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Sample records for al ieee trans

  1. AlCl₃-Catalyzed Ring Expansion Cascades of Bicyclic Cyclobutenamides Involving Highly Strained Cis,Trans-Cycloheptadienone Intermediates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Na; Krenske, Elizabeth H; Johnston, Ryne C; Houk, K N; Hsung, Richard P

    2015-04-29

    We report the first experimental evidence for the generation of highly strained cis,trans-cycloheptadienones by electrocyclic ring opening of 4,5-fused cyclobutenamides. In the presence of AlCl3, the cyclobutenamides rearrange to [2.2.1]-bicyclic ketones; DFT calculations provide evidence for a mechanism involving torquoselective 4π-electrocyclic ring opening to a cis,trans-cycloheptadienone followed by a Nazarov-like recyclization and a 1,2-alkyl shift. Similarly, 4,6-fused cyclobutenamides undergo AlCl3-catalyzed rearrangements to [3.2.1]-bicyclic ketones through cis,trans-cyclooctadienone intermediates. The products can be further elaborated via facile cascade reactions to give complex tri- and tetracyclic molecules. PMID:25895058

  2. AlCl3-Catalyzed Ring-Expansion Cascades of Bicyclic Cyclobutenamides Involving Highly Strained Cis,Trans-Cycloheptadienone Intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Na; Krenske, Elizabeth H.; Johnston, Ryne C.; Houk, K. N.; Hsung, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first experimental evidence for the generation of highly strained cis,trans-cycloheptadienones by electrocyclic ring opening of 4,5-fused cyclobutenamides. In the presence of AlCl3, the cyclobutenamides rearrange to [2.2.1]-bicyclic ketones; DFT calculations provide evidence for a mechanism involving torquoselective 4π-electrocyclic ring opening to a cis,trans-cycloheptadienone followed by a Nazarov-like recyclization and a 1,2-alkyl shift. Similarly, 4,6-fused cyclobutenamides undergo AlCl3-catalyzed rearrangements to [3.2.1]-bicyclic ketones through cis,trans-cyclooctadienone intermediates. The products can be further elaborated via facile cascade reactions to give complex tri- and tetracyclic molecules. PMID:25895058

  3. IEEE Smart Grid Series of Standards IEEE 2030 (Interoperability) and IEEE 1547 (Interconnection) Status: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T.; DeBlasio, R.

    2012-04-01

    The IEEE American National Standards smart grid publications and standards development projects IEEE 2030, which addresses smart grid interoperability, and IEEE 1547TM, which addresses distributed resources interconnection with the grid, have made substantial progress since 2009. The IEEE 2030TM and 1547 standards series focus on systems-level aspects and cover many of the technical integration issues involved in a mature smart grid. The status and highlights of these two IEEE series of standards, which are sponsored by IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 (SCC21), are provided in this paper.

  4. IEEE Conference Publications in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karl E.

    1984-01-01

    Conclusions of surveys (63 libraries, OCLC database, University of Rhode Island users) assessing handling of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) conference publications indicate that most libraries fully catalog these publications using LC cataloging, and library patrons frequently require series access to publications. Eight…

  5. The IEEE Software Engineering Standards Process

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Fletcher J.

    1984-01-01

    Software Engineering has emerged as a field in recent years, and those involved increasingly recognize the need for standards. As a result, members of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) formed a subcommittee to develop these standards. This paper discusses the ongoing standards development, and associated efforts.

  6. Verification of IEEE Compliant Subtractive Division Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Paul S.; Leathrum, James F., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    A parameterized definition of subtractive floating point division algorithms is presented and verified using PVS. The general algorithm is proven to satisfy a formal definition of an IEEE standard for floating point arithmetic. The utility of the general specification is illustrated using a number of different instances of the general algorithm.

  7. Defining the IEEE-854 floating-point standard in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Paul S.

    1995-01-01

    A significant portion of the ANSI/IEEE-854 Standard for Radix-Independent Floating-Point Arithmetic is defined in PVS (Prototype Verification System). Since IEEE-854 is a generalization of the ANSI/IEEE-754 Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic, the definition of IEEE-854 in PVS also formally defines much of IEEE-754. This collection of PVS theories provides a basis for machine checked verification of floating-point systems. This formal definition illustrates that formal specification techniques are sufficiently advanced that is is reasonable to consider their use in the development of future standards.

  8. Facts about trans fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... made when food makers turn liquid oils into solid fats, like shortening or margarine. Trans fats can ... list. It means oils have been turned to solids and trans fats. Manufacturers can show 0 grams ...

  9. IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., New York, NY.

    This dictionary, prepared by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE), defines 13,000 technical words from every area of electrical and electronics engineering. The dictionary contains hundreds of new terms as well as revisions of earlier ones. Each definition is an official standard of IEEE. The definitions are arranged…

  10. Sine-Fitting Software for IEEE Standard 1057

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, Jerome

    1999-05-01

    Software application that performs the calculations related to the sine-fit tests of IEEE Standard 1057/94. Example outputs and explainations of these outputs to determine the important characteristics of the device under test. This application performs the calculations related to sine-fit tests and uses 4-parameter sine fit from IEEE Standard 1057-1994.

  11. IEEE 1547 Standards Advancing Grid Modernization

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, Thomas; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Hoke, Andy; Coddington, Michael

    2015-06-14

    Technology advances including development of advanced distributed energy resources (DER) and grid-integrated operations and controls functionalities have surpassed the requirements in current standards and codes for DER interconnection with the distribution grid. The full revision of IEEE Standards 1547 (requirements for DER-grid interconnection and interoperability) and 1547.1 (test procedures for conformance to 1547) are establishing requirements and best practices for state-of-the-art DER including variable renewable energy sources. The revised standards will also address challenges associated with interoperability and transmission-level effects, in addition to strictly addressing the distribution grid needs. This paper provides the status and future direction of the ongoing development focus for the 1547 standards.

  12. Proceedings of the 1987 IEEE particle accelerator conference: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, E.R.; Taylor, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains papers from the IEEE particle accelerator conference. This second volume of three covers the following main topics: Instrumentation and control, accelerators for medium energies and nuclear physics, high current accelerators, and beam dynamics. (LSP)

  13. Delay Analysis of GTS Bridging between IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.11 Networks for Healthcare Applications.

    PubMed

    Misić, Jelena; Sherman Shen, Xuemin

    2009-01-01

    We consider interconnection of IEEE 802.15.4 beacon-enabled network cluster with IEEE 802.11b network. This scenario is important in healthcare applications where IEEE 802.15.4 nodes comprise patient's body area network (BAN) and are involved in sensing some health-related data. BAN nodes have very short communication range in order to avoid harming patient's health and save energy. Sensed data needs to be transmitted to an access point in the ward room using wireless technology with higher transmission range and rate such as IEEE 802.11b. We model the interconnected network where IEEE 802.15.4-based BAN operates in guaranteed time slot (GTS) mode, and IEEE 802.11b part of the bridge conveys GTS superframe to the 802.11b access point. We then analyze the network delays. Performance analysis is performed using EKG traffic from continuous telemetry, and we discuss the delays of communication due the increasing number of patients.

  14. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  15. IEEE 342 Node Low Voltage Networked Test System

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Phanivong, Phillippe K.; Lacroix, Jean-Sebastian

    2014-07-31

    The IEEE Distribution Test Feeders provide a benchmark for new algorithms to the distribution analyses community. The low voltage network test feeder represents a moderate size urban system that is unbalanced and highly networked. This is the first distribution test feeder developed by the IEEE that contains unbalanced networked components. The 342 node Low Voltage Networked Test System includes many elements that may be found in a networked system: multiple 13.2kV primary feeders, network protectors, a 120/208V grid network, and multiple 277/480V spot networks. This paper presents a brief review of the history of low voltage networks and how they evolved into the modern systems. This paper will then present a description of the 342 Node IEEE Low Voltage Network Test System and power flow results.

  16. Implicit Block ACK Scheme for IEEE 802.11 WLANs

    PubMed Central

    Sthapit, Pranesh; Pyun, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    The throughput of IEEE 802.11 standard is significantly bounded by the associated Medium Access Control (MAC) overhead. Because of the overhead, an upper limit exists for throughput, which is bounded, including situations where data rates are extremely high. Therefore, an overhead reduction is necessary to achieve higher throughput. The IEEE 802.11e amendment introduced the block ACK mechanism, to reduce the number of control messages in MAC. Although the block ACK scheme greatly reduces overhead, further improvements are possible. In this letter, we propose an implicit block ACK method that further reduces the overhead associated with IEEE 802.11e’s block ACK scheme. The mathematical analysis results are presented for both the original protocol and the proposed scheme. A performance improvement of greater than 10% was achieved with the proposed implementation.

  17. IEEE 1547 Series of Standards: Interconnection Issues; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T.; DeBlasio, R.

    2003-09-01

    IEEE 1547TM 2003 Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems is the first in the 1547 series of planned interconnection standards. Major issues and a wealth of constructive dialogue arose during 1547 development. There was also a perceived increased vitality in updating complementary IEEE standards and developing additional standards to accommodate modern electrical and electronics systems and improved grid communications and operations. Power engineers and other stakeholders looking to the future are poised to incorporate 1547 into their knowledge base to help transform our nation's aging distribution systems while alleviating some of the burden on existing transmission systems.

  18. Eleanor McElwee and the Formation of IEEE PCS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the historical professional project that created the Institute of Radio Engineers' Professional Group on Engineering Writing an Speech (IRE PGEWS)--now called the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' Professional Communication Society (IEEE PCS)--and recounts the group's early history in detail. It also traces…

  19. Proceedings of the 1987 IEEE particle accelerator conference: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, E.R.; Taylor, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers from the IEEE conference on particle accelerators. The general areas covered in this first of three volumes are: high energy accelerators; colliders; novel methods; free electron lasers; low energy accelerators; ion sources; synchrotron light source; radiation sources; instrumentation and control. Individual papers are separately indexed.

  20. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  1. An IEEE 1451.1 Architecture for ISHM Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Jon A.; Turowski, Mark; Schmalzel, John L.; Figueroa, Jorge F.

    2007-01-01

    The IEEE 1451.1 Standard for a Smart Transducer Interface defines a common network information model for connecting and managing smart elements in control and data acquisition networks using network-capable application processors (NCAPs). The Standard is a network-neutral design model that is easily ported across operating systems and physical networks for implementing complex acquisition and control applications by simply plugging in the appropriate network level drivers. To simplify configuration and tracking of transducer and actuator details, the family of 1451 standards defines a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS) that is associated with each physical element. The TEDS contains all of the pertinent information about the physical operations of a transducer (such as operating regions, calibration tables, and manufacturer information), which the NCAP uses to configure the system to support a specific transducer. The Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) group at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) has been developing an ISHM architecture that utilizes IEEE 1451.1 as the primary configuration and data acquisition mechanism for managing and collecting information from a network of distributed intelligent sensing elements. This work has involved collaboration with other NASA centers, universities and aerospace industries to develop IEEE 1451.1 compliant sensors and interfaces tailored to support health assessment of complex systems. This paper and presentation describe the development and implementation of an interface for the configuration, management and communication of data, information and knowledge generated by a distributed system of IEEE 1451.1 intelligent elements monitoring a rocket engine test system. In this context, an intelligent element is defined as one incorporating support for the IEEE 1451.x standards and additional ISHM functions. Our implementation supports real-time collection of both measurement data (raw ADC counts and

  2. IEEE P1547 Series of Standards for Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T. S.; DeBlasio, R.

    2003-05-01

    The IEEE P1547 Standard For Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems is the first in the P1547 series of planned interconnection standards, and additional standards are needed. There are major issues and obstacles to an orderly transition to the use and integration of distributed power resources with electric power systems (grid or utility grid). The lack of uniform national interconnection standards and tests for interconnection operation and certification-as well as the lack of uniform national building, electrical, and safety codes-is understood, and resolving this needs reasonable lead time to develop and promulgate consensus. The P1547 standard is a benchmark milestone for the IEEE standards consensus process and successfully demonstrates a model for ongoing success in the development of further national standards and for moving forward in modernizing our nation's electric power system.

  3. Proceedings of the 1994 ASME/IEEE joint railroad conference

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, K.L.; Hill, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    The proceedings contains 22 papers from the IEEE/ASME Joint Railroad Conference. Topics discussed include flange bearing crossing frogs; rapid transit; vehicle on-board computer systems; total transport system control functions; automated train dispatching system; wheel thermal damage limits; AC propulsion; AC traction drives; electric power supplies; failure detection and identification; cargo transportation; and critical speed for railroad vehicles. Papers within the scope of the data base have been processed separately.

  4. SERI preprints for the 21st IEEE photovoltaic specialists conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This document contains conference papers prepared by SERI staff members for the 21st Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, which was held in Kissimmee, Florida, on May 21--25, 1990. The papers presented here have been reproduced as submitted for the conference proceedings. They cover a wide range of SERI photovoltaic research areas. Each report will be individually cataloged.

  5. [CONTENT OF TRANS FATTY ACIDS IN FOOD PRODUCTS IN SPAIN].

    PubMed

    Robledo de Dios, Teresa; Dal Re Saavedra, M Ángeles; Villar Villalba, Carmen; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: los ácidos grasos trans están asociados con problemas de salud, como enfermedad coronaria o diabetes. Objetivos: conocer la cantidad de ácidos grasos trans en los alimentos en España, y el porcentaje que representan con respecto al total de los ácidos grasos. Métodos: se estudió el contenido en ácidos grasos de 443 alimentos adquiridos en España en el año 2010, y clasificados en grupos. Determinación analítica de grasas en los productos mediante cromatografía de gases. Se calcularon estimadores de tendencia central y dispersión de la cantidad de ácidos grasos trans en cada grupo (g de ácidos grasos trans/100 g de producto). Se calculó el porcentaje de ácidos grasos trans con respecto a la grasa total en cada grupo. Resultados: los productos se agruparon en 42 grupos. En todos, salvo uno, la mediana de ácidos grasos trans fue inferior a 0,55 g/100 g de producto. El 83 % de los grupos tienen menos del 2 % de ácidos grasos trans con respecto a las grasas totales, y el 71 %, menos del 1 %. Discusión: el contenido de AGT en los alimentos en España es bajo y no representa actualmente un problema de salud pública.

  6. Trans-Alaska pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The Trans-Alaska Pipeline system transports nearly 25 percent of the nation's domestically produced crude oil. Since operations began in 1977, the system has delivered over 8 billion barrels of oil to Port Veldez for shipment. This paper reports that concerns have been raised about whether the system is meeting special engineering design and operations requirements imposed by federal and state regulators. GAO found that the five principal federal and state regulatory agencies have not pursued a systematic, disciplined, and coordinated approach to regulating the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. Instead, these agencies have relied on the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, which runs the system, to police itself. It was only after the Exxon Valdez spill and the discovery of corrosion that the regulators began to reevaluate their roles and focus on issues such as whether Alyeska's operating and maintenance procedures meet the pipelines, special engineering design and operating requirements, or whether Alyeska can adequately respond to a large oil spill. In January 1990, the regulators established a joint office to provide more effective oversight of the system. GAO believes that central leadership and a secured funding sources may help ensure that this office provides adequate oversight.

  7. Extending Service Area of IEEE 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo-Yong

    2012-06-01

    According to the current IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN standards, IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks have the limitation that all STAs (Stations) are in the one-hop transmission range of each other. In this paper, to alleviate the limitation of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks we propose the efficient method for selecting the most appropriate pseudo AP (Access Point) from among the set of ad hoc STAs and extending the service area of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks by the pseudo AP's relaying the internal traffic of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks. Numerical examples show that the proposed method significantly extends the service area of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks.

  8. IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference: Notes on the Early Conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Galloway, Kenneth F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper gathers the remembrances of several key contributors who participated in the earliest Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conferences (NSREC).

  9. Benefits of IEEE-754 features in modern symmetric tridiagonaleigensolvers

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, Osni; Riedy, Jason E.; Vomel, Christof

    2006-03-12

    Bisection is one of the most common methods used to compute the eigenvalues of symmetric tridiagonal matrices. Bisection relies on the Sturm count: For a given shift a, the number of negative pivots in the factorization T - {sigma}I = LDL{sup T} equals the number of eigenvalues of T that are smaller than a. In IEEE-754 arithmetic, the value oo permits the computation to continue past a zero pivot, producing a correct Sturm count when T is unreduced. Demmel and Li showed that using oo rather than testing for zero pivots within the loop could significantly improve performance on certain architectures. When eigenvalues are to be computed to high relative accuracy, it is often preferable to work with LDL{sup T} factorizations instead of the original tridiagonal T. One important example is the MRRR algorithm. When bisection is applied to the factored matrix, the Sturm count is computed from LDL{sup T} which makes differential stationary and progressive qds algorithms the methods of choice. While it seems trivial to replace T by LDL{sup T}, in reality these algorithms are more complicated: In IEEE-754 arithmetic, a zero pivot produces an overflow followed by an invalid exception (NaN, or 'Not a Number') that renders the Sturm count incorrect. We present alternative, safe formulations that are guaranteed to produce the correct result. Benchmarking these algorithms on a variety of platforms shows that the original formulation without tests is always faster provided that no exception occurs. The transforms see speed-ups of up to 2.6x over the careful formulations. Tests on industrial matrices show that encountering exceptions in practice is rare. This leads to the following design: First, compute the Sturm count by the fast but unsafe algorithm. Then, if an exception occurs, recompute the count by a safe, slower alternative. The new Sturm count algorithms improve the speed of bisection by up to 2x on our test matrices. Furthermore, unlike the traditional tiny

  10. IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Security White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    King, J

    2001-10-22

    Given the increased productivity and growing popularity of wireless communications in general, and wireless data communications in particular, this paper outlines the protocols, security implications, and architectures of IEEE Std. 802.11-1999 wireless LANs (WLANs) and makes recommendations regarding a phased implementation of WLANs at LLNL. This project is driven by the need for convenient and secure access to the Internet for Laboratory visitors and to the internal network for Laboratory employees. A solid architecture designed with a priority on security will allow LLNL to offer network access in areas where it is traditionally hard to deploy wired networks. It will also enable such services as wireless access for inventory control and convenient network access for conference rooms around LLNL. Wireless network access has the potential to increase productivity by enabling instant access to information.

  11. WIH-based IEEE 802.11 ECG monitoring implementation.

    PubMed

    Moein, A; Pouladian, M

    2007-01-01

    New wireless technologies make possible the implementation of high level integration wireless devices which allow the replacement of traditional large wired monitoring devices. It offers new functionalities to physicians and will reduce the costs. Among these functionalities, biomedical signals can be sent to other devices (PDA, PC . . . ) or processing centers, without restricting the patients' mobility. This article discusses the WIH (Ward-In-Hand) structure and the software required for its implementation before an operational example is presented with its results. The aim of this project is the development and implementation of a reduced size electrocardiograph based on IEEE 802.11 with high speed and more accuracy, which allows wireless monitoring of patients, and the insertion of the information into the Wi-Fi hospital networks. PMID:18002795

  12. Review of the IEEE Standard for Computerized Operating Procedure Systems

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.; Higgins, J.

    2010-02-26

    Increasingly nuclear power plant procedures, such as emergency operating procedures, are being presented in computer form with functionality to support operator use and management of the procedures. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) currently has guidance for the review of computer-based procedures (CBPs); however, there remain CBP functions and human performance issues for which up-to-date guidance is lacking. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has initiated a standard development effort to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of CBP systems. When completed, it may provide guidance to supplement the NRC staff's review criteria. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the suitability of the IEEE Standard for use in the NRC's HFE safety reviews of CBP systems and to ensure that the guidance meets the NRC's standard for scientific and engineering rigor used in its own guidance development efforts. We established the following criteria with which to evaluate the Standard: (1) it should meet an existing need of NRC reviewers, (2) it should be based in sound HFE principles, (3) it should be thoroughly peer-reviewed, and (4) it should address CBP-related human performance issues identified in the literature. This report describes the methodology we used to evaluate each criterion. Our evaluation concluded that the Standard generally does meet these criteria, however several areas were identified for which additional clarifications are needed. Thus consideration of the Standard's use by the NRC is supported. The standard evaluation methodology developed in this study can be generally applied to the review of other HFE standards being considered for possible use or endorsement by the NRC.

  13. Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.11e (EDCF) and IEEE 802.11(DCF) WLAN Incorporating Different Physical Layer Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, V.; Singh, H.; Malhotra, J.

    2012-12-01

    Medium access coordination function basically implements the distributed coordination function (DCF) which provides support to best effort services but limited to QoS services. Subsequently, a new standard, namely enhanced distributed channel access (EDCA) is reported. The IEEE 802.11e (EDCA) defines MAC procedures to support QoS requirements which specifies distributed contention based access scheme to access the shared wireless media. This paper evaluates the performance of EDCA based IEEE 802.11 WLAN for various access categories (ACs) using OPNET™ Modeller 14.5. Further, the computed results are compared with DCF protocols in terms of QoS parameters. Furthermore, the simulative observation is reported at data rate of 54 Mbps using different physical layer protocols such as IEEE 802.11a/b/g to stumble on the best one to be implemented with EDCF to achieve improved QoS.

  14. Trans fatty acid isomers and the trans-9/trans-11 index in fat containing foods

    PubMed Central

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Baehr, Melanie; Rohrer, Carsten; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    To determine trans fatty acid (TFA) distribution of contemporary foods, especially regarding individual trans octadecenoic acids (trans C18:1), 339 German foods of six categories (semi-solid fats, deep-fried potato products, bakery products, confectioneries, instant products and butter) were analysed using two GC methods. Results showed a high variation of TFA content between and within the categories containing between 0 and 40.5% of FAME except in butter, which is a source of natural TFA. The mean TFA values were below 2.0% of FAME, however, bakery products contained 4.5% and butter fat 3.2%, respectively. In addition, the distribution of individual trans C18:1 differed. In samples containing ruminant fat (butter and various confectioneries), vaccenic acid (t11-C18:1, t11) predominated, while in foods containing industrially hydrogenated fats, elaidic acid (trans-9, t9-) and t10-C18:1 were the major trans isomers.. This was reflected by a low t9/t11 index of 0.3 and 0.5 in butter and ruminant fat containing confectioneries, respectively, whilst the highest index was observed in shortenings and deep-fried potato products at 5.2 and 6.8, respectively. In conclusion, the TFA content of foods available on the German market is generally declining, but substantial variations are present. The t9/t11 index could be used as an indicator to determine ruminant fat. Practical applications: A number of studies provide evidence that a high TFA intake, particularly of industrial origin, adversely affects human health. The TFA content of foods could be reduced due to the introduction of several mandatory regulations and modifications regarding the hydrogenation process of oils. The most abundant dietary TFA are the isomers of trans C18:1. Unfortunately, the differentiation of these isomers is not yet very common, though the trans C18:1 profile differs depending on its origin (bacterial hydrogenation in the rumen or industrial hydrogenation). To date, data for TFA content

  15. Developing IEEE medical device standards: a case study, wearable cuffless blood pressure measuring devices.

    PubMed

    Carey, Carole C; Zhang, Yuang-Ting

    2010-01-01

    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association (IEEE-SA) is a leading standards developing organization of global industry standards in a wide-range of industries, including biomedical and healthcare.

  16. Validation of IEEE P1547.1 Interconnection Test Procedures: ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Englebretson, S.; Pink, C.; Daley, J.; Siciliano, R.; Hinton, D.

    2003-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary results of testing the ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System according to IEEE P1547.1 procedures. The ASCO system interconnects synchronous generators with the electric power system and provides monitoring and control for the generator and grid connection through extensive protective functions. The purpose of this testing is to evaluate and give feedback on the contents of IEEE Draft Standard P1547.1 Conformance Tests Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems.

  17. trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    trans - 1,2 - Dichloroethylene ; CASRN 156 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for No

  18. IEEE 1547 and 2030 Standards for Distributed Energy Resources Interconnection and Interoperability with the Electricity Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T.

    2014-12-01

    Public-private partnerships have been a mainstay of the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) approach to research and development. These partnerships also include technology development that enables grid modernization and distributed energy resources (DER) advancement, especially renewable energy systems integration with the grid. Through DOE/NREL and industry support of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards development, the IEEE 1547 series of standards has helped shape the way utilities and other businesses have worked together to realize increasing amounts of DER interconnected with the distribution grid. And more recently, the IEEE 2030 series of standards is helping to further realize greater implementation of communications and information technologies that provide interoperability solutions for enhanced integration of DER and loads with the grid. For these standards development partnerships, for approximately $1 of federal funding, industry partnering has contributed $5. In this report, the status update is presented for the American National Standards IEEE 1547 and IEEE 2030 series of standards. A short synopsis of the history of the 1547 standards is first presented, then the current status and future direction of the ongoing standards development activities are discussed.

  19. An analytical model for the performance analysis of concurrent transmission in IEEE 802.15.4.

    PubMed

    Gezer, Cengiz; Zanella, Alberto; Verdone, Roberto

    2014-03-20

    Interference is a serious cause of performance degradation for IEEE802.15.4 devices. The effect of concurrent transmissions in IEEE 802.15.4 has been generally investigated by means of simulation or experimental activities. In this paper, a mathematical framework for the derivation of chip, symbol and packet error probability of a typical IEEE 802.15.4 receiver in the presence of interference is proposed. Both non-coherent and coherent demodulation schemes are considered by our model under the assumption of the absence of thermal noise. Simulation results are also added to assess the validity of the mathematical framework when the effect of thermal noise cannot be neglected. Numerical results show that the proposed analysis is in agreement with the measurement results on the literature under realistic working conditions.

  20. Throughput and delay analysis of IEEE 802.15.6-based CSMA/CA protocol.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sana; Chen, Min; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2012-12-01

    The IEEE 802.15.6 is a new communication standard on Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) that focuses on a variety of medical, Consumer Electronics (CE) and entertainment applications. In this paper, the throughput and delay performance of the IEEE 802.15.6 is presented. Numerical formulas are derived to determine the maximum throughput and minimum delay limits of the IEEE 802.15.6 for an ideal channel with no transmission errors. These limits are derived for different frequency bands and data rates. Our analysis is validated by extensive simulations using a custom C+ + simulator. Based on analytical and simulation results, useful conclusions are derived for network provisioning and packet size optimization for different applications.

  1. IEEE 1451.2 based Smart sensor system using ADuc847

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreejithlal, A.; Ajith, Jose

    IEEE 1451 standard defines a standard interface for connecting transducers to microprocessor based data acquisition systems, instrumentation systems, control and field networks. Smart transducer interface module (STIM) acts as a unit which provides signal conditioning, digitization and data packet generation functions to the transducers connected to it. This paper describes the implementation of a microcontroller based smart transducer interface module based on IEEE 1451.2 standard. The module, implemented using ADuc847 microcontroller has 2 transducer channels and is programmed using Embedded C language. The Sensor system consists of a Network Controlled Application Processor (NCAP) module which controls the Smart transducer interface module (STIM) over an IEEE1451.2-RS232 bus. The NCAP module is implemented as a software module in C# language. The hardware details, control principles involved and the software implementation for the STIM are described in detail.

  2. Performance Analysis of Sleep Mode Operation in IEEE 802.16m Mobile WiMAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Sangkyu; Son, Jung Je; Choi, Bong Dae

    We mathematically analyze the sleep mode operation of IEEE 802.16m. The sleep mode operation for downlink traffic is modeled as a 3-dimensional discrete time Markov chain. We obtain the average power consumption of a mobile station and the average delay of a message. Numerical results match simulations very well. Numerical results show that there is a tradeoff between power consumption and message delay. We find the optimal lengths of sleep cycle and close-down time that minimize the power consumption while satisfying the quality of service (QoS) constraint on message delay. The power consumption of the sleep mode in IEEE 802.16m is better than that of sleep modes in legacy IEEE 802.16e standard under the same delay bound.

  3. An Analytical Model for the Performance Analysis of Concurrent Transmission in IEEE 802.15.4

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Cengiz; Zanella, Alberto; Verdone, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Interference is a serious cause of performance degradation for IEEE802.15.4 devices. The effect of concurrent transmissions in IEEE 802.15.4 has been generally investigated by means of simulation or experimental activities. In this paper, a mathematical framework for the derivation of chip, symbol and packet error probability of a typical IEEE 802.15.4 receiver in the presence of interference is proposed. Both non-coherent and coherent demodulation schemes are considered by our model under the assumption of the absence of thermal noise. Simulation results are also added to assess the validity of the mathematical framework when the effect of thermal noise cannot be neglected. Numerical results show that the proposed analysis is in agreement with the measurement results on the literature under realistic working conditions. PMID:24658624

  4. The toxicity of dietary trans fats.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Riya; Pierce, Grant N

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death today. Trans fatty acids have been identified as an important cause of cardiovascular disease and the resulting clinical end points such as strokes and heart attacks. Although legislative efforts have limited the trans fats in our diet, significant amounts remain. Understanding the impact trans fats have on our body, therefore, remains a critical focus of study. In addition, paradoxically, recent research has now identified an important cardioprotective role for a sub-category of trans fats, the ruminant trans fats. Learning more about the mechanisms responsible for not only the toxic actions of trans fats but also their potential as beneficial compounds within our diet is essential to modulate cardiovascular disease today.

  5. Trans Bodies, Trans Selves: The Owner's Manual to Life, Health, and Self

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this article, the author reviews Trans Bodies, Trans Selves as an educational and clinical resource from the perspective of an academic physician working with transgender and gender non-conforming patients. PMID:27494753

  6. Trans Bodies, Trans Selves: The Owner's Manual to Life, Health, and Self.

    PubMed

    Ng, Henry H

    2015-09-01

    In this article, the author reviews Trans Bodies, Trans Selves as an educational and clinical resource from the perspective of an academic physician working with transgender and gender non-conforming patients. PMID:27494753

  7. Evaluation of the Effects of Hidden Node Problems in IEEE 802.15.7 Uplink Performance.

    PubMed

    Ley-Bosch, Carlos; Alonso-González, Itziar; Sánchez-Rodríguez, David; Ramírez-Casañas, Carlos

    2016-02-06

    In the last few years, the increasing use of LEDs in illumination systems has been conducted due to the emergence of Visible Light Communication (VLC) technologies, in which data communication is performed by transmitting through the visible band of the electromagnetic spectrum. In 2011, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) published the IEEE 802.15.7 standard for Wireless Personal Area Networks based on VLC. Due to limitations in the coverage of the transmitted signal, wireless networks can suffer from the hidden node problems, when there are nodes in the network whose transmissions are not detected by other nodes. This problem can cause an important degradation in communications when they are made by means of the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) access control method, which is used in IEEE 802.15.7 This research work evaluates the effects of the hidden node problem in the performance of the IEEE 802.15.7 standard We implement a simulator and analyze VLC performance in terms of parameters like end-to-end goodput and message loss rate. As part of this research work, a solution to the hidden node problem is proposed, based on the use of idle patterns defined in the standard. Idle patterns are sent by the network coordinator node to communicate to the other nodes that there is an ongoing transmission. The validity of the proposed solution is demonstrated with simulation results.

  8. IEEE 1547 National Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Generation: How Could It Help My Facility? Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T.; Friedman, N. R.

    2003-11-01

    This article summarizes the purpose, development, and impact of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 1547 Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems. Also included is a short explanation of supporting standards IEEE P1547.1, P1547.2, and P1547.3.

  9. Evaluation of the Effects of Hidden Node Problems in IEEE 802.15.7 Uplink Performance.

    PubMed

    Ley-Bosch, Carlos; Alonso-González, Itziar; Sánchez-Rodríguez, David; Ramírez-Casañas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, the increasing use of LEDs in illumination systems has been conducted due to the emergence of Visible Light Communication (VLC) technologies, in which data communication is performed by transmitting through the visible band of the electromagnetic spectrum. In 2011, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) published the IEEE 802.15.7 standard for Wireless Personal Area Networks based on VLC. Due to limitations in the coverage of the transmitted signal, wireless networks can suffer from the hidden node problems, when there are nodes in the network whose transmissions are not detected by other nodes. This problem can cause an important degradation in communications when they are made by means of the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) access control method, which is used in IEEE 802.15.7 This research work evaluates the effects of the hidden node problem in the performance of the IEEE 802.15.7 standard We implement a simulator and analyze VLC performance in terms of parameters like end-to-end goodput and message loss rate. As part of this research work, a solution to the hidden node problem is proposed, based on the use of idle patterns defined in the standard. Idle patterns are sent by the network coordinator node to communicate to the other nodes that there is an ongoing transmission. The validity of the proposed solution is demonstrated with simulation results. PMID:26861352

  10. Evaluation of the Effects of Hidden Node Problems in IEEE 802.15.7 Uplink Performance

    PubMed Central

    Ley-Bosch, Carlos; Alonso-González, Itziar; Sánchez-Rodríguez, David; Ramírez-Casañas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, the increasing use of LEDs in illumination systems has been conducted due to the emergence of Visible Light Communication (VLC) technologies, in which data communication is performed by transmitting through the visible band of the electromagnetic spectrum. In 2011, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) published the IEEE 802.15.7 standard for Wireless Personal Area Networks based on VLC. Due to limitations in the coverage of the transmitted signal, wireless networks can suffer from the hidden node problems, when there are nodes in the network whose transmissions are not detected by other nodes. This problem can cause an important degradation in communications when they are made by means of the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) access control method, which is used in IEEE 802.15.7 This research work evaluates the effects of the hidden node problem in the performance of the IEEE 802.15.7 standard We implement a simulator and analyze VLC performance in terms of parameters like end-to-end goodput and message loss rate. As part of this research work, a solution to the hidden node problem is proposed, based on the use of idle patterns defined in the standard. Idle patterns are sent by the network coordinator node to communicate to the other nodes that there is an ongoing transmission. The validity of the proposed solution is demonstrated with simulation results. PMID:26861352

  11. Computer Controlled Test Systems. Introduction. A Course Based on the IEEE 488 Bus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Eric J.

    An introductory course in computer automated tests and measurement systems based on the International Test Instrument-Computer Interface Standard, the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)-488, is presented in this study guide. This course is designed to: (1) introduce the electronics engineering technician to the functional…

  12. Evaluation of H.264/AVC over IEEE 802.11p vehicular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozas-Ramallal, Ismael; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M.; Dapena, Adriana; García-Naya, José Antonio

    2013-12-01

    The capacity of vehicular networks to offer non-safety services, like infotainment applications or the exchange of multimedia information between vehicles, have attracted a great deal of attention to the field of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). In particular, in this article we focus our attention on IEEE 802.11p which defines enhancements to IEEE 802.11 required to support ITS applications. We present an FPGA-based testbed developed to evaluate H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding) video transmission over vehicular networks. The testbed covers some of the most common situations in vehicle-to-vehicle and roadside-to-vehicle communications and it is highly flexible, allowing the performance evaluation of different vehicular standard configurations. We also show several experimental results to illustrate the quality obtained when H.264/AVC encoded video is transmitted over IEEE 802.11p networks. The quality is measured considering two important parameters: the percentage of recovered group of pictures and the frame quality. In order to improve performance, we propose to substitute the convolutional channel encoder used in IEEE 802.11p for a low-density parity-check code encoder. In addition, we suggest a simple strategy to decide the optimum number of iterations needed to decode each packet received.

  13. Trans-caval trans-jugular liver biopsy—a technical modification of trans-jugular liver biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Keshava, S N; Mammen, S; Ahmed, M; Ramakrishna, B

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To (a) describe the technical modification of trans-caval TJLB and (b) review our series of nine cases. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all trans-caval TJLBs performed; we assessed indications for the procedure, technical success, complications, adequacy of specimen and histological positivity. Results: The technical success rate of the procedure was 9/9 (100%); the minor complication rate was 1/9 (11%), adequate specimen was obtained in all cases and a histological diagnosis was achieved in 8/9 (89%) cases. Conclusion: This preliminary report suggests that trans-caval modification of TJLB is a relatively safe procedure that may be useful in cases where conventional TJLB is infeasible. Advances in knowledge: (a) We describe the technique of trans-caval TJLBs and report our findings in the largest series of published cases. (b) Trans-caval TJLB is relatively safe and can be used to increase the success rates of conventional TJLB. PMID:25248931

  14. IEEE 802.16J-Relay Fortified Aeromacs Networks; Benefits and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamali, Behnam; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2014-01-01

    Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is an IEEE 802.16 standard-based (WiMAX) broadband aviation transmission technology, developed to provide safety critical communications coverage for airport surface in support of fixed and mobile ground to ground applications and services. We have previously demonstrated that IEEE 802.16j-amendment-based WiMAX is most feasible for AeroMACS applications. The principal argument in favor of application of IEEE 802.16j technology is the flexible and cost effective extension of radio coverage that is afforded by relay fortified WiMAX networks, with virtually no increase in the power requirements. In this article, following introductory remarks on airport surface communications, WiMAX and AeroMACS; the IEEE 802.16j-based WiMAX technology and multihop relay systems are briefly described. The two modes of relay operation supported by IEEE 802.16j amendment; i.e., transparent (TRS) and non-transparent (NTRS) modes, are discussed in some detail. Advantages and disadvantages of using TRS and NTRS in AeroMACS networks are summarized in a table. Practical issues vis--vis the inclusion of relays in AeroMACS networks are addressed. It is argued that the selection of relay type may affect a number of network parameters. A discussion on specific benefits and challenges of inclusion of relays in AeroMACS networks is provided. The article concludes that in case it is desired or necessary to exclusively employ one type of relay mode for all applications throughout an AeroMACS network, the proper selection would be the non-transparent mode.

  15. Perspectives on development of IEEE 1073: the Medical Information Bus (MIB) standard.

    PubMed

    Kennelly, R J; Gardner, R M

    1997-08-01

    Automated data capture from bedside patient medical devices is now possible using a new Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (IEEE) and American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Medical Information Bus (MIB) data communications standard (IEEE 1073). The first two standard documents, IEEE 1073.3.1 (Transportation Profile) and IEEE 1073.4.1 (Physical Layer), define the hardware protocol for bedside device communications. With the above noted IEEE MIB standards in place, hospitals can now start designing customized applications for acquiring data from bedside devices such as bedside monitors, i.v. pumps, ventilators, etc. for multiple purposes. The hardware 'plug and play' features of the MIB will enable nurses and physicians to establish communications with these devices simply and conveniently by plugging them into a bedside data connector. No other action will be necessary to establish identification of the device or communications with the device. Presently to connect bedside devices, technical help from hardware and software experts are required to establish such communications links. As a result of standardization of communications, it will be easy to establish a highly mobile network of bedside devices and more promptly and efficiently collect patient related data. Collection of data automatically should lead to the design of new medical computing applications that will tie in directly with the emerging mission and operations of hospitals. The MIB will permit acquisition of patient data more efficiently with greater accuracy, more completeness and more promptly. The above noted features are all essential to the development of computerized treatment protocols and should lead to improved quality of patient care. This manuscript provides the rational and historical overview of the development of the MIB standard.

  16. Trans fatty acid intake and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Holt, Megan E; Lee, Jerry W; Morton, Kelly R; Tonstad, Serena

    2015-06-01

    We examined whether there is a relationship between trans fatty acid intakes and emotion regulation, mediated by positive or negative affect. Archival data on 1699 men and 3293 women were used to measure trans fatty acid intake at baseline, positive, and negative affects and emotion regulation at follow-up. Higher trans fatty acid intake related to subsequent difficulties with emotional awareness (p = 0.045), clarity (p = 0.012), and regulation strategies (p = 0.009). Affect mediated these relationships. Lower trans fatty acid intake associated with increased positive and decreased negative affects which, in turn, associated with improved emotion regulation. Trans fatty acid intakes may be associated with subsequent ability to regulate emotions.

  17. Colorectal cancer chemoprevention by trans-resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Juan, M Emília; Alfaras, Irene; Planas, Joana M

    2012-06-01

    trans-Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) is a natural phytoalexin present in grapes, red wine, berries and peanuts with health protecting properties. The low oral bioavailability indicated for this polyphenol, with the intestine as a bottleneck to its absorption, has promoted the large intestine as a potential target site for its chemopreventive activity. This review recapitulates the current evidence of the effects of trans-resveratrol on colon cancer. First, we describe the studies conducted in vitro which show that the protective activity takes place by inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Secondly, the chemopreventive activity in animal models of colon carcinogenesis is revised. trans-Resveratrol not only reduces the number of preneoplastic lesions but also the incidence and multiplicity of tumors. Lastly, the article also reviews the available data on clinical trials. Altogether, the present findings support the hypothesis that the oral administration of trans-resveratrol might contribute to the prevention of colon carcinogenesis.

  18. New validated HPLC methodology for the determination of (-)-trans-paroxetine and its enantiomer in pharmaceutical formulations with use of ovomucoid chiral stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Lisowska-Kuźmicz, Małgorzata; Kantor-Boruta, Małgorzata; Jończyk, Anna; Jarończyk, Małgorzata; Ocios-Bębenek, Agnieszka; Mazurek, Aleksander P; Chilmonczyk, Zdzisław; Jarosz, Maciej

    2014-06-01

    A new chromatographic method for the enantioseparation and the determination of (-)-trans-paroxetine and (+)-trans-paroxetine has been developed with the aid of amylose ovomucoid-based chiral stationary phase. The method is faster and five times more sensitive than procedures recommended previously: limit of detection and limit of quantification are 5 and 16 ng/mL, respectively [modified (Ferretti et al. in J Chromatogr B 710:157-164, 1998): 20 and 60 ng/mL]. It was carefully validated and applied for the determination of (-)-trans-paroxetine and (+)-trans-paroxetine in Parogen (Mc Dermott Laboratories Ltd.) and Xetanor (Actavis) coated tablets. PMID:24408298

  19. Performance of the Sleep-Mode Mechanism of the New IEEE 802.16m Proposal for Correlated Downlink Traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Turck, Koen; de Vuyst, Stijn; Fiems, Dieter; Wittevrongel, Sabine; Bruneel, Herwig

    There is a considerable interest nowadays in making wireless telecommunication more energy-efficient. The sleep-mode mechanism in WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e) is one of such energy saving measures. Recently, Samsung proposed some modifications on the sleep-mode mechanism, scheduled to appear in the forthcoming IEEE 802.16m standard, aimed at minimizing the signaling overhead. In this work, we present a performance analysis of this proposal and clarify the differences with the standard mechanism included in IEEE 802.16e. We also propose some special algorithms aimed at reducing the computational complexity of the analysis.

  20. Trans-Pacific Astronomy Experiment Project Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Eddie

    2000-01-01

    The Trans-Pacific Astronomy Experiment is Phase 2 of the Trans-Pacific High Data Rate Satcom Experiments following the Trans-Pacific High Definition Video Experiment. It is a part of the Global Information Infrastructure-Global Interoperability for Broadband Networks Project (GII-GIBN). Provides global information infrastructure involving broadband satellites and terrestrial networks and access to information by anyone, anywhere, at any time. Collaboration of government, industry, and academic organizations demonstrate the use of broadband satellite links in a global information infrastructure with emphasis on astronomical observations, collaborative discussions and distance learning.

  1. A note on bound constraints handling for the IEEE CEC'05 benchmark function suite.

    PubMed

    Liao, Tianjun; Molina, Daniel; de Oca, Marco A Montes; Stützle, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The benchmark functions and some of the algorithms proposed for the special session on real parameter optimization of the 2005 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC'05) have played and still play an important role in the assessment of the state of the art in continuous optimization. In this article, we show that if bound constraints are not enforced for the final reported solutions, state-of-the-art algorithms produce infeasible best candidate solutions for the majority of functions of the IEEE CEC'05 benchmark function suite. This occurs even though the optima of the CEC'05 functions are within the specified bounds. This phenomenon has important implications on algorithm comparisons, and therefore on algorithm designs. This article's goal is to draw the attention of the community to the fact that some authors might have drawn wrong conclusions from experiments using the CEC'05 problems.

  2. Performance Evolution of IEEE 802.11b Wireless Local Area Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Deepak; Singhal, Ankur

    2011-12-01

    The Wireless network can be employed to connect wired network to the wireless network. Wireless local area networks (WLAN) are more bandwidth limited as compared to the wired networks because they rely on an inexpensive, but error prone, physical medium (air). Hence it is important to evaluate their performance. This paper presents a study of IEEE 802.11b wireless LAN (WLAN). The performance evaluation has been presented via a series of test with different parameters such as data rate, different number of nodes and physical characteristics. The different qualities of service parameter are chosen to be throughput, media access delay and dropped data packets. The simulation results show that an IEEE 802.11b WLAN can support up to 60 clients with modest throughput. Finally the results are compared to evaluate the performance of wireless local networks.

  3. A network architecture for precision formation flying using the IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clare, Loren P.; Gao, Jay L.; Jennings, Esther H.; Okino, Clayton

    2005-01-01

    Precision Formation Flying missions involve the tracking and maintenance of spacecraft in a desired geometric formation. The strong coupling of spacecraft in formation flying control requires inter-spacecraft communication to exchange information. In this paper, we present a network architecture that supports PFF control, from the initial random deployment phase to the final formation. We show that a suitable MAC layer for the application protocol is IEEE's 802.11 MAC protocol. IEEE 802.11 MAC has two modes of operations: DCF and PCF. We show that DCF is suitable for the initial deployment phase while switching to PCF when the spacecraft are in formation improves jitter and throughput. We also consider the effect of routing on protocol performance and suggest when it is profitable to turn off route discovery to achieve better network performance.

  4. Integration of IEEE 1451 and HL7 Exchanging Information for Patients’ Sensor Data

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Suyoung; Ahn, Jinsoo; Nah, Jiyoung; Kim, Namhyun

    2009-01-01

    HL7 (Health Level 7) is a standard developed for exchanging incompatible healthcare information generated from programs or devices among heterogenous medical information systems. At present, HL7 is growing as a global standard. However, the HL7 standard does not support effective methods for treating data from various medical sensors, especially from mobile sensors. As ubiquitous systems are growing, HL7 must communicate with various medical transducers. In the area of sensor fields, IEEE 1451 is a group of standards for controlling transducers and for communicating data from/to various transducers. In this paper, we present the possibility of interoperability between the two standards, i.e., HL7 and IEEE 1451. After we present a method to integrate them and show the preliminary results of this approach. PMID:20703604

  5. A nomadic access mechanism for enabling dynamic video surveillance over IEEE 802.15.4 networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe; Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Losilla, Fernando; Garcia-Haro, Joan

    2010-12-01

    IEEE 802.15.4 networking technology is designed to be the common standard for integrating WSN applications in heterogeneous environments. However, applications considering mobile nodes along with strict temporal requirements, such as those required for video transmission, are an unexplored field for this technology. These applications involve different challenges and issues that the direct employment of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard does not resolve. Therefore, in this paper a cross-layer mechanism consisting of application and medium access arbitration is presented, enabling the efficient connection and operation of mobile nodes together with the transmission of video flows. The proposed mechanism is evaluated via simulation and its feasibility checked by means of a first prototype. The study of power consumption is also taken into account and so are the quality of service parameters and the human quality perception of the received video stream. The results obtained are presented and further discussed.

  6. Integration of IEEE 1451 and HL7 exchanging information for patients' sensor data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooshik; Lim, Suyoung; Ahn, Jinsoo; Nah, Jiyoung; Kim, Namhyun

    2010-12-01

    HL7 (Health Level 7) is a standard developed for exchanging incompatible healthcare information generated from programs or devices among heterogenous medical information systems. At present, HL7 is growing as a global standard. However, the HL7 standard does not support effective methods for treating data from various medical sensors, especially from mobile sensors. As ubiquitous systems are growing, HL7 must communicate with various medical transducers. In the area of sensor fields, IEEE 1451 is a group of standards for controlling transducers and for communicating data from/to various transducers. In this paper, we present the possibility of interoperability between the two standards, i.e., HL7 and IEEE 1451. After we present a method to integrate them and show the preliminary results of this approach.

  7. A Fast MAC-Layer Handover for an IEEE 802.16e-Based WMAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Sayan K.; Pawlikowski, Krzysztof; Sirisena, Harsha

    We propose a modification of the IEEE 802.16e hard handover (HHO) procedure, which significantly reduces the handover latency constraint of the original HHO procedure in IEEE 802.16e networks. It allows a better handling of the delay-sensitive traffic by avoiding unnecessary time-consuming scanning and synchronization activity as well as simplifies the network re-entry procedure. With the help of the backhaul network, it reduces the number of control messages in the original handover policy, making the handover latency acceptable also for real-time streaming traffic. Preliminary performance evaluation studies show that the modified handover procedure is able to reduce the total handover latency by about 50%.

  8. [Mobile Health: IEEE Standard for Wearable Cuffless Blood Pressure Measuring Devices].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xia; Wu, Wenli; Bao, Shudi

    2015-07-01

    IEEE Std 1708-2014 breaks through the traditional standards of cuff based blood pressure measuring devices and establishes a normative definition of wearable cuffless blood pressure measuring devices and the objective performance evaluation of this kind of devices. This study firstly introduces the background of the new standard. Then, the standard details will be described, and the impact of cuffless blood pressure measuring devices with the new standard on manufacturers and end users will be addressed.

  9. Sensor Networking Testbed with IEEE 1451 Compatibility and Network Performance Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurkan, Deniz; Yuan, X.; Benhaddou, D.; Figueroa, F.; Morris, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Design and implementation of a testbed for testing and verifying IEEE 1451-compatible sensor systems with network performance monitoring is of significant importance. The performance parameters measurement as well as decision support systems implementation will enhance the understanding of sensor systems with plug-and-play capabilities. The paper will present the design aspects for such a testbed environment under development at University of Houston in collaboration with NASA Stennis Space Center - SSST (Smart Sensor System Testbed).

  10. On IEEE 802.15.6 IR-UWB receivers - simulations for DBPSK modulation.

    PubMed

    Niemelä, Ville; Hämäläinen, Matti; Iinatti, Jari

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, Federal Communications Commission (FCC) was the first in defining regulations for ultra wideband (UWB) communications followed by Europe and Japan some years later. Focusing on impulse radio (IR) UWB, in 2007 was the time for the first published standard targeting in personal area networks, released by the IEEE. The second IEEE released standard including UWB definitions is targeted for wireless body area networks (WBAN) and was published in 2012. As the wireless communications has been and will be passing through almost any levels in society, the natural step with WBAN is using it in different medical, healthcare and wellbeing applications. The arguments for these are related to the modern lifestyle, in which people have increasingly more free time and are more interested in taking care of their health and wellbeing. Another challenge is the population composition, i.e., aging in developed countries which call for new solutions and procedures, particularly from cost wise. In this paper, we are evaluating UWB receivers based on the IEEE 802.15.6 physical layer definitions and capable of detecting differentially encoded modulation. The evaluation is performed using two different WBAN channel models.

  11. Study on additional carrier sensing for IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bih-Hwang; Lai, Ruei-Lung; Wu, Huai-Kuei; Wong, Chi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard are able to achieve low-power transmissions in the guise of low-rate and short-distance wireless personal area networks (WPANs). The slotted carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) is used for contention mechanism. Sensor nodes perform a backoff process as soon as the clear channel assessment (CCA) detects a busy channel. In doing so they may neglect the implicit information of the failed CCA detection and further cause the redundant sensing. The blind backoff process in the slotted CSMA/CA will cause lower channel utilization. This paper proposes an additional carrier sensing (ACS) algorithm based on IEEE 802.15.4 to enhance the carrier sensing mechanism for the original slotted CSMA/CA. An analytical Markov chain model is developed to evaluate the performance of the ACS algorithm. Both analytical and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs better than IEEE 802.15.4, which in turn significantly improves throughput, average medium access control (MAC) delay and power consumption of CCA detection.

  12. Segmentized Clear Channel Assessment for IEEE 802.15.4 Networks.

    PubMed

    Son, Kyou Jung; Hong, Sung Hyeuck; Moon, Seong-Pil; Chang, Tae Gyu; Cho, Hanjin

    2016-06-03

    This paper proposed segmentized clear channel assessment (CCA) which increases the performance of IEEE 802.15.4 networks by improving carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA). Improving CSMA/CA is important because the low-power consumption feature and throughput performance of IEEE 802.15.4 are greatly affected by CSMA/CA behavior. To improve the performance of CSMA/CA, this paper focused on increasing the chance to transmit a packet by assessing precise channel status. The previous method used in CCA, which is employed by CSMA/CA, assesses the channel by measuring the energy level of the channel. However, this method shows limited channel assessing behavior, which comes from simple threshold dependent channel busy evaluation. The proposed method solves this limited channel decision problem by dividing CCA into two groups. Two groups of CCA compare their energy levels to get precise channel status. To evaluate the performance of the segmentized CCA method, a Markov chain model has been developed. The validation of analytic results is confirmed by comparing them with simulation results. Additionally, simulation results show the proposed method is improving a maximum 8.76% of throughput and decreasing a maximum 3.9% of the average number of CCAs per packet transmission than the IEEE 802.15.4 CCA method.

  13. Strategies for Optimal MAC Parameters Tuning in IEEE 802.15.6 Wearable Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Alam, Muhammad Mahtab; Ben Hamida, Elyes

    2015-09-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBAN) has penetrated immensely in revolutionizing the classical heath-care system. Recently, number of WBAN applications has emerged which introduce potential limits to existing solutions. In particular, IEEE 802.15.6 standard has provided great flexibility, provisions and capabilities to deal emerging applications. In this paper, we investigate the application-specific throughput analysis by fine-tuning the physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) parameters of the IEEE 802.15.6 standard. Based on PHY characterizations in narrow band, at the MAC layer, carrier sense multiple access collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) and scheduled access protocols are extensively analyzed. It is concluded that, IEEE 802.15.6 standard can satisfy most of the WBANs applications throughput requirements by maximum achieving 680 Kbps. However, those emerging applications which require high quality audio or video transmissions, standard is not able to meet their constraints. Moreover, delay, energy efficiency and successful packet reception are considered as key performance metrics for comparing the MAC protocols. CSMA/CA protocol provides the best results to meet the delay constraints of medical and non-medical WBAN applications. Whereas, the scheduled access approach, performs very well both in energy efficiency and packet reception ratio.

  14. Segmentized Clear Channel Assessment for IEEE 802.15.4 Networks

    PubMed Central

    Son, Kyou Jung; Hong, Sung Hyeuck; Moon, Seong-Pil; Chang, Tae Gyu; Cho, Hanjin

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposed segmentized clear channel assessment (CCA) which increases the performance of IEEE 802.15.4 networks by improving carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA). Improving CSMA/CA is important because the low-power consumption feature and throughput performance of IEEE 802.15.4 are greatly affected by CSMA/CA behavior. To improve the performance of CSMA/CA, this paper focused on increasing the chance to transmit a packet by assessing precise channel status. The previous method used in CCA, which is employed by CSMA/CA, assesses the channel by measuring the energy level of the channel. However, this method shows limited channel assessing behavior, which comes from simple threshold dependent channel busy evaluation. The proposed method solves this limited channel decision problem by dividing CCA into two groups. Two groups of CCA compare their energy levels to get precise channel status. To evaluate the performance of the segmentized CCA method, a Markov chain model has been developed. The validation of analytic results is confirmed by comparing them with simulation results. Additionally, simulation results show the proposed method is improving a maximum 8.76% of throughput and decreasing a maximum 3.9% of the average number of CCAs per packet transmission than the IEEE 802.15.4 CCA method. PMID:27271626

  15. Segmentized Clear Channel Assessment for IEEE 802.15.4 Networks.

    PubMed

    Son, Kyou Jung; Hong, Sung Hyeuck; Moon, Seong-Pil; Chang, Tae Gyu; Cho, Hanjin

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposed segmentized clear channel assessment (CCA) which increases the performance of IEEE 802.15.4 networks by improving carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA). Improving CSMA/CA is important because the low-power consumption feature and throughput performance of IEEE 802.15.4 are greatly affected by CSMA/CA behavior. To improve the performance of CSMA/CA, this paper focused on increasing the chance to transmit a packet by assessing precise channel status. The previous method used in CCA, which is employed by CSMA/CA, assesses the channel by measuring the energy level of the channel. However, this method shows limited channel assessing behavior, which comes from simple threshold dependent channel busy evaluation. The proposed method solves this limited channel decision problem by dividing CCA into two groups. Two groups of CCA compare their energy levels to get precise channel status. To evaluate the performance of the segmentized CCA method, a Markov chain model has been developed. The validation of analytic results is confirmed by comparing them with simulation results. Additionally, simulation results show the proposed method is improving a maximum 8.76% of throughput and decreasing a maximum 3.9% of the average number of CCAs per packet transmission than the IEEE 802.15.4 CCA method. PMID:27271626

  16. Interoperability in digital electrocardiography: harmonization of ISO/IEEE x73-PHD and SCP-ECG.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Jesús D; Chiarugi, Franco; Alesanco, Alvaro; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Serrano, Luis; Chronaki, Catherine E; Escayola, Javier; Martínez, Ignacio; García, José

    2010-11-01

    The ISO/IEEE 11073 (x73) family of standards is a reference frame for medical device interoperability. A draft for an ECG device specialization (ISO/IEEE 11073-10406-d02) has already been presented to the Personal Health Device (PHD) Working Group, and the Standard Communications Protocol for Computer-Assisted ElectroCardioGraphy (SCP-ECG) Standard for short-term diagnostic ECGs (EN1064:2005+A1:2007) has recently been approved as part of the x73 family (ISO 11073-91064:2009). These factors suggest the coordinated use of these two standards in foreseeable telecardiology environments, and hence the need to harmonize them. Such harmonization is the subject of this paper. Thus, a mapping of the mandatory attributes defined in the second draft of the ISO/IEEE 11073-10406-d02 and the minimum SCP-ECG fields is presented, and various other capabilities of the SCP-ECG Standard (such as the messaging part) are also analyzed from an x73-PHD point of view. As a result, this paper addresses and analyzes the implications of some inconsistencies in the coordinated use of these two standards. Finally, a proof-of-concept implementation of the draft x73-PHD ECG device specialization is presented, along with the conversion from x73-PHD to SCP-ECG. This paper, therefore, provides recommendations for future implementations of telecardiology systems that are compliant with both x73-PHD and SCP-ECG.

  17. A versatile electrical penetration design qualified to IEEE Std. 317-1983

    SciTech Connect

    Lankenau, W.; Wetherill, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    Although worldwide demand for new construction of nuclear power stations has been on a decline, the available opportunities for the design and construction of qualified electrical penetrations continues to offer challenges, requiring a highly versatile design. Versatility is necessary in order to meet unique customer requirements within the constraints of a design basis qualified to IEEE Std. 317-1983. This paper summarizes such a versatile electrical penetration designed, built and tested to IEEE Std. 317-1983. The principal features are described including major materials of construction. Some of the design constraints such as sealing requirements, and conductor density (including numerical example) are discussed. The requirements for qualification testing of the penetration assembly to IEEE Std. 317-1983 are delineated in a general sense, and some typical test ranges for preconditioning, radiation exposure, and LOCA are provided. The paper concludes by describing ways in which this versatile design has been adapted to meet unique customer requirements in a variety of nuclear power plants.

  18. Test Methodology for Characterizing the SEE Sensitivity of a Commercial IEEE 1394 Serial Bus (FireWire)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidleck, C.; Kim, H.; Buchner, S.; Marshall, P. W.; LaBel, K.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Single Event Effect (SEE) responses of two FireWire serial buses based on the IEEE 1394 standard were tested with heavy ions and protons. A unique approach to testing and categorizing the SEEs is presented.

  19. Outband Sensing-Based Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) Algorithm without Full DFS Test in IEEE 802.11h Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeung, Jaemin; Jeong, Seungmyeong; Lim, Jaesung

    We propose an outband sensing-based IEEE 802.11h protocol without a full dynamic frequency selection (DFS) test. This scheme has two features. Firstly, every station performs a cooperative outband sensing, instead of inband sensing during a quiet period. And secondly, as soon as a current channel becomes bad, every station immediately hops to a good channel using the result of outband sensing. Simulation shows the proposed scheme increases network throughput against the legacy IEEE 802.11h.

  20. "There's no chasing involved": cis/trans relationships, "tranny chasers," and the future of a sex-positive trans politics.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Avery Brooks

    2014-01-01

    This article adds to a small, but growing, body of work on trans sexualities and partnerships, and provides a much-needed inquiry into the complex and contested politics of desire when we take trans identities, bodies, and sexualities into account. Using digital ethnographic data from YouTube videos along with in-person observational data from LGBTQ and trans conferences in the U.S., Tompkins argues that a sex-positive trans politics cannot emerge in trans and trans-allied communities if the rhetoric of the "tranny chaser" continues to inform discourses of desire and attraction to trans people.

  1. Blocking of Candida albicans biofilm formation by cis-2-dodecenoic acid and trans-2-dodecenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuqian; Cai, Chen; Yang, Yuxiang; Weng, Lixing; Wang, Lianhui

    2011-11-01

    Candida is an important opportunistic human fungal pathogen. Infections caused by Candida albicans are related to the formation of a biofilm. The biofilm enhances the resistance of the C. albicans defence system, increases its resistance to antifungal drugs and induces increased drug tolerance, making clinical care more challenging. The in vitro activity of cis-2-dodecenoic acid (BDSF; a diffusible signal factor from Burkholderia cenocepacia) and trans-2-dodecenoic acid (trans-BDSF) against C. albicans growth, germ-tube germination and biofilm formation was estimated by absorbance measurements and microscopic assessments. C. albicans biofilms were prepared using a static microtitre plate model. Quantitative analysis of biofilm formation was performed using a 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide reduction assay to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of BDSF and trans-BDSF at different stages of biofilm formation. Reductions in biofilm structure and formation were visualized by inverted microscopy. Real-time RT-PCR was employed to estimate the mRNA expression levels of the hyphae-specific genes HWP1 and ALS3. It was found that 30 µM of either BDSF or trans-BDSF reduced germ-tube formation by approximately 70 % without inhibiting yeast growth. Yeast growth was strongly repressed by the exogenous addition of 300 µM BDSF and trans-BDSF at 0 and 1 h after cell attachment, with biofilm formation being reduced by approximately 90 and 60 %, respectively. BDSF and trans-BDSF were more effective against biofilm formation than farnesol and the diffusible signal factor cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid. None of the four drugs was able to destroy pre-formed biofilms. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that HWP1 was downregulated by approximately 90 % and ALS3 was downregulated by 70-80 % by 60 µM BDSF and trans-BDSF, implying that BDSF and trans-BDSF block C. albicans biofilm formation by interfering with the morphological

  2. Effect of Trans, Trans-Farnesol on Pseudogymnoascus destructans and Several Closely Related Species.

    PubMed

    Raudabaugh, Daniel B; Miller, Andrew N

    2015-12-01

    Bat white-nose syndrome, caused by the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has dramatically reduced the populations of many hibernating North American bat species. The search for effective biological control agents targeting P. destructans is of great importance. We report that the sesquiterpene trans, trans-farnesol, which is also a Candida albicans quorum sensing compound, prevented in vitro conidial germination for at least 14 days and inhibited growth of preexisting hyphae of five P. destructans isolates in filtered potato dextrose broth at 10 °C. Depending on the inoculation concentrations, both spore and hyphal inhibition occurred upon exposure to concentrations as low as 15-20 µM trans, trans-farnesol. In contrast, most North American Pseudogymnoascus isolates were more tolerant to the exposure of trans, trans-farnesol. Our results suggest that some Candida isolates may have the potential to inhibit the growth of P. destructans and that the sesquiterpene trans, trans-farnesol has the potential to be utilized as a biological control agent. PMID:26162644

  3. Laboratory Detection of the Trans-Gauche Conformer of Ethyl Formate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, Justin L.; Muckle, Matt T.; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Pate, Brooks H.; Lattanzi, V.; Spezzano, S.; McCarthy, M. C.

    2010-06-01

    Ethyl formate has two coordinates of conformational flexibility, in the ester (O=C-O-C) and ethyl (C-O-C-C) dihedral angles. Two conformers, one with a cis ester and trans ethyl orientation, the other with a cis ester and gauche ethyl orientation, have been previously detected by rotational spectroscopy. In addition, the cis-trans isomer, the lowest-energy conformer, has recently been detected in the SgrB2(N) hot core. The third conformer of ethyl formate, with a trans ester orientation and gauche ethyl orientation, is significantly higher in energy than the cis-trans conformer according to electronic structure calculations (1900 cm-1, or 1330 K), but there is a barrier of 2870 cm-1 (2000 K) for this conformer to relax into the more stable cis ester potential well, and so local thermodynamic equilibrium between these conformers is not expected in the interstellar medium. Similar behavior is found for the trans ester conformer of methyl formate, for which a tentative detection in SgrB2(N) was presented at this meeting last year, with a column density roughly 1% of that of the more stable cis isomer. Here we report the laboratory detection of trans-gauche ethyl formate using Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy; its low population at room temperature equilibrium has been enhanced by the use of a pulsed discharge nozzle. The spectrum is complicated by a low barrier (140 cm-1) to tunneling between equivalent structures. J.M. Riveros and E.B. Wilson, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 4605 (1967). A. Belloche. et al., A&A 499, 215 (2009). M.T. Muckle et al., RH15, 64th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy (2009).

  4. Trans Women Doing Sex in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Williams, Colin J; Weinberg, Martin S; Rosenberger, Joshua G

    2016-10-01

    This research investigates the sexuality of trans women (individuals who were assigned male status at birth who currently identify as women), by focusing on the "bodily techniques" (Crossley, 2006) they use in "doing" sexuality. The "doing sexuality" framework not only is modeled after the "doing gender" approach of West and Zimmerman (1987), but also utilizes the idea of "sexual embodiment" to emphasize the agency of trans women as they conceptualize and organize their sexuality in a socially recognized way. This is often difficult as they confront discrimination from medical and legal professionals as well as intimate partners who may find it difficult to adapt to the trans woman's atypical body and conception of gender. However, with a study group of 25 trans women from San Francisco, we found the study participants to be adept at overcoming such hurdles and developing techniques to "do" their sexuality. At the same time, we found trans women's agency constrained by the erotic habitus (Green, 2008) of the wider society. The interplay between innovation and cultural tradition provides an opportunity to fashion a more general model of "doing" sexuality. PMID:27091188

  5. DoS detection in IEEE 802.11 with the presence of hidden nodes.

    PubMed

    Soryal, Joseph; Liu, Xijie; Saadawi, Tarek

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents a novel technique to detect Denial of Service (DoS) attacks applied by misbehaving nodes in wireless networks with the presence of hidden nodes employing the widely used IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocols described in the IEEE standard [1]. Attacker nodes alter the IEEE 802.11 DCF firmware to illicitly capture the channel via elevating the probability of the average number of packets transmitted successfully using up the bandwidth share of the innocent nodes that follow the protocol standards. We obtained the theoretical network throughput by solving two-dimensional Markov Chain model as described by Bianchi [2], and Liu and Saadawi [3] to determine the channel capacity. We validated the results obtained via the theoretical computations with the results obtained by OPNET simulator [4] to define the baseline for the average attainable throughput in the channel under standard conditions where all nodes follow the standards. The main goal of the DoS attacker is to prevent the innocent nodes from accessing the channel and by capturing the channel's bandwidth. In addition, the attacker strives to appear as an innocent node that follows the standards. The protocol resides in every node to enable each node to police other nodes in its immediate wireless coverage area. All innocent nodes are able to detect and identify the DoS attacker in its wireless coverage area. We applied the protocol to two Physical Layer technologies: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and the results are presented to validate the algorithm.

  6. DoS detection in IEEE 802.11 with the presence of hidden nodes.

    PubMed

    Soryal, Joseph; Liu, Xijie; Saadawi, Tarek

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents a novel technique to detect Denial of Service (DoS) attacks applied by misbehaving nodes in wireless networks with the presence of hidden nodes employing the widely used IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocols described in the IEEE standard [1]. Attacker nodes alter the IEEE 802.11 DCF firmware to illicitly capture the channel via elevating the probability of the average number of packets transmitted successfully using up the bandwidth share of the innocent nodes that follow the protocol standards. We obtained the theoretical network throughput by solving two-dimensional Markov Chain model as described by Bianchi [2], and Liu and Saadawi [3] to determine the channel capacity. We validated the results obtained via the theoretical computations with the results obtained by OPNET simulator [4] to define the baseline for the average attainable throughput in the channel under standard conditions where all nodes follow the standards. The main goal of the DoS attacker is to prevent the innocent nodes from accessing the channel and by capturing the channel's bandwidth. In addition, the attacker strives to appear as an innocent node that follows the standards. The protocol resides in every node to enable each node to police other nodes in its immediate wireless coverage area. All innocent nodes are able to detect and identify the DoS attacker in its wireless coverage area. We applied the protocol to two Physical Layer technologies: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and the results are presented to validate the algorithm. PMID:25685510

  7. DoS detection in IEEE 802.11 with the presence of hidden nodes

    PubMed Central

    Soryal, Joseph; Liu, Xijie; Saadawi, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a novel technique to detect Denial of Service (DoS) attacks applied by misbehaving nodes in wireless networks with the presence of hidden nodes employing the widely used IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocols described in the IEEE standard [1]. Attacker nodes alter the IEEE 802.11 DCF firmware to illicitly capture the channel via elevating the probability of the average number of packets transmitted successfully using up the bandwidth share of the innocent nodes that follow the protocol standards. We obtained the theoretical network throughput by solving two-dimensional Markov Chain model as described by Bianchi [2], and Liu and Saadawi [3] to determine the channel capacity. We validated the results obtained via the theoretical computations with the results obtained by OPNET simulator [4] to define the baseline for the average attainable throughput in the channel under standard conditions where all nodes follow the standards. The main goal of the DoS attacker is to prevent the innocent nodes from accessing the channel and by capturing the channel’s bandwidth. In addition, the attacker strives to appear as an innocent node that follows the standards. The protocol resides in every node to enable each node to police other nodes in its immediate wireless coverage area. All innocent nodes are able to detect and identify the DoS attacker in its wireless coverage area. We applied the protocol to two Physical Layer technologies: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and the results are presented to validate the algorithm. PMID:25685510

  8. THE RESONANT TRANS-NEPTUNIAN POPULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Gladman, B.; Lawler, S. M.; Van Laerhoven, C.; Petit, J.-M.; Rousselot, P.; Kavelaars, J.; Jones, R. L.; Parker, J. Wm.; Bieryla, A.; Nicholson, P.; Ashby, M. L. N.

    2012-07-15

    The trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) trapped in mean-motion resonances with Neptune were likely emplaced there during planet migration late in the giant-planet formation process. We perform detailed modeling of the resonant objects detected in the Canada-France Ecliptic Plane Survey (CFEPS) in order to provide population estimates and, for some resonances, constrain the complex internal orbital element distribution. Detection biases play a critical role because phase relationships with Neptune make object discovery more likely at certain longitudes. This paper discusses the 3:2, 5:2, 2:1, 3:1, 5:1, 4:3, 5:3, 7:3, 5:4, and 7:4 mean-motion resonances, all of which had CFEPS detections, along with our upper limit on 1:1 Neptune Trojans (which is consistent with their small population estimated elsewhere). For the plutinos (TNOs in the 3:2 resonance) we refine the orbital element distribution given by Kavelaars et al. in 2009 and show that steep H-magnitude distributions (N(H){proportional_to}10{sup {alpha}H}, with {alpha} = 0.8-0.9) are favored in the range H{sub g} = 8-9, and confirm that this resonance does not share the inclination distribution of the classical Kuiper Belt. We give the first population estimate for the 5:2 resonance and find that, to within the uncertainties, the population is equal to that of the 3:2 ({approx_equal}13,000 TNOs with H{sub g} < 9.16), whereas the 2:1 population is smaller by a factor of 3-4 compared to the other two resonances. We also measure significant populations inhabiting the 4:3, 5:3, 7:3, 5:4, 7:4, 3:1, and 5:1 resonances, with H{sub g} < 9.16 (D > 100 km) populations in the thousands. We compare our intrinsic population and orbital element distributions with several published models of resonant-TNO production; the most striking discrepancy is that resonances beyond the 2:1 are in reality more heavily populated than in published models.

  9. TransCut: interactive rendering of translucent cutouts.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongping; Sun, Xin; Ren, Zhong; Lin, Stephen; Tong, Yiying; Guo, Baining; Zhou, Kun

    2013-03-01

    We present TransCut, a technique for interactive rendering of translucent objects undergoing fracturing and cutting operations. As the object is fractured or cut open, the user can directly examine and intuitively understand the complex translucent interior, as well as edit material properties through painting on cross sections and recombining the broken pieces—all with immediate and realistic visual feedback. This new mode of interaction with translucent volumes is made possible with two technical contributions. The first is a novel solver for the diffusion equation (DE) over a tetrahedral mesh that produces high-quality results comparable to the state-of-art finite element method (FEM) of Arbree et al. but at substantially higher speeds. This accuracy and efficiency is obtained by computing the discrete divergences of the diffusion equation and constructing the DE matrix using analytic formulas derived for linear finite elements. The second contribution is a multiresolution algorithm to significantly accelerate our DE solver while adapting to the frequent changes in topological structure of dynamic objects. The entire multiresolution DE solver is highly parallel and easily implemented on the GPU. We believe TransCut provides a novel visual effect for heterogeneous translucent objects undergoing fracturing and cutting operations. PMID:23307612

  10. Building smart sensor nodes according to IEEE 1451.3 standard.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Murilo N J; Neto, Olegario C S; Ferreira, José O; da Rocha, Adson F; de A Barbosa, Talles M G

    2011-01-01

    A Body Sensor Network (BSN) application requires many software and hardware adaptations to support correctly data exchanges between different sensor node architectures. However, these customizations demand extra time, cost and components. This paper introduces a simple development process in order to customize off-the-shelf BSN sensor nodes according to Transducer Bus Interface Modules (TBIM) standard. IEEE 1451.3 offers technical solutions for interfacing multiple and physically separated transducer allowing self-identification, self-configuration, plug and play and hot swapping capabilities. These are important requirements relating to most BSN applications.

  11. Throughput Analysis of IEEE 802.11 DCF in the Presence of Transmission Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshanyour, Ahed; Agarwal, Anjali

    This paper introduces an accurate analysis using three- dimensional Markov chain modeling to compute the IEEE 802.11 DCF throughput under heavy traffic conditions and absence of hidden terminals for both access modes, basic and rts/cts. The proposed model considers the impact of retry counts of control and data frames jointly on the saturated throughput. Moreover, It considers the impact of transmission errors by taking into account the strength of the received signal and using the BER model to convert the SNR to a bit error probability.

  12. Design and implementation of IEEE 802.11ac MAC controller in 65 nm CMOS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Cheng; Bin, Wu; Yong, Hei

    2016-02-01

    An IEEE-802.11ac-1*1 wireless LAN system-on-a-chip (SoC) that integrates an analog front end, a digital base-band processor and a media access controller has been implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology. It can provide significantly increased throughput, high efficiency rate selection, and fully backward compatibility with the existing 802.11a/n WLAN protocols. Especially the measured maximum throughput of UDP traffic can be up to 267 Mbps. Project supported by the National Great Specific Project of China (No. 2012ZX03004004_001).

  13. Suitability of the IEEE 802.15.4e Extensions for Spacecraft and Launcher Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallemagne, Ph.; Decotignie, J.-D.; Piguet, D.; Pelissou, P.; Patte, M.; Dufour, J.-F.

    2014-08-01

    Spacecraft currently use wires to support communication between sensors, controllers and actuators. Replacing the wires by wireless networks is appealing for a number of reasons. This paper presents an analysis of recent extensions to the wireless standard IEEE 802.15.4 as a possible solution to support robust and timely wireless communications inside and between spacecraft. In particular, it shows that with proper tuning and adaptation of the retransmission protocol, it can be used to increase the robustness and determinism of the wireless link.

  14. Impact of electric vehicles on the IEEE 34 node distribution infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Zeming; Shalalfel, Laith; Beshir, Mohammed J.

    2014-10-01

    With the growing penetration of the electric vehicles to our daily life owing to their economic and environmental benefits, there will be both opportunities and challenges to the utilities when adopting plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) to the distribution network. In this study, a thorough analysis based on real-world project is conducted to evaluate the impacts of electric vehicles infrastructure on the grid relating to system load flow, load factor, and voltage stability. IEEE 34 node test feeder was selected and tested along with different case scenarios utilizing the electrical distribution design (EDD) software to find out the potential impacts to the grid.

  15. Impact of electric vehicles on the IEEE 34 node distribution infrastructure

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Zeming; Shalalfel, Laith; Beshir, Mohammed J.

    2014-10-01

    With the growing penetration of the electric vehicles to our daily life owing to their economic and environmental benefits, there will be both opportunities and challenges to the utilities when adopting plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) to the distribution network. In this study, a thorough analysis based on real-world project is conducted to evaluate the impacts of electric vehicles infrastructure on the grid relating to system load flow, load factor, and voltage stability. IEEE 34 node test feeder was selected and tested along with different case scenarios utilizing the electrical distribution design (EDD) software to find out the potential impacts tomore » the grid.« less

  16. trans-Bis(hexafluoroantimonato)(phthalocyaninato)copper(II).

    PubMed

    Gardberg, A S; Ibers, J A

    2001-05-01

    The title compound, trans-bis(hexafluoroantimonato-F)(phthalocyaninato-kappa(4)N(29,30,31,32))copper(II), [Cu(SbF(6))(2)(C(32)H(16)N(8))] or Cu(pc)(SbF(6))(2) (pc is phthalocyaninate), comprises a six-coordinate Cu atom, lying on an inversion center, bonded to four N atoms of a phthalocyanine ring and to F atoms of two trans SbF(6)(-) groups. The compound is presumed to consist of a Cu(II) center and a doubly oxidized phthalocyanine ring, by analogy with Cu(pc)(ReO(4))(2).

  17. TranScreen-N: Method for rapid screening of trans-ungual drug delivery enhancers.

    PubMed

    Murthy, S Narasimha; Vaka, Siva Ram Kiran; Sammeta, Srinivasa Murthy; Nair, Anroop B

    2009-11-01

    Topical monotherapy of nail diseases such as onychomycosis and nail psoriasis has been less successful due to poor permeability of the human nail plate to topically administered drugs. Chemical enhancers are utilized to improve the drug delivery across the nail plate. Choosing the most effective chemical enhancers for the given drug and formulation is highly critical in determining the efficacy of topical therapy of nail diseases. Screening the large pool of enhancers using currently followed diffusion cell experiments would be tedious and expensive. The main objective of this study is to develop TranScreen-N, a high throughput method of screening trans-ungual drug permeation enhancers. It is a rapid microwell plate based method which involves two different treatment procedures; the simultaneous exposure treatment and the sequential exposure treatment. In the present study, several chemicals were evaluated by TranScreen-N and by diffusion studies in the Franz diffusion cell (FDC). Good agreement of in vitro drug delivery data with TranScreen-N data provided validity to the screening technique. In TranScreen-N technique, the enhancers can be grouped according to whether they need to be applied before or simultaneously with drugs (or by either procedures) to enhance the drug delivery across the nail plate. TranScreen-N technique can significantly reduce the cost and duration required to screen trans-ungual drug delivery enhancers. PMID:19363796

  18. TranScreen-N: Method for rapid screening of trans-ungual drug delivery enhancers.

    PubMed

    Murthy, S Narasimha; Vaka, Siva Ram Kiran; Sammeta, Srinivasa Murthy; Nair, Anroop B

    2009-11-01

    Topical monotherapy of nail diseases such as onychomycosis and nail psoriasis has been less successful due to poor permeability of the human nail plate to topically administered drugs. Chemical enhancers are utilized to improve the drug delivery across the nail plate. Choosing the most effective chemical enhancers for the given drug and formulation is highly critical in determining the efficacy of topical therapy of nail diseases. Screening the large pool of enhancers using currently followed diffusion cell experiments would be tedious and expensive. The main objective of this study is to develop TranScreen-N, a high throughput method of screening trans-ungual drug permeation enhancers. It is a rapid microwell plate based method which involves two different treatment procedures; the simultaneous exposure treatment and the sequential exposure treatment. In the present study, several chemicals were evaluated by TranScreen-N and by diffusion studies in the Franz diffusion cell (FDC). Good agreement of in vitro drug delivery data with TranScreen-N data provided validity to the screening technique. In TranScreen-N technique, the enhancers can be grouped according to whether they need to be applied before or simultaneously with drugs (or by either procedures) to enhance the drug delivery across the nail plate. TranScreen-N technique can significantly reduce the cost and duration required to screen trans-ungual drug delivery enhancers.

  19. Biotransformation of trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (trans-HCFO-1233zd).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Tobias; Bertermann, Rüdiger; Rusch, George M; Tveit, Ann; Dekant, Wolfgang

    2013-05-01

    trans-1-Chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (trans-HCFO-1233zd) is a novel foam blowing and precision cleaning agent with a very low impact for global warming and ozone depletion. trans-HCFO-1233zd also has a low potential for toxicity in rodents and is negative in genotoxicity testing. The biotransformation of trans-HCFO-1233zd and kinetics of metabolite excretion with urine were assessed in vitro and in animals after inhalation exposures. For in vitro characterization, liver microsomes from rats, rabbits and humans were incubated with trans-HCFO-1233zd. Male Sprague Dawley rats and female New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to 2,000, 5,000 and 10,000ppm for 6h and urine was collected for 48h after the end of the exposure. Study specimens were analyzed for metabolites using (19)F NMR, LC-MS/MS and GC/MS. S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-trans-propenyl)-glutathione was identified as predominant metabolite of trans-HCFO-1233zd in all microsomal incubation experiments in the presence of glutathione. Products of the oxidative biotransformation of trans-HCFO-1233zd were only minor metabolites when glutathione was present. In rats, both 3,3,3-trifluorolactic acid and N-acetyl-(3,3,3-trifluoro-trans-propenyl)-l-cysteine were observed as major urinary metabolites. 3,3,3-Trifluorolactic acid was not detected in the urine of rabbits. Quantitation showed rapid excretion of both metabolites in both species (t1/2<6h) and the extent of biotransformation of trans-HCFO-1233zd was determined as approximately 0.01% of received dose in rabbits and approximately 0.002% in rats. trans-HCFO-1233zd undergoes both oxidative biotransformation and glutathione conjugation at very low rates. The low extent of biotransformation and the rapid excretion of metabolites formed are consistent with the very low potential for toxicity of trans-HCFO-1233zd in mammals. PMID:23428393

  20. Biotransformation of trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (trans-HCFO-1233zd)

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Tobias; Bertermann, Rüdiger; Rusch, George M.; Tveit, Ann; Dekant, Wolfgang

    2013-05-01

    trans-1-Chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (trans-HCFO-1233zd) is a novel foam blowing and precision cleaning agent with a very low impact for global warming and ozone depletion. trans-HCFO-1233zd also has a low potential for toxicity in rodents and is negative in genotoxicity testing. The biotransformation of trans-HCFO-1233zd and kinetics of metabolite excretion with urine were assessed in vitro and in animals after inhalation exposures. For in vitro characterization, liver microsomes from rats, rabbits and humans were incubated with trans-HCFO-1233zd. Male Sprague Dawley rats and female New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to 2,000, 5,000 and 10,000 ppm for 6 h and urine was collected for 48 h after the end of the exposure. Study specimens were analyzed for metabolites using {sup 19}F NMR, LC-MS/MS and GC/MS. S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-trans-propenyl)-glutathione was identified as predominant metabolite of trans-HCFO-1233zd in all microsomal incubation experiments in the presence of glutathione. Products of the oxidative biotransformation of trans-HCFO-1233zd were only minor metabolites when glutathione was present. In rats, both 3,3,3-trifluorolactic acid and N-acetyl-(3,3,3-trifluoro-trans-propenyl)-L-cysteine were observed as major urinary metabolites. 3,3,3-Trifluorolactic acid was not detected in the urine of rabbits. Quantitation showed rapid excretion of both metabolites in both species (t{sub 1/2} < 6 h) and the extent of biotransformation of trans-HCFO-1233zd was determined as approximately 0.01% of received dose in rabbits and approximately 0.002% in rats. trans-HCFO-1233zd undergoes both oxidative biotransformation and glutathione conjugation at very low rates. The low extent of biotransformation and the rapid excretion of metabolites formed are consistent with the very low potential for toxicity of trans-HCFO-1233zd in mammals. - Highlights: ► No lethality and clinical signs were observed. ► Glutathione S-transferase and cytochrome P-450 dependent

  1. Biotransformation of trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (trans-HCFO-1233zd).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Tobias; Bertermann, Rüdiger; Rusch, George M; Tveit, Ann; Dekant, Wolfgang

    2013-05-01

    trans-1-Chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (trans-HCFO-1233zd) is a novel foam blowing and precision cleaning agent with a very low impact for global warming and ozone depletion. trans-HCFO-1233zd also has a low potential for toxicity in rodents and is negative in genotoxicity testing. The biotransformation of trans-HCFO-1233zd and kinetics of metabolite excretion with urine were assessed in vitro and in animals after inhalation exposures. For in vitro characterization, liver microsomes from rats, rabbits and humans were incubated with trans-HCFO-1233zd. Male Sprague Dawley rats and female New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to 2,000, 5,000 and 10,000ppm for 6h and urine was collected for 48h after the end of the exposure. Study specimens were analyzed for metabolites using (19)F NMR, LC-MS/MS and GC/MS. S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-trans-propenyl)-glutathione was identified as predominant metabolite of trans-HCFO-1233zd in all microsomal incubation experiments in the presence of glutathione. Products of the oxidative biotransformation of trans-HCFO-1233zd were only minor metabolites when glutathione was present. In rats, both 3,3,3-trifluorolactic acid and N-acetyl-(3,3,3-trifluoro-trans-propenyl)-l-cysteine were observed as major urinary metabolites. 3,3,3-Trifluorolactic acid was not detected in the urine of rabbits. Quantitation showed rapid excretion of both metabolites in both species (t1/2<6h) and the extent of biotransformation of trans-HCFO-1233zd was determined as approximately 0.01% of received dose in rabbits and approximately 0.002% in rats. trans-HCFO-1233zd undergoes both oxidative biotransformation and glutathione conjugation at very low rates. The low extent of biotransformation and the rapid excretion of metabolites formed are consistent with the very low potential for toxicity of trans-HCFO-1233zd in mammals.

  2. A note on trans-Planckian tail effects

    SciTech Connect

    Graef, L.L.; Brandenberger, R.

    2015-09-09

    We study the proposal by Mersini et al. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.64.043508 that the observed dark energy might be explained by the back-reaction of the set of tail modes in a theory with a dispersion relation in which the mode frequency decays exponentially in the trans-Planckian regime. The matter tail modes are frozen out, however they induce metric fluctuations. The energy-momentum tensor with which the tail modes effect the background geometry obtains contributions from both metric and matter fluctuations. We calculate the equation of state induced by the tail modes taking into account the gravitational contribution. We find that, in contrast to the case of frozen super-Hubble cosmological fluctuations, in this case the matter perturbations dominate, and they yield an equation of state which to leading order takes the form of a positive cosmological constant.

  3. A note on trans-Planckian tail effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graef, L. L.; Brandenberger, R.

    2015-09-01

    We study the proposal by Mersini et al. [1] that the observed dark energy might be explained by the back-reaction of the set of tail modes in a theory with a dispersion relation in which the mode frequency decays exponentially in the trans-Planckian regime. The matter tail modes are frozen out, however they induce metric fluctuations. The energy-momentum tensor with which the tail modes effect the background geometry obtains contributions from both metric and matter fluctuations. We calculate the equation of state induced by the tail modes taking into account the gravitational contribution. We find that, in contrast to the case of frozen super-Hubble cosmological fluctuations, in this case the matter perturbations dominate, and they yield an equation of state which to leading order takes the form of a positive cosmological constant.

  4. Predictable and reliable ECG monitoring over IEEE 802.11 WLANs within a hospital.

    PubMed

    Park, Juyoung; Kang, Kyungtae

    2014-09-01

    Telecardiology provides mobility for patients who require constant electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring. However, its safety is dependent on the predictability and robustness of data delivery, which must overcome errors in the wireless channel through which the ECG data are transmitted. We report here a framework that can be used to gauge the applicability of IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network (WLAN) technology to ECG monitoring systems in terms of delay constraints and transmission reliability. For this purpose, a medical-grade WLAN architecture achieved predictable delay through the combination of a medium access control mechanism based on the point coordination function provided by IEEE 802.11 and an error control scheme based on Reed-Solomon coding and block interleaving. The size of the jitter buffer needed was determined by this architecture to avoid service dropout caused by buffer underrun, through analysis of variations in transmission delay. Finally, we assessed this architecture in terms of service latency and reliability by modeling the transmission of uncompressed two-lead electrocardiogram data from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database and highlight the applicability of this wireless technology to telecardiology.

  5. Investigating the efficiency of IEEE 802.15.4 for medical monitoring applications.

    PubMed

    Pelegris, P; Banitsas, K

    2011-01-01

    Recent advancements in wireless communications technologies bring us one step closer to provide reliable Telecare services as an alternative to patients staying in a hospital mainly for monitoring purposes. In this research we investigate the efficiency of IEEE 802.15.4 in a simple scenario where a patient is being monitored using an ECG and a blood analysis module. This approach binds well with assisted living solutions, by sharing the network infrastructure for both monitoring and control while taking advantage of the low power features of the protocol. Such applications are becoming more and more realistic to implement as IEEE 802.15.4 compatible hardware becomes increasingly available. Our aim is to examine the impact of Beacon and Superframe Order in the medium access delay, dropped packets, end to end delay, average retransmission attempts and consumed power focusing on this bandwidth demanding situation where the network load does not allow low duty cycles, in order to draw some conclusions on the effect that this will have to telemonitoring applications.

  6. On the seamless, harmonized use of ISO/IEEE11073 and openEHR.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Jesús D; Kohl, Christian D; Eguzkiza, Aitor; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Alesanco, Álvaro; Serrano, Luis; García, José; Knaup, Petra

    2014-05-01

    Standardized exchange of clinical information is a key factor in the provision of high quality health care systems. In this context, the openEHR specification facilitates the management of health data in electronic health records (EHRs), while the ISO/IEEE11073 (also referred to as X73PHD) family of standards provides a reference framework for medical device interoperability. Hospitals and health care providers using openEHR require flawless integration of data coming from external sources, such as X73PHD. Hence, a harmonization process is crucial for achieving a seamless, coherent use of those specifications in real scenarios. Such harmonization is the aim of this paper. Thus, the classes and attributes of a representative number of X73PHD specializations for medical devices--weight, temperature, blood pressure, pulse and heart rate, oximetry, and electrocardiograph--along with the X73PHD core document--ISO/IEEE11073-20601--have been analyzed and mapped to openEHR archetypes. The proposed methodology reuses the existing archetypes when possible and suggests new ones--or appropriate modifications--otherwise. As a result, this paper analyzes the inconsistencies found and the implications thereof in the coordinated use of these two standards. The procedure has also shown how existing standards are able to influence the archetype development process, enhancing the existing archetype corpus.

  7. Predictable and reliable ECG monitoring over IEEE 802.11 WLANs within a hospital.

    PubMed

    Park, Juyoung; Kang, Kyungtae

    2014-09-01

    Telecardiology provides mobility for patients who require constant electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring. However, its safety is dependent on the predictability and robustness of data delivery, which must overcome errors in the wireless channel through which the ECG data are transmitted. We report here a framework that can be used to gauge the applicability of IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network (WLAN) technology to ECG monitoring systems in terms of delay constraints and transmission reliability. For this purpose, a medical-grade WLAN architecture achieved predictable delay through the combination of a medium access control mechanism based on the point coordination function provided by IEEE 802.11 and an error control scheme based on Reed-Solomon coding and block interleaving. The size of the jitter buffer needed was determined by this architecture to avoid service dropout caused by buffer underrun, through analysis of variations in transmission delay. Finally, we assessed this architecture in terms of service latency and reliability by modeling the transmission of uncompressed two-lead electrocardiogram data from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database and highlight the applicability of this wireless technology to telecardiology. PMID:25083792

  8. Implementing ISO/IEEE 11073: proposal of two different strategic approaches.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Espronceda, M; Serrano, L; Martínez, I; Escayola, J; Led, S; Trigo, J; García, J

    2008-01-01

    This paper explains the challenges encountered during the ISO/IEEE 11073 standard implementation process. The complexity of the standard and the consequent heavy requirements, which have not encouraged software engineers to adopt the standard. The developing complexity evaluation drives us to propose two possible implementation strategies that cover almost all possible use cases and eases handling the standard by non-expert users. The first one is focused on medical devices (MD) and proposes a low-memory and low-processor usage technique. It is based on message patterns that allow simple functions to generate ISO/IEEE 11073 messages and to process them easily. In this way a framework for MDs can be obtained. Second one is focused on more powerful machines such as data loggers or gateways (aka. computer engines (CE)), which do not have the MDs' memory and processor usage constraints. For CEs a more intelligent and adaptative Plug&Play (P&P) solution is provided. It consists on a general platform that can access to any device supported by the standard. Combining both strategies will cut developing time for applications based on ISO/EEE 11073.

  9. Throughput analysis of the IEEE 802.4 token bus standard under heavy load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Joseph; Tobagi, Fouad

    1987-01-01

    It has become clear in the last few years that there is a trend towards integrated digital services. Parallel to the development of public Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is service integration in the local area (e.g., a campus, a building, an aircraft). The types of services to be integrated depend very much on the specific local environment. However, applications tend to generate data traffic belonging to one of two classes. According to IEEE 802.4 terminology, the first major class of traffic is termed synchronous, such as packetized voice and data generated from other applications with real-time constraints, and the second class is called asynchronous which includes most computer data traffic such as file transfer or facsimile. The IEEE 802.4 token bus protocol which was designed to support both synchronous and asynchronous traffic is examined. The protocol is basically a timer-controlled token bus access scheme. By a suitable choice of the design parameters, it can be shown that access delay is bounded for synchronous traffic. As well, the bandwidth allocated to asynchronous traffic can be controlled. A throughput analysis of the protocol under heavy load with constant channel occupation of synchronous traffic and constant token-passing times is presented.

  10. Service design projects sponsored by the Kansas State University Student Chapter of the IEEE EMBS.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Connor; Gruber, Lucinda; Young, Ethan; Humphrey, Jason; Warren, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Service projects offer volunteer student organizations a means to generate interest and focus activity outside of the context of the classroom. This paper addresses efforts by the Kansas State University (KSU) Student Chapter of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS) to initiate and guide service projects in two primary areas: (1) research to aid persons with disabilities (RAPD) and (2) hands-on efforts to interest young women in the quantitative fields of science and engineering. Three RAPD projects are presented: a computer mouse design that helps to alleviate productivity problems associated with Parkinson's tremors, a battery removal tool for arthritic individuals with limited dexterity, and a wireless door control and communication system to assist mobility-limited individuals. Service projects to garner science and engineering interest in young women are co-sponsored by the KSU Women in Engineering and Science Program (WESP). The most recent activity, entitled 'Vital Signs Shirts,' is presented in this paper, along with a summary of pending interactive laboratories designed to interest participants in engineering as applied to the human body. These service projects encourage IEEE EMBS student chapter members to explore their biomedical engineering interests and make a positive impact in the community.

  11. Multiple Power-Saving MSSs Scheduling Methods for IEEE802.16e Broadband Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This work proposes two enhanced multiple mobile subscriber stations (MSSs) power-saving scheduling methods for IEEE802.16e broadband wireless networks. The proposed methods are designed for the Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS) of IEEE802.16e. To reduce the active periods of all power-saving MSSs, the base station (BS) allocates each MSS fewest possible transmission frames to retrieve its data from the BS. The BS interlaces the active periods of each MSS to increase the amount of scheduled MSSs and splits the overflowing transmission frames to maximize the bandwidth utilization. Simulation results reveal that interlacing the active periods of MSSs can increase the number of scheduled MSSs to more than four times of that in the Direct scheduling method. The bandwidth utilization can thus be improved by 60%–70%. Splitting the overflowing transmission frames can improve bandwidth utilization by more than 10% over that achieved using the method of interlacing active periods, with a sacrifice of only 1% of the sleep periods in the interlacing active period method. PMID:24523656

  12. Software Aspects of IEEE Floating-Point Computations for Numerical Applications in High Energy Physics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Floating-point computations are at the heart of much of the computing done in high energy physics. The correctness, speed and accuracy of these computations are of paramount importance. The lack of any of these characteristics can mean the difference between new, exciting physics and an embarrassing correction. This talk will examine practical aspects of IEEE 754-2008 floating-point arithmetic as encountered in HEP applications. After describing the basic features of IEEE floating-point arithmetic, the presentation will cover: common hardware implementations (SSE, x87) techniques for improving the accuracy of summation, multiplication and data interchange compiler options for gcc and icc affecting floating-point operations hazards to be avoided About the speaker Jeffrey M Arnold is a Senior Software Engineer in the Intel Compiler and Languages group at Intel Corporation. He has been part of the Digital->Compaq->Intel compiler organization for nearly 20 years; part of that time, he worked on both low- and high-level math libraries. Prior to that, he was in the VMS Engineering organization at Digital Equipment Corporation. In the late 1980s, Jeff spent 2½ years at CERN as part of the CERN/Digital Joint Project. In 2008, he returned to CERN to spent 10 weeks working with CERN/openlab. Since that time, he has returned to CERN multiple times to teach at openlab workshops and consult with various LHC experiments. Jeff received his Ph.D. in physics from Case Western Reserve University.

  13. A High Throughput Medium Access Control Implementation Based on IEEE 802.11e Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Min Li; Lee, Jin; Setiawan, Hendra; Ochi, Hiroshi; Park, Sin-Chong

    With the growing demand for high-performance multimedia applications over wireless channels, we need to develop a Medium Access Control (MAC) system that supports high throughput and quality of service enhancements. This paper presents the standard analysis, design architecture and design issues leading to the implementation of an IEEE 802.11e based MAC system that supports MAC throughput of over 100Mbps. In order to meet the MAC layer timing constraints, a hardware/software co-design approach is adopted. The proposed MAC architecture is implemented on the Xilinx Virtex-II Pro Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) (XC2VP70-5FF1704C) prototype, and connected to a host computer through an external Universal Serial Bus (USB) interface. The total FPGA resource utilization is 11, 508 out of 33, 088 (34%) available slices. The measured MAC throughput is 100.7Mbps and 109.2Mbps for voice and video access categories, transmitted at a data rate of 260Mbps based on IEEE 802.11n Physical Layer (PHY), using the contention-based hybrid coordination function channel access mechanism.

  14. A strategy for implementation of experience based seismic equipment qualification in IEEE and ASME industry standards

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.M.

    1996-12-01

    In the past 20 years, extensive data on the performance of mechanical and electric equipment during actual strong motion earthquakes and seismic qualification tests has been accumulated. Recognizing that an experience based approach provides a technically sound and cost effective method for the seismic qualification of some or certain equipment, the IEEE Nuclear Power Engineering Committee and the ASME Committee on Qualification of Mechanical Equipment established a Special Working Group to investigate the incorporation of experienced based methods into the industry consensus codes and standards currently used in the seismic qualification of Seismic Category Nuclear Power Plant equipment. This paper presents the strategy (course of action) which was developed by the Special Working Group for meeting this objective of incorporation of experience based seismic qualification standards used in the design and seismic qualification of seismic category nuclear power plant equipment. This strategy was recommended to both chartering organizations, the IEEE Nuclear Power Engineering Committee and the ASME Committee on Qualification of Mechanical Equipment for their consideration and implementation. The status of the review and implementation of the Special Working Group`s recommended strategy by the sponsoring organization is also discussed.

  15. Software Aspects of IEEE Floating-Point Computations for Numerical Applications in High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-11

    Floating-point computations are at the heart of much of the computing done in high energy physics. The correctness, speed and accuracy of these computations are of paramount importance. The lack of any of these characteristics can mean the difference between new, exciting physics and an embarrassing correction. This talk will examine practical aspects of IEEE 754-2008 floating-point arithmetic as encountered in HEP applications. After describing the basic features of IEEE floating-point arithmetic, the presentation will cover: common hardware implementations (SSE, x87) techniques for improving the accuracy of summation, multiplication and data interchange compiler options for gcc and icc affecting floating-point operations hazards to be avoided About the speaker Jeffrey M Arnold is a Senior Software Engineer in the Intel Compiler and Languages group at Intel Corporation. He has been part of the Digital->Compaq->Intel compiler organization for nearly 20 years; part of that time, he worked on both low- and high-level math libraries. Prior to that, he was in the VMS Engineering organization at Digital Equipment Corporation. In the late 1980s, Jeff spent 2½ years at CERN as part of the CERN/Digital Joint Project. In 2008, he returned to CERN to spent 10 weeks working with CERN/openlab. Since that time, he has returned to CERN multiple times to teach at openlab workshops and consult with various LHC experiments. Jeff received his Ph.D. in physics from Case Western Reserve University.

  16. On the seamless, harmonized use of ISO/IEEE11073 and openEHR.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Jesús D; Kohl, Christian D; Eguzkiza, Aitor; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Alesanco, Álvaro; Serrano, Luis; García, José; Knaup, Petra

    2014-05-01

    Standardized exchange of clinical information is a key factor in the provision of high quality health care systems. In this context, the openEHR specification facilitates the management of health data in electronic health records (EHRs), while the ISO/IEEE11073 (also referred to as X73PHD) family of standards provides a reference framework for medical device interoperability. Hospitals and health care providers using openEHR require flawless integration of data coming from external sources, such as X73PHD. Hence, a harmonization process is crucial for achieving a seamless, coherent use of those specifications in real scenarios. Such harmonization is the aim of this paper. Thus, the classes and attributes of a representative number of X73PHD specializations for medical devices--weight, temperature, blood pressure, pulse and heart rate, oximetry, and electrocardiograph--along with the X73PHD core document--ISO/IEEE11073-20601--have been analyzed and mapped to openEHR archetypes. The proposed methodology reuses the existing archetypes when possible and suggests new ones--or appropriate modifications--otherwise. As a result, this paper analyzes the inconsistencies found and the implications thereof in the coordinated use of these two standards. The procedure has also shown how existing standards are able to influence the archetype development process, enhancing the existing archetype corpus. PMID:24132031

  17. An Efficient Power Saving Mechanism for Delay-Guaranteed Services in IEEE 802.16e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yunju; Hwang, Gang Uk

    As the IEEE 802.16e Wireless Metropolitan Access Network (WMAN) supports the mobility of a mobile station (MS), increasing MS power efficiency has become an important issue. In this paper, we analyze the sleep-mode operation for an efficient power saving mechanism for delay-guaranteed services in the IEEE 802.16e WMAN and observe the effects of the operating parameters related to this operation. For the analysis we use the M/GI/1/K queueing system with multiple vacations, exhaustive services and setup times. In the analysis, we consider the power consumption during the wake-mode period as well as the sleep-mode period. As a performance measure for the power consumption, we propose the power consumption per unit time per effective arrival which considers the power consumption and the packet blocking probability simultaneously. In addition, since we consider delay-guaranteed services, the average packet response delay is also considered as a performance measure. Based on the performance measures, we obtain the optimal sleep-mode operation which minimizes the power consumption per unit time per effective arrival with a given delay requirement. Numerical studies are also provided to investigate the system performance and to show how to achieve our objective.

  18. Game of Trans-Kingdom Effectors.

    PubMed

    Bleves, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    TplE, a type VI secreted (phospho)lipase, has been identified as the third trans-kingdom effector of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, targeting both prokaryotic and eukaryotic hosts. Indeed, TplE triggers the killing of bacterial competitors and promotes autophagy in epithelial cells once localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:27554788

  19. Powdered activated carbon adsorption of two fishy odorants in water: Trans,trans-2,4-heptadienal and trans,trans-2,4-decadienal.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaojian; Chen, Chao

    2015-06-01

    Powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption of two fishy odorants, trans,trans-2,4-heptadienal (HDE) and trans,trans-2,4-decadienal (DDE), was investigated. Both the pseudo first-order and the pseudo second-order kinetic models well described the kinetics curves, and DDE was more readily removed by PAC. In isotherm tests, both Freundlich and Modified Freundlich isotherms fitted the experimental data well. PAC exhibited a higher adsorption capacity for DDE than for HDE, which could be ascribed to the difference in their hydrophobicity. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0) indicated an exothermic and spontaneous adsorption process. PAC dosage, pH, and natural organic matter (NOM) presence were found to influence the adsorption process. With increasing PAC dosage, the pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order rate constants both increased. The value of pH had little influence on HDE or DDE molecules but altered the surface charge of PAC, and the maximum adsorption capacity occurred at pH9. The presence of NOM, especially the fraction with molecular weight less than 1k Dalton, hindered the adsorption. The study showed that preloaded NOM impaired the adsorption capacity of HDE or DDE more severely than simultaneously fed NOM did.

  20. Game of Trans-Kingdom Effectors.

    PubMed

    Bleves, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    TplE, a type VI secreted (phospho)lipase, has been identified as the third trans-kingdom effector of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, targeting both prokaryotic and eukaryotic hosts. Indeed, TplE triggers the killing of bacterial competitors and promotes autophagy in epithelial cells once localized to the endoplasmic reticulum.

  1. Trans unsaturated fatty acids in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Keweloh, H; Heipieper, H J

    1996-02-01

    The occurrence of trans unsaturated fatty acids as by-products of fatty acid transformations carried out by the obligate anaerobic ruminal microflora has been well known for a long time. In recent years, fatty acids with trans configurations also have been detected in the membrane lipids of various aerobic bacteria. Besides several psychrophilic organisms, bacteria-degrading pollutants, such as Pseudomonas putida, are able to synthesize these compounds de novo. In contrast to the trans fatty acids formed by rumen bacteria, the membrane constituents of aerobic bacteria are synthesized by a direct isomerization of the complementary cis configuration of the double bond without a shift of the position. This system of isomerization is located in the cytoplasmic membrane. The conversion of cis unsaturated fatty acids to trans changes the membrane fluidity in response to environmental stimuli, particularly where growth is inhibited due to the presence of high concentrations of toxic substances. Under these conditions, lipid synthesis also stops so that the cells are not able to modify their membrane fluidity by any other mechanism.

  2. Powdered activated carbon adsorption of two fishy odorants in water: Trans,trans-2,4-heptadienal and trans,trans-2,4-decadienal.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaojian; Chen, Chao

    2015-06-01

    Powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption of two fishy odorants, trans,trans-2,4-heptadienal (HDE) and trans,trans-2,4-decadienal (DDE), was investigated. Both the pseudo first-order and the pseudo second-order kinetic models well described the kinetics curves, and DDE was more readily removed by PAC. In isotherm tests, both Freundlich and Modified Freundlich isotherms fitted the experimental data well. PAC exhibited a higher adsorption capacity for DDE than for HDE, which could be ascribed to the difference in their hydrophobicity. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0) indicated an exothermic and spontaneous adsorption process. PAC dosage, pH, and natural organic matter (NOM) presence were found to influence the adsorption process. With increasing PAC dosage, the pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order rate constants both increased. The value of pH had little influence on HDE or DDE molecules but altered the surface charge of PAC, and the maximum adsorption capacity occurred at pH9. The presence of NOM, especially the fraction with molecular weight less than 1k Dalton, hindered the adsorption. The study showed that preloaded NOM impaired the adsorption capacity of HDE or DDE more severely than simultaneously fed NOM did. PMID:26040727

  3. A distributed scheme to manage the dynamic coexistence of IEEE 802.15.4-based health-monitoring WBANs.

    PubMed

    Deylami, Mohammad N; Jovanov, Emil

    2014-01-01

    The overlap of transmission ranges between wireless networks as a result of mobility is referred to as dynamic coexistence. The interference caused by coexistence may significantly affect the performance of wireless body area networks (WBANs) where reliability is particularly critical for health monitoring applications. In this paper, we analytically study the effects of dynamic coexistence on the operation of IEEE 802.15.4-based health monitoring WBANs. The current IEEE 802.15.4 standard lacks mechanisms for effectively managing the coexistence of mobile WBANs. Considering the specific characteristics and requirements of health monitoring WBANs, we propose the dynamic coexistence management (DCM) mechanism to make IEEE 802.15.4-based WBANs able to detect and mitigate the harmful effects of coexistence. We assess the effectiveness of this scheme using extensive OPNET simulations. Our results indicate that DCM improves the successful transmission rates of dynamically coexisting WBANs by 20%-25% for typical medical monitoring applications.

  4. Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... you are not seeing trans fat on a product's label. First, products entering interstate commerce on or after ... already begun to declare trans fat on their products' labels. Second, FDA has granted enforcement discretion to some ...

  5. The molecular structure of 1-methyl- trans-cyclooctene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traetteberg, M.; Bakken, P.; Almenningen, A.

    1981-07-01

    The molecular structure of 1 -methyl- trans-cyclooctene has been studied by the gas electron diffraction method. A molecular mechanics calculation has been done for the title compound and for trans-cyclooctene and 1,2-dimethyl- trans-cyclooctene.

  6. Quantitative Measurement of Trans-Fats by Infrared Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Edward B.; Davies, Don R.; Campbell, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Trans-fat is a general term, which is mainly used to describe the various trans geometric isomers present in unsaturated fatty acids. Various techniques are now used for a quantitative measurement of the amount of trans-fats present in foods and cooking oil.

  7. ALS Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... toward a world without ALS! Walk to Defeat ALS® Walk to Defeat ALS® draws people of all ... We need your help. I Will Advocate National ALS Registry The National ALS Registry is a congressionally ...

  8. Formation of fusarenone X, nivalenol, zearalenone, alpha-trans-zearalenol, beta-trans-zearalenol, and fusarin C by Fusarium crookwellense.

    PubMed

    Golinski, P; Vesonder, R F; Latus-Zietkiewicz, D; Perkowski, J

    1988-08-01

    Fusarium crookwellense KF748 (NRRL A-28100) (isolated from dry rotted potato tubers in Central Poland) produced six mycotoxins on both rice and corn substrates at 25 degrees C. The metabolites detected were zearalenone, alpha-trans-zearalenol, beta-trans-zearalenol, fusarin C, and the trichothecenes fusarenone X and nivalenol. This is the first report of formation of alpha-trans-zearalenol, beta-trans-zearalenol, fusarenone X, and nivalenol by F. crookwellense.

  9. Unusual hydrocarbon chain packing mode and modification of crystallite growth habit in the self-assembled nanocomposites zinc-aluminum-hydroxide oleate and elaidate (cis-and trans-[Zn2Al(OH)6(CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COO-)] and magnesium analogues.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yifeng; Braterman, Paul S.; Xu, Zhi-Ping; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Xu, Huifang; Yu, Kui

    2004-05-01

    We report a novel packing mode specific to the cis unsaturated hydrocarbon chain in the title compound, a self-assembled layered double hydroxide-surfactant hybrid nanomaterial, and its influence on crystallite morphology and structure. The kink imposed by the cis double bond in oleate leads to partial overlap between chains on adjacent layers, with incomplete space filling, in contrast to the more usual (and more efficient) mono- and bilayer packings exhibited by the trans analogues. Incorporation of surfactant into the growing crystallite leads to a reversal of the usual LDH growth habit and results in crystallite shapes featuring ribbonlike sheets. The thermal decomposition behavior of the as-prepared organic/inorganic nanocomposites in air and N{sub 2} is described.

  10. trans,trans,trans-Diaqua-bis(nicotin-amide-κN)bis-(2-nitro-benzoato-κO)copper(II).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kou-Lin; Xie, Qiu-Lan; Ng, Seik Weng

    2009-01-01

    The water-coordinated metal atom in the title compound, [Cu(C(7)H(4)NO(4))(2)(C(6)H(6)N(2)O)(2)(H(2)O)(2)], lies on a center of inversion in an all-trans octa-hedral environment with slight distortions. The mol-ecule inter-acts with adjacent mol-ecules through O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a layered network parallel to (010). PMID:21582368

  11. Low-frequency electrical dosimetry: research agenda of the IEEE International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, J. Patrick; Hirata, Akimasa

    2016-06-01

    This article treats unsettled issues in the use of numerical models of electrical dosimetry as applied to international limits on human exposure to low-frequency (typically  <  100 kHz) electromagnetic fields and contact current. The perspective in this publication is that of Subcommittee 6 of IEEE-ICES (International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety) Technical Committee 95. The paper discusses 25 issues needing attention, fitting into three general categories: induction models; electrostimulation models; and human exposure limits. Of these, 9 were voted as ‘high priority’ by members of Subcommittee 6. The list is presented as a research agenda for refinements in numerical modeling with applications to human exposure limits. It is likely that such issues are also important in medical and electrical product safety design applications.

  12. Development of a low mobility IEEE 802.15.4 compliant VANET system for urban environments.

    PubMed

    Nazabal, Juan Antonio; Falcone, Francisco; Fernández-Valdivielso, Carlos; Matías, Ignacio Raúl

    2013-05-29

    The use of Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) is growing nowadays and it includes both roadside-to-vehicle communication (RVC) and inter-vehicle communication (IVC). The purpose of VANETs is to exchange useful information between vehicles and the roadside infrastructures for making an intelligent use of them. There are several possible applications for this technology like: emergency warning system for vehicles, cooperative adaptive cruise control or collision avoidance, among others. The objective of this work is to develop a VANET prototype system for urban environments using IEEE 802.15.4 compliant devices. Simulation-based values of the estimated signal strength and radio link quality values are obtained and compared with measurements in outdoor conditions to validate an implemented VANET system. The results confirm the possibility of implementing low cost vehicular communication networks operating at moderate vehicular speeds.

  13. Integration of heterogeneous biomedical sensors into an ISO/IEEE 11073 compliant application.

    PubMed

    Fioravanti, A; Fico, G; Arredondo, M T; Salvi, D; Villalar, J L

    2010-01-01

    Current trends in healthcare technology include mobile-based applications. Relevant advances in the integration of vital signs monitoring devices with mobile platforms are widely reported nowadays. In this context, conceiving and designing an interoperable application is essential due to the growing necessity of integrating a huge and heterogeneous amount of biomedical data, coming from a wide range of devices and sensors. In this paper the key research issues associated with such integration are presented as well as a specific proposal to solve these problems. It is based on a middleware architecture for the integration of biomedical sensors with mobile devices, derived from the ISO/IEEE 11073 standards family. The application has been developed in the framework of an EU-funded R&D project called METABO.

  14. Low-frequency electrical dosimetry: research agenda of the IEEE International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety.

    PubMed

    Reilly, J Patrick; Hirata, Akimasa

    2016-06-21

    This article treats unsettled issues in the use of numerical models of electrical dosimetry as applied to international limits on human exposure to low-frequency (typically  <  100 kHz) electromagnetic fields and contact current. The perspective in this publication is that of Subcommittee 6 of IEEE-ICES (International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety) Technical Committee 95. The paper discusses 25 issues needing attention, fitting into three general categories: induction models; electrostimulation models; and human exposure limits. Of these, 9 were voted as 'high priority' by members of Subcommittee 6. The list is presented as a research agenda for refinements in numerical modeling with applications to human exposure limits. It is likely that such issues are also important in medical and electrical product safety design applications.

  15. 2011 IEEE Visualization Contest winner: Visualizing unsteady vortical behavior of a centrifugal pump.

    PubMed

    Otto, Mathias; Kuhn, Alexander; Engelke, Wito; Theisel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    In the 2011 IEEE Visualization Contest, the dataset represented a high-resolution simulation of a centrifugal pump operating below optimal speed. The goal was to find suitable visualization techniques to identify regions of rotating stall that impede the pump's effectiveness. The winning entry split analysis of the pump into three parts based on the pump's functional behavior. It then applied local and integration-based methods to communicate the unsteady flow behavior in different regions of the dataset. This research formed the basis for a comparison of common vortex extractors and more recent methods. In particular, integration-based methods (separation measures, accumulated scalar fields, particle path lines, and advection textures) are well suited to capture the complex time-dependent flow behavior. This video (http://youtu.be/oD7QuabY0oU) shows simulations of unsteady flow in a centrifugal pump.

  16. Beamforming transmission in IEEE 802.11ac under time-varying channels.

    PubMed

    Yu, Heejung; Kim, Taejoon

    2014-01-01

    The IEEE 802.11ac wireless local area network (WLAN) standard has adopted beamforming (BF) schemes to improve spectral efficiency and throughput with multiple antennas. To design the transmit beam, a channel sounding process to feedback channel state information (CSI) is required. Due to sounding overhead, throughput increases with the amount of transmit data under static channels. Under practical channel conditions with mobility, however, the mismatch between the transmit beam and the channel at transmission time causes performance loss when transmission duration after channel sounding is too long. When the fading rate, payload size, and operating signal-to-noise ratio are given, the optimal transmission duration (i.e., packet length) can be determined to maximize throughput. The relationship between packet length and throughput is also investigated for single-user and multiuser BF modes.

  17. Beamforming transmission in IEEE 802.11ac under time-varying channels.

    PubMed

    Yu, Heejung; Kim, Taejoon

    2014-01-01

    The IEEE 802.11ac wireless local area network (WLAN) standard has adopted beamforming (BF) schemes to improve spectral efficiency and throughput with multiple antennas. To design the transmit beam, a channel sounding process to feedback channel state information (CSI) is required. Due to sounding overhead, throughput increases with the amount of transmit data under static channels. Under practical channel conditions with mobility, however, the mismatch between the transmit beam and the channel at transmission time causes performance loss when transmission duration after channel sounding is too long. When the fading rate, payload size, and operating signal-to-noise ratio are given, the optimal transmission duration (i.e., packet length) can be determined to maximize throughput. The relationship between packet length and throughput is also investigated for single-user and multiuser BF modes. PMID:25152927

  18. Reliable Multicast MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs with Extended Service Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo-Yong

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we propose the efficient reliable multicast MAC protocol by which the AP (Access Point) can transmit reliably its multicast data frames to the recipients in the AP's one-hop or two-hop transmission range. The AP uses the STAs (Stations) that are directly associated with itself as the relays for the data delivery to the remote recipients that cannot be reached directly from itself. Based on the connectivity information among the recipients, the reliable multicast MAC protocol optimizes the number of the RAK (Request for ACK) frame transmissions in a reasonable computational time. Numerical examples show that our proposed MAC protocol significantly enhances the MAC performance compared with the BMMM (Batch Mode Multicast MAC) protocol that is extended to support the recipients that are in the AP's one-hop or two-hop transmission range in IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs.

  19. Development of a Low Mobility IEEE 802.15.4 Compliant VANET System for Urban Environments

    PubMed Central

    Nazabal, Juan Antonio; Falcone, Francisco; Fernández-Valdivielso, Carlos; Matías, Ignacio Raúl

    2013-01-01

    The use of Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) is growing nowadays and it includes both roadside-to-vehicle communication (RVC) and inter-vehicle communication (IVC). The purpose of VANETs is to exchange useful information between vehicles and the roadside infrastructures for making an intelligent use of them. There are several possible applications for this technology like: emergency warning system for vehicles, cooperative adaptive cruise control or collision avoidance, among others. The objective of this work is to develop a VANET prototype system for urban environments using IEEE 802.15.4 compliant devices. Simulation-based values of the estimated signal strength and radio link quality values are obtained and compared with measurements in outdoor conditions to validate an implemented VANET system. The results confirm the possibility of implementing low cost vehicular communication networks operating at moderate vehicular speeds. PMID:23760089

  20. Heterogeneous voice flows-oriented call admission control in IEEE 802.11e WLANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qi-lin; Huang, Zhen-jin; Wang, Shi-yi

    2014-04-01

    Considering the circumstance of heterogeneous voice flows, first, by applying Markov chain, this paper proposes an unsaturated analytical model for the IEEE 802.11e EDCA protocol, which considers the condition of non-ideal transmission channel and the character of the occurrence of backoff countdown at the beginning of time slot in EDCA protocol. Furthermore, according to the proposed model, the media access delay and throughput of a flow are analysed, and the flow-oriented call admission control (CAC) scheme is proposed. Finally, the simulation results are shown to confirm that the proposed CAC scheme can guarantee the requirements of throughput and delay of voice flows, and can admit more voice flows to improve the utilisation efficiency of network resources by choosing the appropriate values of the minimum contention window or the appropriate varieties of voice flows.

  1. Beamforming Transmission in IEEE 802.11ac under Time-Varying Channels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The IEEE 802.11ac wireless local area network (WLAN) standard has adopted beamforming (BF) schemes to improve spectral efficiency and throughput with multiple antennas. To design the transmit beam, a channel sounding process to feedback channel state information (CSI) is required. Due to sounding overhead, throughput increases with the amount of transmit data under static channels. Under practical channel conditions with mobility, however, the mismatch between the transmit beam and the channel at transmission time causes performance loss when transmission duration after channel sounding is too long. When the fading rate, payload size, and operating signal-to-noise ratio are given, the optimal transmission duration (i.e., packet length) can be determined to maximize throughput. The relationship between packet length and throughput is also investigated for single-user and multiuser BF modes. PMID:25152927

  2. IEEE 802.21 Assisted Seamless and Energy Efficient Handovers in Mixed Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huaiyu; Maciocco, Christian; Kesavan, Vijay; Low, Andy L. Y.

    Network selection is the decision process for a mobile terminal to handoff between homogeneous or heterogeneous networks. With multiple available networks, the selection process must evaluate factors like network services/conditions, monetary cost, system conditions, user preferences etc. In this paper, we investigate network selection using a cost function and information provided by IEEE 802.21. The cost function provides flexibility to balance different factors in decision making and our research is focused on improving both seamlessness and energy efficiency of handovers. Our solution is evaluated using real WiFi, WiMax, and 3G signal strength traces. The results show that appropriate networks were selected based on selection policies, handovers were triggered at optimal times to increase overall network connectivity as compared to traditional triggering schemes, while at the same time the energy consumption of multi-radio devices for both on-going operations as well as during handovers is optimized.

  3. IEEE/NASA Workshop on Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification, and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margaria, Tiziana (Editor); Steffen, Bernhard (Editor); Hichey, Michael G.

    2005-01-01

    This volume contains the Preliminary Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE ISoLA Workshop on Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification, and Validation, with a special track on the theme of Formal Methods in Human and Robotic Space Exploration. The workshop was held on 23-24 September 2005 at the Loyola College Graduate Center, Columbia, MD, USA. The idea behind the Workshop arose from the experience and feedback of ISoLA 2004, the 1st International Symposium on Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods held in Paphos (Cyprus) last October-November. ISoLA 2004 served the need of providing a forum for developers, users, and researchers to discuss issues related to the adoption and use of rigorous tools and methods for the specification, analysis, verification, certification, construction, test, and maintenance of systems from the point of view of their different application domains.

  4. Development of a low mobility IEEE 802.15.4 compliant VANET system for urban environments.

    PubMed

    Nazabal, Juan Antonio; Falcone, Francisco; Fernández-Valdivielso, Carlos; Matías, Ignacio Raúl

    2013-01-01

    The use of Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) is growing nowadays and it includes both roadside-to-vehicle communication (RVC) and inter-vehicle communication (IVC). The purpose of VANETs is to exchange useful information between vehicles and the roadside infrastructures for making an intelligent use of them. There are several possible applications for this technology like: emergency warning system for vehicles, cooperative adaptive cruise control or collision avoidance, among others. The objective of this work is to develop a VANET prototype system for urban environments using IEEE 802.15.4 compliant devices. Simulation-based values of the estimated signal strength and radio link quality values are obtained and compared with measurements in outdoor conditions to validate an implemented VANET system. The results confirm the possibility of implementing low cost vehicular communication networks operating at moderate vehicular speeds. PMID:23760089

  5. Antenna Efficiency and the Genius of the IEEE Standard for Antenna Terms [Education Column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, Karl F.

    2012-08-01

    At a 2007 Square Kilometre Array Design Studies (SKADS) workshop in Dwingeloo, Wim van Cappellen of the Nether lands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON) gave a presentation on figures of merit, in which he memorably compared antenna terms to apples. What seems like a simple, homogeneous fruit comes in all colors and varieties. Similarly, a survey of antenna literature and textbooks shows that authors use a wide variety of antenna figures of merit, often not in compliance with the relevant IEEE Standard Definitions of Terms for Antennas [1]. Since this standard is now in the process of revision by the Antennas and Propagation Society Antenna Standards Committee, it seems worth while to consider the standard, and clarify some common misunderstandings and inconsistent usages.

  6. Experimental video signals distribution MMF network based on IEEE 802.11 standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalczyk, Marcin; Maksymiuk, Lukasz; Siuzdak, Jerzy

    2014-11-01

    The article was focused on presentation the achievements in a scope of experimental research on transmission of digital video streams in the frame of specially realized for this purpose ROF (Radio over Fiber) network. Its construction was based on the merge of wireless IEEE 802.11 network, popularly referred as Wi-Fi, with a passive optical network PON based on multimode fibers MMF. The proposed approach can constitute interesting proposal in area of solutions in the scope of the systems monitoring extensive, within which is required covering of a large area with ensuring of a relatively high degree of immunity on the interferences transmitted signals from video IP cameras to the monitoring center and a high configuration flexibility (easily change the deployment of cameras) of such network.

  7. Improved Power Saving Mechanism to Increase Unavailability Interval in IEEE 802.16e Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyunghye; Mun, Youngsong

    To manage limited energy resources efficiently, IEEE 802.16e specifies sleep mode operation. Since there can be no communication between the mobile station (MS) and the serving base station (BS) during the unavailability interval, the MS can power down its physical operation components. We propose an improved power saving mechanism (iPSM) which effectively increases the unavailability interval of Type I and Type II power saving classes (PSCs) activated in an MS. After investigating the number of frames in the unavailability interval of each Type II PSC when used with Type I PSC, the iPSM chooses the Type II PSC that yields the maximum number of frames in the unavailability interval. Performance evaluation confirms that the proposed scheme is very effective.

  8. Low-frequency electrical dosimetry: research agenda of the IEEE International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety.

    PubMed

    Reilly, J Patrick; Hirata, Akimasa

    2016-06-21

    This article treats unsettled issues in the use of numerical models of electrical dosimetry as applied to international limits on human exposure to low-frequency (typically  <  100 kHz) electromagnetic fields and contact current. The perspective in this publication is that of Subcommittee 6 of IEEE-ICES (International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety) Technical Committee 95. The paper discusses 25 issues needing attention, fitting into three general categories: induction models; electrostimulation models; and human exposure limits. Of these, 9 were voted as 'high priority' by members of Subcommittee 6. The list is presented as a research agenda for refinements in numerical modeling with applications to human exposure limits. It is likely that such issues are also important in medical and electrical product safety design applications. PMID:27223463

  9. IEEE 1394/firewire a low cost, high speed, digital serial bus

    SciTech Connect

    Gaunt, R.

    1997-05-01

    Does the world need yet another 1/0 bus standard? If you need fast and cheap serial video communication, then the answer is yes. As technology advances, so too must data transport mechanisms advance. You can`t expect RS-232 to support real-time digital video, and if you can`t afford expensive professional serial video interfaces, (such as Sony`s Serial Digital Interface), Firewire may be a good solution. IEEE 1394, or commonly known as Firewire, is a general purpose serial bus that meets many of the 1/0 needs of today`s video and multimedia developers. For those of you who only read the first paragraph, here`s Firewire in a nutshell: It provides a guaranteed transfer rate of 10OMbps or 20OMbps of digital data (such as video direct from camera to computer), over an inexpensive, non-proprietary serial bus. Here is a list of its features.

  10. Absolute magnitudes of trans-neptunian objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffard, R.; Alvarez-candal, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Morales, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Thirouin, A.

    2015-10-01

    Accurate measurements of diameters of trans- Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Radiomatric techniques applied to thermal measurements can provide good results, but precise absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain diameters and albedos. Our objective is to measure accurate absolute magnitudes for a sample of trans- Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modelled, by the "TNOs are cool" team, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects grantes with ~ 400 hours of observing time. We observed 56 objects in filters V and R, if possible. These data, along with data available in the literature, was used to obtain phase curves and to measure absolute magnitudes by assuming a linear trend of the phase curves and considering magnitude variability due to rotational light-curve. In total we obtained 234 new magnitudes for the 56 objects, 6 of them with no reported previous measurements. Including the data from the literature we report a total of 109 absolute magnitudes.

  11. Trans Fat Bans and Human Freedom

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has linked consumption of trans fatty acids to cardiovascular disease. To promote public health, numerous state and local governments in the United States have banned the use of artificial trans fats in restaurant foods, and additional bans may follow. Although these policies may have a positive impact on human health, they open the door to excessive government control over food, which could restrict dietary choices, interfere with cultural, ethnic, and religious traditions, and exacerbate socioeconomic inequalities. These slippery slope concerns cannot be dismissed as far-fetched, because the social and political pressures are place to induce additional food regulations. To protect human freedom and other values, policies that significantly restrict food choices, such as bans on types of food, should be adopted only when they are supported by substantial scientific evidence, and when policies that impose fewer restrictions on freedom, such as educational campaigns and product labeling, are likely to be ineffective. PMID:20229412

  12. Introduction to Trans Australia Airlines CRM training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Jim

    1987-01-01

    Trans Australia believes that its excellent accident rate record is due to a number of factors. It has a good group of standard operating procedures, and its crews are pretty well self-disciplined and adhere to those procedures. But the other thing that it believes is a factor in its safety record is that perhaps it is also due to its preparedness to be innovative, to keep up with what is going on in the rest of the world and, if it looks to have value, then to be amongst the first to try it out. Trans Australia commenced a program similar to Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) fairly early in 1979--that being its first windshear program-- which leads to why they are doing a course of resource management training, which we have chosen to call Aircrew Team Management (ATM). This course is detailed in another presentation.

  13. A study of IEEE 802.15.4 security framework for wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Shahnaz; Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2011-01-01

    A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a collection of low-power and lightweight wireless sensor nodes that are used to monitor the human body functions and the surrounding environment. It supports a number of innovative and interesting applications, including ubiquitous healthcare and Consumer Electronics (CE) applications. Since WBAN nodes are used to collect sensitive (life-critical) information and may operate in hostile environments, they require strict security mechanisms to prevent malicious interaction with the system. In this paper, we first highlight major security requirements and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks in WBAN at Physical, Medium Access Control (MAC), Network, and Transport layers. Then we discuss the IEEE 802.15.4 security framework and identify the security vulnerabilities and major attacks in the context of WBAN. Different types of attacks on the Contention Access Period (CAP) and Contention Free Period (CFP) parts of the superframe are analyzed and discussed. It is observed that a smart attacker can successfully corrupt an increasing number of GTS slots in the CFP period and can considerably affect the Quality of Service (QoS) in WBAN (since most of the data is carried in CFP period). As we increase the number of smart attackers the corrupted GTS slots are eventually increased, which prevents the legitimate nodes to utilize the bandwidth efficiently. This means that the direct adaptation of IEEE 802.15.4 security framework for WBAN is not totally secure for certain WBAN applications. New solutions are required to integrate high level security in WBAN.

  14. A Study of IEEE 802.15.4 Security Framework for Wireless Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Shahnaz; Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2011-01-01

    A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a collection of low-power and lightweight wireless sensor nodes that are used to monitor the human body functions and the surrounding environment. It supports a number of innovative and interesting applications, including ubiquitous healthcare and Consumer Electronics (CE) applications. Since WBAN nodes are used to collect sensitive (life-critical) information and may operate in hostile environments, they require strict security mechanisms to prevent malicious interaction with the system. In this paper, we first highlight major security requirements and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks in WBAN at Physical, Medium Access Control (MAC), Network, and Transport layers. Then we discuss the IEEE 802.15.4 security framework and identify the security vulnerabilities and major attacks in the context of WBAN. Different types of attacks on the Contention Access Period (CAP) and Contention Free Period (CFP) parts of the superframe are analyzed and discussed. It is observed that a smart attacker can successfully corrupt an increasing number of GTS slots in the CFP period and can considerably affect the Quality of Service (QoS) in WBAN (since most of the data is carried in CFP period). As we increase the number of smart attackers the corrupted GTS slots are eventually increased, which prevents the legitimate nodes to utilize the bandwidth efficiently. This means that the direct adaptation of IEEE 802.15.4 security framework for WBAN is not totally secure for certain WBAN applications. New solutions are required to integrate high level security in WBAN. PMID:22319358

  15. Analysis of Trans Fat in Edible Oils with Cooking Process.

    PubMed

    Song, Juhee; Park, Joohyeok; Jung, Jinyeong; Lee, Chankyu; Gim, Seo Yeoung; Ka, HyeJung; Yi, BoRa; Kim, Mi-Ja; Kim, Cho-Il; Lee, JaeHwan

    2015-09-01

    Trans fat is a unsaturated fatty acid with trans configuration and separated double bonds. Analytical methods have been introduced to analyze trans fat content in foods including infrared (IR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography (GC), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, reverses-phase silver ion high performance liquid chromatography, and silver nitrate thin layer chromatography. Currently, FT-IR spectroscopy and GC are mostly used methods. Trans fat content in 6 vegetable oils were analyzed and processing effects including baking, stir-frying, pan-frying, and frying on the formation of trans fat in corn oil was evaluated by GC. Among tested vegetable oils, corn oil has 0.25 g trans fat/100 g, whereas other oils including rapeseed, soybean, olive, perilla, and sesame oils did not have detectable amount of trans fat content. Among cooking methods, stir-frying increased trans fat in corn oil whereas baking, pan-frying, and frying procedures did not make changes in trans fat content compared to untreated corn oils. However, the trans fat content was so low and food label can be declared as '0' trans based on the regulation of Ministry of Food ad Drug Safety (MFDS) (< 2 g/100 g edible oil).

  16. Analysis of Trans Fat in Edible Oils with Cooking Process

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juhee; Park, Joohyeok; Jung, Jinyeong; Lee, Chankyu; Gim, Seo Yeoung; Ka, HyeJung; Yi, BoRa; Kim, Mi-Ja; Kim, Cho-il

    2015-01-01

    Trans fat is a unsaturated fatty acid with trans configuration and separated double bonds. Analytical methods have been introduced to analyze trans fat content in foods including infrared (IR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography (GC), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, reverses-phase silver ion high performance liquid chromatography, and silver nitrate thin layer chromatography. Currently, FT-IR spectroscopy and GC are mostly used methods. Trans fat content in 6 vegetable oils were analyzed and processing effects including baking, stir-frying, pan-frying, and frying on the formation of trans fat in corn oil was evaluated by GC. Among tested vegetable oils, corn oil has 0.25 g trans fat/100 g, whereas other oils including rapeseed, soybean, olive, perilla, and sesame oils did not have detectable amount of trans fat content. Among cooking methods, stir-frying increased trans fat in corn oil whereas baking, pan-frying, and frying procedures did not make changes in trans fat content compared to untreated corn oils. However, the trans fat content was so low and food label can be declared as ‘0’ trans based on the regulation of Ministry of Food ad Drug Safety (MFDS) (< 2 g/100 g edible oil). PMID:26483890

  17. Analysis of Trans Fat in Edible Oils with Cooking Process.

    PubMed

    Song, Juhee; Park, Joohyeok; Jung, Jinyeong; Lee, Chankyu; Gim, Seo Yeoung; Ka, HyeJung; Yi, BoRa; Kim, Mi-Ja; Kim, Cho-Il; Lee, JaeHwan

    2015-09-01

    Trans fat is a unsaturated fatty acid with trans configuration and separated double bonds. Analytical methods have been introduced to analyze trans fat content in foods including infrared (IR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography (GC), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, reverses-phase silver ion high performance liquid chromatography, and silver nitrate thin layer chromatography. Currently, FT-IR spectroscopy and GC are mostly used methods. Trans fat content in 6 vegetable oils were analyzed and processing effects including baking, stir-frying, pan-frying, and frying on the formation of trans fat in corn oil was evaluated by GC. Among tested vegetable oils, corn oil has 0.25 g trans fat/100 g, whereas other oils including rapeseed, soybean, olive, perilla, and sesame oils did not have detectable amount of trans fat content. Among cooking methods, stir-frying increased trans fat in corn oil whereas baking, pan-frying, and frying procedures did not make changes in trans fat content compared to untreated corn oils. However, the trans fat content was so low and food label can be declared as '0' trans based on the regulation of Ministry of Food ad Drug Safety (MFDS) (< 2 g/100 g edible oil). PMID:26483890

  18. Architectural and Functional Design and Evaluation of E-Learning VUIS Based on the Proposed IEEE LTSA Reference Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Droma, Mairtin S.; Ganchev, Ivan; McDonnell, Fergal

    2003-01-01

    Presents a comparative analysis from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Learning Technology Standards Committee's (LTSC) of the architectural and functional design of e-learning delivery platforms and applications, e-learning course authoring tools, and learning management systems (LMSs), with a view of assessing how…

  19. 48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. 52.223-16 Section 52.223-16 Federal Acquisition... Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.705(b)(1), insert the following clause: IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products (DEC 2007) (a)...

  20. 48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. 52.223-16 Section 52.223-16 Federal Acquisition... Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.705(b)(1), insert the following clause: IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products (DEC 2007) (a)...

  1. 48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. 52.223-16 Section 52.223-16 Federal Acquisition... Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.705(b)(1), insert the following clause: IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products (DEC 2007) (a)...

  2. 48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. 52.223-16 Section 52.223-16 Federal Acquisition... Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.706(b)(1), insert the following clause: IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products (DEC 2007) (a)...

  3. Performance of the IEEE 802.11a Wireless Lan Standard Over Frequency-Selective, Slow, Ricean Fading Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Chi-han

    2002-09-01

    With the rapidly growing demand for more reliable and higher data rate wireless communications, the Institute of the Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 working group approved a standard for 5-GHz band, Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) in 1999. This standard, IEEE 802.lla, supports data rates from 6 up to 54 Mbps and uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) for transmission in indoor wireless environments. This thesis examines the performance of the IEEE 802.lla standard for different combinations of sub-carrier modulation type and code rate and determines the signal-to-noise ratio required to obtain a probability of bit error P(b) of 10-5. The channel is modeled as frequency-selective, slow, Ricean fading channel with Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). Contrary to expectations, for the combinations of sub-carrier modulation type and code rate utilized by the IEEE 802.11a standard, some of the higher data rate combinations outperform some of the lower data rate combinations. On the other hand, the results also show significant coding gain when applying convolutional coding with Viterbi decoding, and hence highlight the importance of Forward Error Correction (FEC) coding to the performance of wireless communications systems.

  4. Analyzing the Engineering Educational Research in Spain: A Global Vision through the Awards of CESEI-IEEE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaza, I.; Arcega, F.; Castro, M.; Llamas, M.

    2011-01-01

    CESEI is the acronym of the Spanish Chapter of the Education Society of IEEE (the Institute of Electric and Electronics Engineers). Every year, the CESEI awards a prize for the best doctoral thesis and FDP (final (master) degree projects) about education. The thesis or the project must be developed in the areas of electrical engineering,…

  5. Structure determination of trans-cinnamaldehyde by broadband microwave spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zinn, Sabrina; Betz, Thomas; Medcraft, Chris; Schnell, Melanie

    2015-06-28

    The rotational spectrum of trans-cinnamaldehyde ((E)-3-phenyl-2-propenal, C9H8O) was recorded by chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in the frequency range of 2-8.5 GHz. The odourant molecule is the essential component of cinnamon oil and causes the characteristic smell. The rotational signatures of two conformers were observed: s-trans-trans- and s-cis-trans-cinnamaldehyde. The rotational spectra of s-trans-trans-cinnamaldehyde and all of its (13)C-monosubstituted species in natural abundance were assigned and the corresponding carbon backbone structure was determined. The second conformer s-cis-trans-cinnamaldehyde is about 9 kJ mol(-1) higher in energy and could also be identified in the spectrum.

  6. Trans-ungual iontophoretic delivery of terbinafine.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anroop B; Vaka, Siva Ram K; Sammeta, Srinivasa M; Kim, Hyun D; Friden, Phillip M; Chakraborty, Bireswar; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2009-05-01

    Successful treatment of deep-seated nail infections remains elusive as the delivery of efficacious levels of antifungal drug to the site of action is very difficult. The aim of the present study was to attain rapid trans-ungual delivery of an antifungal agent, terbinafine, via the topical route using iontophoresis. Initial studies revealed that application of current (0.5 mA/cm(2)) could significantly enhance the trans-ungual delivery of terbinafine. An increase in the applied current or duration of current application enhanced the trans-ungual delivery of terbinafine. Permeation of terbinafine through the nail and drug load in the nail correlated well with the applied electrical dose. Release of drug from nails loaded using iontophoresis followed a two-phase release profile. Light microscopy studies substantiated the capability of iontophoresis to drive a charged molecule across the nail plate. The results of these studies indicate that iontophoresis could be developed as a potential technique for onychomycosis therapy. PMID:18781625

  7. Trans-ungual iontophoretic delivery of terbinafine.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anroop B; Vaka, Siva Ram K; Sammeta, Srinivasa M; Kim, Hyun D; Friden, Phillip M; Chakraborty, Bireswar; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2009-05-01

    Successful treatment of deep-seated nail infections remains elusive as the delivery of efficacious levels of antifungal drug to the site of action is very difficult. The aim of the present study was to attain rapid trans-ungual delivery of an antifungal agent, terbinafine, via the topical route using iontophoresis. Initial studies revealed that application of current (0.5 mA/cm(2)) could significantly enhance the trans-ungual delivery of terbinafine. An increase in the applied current or duration of current application enhanced the trans-ungual delivery of terbinafine. Permeation of terbinafine through the nail and drug load in the nail correlated well with the applied electrical dose. Release of drug from nails loaded using iontophoresis followed a two-phase release profile. Light microscopy studies substantiated the capability of iontophoresis to drive a charged molecule across the nail plate. The results of these studies indicate that iontophoresis could be developed as a potential technique for onychomycosis therapy.

  8. Biological evaluation of Trans-African highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Kayem, Anne V. D. M.

    2013-01-01

    The Trans-African highway network is a unique concept of integrated development of transport corridors spanning all African countries and providing landlocked countries access to seaports. The planned road system is still maturing and just partially complete, thus giving us a chance to play with different scenarios of its growth and to consider potential alternative transport networks. We study the evolving transport network in the African continent with a groundbreaking technique of imitating growing transport networks with slime mould Physarum polycephalum. We represent the major urban areas of Africa with a source of nutrients, inoculate a piece of the slime mould in Cairo and allow the mould to span all urban areas with its network of protoplasmic tubes. We then compare the slime mould networks with existing and planned highway corridors. We found that slime mould provides a good approximation of the Trans-African highway network, with some roads of Eastern Africa delineated by P. polycephalum in a larger number of laboratory experiments. We demonstrate direct matches between protoplasmic tubes and Trans-Sahelian as well as Lagos-Mombasa corridors. Finally we analyse the bio-logic of transport network development in families of generalised Physarum graphs.

  9. Geophysical imaging using trans-dimensional trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Rhys; Sambridge, Malcolm

    2015-11-01

    In geophysical inversion, inferences of Earth's properties from sparse data involve a trade-off between model complexity and the spatial resolving power. A recent Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) technique formalized by Green, the so-called trans-dimensional samplers, allows us to sample between these trade-offs and to parsimoniously arbitrate between the varying complexity of candidate models. Here we present a novel framework using trans-dimensional sampling over tree structures. This new class of McMC sampler can be applied to 1-D, 2-D and 3-D Cartesian and spherical geometries. In addition, the basis functions used by the algorithm are flexible and can include more advanced parametrizations such as wavelets, both in Cartesian and Spherical geometries, to permit Bayesian multiscale analysis. This new framework offers greater flexibility, performance and efficiency for geophysical imaging problems than previous sampling algorithms. Thereby increasing the range of applications and in particular allowing extension to trans-dimensional imaging in 3-D. Examples are presented of its application to 2-D seismic and 3-D teleseismic tomography including estimation of uncertainty.

  10. Absolute V-R colors of trans-Neptunian objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Candal, Alvaro; Ayala-Loera, Carmen; Ortiz, Jose-Luis; Duffard, Rene; Estela, Fernandez-Valenzuela; Santos-Sanz, Pablo

    2016-10-01

    The absolute magnitude of a minor body is the apparent magnitude that the body would have if observed from the Sun at a distance of 1AU. Absolute magnitudes are measured using phase curves, showing the change of the magnitude, normalized to unit helio and geo-centric distance, vs. phase angle. The absolute magnitude is then the Y-intercept of the curve. Absolute magnitudes are related to the total reflecting surface of the body and thus bring information of its size, coupled with the reflecting properties.Since 2011 our team has been collecting data from several telescopes spread in Europe and South America. We complemented our data with those available in the literature in order to construct phase curves of trans-Neptunian objects with at least three points. In a first release (Alvarez-Candal et al. 2016, A&A, 586, A155) we showed results for 110 trans-Neptunian objects using V magnitudes only, assuming an overall linear trend and taking into consideration rotational effects, for objects with known light-curves.In this contribution we show results for more than 130 objects, about 100 of them with phase curves in two filters: V and R. We compute absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients in both filters, when available. The average values are HV = 6.39 ± 2.37, βV = (0.09 ± 0.32) mag per degree, HR = 5.38 ± 2.30, and βR = (0.08 ± 0.42) mag per degree.

  11. Radiolytic formation and decay of trans-vinylene unsaturation in polyethylene: Fourier transform infra-red measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. C.; Lyons, B. J.

    1995-02-01

    In Part I of this series (Lyons and Johnson, 1993) we provided a theoretical basis for a binomial expression (developed empirically by WCJ) and showed that it represents the changes in trans-vinylene unsaturation concentration with radiolytic dose in polyethylene as well as, and usually better than, other published relations (Dole et al. 1958; Lyons and Crooke 1963). In this paper, which will be published in fuller form elsewhere, we present measurements, using Fourier Transform Infra Red (FT-IR) absorption spectroscopy, of the concentration of trans-vinylene unsaturation at various radiation doses and dicuss the use of such measurements in dosimetry.

  12. Calculation of resonance Raman excitation profiles for soluble and solid trans-polyacetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maisuradze, Gia G.; Bowmaker, Graham A.; Cooney, Ralph P.

    1998-05-01

    On the basis of previously developed theory, a quantitative analysis of the experimental data for sliced RREPs of soluble and solid trans-PA is undertaken. The effect of inhomogeneous environmental broadening of RREPs of a solute molecule due to the solvent-molecule interactions and of molecules in the solid due to differences in chain lengths is investigated. The role of the diagonal and non-diagonal terms of the scattering matrix is discussed. The method is applied to the analysis of experimental data of Cataliotti et al. for soluble trans-PA (R.S. Cataliotti, G. Paliani, G. Dellepiane, S. Fuso, S. Destri, L. Piseri, R. Tubino, J. Chem. Phys. 82 (1985) 2223) and of Lauchlan et al. for solid trans-PA (L. Lauchlan, S.P. Chen, S. Etemad, M. Kletter, A.J. Heeger, A.G. MacDiarmid, Phys. Rev. B 27 (1983) 2301). In both cases the major contribution to the broadening of the RREPs comes from an inhomogeneous distribution of the electronic energies.

  13. ALS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Registry -- ...

  14. Formation and Migration of Trans-Neptunian Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ipatov, S. I.; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We consider that trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) with diameter d greater than 100 kilometers moving now in not very eccentric orbits could be formed directly by the compression of large rarefied dust condensations (with a greater than 30 AU), but not by the accretion of smaller solid planetesimals. Probably, some planetesimals with d approximately 100- 1000 kilometers in the feeding zone of the giant planets and even large main-belt asteroids also could be formed directly by such compression. Some smaller objects (TNOs, planetesimals, asteroids) could be debris of larger objects, and other such objects could be formed directly by compression of condensations. A small portion of planetesimals from the feeding zone of the giant planets that entered into the trans-Neptunian region could left in eccentrical orbits beyond Neptune and became so called "scattered objects". Our computer runs in which gravitational interactions of bodies were taken into account with the use of the spheres method, showed that the embryos of Uranus and Neptune could increase their semimajor axes from less than 10 AU to their present values, moving permanently in orbits with small eccentricities, due to gravitational interactions with the migrating planetesimals. Later on, Thommes et al. considered a similar model using direct numerical integration. The total amount of water delivered to the Earth during the formation of the giant, planets was about the mass of water in the Earth oceans. The end of such bombardment could be caused mainly by the planetesimals that became scattered objects. For the present mass of the trans-Neptunian belt, the collisional lifetime of 1-kilometer TNO is about the age of the Solar system, but only a small portion (less than 1%) of 100-km TNOs could be destroyed during this age. The probability of destruction of a typical TNO (with 30 less than a,less than 50 AU) by scattered objects can be of the same order of magnitude as that by typical TNOs. TNOs could be even

  15. Trans fats in New Zealand: time for labelling regulations?

    PubMed

    Gladding, Patrick; Benatar, Jocelyne R

    2007-01-01

    Trans fats (trans fatty acids) are commonly used for deep frying in restaurants and in the fast food, snack food, fried food, and baked goods industries, often to extend the shelf life of foods. However they are widely considered to be harmful to health. Trans fats were banned in New York City restaurants from 1 July 2007, and there is growing vocal opposition to trans fats in the European Union. Denmark became the first country, in March 2003, to introduce laws regulating the content of trans fats in food (maximum of 2% of edible fats and oils). What are trans fats, what harm do they cause, and should New Zealand also consider imposing mandatory regulations on their use in food? This article explores the issues. PMID:18264181

  16. Debating trans inclusion in the feminist movement: a trans-positive analysis.

    PubMed

    Green, Eli R

    2006-01-01

    The debate over whether or not to allow, accept, and embrace transpeople as a segment of the feminist movement has been a tumultuous one that remains unresolved. Prominent authors have argued both sides of the dispute. This article analyzes the anti-inclusion feminist viewpoint and offers a trans-positive perspective for moving toward a potential resolution of the debate.

  17. Trans-NCI Pharmacogenomics and Pharmacoepidemiology Working Group (PPWG)

    Cancer.gov

    NCI established the Trans-NCI Pharmacogenomics and Pharmacoepidemiology Working Group to support development of a comprehensive and interdisciplinary pharmacoepidemiology and pharmacogenomics cancer research program.

  18. The evolution of spliced leader trans-splicing in nematodes.

    PubMed

    Pettitt, Jonathan; Harrison, Neale; Stansfield, Ian; Connolly, Bernadette; Müller, Berndt

    2010-08-01

    Spliced leader trans-splicing occurs in many primitive eukaryotes including nematodes. Most of our knowledge of trans-splicing in nematodes stems from the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans and relatives, and from work with Ascaris. Our investigation of spliced leader trans-splicing in distantly related Dorylaimia nematodes indicates that spliced-leader trans-splicing arose before the nematode phylum and suggests that the spliced leader RNA gene complements in extant nematodes have evolved from a common ancestor with a diverse set of spliced leader RNA genes.

  19. Analysis of the Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared Spectra of cis,cis- and trans,trans-1,4-DIFLUOROBUTADIENE-1-d_{1} and trans,trans-1,4-DIFLUOROBUTADIENE-1,4-d_{2}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Norman C.; Chen, Yihui; Lu, Yuhua; Neese, Christopher F.; Nemchick, Deacon J.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2013-06-01

    Samples of cis,cis- and trans,trans-1,4-difluorobutadiene-1-d_{1} (DFBD) and trans,trans-DFBD-1,4-d_{2} have been synthesized and investigated with high-resolution (0.0015 cm^{-1}) infrared spectroscopy. For the first two species the rotational structure in more than one band has been analyzed. For the 1,4-d_{2} species the spectrum of only one C-type band was available in an isotopic mixture. Ground state rotational constants are reported for all three molecules. It is proposed that quartic centrifugal distortion constants computed with a B3LYP/cc-pVTZ model can be used to assess the quality of observed rotational constants. The favorable comparison of predicted and observed ground state rotational constants for all four ^{13}C species of cis,trans-DFBD, which is MW active, demonstrates that the ground state rotational constants for the ^{13}C species of the cis,cis and trans,trans isomers can be successfully predicted with high accuracy. Rotational constants for a full set of isotopologues will be used to determine accurate semiexperimental equilibrium structures of the cis,cis and trans,trans species of DFBD. N. C. Craig, C. M. Oertel, D. C. Oertel, M. J. Tubergen, R. J. Lavrich, A. M Chaka J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 4230-4235 (2002).

  20. Equivalence of trans paths in ion channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Juan; Hajek, Bruce

    2006-04-01

    We explore stochastic models for the study of ion transport in biological cells. Analysis of these models explains and explores an interesting feature of ion transport observed by biophysicists. Namely, the average time it takes ions to cross certain ion channels is the same in either direction, even if there is an electric potential difference across the channels. It is shown for simple single ion models that the distribution of a path (i.e., the history of location versus time) of an ion crossing the channel in one direction has the same distribution as the time-reversed path of an ion crossing the channel in the reverse direction. Therefore, not only is the mean duration of these paths equal, but other measures, such as the variance of passage time or the mean time a path spends within a specified section of the channel, are also the same for both directions of traversal. The feature is also explored for channels with interacting ions. If a system of interacting ions is in reversible equilibrium (net flux is zero), then the equivalence of the left-to-right trans paths with the time-reversed right-to-left trans paths still holds. However, if the system is in equilibrium, but not reversible equilibrium, then such equivalence need not hold.

  1. Perspectives on trans-Pacific biological invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Q.

    2002-01-01

    Trans-Pacific biological invasion is one of the most striking and influential biological phenomena occurring in modern times and the process is still accelerating, and the associated invasives form neo-disjuncts (cf. many well-known paleo-disjuncts) between eastern Asia and North America. To better understand this phenomenon and the related taxa, I address the following questions: 1) what types of species (e.g., life/growth form) have been, or are likely to be, associated with trans-Pacific (eastern Asia, North America) invasions; 2) what has happened or may happen to these species after their remote geographic separation, and 3) what aspects of these species and their native and non-native habitats should be better understood for improved control. To answer these questions, comparisons of the invasive species' characteristics in their native and invaded habitats need to be examined, including: l) genetics, 2) life history/morphology (e.g., plant size, seed size, etc.), 3) ecology (e.g., life/growth forms, pollinators, competitors), 4) distributions (e.g., range size, shape, latitude) in their native (source) and introduced (target) ranges or habitats, and 5) physical factors such as soil, water, and climate. The purpose of these studies is 1) to identify the limiting factors that restrict the distributions of exotic species in native ranges, 2) to understand why invasive species are successful in the introduced ranges, 3) to predict possible future invasions, and, ultimately, 4) to provide information for more efficient and effective management.

  2. Link Investigation of IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks in Forests.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xingjian; Sun, Guodong; Yang, Gaoxiang; Shang, Xinna

    2016-06-27

    Wireless sensor networks are expected to automatically monitor the ecological evolution and wildlife habits in forests. Low-power links (transceivers) are often adopted in wireless sensor network applications, in order to save the precious sensor energy and then achieve long-term, unattended monitoring. Recent research has presented some performance characteristics of such low-power wireless links under laboratory or outdoor scenarios with less obstacles, and they have found that low-power wireless links are unreliable and prone to be affected by the target environment. However, there is still less understanding about how well the low-power wireless link performs in real-world forests and to what extent the complex in-forest surrounding environments affect the link performances. In this paper, we empirically evaluate the low-power links of wireless sensors in three typical different forest environments. Our experiment investigates the performance of the link layer compatible with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard and analyzes the variation patterns of the packet reception ratio (PRR), the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and the link quality indicator (LQI) under diverse experimental settings. Some observations of this study are inconsistent with or even contradict prior results that are achieved in open fields or relatively clean environments and thus, provide new insights both into effectively evaluating the low-power wireless links and into efficiently deploying wireless sensor network systems in forest environments.

  3. An SNMP-based solution to enable remote ISO/IEEE 11073 technical management.

    PubMed

    Lasierra, Nelia; Alesanco, Alvaro; García, José

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an architecture based on the integration of simple network management protocol version 3 (SNMPv3) and the standard ISO/IEEE 11073 (X73) to manage technical information in home-based telemonitoring scenarios. This architecture includes the development of an SNMPv3-proxyX73 agent which comprises a management information base (MIB) module adapted to X73. In the proposed scenario, medical devices (MDs) send information to a concentrator device [designated as compute engine (CE)] using the X73 standard. This information together with extra information collected in the CE is stored in the developed MIB. Finally, the information collected is available for remote access via SNMP connection. Moreover, alarms and events can be configured by an external manager in order to provide warnings of irregularities in the MDs' technical performance evaluation. This proposed SNMPv3 agent provides a solution to integrate and unify technical device management in home-based telemonitoring scenarios fully adapted to X73.

  4. New IEEE 11073 Standards for interoperable, networked Point-of-Care Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Kasparick, Martin; Schlichting, Stefan; Golatowski, Frank; Timmermann, Dirk

    2015-08-01

    Surgical procedures become more and more complex and the number of medical devices in an operating room (OR) increases continuously. Today's vendor-dependent solutions for integrated ORs are not able to handle this complexity. They can only form isolated solutions. Furthermore, high costs are a result of vendor-dependent approaches. Thus we present a service-oriented device communication for distributed medical systems that enables the integration and interconnection between medical devices among each other and to (medical) information systems, including plug-and-play functionality. This system will improve patient's safety by making technical complexity of a comprehensive integration manageable. It will be available as open standards that are part of the IEEE 11073 family of standards. The solution consists of a service-oriented communication technology, the so called Medical Devices Profile for Web Services (MDPWS), a Domain Information & Service Model, and a binding between the first two mechanisms. A proof of this concept has been done with demonstrators of real world OR devices.

  5. ISO/IEEE 11073 PHD message generation toolkit to standardize healthcare device.

    PubMed

    Lim, Joon-Ho; Park, Chanyong; Park, Soo-Jun; Lee, Kyu-Chul

    2011-01-01

    As senior population increases, various healthcare devices and services are developed such as fall detection device, home hypertension management service, and etc. However, to vitalize healthcare devices and services market, standardization for interoperability between device and service must precede. To achieve the standardization goal, the IEEE 11073 Personal Health Device (PHD) group has been standardized many healthcare devices, but until now there are few devices compatible with the PHD standard. One of main reasons is that it isn't easy for device manufactures to implement standard communication module by analyzing standard documents of over 600 pages. In this paper, we propose a standard message generation toolkit to easily standardize existing non-standard healthcare devices. The proposed toolkit generates standard PHD messages using inputted device information, and the generated messages are adapted to the device with the standard state machine file. For the experiments, we develop a reference H/W, and test the proposed toolkit with three healthcare devices: blood pressure, weighting scale, and glucose meter. The proposed toolkit has an advantage that even if the user doesn't know the standard in detail, the user can easily standardize the non-standard healthcare devices.

  6. On the Feasibility of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks over IEEE 802.15.5 Mesh Topologies.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Losilla, Fernando; Rodenas-Herraiz, David; Cruz-Martinez, Felipe; Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe

    2016-05-05

    Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) are a special type of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) where large amounts of multimedia data are transmitted over networks composed of low power devices. Hierarchical routing protocols typically used in WSNs for multi-path communication tend to overload nodes located within radio communication range of the data collection unit or data sink. The battery life of these nodes is therefore reduced considerably, requiring frequent battery replacement work to extend the operational life of the WSN system. In a wireless sensor network with mesh topology, any node may act as a forwarder node, thereby enabling multiple routing paths toward any other node or collection unit. In addition, mesh topologies have proven advantages, such as data transmission reliability, network robustness against node failures, and potential reduction in energy consumption. This work studies the feasibility of implementing WMSNs in mesh topologies and their limitations by means of exhaustive computer simulation experiments. To this end, a module developed for the Synchronous Energy Saving (SES) mode of the IEEE 802.15.5 mesh standard has been integrated with multimedia tools to thoroughly test video sequences encoded using H.264 in mesh networks.

  7. IEEE-802.15.4-based low-power body sensor node with RF energy harvester.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thang Viet; Chung, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the design and implementation of a low-voltage and low-power body sensor node based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard to collect electrocardiography (ECG) and photoplethysmography (PPG) signals. To achieve compact size, low supply voltage, and low power consumption, the proposed platform is integrated into a ZigBee mote, which contains a DC-DC booster, a PPG sensor interface module, and an ECG front-end circuit that has ultra-low current consumption. The input voltage of the proposed node is very low and has a wide range, from 0.65 V to 3.3 V. An RF energy harvester is also designed to charge the battery during the working mode or standby mode of the node. The power consumption of the proposed node reaches 14 mW in working mode to prolong the battery lifetime. The software is supported by the nesC language under the TinyOS environment, which enables the proposed node to be easily configured to function as an individual health monitoring node or a node in a wireless body sensor network (BSN). The proposed node is used to set up a wireless BSN that can simultaneously collect ECG and PPG signals and monitor the results on the personal computer. PMID:25227063

  8. IEEE802.15.6 NB portable BAN clinic and M2M international standardization.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Masahiro; Nohara, Yasunobu

    2013-01-01

    The increase of non communicable diseases (NCDs) will change the direction of health services to emphasize the role of preventive medicine in healthcare services. The first short-range medical body are network (BAN) standard IEEE802.15.6 is expected to be used for secure and user-friendly sensor devices for portable medical equipment. A BAN is an enabler for uploading medical data to a backend system for remote diagnoses and treatment. Machine-to-Machine (M2M) infrastructure is also a key technology for providing flexible and affordable services extending electronic health record (EHR) systems. This paper proposes a BAN-based portable clinic that collects health-check data from user-friendly medical devices and sensors and sends the data to a local backend server, and it evaluates the clinic in fields of actual usage. We discuss issues experienced from actual deployment of the system and focus on integrating it into upcoming healthcare M2M infrastructure to achieve affordable and dependable clinic services. We explain the components and workflow of the clinic and the system model. The system is set up at a temporary health center and has a network link to a remote medical help center. The paper concludes with our plan to introduce our system to contribute to internationally standardized preventive medicine. PMID:24110023

  9. IEEE 802.16 Packet Scheduling with Traffic Prioritization and Cross-Layer Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, João; Sargento, Susana; Gomes, Álvaro; Fontes, Francisco; Neves, Pedro

    WiMAX is emerging as a broadband wireless access technology to satisfy end user expectations, containing a new set of advantages in terms of throughput, coverage and QoS support at the MAC level which allows convergence of several different types of applications and services. For that reason, the allocation of resources or scheduling becomes of greater importance. This paper focuses on a cross-layer scheduling optimization solution for IEEE 802.16. The relevant features of the proposed packet scheduling optimization scheme consist: of prioritization of users within the same traffic class, allowing for example to an operator, differentiated treatment among users, for instance distinguishing between premium or gold users and silver users; and also cross layer optimization which implies radio resource optimization and a more effective scheduler decision. Simulation scenarios are presented to demonstrate how the scheduling solution allocates resources through particular WiMAX MAC layer implementation in the NS-2 simulator. Results show that the new mechanism implementation results in an improvement to the simple Round Robin fashion present in the original simulation model, being able to increase differentiation between different classes and decrease packets delay, due to its cross-layer processing and traffic prioritization.

  10. On the Feasibility of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks over IEEE 802.15.5 Mesh Topologies.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Losilla, Fernando; Rodenas-Herraiz, David; Cruz-Martinez, Felipe; Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) are a special type of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) where large amounts of multimedia data are transmitted over networks composed of low power devices. Hierarchical routing protocols typically used in WSNs for multi-path communication tend to overload nodes located within radio communication range of the data collection unit or data sink. The battery life of these nodes is therefore reduced considerably, requiring frequent battery replacement work to extend the operational life of the WSN system. In a wireless sensor network with mesh topology, any node may act as a forwarder node, thereby enabling multiple routing paths toward any other node or collection unit. In addition, mesh topologies have proven advantages, such as data transmission reliability, network robustness against node failures, and potential reduction in energy consumption. This work studies the feasibility of implementing WMSNs in mesh topologies and their limitations by means of exhaustive computer simulation experiments. To this end, a module developed for the Synchronous Energy Saving (SES) mode of the IEEE 802.15.5 mesh standard has been integrated with multimedia tools to thoroughly test video sequences encoded using H.264 in mesh networks. PMID:27164106

  11. An Enhanced Reservation-Based MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.15.4 Networks

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, José A.; Silva, Helder D.; Macedo, Pedro; Rocha, Luis A.

    2011-01-01

    The IEEE 802.15.4 Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is an enabling standard for wireless sensor networks. In order to support applications requiring dedicated bandwidth or bounded delay, it provides a reservation-based scheme named Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS). However, the GTS scheme presents some drawbacks, such as inefficient bandwidth utilization and support to a maximum of only seven devices. This paper presents eLPRT (enhanced Low Power Real Time), a new reservation-based MAC protocol that introduces several performance enhancing features in comparison to the GTS scheme. This MAC protocol builds on top of LPRT (Low Power Real Time) and includes various mechanisms designed to increase data transmission reliability against channel errors, improve bandwidth utilization and increase the number of supported devices. A motion capture system based on inertial and magnetic sensors has been used to validate the protocol. The effectiveness of the performance enhancements introduced by each of the new features is demonstrated through the provision of both simulation and experimental results. PMID:22163826

  12. IEEE802.15.6 NB portable BAN clinic and M2M international standardization.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Masahiro; Nohara, Yasunobu

    2013-01-01

    The increase of non communicable diseases (NCDs) will change the direction of health services to emphasize the role of preventive medicine in healthcare services. The first short-range medical body are network (BAN) standard IEEE802.15.6 is expected to be used for secure and user-friendly sensor devices for portable medical equipment. A BAN is an enabler for uploading medical data to a backend system for remote diagnoses and treatment. Machine-to-Machine (M2M) infrastructure is also a key technology for providing flexible and affordable services extending electronic health record (EHR) systems. This paper proposes a BAN-based portable clinic that collects health-check data from user-friendly medical devices and sensors and sends the data to a local backend server, and it evaluates the clinic in fields of actual usage. We discuss issues experienced from actual deployment of the system and focus on integrating it into upcoming healthcare M2M infrastructure to achieve affordable and dependable clinic services. We explain the components and workflow of the clinic and the system model. The system is set up at a temporary health center and has a network link to a remote medical help center. The paper concludes with our plan to introduce our system to contribute to internationally standardized preventive medicine.

  13. Link Investigation of IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks in Forests.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xingjian; Sun, Guodong; Yang, Gaoxiang; Shang, Xinna

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are expected to automatically monitor the ecological evolution and wildlife habits in forests. Low-power links (transceivers) are often adopted in wireless sensor network applications, in order to save the precious sensor energy and then achieve long-term, unattended monitoring. Recent research has presented some performance characteristics of such low-power wireless links under laboratory or outdoor scenarios with less obstacles, and they have found that low-power wireless links are unreliable and prone to be affected by the target environment. However, there is still less understanding about how well the low-power wireless link performs in real-world forests and to what extent the complex in-forest surrounding environments affect the link performances. In this paper, we empirically evaluate the low-power links of wireless sensors in three typical different forest environments. Our experiment investigates the performance of the link layer compatible with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard and analyzes the variation patterns of the packet reception ratio (PRR), the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and the link quality indicator (LQI) under diverse experimental settings. Some observations of this study are inconsistent with or even contradict prior results that are achieved in open fields or relatively clean environments and thus, provide new insights both into effectively evaluating the low-power wireless links and into efficiently deploying wireless sensor network systems in forest environments. PMID:27355957

  14. On the Feasibility of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks over IEEE 802.15.5 Mesh Topologies

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Losilla, Fernando; Rodenas-Herraiz, David; Cruz-Martinez, Felipe; Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) are a special type of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) where large amounts of multimedia data are transmitted over networks composed of low power devices. Hierarchical routing protocols typically used in WSNs for multi-path communication tend to overload nodes located within radio communication range of the data collection unit or data sink. The battery life of these nodes is therefore reduced considerably, requiring frequent battery replacement work to extend the operational life of the WSN system. In a wireless sensor network with mesh topology, any node may act as a forwarder node, thereby enabling multiple routing paths toward any other node or collection unit. In addition, mesh topologies have proven advantages, such as data transmission reliability, network robustness against node failures, and potential reduction in energy consumption. This work studies the feasibility of implementing WMSNs in mesh topologies and their limitations by means of exhaustive computer simulation experiments. To this end, a module developed for the Synchronous Energy Saving (SES) mode of the IEEE 802.15.5 mesh standard has been integrated with multimedia tools to thoroughly test video sequences encoded using H.264 in mesh networks. PMID:27164106

  15. A programmable positioning stepper-motor controller with a multibus/IEEE 796 compatible interface.

    PubMed

    Papoff, P; Ricci, D

    1984-02-01

    A programmable positioning stepper-motor controller, based on the Multibus/IEEE 796 standard interface, has been assembled by use of some intelligent and programmable integrated circuits. This controller, organized as a bus-slave unit, has been planned for local management of up to four stepper motors working simultaneously. The number of steps, the direction of rotation and the step-rate for the positioning of each motor are issued by the bus master microcomputer to the controller which handles all the required operations. Once each positioning has been performed, the controller informs the master by generating a proper bus-vectored interrupt. Displacements in up to 64,000 steps may be programmed with step-rates ranging from 0.1 to 6550 steps/sec. This device, for which only low-cost, high-performance components are required, can be successfully used in a wide range of applications and can be easily extended to control more than four stepper motors. PMID:18963547

  16. IEEE-802.15.4-based low-power body sensor node with RF energy harvester.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thang Viet; Chung, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the design and implementation of a low-voltage and low-power body sensor node based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard to collect electrocardiography (ECG) and photoplethysmography (PPG) signals. To achieve compact size, low supply voltage, and low power consumption, the proposed platform is integrated into a ZigBee mote, which contains a DC-DC booster, a PPG sensor interface module, and an ECG front-end circuit that has ultra-low current consumption. The input voltage of the proposed node is very low and has a wide range, from 0.65 V to 3.3 V. An RF energy harvester is also designed to charge the battery during the working mode or standby mode of the node. The power consumption of the proposed node reaches 14 mW in working mode to prolong the battery lifetime. The software is supported by the nesC language under the TinyOS environment, which enables the proposed node to be easily configured to function as an individual health monitoring node or a node in a wireless body sensor network (BSN). The proposed node is used to set up a wireless BSN that can simultaneously collect ECG and PPG signals and monitor the results on the personal computer.

  17. Home healthcare settop-box for senior chronic care using ISO/IEEE 11073 PHD standard.

    PubMed

    Lim, Joon-Ho; Park, Chanyong; Park, Soo-Jun

    2010-01-01

    As the number of seniors with chronic disease increases, the need of home healthcare settop-box is increased to manage their chronic disease in their home environment. Using the home healthcare settop-box, the patients can regularly check their health data, and finally, it can lead the decrease of medical expenses. For the home healthcare settop-box, the most important factor is the standard compatibility, which can interoperate with standard devices of any other companies. In this paper, we propose a home healthcare settop-box using ISO/IEEE 11073 PHD standard. It collects health data according to the PHD standard, and provides a chronic-care service based on the collected data. The proposed settop-box is connected with 3 devices of weigh scale, blood pressure monitor, and glucose meter, and tested at 10 homes for a month. Lastly, the proposed settop-box can be used for various healthcare services such as Google Health and Telemedicine Services using a healthcare platform server.

  18. Link Investigation of IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks in Forests

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xingjian; Sun, Guodong; Yang, Gaoxiang; Shang, Xinna

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are expected to automatically monitor the ecological evolution and wildlife habits in forests. Low-power links (transceivers) are often adopted in wireless sensor network applications, in order to save the precious sensor energy and then achieve long-term, unattended monitoring. Recent research has presented some performance characteristics of such low-power wireless links under laboratory or outdoor scenarios with less obstacles, and they have found that low-power wireless links are unreliable and prone to be affected by the target environment. However, there is still less understanding about how well the low-power wireless link performs in real-world forests and to what extent the complex in-forest surrounding environments affect the link performances. In this paper, we empirically evaluate the low-power links of wireless sensors in three typical different forest environments. Our experiment investigates the performance of the link layer compatible with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard and analyzes the variation patterns of the packet reception ratio (PRR), the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and the link quality indicator (LQI) under diverse experimental settings. Some observations of this study are inconsistent with or even contradict prior results that are achieved in open fields or relatively clean environments and thus, provide new insights both into effectively evaluating the low-power wireless links and into efficiently deploying wireless sensor network systems in forest environments. PMID:27355957

  19. Dynamic subframe allocation for mobile broadband m-health using IEEE 802.16j mobile multihop relay networks.

    PubMed

    Alinejad, Ali; Istepanian, R S H; Philip, N

    2012-01-01

    The concept of 4G health will be one of the key focus areas of future m-health research and enterprise activities in the coming years. WiMAX technology is one of the constituent 4G wireless technologies that provides broadband wireless access (BWA). Despite the fact that WiMAX is able to provide a high data rate in a relatively large coverage; this technology has specific limitations such as: coverage, signal attenuation problems due to shadowing or path loss, and limited available spectrum. The IEEE 802.16j mobile multihop relay (MMR) technology is a pragmatic solution designed to overcome these limitations. The aim of IEEE 802.16j MMR is to expand the IEEE 802.16e's capabilities with multihop features. In particular, the uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) subframe allocation in WiMAX network is usually fixed. However, dynamic frame allocation is a useful mechanism to optimize uplink and downlink subframe size dynamically based on the traffic conditions through real-time traffic monitoring. This particular mechanism is important for future WiMAX based m-health applications as it allows the tradeoff in both UL and DL channels. In this paper, we address the dynamic frame allocation issue in IEEE 802.16j MMR network for m-health applications. A comparative performance analysis of the proposed approach is validated using the OPNET Modeler(®). The simulation results have shown an improved performance of resource allocation and end-to-end delay performance for typical medical video streaming application.

  20. Introduction to the special issue on the 2011 Joint IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and European Frequency and Time Forum.

    PubMed

    Burt, Eric; Gill, Patrick

    2012-03-01

    The 8 invited and 17 contributed papers in this special issue focus on the following topical areas covered at the 2011 Joint IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and European Frequency and Time Forum, held in San Francisco, California: 1) Materials and Resonators; 2) Oscillators, Synthesizers, and Noise; 3) Microwave Frequency Standards; 4) Sensors and Transducers; 5) Timekeeping and Time and Frequency Transfer; and 6) Optical Frequency Standards.

  1. Dynamic subframe allocation for mobile broadband m-health using IEEE 802.16j mobile multihop relay networks.

    PubMed

    Alinejad, Ali; Istepanian, R S H; Philip, N

    2012-01-01

    The concept of 4G health will be one of the key focus areas of future m-health research and enterprise activities in the coming years. WiMAX technology is one of the constituent 4G wireless technologies that provides broadband wireless access (BWA). Despite the fact that WiMAX is able to provide a high data rate in a relatively large coverage; this technology has specific limitations such as: coverage, signal attenuation problems due to shadowing or path loss, and limited available spectrum. The IEEE 802.16j mobile multihop relay (MMR) technology is a pragmatic solution designed to overcome these limitations. The aim of IEEE 802.16j MMR is to expand the IEEE 802.16e's capabilities with multihop features. In particular, the uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) subframe allocation in WiMAX network is usually fixed. However, dynamic frame allocation is a useful mechanism to optimize uplink and downlink subframe size dynamically based on the traffic conditions through real-time traffic monitoring. This particular mechanism is important for future WiMAX based m-health applications as it allows the tradeoff in both UL and DL channels. In this paper, we address the dynamic frame allocation issue in IEEE 802.16j MMR network for m-health applications. A comparative performance analysis of the proposed approach is validated using the OPNET Modeler(®). The simulation results have shown an improved performance of resource allocation and end-to-end delay performance for typical medical video streaming application. PMID:23365886

  2. Standards for HFC-based residential broadband: IEEE project 802.14--its mission, charter, and status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eng, John W.

    1995-11-01

    This paper outlines the development of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Project 802.14. This working group is chartered to develop standards for the medium access and physical layers for hybrid fiber-coax cable-TV systems that will deliver integrated multiple services (data, audio and video) to the home. Also discussed are the technical challenges, the standard development process and an update on its status as of September 1995.

  3. Crystallization behavior and texture of trans-containing and trans-free palm oil based confectionery fats.

    PubMed

    De Graef, Veerle; Foubert, Imogen; Smith, Kevin W; Cain, Fred W; Dewettinck, Koen

    2007-12-12

    The objective of this study was to gain insight into the role of trans fatty acids in determining the crystallization behavior and texture of palm-based confectionery fats. Therefore, the isothermal crystallization behavior of two series, each of three fats, one trans-containing and one trans-free, was examined by pNMR, DSC, and rheology. Furthermore, the hardness of these samples was examined at three different storage times at 10 degrees C. All of the trans free samples showed a two-step crystallization at 10 degrees C which is hypothesized to be an alpha-mediated beta' crystallization for two of the samples and a fractionated crystallization in the beta' polymorph for the third, while the trans-containing fats crystallized in a single step, probably a direct beta' crystallization. The trans-containing fat series clearly crystallized faster than the trans-free fat series and also yielded higher hardness values at all storage times investigated. The presence of trans fatty acids seems to reduce the effect of compositional variations on the crystallization process. For the trans free fats, chemical composition was much more critical in determining the crystallization rate, the SFC, and the final hardness value.

  4. Service differentiated and adaptive CSMA/CA over IEEE 802.15.4 for Cyber-Physical Systems.

    PubMed

    Xia, Feng; Li, Jie; Hao, Ruonan; Kong, Xiangjie; Gao, Ruixia

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) that collect, exchange, manage information, and coordinate actions are an integral part of the Smart Grid. In addition, Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning in CPS, especially in the wireless sensor/actuator networks, plays an essential role in Smart Grid applications. IEEE 802.15.4, which is one of the most widely used communication protocols in this area, still needs to be improved to meet multiple QoS requirements. This is because IEEE 802.15.4 slotted Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) employs static parameter configuration without supporting differentiated services and network self-adaptivity. To address this issue, this paper proposes a priority-based Service Differentiated and Adaptive CSMA/CA (SDA-CSMA/CA) algorithm to provide differentiated QoS for various Smart Grid applications as well as dynamically initialize backoff exponent according to traffic conditions. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed SDA-CSMA/CA scheme significantly outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 slotted CSMA/CA in terms of effective data rate, packet loss rate, and average delay. PMID:24260021

  5. Service differentiated and adaptive CSMA/CA over IEEE 802.15.4 for Cyber-Physical Systems.

    PubMed

    Xia, Feng; Li, Jie; Hao, Ruonan; Kong, Xiangjie; Gao, Ruixia

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) that collect, exchange, manage information, and coordinate actions are an integral part of the Smart Grid. In addition, Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning in CPS, especially in the wireless sensor/actuator networks, plays an essential role in Smart Grid applications. IEEE 802.15.4, which is one of the most widely used communication protocols in this area, still needs to be improved to meet multiple QoS requirements. This is because IEEE 802.15.4 slotted Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) employs static parameter configuration without supporting differentiated services and network self-adaptivity. To address this issue, this paper proposes a priority-based Service Differentiated and Adaptive CSMA/CA (SDA-CSMA/CA) algorithm to provide differentiated QoS for various Smart Grid applications as well as dynamically initialize backoff exponent according to traffic conditions. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed SDA-CSMA/CA scheme significantly outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 slotted CSMA/CA in terms of effective data rate, packet loss rate, and average delay.

  6. Service Differentiated and Adaptive CSMA/CA over IEEE 802.15.4 for Cyber-Physical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ruixia

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) that collect, exchange, manage information, and coordinate actions are an integral part of the Smart Grid. In addition, Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning in CPS, especially in the wireless sensor/actuator networks, plays an essential role in Smart Grid applications. IEEE 802.15.4, which is one of the most widely used communication protocols in this area, still needs to be improved to meet multiple QoS requirements. This is because IEEE 802.15.4 slotted Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) employs static parameter configuration without supporting differentiated services and network self-adaptivity. To address this issue, this paper proposes a priority-based Service Differentiated and Adaptive CSMA/CA (SDA-CSMA/CA) algorithm to provide differentiated QoS for various Smart Grid applications as well as dynamically initialize backoff exponent according to traffic conditions. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed SDA-CSMA/CA scheme significantly outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 slotted CSMA/CA in terms of effective data rate, packet loss rate, and average delay. PMID:24260021

  7. 76 FR 15305 - Trans Bay Cable LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Trans Bay Cable LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 7, 2011, Trans Bay Cable LLC, filed a request for ] a waiver of the annual submission requirements for FERC...

  8. Shifting Paradigms: Moving beyond "Trans 101" in Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Eli R.

    2010-01-01

    Trans-inclusive sexuality education can be complex, confusing, and outright intimidating for even the most seasoned sexuality educator to teach. Historically, standalone "Trans 101" sessions have successfully raised awareness about the highly marginalized transgender community. However, their potential success has been limited by being taught in…

  9. Survey of the trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid content of cocoa-containing and chocolate products.

    PubMed

    Hurst, W Jeffrey; Glinski, Jan A; Miller, Kenneth B; Apgar, Joan; Davey, Matthew H; Stuart, David A

    2008-09-24

    Dietary resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) has been implicated in the health benefits associated with grapes and red wine, more specifically with potential benefits for metabolic syndrome, energy use, and increased endurance. Levels of trans-resveratrol and its glucoside, trans-piceid, were determined in 19 top selling commercially available cocoa-containing and chocolate products from the U.S. market. Amounts of trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were closely correlated with the amount of nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS) in the cocoa-containing products. Among these products, trans-resveratrol levels were highest in cocoa powders (1.85 +/- 0.43 microg/g), followed by unsweetened baking chocolates (1.24 +/- 0.22), semisweet chocolate baking chips (0.52 +/- 0.14), dark chocolates (0.35 +/- 0.08), milk chocolates (0.10 +/- 0.05), and chocolate syrups (0.09 +/- 0.02). These cocoa-containing and chocolate products have about 3-5 times more trans-piceid than trans-resveratrol. Levels of trans-piceid were highest in the cocoa powders (7.14 +/- 0.80 microg/g), followed by unsweetened baking chocolates (4.04 +/- 0.14), semisweet chocolate baking chips (2.01 +/- 0.18), dark chocolates (1.82 +/- 0.36), milk chocolates (0.44 +/- 0.06), and chocolate syrups (0.35 +/- 0.06). On an equal weight basis, cocoa powder had about half as much trans-resveratrol as the average California red wine. On a per serving basis, cocoa-containing and chocolate products had less trans-resveratrol than red wine and grape juice but more than roasted peanuts. Overall, these cocoa-containing and chocolate products rank second after red wines and grape juice in foods with the highest levels of total trans-resveratrol in the diet. PMID:18759443

  10. [Intake of trans fats; situation in Spain].

    PubMed

    Riobó, Pilar; Breton, Irene

    2014-04-01

    Current nutritional recommendations include decreasing the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA), since there exists sufficient scientific evidence of its influence to cardiovascular disease. During the last decades, in many European countries the TFA intake has considerably decreased through the established legislation and changes in the technological processes developed by the food industry. In Spain, just 2.1 g/day, a 0.7% of the daily energy intake comes from TFA, a lower value than the recommended maximum (<1%), according to data from TRANSFAIR study. The TFA content of processed products such as margarines, factory-baked goods and etc, has declined over recent years and is less than 1% in more than 90% of all these products in Spain. However, it is necessary to develop and implement regulations, governing the TFA content in the products sold in our country, in which there should be the requirement to include this information in the label too.

  11. Exploring the Trans-Neptunian Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    A profound question for scientists, philosophers and, indeed, all humans concerns how the solar system originated and subsequently evolved. To understand the solar system's formation, it is necessary to document fully the chemical and physical makeup of its components today, particularly those parts thought to retain clues about primordial conditions and processes.] In the past decade, our knowledge of the outermost, or trans-neptunian, region of the solar system has been transformed as a result of Earth-based observations of the Pluto-Charon system, Voyager 2's encounter with Neptune and its satellite Triton, and recent discoveries of dozens of bodies near to or beyond the orbit of Neptune. As a class, these newly detected objects, along with Pluto, Charon, and Triton, occupy the inner region of a hitherto unexplored component of the solar system, the Kuiper Belt. The Kuiper Belt is believed to be a reservoir of primordial objects of the type that formed in the solar nebula and eventually accreted to form the major planets. The Kuiper Belt is also thought to be the source of short-period comets and a population of icy bodies, the Centaurs, with orbits among the giant planets. Additional components of the distant outer solar system, such as dust and the Oort comet cloud, as well as the planet Neptune itself, are not discussed in this report. Our increasing knowledge of the trans-neptunian solar system has been matched by a corresponding increase in our capabilities for remote and in situ observation of these distant regions. Over the next 10 to 15 years, a new generation of ground- and space-based instruments, including the Keck and Gemini telescopes and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, will greatly expand our ability to search for and conduct physical and chemical studies on these distant bodies. Over the same time span, a new generation of lightweight spacecraft should become available and enable the first missions designed specifically to explore the icy

  12. The Living ROMP of trans-Cyclooctene.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ron; Conrad, Rosemary M; Grubbs, Robert H

    2009-02-10

    The living ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of trans-cyclooctene (tCO) was investigated. ROMP of tCO in the presence of PPh(3) in THF leads to the formation of narrowly dispersed polycyclooctene (PCO). The presence of PPh(3) as an additive and the use of THF as a solvent were demonstrated to be necessary to suppress competing secondary metathesis processes in the ROMP of tCO. Under optimal conditions, narrowly dispersed PCO was achieved without high molecular weight contaminates. The PCO was then hydrogenated to form linear, narrowly dispersed polyethylene with a melting temperature of 139 °C. Protected, hydroxy-functionalized tCO was polymerized by this method to afford narrowly dispersed, hydroxylated PCO. Block copolymers containing polynorbornene and PCO or containing differentially functionalized PCO were also synthesized and hydrogenated to form block copolymers containing blocks of linear, narrowly dispersed polyethylene.

  13. All-trans-retinoic acid nanodisks.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Katherine A; Nguyen, Thanh-Son; Ryan, Robert O

    2007-07-18

    Nanodisks are nanoscale, disk-shaped phospholipid bilayers whose edge is stabilized by association of apolipoprotein molecules. Self-assembled ND particles enriched with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) (phospholipid:ATRA molar ratio = 5.5:1) were generated wherein all reaction components were solubilized. ATRA-ND migrated as a single band (Stokes' diameter approximately 20 nm) on native gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. ATRA, phospholipid and apolipoprotein co-eluted from a Sepharose 6B gel filtration column, consistent with stable integration of ATRA into the ND particle milieu. Spectroscopic analysis of ATRA-ND in buffer yielded an absorbance spectrum characteristic of ATRA. ATRA-ND mediated time-dependent inhibition of cultured HepG2 cell growth more effectively than free ATRA. The nanoscale size of the formulation particles and the stable integration of biologically active ATRA suggest ND represent a potentially useful vehicle for solubilization and in vivo delivery of ATRA.

  14. Trans-Laminar-Reinforced (TLR) Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinders, Mark; Dickinson, Larry

    1997-01-01

    A Trans-Laminar-Reinforced (TLR) composite is defined as composite laminate with up to five percent volume of fibrous reinforcement oriented in a 'trans-laminar' fashion in the through-thickness direction. The TLR can be continuous threads as in 'stitched laminates', or it can be discontinuous rods or pins as in 'Z-Fiber(TM) materials. It has been repeatedly documented in the literature that adding TLR to an otherwise two dimensional laminate results in the following advantages: substantially improved compression-after-impact response; considerably increased fracture toughness in mode 1 (double cantilever beam) and mode 2 (end notch flexure); and severely restricted size and growth of impact damage and edge delamination. TLR has also been used to eliminate catastrophic stiffener disbonding in stiffened structures. TLR directly supports the 'Achilles heel' of laminated composites, that is delamination. As little as one percent volume of TLR significantly alters the mechanical response of laminates. The objective of this work was to characterize the effects of TLR on the in-plane and inter-laminar mechanical response of undamaged composite laminates. Detailed finite element models of 'unit cells', or representative volumes, were used to study the effects of adding TLR on the elastic constants; the in-plane strength; and the initiation of delamination. Parameters investigated included TLR material, TLR volume fraction, TLR diameter, TLR through-thickness angle, ply stacking sequence, and the microstructural features of pure resin regions and curved in-plane fibers. The work was limited to the linear response of undamaged material with at least one ply interface. An inter-laminar dominated problem of practical interest, a flanged skin in bending, was also modeled.

  15. [Research progress of trans-cinnamaldehyde pharmacological effects].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-qing; Zhang, Zhan-gang; Fu, Yan; Xu, Ying

    2015-12-01

    Trans-cinnamaldehyde, the main component of volatile oil from cassia twig or Cinnamomum cassia, which is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Trans-cinnamaldehyde is a kind olefine aldehyde of organic compounds and has many pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, and neuroprotection etc. The compound has preventive and therapeutic effects on the nervous system, cardiovascular, cancer, diabetes and other diseases. Trans-cinnamaldehyde, as a preventive care of nature medicine, has great clinical and market potential. This paper gives a review about the pharmacological effects and mechanism of trans-cinnamaldehyde researched in the latest five years. We hope to provide some basic information for further research on trans-cinnamaldehyde. PMID:27141665

  16. Imag(in)ing trans partnerships: collaborative photography and intimacy.

    PubMed

    Davidmann, Sara

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I argue that collaborative photography offers dynamic potential for imag(in)ing trans intimate partnerships beyond the authority of textual representation. I present five photographic and narrative case studies, spanning a range of trans partnerships in the UK, to demonstrate some of the complex ways in which bodies, genders, sexualities, and time intersect in trans intimacy. I argue that the photographs create an imaginative resource, both for the people depicted in the photographs and for those viewing the photographs, providing new possibilities for thinking about trans partnerships, expanding the ways in which trans intimate partnerships are imag(in)ed, and opening up new spaces of possibility for gender and sexual identities.

  17. Trans fatty acids in a range of UK processed foods.

    PubMed

    Roe, Mark; Pinchen, Hannah; Church, Susan; Elahi, Selvarani; Walker, Margaret; Farron-Wilson, Melanie; Buttriss, Judith; Finglas, Paul

    2013-10-01

    A survey to determine the trans fatty acid content of a range of processed foods was carried out in response to recent reformulation work by the food industry to lower the artificial trans fatty acid content of processed products. Sixty two composite samples, made up of between 5 and 12 sub-samples, were collected in 2010 and were analysed for fatty acids, and a range of nutrients. The foods analysed included pizza, garlic bread, breakfast cereals, quiche, fat spreads, a range of fish and meat products, chips, savoury snacks, confectionery and ice cream. Levels of trans fatty acids were reduced considerably compared with previous UK analyses of similar foods where comparisons are possible. Concentrations of trans elaidic acid (t9-C18:1) from hydrogenated oils in all samples were <0.2g/100g food. These results confirm information provided by the food industry in 2007 on the levels of trans fats in key processed food sectors.

  18. Performance evaluation of reactive and proactive routing protocol in IEEE 802.11 ad hoc network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamma, Salima; Cizeron, Eddy; Issaka, Hafiz; Guédon, Jean-Pierre

    2006-10-01

    Wireless technology based on the IEEE 802.11 standard is widely deployed. This technology is used to support multiple types of communication services (data, voice, image) with different QoS requirements. MANET (Mobile Adhoc NETwork) does not require a fixed infrastructure. Mobile nodes communicate through multihop paths. The wireless communication medium has variable and unpredictable characteristics. Furthermore, node mobility creates a continuously changing communication topology in which paths break and new one form dynamically. The routing table of each router in an adhoc network must be kept up-to-date. MANET uses Distance Vector or Link State algorithms which insure that the route to every host is always known. However, this approach must take into account the adhoc networks specific characteristics: dynamic topologies, limited bandwidth, energy constraints, limited physical security, ... Two main routing protocols categories are studied in this paper: proactive protocols (e.g. Optimised Link State Routing - OLSR) and reactive protocols (e.g. Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector - AODV, Dynamic Source Routing - DSR). The proactive protocols are based on periodic exchanges that update the routing tables to all possible destinations, even if no traffic goes through. The reactive protocols are based on on-demand route discoveries that update routing tables only for the destination that has traffic going through. The present paper focuses on study and performance evaluation of these categories using NS2 simulations. We have considered qualitative and quantitative criteria. The first one concerns distributed operation, loop-freedom, security, sleep period operation. The second are used to assess performance of different routing protocols presented in this paper. We can list end-to-end data delay, jitter, packet delivery ratio, routing load, activity distribution. Comparative study will be presented with number of networking context consideration and the results show

  19. Understanding the complexity of trans fatty acid reduction in the American diet: American Heart Association Trans Fat Conference 2006: report of the Trans Fat Conference Planning Group.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Robert H; Borra, Susan; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Yin-Piazza, Shirley Y

    2007-04-24

    A 2-day forum was convened to discuss the current status and future implications of reducing trans fatty acids without increasing saturated fats in the food supply while maintaining functionality and consumer acceptance of packaged, processed, and prepared foods. Attendees represented the agriculture and oilseed industry and oil processing, food manufacturing, food service, government, food technology, and health and nutrition disciplines. Presentations included food science behind fatty acid technology, the health science of dietary fatty acids, alternatives to trans fatty acids, and the use of alternatives in food manufacturing and food service. The reduction of trans fatty acids in the food supply is a complex issue involving interdependent and interrelated stakeholders. Actions to reduce trans fatty acids need to carefully consider both intended and unintended consequences related to nutrition and public health. The unintended consequence of greatest concern is that fats and oils high in saturated fats, instead of the healthier unsaturated fats, might be used to replace fats and oils with trans fatty acids. Many different options of alternative oils and fats to replace trans fatty acids are available or in development. Decisions on the use of these alternatives need to consider availability, health effects, research and development investments, reformulated food quality and taste, supply-chain management, operational modifications, consumer acceptance, and cost. The conference demonstrated the value of collaboration between the food industry and health and nutrition professionals, and this conference model should be used to address other food development, processing, and/or technology issues. PMID:17426064

  20. Micro-Sugar-Snap and -Wire-Cut Cookie Baking with Trans- and Zero-Trans-Fat Shortenings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of trans- and zero-trans-fat shortenings on cookie-baking performance was evaluated, using the two AACC micro-cookie-baking methods. Regardless of fat type, sugar-snap cookies made with a given flour were larger in diameter, smaller in height, and greater in weight loss during baking tha...

  1. Phase Transition in all-trans-β-Carotene Crystal: Temperature-Dependent Raman Spectra.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Kleber J R; Paschoal, Waldomiro; Belo, Ezequiel A; Moreira, Sanclayton G C

    2015-09-24

    In this study, we studied the stability of an all-trans-β-carotene single crystal using Raman spectroscopy with line excitation at 632.8 nm, in the temperature range 20–300 K. The Raman spectra exhibit clear modifications in the spectral range of the lattice and internal vibrational modes. The temperature dependence of the most intense vibrational modes ν1 (1511 cm(–1)) and ν2 (1156 cm(–1)) that are related to the C═C and C—C stretching vibrations of the polyene chain, respectively, shows an upward shift on the Raman modes. This behavior is similar to that stated in the theoretical work of Wei-Long Liu et al. We conclude that the all-trans-β-carotene crystal undergoes a temperature-induced phase transition at approximately 219 K. This transition is interpreted as a rotation experienced by β-ring groups at each end of the all-trans-β-carotene molecule around the dihedral angle. At low temperatures, the new molecular configuration affects the sliding plane of the space group C2h(5)(P2(1)/n), and the phase transition leads to an unchanged monoclinic structure; however, the original space group is possibly lowered to the space group C2. In the temperature range 200–220 K, the spectral ratio (S) of the integrated intensities of the spectral modes around the symmetric and asymmetric stretching wavenumbers of the methyl group (CH3) changes as a function of temperature in agreement with the phase transition. Furthermore, according to phase transition undergone by the all-trans-β-carotene, the thermal results obtained by differential scanning calorimetry show an exothermic process that occurs near the transition temperature assigned by the Raman spectra. PMID:26335691

  2. Phase Transition in all-trans-β-Carotene Crystal: Temperature-Dependent Raman Spectra.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Kleber J R; Paschoal, Waldomiro; Belo, Ezequiel A; Moreira, Sanclayton G C

    2015-09-24

    In this study, we studied the stability of an all-trans-β-carotene single crystal using Raman spectroscopy with line excitation at 632.8 nm, in the temperature range 20–300 K. The Raman spectra exhibit clear modifications in the spectral range of the lattice and internal vibrational modes. The temperature dependence of the most intense vibrational modes ν1 (1511 cm(–1)) and ν2 (1156 cm(–1)) that are related to the C═C and C—C stretching vibrations of the polyene chain, respectively, shows an upward shift on the Raman modes. This behavior is similar to that stated in the theoretical work of Wei-Long Liu et al. We conclude that the all-trans-β-carotene crystal undergoes a temperature-induced phase transition at approximately 219 K. This transition is interpreted as a rotation experienced by β-ring groups at each end of the all-trans-β-carotene molecule around the dihedral angle. At low temperatures, the new molecular configuration affects the sliding plane of the space group C2h(5)(P2(1)/n), and the phase transition leads to an unchanged monoclinic structure; however, the original space group is possibly lowered to the space group C2. In the temperature range 200–220 K, the spectral ratio (S) of the integrated intensities of the spectral modes around the symmetric and asymmetric stretching wavenumbers of the methyl group (CH3) changes as a function of temperature in agreement with the phase transition. Furthermore, according to phase transition undergone by the all-trans-β-carotene, the thermal results obtained by differential scanning calorimetry show an exothermic process that occurs near the transition temperature assigned by the Raman spectra.

  3. Trans fatty acids in human milk are an indicator of different maternal dietary sources containing trans fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Mueller, A; Thijs, C; Rist, L; Simões-Wüst, A P; Huber, M; Steinhart, H

    2010-03-01

    The trans fatty acid (TFA) patterns in the fats of ruminant meat and dairy products differ from those found in other (processed) fats. We have evaluated different TFA isomers in human breast milk as an indicator of dietary intake of ruminant and dairy fats of different origins. Breast milk samples were collected 1 month postpartum from 310 mothers participating in the KOALA Birth Cohort Study (The Netherlands). The study participants had different lifestyles and consumed different amounts of dairy products. Fatty acid methyl esters were determined by GC-FID and the data were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA), ANOVA/Post Hoc test and linear regression analysis. The two major principal components were (1) 18:1 trans-isomers and (2) markers of dairy fat including 15:0, 17:0, 11(trans)18:1 and 9(cis),11(trans)18:2 (CLA). Despite similar total TFA values, the 9(trans)18:1/11(trans)18:1-ratio and the 10(trans)18:1/11(trans)18:1-ratio were significantly lower in milk from mothers with high dairy fat intake (40-76 g/day: 0.91 +/- 0.48, P < 0.05) compared to low dairy fat intake (0-10 g/day: 1.59 +/- 0.48), and lower with strict organic meat and dairy use (>90% organic: 0.92 +/- 0.46, P < 0.05) compared to conventional origin of meat and dairy (1.40 +/- 0.61). Similar results were obtained for the 10(trans)18:1/11(trans)18:1-ratio. We conclude that both ratios are indicators of different intake of TFA from ruminant and dairy origin relative to other (including industrial) sources.

  4. Efficacy of trans-cinnamaldehyde against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fengge; Xing, Mingxun; Liu, Lihui; Tang, Xudong; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xiaohong; Wu, Xiuping; Wang, Xuelin; Wang, Xinrui; Wang, Guangming; Zhang, Junhui; Li, Lei; Zhang, Jiyu; Yu, Lu

    2012-04-01

    The acaricidal activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde was evaluated in vitro on Psoroptes cuniculi. In this study, different concentrations of trans-cinnamaldehyde were tested, and the observed mites mortality was compared with that observed in untreated and treated (Acacerulen R®) controls. The morphological changes in P. cuniculi treated with trans-cinnamaldehyde were examined with light microscopy. By the analysis of variance one-way test, up to 8 μg/ml of trans-cinnamaldehyde gave highly significant (P < 0.01) percentages of mite mortality compared with the untreated controls, but only up to 256 μg/ml, it showed the same efficacy of Acacerulen R®. At the same time, a bioassay was conducted by exposing mites to varying doses of trans-cinnamaldehyde in vitro cultures. The resulting data were analyzed by using a time-dose-mortality modeling technique, yielding the parameters for time and dose effects of P. cuniculi. The β value was 2.01, indicating that trans-cinnamaldehyde had a good activity to kill P. cuniculi adults. Based on the time-dose-mortality relationships fitted and the virulence indices estimated, trans-cinnamaldehyde is a promising microbial agent for mites control. PMID:22350671

  5. Evolutionary Insights into RNA trans-Splicing in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Quan; Li, Cong; Zuo, Zhixiang; Huang, Chunhua; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2016-01-01

    Pre-RNA splicing is an essential step in generating mature mRNA. RNA trans-splicing combines two separate pre-mRNA molecules to form a chimeric non-co-linear RNA, which may exert a function distinct from its original molecules. Trans-spliced RNAs may encode novel proteins or serve as noncoding or regulatory RNAs. These novel RNAs not only increase the complexity of the proteome but also provide new regulatory mechanisms for gene expression. An increasing amount of evidence indicates that trans-splicing occurs frequently in both physiological and pathological processes. In addition, mRNA reprogramming based on trans-splicing has been successfully applied in RNA-based therapies for human genetic diseases. Nevertheless, clarifying the extent and evolution of trans-splicing in vertebrates and developing detection methods for trans-splicing remain challenging. In this review, we summarize previous research, highlight recent advances in trans-splicing, and discuss possible splicing mechanisms and functions from an evolutionary viewpoint. PMID:26966239

  6. The posterior sagittal trans-sphincteric approach.

    PubMed

    Peña, A; Hong, A

    2004-01-01

    The posterior sagittal, transphincteric approach to treat different pelvic problems has been known since last century. Although some surgeons have embraced it and have enthusiastically advocated it s use, it has never become an overly popular technique. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the approach, both from an historical perspective and from the authors experience. The international literature on the subject was reviewed since 1877 up to the present date. A retrospective evaluation of the authors experience was conducted, and the results reviewed. Specific attention was paid to the final result obtained in the treatment of the original condition, surgical complications and the effect of the surgical approach on bowel and urinary control. The experiential review included 114 cases. They were divided into two groups. A included 85 patients who underwent a posterior sagittal transphincteric approach that included 49 cases of Hirschsprung s disease (primary 21, secondary 28), 15 presacral masses; 10 rectaltumors; 7 acquired recto-genito-urinary fistulae; and 4 cases of idiopathic rectal prolapse. Group B included 29 patients who underwent a posterior sagittal trans-anorectal approach, in which the anterior wall of the rectum and the sphincter was divided as well.. This group included 12 cases of urogenital sinuses; 8 acquired urethral stricture or atresia after trauma; and 9 posterior urethral masses. Post-operative bowel control was normal all cases except in those patients whose basic condition had resulted in fecal incontinence, or who had sustained an irreversible injury prior tothe operation. Urinary control was normal except in cases with pre-operative incontinence. Complications included recurrence of recto-genitourinary fistulae in 3 cases, recto-cutaneous fistula in 3 Hirschsprung s patients and 2 partial wound dehisences. The posterior sagittal trans-sphincteric approach represents a useful technical alternative

  7. Understanding radio polarimetry. III. Interpreting the IAU/IEEE definitions of the Stokes parameters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaker, J. P.; Bregman, J. D.

    1996-05-01

    In two companion papers (Paper I, Hamaker et al. 1996; Paper II, Sault et al. 1996), a new theory of radio-interferometric polarimetry and its application to the calibration of interferometer arrays are presented. To complete our study of radio polarimetry, we examine here the definition of the Stokes parameters adopted by Commission 40 of the IAU (1974) and the way this definition works out in the mathematical equations. Using the formalism of Paper I, we give a simplified derivation of the frequently-cited `black-box' formula originally derived by Morris et al. (1964). We show that their original version is in error in the sign of Stokes V, the correct sign being that given by Weiler (1973) and Thompson et al. (1986).

  8. Dynamic NMR study of trans-cyclodecene

    SciTech Connect

    Pawar, D.M.; Noe, E.A.

    1996-12-18

    The slow-exchange {sup 13}C spectrum of trans-cyclodecene at -154.9{degree}C shows eight peaks of the olefinic carbons, and these are interpreted in terms of five conformations. Three of the conformations are of C{sub 1} symmetry, and two are of C{sub 2} symmetry. Further evidence for the number of conformations and their symmetries came from a proton NMR spectrum of the olefinic hydrogens taken at -154.9{degree}C with decoupling the allylic hydrogens. Populations ranged from 3.0% to 37.6% with the least-populated conformation having a free energy of 0.59 kcal/mol, relative to the most stable conformer. The conformations studied by Saunders and Jimenez-Vazquez using Allinger`s MM3 force field are described, and the calculated strain energies and populations are discussed. Energies for six conformations were also obtained from ab initio calculations at the HF/6-311G{sup *} level. 22 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Characterization of Trans-Neptunian Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrievna Kovalenko, Irina; Doressoundiram, Alain

    2016-10-01

    During the "TNOs are Cool: A Survey of the Trans-Neptunian Region" two important physical properties, such as size and albedo, have been obtained from Herschel and Spitzer thermal emission measurements. In this present work we describe an analysis of 28 binary and 2 triple objects related to the "TNOs are cool" project. Firstly, this analysis contains a comparison of multiples with other TNOs by their albedo and diameter characteristics. Secondly, an analysis on correlations between physical and orbital parameters is performed.The knowledge of size allows to estimate the bulk density, which is a crucial parameter containing information on the internal structure of TNOs. Hence, the density estimation problem requires known mass, whose measurement is only possible if the object has a satellite with a known orbit. Unfortunately, from our dataset of binaries only few of them have a full orbit solution and, consequently, a derived bulk density. The lack of observations of such distant objects leads to difficulties in close satellite's orbit determination. A statistical approach, based on a Monte-Carlo Markov chain global optimisation algorithm, is proposed for this problem.

  10. Trans-generational immune priming in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Hernández López, Javier; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Crailsheim, Karl; Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike

    2014-06-22

    Maternal immune experience acquired during pathogen exposure and passed on to progeny to enhance resistance to infection is called trans-generational immune priming (TgIP). In eusocial insects like honeybees, TgIP would result in a significant improvement of health at individual and colony level. Demonstrated in invertebrates other than honeybees, TgIP has not yet been fully elucidated in terms of intensity and molecular mechanisms underlying this response. Here, we immune-stimulated honeybee queens with Paenibacillus larvae (Pl), a spore-forming bacterium causing American Foulbrood, the most deadly bee brood disease worldwide. Subsequently, offspring of stimulated queens were exposed to spores of Pl and mortality rates were measured to evaluate maternal transfer of immunity. Our data substantiate the existence of TgIP effects in honeybees by direct evaluation of offspring resistance to bacterial infection. A further aspect of this study was to investigate a potential correlation between immune priming responses and prohaemocytes-haemocyte differentiation processes in larvae. The results point out that a priming effect triggers differentiation of prohaemocytes to haemocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying TgIP responses are still elusive and require future investigation.

  11. Trans-Andean Ancistrus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae).

    PubMed

    Taphorn, Donald C; Armbruster, Jonathan W; Villa-Navarro, Francisco; Ray, C Keith

    2013-01-01

    We review the trans-Andean species of Ancistrus from Panama, Colombia and Venezuela. Based on analyses of meristic, morphometric and pigmentation pattern data of preserved specimens, eight of sixteen species reported from this region are considered valid and two new species are described. Here we review Ancistrus chagresi Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889 from both slopes of central Panama; A. centrolepis Regan 1913 from Pacific slopes of eastern Panama and western Colombia; Ancistrus caucanus Fowler 1943, from the Magdalena River drainage in northern Colombia; Ancistrus martini Schultz 1944, from the Lake Maracaibo Basin of Venezuela and Colombia. Ancistrus galani Pérez & Viloria 1994, from a cave in the Lake Maracaibo Basin of Venezuela is considered valid but was not examined. Ancistrus tolima new species is described from the upper Magdalena River drainage and Ancistrus vericaucanus new species is described from the upper Cauca River drainage. Ancistrus gymnorhynchus Kner 1854 and A. falconensis Taphorn, Armbruster & Rodriguez-O. 2010 were treated previously. One specimen of A. clementinae Rendahl 1937 from the Pacific coast of Ecuador was examined, it is considered a valid species. A key for identification and geographical ranges are provided. PMID:26287090

  12. Trans-generational immune priming in honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Hernández López, Javier; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Crailsheim, Karl; Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Maternal immune experience acquired during pathogen exposure and passed on to progeny to enhance resistance to infection is called trans-generational immune priming (TgIP). In eusocial insects like honeybees, TgIP would result in a significant improvement of health at individual and colony level. Demonstrated in invertebrates other than honeybees, TgIP has not yet been fully elucidated in terms of intensity and molecular mechanisms underlying this response. Here, we immune-stimulated honeybee queens with Paenibacillus larvae (Pl), a spore-forming bacterium causing American Foulbrood, the most deadly bee brood disease worldwide. Subsequently, offspring of stimulated queens were exposed to spores of Pl and mortality rates were measured to evaluate maternal transfer of immunity. Our data substantiate the existence of TgIP effects in honeybees by direct evaluation of offspring resistance to bacterial infection. A further aspect of this study was to investigate a potential correlation between immune priming responses and prohaemocytes–haemocyte differentiation processes in larvae. The results point out that a priming effect triggers differentiation of prohaemocytes to haemocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying TgIP responses are still elusive and require future investigation. PMID:24789904

  13. Approach of trans-rectal NIR optical tomography probing for the imaging of prostate with trans-rectal ultrasound correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, Daqing; Jiang, Zhen; Xu, Guan; Musgrove, Cameron; Bunting, Charles F.

    2008-02-01

    The trans-rectal implementation of NIR optical tomography makes it possible to assess functional status like hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in prostate non-invasively. Trans-rectal NIR tomography may provide tissue-specific functional contrast that is potentially valuable for differentiation of cancerous lesions from normal tissues. Such information will help to determine if a prostate biopsy is needed or can be excluded for an otherwise ambiguous lesion. The relatively low spatial resolution due to the diffuse light detection in trans-rectal NIR tomography, however, limits the accuracy of localizing a suspicious tissue volume. Trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) is the clinical standard for guiding the positioning of biopsy needle owing to its resolution and convenience; nevertheless, TRUS lacks the pathognomic specificity to guide biopsy to only the suspicious lesions. The combination of trans-rectal NIR tomography with TRUS could potentially give better differentiation of cancerous tissue from normal background and to accurately localize the cancer-suspicious contrast obtained from NIR tomography. This paper will demonstrate the design and initial evaluation of a trans-rectal NIR tomography probe that can conveniently integrate with a commercial TRUS transducer. The transrectal NIR tomography obtained from this probe is concurrent with TRUS at matching sagittal imaging plane. This design provides the flexibility of simple correlation of trans-rectal NIR with TRUS, and using TRUS anatomic information as spatial prior for NIR image reconstruction.

  14. Comprehensive Vibrational Spectroscopic Investigation of trans,trans,trans-[Pt(N3)2(OH)2(py)2], a Pt(IV) Diazido Anticancer Prodrug Candidate

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We report a detailed study of a promising photoactivatable metal-based anticancer prodrug candidate, trans,trans,trans-[Pt(N3)2(OH)2(py)2] (C1; py = pyridine), using vibrational spectroscopic techniques. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), Raman, and synchrotron radiation far-IR (SR-FIR) spectroscopies were applied to obtain highly resolved ligand and Pt-ligand vibrations for C1 and its precursors (trans-[Pt(N3)2(py)2] (C2) and trans-[PtCl2(py)2] (C3)). Distinct IR- and Raman-active vibrational modes were assigned with the aid of density functional theory calculations, and trends in the frequency shifts as a function of changing Pt coordination environment were determined and detailed for the first time. The data provide the ligand and Pt-ligand (azide, hydroxide, pyridine) vibrational signatures for C1 in the mid- and far-IR region, which will provide a basis for the better understanding of the interaction of C1 with biomolecules. PMID:27257848

  15. Trans-fatty acids and cardiovascular risk: does origin matter?

    PubMed

    Dawczynski, Christine; Lorkowski, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Several studies have aimed to unravel the contribution of different types of dietary fatty acids to human health and disease. Investigations have consistently shown that high consumption of industrially produced trans-fatty acids from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils is harmful to human health, in particular cardiovascular health. Therefore, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced that partially hydrogenated oils are no longer 'generally recognized as safe', and trans-fatty acids are not permitted in the U.S. food supply. On the other hand, recent studies analyzing the association between circulating trans-fatty acids and disease have revealed that some ruminant-specific trans-fatty acids are associated with a reduction in incidence of disease. In this special report, we highlight recent findings and point out perspectives for future studies on this topic.

  16. Trans-fatty acids and cardiovascular risk: does origin matter?

    PubMed

    Dawczynski, Christine; Lorkowski, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Several studies have aimed to unravel the contribution of different types of dietary fatty acids to human health and disease. Investigations have consistently shown that high consumption of industrially produced trans-fatty acids from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils is harmful to human health, in particular cardiovascular health. Therefore, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced that partially hydrogenated oils are no longer 'generally recognized as safe', and trans-fatty acids are not permitted in the U.S. food supply. On the other hand, recent studies analyzing the association between circulating trans-fatty acids and disease have revealed that some ruminant-specific trans-fatty acids are associated with a reduction in incidence of disease. In this special report, we highlight recent findings and point out perspectives for future studies on this topic. PMID:27292099

  17. In another bracket: trans acceptance in lesbian utopia.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Jamie

    2006-01-01

    Better Than Chocolate investigates the inclusion of transgendered women in lesbian space. The film makes a strong statement that it is logical and natural to welcome trans women to the lesbian community, and that those who reject this inclusion are old-fashioned, violent, or both. It is my assertion that the film makes this statement at the expense of both those who have nuanced reservations toward trans inclusion and those transwomen who desire inclusion into lesbian communities but aren't hyperfeminine.

  18. Variation of trans fatty acids in milk fats.

    PubMed

    Precht, D

    1995-03-01

    Trans fatty acids are discussed in connection with an increased risk of atherosclerosis. Therefore, the development of a rapid and exact measuring method for the determination of trans fatty acids in milk fat is of great interest. Using gas chromatographic analysis of the trans-octadecenoic fatty acids as well as of the triglycerides of 100 different milk fat samples a formula consisting of different triglycerides for the quick determination of trans contents was developed by means of statistical methods (standard deviation = 0.293%, r = 0.9977). Subsequently, the seasonal variations of the trans contents in milk fat samples from a large milk collection area were determined using rapid triglyceride analyses. For the trans fatty acid contents of the 100 milk fat samples and the samples from the milk collection area scattering ranges of 1.91-6.34 wt% resp. 1.97-4.37 wt% were found; the mean contents were 3.83 and 3.18 wt%, and the median values 3.67 and 3.30 wt%, respectively.

  19. Photo-induced chemical reaction of trans-resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Shi, Meng; Ye, Jian-Hui; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Lu, Jian-Liang; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2015-03-15

    Photo-induced chemical reaction of trans-resveratrol has been studied. UV B, liquid state and sufficient exposure time are essential conditions to the photochemical change of trans-resveratrol. Three principal compounds, cis-resveratrol, 2,4,6-phenanthrenetriol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5,6-benzofurandione, were successively generated in the reaction solution of trans-resveratrol (0.25 mM, 100% ethanol) under 100 μW cm(-2) UV B radiation for 4h. cis-Resveratrol, originated from isomerization of trans-resveratrol, resulted in 2,4,6-phenanthrenetriol through photocyclisation reaction meanwhile loss of 2 H. 2,4,6-Phenanthrenetriol played a role of photosensitizer producing singlet oxygen in the reaction pathway. The singlet oxygen triggered [4+2] cycloaddition reaction of trans-resveratrol, and then resulted in the generation of 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5,6-benzofurandione through photorearrangement and oxidation reaction. The singlet oxygen reaction was closely related to the substrate concentration of trans-resveratrol in solution.

  20. Emission of trans, trans-2,4-decadienal from restaurant exhausts to the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Chien, Shu-Mei; Lee, Hui-Ling; Chao, Mu-Rong; Luo, Hong-Wei; Hsieh, Dennis P. H.; Lee, Wen-Jhy

    Cooking exhausts may contribute significant organic compounds to the atmosphere. It has been shown that trans, trans-2,4-decadienal ( tt-DDE) is an important toxic compound in cooking oil fumes (COF). In this study, the emissions of tt-DDE were quantified in both gaseous and particulate phases of three kinds of restaurant exhausts (Chinese, western and barbecue). Samples of exhausts were collected with a sampling system meeting the criteria of US EPA Modified Method 5. The tt-DDE was analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. The results indicate that the emission factors of tt-DDE in terms of μg customer -1 were in sequence: barbecue (1990)>Chinese (570)>western (63.8). The average proportion of tt-DDE in the particulate phase of the exhausts was 83% for the 16 investigated restaurants. Evidently, the majority of tt-DDE in the exhausts was in the particulate phase. There was no evident correlation found between phase distribution of tt-DDE and exhaust temperature in the restaurants investigated. The efficiencies of removal of particulate tt-DDE by air pollution control devices (APCDs) were assessed. The removal efficiencies of electrostatic precipitator (ESP), ESP and activated carbon in series, and wet scrubber were 64.2%, 86.3% and 71.3%, respectively.

  1. 76 FR 28026 - TransCanada Keystone Pipeline, LP; Notice of Request for Waiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission TransCanada Keystone Pipeline, LP; Notice of Request for Waiver Take notice that on May 2, 2011, TransCanada Keystone Pipeline, LP (TransCanada Keystone) filed a request for... changes to its committed rates. TransCanada Keystone states that good cause exists to grant such a...

  2. Performance analyses and improvements for the IEEE 802.15.4 CSMA/CA scheme with heterogeneous buffered conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianping; Tao, Zhengsu; Lv, Chunfeng

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the IEEE 802.15.4 Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) scheme have been received considerable attention recently, with most of these studies focusing on homogeneous or saturated traffic. Two novel transmission schemes-OSTS/BSTS (One Service a Time Scheme/Bulk Service a Time Scheme)-are proposed in this paper to improve the behaviors of time-critical buffered networks with heterogeneous unsaturated traffic. First, we propose a model which contains two modified semi-Markov chains and a macro-Markov chain combined with the theory of M/G/1/K queues to evaluate the characteristics of these two improved CSMA/CA schemes, in which traffic arrivals and accessing packets are bestowed with non-preemptive priority over each other, instead of prioritization. Then, throughput, packet delay and energy consumption of unsaturated, unacknowledged IEEE 802.15.4 beacon-enabled networks are predicted based on the overall point of view which takes the dependent interactions of different types of nodes into account. Moreover, performance comparisons of these two schemes with other non-priority schemes are also proposed. Analysis and simulation results show that delay and fairness of our schemes are superior to those of other schemes, while throughput and energy efficiency are superior to others in more heterogeneous situations. Comprehensive simulations demonstrate that the analysis results of these models match well with the simulation results.

  3. Standard-compliant real-time transmission of ECGs: harmonization of ISO/IEEE 11073-PHD and SCP-ECG.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Jesús D; Chiarugi, Franco; Alesanco, Alvaro; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Chronaki, Catherine E; Escayola, Javier; Martínez, Ignacio; García, José

    2009-01-01

    Ambient assisted living and integrated care in an aging society is based on the vision of the lifelong Electronic Health Record calling for HealthCare Information Systems and medical device interoperability. For medical devices this aim can be achieved by the consistent implementation of harmonized international interoperability standards. The ISO/IEEE 11073 (x73) family of standards is a reference standard for medical device interoperability. In its Personal Health Device (PHD) version several devices have been included, but an ECG device specialization is not yet available. On the other hand, the SCP-ECG standard for short-term diagnostic ECGs (EN1064) has been recently approved as an international standard ISO/IEEE 11073-91064:2009. In this paper, the relationships between a proposed x73-PHD model for an ECG device and the fields of the SCP-ECG standard are investigated. A proof-of-concept implementation of the proposed x73-PHD ECG model is also presented, identifying open issues to be addressed by standards development for the wider interoperability adoption of x73-PHD standards.

  4. Improving the communication reliability of body sensor networks based on the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Diogo; Afonso, José A

    2014-03-01

    Body sensor networks (BSNs) enable continuous monitoring of patients anywhere, with minimum constraints to daily life activities. Although the IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee(®) (ZigBee Alliance, San Ramon, CA) standards were mainly developed for use in wireless sensors network (WSN) applications, they are also widely used in BSN applications because of device characteristics such as low power, low cost, and small form factor. However, compared with WSNs, BSNs present some very distinctive characteristics in terms of traffic and mobility patterns, heterogeneity of the nodes, and quality of service requirements. This article evaluates the suitability of the carrier sense multiple access-collision avoidance protocol, used by the IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee standards, for data-intensive BSN applications, through the execution of experimental tests in different evaluation scenarios, in order to take into account the effects of contention, clock drift, and hidden nodes on the communication reliability. Results show that the delivery ratio may decrease substantially during transitory periods, which can last for several minutes, to a minimum of 90% with retransmissions and 13% without retransmissions. This article also proposes and evaluates the performance of the BSN contention avoidance mechanism, which was designed to solve the identified reliability problems. This mechanism was able to restore the delivery ratio to 100% even in the scenario without retransmissions.

  5. Validation testing of ANSI/IEEE n42.49 standard requirements for personal emergency radiation detectors.

    PubMed

    Pibida, L; Minniti, R; O'Brien, M

    2010-04-01

    Various radiation detectors including electronic personal emergency radiation detectors (PERDs), radiochromic film cards and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to validate a subset of the radiological test requirements listed in the American National Standards Institute/The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (ANSI/IEEE) N42.49 standard. The subset of tests included the following: comparing the readout of the detectors with the value given at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); testing of the alarm settings (when applicable) in air-kerma (or exposure) and air-kerma rate (or exposure rate) mode; and investigating the effect of testing the detectors mounted on a phantom and free in air. The purpose of this work was not to test the performance of the sample of detectors used. Instead, the detectors were used to validate the requirements of the written standard being developed. For this purpose, the performance and response of these instruments were recorded when placed in (137)Cs, and x-ray beams at different air-kerma rates and test conditions. The measurements described in this report were performed at the NIST x-ray and gamma-ray radiation calibration facilities. The data in this report provide a benchmark in support of the development of the ANSI/IEEE N42.49 standard.

  6. Performance Analysis of Multicast Video Streaming in IEEE 802.11 b/g/n Testbed Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostuch, Aleksander; Gierłowski, Krzysztof; Wozniak, Jozef

    The aim of the work is to analyse capabilities and limitations of different IEEE 802.11 technologies (IEEE 802.11 b/g/n), utilized for both multicast and unicast video streaming transmissions directed to mobile devices. Our preliminary research showed that results obtained with currently popular simulation tools can be drastically different than these possible in real-world environment, so, in order to correctly evaluate performance of video streaming, a simple wireless test-bed infrastructure has been created. The results show a strong dependence of the quality of video streaming on the chosen transmission technology. At the same time there are significant differences in perception quality between multicast (1:n) and unicast (1:1) streams, and also between devices offered by different manufacturers. The overall results seem to demonstrate, that, while multicast support quality in different products is still varied and often requires additional configuration, it is possible to select a WiFi access point model and determine the best system parameters to ensure a good video transfer conditions in terms of acceptable QoP/E (Quality of Perception/Exellence).

  7. Path loss variation of on-body UWB channel in the frequency bands of IEEE 802.15.6 standard.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Dayananda; Sarma, Kanak C; Mahanta, Anil

    2016-06-01

    The wireless body area network (WBAN) has gaining tremendous attention among researchers and academicians for its envisioned applications in healthcare service. Ultra wideband (UWB) radio technology is considered as excellent air interface for communication among body area network devices. Characterisation and modelling of channel parameters are utmost prerequisite for the development of reliable communication system. The path loss of on-body UWB channel for each frequency band defined in IEEE 802.15.6 standard is experimentally determined. The parameters of path loss model are statistically determined by analysing measurement data. Both the line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight channel conditions are considered in the measurement. Variations of parameter values with the size of human body are analysed along with the variation of parameter values with the surrounding environments. It is observed that the parameters of the path loss model vary with the frequency band as well as with the body size and surrounding environment. The derived parameter values are specific to the particular frequency bands of IEEE 802.15.6 standard, which will be useful for the development of efficient UWB WBAN system.

  8. Performance evaluation of complete data transfer of physical layer according to IEEE 802.15.4 standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Kota Solomon; Merugu, Naresh Babu; Neetu, Babu, E. Ram

    2016-03-01

    ZigBee is well-accepted industrial standard for wireless sensor networks based on IEEE 802.15.4 standard. Wireless Sensor Networks is the major concern of communication these days. These Wireless Sensor Networks investigate the properties of networks of small battery-powered sensors with wireless communication. The communication between any two wireless nodes of wireless sensor networks is carried out through a protocol stack. This protocol stack has been designed by different vendors in various ways. Every custom vendor possesses his own protocol stack and algorithms especially at the MAC layer. But, many applications require modifications in their algorithms at various layers as per their requirements, especially energy efficient protocols at MAC layer that are simulated in Wireless sensor Network Simulators which are not being tested in real time systems because vendors do not allow the programmability of each layer in their protocol stack. This problem can be quoted as Vendor-Interoperability. The solution is to develop the programmable protocol stack where we can design our own application as required. As a part of the task first we tried implementing physical layer and transmission of data using physical layer. This paper describes about the transmission of the total number of bytes of Frame according to the IEEE 802.15.4 standard using Physical Layer.

  9. Path loss variation of on-body UWB channel in the frequency bands of IEEE 802.15.6 standard.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Dayananda; Sarma, Kanak C; Mahanta, Anil

    2016-06-01

    The wireless body area network (WBAN) has gaining tremendous attention among researchers and academicians for its envisioned applications in healthcare service. Ultra wideband (UWB) radio technology is considered as excellent air interface for communication among body area network devices. Characterisation and modelling of channel parameters are utmost prerequisite for the development of reliable communication system. The path loss of on-body UWB channel for each frequency band defined in IEEE 802.15.6 standard is experimentally determined. The parameters of path loss model are statistically determined by analysing measurement data. Both the line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight channel conditions are considered in the measurement. Variations of parameter values with the size of human body are analysed along with the variation of parameter values with the surrounding environments. It is observed that the parameters of the path loss model vary with the frequency band as well as with the body size and surrounding environment. The derived parameter values are specific to the particular frequency bands of IEEE 802.15.6 standard, which will be useful for the development of efficient UWB WBAN system. PMID:27382482

  10. Compliance and Functional Testing of IEEE 1451.1 for NCAP-to-NCAP Communications in a Sensor Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Jorge; Gurkan, Deniz; Yuan, X.; Benhaddou, D.; Liu, H.; Singla, A.; Franzl, R.; Ma, H.; Bhatt, S.; Morris, J.; Turowski, M.; Figueroa, F.

    2008-01-01

    Distributed control in a networked environment is an irreplaceable feature in systems with remote sensors and actuators. Although distributed control was not originally designed to be networked, usage of off-the-shelf networking technologies has become so prevalent that control systems are desired to have access mechanisms similar to computer networks. However, proprietary transducer interfaces for network communications and distributed control overwhelmingly dominate this industry. Unless the lack of compatibility and interoperability among transducers is resolved, the mature level of access (that computer networking can deliver) will not be achieved in such networked distributed control systems. Standardization of networked transducer interfaces will enable devices from different manufacturers to talk to each other and ensure their plug-and-play capability. One such standard is the suite of IEEE 1451 for sensor network communication and transducer interfaces. The suite not only provides a standard interface for smart transducers, but also outlines the connection of an NCAP (network capable application processor) and transducers (through a transducer interface module TIM). This paper presents the design of the compliance testing of IEEE 1451.1 (referred to as Dot1) compatible NCAP-to-NCAP communications on a link-layer independent medium. The paper also represents the first demonstration of NCAP-to-NCAP communications with Dot1 compatibility: a tester NCAP and an NCAP under test (NUT).

  11. Status of the IEEE P1547 Draft Interconnection Standard and Distributed Energy Resources R&D: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, H. P.; Basso, T. S.; Kroposki, B.

    2002-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Distributed Power Program (DPP) is conducting work to complete, validate in the field, and support the development of a national interconnection standard for distributed energy resources (DER), and to address the institutional and regulatory barriers slowing the commercial adoption of DER systems. This work includes support for the IEEE standards, including P1547 Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems, P1589 Standard for Conformance Test Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems, and the P1608 Application Guide. Work is also in progress on system integration research and development (R&D) on the interface and control of DER with local energy systems. Additional efforts are supporting high-reliability power for industry, evaluating innovative concepts for DER applications, and exploring plug-and-play interface and control technologies for intelligent autonomous interconnection systems. This paper summarizes (1) the current status of the IEEE interconnection standards and application guides in support of DER, and (2) the R&D in progress at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for interconnection and system integration and application of distributed energy resources.

  12. Gmelinosides A-L, twelve acylated iridoid glycosides from Gmelina arborea.

    PubMed

    Hosny, M; Rosazza, J P

    1998-06-26

    Besides the known iridoids 6-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol (1), 6-O-(3"-O-trans-feruloyl)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol (14), 6-O-(2"-O-acetyl-3", 4"-O-di-trans-cinnamoyl)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol (15) and the known phenylpropanoid glycosides verbascoside (acteoside) and martynoside, 12 new acylated iridoid glycosides named gmelinosides A-L (2-13) have been isolated from the leaves of Gmelina arborea. These compounds were structurally characterized using a variety of spectral methods. PMID:9644056

  13. Human exposure standards in the frequency range 1 Hz To 100 kHz: the case for adoption of the IEEE standard.

    PubMed

    Patrick Reilly, J

    2014-10-01

    Differences between IEEE C95 Standards (C95.6-2002 and C95.1-2005) in the low-frequency (1 Hz-100 kHz) and the ICNIRP-2010 guidelines appear across the frequency spectrum. Factors accounting for lack of convergence include: differences between the IEEE standards and the ICNIRP guidelines with respect to biological induction models, stated objectives, data trail from experimentally derived thresholds through physical and biological principles, selection and justification of safety/reduction factors, use of probability models, compliance standards for the limbs as distinct from the whole body, defined population categories, strategies for central nervous system protection below 20 Hz, and correspondence of environmental electric field limits with contact currents. This paper discusses these factors and makes the case for adoption of the limits in the IEEE standards.

  14. Interactions of Molecules with cis and trans Double Bonds: A Theoretical Study of cis- and trans-2-Butene.

    PubMed

    Zarić, Milana M; Bugarski, Branko; Kijevčanin, Mirjana Lj

    2016-01-18

    Noncovalent interactions of cis- and trans-2-butene, as the smallest model systems of molecules with cis and trans double bonds, were studied to find potential differences in interactions of these molecules. The study was performed using quantum chemical methods including very accurate CCSD(T)/CBS method. We studied parallel and displaced parallel interactions in 2-butene dimers, in butane dimers, and between 2-butene and saturated butane. The results show the trend that interactions of 2-butene with butane are the strongest, followed by interactions in butane dimers, whereas the interaction in 2-butene dimers are the weakest. The strongest calculated interaction energy is between trans-2-butene and butane, with a CCSD(T)/CBS energy of -2.80 kcal mol(-1) . Interactions in cis-2-butene dimers are stronger than interactions in trans-2-butene dimers. Interestingly, some of the interactions involving 2-butene are as strong as interactions in a benzene dimer. These insights into interactions of cis- and trans-2-butene can improve understanding of the properties and processes that involve molecules with cis and trans double bonds, such as fatty acids and polymers.

  15. An Improved Cross-Layering Design for IPv6 Fast Handover with IEEE 802.16m Entry Before Break Handover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ronny Yongho; Jung, Inuk; Kim, Young Yong

    IEEE 802.16m is an advanced air interface standard which is under development for IMT-Advanced systems, known as 4G systems. IEEE 802.16m is designed to provide a high data rate and a Quality of Service (QoS) level in order to meet user service requirements, and is especially suitable for mobilized environments. There are several factors that have great impact on such requirements. As one of the major factors, we mainly focus on latency issues. In IEEE 802.16m, an enhanced layer 2 handover scheme, described as Entry Before Break (EBB) was proposed and adopted to reduce handover latency. EBB provides significant handover interruption time reduction with respect to the legacy IEEE 802.16 handover scheme. Fast handovers for mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6) was standardized by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in order to provide reduced handover interruption time from IP layer perspective. Since FMIPv6 utilizes link layer triggers to reduce handover latency, it is very critical to jointly design FMIPv6 with its underlying link layer protocol. However, FMIPv6 based on new handover scheme, EBB has not been proposed. In this paper, we propose an improved cross-layering design for FMIPv6 based on the IEEE 802.16m EBB handover. In comparison with the conventional FMIPv6 based on the legacy IEEE 802.16 network, the overall handover interruption time can be significantly reduced by employing the proposed design. Benefits of this improvement on latency reduction for mobile user applications are thoroughly investigated with both numerical analysis and simulation on various IP applications.

  16. High Trans Kinetic Selectivity in Ruthenium-Based Olefin Cross-Metathesis through Stereoretention.

    PubMed

    Johns, Adam M; Ahmed, Tonia S; Jackson, Bradford W; Grubbs, Robert H; Pederson, Richard L

    2016-02-19

    The first kinetically controlled, highly trans-selective (>98%) olefin cross-metathesis reaction is demonstrated using Ru-based catalysts. Reactions with either trans or cis olefins afford products with highly trans or cis stereochemistry, respectively. This E-selective olefin cross-metathesis is shown to occur between two trans olefins and between a trans olefin and a terminal olefin. Additionally, new stereoretentive catalysts have been synthesized for improved reactivity.

  17. High Trans Kinetic Selectivity in Ruthenium-Based Olefin Cross-Metathesis through Stereoretention.

    PubMed

    Johns, Adam M; Ahmed, Tonia S; Jackson, Bradford W; Grubbs, Robert H; Pederson, Richard L

    2016-02-19

    The first kinetically controlled, highly trans-selective (>98%) olefin cross-metathesis reaction is demonstrated using Ru-based catalysts. Reactions with either trans or cis olefins afford products with highly trans or cis stereochemistry, respectively. This E-selective olefin cross-metathesis is shown to occur between two trans olefins and between a trans olefin and a terminal olefin. Additionally, new stereoretentive catalysts have been synthesized for improved reactivity. PMID:26840878

  18. Trans-Relativistic Particle Acceleration in Astrophysical Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Peter A.; Subramanian, P.

    2014-01-01

    Trans-relativistic particle acceleration due to Fermi interactions between charged particles and MHD waves helps to power the observed high-energy emission in AGN transients and solar flares. The trans-relativistic acceleration process is challenging to treat analytically due to the complicated momentum dependence of the momentum diffusion coefficient. For this reason, most existing analytical treatments of particle acceleration assume that the injected seed particles are already relativistic, and therefore they are not suited to study trans-relativistic acceleration. The lack of an analytical model has forced workers to rely on numerical simulations to obtain particle spectra describing the trans-relativistic case. In this work we present the first analytical solution to the global, trans-relativistic problem describing the acceleration of seed particles due to hard-sphere collisions with MHD waves. The new results include the exact solution for the steady-state Green's function resulting from the continual injection of monoenergetic seed particles with an arbitrary energy. We also introduce an approximate treatment of the trans-relativistic acceleration process based on a hybrid form for the momentum diffusion coefficient, given by the sum of the two asymptotic forms. We refer to this process as "quasi hard-sphere scattering." The main advantage of the hybrid approximation is that it allows the extension of the physical model to include (i) the effects of synchrotron and inverse-Compton losses and (ii) time dependence. The new analytical results can be used to model the trans-relativistic acceleration of particles in AGN and solar environments, and can also be used to compute the spectra of the associated synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission. Applications of both types are discussed. We highlight (i) relativistic ion acceleration in black hole accretion coronae, and (ii) the production of gyrosynchrotron microwave emission due to relativistic electron

  19. An extended steepness model for leg-size determination based on Dachsous/Fat trans-dimer system.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Bando, Tetsuya; Mito, Taro; Ohuchi, Hideyo; Noji, Sumihare

    2014-03-11

    What determines organ size has been a long-standing biological question. Lawrence et al. (2008) proposed the steepness hypothesis suggesting that the protocadherin Dachsous/Fat (Ds/Ft) system may provide some measure of dimension to the cells in relation to the gradient. In this paper we extended the model as a means of interpreting experimental results in cricket leg regeneration. We assumed that (1) Ds/Ft trans-heterodimers or trans-homodimers are redistributed during cell division, and (2) growth would cease when a differential of the dimer across each cell decreases to a certain threshold. We applied our model to simulate the results obtained by leg regeneration experiments in a cricket model. The results were qualitatively consistent with the experimental data obtained for cricket legs by RNA interference methodology. Using our extended steepness model, we provided a molecular-based explanation for leg size determination even in intercalary regeneration and for organ size determination.

  20. An extended steepness model for leg-size determination based on Dachsous/Fat trans-dimer system

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Bando, Tetsuya; Mito, Taro; Ohuchi, Hideyo; Noji, Sumihare

    2014-01-01

    What determines organ size has been a long-standing biological question. Lawrence et al. (2008) proposed the steepness hypothesis suggesting that the protocadherin Dachsous/Fat (Ds/Ft) system may provide some measure of dimension to the cells in relation to the gradient. In this paper we extended the model as a means of interpreting experimental results in cricket leg regeneration. We assumed that (1) Ds/Ft trans-heterodimers or trans-homodimers are redistributed during cell division, and (2) growth would cease when a differential of the dimer across each cell decreases to a certain threshold. We applied our model to simulate the results obtained by leg regeneration experiments in a cricket model. The results were qualitatively consistent with the experimental data obtained for cricket legs by RNA interference methodology. Using our extended steepness model, we provided a molecular-based explanation for leg size determination even in intercalary regeneration and for organ size determination. PMID:24613915

  1. Effects of dietary trans-9 octadecenoic acid, trans-11 vaccenic acid and cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Lim, Ji-Na; Lee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Sang-Bum; Hwang, Jin-Hee; Jung, U-Suk; Kim, Min-Jeong; Hwang, Dae-Youn; Lee, Sang-Rak; Roh, Sang-Gun; Lee, Hong-Gu

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary trans fatty acids in mice. Following the administration of a 0.5/100 g diet of trans-9 octadecenoic acid (EA), trans-11 vaccenic acid (TVA) or cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for 4 weeks, the body weights and the weights of the liver, testis and mediastinal adipose tissue (MAT) of the animals gradually decreased (P<0.05). The EA group exhibited the lowest levels of magnesium and triglycerides (P<0.05). CLA increased villus length (P<0.05), while EA and TVA decreased villus length (P<0.05). The TVA group exhibited the lowest levels of low-density lipoprotein and tumor necrosis factor-α (P<0.05). Taken together, EA, TVA and CLA affected the physiological conditions of mice differently. The potential effects of three well-known fatty acids, including trans-9 octadecenoic acid (EA), trans-11 vaccenic acid (TVA) and cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), in animals or humans remain to be elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, 32 animals were randomly divided into four groups and administered a 0.5/100 g diet of EA, TVA or CLA for 4 weeks. The results demonstrated that the body weights and the weights of the liver, testis and mediastinal adipose tissue (MAT) of the animals gradually decreased (P<0.05). Blood was collected individually via the external jugular veins and the EA group exhibited the lowest levels of magnesium and triglycerides (P<0.05). CLA increased villus length (P<0.05), while EA and TVA decreased villus length (P<0.05). The TVA group exhibited the lowest levels of low-density lipoprotein and tumor necrosis factor-α (P<0.05). Taken together, EA, TVA and CLA affected the physiological conditions of mice differently and these may further our understanding of the various effects of these fatty acids on animals and humans.

  2. Thermal transformation of trans-5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (trans-5-CQA) in alcoholic solutions.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Typek, Rafal

    2015-01-15

    Chlorogenic acid (CQA), the ester of caffeic acid with quinic acid supplied to human organisms mainly with coffee, tea, fruit and vegetables, has been one of the most studied polyphenols. It is potentially useful in pharmaceuticals, food additives, and cosmetics due to its recently discovered biomedical activity, which revived interest in its properties, isomers and natural occurrence. We found that the heating of the alcoholic solution of trans-5-O-caffeoylquinic acid produced at least twenty compounds (chlorogenic acid derivatives and its reaction products with water and alcohol). The formation of three of them (methoxy, ethoxy and propoxy adducts) has not been reported yet. No reports exist either on methoxy adducts of 3- and 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid appearing in buffered methanol/water mixtures at pH exceeding 7. We observed that the amount of each formed component depended on the heating time, type of alcohol, its concentration in alcoholic/water mixture, and pH.

  3. Al Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandanayaka, Tharaka; Azarmi, Fardad

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, cold spraying technique was used to fabricate a metal matrix composite (MMC) that consists of Ni matrix and 20 vol.% Ni3Al particles at two different particle sizes as reinforcement. This study intends to investigate the effect of reinforcement particle size on microstructural and mechanical properties of cold sprayed MMCs. Two different Ni3Al powders with nominal particle size of -45 to +5 and +45 to 100 μm were used as reinforcement in this study. Cold sprayed Ni-Ni3Al samples were subjected to the microstructural observation and characterization prior to any mechanical testing. Then, samples were tested using nano-indentation, Knoop hardness, Vickers hardness, and Resonance frequency to evaluate their mechanical properties. No significant changes were observed in microstructural characteristics due to different particle sizes. The results obtained from a variety of mechanical testings indicated that the increasing reinforcement particle size resulted in the slight reduction of mechanical properties such as elastic modulus and hardness in cold sprayed MMCs. The mechanical interlock between deposited particles defines the bonding strength in cold sprayed samples. Small size particles have a higher velocity and impact resulting in stronger interlock between deformed particles.

  4. Metabolism of trans, trans-muconaldehyde, a cytotoxic metabolite of benzene, in mouse liver by alcohol dehydrogenase Adh1 and aldehyde reductase AKR1A4

    SciTech Connect

    Short, Duncan M.; Lyon, Robert; Watson, David G.; Barski, Oleg A.; McGarvie, Gail; Ellis, Elizabeth M. . E-mail: Elizabeth.ellis@strath.ac.uk

    2006-01-15

    The reductive metabolism of trans, trans-muconaldehyde, a cytotoxic metabolite of benzene, was studied in mouse liver. Using an HPLC-based stopped assay, the primary reduced metabolite was identified as 6-hydroxy-trans, trans-2,4-hexadienal (OH/CHO) and the secondary metabolite as 1,6-dihydroxy-trans, trans-2,4-hexadiene (OH/OH). The main enzymes responsible for the highest levels of reductase activity towards trans, trans-muconaldehyde were purified from mouse liver soluble fraction first by Q-sepharose chromatography followed by either blue or red dye affinity chromatography. In mouse liver, trans, trans-muconaldehyde is predominantly reduced by an NADH-dependent enzyme, which was identified as alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh1). Kinetic constants obtained for trans, trans-muconaldehyde with the native Adh1 enzyme showed a V {sub max} of 2141 {+-} 500 nmol/min/mg and a K {sub m} of 11 {+-} 4 {mu}M. This enzyme was inhibited by pyrazole with a K {sub I} of 3.1 {+-} 0.57 {mu}M. Other fractions were found to contain muconaldehyde reductase activity independent of Adh1, and one enzyme was identified as the NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase AKR1A4. This showed a V {sub max} of 115 nmol/min/mg and a K {sub m} of 15 {+-} 2 {mu}M and was not inhibited by pyrazole.

  5. The Sensitivity to Trans-Neptunian Dwarf Planets of the Siding Spring Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannister, Michele; Brown, M. E.; Schmidt, B. P.; Francis, P.; McNaught, R.; Garrad, G.; Larson, S.; Beshore, E.

    2012-10-01

    The last decade has seen considerable effort in assessing the populations of icy worlds in the outer Solar System, with major surveys in the Northern and more recently, in the Southern Hemisphere skies. Our archival search of more than ten thousand square degrees of sky south of the ecliptic observed over five years is a bright-object survey, sensitive to dwarf-planet sized trans-Neptunian objects. Our innovative survey analyses observations of the Siding Spring Survey, an ongoing survey for near-Earth asteroids at the 0.5 m Uppsala telescope at Siding Spring Observatory. This survey observed each of 2300 4.55 square degree fields on between 30 and 90 of the nights from early 2004 to late 2009, creating a dataset with dense temporal coverage, which we reprocessed for TNOs with a dedicated pipeline. We assess our survey's sensitivity to trans-Neptunian objects by simulating the observation of the synthetic outer Solar System populations of Grav et al. (2011): Centaurs, Kuiper belt and scattered disk. As our fields span approx. -15 to -70 declination, avoiding the galactic plane by 10 degrees either side, we are particularly sensitive to dwarf planets in high-inclination orbits. Partly due to this coverage far from the ecliptic, all known dwarf planets, including Pluto, do fall outside our survey coverage in its temporal span. We apply the widest plausible range of absolute magnitudes to each observable synthetic object, measuring each subsequent apparent magnitude against the magnitude depth of the survey observations. We evaluate our survey's null detection of new dwarf planets in light of our detection efficiencies as a function of trans-Neptunian orbital parameter space. MTB appreciates the funding support of the Joan Duffield Postgraduate Scholarship, an Australian Postgraduate Award, and the Astronomical Society of Australia.

  6. Systematic identification of cis-silenced genes by trans complementation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Hyun; Bugarija, Branimir; Millan, Enrique J.; Walton, Noah M.; Gaetz, Jedidiah; Fernandes, Croydon J.; Yu, Wei-Hua; Mekel-Bobrov, Nitzan; Vallender, Tammy W.; Snyder, Gregory E.; Xiang, Andy Peng; Lahn, Bruce T.

    2009-01-01

    A gene’s transcriptional output is the combined product of two inputs: diffusible factors in the cellular milieu acting in trans, and chromatin state acting in cis. Here, we describe a strategy for dissecting the relative contribution of cis versus trans mechanisms to gene regulation. Referred to as trans complementation, it entails fusing two disparate cell types and searching for genes differentially expressed between the two genomes of fused cells. Any differential expression can be causally attributed to cis mechanisms because the two genomes of fused cells share a single homogenized milieu in trans. This assay uncovered a state of transcriptional competency that we termed ‘occluded’ whereby affected genes are silenced by cis-acting mechanisms in a manner that blocks them from responding to the trans-acting milieu of the cell. Importantly, occluded genes in a given cell type tend to include master triggers of alternative cell fates. Furthermore, the occluded state is maintained during cell division and is extraordinarily stable under a wide range of physiological conditions. These results support the model that the occlusion of lineage-inappropriate genes is a key mechanism of cell fate restriction. The identification of occluded genes by our assay provides a hitherto unavailable functional readout of chromatin state that is distinct from and complementary to gene expression status. PMID:19050040

  7. The shape--memory effect in trans--polyisoprene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarik, Douglas; Gofryk, Krystof; Llobet, Anna; Lashley, Jason

    2013-03-01

    Polyisoprene, (-CH2C(CH3)CH =CH2 -)n, consists of isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) molecules that are linked end-to-end to form long chains. There are two different isomers, cis and trans, with respect to configuration about the C =C double bond. Cis-polyisoprene, the main component in natural rubber derived originally from the Pará rubber tree, is a non-crystalline elastomer at room temperature. In contrast, trans-polyisoprene, derived originally from the gutta percha tree, is a crystalline solid that is rigid and tough. More interestingly, the trans isomer exhibits shape-memory properties, whereas the cis isomer does not. As for shape-memory transformations in alloys, trans-polyisoprene exhibits clear Af and Mf temperatures, with values 338 K and 300 K, respectively. Here we report thermodynamic and structural measurements of the shape-memory effect in trans-polyisoprene. We discuss our results in terms of the mechanism of shape-memory.

  8. Functional analysis of a C. elegans trans-splice acceptor.

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, R; Liou, R F; Blumenthal, T

    1993-01-01

    The rol-6 gene is trans-spliced to the 22 nt leader, SL1, 173 nt downstream of the transcription start. We have analyzed splicing in transformants carrying extrachromosomal arrays of rol-6 with mutations in the trans-splice acceptor site. This site is a close match to the consensus, UUUCAG, that is highly conserved in both trans-splice and intron acceptor sites in C. elegans. When the trans-splice site was inactivated by mutating the perfectly-conserved AG, trans-splicing still occurred, but at a cryptic site 20 nt upstream. We tested the frequency with which splicing switched from the normal site to the cryptic site when the pyrimidines at this site were changed to A's. Since most C. elegans 3' splice sites lack an obvious polypyrimidine tract, we hypothesized that these four pyrimidines might play this role, and indeed mutation of these bases caused splicing to switch to the cryptic site. We also demonstrated that a major reason the downstream site is normally favored is because it occurs at a boundary between A+U rich and non-A+U rich RNA. When the RNA between the two splice sites was made less A+U rich, splicing occurred preferentially at the upstream site. Images PMID:8451190

  9. Haumea, an intriguing Water Ice Surface in the transNeptunian Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinilla-Alonso, N.

    2010-12-01

    Discovered in 2005 by Santos-Sanz in 2005, (136108) Haumea is one of the four Dwarf Planets in the trans-Neptunian belt and the only one that shows water ice on its surface (Pinilla-Alonso et al. 2006, Brown et al. 2006). Its spectrum in the visible and near-infrared is dominated by absorptions of water ice and does not show any feature due to other constituents previously suggested (Trujillo et al. 2007). These (e.g HCN, CH4, pyroxenes, hydrated ammonia) are completely discarded by modeling of the reflectance (Pinilla-Alonso et al. 2009) in the visible and near-infrared range. Other characteristic of it spectrum is the absence of color in the visible wavelengths (S'(vis) = 0.0±2 [%/1000 Å]) which is indicative of the lack of complex organics. Rotationally resolved models of its reflectance at 5 different phases covering an 80% of the surface (Pinilla-Alonso et al. 2009) reveal a fairly homogeneous surface covered with water ice up to a 92%, with a upper limit of 8% for all the other studied materials. This composition is in agreement with the high albedo estimated for this object ( ~70%, Rabinowitz et al. 2007) Surprisingly, this characteristic is shared by a small group of TNOs, Haumea's cohort, that shows very similar orbital parameters (Brown et al. 2007, Pinilla-Alonso et al. 2007) A signature around 1.65 microns, in the spectrum of Haumea, indicates the presence of crystalline water ice. This was first interpreted by Rabinowitz et al. (2008) as a proof of the youth of its surface. But later, it was showed that this band is compatible with the presence of a 50% of amorphous ice indicative of a moderately old surface (> 100 Myr) (Pinilla-Alonso et al. 2009) I will present here simulations of how the irradiation and collisional resurfacing affect the surface of this TNO. As Gil-Hutton (2009) explains, a collisional event releases energy that could be partially converted into heat that would produce the crystallization of water ice, but the eroded material

  10. An integrated PHY-MAC analytical model for IEEE 802.15.7 VLC network with MPR capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hai-feng; Chi, Xue-fen; Liu, Jian

    2014-09-01

    Considering that the collision caused by hidden terminal is particularly serious due to the narrow beams of optical devices, the multi-packet reception (MPR) is introduced to mitigate the collisions for IEEE 802.15.7 visible light communication (VLC) system. To explore the impact of MPR on system performance and investigate the interaction between physical (PHY) layer and media access control (MAC) layer, a three dimensional (3D) integrated PHY-MAC analytical model of carrier sense multiple access/collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) is established based on Markov chain theory for VLC system, in which MPR is implemented through the use of orthogonal code sequence. Throughput is derived to evaluate the performance of VLC system with MPR capability under imperfect optical channel. The results can be used for the performance optimization of a VLC system with MPR capability.

  11. Time Slot Assignment Algorithms to Upstream Links for Decreasing Transmission Latency in IEEE 802.16j Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Go; Tanaka, Shinpei; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Nakano, Hirotaka

    In this paper, the authors focus on upstream transmission in TDMA-based IEEE 802.16j and propose two time slot assignment algorithms to decrease end-to-end transmission latency. One of the proposed algorithms assigns time slots considering the hop count from a gateway node, and the other takes the path from the relay node to the gateway node into account. In addition, a restriction in assigning time slots is introduced to reduce the delay at each relay node. The algorithms with the restriction assign later time slots considering the time slot order of links connecting a relay node. The performance of the proposed algorithms is evaluated through simulation experiments from the viewpoints of frame size and end-to-end transmission latency, and it is confirmed that the proposed algorithms achieve small transmission latency regardless of packet generation rate in the network, and decrease the transmission latency by up to 70% compared with the existing algorithm.

  12. Implementation experiences of ISO/IEEE11073 standard applied to new use cases for e-health environments.

    PubMed

    Martinez, I; Escayola, J; Martinez-Espronceda, M; Serrano, L; Trigo, J D; Led, S; Garcia, J

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in biomedical engineering and continuous technological innovations in last decade are promoting new challenges, especially in e-Health environments. In this context, the medical devices interoperability is one of the interest fields wherein these improvements require a standard-based design in order to achieve homogeneous solutions. Furthermore, the spreading of wearable devices, oriented to the paradigm of patient environment and supported by wireless technologies as Bluetooth or ZigBee, is bringing new medical use cases based on Ambient Assisted Living, home monitoring of elderly, heart failure, chronic, under palliative care or patients who have undergone surgery, urgencies and emergencies, or even fitness auto-control and health follow-up. In this paper, several implementation experiences based on ISO/IEEE11073 standard are detailed. These evolved e-Health services can improve the quality of the patient's care, increase the user's interaction, and assure these e-Health applications to be fully compatible with global telemedicine systems.

  13. Trans fat intake in children: risks and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Lindsay R; Waldrop, Julee

    2009-01-01

    Partially hydrogenated oils, also known as trans fat, are found in many baked goods, snack foods, fast foods, margarines, and shortening. Partially hydrogenated oil is vegetable oil that has been modified to be solid at room temperature and lengthens the shelf life of products in which it is used. Consumption of trans fat has been linked to negative changes in lipoproteins, systemic inflammation, coronary heart disease, and diabetes mellitus. Evidence of processes leading to these conditions has also been found in children. Dietary habits and preferences are established in early childhood; therefore, it is important to intervene early with parents to help them make healthier food choices for their families. Educational intervention should reflect successful programs, be based on a theoretical model, and focus on the adverse health effects of consuming trans fat and the importance of choosing a diet that favors unprocessed foods. PMID:20166463

  14. Alloprenols: novel alpha-trans-polyprenols of Allophylus caudatus.

    PubMed

    Ciepichal, Ewa; Wojcik, Jacek; Bienkowski, Tomasz; Kania, Magdalena; Swist, Malgorzata; Danikiewicz, Witold; Marczewski, Andrzej; Hertel, Jozefina; Matysiak, Zdzislaw; Swiezewska, Ewa; Chojnacki, Tadeusz

    2007-06-01

    A novel type of polyprenols, alloprenols, with an alpha-trans-isoprenoid unit was found in the leaves of Allophylus caudatus (Sapindaceae) besides typical alpha-cis-polyprenols. The polyprenol family (Prenol-11-13, Prenol-12 dominating) was accompanied by traces of dolichols of the same chain-length. Prenol alpha-cis- and alpha-trans-isomers were chromatographically separated and their structure was analyzed by HPLC/ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Model compounds, semi-synthetic alpha-isomers of all-trans-Pren-9 and mainly-cis-Pren-11, were obtained using an oxidation-reduction procedure. Comparison of their NMR spectra confirmed the structure of the newly identified polyprenols. The observed pattern of NMR signal shifts may be applied for elucidation of isoprenoid structure.

  15. Asymmetrically doped one-dimensional trans-polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldas, Heron

    2009-10-01

    More than 30 years ago [H. Shirakawa, E.J. Louis, A.G. MacDiarmid, C.K. Chiang, A.J. Heeger, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Comm. 578 (1977); S. Etemad, A.J. Heeger, Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 33 (1982) 443] it was discovered that doped trans-polyacetylene (CH)x, a one-dimensional (1D) conjugated polymer, exhibits electrical conductivity. In this work we show that an asymmetrically doped 1D trans-polymer has non-conventional properties, as compared to symmetrically doped systems. Depending on the level of asymmetry between the chemical potentials of the two involved fermionic species, the polymer can be in a partially or fully spin polarized state. Some possible experimental consequences of doped 1D trans-polymers used as 1D organic polarized conductors are discussed.

  16. trans activation of gene expression by v-myb.

    PubMed Central

    Ibanez, C E; Lipsick, J S

    1990-01-01

    The v-myb oncogene causes acute myelomonocytic leukemia in chickens and transforms avian myeloid cells in vitro. Its product, p48v-myb, is a short-lived nuclear protein which binds DNA. We demonstrate that p48v-myb can function as a trans activator of gene expression in transient DNA transfection assays. trans activation requires the highly conserved amino-terminal DNA-binding domain and the less highly conserved carboxyl-terminal domain of p48v-myb, both of which are required for transformation. Multiple copies of a consensus sequence for DNA binding by p48v-myb inserted upstream of a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter are strongly stimulatory for transcriptional activation by a v-myb-VP16 fusion protein but not by p48v-myb itself, suggesting that the binding of p48v-myb to DNA may not be sufficient for trans activation. Images PMID:2325652

  17. CryoTran user's manual, version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowgill, Glenn R.; Chato, David J.; Saad, Ehab

    1989-01-01

    The development of cryogenic fluid management systems for space operation is a major portion of the efforts of the Cryogenic Fluids Technology Office (CFTO) at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Analytical models are a necessary part of experimental programs which are used to verify the results of experiments and are also used as a predictor for parametric studies. The CryoTran computer program is a bridge to obtain analytical results. The object of CryoTran is to coordinate these separate analyses into an integrated framework with a user-friendly interface and a common cryogenic property database. CryoTran is an integrated software system designed to help solve a diverse set of problems involving cryogenic fluid storage and transfer in both ground and low-g environments.

  18. Reviewing Consensus HFE Standards for NRC Use: A Case Study using the IEEE Standard for Computerized Operating Procedure Systems

    SciTech Connect

    OHara, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Xing, J., Fleger S. - NRC

    2010-11-07

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) endorsement of consensus standards provides a cost-effective means of enhancing the staff’s ability to review state-of-the-art designs. Although the NRC endorsed consensus standards in many technical disciplines, it yet has to do so in human factors engineering (HFE). The purpose of our study was to develop a standardized methodology whereby to evaluate a consensus HFE standard to determine its appropriateness to, and adequacy for using in licensing reviews. The high-level objective of the methodology is to ensure that the guidance meets the NRC’s requirements on scientific- and engineering-rigor that they use in developing their own guidance. We propose four criteria for endorsing a consensus standard: (1) It should meet an existing need for NRC’s licensing and safety reviews; (2) it should be based on sound HFE principles; (3) it should be thoroughly peer-reviewed; and, (4) it should address human performance issues identified in the literature. Our methodology offers a means to assess these four criteria. We used it to evaluate an Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers’ (IEEE) draft standard on computerized operating procedure systems. We concluded that the IEEE standard generally met the established criteria, although several areas were identified that needed further clarification. Our evaluation methodology particularly was useful for identifying issues to be resolved, and for providing a basis for judging whether the staff should consider endorsing the standard. The methodology also helped recognize criteria in the proposed standard that may benefit from additional scrutiny by the staff. The evaluation methodology developed is applicable generally to reviewing other HFE standards that the NRC is considering for use or endorsement.

  19. Observational Constraints on Planet Nine: Astrometry of Pluto and Other Trans-Neptunian Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, Matthew J.; Payne, Matthew J.

    2016-10-01

    We use astrometry of Pluto and other trans-neptunian objects to constrain the sky location, distance, and mass of the possible additional planet (Planet Nine) hypothesized by Batygin & Brown. We find that over broad regions of the sky, the inclusion of a massive, distant planet degrades the fits to the observations. However, in other regions, the fits are significantly improved by the addition of such a planet. Our best fits suggest a planet that is either more massive or closer than argued for by Batygin & Brown based on the orbital distribution of distant trans-neptunian objects (or by Fienga et al. based on range measured to the Cassini spacecraft). The trend to favor larger and closer perturbing planets is driven by the residuals to the astrometry of Pluto, remeasured from photographic plates using modern stellar catalogs, which show a clear trend in decl. over the course of two decades, that drive a preference for large perturbations. Although this trend may be the result of systematic errors of unknown origin in the observations, a possible resolution is that the decl. trend may be due to perturbations from a body, in addition to Planet Nine, that is closer to Pluto but less massive than Planet Nine.

  20. Characterization of Microphysical Properties of Saharan Dust Aerosols During Trans-Atlantic Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldan, L.; Morris, V. R.

    2005-12-01

    The NOAA Center in Atmospheric Sciences (NCAS) Trans-Atlantic Saharan Dust AERosol and Ocean Science Expedition (AEROSE) 2004 was a 27 day mission aboard the NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown (RHB). The AEROSE mission took place during February 29th thru March 26th, departing from Barbados to the Canary Islands and ending in Puerto Rico. The cruise tracks for AEROSE 2004 coincided with one of the biggest dust storms to date for this season. One of the goals of the mission was to provide a set of critical measurements to characterize the impacts and microphysical evolution of Saharan dust aerosol during Trans-Atlantic transport. A Laser Particle Counter (LPC) was used to retrieve in-situ number density distribution. A Quartz Crystal Microbalance Cascade Impactor (QCM) was used to retrieve in-situ mass density distributions. The QCM also provides a sampling platform for post analysis to determine morphological properties and elemental chemical composition. The morphological properties were determined with the use of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The combination of the SEM with an Energy Dispersive X-Ray Microanalysis system provides the elemental composition details. I will present the evolution of the chemical elements as a function of size as they are transported. The elemental analysis has identified elements such as Fe, Al, Si, Zn, Ti, Co, S, and C all which are characteristics of Saharan dust origin.

  1. IEEE Validation of the Continuing Education Achievement of Engineers Registry System. Procedures for Use with a CPT 8000 Word Processor and Communications Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., New York, NY.

    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) validation program is designed to motivate persons practicing in electrical and electronics engineering to pursue quality technical continuing education courses offered by any responsible sponsor. The rapid acceptance of the validation program necessitated the additional development of a…

  2. IEEE Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training (CSEE&T 2012) Proceedings (25th, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China, April 17-19, 2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IEEE Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training, Proceedings (MS), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training (CSEE&T) is the premier international peer-reviewed conference, sponsored by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) Computer Society, which addresses all major areas related to software engineering education, training, and professionalism. This year, as in…

  3. Proceeding of the ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (1st, Roanoke, Virginia, June 24-28, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY.

    Papers in this Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (Roanoke, Virginia, June 24-28, 2001) discuss: automatic genre analysis; text categorization; automated name authority control; automatic event generation; linked active content; designing e-books for legal research; metadata harvesting; mapping the…

  4. Trans women and Michfest: An ethnophenomenology of attendees' experiences.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Elizabeth A; Odahl-Ruan, Charlynn A; Kozlowski, Christine; Shattell, Mona; Todd, Nathan R

    2016-01-01

    The rise of queer and transgender studies has greatly contributed to feminist and lesbian understandings of sex, gender, and sexuality and also has resulted in rifts, tensions, and border wars. One such tension is around the inclusion of trans women in women-only space, such as the Michigan Womyn's Music Festival (Michfest). In this ethnophenomenological study, we interviewed and surveyed 43 cisgender women who attended Michfest in 2013. Participants had a variety of perspectives on trans inclusion and on the dialogue surrounding it, and these paralleled intersections, frictions, and tensions between feminism, queer theory, and transgender studies.

  5. After runaway: The trans-Hill stage of planetesimal growth

    SciTech Connect

    Lithwick, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    When planetesimals begin to grow by coagulation, they first enter an epoch of runaway, during which the biggest bodies grow faster than all the others. The questions of how runaway ends and what comes next have not been answered satisfactorily. We show that runaway is followed by a new stage—the 'trans-Hill stage'—that commences when the bodies that dominate viscous stirring ('big bodies') become trans-Hill, i.e., when their Hill velocity matches the random speed of the small bodies they accrete. Subsequently, the small bodies' random speed grows in lockstep with the big bodies' sizes, such that the system remains in the trans-Hill state. Trans-Hill growth is crucial for determining the efficiency of growing big bodies, as well as their growth timescale and size spectrum. Trans-Hill growth has two sub-stages. In the earlier one, which occurs while the stirring bodies remain sufficiently small, the evolution is collisionless, i.e., collisional cooling among all bodies is irrelevant. The efficiency of forming big bodies in this collisionless sub-stage is very low, ∼10α << 1, where α ∼ 0.005(a/AU){sup –1} is the ratio between the physical size of a body and its Hill radius. Furthermore, the size spectrum is flat (equal mass per size decade, i.e., q = 4). This collisionless trans-Hill solution explains results from previous coagulation simulations for both the Kuiper Belt and the asteroid belt. The second trans-Hill sub-stage commences once the stirring bodies grow big enough (>α{sup –1} × the size of the accreted small bodies). After that time, collisional cooling among small bodies controls the evolution. The efficiency of forming big bodies rises and the size spectrum becomes more top heavy. Trans-Hill growth can terminate in one of two ways, depending on the sizes of the small bodies. First, mutual accretion of big bodies can become significant and conglomeration proceeds until half of the total mass is converted into big bodies. This mode of growth

  6. Trans women and Michfest: An ethnophenomenology of attendees' experiences.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Elizabeth A; Odahl-Ruan, Charlynn A; Kozlowski, Christine; Shattell, Mona; Todd, Nathan R

    2016-01-01

    The rise of queer and transgender studies has greatly contributed to feminist and lesbian understandings of sex, gender, and sexuality and also has resulted in rifts, tensions, and border wars. One such tension is around the inclusion of trans women in women-only space, such as the Michigan Womyn's Music Festival (Michfest). In this ethnophenomenological study, we interviewed and surveyed 43 cisgender women who attended Michfest in 2013. Participants had a variety of perspectives on trans inclusion and on the dialogue surrounding it, and these paralleled intersections, frictions, and tensions between feminism, queer theory, and transgender studies. PMID:26701767

  7. After Runaway: The Trans-Hill Stage of Planetesimal Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lithwick, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    When planetesimals begin to grow by coagulation, they first enter an epoch of runaway, during which the biggest bodies grow faster than all the others. The questions of how runaway ends and what comes next have not been answered satisfactorily. We show that runaway is followed by a new stage—the "trans-Hill stage"—that commences when the bodies that dominate viscous stirring ("big bodies") become trans-Hill, i.e., when their Hill velocity matches the random speed of the small bodies they accrete. Subsequently, the small bodies' random speed grows in lockstep with the big bodies' sizes, such that the system remains in the trans-Hill state. Trans-Hill growth is crucial for determining the efficiency of growing big bodies, as well as their growth timescale and size spectrum. Trans-Hill growth has two sub-stages. In the earlier one, which occurs while the stirring bodies remain sufficiently small, the evolution is collisionless, i.e., collisional cooling among all bodies is irrelevant. The efficiency of forming big bodies in this collisionless sub-stage is very low, ~10α Lt 1, where α ~ 0.005(a/AU)-1 is the ratio between the physical size of a body and its Hill radius. Furthermore, the size spectrum is flat (equal mass per size decade, i.e., q = 4). This collisionless trans-Hill solution explains results from previous coagulation simulations for both the Kuiper Belt and the asteroid belt. The second trans-Hill sub-stage commences once the stirring bodies grow big enough (>α-1 × the size of the accreted small bodies). After that time, collisional cooling among small bodies controls the evolution. The efficiency of forming big bodies rises and the size spectrum becomes more top heavy. Trans-Hill growth can terminate in one of two ways, depending on the sizes of the small bodies. First, mutual accretion of big bodies can become significant and conglomeration proceeds until half of the total mass is converted into big bodies. This mode of growth may explain the

  8. Formation and Migration of Trans-Neptunian Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipatov, S. I.

    Some large trans-Neptunian objects could be formed by the compression of rarefied dust condensations, but not by the accumulation of smaller planetesimals. A considerable portion of near-Earth objects could have come from the trans-Neptunian region. Our runs of the evolution of thousands orbits of Jupiter-family comets under the gravitational influence of planets showed that former Jupiter-family comets collide with the terrestrial planets mostly from orbits with aphelia located deep inside Jupiter's orbit. The total mass of water delivered by planetesimals from beyond Jupiter's orbit to the Earth could exceed the mass of Earth's oceans.

  9. trans-Cyclooctene--a stable, voracious dienophile for bioorthogonal labeling.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Ramajeyam; Fox, Joseph M

    2013-10-01

    Discussed herein is the development and advancement of trans-cyclooctene as a tool for facilitating bioorthogonal labeling through reactions with s-tetrazines. While a number of strained alkenes have been shown to combine with tetrazines for applications in bioorthogonal labeling, trans-cyclooctene enables fastest reactivity at low concentration with rate constants in excess of k2=10(6) M(-1) s(-1). In the present article, we describe advances in computation and synthesis that have enabled applications in chemical biology and nuclear medicine.

  10. Enthalpies of formation of cis- and trans-1,2-diethylcyclopropane and cus- and trans-bicyclo(6. 1. 0)nonane. Structural effects on energies of cyclopropane rings

    SciTech Connect

    Wiberg, K.B.; Lupton, E.C. Jr.; Wasserman, D.J.; de Meijere, A.; Kass, S.R.

    1984-03-21

    The enthalpies of formation of cis- and trans-1,2-diethylcyclopropane were determined by oxygen bomb calimetry. The cis-diethyl isomer was 1.1 kcal/mol less stable than the trans isomer. Alkyl groups were found to stabilize a cyclopropane ring by the same amount as for a carbon-carbon double bond. The enthalpies of formation cis- and trans-bicyclo(6.1,0)nonane formation, in contrast to cis- and trans-cyclooctene. The introduction of a trigonal center makes the trans-bicyclononane 3 kcal/mol less stable than the cis isomer. Molecular mechanics calculations are reported for a series of cis- and trans-bicyclo(n.1,0) alkanes. In order to better estimate the strain energy of trans-bicyclo(4.1.0) heptane, the difference in energy between it and its cis isomer was calculated via ab initio-molecular orbital theory.

  11. Use of Trans Fat Information on Food Labels and Its Determinants in a Multiethnic College Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasti, Sunitha; Kovacs, Szilvia

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the correlates of trans fat knowledge and trans fat label use; to examine the influence of trans fat knowledge, trans fat label use, and dietary attitudes on intake of high trans fat food. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: An urban commuter college. Subjects: Two hundred twenty-two college students. Variables…

  12. The Neoproterozoic Trans-Saharan/Trans-Brasiliano shear zones: Suggested Tibetan Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attoh, K.; Brown, L. D.

    2008-05-01

    The Trans-Saharan Borborema (TSB) belt is a product of the assembly of Gondwana, a supercontinent that formed from cratonic fragments derived from Rodinia and other vagrant lithospheric blocks. Recent reconstructions show the West African craton (WAC) and Congo- San-Francisco craton juxtaposed by the closure of the Brasiliano (Pharuside, Adamastor) ocean during early stages of the Pan-African orogenic cycle in northwest Gondwana. The Dahomeyide and Pharuside segments of the resulting orogenic belt preserve well- organized lithotectonic units on the eastern margin of the WAC. The foreland units consist of craton-verging nappe stacks formed from the deformed margin of the WAC and its cover rocks. The near-hinter land is underlain by granitoid gneisses postulated to represent ca 600 Ma juvenile crust, exposed in the Accra-Benin plain. Further east from the suture zone is the Nigerian province, which includes rocks that were extensively reworked apparently during the Pan-African. The Borborema province of northeastern Brasil is the correlative/ extension of Nigerian. It is underlain by rocks intensively reworked during the Brasiliano (Pan-African) orogeny and juxtaposed along a series of shear zones. A distinct feature of the TBS are these extensive shear zones, many of which are typified by dextral wrench shear. In West Africa the prominent examples extend from the Sahara to the coastline and include the Hoggar, which splays into the Kandi fault, which itself has numerous splays in Benin, Togo and southeastern Ghana. In Brazil, nearly all reconstructions show that the continuation of the Kandi Fault is the Sobral fault which is inferred to be the northern segment of the Trans-Brasiliano lineament (TBL). If correct, the TBL and its TBS extensions constitute a 4000 km long dextral shear zone, perhaps the longest coherent shear zone on earth. We suggest that the geometry of these shear zones and associated Pan African sutures have instructive analogs in the Tibet

  13. Relationship between crystallization behavior, microstructure, and macroscopic properties in trans containing and trans free coating fats and coatings.

    PubMed

    Foubert, Imogen; Vereecken, Jeroen; Smith, Kevin W; Dewettinck, Koen

    2006-09-20

    The objective of this study is to gain further understanding into the relationship between crystallization behavior, microstructure, and macroscopic properties in coating fats. The isothermal crystallization behavior of two coating fats (one trans containing and one trans free) was examined, both as pure fats and in coatings, by DSC and microscopy. Furthermore, the hardness of the samples was examined after cooling in a water bath at two different temperatures and at three different storage times. Both fats seemed to show an alpha-mediated beta' crystallization at lower temperatures and a direct beta' crystallization at higher temperatures. The trans free coating fat clearly crystallized faster and in smaller crystals. The hardness was governed not only by the amount of solid fat present in the network but also by the structure of this network. The coating matrix components seem to have a pronounced influence on the microstructure and thus on the macroscopic properties. PMID:16968091

  14. Why trans- or cis-Dimethyl Fumarate Addition to 2,5-Dimethylpyrrole Gives Exclusively trans-7-Azanorbornane.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mian; Luo, Hao; Zhang, Min; Wang, Jianyi

    2015-06-18

    The addition mechanism of dimethyl fumarate into 2,5-dimethylpyrrole is explored using density functional theory (DFT) methods. Our calculations find that TpW(NO)(PMe3)(η(2)-3H-2,5-dimethylpyrrole) prefers to undergo two TpW(NO)(PMe3) migrations, two 1,5-hydride migrations, and one reductive elimination to isomerize into TpW(NO)(PMe3)(η(2)-1H-2,5-dimethylpyrrole), in which TpW(NO)(PMe3) plays a proton-transfer role. trans-Dimethyl fumarate and TpW(NO)(PMe3)(η(2)-1H-2,5-dimethylpyrrole) tend to adopt a concerted cycloaddition manner to afford trans-7-azanorbornane with a free-energy barrier of 21.8 kcal/mol. cis-Dimethyl fumarate and TpW(NO)(PMe3)(η(2)-1H-2,5-dimethylpyrrole) are the most likely to experience a concerted cycloaddition → ring opening → ring closing process to provide trans-7-azanorbornane in which the concerted cycloaddition and the ring-opening process are in dynamic equilibrium (with similar energy barriers of 21.5 and 21.9 kcal/mol, respectively). The presence of TpW(NO)(PMe3) not only promotes the cycloaddition of trans- or cis-dimethyl fumarate with 2,5-dimethylpyrrole by donating d-electrons of the W atom into the diene system of the Diels-Alder reaction, but also is favorable for the ring-opening process of the formed cis-7-azanorbornane. Furthermore, trans-azanorbornane is 7.4 kcal/mol more stable than cis-azanorbornane. Our calculations provide a new explanation of the addition of dimethyl fumarate with 2,5-dimethylpyrrole exclusively giving trans-7-azanorbornane. PMID:25992596

  15. Electronic structure of transparent oxides with the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential.

    PubMed

    Dixit, H; Saniz, R; Cottenier, S; Lamoen, D; Partoens, B

    2012-05-23

    We present electronic band structures of transparent oxides calculated using the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential. We studied the basic n-type conducting binary oxides In(2)O(3), ZnO, CdO and SnO(2) along with the p-type conducting ternary oxides delafossite CuXO(2) (X=Al, Ga, In) and spinel ZnX(2)O(4) (X=Co, Rh, Ir). The results are presented for calculated band gaps and effective electron masses. We discuss the improvements in the band gap determination using TB-mBJ compared to the standard generalized gradient approximation (GGA) in density functional theory (DFT) and also compare the electronic band structure with available results from the quasiparticle GW method. It is shown that the calculated band gaps compare well with the experimental and GW results, although the electron effective mass is generally overestimated. PMID:22538303

  16. A theoretical study of the stability of DNA binding with cis/trans platin.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Seema; Khan, Irfan Ali; Srivastava, Shinoo; Gupta, Vishwambhar Dayal

    2004-12-01

    Both cis- and trans-platins are known to form intra- and interstrand cross-linking with DNA. Since the nature and strength of binding is different, it makes their efficacy as anti-tumour drug different. In the present communication, we report theoretical analysis by using an amended Zimm and Bragg theory, to explain the melting behaviour and heat capacity of DNA with and without platin binding. The sharpness of transition has been examined in terms of half width and sensitivity parameter (deltaH/sigma). The experimental measurements of Pilch et al (J Mol Biol 2000, 296, 803) and Ctirad and Brabec (J Biol Chem 2001, 276, 9655) have been used. PMID:22900359

  17. Trans, saturated, and unsaturated fat in foods in the united states prior to mandatory trans-fat labeling.

    PubMed

    Satchithanandam, Subramaniam; Oles, Carolyn J; Spease, Carol J; Brandt, Mary M; Yurawecz, Martin P; Rader, Jeanne I

    2004-01-01

    On July 11, 2003, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration published a final rule amending its food-labeling regulations to require that trans FA be declared in the nutrition label of conventional foods and dietary supplements. The effective date of this final rule is January 1, 2006. This places some urgency on increasing the number and types of currently available foods for which there are trans-fat data. Compositional databases on trans fat content of food are currently limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the trans-fat content of a wide range of foods prior to the effective date of the new regulation. AOAC Official Method of Analysis 996.01 was modified for the analysis of trans fat in noncereal products. Food products for analysis were selected on the basis of market share and data from the USDA's 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals. Foods were purchased from local supermarkets, weighed, hydrolyzed, converted to FAME, and analyzed by GC. The results showed that trans fat (g/100 g fat) ranged from 0.0 to 48.8 in bread, cake, and related products; from 14.9 to 27.7 in margarines; from 7.7 to 35.3 in cookies and crackers; from 24.7 to 38.2 in frozen potatoes; from 0.0 to 17.1 in salty snacks; from 0.0 to 13.2 in vegetable oils and shortenings; from 0.0 to 2.2 in salad dressings and mayonnaises; and from 0.0 to 2.0 in dry breakfast cereals. Serving sizes for the foods included in this survey ranged from 12 to 161 g, and trans-fat levels ranged from 0.0 to 7.2 g/serving. The significant differences in trans-fat content in products within each food category are due to differences in the type of fats and oils used in the manufacturing processes. PMID:15055229

  18. Trans fatty acids: has all the evidence been considered?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High intakes of industrially-produced trans fatty acids (iTFA) have been shown to increase circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, which has implicated iTFA in coronary heart disease risk (CHD). Partially hydrogenated oils (PHO) became a predominant source of iTFA when marga...

  19. Saturated and trans fats and dementia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Neal D; Bunner, Anne E; Agarwal, Ulka

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive disorders of later life are potentially devastating. To estimate the relationship between saturated and trans fat intake and risk of cognitive disorders. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for studies reporting saturated or trans fat intake and incident dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or cognitive decline. Only observational studies met the inclusion criteria: 4 for AD or other dementias, 4 for MCI, and 4 for cognitive decline. Saturated fat intake was positively associated with AD risk in 3 of 4 studies, whereas the fourth suggested an inverse relationship. Saturated fat intake was also positively associated with total dementia in 1 of 2 studies, with MCI in 1 of 4 studies, and with cognitive decline in 2 of 4 studies. Relationships between trans fat intake and dementia were examined in 3 reports with mixed results. Several, although not all, prospective studies indicate relationships between saturated and trans fat intake and risk of cognitive disorders.

  20. Spliced-leader trans-splicing in freshwater planarians.

    PubMed

    Zayas, Ricardo M; Bold, Tyler D; Newmark, Phillip A

    2005-10-01

    trans-Splicing, in which a spliced-leader (SL) RNA is appended to the most 5' exon of independently transcribed pre-mRNAs, has been described in a wide range of eukaryotes, from protozoans to chordates. Here we describe trans-splicing in the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, a free-living member of the phylum Platyhelminthes. Analysis of an expressed sequence tag (EST) collection from this organism showed that over 300 transcripts shared one of two approximately 35-base sequences (Smed SL-1 and SL-2) at their 5' ends. Examination of genomic sequences encoding representatives of these transcripts revealed that these shared sequences were transcribed elsewhere in the genome. RNA blot analysis, 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends, as well as genomic sequence data showed that 42-nt SL sequences were derived from small RNAs of approximately 110 nt. Similar sequences were also found at the 5' ends of ESTs from the planarian Dugesia japonica. trans-Splicing has already been described in numerous representatives of the phylum Platyhelminthes (trematodes, cestodes, and polyclads); its presence in two representatives of the triclads supports the hypothesis that this mode of RNA processing is ancestral within this group. The upcoming complete genome sequence of S. mediterranea, combined with this animal's experimental accessibility and susceptibility to RNAi, provide another model organism in which to study the function of the still-enigmatic trans-splicing.

  1. TELRI: Trans European Language Resources Infrastructure Newsletter, 1995-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TELRI: Trans European Language Resources Infrastructure Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    The first seven issues of the Trans European Language Resources Infrastructure (TELRI) newsletter, a publication of the COPERNICUS project funded by the Commission of the European Communities, date from September 1995 to October 1997. The first three issues contain articles in the origins of TELRI, its members, working groups, and events. TELRI's…

  2. Teaching "Trans Issues": An Intersectional and Systems-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Michel J.

    2011-01-01

    Transgender people are becoming increasingly visible in popular culture, academia, and national politics. University and college administrators are struggling at every level with how to address the needs of trans-identified staff people, faculty members, and students, all of whom are increasingly becoming open, vibrant participants in university…

  3. TRANS-O-HYDROXYBENZYLIDENEPYRUVATE HYDRATASE-ALDOLASE AS BIOCATALYST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hydratase-aldolase-catalyzed conversion of trans-o-hydroxybenzylidenepyruvate to salicylaldehyde and pyruvate is an intermediate reaction in the conversion of naphthalene to salicylate by bacteria. Here, a variety of aromatic aldehydes and some non-aromatic aldehydes togethe...

  4. cis- and trans-Stilbenes: Chromatographic Separation and Photochemical Isomerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Samuel G.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment that is to be performed midway in the first semester of an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory coinciding with the students' introduction to cis-trans isomerism in the study of alkenes. Discusses the apparatus, materials, experimental procedure, historical significance, and results. (CW)

  5. Trans-Omics: How To Reconstruct Biochemical Networks Across Multiple 'Omic' Layers.

    PubMed

    Yugi, Katsuyuki; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Hatano, Atsushi; Kuroda, Shinya

    2016-04-01

    We propose 'trans-omic' analysis for reconstructing global biochemical networks across multiple omic layers by use of both multi-omic measurements and computational data integration. We introduce technologies for connecting multi-omic data based on prior knowledge of biochemical interactions and characterize a biochemical trans-omic network by concepts of a static and dynamic nature. We introduce case studies of metabolism-centric trans-omic studies to show how to reconstruct a biochemical trans-omic network by connecting multi-omic data and how to analyze it in terms of the static and dynamic nature. We propose a trans-ome-wide association study (trans-OWAS) connecting phenotypes with trans-omic networks that reflect both genetic and environmental factors, which can characterize several complex lifestyle diseases as breakdowns in the trans-omic system.

  6. Trans-system mechanisms against ischemic myocardial injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu Q; Ma, Xin-Liang; Qin, Gangjian; Liu, Qingping; Li, Yan-Chun; Wu, Yu H

    2015-01-01

    A mammalian organism possesses a hierarchy of naturally evolved protective mechanisms against ischemic myocardial injury at the molecular, cellular, and organ levels. These mechanisms comprise regional protective processes, including upregulation and secretion of paracrine cell-survival factors, inflammation, angiogenesis, fibrosis, and resident stem cell-based cardiomyocyte regeneration. There are also interactive protective processes between the injured heart, circulation, and selected remote organs, defined as trans-system protective mechanisms, including upregulation and secretion of endocrine cell-survival factors from the liver and adipose tissue as well as mobilization of bone marrow, splenic, and hepatic cells to the injury site to mediate myocardial protection and repair. The injured heart and activated remote organs exploit molecular and cellular processes, including signal transduction, gene expression, cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, mobilization, and/or extracellular matrix production, to establish protective mechanisms. Both regional and trans-system cardioprotective mechanisms are mediated by paracrine and endocrine messengers and act in coordination and synergy to maximize the protective effect, minimize myocardial infarction, and improve myocardial function, ensuring the survival and timely repair of the injured heart. The concept of the trans-system protective mechanisms may be generalized to other organ systems-injury in one organ may initiate regional as well as trans-system protective responses, thereby minimizing injury and ensuring the survival of the entire organism. Selected trans-system processes may serve as core protective mechanisms that can be exploited by selected organs in injury. These naturally evolved protective mechanisms are the foundation for developing protective strategies for myocardial infarction and injury-induced disorders in other organ systems.

  7. Trans fatty acid isomers in human health and in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, A; Morgado, N

    1999-01-01

    Trans fatty acids are unsaturated fatty acids with at least one double bond in the trans configuration. These fatty acids occur naturally in dairy and other natural fats and in some plants. However, industrial hydrogenation of vegetable or marine oils is largely the main source of trans fatty acids in our diet. The metabolic effect of trans isomers are today a matter of controversy generating diverse extreme positions in light of biochemical, nutritional, and epidemiological studies. Trans fatty acids also have been implicated in the etiology of various metabolic and functional disorders, but the main concern about its health effects arose because the structural similarity of these isomers to saturated fatty acids, the lack of specific metabolic functions, and its competition with essential fatty acids. The ingestion of trans fatty acids increases low density lipoprotein (LDL) to a degree similar to that of saturated fats, but it also reduces high density lipoproteins (HDL), therefore trans isomers are considered more atherogenic than saturated fatty acids. Trans isomers increase lipoprotein(a), a non-dietary-related risk of atherogenesis, to levels higher than the corresponding chain-length saturated fatty acid. There is little evidence that trans fatty acids are related to cancer risk at any of the major cancer sites. Considerable improvement has been obtained with respect to the metabolic effect of trans fatty acids due the development of analytical procedures to evaluate the different isomers in both biological and food samples. The oleochemical food industries have developed several strategies to reduce the trans content of hydrogenated oils, and now margarine and other hydrogenated-derived products containing low trans or virtually zero trans are available and can be obtained in the retail market. The present review provides an outline of the present status of trans fatty acids including origin, analytical procedures, estimated ingestion, metabolic effects

  8. 77 FR 22576 - Possible Revocation of Ocean Transportation Intermediary License No. 021899-Trans World Logistics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... Corporation; Order To Show Cause Trans World Logistics Corporation (Trans World Logistics) is an Indiana.... 41302, 41304, 40903(a)(2), Trans World Logistics Corporation is directed to show cause, within 30 days... That notice of this Order to Show Cause be published in the Federal Register, and that a copy...

  9. "It Will Change if People Keep Talking": Trans* Students in College and University Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolazzo, Z.; Marine, Susan B.

    2015-01-01

    Trans* individuals have recently received greater attention in mainstream media. Trans* students and their concerns are also becoming more visible, as evidenced by the recent increase in the number of colleges and universities that are offering trans*-inclusive housing options. However, such increased visibility does not readily equate to…

  10. Biosynthesis of trans-4-hydroxyproline by recombinant strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum and Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline (trans-Hyp), one of the hydroxyproline (Hyp) isomers, is a useful chiral building block in the production of many pharmaceuticals. Although there are some natural biosynthetic pathways of trans-Hyp existing in microorganisms, the yield is still too low to be scaled up for industrial applications. Until now the production of trans-Hyp is mainly from the acid hydrolysis of collagen. Due to the increasing environmental concerns on those severe chemical processes and complicated downstream separation, it is essential to explore some environment-friendly processes such as constructing new recombinant strains to develop efficient process for trans-Hyp production. Result In this study, the genes of trans-proline 4-hydroxylase (trans-P4H) from diverse resources were cloned and expressed in Corynebacterium glutamicum and Escherichia coli, respectively. The trans-Hyp production by these recombinant strains was investigated. The results showed that all the genes from different resources had been expressed actively. Both the recombinant C. glutamicum and E. coli strains could produce trans-Hyp in the absence of proline and 2-oxoglutarate. Conclusions The whole cell microbial systems for trans-Hyp production have been successfully constructed by introducing trans-P4H into C. glutamicum and E. coli. Although the highest yield was obtained in recombinant E. coli, using recombinant C. glutamicum strains to produce trans-Hyp was a new attempt. PMID:24885047

  11. Comparing Trans-Spectrum and Same-Sex-Attracted Youth in Australia: Increased Risks, Increased Activisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tiffany; Hillier, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Tran-spectrum youth include those who are gender questioning, transgender, intersex, genderqueer, and androgynous. Drawing on data from an Australian study of more than 3,000 same-sex-attracted and trans-spectrum youth aged 14 to 21, this article compares a group of 91 trans-spectrum youth from the study to "cisgender" same-sex-attracted…

  12. NASA/IEEE MSST 2004 Twelfth NASA Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies in cooperation with the Twenty-First IEEE Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Ben (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    MSST2004, the Twelfth NASA Goddard / Twenty-first IEEE Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies has as its focus long-term stewardship of globally-distributed storage. The increasing prevalence of e-anything brought about by widespread use of applications based, among others, on the World Wide Web, has contributed to rapid growth of online data holdings. A study released by the School of Information Management and Systems at the University of California, Berkeley, estimates that over 5 exabytes of data was created in 2002. Almost 99 percent of this information originally appeared on magnetic media. The theme for MSST2004 is therefore both timely and appropriate. There have been many discussions about rapid technological obsolescence, incompatible formats and inadequate attention to the permanent preservation of knowledge committed to digital storage. Tutorial sessions at MSST2004 detail some of these concerns, and steps being taken to alleviate them. Over 30 papers deal with topics as diverse as performance, file systems, and stewardship and preservation. A number of short papers, extemporaneous presentations, and works in progress will detail current and relevant research on the MSST2004 theme.

  13. Retention of configuration in nucleophilic vinylic halide substitution - Proton magnetic resonance spectra of cis- and trans- beta-styryldiphenylphosphine oxides.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguiar, A. M.; Daigle, D.

    1965-01-01

    Cis- and trans-beta-bromostyrene reaction with lithium diphenylphosphide in tetrahydrofuran producing cis- and trans-beta- styryldiphenylphosphine, discussing proton magnetic resonance and configuration retention

  14. Implementation of a wireless ECG acquisition SoC for IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee) applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang-Hung; Chen, Tsung-Yen; Lin, Kuang-Hao; Fang, Qiang; Lee, Shuenn-Yuh

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a wireless biosignal acquisition system-on-a-chip (WBSA-SoC) specialized for electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring. The proposed system consists of three subsystems, namely, 1) the ECG acquisition node, 2) the protocol for standard IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee system, and 3) the RF transmitter circuits. The ZigBee protocol is adopted for wireless communication to achieve high integration, applicability, and portability. A fully integrated CMOS RF front end containing a quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator and a 2.4-GHz low-IF (i.e., zero-IF) transmitter is employed to transmit ECG signals through wireless communication. The low-power WBSA-SoC is implemented by the TSMC 0.18-μm standard CMOS process. An ARM-based displayer with FPGA demodulation and an RF receiver with analog-to-digital mixed-mode circuits are constructed as verification platform to demonstrate the wireless ECG acquisition system. Measurement results on the human body show that the proposed SoC can effectively acquire ECG signals.

  15. IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee-Based Time-of-Arrival Estimation for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Jeonghyeon; Hwang, Hyunsu; Kim, Dongsun; Jung, Yunho

    2016-02-05

    Precise time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation is one of the most important techniques in RF-based positioning systems that use wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Because the accuracy of TOA estimation is proportional to the RF signal bandwidth, using broad bandwidth is the most fundamental approach for achieving higher accuracy. Hence, ultra-wide-band (UWB) systems with a bandwidth of 500 MHz are commonly used. However, wireless systems with broad bandwidth suffer from the disadvantages of high complexity and high power consumption. Therefore, it is difficult to employ such systems in various WSN applications. In this paper, we present a precise time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation algorithm using an IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee system with a narrow bandwidth of 2 MHz. In order to overcome the lack of bandwidth, the proposed algorithm estimates the fractional TOA within the sampling interval. Simulation results show that the proposed TOA estimation algorithm provides an accuracy of 0.5 m at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 8 dB and achieves an SNR gain of 5 dB as compared with the existing algorithm. In addition, experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm provides accurate TOA estimation in a real indoor environment.

  16. On the network convergence process in RPL over IEEE 802.15.4 multihop networks: improvement and trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Kermajani, Hamidreza; Gomez, Carles

    2014-07-07

    The IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-power and Lossy Networks (RPL) has been recently developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Given its crucial role in enabling the Internet of Things, a significant amount of research effort has already been devoted to RPL. However, the RPL network convergence process has not yet been investigated in detail. In this paper we study the influence of the main RPL parameters and mechanisms on the network convergence process of this protocol in IEEE 802.15.4 multihop networks. We also propose and evaluate a mechanism that leverages an option available in RPL for accelerating the network convergence process. We carry out extensive simulations for a wide range of conditions, considering different network scenarios in terms of size and density. Results show that network convergence performance depends dramatically on the use and adequate configuration of key RPL parameters and mechanisms. The findings and contributions of this work provide a RPL configuration guideline for network convergence performance tuning, as well as a characterization of the related performance trade-offs.

  17. Guideline-driven telemonitoring and follow-up of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices using IEEE 11073, HL7 & IHE profiles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Maohua; Chronaki, Catherine E; Lüpkes, Christian; Thiel, Andreas; Plössnig, Manuela; Hinterbuchner, Lynne; Arbelo, Elena; Laleci, Gokce Banu; Kabak, Yildiray; Duarte, Fernandez; Guillén, Alejandra; Navarro, Xavier; Dogac, Asuman; Eichelberg, Marco; Hein, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    For patients with Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices (CIEDs), telemonitoring promises improved quality of life and safety, since events recorded by the device or observed by the patient can alert a health professional. Taking into account the latest clinical guidelines when responding to such alerts, is a topic of active research addressed by the iCARDEA project. A key technical challenge is correlating telemonitoring CIED report data in a vendor-independent format with Electronic Health Record (EHR) data collected in the hospital and Personal Health Record (PHR) data entered by the patient, in guideline-driven care processes. The iCARDEA CIED exposure service component presented in this paper employs standards specifications from ISO/IEEE 11073 (Health Informatics, Point-of-care Medical Device Communication) and HL7v2.x in the context of Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) profiles to deliver telemonitoring CIED report data from two different CIED vendors to the adaptive care planner that implements guideline-driven care plans. Experience gained with implementation and initial component testing is discussed, while challenges and expectations for future health information standards to effectively support EHR-integrated guide-line-driven telemonitoring services are highlighted.

  18. Device interoperability and authentication for telemedical appliance based on the ISO/IEEE 11073 Personal Health Device (PHD) Standards.

    PubMed

    Caranguian, Luther Paul R; Pancho-Festin, Susan; Sison, Luis G

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we focused on the interoperability and authentication of medical devices in the context of telemedical systems. A recent standard called the ISO/IEEE 11073 Personal Health Device (X73-PHD) Standards addresses the device interoperability problem by defining common protocols for agent (medical device) and manager (appliance) interface. The X73-PHD standard however has not addressed security and authentication of medical devices which is important in establishing integrity of a telemedical system. We have designed and implemented a security policy within the X73-PHD standards. The policy will enable device authentication using Asymmetric-Key Cryptography and the RSA algorithm as the digital signature scheme. We used two approaches for performing the digital signatures: direct software implementation and use of embedded security modules (ESM). The two approaches were evaluated and compared in terms of execution time and memory requirement. For the standard 2048-bit RSA, ESM calculates digital signatures only 12% of the total time for the direct implementation. Moreover, analysis shows that ESM offers more security advantage such as secure storage of keys compared to using direct implementation. Interoperability with other systems was verified by testing the system with LNI Healthlink, a manager software that implements the X73-PHD standard. Lastly, security analysis was done and the system's response to common attacks on authentication systems was analyzed and several measures were implemented to protect the system against them.

  19. Trustworthy data collection from implantable medical devices via high-speed security implementation based on IEEE 1363.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fei; Hao, Qi; Lukowiak, Marcin; Sun, Qingquan; Wilhelm, Kyle; Radziszowski, Stanisław; Wu, Yao

    2010-11-01

    Implantable medical devices (IMDs) have played an important role in many medical fields. Any failure in IMDs operations could cause serious consequences and it is important to protect the IMDs access from unauthenticated access. This study investigates secure IMD data collection within a telehealthcare [mobile health (m-health)] network. We use medical sensors carried by patients to securely access IMD data and perform secure sensor-to-sensor communications between patients to relay the IMD data to a remote doctor's server. To meet the requirements on low computational complexity, we choose N-th degree truncated polynomial ring (NTRU)-based encryption/decryption to secure IMD-sensor and sensor-sensor communications. An extended matryoshkas model is developed to estimate direct/indirect trust relationship among sensors. An NTRU hardware implementation in very large integrated circuit hardware description language is studied based on industry Standard IEEE 1363 to increase the speed of key generation. The performance analysis results demonstrate the security robustness of the proposed IMD data access trust model.

  20. Performance analysis for IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function in radio-over-fiber-based distributed antenna systems.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yuting; Li, Jianqiang; Xu, Kun; Chen, Hao; Lu, Xun; Dai, Yitang; Yin, Feifei; Ji, Yuefeng; Lin, Jintong

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we analyze the performance of IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function in simulcast radio-over-fiber-based distributed antenna systems (RoF-DASs) where multiple remote antenna units (RAUs) are connected to one wireless local-area network (WLAN) access point (AP) with different-length fiber links. We also present an analytical model to evaluate the throughput of the systems in the presence of both the inter-RAU hidden-node problem and fiber-length difference effect. In the model, the unequal delay induced by different fiber length is involved both in the backoff stage and in the calculation of Ts and Tc, which are the period of time when the channel is sensed busy due to a successful transmission or a collision. The throughput performances of WLAN-RoF-DAS in both basic access and request to send/clear to send (RTS/CTS) exchange modes are evaluated with the help of the derived model.

  1. On the network convergence process in RPL over IEEE 802.15.4 multihop networks: improvement and trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Kermajani, Hamidreza; Gomez, Carles

    2014-01-01

    The IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-power and Lossy Networks (RPL) has been recently developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Given its crucial role in enabling the Internet of Things, a significant amount of research effort has already been devoted to RPL. However, the RPL network convergence process has not yet been investigated in detail. In this paper we study the influence of the main RPL parameters and mechanisms on the network convergence process of this protocol in IEEE 802.15.4 multihop networks. We also propose and evaluate a mechanism that leverages an option available in RPL for accelerating the network convergence process. We carry out extensive simulations for a wide range of conditions, considering different network scenarios in terms of size and density. Results show that network convergence performance depends dramatically on the use and adequate configuration of key RPL parameters and mechanisms. The findings and contributions of this work provide a RPL configuration guideline for network convergence performance tuning, as well as a characterization of the related performance trade-offs. PMID:25004154

  2. IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee-Based Time-of-Arrival Estimation for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Jeonghyeon; Hwang, Hyunsu; Kim, Dongsun; Jung, Yunho

    2016-01-01

    Precise time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation is one of the most important techniques in RF-based positioning systems that use wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Because the accuracy of TOA estimation is proportional to the RF signal bandwidth, using broad bandwidth is the most fundamental approach for achieving higher accuracy. Hence, ultra-wide-band (UWB) systems with a bandwidth of 500 MHz are commonly used. However, wireless systems with broad bandwidth suffer from the disadvantages of high complexity and high power consumption. Therefore, it is difficult to employ such systems in various WSN applications. In this paper, we present a precise time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation algorithm using an IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee system with a narrow bandwidth of 2 MHz. In order to overcome the lack of bandwidth, the proposed algorithm estimates the fractional TOA within the sampling interval. Simulation results show that the proposed TOA estimation algorithm provides an accuracy of 0.5 m at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 8 dB and achieves an SNR gain of 5 dB as compared with the existing algorithm. In addition, experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm provides accurate TOA estimation in a real indoor environment. PMID:26861331

  3. Biomedical learning experiences for middle school girls sponsored by the Kansas State University Student Chapter of the IEEE EMBS.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Lucinda; Griffith, Connor; Young, Ethan; Sullivan, Adriann; Schuler, Jeff; Arnold-Christian, Susan; Warren, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Learning experiences for middle school girls are an effective means to steer young women toward secondary engineering curricula that they might not have otherwise considered. Sponsorship of such experiences by a collegiate student group is worthwhile, as it gives the group common purpose and places college students in a position to mentor these young women. This paper addresses learning experiences in different areas of bio-medical engineering offered to middle school girls in November 2008 via a day-long workshop entitled "Engineering The Body." The Kansas State University (KSU) Student Chapter of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS) worked with the KSU Women in Engineering and Science Program (WESP) to design and sponsor these experiences, which addressed the areas of joint mechanics, electrocardiograms, membrane transport, computer mouse design, and audio filters for cochlear implants. Fifty five middle-school girls participated in this event, affirming the notion that biomedical engineering appeals to young women and that early education and recruitment efforts have the potential to expand the biomedical engineering talent pool.

  4. On the Network Convergence Process in RPL over IEEE 802.15.4 Multihop Networks: Improvement and Trade-Offs

    PubMed Central

    Kermajani, Hamidreza; Gomez, Carles

    2014-01-01

    The IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-power and Lossy Networks (RPL) has been recently developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Given its crucial role in enabling the Internet of Things, a significant amount of research effort has already been devoted to RPL. However, the RPL network convergence process has not yet been investigated in detail. In this paper we study the influence of the main RPL parameters and mechanisms on the network convergence process of this protocol in IEEE 802.15.4 multihop networks. We also propose and evaluate a mechanism that leverages an option available in RPL for accelerating the network convergence process. We carry out extensive simulations for a wide range of conditions, considering different network scenarios in terms of size and density. Results show that network convergence performance depends dramatically on the use and adequate configuration of key RPL parameters and mechanisms. The findings and contributions of this work provide a RPL configuration guideline for network convergence performance tuning, as well as a characterization of the related performance trade-offs. PMID:25004154

  5. IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee-Based Time-of-Arrival Estimation for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Jeonghyeon; Hwang, Hyunsu; Kim, Dongsun; Jung, Yunho

    2016-01-01

    Precise time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation is one of the most important techniques in RF-based positioning systems that use wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Because the accuracy of TOA estimation is proportional to the RF signal bandwidth, using broad bandwidth is the most fundamental approach for achieving higher accuracy. Hence, ultra-wide-band (UWB) systems with a bandwidth of 500 MHz are commonly used. However, wireless systems with broad bandwidth suffer from the disadvantages of high complexity and high power consumption. Therefore, it is difficult to employ such systems in various WSN applications. In this paper, we present a precise time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation algorithm using an IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee system with a narrow bandwidth of 2 MHz. In order to overcome the lack of bandwidth, the proposed algorithm estimates the fractional TOA within the sampling interval. Simulation results show that the proposed TOA estimation algorithm provides an accuracy of 0.5 m at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 8 dB and achieves an SNR gain of 5 dB as compared with the existing algorithm. In addition, experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm provides accurate TOA estimation in a real indoor environment. PMID:26861331

  6. Tenth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies in Cooperation with the Nineteenth IEEE Symposium on Mass Storage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Benjamin (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This document contains copies of those technical papers received in time for publication prior to the Tenth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies which is being held in cooperation with the Nineteenth IEEE Symposium on Mass Storage Systems at the University of Maryland University College Inn and Conference Center April 15-18, 2002. As one of an ongoing series, this Conference continues to provide a forum for discussion of issues relevant to the ingest, storage, and management of large volumes of data. The Conference encourages all interested organizations to discuss long-term mass storage requirements and experiences in fielding solutions. Emphasis is on current and future practical solutions addressing issues in data management, storage systems and media, data acquisition, long-term retention of data, and data distribution. This year's discussion topics include architecture, future of current technology, storage networking with emphasis on IP storage, performance, standards, site reports, and vendor solutions. Tutorials will be available on perpendicular magnetic recording, object based storage, storage virtualization and IP storage.

  7. Eighth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies in Cooperation with the Seventeenth IEEE Symposium on Mass Storage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Benjamin (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This document contains copies of those technical papers received in time for publication prior to the Eighth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies which is being held in cooperation with the Seventeenth IEEE Symposium on Mass Storage Systems at the University of Maryland University College Inn and Conference Center March 27-30, 2000. As one of an ongoing series, this Conference continues to provide a forum for discussion of issues relevant to the management of large volumes of data. The Conference encourages all interested organizations to discuss long term mass storage requirements and experiences in fielding solutions. Emphasis is on current and future practical solutions addressing issues in data management, storage systems and media, data acquisition, long term retention of data, and data distribution. This year's discussion topics include architecture, future of current technology, new technology with a special emphasis on holographic storage, performance, standards, site reports, vendor solutions. Tutorials will be available on stability of optical media, disk subsystem performance evaluation, I/O and storage tuning, functionality and performance evaluation of file systems for storage area networks.

  8. Telemonitoring systems interoperability challenge: an updated review of the applicability of ISO/IEEE 11073 standards for interoperability in telemonitoring.

    PubMed

    Galarraga, M; Serrano, L; Martinez, I; de Toledo, P; Reynolds, Melvin

    2007-01-01

    Advances in Information and Communication Technologies, ICT, are bringing new opportunities and use cases in the field of systems and Personal Health Devices used for the telemonitoring of citizens in Home or Mobile scenarios. At a time of such challenges, this review arises from the need to identify robust technical telemonitoring solutions that are both open and interoperable. These systems demand standardized solutions to be cost effective and to take advantage of standardized operation and interoperability. Thus, the fundamental challenge is to design plug-&-play devices that, either as individual elements or as components, can be incorporated in a simple way into different Telecare systems, perhaps configuring a personal user network. Moreover, there is an increasing market pressure from companies not traditionally involved in medical markets, asking for a standard for Personal Health Devices, which foresee a vast demand for telemonitoring, wellness, Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) and e-health applications. However, the newly emerging situations imply very strict requirements for the protocols involved in the communication. The ISO/IEEE 11073 family of standards is adapting and moving in order to face the challenge and might appear the best positioned international standards to reach this goal. This work presents an updated survey of these standards, trying to track the changes that are being fulfilled, and tries to serve as a starting-point for those who want to familiarize themselves with them. PMID:18003427

  9. Guideline-driven telemonitoring and follow-up of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices using IEEE 11073, HL7 & IHE profiles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Maohua; Chronaki, Catherine E; Lüpkes, Christian; Thiel, Andreas; Plössnig, Manuela; Hinterbuchner, Lynne; Arbelo, Elena; Laleci, Gokce Banu; Kabak, Yildiray; Duarte, Fernandez; Guillén, Alejandra; Navarro, Xavier; Dogac, Asuman; Eichelberg, Marco; Hein, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    For patients with Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices (CIEDs), telemonitoring promises improved quality of life and safety, since events recorded by the device or observed by the patient can alert a health professional. Taking into account the latest clinical guidelines when responding to such alerts, is a topic of active research addressed by the iCARDEA project. A key technical challenge is correlating telemonitoring CIED report data in a vendor-independent format with Electronic Health Record (EHR) data collected in the hospital and Personal Health Record (PHR) data entered by the patient, in guideline-driven care processes. The iCARDEA CIED exposure service component presented in this paper employs standards specifications from ISO/IEEE 11073 (Health Informatics, Point-of-care Medical Device Communication) and HL7v2.x in the context of Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) profiles to deliver telemonitoring CIED report data from two different CIED vendors to the adaptive care planner that implements guideline-driven care plans. Experience gained with implementation and initial component testing is discussed, while challenges and expectations for future health information standards to effectively support EHR-integrated guide-line-driven telemonitoring services are highlighted. PMID:22255018

  10. She's always a woman: Butch lesbian trans women in the lesbian community.

    PubMed

    Rossiter, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    While the visibility and acceptance of trans women have grown globally in recent years, this progress has primarily been within a traditional, heteronormative narrative. But a growing number of trans women identify as butch lesbians and challenge this heteronormative narrative. The existence of butch trans women has created a debate on where they fit within queer and lesbian communities and how their gender performance fits within traditional butch/femme understandings of lesbian or queer relationships. This article seeks to explore the intersections of gender identity and sexual orientation that butch trans women experience when they engage with lesbian and trans communities.

  11. She's always a woman: Butch lesbian trans women in the lesbian community.

    PubMed

    Rossiter, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    While the visibility and acceptance of trans women have grown globally in recent years, this progress has primarily been within a traditional, heteronormative narrative. But a growing number of trans women identify as butch lesbians and challenge this heteronormative narrative. The existence of butch trans women has created a debate on where they fit within queer and lesbian communities and how their gender performance fits within traditional butch/femme understandings of lesbian or queer relationships. This article seeks to explore the intersections of gender identity and sexual orientation that butch trans women experience when they engage with lesbian and trans communities. PMID:26701771

  12. FPGA Implementation of Reed-Solomon Decoder for IEEE 802.16 WiMAX Systems using Simulink-Sysgen Design Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Bobrek, Miljko; Albright, Austin P

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents FPGA implementation of the Reed-Solomon decoder for use in IEEE 802.16 WiMAX systems. The decoder is based on RS(255,239) code, and is additionally shortened and punctured according to the WiMAX specifications. Simulink model based on Sysgen library of Xilinx blocks was used for simulation and hardware implementation. At the end, simulation results and hardware implementation performances are presented.

  13. Trans-femoral thromboaspiration for upper extremity ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Gordhan, Ajeet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Endovascular trans-femoral access catheter aspiration of thrombus within the proximal subclavian, brachial, radial and ulnar arteries for symptomatic upper extremity ischemic pain has not been previously reported. We describe a case in which a successful clinical outcome was achieved using long length neuro-endovascular aspiration catheters. Presentation of case A 45 year old female presented with diffuse left upper limb pain. Sonography revealed compromised upper extremity blood flow. Thrombus was identified in the proximal left subclavian artery by CT angiography. Surgical retrograde brachial artery access thrombectomy was performed. Occlusion of the left vertebral artery with embolic infarcts of the cerebellar hemispheres was noted post-procedurally. Trans-femoral mechanical aspiration thrombectomy and angioplasty of the subclavian, brachial, ulnar and radial arteries was subsequently performed with successful recanalization. Conclusion Recanalization of vasculature to the upper arm through safer femoral access can be achieved with thrombo-aspiration catheters of sufficient length. PMID:26708945

  14. Luminescence from the trans-Dioxotechnetium(V) Chromophore

    SciTech Connect

    Del Negro, Andy S.; Wang, Zheming; Seliskar, Carl J.; Heineman, William R.; Sullivan, Brian P.; Hightower, Sean E.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2005-11-02

    Photophysical properties of the trans-dioxotechnetium(V) chromophore are reported for the first time. The complexes [TcO₂(L)₄] ⁺ (L=pyridine or 4-picoline) and [TcO₂(CN)₄]³ ⁻ are luminescent from a ³Eg excited state in the near IR with emission maxima ranging from 715-750 nm. DFT calculations predicted the observed red-shift in emission energy relative to trans-dioxorhenium(V) congeners. Distinct vibronic progressions are observed in the symmetric O=Tc=O and Tc-L stretching frequencies in the 8 K emission spectra and excited state lifetimes mirrored trends of the analogous Re(V) complexes.

  15. Experiences of female partners of masculine identifying trans persons

    PubMed Central

    Theron, Liesl; Collier, Kate L.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the intimate relationship experiences of cisgender (i.e., not transgender) female partners of masculine identifying transgender persons, with a particular focus on these partners’ self-understanding of their sexual orientation. Limited research about this topic has been conducted to date. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight South African women who are or have been cisgender female partners of masculine identifying trans persons. Although the interviews showed that the relationship experiences of female partners of masculine identifying trans persons are diverse, several common themes emerged in the narratives. The way that participants labelled their sexual orientation did not change from before to after their relationship with a transgender partner. The participants reported varied family and community responses to their relationships. Specific emotional and informational support needs for women with transgender partners were identified. PMID:23668602

  16. Experiences of female partners of masculine-identifying trans persons.

    PubMed

    Theron, Liesl; Collier, Kate L

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the intimate relationship experiences of the cisgender (i.e., not transgender) female partners of masculine-identifying transgender persons, with a particular focus on these partners' self-understanding of their sexual orientation. Limited research about this topic has been conducted to date. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight South African women who are or have been cisgender female partners of masculine-identifying trans persons. Although the interviews showed that the relationship experiences of female partners of masculine-identifying trans persons are diverse, several common themes emerged in the narratives. The way that participants labelled their sexual orientation did not change from before to after their relationship with a transgender partner. The participants reported varied family and community responses to their relationships. Specific emotional and informational support needs for women with transgender partners were identified.

  17. Different reaction mechanisms for cis- and trans-prenyltransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Yenpin; Liu Hunge; Liang, P-H.

    2009-02-06

    Octaprenyl diphosphate synthase (OPPs) and undecaprenyl diphosphate synthases (UPPs) catalyze consecutive condensation reactions of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) with 5 and 8 isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to generate C{sub 40} and C{sub 55} products with trans- and cis-double bonds, respectively. In this study, we used IPP analogue, 3-bromo-3-butenyl diphosphate (Br-IPP), in conjunction with radiolabeled FPP, to probe the reaction mechanisms of the two prenyltransferases. Using this alternative substrate with electron-withdrawing bromo group at the C3 position to slow down the condensation step, trapping of farnesol in the OPPs reaction from radiolabeled FPP under basic condition was observed, consistent with a sequential mechanism. In contrast, UPPs reaction yielded no farnesyl carbocation intermediate under the same condition with radiolabeled FPP and Br-IPP, indicating a concerted mechanism. Our data demonstrate the different reaction mechanisms for cis- and tran-prenyltransferases although they share the same substrates.

  18. Different reaction mechanisms for cis- and trans-prenyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yen-Pin; Liu, Hun-Ge; Liang, Po-Huang

    2009-02-01

    Octaprenyl diphosphate synthase (OPPs) and undecaprenyl diphosphate synthases (UPPs) catalyze consecutive condensation reactions of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) with 5 and 8 isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to generate C(40) and C(55) products with trans- and cis-double bonds, respectively. In this study, we used IPP analogue, 3-bromo-3-butenyl diphosphate (Br-IPP), in conjunction with radiolabeled FPP, to probe the reaction mechanisms of the two prenyltransferases. Using this alternative substrate with electron-withdrawing bromo group at the C3 position to slow down the condensation step, trapping of farnesol in the OPPs reaction from radiolabeled FPP under basic condition was observed, consistent with a sequential mechanism. In contrast, UPPs reaction yielded no farnesyl carbocation intermediate under the same condition with radiolabeled FPP and Br-IPP, indicating a concerted mechanism. Our data demonstrate the different reaction mechanisms for cis- and tran-prenyltransferases although they share the same substrates.

  19. Graphene as a subnanometre trans-electrode membrane.

    PubMed

    Garaj, S; Hubbard, W; Reina, A; Kong, J; Branton, D; Golovchenko, J A

    2010-09-01

    Isolated, atomically thin conducting membranes of graphite, called graphene, have recently been the subject of intense research with the hope that practical applications in fields ranging from electronics to energy science will emerge. The atomic thinness, stability and electrical sensitivity of graphene motivated us to investigate the potential use of graphene membranes and graphene nanopores to characterize single molecules of DNA in ionic solution. Here we show that when immersed in an ionic solution, a layer of graphene becomes a new electrochemical structure that we call a trans-electrode. The trans-electrode's unique properties are the consequence of the atomic-scale proximity of its two opposing liquid-solid interfaces together with graphene's well known in-plane conductivity. We show that several trans-electrode properties are revealed by ionic conductance measurements on a graphene membrane that separates two aqueous ionic solutions. Although our membranes are only one to two atomic layers thick, we find they are remarkable ionic insulators with a very small stable conductance that depends on the ion species in solution. Electrical measurements on graphene membranes in which a single nanopore has been drilled show that the membrane's effective insulating thickness is less than one nanometre. This small effective thickness makes graphene an ideal substrate for very high resolution, high throughput nanopore-based single-molecule detectors. The sensitivity of graphene's in-plane electronic conductivity to its immediate surface environment and trans-membrane solution potentials will offer new insights into atomic surface processes and sensor development opportunities.

  20. IL-6 Trans-Signaling Drives Murine Crescentic GN.

    PubMed

    Braun, Gerald S; Nagayama, Yoshikuni; Maruta, Yuichi; Heymann, Felix; van Roeyen, Claudia R; Klinkhammer, Barbara M; Boor, Peter; Villa, Luigi; Salant, David J; Raffetseder, Ute; Rose-John, Stefan; Ostendorf, Tammo; Floege, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The role of IL-6 signaling in renal diseases remains controversial, with data describing both anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory effects. IL-6 can act via classic signaling, engaging its two membrane receptors gp130 and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R). Alternatively, IL-6 trans-signaling requires soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) to act on IL-6R-negative cells that express gp130. Here, we characterize the role of both pathways in crescentic nephritis. Patients with crescentic nephritis had significantly elevated levels of IL-6 in both serum and urine. Similarly, nephrotoxic serum-induced nephritis (NTN) in BALB/c mice was associated with elevated serum IL-6 levels. Levels of serum sIL-6R and renal downstream signals of IL-6 (phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3) increased over time in this model. Simultaneous inhibition of both IL-6 signaling pathways using anti-IL-6 antibody did not have a significant impact on NTN severity. In contrast, specific inhibition of trans-signaling using recombinant sgp130Fc resulted in milder disease. Vice versa, specific activation of trans-signaling using a recombinant IL-6-sIL-6R fusion molecule (Hyper-IL-6) significantly aggravated NTN and led to increased systolic BP in NTN mice. This correlated with increased renal mRNA synthesis of the Th17 cell cytokine IL-17A and decreased synthesis of resistin-like alpha (RELMalpha)-encoding mRNA, a surrogate marker of lesion-mitigating M2 macrophage subtypes. Collectively, our data suggest a central role for IL-6 trans-signaling in crescentic nephritis and offer options for more effective and specific therapeutic interventions in the IL-6 system.

  1. A Security Solution for IEEE 802.11's Ad-hoc Mode:Password-Authentication and Group Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Emmanuel, Bresson; Olivier, Chevassut; David, Pointcheval

    2005-10-01

    The IEEE 802 standards ease the deployment of networkinginfrastructures and enable employers to accesscorporate networks whiletraveling. These standards provide two modes of communication calledinfrastructure and ad-hoc modes. A security solution for the IEEE802.11's infrastructure mode took several years to reach maturity andfirmware are still been upgraded, yet a solution for the ad-hoc modeneeds to be specified. The present paper is a first attempt in thisdirection. It leverages the latest developments in the area ofpassword-based authentication and (group) Diffie-Hellman key exchange todevelop a provably-secure key-exchange protocol for IEEE 802.11's ad-hocmode. The protocol allows users to securely join and leave the wirelessgroup at time, accommodates either a single-shared password orpairwise-shared passwords among the group members, or at least with acentral server; achieves security against dictionary attacks in theideal-hash model (i.e. random-oracles). This is, to the best of ourknowledge, the first such protocol to appear in the cryptographicliterature.

  2. Overview of local, state, and national government legislation restricting trans fats.

    PubMed

    Assaf, Raymen R

    2014-03-01

    Trans fats, also known as partially hydrogenated oils, have long been associated with cardiovascular disease. In 2003, the Food and Drug Administration mandated that trans fat content of ≥0.5 g be listed on food labeling; the next year, the World Health Organization released a recommended daily limit on trans fat intake. During the following decade, legislatures in different municipal and state governments moved trans fat regulation forward, whereas many food companies decided to independently phase out trans fat in their products. The advancement of these parallel processes suggests an emerging best practices phenomenon, integrating public health, law, and the food industry. With both legislation and markets seemingly favoring a limitation on trans fat content in foods, attention has once again shifted to the Food and Drug Administration for a ruling on the safety of trans fats.

  3. Systems Analysis of the Hydrogen Transition with HyTrans

    SciTech Connect

    Leiby, Paul Newsome; Greene, David L; Bowman, David Charles; Tworek, Elzbieta

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Federal government is carefully considering the merits and long-term prospects of hydrogen-fueled vehicles. NAS (1) has called for the careful application of systems analysis tools to structure the complex assessment required. Others, raising cautionary notes, question whether a consistent and plausible transition to hydrogen light-duty vehicles can identified (2) and whether that transition would, on balance, be environmentally preferred. Modeling the market transition to hydrogen-powered vehicles is an inherently complex process, encompassing hydrogen production, delivery and retailing, vehicle manufacturing, and vehicle choice and use. We describe the integration of key technological and market factors in a dynamic transition model, HyTrans. The usefulness of HyTrans and its predictions depends on three key factors: (1) the validity of the economic theories that underpin the model, (2) the authenticity with which the key processes are represented, and (3) the accuracy of specific parameter values used in the process representations. This paper summarizes the theoretical basis of HyTrans, and highlights the implications of key parameter specifications with sensitivity analysis.

  4. Cis-trans photoisomerization of fluorescent-protein chromophores.

    PubMed

    Voliani, Valerio; Bizzarri, Ranieri; Nifosì, Riccardo; Abbruzzetti, Stefania; Grandi, Elena; Viappiani, Cristiano; Beltram, Fabio

    2008-08-28

    Photochromic variants of fluorescent proteins are opening the way to a number of opportunities for high-sensitivity regioselective studies in the cellular environment and may even lead to applications in information and communication technology. Yet, the detailed photophysical processes at the basis of photoswitching have not been fully clarified. In this paper, we used synthetic FP chromophores to clarify the photophysical processes associated with the photochromic behavior. In particular, we investigated the spectral modification of synthetic chromophore analogues of wild-type green fluorescent protein (GFP), Y66F GFP (BFPF), and Y66W GFP (CFP) upon irradiation in solutions of different polarities. We found that the cis-trans photoisomerization mechanism can be induced in all the chromophores. The structural assignments were carried out both by NMR measurements and DFT calculations. Remarkably, we determined for the first time the spectra of neutral trans isomers in different solvents. Finally, we calculated the photoconversion quantum yields by absorption measurements under continuous illumination at different times and by a nanosecond laser-flash photolysis method. Our results indicate that cis-trans photoisomerization is a general mechanism of FP chromophores whose efficiency is modulated by the detailed mutant-specific protein environment. PMID:18671358

  5. Resolving conflicts over trans-boundary rivers using bankruptcy methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarezadeh, M.; Madani, K.; Morid, S.

    2013-11-01

    A bankruptcy approach is proposed for resolving trans-boundary rivers conflicts in which the total water demand or claim of the riparian parties is more than the available water. Bankruptcy solution methods can allocate the available water to the conflicting parties with respect to their claims. Four bankruptcy rules are used here to allocate the available water to the riparian parties. Given the non-uniform spatial and temporal distribution of water across river basins, bankruptcy optimization models are proposed to allocate water based on these rules with respect to time sensitivity of water deliveries during the planning horizon. Once allocation solutions are developed, their acceptability and stability must be evaluated. Thus, a new stability index method is developed for evaluating the acceptability of bankruptcy solutions. To show how the bankruptcy framework can be helpful in practice, the suggested methods are applied to a real-world tarns-boundary river system with eight riparians under various hydrologic regimes. Stability analysis based on the proposed stability index method suggests that the acceptability of allocation rules is sensitive to hydrologic conditions and demand values. This finding has an important policy implication suggesting that fixed allocation rules and trans-boundary treaties may not be reliable for securing cooperation over trans-boundary water resources as they are vulnerable to changing socio-economic and climatic conditions as well as hydrologic non-stationarity.

  6. TransHab: NASA's Large-Scale Inflatable Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    delaFuente, Horacio; Raboin, Jasen L.; Spexarth, Gary R.; Valle, Gerard D.

    2000-01-01

    TransHab is a, 27-foot diameter by 40-foot, lightweight inflatable habitation module for space applications. TransHab consists of a lightweight graphite-composite core, 11-foot diameter by 23-foot tall, surrounded by a 27-foot diameter inflatable shell. Originally envisioned to be the habitation module of an interplanetary transit vehicle, TransHab is currently being considered as a module for use on the International Space Station (ISS). During the past two years, several tests have been performed at the NASA/Johnson Space Center to demonstrate and prove the technologies required in building a large-scale inflatable habitation module. This paper discusses the results of these tests which including the following: 1) a structural integrity development test article hydJ"Ostatically tested to four times ambient pressure, 2) a full-scale development test article manufactured, assembled, folded and deployed at vacuum, and 3) extensive hypervelocity impact testing of the micro meteoroid and orbital debris protection system.

  7. Stress-energy tensor for trans-Planckian cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, Martin; Lubo, Musongela; Martin, Jérôme; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2002-01-01

    This article presents the derivation of the stress-energy tensor of a free scalar field with a general nonlinear dispersion relation in curved spacetime. This dispersion relation is used as a phenomelogical description of the short distance structure of spacetime following the conventional approach of trans-Planckian modes in black hole physics and in cosmology. This stress-energy tensor is then used to discuss both the equation of state of trans-Planckian modes in cosmology and the magnitude of their back reaction during inflation. It is shown that gravitational waves of trans-Planckian momenta but subhorizon frequencies cannot account for the form of cosmic vacuum energy density observed at present, contrary to a recent claim. The back reaction effects during inflation are confirmed to be important and generic for those dispersion relations that are liable to induce changes in the power spectrum of metric fluctuations. Finally, it is shown that in pure de Sitter inflation there is no modification of the power spectrum except for a possible magnification of its overall amplitude independently of the dispersion relation.

  8. A Mechanism by Which Dietary Trans Fats Cause Atherosclerosis*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Lin; Tetri, Laura H.; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A.; Huang, Shuan Shian; Huang, Jung San

    2010-01-01

    Dietary trans fats have been causally linked to atherosclerosis but the mechanism by which they cause the disease remain elusive. Suppressed TGF-β responsiveness in aortic endothelium has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in animals with hypercholesterolemia. We investigated the effects of a high trans-fat (TF) diet on TGF-β responsiveness in aortic endothelium and integration of cholesterol in tissues. Here we show that normal mice fed a high TF diet for 24 weeks exhibit atherosclerotic lesions and suppressed TGF-β responsiveness in aortic endothelium. The suppressed TGF-β responsiveness is evidenced by markedly reduced expression of TGF-β type I and II receptors and profoundly decreased levels of P-Smad2, an important TGF-β–response indicator, in aortic endothelium. These mice exhibit greatly increased integration of cholesterol into tissue plasma membranes. These results suggest that dietary trans fats cause atherosclerosis, at least in part, by suppressing TGF-β responsiveness. This effect is presumably mediated by the increased deposition of cholesterol into cellular plasma membranes in vascular tissue, as in hypercholesterolemia. PMID:21036587

  9. A functional role for trans-saccadic luminance differences.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Casimir J H; Davies, J Rhys; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2012-01-01

    In typical natural environments, the visual system receives different inputs in quick succession as gaze moves around. We examined whether local trans-saccadic differences in luminance, contrast, and orientation influenced perception and target selection in the eye movement system. Observers initially fixated a peripheral position in a preview display that consisted of four patterns. They subsequently made a saccade to the center of the configuration. During the movement, two of the preview patterns were eliminated, and a small change in the luminance contrast of the remaining patterns was introduced. Observers had to make a second saccade to the test patch with the greater luminance contrast relative to the background. During the second fixation, test patterns could be in the same retinotopic location as one of the preview patterns during the initial fixation (a retinotopic match) or at a retinotopic location that was empty during the preview epoch (a retinotopic onset). We consistently found a preference to fixate retinotopic onsets over retinotopically matched patterns, but only when the patterns were defined by a luminance difference. Direct measurement of perceived luminance showed that the visual response to retinotopically matched inputs was attenuated, possibly because of retinotopic adaptation. As a consequence, the visual system responds more strongly to trans-saccadic differences in local luminance. We argue that a trans-saccadic comparison of the local luminance at the same retinotopic location is a simple way of finding high spatial frequency edge information in the visual scene. This information is important for image segmentation and interpretation.

  10. TransFit: Finite element analysis data fitting software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Mark

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) mission support team has made extensive use of geometric ray tracing to analyze the performance of AXAF developmental and flight optics. One important aspect of this performance modeling is the incorporation of finite element analysis (FEA) data into the surface deformations of the optical elements. TransFit is software designed for the fitting of FEA data of Wolter I optical surface distortions with a continuous surface description which can then be used by SAO's analytic ray tracing software, currently OSAC (Optical Surface Analysis Code). The improved capabilities of Transfit over previous methods include bicubic spline fitting of FEA data to accommodate higher spatial frequency distortions, fitted data visualization for assessing the quality of fit, the ability to accommodate input data from three FEA codes plus other standard formats, and options for alignment of the model coordinate system with the ray trace coordinate system. TransFit uses the AnswerGarden graphical user interface (GUI) to edit input parameters and then access routines written in PV-WAVE, C, and FORTRAN to allow the user to interactively create, evaluate, and modify the fit. The topics covered include an introduction to TransFit: requirements, designs philosophy, and implementation; design specifics: modules, parameters, fitting algorithms, and data displays; a procedural example; verification of performance; future work; and appendices on online help and ray trace results of the verification section.

  11. Trans-oral resection of large parapharyngeal space tumours.

    PubMed

    Hussain, A; Ah-See, K W; Shakeel, M

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to describe minimally invasive trans-oral approach for resection of parapharyngeal space (PPS) tumours and to demonstrate surgical technique, resection, repair and outcomes. Five cases were prospectively included in the study. The data collected include age, sex, site, size, pathology, radiological investigations, surgical excision, complications and outcomes. Three females and two male patients underwent trans-oral resection of PPS tumours sized 4-8 cm. The pathology included two deep lobe parotid tumours, one schwannoma, one hibernoma and one primary adenocarcinoma arising form the minor salivary gland. All tumours were resected completely without any technical difficulty. The healing was quick and by primary intention. Patients resumed oral feeding on recovery from general anaesthesia and did not require any significant analgesia beyond the first 2 days. Patient with adenocarcinoma received postoperative radiotherapy and remained disease-free during 4 years post-treatment. No recurrences were observed in patients with benign tumours. No neurovascular injury occurred during surgery and no secondary bleeding was observed. We have demonstrated successful and safe execution of trans-oral resection of large PPS tumours. There were no intra and post-operative complications and there has been no recurrence during the follow-up period. In our experience, it appears to be efficient, safe and minimally invasive compared to the established techniques.

  12. Starch plus sunflower oil addition to the diet of dry dairy cows results in a trans-11 to trans-10 shift of biohydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Zened, A; Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2013-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (FA), exhibit different biological properties. Among them, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid has some interesting putative health properties, whereas trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid has negative effects on cow milk fat production and would negatively affect human health. In high-yielding dairy cows, a shift from trans-11 to trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with unsaturated fat sources. To study this shift, 4 rumen-fistulated nonlactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design with 4 different diets during 4 periods. Cows received 12 kg of dry matter per day of 4 diets based on corn silage during 4 successive periods: a control diet (22% starch, <3% crude fat on DM basis), a high-starch diet supplemented with wheat plus barley (35% starch, <3% crude fat), a sunflower oil diet supplemented with 5% of sunflower oil (20% starch, 7.6% crude fat), and a high-starch plus sunflower oil diet (33% starch, 7.3% crude fat). Five hours after feeding, proportions of trans-11 BH isomers greatly increased in the rumen content with the addition of sunflower oil, without change in ruminal pH compared with the control diet. Addition of starch to the control diet had no effect on BH pathways but decreased ruminal pH. The addition of a large amount of starch in association with sunflower oil increased trans-10 FA at the expense of trans-11 FA in the rumen content, revealing a trans-11 to trans-10 shift. Interestingly, with this latter diet, ruminal pH did not change compared with a single addition of starch. This trans-11 to trans-10 shift occurred progressively, after a decrease in the proportion of trans-11 FA in the rumen, suggesting that this shift could result from a dysbiosis in the rumen in favor of trans-10-producing bacteria at the expense of those producing trans-11 or a modification of bacterial activities.

  13. trans-dominant mutants of E1A provide genetic evidence that the zinc finger of the trans-activating domain binds a transcription factor.

    PubMed Central

    Webster, L C; Ricciardi, R P

    1991-01-01

    The 289R E1A protein of adenovirus stimulates transcription of early viral and certain cellular genes. trans-Activation requires residues 140 to 188, which encompass a zinc finger. Several studies have indicated that trans-activation by E1A is mediated through cellular transcription factors. In particular, the ability of the trans-dominant E1A point mutant hr5 (Ser-185 to Asn) to inhibit wild-type E1A trans-activation was proposed to result from the sequestration of a cellular factor. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we individually replaced every residue within and flanking the trans-activating domain with a conservative amino acid, revealing 16 critical residues. Six of the individual substitutions lying in a contiguous stretch C terminal to the zinc finger (carboxyl region183-188) imparted a trans-dominant phenotype. trans-Dominance was even produced by deletion of the entire carboxyl region183-188. Conversely, an intact finger region147-177 was absolutely required for trans-dominance, since second-site substitution of every critical residue in this region abrogated the trans-dominant phenotype of the hr5 protein. These data indicate that the finger region147-177 bind a limiting cellular transcription factor and that the carboxyl region183-188 provides a separate and essential function. In addition, we show that four negatively charged residues within the trans-activating domain do not comprise a distinct acidic activating region. We present a model in which the trans-activating domain of E1A binds to two different cellular protein targets through the finger and carboxyl regions. Images PMID:1831535

  14. IL-6 trans-signaling increases expression of airways disease genes in airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Mac B.; Deshpande, Deepak A.; Chou, Jeffery; Cui, Wei; Smith, Shelly; Langefeld, Carl; Hastie, Annette T.; Bleecker, Eugene R.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic data suggest that IL-6 trans-signaling may have a pathogenic role in the lung; however, the effects of IL-6 trans-signaling on lung effector cells have not been investigated. In this study, human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells were treated with IL-6 (classical) or IL-6+sIL6R (trans-signaling) for 24 h and gene expression was measured by RNAseq. Intracellular signaling and transcription factor activation were assessed by Western blotting and luciferase assay, respectively. The functional effect of IL-6 trans-signaling was determined by proliferation assay. IL-6 trans-signaling had no effect on phosphoinositide-3 kinase and Erk MAP kinase pathways in HASM cells. Both classical and IL-6 trans-signaling in HASM involves activation of Stat3. However, the kinetics of Stat3 phosphorylation by IL-6 trans-signaling was different than classical IL-6 signaling. This was further reflected in the differential gene expression profile by IL-6 trans-signaling in HASM cells. Under IL-6 trans-signaling conditions 36 genes were upregulated, including PLA2G2A, IL13RA1, MUC1, and SOD2. Four genes, including CCL11, were downregulated at least twofold. The expression of 112 genes was divergent between IL-6 classical and trans-signaling, including the genes HILPDA, NNMT, DAB2, MUC1, WWC1, and VEGFA. Pathway analysis revealed that IL-6 trans-signaling induced expression of genes involved in regulation of airway remodeling, immune response, hypoxia, and glucose metabolism. Treatment of HASM cells with IL-6+sIL6R induced proliferation in a dose-dependent fashion, suggesting a role for IL-6 trans-signaling in asthma pathogenesis. These novel findings demonstrate differential effect of IL-6 trans-signaling on airway cells and identify IL-6 trans-signaling as a potential modifier of airway inflammation and remodeling. PMID:26001777

  15. Stereoselective synthesis of (+)-nephrosteranic acid, (+)-trans-cognac lactone, and (+)-trans-whisky lactone using a chiral cyclohexadienyl Ti compound.

    PubMed

    Schleth, Florian; Vogler, Thomas; Harms, Klaus; Studer, Armido

    2004-09-01

    We present the stereoselective transfer of cyclohexadienyl from 3-metalated 1,4-cyclohexadienes to various aldehydes. Lewis-acid-mediated "allylation" of aldehydes by treatment with 3-silylated and 3-stannylated 1,4-cyclohexadienes could not be achieved with high diastereoselectivity. In contrast, cyclohexadienyl titanium compounds reacted with both aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes with good-to-excellent diastereoselectivities. Reaction of a chiral TADDOL-derived (TADDOL, 2,2-dimethyl-alpha,alpha,alpha',alpha'-tetraphenyl-1,3-dioxolandimethanol) cyclohexadienyl Ti derivative with various aldehydes led to the corresponding homoallylic alcohols with excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivities. Lower selectivities were obtained with chiral B-cyclohexadienyldiisopinocampheylborane. The 1,3-cyclohexadienes are very useful building blocks for the preparation of biologically important gamma-butyrolactones. Short efficient syntheses of (+)-nephrosteranic acid, (+)-trans-whisky lactone, and (+)-trans-cognac lactone by desymmetrization of 1,4-cyclohexadiene are described.

  16. 21 CFR 573.637 - Methyl esters of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12-octadecadienoic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing...-octadecadienoic acids). The food additive, methyl esters of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10... conditions: (a) The food additive is manufactured by the reaction of refined sunflower oil with methanol...

  17. 21 CFR 573.637 - Methyl esters of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12-octadecadienoic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing...-octadecadienoic acids). The food additive, methyl esters of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10... conditions: (a) The food additive is manufactured by the reaction of refined sunflower oil with methanol...

  18. 21 CFR 573.637 - Methyl esters of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12-octadecadienoic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing...-octadecadienoic acids). The food additive, methyl esters of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10... conditions: (a) The food additive is manufactured by the reaction of refined sunflower oil with methanol...

  19. 21 CFR 573.637 - Methyl esters of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12-octadecadienoic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing...-octadecadienoic acids). The food additive, methyl esters of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10... conditions: (a) The food additive is manufactured by the reaction of refined sunflower oil with methanol...

  20. 21 CFR 573.637 - Methyl esters of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12-octadecadienoic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing...-octadecadienoic acids). The food additive, methyl esters of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10... conditions: (a) The food additive is manufactured by the reaction of refined sunflower oil with methanol...

  1. Analysis of ISO/IEEE 11073 built-in security and its potential IHE-based extensibility.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Óscar J; Trigo, Jesús D; Alesanco, Álvaro; Serrano, Luis; García, José

    2016-04-01

    The ISO/IEEE 11073 standard for Personal Health Devices (X73PHD) aims to ensure interoperability between Personal Health Devices and aggregators-e.g. health appliances, routers-in ambulatory setups. The Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) initiative promotes the coordinated use of different standards in healthcare systems (e.g. Personal/Electronic Health Records, alert managers, Clinical Decision Support Systems) by defining profiles intended for medical use cases. X73PHD provides a robust syntactic model and a comprehensive terminology, but it places limited emphasis on security and on interoperability with IHE-compliant systems and frameworks. However, the implementation of eHealth/mHealth applications in environments such as health and fitness monitoring, independent living and disease management (i.e. the X73PHD domains) increasingly requires features such as secure connections to mobile aggregators-e.g. smartphones, tablets-, the sharing of devices among different users with privacy, and interoperability with certain IHE-compliant healthcare systems. This work proposes a comprehensive IHE-based X73PHD extension consisting of additive layers adapted to different eHealth/mHealth applications, after having analyzed the features of X73PHD (especially its built-in security), IHE profiles related with these applications and other research works. Both the new features proposed for each layer and the procedures to support them have been carefully chosen to minimize the impact on X73PHD, on its architecture (in terms of delays and overhead) and on its framework. Such implications are thoroughly analyzed in this paper. As a result, an extended model of X73PHD is proposed, preserving its essential features while extending them with added value.

  2. Difference in effect of temperature on absorption and Raman spectra between all-trans-β-carotene and all-trans-retinol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Guan-Nan; Li, Shuo; Sun, Cheng-Lin; Liu, Tian-Yuan; Wu, Yong-Ling; Sun, Shang; Shan, Xiao-Ning; Men, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Wei; Li, Zuo-Wei; Gao, Shu-Qin

    2012-12-01

    Temperature dependencies (81 °C-18 °C) ofvisible absorption and Raman spectra of all-trans-β-carotene and all-trans-retinol extremely diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide are investigated in order to clarify temperature effects on different polyenes. Their absorption spectra are identified to be redshifted with temperature decreasing. Moreover, all-trans-β-carotene is more sensitive to temperature due to the presence of a longer length of conjugated system. The characteristic energy responsible for the conformational changes in all-trans-β-carotene is smaller than that in all-trans-retinol. Both of the Raman scattering cross sections increase with temperature decreasing. The results are explained with electron—phonon coupling theory and coherent weakly damped electron—lattice vibrations model.

  3. Epoxidation of trans-cyclooctene by Methyltrioxorhenium/H(2)O(2): reaction of trans-epoxide with the monoperoxo complex

    PubMed

    Adam; Saha-Moller; Weichold

    2000-08-11

    The epoxidation of trans-cyclooctene (trans-1) with the MTO/H(2)O(2), MTO/UHP, and NaY/MTO/H(2)O(2) oxidants leads to a mixture of trans/cis-olefins 1, trans/cis-epoxides 2, and the cis-diol 3. While the oxygen transfer proceeds stereoselectively, the monoperoxo rhenium complex A, which is generated in situ during the catalytic cycle, is responsible for the facile deoxygenation, isomerization, and hydrolysis of the trans-epoxide. In the case of the homogeneous MTO/H(2)O(2) system, rapid decomposition of the catalytically active rhenium species into HReO(4) circumvents the formation of such side products. In contrast, for the heterogeneous oxidants MTO/UHP and NaY/MTO/H(2)O(2), the catalytically active rhenium species are sufficiently stabilized and survive long enough to promote the observed side reactions.

  4. Fine structure of far infrared spectrum of ethanol in the lowest OH-torsional vibrational trans-state (e0) of ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Indra

    2016-05-01

    In this report the spectroscopic results for far infrared Fourier transform spectrum corresponding to the b-type transitions within the lowest lying trans-substrate (e0) have been presented. The calculated matrix elements connecting various K-levels suggest that ΔK = 1 transitions within the trans- subs-state should be quite strong but the transitions between the trans state to the gauche states would quite week (practically non-existent). This was also concluded by previous studies using microwave and millimeter wave regions (Pearson et al., 1982; Millar, 1995). The assignments were confirmed by direct observations at the spectrum and the agreement between the observed and calculated spectrum using precise energy levels reported by Pearson et al. (1982). All the strong RR and some RQ branch lines starting from K = 10 ← 9 through K = 24 ← 23 have been identified. State dependent expansion parameters for all the 15 sub-bands have been presented. These parameters can reproduce the experimental wave numbers within experimental uncertainty. An atlas for about 450 transition lines corresponding to transitions within the e0 torsional-vibrational species has been prepared. To our knowledge this is the first time the high resolution far infra-red spectral region study for ethanol have been performed.

  5. Body image dissatisfaction and eating-related psychopathology in trans individuals: a matched control study.

    PubMed

    Witcomb, Gemma L; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Brewin, Nicola; Richards, Christina; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon

    2015-07-01

    High levels of body dissatisfaction have already been reported in the trans population; however, the root of this dissatisfaction, and its association with eating disordered behaviours, has not been studied in-depth. This study aims to assess eating disorder risk by comparing 200 trans people, 200 people with eating disorders and 200 control participants' scores on three subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and to further explore dissatisfaction in the trans participants using the Hamburg Body Drawing Scale (HBDS). The results showed that overall participants with eating disorders scored higher than trans or control groups on all EDI-2 measures, but that trans individuals had greater body dissatisfaction than control participants and, importantly, trans males had comparable body dissatisfaction scores to eating disordered males. Drive for thinness was greater in females (cis and trans) compared with males. In relation to HBDS body dissatisfaction, both trans males and trans females reported greatest dissatisfaction not only for gender-identifying body parts but also for body shape and weight. Overall, trans males may be at particular risk for eating disordered psychopathology and other body image-related behaviours. PMID:25944170

  6. Body image dissatisfaction and eating-related psychopathology in trans individuals: a matched control study.

    PubMed

    Witcomb, Gemma L; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Brewin, Nicola; Richards, Christina; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon

    2015-07-01

    High levels of body dissatisfaction have already been reported in the trans population; however, the root of this dissatisfaction, and its association with eating disordered behaviours, has not been studied in-depth. This study aims to assess eating disorder risk by comparing 200 trans people, 200 people with eating disorders and 200 control participants' scores on three subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and to further explore dissatisfaction in the trans participants using the Hamburg Body Drawing Scale (HBDS). The results showed that overall participants with eating disorders scored higher than trans or control groups on all EDI-2 measures, but that trans individuals had greater body dissatisfaction than control participants and, importantly, trans males had comparable body dissatisfaction scores to eating disordered males. Drive for thinness was greater in females (cis and trans) compared with males. In relation to HBDS body dissatisfaction, both trans males and trans females reported greatest dissatisfaction not only for gender-identifying body parts but also for body shape and weight. Overall, trans males may be at particular risk for eating disordered psychopathology and other body image-related behaviours.

  7. Improved Projections of 21st Century Trans-Arctic Shipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melia, N.; Haines, K.; Hawkins, E.

    2015-12-01

    Climate models unanimously project a decline in the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice as the climate warms, but at differing rates. Projecting the timing of an ice-free Arctic is a topic that has received considerable scientific and public attention. An ice-free Arctic opens up the potential for shorter global trade routes through the Arctic Ocean and there has already been a sharp increase in the number of transits along Russia's Northern Sea Route with escorts from nuclear powered icebreakers.Here we present results on the future of trans-Arctic shipping using bias corrected sea ice thickness projections, utilising the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble and considering multiple emission scenarios. We find that for 'Open Water' vessels (normal ocean going vessels that possess no specific ice strengthening), unaided trans-Arctic shipping is likely to become feasible in the next couple of decades. We find that the North West Passage will open approximately a decade later than the Northern Sea Route. Initially however, both routes exhibit marked inter-annual variability in accessibility which we quantify. The hypothesised trans-polar sea route through international waters via the North Pole will start to become navigable by 2050. Towards the latter period of the 21st century, normal ocean going vessels will be able to transit their choice of any of these routes for at least six months of any given year under the RCP 8.5 high future emissions scenario and four months for the lower RCP 4.5 emissions scenario. These findings suggest that further increases in global temperature could transform the Arctic into a global transport hub.

  8. Biological activity of all-trans retinol requires metabolic conversion to all-trans retinoic acid and is mediated through activation of nuclear retinoid receptors in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Kurlandsky, S B; Xiao, J H; Duell, E A; Voorhees, J J; Fisher, G J

    1994-12-30

    The biological activity of all-trans retinol, in human keratinocytes, was investigated through metabolic and functional analyses that assessed the capacity for retinol uptake and metabolism and the mechanism of retinol-induced activation of gene transcription. Human keratinocytes converted all-trans retinol predominantly to retinyl esters, which accounted for 60 and 90% of cell-associated radiolabel after a 90-min pulse and a 48-h chase, respectively. Human keratinocytes also metabolized all-trans retinol to low levels of all-trans retinoic acid (11.47-131.3 ng/mg of protein) in a dose-dependent manner, between 0.3 and 10 microM added retinol. Small amounts of 13-cis retinoic acid (5.47-8.62 ng/mg of protein) were detected, but 9-cis retinoic acid was detected only when keratinocytes were incubated with radiolabeled retinol. There was no accumulation of the oxidized catabolic metabolites 4-hydroxy- or 4-oxoretinoic acid; however, 5,6-epoxy retinoic acid was detected at pharmacological levels (10 and 30 microM) of added retinol. Biological activity of retinol was assessed through analysis of two known retinoic acid-mediated responses: 1) reduction of type I epidermal transglutaminase and 2) activation of a retinoic acid receptor-dependent reporter gene, beta RARE3-tk-CAT. Both all-trans retinol and all-trans retinoic acid reduced type I epidermal transglutaminase in a dose-dependent manner; however, the ED50 for all-trans retinol (10 nM) was 10 times greater than for all-trans retinoic acid (1 nM). All-trans retinol also stimulated beta RARE3-tk-CAT reporter gene activity in a dose-dependent manner. Half-maximal induction was observed at 30 nM retinol, which was again 10-fold greater than observed with all-trans retinoic acid. Cotransfection of human keratinocytes with expression vectors for dominant negative mutant retinoic acid and retinoid X receptors reduced retinol-induced beta RARE3-tk-CAT reporter gene activation by 80%. Inhibition of conversion of all-trans

  9. Beyond either/or: Reading trans* lesbian identities.

    PubMed

    Gailey, Nerissa; Brown, A D

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has explored the affiliation and distancing strategies employed in published memoirs of gender transition. In this article, we are particularly interested in elucidating the ways in which individuals construct identities and characterize their sexualities, and how sociohistorical constraints might influence what is expressed with respect to this in personal narratives of transition. Using the memoirs of Lili Elbe (Hoyer, 1933) and Joy Ladin (2013) as conceptual brackets, this article investigates the complex relationship between the development and articulation of trans* identities and lesbian sexualities within the context of published memoirs of gender transition. PMID:26701770

  10. The rotational spectrum of trans -HOCO and DOCO

    SciTech Connect

    Radford, H.E.; Wei, W. ); Sears, T.J. )

    1992-09-15

    Part of the rotational spectrum of the hydroxyformyl radical, HOCO, and its deuterated analog has been detected at frequencies between 230 and 300 GHz. The radical was formed in a flow system by the reaction between chlorine atoms and formic acid. Analysis of the spectra yields reliable estimates of the rotational, centrifugal distortion and spin--rotational parameters describing the ground state of this species. The rotational constants derived for HOCO and DOCO are consistent with a planar equilibrium structure and are used to confirm that the carrier of the spectrum is the {ital trans}-geometrical isomer.

  11. Modified trans-oral approach for mandibular condylectomy.

    PubMed

    Deng, M; Long, X; Cheng, A H A; Cheng, Y; Cai, H

    2009-04-01

    Different approaches to the mandibular condyle have been described. In this paper, a modified trans-oral technique to access the mandibular condyle is described and illustrated. This technique was used in a small group of patients; the clinical outcomes are promising. The technique can be used in various temporomandibular joint (TMJ) operations, such as condylar resection, high condylectomy or tumor removal. It provides adequate intra-oral surgical access to the mandibular condyle and avoids complications from extra-oral approaches to the TMJ. PMID:19282151

  12. Integrated Analysis of Market Transformation Scenarios with HyTrans

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L; Leiby, Paul Newsome; Bowman, David Charles

    2007-06-01

    This report presents alternative visions of the transition of light-duty vehicle transportation in the United States from petroleum to hydrogen power. It is a supporting document to the U.S. Department of Energy's Summary Report, "Analysis of the Transition to a Hydrogen Economy and the Potential Hydrogen Infrastructure Requirements" (U.S. DOE, 2007). Three alternative early transition scenarios were analyzed using a market simulation model called HyTrans. The HyTrans model simultaneously represents the behavior of fuel suppliers, vehicle manufacturers and consumers, explicitly recognizing the importance of fuel availability and the diversity of vehicle choices to consumers, and dependence of fuel supply on the existence of market demand. Competitive market outcomes are simulated by means of non-linear optimization of social surplus through the year 2050. The three scenarios specify different rates and geographical distributions of market penetration for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles from 2012 through 2025. Scenario 1 leads to 2 million vehicles on U.S. roads by 2025, while Scenarios 2 and 3 result in 5 million and 10 million FCVs in use by 2025, respectively. The HyTrans model "costs out" the transition scenarios and alternative policies for achieving them. It then tests whether the scenarios, together with the achievement of the DOE's technology goals for fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen infrastructure technologies could lead to a sustainable transition to hydrogen powered transportation. Given the achievement of DOE's ambitious technology goals, all three scenarios appear to lead to a sustainable transition to hydrogen. In the absence of early transition deployment effort, no transition is likely to begin before 2045. The cumulative costs of the transition scenarios to the government range from $8 billion to $45 billion, depending on the scenario, the policies adopted and the degree of cost-sharing with industry. In the absence of carbon constraining policies, the

  13. Large-eddy simulation of trans- and supercritical injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, H.; Niedermeier, C. A.; Jarczyk, M.; Pfitzner, M.; Hickel, S.; Adams, N. A.

    2016-07-01

    In a joint effort to develop a robust numerical tool for the simulation of injection, mixing, and combustion in liquid rocket engines at high pressure, a real-gas thermodynamics model has been implemented into two computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes, the density-based INCA and a pressure-based version of OpenFOAM. As a part of the validation process, both codes have been used to perform large-eddy simulations (LES) of trans- and supercritical nitrogen injection. Despite the different code architecture and the different subgrid scale turbulence modeling strategy, both codes yield similar results. The agreement with the available experimental data is good.

  14. Trans-Planckian enhancements of the primordial non-Gaussianities

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Hael; Holman, R.

    2009-08-15

    This article examines how breaking a Lorentz-invariant description of nature at tiny space-time intervals would affect the non-Gaussian character of the pattern of primordial perturbations left by inflation. We specifically study a set of irrelevant operators that preserve the spatial symmetries of the usual inflationary background. The non-Gaussian component in the primordial fluctuations can be much larger than the usual, small, inflationary prediction and can thus lead to much stronger constraints on the role of 'trans-Planckian' physics in inflation than those from the measurements of the primordial power spectrum.

  15. A Guided Tour of the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Eric W.; Mendoza, Luis; Shteynberg, David; Farrah, Terry; Lam, Henry; Tasman, Natalie; Sun, Zhi; Nilsson, Erik; Pratt, Brian; Prazen, Bryan; Eng, Jimmy K.; Martin, Daniel B.; Nesvizhskii, Alexey; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2010-01-01

    The Trans-Proteomic Pipeline (TPP) is a suite of software tools for the analysis of tandem mass spectrometry datasets. The tools encompass most of the steps in a proteomic data analysis workflow in a single, integrated software system. Specifically, the TPP supports all steps from spectrometer output file conversion to protein-level statistical validation, including quantification by stable isotope ratios. We describe here the full workflow of the TPP and the tools therein, along with an example on a sample dataset, demonstrating that the set up and use of the tools is straightforward and well supported and does not require specialized informatics resources or knowledge. PMID:20101611

  16. Seismic hazard exposure for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cluff, L.S.; Page, R.A.; Slemmons, D.B.; Grouse, C.B.; ,

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of oil on Alaska's North Slope and the construction of a pipeline to transport that oil across Alaska coincided with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and a destructive Southern California earthquake in 1971 to cause stringent stipulations, state-of-the-art investigations, and innovative design for the pipeline. The magnitude 7.9 earthquake on the Denali fault in November 2002 was remarkably consistent with the design earthquake and fault displacement postulated for the Denali crossing of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline route. The pipeline maintained its integrity, and disaster was averted. Recent probabilistic studies to update previous hazard exposure conclusions suggest continuing pipeline integrity.

  17. Charge control of the inverse trans-influence.

    PubMed

    La Pierre, Henry S; Rosenzweig, Michael; Kosog, Boris; Hauser, Christina; Heinemann, Frank W; Liddle, Stephen T; Meyer, Karsten

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis and characterization of uranium(VI) mono(imido) complexes, by the oxidation of corresponding uranium(V) species, are presented. These experimental results, paired with DFT analyses, allow for the comparison of the electronic structure of uranium(VI) mono(oxo) and mono(imido) ligands within a conserved ligand framework and demonstrate that the magnitude of the ground state stabilization derived from the inverse trans-influence (ITI) is governed by the relative charge localization on the multiply bonded atom or group. PMID:26430823

  18. TransFind--predicting transcriptional regulators for gene sets.

    PubMed

    Kiełbasa, Szymon M; Klein, Holger; Roider, Helge G; Vingron, Martin; Blüthgen, Nils

    2010-07-01

    The analysis of putative transcription factor binding sites in promoter regions of coregulated genes allows to infer the transcription factors that underlie observed changes in gene expression. While such analyses constitute a central component of the in-silico characterization of transcriptional regulatory networks, there is still a lack of simple-to-use web servers able to combine state-of-the-art prediction methods with phylogenetic analysis and appropriate multiple testing corrected statistics, which returns the results within a short time. Having these aims in mind we developed TransFind, which is freely available at http://transfind.sys-bio.net/.

  19. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CYBERNETICS

    SciTech Connect

    Craig R. RIeger; David H. Scheidt; William D. Smart

    2014-11-01

    MODERN societies depend on complex and critical infrastructures for energy, transportation, sustenance, medical care, emergency response, communications security. As computers, automation, and information technology (IT) have advanced, these technologies have been exploited to enhance the efficiency of operating the processes that make up these infrastructures

  20. IEEE conference record -- Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference covers the following areas: computational plasma physics; vacuum electronic; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; plasma, electron, and ion sources; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; space plasmas; plasma processing; ball lightning/spherical plasma configurations; plasma processing; fast wave devices; magnetic fusion; basic phenomena in partially ionized plasma; dense plasma focus; plasma diagnostics; basic phenomena in weakly ionized gases; fast opening switches; MHD; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense ion and electron beams; laser-produced plasmas; microwave plasma interactions; EM and ETH launchers; solid state plasmas and switches; intense beam microwaves; and plasmas for lighting. Separate abstracts were prepared for 416 papers in this conference.

  1. It All Starts with a Sandwich: Identification of Sialidases with Trans-Glycosylation Activity

    PubMed Central

    Nordvang, Rune T.; Nyffenegger, Christian; Holck, Jesper; Jers, Carsten; Sundekilde, Ulrik K.; Meyer, Anne S.; Mikkelsen, Jørn D.

    2016-01-01

    Sialidases (3.2.1.18) may exhibit trans-sialidase activity to catalyze sialylation of lactose if the active site topology is congruent with that of the Trypanosoma cruzi trans-sialidase (EC 2.4.1.-). The present work was undertaken to test the hypothesis that a particular aromatic sandwich structure of two amino acids proximal to the active site of the T. cruzi trans-sialidase infers trans-sialidase activity. On this basis, four enzymes with putative trans-sialidase activity were identified through an iterative alignment from 2909 native sialidases available in GenBank, which were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Of these, one enzyme, SialH, derived from Haemophilus parasuis had an aromatic sandwich structure on the protein surface facing the end of the catalytic site (Phe168; Trp366), and was indeed found to exhibit trans-sialidase activity. SialH catalyzed production of the human milk oligosaccharide 3’-sialyllactose as well as the novel trans-sialylation product 3-sialyllactose using casein glycomacropeptide as sialyl donor and lactose as acceptor. The findings corroborated that Tyr119 and Trp312 in the T. cruzi trans-sialidase are part of an aromatic sandwich structure that confers trans-sialylation activity for lactose sialylation. The in silico identification of trans-glycosidase activity by rational active site topology alignment thus proved to be a quick tool for selecting putative trans-sialidases amongst a large group of glycosyl hydrolases. The approach moreover provided data that help understand structure-function relations of trans-sialidases. PMID:27367145

  2. It All Starts with a Sandwich: Identification of Sialidases with Trans-Glycosylation Activity.

    PubMed

    Nordvang, Rune T; Nyffenegger, Christian; Holck, Jesper; Jers, Carsten; Zeuner, Birgitte; Sundekilde, Ulrik K; Meyer, Anne S; Mikkelsen, Jørn D

    2016-01-01

    Sialidases (3.2.1.18) may exhibit trans-sialidase activity to catalyze sialylation of lactose if the active site topology is congruent with that of the Trypanosoma cruzi trans-sialidase (EC 2.4.1.-). The present work was undertaken to test the hypothesis that a particular aromatic sandwich structure of two amino acids proximal to the active site of the T. cruzi trans-sialidase infers trans-sialidase activity. On this basis, four enzymes with putative trans-sialidase activity were identified through an iterative alignment from 2909 native sialidases available in GenBank, which were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Of these, one enzyme, SialH, derived from Haemophilus parasuis had an aromatic sandwich structure on the protein surface facing the end of the catalytic site (Phe168; Trp366), and was indeed found to exhibit trans-sialidase activity. SialH catalyzed production of the human milk oligosaccharide 3'-sialyllactose as well as the novel trans-sialylation product 3-sialyllactose using casein glycomacropeptide as sialyl donor and lactose as acceptor. The findings corroborated that Tyr119 and Trp312 in the T. cruzi trans-sialidase are part of an aromatic sandwich structure that confers trans-sialylation activity for lactose sialylation. The in silico identification of trans-glycosidase activity by rational active site topology alignment thus proved to be a quick tool for selecting putative trans-sialidases amongst a large group of glycosyl hydrolases. The approach moreover provided data that help understand structure-function relations of trans-sialidases. PMID:27367145

  3. The intriguing modeling of cis–trans selectivity in ruthenium-catalyzed olefin metathesis

    PubMed Central

    Bahri-Laleh, Naeimeh; Credendino, Raffaele

    2011-01-01

    Summary In this study we have investigated computationally the origin of the cis–trans selectivity in the Ru-catalyzed cross metathesis (CM) of a prototype monosubstituted olefin, i.e., propene. Our calculations suggest that the origin of the preferential formation of trans-olefins is in the product release step, which prevents the initially formed cis-olefin from escaping the metal, and returns it to the reaction pool until the trans-olefin is formed. PMID:21286393

  4. Epoxidation of the methamphetamine pyrolysis product, trans-phenylpropene, to trans-phenylpropylene oxide by CYP enzymes and stereoselective glutathione adduct formation

    SciTech Connect

    Sanga, Madhu; Younis, Islam R.; Tirumalai, Padma S.; Bland, Tina M.; Banaszewska, Monica; Konat, Gregory W.; Tracy, Timothy S.; Gannett, Peter M.; Callery, Patrick S. . E-mail: pcallery@hsc.wvu.edu

    2006-03-01

    Pyrolytic products of smoked methamphetamine hydrochloride are well established. Among the various degradation products formed, trans-phenylpropene (trans-{beta}-methylstyrene) is structurally similar to styrene analogues known to be bioactivated by CYP enzymes. In human liver microsomes, trans-phenylpropene was converted to the epoxide trans-phenylpropylene oxide (trans-2-methyl-3-phenyloxirane) and cinnamyl alcohol. Incubation of trans-phenylpropene with microsomes in the presence of enzyme-specific P450 enzyme inhibitors indicated the involvement of CYP2E1, CYP1A2, and CYP3A4 enzymes. Both (R,R)-phenylpropylene oxide and (S,S)-phenylpropylene oxide were formed in human liver microsomal preparations. Enantiomers of trans-phenylpropylene oxide were stereoselectively and regioselectively conjugated in a Phase II drug metabolism reaction catalyzed by human liver cytosolic enzymes consisting of conjugation with glutathione. The structure of the phenylpropylene oxide-glutathione adduct is consistent with nucleophilic ring-opening by attack at the benzylic carbon. Exposure of cultured C6 glial cells to (S,S)-phenylpropylene oxide produced a cytotoxic response in a concentration-dependent manner based on cell degeneration and death.

  5. In vivo trans-rectal ultrasound coupled trans-rectal near-infrared optical tomography of canine prostate bearing transmissible venereal tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhen; Holyoak, G. Reed; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Xu, Guan; Bunting, Charles F.; Slobodov, Gennady; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Piao, Daqing

    2009-02-01

    In vivo trans-rectal near-infrared (NIR) optical tomography is conducted on a tumor-bearing canine prostate with the assistance of trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS). The canine prostate tumor model is made possible by a unique round cell neoplasm of dogs, transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) that can be transferred from dog to dog regardless of histocompatibility. A characterized TVT cell line was homogenized and passed twice in subcutaneous tissue of NOD/SCID mice. Following the second passage, the tumor was recovered, homogenized and then inoculated by ultrasound guidance into the prostate gland of a healthy dog. The dog was then imaged with a combined trans-rectal NIR and TRUS imager using an integrated trans-rectal NIR/US applicator. The image was taken by NIR and US modalities concurrently, both in sagittal view. The trans-rectal NIR imager is a continuous-wave system that illuminates 7 source channels sequentially by a fiber switch to deliver sufficient light power to the relatively more absorbing prostate tissue and samples 7 detection channels simultaneously by a gated intensified high-resolution CCD camera. This work tests the feasibility of detecting prostate tumor by trans-rectal NIR optical tomography and the benefit of augmenting TRUS with trans-rectal NIR imaging.

  6. Determination of trans fat in edible oils: current official methods and overview of recent developments.

    PubMed

    Tyburczy, Cynthia; Mossoba, Magdi M; Rader, Jeanne I

    2013-07-01

    The adverse effects of dietary trans fat on biomarkers of chronic disease are well documented. Regulatory authorities in many countries have enacted legislation aimed at reducing trans fat content of their food supplies, either by requiring trans fat labeling on pre-packaged foods or by limiting the amount of trans fat in oils used for food production. Increased use by the food industry of oils with a low trans fat content necessitates reevaluation of official methods used by the food industry and regulatory agencies for the determination of total trans fat. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) are two techniques used in official methods approved by method-endorsing organizations, for example AOAC International and the American Oil Chemists' Society. Here, we review current official ATR-FTIR and GC-FID methods for determination of trans fat, with a focus on factors affecting quantification of low levels of trans fat. We include new data on method performance that have only recently become available, and provide an overview of notable recent developments in lipid analysis (e.g. IR spectroscopy procedures, ionic-liquid GC columns, and multidimensional chromatographic techniques) that have the potential to substantially improve the accuracy, sensitivity, and/or speed of trans fat determination.

  7. The elimination of trans fats from spreads: how science helped to turn an industry around.

    PubMed

    Korver, Onno; Katan, Martijn B

    2006-06-01

    Mensink and Katan showed in 1990 that trans fats reduce high- and increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Unilever aided this study because the company considered knowledge on trans fats incomplete in spite of their long history of safe use. The decision in 1994 to remove trans fats from Unilever's retail spreads was triggered by media events, but it was built on a solid understanding of the nutritional and technological aspects of trans fats. Over the next 14 years, manufacturers worldwide followed suit. This experience illustrates that food companies need to know about the health effects of their products and how to apply that knowledge. PMID:16808113

  8. New and existing oils and fats used in products with reduced trans-fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Tarrago-Trani, Maria Teresa; Phillips, Katherine M; Lemar, Linda E; Holden, Joanne M

    2006-06-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's final ruling on trans-fatty acid labeling issued in 2003 has caused a rapid transformation in the fat and oil industries. Novel ingredients and improved technologies are emerging to replace partially hydrogenated fats in foods. We present an overview of the structure and formation of trans fatty acids in foods, and a comprehensive review of the newly formulated products and current procedures practiced by the edible oil industry to reduce or eliminate trans fatty acids in response to the Food and Drug Administration's regulations mandating trans fat labeling of foods. PMID:16720128

  9. An other space: between and beyond lesbian-normativity and trans-normativity.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Myfanwy

    2006-01-01

    What happens when sectors of a lesbian community advocate for a space free of trans women? How do the responses to those types of policies, from within MTF trans communities, impact upon MTF trans women as a whole? How do these types of conflicts impact upon lesbians whose relationship to the term 'born female' is not straightforward? What does the focus upon these instances of conflict in the mainstream media mean and what effect does this focus have upon broader understandings about lesbians, lesbian communities and the complex intersections between lesbian and trans? PMID:16873221

  10. Boycunts and bonus holes: trans men's bodies, neoliberalism, and the sexual productivity of genitals.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Elijah Adiv; Zimman, Lal

    2014-01-01

    Recent theorizations of trans embodiment have brought attention to the ways neoliberalism limits the productivity of nonnormatively gendered bodies. This article deals with the discursive framing of embodiment and sexual desirability among trans men and other transmasculine persons negotiating Internet-mediated homoerotic spaces. Micro-level analysis of discourse structure and macro-level analysis of socio-political context together show how trans men navigate homonormative sexual economies by linguistically recuperating their bodies' sexually productivity. Instead of undermining claims of embodied masculinity and homoerotic value, potential sites of exclusion-i.e., trans genitals-become sites of flexible accumulation that enhance rather than detract from their bearers' desirability. PMID:24294971

  11. An other space: between and beyond lesbian-normativity and trans-normativity.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Myfanwy

    2006-01-01

    What happens when sectors of a lesbian community advocate for a space free of trans women? How do the responses to those types of policies, from within MTF trans communities, impact upon MTF trans women as a whole? How do these types of conflicts impact upon lesbians whose relationship to the term 'born female' is not straightforward? What does the focus upon these instances of conflict in the mainstream media mean and what effect does this focus have upon broader understandings about lesbians, lesbian communities and the complex intersections between lesbian and trans?

  12. MetaTrans: an open-source pipeline for metatranscriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Xavier; Pozuelo, Marta; Pascal, Victoria; Campos, David; Gut, Ivo; Gut, Marta; Azpiroz, Fernando; Guarner, Francisco; Manichanh, Chaysavanh

    2016-01-01

    To date, meta-omic approaches use high-throughput sequencing technologies, which produce a huge amount of data, thus challenging modern computers. Here we present MetaTrans, an efficient open-source pipeline to analyze the structure and functions of active microbial communities using the power of multi-threading computers. The pipeline is designed to perform two types of RNA-Seq analyses: taxonomic and gene expression. It performs quality-control assessment, rRNA removal, maps reads against functional databases and also handles differential gene expression analysis. Its efficacy was validated by analyzing data from synthetic mock communities, data from a previous study and data generated from twelve human fecal samples. Compared to an existing web application server, MetaTrans shows more efficiency in terms of runtime (around 2 hours per million of transcripts) and presents adapted tools to compare gene expression levels. It has been tested with a human gut microbiome database but also proposes an option to use a general database in order to analyze other ecosystems. For the installation and use of the pipeline, we provide a detailed guide at the following website (www.metatrans.org). PMID:27211518

  13. Trans-Americas leads the way into municipal textile recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgley, H.

    1998-08-01

    Most textile waste in the US still goes to the landfill--an estimated 6.6 million tons each year. But thanks to the efforts of textile recycles--such as Trans-Americas Textile Recycling CO. (Brooklyn, NY)--another 1.25 million tons gets salvaged for reuse overseas or as a feedstock for the wiping and fiber industries, according to the Council for Textile Recycling. In an era where global population levels are increasing the demand for textile waste from the Western world and municipalities are struggling to reach their waste diversion goals, boosting textile recovery rates makes sense. And it`s a waste that can be easily incorporated into existing municipal curbside or drop-off recycling programs. Since 1942, when the company first opened its doors in Brooklyn, NY, it purchased textile discards from charities. While those discards still make up the majority of Trans-Americas` supply, in the last two years, the company also began purchasing post-consumer material from municipalities. Textiles are definitely going to be an increasingly important part of recycling, as states look to meet their mandates.

  14. Photoinduced trans-to-cis isomerization of cyclocurcumin.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, Ramkrishna; Barnes, Charles A; Trampel, Rachel L; Wallace, Samuel J; Kee, Tak W; Petrich, Jacob W

    2011-09-15

    The photophysical properties of cyclocurcumin in various solvents are studied for the first time to shed light on the nonradiative processes of the parent compound, curcumin, which has a range of medicinal properties. Steady-state fluorescence and fluorescence-excitation spectra of cyclocurcumin in polar aprotic solvents are strongly dependent on excitation (λ(ex)) and emission (λ(em)) wavelength, respectively. The fluorescence quantum yield also depends on λ(ex) and increases with the viscosity of the medium. Time-resolved studies show nonexponential fluorescence decay in all solvents studied. The two fluorescence decay components of cyclocurcumin in alcohols exhibit a strong dependence on viscosity and temperature. NMR spectroscopy indicates that cyclocurcumin is entirely in the trans form with respect to the C6-C7 double bond in methanol, chloroform, and acetone. It is suggested that at least two conformational isomers about another single bond (C5-C6 or C7-C1″ or both) and that trans-to-cis isomerization about the C6-C7 double bond of these isomers provide the most likely means of rationalizing the steady-state spectra and the nonradiative decay mechanisms in both protic and aprotic polar solvents.

  15. Spliced leader RNA trans-splicing discovered in copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Feifei; Xu, Donghui; Zhuang, Yunyun; Yi, Xiaoyan; Huang, Yousong; Chen, Hongju; Lin, Senjie; Campbell, David A.; Sturm, Nancy R.; Liu, Guangxing; Zhang, Huan

    2015-12-01

    Copepods are one of the most abundant metazoans in the marine ecosystem, constituting a critical link in aquatic food webs and contributing significantly to the global carbon budget, yet molecular mechanisms of their gene expression are not well understood. Here we report the detection of spliced leader (SL) trans-splicing in calanoid copepods. We have examined nine species of wild-caught copepods from Jiaozhou Bay, China that represent the major families of the calanoids. All these species contained a common 46-nt SL (CopepodSL). We further determined the size of CopepodSL precursor RNA (slRNA; 108-158 nt) through genomic analysis and 3‧-RACE technique, which was confirmed by RNA blot analysis. Structure modeling showed that the copepod slRNA folded into typical slRNA secondary structures. Using a CopepodSL-based primer set, we selectively enriched and sequenced copepod full-length cDNAs, which led to the characterization of copepod transcripts and the cataloging of the complete set of 79 eukaryotic cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins (cRPs) for a single copepod species. We uncovered the SL trans-splicing in copepod natural populations, and demonstrated that CopepodSL was a sensitive and specific tool for copepod transcriptomic studies at both the individual and population levels and that it would be useful for metatranscriptomic analysis of copepods.

  16. New data on harmful effects of trans-fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Ginter, E; Simko, V

    2016-01-01

    Various margarines containing trans-fatty acids were marketed as being healthier because of the absence of cholesterol, suggesting to use margarine instead of butter. Fifteen years ago, research documented the grave health risk of trans-fats (T-fat). US FDA in 2015 finalized its decision that T-fat is not safe and set a three-year time limit for complete removal of T-fat from all foods. The greatest danger from T-fat lies in its capacity to distort the cell membranes. The primary health risk identified for T-fat consumption is an elevated risk of coronary heart disease. T-fats have an adverse effect on the brain and nervous system. T-fat from the diet is incorporated into brain cell membranes and alter the ability of neurons to communicate. This can diminish mental performance. Relationship between T-fat intake and depression risk was observed. There is growing evidence for a possible role of T-fat in the development of Alzheimer´s disease and cognitive decline with age. PMID:27215959

  17. A New Analytical Model for Trans-Relativistic Particle Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Most existing analytical models describing the second-order Fermi acceleration of relativistic particles due to collisions with MHD waves assume that the injected seed particles are already highly relativistic, despite the fact that the most prevalent source of particles is usually the local thermal background, which is typically a non-relativistic gas. This presents a problem because the momentum dependence of the momentum diffusion coefficient describing the interaction between the particles and the MHD waves is qualitatively different in the non-relativistic and highly relativistic limits. Since the existing analytical models are not able to address this situation, workers have had to rely on numerical simulations to obtain particle spectra describing the trans-relativistic case. In this work we present the first analytical solution to the global, trans-relativistic problem, obtained by using a hybrid form for the momentum diffusion coefficient, given by the sum of the two asymptotic forms. The model also incorporates the appropriate momentum dependence for the particle escape timescale, and the effect of synchrotron and inverse-Compton losses, which are critical for establishing the location of the high-energy cutoff in the particle spectrum. The results can be used to model the acceleration of particles in AGN and solar environments, and can also be used to compute the spectra of the associated synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission. Applications of both types are discussed.

  18. Conservation of trans-acting networks during mammalian regulatory evolution

    PubMed Central

    Stergachis, Andrew B.; Neph, Shane; Sandstrom, Richard; Haugen, Eric; Reynolds, Alex P.; Zhang, Miaohua; Byron, Rachel; Canfield, Theresa; Stelhing-Sun, Sandra; Lee, Kristen; Thurman, Robert E.; Vong, Shinny; Bates, Daniel; Neri, Fidencio; Diegel, Morgan; Giste, Erika; Dunn, Douglas; Hansen, R. Scott; Johnson, Audra K.; Sabo, Peter J.; Wilken, Matthew S.; Reh, Thomas A.; Treuting, Piper M.; Kaul, Rajinder; Groudine, Mark; Bender, M.A.; Borenstein, Elhanan; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental body plan and major physiological axes have been highly conserved during mammalian evolution, despite constraint of only a fraction of the human genome sequence. To quantify cis- vs. trans-regulatory contributions to mammalian regulatory evolution, we performed genomic DNase I footprinting of the mouse genome across 25 cell and tissue types, collectively defining >8.6 million TF occupancy sites at nucleotide resolution. Here we show that mouse TF footprints encode a regulatory lexicon of >600 motifs that is >95% similar with that recognized in vivo by human TFs. However, only ~20% of mouse TF footprints have human orthologues. Despite substantial turnover of the cis-regulatory landscape around each TF gene, nearly half of all pairwise regulatory interactions connecting mouse TF genes have been maintained in orthologous human cell types through evolutionary innovation of TF recognition sequences. Strikingly, the higher-level organization of mouse TF-to-TF connections into cellular network architectures is nearly identical with human. Our results suggest that evolutionary selection on mammalian gene regulation is targeted chiefly at the level of trans-regulatory circuitry. PMID:25409825

  19. Future Projections of Trans-Arctic Shipping Potential and Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, S. R.; Smith, L. C.

    2014-12-01

    As the Arctic Ocean transitions towards a seasonally ice-free state, efforts to predict new connections between the Arctic and the global economy are underway. In particular, record lows in September sea ice extent from 2007-2013 have recast Arctic shipping routes as emerging international seaways for export of resources and as potential alternative pathways for global trade. While ensemble-averaged output from sea ice models suggest significant increases in vessel accessibility in September by midcentury (Smith & Stephenson, 2013), the seasonal length and variability of trans-Arctic shipping is not well understood. In addition, differences in ice extent due to inter-model variability reveal significant uncertainties in the magnitude and location of future vessel access. Here we present several scenarios of 21st-century trans-Arctic shipping as driven by sea ice output from CMIP5 models. Optimal vessel transits from North America and Europe to the Bering Strait are estimated for two periods representing present-day (2006-2015) and midcentury (2040-2059) conditions under two forcing scenarios (RCP 4.5/8.5), assuming Polar Class 6 (PC6) and open-water vessels (OW) with medium and no ice-breaking capability, respectively. Results illustrate a range of potential futures for shipping in the Arctic owing to differences in model choice, vessel capability, and climate forcing. Inter-model differences reveal the importance of model choice in devising projections for strategic planning by governments, environmental agencies, and the global maritime industry.

  20. Spliced leader RNA trans-splicing discovered in copepods

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Feifei; Xu, Donghui; Zhuang, Yunyun; Yi, Xiaoyan; Huang, Yousong; Chen, Hongju; Lin, Senjie; Campbell, David A.; Sturm, Nancy R.; Liu, Guangxing; Zhang, Huan

    2015-01-01

    Copepods are one of the most abundant metazoans in the marine ecosystem, constituting a critical link in aquatic food webs and contributing significantly to the global carbon budget, yet molecular mechanisms of their gene expression are not well understood. Here we report the detection of spliced leader (SL) trans-splicing in calanoid copepods. We have examined nine species of wild-caught copepods from Jiaozhou Bay, China that represent the major families of the calanoids. All these species contained a common 46-nt SL (CopepodSL). We further determined the size of CopepodSL precursor RNA (slRNA; 108-158 nt) through genomic analysis and 3′-RACE technique, which was confirmed by RNA blot analysis. Structure modeling showed that the copepod slRNA folded into typical slRNA secondary structures. Using a CopepodSL-based primer set, we selectively enriched and sequenced copepod full-length cDNAs, which led to the characterization of copepod transcripts and the cataloging of the complete set of 79 eukaryotic cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins (cRPs) for a single copepod species. We uncovered the SL trans-splicing in copepod natural populations, and demonstrated that CopepodSL was a sensitive and specific tool for copepod transcriptomic studies at both the individual and population levels and that it would be useful for metatranscriptomic analysis of copepods. PMID:26621068

  1. Overview of trans fatty acids: biochemistry and health effects.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Swati; Passi, Santosh Jain; Misra, Anoop

    2011-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are unsaturated fatty acids that contain at least one non-conjugated double bond in the trans configuration, resulting in a straighter shape. TFA present in our diet can either be industrially produced and ruminant or natural. The major process contributing to formation of industrial TFA is hydrogenation of vegetable oils. Thermal processes such as edible oil refining and frying also lead to the formation of TFA while, ruminant/natural TFA is formed in the rumen of ruminant animals through bio-hydrogenation. Industrial TFA poses severe effects on our health like cardiovascular problems, insulin resistance, infertility in women, compromised fetal development and cognitive decline. There are strict regulations for limiting/removing the TFA content from food supply across the world. However in India, there is scarcity of data on TFA content in foods and their consumption levels. Given the alarmingly rising trend of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in India, removal of TFA from the food supply along with generating awareness among the masses in this regard is of immense importance.

  2. MetaTrans: an open-source pipeline for metatranscriptomics.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Xavier; Pozuelo, Marta; Pascal, Victoria; Campos, David; Gut, Ivo; Gut, Marta; Azpiroz, Fernando; Guarner, Francisco; Manichanh, Chaysavanh

    2016-05-23

    To date, meta-omic approaches use high-throughput sequencing technologies, which produce a huge amount of data, thus challenging modern computers. Here we present MetaTrans, an efficient open-source pipeline to analyze the structure and functions of active microbial communities using the power of multi-threading computers. The pipeline is designed to perform two types of RNA-Seq analyses: taxonomic and gene expression. It performs quality-control assessment, rRNA removal, maps reads against functional databases and also handles differential gene expression analysis. Its efficacy was validated by analyzing data from synthetic mock communities, data from a previous study and data generated from twelve human fecal samples. Compared to an existing web application server, MetaTrans shows more efficiency in terms of runtime (around 2 hours per million of transcripts) and presents adapted tools to compare gene expression levels. It has been tested with a human gut microbiome database but also proposes an option to use a general database in order to analyze other ecosystems. For the installation and use of the pipeline, we provide a detailed guide at the following website (www.metatrans.org).

  3. Cis and trans activation of adenovirus IVa2 gene transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, V; Salzman, N P

    1985-01-01

    The transcriptional control region of the adenovirus IVa2 promoter was analyzed by cloning this promoter in front of a gene coding for bacterial chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CATase) and estimating levels of CATase and IVa2 promoter specific RNA synthesized after transfection. To produce detectable amounts of CATase with the IVa2 promoter, an enhancer has to be present in cis. In the absence of enhancer sequences, the adenovirus E1A gene can not stimulate CATase synthesis. When cells were transfected with plasmids containing enhancer sequences and various IVa2 mutant promoters upstream of the CAT gene, we observed that CATase activity was not reduced significantly even after deletion of all sequences upstream of the RNA initiation site. Synthesis of IVa2 specific RNA was dependent on plasmids containing an enhancer (SV40 72 bp repeat) that was present in cis. In the absence of enhancer sequences, co-transfection to provide the adenovirus E1A gene in trans also stimulated IVa2 RNA synthesis. When HeLa cells were transfected with various deletion mutants with an enhancer in cis it was seen that sequences -38 to -64 base pairs upstream of the RNA initiation site are necessary for efficient transcription. The E1A gene in trans and an enhancer in cis have an additive effect on RNA synthesis from both IVa2 and major late promoters. The basis for the conflicting results between transcription and CATase synthesis is discussed. Images PMID:2989786

  4. New data on harmful effects of trans-fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Ginter, E; Simko, V

    2016-01-01

    Various margarines containing trans-fatty acids were marketed as being healthier because of the absence of cholesterol, suggesting to use margarine instead of butter. Fifteen years ago, research documented the grave health risk of trans-fats (T-fat). US FDA in 2015 finalized its decision that T-fat is not safe and set a three-year time limit for complete removal of T-fat from all foods. The greatest danger from T-fat lies in its capacity to distort the cell membranes. The primary health risk identified for T-fat consumption is an elevated risk of coronary heart disease. T-fats have an adverse effect on the brain and nervous system. T-fat from the diet is incorporated into brain cell membranes and alter the ability of neurons to communicate. This can diminish mental performance. Relationship between T-fat intake and depression risk was observed. There is growing evidence for a possible role of T-fat in the development of Alzheimer´s disease and cognitive decline with age.

  5. Dietary trans fats enhance doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Mong, Mei-chin; Hsia, Te-chun; Yin, Mei-chin

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the combined effects of trans fat diet (TFD) and doxorubicin upon cardiac oxidative, inflammatory, and coagulatory stress. TFD increased trans fatty acid deposit in heart (P < 0.05), and decreased protein C and antithrombin-III activities in circulation (P < 0.05). TFD plus doxorubicin treatment elevated activities of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine phosphokinase (P < 0.05). This combination also raised xanthine oxidase activity, and enhanced cardiac levels of reactive oxygen species, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 than TFD or doxorubicin treatment alone (P < 0.05). TFD alone increased cardiac nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity (P < 0.05), but failed to affect expression of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (P > 0.05). Doxorubicin treatment alone augmented cardiac activity, mRNA expression, and protein production of NF-κB and MAPK (P < 0.05). TFD plus doxorubicin treatment further upregulated cardiac expression of NF-κB p65, p-p38, and p-ERK1/2 (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that TFD exacerbates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.

  6. Interchain coupling and 3D modeling of trans-polyacetylene

    SciTech Connect

    Bronold, F.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    In spite of the success of the SSH model for trans-polyacetylene in interpreting many experimental results (e.g. optical and magnetic properties) there remain some aspects of the real material which are outside the scope of the simple 1D model. Especially ordering phenomena of doped and undoped trans-polyacetylene as well as transport properties (e.g. electronic and thermal conductivity) are beyond a 1D description. There are many attempts to construct a transport theory for this novel class of materials using solitons or polaxons as the basic ingredients. But so far it is not yet clear whether these typical 1D excitations still exist in crystalline transpolyacetylene. Therefore, to clarify the role which intrinsic self-localized nonlinear excitations characteristic of 1D models play in the bulk (3D) material, we study the stability of a polaronic excitation against interchain coupling. As a preliminary step we consider first two coupled t-(CH){sub x}-chains where the {pi}-electrons are allowed to hop from one chain to the other. Then we introduce a 3D generalization of the SSH model and study a polaron in a 3D crystalline environment.

  7. Interchain coupling and 3D modeling of trans-polyacetylene

    SciTech Connect

    Bronold, F.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.

    1992-09-01

    In spite of the success of the SSH model for trans-polyacetylene in interpreting many experimental results (e.g. optical and magnetic properties) there remain some aspects of the real material which are outside the scope of the simple 1D model. Especially ordering phenomena of doped and undoped trans-polyacetylene as well as transport properties (e.g. electronic and thermal conductivity) are beyond a 1D description. There are many attempts to construct a transport theory for this novel class of materials using solitons or polaxons as the basic ingredients. But so far it is not yet clear whether these typical 1D excitations still exist in crystalline transpolyacetylene. Therefore, to clarify the role which intrinsic self-localized nonlinear excitations characteristic of 1D models play in the bulk (3D) material, we study the stability of a polaronic excitation against interchain coupling. As a preliminary step we consider first two coupled t-(CH){sub x}-chains where the {pi}-electrons are allowed to hop from one chain to the other. Then we introduce a 3D generalization of the SSH model and study a polaron in a 3D crystalline environment.

  8. The association of serum trans-nonachlor levels with atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mangum, Lee C; Mangum, Lauren H; Chambers, Janice E; Ross, Matthew K; Meek, Edward C; Wills, Robert W; Crow, J Allen

    2016-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a strong association between exposure to environmental contaminants, including organochlorine (OC) insecticides or their metabolites, and development of pathologies, such as atherosclerosis, in which oxidative stress plays a significant etiological role. Biomarkers of systemic oxidative stress have the potential to link production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are formed as a result of exposure to xenobiotic toxicants, and underlying pathophysiological states. Measurement of F2-isoprostane concentrations in body fluids is the most accurate and sensitive method currently available for assessing in vivo steady-state oxidative stress levels. In the current study, urinary concentrations of F2-isoprostanes and serum levels of persistent OC compounds p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE), trans-nonachlor (a component of the technical chlordane mixture), and oxychlordane (a chlordane metabolite) were quantified in a cross-sectional study sample and the association of these factors with a clinical diagnosis of atherosclerosis determined. Urinary isoprostane levels were not associated with atherosclerosis or serum concentrations of OC compounds in this study sample. However, occurrence of atherosclerosis was found to be associated with serum trans-nonachlor levels. DDE and oxychlordane were not associated with atherosclerosis. This finding supports current evidence that exposure to environmental factors is a risk factor for atherosclerosis, in addition to other known risk factors. PMID:26953872

  9. Haumea and the rotational fission of trans-Neptunian objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, J. L.; Richardson, D. C.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Morales, N.; Benavidez, P. G.

    2012-09-01

    We think it is likely that rotational fission has occurred for a fraction of the known trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). It is also likely that a number of binary or multiple systems have formed from that process in the trans-Neptunian belt. We focus on Haumea, which is a potential example of an object that has suffered rotational fission. Its current fast spin would be a slight evolution of a primordial fast spin, rather than the result of a catastrophic collision. We conclude that based on the specific angular momentum of Haumea and its satellites, and from N-body simulations of rotational fission applied to the case of Haumea. These show that the process is feasible, it might have generated satellites, and it might have even created a 'family' of bodies associated to Haumea's orbit. These associated bodies might come from the direct ejection of fragments, according to our simulations, or through the evolution of a proto-satellite formed during the fission event, or from an escapee that later suffered a disruption. In the future, perhaps TNO pairs may be found (i.e. pairs of bodies sharing very similar orbital elements but not bound together), as is the case in the NEA and Main Belt asteroid populations, where pairs are known to come from rotational fissions.

  10. A novel random effect model for GWAS meta-analysis and its application to trans-ethnic meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jingchunzi; Lee, Seunggeun

    2016-09-01

    Meta-analysis of trans-ethnic genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has proven to be a practical and profitable approach for identifying loci that contribute to the risk of complex diseases. However, the expected genetic effect heterogeneity cannot easily be accommodated through existing fixed-effects and random-effects methods. In response, we propose a novel random effect model for trans-ethnic meta-analysis with flexible modeling of the expected genetic effect heterogeneity across diverse populations. Specifically, we adopt a modified random effect model from the kernel regression framework, in which genetic effect coefficients are random variables whose correlation structure reflects the genetic distances across ancestry groups. In addition, we use the adaptive variance component test to achieve robust power regardless of the degree of genetic effect heterogeneity. Simulation studies show that our proposed method has well-calibrated type I error rates at very stringent significance levels and can improve power over the traditional meta-analysis methods. We reanalyzed the published type 2 diabetes GWAS meta-analysis (Consortium et al., 2014) and successfully identified one additional SNP that clearly exhibits genetic effect heterogeneity across different ancestry groups. Furthermore, our proposed method provides scalable computing time for genome-wide datasets, in which an analysis of one million SNPs would require less than 3 hours.

  11. Al(III) -catalysed formation of poly(limonene)carbonate: DFT analysis of the origin of stereoregularity.

    PubMed

    Peña Carrodeguas, Leticia; González-Fabra, Joan; Castro-Gómez, Fernando; Bo, Carles; Kleij, Arjan W

    2015-04-13

    Amino-triphenolate derived Al(III) complexes combined with suitable nucleophiles have been investigated as binary catalysts for the coupling of limonene oxide and carbon dioxide to afford alternating polycarbonates. These catalysts are able to produce stereoregular, perfectly alternating trans-polymers from cis-limonene oxide, whereas the pure trans isomer and cis/trans mixture give rise to lower degrees of stereoregularity. The best Al(III) catalyst shows the potential to mediate the conversion of both stereoisomers of limonene oxide with high conversion levels of up to 71 % under neat conditions, indicating the high degree of robustness and atom-efficiency of this catalytic process. Computational studies have revealed unique features of the binary catalyst system, among which is the preferred nucleophilic attack on the quaternary carbon centre in the limonene oxide substrate.

  12. Extreme trans-Neptunian objects and the Kozai mechanism: signalling the presence of trans-Plutonian planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.

    2014-09-01

    The existence of an outer planet beyond Pluto has been a matter of debate for decades and the recent discovery of 2012 VP113 has just revived the interest for this controversial topic. This Sedna-like object has the most distant perihelion of any known minor planet and the value of its argument of perihelion is close to 0°. This property appears to be shared by almost all known asteroids with semimajor axis greater than 150 au and perihelion greater than 30 au (the extreme trans-Neptunian objects or ETNOs), and this fact has been interpreted as evidence for the existence of a super-Earth at 250 au. In this scenario, a population of stable asteroids may be shepherded by a distant, undiscovered planet larger than the Earth that keeps the value of their argument of perihelion librating around 0° as a result of the Kozai mechanism. Here, we study the visibility of these ETNOs and confirm that the observed excess of objects reaching perihelion near the ascending node cannot be explained in terms of any observational biases. This excess must be a true feature of this population and its possible origin is explored in the framework of the Kozai effect. The analysis of several possible scenarios strongly suggest that at least two trans-Plutonian planets must exist.

  13. Self-injury among trans individuals and matched controls: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Davey, Amanda; Arcelus, Jon; Meyer, Caroline; Bouman, Walter Pierre

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to determine the prevalence rate of current non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among trans individuals, in comparison with a control sample of non-trans adults. It also aims to compare those with current NSSI and those with no history of NSSI in terms of psychological well-being, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social support and demographic factors. Participants were 97 adults, diagnosed with transsexualism (ICD-10, F64.0), attending a national gender clinic in the United Kingdom, and a matched control group. Clinical participants were all engaged on the treatment pathway. Participants completed the following self-report measures: Self-Injury Questionnaire - Treatment Related (SIQ-TR), Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90-R), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), Hamburg Body Drawing Scale (HBDS) and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). The results showed that the trans participants had a significantly higher prevalence of current NSSI behaviour than the non-trans group, with 19% currently engaging in NSSI. Current NSSI was also significantly more prevalent among trans men than trans women. Compared with both trans and non-trans participants with no history of NSSI, trans participants with current NSSI had significantly higher scores on SCL; significantly lower scores on RSE, HBDS and MSPSS; and were younger in age. The study concludes that trans men, specifically, are more at risk of NSSI than trans women and the general population, even when on the treatment pathway. Those who currently self-injure have greater psychopathology, lower body satisfaction, lower self-esteem, lower social support and tend to be younger, than those who do not engage in NSSI. PMID:25929212

  14. Metabolic conversion of dibenz(a,h)anthracene (+/-)trans-1,2-dihydrodiol and chrysene (+/-)trans-3,4-dihydrodiol to vicinal dihydrodiol epoxides

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, M.W.; Fu, P.P.; Yang, S.K.

    1981-07-01

    The hydroxyl groups of dibenz(z,h)anthracene trans-1,2-dihydrodiol and chrysene trans-3,4-dihydrodiol are known to be predominantly in quasi-axial conformations. These dihydrodiols were metabolized by liver microsomes from 3-methylcholanthrene-pretreated rats to form 1,2,3,4-tetrahydrotetrols as the major products. The major metabolites of the dihydrodiols were isolated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by ultraviolet-visible absorption and mass spectral analyses. The results indicate that axial hydroxyl groups of dibenz(a,h)anthracene trans-1,2-dihydrodiol and of chrysene trans-3,4-dihydrodiol do not direct metabolism away from their respective vicinal double bond.

  15. IEEE 802.15.4 MAC with GTS transmission for heterogeneous devices with application to wheelchair body-area sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Bharat; Hossain, Ekram; Camorlinga, Sergio

    2011-09-01

    In wireless personal area networks, such as wireless body-area sensor networks, stations or devices have different bandwidth requirements and, thus, create heterogeneous traffics. For such networks, the IEEE 802.15.4 medium access control (MAC) can be used in the beacon-enabled mode, which supports guaranteed time slot (GTS) allocation for time-critical data transmissions. This paper presents a general discrete-time Markov chain model for the IEEE 802.15.4-based networks taking into account the slotted carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance and GTS transmission phenomena together in the heterogeneous traffic scenario and under nonsaturated condition. For this purpose, the standard GTS allocation scheme is modified. For each non-identical device, the Markov model is solved and the average service time and the service utilization factor are analyzed in the non-saturated mode. The analysis is validated by simulations using network simulator version 2.33. Also, the model is enhanced with a wireless propagation model and the performance of the MAC is evaluated in a wheelchair body-area sensor network scenario.

  16. Extending the IEEE 802.15.4 security suite with a compact implementation of the NIST P-192/B-163 elliptic curves.

    PubMed

    de la Piedra, Antonio; Braeken, An; Touhafi, Abdellah

    2013-07-29

    Typically, commercial sensor nodes are equipped with MCUsclocked at a low-frequency (i.e., within the 4-12 MHz range). Consequently, executing cryptographic algorithms in those MCUs generally requires a huge amount of time. In this respect, the required energy consumption can be higher than using a separate accelerator based on a Field-programmable Gate Array (FPGA) that is switched on when needed. In this manuscript, we present the design of a cryptographic accelerator suitable for an FPGA-based sensor node and compliant with the IEEE802.15.4 standard. All the embedded resources of the target platform (Xilinx Artix-7) have been maximized in order to provide a cost-effective solution. Moreover, we have added key negotiation capabilities to the IEEE 802.15.4 security suite based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC). Our results suggest that tailored accelerators based on FPGA can behave better in terms of energy than contemporary software solutions for motes, such as the TinyECC and NanoECC libraries. In this regard, a point multiplication (PM) can be performed between 8.58- and 15.4-times faster, 3.40- to 23.59-times faster (Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman, ECDH) and between 5.45- and 34.26-times faster (Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme, ECIES). Moreover, the energy consumption was also improved with a factor of 8.96 (PM).

  17. A WiSN node SoC with real-time image compressor and IEEE 802.15.4 MAC accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Renyan; Liu, Leibo; Yin, Shouyi; Luo, Ao; Chen, Xinkai; Wei, Shaojun

    2014-11-01

    This article presents a wireless image sensor node SoC (system-on-a-chip) for low-power wireless image sensor network (WiSN), in which camera chip interface, high-quality image compression and IEEE 802.15.4 compliant acceleration modules are integrated on chip. The proposed SoC contains a hardware-implemented real-time lossless JPEG (JPEG-LS) compression engine for Bayer Color Filter Arrays (Bayer CFA), reaching a 3.5 bits/pixel with peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) greater than 46.3 dB and achieving a maximum 5 frames/s @16 MHz for VGA (640 × 480) colour images. The proposed hardware accelerator for IEEE 802.15.4 media access control (MAC) layer covers crucial protocol defined functions and algorithms, and reduces 45% software code in the host processor. This SoC has been fabricated in UMC 0.18 µm 1P6M CMOS process. The average power of the prototype chip is 18.2 mW at 3.0 V power supply and 16 MHz clock rate.

  18. Optimal Throughput and Self-adaptability of Robust Real-Time IEEE 802.15.4 MAC for AMI Mesh Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabani, Hikma; Mohamud Ahmed, Musse; Khan, Sheroz; Hameed, Shahab Ahmed; Hadi Habaebi, Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    A smart grid refers to a modernization of the electricity system that brings intelligence, reliability, efficiency and optimality to the power grid. To provide an automated and widely distributed energy delivery, the smart grid will be branded by a two-way flow of electricity and information system between energy suppliers and their customers. Thus, the smart grid is a power grid that integrates data communication networks which provide the collected and analysed data at all levels in real time. Therefore, the performance of communication systems is so vital for the success of smart grid. Merit to the ZigBee/IEEE802.15.4std low cost, low power, low data rate, short range, simplicity and free licensed spectrum that makes wireless sensor networks (WSNs) the most suitable wireless technology for smart grid applications. Unfortunately, almost all ZigBee channels overlap with wireless local area network (WLAN) channels, resulting in severe performance degradation due to interference. In order to improve the performance of communication systems, this paper proposes an optimal throughput and self-adaptability of ZigBee/IEEE802.15.4std for smart grid.

  19. Identification of 6-hydroxy-trans,trans-2,4-hexadienoic acid, a novel ring-opened urinary metabolite of benzene.

    PubMed Central

    Kline, S A; Robertson, J F; Grotz, V L; Goldstein, B D; Witz, G

    1993-01-01

    We studied the in vivo metabolism of benzene in mice to ring-opened compounds excreted in urine. Male CD-1 mice were treated intraperitoneally with benzene (110-440 mg/kg), [14C]benzene (220 mg/kg) or trans, trans-muconaldehyde (MUC; 4 mg/kg), a microsomal, hematotoxic metabolite of benzene. Urine, collected over 24 hr, was extracted and analyzed by HPLC with a diode-array detector and by scintillation counting. In addition to trans,trans-muconic acid, previously the only known ring-opened urinary benzene metabolite, a new metabolite, 6-hydroxy-trans,trans-2,4-hexadienoic acid, was detected in urine of mice treated with either benzene or MUC. We identified the new metabolite based on coelution of metabolites and UV spectral comparison with authentic standards in unmethylated and methylated urine extracts. Results presented here are consistent with the intermediacy of MUC in the in vivo metabolism of benzene to ring-opened metabolites. Images p310-a PMID:8275987

  20. Reprogramming the Dynamin 2 mRNA by Spliceosome-mediated RNA Trans-splicing.

    PubMed

    Trochet, Delphine; Prudhon, Bernard; Jollet, Arnaud; Lorain, Stéphanie; Bitoun, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Dynamin 2 (DNM2) is a large GTPase, ubiquitously expressed, involved in membrane trafficking and regulation of actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. DNM2 mutations cause autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy which is a rare congenital myopathy characterized by skeletal muscle weakness and histopathological features including nuclear centralization in absence of regeneration. No curative treatment is currently available for the DNM2-related autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy. In order to develop therapeutic strategy, we evaluated here the potential of Spliceosome-Mediated RNA Trans-splicing technology to reprogram the Dnm2-mRNA in vitro and in vivo in mice. We show that classical 3'-trans-splicing strategy cannot be considered as accurate therapeutic strategy regarding toxicity of the pre-trans-splicing molecules leading to low rate of trans-splicing in vivo. Thus, we tested alternative strategies devoted to prevent this toxicity and enhance frequency of trans-splicing events. We succeeded to overcome the toxicity through a 5'-trans-splicing strategy which also allows detection of trans-splicing events at mRNA and protein levels in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that the Spliceosome-Mediated RNA Trans-splicing strategy may be used to reprogram mutated Dnm2-mRNA but highlight the potential toxicity linked to the molecular tools which have to be carefully investigated during preclinical development. PMID:27623444

  1. UPTAKE AND METABOLISM OF ALL-TRANS RETINOIC ACID BY THREE NATIVE NORTH AMERICAN RANIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Retinoids, which are Vvitamin A derivatives, are important signaling molecules that regulate processes critical for development in all vertebrates. The objective of our study was to examine uptake and metabolism of the model retinoid, all-trans retinoic acid (all-trans RA), by th...

  2. Functional selection of splicing enhancers that stimulate trans-splicing in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Boukis, L A; Bruzik, J P

    2001-01-01

    The role of exonic sequences in naturally occurring trans-splicing has not been explored in detail. Here, we have identified trans-splicing enhancers through the use of an iterative selection scheme. Several classes of enhancer sequences were identified that led to dramatic increases in trans-splicing efficiency. Two sequence families were investigated in detail. These include motifs containing the element (G/C)GAC(G/C) and also 5' splice site-like sequences. Distinct elements were tested for their ability to function as splicing enhancers and in competition experiments. In addition, discrete trans-acting factors were identified. This work demonstrates that splicing enhancers are able to effect a large increase in trans-splicing efficiency and that the process of exon definition is able to positively enhance trans-splicing even though the reaction itself is independent of the need for the 5' end of U1 snRNA. Due to the presence of internal introns in messages that are trans-spliced, the natural arrangement of 5' splice sites downstream of trans-splicing acceptors may lead to a general promotion of this unusual reaction. PMID:11421358

  3. 77 FR 1676 - EasTrans, LLC; Notice Granting Extension of Time

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission EasTrans, LLC; Notice Granting Extension of Time On December 16, 2011, Eas... an extension of time for EasTrans to file its section 284.123 rate petition is granted to...

  4. Body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in trans people: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bethany Alice; Haycraft, Emma; Murjan, Sarah; Arcelus, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Body dissatisfaction plays a prominent role in gender dysphoria. In some individuals body dissatisfaction appears to manifest disordered eating in order to suppress bodily features of natal gender and accentuate features of gender identity. To date, there has been no systematic review of the literature pertaining to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in trans individuals. Such a review may highlight important implications for clinicians working with trans people. Therefore, the aim was to critically and systematically review the available literature examining body dissatisfaction or disordered eating in a trans population, and also the literature pertaining to how body dissatisfaction and disordered eating are related in trans people. This review found three studies that explored disordered eating in trans people, five studies that explored body image and disordered eating in trans people, and 18 studies that explored body image in trans people. The findings from this review suggest that body dissatisfaction is core to the distress trans people experience and that this dissatisfaction may also put some individuals at risk of developing disordered eating. Additionally, the findings appear to suggest that gender dysphoria treatment is successful at increasing body satisfaction and improving body image. The clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26618239

  5. Measurement of Trans-Fatty Acids in Cereal Products Without Oil Extraction Using NIR Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was evaluated as a rapid technique, to determine the trans-fatty acid content of ground cereal products. NIR spectra were obtained with a dispersive spectrometer and trans-fatty acids determined by modified AOAC Method 996.01. First derivative PLS1 mode...

  6. IRIS Toxicological Review of cis- & trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene (2010 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The final Toxicological Review of cis- & trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment pertaining to chronic exposure to cis- and trans-1,2-dichloroethylene. 1,2-Dichloroethylene is used as a solvent for wa...

  7. Trans beta substituted chlorins and methods of making and using the same

    DOEpatents

    Lindsey, Jonathan S.; Balasubramanian, Thiagarajan

    2003-05-06

    Trans beta substituted chlorins and methods of making the same are disclosed, along with polymers formed from or containing such trans beta substituted chlorins as one or more monomeric units therein, light harvesting rods formed from such polymers, and electrodes carrying such polymers.

  8. Trans-femoral amputee pilots: criteria for return to the fighter cockpit.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Alon; Goldstein, Liav; Heim, Michael; Barenboim, Erez; Dudkiewicz, Israel

    2005-04-01

    Proximal lower limb amputations (trans-femoral) usually leave amputees with significant functional disturbances. This article contains information regarding three pilots with trans-femoral amputations that returned swiftly to continue their aeronautical careers despite their disabilities. Adaptations are needed in the limb prostheses to enable the amputees to access the minimally spaced cockpit.

  9. Changes in Trans Fat and Fatty Acids in Fast Food Menu Items

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent interest in trans fatty acid intake and subsequent recommendations included in the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans to decrease intake has led to extensive product reformulations of widely consumed foods high in trans fat. As part of these efforts to provide current and accurate nutrien...

  10. 76 FR 28221 - Trans-Union Interstate Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Trans-Union Interstate Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 7, 2011 Trans-Union Interstate Pipeline, L.P. submitted a request for a waiver of the reporting...-8659. Comment Date: June 9, 2011. Dated: May 10, 2011. Kimberly Bose, Secretary. BILLING CODE 6717-01-P...

  11. Reprogramming the Dynamin 2 mRNA by Spliceosome-mediated RNA Trans-splicing

    PubMed Central

    Trochet, Delphine; Prudhon, Bernard; Jollet, Arnaud; Lorain, Stéphanie; Bitoun, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Dynamin 2 (DNM2) is a large GTPase, ubiquitously expressed, involved in membrane trafficking and regulation of actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. DNM2 mutations cause autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy which is a rare congenital myopathy characterized by skeletal muscle weakness and histopathological features including nuclear centralization in absence of regeneration. No curative treatment is currently available for the DNM2-related autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy. In order to develop therapeutic strategy, we evaluated here the potential of Spliceosome-Mediated RNA Trans-splicing technology to reprogram the Dnm2-mRNA in vitro and in vivo in mice. We show that classical 3′-trans-splicing strategy cannot be considered as accurate therapeutic strategy regarding toxicity of the pre-trans-splicing molecules leading to low rate of trans-splicing in vivo. Thus, we tested alternative strategies devoted to prevent this toxicity and enhance frequency of trans-splicing events. We succeeded to overcome the toxicity through a 5′-trans-splicing strategy which also allows detection of trans-splicing events at mRNA and protein levels in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that the Spliceosome-Mediated RNA Trans-splicing strategy may be used to reprogram mutated Dnm2-mRNA but highlight the potential toxicity linked to the molecular tools which have to be carefully investigated during preclinical development. PMID:27623444

  12. Studies on the reaction of trans-2-heptenal with peanut proteins.

    PubMed

    Globisch, Martin; Schindler, Marco; Kreßler, Jana; Henle, Thomas

    2014-08-20

    Hexanal, 2-heptenal, and nonanal were identified as relevant reaction products formed in the course of the lipid peroxidation of heated peanut oil. For the identification of potential amino acid side chain adducts, kinetic studies between N(α)-benzoylglycyl-l-lysine as a model for protein-bound lysine and trans-2-heptenal were performed, showing a strong decrease of the lysine-derivative whereupon the loss of trans-2-heptenal was moderate. Following acid hydrolysis of the incubation mixture of N(α)-acetyl-l-lysine and trans-2-heptenal, two UV-active major lipation products were observed, isolated and identified as isomeric pyridinium-derivatives, namely (Z)- and (E)-1-(5-amino-5-carboxypentyl)-4-butyl-3-(pent-1-en-1-yl)pyridin-1-ium (cis- and trans-BPP-lysine). After heating of a native peanut protein extract with trans-2-heptenal, both derivatives were quantitated by LC-ESI-MS/MS after acid hydrolysis and the modification of lysine was measured by amino acid analysis. At low, "food-relevant", concentrations of trans-2-heptenal, up to 80% of the lysine modification could be explained by the formation of cis- and trans-BPP-lysine, showing that these two lipation derivatives represent good markers for a protein modification by the lipid peroxidation product trans-2-heptenal. PMID:25065678

  13. 75 FR 80482 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: TransCanada Power Marketing Ltd... electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies, and other entities within the United States....

  14. 76 FR 49764 - Steve Mason Enterprises, Inc., Green Energy Trans, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Steve Mason Enterprises, Inc., Green Energy Trans, LLC; Notice of Transfer... transferred ownership of its exempted project property and facilities for Project No. 7742 to Green Energy.... \\4\\ E.g., John C. Jones, 99 FERC ] 61,372, at 62,580 n.2 (2002). 2. Green Energy Trans, LLC,...

  15. Preparation of (+)-trans-isoalliin and its isomers by chemical synthesis and RP-HPLC resolution.

    PubMed

    Jayathilaka, Lasanthi; Gupta, Shalini; Huang, Jin-Sheng; Lee, Jenny; Lee, Bao-Shiang

    2014-09-01

    Naturally occurring (+)-trans-isoalliin, (R(C)R(S))-(+)-trans-S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide, is a major cysteine sulfoxide in onion. The importance of producing it synthetically to support further research is very well recognized. The (+)-trans-isoalliin is prepared by chemical synthesis and reversed-phase (RP)-HPLC. First, S-2-propenyl-L-cysteine (deoxyalliin) is formed from L-cysteine and allyl bromide, which is then isomerized to S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine (deoxyisoalliin) by a base-catalyzed reaction. A mixture of cis and trans forms of deoxyisoalliin is formed and separated by RP-HPLC. Oxidation of the trans form of deoxyisoalliin by H2O2 produces a mixture of (-)- and (+)-trans-isoalliin. Finally, RP-HPLC is used successfully in separating (-)- and (+)-trans-isoalliin, and hence, (+)-trans-isoalliin is synthesized for the first time in this study. In addition, the (±) diastereomers of cis-isoalliin are also separated and purified by RP-HPLC.

  16. Preparation of (+)-Trans-Isoalliin and Its Isomers by Chemical Synthesis and RP-HPLC Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Jayathilaka, Lasanthi; Gupta, Shalini; Huang, Jin-Sheng; Lee, Jenny; Lee, Bao-Shiang

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring (+)-trans-isoalliin, (RCRS)-(+)-trans-S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide, is a major cysteine sulfoxide in onion. The importance of producing it synthetically to support further research is very well recognized. The (+)-trans-isoalliin is prepared by chemical synthesis and reversed-phase (RP)-HPLC. First, S-2-propenyl-L-cysteine (deoxyalliin) is formed from L-cysteine and allyl bromide, which is then isomerized to S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine (deoxyisoalliin) by a base-catalyzed reaction. A mixture of cis and trans forms of deoxyisoalliin is formed and separated by RP-HPLC. Oxidation of the trans form of deoxyisoalliin by H2O2 produces a mixture of (−)- and (+)-trans-isoalliin. Finally, RP-HPLC is used successfully in separating (−)- and (+)-trans-isoalliin, and hence, (+)-trans-isoalliin is synthesized for the first time in this study. In addition, the (±) diastereomers of cis-isoalliin are also separated and purified by RP-HPLC. PMID:25187757

  17. Beyond Virtual Equality: Liberatory Consciousness as a Path to Achieve Trans* Inclusion in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, D. Chase J.

    2015-01-01

    Trans* men have not, as yet, received specific research attention in higher education. Based on intensive interviews with 25 trans* men enrolled in colleges or universities in New England, I explore their experiences in higher education. I analyze participants' descriptions of supports and challenges in their collegiate environments, as well as…

  18. The Differences Between Cis- and Trans-Gene Inactivation Caused by Heterochromatin in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Abramov, Yuriy A; Shatskikh, Aleksei S; Maksimenko, Oksana G; Bonaccorsi, Silvia; Gvozdev, Vladimir A; Lavrov, Sergey A

    2016-01-01

    Position-effect variegation (PEV) is the epigenetic disruption of gene expression near the de novo-formed euchromatin-heterochromatin border. Heterochromatic cis-inactivation may be accompanied by the trans-inactivation of genes on a normal homologous chromosome in trans-heterozygous combination with a PEV-inducing rearrangement. We characterize a new genetic system, inversion In(2)A4, demonstrating cis-acting PEV as well as trans-inactivation of the reporter transgenes on the homologous nonrearranged chromosome. The cis-effect of heterochromatin in the inversion results not only in repression but also in activation of genes, and it varies at different developmental stages. While cis-actions affect only a few juxtaposed genes, trans-inactivation is observed in a 500-kb region and demonstrates а nonuniform pattern of repression with intermingled regions where no transgene repression occurs. There is no repression around the histone gene cluster and in some other euchromatic sites. trans-Inactivation is accompanied by dragging of euchromatic regions into the heterochromatic compartment, but the histone gene cluster, located in the middle of the trans-inactivated region, was shown to be evicted from the heterochromatin. We demonstrate that trans-inactivation is followed by de novo HP1a accumulation in the affected transgene; trans-inactivation is specifically favored by the chromatin remodeler SAYP and prevented by Argonaute AGO2.

  19. Application of E-Learning to Pilot Training at TransAsia Airways in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Chi-Kuo; Chang, Maiga; Wang, Chin-Yeh; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Gwo-Dong

    2008-01-01

    TransAsia Airway is one of the four domestic airlines in Taiwan. Taiwan has 13 domestic airports with the longest distance between two airports being about 400 kilometers. The domestic airline market is highly competitive. TransAsia decided to apply e-learning within its organization to reduce training expenses and improve service quality. This…

  20. Development of a (11)C-labeled tetrazine for rapid tetrazine-trans-cyclooctene ligation.

    PubMed

    Herth, Matthias M; Andersen, Valdemar L; Lehel, Szabolcs; Madsen, Jacob; Knudsen, Gitte M; Kristensen, Jesper L

    2013-05-01

    Tetrazine-trans-cyclooctene ligations are remarkably fast and selective reactions even at low micro-molar concentrations. In bioorthogonal radiochemistry, tools that enable conjugation of radioactive probes to pre-targeted vectors are of great interest. Herein, we describe the successful development of the first (11)C-labelled tetrazine and its reaction with trans-cyclooctenol.

  1. Body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in trans people: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bethany Alice; Haycraft, Emma; Murjan, Sarah; Arcelus, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Body dissatisfaction plays a prominent role in gender dysphoria. In some individuals body dissatisfaction appears to manifest disordered eating in order to suppress bodily features of natal gender and accentuate features of gender identity. To date, there has been no systematic review of the literature pertaining to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in trans individuals. Such a review may highlight important implications for clinicians working with trans people. Therefore, the aim was to critically and systematically review the available literature examining body dissatisfaction or disordered eating in a trans population, and also the literature pertaining to how body dissatisfaction and disordered eating are related in trans people. This review found three studies that explored disordered eating in trans people, five studies that explored body image and disordered eating in trans people, and 18 studies that explored body image in trans people. The findings from this review suggest that body dissatisfaction is core to the distress trans people experience and that this dissatisfaction may also put some individuals at risk of developing disordered eating. Additionally, the findings appear to suggest that gender dysphoria treatment is successful at increasing body satisfaction and improving body image. The clinical implications are discussed.

  2. Kinetics of trans-cis isomerization in azobenzene dimers at an air-water interface

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Bharat; Suresh, K. A.

    2009-08-15

    We have studied the kinetics of trans to cis isomerization under the illumination of ultraviolet light, in the Langmuir monolayer of mesogenic azobenzene dimer, bis-[5-(4{sup '}-n-dodecyloxy benzoyloxy)-2-(4{sup ''}-methylphenylazo)phenyl] adipate, at an air-water interface. We find that the trans to cis isomerization reaction of the molecules in the monolayer shows deviation from the first-order kinetics unlike those reported on Langmuir monolayers of azobenzene molecules. We attribute the deviation from first-order kinetics to the simultaneous photoisomerization of trans isomers to form cis isomers and the reverse thermal isomerization of cis isomers to form trans isomers. Our analysis of the rate of change of mole fraction of trans isomers to form cis isomers indicates a first-order kinetics for trans to cis photoisomerization reaction and a second-order kinetics for cis to trans thermal isomerization reaction. This second-order kinetics mechanism is similar to the Lindemann-Hinshelwood mechanism for the unimolecular reactions at low concentration of reactants. The formation of the activated cis isomer by collisions is a slow process as compared to the decay of the activated cis isomer to trans isomer in the liquid expanded phase. This results in the second-order kinetics for the thermal isomerization of cis isomers.

  3. The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: Trading away our health?

    PubMed

    Ruckert, Arne; Schram, Ashley; Labonté, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    There is long-standing interest by the public health community in the potential implications of trade and investment agreements for public health. Our commentary highlights the main pathways by which the Trans-Pacific Partnerships (TPP), a comprehensive trade and investment agreement currently under negotiation, might undermine population health (based on analysis of and commentary about leaked chapters of the TPP), and calls for a more transparent and health-sensitive TPP negotiation process. We argue that use of comprehensive health impact assessments could be helpful in identifying how the potentially serious health consequences of the TPP and similar future international trade and investment agreements can be avoided, minimized or mitigated. PMID:26285198

  4. Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement and the public health.

    PubMed

    Beard, Mike

    2015-05-29

    The Trans-Pacific Trade Agreement (TPPA) negotiations have been conducted in secrecy over the past four years. In New Zealand, the government has not released any official details of these negotiations and all the information we have about TPPA is derived from leaks. This makes any analysis of the risks and benefits of TPPA difficult to carry out. However, the consistency of the leaked material indicates that the TPPA appears to have major implications for the New Zealand health system, potentially adversely affecting public health initiatives, the control of alcohol and obesity problems, and reducing the availability of some drugs. This article describes the basis for these concerns, and aims to show that the TPPA could interfere with our ability to organise our health systems, now and in the future, for the best interests of all the people of New Zealand.

  5. Capacitive Trans-Impedance Amplifier Circuit with Charge Injection Compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milkov, Mihail M. (Inventor); Gulbransen, David J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A capacitive trans-impedance amplifier circuit with charge injection compensation is provided. A feedback capacitor is connected between an inverting input port and an output port of an amplifier. A MOS reset switch has source and drain terminals connected between the inverting input and output ports of the amplifier, and a gate terminal controlled by a reset signal. The reset switch is open or inactive during an integration phase, and closed or active to electrically connect the inverting input port and output port of the amplifier during a reset phase. One or more compensation capacitors are provided that are not implemented as gate oxide or MOS capacitors. Each compensation capacitor has a first port connected to a compensation signal that is a static signal or a toggling compensation signal that toggles between two compensation voltage values, and a second port connected to the inverting input port of the amplifier.

  6. Proterozoic collisional tectonism in the Trans-Hudson orogen, Saskatchewan

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, M.E.; Chiarenzelli, J.R.; Van Schmus, W.R. ); Collerson, K.D. ); Lewry, J.F. )

    1990-01-01

    Isotopic and structural data from the juvenile Reindeer zone of the Trans-Hudson orogen, northern Saskatchewan, indicate a pre-1.85 Ga thermotectonic event, possibly reflecting arc-continent collision, followed by a more extensive, nappe-forming, ca. 1.83-1.80 Ga thermotectonism during terminal continent-continent collision. Preliminary data from the adjacent, ensialic Cree Lake zone suggest high-grade reworking of Archean crust by the pre-1.85 Ga event. In the Rae province to the west, high-grade metamorphism and reworking of Archean crust occurred about 2.0 Ga and may be related to the formation of the coeval Taltson magmatic zone.

  7. Resonancias en la región trans-neptuniana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, T.; Ferraz-Mello, S.

    La expansión de la órbita del planeta Neptuno en la etapa de acreción del Sistema Solar exterior (Fernández e Ip 1984, 1996) parece ser un mecanismo eficiente para la captura de planetesimales en las resonancias exteriores con Neptuno (Malhotra 1995). Por otro lado, los estudios dinámicos realizados por varios autores indican que las resonancias son regiones de evolución estable, en contraste con el comportamiento caótico del resto de la región trans-neptuniana. Por estas razones, y si bien los datos observacionales son todavía muy limitados, se supone que los objetos descubiertos se encuentran en alguna de esas resonancias. En esta comunicación presentamos un estudio analítico y numérico de las principales resonancias exteriores con Neptuno.

  8. Regulation of organismal proteostasis by trans-cellular chaperone signaling

    PubMed Central

    van Oosten-Hawle, Patricija; Porter, Robert S.; Morimoto, Richard I.

    2013-01-01

    Summary A major challenge for metazoans is to ensure that different tissues each expressing distinctive proteomes are, nevertheless, well protected at an organismal level from proteotoxic stress. We have examined this and show that expression of endogenous metastable protein sensors in muscle cells induces a systemic stress response throughout multiple tissues of C. elegans. Suppression of misfolding in muscle cells can be achieved not only by enhanced expression of HSP90 in muscle cells, but as effective by elevated expression of HSP90 in intestine or neuronal cells. This cell-non-autonomous control of HSP90 expression relies upon transcriptional feedback between somatic tissues that is regulated by the FoxA transcription factor PHA-4. This trans-cellular chaperone signaling response maintains organismal proteostasis when challenged by a local tissue imbalance in folding and provides the basis for a novel form of organismal stress sensing surveillance. PMID:23746847

  9. Saturated and trans-fatty acids in UK takeaway food.

    PubMed

    Davies, Ian Glynn; Blackham, Toni; Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Taylor, Catherine; Ashton, Matthew; Stevenson, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans-fatty acid (TFA) contents of popular takeaway foods in the UK (including English, pizza, Chinese, Indian and kebab cuisine). Samples of meals were analyzed by an accredited public analyst laboratory for SFA and TFA. The meals were highly variable for SFA and TFA. English and Pizza meals had the highest median amount of SFA with 35.7 g/meal; Kebab meals were high in TFA with up to 5.2 g/meal. When compared to UK dietary reference values, some meals exceeded SFA and TFA recommendations from just one meal. Takeaway food would be an obvious target to reduce SFA and TFA contents and increase the potential of meeting UK recommendations. Strategies such as reformulation and smaller takeaway portion sizes warrant investigation. PMID:26911372

  10. Trans-oceanic pipeline: reaffirms Panama's strategic position

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-24

    The Trans-Panama Pipeline, which began in July 1980 and was finished October 1, 1982, will transport Alaskan crude from Puerto Armuelles, in the Pacific Ocean, to Chiriqui Grande, in the Atlantic. Built at a total cost of $400 million, the facility will speed deliveries of North Slope crude to refining centers in Houston, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and New Jersey; it is expected to move about 800,000 barrels/day by January 1983. With construction of a pump station near Chiriqui Grande, the pipeline could easily be altered for reverse-flow capability. This issue of Energy Detente reviews the use of the new pipeline, as it cuts crude oil transportation time and cost and provides an alternative to the Panama Canal. The issue also updates the fuel price/tax series for the countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  11. Neurotoxic effects of trans-glutaconic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Schuck, Patrícia F; Busanello, Estela N B; Tonin, Anelise M; Viegas, Carolina M; Ferreira, Gustavo C

    2013-01-01

    trans-Glutaconic acid (tGA) is an unsaturated C5-dicarboxylic acid which may be found accumulated in glutaric aciduria type I, whose pathophysiology is still uncertain. In the present work it was investigated the in vitro effect of increasing tGA concentrations on neurochemical and oxidative stress parameters in rat cerebral cortex. We observed that Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity was reduced by tGA, but not creatine kinase, respiratory chain complex IV, and ATP synthase activities. On the other hand, tGA significantly increased lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive species levels and spontaneous chemiluminescence), as well as protein oxidative damage (oxidation of sulfhydryl groups). tGA also significantly decreased nonenzymatic antioxidant defenses (TRAP and reduced glutathione levels). Our data suggest that tGA may be neurotoxic in rat brain.

  12. Laparoscopic trans-peritoneal pyelolithotomy in a pelvic kidney.

    PubMed

    Ahangar, Shahnawaz; Durrani, Abdul Munnon; Qadri, Syed Javid; Patloo, Asim Mushtaq; Ganaie, Rouf Gul; Khan, Muneer

    2012-11-01

    Urinary lithiasis is one of the most common and the oldest known afflictions of the urinary tract. The management of renal stones has undergone radical changes in recent years, the latest being the minimally invasive procedures like extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy, making the open surgical procedures relatively obsolete. However, there are situations where the above-mentioned minimally invasive procedures prove to be lacking in achieving the cure; laparoscopic pyelolithotomy caters to such group of patients, e.g. the presence of calculi in malrotated or malpositioned kidneys. Herein, we report a case of pelvic kidney with a large calculus managed by laparoscopic trans-peritoneal pyelolithotomy. PMID:23168860

  13. Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement and the public health.

    PubMed

    Beard, Mike

    2015-05-29

    The Trans-Pacific Trade Agreement (TPPA) negotiations have been conducted in secrecy over the past four years. In New Zealand, the government has not released any official details of these negotiations and all the information we have about TPPA is derived from leaks. This makes any analysis of the risks and benefits of TPPA difficult to carry out. However, the consistency of the leaked material indicates that the TPPA appears to have major implications for the New Zealand health system, potentially adversely affecting public health initiatives, the control of alcohol and obesity problems, and reducing the availability of some drugs. This article describes the basis for these concerns, and aims to show that the TPPA could interfere with our ability to organise our health systems, now and in the future, for the best interests of all the people of New Zealand. PMID:26117511

  14. Trans-Homolog Interactions Facilitating Paramutation in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Giacopelli, Brian John; Hollick, Jay Brian

    2015-01-01

    Paramutations represent locus-specific trans-homolog interactions affecting the heritable silencing properties of endogenous alleles. Although examples of paramutation are well studied in maize (Zea mays), the responsible mechanisms remain unclear. Genetic analyses indicate roles for plant-specific DNA-dependent RNA polymerases that generate small RNAs, and current working models hypothesize that these small RNAs direct heritable changes at sequences often acting as transcriptional enhancers. Several studies have defined specific sequences that mediate paramutation behaviors, and recent results identify a diversity of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase complexes operating in maize. Other reports ascribe broader roles for some of these complexes in normal genome function. This review highlights recent research to understand the molecular mechanisms of paramutation and examines evidence relevant to small RNA-based modes of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. PMID:26149572

  15. Microelements in solonchaks of the western Trans-Baikal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosorova, S. B.; Merkusheva, M. G.; Boloneva, L. N.; Baldanova, A. L.; Ubugunov, L. L.

    2016-04-01

    Distribution patterns of microelements (Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr, Co, Pb, and Cd) in solonchaks of the western Trans-Baikal region were studied. It was found that their concentrations in typical solonchaks of haloxerophytic steppe differed from those in solonchaks of moistened habitats (playa, gleyed, and dark solonchaks) because of the differences in their landscape positions and ecological conditions. A general rise in the contents of the microelements was observed from the northeast to the southwest in agreement with changes in the parent materials. Different degrees of correlation of the contents of the microelements and their exchangeable forms with the contents of soluble salts, humus, and physical clay in the soils and the soil reaction were found. The average and extreme concentrations of the microelements were determined. The studied typical solonchaks differed from the zonal chestnut soils in the higher contents of Co, Cr, and Cd; whereas solonchaks of moistened habitats were enriched in Mn, Co, and Cd.

  16. A trans-synaptic nanocolumn aligns neurotransmitter release to receptors.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ai-Hui; Chen, Haiwen; Li, Tuo P; Metzbower, Sarah R; MacGillavry, Harold D; Blanpied, Thomas A

    2016-08-11

    Synaptic transmission is maintained by a delicate, sub-synaptic molecular architecture, and even mild alterations in synapse structure drive functional changes during experience-dependent plasticity and pathological disorders. Key to this architecture is how the distribution of presynaptic vesicle fusion sites corresponds to the position of receptors in the postsynaptic density. However, while it has long been recognized that this spatial relationship modulates synaptic strength, it has not been precisely described, owing in part to the limited resolution of light microscopy. Using localization microscopy, here we show that key proteins mediating vesicle priming and fusion are mutually co-enriched within nanometre-scale subregions of the presynaptic active zone. Through development of a new method to map vesicle fusion positions within single synapses in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, we find that action-potential-evoked fusion is guided by this protein gradient and occurs preferentially in confined areas with higher local density of Rab3-interacting molecule (RIM) within the active zones. These presynaptic RIM nanoclusters closely align with concentrated postsynaptic receptors and scaffolding proteins, suggesting the existence of a trans-synaptic molecular 'nanocolumn'. Thus, we propose that the nanoarchitecture of the active zone directs action-potential-evoked vesicle fusion to occur preferentially at sites directly opposing postsynaptic receptor-scaffold ensembles. Remarkably, NMDA receptor activation triggered distinct phases of plasticity in which postsynaptic reorganization was followed by trans-synaptic nanoscale realignment. This architecture suggests a simple organizational principle of central nervous system synapses to maintain and modulate synaptic efficiency. PMID:27462810

  17. Endoscopic endonasal trans-sphenoid management of craniopharyngiomas

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Yad Ram; Nishtha, Yadav; Vijay, Parihar; Shailendra, Ratre; Yatin, Kher

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Craniopharyngiomas treatment has been challenging because of their anatomical location. The endoscopic endonasal (EE) trans-sphenoidal approach is indicated in sellar, supra sellar, selected intraventricular lesions in adults and children. We are reporting our initial experience of 44 patients managed by EE approach. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 44 craniopharyngiomas. The goal of surgery was gross-total resection in all cases. All patients underwent pre- and post-operative comprehensive ophthalmological and endocrinological evaluation. Lumbar drain at the start of the operation was used in all cases with tumor larger than 3 cm maximum diameter. Binostril technique vascularized nasoseptal flap and multilayer closure of the dural defect were used. Wide sphenoidotomy, posterior ethmoidectomy, tuberculum selle, and planum removal were performed in all cases. Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis was used for 72 h. Results: There were 44 patients of age ranging from 8 to 65 (mean: 42) years. Diameter of the tumor varied from 3.1 cm to 6.6 cm (average: 4.3 cm). Visual and pituitary dysfunctions were observed in 44 and 33, respectively, before surgery. Vision improvement, gross-total removal, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and recurrence were observed in 34, 26, four and six patients, respectively. Average follow-up was 19 months. Conclusion: Endoscopic endonasal trans-sphenoidal approach for craniopharyngioma is safe and effective alternative to transcranial approach in selected patients. Although this technique is associated with effective tumor removal and improved visual outcome, CSF leak, and endocrine dysfunctions remain a major challenge. PMID:25767569

  18. Structure and conformation of cyclopentene, cycloheptene and trans-cyclooctene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Max K.; Mastryukov, Vladimir S.; Boggs, James E.

    1998-04-01

    The molecular geometries of different conformations of cycloalkenes, C nH 2 n-2 , with n = 5, 7 and 8 were optimized by restricted Hartree-Fock calculations using the 6-31G∗ basis set followed by second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) treatment of electron correlation. For cyclopentene, C 5H 8, the potential function for the ring-puckering motion was constructed, followed by solving for the vibrational eigenvalues in terms of distributed Gaussian bases. Good agreement was obtained with the observed frequencies in the far-infrared spectrum of the molecule. For cycloheptene, C 7H 12, geometries were optimized for the chair, boat, twist-boat, and three possible transition states. The chair-chair interconversion mechanism was investigated and compared with available experimental evidence and with the results of a previous molecular mechanics calculation. The computed potential barrier compares well with NMR evidence, but the conformation of the relevant transition state is found to be different from the one assumed in the experimental study. The structure of the smallest isolable trans-cycloalkene, trans-cyclooctene, C 8H 14, was optimized, yielding a structure in reasonable agreement with a previous gas phase electron diffraction study. The agreement includes the pyramidality of the olefinic carbon atoms which was also compared with available X-ray data on related compounds. The bond angles and torsion angles were in better agreement with the experiment than were those obtained in earlier molecular mechanics studies, although it is remarkable how well that method works for these highly strained cyclic systems.

  19. Trans-dimensional Bayesian inference for large sequential data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandolesi, E.; Dettmer, J.; Dosso, S. E.; Holland, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    This work develops a sequential Monte Carlo method to infer seismic parameters of layered seabeds from large sequential reflection-coefficient data sets. The approach provides parameter estimates and uncertainties along survey tracks with the goal to aid in the detection of unexploded ordnance in shallow water. The sequential data are acquired by a moving platform with source and receiver array towed close to the seabed. This geometry requires consideration of spherical reflection coefficients, computed efficiently by massively parallel implementation of the Sommerfeld integral via Levin integration on a graphics processing unit. The seabed is parametrized with a trans-dimensional model to account for changes in the environment (i.e. changes in layering) along the track. The method combines advanced Markov chain Monte Carlo methods (annealing) with particle filtering (resampling). Since data from closely-spaced source transmissions (pings) often sample similar environments, the solution from one ping can be utilized to efficiently estimate the posterior for data from subsequent pings. Since reflection-coefficient data are highly informative, the likelihood function can be extremely peaked, resulting in little overlap between posteriors of adjacent pings. This is addressed by adding bridging distributions (via annealed importance sampling) between pings for more efficient transitions. The approach assumes the environment to be changing slowly enough to justify the local 1D parametrization. However, bridging allows rapid changes between pings to be addressed and we demonstrate the method to be stable in such situations. Results are in terms of trans-D parameter estimates and uncertainties along the track. The algorithm is examined for realistic simulated data along a track and applied to a dataset collected by an autonomous underwater vehicle on the Malta Plateau, Mediterranean Sea. [Work supported by the SERDP, DoD.

  20. Inclusion of Trans Women in Pre-Exposure Phrophylaxis (PrEP): A Review

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Daniel J; Kerr, Thomas; Operario, Don; Socías, Maria E; Sued, Omar; Marshall, Brandon DL

    2014-01-01

    Trans women are at high-risk of HIV infection. We conducted a review to determine the extent to which trans women were eligible for inclusion in and enrolled into pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) efficacy trials. Out of seven trials analyzing PrEP efficacy, we found that trans women comprised only 1.2% of one trial, and 0.2% of total trial enrollments. Although an additional PrEP trial to determine efficacy among trans women may not be warranted, further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of PrEP in this marginalized population, through observational and feasibility studies. These studies should focus on unique barriers that trans women may experience while obtaining access to PrEP, such as gender discrimination, transphobia, and violence. PMID:25430940

  1. Trans-Stilbenes in Commercial Grape Juices: Quantification Using HPLC Approaches

    PubMed Central

    López-Hernández, Julia; Rodríguez-Bernaldo de Quirós, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Trans-stilbenes belong to the group of polyphenolic phytoalexins, and occur in many plant foods. These compounds have received great attention by researchers due to their well-known beneficial health effects. In the present study a chromatographic method that comprises the use of variable wavelength (VWD) and fluorescence (FLD) detectors in series for the analysis of trans-stilbenes is presented. The relation of peak-area obtained with both detectors is proposed as an alternative and complementary approach for the rapid identification of these phenolic compounds. The proposed method was applied to determine trans-stilbenes in commercial fruit juices. Trans-piceid was the most common trans-stilbene found in the samples analyzed. The method was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity and repeatability. Appropriate sensitivity and good linearity (r2 > 0.9991) were achieved. PMID:27783052

  2. A conserved intronic U1 snRNP-binding sequence promotes trans-splicing in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-Li; Fan, Yu-Jie; Wang, Xiu-Ye; Zhang, Yu; Pu, Jia; Li, Liang; Shao, Wei; Zhan, Shuai; Hao, Jianjiang; Xu, Yong-Zhen

    2015-04-01

    Unlike typical cis-splicing, trans-splicing joins exons from two separate transcripts to produce chimeric mRNA and has been detected in most eukaryotes. Trans-splicing in trypanosomes and nematodes has been characterized as a spliced leader RNA-facilitated reaction; in contrast, its mechanism in higher eukaryotes remains unclear. Here we investigate mod(mdg4), a classic trans-spliced gene in Drosophila, and report that two critical RNA sequences in the middle of the last 5' intron, TSA and TSB, promote trans-splicing of mod(mdg4). In TSA, a 13-nucleotide (nt) core motif is conserved across Drosophila species and is essential and sufficient for trans-splicing, which binds U1 small nuclear RNP (snRNP) through strong base-pairing with U1 snRNA. In TSB, a conserved secondary structure acts as an enhancer. Deletions of TSA and TSB using the CRISPR/Cas9 system result in developmental defects in flies. Although it is not clear how the 5' intron finds the 3' introns, compensatory changes in U1 snRNA rescue trans-splicing of TSA mutants, demonstrating that U1 recruitment is critical to promote trans-splicing in vivo. Furthermore, TSA core-like motifs are found in many other trans-spliced Drosophila genes, including lola. These findings represent a novel mechanism of trans-splicing, in which RNA motifs in the 5' intron are sufficient to bring separate transcripts into close proximity to promote trans-splicing. PMID:25838544

  3. Cis and trans effects of human genomic variants on gene expression.

    PubMed

    Bryois, Julien; Buil, Alfonso; Evans, David M; Kemp, John P; Montgomery, Stephen B; Conrad, Donald F; Ho, Karen M; Ring, Susan; Hurles, Matthew; Deloukas, Panos; Davey Smith, George; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T

    2014-07-01

    Gene expression is a heritable cellular phenotype that defines the function of a cell and can lead to diseases in case of misregulation. In order to detect genetic variations affecting gene expression, we performed association analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy number variants (CNVs) with gene expression measured in 869 lymphoblastoid cell lines of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort in cis and in trans. We discovered that 3,534 genes (false discovery rate (FDR) = 5%) are affected by an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) in cis and 48 genes are affected in trans. We observed that CNVs are more likely to be eQTLs than SNPs. In addition, we found that variants associated to complex traits and diseases are enriched for trans-eQTLs and that trans-eQTLs are enriched for cis-eQTLs. As a variant affecting both a gene in cis and in trans suggests that the cis gene is functionally linked to the trans gene expression, we looked specifically for trans effects of cis-eQTLs. We discovered that 26 cis-eQTLs are associated to 92 genes in trans with the cis-eQTLs of the transcriptions factors BATF3 and HMX2 affecting the most genes. We then explored if the variation of the level of expression of the cis genes were causally affecting the level of expression of the trans genes and discovered several causal relationships between variation in the level of expression of the cis gene and variation of the level of expression of the trans gene. This analysis shows that a large sample size allows the discovery of secondary effects of human variations on gene expression that can be used to construct short directed gene regulatory networks.

  4. Cis and Trans Effects of Human Genomic Variants on Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Bryois, Julien; Buil, Alfonso; Evans, David M.; Kemp, John P.; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Conrad, Donald F.; Ho, Karen M.; Ring, Susan; Hurles, Matthew; Deloukas, Panos; Davey Smith, George; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression is a heritable cellular phenotype that defines the function of a cell and can lead to diseases in case of misregulation. In order to detect genetic variations affecting gene expression, we performed association analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy number variants (CNVs) with gene expression measured in 869 lymphoblastoid cell lines of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort in cis and in trans. We discovered that 3,534 genes (false discovery rate (FDR) = 5%) are affected by an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) in cis and 48 genes are affected in trans. We observed that CNVs are more likely to be eQTLs than SNPs. In addition, we found that variants associated to complex traits and diseases are enriched for trans-eQTLs and that trans-eQTLs are enriched for cis-eQTLs. As a variant affecting both a gene in cis and in trans suggests that the cis gene is functionally linked to the trans gene expression, we looked specifically for trans effects of cis-eQTLs. We discovered that 26 cis-eQTLs are associated to 92 genes in trans with the cis-eQTLs of the transcriptions factors BATF3 and HMX2 affecting the most genes. We then explored if the variation of the level of expression of the cis genes were causally affecting the level of expression of the trans genes and discovered several causal relationships between variation in the level of expression of the cis gene and variation of the level of expression of the trans gene. This analysis shows that a large sample size allows the discovery of secondary effects of human variations on gene expression that can be used to construct short directed gene regulatory networks. PMID:25010687

  5. A conserved intronic U1 snRNP-binding sequence promotes trans-splicing in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-Li; Fan, Yu-Jie; Wang, Xiu-Ye; Zhang, Yu; Pu, Jia; Li, Liang; Shao, Wei; Zhan, Shuai; Hao, Jianjiang; Xu, Yong-Zhen

    2015-04-01

    Unlike typical cis-splicing, trans-splicing joins exons from two separate transcripts to produce chimeric mRNA and has been detected in most eukaryotes. Trans-splicing in trypanosomes and nematodes has been characterized as a spliced leader RNA-facilitated reaction; in contrast, its mechanism in higher eukaryotes remains unclear. Here we investigate mod(mdg4), a classic trans-spliced gene in Drosophila, and report that two critical RNA sequences in the middle of the last 5' intron, TSA and TSB, promote trans-splicing of mod(mdg4). In TSA, a 13-nucleotide (nt) core motif is conserved across Drosophila species and is essential and sufficient for trans-splicing, which binds U1 small nuclear RNP (snRNP) through strong base-pairing with U1 snRNA. In TSB, a conserved secondary structure acts as an enhancer. Deletions of TSA and TSB using the CRISPR/Cas9 system result in developmental defects in flies. Although it is not clear how the 5' intron finds the 3' introns, compensatory changes in U1 snRNA rescue trans-splicing of TSA mutants, demonstrating that U1 recruitment is critical to promote trans-splicing in vivo. Furthermore, TSA core-like motifs are found in many other trans-spliced Drosophila genes, including lola. These findings represent a novel mechanism of trans-splicing, in which RNA motifs in the 5' intron are sufficient to bring separate transcripts into close proximity to promote trans-splicing.

  6. The negative effects of hydrogenated trans fats and what to do about them.

    PubMed

    Kummerow, Fred A

    2009-08-01

    Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils have been in the American diet since 1900. More than 50 years ago they were found to contain trans fatty acids that were different from natural fatty acids in plant oils and in animal fat. There was growing evidence that the consumption of trans fats have negative health effects, including increasing plasma lipid levels. In 2003, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ruled that the amount of trans fat in a food item must be stated on the label after January 1, 2006; food items could be labeled 0% trans if they contain less than 0.5g/serving. Since the initial ruling, it is now known that the fatty acids in partially hydrogenated vegetable oil are 14 cis and trans isomers of octadecenoic and octadecadienoic acids that are formed during hydrogenation. They cause inflammation and calcification of arterial cells: known risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). They inhibit cyclooxygenase, an enzyme required for the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostacyclin, necessary for the regulation of blood flow. There have been several reformulations of hydrogenated fat containing varying amounts of trans fatty acids and linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid that is converted to arachidonic acid. Epidemiological data suggest that when trans fat percentages go up and linoleic acid percentages go down, death rates rise; when trans goes down, death rates go down. In spite of the harmful effects of trans fats, the FDA allows it in the food supply as long as the amount in a food item is declared on the label. Trans fat should be banned from the food supply.

  7. A conserved intronic U1 snRNP-binding sequence promotes trans-splicing in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jun-Li; Fan, Yu-Jie; Wang, Xiu-Ye; Zhang, Yu; Pu, Jia; Li, Liang; Shao, Wei; Zhan, Shuai; Hao, Jianjiang

    2015-01-01

    Unlike typical cis-splicing, trans-splicing joins exons from two separate transcripts to produce chimeric mRNA and has been detected in most eukaryotes. Trans-splicing in trypanosomes and nematodes has been characterized as a spliced leader RNA-facilitated reaction; in contrast, its mechanism in higher eukaryotes remains unclear. Here we investigate mod(mdg4), a classic trans-spliced gene in Drosophila, and report that two critical RNA sequences in the middle of the last 5′ intron, TSA and TSB, promote trans-splicing of mod(mdg4). In TSA, a 13-nucleotide (nt) core motif is conserved across Drosophila species and is essential and sufficient for trans-splicing, which binds U1 small nuclear RNP (snRNP) through strong base-pairing with U1 snRNA. In TSB, a conserved secondary structure acts as an enhancer. Deletions of TSA and TSB using the CRISPR/Cas9 system result in developmental defects in flies. Although it is not clear how the 5′ intron finds the 3′ introns, compensatory changes in U1 snRNA rescue trans-splicing of TSA mutants, demonstrating that U1 recruitment is critical to promote trans-splicing in vivo. Furthermore, TSA core-like motifs are found in many other trans-spliced Drosophila genes, including lola. These findings represent a novel mechanism of trans-splicing, in which RNA motifs in the 5′ intron are sufficient to bring separate transcripts into close proximity to promote trans-splicing. PMID:25838544

  8. Cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA mixture does not change body composition, induces insulin resistance and increases serum HDL cholesterol level in rats.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Mariana Macedo; de Souza, Yamara Oliveira; Dutra Luquetti, Sheila Cristina Potente; Sabarense, Céphora Maria; do Amaral Corrêa, José Otávio; da Conceição, Ellen Paula Santos; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Andrade Soares, Sara Malaguti; Moura Gualberto, Ana Cristina; Gameiro, Jacy; da Gama, Marco Antônio Sundfeld; Ferraz Lopes, Fernando César; González Garcia, Raúl Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic supplements of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) containing 50:50 mixture of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers have been commercialized in some places for reducing body fat. However the safety of this CLA mixture is controversial and in some countries the CLA usage as food supplement is not authorized. Changes in insulinemic control and serum lipids profile are potential negative effects related to consumption of CLA mixture. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of a diet containing mixture of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA on prevention of obesity risk as well as on potential side effects such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in Wistar rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following dietary treatments (n=10/group), for 60 days: Normolipidic Control (NC), diet containing 4.0% soybean oil (SO); High Fat-Control (HF-C), diet containing 24.0% SO; High Fat-synthetic CLA (HF-CLA), diet containing 1.5% of an isomeric CLA mixture (Luta-CLA 60) and 22.5% SO. Luta-CLA 60 (BASF) contained nearly 60% of CLA (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA at 50:50 ratio). The HF-CLA diet contained 0.3% of each CLA isomer. HF-CLA diet had no effect on dietary intake and body composition. HF-CLA-fed rats had lower levels of PPARγ protein in retroperitoneal adipose tissue, hyperinsulinemia compared to HF-C-fed rats, hyperglycemia compared to NC-fed rats while no differences in glycemia were observed between NC and HF-C groups, increased HOMA index and higher levels of serum HDL cholesterol. Thus, feeding rats with a high fat diet containing equal parts of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers had no effect on body composition and induced insulin resistance. Despite HF-CLA-fed rats had increased serum HDL cholesterol levels, caution should be taken before synthetic supplements containing cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA are recommended as a nutritional strategy for weight management.

  9. Trans, trans-2,4-decadienal induced cell proliferation via p27 pathway in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yun-Ching; Lin, Pinpin

    2008-04-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to cooking oil fumes (COF) is a risk factor for lung cancer. Trans, trans-2,4-decadienal (tt-DDE), a dienaldehyde, is abundant in heated oils and COF. Previously, we found that long-term exposure (45 days) to a sub-lethal dose (1 microM) of tt-DDE significantly increased growth of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Aims of this study are to understand the mechanism of tt-DDE-induced cell proliferation and possible protective effects of antioxidant, vitamin C and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in BEAS-2B cells. Utilizing the real-time RT-PCR and Western immunoblotting, we found that p27 mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased by 1 microM tt-DDE treatment. Co-treatment with vitamin C or NAC partially prevented tt-DDE-induced cell proliferation. In addition, the downstream targets of p27, including CDK4, cyclin D1 and phosphorylated-Rb proteins, increased in 1 microM tt-DDE-treated cells and these changes were prevented by NAC co-treatment. Therefore, these results suggest that tt-DDE increased cell proliferation via inhibition of p27 expression, increase in CDK4/cyclin D1 protein accumulation and enhancement of Rb phosphorylation. Increased cell proliferation is considered as the early stages of lung carcinogenesis. Administration of antioxidants may prevent COF-associated lung carcinogenesis.

  10. The conjugated linoleic acid isomer trans-9,trans-11 is a dietary occurring agonist of liver X receptor {alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, Josef; Liebisch, Gerhard; Patsch, Wolfgang; Schmitz, Gerd

    2009-10-30

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers are dietary fatty acids that modulate gene expression in many cell types. We have previously reported that specifically trans-9,trans-11 (t9,t11)-CLA induces expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism of human macrophages. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this transcriptional activation, we asked whether t9,t11-CLA affects activity of liver X receptor (LXR) {alpha}, a major regulator of macrophage lipid metabolism. Here we show that t9,t11-CLA is a regulator of LXR{alpha}. We further demonstrate that the CLA isomer induces expression of direct LXR{alpha} target genes in human primary macrophages. Knockdown of LXR{alpha} with RNA interference in THP-1 cells inhibited t9,t11-CLA mediated activation of LXR{alpha} including its target genes. To evaluate the effective concentration range of t9,t11-CLA, human primary macrophages were treated with various doses of CLA and well known natural and synthetic LXR agonists and mRNA expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 was analyzed. Incubation of human macrophages with 10 {mu}M t9,t11-CLA led to a significant modulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 transcription and caused enhanced cholesterol efflux to high density lipoproteins and apolipoprotein AI. In summary, these data show that t9,t11-CLA is an agonist of LXR{alpha} in human macrophages and that its effects on macrophage lipid metabolism can be attributed to transcriptional regulations associated with this nuclear receptor.

  11. Trans, trans-2,4-decadienal induced cell proliferation via p27 pathway in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.-C.; Lin Pinpin

    2008-04-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to cooking oil fumes (COF) is a risk factor for lung cancer. Trans, trans-2,4-decadienal (tt-DDE), a dienaldehyde, is abundant in heated oils and COF. Previously, we found that long-term exposure (45 days) to a sub-lethal dose (1 {mu}M) of tt-DDE significantly increased growth of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Aims of this study are to understand the mechanism of tt-DDE-induced cell proliferation and possible protective effects of antioxidant, vitamin C and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in BEAS-2B cells. Utilizing the real-time RT-PCR and Western immunoblotting, we found that p27 mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased by 1 {mu}M tt-DDE treatment. Co-treatment with vitamin C or NAC partially prevented tt-DDE-induced cell proliferation. In addition, the downstream targets of p27, including CDK4, cyclin D{sub 1} and phosphorylated-Rb proteins, increased in 1 {mu}M tt-DDE-treated cells and these changes were prevented by NAC co-treatment. Therefore, these results suggest that tt-DDE increased cell proliferation via inhibition of p27 expression, increase in CDK4/cyclin D{sub 1} protein accumulation and enhancement of Rb phosphorylation. Increased cell proliferation is considered as the early stages of lung carcinogenesis. Administration of antioxidants may prevent COF-associated lung carcinogenesis.

  12. Benzene exposure, assessed by urinary trans,trans-muconic acid, in urban children with elevated blood lead levels.

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, V M; Davoli, C T; Heller, P J; Fitzwilliam, A; Peters, H L; Sunyer, J; Murphy, S E; Goldstein, G W; Groopman, J D

    1996-01-01

    A pilot study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of using trans,trans-muconic acid (MA) as a biomarker of environmental benzene exposure. A secondary aim was to provide data on the extent of exposure to selected toxicants in a unique population consisting of inner-city children who were already overexposed to one urban hazard, lead. Potential sources of benzene were assessed by a questionnaire. Exposure biomarkers included urinary MA and cotinine and blood lead. Mean MA was 176.6 +/- 341.7 ng/mg creatinine in the 79 children who participated. A wide range of values was found with as many as 10.1%, depending on the comparison study, above the highest levels reported in adults not exposed by occupation. Mean MA was increased in children evaluated in the afternoon compared to morning, those at or above the median for time spent playing near the street, and those studied in the first half of the investigation. MA levels were not associated with blood lead or, consistently, with either questionnaire environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) data or cotinine. As expected, the mean blood lead level was elevated (23.6 micrograms/dl). Mean cotinine was also increased at 79.2 ng/mg creatinine. We conclude that the use of MA as a biomarker for environmental benzene exposure is feasible since it was detectable in 72% of subjects with a wide range of values present. In future studies, correlation of MA with personal air sampling in environmental exposure will be essential to fully interpret the significance of these findings. In addition, these inner-city children comprise a high risk group for exposure to environmental toxicants including ETS, lead, and probably benzene, based on questionnaire sources and its presence in ETS. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:8919771

  13. In vitro study of dietary factors affecting the biohydrogenation shift from trans-11 to trans-10 fatty acids in the rumen of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zened, A; Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2012-03-01

    On the basis of the isomer-specific effects of trans fatty acids (FA) on human health, and the detrimental effect of t10,c12-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on cows' milk fat production, there is a need to identify factors that affect the shift from trans-11 to trans-10 pathway during ruminal biohydrogenation of FA. This experiment was conducted in vitro and aimed at separating the effects of the diet of the donor cows from those of the fermentative substrate, which is necessary to prevent this shift. A total of four dry Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. They received 12 kg of dry matter per day of four diets based on maize silage during four successive periods: the control diet (22% starch, <3% fat); the high-starch diet, supplemented with wheat plus barley (35% starch, <3% crude fat); the sunflower oil diet, supplemented with 5% of sunflower oil (20% starch, 7.6% crude fat); and the high-starch plus oil diet (33% starch, 7.3% crude fat). Ruminal fluid of each donor cow was incubated for 5 h with four substrates having similar chemical composition to the diets, replacing sunflower oil by pure linoleic acid (LA). The efficiency of isomerisation of LA to CLA was the highest when rumen fluids from cows receiving dietary oil were incubated with added LA. The shift from trans-11 to trans-10 isomers was induced in vitro by high-starch diets and the addition of LA. Oil supplementation to the diet of the donor cows increased this shift. Conversely, the trans-10 isomer balance was always low when no LA was added to incubation cultures. These results showed that a large accumulation of trans-10 FA was only observed with an adapted microflora, as well as an addition of non-esterified LA to the incubation substrate.

  14. In vitro study of dietary factors affecting the biohydrogenation shift from trans-11 to trans-10 fatty acids in the rumen of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zened, A; Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2012-03-01

    On the basis of the isomer-specific effects of trans fatty acids (FA) on human health, and the detrimental effect of t10,c12-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on cows' milk fat production, there is a need to identify factors that affect the shift from trans-11 to trans-10 pathway during ruminal biohydrogenation of FA. This experiment was conducted in vitro and aimed at separating the effects of the diet of the donor cows from those of the fermentative substrate, which is necessary to prevent this shift. A total of four dry Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. They received 12 kg of dry matter per day of four diets based on maize silage during four successive periods: the control diet (22% starch, <3% fat); the high-starch diet, supplemented with wheat plus barley (35% starch, <3% crude fat); the sunflower oil diet, supplemented with 5% of sunflower oil (20% starch, 7.6% crude fat); and the high-starch plus oil diet (33% starch, 7.3% crude fat). Ruminal fluid of each donor cow was incubated for 5 h with four substrates having similar chemical composition to the diets, replacing sunflower oil by pure linoleic acid (LA). The efficiency of isomerisation of LA to CLA was the highest when rumen fluids from cows receiving dietary oil were incubated with added LA. The shift from trans-11 to trans-10 isomers was induced in vitro by high-starch diets and the addition of LA. Oil supplementation to the diet of the donor cows increased this shift. Conversely, the trans-10 isomer balance was always low when no LA was added to incubation cultures. These results showed that a large accumulation of trans-10 FA was only observed with an adapted microflora, as well as an addition of non-esterified LA to the incubation substrate. PMID:22436225

  15. 76 FR 56873 - American Railroad Group Transportation Services, LLC d/b/a ARG Trans-Continuance in Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Surface Transportation Board American Railroad Group Transportation Services, LLC d/b/a ARG Trans--Continuance in Control Exemption--Coos Bay Railroad Operating Company, LLC d/b/a Coos Bay Rail Link American Railroad Group Transportation Services, LLC d/b/a ARG Trans (ARG Trans), a noncarrier, has filed a...

  16. New York City trans fat ban: improving the default option when purchasing foods prepared outside the home

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adverse effects of trans fatty acid (trans fat) on cardiovascular health have been known for at least 2 decades. During that time, both the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Institute of Medicine’s Dietary Reference Intake guidelines have recommended restricting trans fat intake to the ex...

  17. Electronic spectroscopy and photoisomerization of the epidermal chromophore trans-urocanic acid in a supersonic jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Wendy; Levy, Donald

    2001-03-01

    Trans-urocanic acid (trans-UA), a component of the epidermal layer of skin, exhibits wavelength dependent photochemistry. When the molecule is excited on the long wavelength tail of its absorption profile in solution, the quantum efficiency of isomerization to cis-UA achieves its maximum value. However, exciting the molecule where it absorbs light most efficiently causes almost no isomerization. We have used fluorescence excitation and dispersed emission methods in a supersonic jet to elucidate the electronic states buried under the broad, structureless absorption spectrum observed in solution. Three distinct regions are present in the excitation spectrum. Region I, below the isomerization barrier, contains sharp, well resolved features that upon excitation emit from the S1 state of trans-UA. Region II exhibits features that increase in broadness and decrease in intensity with increasing excitation energy. Upon excitation, these features produce dual emission from the S1 states of both trans and cis-UA. The isomerization barrier is estimated to be 1400 cm-1. Region III is excitation to the S2 electronic excited state of trans-UA and is very broad (3000 cm-1). S2 excitation results in esentially no trans to cis isomerization. Water complexes with trans-UA will also be discussed.

  18. Searching for trans ethyl methyl ether in Orion KL⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; López, A.; Brouillet, N.; Kolesniková, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2015-10-01

    We report on the tentative detection of trans ethyl methyl ether (tEME), t-CH3CH2OCH3, through the identification of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule towards Orion KL. We also search for gauche-trans-n-propanol, Gt-n-CH3CH2CH2OH, an isomer of tEME in the same source. We have identified lines of both species in the IRAM 30 m line survey and in the ALMA Science Verification data. We have obtained ALMA maps to establish the spatial distribution of these species. Whereas tEME mainly arises from the compact ridge component of Orion, Gt-n-propanol appears at the emission peak of ethanol (south hot core). The derived column densities of these species at the location of their emission peaks are ≤(4.0 ± 0.8) × 1015 cm-2 and ≤(1.0 ± 0.2) × 1015 cm-2 for tEME and Gt-n-propanol, respectively. The rotational temperature is ~100 K for both molecules. We also provide maps of CH3OCOH, CH3CH2OCOH, CH3OCH3, CH3OH, and CH3CH2OH to compare the distribution of these organic saturated O-bearing species containing methyl and ethyl groups in this region. Abundance ratios of related species and upper limits to the abundances of non-detected ethers are provided. We derive an abundance ratio N(CH3OCH3)/N(tEME) ≥ 150 in the compact ridge of Orion. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00009.SV. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan) with NRC (Canada), NSC, and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO, and NAOJ. This work was also based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30-m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Exclusive Use of trans-Editing Domains Prevents Proline Mistranslation*

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Rodriguez, Oscar; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) catalyze the attachment of specific amino acids to cognate tRNAs. Although the accuracy of this process is critical for overall translational fidelity, similar sizes of many amino acids provide a challenge to ARSs. For example, prolyl-tRNA synthetases (ProRSs) mischarge alanine and cysteine onto tRNAPro. Many bacterial ProRSs possess an alanine-specific proofreading domain (INS) but lack the capability to edit Cys-tRNAPro. Instead, Cys-tRNAPro is cleared by a single-domain homolog of INS, the trans-editing YbaK protein. A global bioinformatics analysis revealed that there are six types of “INS-like” proteins. In addition to INS and YbaK, four additional single-domain homologs are widely distributed throughout bacteria: ProXp-ala (formerly named PrdX), ProXp-x (annotated as ProX), ProXp-y (annotated as YeaK), and ProXp-z (annotated as PA2301). The last three are domains of unknown function. Whereas many bacteria encode a ProRS containing an INS domain in addition to YbaK, many other combinations of INS-like proteins exist throughout the bacterial kingdom. Here, we focus on Caulobacter crescentus, which encodes a ProRS with a truncated INS domain that lacks catalytic activity, as well as YbaK and ProXp-ala. We show that C. crescentus ProRS can readily form Cys- and Ala-tRNAPro, and deacylation studies confirmed that these species are cleared by C. crescentus YbaK and ProXp-ala, respectively. Substrate specificity of C. crescentus ProXp-ala is determined, in part, by elements in the acceptor stem of tRNAPro and further ensured through collaboration with elongation factor Tu. These results highlight the diversity of approaches used to prevent proline mistranslation and reveal a novel triple-sieve mechanism of editing that relies exclusively on trans-editing factors. PMID:23564458

  20. Receiver function inversion by trans-dimensional Monte Carlo sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostinetti, N. Piana; Malinverno, A.

    2010-05-01

    A key question in the analysis of an inverse problem is the quantification of the non-uniqueness of the solution. Non-uniqueness arises when properties of an earth model can be varied without significantly worsening the fit to observed data. In most geophysical inverse problems, subsurface properties are parameterized using a fixed number of unknowns, and non-uniqueness has been tackled with a Bayesian approach by determining a posterior probability distribution in the parameter space that combines `a priori' information with information contained in the observed data. However, less consideration has been given to the question whether the data themselves can constrain the model complexity, that is the number of unknowns needed to fit the observations. Answering this question requires solving a trans-dimensional inverse problem, where the number of unknowns is an unknown itself. Recently, the Bayesian approach to parameter estimation has been extended to quantify the posterior probability of the model complexity (the number of model parameters) with a quantity called `evidence'. The evidence can be hard to estimate in a non-linear problem; a practical solution is to use a Monte Carlo sampling algorithm that samples models with different number of unknowns in proportion to their posterior probability. This study presents a method to solve in trans-dimensional fashion the non-linear inverse problem of inferring 1-D subsurface elastic properties from teleseismic receiver function data. The Earth parameterization consists of a variable number of horizontal layers, where little is assumed a priori about the elastic properties, the number of layers, and and their thicknesses. We developed a reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm that draws samples from the posterior distribution of Earth models. The solution of the inverse problem is a posterior probability distribution of the number of layers, their thicknesses and the elastic properties as a function of

  1. Nutritional Profile of Phytococktail from Trans-Himalayan Plants

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Priyanka; Tayade, Amol B.; Kumar, Jatinder; Chaurasia, Om P.; Srivastava, Ravi B.; Singh, Shashi B.

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the nutritive value, vitamin content, amino acid composition, fatty acid content, and mineral profile of a phytococktail comprising sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), apricot (Prunus armeniaca), and roseroot (Rhodiola imbricata) from trans-Himalaya. The free vitamin forms in the phytococktail were determined by rapid resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS). Vitamin E and B-complex vitamins were detected as the principle vitamins. Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with pre-column derivatization was used for identification and quantification of amino acids. Eight essential and eleven non-essential amino acids were quantified, and the content ranged between 76.33 and 9485.67 µg/g. Among the essential amino acids, L-methionine, L-phenylalanine, L-lysine, L-leucine, and L-histidine were found to be the dominant contributors. We also quantified the fatty acids in the phytococktail by using gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) with fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) derivatization. The analysis revealed the presence of 4 major fatty acids contributing to the total lipid content. Palmitic acid was found to be the rich source of saturated fatty acid (SFA) and constituted ∼31% of the total lipid content. Among the unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), palmitoleic acid (43.47%), oleic acid (20.89%), and linoleic acid (4.31%) were prominent. The mineral profiling was carried out by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), and it was found to contain a number of important dietary mineral elements. The harsh climatic conditions, difficult terrain, and logistic constraints at high altitude regions of Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert lead to the scarcity of fresh fruits and vegetables. Therefore, the source of multiple vitamins, essential amino acids, fatty acids, and dietary minerals from the phytococktail would provide great health benefit in the

  2. Ruminant and industrial trans-fatty acid uptake in the heart.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Riya; LaVallee, Renee; Maddaford, Thane G; Devaney, Brittany; Bassett, Chantal M C; Edel, Andrea L; Pierce, Grant N

    2016-05-01

    Dietary trans-fats are strongly associated with heart disease. However, the capacity for the tissues of the body, and specifically the heart, to take up trans-fats is unknown. It is also unknown if different trans-fats have different uptake capacities in the heart and other tissues of the body. Diets of low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice were supplemented for 14weeks with foods that contained 1.5% of the trans-fat elaidic acid or vaccenic acid. Tissues were extracted and frozen in liquid nitrogen, and then lipids were analyzed by gas chromatography for fatty acid content. Isolated cardiomyocytes were also exposed to elaidic or vaccenic acid in cell culture media for 24h. Dietary supplementation with vaccenic or elaidic acid resulted in a 20-fold higher accumulation of these TFAs in fat deposits in the body in comparison to liver. Liver tissue accumulated about twice as much per gram tissue as heart. Similar quantities of both elaidic acid and vaccenic acid were taken up by the tissues. Isolated cardiomyocytes exhibited an unusually large uptake of trans-fat, and this was dependent upon both the concentration and duration of exposure to the trans-fats but not upon the type of trans-fat. Expression levels of CD36 and FATP4 were not significantly changed during dietary interventions or exposure of cells to trans-fats. We conclude that fat, liver and heart (including cardiomyocytes) are all capable of accumulating trans-fat in response to dietary supplementation without changes in fatty acid transport protein expression.

  3. Trans Fatty Acids Induce Vascular Inflammation and Reduce Vascular Nitric Oxide Production in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Naomi G.; Pham, Matilda; Rizzo, Norma O.; Cheng, Andrew M.; Maloney, Ezekiel; Kim, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Intake of trans fatty acids (TFA), which are consumed by eating foods made from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. This relation can be explained by many factors including TFA's negative effect on endothelial function and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. In this study we investigated the effects of three different TFA (2 common isomers of C18 found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oil and a C18 isomer found from ruminant-derived—dairy products and meat) on endothelial NF-κB activation and nitric oxide (NO) production. Human endothelial cells were treated with increasing concentrations of Elaidic (trans-C18:1 (9 trans)), Linoelaidic (trans-C18:2 (9 trans, 12 trans)), and Transvaccenic (trans-C18:1 (11 trans)) for 3 h. Both Elaidic and Linoelaidic acids were associated with increasing NF-κB activation as measured by IL-6 levels and phosphorylation of IκBα, and impairment of endothelial insulin signaling and NO production, whereas Transvaccenic acid was not associated with these responses. We also measured superoxide production, which has been hypothesized to be necessary in fatty acid-dependent activation of NF-κB. Both Elaidic acid and Linoelaidic acid are associated with increased superoxide production, whereas Transvaccenic acid (which did not induce inflammatory responses) did not increase superoxide production. We observed differential activation of endothelial superoxide production, NF-κB activation, and reduction in NO production by different C18 isomers suggesting that the location and number of trans double bonds effect endothelial NF-κB activation. PMID:22216328

  4. Ruminant and industrial trans-fatty acid uptake in the heart.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Riya; LaVallee, Renee; Maddaford, Thane G; Devaney, Brittany; Bassett, Chantal M C; Edel, Andrea L; Pierce, Grant N

    2016-05-01

    Dietary trans-fats are strongly associated with heart disease. However, the capacity for the tissues of the body, and specifically the heart, to take up trans-fats is unknown. It is also unknown if different trans-fats have different uptake capacities in the heart and other tissues of the body. Diets of low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice were supplemented for 14weeks with foods that contained 1.5% of the trans-fat elaidic acid or vaccenic acid. Tissues were extracted and frozen in liquid nitrogen, and then lipids were analyzed by gas chromatography for fatty acid content. Isolated cardiomyocytes were also exposed to elaidic or vaccenic acid in cell culture media for 24h. Dietary supplementation with vaccenic or elaidic acid resulted in a 20-fold higher accumulation of these TFAs in fat deposits in the body in comparison to liver. Liver tissue accumulated about twice as much per gram tissue as heart. Similar quantities of both elaidic acid and vaccenic acid were taken up by the tissues. Isolated cardiomyocytes exhibited an unusually large uptake of trans-fat, and this was dependent upon both the concentration and duration of exposure to the trans-fats but not upon the type of trans-fat. Expression levels of CD36 and FATP4 were not significantly changed during dietary interventions or exposure of cells to trans-fats. We conclude that fat, liver and heart (including cardiomyocytes) are all capable of accumulating trans-fat in response to dietary supplementation without changes in fatty acid transport protein expression. PMID:27133424

  5. Rational design of improved dienophiles for in vivo tetrazine-trans-cyclooctene ligation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauch, Tim; Scholtes, Jan Felix; Dreuw, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    The inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction of trans-cyclooctene and sym-tetrazine is a bioorthogonal reaction which has found widespread applications during the last decade, e.g. for fluorescent labeling of living cells. However, the use of this reaction is still limited due to the rapid isomerization of trans-cyclooctene to its unreactive cis-conformer. Using computational methods, we have derived two optimized derivatives of trans-cyclooctene, which pave the road to more efficient in vivo labeling of arbitrary proteins.

  6. Introduction to the IEEE International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics and International Symposium on Piezoresponse Force Microscopy and Nanoscale Phenomena in Polar Materials.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zuo-Guang; Tan, Xiaoli; Bokov, Alexei A

    2012-09-01

    The 20th IEEE International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics (ISAF) was held on July 24-27, 2011, in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, jointly with the International Symposium on Piezoresponse Force Microscopy and Nanoscale Phenomena in Polar Materials (PFM). Over a period of four days, approximately 400 scientists, engineers, and students from around the world presented their work and discussed the latest developments in the field of ferroelectrics, related materials, and their applications. It is particularly encouraging to see that a large number of students (115) were attracted to the joint conference and presented high-quality research works. This trend is not only important to this conference series, but more importantly, it is vital to the future of the ferroelectrics field.

  7. An Italian Education: IEEE Pulse talks with Riccardo Pietrabissa, president of Italy's National Bioengineering Group, about Italian progress and challenges in biomedical engineering education.

    PubMed

    Pietrabissa, Riccardo; Reynolds, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    From Leonardo da Vinci's designs for ball bearings to the incredible engineering wizardry behind the Ferrari, the inventive, inquisitive, and ingenious spirit of the engineer has always lived--and thrived--in Italy. From education to research to product development, Italy has always been regarded as an engineering leader. But does this apply to biomedical engineering (BME)? Despite many successes, questions loom, as they do at engineering schools worldwide. Concerns such as whether BME programs are providing students with enough focused, practical, hands-on training remain at the forefront, as does the question of whether graduates will be able to find jobs in industry after university studies are over. Here, IEEE Pulse explores these topics with Riccardo Pietrabissa, president of the Gruppo Nazionale di Bioingegneria (National Bioengineering Group) and a full professor in the Department of Chemistry, Materials, and Chemical Engineering at Politecnico di Milano.

  8. Sixth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies Held in Cooperation with the Fifteenth IEEE Symposium on Mass Storage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Benjamin (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This document contains copies of those technical papers received in time for publication prior to the Sixth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies which is being held in cooperation with the Fifteenth IEEE Symposium on Mass Storage Systems at the University of Maryland-University College Inn and Conference Center March 23-26, 1998. As one of an ongoing series, this Conference continues to provide a forum for discussion of issues relevant to the management of large volumes of data. The Conference encourages all interested organizations to discuss long term mass storage requirements and experiences in fielding solutions. Emphasis is on current and future practical solutions addressing issues in data management, storage systems and media, data acquisition, long term retention of data, and data distribution. This year's discussion topics include architecture, tape optimization, new technology, performance, standards, site reports, vendor solutions. Tutorials will be available on shared file systems, file system backups, data mining, and the dynamics of obsolescence.

  9. An Italian Education: IEEE Pulse talks with Riccardo Pietrabissa, president of Italy's National Bioengineering Group, about Italian progress and challenges in biomedical engineering education.

    PubMed

    Pietrabissa, Riccardo; Reynolds, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    From Leonardo da Vinci's designs for ball bearings to the incredible engineering wizardry behind the Ferrari, the inventive, inquisitive, and ingenious spirit of the engineer has always lived--and thrived--in Italy. From education to research to product development, Italy has always been regarded as an engineering leader. But does this apply to biomedical engineering (BME)? Despite many successes, questions loom, as they do at engineering schools worldwide. Concerns such as whether BME programs are providing students with enough focused, practical, hands-on training remain at the forefront, as does the question of whether graduates will be able to find jobs in industry after university studies are over. Here, IEEE Pulse explores these topics with Riccardo Pietrabissa, president of the Gruppo Nazionale di Bioingegneria (National Bioengineering Group) and a full professor in the Department of Chemistry, Materials, and Chemical Engineering at Politecnico di Milano. PMID:26186055

  10. Trans allele methylation and paramutation-like effects in mice

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Herry; Lu, Michael; Anggraini, Melly; Sikora, Aimee; Chang, Yanjie; Yoon, Bong June; Soloway, Paul D

    2009-01-01

    In mammals, imprinted genes have parent-of-origin–specific patterns of DNA methylation that cause allele-specific expression. At Rasgrf1 (encoding RAS protein-specific guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 1), a repeated DNA element is needed to establish methylation and expression of the active paternal allele1. At Igf2r (encoding insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor), a sequence called region 2 is needed for methylation of the active maternal allele2,3. Here we show that replacing the Rasgrf1 repeats on the paternal allele with region 2 allows both methylation and expression of the paternal copy of Rasgrf1, indicating that sequences that control methylation can function ectopically. Paternal transmission of the mutated allele also induced methylation and expression in trans of the normally unmethylated and silent wild-type maternal allele. Once activated, the wild-type maternal Rasgrf1 allele maintained its activated state in the next generation independently of the paternal allele. These results recapitulate in mice several features in common with paramutation described in plants4. PMID:12740578

  11. Trans-ungual delivery of itraconazole hydrochloride by iontophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Avadhesh; Jacob, Melissa; Shiva Kumar, H N; Hiremath, Shobharani; Aradhya, Sacchidanand; Repka, Michael A; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2015-01-01

    Itraconazole (ITR) is a potent antifungal drug. However, poor aqueous solubility limits its permeation ability across the human nail plate. Therefore, in this project, ITR was converted to hydrochloride salt (ITR-HCl) to improve its solubility and to render it amenable to iontophoresis. ITR-HCl was characterized by spectroscopic methods and antifungal efficacy was evaluated in comparison to the base. In vitro and ex vivo transport studies (passive and iontophoresis) were carried out across the porcine hoof membrane and excised human cadaver toe using two different protocols; continuous delivery of drug for 24 h and pulsed delivery of drug for 3 days (8 h/day). The antifungal efficacy of ITR-HCL was comparable to ITR. Iontophoresis was found to be more effective than passive mode of delivery of ITR-HCL. In both iontophoresis as well as passive mode of delivery, the pulsed protocol resulted in more ungual and trans-ungual delivery of drug than continuous protocol. ITR-HCL could be delivered into and across the nail plate by iontophoresis. Human cadaver toe appears to be a good model to investigate the ungual delivery of drugs. PMID:25482587

  12. The Trans-Pacific Partnership and pharmaceutical innovation.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Trade agreements are an overlooked area of research and policy analysis that affect market access, pricing and reimbursement decisions by pharmaceutical manufacturers, and research and development decisions in the long term. The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is the most recent multi-national agreement under considerations that may have profound implications in developed and developing countries in the Pacific Rim. As in the case of other trade arrangements, the TPP negotiations are not transparent, but a major leak of the most recent draft has been published in WikiLeaks. The leaked document has raised a number of concerns about intellectual property rights (IPR) and regulatory data protection (RDP) that have implications for public health and economic policy throughout the region. In particular, IPR and RDP go beyond the minimum standards set under the World Trade Organization (WTO) and may affect drug access negatively by delaying generic drug and biosimilar product availability and by raising prices by removing national regulations dealing with drug pricing and reimbursement. Of particular concern is the establishment of a litigation process where multi-national companies can sue individual countries before a panel of private attorneys who are appointed by the World Bank or United Nations. This paper addresses these concerns along with a commentary on the likelihood of occurring and the need for future research. PMID:26803645

  13. Isla Hispaniola: A trans-boundary flood risk mitigation plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandimarte, Luigia; Brath, Armando; Castellarin, Attilio; Baldassarre, Giuliano Di

    It is sadly known that over the past decades Isla Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic) has been exposed to the devastating passage of several hurricanes and tropical storms. Territories that are economically weak and extremely poor in terms of natural resources have been shaken by severe flood events that caused the loss of thousands of human lives, displacement of people and damage to the environment. On May 24th 2004, the flooding of the trans-boundary river Soliette killed over 1000 Haitian and Dominican people, wiping out villages and leaving behind desolation and poverty. After this catastrophic flood event, the General Direction for Development and Cooperation of the Italian Department of Foreign Affairs funded through the Istituto Italo-Latino Americano (IILA, www.iila.org) an international cooperation initiative (ICI), coordinated and directed by the University of Bologna. The ICI involved Haitian and Dominican institutions and was twofold: (a) institutional capacity building on flood risk management and mitigation measures and policies; (b) hydrological and hydraulic analysis of the May 2004 flood event aimed at formulating a suitable and affordable flood risk mitigation plan, consisting of structural and non-structural measures.

  14. Trans-dimensional ambient noise tomography of the northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seongryong; Tkalčić, Hrvoje; Rhie, Junkee; Chen, Youlin

    2016-04-01

    A trans-dimensional and hierarchical Bayesian tomography is performed to estimate spatial variations of shear wave velocity and provide the uncertainty in the northeast Asia region from the ambient noise data. The method accounts for irregular data distribution and sensitivity using adaptive partition property of Voronoi cells. Importantly, the number of basis functions used to parameterise the Earth model in the inversion and the level of data noise are implicitly balanced by the information contained in the data (and treated as free parameters in the inversions). Thereby more reliable models and their rigorous uncertainties are estimated by avoiding over- or under-estimation and explicit regularisation. We measure Rayleigh wave phase and group velocity (8-70 s) for available inter-station paths between more than 300 broadband stations. The obtained group and phase velocity maps reveal characteristic features beneath the former (East Sea also known as Japan Sea) and the current back-arc (Okinawa trough) regions, where relatively high and low velocities are estimated at intermediate (20-40 s) and longer periods (50-60 s), respectively. We observe that the low velocity anomalies extend to beneath intraplate volcanoes in the northeast China and the Korean Peninsula. Based on the depth sensitivity of surface wave dispersions and previous geological evidences, we argue that the intraplate volcanism in this region might be influenced by sub-lithospheric processes related to the subduction of the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates.

  15. The Trans-Pacific Partnership and pharmaceutical innovation.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Trade agreements are an overlooked area of research and policy analysis that affect market access, pricing and reimbursement decisions by pharmaceutical manufacturers, and research and development decisions in the long term. The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is the most recent multi-national agreement under considerations that may have profound implications in developed and developing countries in the Pacific Rim. As in the case of other trade arrangements, the TPP negotiations are not transparent, but a major leak of the most recent draft has been published in WikiLeaks. The leaked document has raised a number of concerns about intellectual property rights (IPR) and regulatory data protection (RDP) that have implications for public health and economic policy throughout the region. In particular, IPR and RDP go beyond the minimum standards set under the World Trade Organization (WTO) and may affect drug access negatively by delaying generic drug and biosimilar product availability and by raising prices by removing national regulations dealing with drug pricing and reimbursement. Of particular concern is the establishment of a litigation process where multi-national companies can sue individual countries before a panel of private attorneys who are appointed by the World Bank or United Nations. This paper addresses these concerns along with a commentary on the likelihood of occurring and the need for future research.

  16. The Trans-Contextual Model of Autonomous Motivation in Education

    PubMed Central

    Hagger, Martin S.; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.

    2015-01-01

    The trans-contextual model outlines the processes by which autonomous motivation toward activities in a physical education context predicts autonomous motivation toward physical activity outside of school, and beliefs about, intentions toward, and actual engagement in, out-of-school physical activity. In the present article, we clarify the fundamental propositions of the model and resolve some outstanding conceptual issues, including its generalizability across multiple educational domains, criteria for its rejection or failed replication, the role of belief-based antecedents of intentions, and the causal ordering of its constructs. We also evaluate the consistency of model relationships in previous tests of the model using path-analytic meta-analysis. The analysis supported model hypotheses but identified substantial heterogeneity in the hypothesized relationships across studies unattributed to sampling and measurement error. Based on our meta-analysis, future research needs to provide further replications of the model in diverse educational settings beyond physical education and test model hypotheses using experimental methods. PMID:27274585

  17. Cardiac Optogenetics: Enhancement by All-trans-Retinal.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jinzhu; Chen, Kay; Lucero, Rachel V; Ambrosi, Christina M; Entcheva, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    All-trans-Retinal (ATR) is a photosensitizer, serving as the chromophore for depolarizing and hyperpolarizing light-sensitive ion channels and pumps (opsins), recently employed as fast optical actuators. In mammalian optogenetic applications (in brain and heart), endogenous ATR availability is not considered a limiting factor, yet it is unclear how ATR modulation may affect the response to optical stimulation. We hypothesized that exogenous ATR may improve light responsiveness of cardiac cells modified by Channelrhodopsin2 (ChR2), hence lowering the optical pacing energy. In virally-transduced (Ad-ChR2(H134R)-eYFP) light-sensitive cardiac syncytium in vitro, ATR supplements ≤2 μM improved cardiomyocyte viability and augmented ChR2 membrane expression several-fold, while >4 μM was toxic. Employing integrated optical actuation (470 nm) and optical mapping, we found that 1-2 μM ATR dramatically reduced optical pacing energy (over 30 times) to several μW/mm(2), lowest values reported to date, but also caused action potential prolongation, minor changes in calcium transients and no change in conduction. Theoretical analysis helped explain ATR-caused reduction of optical excitation threshold in cardiomyocytes. We conclude that cardiomyocytes operate at non-saturating retinal levels, and carefully-dosed exogenous ATR can enhance the performance of ChR2 in cardiac cells and yield energy benefits over orders of magnitude for optogenetic stimulation. PMID:26568132

  18. Trans-orbital orbitocranial penetrating injury by pointed iron rod

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Vinod Kumar; Dubey, Ram Shringar; Dubey, Gyan Chand

    2015-01-01

    Trans-orbital orbitocranial penetrating injury (TOPI) by a foreign body is an extremely rare compound head injury having a potential to cause major morbidity and mortality. Preoperative radiological imaging by CT scan is very important for operative guidance, but in remote area where CT scan is not available, the patient is generally referred to tertiary level. Here we present a case which was dealt successfully without CT scan, only on the basis of stable clinical status and X-rays. We present a case of a 35-year-old man who had an accidental injury (fall from height) by rod. Immediate X-ray (anteroposterior and lateral views) revealed that the pointed end of the foreign body (rod) was inside the ipsilateral anterior fossa via basifrontal bone up to frontal vertex, not crossing the midline. CT scan was not available and his vitals with GCS were normal (15/15). He was operated with the help of an ophthalmic surgeon by right frontotemporal craniotomy. The patient was discharged on 10th day without any neurological deficit except restricted right eyeball movement to superolateral and ptosis. The restricted eyeball movements recovered after third month of follow up with remnant ptosis for 2 years. This case highlights an unusual case, direct visualization and repair of brain structures with higher antibiotics can save the life even in remote areas where CT scan is still not available only on the basis of stable GCS and X-rays. PMID:25883487

  19. Wavelength dependent cis-trans isomerization in vision.

    PubMed

    Kim, J E; Tauber, M J; Mathies, R A

    2001-11-20

    The primary event in vision is the light-driven cis-trans isomerization of the 11-cis-retinal chromophore in the G-protein coupled receptor rhodopsin. Early measurements showed that this photoisomerization has a reaction quantum yield phi of approximately 0.67 [Dartnall (1936) Proc. R. Soc. A 156, 158-170; Dartnall (1968) Vision Res. 8, 339-358] and suggested that the quantum yield was wavelength independent [Schneider (1939) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 170, 102-112]. Here we more accurately determine phi(500) = 0.65 +/- 0.01 and reveal that phi surprisingly depends on the wavelength of the incident light. Although there is no difference in the quantum yield between 450 and 480 nm, the quantum yield falls significantly as the photon energy is reduced below 20 000 cm(-1) (500 nm). At the reddest wavelength measured (570 nm), the quantum yield is reduced by 5 +/- 1% relative to the 500 nm value. These experiments correct the long-held presumption that the quantum yield in vision is wavelength independent, and support the hypothesis that the 200 fs photoisomerization reaction that initiates vision is dictated by nonstationary excited-state vibrational wave packet dynamics. PMID:11705366

  20. Trans-skull ultrasonic Doppler system aided by fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Yutaka; Nakamura, Masato; Yagi, Naomi; Ishikawa, Tomomoto

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a trans-skull ultrasonic Doppler system for measuring the blood flow direction in brain under skull. In this system, we use an ultrasonic array probe with the center frequency of 1.0 MHz. The system determines the fuzzy degree of blood flow by Doppler Effect, thereby it locates blood vessel. This Doppler Effect is examined by the center of gravity shift of the frequency magnitudes. In in-vitro experiment, a cow bone was employed as the skull, and three silicon tubes were done as blood vessels, and bubble in water as blood. We received the ultrasonic waves through a protein, the skull and silicon tubes in order. In the system, fuzzy degrees are determined with respect to the Doppler shift, amplitude of the waves and attenuation of the tissues. The fuzzy degrees of bone and blood direction are calculated by them. The experimental results showed that the system successfully visualized the skull and flow direction, compared with the location and flow direction of the phantom. Thus, it detected the flow direction by Doppler Effect under skull, and automatically extracted the region of skull and blood vessel.