the atomic ordering around Ti atoms increases with increasing Ti content up to 20% and then decreases as a result of a transition from a polycrystalline to amorphous structure. The transport properties of the Al-Ti films are influenced by electron scattering at the grain boundaries in the case of polycrystalline films and static defects, such as anti-site effects and vacancies in the case of the amorphous alloys. The combination of Ti having a real refractive index (n) comparable with the extinction coefficient (k) and Al with n much smaller than k allows us to explore the parameter space for the free-electron behavior in transition metal-Al alloys. The free electron model, applied for the polycrystalline Al-Ti films with Ti content up to 20%, leads to an optical reflectance at near infrared wavelengths that scales linearly with the square root of the electrical resistivity.

  10. Characterization and Fabrication of ZnO Nanowires Grown on AlN Thin Film

    SciTech Connect

    Yousefi, Ramin; Kamaluddin, Burhanuddin; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Hajakbari, Fatemeh

    2009-07-07

    In this paper, we report ZnO nanowires grown on AlN thin film deposited on glass as substrate by physical vapour deposition. The temperature of substrates was kept between 600 deg. C and 500 deg. C during the growth. The typical average diameters of the obtained nanowires on substrate at 600 deg. C and 500 deg. C was about 57 nm and 22 nm, respectively with several micrometers in lengths. X-ray diffraction and Auger spectroscopy results showed Al diffused from AlN thin film into ZnO nanowires for sample at high temperature zone. In the photoluminescence spectra two emission bands appeared, one related to ultraviolet emission with a strong peak at 380-382 nm, and another related to deep level emission with a weak peak at 510 nm.

  11. Pulsed laser deposition of niobium nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Farha, Ashraf Hassan Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.; Ufuktepe, Yüksel; Myneni, Ganapati

    2015-12-04

    Niobium nitride (NbN{sub x}) films were grown on Nb and Si(100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. NbN{sub x} films were deposited on Nb substrates using PLD with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (λ = 1064 nm, ∼40 ns pulse width, and 10 Hz repetition rate) at different laser fluences, nitrogen background pressures and deposition substrate temperatures. When all the fabrication parameters are fixed, except for the laser fluence, the surface roughness, nitrogen content, and grain size increase with increasing laser fluence. Increasing nitrogen background pressure leads to a change in the phase structure of the NbN{sub x} films from mixed β-Nb{sub 2}N and cubic δ-NbN phases to single hexagonal β-Nb{sub 2}N. The substrate temperature affects the preferred orientation of the crystal structure. The structural and electronic, properties of NbN{sub x} deposited on Si(100) were also investigated. The NbN{sub x} films exhibited a cubic δ-NbN with a strong (111) orientation. A correlation between surface morphology, electronic, and superconducting properties was found. The observations establish guidelines for adjusting the deposition parameters to achieve the desired NbN{sub x} film morphology and phase.

  12. Pulsed laser deposition of niobium nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farha, Ashraf Hassan; Ufuktepe, Yüksel; Myneni, Ganapati; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2015-12-01

    Niobium nitride (NbNx) films were grown on Nb and Si(100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. NbNx films were deposited on Nb substrates using PLD with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (λ = 1064 nm, ˜40 ns pulse width, and 10 Hz repetition rate) at different laser fluences, nitrogen background pressures and deposition substrate temperatures. When all the fabrication parameters are fixed, except for the laser fluence, the surface roughness, nitrogen content, and grain size increase with increasing laser fluence. Increasing nitrogen background pressure leads to a change in the phase structure of the NbNx films from mixed β-Nb2N and cubic δ-NbN phases to single hexagonal β-Nb2N. The substrate temperature affects the preferred orientation of the crystal structure. The structural and electronic, properties of NbNx deposited on Si(100) were also investigated. The NbNx films exhibited a cubic δ-NbN with a strong (111) orientation. A correlation between surface morphology, electronic, and superconducting properties was found. The observations establish guidelines for adjusting the deposition parameters to achieve the desired NbNx film morphology and phase.

  13. Chemical vapor deposition and characterization of titanium dioxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmer, David Christopher

    1998-12-01

    The continued drive to decrease the size and increase the speed of micro-electronic Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) devices is hampered by some of the properties of the SiOsb2 gate dielectric. This research has focused on the CVD of TiOsb2 thin films to replace SiOsb2 as the gate dielectric in MOS capacitors and transistors. The relationship of CVD parameters and post-deposition anneal treatments to the physical and electrical properties of thin films of TiOsb2 has been studied. Structural and electrical characterization of TiOsb2 films grown from the CVD precursors tetraisopropoxotitanium (IV) (TTIP) and TTIP plus Hsb2O is described in Chapter 3. Both types of deposition produced stoichiometric TiOsb2 films comprised of polycrystalline anatase, but the interface properties were dramatically degraded when water vapor was added. Films grown with TTIP in the presence of Hsb2O contained greater than 50% more hydrogen than films grown using only TTIP and the hydrogen content of films deposited in both wet and dry TTIP environments decreased sharply with a post deposition Osb2 anneal. A significant thickness variation of the dielectric constant was observed which could be explained by an interfacial oxide and the finite accumulation thickness. Fabricated TiOsb2 capacitors exhibited electrically equivalent SiOsb2 gate dielectric thicknesses and leakage current densities as low as 38, and 1×10sp{-8} Amp/cmsp2 respectively. Chapter 4 discusses the low temperature CVD of crystalline TiOsb2 thin films deposited using the precursor tetranitratotitanium (IV), TNT, which produces crystalline TiOsb2 films of the anatase phase in UHV-CVD at temperatures as low as 184sp°C. Fabricated TiOsb2 capacitors exhibited electrically equivalent SiOsb2 gate dielectric thicknesses and leakage current densities as low as 17, and 1×10sp{-8} Amp/cmsp2 respectively. Chapter 5 describes the results of a comparison of physical and electrical properties between TiOsb2 films grown via LPCVD using

  14. Vapor-deposited porous films for energy conversion

    DOEpatents

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Hayes, Jeffrey P.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2005-07-05

    Metallic films are grown with a "spongelike" morphology in the as-deposited condition using planar magnetron sputtering. The morphology of the deposit is characterized by metallic continuity in three dimensions with continuous and open porosity on the submicron scale. The stabilization of the spongelike morphology is found over a limited range of the sputter deposition parameters, that is, of working gas pressure and substrate temperature. This spongelike morphology is an extension of the features as generally represented in the classic zone models of growth for physical vapor deposits. Nickel coatings were deposited with working gas pressures up 4 Pa and for substrate temperatures up to 1000 K. The morphology of the deposits is examined in plan and in cross section views with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The parametric range of gas pressure and substrate temperature (relative to absolute melt point) under which the spongelike metal deposits are produced appear universal for other metals including gold, silver, and aluminum.

  15. Deposition of moisture barrier films by catalytic CVD using hexamethyldisilazane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohdaira, Keisuke; Matsumura, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) is utilized to deposit moisture barrier films by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD). An increase in the thickness of silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy) films leads to a better water-vapor transmission rate (WVTR), indicating that Cat-CVD SiOxNy films deposited using HMDS do not severely suffer from cracking. A WVTR on the order of 10-3 g m-2 day-1 can be realized by a Cat-CVD SiOxNy film formed using HMDS on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate without any stacking structures at a substrate temperature of as low as 60 °C. X-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurement reveals that a film density of >2.0 g/cm3 is necessary for SiOxNy films to demonstrate an effective moisture barrier ability. The use of HMDS will give us safer production of moisture barrier films because of its non-explosive and non-toxic nature.

  16. Tribological properties of Ag/Ti films on Al2O3 ceramic substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Pepper, Stephen V.; Honecy, Frank S.

    1991-01-01

    Ag solid lubricant films, with a thin Ti interlayer for enhanced adhesion, were sputter deposited on Al2O3 substrate disks to reduce friction and wear. The dual Ag/Ti films were tested at room temperature in a pin-on-disk tribometer sliding against bare, uncoated Al2O3 pins under a 4.9 N load at a sliding velocity of 1 m/s. The Ag/Ti films reduced the friction coefficient by 50 percent to about 0.41 compared to unlubricated baseline specimens. Pin wear was reduced by a factor of 140 and disk wear was reduced by a factor of 2.5 compared to the baseline. These films retain their good tribological properties including adhesion after heat treatments at 850 C and thus may be able to lubricate over a wide temperature range. This lubrication technique is applicable to space lubrication, advanced heat engines, and advanced transportation systems.

  17. Structural, electron transportation and magnetic behavior transition of metastable FeAlO granular films

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Guohua; Wu, Chen; Jin, Jiaying; Yan, Mi

    2016-01-01

    Metal-insulator granular film is technologically important for microwave applications. It has been challenging to obtain simultaneous high electrical resistivity and large saturation magnetization due to the balance of insulating non-magnetic and metallic magnetic components. FeAlO granular films satisfying both requirements have been prepared by pulsed laser deposition. The as-deposited film exhibits a high resistivity of 3700 μΩ∙cm with a negative temperature coefficient despite that Fe content (0.77) exceeds the percolation threshold. This originates from its unique microstructure containing amorphous Fe nanoparticles embedded in Al2O3 network. By optimizing the annealing conditions, superior electromagnetic properties with enhanced saturation magnetization (>1.05 T), high resistivity (>1200 μΩ∙cm) and broadened Δf (>3.0 GHz) are obtained. Phase separation with Al2O3 aggregating as inclusions in crystallized Fe(Al) matrix is observed after annealing at 673 K, resulting in a metallic-like resistivity. We provide a feasible way to achieve both high resistivity and large saturation magnetization for the FeAlO films with dominating metallic component and show that the microstructure can be tuned for desirable performance. PMID:27075955

  18. Thermal Stability of the Dynamic Magnetic Properties of FeSiAl-Al2O3 and FeSiAl-SiO2 Films Grown by Gradient-Composition Sputtering Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xiaoxi; Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Soh, Wee Tee; Ong, C. K.; Peng, Long; Li, Lezhong

    2016-08-01

    We carry out a systematic investigation of the dynamic magnetic properties of FeSiAl-Al2O3 and FeSiAl-SiO2 thin films prepared by gradient-composition deposition technique with respect to temperature in the range of 300 K to 420 K. It was found that the magnetic anisotropy field (H K) and ferromagnetic resonance frequency (f FMR) are increased with increasing deposition angle (β) due to the enhancement of stress (σ) when concentrations of Al and O or Si and O are increased. The thermal stability of FeSiAl-Al2O3 films show a very interesting behavior with the magnetic anisotropy increasing with temperature when the deposition angle is increased. In contrast, when the deposition angle is lower, the usual trend of decreasing magnetic anisotropy with increasing temperature is observed. Moreover, the temperature-dependent behaviors of the dynamic permeability and effective Gilbert damping coefficient (α eff) for FeSiAl-Al2O3 and FeSiAl-SiO2 films at different deposition angles are discussed in detail.

  19. Temperature threshold for nanorod structuring of metal and oxide films grown by glancing angle deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Deniz, Derya; Lad, Robert J.

    2011-01-15

    Thin films of tin (Sn), aluminum (Al), gold (Au), ruthenium (Ru), tungsten (W), ruthenium dioxide (RuO{sub 2}), tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}), and tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) were grown by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) to determine the nanostructuring temperature threshold, {Theta}{sub T}, above which adatom surface diffusion becomes large enough such that nanorod morphology is no longer formed during growth. The threshold was found to be lower in metals compared to oxides. Films were grown using both dc and pulsed dc magnetron sputtering with continuous substrate rotation over the temperature range from 291 to 866 K. Film morphologies, structures, and compositions were characterized by high resolution scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Films were also grown in a conventional configuration for comparison. For elemental metals, nanorod structuring occurs for films with melting points higher than that of Al (933 K) when grown at room temperature with a rotation rate of {approx}5 rpm, corresponding to a value of {Theta}{sub T}{approx_equal}0.33{+-}0.01. For the oxide films, a value of {Theta}{sub T}{approx_equal}0.5 was found, above which GLAD nanorod structuring does not occur. The existence of a nanostructuring temperature threshold in both metal and oxide GLAD films can be attributed to greater adatom mobilities as temperature is increased resulting in nonkinetically limited film nucleation and growth processes.

  20. Atomic layer deposited lithium aluminum oxide: (In)dependency of film properties from pulsing sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Miikkulainen, Ville Nilsen, Ola; Fjellvåg, Helmer; Li, Han; King, Sean W.; Laitinen, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) holds markedly high potential of becoming the enabling method for achieving the three-dimensional all-solid-state thin-film lithium ion battery (LiB). One of the most crucial components in such a battery is the electrolyte that needs to hold both low electronic conductivity and at least fair lithium ion conductivity being at the same time pinhole free. To obtain these desired properties in an electrolyte film, one necessarily has to have a good control over the elemental composition of the deposited material. The present study reports on the properties of ALD lithium aluminum oxide (Li{sub x}Al{sub y}O{sub z}) thin films. In addition to LiB electrolyte applications, Li{sub x}Al{sub y}O{sub z} is also a candidate low dielectric constant (low-k) etch stop and diffusion barrier material in nanoelectronics applications. The Li{sub x}Al{sub y}O{sub z} films were deposited employing trimethylaluminum-O{sub 3} and lithium tert-butoxide-H{sub 2}O for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}O/LiOH, respectively. The composition was aimed to be controlled by varying the pulsing ratio of those two binary oxide ALD cycles. The films were characterized by several methods for composition, crystallinity and phase, electrical properties, hardness, porosity, and chemical environment. Regardless of the applied pulsing ratio of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}O/LiOH, all the studied ALD Li{sub x}Al{sub y}O{sub z} films of 200 and 400 nm in thickness were polycrystalline in the orthorhombic β-LiAlO{sub 2} phase and also very similar to each other with respect to composition and other studied properties. The results are discussed in the context of both fundamental ALD chemistry and applicability of the films as thin-film LiB electrolytes and low-k etch stop and diffusion barriers.

  1. Bimodal substrate biasing to control γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposition during reactive magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Prenzel, Marina; Kortmann, Annika; Stein, Adrian; Keudell, Achim von; Nahif, Farwah; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2013-09-21

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films have been deposited at substrate temperatures between 500 °C and 600 °C by reactive magnetron sputtering using an additional arbitrary substrate bias to tailor the energy distribution of the incident ions. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The film structure being amorphous, nanocrystalline, or crystalline was correlated with characteristic ion energy distributions. The evolving crystalline structure is connected with different levels of displacements per atom (dpa) in the growing film as being derived from TRIM simulations. The boundary between the formation of crystalline films and amorphous or nanocrystalline films was at 0.8 dpa for a substrate temperature of 500 °C. This threshold shifts to 0.6 dpa for films grown at 550 °C.

  2. Electrical response in atomic layer deposited Al:ZnO with varying stack thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Mundle, R.; Pradhan, A. K.

    2014-05-14

    We report on the effects of stacking of the macrocycles in atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al:ZnO thin films on the structural and electrical properties. There is a large change in the resistivity ranging from as high as 1.19 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm for 760 growth cycles film down to as low as 7.9 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm for the 4000 cycles. The electrical transport demonstrates a transition from a semiconductor behavior at 760 cycles to a metallic behavior in the 4000 cycle, due to an increase in electron scattering as well as increase in the carrier concentration. However, interestingly the carrier concentration sharply increases with increasing macrocycles containing Al and Zn, exhibiting a nearly metal-like behavior in thicker films. We anticipate that the change in Zn-vacancy, V{sub zn}, formation energy is related to the increase in surface area of the ALD precursor deposition plane. The increase in V{sub zn} density allows for more adsorption of Al-precursor into the doped monolayer, showing interesting electrical properties.

  3. Rhombohedral AlPt films formed by self-propagating, high temperature synthesis.

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, David Price; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Kotula, Paul Gabriel

    2005-11-01

    High-purity AlPt thin films prepared by self-propagating, high temperature combustion synthesis show evidence for a new rhombohedral phase. Sputter deposited Al/Pt multilayers of various designs are reacted at different rates in air and in vacuum, and each form a new trigonal/hexagonal aluminide phase with unit cell parameters a = 15.571(8) {angstrom}, c = 5.304(1) {angstrom}, space group R-3 (148), and Z, the number of formula units within a unit cell, = 39. The lattice is isostructural to that of the AlPd R-3 lattice as reported by Matkovic and Schubert (Matkovic, 1977). Reacted films have a random in-plane crystallographic texture, a modest out-of-plane (001) texture, and equiaxed grains with dimensions on the order of film thickness.

  4. CoFe2/Al2O3/PMNPT multiferroic heterostructures by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ziyao; Grocke, Garrett; Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Wang, Xinjun; Gao, Yuan; Sun, Nianxiang; Howe, Brandon; Chen, Xing

    2016-05-01

    Multiferroic materials and applications allow electric bias control of magnetism or magnetic bias control of polarization, enabling fast, compact, energy-efficient devices in RF/microwave communication systems such as filters, shifters, and antennas; electronics devices such as inductors and capacitors; and other magnetic material related applications including sensors and memories. In this manuscript, we utilize atomic layer deposition technology to grow magnetic CoFe metallic thin films onto PMNPT, with a ˜110 Oe electric field induced ferromagnetic resonance field shift in the CoFe/Al2O3/PMNPT multiferroic heterostructure. Our work demonstrates an atomic layer deposition fabricated multiferroic heterostructure with significant tunability and shows that the unique thin film growth mechanism will benefit integrated multiferroic application in near future.

  5. Epitaxial Deposition of Low-Defect Aluminum Nitride and Aluminum Gallium Nitride Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Rakesh

    The bjective of my research was to develop low-defect AlN and AlGaN templates to enable pseudo-homoepitaxial deposition of UV-LEDs. Two approaches have been used to achieve this objective. Firstly, hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) process was used to prepare thick AlN films with lower defect density. Interactions of dislocations in thicker films result in their annihilation. Secondly, since thick films grown on sapphire tend to crack beyond a critical thickness (3-5 mum), epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) approach was employed to eliminate cracking and to further reduce the defect density. The growth technique was switched from HVPE to Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) due to much improved material quality with the later method. An HVPE growth system was first designed and constructed from ground up [1]. It is a vertical system with a quartz chamber and a resistively heated furnace. AlCl3 and NH3 were used as the precursors. AlCl3 was generated by passing HCl gas (diluted with H2) through Al metal source. A linear relationship between growth rate and HCl flow rate indicated that the growth rate is limited by mass transportation. Growth parameters including temperature, chamber pressure and V/III ratio were optimized to improve the film quality. Thick films of AlN with thicknesses exceeding 25 mum were grown with growth rates as high as 20 mum/hr [2]. AFM study revealed that surface roughness of HVPE grown AlN films strongly depends on the growth rate. The lowest RMS roughness for HVPE grown film was 1.9 nm. These films had typical (002) full-width at half maximum (FWHM) values ranging from 24 -- 400 arcsec, depending on the growth rate of the respective films. The crystalline quality of the films was also found to be deteriorating as the growth rate increased. It is inferred that the growth mode changes from two dimensional to three dimensional at higher growth rates due to reduced adatom migration length. PL spectrum exhibited near-band-edge (NBE

  6. Combustion chemical vapor deposition: A novel thin-film deposition technique

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, A.T.; Carter, W.B.; Cochran, J.K. Jr. )

    1993-07-12

    A new open-atmosphere chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique has been developed that we term combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). During CCVD a flame provides the necessary environment for the deposition of a dense film whose elemental constituents are derived from solution, vapor, or gas sources. Ag, YSZ, BaTiO[sub 3], YIG, YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub [ital x

  7. Fractal structure of films deposited in a tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budaev, V. P.; Khimchenko, L. N.

    2007-04-01

    The surface of amorphous films deposited in the T-10 tokamak was studied in a scanning tunnel microscope. The surface relief on a scale from 10 nm to 100 μm showed a stochastic surface topography and revealed a hierarchy of grains. The observed variety of irregular structures of the films was studied within the framework of the concept of scale invariance using the methods of fractal geometry and statistical physics. The experimental probability density distribution functions of the surface height variations are close in shape to the Cauchy distribution. The stochastic surface topography of the films is characterized by a Hurst parameter of H = 0.68-0.85, which is evidence of a nontrivial self-similarity of the film structure. The fractal character and porous structure of deposited irregular films must be considered as an important issue related to the accumulation of tritium in the ITER project. The process of film growth on the surface of tokamak components exposed to plasma has been treated within the framework of the general concept of inhomogeneous surface growth. A strong turbulence of the edge plasma in tokamaks can give rise to fluctuations in the incident flux of particles, which leads to the growth of fractal films with grain dimensions ranging from nano-to micrometer scale. The shape of the surface of some films found in the T-10 tokamak has been interpreted using a model of diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA). The growth of films according to the discrete DLA model was simulated using statistics of fluctuations observed in a turbulent edge plasma of the T-10 tokamak. The modified DLA model reproduces well the main features of the surface of some films deposited in tokamaks.

  8. Effects of Post-Deposition Annealing on the Properties of Calcium Manganese Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrone, Natalie; Chaudhry, Adeel; Hart, Cacie; Lawson, Bridget; Houston, David; Neubauer, Samuel; Johnson, Anthony; Schaefer, David; Kolagani, Rajeswari

    We will present our results on the effects of post-deposition annealing on the structural and electrical properties of CaMnO3-d thin films grown by Pulsed Laser deposition. The thin films are epitaxially grown on (100) LaAlO3 which has larger in-plane lattice parameters than that of bulk CaMnO3, which leads to bi-axial tensile strain in the thin films. Results from our laboratory show that bi-axial tensile strain leads to low resistivity in thinner films, the resistivity increasing with increasing thickness. These results are suggestive of a coupling between strain and oxygen stoichiometry in the thin films. We have investigated the effects of post-deposition annealing in various gas ambients towards the goal of understanding the effects of relaxation and oxygen stoichiometric changes. We will present a comparison of the structural and electrical properties of as-grown and post-annealed films over a range of thicknesses. Support from Towson University Office of Undergraduate Research, Fisher Endowment Grant & Undergraduate Research Grant from the Fisher College of Science & Mathematics, Seed Funding Grant from the School of Emerging technologies, & NSF Grant ECCS 112856.

  9. Biocompatible interface films deposited within porous polymers by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD).

    PubMed

    Liang, Xinhua; Lynn, Aaron D; King, David M; Bryant, Stephanie J; Weimer, Alan W

    2009-09-01

    Ultrathin ceramic films were deposited throughout highly porous poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) (PS-DVB) particles using a low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) process. Alumina and titania films were deposited by alternating reactions of trimethylaluminum and H2O at 33 degrees C and of titanium tetrachloride and H2O2 (50 wt % in H2O) at 100 degrees C, respectively. Analytical characterization revealed that conformal alumina and titania films were grown on internal and external polymer surfaces. The improved bioactivity of the polymer substrates was revealed on the basis of the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) in simulated body fluid. The accelerated formation of HA on the ALD-modified polymer surface was caused by the negatively charged surface provided by the ultrathin ceramic interface. The potential for ALD films to support cell attachment was demonstrated.

  10. Effects of Plasma Polymer Films and Their Deposition Powers on the Barrier Characteristics of the Multilayer Encapsulation for Organic Devices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoonbae; Ban, Wonjin; Kwon, Sungruel; Yong, Sanghyun; Chae, Heeyeop; Jung, Donggeun

    2016-05-01

    Organic electronic devices (OEDs) are quite suitable for use in flexible devices due to their ruggedness and flexibility. A number of researchers have studied the use of OEDs on flexible substrates in transparent, flexible devices in the near future. However, water and oxygen can permeate through the flexible substrates and can reduce the longevity of OEDs made from organic materials, which are weak to moisture and oxygen. In order to prevent the degradation of the OEDs, researchers have applied an encapsulation layer to the flexible substrates. In this study, Al2O3/plasma polymer film/Al2O3 multi-layers were deposited on polyethylene-naphthalate substrates through a combination of atomic layer deposition and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The plasma polymer film, which is located between the Al2O3 films, is deposited via PECVD with the use of a tetrakis(trimethylsilyloxy)silane precursor. The power of the plasma deposition varied from 10 to 50 W. The hydrophobicity of the plasma polymer film surfaces was investigated by measuring the water contact angle. The chemical structures of the plasma polymer films were measured via ex-situ Fourier transform infrared analysis. The permeation curves of the various films were analyzed by performing a calcium (Ca)-test. PMID:27483936

  11. Ultraviolet laser deposition of graphene thin films without catalytic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.; Alshareef, H. N.

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, the formation of nanostructured graphene by ultraviolet laser ablation of a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite target under optimized conditions is demonstrated, without a catalytic layer, and a model for the growth process is proposed. Previously, graphene film deposition by low-energy laser (2.3 eV) was explained by photo-thermal models, which implied that graphene films cannot be deposited by laser energies higher than the C-C bond energy in highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (3.7 eV). Here, we show that nanostructured graphene films can in fact be deposited using ultraviolet laser (5 eV) directly over different substrates, without a catalytic layer. The formation of graphene is explained by bond-breaking assisted by photoelectronic excitation leading to formation of carbon clusters at the target and annealing out of defects at the substrate.

  12. Atomic Layer Deposition of Ir−Pt Alloy Films;

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, S. T.; Elam, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to prepare thin-film mixtures of iridium and platinum. By controlling the ratio between the iridium(III) acetylacetonate/oxygen cycles for Ir ALD and the (trimethyl)methylcyclopentadienyl platinum(IV)/oxygen cycles for Pt ALD, the Ir/Pt ratio in the films could be controlled precisely. We first examined the growth mechanisms for the pure Ir and Pt ALD films, as well as the mixed-metal Ir-Pt ALD films, using in situ quartz crystal microbalance and quadrupole mass spectrometer measurements. These studies revealed that the nucleation and growth of each of the noble metals proceeds smoothly, with negligible perturbation caused by the presence of the other metal. As a consequence of this mutual compatibility, the composition, as well as the growth per cycle for the Ir-Pt films, followed rule-of-mixtures formulas that were based on the ratio of the metal ALD cycles and the growth rates of pure Ir and Pt ALD. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements revealed that the films deposit as single-phase alloys in which the lattice parameter varies linearly with the composition. Similar to the pure noble-metal films, the Ir-Pt alloy films grow conformally on high-aspect-ratio trenches. This capability should open up new opportunities in microelectronics, catalysis, and other applications.

  13. Laser deposition of large-area thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzanyan, A S; Petrosyan, V A; Pilosyan, S Kh; Nesterov, V M

    2011-03-31

    A new method for fabricating large-area thin films of uniform thickness on a rotating substrate is proposed. Its distinctive features are (i) the presence of a diaphragm, partially transmitting the evaporated material, between the target and substrate and (ii) the translatory motion of the rotating substrate with respect to the target at a certain velocity. The method proposed makes it possible to obtain thin films of uniform thickness on substrates with sizes limited by only the deposition chamber size. The method is experimentally verified by depositing thin CuO films on silicon substrates placed over the radius of a disk 300 mm in diameter. The deviation of the film thickness from the average value does not exceed {+-}3% throughout the entire radius, which confirms good prospects of this method for microelectronics, optical industry, and other modern technologies. (laser technology)

  14. A new approach to the deposition of nanostructured biocatalytic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitsky, V. I.; Berzina, T. S.; Pastorino, L.; Bernasconi, E.; Nicolini, C.

    2003-06-01

    In the present work, monolayer engineering was used to fabricate biocatalytic nanostructured thin films based on the enzyme penicillin G acylase. The biocatalytic films with enhanced characteristics were produced by the deposition of alternate-layer assemblies with a predetermined structure using a combination of Langmuir-Blodgett and adsorption techniques. The value of enzyme activity and the level of protein detachment were measured in dependence on the variation of film composition and on the sequence of layer alternation. As a result, highly active and stable structures were found, which could be promising candidates for practical applications. The method of modification of the deposition method to provide continuous film formation on large-area supports is discussed.

  15. Supercritical Fluid Immersion Deposition: A New Process for Selective Deposition of Metal Films on Silicon Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Xiangrong; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe; Young, James S.; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2005-01-01

    Supercritical CO2 is used as a new solvent for immersion deposition, a galvanic displacement process traditionally carried out in aqueous HF solutions containing metal ions, to selectively develop metal films on featured or non-featured silicon substrates. Components of supercritical fluid immersion deposition (SFID) solutions for fabricating Cu and Pd films on silicon substrates are described along with the corresponding experimental setup and procedure. Only silicon substrates exposed and reactive to SFID solutions can be coated. The highly pressurized and gas-like supercritical CO2, combined with the galvanic displacement property of immersion deposition, enables the SFID technique to selectively deposit metal films in small features. SFID may also provide a new method to fabricate palladium silicide in small features or to metallize porous silicon.

  16. Fabrication of Fe-Al nanoparticles by selective oxidation of Fe-Al thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Pyungwoo; Shin, Seungchan; Jung, Chip-Sup; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Seomoon, Kyu

    2013-04-01

    The possibility of a new technique for fabricating nanoparticles from thin films using selective oxidation in an atmosphere mixture of water vapor and hydrogen was investigated. Fe-5wt.%Al films were RF-sputtered and annealed in the atmosphere mixture at 900°C for up to 200 min, in order to oxidize aluminum selectively. Thermodynamics simulation showed that temperatures exceeding 800°C are necessary to prevent iron from being oxidized, as confirmed by the depth profile of XPS. As the annealing time increased, the morphology of the 200-nm Fe-Al films changed from the continuous to the discontinuous type; thus, particulate Fe-Al films formed after 100 min. The particulate 10- to 100-nm Fe-Al films showed super-paramagnetic behavior after the oxidation. Thus, a new technique for fabricating nanoparticles was successfully introduced using selective oxidation.

  17. Thickness-dependent fracture behaviour of flexible ZnO : Al thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Bhaskar Chandra; Choi, Hong Rak; Muk Choi, Yong; Cho, Yong Soo

    2011-01-01

    The effects of thickness on flexibility and crack initiation in ZnO : Al thin films sputter-deposited on polyethersulfone substrates have been investigated. With an increase in thickness, root-mean-square roughness and average crystallite size increase linearly. It is found that the higher the thickness, the lower is the strain required to initiate cracks in the film. The thinnest film (~240 nm) exhibits a crack-initiating critical strain of 0.96% and a saturated crack density of 0.10 µm-1. A critical energy release rate of 68.5 J m-2 and a mode I fracture toughness of 3.2 MPa m0.5 are estimated for the films. These parameters are found to exhibit a linear dependence on film thickness.

  18. Superhard self-lubricating AlMgB14 films for microelectromechanical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Y.; Bastawros, A. F.; Lo, C. C. H.; Constant, A. P.; Russell, A. M.; Cook, B. A.

    2003-10-01

    Performance and reliability of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) components can be enhanced dramatically through the incorporation of protective thin-film coatings. Current-generation MEMS devices prepared by the lithographie-galvanoformung-abformung (LIGA) technique employ transition metals such as Ni, Cu, Fe, or alloys thereof, and hence lack stability in oxidizing, corrosive, and/or high-temperature environments. Fabrication of a superhard self-lubricating coating based on a ternary boride compound AlMgB14 described in this letter has great potential in protective coating technology for LIGA microdevices. Nanoindentation tests show that the hardness of AlMgB14 films prepared by pulsed laser deposition ranges from 45 GPa to 51 GPa, when deposited at room temperature and 573 K, respectively. Extremely low friction coefficients of 0.04-0.05, which are thought to result from a self-lubricating effect, have also been confirmed by nanoscratch tests on the AlMgB14 films. Transmission electron microscopy studies show that the as-deposited films are amorphous, regardless of substrate temperature; however, analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectra suggests that the higher substrate temperature facilitates the formation of the B12 icosahedral framework, therefore leading to the higher hardness.

  19. Highly piezoelectric co-doped AlN thin films for wideband FBAR applications.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Tsuyoshi; Iwazaki, Yoshiki; Onda, Yosuke; Nishihara, Tokihiro; Sasajima, Yuichi; Ueda, Masanori

    2015-06-01

    We report piezoelectric materials composed of charge-compensated co-doped (Mg, β)(x)Al(1-x)N (β = Zr or Hf) thin films. The effect of the dopant element into AlN on the crystal structure, and piezoelectric properties of co-doped AlN was determined on the basis of a first-principles calculation, and the theoretical piezoelectric properties were confirmed by experimentally depositing thin films of magnesium (Mg) and zirconium (Zr) co-doped AlN (Mg-Zr-doped AlN). The Mg-Zrdoped AlN thin films were prepared on Si (100) substrates by using a triple-radio-frequency magnetron reactive co-sputtering system. The crystal structures and piezoelectric coefficients (d33) were investigated as a function of the concentrations, which were measured by X-ray diffraction and a piezometer. The results show that the d33 of Mg-Zr-doped AlN at total Mg and Zr concentrations (both expressed as β) of 0.35 was 280% larger than that of pure AlN. The experimentally measured parameter of the crystal structure and d33 of Mg-Zr-doped AlN (plotted as functions of total Mg and Zr concentrations) were in very close agreement with the corresponding values obtained by the first-principle calculations. Thin film bulk acoustic wave resonators (FBAR) employing (Mg,Zr)0.13Al0.87N and (Mg, Hf)0.13 Al0.87N as a piezoelectric thin film were fabricated, and their resonant characteristics were evaluated. The measured electromechanical coupling coefficient increased from 7.1% for pure AlN to 8.5% for Mg-Zr-doped AlN and 10.0% for Mg- Hf-doped AlN. These results indicate that co-doped (Mg, β)(x)Al(1-x)N (β = Zr or Hf) films have potential as piezoelectric thin films for wideband RF applications.

  20. Substrates suitable for deposition of superconducting thin films

    DOEpatents

    Feenstra, Roeland; Boatner, Lynn A.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting system for the lossless transmission of electrical current comprising a thin film of superconducting material Y.sub.1 Ba.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x epitaxially deposited upon a KTaO.sub.3 substrate. The KTaO.sub.3 is an improved substrate over those of the prior art since the it exhibits small lattice constant mismatch and does not chemically react with the superconducting film.

  1. Photoelectrochemical evidence of nitrogen incorporation during anodizing sputtering--deposited Al-Ta alloys.

    PubMed

    Zaffora, A; Santamaria, M; Di Franco, F; Habazaki, H; Di Quarto, F

    2016-01-01

    Anodic films were grown to 20 V on sputtering-deposited Al-Ta alloys in ammonium biborate and borate buffer solutions. According to glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, anodizing in ammonium containing solution leads to the formation of N containing anodic layers. Impedance measurements did not evidence significant differences between the dielectric properties of the anodic films as a function of the anodizing electrolyte. Photoelectrochemical investigation allowed evidencing that N incorporation induces a red-shift in the light absorption threshold of the films due to the formation of allowed localized states inside their mobility gap. The estimated Fowler threshold for the internal photoemission processes of electrons resulted to be independent of the anodizing electrolyte confirming that N incorporation does not appreciably affect the density of states distribution close to the conduction band mobility edge. The transport of photogenerated carriers has been rationalized according to the Pai-Enck model of geminate recombination.

  2. Stress control of silicon nitride films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong-ling; Feng, Xiao-fei; Wen, Zhi-yu; Shang, Zheng-guo; She, Yin

    2016-07-01

    Stress controllable silicon nitride (SiNx) films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) are reported. Low stress SiNx films were deposited in both high frequency (HF) mode and dual frequency (HF/LF) mode. By optimizing process parameters, stress free (-0.27 MPa) SiNx films were obtained with the deposition rate of 45.5 nm/min and the refractive index of 2.06. Furthermore, at HF/LF mode, the stress is significantly influenced by LF ratio and LF power, and can be controlled to be 10 MPa with the LF ratio of 17% and LF power of 150 W. However, LF power has a little effect on the deposition rate due to the interaction between HF power and LF power. The deposited SiNx films have good mechanical and optical properties, low deposition temperature and controllable stress, and can be widely used in integrated circuit (IC), micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and bio-MEMS.

  3. Deposition of YBCO films by high temperature spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, T. C.; Abell, J. S.; Button, T. W.; Chakalov, R. A.; Chakalova, R. I.; Cai, C.; Haessler, W.; Eickemeyer, J.; de Boer, B.

    2002-08-01

    The fabrication of YBCO coated conductors on flexible textured metallic substrates requires the deposition of biaxially textured buffer layers and superconducting films. In this study we have prepared YBCO thin films on single crystal SrTiO 3 substrates and cube textured Ni substrates by spray pyrolysis. The Ni substrates have been pre-buffered with CeO 2/YSZ/CeO 2, layers deposited by pulsed laser deposition. Spray pyrolysis of nitrate solutions has been performed directly on heated substrates at temperatures between 800 and 900 °C without need for a subsequent annealing step. YBCO films deposited on both types of substrate are biaxially textured. Full width half maximum values determined from φ-scans are 8° and 20° for films on SrTiO 3 and buffered Ni substrates respectively. A transport Jc value of 1.2×10 5 A/cm 2 at 77 K and zero field has been achieved on SrTiO 3 ( T c onset=91 K, ΔTc=6 K). χ ac susceptibility measurements of films on buffered Ni substrates show Tc onsets of 88 K with ΔTc=18 K.

  4. Liquid phase deposition synthesis of hexagonal molybdenum trioxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Deki, Shigehito; Beleke, Alexis Bienvenu; Kotani, Yuki; Mizuhata, Minoru

    2009-09-15

    Hexagonal molybdenum trioxide thin films with good crystallinity and high purity have been fabricated by the liquid phase deposition (LPD) technique using molybdic acid (H{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}) dissolved in 2.82% hydrofluoric acid (HF) and H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} as precursors. The crystal was found to belong to a hexagonal hydrate system MoO{sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O (napprox0.56). The unit cell lattice parameters are a=10.651 A, c=3.725 A and V=365.997 A{sup 3}. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the as-deposited samples showed well-shaped hexagonal rods nuclei that grew and where the amount increased with increase in reaction time. X-ray photon electron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra showed a Gaussian shape of the doublet of Mo 3d core level, indicating the presence of Mo{sup 6+} oxidation state in the deposited films. The deposited films exhibited an electrochromic behavior by lithium intercalation and deintercalation, which resulted in coloration and bleaching of the film. Upon dehydration at about 450 deg. C, the hexagonal MoO{sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O was transformed into the thermodynamically stable orthorhombic phase. - Abstract: SEM photograph of typical h-MoO{sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O thin film nuclei obtained after 36 h at 40 deg. C by the LPD method. Display Omitted

  5. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser deposition of ruthenium thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wai Keat, Lee

    Ruthenium (Ru) is one of the noble air-stable transition metals, which has excellent thermal chemical stability, low electrical resistivity, and relatively high work function near the valence band edge of Si. Recently, Ru has been introduced into the semiconductor industries as a result of the interesting chemical, physical, and electrical properties it possessed. So far, investigations of ruthenium films have been centered on material properties of Ru layers, growth using direct current/radiofrequency (DC/RF) magnetron sputtering, and chemical vapor deposition. However, comparatively little work has been carried out using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. In this research work, the growth of Ru film using PLD was investigated. The Ru films were deposited on silicon (Si) substrates employing 355 nm pulsed Nd:YAG laser source. Laser fluence ranged from 2 to 8 J/cm2 was employed, with deposition duration from 5 to 180 minutes under high vacuum condition. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was employed to study the species and purity of the plasma during the deposition. It was observed that intensity of the Ru species spectra increased with increasing laser fluence and more prominent after laser fluence of 4 J/cm2. No impurities were observed. Film thicknesses ranging from 15 to 280 nm were obtained. As the deposition duration and the laser fluence increased, the thickness of the deposited Ru films increased. It is observed that there was a critical deposition duration value, and this value increases as the laser fluence increased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra showed Ru with crystalline orientation of (101), (100), and (002) peaks. The XRD results revealed an enhanced diffraction peak when film thickness increased, under all laser fluences. Grain sizes were deduced from the XRD data by using the Scherrer's formula and the values fall in the range of 20 to 35 nm for the film thickness covering from 50 nm to 250 nm. Besides, the electrical properties of

  6. Deposition Of Pinhole-Free CoSi2 Film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, True-Lon; Fathauer, Robert N.; Grunthaner, Paula J.

    1989-01-01

    New fabrication method produces pinhole-free film of cobalt silicide on silicon substrate. In new method, cobalt and silicon evaporated from electron-beam sources onto substrate of silicon having <111> crystal orientation. Materials deposited in stoichiometric ratio of two silicon atoms to one of cobalt, yielding single-crystal CoSi2 film 5 to 10 nm thick. Layer of amorphous silicon 1 to 2 nm thick deposited on CoSi2. Specimen then annealed at 550 degree C for 10 min. Absence of pinholes critical to operation of multilayer devices employing CoSi2 layers, such as metal base transistor.

  7. Atomic Layer Deposition of Metal Oxide Thin Films on Metallic Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foroughi Abari, Ali

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a powerful ultra-thin film deposition technique that uses sequential self-limiting surface reactions to provide conformal atomic scale film growth. Deposition of ALD films on many substrate systems has been studied before; however, limited data is available on deposition on metallic surfaces. The investigation of the growth of Al 2O3, HfO2, and ZrO2 as three technologically important metal oxides on metallic substrates is the subject of this thesis. Al2O3, HfO2, and ZrO2 films were grown by ALD on silicon, as a well-studied substrate, in different operating conditions to investigate the effect of process parameters on film properties. To study the growth of oxides on metals, thin metallic substrates were prepared by sputter deposition on silicon wafers and then were transferred to the ALD chamber where the film growth was monitored by in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. The transfer was performed via a load lock system without breaking the vacuum to preserve the pristine metal surface. Formation of a thin interfacial layer of metal oxide was observed during the initial moments of plasma enhanced ALD, that was due to the exposure of metal surface to oxygen plasma. In-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to accurately measure the thickness change of the growing films including the interfacial layer. The thickness of this interfacial oxide layer depended on various process parameters including deposition temperature, order of precursors and plasma pulse length. The interfacial oxide layer was absent during the conventional thermal ALD. However, thermal ALD of oxides on metals exhibited substrate-inhibited growth, especially at higher deposition temperatures. With the knowledge of ALD growth characteristics on metals, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices were fabricated by both thermal and plasma enhanced ALD and electrically characterized. The presence of the interfacial oxide layer altered the device performance by changing the

  8. Studies on atomic layer deposition of IRMOF-8 thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Salmi, Leo D. Heikkilä, Mikko J.; Vehkamäki, Marko; Puukilainen, Esa; Ritala, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo

    2015-01-15

    Deposition of IRMOF-8 thin films by atomic layer deposition was studied at 260–320 °C. Zinc acetate and 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid were used as the precursors. The as-deposited amorphous films were crystallized in 70% relative humidity at room temperature resulting in an unknown phase with a large unit cell. An autoclave with dimethylformamide as the solvent was used to recrystallize the films into IRMOF-8 as confirmed by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. The films were further characterized by high temperature x-ray diffraction (HTXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (TOF-ERDA), nanoindentation, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. HTXRD measurements revealed similar behavior to bulk IRMOF-8. According to TOF-ERDA and FTIR, composition of the films was similar to IRMOF-8. Through-porosity was confirmed by loading the films with palladium using Pd(thd){sub 2} (thd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato) as the precursor.

  9. Pulsed laser deposition of anatase thin films on textile substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krämer, André; Kunz, Clemens; Gräf, Stephan; Müller, Frank A.

    2015-10-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a highly versatile tool to prepare functional thin film coatings. In our study we utilised a Q-switched CO2 laser with a pulse duration τ ≈ 300 ns, a laser wavelength λ = 10.59 μm, a repetition frequency frep = 800 Hz and a peak power Ppeak = 15 kW to deposit crystalline anatase thin films on carbon fibre fabrics. For this purpose, preparatory experiments were performed on silicon substrates to optimise the anatase deposition conditions including the influence of different substrate temperatures and oxygen partial pressures. Processing parameters were then transferred to deposit anatase on carbon fibres. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analyses, Raman spectroscopy and tactile profilometry were used to characterise the samples and to reveal the formation of phase pure anatase without the occurrence of a secondary rutile phase. Methanol conversion test were used to prove the photocatalytic activity of the coated carbon fibres.

  10. Fabrication of thermally evaporated Al thin film on cylindrical PET monofilament for wearable computing devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Kim, Eunju; Han, Jeong In

    2016-01-01

    During the initial development of wearable computing devices, the conductive fibers of Al thin film on cylindrical PET monofilament were fabricated by thermal evaporation. Their electrical current-voltage characteristics curves were excellent for incorporation into wearable devices such as fiber-based cylindrical capacitors or thin film transistors. Their surfaces were modified by UV exposure and dip coating of acryl or PVP to investigate the surface effect. The conductive fiber with PVP coating showed the best conductivities because the rough surface of the PET substrate transformed into a smooth surface. The conductivities of PET fiber with and without PVP were 6.81 × 103 Ω-1cm-1 and 5.62 × 103 Ω-1cm-1, respectively. In order to understand the deposition process of Al thin film on cylindrical PET, Al thin film on PET fiber was studied using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), conductivities and thickness measurements. Hillocks on the surface of conductive PET fibers were observed and investigated by AFM on the surface. Hillocks were formed and grown during Al thermal evaporation because of severe compressive strain and plastic deformation induced by large differences in thermal expansion between PET substrate and Al thin film. From the analysis of hillock size distribution, it turns out that hillocks grew not transversely but longitudinally. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Microwave surface resistance of YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ thin films deposited by pulsed organometallic beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGroot, D. C.; Hogan, T. P.; Kannewurf, C. R.; Buchholz, D. B.; Chang, R. P. H.; Gao, F.; Feng, M.; Nordin, R. A.

    1994-03-01

    The microwave surface resistance of superconducting YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ thin films deposited by pulsed organometallic beam epitaxy (POMBE) has been characterized using the parallel plate transmission line resonator method. POMBE is an advanced organometric chemical vapor deposition technique where precursor vapors are precisely metered onto the substrate under computer control. In this study, the POMBE reactor was used to deposit epitaxial films of varying thickness onto LaAlO 3 substrates. The deposition procedure and surface-resistance results for films of varying thicknesses are described. The reduction of surface resistance achieved supports the use of the POMBE technique as a possible method for preparing device-quality high- Tc films and multi-layer structures.

  12. Growth of calcium phosphate thin films by in situ assisted ultraviolet pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelea, V.; Craciun, V.; Iliescu, M.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Pelletier, H.; Mille, P.; Werckmann, J.

    2003-03-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) thin films including hydroxyapatite were intensively studied in order to optimize the technology of the bone prostheses manufacturing. A drawback in the CaP films processing is the poor mechanical characteristics, especially hardness, tensile strength and adherence to the metallic substrate. We report a new method for the growth of high quality CaP films with substantial improvement of the mechanical properties: pulsed laser deposition (PLD) assisted by in situ ultraviolet (UV) radiation emitted by a low pressure Hg lamp. The depositions were made on Si and Ti-5Al-2.5Fe alloys in very low ambient oxygen at pressures of 10 -2 to 10 -1 Pa with the substrates maintained at 500-600 °C temperature. The films were analyzed by electron microscopy, white light confocal microscopy (WLCM), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and Berkovich nanoindentation. The films were crystalline and exhibited remarkable mechanical characteristics with values of hardness and Young modulus of 6-8 and 150-170 GPa, respectively, which are uncommonly high for the CaP ceramics. The UV lamp radiation enhanced the gas reactivity and atoms mobility during processing, while the tensile strength between the film's grains and the bonding strength at the CaP film-substrate interface were increased.

  13. Self limiting atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 on perovskite surfaces: a reality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Devika; Rajaraman, Gopalan; Sarkar, Shaibal K.

    2016-03-01

    The feasibility of self-saturated atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 on an organolead halide perovskite (MAPbI3-xClx) surface through a well known trimethylaluminium (TMA)-water (H2O) chemistry is studied. Though the sequential dosages of reactants form films on the perovskite surfaces, a self saturated growth is never observed. Self-saturation leads to the degradation of the material. Both experimental and density functional theory calculations are carried out for complete understanding of the growth mechanism of self-limiting Al2O3 on the perovskite surface.The feasibility of self-saturated atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 on an organolead halide perovskite (MAPbI3-xClx) surface through a well known trimethylaluminium (TMA)-water (H2O) chemistry is studied. Though the sequential dosages of reactants form films on the perovskite surfaces, a self saturated growth is never observed. Self-saturation leads to the degradation of the material. Both experimental and density functional theory calculations are carried out for complete understanding of the growth mechanism of self-limiting Al2O3 on the perovskite surface. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional QCM results, FTIR spectra and DFT results. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06974b

  14. Atomic Layer Deposition Films as Diffusion Barriers for Silver Artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquardt, Amy; Breitung, Eric; Drayman-Weisser, Terry; Gates, Glenn; Rubloff, Gary W.; Phaneuf, Ray J.

    2012-02-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was investigated as a means to create transparent oxide diffusion barrier coatings to reduce the rate of tarnishing for silver objects in museum collections. Accelerated aging by heating various thicknesses (5 to 100nm) of ALD alumina (Al2O3) thin films on sterling and fine silver was used to determine the effectiveness of alumina as a barrier to silver oxidation. The effect of aging temperature on the thickness of the tarnish layer (Ag2S) created at the interface of the ALD coating and the bulk silver substrate was determined by reflectance spectroscopy and X-Ray Photoelectric Spectroscopy (XPS). Reflectance spectroscopy was an effective rapid screening tool to determine tarnishing rates and the coating's visual impact. X-Ray Photoelectric Spectroscopy (XPS), and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) analysis showed a phase transformation in the Ag2S tarnish layer at 177 C and saturation in the thickness of the silver sulfide layer, indicating possible self-passivation of the tarnish layer.

  15. Process for thin film deposition of cadmium sulfide

    DOEpatents

    Muruska, H. Paul; Sansregret, Joseph L.; Young, Archie R.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention teaches a process for depositing layers of cadmium sulfide. The process includes depositing a layer of cadmium oxide by spray pyrolysis of a cadmium salt in an aqueous or organic solvent. The oxide film is then converted into cadmium sulfide by thermal ion exchange of the O.sup.-2 for S.sup.-2 by annealing the oxide layer in gaseous sulfur at elevated temperatures.

  16. Oxide films: low-temperature deposition and crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sangmoon; Herman, Gregory S.; Keszler, Douglas A.

    2003-10-01

    Thin films of CeO 2 and (Ce,Sm)O 2 have been prepared by using the SILAR method of deposition in conjunction with hydrothermal and high-temperature annealing. Low-temperature, low-pressure hydrothermal annealing of amorphous Mn:Zn 2GeO 4 films has lead to the growth of grains having edge lengths near 1 μm. Thick films of crystalline Zn 2SiO 4 exhibiting limited cracking have been prepared by a doctor-blade method also in conjunction with hydrothermal dehydration and annealing.

  17. Multichamber Integrated Deposition System For Silicon Based Dielectric Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucovsky, Gerald; Tsu, David V.; Parsons, Gregory N.; Kim, Sang S.

    1989-03-01

    This paper discusses the design and operation of a multichamber integrated processing system with in situ surface analysis capabilities. The system has been designed specifically for the deposition of silicon based dielectric thin films by the process of remote plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition (Remote PECVD), and for the formation of microelectronic device heterostructures. In order to achieve these objectives the system includes the following: (1) two substrate-introduction load-lock chambers; (2) a semiconductor substrate processing chamber; (3) a dielectric deposition chamber, specifically configured for the remote PECVD process; (4) a surface analysis chamber including Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES); and (5) inter-chamber substrate transfer in a UHV compatible environment. We will discuss the deposition chamber in some detail and describe the way in which it is designed to meet the requirements for the Remote PECVD process reactions. We also describe an auxiliary deposition/analysis system, which provides both deposition process diagnostics, Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES), and thin film deposition by Remote PECVD. These two systems taken together have provided a research capability for: (1) identifying the deposition process reactions; and (2) fabricating elementary microelectronic device structures, such as MOS and/or MIS capacitors.

  18. Gilbert damping parameter characterization in perpendicular magnetized Co2FeAl films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yishen; Lu, Jiwei; Khodadadi, Behrouz; Schäfer, Sebastian; Mewes, Tim; Wolf, Stuart

    2013-03-01

    Materials with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy(PMA) have gotten extensive recent attention because of their potential application in spintronic devices such as spin transfer torque random access memory (STT-RAM). It was shown that a much lower switching current density(JC) is required to write STT-RAM tunnel junctions with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy ferromagnetic electrodes (p-MTJ). Additionally Heusler alloy Co2FeAl is expected to further reduce JC due to its ultra low Gilbert damping parameter. In our study, Heusler alloy Co2FeAl films were prepared using a Biased Target Ion Beam Deposition (BTIBD) technique. We demonstrated a low Gilbert damping parameter achieved in thick B2-Co2FeAl films. Besides, we achieved an interfacial PMA in ultra thin Co2FeAl films by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) with no external field presented. Annealing conditions were carefully adjusted to maximize the interfacial PMA. However it was noticed that a higher annealing temperature was required for a low damping parameter which to some extent sacrificed the interfacial PMA. We also deposited ultra thin CoFeB films and characterized their damping parameters for comparison. We acknowledge the financial support from DARPA.

  19. Coaxial carbon plasma gun deposition of amorphous carbon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sater, D. M.; Gulino, D. A.; Rutledge, S. K.

    1984-01-01

    A unique plasma gun employing coaxial carbon electrodes was used in an attempt to deposit thin films of amorphous diamond-like carbon. A number of different structural, compositional, and electrical characterization techniques were used to characterize these films. These included scanning electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, X ray diffraction and absorption, spectrographic analysis, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and selected area electron diffraction. Optical absorption and electrical resistivity measurements were also performed. The films were determined to be primarily amorphous, with poor adhesion to fused silica substrates. Many inclusions of particulates were found to be present as well. Analysis of these particulates revealed the presence of trace impurities, such as Fe and Cu, which were also found in the graphite electrode material. The electrodes were the source of these impurities. No evidence of diamond-like crystallite structure was found in any of the film samples. Details of the apparatus, experimental procedure, and film characteristics are presented.

  20. Formation of ultrasmooth thin silver films by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, I. A.; Garaeva, M. Ya.; Mamichev, D. A. Grishchenko, Yu. V.; Zanaveskin, M. L.

    2013-09-15

    Ultrasmooth thin silver films have been formed on a quartz substrate with a buffer yttrium oxide layer by pulsed laser deposition. The dependence of the surface morphology of the film on the gas (N{sub 2}) pressure in the working chamber and laser pulse energy is investigated. It is found that the conditions of film growth are optimal at a gas pressure of 10{sup -2} Torr and lowest pulse energy. The silver films formed under these conditions on a quartz substrate with an initial surface roughness of 0.3 nm had a surface roughness of 0.36 nm. These films can be used as a basis for various optoelectronics and nanoplasmonics elements.

  1. Friction and wear of plasma-deposited diamond films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Wu, Richard L. C.; Garscadden, Alan; Barnes, Paul N.; Jackson, Howard E.

    1993-01-01

    Reciprocating sliding friction experiments in humid air and in dry nitrogen and unidirectional sliding friction experiments in ultrahigh vacuum were conducted with a natural diamond pin in contact with microwave-plasma-deposited diamond films. Diamond films with a surface roughness (R rms) ranging from 15 to 160 nm were produced by microwave-plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. In humid air and in dry nitrogen, abrasion occurred when the diamond pin made grooves in the surfaces of diamond films, and thus the initial coefficients of friction increased with increasing initial surface roughness. The equilibrium coefficients of friction were independent of the initial surface roughness of the diamond films. In vacuum the friction for diamond films contacting a diamond pin arose primarily from adhesion between the sliding surfaces. In these cases, the initial and equilibrium coefficients of friction were independent of the initial surface roughness of the diamond films. The equilibrium coefficients of friction were 0.02 to 0.04 in humid air and in dry nitrogen, but 1.5 to 1.8 in vacuum. The wear factor of the diamond films depended on the initial surface roughness, regardless of environment; it increased with increasing initial surface roughness. The wear factors were considerably higher in vacuum than in humid air and in dry nitrogen.

  2. Germanium films by polymer-assisted deposition

    DOEpatents

    Jia, Quanxi; Burrell, Anthony K.; Bauer, Eve; Ronning, Filip; McCleskey, Thomas Mark; Zou, Guifu

    2013-01-15

    Highly ordered Ge films are prepared directly on single crystal Si substrates by applying an aqueous coating solution having Ge-bound polymer onto the substrate and then heating in a hydrogen-containing atmosphere. A coating solution was prepared by mixing water, a germanium compound, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and polyethyleneimine to form a first aqueous solution and then subjecting the first aqueous solution to ultrafiltration.

  3. Diamond deposition on polycrystalline films of cubic boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, T.A.; Bernardez, L.J.; McCarty, K.F.; Klaus, E.J.; Ottesen, D.K.; Johnsen, H.A.; Clift, W.M. )

    1993-09-06

    We have grown diamond films on films of cubic boron nitride (cBN). The cBN films were grown on Si(100) substrates using ion-assisted pulsed laser deposition. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy indicated that the BN films contained [similar to]75% [ital sp][sup 3]-bonded cBN. The as-grown cBN films were inserted with no surface pretreatment (e.g., abrading or scratching) into a conventional hot filament diamond reactor. [ital In] [ital situ] Raman spectroscopy was used to confirm diamond synthesis during growth. The nucleation density of the diamond films was estimated at 1[times]10[sup 9]/cm[sup 2], equivalent to or higher than the best values for scratched silicon substrates. In addition, we found that the cBN films were etched in the diamond reactor; a film thickness [approx gt]1500 A was required to prevent total film loss before diamond nucleation occurred. The presence of cBN under the diamond was established using FTIR spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy.

  4. Thermal conductivity of amorphous Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminates deposited by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Saima; Juntunen, Taneli; Sintonen, Sakari; Ylivaara, Oili M. E.; Puurunen, Riikka L.; Lipsanen, Harri; Tittonen, Ilkka; Hannula, Simo-Pekka

    2016-11-01

    The thermophysical properties of Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminates deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are studied as a function of bilayer thickness and relative TiO2 content (0%–100%) while the total nominal thickness of the nanolaminates was kept at 100 nm. Cross-plane thermal conductivity of the nanolaminates is measured at room temperature using the nanosecond transient thermoreflectance method. Based on the measurements, the nanolaminates have reduced thermal conductivity as compared to the pure amorphous thin films, suggesting that interfaces have a non-negligible effect on thermal transport in amorphous nanolaminates. For a fixed number of interfaces, we find that approximately equal material content of Al2O3 and TiO2 produces the lowest value of thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity reduces with increasing interface density up to 0.4 nm‑1, above which the thermal conductivity is found to be constant. The value of thermal interface resistance approximated by the use of diffuse mismatch model was found to be 0.45 m2 K GW‑1, and a comparative study employing this value supports the interpretation of non-negligible interface resistance affecting the overall thermal conductivity also in the amorphous limit. Finally, no clear trend in thermal conductivity values was found for nanolaminates grown at different deposition temperatures, suggesting that the temperature in the ALD process has a non-trivial while modest effect on the overall thermal conductivity in amorphous nanolaminates.

  5. Thermal conductivity of amorphous Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminates deposited by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Ali, Saima; Juntunen, Taneli; Sintonen, Sakari; Ylivaara, Oili M E; Puurunen, Riikka L; Lipsanen, Harri; Tittonen, Ilkka; Hannula, Simo-Pekka

    2016-11-01

    The thermophysical properties of Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminates deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are studied as a function of bilayer thickness and relative TiO2 content (0%-100%) while the total nominal thickness of the nanolaminates was kept at 100 nm. Cross-plane thermal conductivity of the nanolaminates is measured at room temperature using the nanosecond transient thermoreflectance method. Based on the measurements, the nanolaminates have reduced thermal conductivity as compared to the pure amorphous thin films, suggesting that interfaces have a non-negligible effect on thermal transport in amorphous nanolaminates. For a fixed number of interfaces, we find that approximately equal material content of Al2O3 and TiO2 produces the lowest value of thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity reduces with increasing interface density up to 0.4 nm(-1), above which the thermal conductivity is found to be constant. The value of thermal interface resistance approximated by the use of diffuse mismatch model was found to be 0.45 m(2) K GW(-1), and a comparative study employing this value supports the interpretation of non-negligible interface resistance affecting the overall thermal conductivity also in the amorphous limit. Finally, no clear trend in thermal conductivity values was found for nanolaminates grown at different deposition temperatures, suggesting that the temperature in the ALD process has a non-trivial while modest effect on the overall thermal conductivity in amorphous nanolaminates. PMID:27670821

  6. Thermal conductivity of amorphous Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminates deposited by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Ali, Saima; Juntunen, Taneli; Sintonen, Sakari; Ylivaara, Oili M E; Puurunen, Riikka L; Lipsanen, Harri; Tittonen, Ilkka; Hannula, Simo-Pekka

    2016-11-01

    The thermophysical properties of Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminates deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are studied as a function of bilayer thickness and relative TiO2 content (0%-100%) while the total nominal thickness of the nanolaminates was kept at 100 nm. Cross-plane thermal conductivity of the nanolaminates is measured at room temperature using the nanosecond transient thermoreflectance method. Based on the measurements, the nanolaminates have reduced thermal conductivity as compared to the pure amorphous thin films, suggesting that interfaces have a non-negligible effect on thermal transport in amorphous nanolaminates. For a fixed number of interfaces, we find that approximately equal material content of Al2O3 and TiO2 produces the lowest value of thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity reduces with increasing interface density up to 0.4 nm(-1), above which the thermal conductivity is found to be constant. The value of thermal interface resistance approximated by the use of diffuse mismatch model was found to be 0.45 m(2) K GW(-1), and a comparative study employing this value supports the interpretation of non-negligible interface resistance affecting the overall thermal conductivity also in the amorphous limit. Finally, no clear trend in thermal conductivity values was found for nanolaminates grown at different deposition temperatures, suggesting that the temperature in the ALD process has a non-trivial while modest effect on the overall thermal conductivity in amorphous nanolaminates.

  7. The Effect of Deposition Temperature to Photoconductivity Properties of Amorphous Carbon Thin Films Deposited By Thermal CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad, F.; Suriani, A. B.; Noor, U. M.; Rusop, M.

    2010-07-01

    Amorphous carbon (a-C) thin films were deposited by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using camphor oil on quartz substrates. The photoconductivity and optical properties of the thin films were studied with varying the deposition temperatures ranging from 650 to 900 °C. The film deposited at 750 °C shows large photoconductivity compare to other films. The optical characterization shows that the optical band gap of the thin films decreased from 0.65 to ˜0.0eV with increasing the deposition temperature due to the increase of sp2 bonded carbon configuration. The electrical conductivity of the thin films grown at higher temperature is much higher compared with the thin films deposited at low temperature.

  8. Effect of Deposition Temperature on the Properties of TIO2 Thin Films Deposited by Mocvd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalifa, Zaki S.

    2016-02-01

    Crystal structure, microstructure, and optical properties of TiO2 thin films deposited on quartz substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) in the temperature range from 250∘C to 450∘C have been studied. The crystal structure, thickness, microstructure, and optical properties have been carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), and UV-visible transmittance spectroscopy, respectively. XRD patterns show that the obtained films are pure anatase. Simultaneously, the crystal size calculated using XRD peaks, and the grain size measured by AFM decrease with the increase in deposition temperature. Moreover, the texture of the films change and roughness decrease with the increase in deposition temperature. The spectrophotometric transmittance spectra have been used to calculate the refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric constant, optical energy gap, and porosity of the deposited films. While the refractive index and dielectric constant decrease with the increase of deposition temperature, the porosity shows the opposite.

  9. Chemical vapor deposition and atomic layer deposition of metal oxide and nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Jeffrey Thomas

    Processes for depositing thin films with various electronic, optical, mechanical, and chemical properties are indispensable in many industries today. Of the many deposition methods available, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has proved over time to be one of the most flexible, efficient, and cost-effective. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a newer process that is gaining favor as a method for depositing films with excellent properties and unparalleled precision. This work describes the development of novel CVD and ALD processes to deposit a variety of materials. Hafnium oxide and zirconium oxide show promise as replacements for SiO 2 as gate dielectrics in future-generation transistors. These high-k materials would provide sufficient capacitance with layers thick enough to avoid leakage from tunneling. An ALD method is presented here for depositing conformal hafnium oxide from tetrakis-(diethylamido)hafnium and oxygen gas. A CVD method for depositing zirconium oxide from tetrakis-(dialkylamido)zirconium and either oxygen gas or water vapor is also described. The use of copper for interconnects in integrated circuits requires improved diffusion barrier materials, given its high diffusivity compared to the previously-used aluminum and tungsten. Tungsten nitride has a low resistivity among barrier materials, and can be deposited in amorphous films that are effective diffusion barriers in layers as thin as a few nanometers. Here we demonstrate CVD and plasma-enhanced CVD methods to deposit tungsten nitride films from bis-(dialkylamido)bis-( tert-butylimido)tungsten precursors and ammonia gas. Recent findings had shown uniform copper growth on tantalum silicate films, without the dewetting that usually occurs on oxide surfaces. Tantalum and tungsten silicates were deposited by a CVD reaction from the reaction of either tris-(diethylamido)ethylimido tantalum or bis-(ethylmethylamido)-bis-( tert-butylimido)tungsten with tris-(tert-butoxy)silanol. The ability of evaporated

  10. Combustion chemical vapor deposition - A novel thin-film deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, A. T.; Carter, W. B.; Cochran, J. K., Jr.

    1993-07-01

    A new open-atmosphere chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique has been developed that we term combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). During CCVD a flame provides the necessary environment for the deposition of a dense film whose elemental constituents are derived from solution, vapor, or gas sources. Ag, YSZ, BaTiO3, YIG, YBa2Cu3O(x), and Y2BaCuO5 have been deposited via CCVD with the combustion of a sprayed, cation-containing, organic solution as the sole heat source. CCVD could, for some applications, be less expensive and more flexible than conventional CVD.

  11. Magneto-transport properties of oriented Mn{sub 2}CoAl films sputtered on thermally oxidized Si substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, G. Z.; Du, Y.; Zhang, X. M.; Liu, E. K.; Wang, W. H. Wu, G. H.; Zhang, H. G.

    2014-06-16

    Spin gapless semiconductors are interesting family of materials by embracing both magnetism and semiconducting due to their unique band structure. Its potential application in future spintronics requires realization in thin film form. In this Letter, we report fabrication and transport properties of spin gapless Mn{sub 2}CoAl films prepared on thermally oxidized Si substrates by magnetron sputtering deposition. The films deposited at 673 K are well oriented to (001) direction and display a uniform-crystalline surface. Magnetotransport measurements on the oriented films reveal a semiconducting-like resistivity, small anomalous Hall conductivity, and linear magnetoresistance representative of the transport signatures of spin gapless semiconductors. The magnetic properties of the films have also been investigated and compared to that of bulk Mn{sub 2}CoAl, showing small discrepancy induced by the composition deviation.

  12. Effect of In/Al ratios on structural and optical properties of InAlN films grown on Si(100) by RF-MOMBE

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In x Al1-x N films were deposited on Si(100) substrate using metal-organic molecular beam epitaxy. We investigated the effect of the trimethylindium/trimethylaluminum (TMIn/TMAl) flow ratios on the structural, morphological, and optical properties of In x Al1-x N films. Surface morphologies and microstructure of the In x Al1-x N films were measured by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Optical properties of all films were evaluated using an ultraviolet/visible/infrared (UV/Vis/IR) reflection spectrophotometer. XRD and TEM results indicated that In x Al1-x N films were preferentially oriented in the c-axis direction. Besides, the growth rates of In x Al1-x N films were measured at around 0.6 μm/h in average. Reflection spectrum shows that the optical absorption of the In x Al1-x N films redshifts with an increase in the In composition. PMID:24855462

  13. Highly crystalline MoS{sub 2} thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Serrao, Claudy R.; You, Long; Gadgil, Sushant; Hu, Chenming; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Diamond, Anthony M.; Hsu, Shang-Lin; Clarkson, James; Carraro, Carlo; Maboudian, Roya

    2015-02-02

    Highly crystalline thin films of MoS{sub 2} were prepared over large area by pulsed laser deposition down to a single monolayer on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001), GaN (0001), and SiC-6H (0001) substrates. X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction studies show that the films are quasi-epitaxial with good out-of-plane texture. In addition, the thin films were observed to be highly crystalline with rocking curve full width half maxima of 0.01°, smooth with a RMS roughness of 0.27 nm, and uniform in thickness based on Raman spectroscopy. From transport measurements, the as-grown films were found to be p-type.

  14. Black metal thin films by deposition on dielectric antireflective moth-eye nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Alexander B.; Caringal, Gideon P.; Clausen, Jeppe S.; Grajower, Meir; Taha, Hesham; Levy, Uriel; Asger Mortensen, N.; Kristensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Although metals are commonly shiny and highly reflective, we here show that thin metal films appear black when deposited on a dielectric with antireflective moth-eye nanostructures. The nanostructures were tapered and close-packed, with heights in the range 300-600 nm, and a lateral, spatial frequency in the range 5–7 μm−1. A reflectance in the visible spectrum as low as 6%, and an absorbance of 90% was observed for an Al film of 100 nm thickness. Corresponding experiments on a planar film yielded 80% reflectance and 20% absorbance. The observed absorbance enhancement is attributed to a gradient effect causing the metal film to be antireflective, analogous to the mechanism in dielectrics and semiconductors. We find that the investigated nanostructures have too large spatial frequency to facilitate efficient coupling to the otherwise non-radiating surface plasmons. Applications for decoration and displays are discussed. PMID:26035526

  15. Pulsed laser deposition of high-quality thin films of the insulating ferromagnet EuS

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qi I.; Zhao, Jinfeng; Risbud, Subhash H.; Zhang, Li; Dolev, Merav; Fried, Alexander D.; Marshall, Ann F.; Kapitulnik, Aharon

    2014-02-24

    High-quality thin films of the ferromagnetic insulator europium(II) sulfide (EuS) were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001) and Si (100) substrates. A single orientation was obtained with the [100] planes parallel to the substrates, with atomic-scale smoothness indicates a near-ideal surface topography. The films exhibit uniform ferromagnetism below 15.9 K, with a substantial component of the magnetization perpendicular to the plane of the films. Optimization of the growth condition also yielded truly insulating films with immeasurably large resistance. This combination of magnetic and electric properties opens the gate for future devices that require a true ferromagnetic insulator.

  16. Formation and stability of crystalline and amorphous Al2O3 layers deposited on Ga2O3 nanowires by atomic layer epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, M. B.; Twigg, M. E.; Prokes, S. M.

    2016-09-01

    Although the crystalline α and γ phases are the most stable forms of alumina, small-diameter (<6 nm) nanoparticles are known to be completely amorphous, due to the surface energy being correspondingly lower for the less stable non-crystalline phase. Al2O3 films with a thickness of 5 nm grown by low temperature (200 °C) atomic layer deposition (ALD) on small-diameter (<20 nm) Ga2O3 nanowires (NWs), however, are identified by transmission electron microscopy as belonging to the α, γ, and possibly θ crystalline phases of Al2O3, while films deposited on larger diameter (>20 nm) NWs are found to be amorphous. Indeed, until recently, all Al2O3, films deposited by low-temperature ALD using trimethylaluminum and water have been reported to be amorphous, regardless of film thickness or substrate. The formation of a crystalline ALD film can be understood in terms of the energetics of misfit dislocations that maintain the registry between the ALD film and the NW substrate, as well as the influence of strain and surface energy. The decreasing energy of co-axial misfit dislocations with NW diameter results in a corresponding decrease in the contribution of the Al2O3/Ga2O3 interface to the free energy, while the interfacial energy for an amorphous film is independent of the NW diameter. Therefore, for NW cores of sufficiently small diameter, the free energy contribution of the Al2O3/Ga2O3 interface is smaller for crystalline films than for amorphous films, thereby favoring the formation of crystalline films for small-diameter NWs. For ALD Al2O3 films of 10 nm thickness deposited on small-diameter Ga2O3 NWs, however, only the first 5 nm of the ALD film is found to be crystalline, possibly due to well-established kinetic limitations to low temperature epitaxial growth.

  17. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Aluminum Oxide Thin Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vohs, Jason K.; Bentz, Amy; Eleamos, Krystal; Poole, John; Fahlman, Bradley D.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a process routinely used to produce thin films of materials via decomposition of volatile precursor molecules. Unfortunately, the equipment required for a conventional CVD experiment is not practical or affordable for many undergraduate chemistry laboratories, especially at smaller institutions. In an effort to…

  18. Spatial atomic layer deposition of zinc oxide thin films.

    PubMed

    Illiberi, A; Roozeboom, F; Poodt, P

    2012-01-01

    Zinc oxide thin films have been deposited at high growth rates (up to ~1 nm/s) by spatial atomic layer deposition technique at atmospheric pressure. Water has been used as oxidant for diethylzinc (DEZ) at deposition temperatures between 75 and 250 °C. The electrical, structural (crystallinity and morphology), and optical properties of the films have been analyzed by using Hall, four-point probe, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, spectrophotometry, and photoluminescence, respectively. All the films have c-axis (100) preferential orientation, good crystalline quality and high transparency (∼ 85%) in the visible range. By varying the DEZ partial pressure, the electrical properties of ZnO can be controlled, ranging from heavily n-type conductive (with 4 mOhm.cm resistivity for 250 nm thickness) to insulating. Combining the high deposition rates with a precise control of functional properties (i.e., conductivity and transparency) of the films, the industrially scalable spatial ALD technique can become a disruptive manufacturing method for the ZnO-based industry.

  19. Biomimetic lithography and deposition kinetics of iron oxyhydroxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Rieke, P.C.; Wood, L.L.; Marsh, B.M.; Fryxell, G.E.; Engelhard, M.H.; Baer, D.R.; Tarasevich, B.J. |; John, C.M.

    1993-12-01

    Heterogeneous nucleation and crystal growth on functionalized organic substrates is a critical step in biological hard tissue formation. Self assembled monolayers can be derivatized with various organic functional groups to mimic the ``nucleation proteins`` for induction of mineral growth. Studies of nucleation and growth on SAMs can provide a better understanding of biomineralization and can also form the basis of a superior thin film deposition process. We demonstrate that micron-scale, electron and ion beam, lithographic techniques can be used to pattern SAMs with functional organic groups that either inhibit or promote mineral deposition. Patterned films of iron oxyhydroxide were deposited on the areas patterned with nucleation sites. Studies of the deposition kinetic of these films show that indeed the surface induces heterogeneous nucleation and that film formation does not occur via absorption of polymers or colloidal material formed homogeneously in solution. The nucleus interfacial free energy was calculated to be 24 mJ/m2 on a SAM surface composed entirely of sulfonate groups.

  20. Relationship between passivation properties and band alignment in O3-based atomic-layer-deposited AlOx on crystalline Si for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeno, Norihiro; Yamashita, Yoshihiro; Oji, Hiroshi; Miki, Shohei; Arafune, Koji; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Satoh, Shin-ichi; Hirosawa, Ichiro; Chikyow, Toyohiro; Ogura, Atsushi

    2015-08-01

    The passivation properties and band structures in aluminum oxide (AlOx) deposited by ozone-based atomic layer deposition (ALD) at room temperature on p-type crystalline silicon were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effective carrier lifetime depends on the thickness of AlOx films, since the field effects induced in the films by fixed charges depend on film thickness. The fixed charges are different by two orders of magnitude between films with thicknesses of 10 and 30 nm. At the 30-nm-thick AlOx/Si interface, the completely accumulated band bending of the Si surface was observed. On the other hand, a thin depletion layer was formed at the 10-nm-thick AlOx/Si interface. From the time-dependent XPS measurements, a hole trap was observed toward AlOx, in which trapping centers existed.

  1. Electron cyclotron resonance deposition of diamond-like films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shing, Y. H.; Pool, F. S.

    1990-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave plasma CVD has been developed at low pressures (0.0001 - 0.01 torr) and at ambient and high substrate temperatures (up to 750 C), to achieve large-area (greater than 4 in. diameter) depositions of diamondlike amorphous carbon (a - C:H) films. The application of a RF bias to the substrate stage, which induces a negative self-bias voltage, is found to play a critical role in determining carbon bonding configurations and in modifying the film morphology. There are two distinct types of ECR-deposited diamondlike films. One type of diamondlike film exhibits a Raman spectrum consisting of broad and overlapping, graphitic D (1360/cm, line width = 280/cm) and G (1590/cm, line width 140/cm) lines, and the other type has a broad Raman peak centered at appoximately 1500/cm. Examination of plasma species by optical emission spectroscopy shows no correlation between the CH-asterisk emission intensity and the deposition rate of diamondklike films.

  2. Microenergetic Shock Initiation Studies on Deposited Films of PETN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tappan, Alexander S.; Wixom, Ryan R.; Trott, Wayne M.; Long, Gregory T.; Knepper, Robert; Brundage, Aaron L.; Jones, David A.

    2009-06-01

    Films of the high explosive PETN (pentaerythritol tetranitrate) up to 500-μm thick have been deposited through physical vapor deposition, with the intent of creating well-defined samples for shock-initiation studies. PETN films were characterized with surface profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and focused ion beam nanotomography. These high-density films were subjected to strong shocks in both the in-plane and out-of-plane orientations. Initiation behavior was monitored with high-speed framing and streak camera photography. Direct initiation with a donor explosive (either RDX with binder, or CL-20 with binder) was possible in both orientations, but with the addition of a thin aluminum buffer plate (in-plane configuration only), initiation proved to be difficult due to the attenuated shock and the high density of the PETN films. Mesoscale models of microenergetic samples were created using the shock physics code CTH and compared with experimental results. The results of these experiments will be discussed in the context of small sample geometry, deposited film morphology, and density.

  3. Control of Thin Liquid Film Morphology During Solvent-Assisted Film Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Evmenenko, G.; Stripe, B; Dutta, P

    2010-01-01

    Liquid films of different silicate esters were deposited from volatile solvents on hydroxylated and hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces. We show that adsorption of silicate ester molecules and the resulting structural morphology of the liquid films not only are determined by attractive van der Waals forces with contributions from electrostatic interactions between the silicone ester moieties and oxide surface sites but also can be tuned by modifying the substrate surface or by changing the liquid-solvent interactions. Our results also show the importance of the conformational properties of liquid molecules and their rearrangements at the liquid/solid interface for controlled solvent-assisted film deposition.

  4. YBCO thin film evaporation on as-deposited silver film on MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azoulay, J.

    1999-11-01

    YBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ (YBCO) thin film was evaporated on as-deposited Ag buffer layer on MgO substrate. A simple, inexpensive vacuum system equipped with one resistively heated source was used. The subsequent heat treatment was carried out under low oxygen partial pressure at a relatively low temperature and short dwelling time. The films thus obtained were characterized for electrical properties using DC four-probe electrical measurements and inspected for structural properties and chemical composition by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is shown that YBCO thin film can grow on as-deposited thin silver layer on MgO substrate.

  5. Vacuum deposited polymer/metal films for optical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Affinito, J.D.; Martin, P.M.; Gross, M.E.; Coronado, C.; Greenwell, E.

    1995-04-01

    Vacuum deposited Polymer/Silver/Polymer reflectors and Tantalum/Polymer/Aluminum Fabry-Perot interference filters were fabricated in a vacuun web coating operation on polyester substrates with a new, high speed deposition process. Reflectivities were measured in the wavelength range from 0.3 to 0.8{mu}m. This new vacuum processing technique has been shown to be capable of deposition line speeds in excess of 500 linear meters/minute. Central to this technique is a new position process for the high rate deposition of polymer films. This polymer process involves the flash evaporation of an acrylic monomer onto a moving substrate. The monomer is subsequently cured by an electron beam or ultraviolet light. This high speed polymer film deposition process has been named the PML process -- for Polymer Multi-Layer. Also, vacuum deposited, index matched, polymer/CaF{sub 2} composites were fabricated from monomer slurries that were subsequently cured with LTV light. This second technique is called the Liquid Multi-Layer (or LML) process. Each of these polymer processes is compatible with each other and with conventional vacuum deposition processes such as sputtering or evaporation.

  6. Deposition of Thin Film Using a Surface Acoustic Wave Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murochi, Nobuaki; Sugimoto, Mitsunori; Matsui, Yoshikazu; Kondoh, Jun

    2007-07-01

    When a Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagates at a liquid/solid interface, it radiates its energy into the adjacent liquid. If a liquid droplet is loaded on the SAW propagation surface, droplet vibration, streaming, jetting, and atomization are observed. These phenomena are called SAW streaming. In this paper, a novel thin-film deposition method based on the atomization of SAW streaming phenomena is proposed. The liquid with film material is loaded on the SAW propagation surface and the liquid is atomized. The atomization direction depends on the Rayleigh angle, which is determined by the sound velocity in the liquid and the SAW velocity. For easy fabrication of a thin uniform film, the atomization direction is controlled in the perpendicular direction. Using the developed system, the deposition of pigments in ink is carried out. The results observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicate that a pigment layer is formed on a glass plate.

  7. Supercapacitors using carbon nanotubes films by electrophoretic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Chunsheng; Pan, Ning

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) thin films have been fabricated by electrophoretic deposition technique in this study. The supercapacitors built from such thin film electrodes have exhibited near-ideal rectangular cyclic voltammograms even at a scan rate as high as 1000 mV s -1 and a high specific power density over 20 kW kg -1. More importantly, the supercapacitors showed superior frequency response, with a frequency 'knee' at about 7560 Hz, which is more than 70 times higher than the highest 'knee' frequency (100 Hz) so far reported for such supercapacitors. Our study also demonstrated that these carbon nanotube thin films can serve as a coating layer over ordinary current collectors to drastically enhance the electrode performance, indicating the huge potential in supercapacitor and battery manufacturing. Finally, it is clear that electrophoretic deposition is a promising technique for massive fabrication of carbon nanotube electrodes for various electronic devices.

  8. Thermodynamics of deposition flux-dependent intrinsic film stress

    PubMed Central

    Saedi, Amirmehdi; Rost, Marcel J.

    2016-01-01

    Vapour deposition on polycrystalline films can lead to extremely high levels of compressive stress, exceeding even the yield strength of the films. A significant part of this stress has a reversible nature: it disappears when the deposition is stopped and re-emerges on resumption. Although the debate on the underlying mechanism still continues, insertion of atoms into grain boundaries seems to be the most likely one. However, the required driving force has not been identified. To address the problem we analyse, here, the entire film system using thermodynamic arguments. We find that the observed, tremendous stress levels can be explained by the flux-induced entropic effects in the extremely dilute adatom gas on the surface. Our analysis justifies any adatom incorporation model, as it delivers the underlying thermodynamic driving force. Counterintuitively, we also show that the stress levels decrease, if the barrier(s) for adatoms to reach the grain boundaries are decreased. PMID:26888311

  9. Thermodynamics of deposition flux-dependent intrinsic film stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saedi, Amirmehdi; Rost, Marcel J.

    2016-02-01

    Vapour deposition on polycrystalline films can lead to extremely high levels of compressive stress, exceeding even the yield strength of the films. A significant part of this stress has a reversible nature: it disappears when the deposition is stopped and re-emerges on resumption. Although the debate on the underlying mechanism still continues, insertion of atoms into grain boundaries seems to be the most likely one. However, the required driving force has not been identified. To address the problem we analyse, here, the entire film system using thermodynamic arguments. We find that the observed, tremendous stress levels can be explained by the flux-induced entropic effects in the extremely dilute adatom gas on the surface. Our analysis justifies any adatom incorporation model, as it delivers the underlying thermodynamic driving force. Counterintuitively, we also show that the stress levels decrease, if the barrier(s) for adatoms to reach the grain boundaries are decreased.

  10. Novel solutions for thin film layer deposition for organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiper, Dietmar; Long, Michael; Schwambera, Markus; Gersdorff, Markus; Kreis, Juergen; Heuken, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Innovative systems for carrier-gas enhanced vapor phase deposition of organic layers offer advanced methods for the precise deposition of complex thin-film layer stacks. The approach inherently avoids potential short-comings from solvent-based polymer deposition and offers new opportunities. The process operates at low pressure (thus avoiding complex vacuum setups), and, by employing AIXTRON's extensive experience in freely scalable solutions, can be adapted to virtually any production process and allows for R&D and production systems alike. Deposition of organic layers and stacks recommends the approach for a wide range of organic small molecule and polymer materials (including layers with gradual change of the composition), for conductive layers, for dielectric layers, for barrier systems, for OLED materials, and surface treatments such as oleophobic / hydrophobic coatings. With the combination of other vapor phase deposition solutions, hybrid systems combining organic and inorganic materials and other advanced stacks can be realized.

  11. Chemically Deposited Thin-Film Solar Cell Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, R.; Junek, W.; Gorse, J.; Thompson, T.; Harris, J.; Hehemann, D.; Hepp, A.; Rybicki, G.

    2005-01-01

    We have been working on the development of thin film photovoltaic solar cell materials that can be produced entirely by wet chemical methods on low-cost flexible substrates. P-type copper indium diselenide (CIS) absorber layers have been deposited via electrochemical deposition. Similar techniques have also allowed us to incorporate both Ga and S into the CIS structure, in order to increase its optical bandgap. The ability to deposit similar absorber layers with a variety of bandgaps is essential to our efforts to develop a multi-junction thin-film solar cell. Chemical bath deposition methods were used to deposit a cadmium sulfide (CdS) buffer layers on our CIS-based absorber layers. Window contacts were made to these CdS/CIS junctions by the electrodeposition of zinc oxide (ZnO). Structural and elemental determinations of the individual ZnO, CdS and CIS-based films via transmission spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy will be presented. The electrical characterization of the resulting devices will be discussed.

  12. Dual ion beam deposition of carbon films with diamondlike properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Swec, D. M.; Angus, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    A single and dual ion beam system was used to generate amorphous carbon films with diamond like properties. A methane/argon mixture at a molar ratio of 0.28 was ionized in the low pressure discharge chamber of a 30-cm-diameter ion source. A second ion source, 8 cm in diameter was used to direct a beam of 600 eV Argon ions on the substrates (fused silica or silicon) while the deposition from the 30-cm ion source was taking place. Nuclear reaction and combustion analysis indicate H/C ratios for the films to be 1.00. This high value of H/C, it is felt, allowed the films to have good transmittance. The films were impervious to reagents which dissolve graphitic and polymeric carbon structures. Although the measured density of the films was approximately 1.8 gm/cu cm, a value lower than diamond, the films exhibited other properties that were relatively close to diamond. These films were compared with diamondlike films generated by sputtering a graphite target.

  13. In situ measurement of conductivity during nanocomposite film deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blattmann, Christoph O.; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2016-05-01

    Flexible and electrically conductive nanocomposite films are essential for small, portable and even implantable electronic devices. Typically, such film synthesis and conductivity measurement are carried out sequentially. As a result, optimization of filler loading and size/morphology characteristics with respect to film conductivity is rather tedious and costly. Here, freshly-made Ag nanoparticles (nanosilver) are made by scalable flame aerosol technology and directly deposited onto polymeric (polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate)) films during which the resistance of the resulting nanocomposite is measured in situ. The formation and gas-phase growth of such flame-made nanosilver, just before incorporation onto the polymer film, is measured by thermophoretic sampling and microscopy. Monitoring the nanocomposite resistance in situ reveals the onset of conductive network formation by the deposited nanosilver growth and sinternecking. The in situ measurement is much faster and more accurate than conventional ex situ four-point resistance measurements since an electrically percolating network is detected upon its formation by the in situ technique. Nevertheless, general resistance trends with respect to filler loading and host polymer composition are consistent for both in situ and ex situ measurements. The time lag for the onset of a conductive network (i.e., percolation) depends linearly on the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the host polymer. This is attributed to the increased nanoparticle-polymer interaction with decreasing Tg. Proper selection of the host polymer in combination with in situ resistance monitoring therefore enable the optimal preparation of conductive nanocomposite films.

  14. Synthesis of silicon nitride films by ion beam enhanced deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xianghuai, Liu; Bin, Xue; Zhihong, Zheng; Zuyao, Zhou; Shichang, Zou

    1989-03-01

    Silicon nitride films with stoichiometric ratio of Si 3N 4 have been synthesized by concurrent electron beam evaporation of silicon and bombardment with nitrogen ions. The results show that the component ratio of nitrogen to silicon in IBED silicon nitride films can be controlled and predicted by the atomic arrival rate ratio of nitrogen to silicon. IR measurement shows that the characteristic absorption peak of IBED Si 3N 4 is located at a wavenumber of 840 cm -1. The refractive index ranges from 2.2 to 2.6. RBS, AES, TEM, SEM, ED and spreading resistance measurement were used for investigation of the depth profiles of composition and structure of silicon nitride films synthesized by IBED. An intermixed layer is formed at the interface by the knock on effect, and a silicon enriched layer is observed at the surface region of the film. Normally the films were found to be amorphous, but electron diffraction patterns taken from deposited layer showed a certain crystallinity. The silicon nitride films prepared by IBED have dramatically less oxygen content than that formed by non-ion-assisted deposition.

  15. Transparent Conductive Al-Doped ZnO/Cu Bilayer Films Grown on Polymer Substrates at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ji-Jie; Wang, Yu-Ping; Lu, Jian-Guo; Gong, Li; Ye, Zhi-Zhen

    2011-12-01

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO)/Cu bi-layer films are deposited by dc magnetron sputtering on polycarbonate substrates at room temperature. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the films are investigated at various sputtering powers of the Cu layer. The AZO/Cu bi-layer film deposited at a moderate sputtering power of 180 W for the Cu layer displayed the highest figure of merit of 3.47 × 10-3Ω-1, with a low sheet resistance of 12.38 Ω/sq, an acceptable visible transmittance of 73%, and a high near-infrared reflectance of about 50%.

  16. In situ study of e-beam Al and Hf metal deposition on native oxide InP (100)

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, H.; KC, Santosh; Azcatl, A.; Cabrera, W.; Qin, X.; Brennan, B.; Cho, K.; Wallace, R. M.; Zhernokletov, D.

    2013-11-28

    The interfacial chemistry of thin Al (∼3 nm) and Hf (∼2 nm) metal films deposited by electron beam (e-beam) evaporation on native oxide InP (100) samples at room temperature and after annealing has been studied by in situ angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy ion scattering spectroscopy. The In-oxides are completely scavenged forming In-In/In-(Al/Hf) bonding after Al and Hf metal deposition. The P-oxide concentration is significantly decreased, and the P-oxide chemical states have been changed to more P-rich oxides upon metal deposition. Indium diffusion through these metals before and after annealing at 250 °C has also been characterized. First principles calculation shows that In has lower surface formation energy compared with Al and Hf metals, which is consistent with the observed indium diffusion behavior.

  17. Enhanced Deposition Efficiency of Epitaxial Si Film from SiHCl3 by Mesoplasma Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sudong; Kambara, Makoto; Yoshida, Toyonobu

    Epitaxial Si thick films have been deposited by mesoplasma chemical vapor deposition with SiHCl3-H2-Ar gas mixtures at high efficiency. Addition of hydrogen has been revealed to increase the deposition efficiency by removing Cl as a form of HCl. It also promotes the surface migration of deposition precursors for the attainment of epitaxial Si films. As a result, epitaxial Si films with a production yield of about 60% and a deposition rate of 430 nm/s were deposited at a H2/TCS ratio of 2-3.

  18. Deposition of device quality low H content, amorphous silicon films

    DOEpatents

    Mahan, A.H.; Carapella, J.C.; Gallagher, A.C.

    1995-03-14

    A high quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film is deposited by passing a stream of silane gas (SiH{sub 4}) over a high temperature, 2,000 C, tungsten (W) filament in the proximity of a high temperature, 400 C, substrate within a low pressure, 8 mTorr, deposition chamber. The silane gas is decomposed into atomic hydrogen and silicon, which in turn collides preferably not more than 20--30 times before being deposited on the hot substrate. The hydrogenated amorphous silicon films thus produced have only about one atomic percent hydrogen, yet have device quality electrical, chemical, and structural properties, despite this lowered hydrogen content. 7 figs.

  19. Thin Film Nanomorphology Tailored by Physical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Motofumi

    Shadowing growth by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) has been providing self-assembled nanostructures over much larger area for much lower costs since much earlier than the recent advanced top down processes do. In these two decades, significant progress has been made in the development of the well-controlled 3D nanomorphologies such as zigzag and helix. Much effort for theoretical and numerical understanding of the growth mechanism has been also paid in order to improve the morphology. Many researches in academia have been investigating useful properties of nanocolumnar thin films in their laboratory. On the other hand, most companies seem hesitate to introduce GLAD technique into the factory due to the prejudice that the obliquely deposited thin films are not durable and reproducible. In this article, we discuss the progress in glancing angle deposition technology for the practical applications.

  20. Deposition of device quality low H content, amorphous silicon films

    DOEpatents

    Mahan, Archie H.; Carapella, Jeffrey C.; Gallagher, Alan C.

    1995-01-01

    A high quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film is deposited by passing a stream of silane gas (SiH.sub.4) over a high temperature, 2000.degree. C., tungsten (W) filament in the proximity of a high temperature, 400.degree. C., substrate within a low pressure, 8 mTorr, deposition chamber. The silane gas is decomposed into atomic hydrogen and silicon, which in turn collides preferably not more than 20-30 times before being deposited on the hot substrate. The hydrogenated amorphous silicon films thus produced have only about one atomic percent hydrogen, yet have device quality electrical, chemical, and structural properties, despite this lowered hydrogen content.

  1. A non-destructive method for measuring the mechanical properties of ultrathin films prepared by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qinglin; Xiao, Xingcheng Verbrugge, Mark W.; Cheng, Yang-Tse

    2014-08-11

    The mechanical properties of ultrathin films synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are critical for the liability of their coated devices. However, it has been a challenge to reliably measure critical properties of ALD films due to the influence from the substrate. In this work, we use the laser acoustic wave (LAW) technique, a non-destructive method, to measure the elastic properties of ultrathin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films by ALD. The measured properties are consistent with previous work using other approaches. The LAW method can be easily applied to measure the mechanical properties of various ALD thin films for multiple applications.

  2. Deposition of thermal and hot-wire chemical vapor deposition copper thin films on patterned substrates.

    PubMed

    Papadimitropoulos, G; Davazoglou, D

    2011-09-01

    In this work we study the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) of copper films on blanket and patterned substrates at high filament temperatures. A vertical chemical vapor deposition reactor was used in which the chemical reactions were assisted by a tungsten filament heated at 650 degrees C. Hexafluoroacetylacetonate Cu(I) trimethylvinylsilane (CupraSelect) vapors were used, directly injected into the reactor with the aid of a liquid injection system using N2 as carrier gas. Copper thin films grown also by thermal and hot-wire CVD. The substrates used were oxidized silicon wafers on which trenches with dimensions of the order of 500 nm were formed and subsequently covered with LPCVD W. HWCVD copper thin films grown at filament temperature of 650 degrees C showed higher growth rates compared to the thermally ones. They also exhibited higher resistivities than thermal and HWCVD films grown at lower filament temperatures. Thermally grown Cu films have very uniform deposition leading to full coverage of the patterned substrates while the HWCVD films exhibited a tendency to vertical growth, thereby creating gaps and incomplete step coverage. PMID:22097561

  3. Effects of substrate materials on piezoelectric properties of BaTiO3 thick films deposited by aerosol deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Masato; Arai, Ken-Ichi; Sugimoto, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    Piezoelectric properties were evaluated for annealed BaTiO3 (BT) films formed by aerosol deposition on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and Fe-Cr-Al-based heat-resistant stainless steel (SS). The piezoelectric constants d 31 of BT films annealed at 1200 °C formed on YSZ and SS were -71 and -41 pm/V, respectively. The effects of different substrates on piezoelectric properties were investigated. The grain sizes of the films formed on YSZ and SS were 1.5 and 1.0 µm, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis using a two-dimensional stress method revealed that the respective residual stresses of the films formed on YSZ and SS were -55 ± 8 and -32 ± 7 MPa, respectively, as compressive stresses. The c-domain structure was formed preferentially in the films on SS because of its larger compressive stress. These results suggest that differences in piezoelectric properties attributable to substrates result from differences in compressive stress magnitude and the volume fraction between the c- and a-domains.

  4. Effect of substrate pretreatments on the atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivation quality

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Yameng; Li, Shuo Gastrow, Guillaume von; Repo, Päivikki; Savin, Hele; Putkonen, Matti

    2015-01-15

    The authors show here that the passivation quality of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is highly sensitive to the surface condition prior to the atomic layer deposition, affecting especially the thermal stability of the film. Pretreatments like diluted HCl bath or preheating at 200 °C both improved significantly the passivation quality and thermal stability of the films. In addition, the authors observed that a thin chemical SiO{sub 2} layer resulting from diluted HCl solves the blistering problem often encountered in H{sub 2}O based atomic layer deposited process. Finally, the authors show that the chemical oxide protects the surface from contaminants, enabling long storage times in a dirty ambient between the cleaning and the film deposition.

  5. Annealing dependence of residual stress and optical properties of TiO2 thin film deposited by different deposition methods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Lee, Kuan-Shiang; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2008-05-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO(2)) thin films were prepared by different deposition methods. The methods were E-gun evaporation with ion-assisted deposition (IAD), radio-frequency (RF) ion-beam sputtering, and direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering. Residual stress was released after annealing the films deposited by RF ion-beam or DC magnetron sputtering but not evaporation, and the extinction coefficient varied significantly. The surface roughness of the evaporated films exceeded that of both sputtered films. At the annealing temperature of 300 degrees C, anatase crystallization occurred in evaporated film but not in the RF ion-beam or DC magnetron-sputtered films. TiO(2) films deposited by sputtering were generally more stable during annealing than those deposited by evaporation.

  6. Annealing dependence of residual stress and optical properties of TiO2 thin film deposited by different deposition methods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Lee, Kuan-Shiang; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2008-05-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO(2)) thin films were prepared by different deposition methods. The methods were E-gun evaporation with ion-assisted deposition (IAD), radio-frequency (RF) ion-beam sputtering, and direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering. Residual stress was released after annealing the films deposited by RF ion-beam or DC magnetron sputtering but not evaporation, and the extinction coefficient varied significantly. The surface roughness of the evaporated films exceeded that of both sputtered films. At the annealing temperature of 300 degrees C, anatase crystallization occurred in evaporated film but not in the RF ion-beam or DC magnetron-sputtered films. TiO(2) films deposited by sputtering were generally more stable during annealing than those deposited by evaporation. PMID:18449260

  7. Organo-layered double hydroxides composite thin films deposited by laser techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birjega, R.; Vlad, A.; Matei, A.; Dumitru, M.; Stokker-Cheregi, F.; Dinescu, M.; Zavoianu, R.; Raditoiu, V.; Corobea, M. C.

    2016-06-01

    We used laser techniques to create hydrophobic thin films of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and organo-modified LDHs. A LDH based on Zn-Al with Zn2+/Al3+ ratio of 2.5 was used as host material, while dodecyl sulfate (DS), which is an organic surfactant, acted as guest material. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) were employed for the growth of the films. The organic anions were intercalated in co-precipitation step. The powders were subsequently used either as materials for MAPLE, or they were pressed and used as targets for PLD. The surface topography of the thin films was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), the crystallographic structure of the powders and films was checked by X-ray diffraction. FTIR spectroscopy was used to evidence DS interlayer intercalation, both for powders and the derived films. Contact angle measurements were performed in order to establish the wettability properties of the as-prepared thin films, in view of functionalization applications as hydrophobic surfaces, owing to the effect of DS intercalation.

  8. Interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and damping parameter in ultra thin Co{sub 2}FeAl films

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Yishen; Khodadadi, Behrouz; Schaefer, Sebastian; Mewes, Tim; Lu, Jiwei; Wolf, Stuart A.

    2013-04-22

    B2-ordered Co{sub 2}FeAl films were synthesized using an ion beam deposition tool. A high degree of chemical ordering {approx}81.2% with a low damping parameter ({alpha}) less than 0.004 was obtained in a 50 nm thick film via rapid thermal annealing at 600 Degree-Sign C. The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) was optimized in ultra thin Co{sub 2}FeAl films annealed at 350 Degree-Sign C without an external magnetic field. The reduced thickness and annealing temperature to achieve PMA introduced extrinsic factors thus increasing {alpha} significantly. However, the observed damping of Co{sub 2}FeAl films was still lower than that of Co{sub 60}Fe{sub 20}B{sub 20} films prepared at the same thickness and annealing temperature.

  9. Combinatorial thin film composition mapping using three dimensional deposition profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suram, Santosh K.; Zhou, Lan; Becerra-Stasiewicz, Natalie; Kan, Kevin; Jones, Ryan J. R.; Kendrick, Brian M.; Gregoire, John M.

    2015-03-01

    Many next-generation technologies are limited by material performance, leading to increased interest in the discovery of advanced materials using combinatorial synthesis, characterization, and screening. Several combinatorial synthesis techniques, such as solution based methods, advanced manufacturing, and physical vapor deposition, are currently being employed for various applications. In particular, combinatorial magnetron sputtering is a versatile technique that provides synthesis of high-quality thin film composition libraries. Spatially addressing the composition of these thin films generally requires elemental quantification measurements using techniques such as energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy or X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Since these measurements are performed ex-situ and post-deposition, they are unable to provide real-time design of experiments, a capability that is required for rapid synthesis of a specific composition library. By using three quartz crystal monitors attached to a stage with translational and rotational degrees of freedom, we measure three-dimensional deposition profiles of deposition sources whose tilt with respect to the substrate is robotically controlled. We exhibit the utility of deposition profiles and tilt control to optimize the deposition geometry for specific combinatorial synthesis experiments.

  10. Effects of doping and annealing on properties of ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Aiji; Chen, Tingfang; Lu, Shuhua; Wu, Zhenglong; Li, Yongliang; Chen, He; Wang, Yinshu

    2015-02-01

    Undoped and Al-doped ZnO films were synthesized by atomic layer deposition at 150°C and then annealed at 350°C in different atmospheres. Effects of doping and annealing on the film growth mode and properties were investigated. The undoped film has strong UV emission and weak Zn interstitial emission. Annealing introduces O vacancies, decreases Zn interstitials, and results in weakening and blue-shifting of the UV emission which is sensitive to annealing atmosphere. Al doping induces the film growing with its c-axis parallel to the substrate surface. It also introduces non-radiative centers and weakens the UV emission. Al doping widens the film bandgap, which has a quadratic dependence on Al content. Al doping decreases the film resistivity to 5.3 × 10-3 Ω · cm. Annealing has little effect on photoluminescence of the doped films, but it degrades undoped and doped ZnO film conductivity dramatically; and the degradation depends on the annealing ambient.

  11. Studies on the properties of Al2O3:Cr2O3 (50:50) thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponmudi, S.; Sivakumar, R.; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2016-05-01

    Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and chromium oxide (Cr2O3) thin films have received great attention of researchers because of their unique properties of corrosion/oxidation resistance and high dielectric constant. In addition, chromium aluminium oxide has been considered as a best candidate for deep-ultraviolet optical masks. In the present work, thin films of Al2O3:Cr2O3 (50:50) were deposited on pre-cleaned microscopic glass substrate by RF magnetron sputtering technique. The substrate temperature and RF power induced changes in structural, surface morphological, compositional and optical properties of the films have been studied.

  12. Nanoindentation study of niobium nitride thin films on niobium fabricated by reactive pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Mamun, Md Abdullah Al; Farha, Ashraf Hassan; Ufuktepe, Yüksel; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.

    2015-03-01

    Nanomechanical and structural properties of NbNx films deposited on single crystal Nb using pulsed laser deposition for different substrate temperature were previously investigated as a function of film/substrate crystal structure (Mamun et al. (2012) [30]). In this study we focus on the effect of laser fluences and background nitrogen pressure on the nanomechanical and structural properties of NbNx films. The crystal structure and surface morphology of the thin films were tested by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Using nanoindentation, the investigation of the nanomechanical properties revealed that the hardness of the NbNx films was directly influenced by the laser fluence for low background nitrogen pressure, whereas the nanomechanical hardness showed no apparent correlation with laser fluence at high background nitrogen pressure. The NbNx film hardness measured at 30% film thickness increased from 14.0 ± 1.3 to 18.9 ± 2.4 GPa when the laser fluence was increased from 15 to 25 J/cm2 at 10.7 Pa N2 pressure. X-ray diffraction showed NbNx films with peaks that correspond to δ-NbN cubic and β-Nb2N hexagonal phases in addition to the δ'-NbN hexagonal phase. Finally, increasing the laser fluence resulted in NbNx films with larger grain sizes.

  13. Electrowetting properties of atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} decorated silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Rajkumar, K.; Rajavel, K.; Cameron, D. C.; Mangalaraj, D.; Rajendrakumar, R. T.

    2015-06-24

    This paper reports the electrowetting properties of liquid droplet on superhydrophobic silicon nanowires with Atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as dielectric layer. Silicon wafer were etched by metal assisted wet chemical etching with silver as catalyst. ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films of 10nm thickness were conformally deposited over silicon nanowires. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric film coated silicon nanowires was chemically modified with Trichloro (1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyl) silane to make it superhydrophobic(SHP). The contact angle was measured and all the samples exhibited superhydrophobic nature with maximum contact angles of 163° and a minimum contact angle hysteresis of 6°. Electrowetting induced a maximum reversible decrease of the contact angle of 20°at 150V in air.

  14. Grain structure and growth of dispersed phase BN-AlN coatings grown via chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, G.B.; Lackey, W.J.; Hanigofsky, J.A. . Georgia Technology Research Inst.); Lee, Woo Y. ); More, K.L. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the variation in microstructures encountered during the separate depositions of boron nitride (BN) and aluminium nitride (AlN) as well as during the codeposition of BN-AlN dispersed phase ceramic coatings. This combination was chosen in order to take advantage of the self lubricating properties of hexagonal BN along with the hard, erosion resistance of AlN. Films were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). A range of coating microstructures are possible depending on the conditions of deposition. The best films produced, in terms of hardness, density, and tenacity, were a fine mixture of turbostratic BN and preferentially oriented A1N whiskers aligned with the whisker axis perpendicular to the substrate surface as seen by both electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. New ion-assisted filtered cathodic arc deposition (IFCAD) technology for producing advanced thin films on temperature-sensitive substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, Michael L.

    1999-10-01

    An innovative Ion-Assisted Filtered Cathodic Arc Deposition (IFCAD) system has been developed for low temperature production of thin-film coatings. The IFCAD system employs electro-magnetic and mechanical filtering techniques to remove unwanted macroparticles and neutral atoms from the plasma stream. Therefore, only ions within a defined energy range arrive at the substrate surface, depositing thin-films with excellent mechanical and optical properties. Ion- Assisted-Deposition is coupled with Filtered Cathodic Arc technology to enhance and modify the arc deposited thin- films. Using an advanced computer controlled plasma beam scanning system, high quality, large area, uniform IFCAD multi-layer film structures are attained. Amorphous Diamond- Like-Carbon films (up to 85% sp3 bonded carbon; and micro- hardness greater than 50 GPa) have been deposited in multi- layer thin-film combinations with other IFCAD source materials (such as: Al2O3) for optical and tribological applications. Rutile TiO2 (refractive index of 2.8 at 500 nm) has been deposited with this technology for advanced optical filter applications. The new IFCAD technology has been included in development programs, such as: plastic and glass lens coatings for optical systems; wear resistant coatings on various metal substrates, ultra smooth, durable, surface hydrophobic coatings for aircraft windows; EUV coatings for space instrumentation; transparent conductive coatings; and UV protective coatings for solar cell concentrator plastic Fresnel lens elements for space power.

  16. Optimized chemical vapor deposition of borophosphosilicate glass films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, W.; Kurylo, W. A.; Tino, C. J.

    1985-06-01

    The optimization of atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG) to produce glass films with few particle containments is discussed. The tests that were conducted in order to determine the optimum deposition temperature and proper oxygen/hydride ratio are explained. A decrease in deposition temperature and an increase in the oxygen/hydride ratio maximized the APCVD reaction. The techniques used to analyze the composition of BPSG after densification are described; the tests revealed that the elemental composition of BPSG was not altered by APCVD. An explanation of the film profiling technique used to determine the stability of BPSG films during processing is provided; BPSG films remain stable if they are densified or fused prior to the application of wet treatments. A comparison of conventional tube-furnace heating with rapid isothermal heating for fusion flow of BPSG is presented; fusion tapering by rapid heating was attained in 30 seconds at 175 C versus 30 minutes for tube heating.

  17. Growth and Characterization of Polyimide-Supported AlN Films for Flexible Surface Acoustic Wave Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Liu, Hongyan; Li, Gen; Zeng, Fei; Pan, Feng; Luo, Jingting; Qian, Lirong

    2016-06-01

    Highly c-axis oriented aluminum nitride (AlN) films, which can be used in flexible surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, were successfully deposited on polyimide (PI) substrates by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering without heating. The sputtering power, film thickness, and deposition pressure were optimized. The characterization studies show that at the optimized conditions, the deposited AlN films are composed of columnar grains, which penetrate through the entire film thickness (~2 μm) and exhibit an excellent (0002) texture with a full width at half maximum value of the rocking curve equal to 2.96°. The film surface is smooth with a root mean square value of roughness of 3.79 nm. SAW prototype devices with a center frequency of about 520 MHz and a phase velocity of Rayleigh wave of about 4160 m/s were successfully fabricated using the AlN/PI composite structure. The obtained results demonstrate that the highly c-axis oriented AlN films with a smooth surface and low stress can be produced on relatively rough, flexible substrates, and this composite structure can be possibly used in flexible SAW devices.

  18. Plasmonic enhancement of UV emission from ZnO thin films induced by Al nano-concave arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norek, Małgorzata; Łuka, Grzegorz; Włodarski, Maksymilian

    2016-10-01

    Surface plasmons (SPs) supported by Al nano-concave arrays with increasing interpore distance (Dc) were used to enhance the ultraviolet light emission from ZnO thin films. Two sets of samples were prepared: in the first set the thin ZnO films were deposited directly on Al nanoconcaves (the Al/ZnO samples) and in the second set a 10 nm - Al2O3 spacer was placed between the textured Al and the ZnO films (the Al/Al2O3-ALD/ZnO samples). In the Al/ZnO samples the enhancement was limited by a nonradiative energy dissipation due to the Ohmic loss in the Al metal. However, for the ZnO layer deposited directly on Al nanopits synthesized at 150 V (Dc = 333 ± 18 nm), the largest 9-fold enhancement was obtained by achieving the best energy fit between the near band-edge (NBE) emission from ZnO and the λ(0,1) SPP resonance mode. In the Al/Al2O3-ALD/ZnO samples the amplification of the UV emission was smaller than in the Al/ZnO samples due to a big energy mismatch between the NBE emission and the λ(0,1) plasmonic mode. The results obtained in this work indicate that better tuning of the NBE - λ(0,1) SPP resonance mode coupling is possible through a proper modification of geometrical parameters in the Al/Al2O3-ALD/ZnO system such as Al nano-concave spacing and the thickness of the corresponding layer. This approach will reduce the negative influence of the non-radiative plasmonic modes and most likely will lead to further enhancement of the SP-modulated UV emission from ZnO thin films.

  19. Measurement of residual stresses in deposited films of SOFC component materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, T.; Momma, A.; Nagata, S.; Kasuga, Y.

    1996-12-31

    The stress induced in Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)s has important influence on the lifetime of SOFC. But the data on stress in SOFC and mechanical properties of SOW component materials have not been accumulated enough to manufacture SOFC. Especially, the data of La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} cathode and La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CrO{sub 3} interconnection have been extremely limited. We have estimated numerically the dependences of residual stress in SOFC on the material properties, the cell structure and the fabrication temperatures of the components, but these unknown factors have caused obstruction to simulate the accurate behavior of residual stress. Therefore, the residual stresses in deposited La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} and La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CrO{sub 3} films are researched by the observation of the bending behavior of the substrate strips. The films of SOFC component materials were prepared by the RF sputtering method, because: (1) It can fabricate dense films of poor sinterable material such as La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CrO{sub 3} compared with sintering or plasma spray method. (2) For the complicated material such as perovskite materials, the difference between the composition of a film and that of a target material is generally small. (3) It can fabricate a thick ceramics film by improving of the deposition rate. For example, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thick films of 50{mu}m can be fabricated with the deposition rate of approximately 5{mu}m/h industrially. In this paper, the dependence of residual stress on the deposition conditions is defined and mechanical properties of these materials are estimated from the results of the experiments.

  20. Growth of La1-xSrxFeO3 thin films by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Lie, Martin; Nilsen, Ola; Fjellvåg, Helmer; Kjekshus, Arne

    2009-01-21

    Thin films of La1-xSrxFeO3 have been prepared by the ALD (atomic layer deposition) technique using La(thd)3 (Hthd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylheptane-3,5-dione), Sr(thd)2, Fe(thd)3, and ozone as precursors. A so-called ALD window is found in the temperature range 200 to 360 degrees C for LaFeO3. The effect of the pulsing procedure for the precursors on the composition of the films is examined. The results are discussed in relation to a model which ascribes differences between pulsed and obtained stoichiometries to individually different surface-area demands of the precursors. The La1-xSrxFeO3 films turned out to contain only small amounts of carbonate impurities despite the fact that films prepared from Sr(thd)2 and ozone under the same conditions contains virtually pure SrCO3. Films of La1-xSrxFeO3 have been deposited on substrates of (amorphous) soda-lime glass and single crystals of Si(100), SrTiO3(100), and LaAlO3(012). Annealed films on soda-lime glass and Si(100) substrates turned out to be polycrystalline with virtually random orientation of the crystallites. Those on MgO(100) and SrTiO3(100) substrates showed some degree of crystal orientation, whereas the annealed films on LaAlO3(012) proved to contain distinctly oriented crystallites with mosaic features.

  1. Poly-para-xylylene thin films: A study of the deposition chemistry, kinetics, film properties, and film stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Jeffrey Bernard

    Poly-para-xylylene, or parylene, thin films are chemically vapor deposited (CVD), conformal, pin-hole free polymeric thin films. They have found many industrial uses since there invention in 1947 and continue to find new applications in micro-electronics, biotechnology, and micro-electro-mechanical systems. In this study the deposition chemistry, deposition kinetics, film properties, and film stability were investigated. A differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to analyze the vapor species present during the CVD process. The identity of dimer contamination and its impact on the CVD process and film properties was studied. The quantitative conversion of dimer to monomer was investigated and it was found that conversion begins at around 385°C and by 565°C 100% conversion is obtained. The kinetics of the CVD process was analyzed for a range of substrate temperatures and chamber pressures. A new kinetic model based on a two-step adsorption was developed and fit the kinetic data well. This model should be appropriate for use with all parylene family polymers. Many of the properties of the films deposited in this study were analyzed. This includes a detailed study of surface morphology using atomic force microscopy which shows the interface width increases as a power law of film thickness. Other properties analyzed were the thermal stability, electrical properties, index of refraction, birefringence, hardness, and elastic modulus. The effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation of lambda ≥ 250 nm on the thermal stability, electrical, and optical properties of thin parylene films was studied. The thermal stability and electrical properties of UV treated films were seen to deteriorate as the radiation dose increased. The stability of parylene thin films receiving plasma etching was analyzed. The dielectric constant, dissipation factor, and leakage current of plasma etched thin parylene films were investigated and found to be stable for the range of

  2. Novel doped hydroxyapatite thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duta, L.; Oktar, F. N.; Stan, G. E.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Serban, N.; Luculescu, C.; Mihailescu, I. N.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of novel ovine and bovine derived hydroxyapatite thin films on titanium substrates by pulsed laser deposition for a new generation of implants. The calcination treatment applied to produce the hydroxyapatite powders from ovine/bovine bones was intended to induce crystallization and to prohibit the transmission of diseases. The deposited films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Pull-off adherence and profilometry measurements were also carried out. X-ray diffraction ascertained the polycrystalline hydroxyapatite nature of the powders and films. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy evidenced the vibrational bands characteristic to a hydroxyapatite material slightly carbonated. The micrographs of the films showed a uniform distribution of spheroidal particulates with a mean diameter of ∼2 μm. Pull-off measurements demonstrated excellent bonding strength values between the hydroxyapatite films and the titanium substrates. Because of their physical-chemical properties and low cost fabrication from renewable resources, we think that these new coating materials could be considered as a prospective competitor to synthetic hydroxyapatite used for implantology applications.

  3. Structure/property relationships in pulsed-laser-deposited ferroelectric thin films for frequency-agile microwave electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwitz, James S.; Carter, A. C.; Chang, Wontae; Pond, Jeffrey M.; Kirchoefer, Steven W.; Chrisey, Douglas B.; Levy, J.; Hubert, C.

    1998-06-01

    Low loss ferroelectric thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) are currently being used to develop a new class of tunable microwave circuits based on the electric field dependence of the dielectric constant. Single phase, (100) oriented Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 (BST) films have been deposited onto (100) LaAlO3, SrTiO3, and MgO substrates. Interdigitated capacitors have been used to measure the dielectric constant and dissipation factor of these films as a function of DC bias and temperature at 1 MHz and as a function of DC bias at 1 to 20 GHz at room temperature. A low phase noise voltage controlled oscillator is currently being developed for use at frequencies from 1 - 20 GHz. To achieve low phase noise in the oscillator will require the loss tangent in the ferroelectric to be films using confocal scanning optical microscopy shows reproducible polarization fluctuations over sub-micrometer length scales for BST films deposited onto SrTiO3 which are not observed for films deposited onto MgO. Dielectric loss in the ferroelectric film is reduced through a combination of post deposition processing and donor/acceptor doping of the films. The lowest dielectric loss measured at microwave frequencies (tan(delta) equals 0.01 at 1 - 10 GHz) has been in a post-deposition annealed Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 film doped with approximately 1 - 2 atomic % Mn.

  4. [Effect of Helium on Diamond Films Deposited Using Microwave PCVD].

    PubMed

    Cao, Wei; Ma, Zhi-bin; Tao, Li-ping; Gao, Pan; Li, Yi-cheng; Fu, Qiu-ming

    2015-03-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was used to in situ diagnose the CH4-H2-He plasma in order to know the effect of helium on the diamond growth by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD). The spatial distribution of radicals in the plasma as a function of helium addition was studied. The diamond films deposited in different helium volume fraction were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that the spectra intensity of radicals of H(α), H(β), H(γ), CH and C2 increases with the increasing of helium volume fraction, especially, that of radical H(α) has the most improvement. The spectrum space diagnosis results show that the uniformity of C2, CH radicals in the plasma tends to poor due to the helium addition and resulted in a different thickness along the radial direction The measurement of deposition rate shows that the addition of helium is useful for the improvement of the growth rate of diamond films, due to relative concentration of carbon radicals was increased. The deposition rate increases by 24% when the volume fraction of He was increased from 0 vol. % to 4.7 vol.%. The micrographs of SEM reveal that with the increasing of helium volume fraction, the diamond films' crystallite orientation changes from (111) to disorder and a twins growth becomes obvious. The secondary nucleation density during growth increases because the high relatively concentration of C2 radicals under higher helium volume fraction (4.7 vol. %). In addition, the substrate was etched and sputtered by the plasma, which introduced metallic atoms into the plasma during the deposition of diamond films. Eventually, the existing of secondary nucleation and impurity atoms lead to the appearance of twins and results in the compressive dress.

  5. [Effect of Helium on Diamond Films Deposited Using Microwave PCVD].

    PubMed

    Cao, Wei; Ma, Zhi-bin; Tao, Li-ping; Gao, Pan; Li, Yi-cheng; Fu, Qiu-ming

    2015-03-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was used to in situ diagnose the CH4-H2-He plasma in order to know the effect of helium on the diamond growth by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD). The spatial distribution of radicals in the plasma as a function of helium addition was studied. The diamond films deposited in different helium volume fraction were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that the spectra intensity of radicals of H(α), H(β), H(γ), CH and C2 increases with the increasing of helium volume fraction, especially, that of radical H(α) has the most improvement. The spectrum space diagnosis results show that the uniformity of C2, CH radicals in the plasma tends to poor due to the helium addition and resulted in a different thickness along the radial direction The measurement of deposition rate shows that the addition of helium is useful for the improvement of the growth rate of diamond films, due to relative concentration of carbon radicals was increased. The deposition rate increases by 24% when the volume fraction of He was increased from 0 vol. % to 4.7 vol.%. The micrographs of SEM reveal that with the increasing of helium volume fraction, the diamond films' crystallite orientation changes from (111) to disorder and a twins growth becomes obvious. The secondary nucleation density during growth increases because the high relatively concentration of C2 radicals under higher helium volume fraction (4.7 vol. %). In addition, the substrate was etched and sputtered by the plasma, which introduced metallic atoms into the plasma during the deposition of diamond films. Eventually, the existing of secondary nucleation and impurity atoms lead to the appearance of twins and results in the compressive dress. PMID:26117884

  6. RBS study of amorphous silicon carbide films deposited by PECVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huran, J.; Hotovy, I.; Kobzev, A. P.; Balalykin, N. I.

    2004-03-01

    We present properties of nitrogen-doped amorphous silicon carbide films that were grown by a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) technique and annealed by pulsed electron beam. Samples with different amounts of N were achieved by a small addition of ammonia NH3 into the gas mixture of silane SiH4 and methane CH4, which were directly introduced into the reaction chamber. The actual amount of nitrogen in the SiC films was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). A simulation of the RBS spectra was used to calculate the concentration of carbon, silicon and nitrogen.

  7. Closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering ion plating of Ni/Al thin films: influence of the magnetron power.

    PubMed

    Said, R; Ahmed, W; Gracio, J

    2010-04-01

    In this study NiAl thin films have been deposited using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering Ion plating (CFUBMSIP). The influence of magnetron power has been investigated using dense and humongous NiAl compound targets onto stainless steel and glass substrates. Potential applications include tribological, electronic media and bond coatings in thermal barrier coatings system. Several techniques has been used to characterise the films including surface stylus profilometry, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) Composition analysis of the samples was carried out using VGTOF SIMS (IX23LS) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). Scratch tester (CSM) combined with acoustic emission singles during loading in order to compare the coating adhesion. The acoustic emission signals emitted during the indentation process were used to determine the critical load, under which the film begins to crack and/or break off the substrate. The average thickness of the films was approximately 1 um. EDAX results of NiAl thin films coating with various magnetron power exhibited the near equal atomic% Ni:Al. The best result being obtained using 300 W and 400 W DC power for Ni and Al targets respectively. XRD revealed the presence of beta NiAl phase for all the films coatings. AFM analysis of the films deposited on glass substrates exhibited quite a smooth surface with surface roughness values in the nanometre range. CSM results indicate that best adhesion was achieved at 300 W for Ni, and 400 W for Al targets compared to sample other power values. SIMS depth profile showed a uniform distribution of the Ni and Al component from the surface of the film to the interface.

  8. Structural properties of ZnO:Al films produced by the sol–gel technique

    SciTech Connect

    Zaretskaya, E. P. Gremenok, V. F.; Semchenko, A. V.; Sidsky, V. V.; Juskenas, R. L.

    2015-10-15

    ZnO:Al films are produced by sol–gel deposition at temperatures of 350–550°C, using different types of reagents. Atomic-force microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and optical transmittance measurements are used to study the dependence of the structural, morphological, and optical properties of the ZnO:Al coatings on the conditions of deposition. The optical conditions for the production of ZnO:Al layers with preferred orientation in the [001] direction and distinguished by small surface roughness are established. The layers produced in the study possess optical transmittance at a level of up to 95% in a wide spectral range and can be used in optoelectronic devices.

  9. High temperature performance of sputter-deposited piezoelectric aluminum nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillinger, M.; Schneider, M.; Bittner, A.; Nicolay, P.; Schmid, U.

    2015-05-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) is a promising material for sensor applications in harsh environments such as turbine exhausts or thermal power plants due to its piezoelectric properties, good thermal match to silicon and high temperature stability. Typically, the usage of piezoelectric materials in high temperature is limited by the Curie-temperature, the increase of the leakage current as well as by enhanced diffusion effects in the materials. In order to exploit the high temperature potential of AlN thin films, post deposition annealing experiments up to 1000°C in both oxygen and nitrogen gas atmospheres for 2 h were performed. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that the thin films are chemically stable in a pure oxygen atmosphere for 2 h at annealing temperatures of up to 900°C. After a 2 h annealing step at 1000°C in pure oxygen. However, a 100 nm thin AlN film is completely oxidized. In contrast, the layer is stable up to 1000°C in pure nitrogen atmosphere. The surface topology changes significantly at annealing temperatures above 800°C independent of annealing atmosphere. The surface roughness is increased by about one order of magnitude compared to the "as deposited" state. This is predominantly attributed to recrystallization processes occurring during high temperature loading. Up to an annealing temperature of 700°C, a Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanism dominates the leakage current characteristics. Above, a mixture of different leakage current mechanisms is observed.

  10. Nucleation and growth of epitaxial metal-oxide films based on polymer-assisted deposition.

    PubMed

    McCleskey, T M; Shi, P; Bauer, E; Highland, M J; Eastman, J A; Bi, Z X; Fuoss, P H; Baldo, P M; Ren, W; Scott, B L; Burrell, A K; Jia, Q X

    2014-04-01

    Polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) is one of the chemical solution deposition methods which have been successfully used to grow films, form coatings, and synthesize nanostructured materials. In comparison with other conventional solution-based deposition techniques, PAD differs in its use of water-soluble polymers in the solution that prevent the metal ions from unwanted chemical reactions and keep the solution stable. Furthermore, filtration to remove non-coordinated cations and anions in the PAD process ensures well controlled nucleation, which enables the growth of high quality epitaxial films with desired structural and physical properties. The precursor solution is prepared by mixing water-soluble polymer(s) with salt(s). Thermal treatment of the precursor films in a controlled environment leads to the formation of desired materials. Using BaTiO3 grown on SrTiO3 and LaMnO3 on LaAlO3 as model systems, we show the effect of filtration on the nucleation and growth of epitaxial complex metal-oxide films based on the PAD process. PMID:24158602

  11. Capability for Fine Tuning of the Refractive Index Sensing Properties of Long-Period Gratings by Atomic Layer Deposited Al2O3 Overlays

    PubMed Central

    Śmietana, Mateusz; Myśliwiec, Marcin; Mikulic, Predrag; Witkowski, Bartłomiej S.; Bock, Wojtek J.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents an application of thin aluminum oxide (Al2O3) films obtained using atomic layer deposition (ALD) for fine tuning the spectral response and refractive-index (RI) sensitivity of long-period gratings (LPGs) induced in optical fibers. The technique allows for an efficient and well controlled deposition at monolayer level (resolution ∼ 0.12 nm) of excellent quality nano-films as required for optical sensors. The effect of Al2O3 deposition on the spectral properties of the LPGs is demonstrated experimentally and numerically. We correlated both the increase in Al2O3 thickness and changes in optical properties of the film with the shift of the LPG resonance wavelength and proved that similar films are deposited on fibers and oxidized silicon reference samples in the same process run. Since the thin overlay effectively changes the distribution of the cladding modes and thus also tunes the device's RI sensitivity, the tuning can be simply realized by varying number of cycles, which is proportional to thickness of the high-refractive-index (n > 1.6 in infrared spectral range) Al2O3 film. The advantage of this approach is the precision in determining the film properties resulting in RI sensitivity of the LPGs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that an ultra-precise method for overlay deposition has been applied on LPGs for RI tuning purposes and the results have been compared with numerical simulations based on LP mode approximation.

  12. Thin films of barium fluoride scintillator deposited by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirlin, P. S.; Binder, R.; Winn, D. R.; O'Hare, J.; LaPierre, C.; Whitmore, M.

    1990-04-01

    We have used metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technology to coat optical substrates with thin (˜1-10 μm thick) films of inorganic BaF 2 scintillator. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs indicate that high-quality epitaxial crystalline film growth was achieved, with surface defects typically smaller than optical wavelengths. The scintillation light created by the deposition of ionizing radiation in the scintillating films was measured with a photomultiplier and shown to be similar to bulk melt-grown crystals. The results demonstrate the potential of these composite optical materials for planar and fiber scintillation radiation detectors in high energy and nuclear physics, synchrotron radiation research, and in radiation and X-ray imaging and monitoring.

  13. Growth, characterization and post-processing of inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic thin films deposited using atomic and molecular layer deposition techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulagatov, Aziz Ilmutdinovich

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) and molecular layer deposition (MLD) are advanced thin film coating techniques developed for deposition of inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic films respectively. Decreasing device dimensions and increasing aspect ratios in semiconductor processing has motivated developments in ALD. The beginning of this thesis will cover study of new ALD chemistry for high dielectric constant Y 2O3. In addition, the feasibility of conducting low temperature ALD of TiN and TiAlN is explored using highly reactive hydrazine as a new nitrogen source. Developments of these ALD processes are important for the electronics industry. As the search for new materials with more advanced properties continues, attention has shifted toward exploring the synthesis of hierarchically nanostructured thin films. Such complex architectures can provide novel functions important to the development of state of the art devices for the electronics industry, catalysis, energy conversion and memory storage as a few examples. Therefore, the main focus of this thesis is on the growth, characterization, and post-processing of ALD and MLD films for fabrication of novel composite (nanostructured) thin films. Novel composite materials are created by annealing amorphous ALD oxide alloys in air and by heat treatment of hybrid organic-inorganic MLD films in inert atmosphere (pyrolysis). The synthesis of porous TiO2 or Al2O3 supported V2O5 for enhanced surface area catalysis was achieved by the annealing of inorganic TiVxOy and AlV xOy ALD films in air. The interplay between phase separation, surface energy difference, crystallization, and melting temperature of individual oxides were studied for their control of film morphology. In other work, a class of novel metal oxide-graphitic carbon composite thin films was produced by pyrolysis of MLD hybrid organic-inorganic films. For example, annealing in argon of titania based hybrid films enabled fabrication of thin films of intimately

  14. Effects of Ar plasma treatment for deposition of ruthenium film by remote plasma atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Taeyong; Lee, Jaesang; Park, Jingyu; Jeon, Heeyoung; Jeon, Hyeongtag; Lee, Ki-Hoon; Cho, Byung-Chul; Kim, Moo-Sung; Ahn, Heui-Bok

    2012-01-15

    Ruthenium thin films were deposited on argon plasma-treated SiO{sub 2} and untreated SiO{sub 2} substrates by remote plasma atomic layer deposition using bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium [Ru(EtCp){sub 2}] as a Ru precursor and ammonia plasma as a reactant. The results of in situ Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) analysis indicate that the initial transient region of Ru deposition was decreased by Ar plasma treatment at 400 deg. C, but did not change significantly at 300 deg. C The deposition rate exhibited linearity after continuous film formation and the deposition rates were about 1.7 A/cycle and 0.4 A/cycle at 400 deg. C and 300 deg. C, respectively. Changes of surface energy and polar and dispersive components were measured by the sessile drop test. The quantity of surface amine groups was measured from the surface nitrogen concentration with AES. Furthermore, the Ar plasma-treated SiO{sub 2} contained more amine groups and less hydroxyl groups on the surface than on untreated SiO{sub 2}. Auger spectra exhibited chemical shifts by Ru-O bonding, and larger shifts were observed on untreated substrates due to the strong adhesion of Ru films.

  15. Deposition of nanocrystalline SiC films using helicon wave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wanbing; Yu, Wei; Ma, Luo; Wu, Liping; Fu, Guangsheng

    2008-11-01

    Hydrogenated nanocrystalline SiC films have been deposited by using helicon wave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (HW-PECVD) in H2, SiH4 and CH4 gas mixtures at different RF powers. Their structural and optical properties have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared absorption (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) transmission spectra. The results indicate that RF power has an important influence on properties of the deposited films. It is found that in a 300 °C low substrate temperature, only amorphous SiC can be deposited at the radio frequency (RF) power of lower than 400 W, while nanocrystalline SiC can be grown at the RF power of equal to or higher than 400 W. The analyses show that the high plasma density of helicon wave plasma source and the high hydrogen dilution condition are two key factors for depositing nanocrystalline SiC films at a low temperature.

  16. Investigation of Al doping concentration effect on the structural and optical properties of the nanostructured CdO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gencer Imer, Arife

    2016-04-01

    Nanostructured aluminium (Al) doped cadmium oxide (CdO) films with highly electrical conductivity and optical transparency have been deposited for the first time on soda-lime glass substrates preheated at 250 °C by ultrasonic spray coating technique. The aluminium dopant content in the CdO film was changed from 0 to 5 at%. The influencing of Al doping on the structural, morphological, electrical and optical properties of the CdO nanostructured films has been investigated. Atomic force microscopy study showed the grain size of the films is an order of nanometers, and it decreases with increase in Al dopant content. All the films having cubic structure with a lattice parameter 4.69 Å were determined via X ray diffraction analysis. The optical band gap value of the films, obtained by optical absorption, was found to increase with Al doping. Electrical studies exhibited mobility, carrier concentration and resistivity of the film strongly dependent on the doping content. It has been evaluated that optical band gap, and grain size of the nanostructured CdO film could be modified by Al doping.

  17. Structural and Magnetic Properties of Fe Films Electrodeposited on Al Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mebarki, M.; Layadi, A.; Khelladi, M. R.; Azizi, A.; Tiercelin, N.; Preobrazhensky, V.; Pernod, P.

    2016-07-01

    Series of Fe films have been prepared by electrodeposition in a solution of iron chloride onto Al substrate. Different deposition times were used in the elaboration process. The texture, the strain, and the grain size values were derived from X-ray diffraction experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been used to get the surface and the cross section images. Vibrating Sample magnetometer has been used to obtain the hysteresis curves; the external magnetic field was applied in different directions in the film plane, and also perpendicular to the film. Hysteresis curves have been obtained at low temperatures [120 K (-153 °C) to room temperature]. The <100> texture, small strain, and grain size ranging from 58 to 113 nm are found for these Fe/Al films. All samples show an in-plane magnetic anisotropy, with no preferred orientation within the film plane. Depending on the film thickness range, different mechanisms have been found to be responsible for the coercive field H C behavior. These magnetic properties are correlated with the structural ones and with the SEM observations.

  18. Highly transparent and conductive Al-doped ZnO nanoparticulate thin films using direct write processing.

    PubMed

    Vunnam, S; Ankireddy, K; Kellar, J; Cross, W

    2014-05-16

    Solution processable Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films are attractive candidates for low cost transparent electrodes. We demonstrate here an optimized nanoparticulate ink for the fabrication of AZO thin films using scalable, low-cost direct write processing (ultrasonic spray deposition) in air at atmospheric pressure. The thin films were made via thermal processing of as-deposited films. AZO films deposited using the proposed nanoparticulate ink with further reducing in vacuum and rf plasma of forming gas exhibited optical transparency greater than 95% across the visible spectrum, and electrical resistivity of 0.5 Ω cm and it drops down to 7.0 × 10(-2) Ω cm after illuminating with UV light, which is comparable to commercially available tin doped indium oxide colloidal coatings. Various structural analyses were performed to investigate the influence of ink chemistry, deposition parameters, and annealing temperatures on the structural, optical, and electrical characteristics of the spray deposited AZO thin films. Optical micrographs confirmed the presence of surface defects and cracks using the AZO NPs ink without any additives. After adding N-(2-Aminoethyl)-3-aminopropylmethyldimethoxy silane to the ink, AZO films exhibited an optical transparency which was virtually identical to that of the plain glass substrate. PMID:24763438

  19. Pressure-temperature sensors: Solution deposition of rare earth doped garnet films

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, N.J.; Exarhos, G.J.

    1993-11-01

    An aqueous route to the deposition of multicomponent metal oxide films is based upon the complexation of precursor metal nitrate salts by glycine, or other organic complexant, followed by spin-coating the homogeneous solution onto pretreated silica substrates. Glycine serves to frustrate the formation of cation oxides, thus precipitation. Upon dehydration, a glassy matrix results through which metal cations and nitrate anions are homogeneously dispersed. Subsequent heating of coated substrates initiates an oxidation-reduction reaction, which removes the organic matrix and residual nitrate leaving behind a film of the desired oxide composition. Using this method, SM:YAG (Sm:Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} - garnet) films about 150 nm thick have been deposited. The respective phases have been confirmed by powder XRD measurements and fluorescence spectroscopy. Analogous studies using powders generated by the same technique provided the parameters for optimizing processing conditions to generate phase pure YAG films. The fluorescence emission wavelength and related lifetime of certain electronic transitions arising from metal cation dopants vary as a function of pressure and temperature suggesting their use as optical sensors. This work suggests the possible application of these films as pressure-temperature sensors in a planar waveguide configuration or as a coating material for optical fibers.

  20. Amorphous alumina thin films deposited on titanium: Interfacial chemistry and thermal oxidation barrier properties

    SciTech Connect

    Baggetto, Loic; Charvillat, Cedric; Thebault, Yannick; Esvan, Jerome; Lafont, Marie-Christine; Scheid, Emmanuel; Veith, Gabriel M.; Vahlas, Constantin

    2015-12-02

    Ti/Al2O3 bilayer stacks are used as model systems to investigate the role of atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to prepare 30-180 nm thick amorphous alumina films as protective barriers for the medium temperature oxidation (500-600⁰C) of titanium, which is employed in aeronautic applications. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that the films produced from the direct liquid injection (DLI) CVD of aluminum tri-isopropoxide (ATI) are poor oxygen barriers. The films processed using the ALD of trimethylaluminum (TMA) show good barrier properties but an extensive intermixing with Ti which subsequently oxidizes. In contrast, the films prepared from dimethyl aluminum isopropoxide (DMAI) by CVD are excellent oxygen barriers and show little intermixing with Ti. Overall, these measurements correlate the effect of the alumina coating thickness, morphology, and stoichiometry resulting from the preparation method to the oxidation barrier properties, and show that compact and stoichiometric amorphous alumina films offer superior barrier properties.

  1. Amorphous alumina thin films deposited on titanium: Interfacial chemistry and thermal oxidation barrier properties

    DOE PAGES

    Baggetto, Loic; Charvillat, Cedric; Thebault, Yannick; Esvan, Jerome; Lafont, Marie-Christine; Scheid, Emmanuel; Veith, Gabriel M.; Vahlas, Constantin

    2015-12-02

    Ti/Al2O3 bilayer stacks are used as model systems to investigate the role of atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to prepare 30-180 nm thick amorphous alumina films as protective barriers for the medium temperature oxidation (500-600⁰C) of titanium, which is employed in aeronautic applications. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that the films produced from the direct liquid injection (DLI) CVD of aluminum tri-isopropoxide (ATI) are poor oxygen barriers. The films processed using the ALD of trimethylaluminum (TMA) show good barrier properties butmore » an extensive intermixing with Ti which subsequently oxidizes. In contrast, the films prepared from dimethyl aluminum isopropoxide (DMAI) by CVD are excellent oxygen barriers and show little intermixing with Ti. Overall, these measurements correlate the effect of the alumina coating thickness, morphology, and stoichiometry resulting from the preparation method to the oxidation barrier properties, and show that compact and stoichiometric amorphous alumina films offer superior barrier properties.« less

  2. Dynamic and temperature dependent response of physical vapor deposited Se in freely standing nanometric thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Heedong; McKenna, Gregory B.

    2016-05-01

    Here, we report results from an investigation of nano-scale size or confinement effects on the glass transition and viscoelastic properties of physical vapor deposited selenium films. The viscoelastic response of freely standing Se films was determined using a biaxial membrane inflation or bubble inflation method [P. A. O'Connell and G. B. McKenna, Science 307, 1760-1763 (2005)] on films having thicknesses from 60 to 267 nm and over temperatures ranging from Tg, macroscopic - 15 °C to Tg, macroscopic + 21 °C. Time-temperature superposition and time-thickness superposition were found to hold for the films in the segmental dispersion. The responses are compared with macroscopic creep and recoverable creep compliance data for selenium [K. M. Bernatz et al., J. Non-Cryst. Solids 307, 790-801 (2002)]. The time-temperature shift factors for the thin films show weaker temperature dependence than seen in the macroscopic behavior, being near to Arrhenius-like in their temperature dependence. Furthermore, the Se films exhibit a "rubbery-like" stiffening that increases as film thickness decreases similar to prior observations [P. A. O'Connell et al., Macromolecules 45(5), 2453-2459 (2012)] for organic polymers. In spite of the differences from the macroscopic behavior in the temperature dependence of the viscoelastic response, virtually no change in Tg as determined from the thickness dependence of the retardation time defining Tg was observed in the bubble inflation creep experiments to thicknesses as small as 60 nm. We also find that the observed rubbery stiffening is consistent with the postulate of K. L. Ngai et al. [J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 51(3), 214-224 (2013)] that it should correlate with the change of the macroscopic segmental relaxation.

  3. Dynamic and temperature dependent response of physical vapor deposited Se in freely standing nanometric thin films.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Heedong; McKenna, Gregory B

    2016-05-14

    Here, we report results from an investigation of nano-scale size or confinement effects on the glass transition and viscoelastic properties of physical vapor deposited selenium films. The viscoelastic response of freely standing Se films was determined using a biaxial membrane inflation or bubble inflation method [P. A. O'Connell and G. B. McKenna, Science 307, 1760-1763 (2005)] on films having thicknesses from 60 to 267 nm and over temperatures ranging from Tg, macroscopic - 15 °C to Tg, macroscopic + 21 °C. Time-temperature superposition and time-thickness superposition were found to hold for the films in the segmental dispersion. The responses are compared with macroscopic creep and recoverable creep compliance data for selenium [K. M. Bernatz et al., J. Non-Cryst. Solids 307, 790-801 (2002)]. The time-temperature shift factors for the thin films show weaker temperature dependence than seen in the macroscopic behavior, being near to Arrhenius-like in their temperature dependence. Furthermore, the Se films exhibit a "rubbery-like" stiffening that increases as film thickness decreases similar to prior observations [P. A. O'Connell et al., Macromolecules 45(5), 2453-2459 (2012)] for organic polymers. In spite of the differences from the macroscopic behavior in the temperature dependence of the viscoelastic response, virtually no change in Tg as determined from the thickness dependence of the retardation time defining Tg was observed in the bubble inflation creep experiments to thicknesses as small as 60 nm. We also find that the observed rubbery stiffening is consistent with the postulate of K. L. Ngai et al. [J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 51(3), 214-224 (2013)] that it should correlate with the change of the macroscopic segmental relaxation. PMID:27179489

  4. Dynamic and temperature dependent response of physical vapor deposited Se in freely standing nanometric thin films.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Heedong; McKenna, Gregory B

    2016-05-14

    Here, we report results from an investigation of nano-scale size or confinement effects on the glass transition and viscoelastic properties of physical vapor deposited selenium films. The viscoelastic response of freely standing Se films was determined using a biaxial membrane inflation or bubble inflation method [P. A. O'Connell and G. B. McKenna, Science 307, 1760-1763 (2005)] on films having thicknesses from 60 to 267 nm and over temperatures ranging from Tg, macroscopic - 15 °C to Tg, macroscopic + 21 °C. Time-temperature superposition and time-thickness superposition were found to hold for the films in the segmental dispersion. The responses are compared with macroscopic creep and recoverable creep compliance data for selenium [K. M. Bernatz et al., J. Non-Cryst. Solids 307, 790-801 (2002)]. The time-temperature shift factors for the thin films show weaker temperature dependence than seen in the macroscopic behavior, being near to Arrhenius-like in their temperature dependence. Furthermore, the Se films exhibit a "rubbery-like" stiffening that increases as film thickness decreases similar to prior observations [P. A. O'Connell et al., Macromolecules 45(5), 2453-2459 (2012)] for organic polymers. In spite of the differences from the macroscopic behavior in the temperature dependence of the viscoelastic response, virtually no change in Tg as determined from the thickness dependence of the retardation time defining Tg was observed in the bubble inflation creep experiments to thicknesses as small as 60 nm. We also find that the observed rubbery stiffening is consistent with the postulate of K. L. Ngai et al. [J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 51(3), 214-224 (2013)] that it should correlate with the change of the macroscopic segmental relaxation.

  5. Optical Characterization Of Chemically Deposited Nanostructured CdS Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Y. C.; Kansal, Archana

    2009-06-01

    Newly modified hot chemical deposition method was used to grow Cadmium sulfide films. Substrates were kept at relatively higher temperature than the bath using local heating. The bath was consisting of aqueous solutions of Cadmium chloride, Thiourea and complexed by TEA. The Ph of the bath was maintained around 8-10 by adding ammonia solution. The soda lime glass slides were used as substrates. Good thick films were obtained few minutes. Air annealing was used to study the effect of heat treatment on quality of the films. All films were analyzed using optical spectrophotometer. The step like nature in transmission spectra and band gap curves could be due to discrete energy levels, which exist in nanomaterials. Blue shift is observed in samples. Band gap shift from higher value to lower value suggest that films are either of thickness of few nanometer range and/or grain size is of the nanometer range. This paper includes details about new modified dipping technique and optical, structural studies of these films.

  6. Apparatus and process for deposition of hard carbon films

    DOEpatents

    Nyaiesh, Ali R.; Garwin, Edward L.

    1989-01-03

    A process and an apparatus for depositing thin, amorphous carbon films having extreme hardness on a substrate is described. An enclosed chamber maintained at less than atmospheric pressure houses the substrate and plasma producing elements. A first electrode is comprised of a cavity enclosed within an RF coil which excites the plasma. A substrate located on a second electrode is excited by radio frequency power applied to the substrate. A magnetic field confines the plasma produced by the first electrode to the area away from the walls of the chamber and focuses the plasma onto the substrate thereby yielding film deposits having higher purity and having more rapid buildup than other methods of the prior art.

  7. Pulsed laser deposition and characterization of cellulase thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicco, N.; Morone, A.; Verrastro, M.; Viggiano, V.

    2013-08-01

    Thin films of cellulase were obtained by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on an appropriate substrate. Glycoside hydrolase cellulase has received our attention because it emerges among the antifouling enzymes (enzymes being able to remove and prevent the formation of micro-organism biofilms) used in industry and medicine field. Pressed cellulase pellets, used as target material, were ablated with pulses of a Nd-YAG laser working at wavelength of 532 nm. In this work, we evaluated the impact of PLD technique both on molecular structure and hydrolytic activity of cellulase. Characteristic chemical bonds and morphology of deposited layers were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy and SEM respectively. The hydrolytic activity of cellulase thin films was detected by a colorimetric assay.

  8. Apparatus and process for deposition of hard carbon films

    DOEpatents

    Nyaiesh, Ali R.; Garwin, Edward L.

    1989-01-01

    A process and an apparatus for depositing thin, amorphous carbon films having extreme hardness on a substrate is described. An enclosed chamber maintained at less than atmospheric pressure houses the substrate and plasma producing elements. A first electrode is comprised of a cavity enclosed within an RF coil which excites the plasma. A substrate located on a second electrode is excited by radio frequency power applied to the substrate. A magnetic field confines the plasma produced by the first electrode to the area away from the walls of the chamber and focuses the plasma onto the substrate thereby yielding film deposits having higher purity and having more rapid buildup than other methods of the prior art.

  9. Influence of POST Annealing on Sol-Gel Deposited ZnO Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadane, Hemalata; Samuel, Edmund; Gautam, Dinesh Kumar

    2014-05-01

    The effect of annealing temperature on sol-gel deposited ZnO thin films have been studied. The average crystallite size determined from XRD shows that the deposited films are nanocrystalline. FTIR confirms deposition of ZnO thin films. The transmittance of annealed ZnO thin films is greater than 80% in visible region with bandgap ranging from 3.25-3.19 eV. The films annealed at 450°C temperature shows lower resistivity value of 527.241 Ωm. The deposited nanocrystalline films are suitable for biosensing applications due to its higher surface area.

  10. Lithium outdiffusion in LiTi2O4 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesoraca, S.; Kleibeuker, J. E.; Prasad, B.; MacManus-Driscoll, J. L.; Blamire, M. G.

    2016-11-01

    We report surface chemical cation composition analysis of high quality superconducting LiTi2O4 thin films, grown epitaxially on MgAl2O4 (111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The superconducting transition temperature of the films was 13.8 K. Surface chemical composition is crucial for the formation of a good metal/insulator interface for integrating LiTi2O4 into full-oxide spin-filtering devices in order to minimize the formation of structural defects and increase the spin polarisation efficiency. In consideration of this, we report a detailed angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Results show Li segregation at the surface of LiTi2O4 films. We attribute this process due to outdiffusion of Li toward the outermost LiTi2O4 layers.

  11. Epitaxial niobium dioxide thin films by reactive-biased target ion beam deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuhan Kittiwatanakul, Salinporn; Lu, Jiwei; Comes, Ryan B.; Wolf, Stuart A.

    2015-03-15

    Epitaxial NbO{sub 2} thin films were synthesized on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001) substrates via reactive bias target ion beam deposition. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra were used to confirm the tetragonal phase of pure NbO{sub 2}. Through XPS, it was found that there was a ∼1.3 nm thick Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} layer on the surface and the bulk of the thin film was NbO{sub 2}. The epitaxial relationship between the NbO{sub 2} film and the substrate was determined. Electrical transport measurement was measured up to 400 K, and the conduction mechanism was discussed.

  12. Nanoporous SiO2 thin films made by atomic layer deposition and atomic etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazaryan, Lilit; Kley, E.-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas; Szeghalmi, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    A new route to prepare nanoporous SiO2 films by mixing atomic-layer-deposited alumina and silica in an Å-scale is presented. The selective removal of Al2O3 from the composites using wet chemical etching with phosphoric acid resulted in nanoporous thin SiO2 layers. A diffusion-controlled dissolution mechanism is identified whereby an interesting reorganization of the residual SiO2 is observed. The atomic scale oxide mixing is decisive in attaining and tailoring the film porosity. The porosity and the refractive index of nanoporous silica films were tailored from 9% to 69% and from 1.40 to 1.13, respectively. The nanoporous silica was successfully employed as antireflection coatings and as diffusion membranes to encapsulate nanostructures.

  13. Structural and optical properties of low temperature grown AlN films on sapphire using helicon sputtering system

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Meei-Ru; Chen, Hou-Guang; Kao, Hui-Ling Wu, Ming-Guei; Tzou, An-Jye; Chen, Jyh Shin; Chou, Hsiung

    2015-05-15

    AlN thin films have been deposited directly on c-plane sapphire substrates at low temperatures by a helicon sputtering system. The structural quality of AlN epitaxial films was characterized by x-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. The films exhibit smooth surface with root-mean-square roughness as small as 0.7 nm evaluated by atomic force microscope. The optical transmittance spectra show a steep absorption edge at the wavelength of 200 nm and a high transmittance of over 80% in the visible range. The band-edge transition (6.30 eV) of AlN film was observed in the cathodoluminescence spectrum recorded at 11 K. The spectral response of metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors constructed with AlN/sapphire reveals the peak responsivity at 200 nm and a UV/visible rejection ratio of about two orders of magnitude. The results of this low temperature deposition suggest the feasibility of the epitaxial growth of AlN on sapphire substrates and the incorporation of the AlN films in the surface acoustic wave devices and the optical devices at deep ultraviolet region.

  14. Boron doped nanostructure ZnO films deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakaya, Seniye; Ozbas, Omer

    2015-02-01

    ZnO is an II-VI compound semiconductor with a wide direct band gap of 3.3 eV at room temperature. Doped with group III elements (B, Al or Ga), it becomes an attractive candidate to replace tin oxide (SnO2) or indium tin oxide (ITO) as transparent conducting electrodes in solar cell devices and flat panel display due to competitive electrical and optical properties. In this work, ZnO and boron doped ZnO (ZnO:B) films have been deposited onto glass substrates at 350 ± 5 °C by a cost-efficient ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. The optical, structural, morphological and electrical properties of nanostructure undoped and ZnO:B films have been investigated. Electrical resistivity of films has been analyzed by four-probe technique. Optical properties and thicknesses of the films have been examined in the wavelength range 1200-1600 nm by using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements. The optical constants (refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k)) and the thicknesses of the films have been fitted according to Cauchy model. The optical method has been used to determine the band gap value of the films. Transmission spectra have been taken by UV spectrophotometer. It is found that both ZnO and ZnO:B films have high average optical transmission (≥80%). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate that the obtained ZnO has a hexagonal wurtzite type structure. The morphological properties of the films were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surface morphology of the nanostructure films is found to depend on the concentration of B. As a result, ZnO:B films are promising contender for their potential use as transparent window layer and electrodes in solar cells.

  15. Influence of the magnetron on the growth of aluminum nitride thin films deposited by reactive sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Iriarte, G. F.

    2010-03-15

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films deposited on high-vacuum systems without substrate heating generally exhibit a poor degree of c-axis orientation. This is due to the nonequilibrium conditions existing between the energy of the sputtered particles and the energy at the substrate surface. The application of substrate bias or substrate temperature is known to improve the adatom mobility by delivering energy to the substrate; both are hence well-established crystal growth promoting factors. It is well known that low sputtering pressures can be used as a parameter improving the growth of highly c-axis oriented aluminum nitride films at room temperature even without applying bias voltage to the substrate. Generally, the use of high pressures implies thermalization of particles within the gas phase and is considered to increase the energy gap between these and the substrate surface. However, in later experiments we have learned that the use of high processing pressures does not necessarily implies a detriment of crystallographic orientation in the films. By measuring (for the first time to the author's knowledge) the full width at half maximum value of the rocking curve of the 0002-AlN peak at several positions along the 100 mm diameter (100)-silicon wafers on which aluminum nitride thin films were deposited by reactive sputtering, a new effect was observed. Under certain processing conditions, the growth of the AlN thin films is influenced by the target magnetron. More precisely, their degree of c-axis orientation varies at wafer areas locally coincident under the target magnetron. This effect should be considered, especially where large area substrates are employed such as in silicon wafer foundry manufacturing processes.

  16. Electrochemical deposition of conductive and adhesive polypyrrole-dopamine films.

    PubMed

    Kim, Semin; Jang, Lindy K; Park, Hyun S; Lee, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Electrode surfaces have been widely modified with electrically conductive polymers, including polypyrrole (PPY), to improve the performance of electrodes. To utilize conductive polymers for electrode modification, strong adhesion between the polymer films and electrode substrates should be ensured with high electrical/electrochemical activities. In this study, PPY films were electrochemically polymerized on electrodes (e.g., indium tin oxide (ITO)) with dopamine as a bio-inspired adhesive molecule. Efficient and fast PPY electrodeposition with dopamine (PDA/PPY) was found; the resultant PDA/PPY films exhibited greatly increased adhesion strengths of up to 3.7 ± 0.8 MPa and the modified electrodes had electrochemical impedances two to three orders of magnitude lower than that of an unmodified electrode. This electrochemical deposition of adhesive and conductive PDA/PPY offers a facile and versatile electrode modification for various applications, such as biosensors and batteries.

  17. Electrochemical deposition of highly-conducting metal dithiolene films.