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Sample records for al ind eng

  1. ENG — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    ENG, or endoglin, is a cell surface adhesion protein involved the regulation of angiogenesis. ENG is a major glycoprotein of the vascular endothelium and is also a component of the transforming growth factor beta receptor complex. ENG binds to the beta1 and beta3 peptides with high affinity. ENG may also be involved in preeclampsia and several types of cancer. There are several isoforms encoded by transcript variants.

  2. Exhibiting monstrosity: Chang and Eng, the 'original' Siamese twins.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sarah

    2003-12-01

    Chang and Eng, the two young men who would eventually be known around the world as the 'original' Siamese twins, arrived in the West in 1829. They were brought to the West to be examined by medical men and to be exhibited to the general public. Throughout the 19th century in Britain and the US, 'monstrosities' such as Chang and Eng, as well as a host of other people with unusual anatomies, were considered both spectacles worthy of public display and edifying medical subjects with the potential to build on medical knowledge. The unique case of Chang and Eng illustrates that the boundary between what is of legitimate medical interest and what is considered merely spectacle is often blurred.

  3. IND - THE IND DECISION TREE PACKAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, W.

    1994-01-01

    A common approach to supervised classification and prediction in artificial intelligence and statistical pattern recognition is the use of decision trees. A tree is "grown" from data using a recursive partitioning algorithm to create a tree which has good prediction of classes on new data. Standard algorithms are CART (by Breiman Friedman, Olshen and Stone) and ID3 and its successor C4 (by Quinlan). As well as reimplementing parts of these algorithms and offering experimental control suites, IND also introduces Bayesian and MML methods and more sophisticated search in growing trees. These produce more accurate class probability estimates that are important in applications like diagnosis. IND is applicable to most data sets consisting of independent instances, each described by a fixed length vector of attribute values. An attribute value may be a number, one of a set of attribute specific symbols, or it may be omitted. One of the attributes is delegated the "target" and IND grows trees to predict the target. Prediction can then be done on new data or the decision tree printed out for inspection. IND provides a range of features and styles with convenience for the casual user as well as fine-tuning for the advanced user or those interested in research. IND can be operated in a CART-like mode (but without regression trees, surrogate splits or multivariate splits), and in a mode like the early version of C4. Advanced features allow more extensive search, interactive control and display of tree growing, and Bayesian and MML algorithms for tree pruning and smoothing. These often produce more accurate class probability estimates at the leaves. IND also comes with a comprehensive experimental control suite. IND consists of four basic kinds of routines: data manipulation routines, tree generation routines, tree testing routines, and tree display routines. The data manipulation routines are used to partition a single large data set into smaller training and test sets. The

  4. Santa Claus, Ga./Ind.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The towns of Santa Claus, Ga., (top) and Santa Claus, Ind. (bottom), are shown in these two images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite. They are the only two Santa Claus towns in the United States with post offices and zip codes, although there are 11 towns with this name in the United States. Santa Claus, Ga. is located in Toombs County, and has a population of 237. Santa Claus, Ind. is located in Spencer County, and has a population of 2,041. Its name was accepted by the United States Postal Service in 1856. The images were acquired on July 3, 2000 (top) and June 16, 2001 (bottom), respectively.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science

  5. The Eng1 β-Glucanase Enhances Histoplasma Virulence by Reducing β-Glucan Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Garfoot, Andrew L.; Shen, Qian; Wüthrich, Marcel; Klein, Bruce S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum parasitizes host phagocytes. To avoid antimicrobial immune responses, Histoplasma yeasts must minimize their detection by host receptors while simultaneously interacting with the phagocyte. Pathogenic Histoplasma yeast cells, but not avirulent mycelial cells, secrete the Eng1 protein, which is a member of the glycosylhydrolase 81 (GH81) family. We show that Histoplasma Eng1 is a glucanase that hydrolyzes β-(1,3)-glycosyl linkages but is not required for Histoplasma growth in vitro or for cell separation. However, Histoplasma yeasts lacking Eng1 function have attenuated virulence in vivo, particularly during the cell-mediated immunity stage. Histoplasma yeasts deficient for Eng1 show increased exposure of cell wall β-glucans, which results in enhanced binding to the Dectin-1 β-glucan receptor. Consistent with this, Eng1-deficient yeasts trigger increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) cytokine production from macrophages and dendritic cells. While not responsible for large-scale cell wall structure and function, the secreted Eng1 reduces levels of exposed β-glucans at the yeast cell wall, thereby diminishing potential recognition by Dectin-1 and proinflammatory cytokine production by phagocytes. In α-glucan-producing Histoplasma strains, Eng1 acts in concert with α-glucan to minimize β-glucan exposure: α-glucan provides a masking function by covering the β-glucan-rich cell wall, while Eng1 removes any remaining exposed β-glucans. Thus, Histoplasma Eng1 has evolved a specialized pathogenesis function to remove exposed β-glucans, thereby enhancing the ability of yeasts to escape detection by host phagocytes. PMID:27094334

  6. Commentary on: A randomized controlled trial of fusion surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis (Forsth P, Ólafsson G, Carlsson T, Frost A, Borgström F, Fritzell P, et al. N Eng J Med 2016;374:1414-23)

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This article by Forsth et al. published in the New England Journal of Medicine entitled A randomized controlled trial of fusion surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis determined that decompressions alone vs. decompressions/fusions were equally effective in treating 1-2 level spinal stensois with/without degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). Additionally, decompression alone reduced the perioperative morbidity, while reducuing the length of hospital stay (LOS), operative time, and surgical costs. Methods: Utilizing a randomized controlled design, the efficacy of 1-2 level decompressions alone vs. decompressions with fusions for lumbar spinal stenosis with/without DS (135 patients) was assessed in 247 patients between the ages of 50–80. Outcomes were analyzed at 2 and 5 postoperative years utilizing the 6-minute walk test, and the Oswestry disability index (ODI). Results: At 2 and 5 postoperative years, there were no significant clinical differences between the two groups (e.g., on the average ODI or 6-minute walk test). In addition, with decompressions alone, the LOS (averaging 7.4 days for fusion vs. 4.1 days for decompression alone), surgical time, and operative costs were markedly reduced. Furthermore, at 6.5 postoperative years, reoperation rates were comparable for both groups; 22% for decompression/fusion vs. 21% for decompression alone. Conclusions: The authors concluded that at 2 and 5 postoperative years, patients with 1-2 level spinal stenosis did equally well with decompressions alone vs. decompressions with fusions with/without degenerative spondylolisthesis. This article offers a clear message for spinal surgeons; for older patients with 1-2 level spinal stenosis with/without DS, decompresions alone will typically suffice. This reduces patient morbidity along with LOS, operative time, and surgical costs. PMID:27843676

  7. Restructuring Graduate Engineering Education: The M.Eng. Program at Cornell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, K. Bingham; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the restructuring of the graduate program to accommodate emerging fields in engineering. Notes half of the graduate degrees Cornell grants each year are M.Eng. degrees. Offers 12 specialties: aerospace, agriculture, chemical, civil, electrical, mechanical and nuclear engineering; computer science, engineering physics; geological…

  8. 30. "CONSTRUCTION PHASING, STATION '50' AREA." Specifications No. ENG043535775, Drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. "CONSTRUCTION PHASING, STATION '50' AREA." Specifications No. ENG-04-353-57-75, Drawing No. AF-4502-19, sheet 4 of 5, D.O. Series No. AF 1439/26. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 5296, Date: 10 NOV. 59. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 7. "LAUNCH SILOS; SECTIONS, DETAILS." Specifications No. ENG043535973; Drawing No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. "LAUNCH SILOS; SECTIONS, DETAILS." Specifications No. ENG-04-353-59-73; Drawing No. 5841-S-4; D.O. SERIES AW1525/26 Rev. A.; Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract No. 6601, Rev. A., Date 11 Sep 59. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Missile Silo Type, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. Instrumentation and control building, architectural, floor plans. Specifications no. Eng043535572; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Instrumentation and control building, architectural, floor plans. Specifications no. Eng-04-353-55-72; Drawing No. 60-09-12' sheet 64 of 148; file no. 1321/15. Stamped: record drawing - as constructed. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Control Center, Test Area 1-115, near Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. 10. "ARCHITECTURAL, SECTIONS AND DETAILS." Specifications No. ENG043535572; Drawing No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. "ARCHITECTURAL, SECTIONS AND DETAILS." Specifications No. ENG-04-353-55-72; Drawing No. 60-09-12; sheet 23 of 148; file no. 1320/74. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. 26. "TEST STAND, STRUCTURAL, FOUNDATION PLAN." Specifications No. ENG043535572; Drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. "TEST STAND, STRUCTURAL, FOUNDATION PLAN." Specifications No. ENG-04-353-55-72; Drawing No. 60-0912; sheet 25 of 148; file no. 1320/76. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. 4. "ARCHITECTURAL, FLOOR PLANELEVATIONSSECTIONS, OBSERVATION BUNKERS." Specifications No. ENG (NASA)04353631; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. "ARCHITECTURAL, FLOOR PLAN-ELEVATIONS-SECTIONS, OBSERVATION BUNKERS." Specifications No. ENG (NASA)04-353-63-1; Drawing No. 60-09-34; sheet 325. Ref. No. A-13. D.O. SERIES 1597/87. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunker 1-D-3, Test Area 1-125, northwest end of Altair Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. On the unusual characteristics of the diamonds from Letšeng-la-Terae kimberlites, Lesotho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Debbie C.; Ferraris, Ray D.; Palmer, Claire E.; Ward, John D.

    2009-11-01

    The Letšeng-la-Terae kimberlites are situated 3100 m above sea level in the Maloti Mountains of Lesotho, southern Africa. The principal economic bodies are two Late Cretaceous, low grade, 1-3.5 carats/hundred ton (cpht), kimberlite pipes that host high-value diamonds realising US 2000-2500/carat (/ct) in 2008 terms. Locally, the larger kimberlite body is referred to as the Main Pipe (17.2 ha) and the smaller one is called the Satellite Pipe (5.2 ha). These pipes, and their associated eluvial and proximal alluvial deposits, are renowned for yielding large, "D" colour, gem quality diamonds, including + 100 carat (ct) stones. Earlier artisanal effort (1959-1977) and formal mining (1977-1982) produced 335,000 carats (cts), including the 601 ct Lesotho Brown in 1968. In 2003, Letšeng Diamonds Limited re-commenced mining operations and had produced 265,000 cts by the end of July 2008, including 24 + 100 ct diamonds, the largest of which was the 603 ct Lesotho Promise. We report here on the unusual characteristics of the Letšeng diamond population that include: 75% gem quality that is more commonly associated with alluvial diamond deposits, large average stone size of ca. 1 carat/stone (ct/stn) that is also more typical of certain alluvial diamond placers, high-yielding, rounded to flattened irregular, resorbed dodecahedral shapes (Main Pipe 67% and Satellite Pipe 87%) with subordinate dodecahedral macle (Main Pipe 32% and Satellite Pipe 12%) and broken (ca. 1%) forms. In both pipes the octahedral component is virtually absent (< 0.1%), economically favourable colour mix (ca. 33% white colour diamonds in both pipes), abundance of nitrogen-free, "D" colour, Type IIa diamonds that dominate the internationally recognised "special" stone size fraction which covers all diamonds larger than + 10.8 cts (Main Pipe 32% and Satellite Pipe 51%). During 2008, these larger, "special" diamonds commanded prices in excess of US 15,000/ct, contributing ca. 75% of the revenue generated

  15. Eng1 and Exg8 Are the Major β-Glucanases Secreted by the Fungal Pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum.

    PubMed

    Garfoot, Andrew L; Dearing, Kacey L; VanSchoiack, Andrew D; Wysocki, Vicki H; Rappleye, Chad A

    2017-03-24

    Fungal cell walls contain β-glucan polysaccharides that stimulate immune responses when recognized by host immune cells. The fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum minimizes detection of β-glucan by host cells through at least two mechanisms: concealment of β-glucans beneath α-glucans and enzymatic removal of any exposed β-glucan polysaccharides by the secreted glucanase Eng1. Histoplasma yeasts also secrete the putative glucanase Exg8, which may serve a similar role as Eng1 in removing exposed β-glucans from the yeast cell surface. Here, we characterize the enzymatic specificity of the Eng1 and Exg8 proteins and show that Exg8 is an exo-β1,3-glucanase and Eng1 is an endo-β1,3-glucanase. Together, Eng1 and Exg8 account for nearly all of the total secreted glucanase activity of Histoplasma yeasts. Both Eng1 and Exg8 proteins are secreted through a conventional secretion signal and are modified post-translationally by O-linked glycosylation. Both glucanases have near maximal activity at temperature and pH conditions experienced during infection of host cells, supporting roles in Histoplasma pathogenesis. Exg8 has a higher specific activity than Eng1 for β1,3-glucans; yet despite this, Exg8 does not reduce detection of yeasts by the host β-glucan receptor Dectin-1. Exg8 is largely dispensable for virulence in vivo, in contrast to Eng1. These results show that Histoplasma yeasts secrete two β1,3-glucanases and that Eng1 endoglucanase activity is the predominant factor responsible for removal of exposed cell wall β-glucans to minimize host detection of Histoplasma yeasts.

  16. Masculinities in Organizational Cultures in Engineering Education in Europe: Results of the European Union Project WomEng

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagebiel, F.; Dahmen, J.

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes elements of engineering organizational cultures and structures in higher engineering education from the European project WomEng. Hypotheses, based on state of the art, refer to: women friendly presentation, attractiveness of interdisciplinary teaching methods, single sex education, perceptions of minority status, feelings of…

  17. Potassium Acts as a GTPase-Activating Element on Each Nucleotide-Binding Domain of the Essential Bacillus subtilis EngA

    PubMed Central

    Foucher, Anne-Emmanuelle; Reiser, Jean-Baptiste; Ebel, Christine; Housset, Dominique; Jault, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    EngA proteins form a unique family of bacterial GTPases with two GTP-binding domains in tandem, namely GD1 and GD2, followed by a KH (K-homology) domain. They have been shown to interact with the bacterial ribosome and to be involved in its biogenesis. Most prokaryotic EngA possess a high GTPase activity in contrast to eukaryotic GTPases that act mainly as molecular switches. Here, we have purified and characterized the GTPase activity of the Bacillus subtilis EngA and two shortened EngA variants that only contain GD1 or GD2-KH. Interestingly, the GTPase activity of GD1 alone is similar to that of the whole EngA, whereas GD2-KH has a 150-fold lower GTPase activity. At physiological concentration, potassium strongly stimulates the GTPase activity of each protein construct. Interestingly, it affects neither the affinities for nucleotides nor the monomeric status of EngA or the GD1 domain. Thus, potassium likely acts as a chemical GTPase-activating element as proposed for another bacterial GTPase like MnmE. However, unlike MnmE, potassium does not promote dimerization of EngA. In addition, we solved two crystal structures of full-length EngA. One of them contained for the first time a GTP-like analogue bound to GD2 while GD1 was free. Surprisingly, its overall fold was similar to a previously solved structure with GDP bound to both sites. Our data indicate that a significant structural change must occur upon K+ binding to GD2, and a comparison with T. maritima EngA and MnmE structures allowed us to propose a model explaining the chemical basis for the different GTPase activities of GD1 and GD2. PMID:23056455

  18. Resynchronization of the Asynchronous Polar CD Ind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Gordon; Patterson, Joseph; de Miguel, Enrique; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Monard, Berto; Bolt, Greg; McCormick, Jennie; Rea, Robert; Allen, William

    2017-04-01

    CD Ind is one of only four confirmed asynchronous polars (APs). APs are strongly magnetic cataclysmic variables of the AM Herculis subclass with the characteristic that their white dwarfs rotate a few percent out of synchronism with their binary orbit. Theory suggests that nova eruptions disrupt previously synchronized states. Following the eruption, the system is expected to rapidly resynchronize over a timescale of centuries. The other three asynchronous polars—V1432 Aql, BY Cam, and V1500 Cyg—have resynchronization time estimates ranging from 100 to more than 3500 years, with all but one being less than 1200 years. We report on the analysis of over 46,000 observations of CD Ind taken between 2007 and 2016, combined with previous observations from 1996, and estimate a CD Ind resynchronization time of 6400 ± 800 years. We also estimate an orbital period of 110.820(1) minutes and a current (2016.4) white dwarf spin period of 109.6564(1) minutes.

  19. Extended C-terminus and length of the linker connecting the G-domains are species-specific variations in the EngA family of GTPases.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Sushil Kumar; Kumar, Prashant; Majumdar, Soneya; Bhaskar, Varun; Dutta, Prasun; Prakash, Balaji

    2012-01-01

    EngA is an essential protein involved in ribosome biogenesis. It is an unique GTPase, possessing two consecutive G-domains. Using sequence and phylogenetic analysis, we found two intriguing variants among EngA homologues - one with a shorter linker joining the G-domains and another with a longer linker, which additionally possesses an extended C-terminus. Interestingly, while the former variant is mainly restricted to firmicutes, the latter is found in nonfirmicutes. Chimeric proteins with interchanged linkers and extensions were generated to gauge the importance of these elements. Ribosome interaction experiments employing the chimeric proteins suggest that a precise combination of the linker and C-terminal extension are important features regulating EngA ribosome interactions in a variant-specific manner.

  20. Introduction in IND and recursive partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray; Caruana, Rich

    1991-01-01

    This manual describes the IND package for learning tree classifiers from data. The package is an integrated C and C shell re-implementation of tree learning routines such as CART, C4, and various MDL and Bayesian variations. The package includes routines for experiment control, interactive operation, and analysis of tree building. The manual introduces the system and its many options, gives a basic review of tree learning, contains a guide to the literature and a glossary, and lists the manual pages for the routines and instructions on installation.

  1. Building a Community on the Fast Track: ENG. 09/111 at Central Virginia Community College (CVCC) as a Tier C Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Lana

    2012-01-01

    This author organized and taught the new ENG 09/111 classes at her college, as well as authoring the course text and workbook. English 09/111 offers a unique opportunity for students who are not quite ready for freshmen composition, but more than likely do not need an entire semester of developmental English. In this article, she details the…

  2. 21 CFR 312.38 - Withdrawal of an IND.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of an IND. 312.38 Section 312.38 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Investigational New Drug Application (IND) §...

  3. INDES User's guide multistep input design with nonlinear rotorcraft modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The INDES computer program, a multistep input design program used as part of a data processing technique for rotorcraft systems identification, is described. Flight test inputs base on INDES improve the accuracy of parameter estimates. The input design algorithm, program input, and program output are presented.

  4. 21 CFR 312.320 - Treatment IND or treatment protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment IND or treatment protocol. 312.320... for Treatment Use § 312.320 Treatment IND or treatment protocol. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for widespread treatment use. (a) Criteria. The criteria in § 312.305(a) must...

  5. 8. Photograph of post card, 'Cicotte Street Bridge, Logansport, Ind.' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photograph of post card, 'Cicotte Street Bridge, Logansport, Ind.' Logansport News Agency, Logansport, Ind., Curteich-Chicago 'C.T. American Art' post card {Reg. U.S. Pat. Off.}, postmarked October 17, 1949. Card in the Cass County photograph file at the Indiana State Library, Indianapolis. - Cicott Street Bridge, Spanning Wabash River at State Road 25, Logansport, Cass County, IN

  6. 33 CFR 117.441 - D'Inde Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false D'Inde Bayou. 117.441 Section 117.441 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.441 D'Inde Bayou. The draw of the Union...

  7. 33 CFR 117.441 - D'Inde Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false D'Inde Bayou. 117.441 Section 117.441 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.441 D'Inde Bayou. The draw of the Union...

  8. 33 CFR 117.441 - D'Inde Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false D'Inde Bayou. 117.441 Section 117.441 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.441 D'Inde Bayou. The draw of the Union...

  9. 33 CFR 117.441 - D'Inde Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false D'Inde Bayou. 117.441 Section 117.441 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.441 D'Inde Bayou. The draw of the Union...

  10. 33 CFR 117.441 - D'Inde Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false D'Inde Bayou. 117.441 Section 117.441 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.441 D'Inde Bayou. The draw of the Union...

  11. 21 CFR 312.20 - Requirement for an IND.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Investigational New Drug Application (IND) § 312.20... investigation with an investigational new drug that is subject to § 312.2(a). (b) A sponsor shall not begin...

  12. 21 CFR 312.320 - Treatment IND or treatment protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... clinical trial under an IND designed to support a marketing application for the expanded access use, or (ii) All clinical trials of the drug have been completed; and (2) Marketing status. The sponsor is actively... from phase 3 or phase 2 trials, but could be based on more preliminary clinical evidence....

  13. 21 CFR 312.320 - Treatment IND or treatment protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... clinical trial under an IND designed to support a marketing application for the expanded access use, or (ii) All clinical trials of the drug have been completed; and (2) Marketing status. The sponsor is actively... from phase 3 or phase 2 trials, but could be based on more preliminary clinical evidence....

  14. 21 CFR 312.320 - Treatment IND or treatment protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... clinical trial under an IND designed to support a marketing application for the expanded access use, or (ii) All clinical trials of the drug have been completed; and (2) Marketing status. The sponsor is actively... from phase 3 or phase 2 trials, but could be based on more preliminary clinical evidence....

  15. 21 CFR 312.320 - Treatment IND or treatment protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... clinical trial under an IND designed to support a marketing application for the expanded access use, or (ii) All clinical trials of the drug have been completed; and (2) Marketing status. The sponsor is actively... from phase 3 or phase 2 trials, but could be based on more preliminary clinical evidence....

  16. 21 CFR 312.22 - General principles of the IND submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles of the IND submission. 312.22... (IND) § 312.22 General principles of the IND submission. (a) FDA's primary objectives in reviewing an... likelihood that the investigations will yield data capable of meeting statutory standards for...

  17. Chemical Preparation Laboratory for IND Candidate Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-31

    AVS 360MA) ..................... 16 6. 1-Hydroxy-8,9- methylenedioxy -1,4,4a,106-tetrahydro-6(5H)phenan- thridone (Intermediate II...carboxylic acid (AVS RCOOH); Lycoricidine triacetate (AVS 360); l-Hydroxy-2-acetoxy-lycoricidine (AVS 360MA); 1- Hydroxy-8,9- methylenedioxy -l,4,4a,106... methylenedioxy -l.2.3.4.4a.l0b-hexahydro- 6(5H)Dhenanthridone (U5): To a mixture of N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (5.5 g, 47 mmol) in t-butanol (30 mL

  18. Chemical Preparation Laboratory for IND Candidate Compounds.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-30

    carboxamide; 4H-r,lH-trans,2H-cis,lObH-trans,l-(2’-tetrahydro- pyranyloxy)-2-hydroxy-8,9- methylenedioxy -1,2,4a,l0b-tetrahydro6(5H)phenan. thridone...4aH-r,lH-trans,2H-cis,lObH-trans-1,2-Dihydroxy-8,9- methylenedioxy - 1,2 ,4a, lOb-tetrahydro-6(5H)phenanthridone. Three compounds remain under...28 K. 4H-r,lH-trans,2H-cis,lObH-trans,l-(2’-Tetrahydro- pyranyloxy)-2-hydroxy-8 9- methylenedioxy -1,2,4a,10b

  19. Chemical Preparation Laboratory for IND Candidate Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-10

    Dihydroxy-8 ,9 - methylenedioxy -1 ,2- 4a,l0b-tetrahydro-6(5H)phenanthridone 2.5 g 1986, p.3 1 5 SYN. REFERENCE* I.D. NO. COMPOUND AMOUNT (ANN. CONT. RPT...AVS 360 HP 4H-r,lH-trans,2H-cis,lObH-trans-1- (2’ ,Tetrahydropyranyloxy) -2-hydroxy- 8, 9- methylenedioxy -l, 2,4a, l0b-tetra- hydro-6(5H...Trihydroxy-2 acetoxy-8 ,9- methylenedioxy -I ,3,4, 4a, lOb-hexahydro-6(5H)phenanthridone 1.23 g 1988, p. 16 AVS 360 OH 4aH-r,1H-trans,2H-cis,3H--trans

  20. The tRNAarg gene and engA are essential genes on the 1.7-Mb pSymB megaplasmid of Sinorhizobium meliloti and were translocated together from the chromosome in an ancestral strain.

    PubMed

    diCenzo, George; Milunovic, Branislava; Cheng, Jiujun; Finan, Turlough M

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial genomes with two (or more) chromosome-like replicons are known, and these appear to be particularly frequent in alphaproteobacteria. The genome of the N(2)-fixing alfalfa symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 contains a 3.7-Mb chromosome and 1.4-Mb (pSymA) and 1.7-Mb (pSymB) megaplasmids. In this study, the tRNA(arg) and engA genes, located on the pSymB megaplasmid, are shown to be essential for growth. These genes could be deleted from pSymB when copies were previously integrated into the chromosome. However, in the closely related strain Sinorhizobium fredii NGR234, the tRNA(arg) and engA genes are located on the chromosome, in a 69-kb region designated the engA-tRNA(arg)-rmlC region. This region includes bacA, a gene that is important for intracellular survival during host-bacterium interactions for S. meliloti and the related alphaproteobacterium Brucella abortus. The engA-tRNA(arg)-rmlC region lies between the kdgK and dppF2 (NGR_c24410) genes on the S. fredii chromosome. Synteny analysis showed that kdgK and dppF2 orthologues are adjacent to each other on the chromosomes of 15 sequenced strains of S. meliloti and Sinorhizobium medicae, whereas the 69-kb engA-tRNA(arg)-rmlC region is present on the pSymB-equivalent megaplasmids. This and other evidence strongly suggests that the engA-tRNA(arg)-rmlC region translocated from the chromosome to the progenitor of pSymB in an ancestor common to S. meliloti and S. medicae. To our knowledge, this work represents one of the first experimental demonstrations that essential genes are present on a megaplasmid.

  1. The ACVRL1 c.314-35A>G Polymorphism is Associated with Organ Vascular Malformations in Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia Patients with ENG Mutations, but not in Patients with ACVRL1 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Pawlikowska, Ludmila; Nelson, Jeffrey; Guo, Diana E.; McCulloch, Charles E.; Lawton, Michael T.; Young, William L.; Kim, Helen; Faughnan, Marie E.

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is characterized by the presence of vascular malformations (VMs) and caused by mutations in TGFβ/BMP9 pathway genes, most commonly ENG or ACVRL1. Patients with HHT have diverse phenotypes related to skin and mucosal telangiectases and organ VMs, including arteriovenous malformations (AVM). The clinical heterogeneity of HHT suggests a potential role for genetic modifier effects. We hypothesized that the common polymorphisms ACVRL1 c.314-35A>G and ENG c.207G>A, previously associated with sporadic brain AVM, are also associated with organ VM in HHT. We genotyped ACVRL1 c.314-35A>G and ENG c.207G>A in 716 patients with HHT recruited by the Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium and evaluated association of genotype with presence of any organ VM, and specifically with brain VM, liver VM and pulmonary AVM, by multivariate logistic regression analyses stratified by HHT mutation. Among all patients with HHT, neither polymorphism was significantly associated with presence of any organ VM; ACVRL1 c.314-35A>G showed a trend toward association with pulmonary AVM (OR=1.48, p=0.062). ACVRL1 c.314-35A>G was significantly associated with any VM among patients with HHT with ENG (OR=2.66, p=0.022), but not ACVRL1 (OR=0.79, p=0.52) mutations. ACVRL1 c.314-35A>G was also significantly associated with pulmonary AVM and liver VM among ENG mutation carriers. There were no significant associations between ENG c.207G>A and any VM phenotype. These results suggest that common polymorphisms in HHT genes other than the mutated gene modulate phenotype severity of HHT disease, specifically presence of organ VM. PMID:25847705

  2. Clinical Experience in Adults and Children Treated with Intravenous Peramivir for 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Under an Emergency IND Program in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Adiga, Raghavendra; Armstrong, Robert; Bazan, Jose; Bonilla, Hector; Bradley, John; Dretler, Robin; Ison, Michael G.; Mangino, Julie E.; Maroushek, Stacene; Shetty, Avinash K.; Wald, Anna; Ziebold, Christine; Elder, Jenna; Hollister, Alan S.; Sheridan, William

    2011-01-01

    (See the editorial commentary by Jain et al, on pages 707–709.) Background. Peramivir, an investigational intravenous neuraminidase inhibitor in Phase 3 trials for hospitalized patients, was made available during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic under the Emergency Investigational New Drug (eIND) regulations. We describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of all patients for whom peramivir was requested under the eIND. Methods. After obtaining eIND approval from the Food and Drug Administration and local institutional review board approval, clinicians caring for hospitalized patients with influenza administered intravenous peramivir and collected information on demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes. Results. From April through October 2009, peramivir was requested for 42 patients and administered to 20 adults and 11 children. At hospitalization, all patients had rapidly progressing, radiographically confirmed viral pneumonia with respiratory failure, and all but 1 patient required mechanical ventilation. In most patients, including 1 person with documented oseltamivir-resistant infection, the illness had progressed despite oseltamivir treatment. Peramivir was administered for 1–14 days (median duration, 10 days). The 14-day, 28-day, and 56-day survival rates were 76.7%, 66.7%, and 59.0%, respectively. Peramivir was generally well tolerated. Conclusions. Intravenous peramivir was well tolerated and was associated with recovery in most patients hospitalized with severe 2009 H1N1 influenza viral pneumonia and treated under an eIND. PMID:21367722

  3. Introduction to IND and recursive partitioning, version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray; Caruana, Rich

    1991-01-01

    This manual describes the IND package for learning tree classifiers from data. The package is an integrated C and C shell re-implementation of tree learning routines such as CART, C4, and various MDL and Bayesian variations. The package includes routines for experiment control, interactive operation, and analysis of tree building. The manual introduces the system and its many options, gives a basic review of tree learning, contains a guide to the literature and a glossary, lists the manual pages for the routines, and instructions on installation.

  4. [Correlation between E.N.G. changes and the evolution of the hematic constants in patients under prolonged hemodialysis and renal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Teijeira Alvarez, J M

    1974-01-01

    An evolutive study of the E.N.G. on 25 patients affected of chronic renal failure (c.r.f.) in their previous periods and during the dialysis programme was developed. At the same time a large study on various serum changes was carried on. It is observed that the motor conduction velocity (M.C.V.) shows a decreasing evolution during dialysis, which mathematical patters is a branch of an equilateral hyperbola, of equation: (see article) The Na and K evolutive curves are also significatively fitted to the same mathematical pattern. It is observed a direct and inverse lineal correlation between M.C.V. values and those ones of the Na and K respectively, with p less than 0,05 and p less than 0,01. It is not observed any correlation of significatively value with the other serum parameters studied (R.A., Cl, Urea, Total proteins, Hematocrit, Ca, P, Creatinine, fluids and acid-base equilibrium). After a renal transplantation the M.C.V. presents a growing trayectory of the same mathematical pattern described before, reaching normal values about a year post-transplantion. The levels of Sodium serum follow a parallel trayectory than that one of the M.C.V. The recovery of the remainders serum parameters after renal transplantion occour during the first week, except for the hematocrit. It only remains a parallelism between the evolutive changes of M.C.V./Natremia during dialysis stage and after renal transplantion. These results seem to show a close dependence between variation of M.C.V. and Natremia. The hipoxia role over the sodium pump and the consequent variations of Natremia are discussed.

  5. Harvard Catalyst | The Clinical Translational Science Center IND/IDE Consult Service: providing an IND/IDE consult service in a decentralized network of academic healthcare centers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min J; Winkler, Sabune J; Bierer, Barbara E; Wolf, Delia

    2014-04-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations require sponsors of clinical investigations involving an investigational drug or device to submit an Investigational New Drug (IND) or Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) application. Strict adherence to applicable regulations is vital to the success of clinical research. Unlike most major pharmaceutical sponsors, investigator sponsors often do not fully appreciate their regulatory obligations nor have resources to ensure compliance. As a result they can place themselves and their institutions at risk. Nevertheless, investigator-initiated clinical trials are vital to the further development of innovative drugs, biologics, and medical devices. The IND/IDE Subcommittee under the Regulatory Knowledge and Support Program at Harvard Catalyst, The Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center worked in collaboration with Harvard and Harvard affiliated institutions to create and launch an IND/IDE Consult Service in a decentralized network of collaborating Academic Healthcare Centers (AHC). The IND/IDE Consult Service offers expertise, resources, and shared experiences to assist sponsor-investigators and IRBs in meeting regulatory requirements for conducting and reviewing investigator-initiated IND/IDE studies. The scope of the services provided by the Harvard Catalyst IND/IDE Consult Service are described, including the specifics of the service, lessons learned, and challenges faced, in a scalable model that builds inter-institutional capacity.

  6. Identification of Ind transcription activation and repression domains required for dorsoventral patterning of the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Von Ohlen, Tonia L.; Moses, Cade

    2009-01-01

    Specification of cell fates across the dorsoventral axis of the central nervous system in Drosophila involves the subdivision of the neuroectoderm into three domains that give rise to three columns of neural precursor cells called neuroblasts. Ventral nervous system defective (Vnd), Intermediate neuroblasts defective (Ind) and Muscle segment homeobox (Msh) are expressed in the three columns from ventral to dorsal, respectively. The products of these genes play multiple important roles in formation and specification of the embryonic nervous system. Ind for example is known to play roles in two important processes. First, Ind is essential for formation of neuroblasts conjunction with SoxB class transcription factors. Sox class transcription factors are known to specify neural stem cells in vertebrates. Second, Ind plays an important role in patterning the CNS in conjunction with, vnd and msh, which is also similar to how vertebrates pattern their neural tube. This work focuses two important aspects of Ind function. First, we used multiple approaches to identify and characterize specific domains within the protein that confer repressor or activator ability. Currently, little is known about the presence of activation or repression domains within Ind. Here we show that transcriptional repression by Ind requires multiple conserved domains within the protein, and that Ind has a transcriptional activation domain. Specifically, we have identified a novel domain, the Pst domain, that has transcriptional repression ability and appears to act independent of interaction with the co-repressor Groucho. This domain is highly conserved among insect species, but is not found in vertebrate Gsh class homeodomain proteins. Second, we show that Ind can and does repress vnd expression, but does so in a stage specific manner. We conclude from this that the function of Ind in regulating vnd expression is one of refinement and maintenance of the dorsal border. PMID:19348939

  7. Diagnosing ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... that a person diagnosed with ALS seek a second opinion from an ALS "expert" - someone who diagnoses and treats many ALS patients and has training in this medical specialty. The ALS Association maintains a list of recognized experts in the field of ALS. See ALS Association Certified Centers of ...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of the Field Isolate Brucella melitensis Strain Bm IND1 from India.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sashi Bhushan; Gupta, Vivek K; Kumar, Mukesh; Hegde, Nagendra R; Splitter, Gary A; Reddanna, Pallu; Radhakrishnan, Girish K

    2014-05-29

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular bacterial pathogens causing the zoonotic disease brucellosis. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Brucella melitensis strain from India designated Bm IND1, isolated from stomach contents of an aborted goat fetus.

  9. Discussion of "The Case for the Median Fragment Size as a Better Fragment Size Descriptor than the Mean" by Finn Ouchterlony, Rock Mech Rock Eng, 2015. doi:10.1007/s00603-015-0722-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spathis, A. T.

    2016-01-01

    Ouchterlony (The Case for the Median Fragment Size as a Better Fragment Size Descriptor than the Mean, Rock Mech Rock Eng, 2015. doi: 10.1007/s00603-015-0722-1) argues that the median is preferred over the mean as a measure of central tendency of the rock fragmentation size distribution produced by blasting. This discussion suggests that neither is favoured over the other. Indeed, for distributions where both exist, they may be found in terms of each other, either by an analytical expression or by numerical calculation.

  10. ALS Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... toward a world without ALS! Walk to Defeat ALS® Walk to Defeat ALS® draws people of all ... We need your help. I Will Advocate National ALS Registry The National ALS Registry is a congressionally ...

  11. Parkview opens a new hospital. Fort Wayne, Ind., hospital works with agency in complex compaign.

    PubMed

    Botvin, Judith D

    2003-01-01

    Parkview Health, Forth Wayne, Ind., recently opened its new primary care hospital, Parkview North, an expansion of the services of its flagship Parkview Hospital. But the grand opening event was only one focus of the integrated advertising campaign, which also included a component to recruit staff. In view of the nationwide shortage of nurses, marketers faced the need for 200 nurses to staff the new facility. With its agency, Ten Adams, of Evansville, Ind., Parkview succeeded in opening its new hospital with a full complement of nurses.

  12. ALS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- www.mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) ...

  13. 21 CFR 312.120 - Foreign clinical studies not conducted under an IND.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accept as support for an IND or application for marketing approval (an application under section 505 of... independent ethics committee (IEC) before initiating a study, continuing review of an ongoing study by an IEC... marketing approval a study that does not meet the conditions of paragraph (a)(1) of this section, FDA...

  14. 21 CFR 312.120 - Foreign clinical studies not conducted under an IND.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., recording, analysis, and reporting of clinical trials in a way that provides assurance that the data and... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Foreign clinical studies not conducted under an....120 Foreign clinical studies not conducted under an IND. (a) Acceptance of studies. (1) FDA...

  15. 21 CFR 312.120 - Foreign clinical studies not conducted under an IND.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., recording, analysis, and reporting of clinical trials in a way that provides assurance that the data and... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Foreign clinical studies not conducted under an....120 Foreign clinical studies not conducted under an IND. (a) Acceptance of studies. (1) FDA...

  16. 21 CFR 312.120 - Foreign clinical studies not conducted under an IND.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., recording, analysis, and reporting of clinical trials in a way that provides assurance that the data and... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Foreign clinical studies not conducted under an....120 Foreign clinical studies not conducted under an IND. (a) Acceptance of studies. (1) FDA...

  17. 21 CFR 312.120 - Foreign clinical studies not conducted under an IND.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., recording, analysis, and reporting of clinical trials in a way that provides assurance that the data and... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Foreign clinical studies not conducted under an....120 Foreign clinical studies not conducted under an IND. (a) Acceptance of studies. (1) FDA...

  18. 21 CFR 312.8 - Charging for investigational drugs under an IND.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... charge for an approved drug obtained from another entity not affiliated with the sponsor for use as part..., if demonstrated in the clinical investigations, would provide a significant advantage over available... or protocol, complying with IND reporting requirements, and other administrative costs...

  19. 21 CFR 312.130 - Availability for public disclosure of data and information in an IND.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Availability for public disclosure of data and... Miscellaneous § 312.130 Availability for public disclosure of data and information in an IND. (a) The existence... publicly disclosed or acknowledged. (b) The availability for public disclosure of all data and...

  20. Innovative early development regulatory approaches: expIND, expCTA, microdosing.

    PubMed

    Robinson, W T

    2008-02-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Critical Path Initiative as well as the European Medicines Agency Road Map to 2010 (ref. 2) call for opportunities for more efficient drug development. One of the initiatives that has emerged in this context is the elaboration through guidance of exploratory investigational new drugs (INDs)/clinical trial applications (CTAs). This article reviews the history of these emerging guidances as well as the experience to date in their use by the industry.

  1. Contaminant exposure of barn swallows nesting on Bayou d'Inde, Calcasieu Estuary, Louisiana, USA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Goatcher, B.L.; Melancon, M.J.; Matson, C.W.; Bickham, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Current and historical point source discharges, storm water runoff, and accidental spills have contaminated the water, sediment, and biota within the Calcasieu Estuary in southwestern Louisiana. In 2003, barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) eggs and nestlings were collected beneath two bridges that cross Bayou d'Inde, the most contaminated waterway within the Calcasieu Estuary. Samples were also collected from a bridge over Bayou Teche, a reference site in south central Louisiana. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in barn swallow eggs and nestlings were significantly higher at the downstream site on Bayou d'Inde (2.8 micro g/g PCBs in eggs and 1.5 micro g/g PCBs in nestlings) than at the other two sites (< 0.2 micro g/g PCBs in eggs and nestlings at both sites). Ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity in nestling livers was significantly higher at the downstream site on Bayou d'Inde (50 pmol/min/mg) compared to the other two locations (24 pmol/min/mg, each), probably because of exposure to PCBs. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran concentrations in eggs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in nestlings were at background concentrations at all sites. Trace element concentrations in barn swallow eggs and nestling livers were at background levels and did not differ among the three sites. A biomarker of DNA damage did not differ among sites.

  2. Contaminant exposure of barn swallows nesting on Bayou d'Inde, Calcasieu Estuary, Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Goatcher, B.L.; Melancon, M.J.; Matson, C.W.; Bickham, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Current and historical point source discharges, storm water runoff, and accidental spills have contaminated the water, sediment, and biota within the Calcasieu Estuary in southwestern Louisiana. In 2003, barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) eggs and nestlings were collected beneath two bridges that cross Bayou d'Inde, the most contaminated waterway within the Calcasieu Estuary. Samples were also collected from a bridge over Bayou Teche, a reference site in south central Louisiana. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in barn swallow eggs and nestlings were significantly higher at the downstream site on Bayou d'Inde (2.8 mu g/g PCBs in eggs and 1.5 mu g/g PCBs in nestlings) than at the other two sites (< 0.2 mu g/g PCBs in eggs and nestlings at both sites). Ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity in nestling livers was significantly higher at the downstream site on Bayou d'Inde (50 pmol/min/mg) compared to the other two locations (24 pmol/min/mg, each), probably because of exposure to PCBs. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran concentrations in eggs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in nestlings were at background concentrations at all sites. Trace element concentrations in barn swallow eggs and nestling livers were at background levels and did not differ among the three sites. A biomarker of DNA damage did not differ among sites.

  3. AL Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) light chains (LC) (most commonly of lambda isotype) usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in β leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils. Epidemiology AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50. Clinical description The clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis. Diagnostic methods The diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and/or immunofluorescence. Due to the

  4. Absolute properties of BG Ind - a bright F3 system just leaving the main sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozyczka, M.; Kaluzny, J.; Pych, W.; Konacki, M.; Małek, K.; Mankiewicz, L.; Sokołowski, M.; Żarnecki, A. F.

    2011-07-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic analysis of the bright detached eclipsing binary BG Ind. The masses of the components are found to be 1.428 ± 0.008 and 1.293 ± 0.008 M⊙ and the radii to be 2.290 ± 0.017 and 1.680 ± 0.038 R⊙ for primary and secondary stars, respectively. Spectra and isochrone fittings coupled with colour indices calibration yield [Fe/H]=-0.2 ± 0.1. At an age of 2.65 ± 0.20 Gyr, BG Ind is well advanced in the main-sequence evolutionary phase - in fact, its primary is at TAMS or just beyond it. Together with three similar systems (BK Peg, BW Aqr and GX Gem), it offers an interesting opportunity to test the theoretical description of overshooting in the critical mass range 1.2-1.5 M⊙. Based in part on data obtained at the South African Astronomical Observatory.

  5. Comparative requirements for exploratory clinical trials -- eIND, eCTA and microdosing.

    PubMed

    Muller, Patrick Y

    2011-06-19

    Exploratory clinical trials provide a strategy for rapid human entry of investigational drugs. Such clinical studies are typically conducted during early clinical development in phase I as first-in-human studies, have no therapeutic intent, are not intended to examine clinical tolerability and involve a small number of human subjects at limited dose/exposure. Early decision data derived from such clinical studies may include PK, PD and/or biomarker-based translational medicine endpoints as well as PK/PD modeling approaches. This review critically discusses the various exploratory clinical trial strategies, their advantages and disadvantages as well as the regulatory safety requirements. In this respect, strategies for exploratory Investigational New Drugs (eIND), exploratory Clinical Trial Applications (eCTA) and microdosing are highlighted and compared in view of the new ICH M3(R2) guideline including options for biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals such as monoclonal antibodies.

  6. Solubility Prediction of Active Pharmaceutical Compounds with the UNIFAC Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouar, Abderrahim; Benmessaoud, Ibtissem; Koutchoukali, Ouahiba; Koutchoukali, Mohamed Salah

    2016-03-01

    The crystallization from solution of an active pharmaceutical ingredient requires the knowledge of the solubility in the entire temperature range investigated during the process. However, during the development of a new active ingredient, these data are missing. Its experimental determination is possible, but tedious. UNIFAC Group contribution method Fredenslund et al. (Vapor-liquid equilibria using UNIFAC: a group contribution method, 1977; AIChE J 21:1086, 1975) can be used to predict this physical property. Several modifications on this model have been proposed since its development in 1977, modified UNIFAC of Dortmund Weidlich et al. (Ind Eng Chem Res 26:1372, 1987), Gmehling et al. (Ind Eng Chem Res 32:178, 1993), Pharma-modified UNIFAC Diedrichs et al. (Evaluation und Erweiterung thermodynamischer Modelle zur Vorhersage von Wirkstofflöslichkeiten, PhD Thesis, 2010), KT-UNIFAC Kang et al. (Ind Eng Chem Res 41:3260, 2002), ldots In this study, we used UNIFAC model by considering the linear temperature dependence of interaction parameters as in Pharma-modified UNIFAC and structural groups as defined by KT-UNIFAC first-order model. More than 100 binary datasets were involved in the estimation of interaction parameters. These new parameters were then used to calculate activity coefficient and solubility of some molecules in various solvents at different temperatures. The model gives better results than those from the original UNIFAC and shows good agreement between the experimental solubility and the calculated one.

  7. V773 Cas, QS Aql, and BR Ind: Eclipsing Binaries as Parts of Multiple Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasche, P.; Juryšek, J.; Nemravová, J.; Uhlař, R.; Svoboda, P.; Wolf, M.; Hoňková, K.; Mašek, M.; Prouza, M.; Čechura, J.; Korčáková, D.; Šlechta, M.

    2017-01-01

    Eclipsing binaries remain crucial objects for our understanding of the universe. In particular, those that are components of multiple systems can help us solve the problem of the formation of these systems. Analysis of the radial velocities together with the light curve produced for the first time precise physical parameters of the components of the multiple systems V773 Cas, QS Aql, and BR Ind. Their visual orbits were also analyzed, which resulted in slightly improved orbital elements. What is typical for all these systems is that their most dominant source is the third distant component. The system V773 Cas consists of two similar G1-2V stars revolving in a circular orbit and a more distant component of the A3V type. Additionally, the improved value of parallax was calculated to be 17.6 mas. Analysis of QS Aql resulted in the following: the inner eclipsing pair is composed of B6V and F1V stars, and the third component is of about the B6 spectral type. The outer orbit has high eccentricity of about 0.95, and observations near its upcoming periastron passage between the years 2038 and 2040 are of high importance. Also, the parallax of the system was derived to be about 2.89 mas, moving the star much closer to the Sun than originally assumed. The system BR Ind was found to be a quadruple star consisting of two eclipsing K dwarfs orbiting each other with a period of 1.786 days; the distant component is a single-lined spectroscopic binary with an orbital period of about 6 days. Both pairs are moving around each other on their 148 year orbit. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programs 091.D-0122(A), 094.A-9029(D), 095.A-9032(A), and 096.A-9039(A) and also on data from the 2 m telescope at the Ondřejov observatory in the Czech Republic

  8. [Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction due to intestinal neuronal dysplasia type B (IND B), concerning one case].

    PubMed

    Junquera Bañares, S; Oria Mundín, E; Córdoba Iturriagagoitia, A; Botella-Carretero, J J

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal neuronal dysplasia type B (IND B) is an infrequent disease due to hyperplasia of the parasympathetic submucous plexus which causes alteration of intestinal motility, giving rise to symptoms of constipation and subocclusive manifestations. The disease is difficult to diagnose. It requires high clinical suspicion and should include differential diagnosis of patients with repeated subocclusive manifestations in order to make an early and correct diagnosis and avoid complications derived from unnecessary surgery that worsens the prognosis. We present the case of a 33-year-old Moroccan male who was admitted to our hospital on 2 occasions in 11 months, requiring total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for five months. The immunohistochemical analysis of the ileostomy and colostomy stoma led to a diagnosis of IND B. Eighteen months later, the patients is leading a normal life and has recovered the 25 kilos lost following the dietary indications and with the enzymatic supplements.

  9. Deprotection of the indole (N(ind))-formyl (For) group on tryptophan employing a new reagent, N,N'-dimethylethylendiamine (DMEDA) in an aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Odagami, Takenao; Tsuda, Yuko; Kogami, Yuji; Kouji, Hiroyuki; Okada, Yoshio

    2009-02-01

    The deprotection of the indole (N(ind))-formyl (For) group on Trp was achieved in a 95% yield using N,N'-dimethylethylendiamine (DMEDA) (1.5, 2.0, 3.0 eq) in water at room temperature. A new reagent was successfully applied to the deprotection of a model peptide, H-Phe-Trp(N(ind)-For)-Lys-Tyr-OH, to give H-Phe-Trp-Lys-Tyr-OH in a 91% yield.

  10. Selective benefits of simvastatin in bitransgenic APPSwe,Ind/TGF-β1 mice.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Panayiota; Tong, Xin-Kang; Hamel, Edith

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive and cerebrovascular deficits are 2 landmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to target for effective therapy. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of simvastatin in bitransgenic A/T mice overexpressing a mutated form of the human amyloid precursor protein (APP(Swe,Ind)) and a constitutively active form of transforming growth factor-β1. These mice feature the AD amyloid beta (Aβ) and cerebrovascular pathology. Simvastatin significantly decreased insoluble Aβ peptide levels and Aβ plaque load despite no effect on β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme and Aβ-degrading enzyme neprilysin protein levels. However, simvastatin failed to improve spatial learning and memory deficits and the decreased baseline levels of the memory-related protein early growth response-1 (Egr-1) in the hippocampus CA1 area. The impaired hyperemic response to whisker stimulation in A/T mice was not improved with treatment, but simvastatin fully restored constitutive nitric oxide synthesis in vessel walls and exacerbated agonist-mediated dilatory deficits. These findings point to the efficacy of simvastatin on selective AD features in a complex model of the disease, likely reflecting the challenges faced by recent clinical trials in assessing statin efficacy.

  11. What Is ALS?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javits, actor David Niven, “Sesame Street” creator Jon Stone, boxing champion Ezzard Charles, NBA Hall of Fame ... Help for People with ALS and Caregivers Read stories from families living with ALS Forms of ALS ...

  12. Abu al-Layth al-Libi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Introduction In the tradition of post-9/11 senior Arab militant figures operating in Khurasan (the Afghanistan-Pakistan region), there is little doubt as to...the standing of Libyan jihadi commander Abu al-Layth al-Libi. If Usama bin Ladin and Ayman al-Zawahiri came to be the most prominent Arab -Afghan...Libi, a longtime leader of the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG), who rapidly established himself as the champion of the Arab -Afghan milieu after

  13. Structural Polymorphism in Al-bearing Magnesiumsilicate Post-perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschauner, O.; Kiefer, B.; Liu, H.; Somayazulu, M.; Luo, S. N.

    2006-12-01

    We show formation of a post-perovskite phase of Al-bearing magnesiummetasilicate which does not assume the CaIrO3 structure [1]. X-ray diffraction data and first principle calculations indicate that the present material assumes a structure composed of kinked SiO2- and MgO layers similar but not identical to topologies of novel post-perovskite phases recently proposed [2]. Minor element chemistry and actual stress regime are plausible reasons of the differences between the present and the previously reported post- perovskite phase. The presence of minor elements could stabilize this "kinked" post-perovskite structure and hence effect elasticity and the interpretations of seismic observations in cold areas of D". Acknowledgements: Supported through the NNSA Cooperative Agreement DE-FC88-01NV14049. Use of the HPCAT facility was supported by DOE-BES, DOE-NNSA, NSF, DOD -TACOM, and the W.M. Keck Foundation. APS is supported by DOE-BES under Contract No. W-31-109-Eng-38. [1] O. Tschauner, B. Kiefer, H.Z. Liu, M. Somayazulu, S.N. Luo, submitted [2] A.R.Oganov, R. Martonak, A. Laio, P. Raiteri, M. Parinello Nature 438, 1142-1144 (2005)

  14. /Cu-Al System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Orel; Froumin, Natalya; Aizenshtein, Michael; Frage, Nachum

    2014-05-01

    Wettability and interfacial interaction of the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system were studied. Pure Cu does not wet the Ta2O5 substrate, and improved spreading is achieved when relatively a high fraction of the active element (~40 at.% Al) was added. The Al2O3 and AlTaO4 phases were observed at the Ta2O5/Cu-Al interface. A thermodynamic evaluation allowed us to suggest that the lack of wetting bellow 40 at.% Al is due to the presence of a native oxide, which covers the drop. The conditions of the native oxide decomposition and the formation of the volatile Al2O suboxide strongly depend on the vacuum level during sessile drop experiments and the composition of the Cu-Al alloy. In our case, Al contents greater than 40% provides thermodynamic conditions for the formation of Al2O (as a result of Al reaction with Al2O3) and the drop spreading. It was suggested that the final contact angle in the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system (50°) is determined by Ta adsorption on the newly formed alumina interlayer.

  15. Initial Symptoms of ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Diagnosis En español Symptoms The initial symptoms of ALS can be quite varied in different people. One ...

  16. Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1930s. People in England and Australia call ALS motor neurone disease (MND). The French refer to it ... about ALS in 1869. Lou Gehrig's disease damages motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Motor ...

  17. PREFACE: Special section on medical bionics Special section on medical bionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Robert K.

    2012-12-01

    The full text of the Preface is given in the PDF file. References [1] Nagayam B A et al 2012 J. Neural Eng. 9 065001 [2] Wise A K et al 2012 J. Neural Eng. 9 065002 [3] Davis T S et al 2012 J. Neural Eng. 9 065003 [4] Daly J et al 2012 J. Neural Eng. 9 065004 [5] Meffin H et al 2012 J. Neural Eng. 9 065005 [6] Tahayori B et al 2012 J. Neural Eng. 9 065006 [7] Mauger S J et al 2012 J. Neural Eng. 9 065007

  18. Efficacy and Safety of Indacaterol/Glycopyrronium (IND/GLY) Versus Salmeterol/Fluticasone in Chinese Patients with Moderate-to-Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: The Chinese Cohort from the LANTERN Study.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Nanshan; Wang, Changzheng; Zhou, Xiangdong; Zhang, Nuofu; Humphries, Michael; Wang, Linda; Patalano, Francesco; Banerji, Donald

    2016-12-01

    Inhaled indacaterol/glycopyrronium fixed-dose combination (IND/GLY) is approved in over 80 countries, including the EU, Japan, Australia and Switzerland and the US. The LANTERN study evaluated the efficacy of IND/GLY compared with inhaled long-acting β2-agonist (LABA)/inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) or salmeterol/fluticasone (SFC) in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD with a history of ≤1 exacerbation in the previous year. Here we present the efficacy and safety of IND/GLY versus SFC in the Chinese cohort from the LANTERN study. LANTERN was a 26-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group study conducted in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD with a history of ≤1 exacerbation in the previous year. The patients were randomized (1:1) to once-daily IND/GLY (110/50 μg) or twice-daily SFC (50/500 μg). The primary endpoint was non-inferiority of IND/GLY versus SFC in terms of trough FEV1. Of the total 744 patients randomized in the LANTERN study, 598 (80.4%) were from Mainland China and randomized to IND/GLY (n = 298) or SFC (n = 300), and 553 (92.5%) completed the study. IND/GLY showed superiority over SFC with a statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in trough FEV1, FEV1 AUC0-4h, peak FEV1 and trough forced vital capacity (FVC) change from the baseline. Annualized rate of moderate or severe COPD exacerbations was significantly lower (43%) with IND/GLY compared with SFC (rate ratio: 0.57, p = 0.015). Overall, adverse events were lower for IND/GLY (34.6%) versus SFC (43.1%). IND/GLY was superior in achieving bronchodilation versus SFC in a Chinese subgroup of patients from this study. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01709903.

  19. Medium Optimization for the Production of Fibrinolytic Enzyme by Paenibacillus sp. IND8 Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Prakash Vincent, Samuel Gnana

    2014-01-01

    Production of fibrinolytic enzyme by a newly isolated Paenibacillus sp. IND8 was optimized using wheat bran in solid state fermentation. A 25 full factorial design (first-order model) was applied to elucidate the key factors as moisture, pH, sucrose, yeast extract, and sodium dihydrogen phosphate. Statistical analysis of the results has shown that moisture, sucrose, and sodium dihydrogen phosphate have the most significant effects on fibrinolytic enzymes production (P < 0.05). Central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the optimal concentrations of these three components and the experimental results were fitted with a second-order polynomial model at 95% level (P < 0.05). Overall, 4.5-fold increase in fibrinolytic enzyme production was achieved in the optimized medium as compared with the unoptimized medium. PMID:24523635

  20. Suitability of the ALien Biotic IndEX (ALEX) for assessing invasion of macroalgae across different Mediterranean habitats.

    PubMed

    Piazzi, Luigi; Gennaro, Paola; Ceccherelli, Giulia

    2015-08-15

    The ALien Biotic IndEX (ALEX) has been recently proposed to evaluate biological invasions in soft-bottom macro-invertebrate assemblages. The present paper proposes the use of ALEX in sessile assemblages of Mediterranean hard bottom habitats and tests it along gradients of invasion. For five invasive macroalgae a variable number of case studies per each of four habitats were examined from the available data sets. For each case study samples were attributed to four levels of invasion depending on the abundance of the invading macroalgae. Results showed that the application of ALEX to sessile assemblages of hard bottoms allows to qualify the level of invasion along the considered gradients. Moreover, the decline of index values matched the impact of invasion on species number of the assemblages. Results also suggest that the concurrent use of ALEX and indices of benthic quality status can be a valuable tool to assess biopollution in hard bottom habitats.

  1. Genetic testing in ALS

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Russell L.; Heverin, Mark; Thorpe, Owen; Abrahams, Sharon; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Hardiman, Orla

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the degree of consensus among clinicians on the clinical use of genetic testing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and the factors that determine decision-making. Methods: ALS researchers worldwide were invited to participate in a detailed online survey to determine their attitudes and practices relating to genetic testing. Results: Responses from 167 clinicians from 21 different countries were analyzed. The majority of respondents (73.3%) do not consider that there is a consensus definition of familial ALS (FALS). Fifty-seven percent consider a family history of frontotemporal dementia and 48.5% the presence of a known ALS genetic mutation as sufficient for a diagnosis of FALS. Most respondents (90.2%) offer genetic testing to patients they define as having FALS and 49.4% to patients with sporadic ALS. Four main genes (SOD1, C9orf72, TARDBP, and FUS) are commonly tested. A total of 55.2% of respondents would seek genetic testing if they had personally received a diagnosis of ALS. Forty-two percent never offer presymptomatic testing to family members of patients with FALS. Responses varied between ALS specialists and nonspecialists and based on the number of new patients seen per year. Conclusions: There is a lack of consensus among clinicians as to the definition of FALS. Substantial variation exists in attitude and practices related to genetic testing of patients and presymptomatic testing of their relatives across geographic regions and between experienced specialists in ALS and nonspecialists. PMID:28159885

  2. Ventilatory Control in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Nicole L.; Van Dyke, J.; Nashold, L.; Satriotomo, I.; Suzuki, M.; Mitchell, G.S.

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease. ALS selectively causes degeneration in upper and lower (spinal) motor neurons, leading to muscle weakness, paralysis and death by ventilatory failure. Although ventilatory failure is generally the cause of death in ALS, little is known concerning the impact of this disorder on respiratory motor neurons, the consequences of respiratory motor neuron cell death, or the ability of the respiratory control system to “fight back” via mechanisms of compensatory respiratory plasticity. Here we review known effects of ALS on breathing, including possible effects on rhythm generation, respiratory motor neurons, and their target organs: the respiratory muscles. We consider evidence for spontaneous compensatory plasticity, preserving breathing well into disease progression despite dramatic loss of spinal respiratory motor neurons. Finally, we review current and potential therapeutic approaches directed toward preserving the capacity to breathe in ALS patients. PMID:23692930

  3. Intraoperative Recording of ENG From Human Sacral Nerve Roots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    stimulation,” J. Urol., vol. 151, pp. 955-960, 1994. [4] J.S. Wheeler, J.S. Walter , P. Sibley, “Management of incontinent SCI patients with penile...spinal cord injury patients?,” Spinal cord, vol. 36, pp. 100-103, 1998. [7] T. Sinkjær, M. Haugland, J.J. Struijk, R. Riso , “Longterm cuff recordings

  4. ALS2 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Susanne A.; Carr, Lucinda; Deuschl, Guenther; Hopfner, Franziska; Stamelou, Maria; Wood, Nicholas W.; Bhatia, Kailash P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the genetic etiology in 2 consanguineous families who presented a novel phenotype of autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with generalized dystonia. Methods: A combination of homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing in the first family and Sanger sequencing of candidate genes in the second family were used. Results: Both families were found to have homozygous loss-of-function mutations in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 (juvenile) (ALS2) gene. Conclusions: We report generalized dystonia and cerebellar signs in association with ALS2-related disease. We suggest that the ALS2 gene should be screened for mutations in patients who present with a similar phenotype. PMID:24562058

  5. Characterization of Three Novel SXT/R391 Integrating Conjugative Elements ICEMfuInd1a and ICEMfuInd1b, and ICEMprChn1 Identified in the Genomes of Marinomonas fungiae JCM 18476T and Marinomonas profundimaris Strain D104

    PubMed Central

    Badhai, Jhasketan; Das, Subrata K.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Marinomonas comprises Gram negative bacteria which are widespread in the marine environment and there is no report on the genomic analysis of SXT/R391 ICEs derived from this group of bacteria. This study describes the genomic features of three new SXT/R391 integrating conjugating elements (ICEs) identified in the genome of Marinomonas fungiae JCM 18476T (ICEMfuInd1a and ICEMfuInd1b) and in Marinomonas profundimaris strain D104 (ICEMprChn1). Structural organizations of the three ICEs were similar to the typical SXT/R391 family of ICEs and showed high degree of conservation in the core genes. Sequence analysis revealed ICEMfuInd1b and ICEMprChn1 were inserted into the genome at 5′-end of an typical host prfC gene, while ICEMfuInd1a was inserted at 5′-end of an atypical hipA-like gene. Despite their coexistence, the ICEMfuInd1a and ICEMfuInd1b were not present in a tandem fashion in the genome of M. fungiae. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the three ICEs either evolved independently or high degrees of recombination events had masked their evolution from a common SXT ancestor. Further, we found that the typical entry exclusion mechanism mediated by the TraG/EeX protein pair was likely defective in preventing the conjugative transfer of a second copy of the same S (SXT) group ICE into the M. fungiae genome due to mutations. Our analysis showed the presence of 16, 25, and 27 variable genes in the hotspots of ICEMfuInd1a, ICEMfuInd1b, and ICEMprChn1, respectively, many of which were not reported earlier for SXT/R391 ICEs. Sequence analysis predicted these hotspot regions were shaped by acquisition of genes through homologous recombination between the SXT and R391 related ICEs or mobile genetic elements present in disparate marine bacteria. Multidrug resistance genes which are hallmark feature of SXT/R391 ICEs were not present in either of the two ICEs from M. fungiae but were present within a transposon cassette in the HS-1 of the ICEMprChn1 from M

  6. Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... when it becomes necessary. For instance, a power wheelchair can enable a paralyzed person with ALS to ... done these things despite being confined to a wheelchair for many years, being able to move only ...

  7. Genetic Testing for ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved Donate Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (FALS) and Genetic Testing By Deborah Hartzfeld, MS, CGC, Certified Genetic ... guarantee a person will develop symptoms of ALS. Genetic Counseling If there is more than one person ...

  8. Ag-Al-Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/97.etType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Ag-Al-Ca' with the content:

  9. Statins: Do They Cause ALS?

    MedlinePlus

    Statins: Do they cause ALS? Do statins cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)? Answers from Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, M.D. ... D. References Sorensen HT, et al. Statins and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: The level of evidence for an association. Journal ...

  10. IND2, a pyrimido[1”,2”:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline derivative, circumvents multi-drug resistance and causes apoptosis in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, Chandrabose; Lee, Crystal; Moore, Joshua; Mittal, Roopali; Suswam, Esther A.; Abbott, Kodye L; Pondugula, Satyanarayana R.; Manne, Upender; Narayanan, Narayanan K.; Trivedi, Piyush; Tiwari, Amit K.

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring condensed quinolines have anticancer properties. In efforts to find active analogues, we designed and synthesized eight polycyclic heterocycles with a pyrimido[1”,2”:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline framework (IND series). The compounds were evaluated for activity against colon (HCT-116 and S1-MI-80), prostate (PC3 and DU-145), breast (MCF-7 and MDAMB-231), ovarian (ov2008 and A2780), and hepatocellular (HepG2) cancer cells and against non-cancerous Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK), mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3), and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293). IND-2, a 4-chloro-2-methyl pyrimido[1”,2”:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline, exhibited more than tenfold selectivity and potent cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cells relative to the other cancer and non-cancer cells. With five additional colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, LS-180, LS-174, and LoVo), IND-2 had similar cytotoxicity and selectivity, and submicromolar concentrations caused changes in the morphology of HCT-116 and HCT-15 cells. IND-2 did not activate the transactivating function of the pregnane X receptor (PXR), indicating that it does not induce PXR-regulated ABCB1 or ABCG2 transporters. Indeed, IND-2 was not a substrate of ABCB1 or ABCG2, and it induced cytotoxicity in HEK293 cells overexpressing ABCB1 or ABCG2 to the same extent as in normal HEK293 cells. IND-2 was cytotoxic to resistant colon carcinoma S1-MI-80 cells, approximately three- and fivefold more than SN-38 and topotecan, respectively. In HCT-116 colon cancer cells, IND-2 produced concentration-dependent changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to apoptosis, and sub-micromolar concentrations caused chromosomal DNA fragmentation. These findings suggest that, by increasing apoptosis, IND-2 has potential therapeutic efficacy for colorectal cancer. PMID:25537531

  11. IND-2, a pyrimido[1″,2″:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline derivative, circumvents multi-drug resistance and causes apoptosis in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Chandrabose; Lee, Crystal; Moore, Joshua; Mittal, Roopali; Suswam, Esther A; Abbott, Kodye L; Pondugula, Satyanarayana R; Manne, Upender; Narayanan, Narayanan K; Trivedi, Piyush; Tiwari, Amit K

    2015-02-01

    Naturally occurring condensed quinolines have anticancer properties. In efforts to find active analogues, we designed and synthesized eight polycyclic heterocycles with a pyrimido[1″,2″:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline framework (IND series). The compounds were evaluated for activity against colon (HCT-116 and S1-MI-80), prostate (PC3 and DU-145), breast (MCF-7 and MDAMB-231), ovarian (ov2008 and A2780), and hepatocellular (HepG2) cancer cells and against non-cancerous Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK), mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3), and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293). IND-2, a 4-chloro-2-methyl pyrimido[1″,2″:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline, exhibited more than ten-fold selectivity and potent cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cells relative to the other cancer and non-cancer cells. With five additional colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, LS-180, LS-174, and LoVo), IND-2 had similar cytotoxicity and selectivity, and sub-micromolar concentrations caused changes in the morphology of HCT-116 and HCT-15 cells. IND-2 did not activate the transactivating function of the pregnane X receptor (PXR), indicating that it does not induce PXR-regulated ABCB1 or ABCG2 transporters. Indeed, IND-2 was not a substrate of ABCB1 or ABCG2, and it induced cytotoxicity in HEK293 cells overexpressing ABCB1 or ABCG2 to the same extent as in normal HEK293 cells. IND-2 was cytotoxic to resistant colon carcinoma S1-MI-80 cells, approximately three- and five-fold more than SN-38 and topotecan, respectively. In HCT-116 colon cancer cells, IND-2 produced concentration-dependent changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to apoptosis, and sub-micromolar concentrations caused chromosomal DNA fragmentation. These findings suggest that, by increasing apoptosis, IND-2 has potential therapeutic efficacy for colorectal cancer.

  12. De novo sequencing and transcriptome analysis of a low temperature tolerant Saccharum spontaneum clone IND 00-1037.

    PubMed

    Dharshini, S; Chakravarthi, M; J, Ashwin Narayan; Manoj, V M; Naveenarani, M; Kumar, Ravinder; Meena, Minturam; Ram, Bakshi; Appunu, C

    2016-08-10

    Saccharum spontaneum L., a wild relative of sugarcane, is known for its adaptability to environmental stresses, particularly cold stress. In the present study, an attempt was made for transcriptome profiling of the low temperature (10°C) tolerant S. spontaneum clone IND 00-1037 collected from high altitude regions of Arunachal Pradesh, North Eastern India. The Illumina Nextseq500 platform yielded a total of 47.63 and 48.18 million reads corresponding to 4.7 and 4.8 gigabase pairs (Gb) of processed reads for control and cold stressed (10°C for 24h) samples, respectively. These reads were de novo assembled into 214,611 unigenes with an average length of 801bp. Further, all unigenes were aligned to GO, KEGG and COG databases in order to identify novel genes and pathways responsive upon low temperature conditions. The differential gene expression analysis revealed that about 2583 genes were upregulated and 3302 genes were down regulated during the stress. This is perhaps the comprehensive transcriptome data of a low temperature tolerant clone of S. spontaneum. This study would aid in identifying novel genes and also in future genomic studies pertaining to sugarcane and its wild relatives.

  13. Experience in production of (68)Ga-DOTA-NOC for clinical use under an Expanded Access IND.

    PubMed

    Green, Mark A; Mathias, Carla J; Fletcher, James W

    2016-10-01

    [(68)Ga]Ga-DOTA-NOC was produced under an Expanded Access IND for 174 clinical PET/CT studies to evaluate patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Production employed either the TiO2-based Eckert & Ziegler (EZAG) (68)Ge/(68)Ga-generator (with fractionated elution), or the SiO2-based ITG (68)Ge/(68)Ga-generator. In both cases, [(68)Ga]Ga-DOTA-NOC was reliably produced, without pre-synthesis purification of the(68)Ga generator eluate, using readily-implemented manual synthesis procedures. [(68)Ga]Ga-DOTA-NOC radiochemical purity averaged 99.2±0.4%. Administered (68)Ga dose averaged 181±22 MBq, and administered peptide mass averaged 43.2±5.2µg (n=47) and 23.9±5.7µg (n=127), respectively, using the EZAG and ITG generators. At dose expiration, (68)Ge breakthrough in the final product averaged 2.7×10(-7)% and 5.4×10(-5%) using the EZAG and ITG generators, respectively.

  14. Solid-substrate bioprocessing of cow dung for the production of carboxymethyl cellulase by Bacillus halodurans IND18.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, P; Prakash Vincent, S G; Dhillon, G S

    2016-02-01

    The production of carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) by Bacillus halodurans IND18 under solid substrate fermentation (SSF) using cow dung was optimized through two level full factorial design and second order response surface methodology (RSM). The central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the vital fermentation parameters, such as pH of the substrate, concentration of nitrogen source (peptone) and ion (sodium dihydrogen phosphate) sources in medium for achieving higher enzyme production. The optimum medium composition was found to be 1.46% (w/w) peptone, 0.095% (w/w) sodium dihydrogen phosphate and pH 8.0. The model prediction of 4210IU/g enzyme activity at optimum conditions was verified experimentally as 4140IU/g. The enzyme was active over a broad temperature range (40-60±1°C) and pH (7.0-9.0) with maximal activity at 60±1°C and pH 8.0. This study demonstrated the potential of cow dung as novel substrate for CMCase production.

  15. Rapidly solidified NiAl and FeAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaydosh, D. J.; Crimp, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Melt spinning was used to produce rapidly solidified ribbons of the B2 intermetallics NiAl and FeAl. Both Fe-40Al and Fe-45Al possessed some bend ductility in the as spun condition. The bend ductility of Fe-40Al, Fe-45Al, and equiatomic NiAl increased with subsequent heat treatment. Heat treatment at approximately 0.85 T (sub m) resulted in significant grain growth in equiatomic FeAl and in all the NiAl compositions. Low bend ductility in both FeAl and NiAl generally coincided with intergranular failure, while increased bend ductility was characterized by increasing amounts of transgranular cleavage fracture.

  16. Antigenic and genetic comparison of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O Indian vaccine strain, O/IND/R2/75 against currently circulating viruses.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Mana; Yuvaraj, S; Madhanmohan, M; Subramaniam, S; Pattnaik, B; Paton, D J; Srinivasan, V A; Parida, Satya

    2015-01-29

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus serotype O is the most common cause of FMD outbreaks in India and three of the six lineages that have been described are most frequently detected, namely Ind2001, PanAsia and PanAsia 2. We report the full capsid sequence of 21 serotype O viruses isolated from India between 2002 and 2012. All these viruses belong to the Middle East-South Asia (ME-SA) topotype. The serological cross-reactivity of a bovine post-vaccination serum pool raised against the current Indian vaccine strain, O/IND/R2/75,was tested by virus neutralisation test with the 23 Indian field isolates, revealing a good match between the vaccine and the field isolates. The cross reactivity of the O/IND/R2/75 vaccine with 19 field isolates from other countries (mainly from Asia and Africa) revealed a good match to 79% of the viruses indicating that the vaccine strain is broadly cross-reactive and could be used to control FMD in other countries. Comparison of the capsid sequences of the serologically non-matching isolates with the vaccine strain sequence identified substitutions in neutralising antigenic sites 1 and 2, which could explain the observed serological differences.

  17. Antigenic and genetic comparison of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O Indian vaccine strain, O/IND/R2/75 against currently circulating viruses

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Mana; Yuvaraj, S.; Madhanmohan, M.; Subramaniam, S.; Pattnaik, B.; Paton, D.J.; Srinivasan, V.A.; Parida, Satya

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus serotype O is the most common cause of FMD outbreaks in India and three of the six lineages that have been described are most frequently detected, namely Ind2001, PanAsia and PanAsia 2. We report the full capsid sequence of 21 serotype O viruses isolated from India between 2002 and 2012. All these viruses belong to the Middle East–South Asia (ME–SA) topotype. The serological cross-reactivity of a bovine post-vaccination serum pool raised against the current Indian vaccine strain, O/IND/R2/75,was tested by virus neutralisation test with the 23 Indian field isolates, revealing a good match between the vaccine and the field isolates. The cross reactivity of the O/IND/R2/75 vaccine with 19 field isolates from other countries (mainly from Asia and Africa) revealed a good match to 79% of the viruses indicating that the vaccine strain is broadly cross-reactive and could be used to control FMD in other countries. Comparison of the capsid sequences of the serologically non-matching isolates with the vaccine strain sequence identified substitutions in neutralising antigenic sites 1 and 2, which could explain the observed serological differences. PMID:25500306

  18. ALS superbend magnet system

    SciTech Connect

    Zbasnik, J.; Wang, S.T.; Chen, J.Y.; DeVries, G.J.; DeMarco, R.; Fahmie, M.; Geyer, A.; Green, M.A.; Harkins, J.; Henderson, T.; Hinkson, J.; Hoyer, E.H.; Krupnick, J.; Marks, S.; Ottens, F.; Paterson, J.A.; Pipersky, P.; Portmann, G.; Robin, D.A.; Schlueter, R.D.; Steier, C.; Taylor, C.E.; Wahrer, R.

    2000-09-15

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is preparing to upgrade the Advanced Light Source (ALS) with three superconducting dipoles (Superbends). In this paper we present the final magnet system design which incorporates R&D test results and addresses the ALS operational concerns of alignment, availability, and economy. The design incorporates conduction-cooled Nb-Ti windings and HTS current leads, epoxy-glass suspension straps, and a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler to supply steady state refrigeration. We also present the current status of fabrication and testing.

  19. Fosetyl-al

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Fosetyl - al ; CASRN 39148 - 24 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  20. Al Shanker Remembers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Educator, 2000

    2000-01-01

    In a 1996 interview shortly before his death, Al Shanker, longtime president of the American Federation of Teachers, discussed such topics as: his own educational experiences; how he learned about political fighting in the Boy Scouts; the appeal of socialism; multinational corporations and the nation state; teaching tough students; and John Dewey…

  1. Al Partitioning Patterns and Root Growth as Related to Al Sensitivity and Al Tolerance in Wheat.

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, T. D.; Kucukakyuz, K.; Rincon-Zachary, M.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of Al partitioning and accumulation and of the effect of Al on the growth of intact wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots of cultivars that show differential Al sensitivity were conducted. The effects of various Al concentrations on root growth and Al accumulation in the tissue were followed for 24 h. At low external Al concentrations, Al accumulation in the root tips was low and root growth was either unaffected or stimulated. Calculations based on regression analysis of growth and Al accumulation in the root tips predicted that 50% root growth inhibition in the Al-tolerant cv Atlas 66 would be attained when the Al concentrations were 105 [mu]M in the nutrient solution and 376.7 [mu]g Al g-1 dry weight in the tissue. In contrast, in the Al-sensitive cv Tam 105, 50% root growth inhibition would be attained when the Al concentrations were 11 [mu]M in the nutrient solution and 546.2 [mu]g Al g-1 dry weight in the tissue. The data support the hypotheses that differential Al sensitivity correlates with differential Al accumulation in the growing root tissue, and that mechanisms of Al tolerance may be based on strategies to exclude Al from the root meristems. PMID:12223623

  2. Al Sumelat Water Network. Village of Al Sumelat, Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL FOR IRAQ RECONSTRUCTION AL SUMELAT WATER NETWORK VILLAGE OF AL SUMELAT, IRAQ...Sumelat Water Network Village of Al Sumelat, Iraq 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...Al Sumelat Water Network Village of Al Sumelat, Iraq Synopsis Introduction. This report was previously provided on a limited distribution basis

  3. Darwin als Sehhilfe für die Psychologie - Evolutionspsychologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, Frank

    Im Folgenden geht es um Einäugige, stereoskopisches Sehen, weite und enge Horizonte, Monokel und Sonnenbrillen. Der Beitrag versucht die Metapher des Sehens und der Sehhilfen anzuwenden, um so zu verdeutlichen, welchen Gewinn die herkömmliche Psychologie durch die Verwendung einer Darwin'schen Brille erlangen kann.

  4. ALS insertion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, E.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hassenzahl, W. V.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Lancaster, H.; Plate, D.

    1991-08-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system.

  5. Statistical optimization of fibrinolytic enzyme production using agroresidues by Bacillus cereus IND1 and its thrombolytic activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, Ponnuswamy; Vincent, Samuel Gnana Prakash

    2014-01-01

    A potent fibrinolytic enzyme-producing Bacillus cereus IND1 was isolated from the Indian food, rice. Solid-state fermentation was carried out using agroresidues for the production of fibrinolytic enzyme. Among the substrates, wheat bran supported more enzyme production and has been used for the optimized enzyme production by statistical approach. Two-level full-factorial design demonstrated that moisture, supplementation of beef extract, and sodium dihydrogen phosphate have significantly influenced enzyme production (P < 0.05). A central composite design resulted in the production of 3699 U/mL of enzyme in the presence of 0.3% (w/w) beef extract and 0.05% (w/w) sodium dihydrogen phosphate, at 100% (v/w) moisture after 72 h of fermentation. The enzyme production increased fourfold compared to the original medium. This enzyme was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, diethylaminoethyl-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography, Sephadex G-75 gel filtration chromatography, and casein-agarose affinity chromatography and had an apparent molecular mass of 29.5 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature for the activity of fibrinolytic enzyme were found to be 8.0 and 60°C, respectively. This enzyme was highly stable at wide pH range (7.0-9.0) and showed 27% ± 6% enzyme activity after initial denaturation at 60°C for 1 h. In vitro assays revealed that the enzyme could activate plasminogen and significantly degraded the fibrin net of blood clot, which suggests its potential as an effective thrombolytic agent.

  6. FAbry STabilization indEX (FASTEX): an innovative tool for the assessment of clinical stabilization in Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Mignani, Renzo; Pieruzzi, Federico; Berri, Francesco; Burlina, Alessandro; Chinea, Benito; Gallieni, Maurizio; Pieroni, Maurizio; Salviati, Alessandro; Spada, Marco

    2016-10-01

    Two disease severity scoring systems, the Mainz Severity Score Index (MSSI) and Fabry Disease Severity Scoring System (DS3), have been validated for quantifying the disease burden of Fabry disease. We aimed to develop a dynamic mathematical model [the FASTEX (FAbry STabilization indEX)] to assess the clinical stability. A multidisciplinary panel of experts in Fabry disease first defined a novel score of severity [raw score (RS)] based on three domains with a small number items in each domain (nervous system domain: pain, cerebrovascular events; renal domain: proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate; cardiac domain: echocardiography parameters, electrocardiograph parameters and New York Heart Association class) and evaluated the clinical stability over time. The RS was tested in 28 patients (15 males, 13 females) with the classic form of Fabry disease. There was good statistical correlation between the newly established RS and a weighted score (WS), with DS3 and MSSI (R (2) = 0.914, 0.949, 0.910 and 0.938, respectively). In order to refine the RS further, a WS, which was expressed as a percentage value, was calculated. This was based on the relative clinical significance of each item within the domain with the panel agreeing on the attribution of a different weight of clinical damage to a specific organ system. To test the variation of the clinical burden over time, the RS was repeated after 1 year. The panel agreed on a cut-off of a 20% change from baseline as the clinical WS to define clinical stability. The FASTEX model showed good correlation with the clinical assessment and with clinical variation over time in all patients.

  7. Statistical Optimization of Fibrinolytic Enzyme Production Using Agroresidues by Bacillus cereus IND1 and Its Thrombolytic Activity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Prakash Vincent, Samuel Gnana

    2014-01-01

    A potent fibrinolytic enzyme-producing Bacillus cereus IND1 was isolated from the Indian food, rice. Solid-state fermentation was carried out using agroresidues for the production of fibrinolytic enzyme. Among the substrates, wheat bran supported more enzyme production and has been used for the optimized enzyme production by statistical approach. Two-level full-factorial design demonstrated that moisture, supplementation of beef extract, and sodium dihydrogen phosphate have significantly influenced enzyme production (P < 0.05). A central composite design resulted in the production of 3699 U/mL of enzyme in the presence of 0.3% (w/w) beef extract and 0.05% (w/w) sodium dihydrogen phosphate, at 100% (v/w) moisture after 72 h of fermentation. The enzyme production increased fourfold compared to the original medium. This enzyme was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, diethylaminoethyl-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography, Sephadex G-75 gel filtration chromatography, and casein-agarose affinity chromatography and had an apparent molecular mass of 29.5 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature for the activity of fibrinolytic enzyme were found to be 8.0 and 60°C, respectively. This enzyme was highly stable at wide pH range (7.0–9.0) and showed 27% ± 6% enzyme activity after initial denaturation at 60°C for 1 h. In vitro assays revealed that the enzyme could activate plasminogen and significantly degraded the fibrin net of blood clot, which suggests its potential as an effective thrombolytic agent. PMID:25003130

  8. FAbry STabilization indEX (FASTEX): an innovative tool for the assessment of clinical stabilization in Fabry disease

    PubMed Central

    Mignani, Renzo; Pieruzzi, Federico; Berri, Francesco; Burlina, Alessandro; Chinea, Benito; Gallieni, Maurizio; Pieroni, Maurizio; Salviati, Alessandro; Spada, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Two disease severity scoring systems, the Mainz Severity Score Index (MSSI) and Fabry Disease Severity Scoring System (DS3), have been validated for quantifying the disease burden of Fabry disease. We aimed to develop a dynamic mathematical model [the FASTEX (FAbry STabilization indEX)] to assess the clinical stability. A multidisciplinary panel of experts in Fabry disease first defined a novel score of severity [raw score (RS)] based on three domains with a small number items in each domain (nervous system domain: pain, cerebrovascular events; renal domain: proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate; cardiac domain: echocardiography parameters, electrocardiograph parameters and New York Heart Association class) and evaluated the clinical stability over time. The RS was tested in 28 patients (15 males, 13 females) with the classic form of Fabry disease. There was good statistical correlation between the newly established RS and a weighted score (WS), with DS3 and MSSI (R2 = 0.914, 0.949, 0.910 and 0.938, respectively). In order to refine the RS further, a WS, which was expressed as a percentage value, was calculated. This was based on the relative clinical significance of each item within the domain with the panel agreeing on the attribution of a different weight of clinical damage to a specific organ system. To test the variation of the clinical burden over time, the RS was repeated after 1 year. The panel agreed on a cut-off of a 20% change from baseline as the clinical WS to define clinical stability. The FASTEX model showed good correlation with the clinical assessment and with clinical variation over time in all patients. PMID:27679722

  9. Frequently Asked Questions about ALS and the ALS Registry

    MedlinePlus

    ... Why is it necessary to provide my Social Security Number (SSN) when registering in the National ALS ... Why is it necessary to provide my Social Security Number (SSN) when registering in the National ALS ...

  10. Establishment of vaccination clinics; user fees for investigational new drug (IND) influenza vaccine services and vaccines. Interim final rule and request for comments.

    PubMed

    2005-01-25

    We are amending 42 CFR part 70 to establish vaccination clinics and a user fee in connection with the administration of vaccination services and vaccine. On December 7, 2004, HHS Secretary Tommy G. Thompson announced the purchase of 1.2 million doses of GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) influenza vaccine, Fluarix, for distribution to areas most in need as determined by State public health authorities. The Fluarix vaccine has been approved in seventy-eight foreign countries, and FDA has recently reviewed extensive manufacturing and summary clinical information and conducted an inspection of the GSK manufacturing facility in Germany to determine that this vaccine, although not licensed in the United States, is suitable for use under an Investigational New Drug application (IND). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reviewed GSK's IND application as well as the clinical protocol and manufacturing data. CDC and CDC's Institutional Review Board approved the GSK flu vaccine response protocol including the informed consent document. To ensure that the vaccine is properly administered to individuals identified to be most at risk and facilitate compliance with IND requirements, CDC is establishing vaccination clinics. CDC is proceeding without delay because of the unprecedented nature of this season's influenza vaccine shortage caused by contamination problems with Chiron Corporation's production facility in the United Kingdom, which effectively cut in half the expected United States supply of inactivated influenza vaccine. A user fee is being established in order to recoup the costs associated with administering the vaccine and for the vaccine itself. All individuals, other than those who are enrolled in Medicare Part B, will be required to pay the user fee.

  11. Influence of season and site location on European cultured sea bass parasites in Corsican fish farms using indicator species analysis (IndVal).

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Laetitia; Foata, Joséphine; Quilichini, Yann; Marchand, Bernard

    2016-02-01

    The parasites of 536 European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, were studied between January 2012 and December 2013 in six Corsican fish farms. The indicator value (IndVal) method, which combines measures of fidelity and specificity, has been used in this study. Because of its resilience to changes in abundance, IndVal is a particularly effective tool for ecological bioindicator. The IndVal method showed how season can influence the occurrence of parasite species in cultured sea bass and also identified parasites as bioindicators relative to fish farm location. The combination of specificity and fidelity highlighted several parasite species as significant indicators. A randomization test identified five parasite species as having a significant indicator value for season (the monogenean Diplectanum aequans; the copepods Lernanthropus kroyeri and Caligus minimus; the isopod Ceratothoa oestroides, and the myxosporidian Ceratomyxa labracis). If gills parasites are compared, they can be seen to be indicator species for two different seasons. The only Monogenea species D. aequans had fidelity and specificity more pronounced in winter, whereas both copepod species and the Isopoda revealed highest rates of infestation corresponding with an increase of water temperature. Four species have a significant indicator value for site location (D. aequans, L. kroyeri, C. minimus, and C. oestroides). The fact that the farm 6 was isolated on the east coast of Corsica may not have allowed the parasite to infect other farms. The presence of copepods on a single farm can also be explained according to salinity variations. Data for species composition and infection levels should help to improve the monitoring and management of parasitism in cultured sea bass populations.

  12. Al Jazirah, Sudan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Al Jazirah (also Gezira) is one of the 26 states of Sudan. The state lies between the Blue Nile and the White Nile in the east-central region of the country. It is a well populated area suitable for agriculture. The area was at the southern end of Nubia and little is known about its ancient history and only limited archaeological work has been conducted in this area. The region has benefited from the Gezira Scheme, a program to foster cotton farming begun in 1925. At that time the Sennar Dam and numerous irrigation canals were built. Al Jazirah became the Sudan's major agricultural region with more than 2.5 million acres (10,000 km) under cultivation. The initial development project was semi-private, but the government nationalized it in 1950. Cotton production increased in the 1970s but by the 1990s increased wheat production has supplanted a third of the land formerly seeded with cotton.

    The image was acquired December 25, 2006, covers an area of 56 x 36.4 km, and is located near 14.5 degrees north latitude, 33.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  13. Outbreaks of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Libya and Saudi Arabia During 2013 Due to an Exotic O/ME-SA/Ind-2001 Lineage Virus.

    PubMed

    Knowles, N J; Bachanek-Bankowska, K; Wadsworth, J; Mioulet, V; Valdazo-González, B; Eldaghayes, I M; Dayhum, A S; Kammon, A M; Sharif, M A; Waight, S; Shamia, A M; Tenzin, S; Wernery, U; Grazioli, S; Brocchi, E; Subramaniam, S; Pattnaik, B; King, D P

    2016-10-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease viruses are often restricted to specific geographical regions and spread to new areas may lead to significant epidemics. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences of the VP1 genome region of recent outbreak viruses from Libya and Saudi Arabia has revealed a lineage, O-Ind-2001, normally found in the Indian subcontinent. This paper describes the characterization of field viruses collected from these cases and provides information about a new real-time RT-PCR assay that can be used to detect viruses from this lineage and discriminate them from other endemic FMD viruses that are co-circulating in North Africa and western Eurasia.

  14. Vaporization Enthalpy: Corresponding-States Correlations Versus DIPPR Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachadiña, I.; Mulero, A.

    2007-09-01

    Data for the vaporization enthalpy accepted in the Design Institute for Physical Property Data® (DIPPR®) database are compared with those given by general correlations based on the corresponding-states method. In particular, four analytical predictive correlations were used. Three of them require as input the critical temperature and the acentric factor. The fourth requires a molecular Lennard-Jones parameter and the acentric factor. Results obtained for 1576 fluids indicate that the recommended model for an overall use, in order to reproduce the DIPPR data, is the one proposed by Sivaraman et al. [Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam. 23, 97 (1984)].

  15. AL Amyloidosis and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... for survivors' benefits . Research on AL amyloidosis and herbicides The Health and Medicine Division (formally known as ... to the compounds of interest found in the herbicide Agent Orange and AL amyloidosis." VA made a ...

  16. Al Qaeda as a System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    either as welcome guests or parasites . As welcome guests, Al Qaeda members take sanctuary in sponsor states. Sponsor states provide Al Qaeda with...sponsorship, Al Qaeda takes sanctuary as parasites either overtly or covertly. They take overt sanctuary in countries that publicly claim a policy...39 Yehudit Barsky, “Al Qa’ida, Iran, and Hezbollah: A Continuing Symbiosis ,” The American Jewish Committee Series on Terrorism , February 2004, 2-3

  17. Growth and Optical Properties of Al rich AlN/AlGaN Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahtamouni, T. M. Al; Nepal, N.; Nakarmi, M. L.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2006-03-01

    Al rich AlGaN alloys are promising materials for the applications in the optoelectronic devices such as deep ultraviolet (UV) emitters and detectors in the spectral range down to 200 nm. AlGaN based UV emitters (λ<340nm) has applications in bio-chemical agent detection and medical research/ health care. To realize deep UV emission (λ< 280 nm) Al rich AlGaN based quantum wells (QWs) are required. We report here the growth of AlN/AlxGa1-xNQWs (x>0.65) on AlN/sapphire templates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Deep UV photoluminescence (PL) was employed to study the optical properties of the QWs. Well width (Al composition) dependence was studied by varying the QW thickness (Al composition) with fixed x ˜ 0.65 (well width at 3 nm). Optical properties of these QWs such as the effects of alloy fluctuation, temperature, strain and piezoelectric field, carrier and exciton localizations on the quantum efficiency have been studied. Carrier and exciton dynamics were probed. Implications of our findings on the applications of Al rich AlN/AlGaN QWs for UV emitters and detectors will also be discussed.

  18. Studies of 27Al NMR in SrAl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niki, Haruo; Higa, Nonoka; Kuroshima, Hiroko; Toji, Tatsuki; Morishima, Mach; Minei, Motofumi; Yogi, Mamoru; Nakamura, Ai; Hedo, Masato; Nakama, Takao; Ōnuki, Yoshichika; Harima, Hisatomo

    A charge density wave (CDW) transition at TCDW = 243 K and a structural phase (SP) transition at approximately 100 K occur in SrAl4 with the BaAl4-type body center tetragonal structure, which is the divalent and non-4f electron reference compound of EuAl4. To understand the behaviors of the CDW and SP transitions, the 27Al NMR measurements using a single crystal and a powder sample of SrAl4 have been carried out. The line width below TCDW is modulated by an electrical quadruple interaction between 27Al nucleus and CDW charge modulation. The incommensurate CDW state below TCDW changes into a different structure below TSP. The temperature dependences of Knight shifts of 27Al(I) and 27Al(II) show the different behaviors. The temperature variation of 27Al(I) Knight shift shows anomalies at the CDW and SP transition temperatures, revealing the shift to negative side below TCDW, which is attributable to the core polarization of the d-electrons. However, 27Al(II) Knight shift keeps almost constant except for the small shift due to the SP transition. The 1/T1T of 27Al(I) indicates the obvious changes due to the CDW and SP transitions, while that of 27Al(II) takes a constant value. The density of state at the Fermi level at Al(I) site below 60 K would be about 0.9 times less than that above TCDW.

  19. Novel Sequential Screening and Enhanced Production of Fibrinolytic Enzyme by Bacillus sp. IND12 Using Response Surface Methodology in Solid-State Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, P.; Young Kwon, Oh; Kim, Young Ock

    2017-01-01

    Fibrinolytic enzymes have wide applications in clinical and waste treatment. Bacterial isolates were screened for fibrinolytic enzyme producing ability by skimmed milk agar plate using bromocresol green dye, fibrin plate method, zymography analysis, and goat blood clot lysis. After these sequential screenings, Bacillus sp. IND12 was selected for fibrinolytic enzyme production. Bacillus sp. IND12 effectively used cow dung for its growth and enzyme production (687 ± 6.5 U/g substrate). Further, the optimum bioprocess parameters were found out for maximum fibrinolytic enzyme production using cow dung as a low cost substrate under solid-state fermentation. Two-level full-factorial experiments revealed that moisture, pH, sucrose, peptone, and MgSO4 were the vital parameters with statistical significance (p < 0.001). Three factors (moisture, sucrose, and MgSO4) were further studied through experiments of central composite rotational design and response surface methodology. Enzyme production of optimized medium showed 4143 ± 12.31 U/g material, which was more than fourfold the initial enzyme production (978 ± 36.4 U/g). The analysis of variance showed that the developed response surface model was highly significant (p < 0.001). The fibrinolytic enzyme digested goat blood clot (100%), chicken skin (83 ± 3.6%), egg white (100%), and bovine serum albumin (29 ± 4.9%). PMID:28321408

  20. Rub' al Khali, Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Rub' al Khali is one of the largest sand deserts in the world, encompassing most of the southern third of the Arabian Peninsula. It includes parts of Oman, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. The desert covers 650,000 square kilometers, more than the area of France. Largely unexplored until recently, the desert is 1000 km long and 500 km wide. The first documented journeys made by Westerners were those of Bertram Thomas in 1931 and St. John Philby in 1932. With daytime temperatures reaching 55 degrees Celsius, and dunes taller than 330 meters, the desert may be one of the most forbidding places on Earth.

    The image was acquired December 2, 2005, covers an area of 54.8 x 61.9 km, and is located near 20.7 degrees north latitude, 53.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  1. Morton et al. Reply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Rosette, Jacqueline; Palace, Michael; Cook, Bruce D.; Vermote, Eric F.; Harding, David J.; North, Peter R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple mechanisms could lead to up-regulation of dry-season photosynthesis in Amazon forests, including canopy phenology and illumination geometry. We specifically tested two mechanisms for phenology-driven changes in Amazon forests during dry-season months, and the combined evidence from passive optical and lidar satellite data was incompatible with large net changes in canopy leaf area or leaf reflectance suggested by previous studies. We therefore hypothesized that seasonal changes in the fraction of sunlit and shaded canopies, one aspect of bidirectional reflectance effects in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, could alter light availability for dry-season photosynthesis and the photosynthetic capacity of Amazon forests without large net changes in canopy composition. Subsequent work supports the hypothesis that seasonal changes in illumination geometry and diffuse light regulate light saturation in Amazon forests. These studies clarify the physical mechanisms that govern light availability in Amazon forests from seasonal variability in direct and diffuse illumination. Previously, in the debate over light limitation of Amazon forest productivity, seasonal changes in the distribution of light within complex Amazon forest canopies were confounded with dry-season increases in total incoming photosynthetically active radiation. In the accompanying Comment, Saleska et al. do not fully account for this confounding effect of forest structure on photosynthetic capacity.

  2. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya), Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Alexandria was taken by astronauts on board the International Space Station in December 2000 using an Electronic Still Camera. A wider-angle view (STS088-739-90) taken from the Space Shuttle in December 1998 is available for context. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya) occupies a T-shaped peninsula and strip of land separating the Mediterranean from Lake Mariout. Originally the town was built upon a mole (stone breakwater) called Heptastadium, which joined the island of Pharos (see referenced website, below) to the mainland. Since then sedimentary deposits have widened the mole. Since 1905, when the 370,000 Alexandrians lived in an area of about 4 sq km between the two harbors, the city (population 4 million; see referenced website, below) has grown beyond its medieval walls and now occupies an area of about 300 sq km. The Mahmudiya Canal, connecting Alexandria with the Nile, runs to the south of the city and, by a series of locks, enters the harbor of the principal port of Egypt (note ships). The reddish and ochre polygons west of Lake Mariout are salt-evaporation, chemical-storage, and water-treatment ponds within the coastal lagoon. Reference Youssef Halim and Fatma Abou Shouk, 2000, Human impacts on Alexandria's marine environment: UNESCO, Coastal Regions and Small Islands Unit (CSI), Coastal Management Sourcebooks 2 (accessed December 20, 2000) Additional photographs taken by astronauts can be viewed at NASA-JSC's Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. Image ISS001-ESC-5025 provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center.

  3. Is there a paraneoplastic ALS?

    PubMed

    Corcia, Philippe; Gordon, Paul H; Camdessanche, Jean-Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to examine the strength of evidence in support of the paraneoplastic syndrome (PNS) as one cause of ALS and, if the association appears more likely than chance, determine which features of ALS imply concurrent malignancy. We reviewed the literature on concurrent ALS and neoplasia assessing the strength of evidence for the association. Most accounts of ALS and neoplasm are case reports or small uncontrolled series. In order of strength of evidence, three clinical situations that support a paraneoplastic aetiology for ALS are: 1) laboratory evidence of well-characterized onconeuronal antibodies, most often anti-Hu, anti-Yo or anti-Ri; 2) co-occurrence of ALS and a neoplasm known to cause PNS, usually lymphoma or cancer of the breast; and 3) combined ALS and a neoplasm not classically associated with PNS, without detectable onconeuronal antibodies. Clinical features that warrant evaluation of neoplasm include upper motor neuron disease in elderly females, rapid progression, non-motor signs, and young onset. In conclusion, most examples of ALS and neoplasm do not constitute a classically established PNS. Rare instances of elevated onconeuronal antibody titres or typical neoplasm, implies that, albeit rare, the PNS is one of a multitude of causes of ALS.

  4. Impurity Enhancement of Al_2O_3/Al Adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Smith, John R.; Zhang, Wenqing; Evans, Anthony

    2003-03-01

    Our first-principles computations indicate that the clean Al_2O_3/Al interface is relatively weak - weaker than bulk Al. Fracture experiments reveal that the interface is relatively strong with observed failure in bulk Al, however. This paradox is resolved via doping effects of the common impurity C. We have found that only 1/3 of a monolayer of carbon segregated to the interface can increase the work of separation by a factor of 3. The resulting strong interface is consistent with fracture experiments. It arises due to void formation in the interface, which provides low-strain sites for the carbon to segregate to. The degree of void formation is consistent with the relatively high heat of oxide formation of Al.

  5. Multiscale Modeling of Armor Ceramics: Focus on AlON

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    2003: Multiple Material Marching Cubes Algorithm . Int. J. Numer . Meth. Eng., 58(2), 189–207. NO. OF COPIES ORGANIZATION 9 1 DEFENSE...Army Science Conference, Orlando, FL, 29 November–2 December 2010. 14. ABSTRACT The computational modeling linkage from the atomistic to the...controlled processing. This report will review results from an internal multiscale computational program in first-principles design of armor ceramics

  6. Thermal Modeling of Al-Al and Al-Steel Friction Stir Spot Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedrasiak, P.; Shercliff, H. R.; Reilly, A.; McShane, G. J.; Chen, Y. C.; Wang, L.; Robson, J.; Prangnell, P.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a finite element thermal model for similar and dissimilar alloy friction stir spot welding (FSSW). The model is calibrated and validated using instrumented lap joints in Al-Al and Al-Fe automotive sheet alloys. The model successfully predicts the thermal histories for a range of process conditions. The resulting temperature histories are used to predict the growth of intermetallic phases at the interface in Al-Fe welds. Temperature predictions were used to study the evolution of hardness of a precipitation-hardened aluminum alloy during post-weld aging after FSSW.

  7. Philosophieren als Unterrichtsprinzip im Mathematikunterricht

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerwaldt, Diana

    Philosophieren und Mathematik scheinen zunächst gegensätzliche Bereiche zu sein, die sich kaum vereinbaren lassen. Dies trifft für eine Auffassung zu, die Philosophieren als "Gerede" disqualifiziert und Mathematik als eine reine "Formelwissenschaft" begreift. Beide Auffassungen werden den Gegenständen nicht gerecht.

  8. The Evolution of Al Qaeda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-15

    Al Qaeda is a product of the forces of globalization. Increasing access to global finances , international travel, and sophisticated technology is...evolution. Al Qaeda is a product of the forces of globalization. Increasing access to global finances , international travel, and sophisticated technology...75 Finance

  9. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology. Volume 51, Part 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    Volatile halocarbons released from arctic macroalgac [1996, eng] 51-3176 Latypov, R.M. Kola Peninsula, Russia anorthosite intrusion [1995...bunch. Spencer, J., [1997,eng] 51-4135 Kola Peninsula, Russia anorthosite intrusion. Latypov, R.M., [1995,eng] 51-961 Lilloise intrusion, East...Stages 2 and 4. Ono, Y, et al, [1997,eng] 51-4372 Kola Peninsula, Russia anorthosite intrusion. Latypov, R.M., [1995,eng] 51-961 Laser analysis of

  10. Characteristics of CeCoIn5/Al/AlOx/Nb and CeCoIn5/Al/AlOx/Al Tunnel Junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, C.; Nevirkovets, I.P.; Chernyashevskyy, O.; Hu, R.; Ketterson, J.B.; Sarma, B.K.

    2009-03-03

    We report characteristics of CeCoIn{sub 5}/Al/AlO{sub x}/Nb and CeCoIn{sub 5}/Al/AlO{sub x}/Al tunnel junctions fabricated on the (0 0 1) surface of CeCoIn{sub 5} crystal platelets. The main result of this work is the observation of a low Josephson current (as compared with that expected from the Ambegaokar-Baratoff formula), which is consistent with idea that the order parameter in the heavy-fermion superconductor CeCoIn{sub 5} has unconventional pairing symmetry.

  11. Medical application of 26Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhausen, C.; Gerisch, P.; Heisinger, B.; Hohl, Ch.; Kislinger, G.; Korschinek, G.; Niedermayer, M.; Nolte, E.; Dumitru, M.; Alvarez-Brückmann, M.; Schneider, M.; Ittel, T. H.

    1996-06-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements with 26Al as tracer were performed in order to study the aluminium metabolism and anomalies in the human body and in rats. In particular, the differences between healthy volunteers and patients with renal failure were investigated. The obtained data points of 26Al in blood and urine were described by an open compartment model with three peripheral compartments. It was found that the minimum of peripheral compartments needed to describe 26Al concentrations in blood and urine over a time period of three years is at least three.

  12. Reply to Gopalswamy et al.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Richardson, I. G.

    2003-01-01

    The comment of Gopalswamy et al. (thereafter GMY) relates to a letter discussing coronal mass ejections (CMEs), interplanetary ejecta and geomagnetic storms. GMY contend that Cane et al. incorrectly identified ejecta (interplanetary CMEs) and hypothesize that this is because Cane et al. fail to understand how to separate ejecta from "shock sheaths" when interpreting solar wind and energetic particle data sets. They (GMY) are wrong be cause the relevant section of the paper was concerned with the propagation time to 1 AU of any potentially geoeffective structures caused by CMEs, i.e. upstream compression regions with or without shocks, or ejecta. In other words, the travel times used by Cane et al. were purposefully and deliberately distinct from ejecta travel times (except for those slow ejecta, approx. 30% of their events, which generated no upstream features), and no error in identification was involved. The confusion of GMY stems from the description did not characterize the observations sufficiently clearly.

  13. In memory of Al Cameron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, John; Truran, James W.

    Al Cameron, who died recently (October 3, 2005) at 80, was one of the giants in astrophysics. His insights were profound and his interests were wide-ranging. Originally trained as a nuclear physicist, he made major contributions in a number of fields, including nuclear reactions in stars, nucleosynthesis, the abundances of the elements in the Solar System, and the origin of the Solar System and the Moon. In 1957, Cameron and, independently, Burbidge, Burbidge, Fowler and Hoyle, wrote seminal papers on nuclear astrophysics. Most of our current ideas concerning ele- ment formation in stars have followed from those two pioneering and historical works. Al also made many contributions in the field of Solar System physics. Particularly noteworthy in this regard was Cameron's work on the formation of the Moon. Al was also a good friend and mentor of young people. Al Cameron will be missed by many in the community both for his scientific contributions and for his friendship.

  14. Al-Co-Fe (030)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/9getType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Al-Co-Fe (030)' with the content:

  15. Al-La-Nb (068)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/97.etType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Al-La-Nb (068)' with the content:

  16. Al-Cu-Zr (050)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/9getType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Al-Cu-Zr (050)' with the content:

  17. Al-La-Ni (069)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/9getType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Al-La-Ni (069)' with the content:

  18. Al-Au-La (010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/9getType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Al-Au-La (010)' with the content:

  19. Al-Ce-V (029)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/97.etType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Al-Ce-V (029)' with the content:

  20. Comparing the Thermodynamic Behaviour of Al(1)+ZrO2(s) to Al(1)+Al2O3(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to better determine the thermodynamic properties of Al(g) and Al2O(g). the vapor in equilibrium with Al(l)+ZrO2(s) was compared to the vapor in equilibrium with Al(l)+Al2O3(s) over temperature range 1197-to-1509K. The comparison was made directly by Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry with an instrument configured for a multiple effusion-cell vapor source (multi-cell KEMS). Second law enthalpies of vaporization of Al(g) and Al2O(g) together with activity measurements show that Al(l)+ZrO2(s) is thermodynamically equivalent to Al(l)+Al2O3(s), indicating Al(l) remained pure and Al2O3(s) was present in the ZrO2-cell. Subsequent observation of the Al(l)/ZrO2 and vapor/ZrO2 interfaces revealed a thin Al2O3-layer had formed, separating the ZrO2-cell from Al(l) and Al(g)+Al2O(g), effectively transforming it into an Al2O3 effusion-cell. This behavior agrees with recent observations made for Beta-NiAl(Pt) alloys measured in ZrO2 effusion-cell.

  1. Discussion: "Comparison of Statistical Methods for Assessing Spatial Correlations Between Maps of Different Arterial Properties" (Rowland, E. M., Mohamied, Y., Chooi, K. Y., Bailey, E. L., and Weinberg, P. D., 2015, ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 137(10), p. 101003): An Alternative Approach Using Segmentation Based on Local Hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Himburg, Heather A; Grzybowski, Deborah M; Hazel, Andrew L; LaMack, Jeffrey A; Friedman, Morton H

    2016-09-01

    The biological response of living arteries to mechanical forces is an important component of the atherosclerotic process and is responsible, at least in part, for the well-recognized spatial variation in atherosusceptibility in man. Experiments to elucidate this response often generate maps of force and response variables over the arterial surface, from which the force-response relationship is sought. Rowland et al. discussed several statistical approaches to the spatial autocorrelation that confounds the analysis of such maps and applied them to maps of hemodynamic stress and vascular response obtained by averaging these variables in multiple animals. Here, we point out an alternative approach, in which discrete surface regions are defined by the hemodynamic stress levels they experience, and the stress and response in each animal are treated separately. This approach, applied properly, is insensitive to autocorrelation and less sensitive to the effect of confounding hemodynamic variables. The analysis suggests an inverse relation between permeability and shear that differs from that in Rowland et al. Possible sources of this difference are suggested.

  2. Defibrotide for Patients with Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease/Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome (VOD/SOS): Interim Results From a Treatment IND Study.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Paul G; Smith, Angela R; Triplett, Brandon M; Kernan, Nancy A; Grupp, Stephan A; Antin, Joseph H; Lehmann, Leslie; Shore, Tsiporah; Iacobelli, Massimo; Miloslavsky, Maja; Hume, Robin; Hannah, Alison L; Nejadnik, Bijan; Soiffer, Robert J

    2017-03-08

    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease, or sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS), is a serious and potentially fatal complication of conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or of chemotherapy regimens alone. Defibrotide is a complex mixture of single-stranded polydeoxyribonucleotides that is approved in the United States for treatment of hepatic VOD/SOS with renal or pulmonary dysfunction post-HSCT and in the European Union, Israel, and South Korea for treatment of severe hepatic VOD/SOS post-HSCT. Defibrotide was previously available in the United States as an investigational drug through a treatment protocol (treatment IND) study. Interim results of that large, treatment IND study of patients with VOD/SOS and with or without multi-organ dysfunction (MOD, also known as multi-organ failure) are presented here. Defibrotide was administered intravenously at 6.25 mg/kg every 6 hours (25 mg/kg/day), with a recommended treatment duration of at least 21 days. Enrolled patients (N=681) were diagnosed with VOD/SOS according to Baltimore or modified Seattle criteria or liver biopsy. For patients who had received HSCT (n=573), 50.3% (n=288; 95% confidence interval [CI], 46.2% to 54.4%) were alive at day +100 post-HSCT. Day +100 survival for the pediatric (≤16 years) and adult (>16 years) subgroups was 54.5% (n=174/319; 95% CI, 49.1% to 60.0%) and 44.9% (n=114/254; 95% CI, 38.8% to 51.0%), respectively. In the MOD subgroup (n=351), 45.3% (n=159; 95% CI, 40.1% to 50.5%) of patients were alive at day +100 post-HSCT. Treatment with defibrotide was generally well tolerated, and drug-related toxicities were consistent with prior studies. Adverse events were reported in 69.6% (399/573) of safety-evaluable patients. Other than VOD/SOS and associated MOD symptoms, the most commonly reported treatment-emergent adverse event was hypotension (13.8%). Day +100 survival results observed in this trial were consistent with results seen in previous trials of defibrotide

  3. Modeling of the ALS linac

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.H.

    1996-08-01

    The ALS injector linac is used for the Beam Test Facility (BTF) and the Damping Experiments when it is available in between the ALS filings. These experiments usually require higher quality beams and a better characterization than is normally required for ALS operations. This paper focuses on the beam emittance, energy tilt, and especially the longitudinal variation of the beam parameters. For instance, the authors want to avoid longitudinal variations at the low beta section of the BTF. On the other hand, a large energy tilt is required for post-acceleration compression of the bunch using an alpha magnet. The PARMELA code was modified to calculate and display longitudinal variations of the emittance ellipse. Using the Microsoft Development Studio under Windows NT environment the code can handle a much larger number of particles than was previously possible.

  4. Superconductivity in Al/Al2O3 interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palnichenko, A. V.; Vyaselev, O. M.; Mazilkin, A. A.; Khasanov, S. S.

    2016-06-01

    Metastable superconductivity at Tc ≈ 65 K has been observed in Al foil subjected to special oxidation process, according to the ac magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistance measurements. Comparison of the ac susceptibility and the dc magnetization measurements infers that the superconductivity arises within the interfacial granular layer formed during the oxidation process between metallic aluminum and its oxide.

  5. Baumard et al.'s moral markets lack market dynamics.

    PubMed

    Fessler, Daniel M T; Holbrook, Colin

    2013-02-01

    Market models are indeed indispensable to understanding the evolution of cooperation and its emotional substrates. Unfortunately, Baumard et al. eschew market thinking in stressing the supposed invariance of moral/cooperative behavior across circumstances. To the contrary, humans display contingent morality/cooperation, and these shifts are best accounted for by market models of partner choice for mutually beneficial collaboration.

  6. FTD and ALS: genetic ties that bind.

    PubMed

    Orr, Harry T

    2011-10-20

    Curiously, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), seemingly disparate neurodegenerative disorders, can be inherited together. Two groups (DeJesus-Hernandez et al. and Renton et al.) show that the long sought after ALS/FTD mutation on chromosomal region 9p is a hexanucleotide expansion in C90RF72. These studies, plus a study on X-linked ALS/FTD, provide molecular starting points for identifying pathways that link ALS and FTD pathogenesis.

  7. ALS - A unique design approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, Roger A.

    1990-09-01

    An advanced launch system (ALS), which is intended to be flexible and to deliver a wide range of payloads at a reduced cost, is discussed. The ALS concept also features total quality management, modular subsystems, standardized interfaces, standardized missions, and off-line payload encapsulation. The technological improvements include manufacturing of dry structures, use of composite materials, adaptive guidance and control systems, and laser-initiated radar systems. The operational improvements range from paperless management, to rocket engine leak detection devices and automated ground operations.

  8. Dynamic Modeling of ALS Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of dynamic modeling and simulation of Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems is to help design them. Static steady state systems analysis provides basic information and is necessary to guide dynamic modeling, but static analysis is not sufficient to design and compare systems. ALS systems must respond to external input variations and internal off-nominal behavior. Buffer sizing, resupply scheduling, failure response, and control system design are aspects of dynamic system design. We develop two dynamic mass flow models and use them in simulations to evaluate systems issues, optimize designs, and make system design trades. One model is of nitrogen leakage in the space station, the other is of a waste processor failure in a regenerative life support system. Most systems analyses are concerned with optimizing the cost/benefit of a system at its nominal steady-state operating point. ALS analysis must go beyond the static steady state to include dynamic system design. All life support systems exhibit behavior that varies over time. ALS systems must respond to equipment operating cycles, repair schedules, and occasional off-nominal behavior or malfunctions. Biological components, such as bioreactors, composters, and food plant growth chambers, usually have operating cycles or other complex time behavior. Buffer sizes, material stocks, and resupply rates determine dynamic system behavior and directly affect system mass and cost. Dynamic simulation is needed to avoid the extremes of costly over-design of buffers and material reserves or system failure due to insufficient buffers and lack of stored material.

  9. Creating functional engineered variants of the single-module non-ribosomal peptide synthetase IndC by T domain exchange.

    PubMed

    Beer, Ralf; Herbst, Konrad; Ignatiadis, Nikolaos; Kats, Ilia; Adlung, Lorenz; Meyer, Hannah; Niopek, Dominik; Christiansen, Tania; Georgi, Fanny; Kurzawa, Nils; Meichsner, Johanna; Rabe, Sophie; Riedel, Anja; Sachs, Joshua; Schessner, Julia; Schmidt, Florian; Walch, Philipp; Niopek, Katharina; Heinemann, Tim; Eils, Roland; Di Ventura, Barbara

    2014-07-01

    Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are enzymes that catalyze ribosome-independent production of small peptides, most of which are bioactive. NRPSs act as peptide assembly lines where individual, often interconnected modules each incorporate a specific amino acid into the nascent chain. The modules themselves consist of several domains that function in the activation, modification and condensation of the substrate. NRPSs are evidently modular, yet experimental proof of the ability to engineer desired permutations of domains and modules is still sought. Here, we use a synthetic-biology approach to create a small library of engineered NRPSs, in which the domain responsible for carrying the activated amino acid (T domain) is exchanged with natural or synthetic T domains. As a model system, we employ the single-module NRPS IndC from Photorhabdus luminescens that produces the blue pigment indigoidine. As chassis we use Escherichia coli. We demonstrate that heterologous T domain exchange is possible, even for T domains derived from different organisms. Interestingly, substitution of the native T domain with a synthetic one enhanced indigoidine production. Moreover, we show that selection of appropriate inter-domain linker regions is critical for functionality. Taken together, our results extend the engineering avenues for NRPSs, as they point out the possibility of combining domain sequences coming from different pathways, organisms or from conservation criteria. Moreover, our data suggest that NRPSs can be rationally engineered to control the level of production of the corresponding peptides. This could have important implications for industrial and medical applications.

  10. Re-emergence of circulatory foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes Asia1 in Bangladesh and VP1 protein heterogeneity with vaccine strain IND 63/72.

    PubMed

    Ullah, H; Siddique, M A; Al Amin, Md; Das, B C; Sultana, M; Hossain, M A

    2015-02-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes O, A and Asia1 are responsible for significant number of disease outbreaks in Bangladesh; however serotype Asia1 has not been reported in circulation since 1996. The present investigation reports the detection of serotype FMDV Asia1 from local farms in 2012 and 2013 outbreaks. The farms were located in Jessore and Gazipur districts, and one of these farms was under vaccine control programme. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete VP1 gene revealed that FMDV Asia1 is under genetic lineage C having close similarity to the Asia1 sequences of Indian origin. The circulatory genotype Asia1 showed VP1 protein sequence heterogeneity of eight amino acid substitutions within the G-H loop with the vaccine strain [IND 63/72 (AY304994)] used in vaccination programme. ELISA assay revealed that, of seven, only one local field serum sample (cattle vaccinated 38 days earlier) was positive at a titre level of >2.4 (log10) but failed to protect the cattle from infection occurred by the virus. This investigation focused that the eight amino acid substitution in VP1 protein at G-H loop of the locally circulated FMDV serotype Asia1 strain may be a reason for current vaccination failure.

  11. Cow Dung Is a Novel Feedstock for Fibrinolytic Enzyme Production from Newly Isolated Bacillus sp. IND7 and Its Application in In Vitro Clot Lysis

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraghavan, Ponnuswamy; Arun, Arumugaperumal; Vincent, Samuel Gnana Prakash; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial fibrinolytic enzymes find great applications to treat and prevent cardiovascular diseases. The novel fibrinolytic enzymes from food grade organisms are useful for thrombolytic therapy. This study reports fibrinolytic enzyme production by Bacillus sp. IND7 in solid-state fermentation (SSF). In this study, cow dung was used as the cheap substrate for the production of fibrinolytic enzyme. Enzyme production was primarily improved by optimizing the nutrient and physical factors by one-variable-at-a-time approach. A statistical method (two-level full factorial design) was applied to investigate the significant variables. Of the different variables, pH, starch, and beef extract significantly influenced on the production of fibrinolytic enzyme (p < 0.05). The optimum levels of these significant factors were further investigated using response surface methodology. The optimum conditions for enhanced fibrinolytic enzyme production were 1.23% (w/w) starch and 0.3% (w/w) beef extract with initial medium pH 9.0. Under the optimized conditions, cow dung substrate yielded 8,345 U/g substrate, and an overall 2.5-fold improvement in fibrinolytic enzyme production was achieved due to its optimization. This is the first report of fibrinolytic enzyme production using cow dung substrate from Bacillus sp. in SSF. The crude enzyme displayed potent activity on zymography and digested goat blood clot completely in in vitro condition. PMID:27065952

  12. Large rectification magnetoresistance in nonmagnetic Al/Ge/Al heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Huan-Huan; Grünberg, Peter; Li, Qiang; Ye, Sheng-Tao; Tian, Yu-Feng; Yan, Shi-Shen; Lin, Zhao-Jun; Kang, Shi-Shou; Chen, Yan-Xue; Liu, Guo-Lei; Mei, Liang-Mo

    2015-09-01

    Magnetoresistance and rectification are two fundamental physical properties of heterojunctions and respectively have wide applications in spintronics devices. Being different from the well known various magnetoresistance effects, here we report a brand new large magnetoresistance that can be regarded as rectification magnetoresistance: the application of a pure small sinusoidal alternating-current to the nonmagnetic Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions can generate a significant direct-current voltage, and this rectification voltage strongly varies with the external magnetic field. We find that the rectification magnetoresistance in Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions is as large as 250% at room temperature, which is greatly enhanced as compared with the conventional magnetoresistance of 70%. The findings of rectification magnetoresistance open the way to the new nonmagnetic Ge-based spintronics devices of large rectification magnetoresistance at ambient temperature under the alternating-current due to the simultaneous implementation of the rectification and magnetoresistance in the same devices.

  13. Large rectification magnetoresistance in nonmagnetic Al/Ge/Al heterojunctions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Huan-huan; Grünberg, Peter; Li, Qiang; Ye, Sheng-tao; Tian, Yu-feng; Yan, Shi-shen; Lin, Zhao-jun; Kang, Shi-shou; Chen, Yan-xue; Liu, Guo-lei; Mei, Liang-mo

    2015-01-01

    Magnetoresistance and rectification are two fundamental physical properties of heterojunctions and respectively have wide applications in spintronics devices. Being different from the well known various magnetoresistance effects, here we report a brand new large magnetoresistance that can be regarded as rectification magnetoresistance: the application of a pure small sinusoidal alternating-current to the nonmagnetic Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions can generate a significant direct-current voltage, and this rectification voltage strongly varies with the external magnetic field. We find that the rectification magnetoresistance in Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions is as large as 250% at room temperature, which is greatly enhanced as compared with the conventional magnetoresistance of 70%. The findings of rectification magnetoresistance open the way to the new nonmagnetic Ge-based spintronics devices of large rectification magnetoresistance at ambient temperature under the alternating-current due to the simultaneous implementation of the rectification and magnetoresistance in the same devices. PMID:26387967

  14. AlSb/InAs/AlSb quantum wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroemer, Herbert

    1990-01-01

    Researchers studied the InAs/AlSb system recently, obtaining 12nm wide quantum wells with room temperature mobilities up to 28,000 cm(exp 2)/V center dot S and low-temperature mobilities up to 325,000 cm(exp 2)/V center dot S, both at high electron sheet concentrations in the 10(exp 12)/cm(exp 2) range (corresponding to volume concentrations in the 10(exp 18)/cm(exp 2) range). These wells were not intentionally doped; the combination of high carrier concentrations and high mobilities suggest that the electrons are due to not-intentional modulation doping by an unknown donor in the AlSb barriers, presumably a stoichiometric defect, like an antisite donor. Inasmuch as not intentionally doped bulk AlSb is semi-insulating, the donor must be a deep one, being ionized only by draining into the even deeper InAs quantum well. The excellent transport properties are confirmed by other observations, like excellent quantum Hall effect data, and the successful use of the quantum wells as superconductive weak links between Nb electrodes, with unprecendentedly high critical current densities. The system is promising for future field effect transistors (FETs), but many processing problems must first be solved. Although the researchers have achieved FETs, the results so far have not been competitive with GaAs FETs.

  15. Effect of interface geometry on electron tunnelling in Al/Al2O3/Al junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koberidze, M.; Feshchenko, A. V.; Puska, M. J.; Nieminen, R. M.; Pekola, J. P.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate how different interface geometries of an Al/Al2O3 junction, a common component of modern tunnel devices, affect electron transport through the tunnel barrier. We study six distinct Al/Al2O3 interfaces which differ in stacking sequences of the metal and the oxide surface atoms and the oxide termination. To construct model potential barrier profiles for each examined geometry, we rely on first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) calculations for the barrier heights and the shapes of the interface regions as well as on experimental data for the barrier widths. We show that even tiny variations in the atomic arrangement at the interface cause significant changes in the tunnel barrier parameters and, consequently, in electron transport properties. Especially, we find that variations in the crucial barrier heights and widths can be as large as 2 eV and 5 Å, respectively. Finally, to gain information about the average properties of the measured junction, we fit the conductance calculated within the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation to the experimental data and interpret the fit parameters with the help of the DFT results.

  16. Relativity and Al^+ Optical Clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chin-Wen; Hume, David B.; Wineland, David J.; Rosenband, Till

    2010-03-01

    We have constructed an optical clock based on quantum logic spectroscopy of an Al+ ion that has a fractional frequency inaccuracy of 8.6x10-18. The frequency of the ^1S0<->^3P0 clock transition is compared to that of a previously constructed Al^+ optical clock with a statistical measurement uncertainty of 7.0x10-18. The two clocks exhibit a relative stability of 2.8x10-15&-1/2circ;, and a fractional frequency difference of -1.8x10-17, consistent with the accuracy limit of the older clock. By comparing the frequencies of the clocks, we have observed relativistic effects, such as time dilation due to velocities less than 10 m/s and the gravitational red shift from a 0.33 m height change of one of the clocks.

  17. Spatial Reference in Rongga (ISO 639-3: ROR), Balinese (ISO 639-3: BAN), and Indonesia (ISO 639-3: IND)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aryawibawa, I Nyoman

    2010-01-01

    Many scholars have proposed concepts relevant to spatial reference. Herskovits (1982) proposed that the topological concepts support, contiguity and containment are basic in English, while Levinson et al.'s (2003) examination of nine unrelated languages revealed that the concept attachment is primary. Neither of these proposals is confirmed in…

  18. [Coagulation behavior of Al13 species].

    PubMed

    Hu, Cheng-zhi; Liu, Hui-juan; Qu, Jiu-hui

    2006-12-01

    Coagulation behavior of Al13 species was examined in synthetic water with high alkalinity and high humic acid concentration from viewpoint of the transformation of Al hydrolysis products during the coagulation process. The results indicated that coagulation efficiency of Al coagulants positively correlated with the content of Al13 in the coagulation process. Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) was more effective than polyaluminum chloride (PACI) in removing turbidity and dissolved organic matter in the synthetic water because AlCl3 could not only generate Al13 species but also function as pH control agent in the coagulation process. During coagulation process pH control can improve coagulation process through regulating Al speciation, and AlCl3 benefited most from pH control.

  19. Age-dependent alterations of the hippocampal cell composition and proliferative potential in the hAβPPSwInd-J20 mouse.

    PubMed

    Fu, YuHong; Rusznák, Zoltán; Kwok, John B J; Kim, Woojin Scott; Paxinos, George

    2014-01-01

    The J20 mouse expresses human mutant amyloid-β protein precursor (hAβPPSwInd) and is an established transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). From the age of 5 months, amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits appear in the hippocampus with concomitant increase of AD-associated features. Although changes occurring after the appearance of Aβ deposits have been extensively studied, very little is known about alterations that occur prior to 5 months. The present study aimed to identify changes in the cellular composition and proliferative potential of the J20 hippocampus using 1-18-month-old mice. Neuronal, non-neuronal, Ki-67+, and TUNEL+ cell numbers were counted with the isotropic fractionator method. Age-dependent changes of the expression of microglia-, astrocyte-, and neurogenesis-specific markers were sought in the entire hippocampus. Several transgene-associated changes were revealed before the appearance of Aβ deposits. The number of proliferating cells decreased whereas the number of microglia clusters increased as early as 4 weeks of age. The neurogenesis was also impaired in the dentate gyrus of 7-11-week-old J20 mice. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the number of proliferating cells and age in both populations, but the time course of the age-dependence was steeper in wild-type than in J20 mice. Negative age-dependence was noted when the number of cells committed to apoptosis was examined. Our results indicate that overexpression of mutant hAβPP initiates a cascade of pathologic events well before the appearance of visible Aβ plaques. Accordingly, early signs of AD include reduced cell proliferation, impaired neurogenesis, and increased activity of microglia in the hippocampus.

  20. Synthesis of AlN/Al Polycrystals along with Al Nanoparticles Using Thermal Plasma Route

    SciTech Connect

    Kanhe, Nilesh S.; Nawale, A. B.; Kulkarni, N. V.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mathe, V. L.; Das, A. K.

    2011-07-15

    This paper for the first time reports the (200) oriented growth of hexagonal Aluminum nitride crystals during synthesis of aluminum nanoparticles in dc transferred arc thermal plasma reactor by gas phase condensation in nitrogen plasma. The structural and morphological study of as synthesized AlN crystal and aluminium nanoparticles was done by using the x-ray diffraction method, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

  1. Investigations of Al-Dalang and Al-Hawashat meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gismelseed, A. M.; Abdallah, S. B.; Al-Rawas, A. D.; Al-Mabsali, F. N.; Widatallah, H. M.; Elzain, M. E.; Yousif, A. A.; Ericsson, T.; Annersten, H.

    2016-12-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) have been performed on two meteorites named Al-Dalang and Al-Hawashat after identifying their falling sites in the Western region of Sudan. These two meteorites are ordinary chondrites with similar mineralogy. XRD and EMPA show that the two specimens consist of primary olivine, ortho-pyroxene and later crystallising clino-pyroxene as reaction rims against plagioclase. Fe-metal phases are dominated by kamacite (≈6 wt.% Ni) and minor amounts of tetrataenite (≈52 wt.% Ni). Troilite (FeS) and alabandite (MnS) are optically observed as sulphide phases. The Mössbauer measurements at 295 and 78 K are in agreement with the above characterizations, showing at least two paramagnetic doublets which are assigned to olivine and pyroxene and magnetic sextets assigned to kamacite (hyperfine field ≈33.5 T) and troilite FeS (hyperfine field ≈31 T).

  2. Al-Al2O3-Pd junction hydrogen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, K.; Takinami, N.; Chiba, Y.; Ohshima, S.; Kambe, S.

    1994-07-01

    Al-Al2O3-Pd MIM (metal insulator metal) junctions fabricated on a glass substrate were tested as hydrogen sensors. The I-V (current versus voltage) characteristics of the junctions were measured at room temperature in a vacuum of 10-5 Torr and in H2 gas of 10-2-100 Torr. A significant increase in the current was observed upon introduction of H2 gas. This phenomenon is believed to occur due to the work function lowering of the hydrogen-absorbed Pd top electrode. The rise time was on the order of minutes, while the recovery time when hydrogen was purged was more than 20 h. However, when the junction was placed in an oxidizing ambient such as air, the recovery time was drastically reduced to the order of minutes, indicating that the device is operative as a hydrogen sensor in the atmospheric ambient. Hydrogen adsorption and desorption behavior of the Pd film was also investigated using a Pd coated quartz microbalance, and the results explained the current response of the Pd MIM junction to hydrogen in the presence of oxygen.

  3. Ab initio modeling of zincblende AlN layer in Al-AlN-TiN multilayers

    DOE PAGES

    Yadav, S. K.; Wang, J.; Liu, X. -Y.

    2016-06-13

    An unusual growth mechanism of metastable zincblende AlN thin film by diffusion of nitrogen atoms into Al lattice is established. Using first-principles density functional theory, we studied the possibility of thermodynamic stability of AlN as a zincblende phase due to epitaxial strains and interface effect, which fails to explain the formation of zincblende AlN. We then compared the formation energetics of rocksalt and zincblende AlN in fcc Al through direct diffusion of nitrogen atoms to Al octahedral and tetrahedral interstitials. Furthermore, the formation of a zincblende AlN thin film is determined to be a kinetically driven process, not a thermodynamicallymore » driven process.« less

  4. NiAl-base composite containing high volume fraction of AlN for advanced engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan (Inventor); Whittenbeger, John D. (Inventor); Lowell, Carl F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A particulate reinforced NiAl-AlN composite alloy has a NiAl matrix and greater than about 13 volume percent fine particles of AlN within the matrix. The particles preferably have a diameter from about 15 nanometers to about 50 nanometers. The particulate reinforced NiAl-AlN composite alloy may be prepared by cryomilling prealloyed NiAl in liquid nitrogen using grinding media having a diameter of from about 2 to 6 mm at an impeller speed of from about 450 RPM to about 800 RPM. The cryomilling may be done for a duration of from about 4 hours to about 20 hours to obtain a cryomilled powder. The cryomilled powder may be consolidated to form the particulate reinforced NiAl-AlN composite alloy. The particulate reinforced alloy can further include a toughening alloy. The toughening alloy may include NiCrAlY, FeCrAlY, and FeAl.

  5. Benefits for Military Veterans with ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Advocate Get Involved Donate Military Veterans Resources for Military Veterans, Families & Survivors The ALS Association is working everyday to ... and Caregivers Newly Diagnosed Clinical Trials Familial ALS Military Veterans For Caregivers Resources Read stories ... Site ...

  6. Cenomanian-Turonian biostratigraphy of the Jardas Al Abid area, Al Jabal Al Akhdar, northeast Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Qot, Gamal M.; Abdulsamad, Esam O.

    2016-09-01

    The Upper Cenomanian-Turonian succession exposed at Jardas al'Abid area consists mainly of carbonates with siliciclastic intercalations. This succession is subdivided lithostratigraphically into: Qasr al'Abid (Late Cenomanian) and Al Baniyah (Late Cenomanian-Coniacian) formations. This sequence is relatively rich in macrofossil assemblages especially bivalves, gastropods, and echinoids with rare ammonites. Based on the first occurrence (FO) and last occurrence (LO) of some index species of these macrofossil groups, an integrated biostratigraphic framework has been constructed. The studied Cenomanian-Turonian sequence is subdivided biostratigraphically into three ammonite biozones; Pseudaspidoceras pseudonodosoides Total Range Zone, Choffaticeras segne Total Range Zone, and Coilopoceras requienianum Total Range Zone. Based on the rest of macrofossil assemblages other than the ammonites, eight biozones were recognized; Mecaster batnensis Total Range Zone, Ceratostreon flabellatum-Neithea dutrugei Acme Zone, Costagyra olisiponensis Acme Zone, Pycnodonte (Phygraea) vesicularis vesiculosa Acme Zone, Mytiloides labiatus Total Range Zone = Mecaster turonensis Acme Zone, Rachiosoma rectilineatum-Curvostrea rouvillei-Tylostoma (T.) globosum Assemblage Zone, Radiolites sp.-Apricardia? matheroni Total Range Zone, and Nerinea requieniana Total Range Zone. Most of the proposed biozones are recorded for the first time from Libya. The integration among these biozones as well as local and inter-regional correlation of the biozones have been discussed. The stage boundaries of the studied stratigraphic intervals are discussed, where the Cenomanian/Turonian boundary is delineated at the last occurrence (LO) of Pseudaspidoceras pseudonodosoides (Choffat), while the Turonian/Coniacian boundary is delineated arbitrary being agree with the LO of the Turonian fauna.

  7. Effects of the Al content on pore structures of porous TieAl alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jaing, Y; He, Y H; Xu, N P; Zou, J; Huang, B; Lui, C T

    2008-01-01

    Porous TieAl alloys with different nominal compositions were fabricated through a reactive synthesis of Ti and Al elemental powders. It has been found that the pore parameters vary with the Al contents, indicating that the nature of the pores can be manipulated through changing the Al contents. In addition, detailed structural characterizations showed that the fabricated porous TieAl alloys can have three crystalline phases (i.e., a2-Ti3Al, g-TiAl, and TiAl3) when using different compositions. The fundamental reasons behind these phenomena have been explored.

  8. Photoelectrical, photophysical and photocatalytic properties of Al based MOFs: MIL-53(Al) and MIL-53-NH2(Al)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yang; Li, Huiliang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Huang, Baibiao; Sun, Qilong; Dai, Ying; Qin, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Two Al based MOFs (MIL-53(Al) and MIL-53-NH2 (Al)) were synthesized, and their photoelectrical, photophysical and photocatalytic properties towards oxygen evolution from water were investigated. Different from the ligand to metal charge transfer process previously reported, we proposes a new photocatalytic mechanism based on electron tunneling according to the results of theoretical calculation, steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectra. The organic linkers absorb photons, giving rise to electrons and holes. Then, the photogenerated electrons tunnel through the AlO6-octahedra, which not only inhibit the recombination of photogenerated charge carriers, but also is a key factor to the photocatalytic activity of Al based MOFs.

  9. Framework Al zoning in zeolite ECR-1.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jiho; Ahn, Nak Ho; Cho, Sung June; Ren, Limin; Xiao, Feng-Shou; Hong, Suk Bong

    2014-02-25

    Rietveld analyses of the synchrotron X-ray diffraction data for various cation forms of zeolite ECR-1 have demonstrated framework Al zoning, which parallels the alternation of Al-rich maz and Al-poor mor layers. This can be further supported by notable differences in the average bond valence of its 10 crystallographically distinct tetrahedral sites.

  10. Opportunity's 'Rub al Khali' Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Opportunity's 'Rub al Khali' Panorama (QTVR)

    This panoramic image, dubbed 'Rub al Khali,' was acquired by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on the plains of Meridiani during the period from the rover's 456th to 464th sols on Mars (May 6 to May 14, 2005). Opportunity was about 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) south of 'Endurance Crater' at a place known informally as 'Purgatory Dune.'

    The rover was stuck in the dune's deep fine sand for more than a month. 'Rub al Khali' (Arabic translation: 'the empty quarter') was chosen as the name for this panorama because it is the name of a similarly barren, desolate part of the Saudi Arabian desert on Earth.

    The view spans 360 degrees. It consists of images obtained in 97 individual pointings of the panoramic camera. The camera took images with five camera filters at each pointing. This 22,780-by-6,000-pixel mosaic is an approximately true-color rendering generated using the images acquired through filters admitting light wavelengths of 750, 530, and 480 nanometers.

    Lighting varied during the nine sols it took to acquire this panorama, resulting in some small image seams within the mosaic. These seams have been smoothed in sky parts of the mosaic to better simulate the vista that a person would see if able to view it all at the same time on Mars.

    Opportunity's tracks leading back to the north (center of the panorama) are a reminder of the rover's long trek from Endurance Crater. The deep ruts dug by Opportunity's wheels as it became stuck in the sand appear in the foreground. The crest and trough of the last ripple the rover crossed before getting stuck is visible in the center. These wind-formed sand features are only about 10 to 15 centimeters (4 to 6 inches) tall. The crest of the actual ripple where the rover got stuck can be seen just to the right of center. The tracks and a few other places on and near ripple crests can

  11. Instandhaltungsmanagement als Gestaltungsfeld Ganzheitlicher Produktionssysteme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombrowski, Uwe; Schulze, Sven; Otano, Isabel Crespo

    Sich kontinuierlich verändernde Rahmenbedingungen, wie beispielsweise eine steigende Variantenvielfalt, verkürzte Produktlebenszyklen sowie Kundenforderungen nach höherer Qualität, kürzeren Lieferzeiten und geringeren Kosten, fordern von produzierenden Unternehmen eine stetige Anpassung der Prozesse, der Organisation und der Strukturen. Seit den 90er Jahren versuchen immer mehr deutsche Unternehmen diesen veränderten Anforderungen mit der Einführung eines Ganzheitlichen Produktionssystems (GPS) zu begegnen. Ganzheitliche Produktionssysteme sind dabei in ihren Grundlagen an das Toyota Produktionssystem angelehnt, vereinigen aber auch weitere Methoden zu einem unternehmensspezifischen Regelwerk. Im Rahmen des langfristigen Trends zu unternehmensindividuellen Produktionssystemen wird sowohl in der Industrie als auch in der Forschung intensiv über das Toyota Produktionssystem, Lean Production, Lean Management und Ganzheitliche Produktionssysteme diskutiert, werden Konzepte zu Implementierung und Betrieb erstellt und die Wirtschaftlichkeit untersucht.

  12. Ampleur et impact des évènements indésirables graves liés aux soins: étude d'incidence dans un hôpital du Centre-Est tunisien

    PubMed Central

    Bouafia, Nabiha; Bougmiza, Iheb; Bahri, Fathi; Letaief, Mondher; Astagneau, Pascal; Njah, Mansour

    2013-01-01

    Introduction La prévention des événements indésirables représente une priorité de santé du fait de leur fréquence et de leur gravité potentielle. Ce travail a été mené afin d'avoir un diagnostic de la situation épidémiologique relative aux événements indésirables survenant dans notre hôpital. Méthodes Une étude prospective a été menée auprès de tous les patients qui ont été hospitalisés au CHU Farhat Hached - Sousse (Tunisie) sur une période d'un mois dans quatorze services de l'hôpital. La détection d'évènement indésirable grave (EIG) était basée sur les critères adoptés dans différentes études. Les tests T et Chi 2 ont été utilisés pour identifier les facteurs contribuant à l'apparition d'évènements indésirables. Résultats Au total, 162 EIG ont été identifiés pendant la période. 45% de ces évènements étaient des infections nosocomiales. Ces EIG ont eu comme conséquences un décès chez 9,2% des patients, la mise en jeu du pronostic vital de 26% des patients et la prolongation de la durée de séjour chez 61,7% d'entre eux. L'admission dans des circonstances particulières et l'exposition à des soins invasifs étaient identifiés comme des facteurs de risque potentiels EIG. Conclusion Le renforcement de la stratégie de gestion des risques sanitaires en ciblant préférentiellement le risque infectieux constitue une étape fondamentale dans l'amélioration de la sécurité des patients au sein de notre établissement de santé. PMID:24711868

  13. Systems Engineering Techniques for ALS Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Luis F.; Drysdale, Alan E.; Jones, Harry; Levri, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) Metric is the predominant tool for predicting the cost of ALS systems. Metric goals for the ALS Program are daunting, requiring a threefold increase in the ALS Metric by 2010. Confounding the problem, the rate new ALS technologies reach the maturity required for consideration in the ALS Metric and the rate at which new configurations are developed is slow, limiting the search space and potentially giving the perspective of a ALS technology, the ALS Metric may remain elusive. This paper is a sequel to a paper published in the proceedings of the 2003 ICES conference entitled, "Managing to the metric: an approach to optimizing life support costs." The conclusions of that paper state that the largest contributors to the ALS Metric should be targeted by ALS researchers and management for maximum metric reductions. Certainly, these areas potentially offer large potential benefits to future ALS missions; however, the ALS Metric is not the only decision-making tool available to the community. To facilitate decision-making within the ALS community a combination of metrics should be utilized, such as the Equivalent System Mass (ESM)-based ALS metric, but also those available through techniques such as life cycle costing and faithful consideration of the sensitivity of the assumed models and data. Often a lack of data is cited as the reason why these techniques are not considered for utilization. An existing database development effort within the ALS community, known as OPIS, may provide the opportunity to collect the necessary information to enable the proposed systems analyses. A review of these additional analysis techniques is provided, focusing on the data necessary to enable these. The discussion is concluded by proposing how the data may be utilized by analysts in the future.

  14. Wear behavior of Al-Al{sub 3}Ti composite manufactured by a centrifugal method

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Yoshimi; Yamanaka, Noboru; Fukui, Yasuyoshi

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a wear-resistant, light Al-Al{sub 3}Ti composite material. An Al-Al{sub 3}Ti composite specimen was machined from a thick-walled tube of Al-Al{sub 3}Ti functionally graded material (FGM) manufactured by the centrifugal method from a commercial ingot of Al-5 mass% Ti master alloy. The alloy was heated to a temperature where solid Al{sub 3}Ti particles resided in a liquid Al matrix, and then the centrifugal method was carried out. Al{sub 3}Ti particles in a commercial alloy ingot exist as platelets, and this shape was maintained through the casting. Three kinds of wear specimens were prepared, taking into account the morphology of the Al{sub 3}Ti particles in the thick-walled FGM tube; the Al{sub 3}Ti particles were arranged with their platelet planes nearly normal to the radial direction as a result of the applied centrifugal force. The wear resistance of the Al-Al{sub 3}Ti composite was significantly higher than that of pure Al. Wear-resistance anisotropy and dissolution of the Al{sub 3}Ti into the Al matrix at the near-surface region, around 100 {micro}m in depth, were also observed. The mechanism of the supersaturated-layer formation and the origin of the anisotropic wear resistance are discussed.

  15. Magnetism of Al-substituted magnetite reduced from Al-hematite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhaoxia; Liu, Qingsong; Zhao, Xiang; Roberts, Andrew P.; Heslop, David; Barrón, Vidal; Torrent, José

    2016-06-01

    Aluminum-substituted magnetite (Al-magnetite) reduced from Al-substituted hematite or goethite (Al-hematite or Al-goethite) is an environmentally important constituent of magnetically enhanced soils. In order to characterize the magnetic properties of Al-magnetite, two series of Al-magnetite samples were synthesized through reduction of Al-hematite by a mixed gas (80% CO2 and 20% CO) at 395°C for 72 h in a quartz tube furnace. Al-magnetite samples inherited the morphology of their parent Al-hematite samples, but only those transformed from Al-hematite synthesized at low temperature possessed surficial micropores, which originated from the release of structural water during heating. Surface micropores could thus serve as a practical fingerprint of fire or other high-temperature mineralogical alteration processes in natural environments, e.g., shear friction in seismic zones. In addition, Al substitution greatly affects the magnetic properties of Al-magnetite. For example, coercivity (Bc) increases with increasing Al content and then decreases slightly, while the saturation magnetization (Ms), Curie temperature (Tc), and Verwey transition temperature (Tv) all decrease with increasing Al content due to crystal defect formation and dilution of magnetic ions caused by Al incorporation. Moreover, different trends in the correlation between Tc and Bc can be used to discriminate titanomagnetite from Al-magnetite, which is likely to be important in environmental and paleomagnetic studies, particularly in soil.

  16. Two-foci bendable mirrors for the ALS MAESTRO beamline: design and metrology characterization and optimal tuning of the mirror benders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemiev, Nikolay A.; Chow, Ken P.; Merthe, Daniel J.; Rotenberg, Eli; Takakuwa, Jeffrey H.; Warwick, Tony; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2013-09-01

    MAESTRO, the Microscopic and Electronic STRucture Observatory, currently under construction at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), will be a world premier facility for the study of electronic and structural properties of in situ grown crystals. The new facility will be comprised of several end-stations, including angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, μARPES and nARPES end-stations, and a photoemission electron microscope combined with a lowenergy electron microscope (PEEM/LEEM). Redirection of the x-ray beam between the μARPES and PEEM/LEEM end-stations, which are longitudinally separated by 2.5 meters, uses a system of two bendable mirrors, placed in Kirkpatrick-Baez configuration designed for two foci. Here we present the details of the mirrors' design and report on the characterization of the mirrors carried out at the ALS X-ray optical laboratory (XROL). Optimal tuning and calibration of the mirrors was performed using a technique recently developed at the OML [Opt. Eng. 48(8), 083601 (2009)]. The technique is based on regression analysis of surface slope data obtained with a long trace profiler (LTP). We provide results of tests of temporal and temperature stabilities of the shape of the mirrors. High reliability of the optical metrology with the mirrors has become possible due to a modification of the tuning procedure described in the present article. The modification allows accounting for the gravity sag effect, as well as the LTP systematic error in measurements with significantly curved x-ray optics.

  17. Reply to Vance et al.

    SciTech Connect

    Woon-Chee Yee; Elliott, J.L; Kwon, J.M.; Goodfellow, P.

    1996-07-01

    In our report of a family with a motor and sensory polyneuropathy that was linked to chromosome 3q, we classified this neuropathy as a form of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy II (HMSN II, also known as {open_quotes}CMT2{close_quotes}). Doubts have been raised by Vance et al. as to whether this neuropathy should be classified as hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy I (HSAN I) instead of HMSN II. While it is reasonable to raise such doubts, we believe that the neuropathy is best designated as HMSN II for the reasons described below. The group of disorders described as HSAN are characterized by primary or predominant involvement of sensory and autonomic neurons that fail to develop or that undergo atrophy and degeneration. These disorders were extensively reviewed by Dyck and Ohta, who initially described them as the hereditary sensory neuropathies (HSN). It was Dyck who subsequently suggested that these disorders be designated HSAN rather than HSN, because of the presence of autonomic involvement. 8 refs.

  18. Growth and Stress-induced Transformation of Zinc blende AlN Layers in Al-AlN-TiN Multilayers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Yadav, Satyesh K.; Wang, Jian; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Misra, Amit

    2015-01-01

    AlN nanolayers in sputter deposited {111}Al/AlN/TiN multilayers exhibit the metastable zinc-blende-structure (z-AlN). Based on density function theory calculations, the growth of the z-AlN is ascribed to the kinetically and energetically favored nitridation of the deposited aluminium layer. In situ nanoindentation of the as-deposited {111}Al/AlN/TiN multilayers in a high-resolution transmission electron microscope revealed the z-AlN to wurzite AlN phase transformation through collective glide of Shockley partial dislocations on every two {111} planes of the z-AlN. PMID:26681109

  19. Growth and stress-induced transformation of zinc blende AlN layers in Al-AlN-TiN multilayers

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Nan; Yadav, Satyesh K.; Wang, Jian; ...

    2015-12-18

    We report that AlN nanolayers in sputter deposited {111}Al/AlN/TiN multilayers exhibit the metastable zinc-blende-structure (z-AlN). Based on density function theory calculations, the growth of the z-AlN is ascribed to the kinetically and energetically favored nitridation of the deposited aluminium layer. In situ nanoindentation of the as-deposited {111}Al/AlN/TiN multilayers in a high-resolution transmission electron microscope revealed the z-AlN to wurzite AlN phase transformation through collective glide of Shockley partial dislocations on every two {111} planes of the z-AlN.

  20. INTERACTIONS OF REALM BOUNDARIES AND END-TO-ENG NETWORK APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    M. FISK; W. FENG

    2000-08-01

    One of the design principles of the Internet is that the network is made more flexible, and therefore useful, by placing functionality in end applications rather than in network infrastructure. Network gateways that violate this principle are considered harmful. This paper demonstrates that such upper-level gateways exist because of realm-specific performance, security, and protocol needs of certain portions of the Internet. Placing this functionality in end hosts is, conversely, harmful to the flexibility of using the Internet to link disparate networks. Requirements are developed for a protocol to allow end-hosts and gateways to negotiate the functionality of these gateways in terms of the needs of both end applications and network realms.

  1. Maximizing Empower on a Human-dominated Planet: The Role of Exotic Spartina (Eco Eng.)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emergy signature of the Earth has changed dramatically over the past 250 years as a result of the development of technologies to use fossil fuels for human purposes. This change has resulted in the self-organization of modern industrial societies and their concomitant process...

  2. Orientation relationship of eutectoid FeAl and FeAl2

    PubMed Central

    Scherf, A.; Kauffmann, A.; Kauffmann-Weiss, S.; Scherer, T.; Li, X.; Stein, F.; Heilmaier, M.

    2016-01-01

    Fe–Al alloys in the aluminium range of 55–65 at.% exhibit a lamellar microstructure of B2-ordered FeAl and triclinic FeAl2, which is caused by a eutectoid decomposition of the high-temperature Fe5Al8 phase, the so-called ∊ phase. The orientation relationship of FeAl and FeAl2 has previously been studied by Bastin et al. [J. Cryst. Growth (1978 ▸), 43, 745] and Hirata et al. [Philos. Mag. Lett. (2008 ▸), 88, 491]. Since both results are based on different crystallographic data regarding FeAl2, the data are re-evaluated with respect to a recent re-determination of the FeAl2 phase provided by Chumak et al. [Acta Cryst. (2010 ▸), C66, i87]. It is found that both orientation relationships match subsequent to a rotation operation of 180° about a 〈112〉 crystallographic axis of FeAl or by applying the inversion symmetry of the FeAl2 crystal structure as suggested by the Chumak data set. Experimental evidence for the validity of the previously determined orientation relationships was found in as-cast fully lamellar material (random texture) as well as directionally solidified material (∼〈110〉FeAl || solidification direction) by means of orientation imaging microscopy and global texture measurements. In addition, a preferential interface between FeAl and FeAl2 was identified by means of trace analyses using cross sectioning with a focused ion beam. On the basis of these habit planes the orientation relationship between the two phases can be described by (01)FeAl || (114) and [111]FeAl || [10]. There is no evidence for twinning within FeAl lamellae or alternating orientations of FeAl lamellae. Based on the determined orientation and interface data, an atomistic model of the structure relationship of Fe5Al8, FeAl and FeAl2 in the vicinity of the eutectoid decomposition is derived. This model is analysed with respect to the strain which has to be accommodated at the interface of FeAl and FeAl2. PMID:27047304

  3. Reactivity of aluminum cluster anions with ammonia: selective etching of Al11(-) and Al12(-).

    PubMed

    Grubisic, Andrej; Li, Xiang; Gantefoer, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H; Schnöckel, Hansgeorg; Tenorio, Francisco J; Martinez, Ana

    2009-11-14

    Reactivity of aluminum cluster anions toward ammonia was studied via mass spectrometry. Highly selective etching of Al(11)(-) and Al(12)(-) was observed at low concentrations of ammonia. However, at sufficiently high concentrations of ammonia, all other sizes of aluminum cluster anions, except for Al(13)(-), were also observed to deplete. The disappearance of Al(11)(-) and Al(12)(-) was accompanied by concurrent production of Al(11)NH(3)(-) and Al(12)NH(3)(-) species, respectively. Theoretical simulations of the photoelectron spectrum of Al(11)NH(3)(-) showed conclusively that its ammonia moiety is chemisorbed without dissociation, although in the case of Al(12)NH(3)(-), dissociation of the ammonia moiety could not be excluded. Moreover, since differences in calculated Al(n)(-) + NH(3) (n=9-12) reaction energies were not able to explain the observed selective etching of Al(11)(-) and Al(12)(-), we concluded that thermodynamics plays only a minor role in determining the observed reactivity pattern, and that kinetics is the more influential factor. In particular, the conversion from the physisorbed Al(n)(-)(NH(3)) to chemisorbed Al(n)NH(3)(-) species is proposed as the likely rate-limiting step.

  4. First-principles study of the Al(001)-Al3Nb(001) interfacial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yanhong; Xu, Rui

    2017-03-01

    The adhesion, interfacial energy and bonding on fcc-Al(001)/D022-Al3Nb(001) interface were investigated using density functional calculations. Considering different terminations of Al3Nb(001) (Al+Nb-terminated and Al-terminated) and stacking sites (top-, bridge- and center-sites), six Al(001)/Al3Nb(001) models were calculated. For the models with same stacking site, Al+Nb-terminated model has larger work of adhesion (Wad) than the Al-terminated one. For the models with same termination, the work of adhesion increases, and the interface energy decreases as the order of center-sited, bridge-sited and top-sited. Al+Nb-terminated-center-sited and Al-terminated-center-sited models are more stable among six models. The interfacial bonding was discussed with analysis of valence electron density distribution and partial density of states (PDOS). The bonding is mainly contributed from Al-Nb covalent bonds and Al-Al metallic interactions.

  5. Interfacial Phenomena in Al/Al, Al/Cu, and Cu/Cu Joints Soldered Using an Al-Zn Alloy with Ag or Cu Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pstruś, Janusz; Gancarz, Tomasz

    2014-05-01

    The studies of soldered joints were carried out in systems: Al/solder/Al, Al/solder/Cu, Cu/solder/Cu, where the solder was (Al-Zn)EUT, (Al-Zn)EUT with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at.% of Ag and (Al-Zn)EUT with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at.% of Cu addition. Brazing was performed at 500 °C for 3 min. The EDS analysis indicated that the composition of the layers starting from the Cu pad was CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4, respectively. Wetting tests were performed at 500 °C for 3, 8, 15, and 30 min, respectively. Thickness of the layers and their kinetics of growth were measured based on the SEM micrographs. The formation of interlayers was not observed from the side of Al pads. On the contrary, dissolution of the Al substrate and migration of Al-rich particles into the bulk of the solder were observed.

  6. Genetics of Familial and Sporadic ALS

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-04

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS); Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis With Frontotemporal Dementia; Lou Gehrig's Disease; Motor Neuron Disease; Primary Lateral Sclerosis

  7. Spin-dependent tunneling junctions with AlN and AlON barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manish; Nickel, Janice H.; Anthony, Thomas C.; Wang, Shan X.

    2000-10-01

    We report on ferromagnetic spin-dependent tunneling (SDT) junctions with NiFe/AlN/NiFe and NiFe/AlON/NiFe structures. Good barriers were formed by plasma nitridation and oxy-nitridation of Al films. Tunneling magnetoresistance ratios (TMR) up to 18% were observed at room temperature. The devices exhibit lower resistance-area products than those seen in reference junctions with Al2O3 barriers. The degradation in TMR at higher bias voltages is found to be less than that found in standard alumina junctions. AlN and AlON could thus be alternate materials for the tunnel barrier in SDT junctions.

  8. Processing and Mechanical Properties of Directionally Solidified NiAl/NiAlTa Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    Promising creep strengths were found for a directionally solidified NiAl-NiAlTa alloy when compared to other NiAl based intermetallics. The directionally solidified alloy had an off-eutectic composition that resulted in microstructures consisting of NiAl dendrites surrounded by aligned eutectic regions. The room temperature toughness of the two phase alloy was similar to that of polycrystalline NiAl even with the presence of the brittle Laves phase NiAlTa. Alloying additions that may improve the room temperature toughness by producing multiphase alloys are discussed.

  9. Atomic structure and oxygen deficiency of the ultrathin aluminium oxide barrier in Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Lunjie; Tran, Dung Trung; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Svensson, Gunnar; Olsson, Eva

    2016-07-01

    Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions are the building blocks of a wide range of superconducting quantum devices that are key elements for quantum computers, extremely sensitive magnetometers and radiation detectors. The properties of the junctions and the superconducting quantum devices are determined by the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. The nanoscale dimension and disordered nature of the barrier oxide have been challenges for the direct experimental investigation of the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. Here we show that the miniaturized dimension of the barrier and the interfacial interaction between crystalline Al and amorphous AlOx give rise to oxygen deficiency at the metal/oxide interfaces. In the interior of the barrier, the oxide resembles the atomic structure of bulk aluminium oxide. Atomic defects such as oxygen vacancies at the interfaces can be the origin of the two-level systems and contribute to decoherence and noise in superconducting quantum circuits.

  10. Atomic structure and oxygen deficiency of the ultrathin aluminium oxide barrier in Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lunjie; Tran, Dung Trung; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Svensson, Gunnar; Olsson, Eva

    2016-07-12

    Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions are the building blocks of a wide range of superconducting quantum devices that are key elements for quantum computers, extremely sensitive magnetometers and radiation detectors. The properties of the junctions and the superconducting quantum devices are determined by the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. The nanoscale dimension and disordered nature of the barrier oxide have been challenges for the direct experimental investigation of the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. Here we show that the miniaturized dimension of the barrier and the interfacial interaction between crystalline Al and amorphous AlOx give rise to oxygen deficiency at the metal/oxide interfaces. In the interior of the barrier, the oxide resembles the atomic structure of bulk aluminium oxide. Atomic defects such as oxygen vacancies at the interfaces can be the origin of the two-level systems and contribute to decoherence and noise in superconducting quantum circuits.

  11. Atomic structure and oxygen deficiency of the ultrathin aluminium oxide barrier in Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Lunjie; Tran, Dung Trung; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Svensson, Gunnar; Olsson, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions are the building blocks of a wide range of superconducting quantum devices that are key elements for quantum computers, extremely sensitive magnetometers and radiation detectors. The properties of the junctions and the superconducting quantum devices are determined by the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. The nanoscale dimension and disordered nature of the barrier oxide have been challenges for the direct experimental investigation of the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. Here we show that the miniaturized dimension of the barrier and the interfacial interaction between crystalline Al and amorphous AlOx give rise to oxygen deficiency at the metal/oxide interfaces. In the interior of the barrier, the oxide resembles the atomic structure of bulk aluminium oxide. Atomic defects such as oxygen vacancies at the interfaces can be the origin of the two-level systems and contribute to decoherence and noise in superconducting quantum circuits. PMID:27403611

  12. Strengthening by Substitutional Solutes and the Temperature Dependence of the Flow Stress in Ni3Al

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-26

    At Fig.1.1 i 2 nit ell f N3A1 trucure 1*i At0 Fig.~ ~ig 1.2 The charateriticen of tempercture.nec ffo tesi iA allys.ShmtcatrYo ta( rp3 0 TCftSWMN oils...J.K. Tien, S. Eng, and J.M. Sanchez : High Temperature Ordered Intermetallic Alloys I1, ed. N.S. Stoloff, Pittsburgh, Mat. Res. Soc., 1987, pp. 183-93

  13. Effects of renal impairment on aluminum (Al) kinetics and Al-induced toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Yokel, R.A.; McNamara, P.J.

    1986-03-01

    Al-induced toxicity most commonly occurs in the renally impaired. To study the influence of renal impairment on Al kinetics and toxicity, renally impaired rabbits were prepared by the remnant kidney procedure. Six weeks after partial nephrectomy creatinine clearance was 21% of controls and serum creatinine, BUN, Ca, and PO/sub 4/ were 222, 248, 122, and 50% of presurgery levels respectively. Serum Al kinetics after i.v. Al were: Al clearance 27%, initial and steady state volumes of distribution 50 and 80%, half life 362% and mean residence time 300% of controls (renally intact rabbits). Beginning 9 weeks after partial nephrectomy, rabbits received 145 to 160 ..mu..mole Al/kg s.c. daily, 5 x weekly x 4 weeks. Acquisition of a classically conditioned reflex (nictitating membrane extension) was impaired comparable to that produced by 100-200 ..mu..mole Al in controls but retention and extinction deficits were greater than those seen after 400 ..mu..mole Al in controls. Tissue Al concentrations were less than those seen after 200 ..mu..mole Al in controls. Body weight was comparable to that produced by 400 ..mu..mole Al in controls. These results suggest that renal impairment alters Al serum distribution, impairs its clearance, and increases the Al-induced impairment of memory and body weight gain.

  14. Influence of AlN thickness on AlGaN epilayer grown by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasakthi, M.; Juillaguet, S.; Peyre, H.; Konczewicz, L.; Baskar, K.; Contreras, S.

    2016-10-01

    AlGaN/AlN layers were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on sapphire substrates. The AlN buffer thickness was varied from 400 nm to 800 nm. The AlGaN layer thickness was 1000 nm. The crystalline quality, thickness and composition of AlGaN were determined using high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). The threading dislocation density (TDD) was found to decrease with increase of AlN layer thickness. Reciprocal space mapping (RSM) was used to estimate the strain and relaxation between AlGaN and AlN. The optical properties of AlGaN layers were investigated by temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL). PL intensities of AlGaN layers increases with increasing the AlN thickness. The surface morphology of AlGaN was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Root mean square (RMS) roughness values were found to be decreased while increase of AlN thickness.

  15. Durability Assessment of TiAl Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, Susan L.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2008-01-01

    The durability of TiAl is a prime concern for the implementation of TiAl into aerospace engines. Two durability issues, the effect of high temperature exposure on mechanical properties and impact resistance, have been investigated and the results are summarized in this paper. Exposure to elevated temperatures has been shown to be detrimental to the room temperature ductility of gamma alloys with the most likely mechanisms being the ingress of interstitials from the surface. Fluorine ion implantation has been shown to improve the oxidation resistance of gamma alloys, and ideally it could also improve the environmental embrittlement of high Nb content TiAl alloys. The effect of F ion implantation on the surface oxidation and embrittlement of a third generation, high Nb content TiAl alloy (Ti-45Al-5Nb-B-C) were investigated. Additionally, the ballistic impact resistance of a variety of gamma alloys, including Ti-48Al-2Cr- 2Nb, Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb, ABB-2, ABB-23, NCG359E, 95A and Ti-45Al-5Nb-B-C was accessed. Differences in the ballistic impact properties of the various alloys will be discussed, particularly with respect to their manufacturing process, microstructure, and tensile properties.

  16. Diana Al-Hadid: Identity and Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungerberg, Tom; Smith, Anna; Borsh, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Diana Al-Hadid's sculptures reflect the many locations, cultures, histories, and mythologies that have shaped her as an artist. In large-scale works which have the appearance of architectural ruins, Al-Hadid employs imagery drawn from many diverse interests including science and technology, history, and literature. She also incorporates images and…

  17. Sporadic and hereditary amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

    PubMed

    Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Siddique, Teepu

    2015-04-01

    Genetic discoveries in ALS have a significant impact on deciphering molecular mechanisms of motor neuron degeneration. The identification of SOD1 as the first genetic cause of ALS led to the engineering of the SOD1 mouse, the backbone of ALS research, and set the stage for future genetic breakthroughs. In addition, careful analysis of ALS pathology added valuable pieces to the ALS puzzle. From this joint effort, major pathogenic pathways emerged. Whereas the study of TDP43, FUS and C9ORF72 pointed to the possible involvement of RNA biology in motor neuron survival, recent work on P62 and UBQLN2 refocused research on protein degradation pathways. Despite all these efforts, the etiology of most cases of sporadic ALS remains elusive. Newly acquired genomic tools now allow the identification of genetic and epigenetic factors that can either increase ALS risk or modulate disease phenotype. These developments will certainly allow for better disease modeling to identify novel therapeutic targets for ALS. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuromuscular Diseases: Pathology and Molecular Pathogenesis.

  18. Energetics of Al13 Keggin cluster compounds

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Christopher R.; Casey, William H.; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    The ϵ-Al13 Keggin aluminum hydroxide clusters are essential models in establishing molecular pathways for geochemical reactions. Enthalpies of formation are reported for two salts of aluminum centered ϵ-Keggin clusters, Al13 selenate, (Na(AlO4)Al12(OH)24(SeO4)4•12H2O) and Al13 sulfate, (NaAlO4Al12(OH)24(SO4)4•12H2O). The measured enthalpies of solution, ΔHsol, at 28 °C in 5 N HCl for the ε-Al13 selenate and sulfate are −924.57 (± 3.83) and −944.30 ( ± 5.66) kJ·mol-1, respectively. The enthalpies of formation from the elements, ΔHf,el, for Al13 selenate and sulfate are −19,656.35 ( ± 67.30) kJ·mol-1, and −20,892.39 ( ± 70.01) kJ·mol-1, respectively. In addition, ΔHf,el for sodium selenate decahydrate was calculated using data from high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry measurements: −4,006.39 ( ± 11.91) kJ·mol-1. The formation of both ε-Al13 Keggin cluster compounds is exothermic from oxide-based components but energetically unfavorable with respect to a gibbsite-based assemblage. To understand the relative affinity of the ϵ-Keggin clusters for selenate and sulfate, the enthalpy associated with two S-Se exchange reactions was calculated. In the solid state, selenium is favored in the Al13 compound relative to the binary chalcogenate, while in 5 N HCl, sulfur is energetically favored in the cluster compound compared to the aqueous solution. This contribution represents the first thermodynamic study of ε-Al13 cluster compounds and establishes a method for other such molecules, including the substituted versions that have been created for kinetic studies. Underscoring the importance of ε-Al13 clusters in natural and anthropogenic systems, these data provide conclusive thermodynamic evidence that the Al13 Keggin cluster is a crucial intermediate species in the formation pathway from aqueous aluminum monomers to aluminum hydroxide precipitates. PMID:21852572

  19. Dose-enhancement effects in TaSi/Al- and Al-gate MOS devices

    SciTech Connect

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Beutler, D.E.; Draper, B.L.; Knott, D.; Brown, D.B.; Rosenstock, H.

    1988-01-01

    The response of MOS capacitors with TaSi/Al and Al electrodes to medium- and low-energy x-irradiation is investigated. Experimentally measured dose-enhancement effects are compared with computer simulations for these structures.

  20. Phase stability in binary Ti-Al

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, C. D.; Hofmeister, W. H.; Bayuzick, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    Binary Ti-Al samples containing from 46 to 54 at. pct Al were solidified while undercooled by various amounts using electromagnetic levitation techniques. A detailed thermal history of these samples was obtained with sampling rates as high as 500 KHz during recalescence. This very high sampling rate was essential to resolve the thermal events. Primary alpha solidification was observed in samples containing from 51 to 54 at. pct Al that were undercooled less than about 100 K at solidification. Primary beta solidification was found for all undercoolings tested in samples containing less than 51 at. pct Al and for undercoolings greater than about 100 K in samples containing 51 to 54 at. pct Al.

  1. The neuropathology of FTD associated With ALS.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Ian R A

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of a clinical overlap between frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Recent advances in our understanding of the neuropathologic, biochemical, and genetic basis of these conditions provides evidence for a common underlying pathogenesis. The neuropathology in most cases of FTD with ALS is a subtype of frontotemporal lobar degeneration, characterized by neuronal inclusions that are immunoreactive for ubiquitin but not tau (frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions). These cases show significant pathologic overlap with clinically pure FTD and those with classic ALS. Moreover, the ubiquitinated pathologic protein in all these conditions has recently been identified as TDP-43. A number of families have been reported with autosomal dominant FTD-ALS linked to chromosome 9p and these also have TDP-43-positive frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions pathology. Together, these findings suggest that FTD-ALS is part of a clinicopathologic spectrum of disease, now identified as TDP-43 proteinopathies.

  2. NiAl alloys for structural uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koss, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    Alloys based on the intermetallic compound NiAl are of technological interest as high temperature structural alloys. These alloys possess a relatively low density, high melting temperature, good thermal conductivity, and (usually) good oxidation resistance. However, NiAl and NiAl-base alloys suffer from poor fracture resistance at low temperatures as well as inadequate creep strength at elevated temperatures. This research program explored macroalloying additions to NiAl-base alloys in order to identify possible alloying and processing routes which promote both low temperature fracture toughness and high temperature strength. Initial results from the study examined the additions of Fe, Co, and Hf on the microstructure, deformation, and fracture resistance of NiAl-based alloys. Of significance were the observations that the presence of the gamma-prime phase, based on Ni3Al, could enhance the fracture resistance if the gamma-prime were present as a continuous grain boundary film or 'necklace'; and the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was ductile in ribbon form despite a microstructure consisting solely of the B2 beta phase based on NiAl. The ductility inherent in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy was explored further in subsequent studies. Those results confirm the presence of ductility in the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy after rapid cooling from 750 - 1000 C. However exposure at 550 C caused embrittlement; this was associated with an age-hardening reaction caused by the formation of Fe-rich precipitates. In contrast, to the Ni-35Al-20Fe alloy, exploratory research indicated that compositions in the range of Ni-35Al-12Fe retain the ordered B2 structure of NiAl, are ductile, and do not age-harden or embrittle after thermal exposure. Thus, our recent efforts have focused on the behavior of the Ni-35Al-12Fe alloy. A second parallel effort initiated in this program was to use an alternate processing technique, mechanical alloying, to improve the properties of NiAl-alloys. Mechanical alloying in the

  3. Photoelectrical, photophysical and photocatalytic properties of Al based MOFs: MIL-53(Al) and MIL-53-NH{sub 2}(Al)

    SciTech Connect

    An, Yang; Li, Huiliang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Huang, Baibiao; Sun, Qilong; Dai, Ying; Qin, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaoyang

    2016-01-15

    Two Al based MOFs (MIL-53(Al) and MIL-53-NH{sub 2} (Al)) were synthesized, and their photoelectrical, photophysical and photocatalytic properties towards oxygen evolution from water were investigated. Different from the ligand to metal charge transfer process previously reported, we proposes a new photocatalytic mechanism based on electron tunneling according to the results of theoretical calculation, steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectra. The organic linkers absorb photons, giving rise to electrons and holes. Then, the photogenerated electrons tunnel through the AlO{sub 6}-octahedra, which not only inhibit the recombination of photogenerated charge carriers, but also is a key factor to the photocatalytic activity of Al based MOFs. - Graphical abstract: The photoelectrical, photophysical and photocatalytic properties towards oxygen evolution from water of two Al based MOFs were investigated. A new photocatalytic mechanism was proposed based on electron tunneling according to the results of both theoretical calculation and steady state, time resolved fluorescence spectra. The electron tunneling process not only inhibit the recombination of photogenerated charge carriers, but also is a key factor to the photocatalytic activity of Al based MOFs.

  4. Al/Al2O3 Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) and Macrocomposites for Armor Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    ceramics (high hardness, high stiffness, low thermal expansion). In this study , Al/Al2O3 MMCs with alumina particle contents ranging from 12% to 46% were...expansion). In this study , Al/Al2O3 MMCs with alumina particle contents ranging from 12% to 46% were fabricated by different processing approaches...the different MMCs. The matrix alloy, alumina volume fraction, densities, mechanical properties , and thermal properties are summarized in Table 2

  5. High temperature creep behaviour of Al-rich Ti-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, D.; Heilmaier, M.; Saage, H.; Aguilar, J.; Schmitz, G. J.; Drevermann, A.; Palm, M.; Stein, F.; Engberding, N.; Kelm, K.; Irsen, S.

    2010-07-01

    Compared to Ti-rich γ-TiAl-based alloys Al-rich Ti-Al alloys offer an additional reduction of in density and a better oxidation resistance which are both due to the increased Al content. Polycrystalline material was manufactured by centrifugal casting. Microstructural characterization was carried out employing light-optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and XRD analyses. The high temperature creep of two binary alloys, namely Al60Ti40 and Al62Ti38 was comparatively assessed with compression tests at constant true stress in a temperature range between 1173 and 1323 K in air. The alloys were tested in the cast condition (containing various amounts of the metastable phases Al5Ti3 and h-Al2Ti) and after annealing at 1223 K for 200 h which produced (thermodynamically stable) lamellar γ-TiAl + r-Al2Ti microstructures. In general, already the as-cast alloys exhibit a reasonable creep resistance at 1173 K. Compared with Al60Ti40, both, the as-cast and the annealed Al62Ti38 alloy exhibit better creep resistance up to 1323 K which can be rationalized by the reduced lamella spacing. The assessment of creep tests conducted at identical stress levels and varying temperatures yielded apparent activation energies for creep of Q = 430 kJ/mol for the annealed Al60Ti40 alloy and of Q = 383 kJ/mol for the annealed Al62Ti38 material. The latter coincides well with that of Al diffusion in γ-TiAl, whereas the former can be rationalized by the instability of the microstructure containing metastable phases.

  6. Corrosion Studies of 2195 Al-Li Alloy and 2219 Al Alloy with Differing Surface Treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion studies of 2195 Al-Li and 2219 Al alloys have been conducted using the scanning reference electrode technique (SRET) and the polarization resistance (PR) technique. The SRET was used to study corrosion mechanisms, while corrosion rate measurements were studied with the PR technique. Plates of Al203 blasted, soda blasted and conversion coated 2219 Al were coated with Deft primer and the corrosion rates studied with the EIS technique. Results from all of these studies are presented.

  7. P30 Cancer Center Support Grant Administrative Supplements to support NCI Approved Clinical Trial Proposals from NCI-designated Cancer Centers not affiliated with the NCI Experimental Therapeutics Clinical Trials Network (ETCTN) for Investigator-Initiated Trials Utilizing CTEP IND agents in the ETCTN

    Cancer.gov

    P30 Cancer Center Support Grant Administrative Supplements to support NCI Approved Clinical Trial Proposals from NCI-designated Cancer Centers not affiliated with the NCI Experimental Therapeutics Clinical Trials Network (ETCTN) for Investigator-Initiated Trials Utilizing CTEP IND agents in the ETCTN

  8. Japanese version of the ALS-FTD-Questionnaire (ALS-FTD-Q-J).

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Beeldman, Emma; Raaphorst, Joost; Izumi, Yuishin; Yoshino, Hiide; Masuda, Michihito; Atsuta, Naoki; Ito, Satoru; Adachi, Tadashi; Adachi, Yoshiki; Yokota, Osamu; Oda, Masaya; Hanashima, Ritsuko; Ogino, Mieko; Ichikawa, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Kimura, Hideki; Shimizu, Toshio; Aiba, Ikuko; Yabe, Hayato; Kanba, Makoto; Kusumi, Kimiyoshi; Aoki, Tetsuya; Hiroe, Yu; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Nomoto, Masahiro; Sobue, Gen; Nakashima, Kenji

    2016-08-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) share common clinical, genetic and neuropathological features. Some ALS patients have behavioral/personality changes, which could result in significant obstacles in the care provided by family members and caregivers. An easy screening tool would contribute greatly to the evaluation of these symptoms. We translated the ALS-FTD-Questionnaire, developed in the Netherlands, into Japanese (ALS-FTD-Q-J) and examined the clinimetric properties (internal consistency, construct and clinical validity). Patients with ALS and/or behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) were evaluated alongside healthy controls in this multicenter study. All ALS patients, regardless of bvFTD status, were further evaluated by the frontal behavioral inventory (FBI) and for frontal/executive function, cognition, anxiety/depression, and motor functions. Data from 146 subjects were analyzed: ALS (92), ALS-bvFTD (6), bvFTD (16), and healthy controls (32). The internal consistency of the ALS-FTD-Q-J was good (Cronbach α=0.92). The ALS-FTD-Q-J showed construct validity as it exhibited a high correlation with the FBI (r=0.79). However, correlations were moderate with anxiety/depression and low with cognitive scales, in contrast to the original report, i.e. a moderate correlation with cognition and a low correlation with anxiety/depression. The ALS-FTD-Q-J discriminated ALS patients from (ALS-)bvFTD patients and controls. Thus, the ALS-FTD-Q-J is useful for evaluating Japanese ALS/FTD patients.

  9. Alanes formation on the Al(111) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangan, Sylvie; Veyan, Jean-Francois; Chabal, Yves J.; Chaudhuri, Santanu; Muckerman, James T.

    2008-03-01

    Alane clusters (AlxHy) are believed to be the ubiquitous intermediates in hydrogen storage reactions for a wide variety of alanates (LiAlH4, NaAlH4) currently considered for hydrogen storage. The formation and behavior of alanes at surfaces appear to control and limit the efficiency of hydrogen storage. In particular, hydrogen adsorption on the Al(111) surface leads to the coexistence of several adsorbed species, the concentration of which is affected by the step density, the surface coverage and the temperature. We combine density functional theory (DFT) and surface infra-red (IR) absorption spectroscopy to uncover the mechanisms for alane formation on Al(111) surfaces. At low coverage, DFT predicts a two-fold bridge site adsorption for atomic hydrogen, consistent with previous Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy measurements. At higher coverage, the formation of small chemisorbed AlH3 occurs at the step edges. With increasing coverage AlH3 is extracted from the step edge and becomes highly mobile on the terraces in a weakly bound state. This mobility is the key factor leading to the growth of larger alanes through AlH3 oligomerization. For these large alanes, previous Thermal Programmed Desorption studies are discussed and compared to the thermal stability observed in IR.

  10. Effects of hydrogen absorption in TbNiAl and UNiAl

    SciTech Connect

    Bordallo, H.N.; Nakotte, H.; Schultz, A.; Kolomiets, A.V.; Havela, L.; Andreev, A.V.

    1998-12-31

    Although hydrides of intermetallic compounds are used extensively as hydrogen-storage media, little is known about the exact nature of metal-hydrogen interactions. However, this knowledge is of essential importance for the understanding of thermodynamics and other properties. Hydrides (deuterides) of TbNiAl and UNiAl have been widely studied because of drastic increase of magnetic ordering temperature under hydrogenation. Here the authors report neutron-diffraction results of the three deuterides, TbNiAlD{sub 1.28}, TbNiAlD{sub 0.8}a nd UNiAlD{sub 2.23}.

  11. Phase diagrams of Al-Si and Al-Ge systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagaya, Hiroko-Matsuo; Imazawa, Kazumoto; Sato, Mayumi; Soma, Toshinobu

    1998-03-01

    Considering the contributions from the band and local mode frequencies, the temperature- and pressure-dependent mean-square displacement for Al-Si and Al-Ge solid solutions is quantitatively calculated to be similar to that for matrix Al. Then, the concentration-dependence of the Debye temperature at higher and lower temperatures is estimated, the pressure effect on the solidus curve is presented by applying Lindeman's melting law to the Al-Si and Al-Ge alloy systems. The solidus curve obtained increases as a function of the pressure, and is in good agreement with the observed tendency for these solid solutions.

  12. A new discontinuously reinforced aluminum MMC: Al+AlB{sub 2} flakes

    SciTech Connect

    HALL,AARON C.; ECONOMY,J.

    2000-06-08

    Development of a novel metal matrix composite based on the Al-B alloy system has been undertaken. Preparation of this discontinuously reinforced material is based on the precipitation of high aspect ratio AlB{sub 2} from an Al-B alloy. This paper describes a number of efforts forced on preparing high volume fractions (> 30 v%) of AlB{sub 2} in aluminum. New insights into the behavior of the Al-B alloys system allowed this effort to be successful.

  13. Atomistic Modeling of RuAl and (RuNi) Al Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gargano, Pablo; Mosca, Hugo; Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Atomistic modeling of RuAl and RuAlNi alloys, using the BFS (Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith) method for alloys is performed. The lattice parameter and energy of formation of B2 RuAl as a function of stoichiometry and the lattice parameter of (Ru(sub 50-x)Ni(sub x)Al(sub 50)) alloys as a function of Ni concentration are computed. BFS based Monte Carlo simulations indicate that compositions close to Ru25Ni25Al50 are single phase with no obvious evidence of a miscibility gap and separation of the individual B2 phases.

  14. Decoding ALS: from genes to mechanism.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J Paul; Brown, Robert H; Cleveland, Don W

    2016-11-10

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and uniformly fatal neurodegenerative disease. A plethora of genetic factors have been identified that drive the degeneration of motor neurons in ALS, increase susceptibility to the disease or influence the rate of its progression. Emerging themes include dysfunction in RNA metabolism and protein homeostasis, with specific defects in nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, the induction of stress at the endoplasmic reticulum and impaired dynamics of ribonucleoprotein bodies such as RNA granules that assemble through liquid-liquid phase separation. Extraordinary progress in understanding the biology of ALS provides new reasons for optimism that meaningful therapies will be identified.

  15. Ni{sub 3}Al aluminide alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.

    1993-10-01

    This paper provides a brief review of the recent progress in research and development of Ni{sub 3}Al and its alloys. Emphasis has been placed on understanding low ductility and brittle fracture of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys at ambient and elevated temperatures. Recent studies have resulted in identifying both intrinsic and extrinsic factors governing the fracture behavior of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys. Parallel efforts on alloy design using physical metallurgy principles have led to properties for structural use. Industrial interest in these alloys is high, and examples of industrial involvement in processing and utilization of these alloys are briefly mentioned.

  16. Arsenate uptake by Al nanoclusters and other Al-based sorbents during water treatment.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Jasmin; Rose, Jérôme; Wehrli, Bernhard; Furrer, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    In many parts of the world, arsenic from geogenic and anthropogenic sources deteriorates the quality of drinking water resources. Effective methods of arsenic removal include adsorption and coagulation with iron- and aluminum-based materials, of which polyaluminum chloride is widely employed as coagulant in water treatment due to its low cost and high efficiency. We compared the arsenic uptake capacity and the arsenic bonding sites of different Al-based sorbents, including Al nanoclusters, polyaluminum chloride, polyaluminum granulate, and gibbsite. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy revealed that As(V) forms bidentate-binuclear complexes in interaction with all Al-based removal agents. The octahedral configuration of nanoclusters and the distribution of sorption sites remain the same in all types of removal agents consisting of nano-scale Al oxyhydroxide particles. The obtained distances for As(V)-O and As(V)-Al agreed with previously published data and were found to be 1.69 ± 0.02 Å and 3.17-3.21 Å, respectively. Our study suggests that As(V) binds to Al nanoclusters as strongly as to Al oxide surfaces. The As sorption capacity of Al nanoclusters was found to be very similar to that of Al clusters in a polyaluminum chloride. The most efficient Al-based sorbents for arsenic removal were Al nanoclusters, followed by polyaluminum granulate.

  17. InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructures for high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, S. O.; Sakharov, A. V.; Tsatsulnikov, A. F.; Lundin, V. W.; Zavarin, E. E.; Nikolaev, A. E.; Yagovkina, M. A.; Zemlyakov, V. E.; Egorkin, V. I.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2016-08-01

    The results of development of InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructures, grown on sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition, and high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on them are presented. The dependencies of the InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructure properties on epitaxial growth conditions were investigated. The optimal indium content and InAlN barrier layer thicknesses of the heterostructures for HEMT s were determined. The possibility to improve the characteristics of HEMTs by in-situ passivation by Si3N4 thin protective layer deposited in the same epitaxial process was demonstrated. The InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructure grown on sapphire substrate with diameter of 100 mm were obtained with sufficiently uniform distribution of sheet resistance. The HEMTs with saturation current of 1600 mA/mm and transconductance of 230 mS/mm are demonstrated.

  18. Oxidation of Al2O3 continuous fiber-reinforced/NiAl composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, J.; Nesbitt, J. A.; Noebe, R. D.; Bowman, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    The 1200 C and 1300 C isothermal and cyclic oxidation behavior of Al2O3 continuous fiber-reinforced/NiAl composites were studied. Oxidation resulted in formation of Al2O3 external scales in a similar manner as scales formed on monolithic NiAl. The isothermal oxidation of an Al2O3/NiAl composite resulted in oxidation of the matrix along the fiber/matrix interface near the fiber ends. This oxide acted as a wedge between the fiber and the matrix, and, under cyclic oxidation conditions, led to further oxidation along the fiber lengths and eventual cracking of the composite. The oxidation behavior of composites in which the Al2O3 fibers were sputter coated with nickel prior to processing was much more severe. This was attributed to open channels around the fibers which formed during processing, most likely as a result of the diffusion of the nickel coating into the matrix.

  19. Elimination of AlGaN epilayer cracking by spatially patterned AlN mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarzyński, Marcin; Kryśko, Marcin; Targowski, Grzegorz; Czernecki, Robert; Sarzyńska, Agnieszka; Libura, Adam; Krupczyński, Wiktor; Perlin, Piotr; Leszczyński, Michał

    2006-03-01

    The inherent problem in III-nitride technology is the cracking of AlGaN layers that results from lattice mismatch between AlGaN and GaN. In case of thin substrates (30-90μm), such as, bulk GaN grown by the high-pressure/high-temperature method, the bowing of AlGaN /GaN strained structures becomes an additional problem. To eliminate cracking and bowing, AlGaN layers were grown on GaN substrates with an AlN mask patterned to form 3-15μm wide windows. In the 3μm window, the AlGaN layer was not cracked, although its thickness and Al composition exceeded critical values for growth on nonpatterned substrates. Dislocation density in the windows was of 5×106/cm2.

  20. Diffusion at the Al/Al oxide interface during electromigration in wide lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augur, R. A.; Wolters, R. A. M.; Schmidt, W.; Dirks, A. G.; Kordić, S.

    1996-03-01

    Significant large-scale modification of the surface of Al-Si conductors was observed, due to electromigration in wide lines and under low stress conditions. After electromigration stressing the Al layers showed local thickness variations, i.e., damage by thinning. The mechanism underlying this damage causes substantial metal transport. Nevertheless, damage by thinning has received little attention in the past. Thinning was observed: (1) in a number of different alloys (Al-Si, Al-Cu, Al-Si-V, and Al-Si-V-Pd), (2) with a number of different underlayers [SiO2, W-Ti (no vacuum break after Al deposition) and W-Ti (oxidized surface before Al deposition)], (3) over an extended temperature range, (4) over a range of current density, and (5) in structures with and without passivation. The results show that thinning is a general phenomenon. An activation energy of approximately 0.5 eV was determined for the temperature dependence of a combined mechanism of concurrent thinning plus voiding in Al99Si1. Several alternatives are examined to explain the observations, namely mass movement along dislocations, Al bulk diffusion, and diffusion at the interface between the Al and its oxide. It is shown that diffusion at the Al/Al oxide interface most probably plays an important role in the damage mechanism, even under stress conditions where grain boundary diffusion is traditionally thought to dominate. Results also showed that alloying of Al with Pd can reduce the effects of damage by thinning.

  1. Interdiffusion in Diffusion Couples: U-Mo v. Al and Al-Si

    SciTech Connect

    D. D. Keiser, Jr.; E. Perez; B. Yao; Y. H. Sohn

    2009-11-01

    Interdiffusion and microstructural development in the U-Mo-Al system was examined using solid-tosolid diffusion couples consisting of U-7wt.%Mo, U-10wt.%Mo and U-12wt.%Mo vs. pure Al, annealed at 600°C for 24 hours. The influence of Si alloying addition (up to 5 wt.%) in Al on the interdiffusion microstructural development was also examined using solid-to-solid diffusion couples consisting of U-7wt.%Mo, U-10wt.%Mo and U-12wt.%Mo vs. pure Al, Al-2wt.%Si, and Al-5wt.%Si annealed at 550°C up to 20 hours. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) were employed to examine the development of a very fine multiphase intermetallic layer. In ternary U-Mo-Al diffusion couples annealed at 600°C for 24 hours, interdiffusion microstructure varied of finely dispersed UAl3, UAl4, U6Mo4Al43, and UMo2Al20 phases while the average composition throughout the interdiffusion zone remained constant at approximately 80 at.% Al. Interdiffusion microstructure observed by SEM/TEM analyses and diffusion paths drawn from concentration profiles determined by EPMA appear to deviate from the assumption of “local thermodynamic equilibrium,” and suggest that interdiffusion occurs via supersaturated UAl4 followed by equilibrium transformation into UAl3, U6Mo4Al43, UAl4 and UMo2Al20 phases. Similar observation was made for U-Mo vs. Al diffusion couples annealed at 550°C. The addition of Si (up to 5 wt.%) in Al significantly reduced the thickness of the intermetallic layer by changing the constituent phases of the interdiffusion zone developed in U-Mo vs. Al-Si diffusion couples. Specifically, the formation of (U,Mo)(Al,Si)3 with relatively large solubility for Mo and Si, along with UMo2Al20 phases was observed along with disappearance of U6Mo4Al43 and UAl4 phases. Simplified understanding based on U-Al, U-Si, and Mo-Si binary phase diagrams is discussed in the light of the beneficial effect of Si alloying addition.

  2. On Dobbert et al, 'Cultural Transmission...'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearing, Frederick

    1984-01-01

    Criticizes Dobbert et al's model of cultural transmission (presented in earlier article) as being a species of social physics. Suggests improvements to the model, notably that observation and analysis at the emic level be taken into account. (RDN)

  3. Pike International, LLC et al. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pike International LLC, et al. (the Company) is located in New Haven, Connecticut. The Complaint involves the lease of, and renovation activities conducted at, property constructed prior to 1978, located in New Haven, Connecticut.

  4. ALS and Oxidative Stress: The Neurovascular Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Keshav; Gupta, Pawan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress and angiogenic factors have been placed as the prime focus of scientific investigations after an establishment of link between vascular endothelial growth factor promoter (VEGF), hypoxia, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis. Deletion of the hypoxia-response element in the vascular endothelial growth factor promoter and mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) which are characterised by atrophy and muscle weakness resulted in phenotype resembling human ALS in mice. This results in lower motor neurodegeneration thus establishing an important link between motor neuron degeneration, vasculature, and angiogenic molecules. In this review, we have presented human, animal, and in vitro studies which suggest that molecules like VEGF have a therapeutic, diagnostic, and prognostic potential in ALS. Involvement of vascular growth factors and hypoxia response elements also highlights the converging role of oxidative stress and neurovascular network for understanding and treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders like ALS. PMID:24367722

  5. 12th Annual ALS Users' Association Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    1999-12-17

    Science took the front seat as 219 Advanced Light Source (ALS) users and staff gathered on Monday and Tuesday, October 18 and 19 for the twelfth annual users' meeting. The bulk of the meeting was dedicated to reports on science at the ALS. Packed into two busy days were 31 invited oral presentations and 80 submitted poster presentations, as well as time to visit 24 vendor booths. The oral sessions were dedicated to environmental science, chemical dynamics, biosciences, magnetic materials, and atomic and molecular science. In addition, there was an ALS highlights session that emphasized new results and a session comprising highlights from the young scientists who will carry the ALS into the future.

  6. Half life of /sup 26/Al

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, T.L.; Gancarz, A.J.; Rokop, D.J.; Thomas, K.W.

    1983-01-01

    The half-life of /sup 26/Al has been redetermined because of suggestions of an error in the accepted value based on its use in calculating /sup 21/Ne production rates from cosmic rays in meteorites. Two solutions of /sup 26/Al were analyzed for the specific radioactivity and mass spectrometric determination of the /sup 26/Al concentration. The half-life obtained for /sup 26/Al was 7.05 x 10/sup 5/ years +- 3.7% at the two sigma level. This is identical to the accepted value of 7.16 x 10/sup 5/ years and indicates that problems with the /sup 21/Ne production rate is not due to an erroneous half-life.

  7. Al Qaeda: A Modern Day Lernaean Hydra

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    insurgency. Still others have referred to it as a netwar organization waging conflict primarily through the use of networks. A few authors have...organization waging conflict primarily through the use of networks. A few authors have characterized it as a religious movement. Like the Hydra, Al...Al Qaeda as an insurgency. Still others have referred to it as a Netwar organization waging conflict primarily through the use of networks.1 A

  8. Patterns of inheritance in familial ALS.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Marcus; Bradley, Lloyd; de Belleroche, Jackie; Orrell, Richard W

    2005-05-10

    We investigated 185 families with ALS for evidence of anticipation and mitochondrial inheritance. Although initial analysis demonstrated significant anticipation of age at death between generations in patients with familial ALS, further analysis demonstrated features of regression to the mean, suggesting that the perceived differences are the result of bias. In addition, there was no evidence of an effect of preferential maternal inheritance, which would have supported transmission of mitochondrial DNA mutations.

  9. 17th Annual ALS Users' Association Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Art; Tamura, Lori

    2004-11-29

    It's not exactly Russian roulette, but scheduling October events outdoors is not risk-free, even in usually sunny California. An overflow crowd of more than 400 registered users, ALS staff, and vendors enjoyed a full indoor program featuring science highlights and workshops spread over two and a half days from October 18 to October 20. However, a major storm, heralding the onset of the San Francisco Bay Area rainy season, posed a few weather challenges for the events on the ALS patio.

  10. Modeling of precipitation in Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Asta, M.; Foiles, S.M.; Wolfer, W.G.

    1996-10-01

    Objective was the development of a computational model of precipitation from a supersaturated alloy solid solution. The model is based on the formalism of chemical-reaction-rate theory combined with classical descriptions of precipitate thermodynamic properties and a mean-field treatment of diffusion-limited growht and coarsening. For the case of precipitation of Al{sub 3}Sc in supersaturated Al-Sc alloys, it is demonstrated how the model can be used to calculate number densities and size distributions of precipitates as a function of aging time and temperature, including effects of continuous cooling and thermally generated point defects. Application of the model to a specific alloy system requires knowledge of diffusion data, point defect energetics, and thermodynamic properties for bulk phases and interphase interfaces. For interfaces and point defects, thermodynamic data can be difficult to measure and reliable values of defect free energies are often unavailable. For this reason, part of the efforts were devoted to applying semiempirical and first-principles atomistic techniques to the calculation of interfacial and point-defect thermodynamic properties. This report discusses applications for interphase interfaces in the Al-Ag, Al-Sc, and Al-Li alloy systems. We also describe atomistic work aimed at understanding the energetics of vacancy clusters in Al. These clusters serve as sinks for isolated vacancies during aging and their growth can lead to more complex defects, such as dislocation loops, that act as heterogeneous nucleation sites.

  11. Theoretics-directed effect of copper or aluminum content on the ductility characteristics of Al-based (Al3Ti, AlTi, AlCu, AlTiCu2) intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Ma, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Qi-Jun; Kong, Ge-Xing; Ma, Hai-Xia; Wang, Wen-Peng; Wang, Yi-Gao; Jiao, Zhen; Liu, Fu-Sheng; Liu, Zheng-Tang

    2016-11-01

    First-principle simulations have been applied to investigate the effect of copper (Cu) or aluminum (Al) content on the ductility of Al3Ti, AlTi, AlCu, and AlTiCu2 alloys. The mechanical stable and elastic properties of Al-based intermetallic compounds are researched by density functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation (DFT-GGA). The calculated lattice constants are in conformity with the previous experimental and theoretical data. The deduced elastic constants show that the investigated Al3Ti, AlTi, AlCu, and AlTiCu2 structures are mechanically stable. Shear modulus, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and the ratio B/G have also been figured out by using reckoned elastic constants. A further analysis of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio reveals that the third added element copper content has significant effects on the Al-Ti-based ICs ductile character. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41674088, 11574254, 11272296, and 11547311), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB808201), the Fundamental Research Fund for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 2682014ZT30 and 2682014ZT31), and the Fund of the State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing in Northwestern Polytechnical University, China (Grant No. SKLSP201511).

  12. Metastability in the MgAl2O4-Al2O3 System

    DOE PAGES

    Wilkerson, Kelley R.; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Hemrick, James G.

    2014-07-22

    Aluminum oxide must take a spinel form ( γ-Al2O3) at elevated temperatures in order for extensive solid solution to form between MgAl2O4 and α-Al2O3. The solvus line between MgAl2O4 and Al2O3 has been defined at 79.6 wt% Al2O3 at 1500°C, 83.0 wt% Al2O3 at 1600°C, and 86.5 wt% Al2O3 at 1700°C. A metastable region has been defined at temperatures up to 1700°C which could have significant implications for material processing and properties. Additionally, initial processing could have major implications on final chemistry. The spinel solid solution region has been extended to form an infinite solid solution with Al2O3 at elevatedmore » temperatures. A minimum in melting at 1975°C and a chemistry of 96 wt% Al2O3 rather than a eutectic is present, resulting in no eutectic crystal formation during solidification.« less

  13. Temperature dependence of the dielectric response of anodized Al-Al2O3-metal capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickmott, T. W.

    2003-03-01

    The temperature dependence of capacitance, CM, and conductance, GM, of Al-Al2O3-metal capacitors with Cu, Ag, and Au electrodes has been measured between 100 and 340 K at seven frequencies between 10 kHz and 1 MHz. Al2O3 films between 15 and 64 nm thick were formed by anodizing evaporated Al films in borate-glycol or borate-H2O electrolyte. The interface capacitance at the Al2O3-metal interface, CI, which is in series with the capacitance CD due to the Al2O3 dielectric, is determined from plots of 1/CM versus insulator thickness. CI is not fixed for a given metal-insulator interface but depends on the vacuum system used to deposit the metal electrode. CI is nearly temperature independent. When CI is taken into account the dielectric constant of Al2O3 determined from capacitance measurements is ˜8.3 at 295 K. The dielectric constant does not depend on anodizing electrolyte, insulator thickness, metal electrode, deposition conditions for the metal electrode or measurement frequency. By contrast, GM of Al-Al2O3-metal capacitors depends on both the deposition conditions of the metal and on the metal. For Al-Al2O3-Cu capacitors, GM is larger for capacitors with large values of 1/CI that result when Cu is evaporated in an oil-pumped vacuum system. For Al-Al2O3-Ag capacitors, GM does not depend on the Ag deposition conditions.

  14. Effects of Al(III) and nano-Al13 species on malate dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaodi; Cai, Ling; Peng, Yu; Li, Huihui; Chen, Rong Fu; Shen, Ren Fang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) modified glass carbon electrode (GCE). The results showed that Al(III) and Al(13) can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III) and Al(13) concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III) and Al(13) on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules.

  15. Microscopic Properties of Long-Period Ordering in Al-Rich TiAl Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, S.; Nakano, T.; Kuwano, N.; Itakura, M.; Matsumura, S.; Umakoshi, Y.

    2008-07-01

    The ordering mechanism of long-period superstructures (LPSs) in Al-rich TiAl alloys has been investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The LPSs are classified in terms of arrangements of base clusters with different shapes and compositions formed in Ti-rich (002) layers of L10-TiAl matrix: square Ti4Al, fat rhombus Ti3Al, and lean rhombus Ti2Al type clusters. The HRTEM observations revealed that antiphase boundaries of long-range-ordered LPS domains and short-range-ordered microdomains are constructed by various space-filling arrangements of the base clusters. Such a microscopic property characterized by the base clusters and their arrangements is markedly analogous to that of the {left< {{text{1,1/2,0}}} rightrangle } * special-point ordering alloys such as Ni-Mo.

  16. Effects of Al(III) and Nano-Al13 Species on Malate Dehydrogenase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaodi; Cai, Ling; Peng, Yu; Li, Huihui; Chen, Rong Fu; Shen, Ren Fang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) modified glass carbon electrode (GCE). The results showed that Al(III) and Al13 can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III) and Al13 concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III) and Al13 on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules. PMID:22163924

  17. Protective Al2O3 scale formation on NbAl3-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, J.; Hebsur, M. G.

    1991-01-01

    The oxidation of NbAl3 with additions of Cr and Y was studied to determine the mechanisms of the beneficial effects of these elements upon oxidation. Cr additions to the binary NbAl3 alloy of up to 6.8 at. percent reduced the scale growth rates and promoted alpha-Al2O3 formation over much longer times relative to binary NbAl3. A major effect of Cr is to form a layer of AlNbCr at the metal/scale interface, which is inherently more oxidation-resistant than the matrix alloy in the long term. Yttrium additions to a Cr-containing alloy improved the scale growth rate and adherence and changed the scale microstructure to mimic that of a typical protective Al2O3 scale.

  18. Magnetic behavior of CoPt-AlN granular structure laminated with AlN layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Youxing; Shi, Ji; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2011-04-01

    The magnetic behavior of CoPt-AlN granular structure laminated with AlN layers has been studied. Ultrathin multilayer structure, [CoPt0.5 nm/AlN0.5nm]4, is used as the precursor of the magnetic layers, which are separated by 5-nm-thick AlN layers. Upon thermal annealing, the ultrathin multilayer transforms into CoPt-AlN granular structure, and the thick AlN layers remain to be spacers. When the film was annealed at 400 °C, the out-of-plane direction becomes the easy axis of magnetization, although the coercivity remains small. TEM observation has proved that CoPt shows disklike shape at such an annealing temperature. When increasing the annealing temperature to 600 °C and above, the films show "isotropic" magnetic behavior due to the formation of equiaxial CoPt particles in the magnetic layers.

  19. Potential skin involvement in ALS: revisiting Charcot's observation - a review of skin abnormalities in ALS.

    PubMed

    Paré, Bastien; Gros-Louis, François

    2017-03-25

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons of the brain and spinal cord, leading to progressive paralysis and death. Interestingly, many skin changes have been reported in ALS patients, but never as yet fully explained. These observations could be due to the common embryonic origin of the skin and neural tissue known as the ectodermal germ layer. Following the first observation in ALS patients' skin by Dr Charcot in the 19th century, in the absence of bedsores unlike other bedridden patients, other morphological and molecular changes have been observed. Thus, the skin could be of interest in the study of ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases. This review summarizes skin changes reported in the literature over the years and discusses about a novel in vitro ALS tissue-engineered skin model, derived from patients, for the study of ALS.

  20. Process Capability Analysis of Vacuum Moulding for Development of Al-Al2O3 MMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate process capability of vacuum moulding (VM) for development of Al-Al2O3 metal matrix composite (MMC). Starting from the identification of component, prototypes were prepared (with three different input parameters namely: vacuum pressure; component volume and sand grit size to give output in form of dimensional accuracy). Measurements on the coordinate measuring machine helped in calculating the dimensional tolerances of the Al-Al2O3 MMC prepared. Some important mechanical properties were also compared to verify the suitability of the components. Final components produced are acceptable as per ISO standard UNI EN 20286-I (1995). The results of study suggest that VM process lies in ±4.5 sigma (σ) limit as regard to dimensional accuracy of Al-Al2O3 MMC is concerned. This process ensures rapid production of pre-series technological prototypes and proof of concept at less production cost and time.

  1. Relative importance of hydrolyzed Al(III) species (Al(a), Al(b), and Al(c)) during coagulation with polyaluminum chloride: a case study with the typical micro-polluted source waters.

    PubMed

    Yan, Mingquan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qu, Jiuhui; He, Wenjie; Chow, Christopher W K

    2007-12-15

    The relative importance of three different Al species, Al(a) (monomeric species, instantaneous reacted species), Al(b) (medium polymer species, reacted less than 120 min), and Al(c) (colloidal or solid species, no reaction), defined by timed complexation reaction rate measured by using ferron reagent in polyaluminum chloride (PACl) was investigated in terms of DOC (dissolved organic carbon), UV(254), and turbidity removal efficiencies. Micro-polluted, typical North China, source waters were used to conduct the experiments. The results show that DOC removal is correlated well to the content of Al(b). Removal of UV(254) is determined by the content of Al(b) and Al(c), particularly Al(c). Turbidity removal is primarily related to the content of Al(c); however, Al(b) could destabilize particles efficiently, and the flocs formed by Al(b) are not as large as those formed by Al(c), which affected the settling efficiency. Unlike the preformed Al(b), the in situ formed Al(b) could remove turbidity more efficiently since Al(c) is the dominant final species formed during coagulation. Al(a) shows a strong ability to react with some unsatisfied coordinate bonds of organic matter to facilitate particle and DOC removal. The distinct coagulation feature of Al(a), Al(b), and Al(c) can be applied to develop tailor-made PACl (with the correct distribution of Al species) to match the characteristics of raw water for optimized coagulation.

  2. The lowest ionization potentials of Al2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Barnes, Leslie A.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1988-01-01

    Potential curves for the lowest two electronic states (X 2 sigma g + and A 2 pi u) of Al2(+) were computed using complete active space SCF/multireference CI wave functions and large Gaussian basis sets. The lowest observable vertical ionization potential (to Al2(+) X 2 sigma g +) of the Al2 X 3 pi u ground state is calculated to occur around 6.1 eV, in excellent agreement with the experimental range of 6.0 to 6.42 eV obtained in recent cluster ionization studies by Cox and co-workers. The second vertical ionization potential (to Al2(+) A 2 pi u) occurs near 6.4 eV, also within the experimental range. The adiabatic IP of 5.90 eV is in good agreement with the value of 5.8 to 6.1 eV deduced by Hanley and co-workers from the difference in thresholds between collision induced dissociation processes of Al3(+). The computed IP values are somewhat larger than those deduced from branching ratios in cluster fragmentation experiments by Jarrold and co-workers. The observation of an ionization threshold below 6.42 eV is shown to be incompatible with an Al2 ground electronic state assignment of 3 sigma g -, but the separation between the two lowest states of Al2 is so small that it is likely that both are populated in the experiments, so that this does not provide unambiguous support for the recent theoretical assignment of the ground state as 3 pi u.

  3. Influence of RCS on Al-3Mg and Al-3Mg-0.25Sc alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhovi, Prabhakar M.; Venkateswarlu, K.

    2016-02-01

    An influence of repetitive corrugation and straightening (RCS) was studied on Al-3Mg and Al-3Mg-0.25Sc alloys up to eight passes. Each pass consist of a corrugation and followed by straightening. This has resulted in introducing large plastic strain in sample, and thus led to formation of sub-micron grain sizes with high angle grain boundaries. These sub grain formation was eventually resulted in improved mechanical properties. The average grain size of Al-3Mg-0.25Sc alloy after 8 passes yielded to ∼0.6pm. Microhardness, strength properties were evaluated and it suggests that RCS was responsible for high hardness values as compared to the as cast samples. The microhardness values after RCS were 105 HV and 130 HV for Al-3Mg and Al-3Mg-0.25Sc alloys, respectively. Similarly, ∼ 40% improvement in tensile strength from 240 MPa to 370 MPa was observed for Al- 3Mg-0.25Sc alloy after RCS process.Al-3Mg and Al-3Mg-0.25Scalloys exhibited maximum strength of 220 MPa and 370 MPa, respectively. It is concluded that RCS process has a strong influence on Al- 3Mg and Al-3Mg-0.25Sc alloys for obtaining improved mechanical properties and grain refinement. In addition to RCS process and presence of AESc precipitates in Al-3Mg-0.25Sc alloy had a significant role in grain refinement and improved mechanical properties as compared to Al-3Mg alloy.

  4. Stabilization of itinerant (band) magnetism in FeAl by Ga substitution for Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaconstantopoulos, D. A.; Mazin, I. I.; Hathaway, K. B.

    2001-06-01

    Band structure calculations of FeGa1-xAlx have been performed, to further investigate the stability of ferromagnetism in FeAl. The Stoner parameter increases by about 20% at the FeGa end. This is also confirmed by our spin-polarized calculations. We conclude that Ga substitution for Al is likely to stabilize the elusive (or illusive) ferromagnetic state in FeAl.

  5. Another Security Improvement over the Lin et al.'s E-voting Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaar, Maryam Rajabzadeh; Mohajeri, Javad; Salmasizadeh, Mahmoud

    In 2003, Lin et al. have proposed an electronic voting scheme which can be utilized in large-scale elections, and claimed it detects double voting. But in this paper, by presenting an attack, we show that voters can successfully vote more than once without being detected. Hence, we propose a new modified scheme based on the Lin et al.'s scheme with the same efficiency to solve this weakness and analyze its security.

  6. Two-Phase (TiAl+TiCrAl) Coating Alloys for Titanium Aluminides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Michael P. (Inventor); Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Brindley, William J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A coating for protecting titanium aluminide alloys, including the TiAl gamma + Ti3Al (alpha(sub 2)) class, from oxidative attack and interstitial embrittlement at temperatures up to at least 1000 C. is disclosed. This protective coating consists essentially of titanium, aluminum. and chromium in the following approximate atomic ratio: Ti(41.5-34.5)Al(49-53)Cr(9.5-12.5)

  7. Small Al clusters. II - Structure and binding in Al(n) (n = 2-6, 13)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettersson, Lars G. M.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Halicioglu, Timur

    1987-01-01

    The structure and stability of aluminum clusters containing up to six atoms have been studied using correlated wave functions and extended basis sets. The lowest energy structure is planar for Al4 and Al5, but three dimensional for Al6. The icosahedral, hcp, fcc, and two planar structures of Al13 were considered at the SCF level. The lowest energy structure is the icosahedron, but the planar structures are fairly low lying even in this case. A simplified description using two- and three-body interaction potentials is found to agree well with the ab initio structures and binding energies.

  8. The Dissociation Energies of AlH2 and AlAr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Visscher, Luuk; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The D(sub 0) values for AlH2 and AlAr are computed using the coupled cluster approach in conjunction with large basis sets. Basis set superposition and spin-orbit effects are accounted for as they are sizeable due to the small binding energy. The computed dissociation energy for AlAr is 101 /cm , which is 83% of the experimental value (122.4/ cm). Our best estimate for the H2 binding energy in AlH2 is 40 +/- 28 /cm.

  9. Synthesis of core-shell AlOOH hollow nanospheres by reacting Al nanoparticles with water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozhkomoev, A. S.; Glazkova, E. A.; Bakina, O. V.; Lerner, M. I.; Gotman, I.; Gutmanas, E. Y.; Kazantsev, S. O.; Psakhie, S. G.

    2016-05-01

    A novel route for the synthesis of boehmite nanospheres with a hollow core and the shell composed of highly crumpled AlOOH nanosheets by oxidizing Al nanopowder in pure water under mild processing conditions is described. The stepwise events of Al transformation into boehmite are followed by monitoring the pH in the reaction medium. A mechanism of formation of hollow AlOOH nanospheres with a well-defined shape and crystallinity is proposed which includes the hydration of the Al oxide passivation layer, local corrosion of metallic Al accompanied by hydrogen evolution, the rupture of the protective layer, the dissolution of Al from the particle interior and the deposition of AlOOH nanosheets on the outer surface. In contrast to previously reported methods of boehmite nanoparticle synthesis, the proposed method is simple, and environmentally friendly and allows the generation of hydrogen gas as a by-product. Due to their high surface area and high, slit-shaped nanoporosity, the synthesized AlOOH nanostructures hold promise for the development of more effective catalysts, adsorbents, vaccines and drug carriers.

  10. Possible Involvement of Al-Induced Electrical Signals in Al Tolerance in Wheat.

    PubMed Central

    Papernik, L. A.; Kochian, L. V.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between Al-induced depolarization of root-cell transmembrane electrical potentials (Em) and Al tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was investigated. Al exposure induced depolarizations of Em in the Al-tolerant wheat cultivars Atlas and ET3, but not in the Al-sensitive wheat cultivars Scout and ES3. The depolarizations of Em occured in root cap cells and as far back as 10 mm from the root tip. The depolarization was specific to Al3+; no depolarization was observed when roots were exposed to the rhizotoxic trivalent cation La3+. The Al-induced depolarization occurred in the presence of anion-channel antagonists that blocked the release of malate, indicating that the depolarization is not due to the electrogenic efflux of malate2-. K+-induced depolarizations in the root cap were of the same magnitude as Al-induced depolarizations, but did not trigger malate release, indicating that Al-induced depolarization of root cap cell membrane potentials is probably linked to, but is not sufficient to trigger, malate release. PMID:12223834

  11. High temperature deformation of NiAl and CoAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nix, W. D.

    1982-01-01

    The high temperature mechanical properties of the aluminides are reviewed with respect to their potential as high temperature structural materials. It is shown that NiAl and CoAl are substantially stronger than the pure metals Ni and Co at high temperatures and approach the strength of some superalloys, particularly when those superalloys are tested in "weak" directions. The factors that limit and control the high temperature strengths of NiAl and CoAl are examined to provide a basis for the development of intermetallic alloys of this type.

  12. Survey and alignment at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, G.F.; Lauritzen, T.; Thur, W.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes survey and alignment at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory`s Advanced Light Source (ALS) accelerators from 1993 to 1995. The ALS is a 1.0 - 1.9 GeV electron accelerator producing extremely bright synchrotron light in the UV and soft-X-ray wavelengths. At the ALS, electrons are accelerated in a LINAC to 50 MeV, injected into a booster ring for further acceleration and finally injected into the storage ring. This is shown schematically in Figure 1. The storage ring, some 200 m in circumference, has been run with electron currents above 400 mA with lifetimes as high as 24 hours. The ALS is a third generation light source and requires for efficient storage ring operation, magnets aligned to within 150 mm of their ideal position. To accomplish this a network of monuments was established and their positions measured with respect to one another. The data was reduced using GEONET`` and STAR*NET`` software. Using the monuments as reference points, magnet positions were measured and alignment confirmed using the Kem Electronic Coordinate Determination System (ECDS``). A number of other papers dealing with survey and alignment (S&A) at the ALS have been written that may further elucidate some details of the methods and systems described in this paper.

  13. 78 FR 76054 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Chatom, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ..., Georgia 30320; telephone (404) 305-6364. ] SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History On September 4, 2013, the... Above the Surface of the Earth. * * * * * ASO AL E5 Chatom, AL Roy Wilcox Airport, AL (Lat. 31 27'06''...

  14. [Al-Biruni--a universal scientist].

    PubMed

    Kujundzić, E; Masić, I

    1999-01-01

    Al-Biruni's was of Persian descent. He was born in Horesmiya and had studied mathematics, history and medicine. Acquiring knowledge from these sciences, he wrote an outstanding work on chronology of several nations and devoted it to Ziyarit ruler Kabus. He made a chronological overview of calendars from many nations, including Persians, Greeks, Egyptians, Jews, Melkitian and Nestorian Christians, Sabeyaans as well as the old Arabs. Data presented in the work, according to the later authors, were taken from very reliable sources. He was contemporary of Ibn-Sina, and thanks to their friendship, they have discussed very much miscellaneous topics. He belonged to the group of scholars, taken by Gaznevian Soultan Mahmud to a long journey to India. Afterwards Al-Biruni wrote and published detailed work "Description of India"--a work on cultural history of India. Due to excellent abilities of Al-Biruni as a philosopher and scholar, there are still significant and reliable notes about buddhistic philosophy, structure of castes and Brahmans' life style. In this Al-Biruni's masterpiece, there are many comparative analysis of Suffism and certain Indian philosophical methods. Al-Biruni's most important work is "Pharmacopoeia"--"Kitab al-saydala", which brilliantly describes all medicaments. This work has been published in many languages. He also wrote few works on astronomy and astrology. In those works he has explained some astrological events through scientific approach in a such peculiar way that nobody has ever explained before. He was also interested in sciences like geology, mineralology, geography, mathematics, psychology and many others.

  15. Al Sahawa - The Awakening: An Education and Training Resource Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    Mamoun Sami Rashid , Al Anbar Governor during 2005–06 described it best as a sequence of actions and events throughout Al Anbar: When we started... Rashid , Al Anbar Governor 2005 to 2006, interview with Dr. William Knarr, Colonel Dale Alford, USMC, and Lieutenant Colonel David Graves, USMC...1 . Who’s Who Appendix A Interviewees Abd al-Hakim Muhammad Rashid Muhammad al-Jughayfi, Mayor of Hadithah Abdul Qadir Mohammed Jassim Obeidi al

  16. A Comment on Eerland et al. (2016).

    PubMed

    Hart, William

    2016-03-01

    People imagine criminal behavior in greater detail and ascribe more blame to criminals when a description of a crime is written using the imperfective verb aspect (Hart & Albarracín, 2011, Experiment 3). An initiative to reproduce these findings conducted by Eerland et al. (2016) yielded a lack of replication. Eerland et al. have suggested that the original effect was likely driven by a Type I error produced by methodological aspects of the experiment, including low sample size. Recent conceptual replications of Hart and Albarracín's effect (Sherrill, Eerland, Zwaan, & Magliano, 2015), however, might imply the effect could be contingent on sample characteristics.

  17. Vibrations on Al surfaces covered by sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusina, G. G.; Eremeev, S. V.; Borisova, S. D.; Sklyadneva, I. Yu.; Chulkov, E. V.

    2006-09-01

    In this paper we present the results of a comparative study of vibrational and structural properties of the ordered (√{3}×√{3})R30∘ and c(2 × 2) phases formed by Na adatoms at room temperature on the Al(1 1 1) and Al(1 0 0) surfaces, respectively. The surface relaxation, surface phonon dispersion, and polarization of vibrational modes are calculated using the embedded-atom method. Our calculated structural parameters are in agreement with experimental and ab initio results. The obtained vibrational frequencies compare fairly well with available experimental data.

  18. Complementary and Alternative Therapies in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Bedlack, Richard S.; Joyce, Nanette; Carter, Gregory T.; Pagononi, Sabrina; Karam, Chafic

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Given the severity of their illness and lack of effective disease modifying agents, it is not surprising that most patients with ALS consider trying complementary and alternative therapies. Some of the most commonly considered alternative therapies include special diets, nutritional supplements, cannabis, acupuncture, chelation and energy healing. This chapter reviews these in detail. We also describe 3 models by which physicians may frame discussions about alternative therapies: paternalism, autonomy and shared decision making. Finally, we review a program called ALSUntangled which using shared shared decision making to review alternative therapies for ALS. PMID:26515629

  19. The Future of Al Qa’ida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-24

    commissions and panels; and private review and oversight bodies. C O R P O R A T I O N For More Information Visit RAND at www.rand.org Explore RAND...affiliated groups and its leadership. A range of senior officials, including Saif al-Adel and Abu Miqad al-Masri, continue to play key roles. Finally, there...20 30 40 50 60 70 2003 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Turkey Egypt Jordan Lebanon Indonesia Pakistan Pe rc te nt ag e  of   R es po nd en ts  w it h  Co

  20. Heterogeneity of Mg Isotopes and Variable ^26Al/^27Al Ratio in FUN CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.; Nagashima, K.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Davis, A. M.; Huss, G. R.; Krot, A. N.

    2013-09-01

    We report high-precision Mg-isotope data of individual minerals from the Axtell 2271, BG82DH8, EK1-4-1, C1, TE, and CG14 FUN CAIs, which shows variations in both Mg-isotope ratio and ^26Al/^27Al ratio.

  1. Directional Solidification and Mechanical Properties of NiAl-NiAlTa Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Chen, X. F.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Directional solidification of eutectic alloys is a promising technique for producing in-situ composite materials exhibiting a balance of properties. Consequently, the microstructure, creep strength and fracture toughness of directionally solidified NiAl-NiAlTa alloys were investigated. Directional solidification was performed by containerless processing techniques to minimize alloy contamination. The eutectic composition was found to be NiAl-15.5 at% Ta and well-aligned microstructures were produced at this composition. A near-eutectic alloy of NiAl-14.5Ta was also investigated. Directional solidification of the near-eutectic composition resulted in microstructures consisting of NiAl dendrites surrounded by aligned eutectic regions. The off-eutectic alloy exhibited promising compressive creep strengths compared to other NiAl-based intermetallics, while preliminary testing indicated that the eutectic alloy was competitive with Ni-base single crystal superalloys. The room temperature toughness of these two-phase alloys was similar to that of polycrystalline NiAl even with the presence of the brittle Laves phase NiAlTa.

  2. Electronic circuits having NiAl and Ni.sub.3 Al substrates

    DOEpatents

    Deevi, Seetharama C.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1999-01-01

    An electronic circuit component having improved mechanical properties and thermal conductivity comprises NiAl and/or Ni.sub.3 Al, upon which an alumina layer is formed prior to applying the conductive elements. Additional layers of copper-aluminum alloy or copper further improve mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.

  3. An Alternative Perspective on von Winterfeldt et al.'s (1997) Test of Consequence Monotonicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Moon-Ho R.; Regenwetter, Michel; Niederee, Reinhard; Heyer, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    D. von Winterfeldt, N.-K. Chung, R. D. Luce, and Y. Cho (see record 1997-03378-008) provided several tests for consequence monotonicity of choice or judgment, using certainty equivalents of gambles. The authors reaxiomatized consequence monotonicity in a probabilistic framework and reanalyzed von Winterfeldt et al.'s main experiment via a…

  4. Transport mechanisms of leakage current in Al2O3/InAlAs MOS capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chengji; Lu, Hongliang; Zhang, Yimen; Zhang, Yuming; Guan, He; Wu, Lifan; Lu, Bin; Liu, Chen

    2016-09-01

    An Al2O3 layer is inserted between the InAlAs layer and the metal gate in InAs/AlSb HEMTs to suppress the leakage current. The transport mechanisms of leakage current in Al2O3/InAlAs metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors at both positive and negative biases at different temperatures ranging from 10 °C to 70 °C are investigated. For positive bias, the leakage current is dominated by Schottky emission. Based on the fitted straight lines, the relative dielectric constant of Al2O3 and the barrier height between Al2O3 and InAlAs are extracted. However, for negative bias, the leakage current is dominated by Frenkel-Poole (F-P) emission and the depth of the trap energy level from the conduction band (ϕt) is extracted. Furthermore, authors explain the reason why the dominating mechanisms at positive and negative biases are different.

  5. The Genyornis Egg: Response to Miller et al.'s commentary on Grellet-Tinner et al., 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Spooner, Nigel A.; Handley, Warren D.; Worthy, Trevor H.

    2017-04-01

    Williams (1981) and Williams and Rich (1991) attributed Australian Quaternary fossil eggshell that differed from that of emu Dromaius novaehollandiae to the extinct bird Genyornis newtoni without any osteological or embryonic support. Such association by proximity or abundance mirrors the case of the mistaken association of oviraptor eggs to Protoceratops in the 1920's by Andrews (Grellet-Tinner and Makovicky, 2006). No other candidate species was considered, and this attribution has been unchallenged and followed by everyone thereafter. Much research has been done on this Australian eggshell, with one result being that the extinction of the parent of this eggshell is the most well documented for a taxon in Australia (e.g., Miller et al., 1999, 2005). Grellet-Tinner et al. (2016) raised several problems with the identity of the eggshell Williams (1981) attributed to Genyornis newtoni and suggested that extinct megapodes of the genus Progura were the more likely layer of this eggshell type, therein referred to as ;putative Genyornis oological material; (PGOM). Miller et al. (2017) challenged our hypothesis stating that ;Based on the dimensions of the reconstructed Spooner Egg,Grellet-Tinner et al. (2016)argue that PGOM is too small for a bird with the body mass estimated for Genyornis (168-275 kg) … …[and] …. None of the additional PGOM observations reported byGrellet-Tinner et al. (2016)are inconsistent with a Genyornis parent;. Here we take the opportunity to respond to their critique, the basis of which resolves into a few points, which we address in turn.

  6. An impedance study of complex Al/Cu-Al2O3 electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, J.; Katkevics, J.; Erts, D.; Viksna, A.

    2011-06-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate different Cu deposition regimes on Al surface obtained by internal electrolysis and to characterize properties of fabricated electrodes. EIS experimental data confirmed that Cu deposition by internal electrolysis is realized and the complex electrode system is obtained. The main difficulty in preparation of Al/Cu electrodes is to prevent aluminium oxidation before and during electrochemical deposition of Cu particles. In this work NaCl, CH3COONa, K2SO4, mono- and diammonium citrate electrolytes were examined to determine their suitability for impedance measurements. Al/Cu-Al2O3 electrode composition was approved by equivalent circuit analysis, optical and scanning electron microscope methods. The most optimal Cu deposition mode using internal electrolysis was determined. The obtained results are promising for future electrochemical fabrication of nanostructures directly on Al surfaces by internal electrolysis.

  7. Fundamental Influence of C on Adhesion of the Al2O3/Al Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Smith, John R.; Evans, Anthony

    2002-12-01

    Our first-principles computations indicate that the clean Al2O3/Al interface is relatively weak—weaker than bulk Al. Fracture experiments reveal that the interface is relatively strong with observed failure in bulk Al, however. This paradox is resolved via doping effects of the common impurity C. We have found that only 1/3 of a monolayer of carbon segregated to the interface can increase the work of separation by a factor of 3. The resulting strong interface is consistent with fracture experiments. It arises due to void formation in the interface, which provides low-strain sites for the carbon to segregate to. The degree of void formation is consistent with the relatively high heat of oxide formation of Al.

  8. CVD Fiber Coatings for Al2O3/NiAl Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boss, Daniel E.

    1995-01-01

    While sapphire-fiber-reinforced nickel aluminide (Al2O3/NiAl) composites are an attractive candidate for high-temperature structures, the significant difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the NiAl matrix and the sapphire fiber creates substantial residual stresses in the composite. This study seeks to produce two fiber-coating systems with the potential to reduce the residual stresses in the sapphire/NiAl composite system. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used to produce both the compensating and compliant-fiber coatings for use in sapphire/NiAl composites. A special reactor was designed and built to produce the FGM and to handle the toxic nickel precursors. This process was successfully used to produce 500-foot lengths of fiber with coating thicknesses of approximately 3 microns, 5 microns, and 10 microns.

  9. Temperature dependence of the activity of Al in dilute Ni(Al) solid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Yong; Smith, J. R.; Evans, A. G.

    2006-12-01

    Activities of dilute Al solid solutions in Ni are determined from a first-principles approach. Both thermal lattice vibration and electronic contributions to free energies are considered and compared. Vibrational contributions tend to dominate the temperature dependencies of the free energies, though electron thermal effects are significant. Calculations show opposing temperature trends for the formation enthalpies and entropies, leading to a partial cancellation of their role in the overall energetics. Nevertheless, their remaining temperature effects are strong. Over the temperature range, 400 KAl activity coefficient varies by 15 orders of magnitude, due to the relative strength of Al-Ni and Al-Al bonds. The Ni activity coefficient only varies less than 4% over the same range. Calculational results compare well with available experimental data. The thermodynamic principles elucidated from the calculations are used to provide a fundamental interpretation.

  10. Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ adherence on CoCrAl alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsley, L.M.

    1980-04-01

    Adherence of protective oxides on NiCrAl and CoCrAl superalloys has been promoted by a dispersion of a highly oxygen reactive element or its oxide being produced within the protection system. Two aspects of this subject are investigated here: the use of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ as both the dispersion and protective oxide; and the production of an HfO/sub 2/ dispersion while simultaneously aluminizing the alloy. It was found that an Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ dispersion will act to promote the adherence of an external scale of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ to a degree comparable to previously tested dispersions and an HfO/sub 2/ dispersion comparable to that produced by a Rhines pack treatment is produced during aluminization.

  11. 1300 K compressive properties of a reaction milled NiAl-AlN composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Arzt, Eduard; Luton, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    When B2 crystal-structure nickel aluminide is subjected to high-intensity mechanical ball milling in a liquid nitrogen bath, or 'cryomilling', an NiAl composite is obtained which contains about 10 vol pct AlN particles. This composition arises from the incorporation of N during cryomilling; during subsequent thermomechanical processing, the N reacts with Al. While compressive testing of extruded or isostatically pressed specimens at 1300 K indicated that strength at relatively fast strain rates is slightly dependent on consolidation method, slower strain rates indicate no clear dependency on densification technique: four different consolidation methods were found to yield similar creep strengths. The creep properties of NiAl-AlN are similar to those of the single-crystal Ni-base superalloy NASAIR 100.

  12. Bonding characters of Al-containing bulk metallic glasses studied by 27Al NMR.

    PubMed

    Xi, X K; Sandor, M T; Wang, H J; Wang, J Q; Wang, W H; Wu, Y

    2011-03-23

    We report very small (27)Al metallic shifts in a series of Cu-Zr-Al bulk metallic glasses. This observation and the Korringa type of spin-lattice relaxation behavior suggest that s-character wavefunctions weakly participate in bonding and opens the possibility of enhanced covalency (pd hybridization) with increasing Al concentration, in good agreement with elastic constants and hardness measurements. Moreover, ab initio calculations show that this bonding character originates from the strong Al 3p band and Zr 4d band hybridization since their atomic energy levels are closer to each other while the Al 3s band is localized far below the Fermi level. This study might provide a chemical view for understanding flow and fracture mechanisms of these bulk glass-forming alloys.

  13. Construction and characterization of recombinant human adenovirus type 5 expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins of Indian vaccine strain, O/IND/R2/75

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ramesh; Sreenivasa, B. P.; Tamilselvan, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Generation of recombinant human adenovirus type 5 expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid protein genes along with full-length 2B, 3B and 3Cpro and its characterization. Materials and Methods: FMD viral RNA isolation, cDNA synthesis, and polymerase chain reaction were performed to synthesize expression cassettes (P1-2AB3BCwt and P1-2AB3BCm) followed by cloning in pShuttle-CMV vector. Chemically competent BJ5183-AD-1 cells were transformed with the recombinant pShuttle-CMV to produce recombinant adenoviral plasmids. HEK-293 cells were transfected with the recombinant adenoviral plasmids to generate recombinant adenoviruses (hAd5/P1-2AB3BCwt and hAd5/P1-2AB3BCm). Expression of the target proteins was analyzed by sandwich ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence assay. The recombinant adenoviruses were purified and concentrated by CsCl density gradient ultracentrifugation. Growth kinetics and thermostability of the recombinant adenoviruses were compared with that of non-recombinant replication-defective adenovirus (dAd5). Results: The recombinant adenoviruses containing capsid protein genes of the FMDV O/IND/R2/75 were generated and amplified in HEK-293 cells. The titer of the recombinant adenoviruses was approximately 108, 109.5 and 1011 TCID50/ml in supernatant media, cell lysate and CsCl purified preparation, respectively. Expression of the FMDV capsid protein was detectable in sandwich ELISA and confirmed by immunofluorescence assay. Growth kinetics of the recombinant adenoviruses did not reveal a significant difference when compared with that of dAd5. A decrement of up to 10-fold at 4°C and 21-fold at 37°C was recorded in the virus titers during 60 h incubation period and found to be statistically significant (p<0.01). Conclusion: Recombinant adenoviruses expressing capsid proteins of the FMDV O/IND/R2/75 were constructed and produced in high titers. In vitro expression of the target proteins in the adenovirus vector system was detected by

  14. Formation of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma + beta (+ Al2O3)=gamma(sup prime)(+ Al2O3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, Evan

    2008-01-01

    The activities of Al and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8-32 at.%Al and temperature range T=1400-1750 K in the Ni-Al-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ Al2O3)=gamma + Beta(+ Al2O3), at 1640 +/- 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 +/- 0.2 at.%al (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + Beta (+Al2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633-1640 K, and gamma(sup prime)-Ni3Al forms via the peritectoid, gamma + Beta (+ Al2O3)=gamma(sup prime) (+ Al2O3), at 1633 +/- 1 K. This behavior is consistent with the current Ni-Al phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-Al phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady-state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma(sup prime)-Ni2Al phase field.

  15. Formation of gamma'-Ni3Al via the Peritectoid Reaction: gamma plus beta (+Al2O3) equals gamma'(+Al2O3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2008-01-01

    The activities of Al and Ni were measured using multi-cell Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry (multi-cell KEMS), over the composition range 8 - 32 at.%Al and temperature range T = 1400 - 1750 K in the Ni-Al-O system. These measurements establish that equilibrium solidification of gamma'-Ni3Al-containing alloys occurs by the eutectic reaction, L (+ Al2O3) = gamma + beta (+ Al2O3), at 1640 plus or minus 1 K and a liquid composition of 24.8 plus or minus 0.2 at.%Al (at an unknown oxygen content). The {gamma + beta + Al2O3} phase field is stable over the temperature range 1633 - 1640 K, and gamma'-Ni3Al forms via the peritectiod, gamma + beta (+ Al2O3) = gamma'(+ Al2O3), at 1633 plus or minus 1 K. This behavior is inconsistent with the current Ni-Al phase diagram and a new diagram is proposed. This new Ni-Al phase diagram explains a number of unusual steady state solidification structures reported previously and provides a much simpler reaction scheme in the vicinity of the gamma'-Ni3Al phase field.

  16. 76 FR 62481 - Incapital LLC, et al.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Incapital LLC, et al.; Notice of Application September 30, 2011. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of application for an order under section 12(d)(1)(J) of...

  17. Electron impact exctation of Al X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Kanti; Keenan, Francis

    2013-05-01

    Emission lines of Al ions, including Al X, are important for the modeling and diagnostics of lasing, fusion and astrophysical plasmas, for which atomic data are required for a variety of parameters, such as energy levels, radiative rates (A- values), and excitation rates or equivalently the effective collision strengths (Υ), which are obtained from the electron impact collision strengths (Ω). Experimentally, energy levels are available for Al X on the NIST website, but there is paucity for accurate collisional atomic data. Therefore, here we report a complete set of results (namely energy levels, radiative rates, and effective collision strengths) for all transitions among the lowest 98 levels of Al X. These levels belong to the (1s2) 2s2, 2s2p, 2p2, 2s3 l, 2p3 l, 2s4 l, and 2p4 l configurations. Finally, we also report the A- values for four types of transitions, namely electric dipole (E1), electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1), and magnetic quadrupole (M2), because these are also required for plasma modeling. For our calculations of wavefunctions, we have adopted the fully relativistic GRASP code, and for the calculations of Ω, the Dirac atomic R-matrix code (DARC) of PH Norrington and IP Grant. Additionally, parallel ca

  18. Kinematics of Disease Progression in Bulbar ALS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunusova, Yana; Green, Jordan R.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Ball, Laura J.; Pattee, Gary L.; Zinman, Lorne

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the deterioration of lip and jaw movements during speech longitudinally in three individuals diagnosed with bulbar amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The study was motivated by the need to understand the relationship between physiologic changes in speech movements and clinical measures of speech…

  19. U-ALS: A Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piovesan, Sandra Dutra; Passerino, Liliana Maria; Medina, Roseclea Duarte

    2012-01-01

    The diffusion of the use of the learning virtual environments presents a great potential for the development of an application which meet the necessities in the education area. In view of the importance of a more dynamic application and that can adapt itself continuously to the students' necessities, the "U-ALS" (Ubiquitous Adapted Learning…

  20. 75 FR 1420 - Alabama Disaster # AL-00025

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00025 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Alabama dated...

  1. 78 FR 4967 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00046

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00046 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of ALABAMA dated...

  2. 76 FR 29810 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00037

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00037 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  3. 75 FR 474 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00026

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 2 (Tuesday, January 5, 2010)] [Notices] [Pages 474-475] [FR Doc No: E9-31259] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 11988 and 11989] Alabama Disaster AL-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice...

  4. 78 FR 26100 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00050

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00050 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Alabama dated...

  5. 76 FR 27141 - Alabama Disaster # AL-00036

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Alabama...

  6. 77 FR 7227 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00040

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Alabama...

  7. 75 FR 26814 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00031

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 91 (Wednesday, May 12, 2010)] [Notices] [Pages 26814-26815] [FR Doc No: 2010-11201] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12157 and 12158] Alabama Disaster AL-00031 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice...

  8. 78 FR 22361 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00049

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00049 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Alabama dated...

  9. 75 FR 26813 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00029

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 91 (Wednesday, May 12, 2010)] [Notices] [Pages 26813-26814] [FR Doc No: 2010-11199] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12155 and 12156] Alabama Disaster AL-00029 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of...

  10. 76 FR 35938 - The Designation of Othman al-Ghamdi Also Known as Al Umairah al-Ghamdi, Also Known as Uthman al...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... [Federal Register Volume 76, Number 118 (Monday, June 20, 2011)] [Notices] [Page 35938] [FR Doc No: 2011-15290] DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7505] The Designation of Othman al-Ghamdi Also Known as... the Federal Register. Dated: May 11, 2011. Hillary Rodham Clinton, Secretary of State. [FR Doc....

  11. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.

  12. Hughes et al.: Science or Promotion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loman, L. Anthony; Siegel, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    The Hughes et al. paper is critiqued generally and in specific areas. The weak nature of the authors' empirical work is discussed along with their enigmatic writing and vague and incorrect use of references, and their simultaneous use of sweeping statements of opinion and narrow analytical focus. This review examines the authors' errors…

  13. Cryptanalysis on Cheng et al. protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Tejeshwari

    2016-06-01

    Deployment of new node in any wireless sensor network is a sensitive task. This is the reason why, an Access Control Protocol is required in WSN. In this paper, we demonstrate that Access Control Protocol proposed by Cheng et al.[1] for Wireless Sensor Network is insecure. The reason is that this protocol fails to resist the active attack.

  14. Al-Qaida: Terrorist Selection and Recruitment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    like them, not alien outsiders. 9. Surrounding potential recruits with peers who are already established recruits. 10. E. Goffman , Behavior in Public...Cultic Studies Journal 1:2 (1984): 167–177. 88 SECTION 1 Al-Qaida and Global Jihad Goffman , E., Behavior in Public Places: Notes on the Social

  15. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOEpatents

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.

  16. Bierman {ital et al.}Reply:

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, J.D.; Chan, P.; Liang, J.F.; Kelly, M.P.; Sonzogni, A.A.; Vandenbosch, R.

    1997-05-01

    reply to the Comment by C.H.Dasso et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78,XXX(1997). A Reply to the Comment by C.H. Dasso and J. Fern{acute a}ndez-Niello. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Al/Cl2 molten salt battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giner, J.

    1972-01-01

    Molten salt battery has been developed with theoretical energy density of 5.2 j/kg (650 W-h/lb). Battery, which operates at 150 C, can be used in primary mode or as rechargeable battery. Battery has aluminum anode and chlorine cathode. Electrolyte is mixture of AlCl3, NaCl, and some alkali metal halide such as KCl.

  18. Some TEM observations of Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J.; Gibala, R.

    1979-01-01

    The microstructural development of Al2O3 scales on NiCrAl alloys has been examined by transmission electron microscopy. Voids were observed within grains in scales formed on a pure NiCrAl alloy. Both voids and oxide grains grew measurably with oxidation time at 1100 C. The size and amount of porosity decreased towards the oxide-metal growth interface. The voids resulted from an excess number of oxygen vacancies near the oxidemetal interface. Short-circuit diffusion paths were discussed in reference to current growth stress models for oxide scales. Transient oxidation of pure, Y-doped, and Zr-doped NiCrAl was also examined. Oriented alpha-(Al, Cr)2O3 and Ni(Al, Cr)2O4 scales often coexisted in layered structures on all three alloys. Close-packed oxygen planes and directions in the corundum and spinel layers were parallel. The close relationship between oxide layers provided a gradual transition from initial transient scales to steady state Al2O3 growth.

  19. Some TEM observations of Al2O3 scales formed on NiCrAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J.; Gibala, R.

    1979-01-01

    The microstructural development of Al2O3 scales on NiCrAl alloys has been examined by transmission electron microscopy. Voids have been observed within grains in scales formed on a pure NiCrAl alloy. Both voids and oxide grains grew measurably with oxidation time at 1100 C. The size and amount of porosity decreased towards the oxide-metal growth interface. It was postulated that the voids resulted from an excess number of oxygen vacancies near the oxide-metal interface. Short-circuit diffusion paths were discussed in reference to current growth stress models for oxide scales. Transient oxidations of pure, Y-doped, and Zr-doped NiCrAl was also examined. Oriented alpha-(Al,Cr)2O3 and Ni(Al,Cr)2O4 scales often coexisted in layered structures on all three alloys. Close-packed oxygen planes and directions in the corundum and spinel layers were parallel. The close relationships between oxide layers provided a gradual transition from initial transient scales to steady state Al2O3 growth.

  20. AlGaN/AlN integrated photonics platform for the ultraviolet and visible spectral range.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Mohammad; Soref, Richard; Palacios, Tomas; Englund, Dirk

    2016-10-31

    We analyze a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) platform comprised of a crystalline AlxGa1-xN optical guiding layer on an AlN substrate for the ultraviolet to visible (UV-vis) wavelength range. An Al composition of x~0.65 provides a refractive index difference of ~0.1 between AlxGa1-xN and AlN, and a small lattice mismatch (< 1%) that minimizes crystal dislocations at the AlxGa1-xN/AlN interface. This small refractive index difference is beneficial at shorter wavelengths to avoid extra-small waveguide dimensions. The platform enables compact waveguides and bends with high field confinement in the wavelength range from 700 nm down to 300 nm (and potentially lower) with waveguide cross-section dimensions comparable to those used for telecom PICs such as silicon and silicon nitride waveguides, allowing for well-established optical lithography. This platform can potentially enable cost-effective, manufacturable, monolithic UV-vis photonic integrated circuits.

  1. A novel Al matrix composite reinforced by nano-AlNp network

    PubMed Central

    Ma, X.; Zhao, Y. F.; Tian, W. J.; Qian, Z.; Chen, H. W.; Wu, Y. Y.; Liu, X. F.

    2016-01-01

    In pursuit of lightweighting of automobiles and low emission of transportation, the efforts to develop high-strength, heat-resistant and fatigue-resistant Al alloys and/or composites have been ongoing. Here we report a novel Al matrix composite with ultrahigh strength reinforced by a three dimensional network of nano-AlN particles for the first time. The in-situ synthesized AlN particles are connected by twinning bonding chains and built up a three dimensional network strengthening Al matrix enormously like the skeleton to human body. The composite containing 16.4wt.% AlN particles shows excellent properties: the ultimate tensile strengths can be up to 518MPa at room temperature and 190MPa at 350 °C. This peculiar performance results from the novel spatial distribution of nano-scale AlN particles. Our findings in this work would help to develop a potential candidate for high-performance heat resistance light-metal based materials. PMID:27721417

  2. Effect of speciation transformation on the coagulation behavior of Al(13) and Al(13) aggregates.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaohong; Ye, Changqing; Wang, Dongsheng; Ge, Xiaopeng; Tang, Hongxiao

    2009-01-01

    Flocculation of kaolin suspension with aluminium fractal polycations was investigated as a function of aluminium concentration and pH. Aluminium flocculants included Al(13) and Al(13) aggregates with OH/Al ratio of 2.6 and 2.8, respectively. The flocculation kinetics and floc size distribution were monitored by light scattering. The characterization of flocculants showed that the tridecatmer Al(13) and bridged [Al(13)](n) with out-sphere structure were the dominant species for all flocculants in a wide pH range. The coagulation results indicated that the pre and in situ-formed [Al(13)](n) play a key role in removing particles. With the increasing concentration of [Al(13)](n), coagulation mechanisms were transformed from charge-neutralization, electro-patch coagulation to bridge-aggregation. Moreover, sweep-flocculation was involved at higher dosage besides other three mechanisms when amorphous aluminium oxides formed. Hence, chemical interaction between particles and flocculants evolved from surface adsorption to surface precipitation for aluminium polycations by virtue of species transformation.

  3. Wetting of polycrystalline SiC by molten Al and Al-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Xiao-Shuang; Shen, Ping; Wang, Yi; Jiang, Qichuan

    2014-10-01

    The wetting of α-SiC by molten Al and Al-Si alloys was investigated using a dispensed sessile drop method in a high vacuum. In the Al-SiC system, representative wetting stages were identified. The liquid spreading was initially controlled by the deoxidation of the SiC surface and then by the formation of Al4C3 at the interface. The intrinsic contact angle for molten Al on the polycrystalline α-SiC surface was suggested to be lower than 90̊ provided that the oxide films covering the Al and SiC surfaces were removed, i.e., the system is partial wetting in nature. An increase in the Si concentration in liquid Al weakened the interfacial reaction but improved the final wettability. The role of the Si addition on the wetting was presumably attributed to its segregation at the interface and the formation of strong chemical bonds with the SiC surface.

  4. Investigation of water assisted phase transformation process from AlPO4-5 to AlPO4-tridymite

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Suochang; Zhao, Zhenchao; Hu, Mary Y.; Han, Xiuwen; Hu, Jian Zhi; Bao, Xinhe

    2016-03-01

    Water assisted phase transformation process from crystalized AlPO4-5 to AlPO4-tridymite was studied by the combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and in situ multinuclear MAS NMR. It is found that water first activates the residue amorphous aluminophosphate in crystalized AlPO4-5 sample through hydrolysis and condensation reactions. Then the activated aluminophosphate species reassemble into AlPO4-tridymite crystalline. Meanwhile, AlPO4-5 transforms into orthorhombic phase during heating process. With further crystallization of AlPO4-tridymite, the amorphous phase is gradually consumed, and mass transportation between AlPO4-5 and AlPO4-tridymite is established through gradually amorphization of AlPO4-5. Finally, most of the AlPO4-5 transforms into the thermodynamically stable dense phase AlPO4-tridymite.

  5. Aluminum matrix texture in Al-Al3Ti functionally graded materials analyzed by electron back-scattering diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yoshimi; Sequeira, Paulo D.; Sato, Hisashi; Inamura, Tomonari; Hosoda, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Al matrix functionally graded materials (FGMs) with oriented Al3Ti platelets were fabricated by a centrifugal solid-particle method. The applied centrifugal forces were 30, 60, and 120G (units of gravity). The orientation and volume fraction gradients of the Al3Ti platelets within the samples were measured. Since a good lattice correspondence was reported for the close-packed directions and the close-packed planes between Al and Al3Ti, the Al matrix in the Al-Al3Ti FGMs fabricated by the centrifugal solid-particle method should have some texture. Al matrix texture was, therefore, analyzed by electron back-scattering diffraction (EBSD). Analysis of the resulting pole figures indicates a preferred orientation along the (200) plane for the Al matrix crystals. Furthermore, increasing the applied centrifugal force enhances the orientation effect. A correlation appears to exist between platelet orientation and the preferred texture of the Al matrix.

  6. An Epidemiological Study of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi, Libya

    PubMed Central

    Abdellatif, Manal Z. M.; El-Mabrouk, Khamis

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic parasitic infection in the Mediterranean region, including Libya and its Al-jabal Al-gharbi province. We aimed at studying the occupational relevance as well as other epidemiological aspects of CL. We investigated 140 CL cases who attended at Gharyan outpatient polyclinic during a period of 6 months in 2009. CL infection was clinically diagnosed and confirmed by demonstration of Leishmania parasites on smears from lesions. Our findings showed that males were more affected than females (P=0.04), and people above 10-years were more affected than younger ones (P=0.0001). A significant percent of CL cases belonged to Al-Kawasem subprovince (P=0.0001). Farm-related activities were the most frequent occupations among CL cases (P=0.04). In addition to farm workers, housewives and students are at risk groups since they are engaged at farm activities. Moreover, those who have occupations that require staying outdoors for a part of night, e.g., policemen, are also at risk. Compared to children, adult CL patients had multiple lesions (P=0.001) that were more prevalent in their upper and lower extremities than the face (P=0.0001). We conclude that CL is a major health problem in Al-jabal Al-gharbi province of Libya. The presence of rodents and sandflies makes it a suitable environment for Leishmania to spread in an endemic epidemiological pattern. Being engaged in farming activities or outdoor occupations increases the risk of infection. Various clinical patterns of CL suggest the presence of more than 1 species of Leishmania at Al-jabal Al-gharbi province. We propose that the 2 species responsible for CL in this area are L. major and L. tropica. Further investigations to identify the leishmanial species responsible for CL at Al-jabal Al-gharbi together with adoption of preventive and control programs are needed. PMID:23467624

  7. An epidemiological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Al-jabal Al-gharbi, Libya.

    PubMed

    Abdellatif, Manal Z M; El-Mabrouk, Khamis; Ewis, Ashraf A

    2013-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic parasitic infection in the Mediterranean region, including Libya and its Al-jabal Al-gharbi province. We aimed at studying the occupational relevance as well as other epidemiological aspects of CL. We investigated 140 CL cases who attended at Gharyan outpatient polyclinic during a period of 6 months in 2009. CL infection was clinically diagnosed and confirmed by demonstration of Leishmania parasites on smears from lesions. Our findings showed that males were more affected than females (P=0.04), and people above 10-years were more affected than younger ones (P=0.0001). A significant percent of CL cases belonged to Al-Kawasem subprovince (P=0.0001). Farm-related activities were the most frequent occupations among CL cases (P=0.04). In addition to farm workers, housewives and students are at risk groups since they are engaged at farm activities. Moreover, those who have occupations that require staying outdoors for a part of night, e.g., policemen, are also at risk. Compared to children, adult CL patients had multiple lesions (P=0.001) that were more prevalent in their upper and lower extremities than the face (P=0.0001). We conclude that CL is a major health problem in Al-jabal Al-gharbi province of Libya. The presence of rodents and sandflies makes it a suitable environment for Leishmania to spread in an endemic epidemiological pattern. Being engaged in farming activities or outdoor occupations increases the risk of infection. Various clinical patterns of CL suggest the presence of more than 1 species of Leishmania at Al-jabal Al-gharbi province. We propose that the 2 species responsible for CL in this area are L. major and L. tropica. Further investigations to identify the leishmanial species responsible for CL at Al-jabal Al-gharbi together with adoption of preventive and control programs are needed.

  8. Aberrant distributions of nuclear pore complex proteins in ALS mice and ALS patients.

    PubMed

    Shang, Jingwei; Yamashita, Toru; Nakano, Yumiko; Morihara, Ryuta; Li, Xianghong; Feng, Tian; Liu, Xia; Huang, Yong; Fukui, Yusuke; Hishikawa, Nozomi; Ohta, Yasuyuki; Abe, Koji

    2017-03-24

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) play important roles in traffic of molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm, aberrant distributions of components of NPCs were demonstrated in C9orf72 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (C9-ALS) patients, but it is elusive whether such abnormities are also the case with other cause of ALS disease. In the present study, we investigated the spatiotemporal distributions of RanGAP1 and 4 representative nucleoporins (GP210, NUP205, NUP107 and NUP50) of NPCs in human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase-1 mutation transgenic (SOD1-Tg) mice and sporadic ALS patients. Compared with wild type (WT), these proteins displayed age-dependent and progressive nuclear precipitations, and cytoplasmic aberrant expressions in motor neurons of lumbar cord in SOD1-Tg mice from 10 to 18weeks (W). Double immunofluorescent analysis showed abnormal nuclear retention and apparent co-localizations of RanGAPl with NUP205 and NUP205 with NUPl07, meanwhile, GP210 with NUP205 mainly co-localized in the nuclear envelope (NE) of motor neurons. Furthermore, RanGAP1, GP210 and NUP50 showed similarly abnormal nuclear precipitations and cytoplasmic upregulations in SOD1-Tg mice and ALS patients, moreover, aberrant co-localizations of RanGAP1 with TDP-43 and NUP205 with TDP-43 were also observed in motor neurons. The present study indicated that the mislocalization of these proteins of NPCs may underlie the pathogenesis of ALS both in SOD1-Tg mice and human sporadic ALS patients, and these dysfunctions may be a fundamental pathway for ALS that is not specific only in C9-ALS but also in SOD1-ALS, which may be amenable to pharmacotherapeutic intervention.

  9. Non-volatile Al2O3 Memory using Nanoscale Al-rich Al2O3 Thin Film as a Charge Storage Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Shunji; Saito, Kunio; Shimada, Masaru

    2006-04-01

    This article describes the fabrication process and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of a new non-volatile Al2O3 memory with nanoscale thin film deposited by electron-cyclotron-resonance sputtering. Al-rich Al2O3 shows characteristics somewhere between Al and Al2O3 in the refractive index and wet etching rate. C-V characteristics of Al-rich Al2O3 memory show a large hysteresis window due to the Al-rich structure, while there is no hysteresis window in the case of stoichiometric Al2O3. This memory is expected to stay non-volatile for several years or more because the capacitance value after writing and erasing operation remained almost unchanged after 4 h at T=85 °C. Also, another new memory structure comprising SiO2/Al2O3 and the Al-rich Al2O3 structure is proposed, which features increased mobility due to the reduction of electron scattering at the Si/Al2O3 interface.

  10. Metal clusters with hidden ground states: Melting and structural transitions in Al115(+), Al116(+), and Al117(+).

    PubMed

    Cao, Baopeng; Starace, Anne K; Judd, Oscar H; Bhattacharyya, Indrani; Jarrold, Martin F

    2009-09-28

    Heat capacities measured as a function of temperature for Al(115)(+), Al(116)(+), and Al(117)(+) show two well-resolved peaks, at around 450 and 600 K. After being annealed to 523 K (a temperature between the two peaks) or to 773 K (well above both peaks), the high temperature peak remains unchanged but the low temperature peak disappears. After considering the possible explanations, the low temperature peak is attributed to a structural transition and the high temperature peak to the melting of the higher enthalpy structure generated by the structural transition. The annealing results show that the liquid clusters freeze exclusively into the higher enthalpy structure and that the lower enthalpy structure is not accessible from the higher enthalpy one on the timescale of the experiments. We suggest that the low enthalpy structure observed before annealing results from epitaxy, where the smaller clusters act as a nucleus and follow a growth pattern that provides access to the low enthalpy structure. The solid-to-solid transition that leads to the low temperature peak in the heat capacity does not occur under equilibrium but requires a superheated solid.

  11. Mechanochemical synthesis and crystal structure of alpha'-AlD3 and alpha-AlD3.

    PubMed

    Brinks, Hendrik W; Istad-Lem, Andreas; Hauback, Bjørn C

    2006-12-28

    AlD3 AlD3 was synthesized by ball milling of 3LiAlD4 + AlCl3. Planetary ball milling at room temperature resulted in a mixture of AlD3 (alpha and alpha') and Al in addition to LiCl, whereas cryomilling at 77 K resulted in only AlD3 and LiCl. The AlD3 obtained was a mixture of about 2/3alpha and 1/3alpha'. Alpha' was determined by powder neutron diffraction to take the beta-AlF3 structure with space group Cmcm and a = 6.470(3), b = 11.117(5), and c = 6.562(2) A. It is built up of corner-sharing AlD6 octahedra in an open structure with hexagonal holes of radius 3.9 A. Alpha' slowly decomposes during storage at 40 degrees C. Alpha-AlD3 is also described by a corner-sharing AlD6 network but in a more dense ReO3-type arrangement. Both AlD3 modifications have slightly shorter Al-D distances compared to Na3AlD6, Na2LiAlD6, and K2NaAlH6.

  12. Ferromagnetic ordering in NpAl2: Magnetic susceptibility and 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L.; Griveau, J.-C.; Eloirdi, R.; Selfslag, C.; Colineau, E.; Caciuffo, R.

    2015-08-01

    We report on the magnetic properties of the neptunium based ferromagnetic compound NpAl2. We used magnetization measurements and 27Al NMR spectroscopy to access magnetic features related to the paramagnetic and ordered states (TC=56 K). While very precise DC SQUID magnetization measurements confirm ferromagnetic ordering, they show a relatively small hysteresis loop at 5 K reduced with a coercive field HCo~3000 Oe. The variable offset cumulative spectra (VOCS) acquired in the paramagnetic state show a high sensitivity of the 27Al nuclei spectral parameters (Knight shifts and line broadening) to the ferromagnetic ordering, even at room temperature.

  13. Hot Corrosion Behavior of Stainless Steel with Al-Si/Al-Si-Cr Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guangyan; Wu, Yongzhao; Liu, Qun; Li, Rongguang; Su, Yong

    2017-03-01

    The 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel with Al-Si/Al-Si-Cr coatings is prepared by slurry process and vacuum diffusion, and the hot corrosion behavior of the stainless steel with/without the coatings is studied under the condition of Na2SO4 film at 950 °C in air. Results show that the corrosion kinetics of stainless steel, the stainless steel with Al-Si coating and the stainless steel with Al-Si-Cr coating follow parabolic laws in several segments. After 24 h corrosion, the sequence of the mass gain for the three alloys is the stainless steel with Al-Si-Cr coating < the stainless steel with Al-Si coating < the stainless steel without any coating. The corrosion products of the three alloys are layered. Thereinto, the corrosion products of stainless steel without coating are divided into two layers, where the outside layer contains a composite of Fe2O3 and FeO, and the inner layer is Cr2O3. The corrosion products of the stainless steel with Al-Si coating are also divided into two layers, of which the outside layer mainly consists of Cr2O3, and the inner layer is mainly SiO2. The corrosion film of the stainless steel with Al-Si-Cr coating is thin and dense, which combines well with substrate. Thereinto, the outside layer is mainly Cr2O3, and the inside layer is Al2O3. In the matrix of all of the three alloys, there exist small amount of sulfides. Continuous and protective films of Cr2O3, SiO2 and Al2O3 form on the surface of the stainless steel with Al-Si and Al-Si-Cr coatings, which prevent further oxidation or sulfide corrosion of matrix metals, and this is the main reason for the much smaller mass gain of the two alloys than that of the stainless steel without any coatings in the 24 h hot corrosion process.

  14. Superconductivity of Al/Al2O3 interface formed by shock-wave pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palnichenko, A. V.; Shakhrai, D. V.; Avdonin, V. V.; Vyaselev, O. M.; Khasanov, S. S.

    2015-05-01

    A mixture of Al and α -Al2O3 has been subjected to a shock-wave pressure of ≃ 170 kbar, followed by vacuum-encapsulating and quenching of the product to liquid nitrogen. The ac magnetic susceptibility measurements of the samples have revealed metastable superconductivity with Tc ≈ 37 K, characterized by glassy dynamics of the shielding currents below Tc . Comparison of the ac susceptibility and the dc magnetization measurements infers that the superconductivity arises within the interfacial granular layer formed between metallic Al and its oxide due to the shock-wave treatment.

  15. Superconductivity of Al/Al2O3 interface formed under shock-wave conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhray, D. V.; Avdonin, V. V.; Palnichenko, A. V.; Vyaselev, O. M.

    2015-11-01

    A mixture of powdered Al and Al2O3 has been subjected to a shock-wave pressure of ≈ 170 kbar, followed by vacuum-encapsulating and quenching of the product to liquid nitrogen. The ac magnetic susceptibility measurements of the samples have revealed metastable superconductivity with Tc ≈ 37 K, characterized by glassy dynamics of the shielding currents below Tc. Comparison of the ac susceptibility and the dc magnetization measurements infers that the superconductivity arises within the interfacial granular layer formed between metallic Al and its oxide due to the shock-wave treatment.

  16. Revisiting Deng et al.'s Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Tzonelih; Hwang, Cheng-Chieh; Yang, Chun-Wei; Li, Chuan-Ming

    2011-09-01

    The multiparty quantum secret sharing protocol [Deng et al. in Chin. Phys. Lett. 23: 1084-1087, 2006] is revisited in this study. It is found that the performance of Deng et al.'s protocol can be much improved by using the techniques of block-transmission and decoy single photons. As a result, the qubit efficiency is improved 2.4 times and only one classical communication, a public discussion, and two quantum communications between each agent and the secret holder are needed rather than n classical communications, n public discussions, and 3n/2 quantum communications required in the original scheme.

  17. Mechanical properties and electronic structures of Fe-Al intermetallic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, YaHui; Chong, XiaoYu; Jiang, YeHua; Zhou, Rong; Feng, Jing

    2017-02-01

    Using the first-principles calculations, the elastic properties, anisotropy properties, electronic structures, Debye temperature and stability of Fe-Al (Fe3Al, FeAl, FeAl2, Fe2Al5 and FeAl3) binary compounds were calculated. The formation enthalpy and cohesive energy of these Fe-Al compounds are negative, and show they are thermodynamically stable structures. Fe2Al5 has the lowest formation enthalpy, which shows the Fe2Al5 is the most stable of Fe-Al binary compounds. These Fe-Al compounds display disparate anisotropy due to the calculated different shape of the 3D curved surface of the Young's modulus and anisotropic index. Fe3Al has the biggest bulk modulus with the value 233.2 GPa. FeAl has the biggest Yong's modulus and shear modulus with the value 296.2 GPa and 119.8 GPa, respectively. The partial density of states, total density of states and electron density distribution maps of the binary Fe-Al binary compounds are analyzed. The bonding characteristics of these Fe-Al binary compounds are mainly combination by covalent bond and metallic bonds. Meanwhile, also exist anti-bond effect. Moreover, the Debye temperatures and sound velocity of these Fe-Al compounds are explored.

  18. Oral Care for the Patient with ALS: A Guide for the Caregiver

    MedlinePlus

    ... with ALS and Caregivers Newly Diagnosed ALS Registry Military Veterans Caregivers Resources Order Materials Medicare Information ALS Insight Newsletter Living with ALS Resource Guides Families and ALS Resource Guide Medical Information Packet ALS ...

  19. Ab initio modeling of zincblende AlN layer in Al-AlN-TiN multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, S. K.; Wang, J.; Liu, X. -Y.

    2016-06-13

    An unusual growth mechanism of metastable zincblende AlN thin film by diffusion of nitrogen atoms into Al lattice is established. Using first-principles density functional theory, we studied the possibility of thermodynamic stability of AlN as a zincblende phase due to epitaxial strains and interface effect, which fails to explain the formation of zincblende AlN. We then compared the formation energetics of rocksalt and zincblende AlN in fcc Al through direct diffusion of nitrogen atoms to Al octahedral and tetrahedral interstitials. Furthermore, the formation of a zincblende AlN thin film is determined to be a kinetically driven process, not a thermodynamically driven process.

  20. The β-decay of 22Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achouri, N. L.; de Oliveira Santos, F.; Lewitowicz, M.; Blank, B.; Äystö, J.; Canchel, G.; Czajkowski, S.; Dendooven, P.; Emsallem, A.; Giovinazzo, J.; Guillet, N.; Jokinen, A.; Laird, A. M.; Longour, C.; Peräjärvi, K.; Smirnova, N.; Stanoiu, M.; Thomas, J.-C.

    2006-03-01

    In an experiment performed at the LISE3 facility of GANIL, we studied the decay of 22Al produced by the fragmentation of a 36Ar primary beam. A β-decay half-life of T 1/2 = 91.1±0.5ms was measured. The β-delayed one- and two-proton emission as well as β-α and β-delayed γ-decays were measured and allowed us to establish a partial decay scheme for this nucleus. New levels were determined in the daughter nucleus 22Mg. The comparison with model calculations strongly favours a spin-parity of I π = 4+ for the ground state of 22Al.

  1. Development of SiAlON materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layden, G. K.

    1979-01-01

    Cold pressing and sintering techniques were used to produce ceramic test specimens in which the major phase was either Si3N4 or a solid solution having the beta Si3N4 structure. Additional components were incorporated to promote liquid phase sintering. Glass and/or crystalline phase were consequently retained in boundaries between Si3N4 grains which largely determined the physical properties of the bodies. Systems investigated most extensively included R-Si-Al-O-N (R = rare earth element) Zr-Si-Al-O-N, Y-Si-Be-O-N, and R1-R2-Si-O-N. Room temperature and 1370 C modulus of ruptured, 1370 C creep, and oxidation behavior are discussed in terms of phase relationships in a parent quinery, and relavent oxide systems.

  2. Ni{sub 3}Al technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Santella, M.L.; Alexander, D.J.

    1995-05-01

    Ductile Ni{sub 3}Al and Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys have been identified for a range of applications. These applications require the use of material in a variety of product forms such as sheet, plate, bar, tubing, piping, and castings. Although significant progress has been made in the melting, casting, and near-net-shape forming of nickel aluminides, some issues still remain. These include the need for (1)high-strength castable composition for turbochargers, furnace furniture, and hot-die applications; (2) castability (fluidity, hot-shortness, porosity, etc.); (3) weld reparability of castings; and (4) hot fabricability of cast ingots. All of the issues listed above can be {open_quotes}show stoppers{close_quotes} for the commercial application of nickel aluminides. This report describes work completed to address some of these issues during the fourth quarter of FY 1994.

  3. Ni{sub 3}Al technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Viswanathan, S.; Santella, M.L.

    1997-04-01

    Ductile Ni{sub 3}Al and Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys have been identified for a range of applications. These applications require the use of material in a variety of product forms such as sheet, plate, bar, wire, tubing, piping, and castings. Although significant progress has been made in the melting, casting, and near-net-shape forming of nickel aluminides, some issues still remain. These include the need for: (1) high-strength castable composition for many applications that have been identified; (2) castability (mold type, fluidity, hot-shortness, porosity, etc.); (3) weld reparability of castings; and (4) workability of cast or powder metallurgy product to sheet, bar, and wire. The four issues listed above can be {open_quotes}show stoppers{close_quotes} for the commercial application of nickel aluminides. This report describes the work completed to address some of these issues during FY 1996.

  4. Observable Proxies For 26 Al Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, Christopher L; Young, Patrick A; Ellinger, Carola I; Arnett, William D

    2008-01-01

    We consider the cospatial production of elements in supernova explosions to find observationally detectable proxies for enhancement of {sup 26}Al in supernova ejecta and stellar systems. Using four progenitors we explore a range of 1D explosions at different energies and an asymmetric 3D explosion. We find that the most reliable indicator of the presence of {sup 26}Al in unmixed ejecta is a very low S/Si ratio ({approx} 0.05). Production of N in O/S/Si-rich regions is also indicative. The biologically important element P is produced at its highest abundance in the same regions. Proxies should be detectable in supernova ejecta with high spatial resolution multi wavelength observations, but the small absolute abundance of material injected into a proto-planetary disk makes detection unlikely in existing or forming stellar/planetary systems.

  5. Forging of FeAl intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, O.; Juarez, J.; Campillo, B.; Martinez, L.; Schneibel, J.H.

    1994-09-01

    Much activity has been concentrated on the development of intermetallic compounds with the aim of improving tensile ductility, fracture toughness and high notch sensitivity in order to develop an attractive combination of properties for high and low temperature applications. This paper reports experience in processing and forging of FeAl intermetallic of B2 type. During the experiments two different temperatures were employed, and the specimens were forged after annealing in air, 10{sup {minus}2} torr vacuum and argon. From the results it was learned that annealing FeAl in argon atmosphere prior to forging resulted in better deformation behavior than for the other two environments. For the higher forging temperature used in the experiments (700C), the as-cast microstructure becomes partially recrystallized.

  6. Developing Wide-Spectrum Antiproteotoxicity Agents to Treat ALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    phenotypes in C. elegans and mouse models of ALS. Progress Report Wang, Jiou 5 Overview: In this Aim, we hypothesize that increased HSF -1...2009a; Wang et al., 2009b). In a related finding, a reduction in HSF -1 activity dramatically precipitated neuronal toxicity in TDP-43 transgenic C...Fiesel et al., 2010; Sephton et al., 2010; Wu et al., 2010). Previously, we made an observation of genetic interaction between TDP-43 and HSF -1

  7. Adherent Al2O3 scales produced on undoped NiCrAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    1986-01-01

    Repeated oxidation and polishing of high purity Ni-15Cr-13Al has dramatically changed its cyclic oxidation behavior from nonadherent to adherent. No apparent change in scale phase, morphology or interface structure occurred during this transition, dismissing any mechanism based on pegging, vacancy sink, or growth stress. The principle change that did occur was a reduction in the sulfur content from 10 ppmw to 3 ppmw after 25 cycles at 1120 C. These observations are used to support the model of Al2O3 scale adherence put forth by Smeggil et al. which claims that Al2O3 scale spallation occurs due to sulfur segregation and bond deterioration at the oxide-metal interface.

  8. Fabrication of Fe-Al nanoparticles by selective oxidation of Fe-Al thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Pyungwoo; Shin, Seungchan; Jung, Chip-Sup; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Seomoon, Kyu

    2013-04-01

    The possibility of a new technique for fabricating nanoparticles from thin films using selective oxidation in an atmosphere mixture of water vapor and hydrogen was investigated. Fe-5wt.%Al films were RF-sputtered and annealed in the atmosphere mixture at 900°C for up to 200 min, in order to oxidize aluminum selectively. Thermodynamics simulation showed that temperatures exceeding 800°C are necessary to prevent iron from being oxidized, as confirmed by the depth profile of XPS. As the annealing time increased, the morphology of the 200-nm Fe-Al films changed from the continuous to the discontinuous type; thus, particulate Fe-Al films formed after 100 min. The particulate 10- to 100-nm Fe-Al films showed super-paramagnetic behavior after the oxidation. Thus, a new technique for fabricating nanoparticles was successfully introduced using selective oxidation.

  9. Interdiffusion in the Mg-Al system and Intrinsic Diffusion in (Al3Mg2) Phase

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, Sarah; Bermudez, Katrina; Kulkarni, Nagraj S; Sohn, Yong Ho

    2011-01-01

    Increasing use and development of lightweight Mg-alloys have led to the desire for more fundamental research in and understanding of Mg-based systems. As a strengthening component, Al is one of the most important and common alloying elements for Mg-alloys. In this study, solid-to-solid diffusion couple techniques were employed to examine the interdiffusion between pure Mg and Al. Diffusion anneals were carried out at 300 , 350 , and 400 C for 720, 360, and 240 hours, respectively. Optical and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) were employed to observe the formation of the intermetallics -Al12Mg17 and -Al3Mg2, but not -phase. Concentration profiles were determined using X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS). The growth constants and activation energies were determined for each intermetallic phase.

  10. 'Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi's 3-Step Magnitude System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafez, Ihsan; Stephenson, F. Richard; Orchiston, Wayne

    'Abd al-Rahmān al-ūfī's Book of the Fixed Stars dates from around AD 964 and is one of the most important medieval Arabic treatises on astronomy. In this paper we begin with a very brief introduction to the Book of the Fixed Stars. This book contains an extensive star catalogue that lists star coordinates and magnitude estimates for all of the Ptolemaic stars. However, in his book al-hūfī utilized three distinct intermediate magnitude values whereas Ptolemy only mentioned two. We believe that al-hūfī used what we have termed a '3-step intermediate magnitude system,' which is more accurate than Ptolemy's 2-step intermediate system. In this paper we examine in detail the accuracy of this unique 3-step system in comparison with Ptolemy's and modern magnitude values.

  11. Local stress-induced effects on AlGaAs/AlOx oxidation front shape

    SciTech Connect

    Chouchane, F.; Almuneau, G. Arnoult, A.; Lacoste, G.; Fontaine, C.; Cherkashin, N.

    2014-07-28

    The lateral oxidation of thick AlGaAs layers (>500 nm) is studied. An uncommon shape of the oxide tip is evidenced and attributed to the embedded stress distribution, inherent to the oxidation reaction. Experimental and numerical studies of the internal strain in oxidized Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As/GaAs structures were carried out by dark-field electron holography and finite element methods. A mapping of the strain distribution around the AlGaAs/oxide interface demonstrates the main role of internal stress on the shaping of the oxide front. These results demonstrate the high relevance of strain in oxide-confined III-V devices, in particular, with over-500-nm thick AlOx confinement layers.

  12. Rechargeable Al/Cl2 battery with molten AlCl4/-/ electrolyte.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G. L.; Giner, J.; Burrows, B.

    1972-01-01

    A molten salt system based on Al- and Cl2 carbon electrodes, with an AlCl3 alkali chloride eutectic as electrolyte, offers promise as a rechargeable, high energy density battery which can operate at a relatively low temperature. Electrode kinetic studies showed that the electrode reactions at the Al anode were rapid and that the observed passivation phenomena were due to the formation at the electrode surface of a solid salt layer resulting from concentration changes on anodic or cathodic current flow. It was established that carbon electrodes were intrinsically active for chlorine reduction in AlCl3-alkali chloride melts. By means of a rotating vitreous carbon disk electrode, the kinetic parameters were determined.

  13. Response to de la Iglesia et al.

    PubMed

    Yetish, Gandhi; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael; Wood, Brian; Pontzer, Herman; Manger, Paul R; Wilson, Charles; McGregor, Ronald; Siegel, Jerome M

    2016-04-04

    We wish to respond to the commentary of de la Iglesia et al. [1]. Studies comparing sleep in different communities have different goals. One frequent goal has been to determine how sleep is affected by manipulating specific 'modern' conditions. Many studies have investigated the effect of artificial light and electronic entertainment. Such studies have clearly shown that light, particularly blue light, delays sleep onset [2]. Studying the effect of artificial light on sleep was not a goal of our study.

  14. Hypermetabolism as a Risk Factor for ALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    4 Introduction Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of motor...Gonzalez de Aguilar JL, & Loeffler JP: Evidence for defective energy homeostasis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : benefit of a high-energy diet in a...and supplements in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurodegenerative disorders. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 6:631- 43, 2002. 8. Lagier

  15. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS.

  16. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS. PMID:26441696

  17. An Al Qaeda Way of War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    which may lead to the refinement of strategy and policy. Therefore, political authorities must be closely integrated with military planners to ensure...series of decisive points that lead to control of geographic or force- oriented objectives. Operations designed using lines of operations generally...Ramzi Yousef, the individual responsible for leading the attack, was trained in Afghanistan during the war with the Soviet Union.68 Al Qaeda utilized

  18. Structure and ductility of TiAl

    SciTech Connect

    Imayev, R.; Salishchev, G.; Imayev, V.; Shagiev, M.; Kuznetzov, A.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of structural factors (grain size and grain boundary structure) and strain rate on the deformation mechanism and ductility of TiAl in the temperature range of brittle-to-ductile transition and at room temperature was systematically investigated. It has been established that it is possible to substantially affect the deformation mechanism and ductility of this intermetallic by controlling structural factors, particularly the grain size, and varying the strain rate.

  19. Al Kazim Water Supply, Nassriya, Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-23

    water network a perimeter fence Project Assessment Objectives. The objective of this project assessment was to provide real-time information...network connecting to the existing water network . To date, the Al Kazim Water Supply project results are consistent with the original contract...treatment plant, an above ground storage reservoir, a pipe network connecting to the existing water network , and an approximately 160 linear meter

  20. Al Ager Water Compact Unit, Nassriya, Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-22

    plant was to contain a reverse osmosis unit, an above-ground storage reservoir, a pipe network connecting to the existing water network , and a...the existing water network , and a perimeter fence for the new facility. To date, the Al Ager Water Compact Unit project results are consistent with...of 110 millimeter (mm) polyvinyl chloride (PVC), connection to the existing water network , and a perimeter fence measuring approximately 50-m x 30-m

  1. Hypermetabolism as a Risk Factor for ALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Ubiquitinated TDP-43 in frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis . Science 314, 130–133 (2006). 2. Weihl, C. C. et al. TDP-43...body fat, likely working through a protein called Tbc1d1 which is known to control fat metabolism in skeletal muscle . To test this hypothesis, we...generated conditional Tdp-43 knockout mice using a muscle -specific (MLC) driver of Cre recombinase. Loss of Tdp-43 in skeletal muscle led to adult onset

  2. 75 FR 5120 - United States, et al. v. Stericycle, Inc., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... Antitrust Division United States, et al. v. Stericycle, Inc., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and... with the United States District Court for the District of Columbia in United States, et al. v. Stericycle, Inc., et al., Civil Action No. 1:09-cv- 02268. On November 30, 2009, the United States and...

  3. Investigation of Phase Equilibria and Some Properties of Alloys of Ti-Al-Fe and Ti-Al-V Systems,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Some data on the structure and properties of Ti-Al-Fe alloys are presented. The phase equilibria in alloys in the system Ti-Al-V were studies...However, the data available in the literature on phase equilibria in the systems Ti-Al-Fe and Ti-Al-V require refinement, as they are insufficiently

  4. An ALS (Advanced Light Source) handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This booklet aims to provide the prospective user of the Advanced Light Source with a concise description of the radiation a researcher might expect at his or her experimental station. The focus is therefore on the characteristics of the light that emerges from insertion devices and bending magnets and on how components of the beam lines further alter the properties of the radiation. The specifications and operating parameters of the ALS injection system and storage ring are of only peripheral interest. To this end, Sections 3 and 5 and most of Section 4 are devoted to summary presentations, by means of performance plots and tabular compilations, of radiation characteristics at the ALS--spectral brightness, flux, coherent power, resolution, time structure, etc.--assuming a representative set of four undulators and one wiggler and a corresponding set of five beam lines. As a complement to these performance summaries, Section 1 is a general introductory discussion of synchrotron radiation and the ALS, and Section 2 provides a compendious introduction to the characteristics of synchrotron radiation from bending magnets, wigglers, and undulators. In addition, Section 4 briefly introduces the theory of diffraction grating and crystal monochromators. 15 refs., 28 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Diet and dietetics in al-Andalus.

    PubMed

    Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Huetos-Solano, Maria D; García-Lorda, Pilar; Bulló, Mònica

    2006-08-01

    Al-Andalus society (711-1492) based its idea of health on the wisdom of Classical Greece, the Hippocratic-Galenic theories, as well as the Persian and Hindu cultures. The twelfth century in al-Andalus is considered to be the most prolific period for works of a scientific and technical nature. At the time, the main treatises on dietetics were written and this science reached its widest expression with such leading figures as Ibn Wāfīd, Avenzoar, Averroes and Maimonides, whose works revealed the first scientific knowledge on the nutritional processes of the human body. Diet was regarded as being essential for health and the prevention of disease. Dietary guidelines were written for different age groups, different body types and different seasons of the year. The amount of food to be ingested, the number of meals recommended and the order in which the food should be consumed were all issues that were discussed. A variety of foods were thought to have medicinal properties, some of which are known today. The diet in al-Andalus was varied and very probably made a substantial contribution to the origin of the present-day Mediterranean diet, rich in olive oil, wholemeal cereals, fruit and vegetables, fish, lamb, poultry, nuts and spices. We also find that many of the terms in current use in diet and agriculture are a living testimony to the Arabic influence, as are many of the dishes of our varied Mediterranean gastronomy.

  6. Fabrication of NiAl Microreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Alman, D.E.; Wilson, R.D.; Dewey, T.; Paul, B.K.

    2000-07-01

    Chemical microreactors offer opportunities for portable powder generation, on-site waste remediation, point-of-use chemical synthesis, and heat-transfer. The material requirements for this application include chemical inertness and the ability to be fabricated into structures that contain internal features of complex geometries and small (<250 μm) dimensions. It has been recognized that materials with limited formability, like ceramics and intermetallics, will be required for high temperature applications. Reactors from these materials have been produced from powder tapes. However, problems associated with binder removal and sintering result in dimensional instability of the internal geometry which degrades the performance of the reactor. In this paper, a method for forming an array of internal microchannels in a NiAl device that avoids the dimensional instability of powder processing is demonstrated. Microchannels are precision machined (via laser ablation) into elemental Ni and Al foils. During bonding, the foils are converted into NiAl. Results show that this is a viable method for producing aluminide-based structures containing complex, internal features.

  7. Microplastic flow in SIC/AL composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, N.; Arsenault, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    Experimentally it has been determined that if a composite containing a reinforcement which has a different (in general lower) thermal coefficient of expansion as compared to the matrix, then upon cooling from the processing or annealing temperature, plastic relaxation of the misfit strain will occur. Also, experimentally it has been shown that as the size of the reinforcement is increased, i.e., from small spheres to large spheres, there is a decrease in the summation of the effective plastic strain in the matrix. In other words there is a decrease in the average dislocation density in the matrix. However, if the shape of the reinforcement is changed from spherical to short fiber to continuous filament, then the dislocation density increases. This experimental data is obtained at a constant volume fraction. A very simple model of plastic relaxation based on prismatic punching of dislocations from the interface can account for the decrease in the dislocation density with an increase reinforcement size, and the increase in dislocation density when changing the shape from a sphere to a continuous filament. A FEM analysis of the shape factor is also capable of predicting the correct trend. However, at present the continuum mechanics methods that have been investigated can not predict the size dependence. A simple model to explain the size effect in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/NiAl composites based on the deformation characteristics of NiAl will be discussed.

  8. A comparative wear study on Al-Li and Al-Li/SiC composite

    SciTech Connect

    Okumus, S. Cem Karslioglu, Ramazan Akbulut, Hatem

    2013-12-16

    Aluminum-lithium based unreinforced (Al-8090) alloy and Al-8090/SiCp/17 vol.% metal matrix composite produced by extrusion after spray co-deposition. A dry ball-on disk wear test was carried out for both alloy and composite. The tests were performed against an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ball, 10 mm in diameter, at room temperature and in laboratory air conditions with a relative humidity of 40-60%. Sliding speed was chosen as 1.0 ms{sup −1} and normal loads of 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 N were employed at a constant sliding distance of 1000 m. The wear damage on the specimens was evaluated via measurement of wear depth and diameter. Microstructural and wear characterization was carried out via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that wear loss of the Al-8090/SiC composite was less than that of the Al-8090 matrix alloy. Plastic deformation observed on the wear surface of the composite and the matrix alloy, and the higher the applied load the greater the plastic deformation. Scanning electron microscopy examinations of wear tracks also reveal that delamination fracture was the dominant wear mechanism during the wear progression. Friction coefficient was maximum at the low applied load in the case of the Al-8090/SiC composite while a gradual increase was observed with applied load for the matrix alloy.

  9. Evaluation of aerial microbial pollutants in Al-Haram Al-Nabawi during pilgrimage of 2013.

    PubMed

    Alananbeh, Kholoud M; Boquellah, Nahla; Kaff, Nadia Al; Ahmadi, Majid Al

    2017-01-01

    Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah is the second holiest site in Islam. The possibility of new emerging microbes is valid due to the increased number of pilgrims. The objectives of the current study were to estimate the numbers of fungi and bacteria inside and outside Al-Haram Al-Nabawi and to find whether new bacterial and fungal species have emerged compared to previous studies. Air samples were collected twice a day from 12 spots and four directions during the pilgrim year of 2013 for four consecutive weeks by using the sedimentation method. Thirty five genera and fifty eight species were identified. The most recovered bacterial genera were Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Bacillus, and Dermacoccus with 32.47%, 18.18%, 12.85%, and 11.23%, respectively. Fifty nine isolates of fungi were molecularly identified. Aspergillus species had the highest percentage (78%). The other fungal genera identified (Alternaria triticina, Emericella nidulans, Emericella striata, Mucor circinelloides, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium minioluteum, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Syncephalastrum racemosum) had less than 5% frequency. In places such as Al-Haram Al-Nabawi, a large and crowded public (millions) exist especially during pilgrimages and Ramadan, thus, exposure to microorganisms is high. On the other hand, microorganism infectivity depends on many factors including their virulence, landing site, and person's immunity. For those reasons, many aspects should be considered to avoid aerosol contaminants.

  10. Internal photoemission in Ag-Al2O3-Al junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guedes, J. M. P.; Slayman, C. W.; Gustafson, T. K.; Jain, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The magnitude of the photon-induced current in Ag-Al2O3-Al metal-oxide-metal junctions has been studied as a function of photon energy and angle of incident radiation. Photocurrents were theoretically analyzed on the basis of a modified vacuum photoemission model (Jain, 1975; Slayman et al., to be published). Optical constants previously reported in the literature (Irani et al., 1971; Ehnrereich et al., 1963) were used to calculate the true spatial generation rate in Ag and Al as a function of the angle, polarization of incident radiation, and film thickness. Results were found to be in very good agreement with experimentally determined values for a tunable dye laser with a KDP doubling crystal pumped by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with a LiIO3 doubling crystal. The system provided risetimes of 50 ns or less and peak powers of 10 W. Under short circuit conditions, the photoresponse to incident power was linear up to available power densities of 10 kW/sq cm. Quantum efficiencies of about 0.1% at zero-bias, near 3.8 eV under P polarization, were typically observed.

  11. Redistribution of Ti and Al in deuterium charged TiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legzdina, D.; Robertson, I. M.; Birnbaum, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    The redistribution of titanium and aluminum in a single-phase TiAl alloy that has been exposed to a high pressure of deuterium gas at high temperature is studied. The microstructure in the as-received, uncharged condition consisted of single-phase gamma TiAl grains and a random distribution of precipitates. Precipitates were distributed throughout the matrix and along the grain boundaries. The chemistry of the precipitates varied considerably; some were rich in Al, while other were mostly Ti with some Si and Al. The dislocation density in most grains was low, although in a few grains a high dislocation density was observed. FCC deuterides with a lattice parameter of 0.45 nm form in a Ti-52.1Al-2.1Ta (at. pct) alloy after exposure to 1.38 MPa of deuterium gas at 650 C for 213 hr. The structure and lattice parameter are consistent with the formation of Ti(l)D2. The deuterides that form in this alloy are enriched in Ti and deficient in Al and Ta compared to the deuteride-free matrix. Regions of the matrix contiguous with the deuterides have a correspondingly enhanced aluminum and tantalum concentration.

  12. Room Temperature Radiolytic Synthesized Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Abedini, Alam; Saion, Elias; Larki, Farhad; Zakaria, Azmi; Noroozi, Monir; Soltani, Nayereh

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared by a gamma irradiation method in an aqueous system in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and isopropanol respectively as a colloidal stabilizer and scavenger of hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals. The gamma irradiation was carried out in a 60Co gamma source chamber with different doses up to 120 kGy. The formation of Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 nanoparticles was observed initially by the change in color of the colloidal samples from colorless to brown. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of bonds between polymer chains and the metal surface at all radiation doses. Results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that Cu@CuAlO2-Al2O3 nanoparticles are in a core-shell structure. By controlling the absorbed dose and precursor concentration, nanoclusters with different particle sizes were obtained. The average particle diameter increased with increased precursor concentration and decreased with increased dose. This is due to the competition between nucleation, growth, and aggregation processes in the formation of nanoclusters during irradiation. PMID:23109893

  13. Corrosion Control through a Better Understanding of the Metallic Substrate/Organic Coating/Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-06

    immediate vicinity of the phosphate. The electron microprobe photographs of Iezzi [16] clearly show the dissolution of the phos- phate, and the work of...1981). 15. J. E. Devries, J. W. Holubka, and R. A. Dickie, Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Dev. Vol. 22, p.256 (1983). 16. R. A. Iezzi and H. Leidheiser, Jr

  14. Probing the Interaction of Ionic Liquids with CO2: A Raman Spectroscopy and Ab Initio Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-05

    thinking, impaired muscular coordination, unconsciousness, and death. To both ensure the health of the crew and prevent contaminant damage to the...Scovazzo, P.; Koval, C.; Noble, R. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2004, 43 (12), 3049-3054. [16] Cadena , C.; Anthony, S., J. K.; Morrow, T. I.; Brennecke, J

  15. Unveiling the Semicoherent Interface with Definite Orientation Relationships between Reinforcements and Matrix in Novel Al3BC/Al Composites.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongfeng; Qian, Zhao; Ma, Xia; Chen, Houwen; Gao, Tong; Wu, Yuying; Liu, Xiangfa

    2016-10-05

    High-strength lightweight Al-based composites are promising materials for a wide range of applications. To provide high performance, a strong bonding interface for effective load transfer from the matrix to the reinforcement is essential. In this work, the novel Al3BC reinforced Al composites have been in situ fabricated through a liquid-solid reaction method and the bonding interface between Al3BC and Al matrix has been unveiled. The HRTEM characterizations on the Al3BC/Al interface verify it to be a semicoherent bonding structure with definite orientation relationships: (0001)Al3BC//(11̅1)Al;[112̅0]Al3BC//[011]Al. Periodic arrays of geometrical misfit dislocations are also observed along the interface at each (0001)Al3BC plane or every five (11̅1)Al planes. This kind of interface between the reinforcement and the matrix is strong enough for effective load transfer, which would lead to the evidently improved strength and stiffness of the introduced new Al3BC/Al composites.

  16. The oxidation of Ni-rich Ni-Al intermetallics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, Joseph; Smialek, James L.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1988-01-01

    The oxidation of Ni-Al intermetallic alloys in the beta-NiAl phase field and in the two phase beta-NiAl/gamma'-Ni3Al phase field has been studied between 1000 and 1400 C. The stoichiometric beta-NiAl alloy doped with Zr was superior to other alloy compositions under cyclic and isothermal oxidation. The isothermal growth rates did not increase monotonically as the alloy Al content was decreased. The characteristically ridged alpha-Al2O3 scale morphology, consisting of cells of thin, textured oxide with thick growth ridges at cell boundaries, forms on oxidized beta-NiAl alloys. The correlation of scale features with isothermal growth rates indicates a predominant grain boundary diffusion growth mechanism. The 1200 C cyclic oxidation resistance decreases near the lower end of the beta-NiAl phase field.

  17. Unexpected Stability of Al4H6: a Borane Analog?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Li; Grubisic, Andrej; Stokes, Sarah; Gantefor, Gerd; Bowen, Kit; Boggavarapu, Kiran; Willis, Mary; Jena, Puru; Burgert, Ralph; Schnockel, Hans; Cordes, James

    2007-03-01

    While boron has many hydrides, aluminum has been thought to exhibit relatively few. A combined anion photoelectron and density functional theory computational study of the Al4H6^- anion, and its corresponding neutral, Al4H6, showed that Al4H6 can be understood in terms of the Wade-Mingos rules for electron counting, suggesting that it may be a borane analog. The data support an Al4H6 structure with a distorted tetrahedral aluminum atom framework, four terminal Al-H bonds, and two sets of counter-positioned Al-H-Al bridging bonds. The large HOMO-LUMO gap found for Al4H6 together with its exceptionally high heat of combustion further suggests that Al4H6 may be an important energetic material, if it can be prepared in bulk. This report announces the opening of a new chapter in aluminum-hydrogen chemistry.

  18. Creep and Toughness of Cryomilled NiAl Containing Cr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Aikin, Beverly; Salem, Jon

    2000-01-01

    NiAl-AlN + Cr composites were produced by blending cryomilled NiAl powder with approx. 10 vol % Cr flakes. In comparison to the as-consolidated matrices, hot isostatically pressed Cr-modified materials did not demonstrate any significant improvement in toughness. Hot extruded NiAl-AlN+10.5Cr, however, possessed a toughness twice that determine for the base NiAl-AlN alloy. Measurement of the 1200 to 1400 K plastic flow properties revealed that the strength of the composites was completely controlled by the properties of the NiAl-AlN matrices. This behavior could be successfully modeled by the Rule-of-Mixtures, where load is shed from the weak Cr to the strong matrix.

  19. The Nature of Interfaces in Al-1050/Al-1050 and Al-1050/Mg-AZ31 Couples Joined by Magnetic Pulse Welding (MPW)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, A.; Aizenshtein, M.; Moshe, G.; Cohen, S. R.; Frage, N.

    2013-07-01

    The microstructure and the phase composition of the interfaces of Al-1050/Al-1050 and Al-1050/Mg-AZ31 magnetic pulse welding (MPW) joints were characterized by SEM and TEM analyses. The mechanical properties were tested by nanoindentation. Properties of the Al-1050/Al-1050 interface joint were established. The interface is almost free from Al3Fe precipitates, which are present in the base metal. The hardness value is higher than that of the base metal; however, values of the Young's modulus of the interface and base metal are similar. It was suggested that the interface evolution in the Al-1050/Al-1050 system includes local melting and rapid solidification of the base materials. A wavy shaped heterogeneous interface was detected in the Al-1050/Mg-AZ31 joints. Some areas are free from visible intermetallic phases (IMPs), while others contain pockets of relatively coarse intermetallic precipitates. The presence of a relatively large fraction of globular porosity at the interface indicates that local melting takes place in the course of MPW. TEM characterization of regions free of IMPs at the interface reveals regions consisting of fcc supersaturated Al-Mg solid solution, apparently formed as a result of local mechanical alloying during MPW. In other regions, the composition and structure correspond to the Mg17Al12 phase, which was probably formed by local melting and rapid solidification.

  20. Effect of nitrogen incorporation into Al-based gate insulators in AlON/AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asahara, Ryohei; Nozaki, Mikito; Yamada, Takahiro; Ito, Joyo; Nakazawa, Satoshi; Ishida, Masahiro; Ueda, Tetsuzo; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2016-10-01

    The superior physical and electrical properties of aluminum oxynitride (AlON) gate dielectrics on AlGaN/GaN substrates in terms of thermal stability, reliability, and interface quality were demonstrated by direct AlON deposition and subsequent annealing. Nitrogen incorporation into alumina was proven to be beneficial both for suppressing intermixing at the insulator/AlGaN interface and reducing the number of electrical defects in Al2O3 films. Consequently, we achieved high-quality AlON/AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with improved stability against charge injection and a reduced interface state density as low as 1.2 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1. The impact of nitrogen incorporation into the insulator will be discussed on the basis of experimental findings.

  1. Al-Ca and Al-Fe metal-metal composite strength, conductivity, and microstructure relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyong June

    2011-01-01

    Deformation processed metal-metal composites (DMMC’s) are composites formed by mechanical working (i.e., rolling, swaging, or wire drawing) of two-phase, ductile metal mixtures. Since both the matrix and reinforcing phase are ductile metals, the composites can be heavily deformed to reduce the thickness and spacing of the two phases. Recent studies have shown that heavily drawn DMMCs can achieve anomalously high strength and outstanding combinations of strength and conductivity. In this study, Al-Fe wire composite with 0.07, 0.1, and 0.2 volume fractions of Fe filaments and Al-Ca wire composite with 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09 volume fractions of Ca filaments were produced in situ, and their mechanical properties were measured as a function of deformation true strain. The Al-Fe composites displayed limited deformation of the Fe phase even at high true strains, resulting in little strengthening effect in those composites. Al-9vol%Ca wire was deformed to a deformation true strain of 13.76. The resulting Ca second-phase filaments were deformed to thicknesses on the order of one micrometer. The ultimate tensile strength increased exponentially with increasing deformation true strain, reaching a value of 197 MPa at a true strain of 13.76. This value is 2.5 times higher than the value predicted by the rule of mixtures. A quantitative relationship between UTS and deformation true strain was determined. X-ray diffraction data on transformation of Al + Ca microstructures to Al + various Al-Ca intermetallic compounds were obtained at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Electrical conductivity was measured over a range of true strains and post-deformation heat treatment schedules.

  2. Covalent bonds in AlMnSi icosahedral quasicrystalline approximant

    PubMed

    Kirihara; Nakata; Takata; Kubota; Nishibori; Kimura; Sakata

    2000-10-16

    Electron density distributions were obtained using the maximum entropy method with synchrotron radiation powder data. In the metallic Al12Re, metallic bonding was observed for the icosahedral Al12 cluster with central Re atom. In the nonmetallic alpha-AlMnSi 1/1 approximant, covalent bonds were found in the electron density distribution of the Mackay icosahedral cluster without central atom. Rather than the Hume-Rothery mechanism, the covalency of Al (Si) icosahedron and that between Al (Si) and Mn atoms is considered to be the origin of the pseudogap and nonmetallic behavior of alpha-AlMnSi.

  3. Development of SiAlON materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layden, G. K.

    1977-01-01

    Cold pressing and sintering techniques were used to produce ceramic bodies in which the major phase was beta prime Si3-Al-O-N4 solid solution. A variety of foreign oxides were used to promote liquid phase sintering, and this resulted in the incorporation of additional solid phases in the ceramic bodies which controlled elevated temperature properties. None of the bodies studied to date exhibited both adequate high temperature mechanical properties and oxidation resistance. Criteria are suggested to guide the formulation of bodies with improved high temperature properties.

  4. Ultranarrow AuPd and Al wires

    SciTech Connect

    Altomare, Fabio; Chang, Albert M.; Melloch, Michael R.; Hong Yuguang; Tu, Charles W.

    2005-04-25

    In this letter, we discuss a versatile template technique aimed to the fabrication of sub-10 nm wide wires. Using this technique, we have measured AuPd wires, 12 nm wide and as long as 20 {mu}m. Even materials that form a strong superficial oxide, and thus not suited to be used in combination with other techniques, can be employed. In particular, we have measured Al wires, with lateral width smaller or comparable to 10 nm, and length exceeding 10 {mu}m.

  5. Tumor-Wachstumsmodellierung als parametrisches Bildregistrierproblem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Stefan; Jungmann, Jan Ole; Mang, Andreas; Buzug, Thorsten M.

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit stellen wir ein neues Modell zur Kopplung des Tumormasseeffektes an die, der Wachstumsmodellierung unterliegende, anisotrope Reaktionsdiffusionsgleichung vor. Die Gleichung wird auf einem hochaufgelösten Voxelgitter diskretisiert. Eine Modellierung der Anisotropie des Diffusionsprozesses ermöglicht die Integration von Diffusions-Tensor-Bildgebungsdaten. Die raumfordernde Wirkung des Tumors wird als parametrisches Bildregistrierproblem aufgefasst. Hierbei wird die resultierende Verteilung der Tumorzellkonzentration in die zu optimierende Zielfunktion integriert. Erste qualitative Ergebnisse zeigen, dass eine Minimierung der aufgestellten Zielfunktion zu einer plausiblen Modellierung des Masseeffektes führt.

  6. Operating experience with the ALS linac

    SciTech Connect

    Selph, F.; Massoletti, D.

    1991-05-01

    The linac injector for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at LBL was recently put into operation. Energy is 50 MeV, frequency 3 GHz. The electron gun delivers up to 6nC in a 3.0-ns bunch at 120 kV. A train of bunches is injected into a 1-Hz booster and accelerated to 1.5 GHz for storage ring injection. A magnetic analysis system is used for optimizing the linac. Measured beam properties from the gun and after acceleration in the linac are described. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  7. ALS Along the Axons - Expression of Coding and Noncoding RNA Differs in Axons of ALS models.

    PubMed

    Rotem, Nimrod; Magen, Iddo; Ionescu, Ariel; Gershoni-Emek, Noga; Altman, Topaz; Costa, Christopher J; Gradus, Tal; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Willis, Dianna E; Ben-Dov, Iddo Z; Hornstein, Eran; Perlson, Eran

    2017-03-16

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a multifactorial lethal motor neuron disease with no known treatment. Although the basic mechanism of its degenerative pathogenesis remains poorly understood, a subcellular spatial alteration in RNA metabolism is thought to play a key role. The nature of these RNAs remains elusive, and a comprehensive characterization of the axonal RNAs involved in maintaining neuronal health has yet to be described. Here, using cultured spinal cord (SC) neurons grown using a compartmented platform followed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, we find that RNA expression differs between the somatic and axonal compartments of the neuron, for both mRNA and microRNA (miRNA). Further, the introduction of SOD1(G93A) and TDP43(A315T), established ALS-related mutations, changed the subcellular expression and localization of RNAs within the neurons, showing a spatial specificity to either the soma or the axon. Altogether, we provide here the first combined inclusive profile of mRNA and miRNA expression in two ALS models at the subcellular level. These data provide an important resource for studies on the roles of local protein synthesis and axon degeneration in ALS and can serve as a possible target pool for ALS treatment.

  8. Revisiting the Al/Al2O3 Interface: Coherent Interfaces and Misfit Accommodation

    DOE PAGES

    Pilania, Ghanshyam; Thijsse, Barend J.; Hoagland, Richard G.; ...

    2014-03-27

    We report the coherent and semi-coherent Al/α-Al2O3 interfaces using molecular dynamics simulations with a mixed, metallic-ionic atomistic model. For the coherent interfaces, both Al-terminated and O-terminated nonstoichiometric interfaces have been studied and their relative stability has been established. To understand the misfit accommodation at the semi-coherent interface, a 1-dimensional (1D) misfit dislocation model and a 2-dimensional (2D) dislocation network model have been studied. For the latter case, our analysis reveals an interface dislocation structure with a network of three sets of parallel dislocations, each with pure-edge character, giving rise to a pattern of coherent and stacking-fault-like regions at the interface.more » Structural relaxation at elevated temperatures leads to a further change of the dislocation pattern, which can be understood in terms of a competition between the stacking fault energy and the dislocation interaction energy at the interface. In conclusion, our results are expected to serve as an input for the subsequent dislocation dynamics models to understand and predict the macroscopic mechanical behavior of Al/α-Al2O3 composite heterostructures.« less

  9. Revisiting the Al/Al2O3 Interface: Coherent Interfaces and Misfit Accommodation

    PubMed Central

    Pilania, Ghanshyam; Thijsse, Barend J.; Hoagland, Richard G.; Lazić, Ivan; Valone, Steven M.; Liu, Xiang-Yang

    2014-01-01

    We study the coherent and semi-coherent Al/α-Al2O3 interfaces using molecular dynamics simulations with a mixed, metallic-ionic atomistic model. For the coherent interfaces, both Al-terminated and O-terminated nonstoichiometric interfaces have been studied and their relative stability has been established. To understand the misfit accommodation at the semi-coherent interface, a 1-dimensional (1D) misfit dislocation model and a 2-dimensional (2D) dislocation network model have been studied. For the latter case, our analysis reveals an interface dislocation structure with a network of three sets of parallel dislocations, each with pure-edge character, giving rise to a pattern of coherent and stacking-fault-like regions at the interface. Structural relaxation at elevated temperatures leads to a further change of the dislocation pattern, which can be understood in terms of a competition between the stacking fault energy and the dislocation interaction energy at the interface. Our results are expected to serve as an input for the subsequent dislocation dynamics models to understand and predict the macroscopic mechanical behavior of Al/α-Al2O3 composite heterostructures. PMID:24670940

  10. Millimeter distance effects of surface plasmon polaritons in electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickmott, T. W.

    2017-02-01

    Electroforming of metal-insulator-metal diodes is a soft dielectric breakdown that changes the high resistance of as-prepared diodes to a low resistance state. Electroforming of Al-Al2O3-metal diodes with anodic Al2O3 results in voltage-controlled negative resistance in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, electroluminescence (EL), and electron emission into vacuum (EM). EL is due to electrons injected at the Al-Al2O3 interface combining with radiative defects in Al2O3. Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are electromagnetic waves that can be excited by photons or electrons. SPPs are confined to a metal-dielectric interface, cause large electric fields in the metal and dielectric, and have ranges of micrometers. The temperature dependence of I-V curves, EL, and EM of a group of electroformed Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes with Al2O3 thicknesses between 12 nm and 20 nm, group A, was measured between 200 K and 300 K. After a sequence of temperature measurements, the Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes, the Al-Al2O3 regions between diodes, and portions of the Ag on the glass region that provides contacts to the diodes are darkened. The range of darkening is >7 mm in a diode with 12 nm of Al2O3 and 2.0-3.5 mm in diodes with Al2O3 thicknesses between 14 nm and 20 nm. Darkening is attributed to the occurrence of SPPs generated by EL photons at the Ag-Al2O3 and Al-Al2O3 interfaces. The results are compared to a second group of Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes with identical Al2O3 thicknesses, group B, that were prepared in the same way as the diodes of group A except for a difference in the deposition of Al films for the two groups. Al-Al2O3-Ag diodes of group B exhibit enhanced EL, which is attributed to spontaneous emission of recombination centers in Al2O3 being enhanced by large electromagnetic fields that are due to SPPs that are generated by EL photons.

  11. TEM characterization of Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite fabricated by reactive metal infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Y.; Jia, J.; Loehman, R.E.; Ewsuk, K.G.

    1994-12-31

    The microstructure of Al/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}0{sub 3} composites made by infiltrating Al into dense mullite preforms has been characterized using transmission electron microscopy. Observations revealed that the formation of the Al/Al{sub 2}0{sub 3} composites involves three stages. Initially, Al infiltrates into a dense mullite preform through grain boundary diffusion, and reacts with mullite at grain boundaries to form a partial reaction zone. Then, a complete reaction takes place in the reaction region between the partial reaction zone and the full reaction zone to convert the dense mullite preform to a composite of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}0{sub 3} (matrix) and an Al-Si phase (thin channels). Finally, the reduced Si from the reaction diffuses out of the Al/Al{sub 2}0{sub 3} composite through the metal channels, whereas Al from the molten Al pool is continuously drawn to the reaction region until the mullite preform is consumed or the sample is removed from the molten Al pool. Based on the observed microstructure, infiltration mechanisms have been discussed, and a growth model of the composites is proposed in which the process involves repeated nucleation of Al{sub 2}0{sub 3} grains and grain growth.

  12. Oxidation of TiAl3 and L12 Coatings on Ti-45Al-5Nb Alloy at 1173K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimoto, Takumi; Kitajima, Yuri; Hayashi, Shigenari; Narita, Toshio

    Oxidation behavior of TiAl3 and L12 coated Ti-45at%Al-5at%Nb alloys at 1173K in air was investigated using mass gain measurement, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron-probe microanalysis, glow discharge optical electron spectroscopy, and glancing angle X-ray diffraction analysis. The TiAl3 formed meta-stable alumina θ-Al2O3, while the oxide scale on the L12 consisted of a duplex structure with an outer rutile TiO2 and an inner α-Al2O3. During the very initial stages of oxidation both Ti and Al in the L12 coating could be oxidized, and then the faster diffusing Ti goes out to form an outer, continuous Ti-rich oxide which covers the slow growing Al2O3. In case of the TiAl3 an outer, continuous TiO2 layer was not observed because of the smaller amount of Ti in the TiAl3. It could be concluded that the outer, Ti-rich oxide enhanced a phase transformation of Al2O3 from θ to α. To elucidate the Ti effect, Ti-vapor treated TiAl3 and Ni-50at%Al were oxidized at 1173K in air, and showed formation of an α-Al2O3, in contrast to θ-Al2O3 on their bare alloys.

  13. Fabrication of Al/Al3Ti Functionally Graded Materials by Reaction Centrifugal Mixed-Powder Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hadad, Shimaa; Sato, Hisashi; Miura-Fujiwara, Eri; Watanabe, Yoshimi

    2011-01-01

    Formation of compositional gradient in Al/Al3Ti Functionally graded materials (FGMs) fabricated by the centrifugal method (CM) depends mainly on the centrifugal force and the processing temperature. In this study, a novel centrifugal method, reaction centrifugal mixed-powder method (RCMPM), was proposed to fabricate Al/Al3Ti FGMs under fixed centrifugal force (G=80). The effects of RCMPM processing temperature on the formation of Al3Ti intermetallics, its morphology and its distribution in the fabricated Al/Al3Ti FGMs have been investigated. Fine granular Al3Ti were observed at relatively lower processing temperature while the known coarse platelet-like particles of Al3Ti could be achieved at higher casting temperatures. Moreover, Ti3Al intermetallics compound and unreacted Ti phases are also observed along with Al3Ti particles. In addition, distribution of Al3Ti intermetallics size and their volume fraction showed a significant change when the Al/Al3Ti FGMs processed at different temperatures relative to the liquidus temperature of the master alloy.

  14. Transplacental passage of 26Al from pregnant rats to fetuses and 26Al transfer through maternal milk to suckling rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, S.; Nagai, H.; Matsuzaki, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Tada, W.; Ohki, Y.; Kakimi, S.; Kobayashi, K.

    2000-10-01

    Aluminium (Al) is toxic to the growth of fetuses and sucklings. However, the incorporation of Al into fetuses and sucklings in the periods of gestation and lactation has not been well clarified because Al lacks a suitable isotope for a tracer experiment. In this study, we used 26Al (a radioisotope of Al with half-life of 716,000 yr) as a tracer, and measured 26Al incorporation into fetuses and sucklings by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). To investigate Al incorporation into fetuses through transplacental passage, 26Al ( 26AlCl 3) was subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats on day 15 of gestation. 26Al was also subcutaneoulsy injected into lactating rats from day 1 to day 20 postpartum. By day 20 of gestation, 0.2% of the 26Al injected into a pregnant rat had been transferred to the fetuses, and 26Al was detected in the brain and liver of the fetuses. On day 9 postpartum, high levels of 26Al were demonstrated in the brain, liver, kidneys and blood of suckling rats. It is concluded that 26Al subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats and/or lactating rats is incorporated into their offspring through transplacental passage and/or maternal milk.

  15. Evénements indésirables peropératoire: lecture critique du registre du bloc opératoire de l’hôpital militaire Moulay Ismail Meknès

    PubMed Central

    Kechna, Hicham; Ouzzad, Omar; Chkoura, Khalid; Loutid, Jaouad; Hachimi, Moulay Ahmed; Hanafi, Sidi Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Malgré les importants progrès qui ont été faits dans le domaine de la sécurité en anesthésie, la morbidité (grave ou non, liée complètement ou partiellement à l’anesthésie) reste cependant fréquente, et aucun praticien n’est aujourd’hui à l’abri d’un accident. Dans le contexte actuel où la priorité est donnée à la formation, à l’amélioration de la qualité et de la sécurité des soins, la survenue d’un accident d’anesthésie au bloc opératoire est un événement extrêmement traumatisant. La crainte de poursuite, le contexte émotionnel rendent cette gestion parfois très difficile. Pour cette raison, elle doit faire l’objet d’une codification, à la manière des protocoles de bloc, avec trois grands axes de gestion: le patient victime, le personnel médical et paramédical impliqué et l’analyse de l’incident pour éviter une récidive. Méthodes Dans un but d’améliorer les soins prodigués au bloc opératoire nous avons établi un registre où sont consignés continuellement les différents incidents et accidents survenu soit en salle opératoire ou en salle de surveillance post interventionnelle. Une première lecture a été faite à l’occasion des Journées d'Enseignement Post Universitaire (JEPU) de Fès (Maroc) organisées en partenariat avec les JEPU de la Pitié salpêtrière de Paris à la faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie de Fès sous le thème: «Les Situations Critiques Au Bloc Opératoire» les 17 et 18 Avril 2015. Résultats 1761 patients ont été admis aux différentes salles du bloc opératoire dont 96 en salle d’endoscopie et 17 sédations en radiologie. 29 patients (1.64%) ont présentés un incident et/ou un accident en péri opératoire. La plupart des effets indésirables sont survenus en per opératoire (58,6%). Dans 28,6% des cas en postopératoire immédiat ou en salle de surveillance post interventionnelle (SSPI). La plupart des complications survenues sont d

  16. Hot Corrosion Performance of AlO-CrO/NiCoCrAlYTa and AlO/NiCoCrAlYTa Coatings Deposited by Atmospheric Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Chong; Wang, Lei; Cheng, Nailiang; Hu, Hengfa; Liu, Yang; Song, Xiu

    2016-04-01

    AlO-CrO/NiCoCrAlYTa and AlO/NiCoCrAlYTa coatings were deposited on 316L stainless steel substrate using atmospheric plasma spraying, respectively, in order to improve the oxidation and corrosion resistance. The hot corrosion performance of the coatings at 700 and 900 °C were studied, and the detailed microstructures and phase composition of the coatings were analyzed using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer, and transmission electron microscope. The results show that both coatings are structurally featured by slatted layers, consisting of amorphous phase, Cr2O3, Ni3Al, and Al2O3. The hot corrosion resistance of AlO-CrO/NiCoCrAlYTa coating is better than that of AlO/NiCoCrAlYTa coating. This improvement is attributed to lower porosity and more compact Cr2O3 in AlO-CrO/NiCoCrAlYTa coating which performs better than Al2O3 in blocking further inward progress of corrosion and oxidization.

  17. Kerr effect enhancement and corrosion resistance improvement by AlN and AlSiN films (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Z. Y.; Miao, X. S.; Liu, X. J.; Lin, G. Q.; Wan, D. F.; Hu, Y. S.

    1990-05-01

    RE-TM amorphous thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy are promising for use in erasable optical recording media. In order to improve the drawback of easy oxidation and lower C/N of RE-TM films, some protective layers such as SiO, SiO2, ZnS, AlN, and Si3N4 films were studied.1,2 We have studied the Kerr effect enhancement and corrosion resistance improvement by AlN and AlSiN films. AlN and AlSiN films were prepared on glass, PC, and PMMA substrates by a rf magnetron sputtering system with three targets using low sputtering power. The films have a high refractive index (2-2.15), high optical transparency (over 90%), and high stability. The relation between optical properties and rf reactive sputtering conditions (Ar: N2 ratio, total pressure, sputtering power, sputtering time), composition, spectral transmittance, and uniformity of sputtering AlN and AlSiN films were studied. The Kerr rotation angle was up to 1.5° in AlN/TbFeCo/glass and AlSiN/TbFeCo/glass multilayer structures (laser is incident from air). We also studied AlN/TbFeCo/AlN/glass, AlN/TbFeCo/AlN/Al/glass, AlSiN/TbFeCo/AlSiN/glass and multilayer structure films. The results show that AlN and AlSiN films provide sufficient Kerr effect enhancement and superior corrosion resistance improvement to the RE-TM films. The microstructure of those films were also studied by JEM, XRD, and XPS.

  18. Theory and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy for Aluminum Coordination Complexes – Al K-Edge Studies of Charge and Bonding in (BDI)Al, (BDI)AlR2, and (BDI)AlX2 Complexes.

    PubMed

    Altman, Alison B; Pemmaraju, C D; Camp, Clément; Arnold, John; Minasian, Stefan G; Prendergast, David; Shuh, David K; Tyliszczak, Tolek

    2015-08-19

    Polarized aluminum K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and first-principles calculations were used to probe electronic structure in a series of (BDI)Al, (BDI)AlX2, and (BDI)AlR2 coordination compounds (X = F, Cl, I; R = H, Me; BDI = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl-β-diketiminate). Spectral interpretations were guided by examination of the calculated transition energies and polarization-dependent oscillator strengths, which agreed well with the XANES spectroscopy measurements. Pre-edge features were assigned to transitions associated with the Al 3p orbitals involved in metal-ligand bonding. Qualitative trends in Al 1s core energy and valence orbital occupation were established through a systematic comparison of excited states derived from Al 3p orbitals with similar symmetries in a molecular orbital framework. These trends suggested that the higher transition energies observed for (BDI)AlX2 systems with more electronegative X(1-) ligands could be ascribed to a decrease in electron density around the aluminum atom, which causes an increase in the attractive potential of the Al nucleus and concomitant increase in the binding energy of the Al 1s core orbitals. For (BDI)Al and (BDI)AlH2 the experimental Al K-edge XANES spectra and spectra calculated using the eXcited electron and Core-Hole (XCH) approach had nearly identical energies for transitions to final state orbitals of similar composition and symmetry. These results implied that the charge distributions about the aluminum atoms in (BDI)Al and (BDI)AlH2 are similar relative to the (BDI)AlX2 and (BDI)AlMe2 compounds, despite having different formal oxidation states of +1 and +3, respectively. However, (BDI)Al was unique in that it exhibited a low-energy feature that was attributed to transitions into a low-lying p-orbital of b1 symmetry that is localized on Al and orthogonal to the (BDI)Al plane. The presence of this low-energy unoccupied molecular orbital on electron-rich (BDI)Al distinguishes

  19. Investigation of etching techniques for superconductive Nb/Al-Al2O3/Nb fabrication processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtenberger, A. W.; Lea, D. M.; Lloyd, F. L.

    1993-01-01

    Wet etching, CF4 and SF6 reactive ion etching (RIE), RIE/wet hybrid etching, Cl-based RIE, ion milling, and liftoff techniques have been investigated for use in superconductive Nb/Al-Al2O3/Nb fabrication processes. High-quality superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) junctions have been fabricated using a variety of these etching methods; however, each technique offers distinct tradeoffs for a given process an wafer design. In particular, it was shown that SF6 provides an excellent RIE chemistry for low-voltage anisotropic etching of Nb with high selectivity to Al. The SF6 tool has greatly improved the trilevel resist junction insulation process. Excellent repeatability, selectivity with respect to quartz, and submicron resolution make Cl2 + BCl3 + CHCl3 RIE a very attractive process for trilayer patterning.

  20. FUV Reflectance of Recently Prepared Al Protected with AlF3: COR Program Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quijada, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Astronomical observations in the Far Ultraviolet (FUV) spectral region are some of the more challenging due to the very distant and faint objects that are typically searched for in cosmic origin studies such as origin of large scale structure, the formation, evolution, and age of galaxies and the origin of stellar and planetary systems. These challenges are driving the need to improve the performance of optical coatings over a wide spectral range that would increase reflectance in mirrors and reduced absorption in dielectric filters used in optical telescope for FUV observations. This paper will present recent advances in reflectance performance for Al+AlF3 mirrors optimized for Lyman-alpha wavelength by performing the deposition of the AlF3 overcoat at elevated substrate temperatures.

  1. Compressive strength of directionally solidified NiAl-NiAlNb intermetallics at 1200 and 1300 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Reviere, R.; Noebe, R. D.; Oliver, B. F.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from measurements of 1200 K and 1300 K compressive properties of two directionally solidified NiAl-NiAlNb compositions (in at. pct): Ni-41.75Al-16.5Nb (eutectic composition) and Ni-47.5Al-8.9Nb-1.3C (Al-rich composition). Results showed that the strength of the eutectic was a factor of 2 greater than that of the Al-rich composition. However, the analysis of the compressive stress-strain data indicated that the deformation mechanism was the same in both materials.

  2. Acoustic resonator with Al electrodes on an AlN layer and using a GaAs substrate

    DOEpatents

    Kline, Gerald R.; Lakin, Kenneth M.

    1985-12-03

    A method of fabricating an acoustic wave resonator wherein all processing steps are accomplished from a single side of said substrate. The method involves deposition of a multi-layered Al/AlN structure on a GaAs substrate followed by a series of fabrication steps to define a resonator from said composite. The resulting resonator comprises an AlN layer between two Al layers and another layer of AlN on an exterior of one of said Al layers.

  3. Cysteine Modifications in the Pathogenesis of ALS

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Cristiana; Carrì, Maria Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Several proteins are found misfolded and aggregated in sporadic and genetic forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). These include superoxide dismutase (SOD1), transactive response DNA-binding protein (TDP-43), fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma protein (FUS/TLS), p62, vasolin-containing protein (VCP), Ubiquilin-2 and dipeptide repeats produced by unconventional RAN-translation of the GGGGCC expansion in C9ORF72. Up to date, functional studies have not yet revealed a common mechanism for the formation of such diverse protein inclusions. Consolidated studies have demonstrated a fundamental role of cysteine residues in the aggregation process of SOD1 and TDP43, but disturbance of protein thiols homeostatic factors such as protein disulfide isomerases (PDI), glutathione, cysteine oxidation or palmitoylation might contribute to a general aberration of cysteine residues proteostasis in ALS. In this article we review the evidence that cysteine modifications may have a central role in many, if not all, forms of this disease. PMID:28167899

  4. CarbAl Heat Transfer Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of power electronics, such as high-current semiconductor devices and modules, within space vehicles is driving the need to develop specialty thermal management materials in both the packaging of these discrete devices and the packaging of modules consisting of these device arrays. Developed by Applied Nanotech, Inc. (ANI), CarbAl heat transfer material is uniquely characterized by its low density, high thermal diffusivity, and high thermal conductivity. Its coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is similar to most power electronic materials, making it an effective base plate substrate for state-of-the-art silicon carbide (SiC) super junction transistors. The material currently is being used to optimize hybrid vehicle inverter packaging. Adapting CarbAl-based substrates to space applications was a major focus of the SBIR project work. In Phase I, ANI completed modeling and experimentation to validate its deployment in a space environment. Key parameters related to cryogenic temperature scaling of CTE, thermal conductivity, and mechanical strength. In Phase II, the company concentrated on improving heat sinks and thermally conductive circuit boards for power electronic applications.

  5. TBK1 is associated with ALS and ALS-FTD in Sardinian patients.

    PubMed

    Borghero, Giuseppe; Pugliatti, Maura; Marrosu, Francesco; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Murru, Maria Rita; Floris, Gianluca; Cannas, Antonino; Occhineri, Patrizia; Cau, Tea B; Loi, Daniela; Ticca, Anna; Traccis, Sebastiano; Manera, Umberto; Canosa, Antonio; Moglia, Cristina; Calvo, Andrea; Barberis, Marco; Brunetti, Maura; Gibbs, J Raphael; Renton, Alan E; Errichiello, Edoardo; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Mulas, Antonella; Qian, Yong; Din, Jun; Pliner, Hannah A; Traynor, Bryan J; Chiò, Adriano

    2016-07-01

    Recently, mutations in the TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) gene were identified as a cause for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with or without comorbid frontotemporal dementia. We have assessed the frequency and clinical characteristics of TBK1 mutations in a cohort of ALS patients of Sardinian ancestry. Whole-exome sequencing was performed on Hiseq2000 platform (Illumina). Genome analysis Toolkit was used to align and to code variants according to Human Genome (UCSC hg19). Mutation was confirmed with Sanger sequence. In our screening of 186 Sardinian ALS cases, we found 3 (1.6%) patients carrying 3 distinct novel genetic variants: a nonsynonymous SNV c.1150C>T leading to a p.Arg384Thr change in exon 9; a nonsynonymous SNV c.1331G>A causes a p.Arg444Gln change in exon 11; and a frameshift deletion c.2070delG (p.Met690fs) at the exon 20 of the gene leading to a stop at 693 codon. The latter patients also carried missense mutation c.98C>T of the SQSTM1 gene causing a substitution of an arginine with a valine at the position 33 (p.Arg33Val). All variants were found to be deleterious according to in silico predictions. All cases were apparently sporadic and one of them showed frontotemporal dementia associated to ALS. These mutations were not found in 2 cohorts of 6780 ethnic-matched controls. We have found that TBK1 mutations account for 1.6% of Sardinian ALS cases. Our data support the notion that TBK1 is a novel ALS gene, providing important evidence complementary to the first descriptions.

  6. Growth and photoluminescence characteristics of AlGaAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z. H.; Sun, M.; Mei, X. Y.; Ruda, H. E.

    2004-07-01

    Growth of high-quality single-crystal AlGaAs nanowires was demonstrated using the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism with molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). Highly ordered AlGaAs nanowire arrays and GaAs /AlGaAs multilayer nanowires were also prepared. Photoluminescence (PL) from homogeneous AlGaAs and GaAs /AlGaAs multilayer nanowires was measured. The Al composition of the AlGaAs nanowires was found to be significantly lower than that for planar MBE films grown under the same conditions, as determined from PL and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy measurements. This is explained in terms of the different growth mechanisms for VLS and normal MBE. Such AlGaAs nanowires are expected to have a wide range of applications in electronic and photonic devices.

  7. Excitonic localization at macrostep edges in AlGaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Mengjun; Qin, Zhixin; Zhang, Lisheng; Han, Tianyang; Wang, Mingxing; Xu, Fujun; Wang, Xinqiang; Yu, Tongjun; Fang, Zheyu; Shen, Bo

    2017-04-01

    Double peaks at wavelength of 276 and 290 nm are observed for AlGaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs). Cathodoluminescence (CL) mappings identify that the emission at 290 nm originates from the macrostep edges. Potential minima induced by local variation of QW thickness and Ga incorporation are found along the step edges, where quantum wires (QWRs) are formed. The lateral advance rate of macrostep (∼310 nm/h) is obtained by investigating the distribution of QWRs. Temperature-dependent CL spectrum suggest that thermal quenching for 290 nm emission is dramatically suppressed compared with that for conventional QWs emission, which shows excitonic localization characteristics of QWRs.

  8. Microstructure and Creep Properties of TiAl-Ti3Al In-Situ Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, A M; Hsiung, L L

    2004-02-18

    Objectives: {lg_bullet} Exploit thermomechanical-processing techniques to fabricate TiAl/Ti3Al in-situ laminate composites with the size of lamella width down to submicron or nanometer length-scales. {lg_bullet} Characterize microstructure and elevated-temperature creep resistance of the in-situ composites. {lg_bullet} Investigate the fundamental interrelationships among microstructures, alloying additions, and mechanical properties of the in-situ composites so as to achieve the desired properties of the in-situ composites for high-temperature structural applications.

  9. Vanishing quasiparticle density in a hybrid Al/Cu/Al single-electron transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saira, O.-P.; Kemppinen, A.; Maisi, V. F.; Pekola, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    The achievable fidelity of many nanoelectronic devices based on superconducting aluminum is limited by either the density of residual nonequilibrium quasiparticles nqp or the density of quasiparticle states in the gap, characterized by Dynes parameter γ. We infer upper bounds nqp<0.033μm-3 and γ<1.6×10-7 from transport measurements performed on Al/Cu/Al single-electron transistors, improving previous results by an order of magnitude. Owing to efficient microwave shielding and quasiparticle relaxation, a typical number of quasiparticles in the superconducting leads is zero.

  10. Growth and Oxidation of Thin Film Al(2)Cu

    SciTech Connect

    SON,KYUNG-AH; MISSERT,NANCY A.; BARBOUR,J. CHARLES; HREN,J.J.; COPELAND,ROBERT GUILD; MINOR,KENNETH G.

    2000-01-18

    Al{sub 2}Cu thin films ({approx} 382 nm) are fabricated by melting and resolidifying Al/Cu bilayers in the presence of a {micro} 3 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivating layer. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measures a 1.0 eV shift of the Cu2p{sub 3/2} peak and a 1.6 eV shift of the valence band relative to metallic Cu upon Al{sub 2}Cu formation. Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) and Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction (EBSD) show that the Al{sub 2}Cu film is composed of 30-70 {micro}m wide and 10-25 mm long cellular grains with (110) orientation. The atomic composition of the film as estimated by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) is 67 {+-} 2% Al and 33 {+-} 2% Cu. XPS scans of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}Cu taken before and after air exposure indicate that the upper Al{sub 2}Cu layers undergo further oxidation to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} even in the presence of {approx} 5 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The majority of Cu produced from oxidation is believed to migrate below the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers, based upon the lack of evidence for metallic Cu in the XPS scans. In contrast to Al/Cu passivated with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, melting/resolidifying the Al/Cu bilayer without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} results in phase-segregated dendritic film growth.

  11. Inferred Initial 26Al/27Al Ratios in Presolar Stardust Grains from Supernovae are Higher than Previously Estimated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groopman, Evan; Zinner, Ernst; Amari, Sachiko; Gyngard, Frank; Hoppe, Peter; Jadhav, Manavi; Lin, Yangting; Xu, Yuchen; Marhas, Kuljeet; Nittler, Larry R.

    2015-08-01

    We performed an in-depth exploration of the Al-Mg system for presolar graphite, SiC, and Si3N4 grains found to contain large excesses of 26Mg, indicative of the initial presence of live 26Al. Ninety of the more than 450 presolar grains processed in this study contain well-correlated {δ }26{Mg}{/}24{Mg} and 27Al/24Mg ratios, derived from Nano-scale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer depth profiles, whose isochron-like regression lines yield inferred initial {}26{Al}{/}27{Al} ratios that, on average, are ˜1.5-2 times larger than the ratios previously reported for the grains. The majority of presolar graphite and SiC grains are heavily affected by Al contamination, resulting in large negative {δ }26{Mg}{/}24{Mg} intercepts of the isochron lines. Al contamination is potentially due to etching of the grains’ surfaces and subsequent capture of dissolved Al during the acid dissolution of their meteorite host rocks. From the isochron fits, the magnitude of Al contamination was quantified for each grain. The amount of Al contamination on each grain was found to be random and independent of grain size, following a uniform distribution with an upper bound at 59% contamination. The Al contamination causes conventional whole-grain estimates to underpredict the initial {}26{Al}{/}27{Al} ratios. The presolar grains with the highest {}26{Al}{/}27{Al} ratios are from Type II supernovae whose isochron-derived initial {}26{Al}{/}27{Al} ratios greatly exceed those predicted in the He/C and He/N zones of SN models.

  12. Simulation Study of Al-1Mn/Al-10Si Circular Clad Ingots Prepared by Direct Chill Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Li; Kang, Huijun; Chen, Zongning; Fu, Ying; Wang, Tongmin

    2016-02-01

    A modified direct chill casting process based on Novelis FusionTM Technology co-casting process was used recently to prepare Al-1Mn/Al-10Si circular clad ingots. In the current study, a comprehensive simulation model was developed to investigate the direct chill casting process for preparing the Al-1Mn/Al-10Si circular clad ingots, and a parametric study and experimental research of the direct chill casting process was conducted to explore potential success and failure casting conditions. The simulation results revealed the bonding mechanism of the Al-1Mn/Al-10Si interface in the direct chill casting process and identified the effect of certain parameters on casting performance. The results indicated that the effect of casting speed and Al-1Mn casting temperature on the variations of the minimum solid fraction of Al-1Mn at the interface is stronger than that of cooling water flow rate in inner mold, while Al-10Si casting temperature is the weakest of the four casting parameters. The corresponding experimental results verified that Al-1Mn/Al-10Si circular clad ingot with acceptable metallurgical bonding can be successfully prepared by direct chill casting process under the proper casting parameters. The thickness of diffusion zone is about 40 μm, and the fractured position in tensile test was located in the Al-1Mn alloy side which indicated the strength of the interfacial region is higher than that of Al-1Mn alloy.

  13. Effect of Al Doping on Optical Band Gap Energy of Al-TiO2 Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Song, Yo-Seung; Kim, Bae-Yeon; Cho, Nam-Ihn; Lee, Deuk Yong

    2015-07-01

    Al-TiO2 thin films were prepared using a sol-gel derived spin coating by varying the Al/Ti molar ratio from 0 to 0.73 to investigate the effect of Al doping on the optical band gap energy (Eg) of the films. GAXRD results indicated that Al-TiO2 is composed of anatase and FTO phases when the Al/Ti molar ratio was less than 0.18. Above 0.38, no other peaks except FTO were found and transparency of the films was severely deteriorated. Eg of Al-TiO2 decreased from 3.20 eV to 2.07 eV when the Al/Ti ratio was raised from 0 to 0.38. Eg of 2.59 eV was found for the anatase Al-TiO2 films having the Al/Ti ratio of 0.18. The absorption band of Al-TiO2 coatings shifted dramatically from the UV region to the visible region with increasing the amount of Al dopant. The Al doping was mainly attributed to the optical band gap energy of Al-TiO2.

  14. Comparison on the interaction of Al3+/nano-Al13 with calf thymus DNA /salmon sperm DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Fei; Ma, Yue; Du, Changwen; Yang, Xiaodi; Shen, Renfang

    2015-11-01

    The conformation change, binding mode and binding site between Al3+/nano-Al13 and calf thymus DNA/salmon sperm DNA were investigated by UV-vis absorption, FTIR spectra, Raman spectroscopy and CD spectra, as well as melting curves measurement. The UV-vis spectra and circular dichroism spectra results suggested that the phosphate group structure was changed when Al3+ interacted with DNA, while the double-helix was distorted when nano-Al13 interacted with DNA. The FTIR and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the binding sites were Al3+ … PO2, Al3+ … N7/guanine PO2 … Al13 … N7-C8/guanine with calf thymus DNA, and Al3+ … N3-O2/cytosine, Al3+ … N7-C8/guanine, PO2 … Al13 … N7-C8/guanine, PO2 … Al13 … N1/adenine with salmon sperm DNA, respectively. The electrostatic binding was existed between Al3+ and DNA, and the electrostatic binding and complexing were found between nano-Al13 and DNA.

  15. Effect of Al on the Wetting Behavior Between TiC x and Molten Ti-Al Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuyang; Lv, Xuewei; Dong, Hongbiao; Li, Chunxin; Bai, Chenguang

    2015-10-01

    The wetting behavior and the interfacial reactions between TiC x substrate and molten Ti-Al alloys with different Al contents were studied using the Sessile Drop method at 1758 K (1485 °C) in argon atmosphere. It is found that the wettability and interface reaction products depend on Al content in the molten alloy. The initial contact angles between the molten Ti-Al alloy and TiC0.78 surface reduces from 110 to 80 deg when Al content in the alloy changes from 40 to 80 wt pct. The reduction in the initial contact angle is due to the decrease of surface tension of the molten Ti-Al alloys with increasing Al contents. The segregation of Al atoms to the surface occurred at all bulk concentrations of Ti-Al alloys. Al with lower surface tension tends to segregate on the surface of liquid Ti-Al alloy. In the spreading stage, the interfacial reaction led to the decrease in the contact angle. The adhesion in Ti-Al/TiC x system can be interpreted in terms of strong chemical interactions, which is greatly affected by the diffusion of C. The equilibrium contact angle was measured less than 10 deg. Finally, the reaction sequence at the Ti-Al melt and TiC x substrate interface is proposed.

  16. Effect of a grain refiner cum modifier on mechanical properties of Al-7Si and Al-11Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jigajinni, S. M.; Venkateswarlu, K.; Kori, S. A.

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluates the influence of grain refiners/modifiers on the mechanical properties of the Al-7Si and Al-11Si alloys with an experiment of quantitative and qualitative correlations with the microstructure. Modification of Al-Si alloys with strontium additions and grain refinement with Al-Ti, Al-B and Al-T-B master alloy additions are demonstrated to be efficient on Al-Si alloys. A single master alloy with combined additions of Sr and Ti and/or B was prepared and the microstructure and mechanical properties were studied. The results show that boron rich (Al-3B-Sr and Al-1Ti-3B-Sr) master alloys are more efficient than Ti rich (Al-3Ti-Sr and Al-5Ti-1B-Sr) master alloys considering their combined grain refinement and modification effect on Al-7Si and Al-11Si alloys. However, the presence of Sr does not influence the grain refinement. Similarly, presence of grain refiner does not influence the modification of eutectic Si.

  17. Mechanisms of elevated-temperature deformation in the B2 aluminides NiAl and CoAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaney, D. L.; Nix, W. D.

    1988-01-01

    A strain rate change technique, developed previously for distinguishing between pure-metal and alloy-type creep behavior, was used to study the elevated-temperature deformation behavior of the intermetallic compounds NiAl and CoAl. Tests on NiAl were conducted at temperatures between 1100 and 1300 K while tests on CoAl were performed at temperatures ranging from 1200 to 1400 K. NiAl exhibits pure-metal type behavior over the entire temperature range studied. CoAl, however, undergoes a transition from pure-metal to alloy-type deformation behavior as the temperature is decreased from 1400 to 1200 K. Slip appears to be inherently more difficult in CoAl than in NiAl, with lattice friction effects limiting the mobility of dislocations at a much higher tmeperature in CoAl than in NiAl. The superior strength of CoAl at elevated temperatures may, therefore, be related to a greater lattice friction strengthening effect in CoAl than in NiAl.

  18. Motor neuron death in ALS – programmed by astrocytes?

    PubMed Central

    Pirooznia, Sheila K.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2014-01-01

    Motor neurons in ALS die via cell-autonomous and non-cell autonomous mechanisms. Using adult human astrocytes and motor neurons, Re et al (2014) discover that familial and sporadic ALS derived human adult astrocytes secrete neurotoxic factors that selectively kill motor neurons through necroptosis, suggesting a new therapeutic avenue. PMID:24607221

  19. 77 FR 67689 - Fidelity Aberdeen Street Trust, et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... COMMISSION Fidelity Aberdeen Street Trust, et al.; Notice of Application November 6, 2012. AGENCY: Securities... certain joint arrangements (``Prior Order'').\\1\\ \\1\\ Colchester Street Trust, et al., Investment Company..., Colchester Street Trust, et al., Investment Company Act Release Nos. 23787 (Apr. 15, 1999) (notice) and...

  20. 77 FR 45238 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Montgomery, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Montgomery, AL AGENCY... amends Class E Airspace in the Montgomery, AL area, by recognizing the name change of Prattville-Grouby... Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 amends Class E airspace for the Montgomery, AL, area at the...

  1. 76 FR 80232 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oneonta, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Airspace; Oneonta, AL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E Airspace at Oneonta, AL, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global... establish Class E airspace at Oneonta, AL (76 FR 58728) Docket No. FAA-2011-0744. Interested parties...

  2. 77 FR 40265 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Tennessee River, Decatur, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Tennessee River, Decatur, AL AGENCY... across the Tennessee River, mile 304.4, at Decatur, AL. The deviation is necessary to install new rail..., at Decatur, AL. The vertical clearance of the bridge in the closed position is 10.5 feet. The...

  3. The Resurgence of Al-Qaeda in Syria and Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    also spelled Al Julani). His name reflects the fact that he is probably from the Golan Heights, and is thought to have close 28 ties to Abu Musab al... ancient city of Aleppo in the northwest. The group’s social wing, Qism al-Ighatha (Relief Department), provides food and warm clothing to civilians

  4. Electronic and vibrational properties of γ-AlH3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Yan, Jia-An; Chou, M. Y.

    2008-01-01

    Aluminum hydride (alane) AlH3 is an important material in hydrogen storage applications. It is known that AlH3 exists in multiply forms of polymorphs, where α-AlH3 is found to be the most stable with a hexagonal structure. Recent experimental studies on γ-AlH3 reported an orthorhombic structure with a unique double-bridge bond between certain Al and H atoms. This was not found in α-AlH3 or other polymorphs. Using density functional theory, we have investigated the energetics, and the structural, electronic, and phonon vibrational properties for the newly reported γ-AlH3 structure. The current calculation concludes that γ-AlH3 is less stable than α-AlH3 by 1.2KJ/mol , with the zero-point energy included. Interesting binding features associated with the unique geometry of γ-AlH3 are discussed from the calculated electronic properties and phonon vibrational modes. The binding of H-s with higher energy Al-p,d orbitals is enhanced within the double-bridge arrangement, giving rise to a higher electronic energy for the system. Distinguishable new features in the vibrational spectrum of γ-AlH3 were attributed to the double-bridge and hexagonal-ring structures.

  5. MCrAlY bond coat with enhanced Yttrium layer

    DOEpatents

    Jablonski, Paul D; Hawk, Jeffrey A

    2015-04-21

    One or more embodiments relates to an MCrAlY bond coat comprising an MCrAlY layer in contact with a Y--Al.sub.2O.sub.3 layer. The MCrAlY layer is comprised of a .gamma.-M solid solution, a .beta.-MAl intermetallic phase, and Y-type intermetallics. The Y--Al.sub.2O.sub.3 layer is comprised of Yttrium atoms coordinated with oxygen atoms comprising the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 lattice. Both the MCrAlY layer and the Y--Al.sub.2O.sub.3 layer have a substantial absence of Y--Al oxides, providing advantage in the maintainability of the Yttrium reservoir within the MCrAlY bulk. The MCrAlY bond coat may be fabricated through application of a Y.sub.2O.sub.3 paste to an MCrAlY material, followed by heating in a non-oxidizing environment.

  6. To Ponder Ponderal's Length: A Question to Lester et. al.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, John W.

    1984-01-01

    Criticizes Lester, Als, and Brazelton's 1982 reanalysis of data presented by Scanlon, Nelson, Grylack, and Smith in 1979. Discusses (1) clinical interpretation of the ponderal index (a weight-for-length ratio); and (2) inaccurate measurement of crown-heel length; (3) Lester et al.'s suggested relationship between the ponderal index, maternal drug,…

  7. LaRhAl, La3Rh3Al4, and Ce5Rh5Al6 as a new family of ternary aluminides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avzuragova, V. A.; Nesterenko, S. N.; Tursina, A. I.

    2017-02-01

    The structures of three aluminides of similar composition are determined via X-ray diffraction. The structures consist of coordination polyhedra built of rhodium atoms that form alternating layers extending perpendicular to the short cell parameter. Compound Ce5Rh5Al6 is built of fragments of the structures of LaRhAl and La3Rh3Al4 in a ratio of 1: 1.

  8. Screw dislocation-induced growth spirals as emissive exciton localization centers in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Funato, Mitsuru Banal, Ryan G.; Kawakami, Yoichi

    2015-11-15

    Screw dislocations in Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum wells cause growth spirals with an enhanced Ga incorporation, which create potential minima. Although screw dislocations and their surrounding potential minima suggest non-radiative recombination processes within growth spirals, in reality, screw dislocations are not major non-radiative sinks for carriers. Consequently, carriers localized within growth spirals recombine radiatively without being captured by non-radiative recombination centers, resulting in intense emissions from growth spirals.

  9. U-Mo/Al-Si interaction: Influence of Si concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allenou, J.; Palancher, H.; Iltis, X.; Cornen, M.; Tougait, O.; Tucoulou, R.; Welcomme, E.; Martin, Ph.; Valot, C.; Charollais, F.; Anselmet, M. C.; Lemoine, P.

    2010-04-01

    Within the framework of the development of low enriched nuclear fuels for research reactors, U-Mo/Al is the most promising option that has however to be optimised. Indeed at the U-Mo/Al interfaces between U-Mo particles and the Al matrix, an interaction layer grows under irradiation inducing an unacceptable fuel swelling. Adding silicon in limited content into the Al matrix has clearly improved the in-pile fuel behaviour. This breakthrough is attributed to an U-Mo/Al-Si protective layer around U-Mo particles appeared during fuel manufacturing. In this work, the evolution of the microstructure and composition of this protective layer with increasing Si concentrations in the Al matrix has been investigated. Conclusions are based on the characterization at the micrometer scale (X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy) of U-Mo7/Al-Si diffusion couples obtained by thermal annealing at 450 °C. Two types of interaction layers have been evidenced depending on the Si content in the Al-Si alloy: the threshold value is found at about 5 wt.% but obviously evolves with temperature. It has been shown that for Si concentrations ranging from 2 to 10 wt.%, the U-Mo7/Al-Si interaction is bi-layered and the Si-rich part is located close to the Al-Si for low Si concentrations (below 5 wt.%) and close to the U-Mo for higher Si concentrations. For Si weight fraction in the Al alloy lower than 5 wt.%, the Si-rich sub-layer (close to Al-Si) consists of U(Al, Si) 3 + UMo 2Al 20, when the other sub-layer (close to U-Mo) is silicon free and made of UAl 3 and U 6Mo 4Al 43. For Si weight concentrations above 5 wt.%, the Si-rich part becomes U 3(Si, Al) 5 + U(Al, Si) 3 (close to U-Mo) and the other sub-layer (close to Al-Si) consists of U(Al, Si) 3 + UMo 2Al 20. On the basis of these results and of a literature survey, a scheme is proposed to explain the formation of different types of ILs between U-Mo and Al-Si alloys (i.e. different protective layers).

  10. Direct synthesis of nanoporous carbon nitride fibers using Al-based porous coordination polymers (Al-PCPs).

    PubMed

    Hu, Ming; Reboul, Julien; Furukawa, Shuhei; Radhakrishnan, Logudurai; Zhang, Yuanjian; Srinivasu, Pavuluri; Iwai, Hideo; Wang, Hongjing; Nemoto, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Norihiro; Kitagawa, Susumu; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2011-07-28

    We report a new synthetic route for preparation of nanoporous carbon nitride fibers with graphitic carbon nitride polymers, by calcination of Al-based porous coordination polymers (Al-PCPs) with dicyandiamide (DCDA) under a nitrogen atmosphere.

  11. Ab initio molecular dynamics of Al irradiation-induced processes during Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth

    SciTech Connect

    Music, Denis; Nahif, Farwah; Friederichsen, Niklas; Schneider, Jochen M.; Sarakinos, Kostas

    2011-03-14

    Al bombardment induced structural changes in {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (R-3c) and {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Fd-3m) were studied using ab initio molecular dynamics. Diffusion and irradiation damage occur for both polymorphs in the kinetic energy range from 3.5 to 40 eV. However, for {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(001) subplantation of impinging Al causes significantly larger irradiation damage and hence larger mobility as compared to {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Consequently, fast diffusion along {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(001) gives rise to preferential {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) growth, which is consistent with published structure evolution experiments.

  12. Reduction in leakage current in AlGaN/GaN HEMT with three Al-containing step-graded AlGaN buffer layers on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xinxin; Ni, Jinyu; Li, Zhonghui; Zhou, Jianjun; Kong, Cen

    2014-05-01

    AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) structures with two and three Al-containing step-graded AlGaN buffer layers (BLs) were grown on silicon (111) substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Considerable tensile stress was observed in the GaN grown with only two 0.8 µm AlGaN BLs, while a large in-plane compression in GaN grown with three 2.3 µm AlGaN BLs. The reverse gate leakage current in the HEMT with three AlGaN BLs was approximately 0.1 µA/mm, which was more than one order of magnitude smaller than that for the HEMT with two AlGaN BLs. A three-terminal off-state breakdown voltage of 265 V and a vertical gate-to-substrate breakdown voltage of 510 V were obtained in the HEMT with three AlGaN BLs. Detailed analysis was performed on the basis of the structural properties of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures.

  13. Cyclic Oxidation of FeCrAlY/Al2O3 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, James A.; Draper, Susan L.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Three-ply FeCrAlY/Al2O3 composites and FeCrAlY matrix-only samples were cyclically oxidized at 1000 C and 1100 C for up to 1000 1-hr cycles. Fiber ends were exposed at the ends of the composite samples. Following cyclic oxidation, cracks running parallel to and perpendicular to the fibers were observed on the large surface of the composite. In addition, there was evidence of increased scale damage and spallation around the exposed fiber ends, particularly around the middle ply fibers. This damage was more pronounced at the higher temperature. The exposed fiber ends showed cracking between fibers in the outer plies, occasionally with Fe and Cr-rich oxides growing out of the cracks. Large gaps developed at the fiber/matrix interface around many of the fibers, especially those in the outer plies. Oxygen penetrated many of these gaps resulting in significant oxide formation at the fiber/matrix interface far within the composite sample. Around several fibers, the matrix was also internally oxidized showing Al2O3 precipitates in a radial band around the fibers. The results show that these composites have poor cyclic oxidation resistance due to the CTE mismatch and inadequate fiber/matrix bond strength at temperatures of 1000 C and above.

  14. Enhanced TC in granular and thin film Al-Al2O3 nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, J. S.; Greene, R. L.

    It is known since the 1970s that the superconducting transition temperature of granular aluminum films can be as high as two to three times the transition temperature of bulk aluminum, depending on the grain size and how strongly the nanometer size grains are connected1,2. As the strength of the grain connectivity becomes increasingly weak, the enhanced TC is suppressed. The mechanism behind this enhancement is still under debate. Recently, work on larger aluminum nanoparticles (18nm) embedded in an insulating Al2O3 matrix showed an onset of the superconducting transition as high as three times that of bulk aluminum3. In this situation, the Al grains are electrically disconnected and in a regime far removed from that of the granular films. Here we compare the two situations through electronic and thermal measurements in order to help elucidate the mechanism behind the enhancements. 1S. Pracht, et al., arXiv:1508.04270v1 [cond-mat.supr-con] (2015). 2G. Deutscher, New Superconductors From Granular to High TC, New Jersey: World Scientific, 2006, p. 72-74. 3V. N. Smolyaninova, et al., Sci. Rep. 5, 15777 (2015). Funding by NSF DMR # 1410665.

  15. A sulfur segregation study of PWA 1480, NiCrAl, and NiAl alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayne, D. T.; Smialek, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Some nickel based superalloys show reduced oxidation resistance from the lack of an adherent oxide layer during high temperature cyclic oxidation. The segregation of sulfur to the oxide-metal interface is believed to effect oxide adhesion, since low sulfur alloys exhibit enhanced adhesion. X ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) was combined with an in situ sample heater to measure sulfur segregation in NiCrAl, PWA 1480, and NiAl alloys. The polished samples with a 1.5 to 2.5 nm (native) oxide were heated from 650 to 1100 C with hold times up to 6 hr. The sulfur concentration was plotted as a function of temperature versus time at temperature. One NiCrAl sulfur study was performed on the same casting used by Browning to establish a base line between previous Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) results and the XPS results of this study. Sulfur surface segregation was similar for PWA 1480 and NiCrAl and reached a maximum of 30 at% at 800 to 850 C. Above 900 C the sulfur surface concentration decreased to about 3 at% at 1100 C. These results are contrasted to the minimal segregation observed for low sulfur hydrogen annealed materials which exhibit improved scale adhesion.

  16. High Temperature Mechanical Characterization and Analysis of Al2O3 /Al2O3 Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Jaskowiak, Martha H.

    1999-01-01

    Sixteen ply unidirectional zirconia coated single crystal Al2O3 fiber reinforced polycrystalline Al2O3 was tested in uniaxial tension at temperatures to 1400 C in air. Fiber volume fractions ranged from 26 to 31%. The matrix has primarily open porosity of approximately 40%. Theories for predicting the Young's modulus, first matrix cracking stress, and ultimate strength were applied and evaluated for suitability in predicting the mechanical behavior of Al2O3/Al2O3 composites. The composite exhibited pseudo tough behavior (increased area under the stress/strain curve relative to monolithic alumina) from 22 to 1400 C. The rule-of-mixtures provides a good estimate of the Young's modulus of the composite using the constituent properties from room temperature to approximately 1200 C for short term static tensile tests in air. The ACK theory provides the best approximation of the first matrix cracking stress while accounting for residual stresses at room temperature. Difficulties in determining the fiber/matrix interfacial shear stress at high temperatures prevented the accurate prediction of the first matrix cracking stress above room temperature. The theory of Cao and Thouless, based on Weibull statistics, gave the best prediction for the composite ultimate tensile strength.

  17. Electronic transport through Al/InN nanowire/Al junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Tzu -Ming; Wang, George T.; Pan, Wei; Zhao, S.; Mi, Z.

    2016-02-10

    We report non-linear electronic transport measurement of Al/Si-doped n-type InN nanowire/Al junctions performed at T = 0.3 K, below the superconducting transition temperature of the Al electrodes. The proximity effect is observed in these devices through a strong dip in resistance at zero bias. In addition to the resistance dip at zero bias, several resistance peaks can be identified at bias voltages above the superconducting gap of the electrodes, while no resistance dip is observed at the superconducting gap. The resistance peaks disappear as the Al electrodes turn normal beyond the critical magnetic field except one which remains visible at fields several times higher than critical magnetic field. An unexpected non-monotonic magnetic field dependence of the peak position is observed. As a result, we discuss the physical origin of these observations and propose that the resistance peaks could be the McMillan-Rowell oscillations arising from different closed paths localized near different regions of the junctions.

  18. Electronic transport through Al/InN nanowire/Al junctions

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Tzu -Ming; Wang, George T.; Pan, Wei; ...

    2016-02-10

    We report non-linear electronic transport measurement of Al/Si-doped n-type InN nanowire/Al junctions performed at T = 0.3 K, below the superconducting transition temperature of the Al electrodes. The proximity effect is observed in these devices through a strong dip in resistance at zero bias. In addition to the resistance dip at zero bias, several resistance peaks can be identified at bias voltages above the superconducting gap of the electrodes, while no resistance dip is observed at the superconducting gap. The resistance peaks disappear as the Al electrodes turn normal beyond the critical magnetic field except one which remains visible atmore » fields several times higher than critical magnetic field. An unexpected non-monotonic magnetic field dependence of the peak position is observed. As a result, we discuss the physical origin of these observations and propose that the resistance peaks could be the McMillan-Rowell oscillations arising from different closed paths localized near different regions of the junctions.« less

  19. Aesthetic Leadership (AL): Development and Implementation of Aesthetic Leadership Scale (ALS) of the School Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Soner; Oztoprak-Kavak, Zehra

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to develop a scale for measuring the aesthetic leadership (AL) characteristics of the school directors and to show that it can be applicable. The population of the study is composed of the teachers who are on duty in the elementary, secondary and high schools located in Izmit, Kocaeli. Sample of this descriptive study comprises 400…

  20. Constitutive Model Constants for Al7075-T651 and Al7075-T6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brar, Nachhatter; Joshi, Vasant; Harris, Bryan

    2009-06-01

    Aluminum 7075-T651 and 7075-T6 are characterized at quasi-static and high strain rates to determine Johnson-Cook (J-C) strength and fracture model constants. Constitutive model constants are required as input to computer codes to simulate projectile (fragment) impact or similar impact events on structural components made of these material. J-C strength model constants (A, B, n, C, and m) for the two alloys are determined from tension stress-strain data at room and high temperature to 250^oC. J-C strength model constants for Al7075-T651 are: A=527 MPa, B=676 MPa, n=0.71, C=0.017, and m=1.61 and for Al7075-T6: A = 546 MPa, B = 674 MPa, n = 0.72, C = 0.059, and m =1.56. J-C fracture model constants are determined form quasi-static and high strain rate/high temperature tests on notched and smooth tension specimens. J-C fracture model constants for the two alloys are: Al7075-T651; D1 = 0.110, D2 = 0.573, D3= -3.4446, D4 = 0.016, and D 5= 1.099 and Al7075-T6; D1= 0.451 D2= -0.952 D3= -.068, D4 =0.036, and D5 = 0.697.

  1. Structure of oxides prepared by decomposition of layered double Mg–Al and Ni–Al hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Cherepanova, Svetlana V.; Leont’eva, Natalya N.; Arbuzov, Aleksey B.; Drozdov, Vladimir A.; Belskaya, Olga B.; Antonicheva, Nina V.

    2015-05-15

    Abstracts: Thermal decomposition of Mg–Al and Ni–Al layered double hydroxides LDH at temperatures lower than 800 °C leads to the formation of oxides with different structures. Mg–Al oxide has a very defective structure and consists of octahedral layers as in periclase MgO and mixed octahedral–tetrahedral layers as in spinel MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Mixed Ni–Al oxide has a sandwich-like structure, consisting of a core with Al-doped NiO-like structure and some surface layers with spinel NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} structure epitaxial connected with the core. Suggested models were verified by simulation of X-ray diffraction patterns using DIFFaX code, as well as HRTEM, IR-, UV-spectroscopies, and XPS. - Graphical abstract: In the Mg–Al layered double hydroxide Al{sup 3+} ions migrate into interlayers during decomposition. The Mg–Al oxide represents sequence of octahedral and octahedral–tetrahedral spinel layers with vacancies. The Ni–Al oxide has a sandwich-like structure with NiO-like core and surface spinel layers as a result of migration of Al{sup 3+} ions on the surface. The models explain the presence and absence of “memory effect” for the Mg–Al and Ni–Al oxides, respectively. - Highlights: • We study products of Mg(Ni)–Al LDH decomposition by calcination at 500(400)–800 °C. • In Mg–Al/Ni–Al LDH Al ions migrate into interlayers/on the surface during decomposition. • Mg–Al oxide represents sequence of periclase- and spinel-like layers with vacancies. • Ni–Al oxide has a sandwich-like structure with NiO-like core and surface spinel layers. • The models explain the presence/absence of “memory effect” for Mg–Al/Ni–Al oxides.

  2. An elliptical wiggler beamline for the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Martynov, V.V. |; McKinney, W.R.; Padmore, H.A.

    1995-10-01

    A beamline for circularly polarized radiation produced by an elliptical wiggler has been designed at the ALS covering the broad energy range from 50 eV to 2000 eV. The rigorous theory of grating diffraction efficiency has been used to maximize transmitted flux. The nature of the elliptical wiggler insertion device creates a challenging optical problem due to the large source size in the vertical and horizontal directions. The requirement of high resolving power, combined with the broad tuning range and high heat loads complicate the design. These problems have been solved by using a variable included angle monochromator of the ``constant length`` type with high demagnification onto its entrance slit, and cooled optics.

  3. AlNb-Based Titanium Aluminide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kezhao; Liu, Ming; Lei, Zhenglong; Chen, Yanbin

    2014-10-01

    The microstructure of laser-tungsten inert gas hybrid welded Ti2AlNb-based joints and their tensile properties at room temperature were investigated in this paper. The results showed that good-quality joints could be obtained by hybrid welding process. The microstructure evolution was identified by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The fusion zone mainly consisted of B2 phase due to the rapid cooling rate, as well as high Nb content. The phase compositions of the heat-affected zone were varied with different thermal cycles during the welding process. Tensile tests at room temperature showed that fracture tended to occur in the fusion zone, and the tensile strength and elongation were 950 MPa and 4.3%, respectively. The fracture mode was quasi-cleavage based on the observation of the fracture morphology.

  4. Al Eskan disease: Desert Storm pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Korényi-Both, A L; Korényi-Both, A L; Molnár, A C; Fidelus-Gort, R

    1992-09-01

    The authors observed an acute desert-related disease when the mixture of the fine Saudi sand dust and pigeon droppings triggered a hyperergic lung condition. It was further aggravated by various kinds of organic pathogenic components contributing to an opportunistic infection of the lung. These all lead to the recognition of a new clinicopathological entity, Desert Storm pneumonitis or Al Eskan disease. For the first time, the Saudi sand dust's elemental composition was studied by ultrastructural and microanalytical means. The authors concluded that, contrary to previous beliefs, sand particles less than 1 microns (0.1 microns to 0.25 microns) in diameter are present in substantial quantities in the Saudi sand and are pathogenic, causing hyperergia. Pathogenesis of the sand dust, induced hyperergia, and its immunopathologic background are highlighted.

  5. In situ investigation of spinodal decomposition in hypermonotectic Al Bi and Al Bi Zn alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, P. L.; Mathiesen, R. H.; Arnberg, L.; Di Sabatino, M.; Snigirev, A.

    2008-05-01

    Spinodal decomposition of hypermonotectic Al-6 wt.%Bi, Al-8 wt.%Bi and Al-6 wt.%Bi-8 wt.%Zn alloys has been investigated using synchrotron radiography. In the case of the 6 and 8 wt.%Bi binary alloys undercoolings of 70 and 110 K, respectively, were required to initiate the L→L1+L2 reaction, which appeared to occur very close to the monotectic reaction temperature. The nucleated L2 droplets were set in collective size-dependent motion by forces coupled to external fields (gravity and imposed temperature gradient) as well as forces arising due to internal fluctuations of the system. With experimental conditions similar to those realized during strip casting of the same materials, it was found that the size-dependant droplet velocity field combined with Stokes drag at the L1-L2 interfaces as well as attractive and repulsive diffusion-coupling between adjacent L2 droplets, yield complex meso- to microscale hydrodynamics. The hydrodynamics are the dominating mechanisms for L2 droplet coagulation, and are accordingly decisive for the final size distribution and geometrical dispersion of the soft Bi-rich component in the cast material. A different decomposition mode was observed in the Al-6 wt.%Bi-8 wt.%Zn ternary alloy, with the L2 droplets undergoing an immiscible-miscible-immiscible transition. In contrast to what was found for the binaries, L2 domains formed at relatively small undercoolings, and very little droplet motion was observed, as all L2 domains nucleated and remained on the crucible walls until they encroached on the monotectic front. At small distances from the monotectic front a Zn-rich solute boundary layer preceding the α-Al, caused the L2 domains to dissolve as Bi-Zn-Al regains complete miscibility upon reaching a critical Zn-concentration. In the shallow mush region behind the monotectic reaction, a high Zn solid solubility and a relatively fast diffusion of Zn in α-Al combine to cause a rapid diminishing Zn concentration in the mush liquid

  6. Successful Separationists in a Unity Fan Society: Al-Hirak Al-Janubi Social Movement in the Republic of Yemen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    regardless of the region, affiliation, gender , or status. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Al-Hirak Al-Janubi, Al-Houthies, Republic of Yemen, Ali Salem Al-Beedh, The...discrimination, and providing social services to its entire population regardless of the region, affiliation, gender , or status. vi THIS PAGE...and media until the occupation was forced to leave Aden. Just like their brothers in the North, the Southern revolutionaries made reunification of the

  7. The Low-Lying States of AlCu and AlAg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Partridge, Harry

    1994-01-01

    The singlet and triplet states of AlCu and AlAg below about 32 000/cm are studied using the internally contracted multireference configuration-interaction method. A more elaborate study of the X(sup 1)Sum(sup +) ground state of AlCu is undertaken using extended Gaussian basis sets, including the effect of inner-shell correlation and including a perturbational estimate of relativistic effects. Our best estimate of the spectroscopic constants (r(sub 0), DeltaG(sub 1/2), and D(sub 0)) for the X(sup 1)Sum(sup+) state with the experimental values in parentheses are: 4.416(4.420) a(sub 0), 295 (294) /cm, and 2.318 (2.315) eV. The calculations definitively assign the upper state in the observed transition at 14 892/cm to the lowest (sup 1)Prod state. The calculated spectroscopic constants and radiative lifetime for the (sup 1)Prod state are in good agreement with experiment. The calculations support the tentative assignments of Behm et al. for three band systems observed in the visible region between 25 000 and 28 000 / cm. However, the computed spectroscopic constants are in very poor agreement with those deduced from an analysis of the spectra. Analogous theoretical results for AlAg suggest that the (2)(sup 3)Prod, (3)(sup 3)Prod, and (3)(sup 1)Sum(sup +) states account for the bands observed, but not assigned, by Duncan and co-workers.

  8. Revealing heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik S.; Liu, Xiangfa; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si can be attributed to the presence of AlP. Although P, in the form of AlP particles, is usually observed in the centre of primary Si, there is still a lack of detailed investigations on the distribution of P within primary Si and eutectic Si in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys at the atomic scale. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental investigation on the distribution of P in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. P, in the form of AlP particles, was observed in the centre of primary Si. However, no significant amount of P was detected within primary Si, eutectic Si and the Al matrix. Instead, P was observed at the interface between the Al matrix and eutectic Si, strongly indicating that P, in the form of AlP particles (or AlP ‘patch’ dependent on the P concentration), may have nucleated on the surface of the Al matrix and thereby enhanced the heterogeneous nucleation of eutectic Si. The present investigation reveals some novel insights into heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys and can be used to further develop heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms based on adsorption. PMID:27120994

  9. Revealing heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik S.; Liu, Xiangfa; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si can be attributed to the presence of AlP. Although P, in the form of AlP particles, is usually observed in the centre of primary Si, there is still a lack of detailed investigations on the distribution of P within primary Si and eutectic Si in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys at the atomic scale. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental investigation on the distribution of P in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. P, in the form of AlP particles, was observed in the centre of primary Si. However, no significant amount of P was detected within primary Si, eutectic Si and the Al matrix. Instead, P was observed at the interface between the Al matrix and eutectic Si, strongly indicating that P, in the form of AlP particles (or AlP ‘patch’ dependent on the P concentration), may have nucleated on the surface of the Al matrix and thereby enhanced the heterogeneous nucleation of eutectic Si. The present investigation reveals some novel insights into heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys and can be used to further develop heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms based on adsorption.

  10. 77 FR 40492 - Revocation of Class D Airspace; Andalusia, AL; and Amendment of Class E Airspace; Fort Rucker, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class D Airspace; Andalusia, AL; and Amendment of Class E Airspace; Fort Rucker, AL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action removes Class D Airspace at Andalusia, AL, as the Air Traffic...

  11. Creep in Directionally Solidified NiAl-Mo Eutectics

    SciTech Connect

    Dudova, Marie; Kucharova, Kveta; Bartak, Tomas; Bei, Hongbin; George, Easo P; Somsen, Ch.; Dlouhy, A.

    2011-01-01

    A directionally solidified NiAl-Mo eutectic and an NiAl intermetallic, having respective nominal compositions Ni-45.5Al-9Mo and Ni-45.2Al (at.%), were loaded in compression at 1073 and 1173 K. Formidable strengthening by regularly distributed Mo fibres (average diameter 600 nm, volume fraction 14%) was observed. The fibres can support compression stresses transferred from the plastically deforming matrix up to a critical stress of the order of 2.5 GPa, at which point they yield. Microstructural evidence is provided for the dislocation-mediated stress transfer from the NiAl to the Mo phase.

  12. Diffusion Research in BCC Ti-Al-Mo Ternary Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Tang, Bin; Xu, Guanglong; Wang, Chuanyun; Kou, Hongchao; Li, Jinshan; Cui, Yuwen

    2014-04-01

    Interdiffusion in Ti-Al-Mo β solid solution was investigated at 1523 K (1250 °C) by analyzing diffusion couples. From the concentration profiles analytically represented by error function expansion (ERFEX), the ternary interdiffusion coefficients and impurity diffusivity were extracted by the Whittle-Green and generalized Hall methods. A comparison of the diffusion in five Ti-Al-X (Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, and V) ternaries reveals Ti-Al-Mo is comparably like Ti-Al-(Cr, V) while Ti-Al-(Co, Fe) are predominantly of interstitial nature.

  13. Strong adsorption of Al-doped carbon nanotubes toward cisplatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Li, Guo-Qing; Lu, Xiao-Min; Ma, Juan-Juan; Zeng, Peng-Yu; He, Qin-Yu; Wang, Yin-Zhen

    2016-08-01

    The adsorption of cisplatin molecule on Al-doped CNTs is investigated using density functional theory. The obtained results indicate that Al-doped carbon nanotubes can strongly absorb cisplatin. After absorbing cisplatin, the symmetry of CNTs has some changes. We innovatively defined a parameter of symmetry variation which relates to the adsorption. By analyzing the electronic structure, it can be concluded that under the circumstance that cisplatin was absorbed by Al-doped CNTs through aluminum atom of Al-doped CNTs. In conclusion, Al-doped CNTs is a kind of potential delivery carrier with high quality for anticancer drug cisplatin.

  14. Crystal structure of novel compounds in the systems Zr-Cu-Al, Mo-Pd-Al and partial phase equilibria in the Mo-Pd-Al system.

    PubMed

    Khan, Atta U; Rogl, P; Giester, G

    2012-02-28

    The crystal structures of three Al-rich compounds have been solved from X-ray single crystal diffractometry: τ(1)-MoPd(2-x)Al(8+x) (x = 0.067); τ(7)-Zr(Cu(1-x)Al(x))(12) (x = 0.514) and τ(9)-ZrCu(1-x)Al(4) (x = 0.144). τ(1)-MoPd(2-x)Al(8+x) adopts a unique structure type (space group Pbcm; lattice parameters a = 0.78153(2), b = 1.02643(3) and c = 0.86098(2) nm), which can be conceived as a superstructure of the Mo(Cu(x)Al(1-x))(6)Al(4) type. Whereas Mo-atoms occupy the 4d site, Pd(2) occupies the 4c site, Al and Pd(1) atoms randomly share the 4d position and the rest of the positions are fully occupied by Al. A Bärnighausen tree documents the crystallographic group-subgroup relation between the structure types of Mo(Cu(x)Al(1-x))(6)Al(4) and τ(1). τ(7)-Zr(Cu(1-x)Al(x))(12) (x = 0.514) has been confirmed to crystallize with the ThMn(12) type (space group I4/mmm; lattice parameters a = 0.85243(2) and c = 0.50862(3) nm). In total, 4 crystallographic sites were defined, out of which, Zr occupies site 2a, the 8f site is fully occupied by Cu, the 8i site is entirely occupied by Al, but the 8j site turned out to comprise a random mixture of Cu and Al atoms. The compound τ(9)-ZrCu(1-x)Al(4) (x = 0.144) crystallizes in a unique structure type (space group P4/nmm; lattice parameters a = 0.40275(3) and c = 1.17688(4) nm) which exhibits full atom order but a vacancy (14.4%) on the 2c site, shared with Cu atoms. τ(9)-ZrCu(1-x)Al(4) is a superstructure of Cu with an arrangement of three unit cells of Cu in the direction of the c-axis. A Bärnighausen tree documents this relationship. The ZrCu(1-x)Al(4) type (n = 3) is part of a series of structures which follow this building principle: Cu (n = 1), TiAl(3) (n = 2), τ(5)-TiNi(2-x)Al(5) (n = 4), HfGa(2) (n = 6) and Cu(3)Pd (n = 7). A partial isothermal section for the Al-rich part of the Mo-Pd-Al system at 860 °C has been established with two ternary compounds τ(1)-MoPd(2-x)Al(8+x) and τ(2) (unknown structure). The

  15. The immiscibility of InAlN ternary alloy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guijuan; Xu, Xiaoqing; Li, Huijie; Wei, Hongyuan; Han, Dongyue; Ji, Zesheng; Meng, Yulin; Wang, Lianshan; Yang, Shaoyan

    2016-01-01

    We have used two models based on the valence force field and the regular solution model to study the immiscibility of InAlN ternary alloy, and have got the spinodal and binodal curves of InAlN. Analyzing the spinodal decomposition curves, we obtain the appropriate concentration region for the epitaxial growth of the InN-AlN pseudobinary alloy. At a temperature most common for the epitaxial growth of InAlN (1000 K), the solubility of InN is about 10%. Then we introduce the mismatch strain item into the Gibbs free energy, and the effect of different substrates is taken into consideration. Considering Si, Al2O3, InN, GaN, AlN as a substrate respectively, it is found that all the five systems are stabilized with the upper critical solution temperature largely reduced. Finally, InN and GaN are potential substrates for In-rich InAlN, while AlN and GaN substrates are recommended in the Al-rich region. Si and Al2O3 may be ideal substrates for thin InAlN film. PMID:27221345

  16. Reaction of SiF4 with Al Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiaobing; Lau, Kai; Sanjurjo, Angel; Alkhudhiri, Abdullah I.; Alzaben, Abdullah; Alabbad, Waiel

    2017-03-01

    The reaction of SiF4 gas with aluminum (Al) was studied at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1723 K (1450 °C). Although thermochemical estimates indicate that reactions throughout the temperature range should be thermodynamically favorable, we found that no reaction takes place appreciably until Al is heated to around 1473 K (1200 °C). The reaction products consist of fine powders of Si, Al, and AlF3. Some of the reaction products were transported away from the reaction zone by strong convection currents resulting from the exothermic reaction. Even at approximately 1673 K (1400 °C), the reaction rate is slow and a significant amount of Al remains unreacted. When NaF powders were used to line the graphite reactor, NaAlF4, AlF3, and Si powders were observed on the upper cooler walls of the reactor, and Si whiskers were formed just above the Al-Si alloy globule on the bottom of the crucible. We found evidence of the formation of AlF and SiF2 vapor species in the reaction zone, which then disproportionated along the cooler walls of the reactor, generating powders of Al and Si and regenerating condensable AlF3 and SiF4 gas, respectively.

  17. Syntactic comprehension deficits across the FTD-ALS continuum.

    PubMed

    Kamminga, Jody; Leslie, Felicity V C; Hsieh, Sharpley; Caga, Jashelle; Mioshi, Eneida; Hornberger, Michael; Ballard, Kirrie J; Kiernan, Matthew C; Hodges, John R; Burrell, James R

    2016-05-01

    To establish the frequency, severity, relationship to bulbar symptoms, and neural correlates of syntactic comprehension deficits across the frontotemporal dementia-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FTD-ALS) disease spectrum. In total, 85 participants were included in the study; 20 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 15 FTD-ALS, 27 progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), and 23 controls. Syntactic comprehension was evaluated in ALS, FTD-ALS, PNFA, and controls using the Test for Reception of Grammar. Voxel-based morphometry examined neuroanatomical correlates of performance. Syntactic comprehension deficits were detected in 25% of ALS (p = 0.011), 92.9% of FTD-ALS (p < 0.001), and 81.5% of PNFA (p < 0.001) patients. FTD-ALS was disproportionately impaired compared to PNFA. Impaired Test for Reception of Grammar performance was frequent in ALS with early bulbar involvement but did not correlate with bulbar impairment overall. Left peri-insular atrophy correlated with syntactic comprehension deficits. Syntactic comprehension deficits are frequent in FTD-ALS, more severe than in PNFA, and related to left peri-insular atrophy. A significant minority of ALS patients are impaired, but the relationship between bulbar symptoms and syntactic impairment is not understood.

  18. Overview of the development of FeAl intermetallic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P.J.; Liu, C.T.; Goodwin, G.M.

    1995-09-01

    B2-phase FeAl ordered intermetallic alloys based on an Fe-36 at.% Al composition are being developed to optimize a combination of properties that includes high-temperature strength, room-temperature ductility, and weldability. Microalloying with boron and proper processing are very important for FeAl properties optimization. These alloys also have the good to outstanding resistance to oxidation, sulfidation, and corrosion in molten salts or chlorides at elevated temperatures, characteristic of FeAl with 30--40 at.% Al. Ingot- and powder-metallurgy (IM and PM, respectively) processing both produce good properties, including strength above 400 MPa up to about 750 C. Technology development to produce FeAl components for industry testing is in progress. In parallel, weld-overlay cladding and powder coating technologies are also being developed to take immediate advantage of the high-temperature corrosion/oxidation and erosion/wear resistance of FeAl.

  19. 26Al uptake and accumulation in the rat brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, S.; Nagai, H.; Imamura, M.; Matsuzaki, H.; Hayashi, K.; Masuda, A.; Kumazawa, H.; Ohashi, H.; Kobayashi, K.

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the cause of Alzheimer's disease (senile dementia), 26Al incorporation in the rat brain was studied by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). When 26Al was injected into healthy rats, a considerable amount of 26Al entered the brain (cerebrum) through the blood-brain barrier 5 days after a single injection, and the brain 26Al level remained almost constant from 5 to 270 days. On the other hand, the level of 26Al in the blood decreased remarkably 75 days after injection. Approximately 89% of the 26Al taken in by the brain cell nuclei bound to chromatin. This study supports the theory that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminium (Al) in the brain, and brain cell nuclei.

  20. Influence of overaging treatment on localized corrosion of Al 6056

    SciTech Connect

    Gullaumin, V.; Mankowski, G.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of T78 overaging treatment on the corrosion behavior of AL 6056 (UNS A96056) in 1 M sodium chloride (NaCl) solution was investigated. The overaged alloy presented the same localized corrosion mechanisms as Al 6056-T6. However, Al 6056-T78 coarse intermetallic Al-Mg-Si-containing particles were found to be more reactive than those in the Al 6056-T6 alloy and were nucleation sites for pits. Pitting and intergranular corrosion were dependent upon each other; intergranular corrosion nucleated on pit walls. A quantitative study showed that T78 overaging of Al 6056 offered a better resistance to intergranular corrosion compared to T6 peak-aging treatment. The overaged alloy will be able to replace the traditional Al 2024 because of the efficiency of this overaging treatment.

  1. Tropical soils cultivated with tomato: fractionation and speciation of Al.

    PubMed

    Nogueirol, Roberta Corrêa; Monteiro, Francisco Antonio; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes

    2015-04-01

    Soil acidity and the associated problems of aluminum (Al) toxicity and scarce exchangeable bases are typically the most important limiting factors of agricultural yield in wet tropical regions. The goals of this study were to test how soil lime rates affect the forms and distribution of Al in the soil fractions and how different levels of bioavailable Al affect two tomato genotypes grown in wet tropical soils. The tomato genotypes CNPH 0082 and Calabash Rouge were grown in two wet tropical soils in a greenhouse. Soil lime rates of 0, 560, and 2240 mg kg(-1) soil (clay soil) and 0, 280, and 1120 mg kg(-1) soil (sandy soil) were applied to modify Al concentrations. Dry mass production and Al concentrations were determined in shoots and roots. Al was fractionated in the soil, and the soil solution was speciated after cultivation. The Calabash Rouge genotype possesses mechanisms to tolerate Al3+, absorbed less Al, exhibited smaller reduction in growth, and lower Al concentrations in plant parts than the CNPH 0082. Increased soil pH reduced the exchangeable Al fraction and increased the fraction mainly linked to organic matter. Al in the soil in the form of complexes with organic compounds and Al(SO4)+ (at the highest lime rate) did not affect plant development. Soil acidity can be easily neutralized by liming the soil, which transforms toxic Al3+ in the soil into forms that do not harm tomato plants, thereby avoiding oxidative stress in the plants. Al-induced stress in tomatoes varies with genotypes and soil type.

  2. 77 FR 47691 - In the Matter of the Designation of Azzam Abdullah Zureik Al-Maulid Al-Subhi, Also Known as Azzam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of Azzam Abdullah Zureik Al- Maulid Al-Subhi, Also Known as Azzam al-Subhi, Also Known as Mansur al- Harbi, Also Known as Azam Abdullah Razeeq Al Mouled Alsbhua, Also Known as Abu Muslem al-Maky, Also Known as Abu...

  3. 78 FR 6172 - In the Matter of the Designation of Ahmed Abdullah Saleh al-Khazmari al-Zahrani Also Known as Abu...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of Ahmed Abdullah Saleh al- Khazmari al-Zahrani Also Known as Abu Maryam al-Saudi Also Known as Ahmed Abdullah S al-Zahrani Also Known as Ahmad Abdullah Salih Al- Zahrani Also Known as Abu Maryam al-Azadi Also Known as...

  4. Theoretical exploration of hydrogen loss from Al3H9.

    PubMed

    Nold, Christopher P; Head, John D

    2012-05-03

    The Al(3)H(9) and Al(3)H(7) potential energy surfaces were explored using quantum chemistry calculations to investigate the H(2) loss mechanism from Al(3)H(9), which provide new insights into hydrogen production from bulk alane, [AlH(3)](x), a possible energy storage material. We present results of B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) calculations for the various Al(3)H(9) and Al(3)H(7) optimized local minima and transition state structures along with some reaction pathways for their interconversion. We find the energy for Al(3)H(9) decomposition into Al(2)H(6) and AlH(3) is slightly lower than that for H(2) loss and Al(3)H(7) formation, but the calculations show that H(2) loss from Al(3)H(9) is a lower energy process than for losing hydrogen from either Al(2)H(6) or AlH(3). We found four transition state structures and reaction pathways for Al(3)H(9) → Al(3)H(7) + H(2), where the lowest energy activation barrier is around 25-73 kJ/mol greater than the experimental value for H(2) loss from bulk alane. Intrinsic reaction coordinate calculations show that the H(2) loss pathway involves considerable rearrangement of the H atom positions around a single Al center. Three of the pathways start with the formation of an AlH(3) moiety, which then enables a terminal H on the AlH(3) to get within 1.1 to 1.2 Å of a nearby bridging H atom. The bridging and terminal H atoms eventually combine to form H(2) and leave Al(3)H(9). One implication of these H(2) loss reaction pathways is that, since the H atoms in bulk alanes are all at bridging positions, if a similar H(2) loss mechanism were to apply to bulk alane, then H(2) loss would most likely occur on the bulk alane surface or at a defect site where there should be more terminal H atoms available for reaction with nearby bridging H atoms.

  5. Impact of wet-oxidized Al2O3/AlGaN interface on AlGaN/GaN 2-DEGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meer, Mudassar; Majety, Sridhar; Takhar, Kuldeep; Ganguly, Swaroop; Saha, Dipankar

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the impact of wet-oxidation of AlGaN in an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure by selectively probing the metal/AlGaN interface. The two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) characteristics show improved mobility with increasing oxidation time and Al2O3 thickness. The change is attributed to an interplay of the interface trap density (D it) and the oxide thickness. D it is found to reduce progressively for thicker gate oxides as determined by selectively probing the Al2O3/AlGaN interface and employing frequency dependent capacitance and conductance spectroscopy on these devices. The energies of the interface traps are found to be in the range of 0.35–0.45 eV below the conduction band edge. The D it is found to reduce from 2 × 1013 cm‑2 eV‑1 for 2.3 nm of Al2O3 to 5 × 1012 cm‑2 eV‑1 for 16 nm of Al2O3. Contrary to the earlier reports of increased 2-DEG electron density, the primary advantage is found to be a reduction in Dit leading to an increased electron mobility from 1730 to 2800 cm2V‑1s‑1.

  6. Interface States and Trapping Effects in Al2O3- and ZrO2/InAlN/AlN/GaN Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ťapajna, Milan; Kuzmík, Jan; Čičo, Karol; Pogany, Dionyz; Pozzovivo, Gianmauro; Strasser, Gottfried; Abermann, Stephan; Bertagnolli, Emmerich; Carlin, Jean-François; Grandjean, Nicolas; Fröhlich, Karol

    2009-09-01

    We investigate Al2O3- and ZrO2/InAlN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructures (MOS-H) using capacitance-time transients in the temperature range of 25-300 °C. A deep-level transient spectroscopy based analysis revealed the maximum interface state density distributions Dit(E) up to 3×1013 and 1×1013 eV-1 cm-2 for the Al2O3/InAlN and ZrO2/InAlN interface, respectively. The integral densities of interface states correlate well with the trapping-related gate-lag effect in corresponding InAlN/GaN MOS high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). This explains the strongly reduced lag effect in ZrO2 MOS HEMTs. We assume hole trapping at oxide/InAlN interface to be a dominant effect responsible for the gate-lag effect in InAlN/GaN MOS HEMTs.

  7. Interface States and Trapping Effects in Al2O3- and ZrO2/InAlN/AlN/GaN Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ťapajna, Milan; Kuzmík, Jan; Čičo, Karol; Pogany, Dionyz; Pozzovivo, Gianmauro; Strasser, Gottfried; Abermann, Stephan; Bertagnolli, Emmerich; Carlin, Jean-François; Grandjean, Nicolas; Fröhlich, Karol

    2009-09-01

    We investigate Al2O3- and ZrO2/InAlN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructures (MOS-H) using capacitance-time transients in the temperature range of 25-300 °C. A deep-level transient spectroscopy based analysis revealed the maximum interface state density distributions Dit(E) up to 3× 1013 and 1× 1013 eV-1 cm-2 for the Al2O3/InAlN and ZrO2/InAlN interface, respectively. The integral densities of interface states correlate well with the trapping-related gate-lag effect in corresponding InAlN/GaN MOS high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). This explains the strongly reduced lag effect in ZrO2 MOS HEMTs. We assume hole trapping at oxide/InAlN interface to be a dominant effect responsible for the gate-lag effect in InAlN/GaN MOS HEMTs.

  8. Measured Activities of Al and Ni in gamma-(Ni) and gamma'-(Ni)3Al in the Ni-Al-Pt System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan

    2007-01-01

    Adding Pt to Ni-Al coatings is critical to achieving the required oxidation protection of Ni-based superalloys, but the nature of the Pt effect remains unresolved. This research provides a fundamental part of the answer by measuring the influence of Pt on the activities of Al and Ni in gamma-(Ni), gamma prime-(Ni)3Al and liquid in the Ni-Al-Pt system. Measurements have been made at 25 compositions in the Ni-rich corner over the temperature range, T = 1400-1750 K, by the vapor pressure technique with a multiple effusion-cell mass spectrometer (multi-cell KEMS). These measurements clearly show adding Pt (for X(sub Pt) less than 0.25) decreases a(Al) while increasing a(Ni). This solution behavior supports the idea that Pt increases Al transport to an alloy / Al2O3 interface and also limits the interaction between the coating and substrate alloys in the gamma-(Ni) + gamma prime-(Ni)3Al region. This presentation will review the progress of this study.

  9. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of Al-rich AlGaN nanowires for deep ultraviolet optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, S.; Woo, S. Y.; Sadaf, S. M.; Wu, Y.; Pofelski, A.; Laleyan, D. A.; Rashid, R. T.; Wang, Y.; Botton, G. A.; Mi, Z.

    2016-08-01

    Self-organized AlGaN nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy have attracted significant attention for deep ultraviolet optoelectronics. However, due to the strong compositional modulations under conventional nitrogen rich growth conditions, emission wavelengths less than 250 nm have remained inaccessible. Here we show that Al-rich AlGaN nanowires with much improved compositional uniformity can be achieved in a new growth paradigm, wherein a precise control on the optical bandgap of ternary AlGaN nanowires can be achieved by varying the substrate temperature. AlGaN nanowire LEDs, with emission wavelengths spanning from 236 to 280 nm, are also demonstrated.

  10. Influence of Content of Al2O3 on Structure and Properties of Nanocomposite Nb-B-Al-O films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Dong, Lei; Dong, Lei; Yu, Jiangang; Pan, Yupeng; Wan, Rongxin; Gu, Hanqing; Li, Dejun

    2015-12-01

    Nb-B-Al-O nanocomposite films with different power of Al2O3 were successfully deposited on the Si substrate via multi-target magnetron co-sputtering method. The influences of Al2O3's content on structure and properties of obtained nanocomposite films through controlling Al2O3's power were investigated. Increasing the power of Al2O3 can influence the bombarding energy and cause the momentum transfer of NbB2. This can lead to the decreasing content of Al2O3. Furthermore, the whole films showed monocrystalline NbB2's (100) phase, and Al2O3 shaded from amorphous to weak cubic-crystalline when decreasing content of Al2O3. This structure and content changes were proof by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). When NbB2 grains were far from each other in lower power of Al2O3, the whole films showed a typical nanocomposite microstructure with crystalline NbB2 grains embedded in a matrix of an amorphous Al2O3 phase. Continuing increasing the power of Al2O3, the less content of Al2O3 tended to cause crystalline of cubic-Al2O3 between the close distances of different crystalline NbB2 grains. The appearance of cubic-crystallization Al2O3 can help to raise the nanocomposite films' mechanical properties to some extent. The maximum hardness and elastic modulus were up to 21.60 and 332.78 GPa, which were higher than the NbB2 and amorphous Al2O3 monolithic films. Furthermore, this structure change made the chemistry bond of O atom change from the existence of O-Nb, O-B, and O-Al bonds to single O-Al bond and increased the specific value of Al and O. It also influenced the hardness in higher temperature, which made the hardness variation of different Al2O3 content reduced. These results revealed that it can enhance the films' oxidation resistance properties and keep the mechanical properties at high temperature. The study highlighted the importance of controlling the Al2O3's content to prepare

  11. Azide SHS of aluminium nitride nanopowder and its application for obtaining Al-Cu-AlN cast nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titova, Y. V.; Sholomova, A. V.; Kuzina, A. A.; Maidan, D. A.; Amosov, A. P.

    2016-11-01

    Method of azide self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS-Az), using sodium azide (NaN3) as a nitriding reagent, was used for obtaining the nanopowder of aluminum nitride (AlN) from precursor that was sodium hexafluoroaluminate (Na3AlF6). The product of burning the mixture of Na3AlF6 + 3NaN3 after water rinsing consisted of micro - and nanoparticles of AlN (65%) and the residue of salt Na3AlF6 (35%). This product of SHS-Az was mixed with copper powder and pressed into a briquette of nanopowdery master alloy Cu- 4%(65%AlN+35%Na3AlF6), which was successfully introduced into aluminium melt at a temperature of 850°C. The salt Na3AlF6 in the product of combustion played a role of flux during introducing into the aluminum melt and was not included in the final composition of the composite alloy. The microstructure of the obtained cast composite aluminum alloy with the calculated composition of Al-1.2%Cu-0.035%AlN showed that the reinforcing particles of AlN of different sizes, including nanoparticles, were distributed mainly along the grain boundaries of the aluminum alloy.

  12. Effect of Al content on impact resistance behavior of Al-Ti-B4C composite fabricated under air atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Liang, Yunhong; Zhang, Zhihui; Li, Xiujuan; Ren, Luquan

    2016-12-01

    Reaction behavior, mechanical property and impact resistance of TiC-TiB2/Al composite reacted from Al-Ti-B4C system with various Al content via combination method of combustion synthesis and hot pressed sintering under air was investigated. Al content was the key point to the variation of mechanical property and impact resistance. Increasing Al content could increase the density, strength and toughness of the composite. Due to exorbitant ceramic content, 10wt.% and 20wt.% Al-Ti-B4C composites exhibited poor molding ability and machinability. Flexural strength, fracture toughness, compressive strength and impact toughness of 30-50wt.% Al-Ti-B4C composite were higher than those of Al matrix. The intergranular fracture dispersed and defused impact load and restricted crack extension, enhancing the impact resistance of the composite. The composite with 50wt.% Al content owned highest mechanical properties and impact resistance. The results were useful for the application of TiC-TiB2/Al composite in impact resistance field of ceramic reinforced Al matrix composite.

  13. Fabrication of a 2014Al-SiC/2014Al Sandwich Structure Composite with Good Tensile Strength and Ductility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xian; Zhao, Yu-Guang; Wang, Hui-Yuan; Wang, Zhi-Guo; Wu, Min; Pei, Chang-hao; Chen, Chao; Jiang, Qi-Chuan

    2016-11-01

    A sandwich structure laminate composed of a ductile 2014Al inter-layer and two nanoscale SiC reinforced 2014Al (SiC/2014Al) composite outer layers was successfully fabricated through the combination of powder metallurgy and hot rolling. The ductile 2014Al inter-layer effectively improved the processability of the sandwiched laminates. Tensile test revealed that the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the sandwiched laminate were 287 and 470 MPa, respectively, compared with 235 and 425 MPa for monolithic 2014Al. The good performance of the sandwiched laminate results from the strong bonding between the SiC/2014Al composites layer and the ductile 2014Al layer. Thus, the sandwich structure with a composite surface and ductile core is effective for increasing the strength and toughness of composite laminates.

  14. Josephson effect in Al/Bi2Se3/Al coplanar hybrid devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galletti, L.; Charpentier, S.; Lucignano, P.; Massarotti, D.; Arpaia, R.; Tafuri, F.; Bauch, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Tagliacozzo, A.; Kadowaki, K.; Lombardi, F.

    2014-08-01

    The edge states of Topological Insulators (TI) are protected against backscattering, thanks to the topological properties arising from their band structure. Coupling a TI to a superconductor (S) can induce unconventional effects, including the creation of Majorana bound states (MBS). The fabrication of coplanar hybrid devices is a fundamental step to pave the way to the understanding of proximity effects in topologically non-trivial systems, and to a large variety of experiments aimed at the possible detection of MBS. We discuss the feasibility and some relevant properties of Al-Bi2Se3-Al coplanar proximity devices. Special attention is devoted to the design of the junction, aimed at enhancing the coupling between the electrodes and the TI.

  15. Radial macrosegregation and dendrite clustering in directionally solidified Al-7Si and Al-19Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghods, M.; Johnson, L.; Lauer, M.; Grugel, R. N.; Tewari, S. N.; Poirier, D. R.

    2016-05-01

    Hypoeutectic Al-7 wt% Si and Al-19 wt% Cu alloys were directionally solidified upward in a Bridgman furnace through a range of constant growth speeds and thermal gradients. Though processing is thermo-solutally stable, flow initiated by gravity-independent advection at, slightly leading, central dendrites moves rejected solute out ahead and across the advancing interface. Here any lagging dendrites are further suppressed which promotes a curved solid-liquid interface and the eventual dendrite "clustering" seen in transverse sections (dendrite "steepling" in longitudinal orientations) as well as extensive radial macrosegregation. Both aluminum alloys showed considerable macrosegregation at the low growth speeds (10 and 30 μm s-1) but not at higher speed (72 μm s-1). Distribution of the fraction eutectic-constituent on transverse sections was determined in order to quantitatively describe radial macrosegregation. The convective mechanisms leading to dendrite-steepling were elucidated with numerical simulations, and their results compared with the experimental observations.

  16. Solute partitioning in TiAl/Ti{sub 3}Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Munroe, P.R.; Baker, I.

    1999-11-19

    Over the last few years there have been intense research and development efforts on two-phase alloys based on ({gamma}) TiAl + ({alpha}{sub 2}) Ti{sub 3}Al; the goal being to develop alloys for aerospace and, possibly, automotive applications. Two-phase alloys have been studied which contain numerous elemental additions, the more common ones of which are W, Mo, Nb, Cr, W, V, Si, Mn, Ta, C and B. These have been studied both for their phase stability and to determine their monotonic and cycling loading response both at low and high temperature. Although the mechanical properties and physical behavior of these alloys have been studied in detail, there is surprisingly little published information on the distribution of these alloying additions between the two phases. Here the authors report a short study on two recently developed alloys concerning how some of these elemental additions partition between the two phases.

  17. Kinetic energy distributions of sputtered neutral aluminum clusters: Al--Al[sub 6

    SciTech Connect

    Coon, S.R.; Calaway, W.F.; Pellin, M.J. ); Curlee, G.A. . Dept. of Physics); White, J.M. . Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry)

    1992-01-01

    Neutral aluminum clusters sputtered from polycrystalline aluminum were analyzed by laser postionization time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. The kinetic energy distributions of Al through Al[sub 6] were measured by a neutrals time-of-flight technique. The interpretation of laser postionization TOF data to extract velocity and energy distributions is presented. The aluminum cluster distributions are qualitatively similar to previous copper cluster distribution measurements from our laboratory. In contrast to the steep high energy tails predicted by the single- or multiple- collision models, the measured cluster distributions have high energy power law dependences in the range of E[sup [minus]3] to E[sup [minus]4.5]. Correlated collision models may explain the substantial abundance of energetic clusters that are observed in these experiments. Possible influences of cluster fragmentation on the distributions are discussed.

  18. Kinetic energy distributions of sputtered neutral aluminum clusters: Al--Al{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Coon, S.R.; Calaway, W.F.; Pellin, M.J.; Curlee, G.A.; White, J.M.

    1992-12-01

    Neutral aluminum clusters sputtered from polycrystalline aluminum were analyzed by laser postionization time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. The kinetic energy distributions of Al through Al{sub 6} were measured by a neutrals time-of-flight technique. The interpretation of laser postionization TOF data to extract velocity and energy distributions is presented. The aluminum cluster distributions are qualitatively similar to previous copper cluster distribution measurements from our laboratory. In contrast to the steep high energy tails predicted by the single- or multiple- collision models, the measured cluster distributions have high energy power law dependences in the range of E{sup {minus}3} to E{sup {minus}4.5}. Correlated collision models may explain the substantial abundance of energetic clusters that are observed in these experiments. Possible influences of cluster fragmentation on the distributions are discussed.

  19. Tunneling spectroscopy of Al/AlO{sub x}/Pb subjected to hydrostatic pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jun; Hou, Xing-Yuan; Guan, Tong; Zhang, Qin-Tong; Li, Yong-Qing; Han, Xiu-Feng; Li, Chun-Hong; Ren, Cong; Yang, Zheng-Xin; Zhang, Jin; Shan, Lei; Chen, Gen-Fu

    2015-05-18

    We develop an experimental tool to investigate high-pressure electronic density of state by combining electron tunneling spectroscopy measurements with high-pressure technique. It is demonstrated that tunneling spectroscopy measurement on Al/AlO{sub x}/Pb junction is systematically subjected to hydrostatic pressure up to 2.2 GPa. Under such high pressure, the normal state junction resistance is sensitive to the applied pressure, reflecting the variation of band structure of the barrier material upon pressures. In superconducting state, the pressure dependence of the energy gap Δ{sub 0}, the gap ratio 2Δ{sub 0}/k{sub B}T{sub c}, and the phonon spectral energy is extracted and compared with those obtained in the limited pressure range. Our experimental results show the accessibility and validity of high pressure tunneling spectroscopy, offering wealthy information about high pressure superconductivity.

  20. Bipolar resistive switching and conduction mechanism of an Al/ZnO/Al-based memristor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gul, Fatih; Efeoglu, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a direct-current reactive sputtered Al/ZnO/Al-based memristor device was fabricated and its resistive switching (RS) characteristics investigated. The optical and structural properties were confirmed by using UV-vis spectrophotometry and x-ray diffraction, respectively. The memristive and resistive switching characteristics were determined using time dependent current-voltage (I-V-t) measurements. The typical pinched hysteresis I-V loops of a memristor were observed. In addition, the device showed forming-free, uniform and bipolar RS behavior. The low electric field region exhibited ohmic conduction, while the Schottky emission (SE) was found to be the dominant conduction mechanism in the high electric field region. A weak Poole-Frenkel (PF) emission also appeared. In conclusion, it was suggested that the SE and PF mechanisms were related to the oxygen vacancies in the ZnO.

  1. Removing Al and regenerating caustic soda from the spent washing liquor of Al etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barakat, M. A.; El-Sheikh, S. M.; Farghly, F. E.

    2005-08-01

    Spent liquor from washing of aluminum section materials after etching with caustic soda (NaOH) has been treated. Aluminum was removed from the liquor and caustic soda was regenerated by adding precipitating agents to hydrolyze sodium aluminate (Na2AlO2), separating the aluminumprecipitate, and concentrating free NaOH in the resulting solution for reuse in the etching process. Four systems were investigated: hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2], hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), H2O2/Ca(OH)2 mixture, and dry lime (CaO). Results revealed that CaO was more efficient in the removal of aluminum from the spent liquor with a higher hydrolyzing rate of Na2AlO2 than Ca(OH)2, H2O2, or their mixture.

  2. Anomalous DC and RF behavior of virgin AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Martín, H.; García-Pérez, Ó.; Pérez, S.; Altuntas, P.; Hoel, V.; Rennesson, S.; Cordier, Y.; González, T.; Mateos, J.; Íñiguez-de-la-Torre, I.

    2017-03-01

    The performance of gallium nitride transistors is still limited by technological problems often related to defects and traps. In this work, virgin AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs exhibiting an anomalous DC behavior accompanied by frequency dispersion in the microwave range, both in the transconductance and output conductance, are analyzed. This anomalous response, which is mitigated by high-bias conditions, is attributed to the presence of traps and defects both in the volume of the GaN channel and in the source and drain contacts. A simple equivalent circuit model is proposed to replicate the dispersive response of the transistor, achieving an excellent agreement with the measured S–parameters and thus providing relevant information about its characteristic frequency.

  3. Writing the True Self: Case Studies of Eng 101 Students Responding to a Peter Elbow-Inspired Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansell, Jon W.

    2012-01-01

    My fulfillment in life comes through helping others develop their potential, work through their troubles, and follow their dreams. I have found that my college students embrace this aspect as I teach them expressive, author-involved writing. Peter Elbow's work asserts that this type of writing fits into his theory of personal development, which is…

  4. Improvement of the Electrochemical Behavior of Steel Surfaces Using a [Ti-Al/Ti-Al-N] n Multilayer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipaz, L.; Aperador, W.; Caicedo, J. C.; Esteve, J.; Zambrano, G.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work is to improve the corrosion resistance of AISI D3 steel surfaces using a [Ti-Al/Ti-Al-N] n multilayer system deposited with different periods (Λ) and bilayer numbers ( n), via magnetron co-sputtering pulsed d.c. procedure, from a metallic (Ti-Al) binary target. The multilayer coatings were characterized by cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy that showed the modulation and microstructure of the [Ti-Al/Ti-Al-N] n multilayer system. The composition of the single Ti-Al and Ti-Al-N layer films was studied via x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, where typical signals for Ti2p1/2, Ti2p, N1s, and Al2p3/2 were detected. The electrochemical properties were evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel polarization curves. The optimal electrochemical behavior was obtained for the [Ti-Al/Ti-Al-N] n multilayered period of Λ = 25 nm (100 bilayers). At these conditions, the maximum polarization resistance (1719.32 kΩ cm2) and corrosion rate (0.7 μmy) were 300 and 35 times higher than that of uncoated AISI D3 steel substrate (5.61 kΩ cm2 and 25 μmy, respectively). Finally, scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the [Ti-Al/Ti-Al-N] n multilayered surface after the corrosive attack. The improvement effects in the electrochemical behavior of the AISI D3 coated with the [Ti-Al/Ti-Al-N] n multilayered coatings could be attributed to the number of interfaces that act as obstacles for the inward and outward diffusions of Cl- ions, generating an increment in the energy or potential required for translating the corrosive ions across the coating/substrate interface.

  5. Intermetallic Phase Formation in Explosively Welded Al/Cu Bimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amani, H.; Soltanieh, M.

    2016-08-01

    Diffusion couples of aluminum and copper were fabricated by explosive welding process. The interface evolution caused by annealing at different temperatures and time durations was investigated by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Annealing in the temperature range of 573 K to 773 K (300 °C to 500 °C) up to 408 hours showed that four types of intermetallic layers have been formed at the interface, namely Al2Cu, AlCu, Al3Cu4, and Al4Cu9. Moreover, it was observed that iron trace in aluminum caused the formation of Fe-bearing intermetallics in Al, which is near the interface of the Al-Cu intermetallic layers. Finally, the activation energies for the growth of Al2Cu, AlCu + Al3Cu4, Al4Cu9, and the total intermetallic layer were calculated to be about 83.3, 112.8, 121.6, and 109.4 kJ/mol, respectively. Considering common welding methods ( i.e., explosive welding, cold rolling, and friction welding), although there is a great difference in welding mechanism, it is found that the total activation energy is approximately the same.

  6. Use of biomarkers in ALS drug development and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Bakkar, Nadine; Boehringer, Ashley; Bowser, Robert

    2015-05-14

    The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in the discovery of candidate biomarkers for ALS. These biomarkers typically can either differentiate ALS from control subjects or predict disease course (slow versus fast progression). At the same time, late-stage clinical trials for ALS have failed to generate improved drug treatments for ALS patients. Incorporation of biomarkers into the ALS drug development pipeline and the use of biologic and/or imaging biomarkers in early- and late-stage ALS clinical trials have been absent and only recently pursued in early-phase clinical trials. Further clinical research studies are needed to validate biomarkers for disease progression and develop biomarkers that can help determine that a drug has reached its target within the central nervous system. In this review we summarize recent progress in biomarkers across ALS model systems and patient population, and highlight continued research directions for biomarkers that stratify the patient population to enrich for patients that may best respond to a drug candidate, monitor disease progression and track drug responses in clinical trials. It is crucial that we further develop and validate ALS biomarkers and incorporate these biomarkers into the ALS drug development process. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ALS complex pathogenesis.

  7. Study of Dissolution Process of Solid Cu in Liquid Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuying; Wu, Yang; Chang, Guowei; Zhu, Changxu; Li, Qingchun

    2016-09-01

    The dissolution process of solid Cu in liquid Al influences the compound quality directly when fabricating the copper cladding aluminum (CCA) composite castings utilizing the casting aluminum method. Dissolution rate of solid Cu is investigated utilizing the method of quenching rapidly. Effects of liquid Al temperature and the contact time between solid Cu and liquid Al on the dissolution rate of Cu are investigated; meanwhile, the dissolution mechanism of Cu is explored. Subsequently, the influences of processing parameters on the dissolution thickness of Cu are examined. The results indicate that chemical compounds, such as AlCu2, Cu5Al, CuAl2 and Cu2Al3, may form on the contact surface between solid Cu and liquid Al. These chemical compounds are contributed to decompose the solid Cu, Cu5Al exerts the greatest effect. The dissolution of Cu is affected by the contact time between solid Cu and liquid Al, temperature and cooling method of Cu plate. The dissolution of Cu cannot terminate immediately even though the Cu plate is cooled by the spray. The experimental results will provide a reference for controlling the composite layer thickness.

  8. MCrAlY bond coat with enhanced yttrium

    DOEpatents

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2016-08-30

    One or more embodiments relates to a method of producing an MCrAlY bond coat comprising an MCrAlY layer in contact with a Y--Al.sub.2O.sub.3 layer. The MCrAlY layer is comprised of a .gamma.-M solid solution, a .beta.-MAl intermetallic phase, and Y-type intermetallics. The Y--Al.sub.2O.sub.3 layer is comprised of Yttrium atoms coordinated with oxygen atoms comprising the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 lattice. The method comprises depositing an MCrAlY material on a substrate, applying an Y.sub.2O.sub.3 paste, and heating the substrate in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a temperature between 400-1300.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the Y--Al.sub.2O.sub.3 layer. Both the MCrAlY layer and the Y--Al.sub.2O.sub.3 layer have a substantial absence of Y.sub.2O.sub.3, YAG, and YAP phases.

  9. Investigation of the Electrical Characteristics of Al/p-Si/Al Schottky Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şenarslan, Elvan; Güzeldir, Betül; Sağlam, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    In this study, p-type Si semiconductor wafer with (100) orientation, 400 μm thickness and 1-10 Ω cm resistivity was used. The Si wafer before making contacts were chemically cleaned with the Si cleaning procedure which for remove organic contaminations were ultrasonically cleaned at acetone and methanol for 10 min respectively and then rinsed in deionized water of 18 MΩ and dried with high purity N2. Then respectively RCA1(i.e., boiling in NH3+H2O2+6H2O for 10 min at 60°C ), RCA2 (i.e., boiling in HCl+H2O2+6H2O for 10 min at 60°C ) cleaning procedures were applied and rinsed in deionized water followed by drying with a stream of N2. After the cleaning process, the wafer is immediately inserted in to the coating unit. Ohmic contact was made by evaporating of Al on the non-polished side of the p-Si wafer pieces under ~ 4,2 10-6 Torr pressure. After process evaporation, p-Si with omic contac thermally annealed 580°C for 3 min in a quartz tube furnace in N2. Then, the rectifier contact is made by evaporation Al metal diameter of about 1.0 mm on the polished surface of p-Si in turbo molecular pump at about ~ 1 10-6 Torr. Consequently, Al/p-Si/Al Schottky diode was obtained. The I-V measurements of this diode performed by the use of a KEITLEY 487 Picoammeter/Voltage Source and the C-V measurements were performed with HP 4192A (50-13 MHz) LF Impedance Analyzer at room temperature and in dark.

  10. Shift Focus on the Al Qaeda Network: A More Comprehensive Approach to Defeating Al Qaeda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-15

    extreme intolerance” within a minority stream of Islam, which is fed by grievances widely felt throughout the Muslim world.4 The militant Islamist...to the U.S. cultural misunderstanding in its application of the instruments of national power. More recent events of the past few decades have been...political ends and whose extreme followers often engage in violence.”11 The ideological nature of this war has been well recognized by Al Qaeda’s

  11. Combustion Synthesis Reaction Behavior of Cold-Rolled Ni/Al and Ti/Al Multilayers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    6   Figure 4 . Combustion synthesis process of the cold-rolled Ni/Al multilayer foils: (a) reaction front of the displacement of the reaction...Reactive Nanostructured Foil Used as a Heat Source for Joining Titanium . J. Appl. Phys. 2004, 96 ( 4 ), 2336–2342. 16. Wang, J.; Besnoin, E...2011 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) January 2006–January 2008 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Combustion Synthesis Reaction Behavior of

  12. Influence of Al203 on Properties of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia-Al203 Composites.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-15

    discrete Al2 3 grains dispersed throughout. X-ray diffraction and Raman-spectral analysis indicated a combination of both cubic and tetragonal phases...of the grain, although a few grains were also indexed as cubic . The lack of full tetragonality Is indicated by the fact that all the expected (211...both cubic and tetragonal phases in the sintered specimens, a result which might be expected " from the composition of the starting powders, since the

  13. Familial clustering of ALS in a population-based resource

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Summer B.; Figueroa, Karla P.; Bromberg, Mark B.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent of an inherited contribution to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mortality. Methods: Death certificates (DCs) from 1904 to 2009 were analyzed from patients with at least 3 generations recorded in the Utah Population Database, a genealogic and medical database of more than 2 million Utah residents. Among probands whose DCs listed ALS, the relative risk (RR) of death with ALS was determined among spouses and first- through fifth-degree relatives, using birth year-, sex-, and birthplace-matched cohorts. Results: Eight hundred seventy-three patients with ALS met the inclusion criteria. Among 3,531 deceased first-degree relatives of probands, the RR of dying with ALS was increased compared with control cohorts (RR = 4.91, 95% confidence interval 3.36, 6.94). The RR of dying with ALS was also increased among 9,386 deceased second-degree relatives (RR = 2.85, 95% confidence interval 2.06, 3.84). The RR of dying with ALS was not increased among third- through fifth-degree relatives. More affected first-degree relatives were male (p = 0.014). No cases of conjugal ALS were observed. Conclusions: This study is suggestive of familial clustering in excess of expected for ALS. Our results confirm the results of prior studies of familial ALS, suggesting applicability of our findings to other mixed European populations. Furthermore, this work expands on previous studies by quantifying the RR of ALS among more distant relatives. The use of mortality data obtained from DCs reduces the ascertainment and recall bias of many previous studies. Finally, the excess of ALS among second-degree relatives and lack of conjugal ALS are strongly supportive of a genetic contribution. PMID:24306004

  14. Unusual Oxidative Limitations for Al-MAX Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    2017-01-01

    Alumina-forming MAX phases are well-known for their excellent oxidation resistance, rivaling many metallic NiAl, NiCrAl, and FeCrAl counterparts and with upper temperature capability possible to approximately1400C. However a number of limitations have been emerging that need to be acknowledged to permit robust performance in demanding applications. Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2 possess excellent scale adhesion, cyclic oxidation/moisture/volatility resistance, and TBC compatibility. However they are very sensitive to Al content and flux in order to maintain an exclusive Al2O3 scale without runaway oxidation of ubiquitous TiO2 transient scales. Accelerated oxidation has been shown to occur for Al-depleted, damaged, or roughened surfaces at temperatures less than 1200C. Conversely, Cr2AlC is less sensitive to transients, but exhibits volatile losses at 1200C or above if common Cr7C3 impurity phases are present. Poor scale adhesion is exhibited after oxidation at 1150C or above, where spallation occurs at the Cr7C3 (depletion zone) interface. Delayed spallation is significant and suggests a moisture-induced phenomenon similar to non-adherent metallic systems. Re-oxidation of this surface does not reproduce the initial pure Al2O3 behavior, but initiates a less-protective scale. Cr2AlC has also been shown to have good long term bonding with superalloys at 800C, but exhibits significant Beta-NiAl + Cr7C3 diffusion zones at 1100C and above. This may set limits on Cr2AlC as a high temperature TBC bond coat on Ni-based superalloys, while improving corrosion resistance in lower temperature applications.

  15. Roll Casting of Al-25%Si

    SciTech Connect

    Haga, Toshio; Harada, Hideto; Watari, Hisaki

    2011-05-04

    Strip casting of Al-25%Si strip was tried using an unequal diameter twin roll caster. The diameter of the lower roll (large roll) was 1000 mm and the diameter of the upper roll (small roll) was 250 mm. Roll material was mild steel. The sound strip could be cast at the speeds ranging from 8 m/min to 12 m/min. The strip did not stick to the roll without the parting material. The primary Si, which existed at centre area of the thickness direction, was larger than that which existed at other area. The size of the primary Si was smaller than 0.2 mm. Eutectic Si was smaller 5 {mu}m. The as-cast strip was ranging from 2 mm to 3 mm thick and its width was 100 mm. The as-cast strip could be hot rolled down to 1 mm. The hot rolled strip was cold rolled. The primary Si became smaller and the pore occurred around the primary Si after the rolling.

  16. ALS liquid hydrogen turbopump: Advanced Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimp, Nancy R.; Claffy, George J.

    1989-01-01

    The point of departure (POD) turbopump concept was reviewed and finalized. The basis for the POD was the configuration presented in the Aerojet proposal. After reviewing this proposal concept, several modifications were made. These modifications include the following: (1) the dual pump discharge arrangement was changed to a single discharge; (2) commonality of the turbine inlet manifold with the advanced launch system (ALS) liquid oxygen (LOX) TPA was dropped for this program; (3) the turbine housing flange arrangement was improved by relocating it away from the first stage nozzles; (4) a ten percent margin (five percent diameter increase) was built into the impeller design to ensure meeting the required discharge pressure without the need for increasing speed; (5) a ten percent turbine power margin was imposed which is to be obtained by increasing turbine inlet pressure if required; and (6) the backup concept, as an alternative to the use of cast impellers, now incorporates forged/machined shrouded impellers, rather than the unshrouded type originally planned.

  17. Whisker Formation in Porosity in Al Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, William David; Elsayed, Ahmed; El-Sayed, Mahmoud Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    An examination of the fracture surfaces of tensile test bars from Al alloy castings held in the liquid state for up to 20 minutes revealed porosity which in some cases contained whisker-like features. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis in a SEM suggested that these might be oxide whiskers forming in an oxide-related pore or double oxide film defect. Such entrainment defects (also known as bifilms) may entrap a small amount of the local atmosphere when they form and become incorporated into the liquid metal. This atmosphere may be predominantly air, which then subsequently reacts with the surrounding melt, firstly by reaction with oxygen and secondly by reaction with nitrogen. A CFD model of the heat distribution associated with the reactions between the interior atmosphere of a double oxide film defect and the surrounding liquid alloy suggested that highly localized increases in temperature, up to about 2000 K to 5000 K (1727 °C to 4727 °C), could occur, over a scale of a few hundred micrometers. Such localized increases in temperature might lead to the evaporation or disassociation of oxide within the pore, followed by condensation, to form the whisker structures observed. Hydrogen might also be expected to diffuse into the bifilm and may play a role in the chemical reactions associated with the development of the bifilm.

  18. 3DGRAPE/AL User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorenson, Reese L.; Alter, Stephen J.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a users' manual for a new three-dimensional structured multiple-block volume g generator called 3DGRAPE/AL. It is a significantly improved version of the previously-released a widely-distributed programs 3DGRAPE and 3DMAGGS. It generates volume grids by iteratively solving the Poisson Equations in three-dimensions. The right-hand-side terms are designed so that user-specific; grid cell heights and user-specified grid cell skewness near boundary surfaces result automatically, with little user intervention. The code is written in Fortran-77, and can be installed with or without a simple graphical user interface which allows the user to watch as the grid is generated. An introduction describing the improvements over the antecedent 3DGRAPE code is presented first. Then follows a chapter on the basic grid generator program itself, and comments on installing it. The input is then described in detail. After that is a description of the Graphical User Interface. Five example cases are shown next, with plots of the results. Following that is a chapter on two input filters which allow use of input data generated elsewhere. Last is a treatment of the theory embodied in the code.

  19. Chemical Preparation Laboratory for IND Candidate Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-08

    CLASSIFICATION lb. RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS Unclassified 2a. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY 3 . DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY OF REPORT 2b. DECLASSIFICATION... 3 III. Cumulative list of Compounds Delivered to U.S. Army Medical Research and Development (USAMRIID) from January 17, 1989 to...AVS 52) ............................................ 7 2. Selenazole (AVS 253) ............................................... 9 3 . Methyl-l,2,4

  20. Chemical Preparation Laboratory IND Candidate Compounds.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-21

    Charcoal (10.0 g) was added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for an hour, then filtered through a Celite bed. The celite bed was...solvent, the resulting material was dissolved in ethyl acetate (400 mL). Charcoal (5.5 g) was added, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1...hour. The charcoal was filtered through a celite bed and the bed was washed with ethyl acetate (3 x 100 mL). The red-colored filtrate was evaporated

  1. Chemical Preparation Laboratory for IND Candidate Compounds.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-05

    29 J. Thiazofurin-nitrile, AVS TFN....................................... 32 K. 4aH-r,lH-trans,l-Hydroxy-8,9- methylenedioxy - l,4,4a...Hydroxy, 2,3,4-triacetoxy-8,9- methylenedioxy -1,2,3,4,4a,10b- hexahydro-6(5H)phenanthridone, AVS 360 OH .......................... 38 d ion M. 4aH-r,lH...trans,2H-cis,3H-trans,4H-trans,l,3,4-Trihydroxy- 2-acetoxy-8,9- methylenedioxy -1,2,3,4,4a,10b-hexahydro- 6(5H)phenanthridone, AVS 360 MA

  2. Molecular simulations and experimental studies of solubility and diffusivity for pure and mixed gases of H2, CO2, and Ar absorbed in the ionic liquid 1-n-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([hmim][Tf2N]).

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Sorescu, Dan C; Luebke, David R; Keller, Murphy J; Wickramanayake, Shan

    2010-05-20

    Classical molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations are used to calculate the self-diffusivity and solubility of pure and mixed CO(2), H(2), and Ar gases absorbed in the ionic liquid 1-n-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([hmim][Tf(2)N]). Overall, the computed absorption isotherms, Henry's law constants, and partial molar enthalpies for pure H(2) agree well with the experimental data obtained by Maurer et al. [J. Chem. Eng. Data 2006, 51, 1364] and the experimental values determined in this work. However, the agreement is poor between the simulations and the experimental data by Noble et al. [Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2008, 47, 3453] and Costa Gomes [J. Chem. Eng. Data 2007, 52, 472] at high temperatures. The computed H(2) permeability values are in good agreement with the experimental data at 313 K obtained by Luebke et al. [J. Membr. Sci. 2007, 298, 41; ibid, 2008, 322, 28], but about three times larger than the experimental value at 573 K from the same group. Our computed H(2) solubilities using different H(2) potential models have similar values and solute polarizations were found to have a negligible effect on the predicted gas solubilities for both the H(2) and Ar. The interaction between H(2) and the ionic liquid is weak, about three times smaller than between the ionic liquid and Ar and six times smaller than that of CO(2) with the ionic liquid, results that are consistent with a decreasing solubility from CO(2) to Ar and to H(2). The molar volume of the ionic liquid was found to be the determining factor for the H(2) solubility. For mixed H(2) and Ar gases, the solubilities for both solutes decrease compared to the respective pure gas solubilities. For mixed gases of CO(2) and H(2), the solubility selectivity of CO(2) over H(2) decreases from about 30 at 313 K to about 3 at 573 K. For the permeability, the simulated values for CO(2) in [hmim][Tf(2)N] are about 20-60% different than the experimental data by Luebke et al. [J. Membr

  3. Reactive codoping of GaAlInP compound semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Hanna, Mark Cooper; Reedy, Robert

    2008-02-12

    A GaAlInP compound semiconductor and a method of producing a GaAlInP compound semiconductor are provided. The apparatus and method comprises a GaAs crystal substrate in a metal organic vapor deposition reactor. Al, Ga, In vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing organometallic compounds. P vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing phospine gas, group II vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing an organometallic group IIA or IIB compound. Group VIB vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing a gaseous compound of group VIB. The Al, Ga, In, P, group II, and group VIB vapors grow a GaAlInP crystal doped with group IIA or IIB and group VIB elements on the substrate wherein the group IIA or IIB and a group VIB vapors produced a codoped GaAlInP compound semiconductor with a group IIA or IIB element serving as a p-type dopant having low group II atomic diffusion.

  4. Corrosion Behaviour of Al Alloys in Sea Water

    SciTech Connect

    Kamarudin, S. R. M.; Daud, M.; Muhamad, A.; Sattar, M. S.; Daud, A. R.

    2010-03-11

    The electrochemical behaviour of aluminum (Al) alloys in seawater medium was investigated using potentiodynamic technique, complemented by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and EDAX. SEM was used to characterize the corroded surface and to observe the extent of corrosion attack on the Al alloys after tested in seawater. EDAX analysis was used to identify elements present on the specimen surface. The results indicate that influences of alloying elements present in the Al alloys play important role in the corrosion of Al alloys in seawater. The behaviour of Al alloys with addition of Zn, Sn, Cu and Si was greatly enhanced in terms of its potential and corrosion behaviour. Potential of Al with alloying elements reached value more negative than -0.9 V{sub SCE} and showed active corrosion behaviour.

  5. Cost-Effective TiAl based Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moxson, V. S.; Sun, Fusheng; Draper, Susan L.; Froes, F. H.; Duz, V.

    2003-01-01

    Because of their inherent low ductility, TiAl-based materials are difficult to fabricate, especially thin gage titanium gamma aluminide (TiAl) sheet and foil. In this paper, an innovative powder metallurgy approach for producing cost-effective thin gage TiAl sheets (with 356 mm long and 235 mm wide, and a thickness of 0.74, 1.09, 1.55, and 2.34 mm, respectively) is presented. The microstructures and tensile properties at room and elevated temperatures of the thin gage TiAl are studied. Results show that these TiAl sheets have a relatively homogenous chemistry, uniform microstructure, and acceptable mechanical properties. This work demonstrates a cost-effective method for producing both flat products (sheet/foil) and complex chunky parts of TiAl for various advanced applications including aerospace and automotive industries.

  6. Magnetic properties of Al/57Fe/Cr multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jani, Snehal; Lakshmi, N.; Jain, Vishal; Reddy, V. R.; Gupta, Ajay; Venugopalan, K.

    2013-06-01

    Conversion Electron Mössbauer Spectroscopy (CEMS) and DC magnetization are used to compare magnetic properties of as-deposited multilayer (MLS) and Fe2CrAl thin film made from Al/57Fe/Cr MLS deposited by ion beam sputtering and then annealed in UHV. Interdiffusion of elements on annealing sample-1 at 500°C leads to formation of a single, disordered film of Fe2CrAl as evidenced by hyperfine field values obtained by CEMS in the film which compares well with that in bulk Fe2CrAl. CEMS also shows contributions from Fe, Fe/Cr and Fe/Al interfaces in the MLS. Saturation magnetization of as-deposited sample-1 is much less than pure Fe due to reduced Fe thickness because of interface formation and also reduction in Fe-Fe interaction due to intervening Al and Cr layers.

  7. Characterization of SDC-Al2O3 solid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, S.; Raju, K. C. James; Reddy, C. Vishnuvardhan

    2012-06-01

    SDC20-Al2O3 materials were synthesized through the sol-gel method. Dense SDC20-Al2O3 ceramics were obtained through sintering the pellets at 1300°C. SDC20-Al2O3 materials were characterized by XRD, SEM and impedance spectroscopy. XRD measurements indicate that synthesized materials crystallized in cubic structure. Average crystallite size of the samples was in the range 11-12 nm. The relative density of SDC20-Al2O3 samples was over 95% of the theoretical density. Addition of Al2O3 promotes densification. Surface morphology was analyzed using SEM. The two-probe a.c. impedance spectroscopy was used to study the total ionic conductivity of doped and co-doped ceria in the temperature range 350-700°C. The SDC20-Al2O3 composition showed improved total ionic conductivity and minimum activation energy.

  8. Could Sirtuin Activities Modify ALS Onset and Progression?

    PubMed

    Tang, Bor Luen

    2016-12-10

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease with a complex etiology. Sirtuins have been implicated as disease-modifying factors in several neurological disorders, and in the past decade, attempts have been made to check if manipulating Sirtuin activities and levels could confer benefit in terms of neuroprotection and survival in ALS models. The efforts have largely focused on mutant SOD1, and while limited in scope, the results were largely positive. Here, the body of work linking Sirtuins with ALS is reviewed, with discussions on how Sirtuins and their activities may impact on the major etiological mechanisms of ALS. Moving forward, it is important that the potentially beneficial effect of Sirtuins in ALS disease onset and progression are assessed in ALS models with TDP-43, FUS, and C9orf72 mutations.

  9. Na3Al(AsO4)2

    PubMed Central

    Fakhar Bourguiba, Noura; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi; Driss, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    The structure of the title compound tris­odium aluminium bis­(arsenate), Na3Al(AsO4)2, is built up from AlO4 and AsO4 corner-sharing tetra­hedra, forming an undulating two-dimensional framework parallel to (100). The layers are constituted of large Al6As6O36 rings made up from six AlO4 and AsO4 tetra­hedra in which two sodium cations are situated, the third sodium cation being located in the inter­layer space. The structural relationships between the title compound and Na3Fe(PO4)2, NaAlCo(PO4)2 and Al5Co3(PO4)8 are discussed. PMID:23424394

  10. Elastic stiffness constants of Al-Si and Al-Ge alloys by solid-solutioning under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soma, Toshinobu; Takashima, Seiji; Kagaya, Hiroko-Matsuo

    1992-02-01

    The elastic stiffness constants of the Al-Si and Al-Ge alloy systems formed by solid solutioning under high pressure are studied using our previous formalism for the static crystal energy term taking account of the lattice dynamical contributions. The obtained results for the temperature-dependence of the elastic constants for pure solvent Al are consistent with the observed data. Then, the atomic fraction-dependence of the elastic constants for these alloy systems is calculated, and a decrease of the elastic stiffness constants C11, C12 and C44 with increasing concentration of Si or Ge is found for both Al-Si and Al-Ge solid solutions. Numerical results of the concentration x-derivative 1/ C ij·d C ij/d x of the elastic constants C ij for the Al 1- xSi x and Al 1- xGe x alloy system are obtained theoretically and found to be nearly constant under pressure and high temperatures. The deviation from the elastic constants of pure Al is larger for the Al-Ge alloy than for the Al-Si system.

  11. High-temperature phase equilibria in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Ti-C system

    SciTech Connect

    Frage, N.; Frumin, N.; Levin, L.; Polak, M.; Dariel, M.P.

    1998-04-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of the Al-rich corner in the ternary Al-Ti-C diagram, providing phase relations and regions of phase stability, is presented. An invariant four-phase equilibrium between Al, Al{sub 4}C{sub 3}, Al{sub 3}Ti, and TiC{sub x} takes place at 0.53 at. pct Ti, 7.10{sup {minus}6} at. pct C, and TiC{sub 0.883} at 966 K. The carbon content of the TiC{sub x} phase, which extends from x = 0.48 to 0.98, exerts a significant effect on phase relationships in this ternary system. In particular, it is shown that stoichiometric TiC is not stable in the presence of liquid Al. For example, at 1,300 K, a two-phase equilibrium between Al{sub L} and TiC{sub x} exists only in the 0.91 < x < 0.82 range. Thus, the interaction of Al{sub L} with stoichiometric TiC leads to the formation of the Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} aluminum carbide phase, whereas for x < 0.82, only the intermetallic compound Al{sub 3}Ti can form at this temperature. The results of this analysis were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements of relevant composites.

  12. Ab initio study on the electronic states and laser cooling of AlCl and AlBr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Yang; Bin, Tang; Tao, Gao

    2016-04-01

    We investigate whether AlCl and AlBr are promising candidates for laser cooling. We report new ab initio calculations on the ground state X1Σ+ and two low-lying states (A1Π and a3Π) of AlCl and AlBr. The calculated spectroscopic constants show good agreement with available theoretical and experimental results. We also obtain the permanent dipole moments (PDMs) curve at multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) level of theory. The transition properties of A1Π and a3Π states are predicted, including the transition dipole moments (TDMs), Franck-Condon factors (FCFs), radiative times and radiative width. The calculated radiative lifetimes are of the order of a nanosecond, implying that they are sufficiently short for rapid laser cooling. Both AlCl and AlBr have highly diagonally distributed FCFs which are crucial requirement for molecular laser cooling. The results demonstrate the feasibility of laser cooling AlCl and AlBr, and we propose laser cooling schemes for AlCl and AlBr.

  13. An ab initio study on atomic and electronic structures of two-dimensional Al3Ti at Al/TiB2 interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, H.

    2016-09-01

    The atomic and electronic structures of a two-dimentional (2D) Al3Ti layer at Al/TiB2 interface has been investigated using first-principle calculations. The result reveals the 2D-Al3Ti adopts the structure of bulk Al3Ti. There exists a strong Ti(3d)-Al(3p) hybridization between Ti and Al atoms of the 2D-Al3Ti, as well as between surface Ti atoms of TiB2 and Al atoms of 2D-Al3Ti. It leads to a stronger covalent Ti-Al bonding at the Al/2D-Al3Ti/TiB2 interface than at the Al/TiB2 interface, which is responsible for the stability of 2D-Al3Ti.

  14. Elastocaloric effect in CuAlZn and CuAlMn shape memory alloys under compression.

    PubMed

    Qian, Suxin; Geng, Yunlong; Wang, Yi; Pillsbury, Thomas E; Hada, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Fujimoto, Kenjiro; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Cui, Jun; Yuki, Yoji; Toyotake, Koutaro; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2016-08-13

    This paper reports the elastocaloric effect of two Cu-based shape memory alloys: Cu68Al16Zn16 (CuAlZn) and Cu73Al15Mn12 (CuAlMn), under compression at ambient temperature. The compression tests were conducted at two different rates to approach isothermal and adiabatic conditions. Upon unloading at a strain rate of 0.1 s(-1) (adiabatic condition) from 4% strain, the highest adiabatic temperature changes (ΔTad) of 4.0 K for CuAlZn and 3.9 K for CuAlMn were obtained. The maximum stress and hysteresis at each strain were compared. The stress at the maximum recoverable strain of 4.0% for CuAlMn was 120 MPa, which is 70% smaller than that of CuAlZn. A smaller hysteresis for the CuAlMn alloy was also obtained, about 70% less compared with the CuAlZn alloy. The latent heat, determined by differential scanning calorimetry, was 4.3 J g(-1) for the CuAlZn alloy and 5.0 J g(-1) for the CuAlMn alloy. Potential coefficients of performance (COPmat) for these two alloys were calculated based on their physical properties of measured latent heat and hysteresis, and a COPmat of approximately 13.3 for CuAlMn was obtained.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'.

  15. Band edge modulation and interband optical transition in AlN:Mg_{{\\rm{Al}}}-O_{{\\rm{N}}} nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Pu; Shi, Jun-jie; Zhang, Min; Jiang, Xin-he; Zhong, Hong-xia; Ding, Yi-min; Lu, Jing; Wang, Xihua

    2014-04-01

    AlN nanotubes (NTs) have many novel characteristics and great potential applications in electronic and optoelectronic nanodevices. However, little is known about the influence of Mg_{{\\rm{Al}}}-O_{{\\rm{N}}} co-doping effects on their optical properties. Here, we focus on investigating the electronic structures, clarify the interband optical transition mechanism and give a clear atomic picture for the important electron/hole localization centre in AlN:Mg_{{\\rm{Al}}}-O_{{\\rm{N}}} NTs using the GGA-1/2 method. We find that the Mg_{{\\rm{Al}}} doping efficiency can be improved effectively due to O_{{\\rm{N}}} doping in AlN NTs. The Mg_{{\\rm{Al}}} and O_{{\\rm{N}}} form Mg_{{\\rm{Al}}}-O_{{\\rm{N}}} defect complex easily along the AlN NT axis (C-axis). The Mg_{{\\rm{Al}}}-O_{{\\rm{N}}} defect complex can result in a remarkable charge transfer around it and modify the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum significantly. Meanwhile, the Mg_{{\\rm{Al}}}-O_{{\\rm{N}}} defect complex also forms the important exciton localization centre and effectively enhances the interband radiative recombination rate. Moreover, the light emission/absorption sensitively depends on its polarization. The parallel polarized light ({\\mathbf{E}}\\shortparallel {\\rm{C}}) is much stronger than the perpendicular one ({\\mathbf{E}}\\bot {\\rm{C}}). The Mg_{{\\rm{Al}}}-O_{{\\rm{N}}} co-doping thus paves a new way for improving the performance of electronic and optoelectronic nanodevices based on AlN NTs.

  16. Radiation Hard AlGaN Detectors and Imager

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-01

    Radiation hardness of AlGaN photodiodes was tested using a 65 MeV proton beam with a total proton fluence of 3x10{sup 12} protons/cm{sup 2}. AlGaN Deep UV Photodiode have extremely high radiation hardness. These new devices have mission critical applications in high energy density physics (HEDP) and space explorations. These new devices satisfy radiation hardness requirements by NIF. NSTec is developing next generation AlGaN optoelectronics and imagers.

  17. Solid-state fabrication of Al/CNTs nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toro Cadavid, O. J.; García, M. F. Valencia; Martínez Tejada, H. V.; Suárez Guerrero, G.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, synthesis of Al-based composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes has been carried out using solid–state manufacturing routes exclusively to consolidate Al–1100/CNTs laminates. Preliminary results regarding consolidation of Al/CNTs nanocomposites in which pressure and temperature are combined in a single step are presented. Preliminary Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) characterization allow us to conclude that CNTs were effectively set on the Al matrix.

  18. Distribution of Al{sub 12}Fe{sub 3}Si and (FeAl{sub 6})Si in a HIPed Al-10.71 wt. % Si casting

    SciTech Connect

    Chama, C.C.

    1996-10-01

    An investigation on microstructural development in a hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) Al-10.71 wt. % Si casting is described. The as-cast material contained 0.006 total volume fraction of Al{sub 12}Fe{sub 3}Si and (FeAl{sub 6})Si particles but HIPing at 550 C and 68.95 MPa produced a moderate increase in this fraction, to a maximum value of 0.061 when HIPed for 120 min. Dislocations appeared to be the dominant nucleation sites for the particles in both the as-cast and the HIPed materials.

  19. Contributions of Muhadhdhab Al-Deen Al-Baghdadi to the progress of medicine and urology. A study and translations from his book Al-Mukhtar.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Halim, Rabie E

    2006-11-01

    This study of the Arabic 4-volume book of Al-Mukhtar Fi Al-Tibb (Choice Book on Medicine) written by the Muslim physician Muhadhdhab Al-Deen Al-Baghdadi (515-610 H, 1117-1213 AD) aimed at evaluating his contributions to the progress of medicine and urology along with providing English translations of relevant excerpts. Al-Baghdadi laid emphasis on the morals of medical practice and the principles of medical education describing how to select medical students and how to evaluate graduates. He stressed on the need for a long training program directly supervised by skilled expert doctors both in hospitals (Al-Bimaristanat) and during home visits. A good part of volume 1 was allocated to preventive medicine and the whole of volume 2 was devoted to the pharmacy section, which he restricted to what was proven by the experience of his teacher and by his own experiments. Same as all his predecessors in the Islamic era, Al-Baghdadi stressed the importance of clinical medicine and gave more details related to history taking, physical examination, differential diagnosis and prognosis. Similar to them, he also, emphasized that a doctor should be quite knowledgeable in anatomy. Furthermore, the presence of anatomical drawings in Kitab Al-Mukhtar Fi Al-Tibb is a further step forward in illustrating medical text books; a trend that flourished in the Islamic era reflecting the role of direct observations and experience. The detailed description of the functional anatomy of the uretero-vesical junction and the antireflux and micturition mechanisms given by Al-Baghdadi is contrary to that of Galen (130-200 AD) but conforms well to our contemporary understanding. In the conservative management of urinary stones, he described 70 simple and 13 compound drugs while those described by Pulus of Aegina (625-690 AD) were only 20 simple and 3 compound drugs. Furthermore, Al-Baghdadi's description of the instruments and techniques of urethral catheterization, perineal cystolithotomy and

  20. The cyclic oxidation resistance at 1200 C of beta-NiAl, FeAl, and CoAl alloys with selected third element additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, C. A.; Titran, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The intermetallic compounds Beta-NiAl, FeAl, and CoAl were tested in cyclic oxidation with selected third element alloy additions. Tests in static air for 200 1-hr cycles at 1200 C indicated by specific weight change/time data and x-ray diffraction analysis that the 5 at percent alloy additions did not significantly improve the oxidation resistance over the alumina forming baseline alloys without the additions. Many of the alloy additions were actually deleterious. Ta and Nb were the only alloy additions that actually altered the nature of the oxide(s) formed and still maintained the oxidation resistance of the protective alumina scale.