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Sample records for al licensee biomed

  1. Biomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and additional resources focuses on biomes. Specifies age levels for resources that include Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, and magazines; includes professional resources; and presents a relevant class activity. (LRW)

  2. Biomes computed from simulated climatologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claussen, Martin; Esch, Monika

    1994-01-01

    The biome model of Prentice et al. (1992a) is used to predict global patterns of potential natural plant formations, or biomes, from climatologies simulated by ECHAM, a model used for climate simulations at the Max-Planck-Institut fur Meteorologie. This study is undertaken in order to show the advantage of this biome model in diagnosing the performance of a climate model and assessing effects of past and future climate changes predicted by a climate model. Good overall agreement is found between global patterns of biomes computed from observed and simulated data of present climate. But there are also major discrepancies indicated by a difference in biomes in Australia, in the Kalahari Desert, and in the Middle West of North America. These discrepancies can be traced back to failures in simulated rainfall as well as summer or winter temperatures. Global patterns of biomes computed from an ice age simulation reveal that North America, Europe, and Siberia should have been covered largely by tundra and taiga, whereas only small differences are seen for the tropical rain forests. A potential northeast shift of biomes is expected from a simulation with enhanced C02 concentration according to the IPCC Scenario A. Little change is seen in the tropical rain forest and the Sahara. Since the biome model used is not capable of predicting changes in vegetation patterns due to a rapid climate change, the latter simulation has to be taken as a prediction of changes in conditions favourable for the existence of certain biomes, not as a prediction of a future distribution of biomes.[/ab

  3. Biomes computed from simulated climatologies

    SciTech Connect

    Claussen, M.; Esch, M.

    1994-01-01

    The biome model of Prentice et al. is used to predict global patterns of potential natural plant formations, or biomes, from climatologies simulated by ECHAM, a model used for climate simulations at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie. This study undertaken in order to show the advantage of this biome model in diagnosing the performance of a climate model and assessing effects of past and future climate changes predicted by a climate model. Good overall agreement is found between global patterns of biomes computed from observed and simulated data of present climate. But there are also major discrepancies indicated by a difference in biomes in Australia, in the Kalahari Desert, and in the Middle West of North America. These discrepancies can be traced back to in simulated rainfall as well as summer or winter temperatures. Global patterns of biomes computed from an ice age simulation reveal that North America, Europe, and Siberia should have been covered largely by tundra and taiga, whereas only small differences are for the tropical rain forests. A potential northeast shift of biomes is expected from a simulation with enhanced CO{sub 2} concentration according to the IPCC Scenario A. Little change is seen in the tropical rain forest and the Sahara. Since the biome model used is not capable of predicting chances in vegetation patterns due to a rapid climate change, the latter simulation to be taken as a prediction of chances in conditions favourable for the existence of certain biomes, not as a reduction of a future distribution of biomes. 15 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. North American Biome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North America biome includes the major ecoregions that make up the land area of Canada, the United States, Mexico, and countries in Central America. The biome is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the s...

  5. Evolution of the indoor biome.

    PubMed

    Martin, Laura J; Adams, Rachel I; Bateman, Ashley; Bik, Holly M; Hawks, John; Hird, Sarah M; Hughes, David; Kembel, Steven W; Kinney, Kerry; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Levy, Gabriel; McClain, Craig; Meadow, James F; Medina, Raul F; Mhuireach, Gwynne; Moreau, Corrie S; Munshi-South, Jason; Nichols, Lauren M; Palmer, Clare; Popova, Laura; Schal, Coby; Täubel, Martin; Trautwein, Michelle; Ugalde, Juan A; Dunn, Robert R

    2015-04-01

    Few biologists have studied the evolutionary processes at work in indoor environments. Yet indoor environments comprise approximately 0.5% of ice-free land area--an area as large as the subtropical coniferous forest biome. Here we review the emerging subfield of 'indoor biome' studies. After defining the indoor biome and tracing its deep history, we discuss some of its evolutionary dimensions. We restrict our examples to the species found in human houses--a subset of the environments constituting the indoor biome--and offer preliminary hypotheses to advance the study of indoor evolution. Studies of the indoor biome are situated at the intersection of evolutionary ecology, anthropology, architecture, and human ecology and are well suited for citizen science projects, public outreach, and large-scale international collaborations.

  6. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics.

  7. 47 CFR 13.10 - Licensee address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee address. 13.10 Section 13.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.10 Licensee address. In accordance with § 1.923 of this chapter all applications must specify an address where...

  8. 9 CFR 166.13 - Licensee responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... garbage; (3) Observe and physically inspect the health status of all species of animals on the premises... animal species on the licensee's premises. (c) A licensee shall notify an inspector or the State animal.../or organization from which the garbage was received. (Approved by the Office of Management and...

  9. 9 CFR 166.13 - Licensee responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... garbage; (3) Observe and physically inspect the health status of all species of animals on the premises... animal species on the licensee's premises. (c) A licensee shall notify an inspector or the State animal.../or organization from which the garbage was received. (Approved by the Office of Management and...

  10. 47 CFR 90.745 - Phase I licensee service areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Phase I licensee service areas. 90.745 Section... 220-222 MHz Band § 90.745 Phase I licensee service areas. (a) A Phase I licensee's service area shall... its license to relocate its initially authorized base station. The Phase I licensee's predicted 38...

  11. 10 CFR 50.73 - Licensee event report system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Licensee event report system. 50.73 Section 50.73 Energy..., Records, Reports, Notifications § 50.73 Licensee event report system. (a) Reportable events.(1) The holder... (licensee) shall submit a Licensee Event Report (LER) for any event of the type described in this...

  12. 10 CFR 50.73 - Licensee event report system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Licensee event report system. 50.73 Section 50.73 Energy..., Records, Reports, Notifications § 50.73 Licensee event report system. (a) Reportable events.(1) The holder... (licensee) shall submit a Licensee Event Report (LER) for any event of the type described in this...

  13. 10 CFR 50.73 - Licensee event report system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Licensee event report system. 50.73 Section 50.73 Energy..., Records, Reports, Notifications § 50.73 Licensee event report system. (a) Reportable events.(1) The holder... (licensee) shall submit a Licensee Event Report (LER) for any event of the type described in this...

  14. 10 CFR 50.73 - Licensee event report system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Licensee event report system. 50.73 Section 50.73 Energy..., Records, Reports, Notifications § 50.73 Licensee event report system. (a) Reportable events.(1) The holder... (licensee) shall submit a Licensee Event Report (LER) for any event of the type described in this...

  15. 10 CFR 50.73 - Licensee event report system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Licensee event report system. 50.73 Section 50.73 Energy..., Records, Reports, Notifications § 50.73 Licensee event report system. (a) Reportable events.(1) The holder... (licensee) shall submit a Licensee Event Report (LER) for any event of the type described in this...

  16. 10 CFR 26.125 - Licensee testing facility personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Licensee testing facility personnel. 26.125 Section 26.125 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.125 Licensee testing facility personnel. (a) Each licensee testing facility shall have one or more...

  17. 10 CFR 26.125 - Licensee testing facility personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Licensee testing facility personnel. 26.125 Section 26.125 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.125 Licensee testing facility personnel. (a) Each licensee testing facility shall have one or more...

  18. 10 CFR 26.125 - Licensee testing facility personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Licensee testing facility personnel. 26.125 Section 26.125 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.125 Licensee testing facility personnel. (a) Each licensee testing facility shall have one or more...

  19. 10 CFR 26.125 - Licensee testing facility personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Licensee testing facility personnel. 26.125 Section 26.125 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.125 Licensee testing facility personnel. (a) Each licensee testing facility shall have one or more...

  20. 10 CFR 26.125 - Licensee testing facility personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Licensee testing facility personnel. 26.125 Section 26.125 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.125 Licensee testing facility personnel. (a) Each licensee testing facility shall have one or more...

  1. 47 CFR 97.103 - Station licensee responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.103 Station licensee responsibilities. (a... Rules. When the control operator is a different amateur operator than the station licensee, both...

  2. 47 CFR 97.103 - Station licensee responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.103 Station licensee responsibilities. (a... Rules. When the control operator is a different amateur operator than the station licensee, both...

  3. 47 CFR 97.103 - Station licensee responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.103 Station licensee responsibilities. (a... Rules. When the control operator is a different amateur operator than the station licensee, both...

  4. 47 CFR 97.103 - Station licensee responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.103 Station licensee responsibilities. (a... Rules. When the control operator is a different amateur operator than the station licensee, both...

  5. 47 CFR 97.103 - Station licensee responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.103 Station licensee responsibilities. (a... Rules. When the control operator is a different amateur operator than the station licensee, both...

  6. 44 CFR 352.4 - Licensee certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Licensee certification. 352.4 Section 352.4 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS COMMERCIAL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS...

  7. 44 CFR 352.4 - Licensee certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee certification. 352.4 Section 352.4 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS COMMERCIAL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS...

  8. 9 CFR 166.13 - Licensee responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Licensee responsibilities. 166.13 Section 166.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.13...

  9. 9 CFR 166.13 - Licensee responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Licensee responsibilities. 166.13 Section 166.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.13...

  10. 9 CFR 166.13 - Licensee responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Licensee responsibilities. 166.13 Section 166.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.13...

  11. 13 CFR 107.691 - Responsibilities of Licensee during examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibilities of Licensee... Examinations of Licensees by Sba for Regulatory Compliance § 107.691 Responsibilities of Licensee during... between you and the independent public accountant performing your audit must provide that any...

  12. 47 CFR 3.76 - Licensee's liability for payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee's liability for payment. 3.76 Section... ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Enforcement § 3.76 Licensee's liability for payment. The U.S. ship station licensee bears ultimate responsibility for final payment of...

  13. Biosphere 2's Marsh Biome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Jennifer; Goodridge, Kelven

    1997-01-01

    The Marsh Biome, which was modeled after the mangroves and marshes of southwest Florida, has an area of 441.2 sq m separated into three hydrologically independent sections: the Freshwater, Oligohaline and Salt Marshes. The divisions are made based on their salinity (approximately 0, 4, and 34 ppt. respectively), but they also contain different biological communities. The Freshwater and Oligohaline Marshes are mostly filled with various grasses and several trees, while the Salt Marsh houses regions of red, black, and white mangroves (Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans, and Languncularia racemosa respectively). Overall, there are an estimated 80 species of plants within the biome. Water in the Salt Marsh follows a meandering stream from the algal turf scrubbers (apparatuses that clean the water of its nutrients and heavy metals while increasing dissolved oxygen levels) which have an outlet in the Salt Marsh section near sites 4 and 5 to the Fringing Red Mangrove section. The sections of the Salt Marsh are separated by walls of concrete with openings to allow the stream to flow through. Throughout this study, conducted through the months of June and July, many conditions within the biome remained fairly constant. The temperature was within a degree or two of 25 C, mostly depending on whether the sample site was in direct sunlight or shaded. The pH throughout the Salt Marsh was 8.0 +/- 0.2, and the lower salinity waters only dropped below this soon after rains. The water rdepth and dissolved oxygen varied, however, between sites.

  14. Biome Context and Lotic Ecosystem Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodds, W. K.; Rüegg, J.; Sheehan, K.; Song, C.; Ballantyne, F.; Baker, C.; Bowden, W. B.; Farrell, K.; Flinn, M. B.; Garcia, E.; Harms, T.; Jones, J.; Koenig, L.; Kominoski, J. S.; McDowell, W. H.; McMaster, D.; Parker, S.; Trentman, M. T.; Whiles, M.; Wollheim, W. M.; Argerich, A.; Penaluna, B.

    2015-12-01

    The stream biome gradient concept suggests that the biome in which a stream is embedded influences stream community structure and key ecosystem functions including primary production, community respiration, and nutrient uptake. We measured these key processes with whole-stream reach methods and smaller-scale incubations in numerous locations within stream networks across two years as part of a project on scaling ecosystem rates. Measurements were repeated across 7 biomes (tropical forest, tropical savanna, temperate deciduous forest, temperate rain forest, tallgrass prairie, boreal forest, and tundra). We found strong effects of light on primary production within and among biomes as a function of variable canopy among reaches and biomes. Community respiration and ammonium uptake were decoupled from light relative to gross primary production. Ammonium uptake rarely exhibited saturation with elevated concentrations, regardless of background concentrations or biome. We hypothesize that even though biomes exhibit major differences in gross primary production, the overall variation in community respiration and ammonium uptake is similar across biomes because respiration and uptake depend on carbon irrespective if it is derived from allochthonous or autochthonous inputs. Respiration and uptake are expected to vary depending upon factors not as tightly connected to the biome a stream is embedded in.

  15. Phylogenetic biome conservatism on a global scale.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Michael D; Arroyo, Mary T K; Cook, Lyn G; Gandolfo, Maria A; Jordan, Gregory J; McGlone, Matt S; Weston, Peter H; Westoby, Mark; Wilf, Peter; Linder, H Peter

    2009-04-09

    How and why organisms are distributed as they are has long intrigued evolutionary biologists. The tendency for species to retain their ancestral ecology has been demonstrated in distributions on local and regional scales, but the extent of ecological conservatism over tens of millions of years and across continents has not been assessed. Here we show that biome stasis at speciation has outweighed biome shifts by a ratio of more than 25:1, by inferring ancestral biomes for an ecologically diverse sample of more than 11,000 plant species from around the Southern Hemisphere. Stasis was also prevalent in transocean colonizations. Availability of a suitable biome could have substantially influenced which lineages establish on more than one landmass, in addition to the influence of the rarity of the dispersal events themselves. Conversely, the taxonomic composition of biomes has probably been strongly influenced by the rarity of species' transitions between biomes. This study has implications for the future because if clades have inherently limited capacity to shift biomes, then their evolutionary potential could be strongly compromised by biome contraction as climate changes.

  16. Toward a rule-based biome model

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, R.P.; King, G.A.; Koerper, G.

    1991-01-01

    Current projections of the response of the biosphere to global climatic change indicate as much as 50% to 90% spatial displacement of extratropical biomes. The mechanism of spatial shift could be dominated by either (1) competitive displacement of northern biomes by southern biomes, or (2) drought-induced dieback of areas susceptible to change. The current suite of global biosphere models cannot distinguish between these two processes, thus determining the need for a mechanistically based biome model. The model is in an early stage of development and will require several enhancements, including explicit simulation of potential evapotranspiration, extension to boreal and tropical biomes, a shift from steady-state to transient dynamics, and validation on other continents.

  17. 47 CFR 90.745 - Phase I licensee service areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... be defined by the predicted 38 dBu service contour of its authorized base station or fixed station... its license to relocate its initially authorized base station. The Phase I licensee's predicted 38 dBu...'s base station or fixed station. Phase I licensees are permitted to add, remove, or...

  18. 47 CFR 90.745 - Phase I licensee service areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... be defined by the predicted 38 dBu service contour of its authorized base station or fixed station... its license to relocate its initially authorized base station. The Phase I licensee's predicted 38 dBu...'s base station or fixed station. Phase I licensees are permitted to add, remove, or...

  19. 47 CFR 90.745 - Phase I licensee service areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... be defined by the predicted 38 dBu service contour of its authorized base station or fixed station... its license to relocate its initially authorized base station. The Phase I licensee's predicted 38 dBu...'s base station or fixed station. Phase I licensees are permitted to add, remove, or...

  20. 47 CFR 90.745 - Phase I licensee service areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... be defined by the predicted 38 dBu service contour of its authorized base station or fixed station... its license to relocate its initially authorized base station. The Phase I licensee's predicted 38 dBu...'s base station or fixed station. Phase I licensees are permitted to add, remove, or...

  1. 47 CFR 101.1327 - Renewal expectancy for EA licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Renewal expectancy for EA licensees. 101.1327 Section 101.1327 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO... expectancy for EA licensees. (a) A renewal applicant shall receive a renewal expectancy at the end of...

  2. 9 CFR 2.7 - Annual report by licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual report by licensees. 2.7... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.7 Annual report by licensees. (a) Each year, within 30... Director an application for license renewal and annual report upon a form which the AC Regional...

  3. 13 CFR 107.520 - Management Expenses of a Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Management and Compensation § 107.520 Management Expenses of a Licensee. SBA must approve any increases in your Management Expenses if you have outstanding... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management Expenses of a...

  4. 13 CFR 107.520 - Management Expenses of a Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Management and Compensation § 107.520 Management Expenses of a Licensee. SBA must approve any increases in your Management Expenses if you have outstanding... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Management Expenses of a...

  5. 27 CFR 478.94 - Sales or deliveries between licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales or deliveries between licensees. 478.94 Section 478.94 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL... AMMUNITION Conduct of Business § 478.94 Sales or deliveries between licensees. A licensed importer,...

  6. 10 CFR 81.31 - Selection of an exclusive licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Selection of an exclusive licensee. 81.31 Section 81.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE GRANTING OF PATENT LICENSES Nrc-Owned Inventions-Patents and Applications § 81.31 Selection of an exclusive licensee....

  7. 10 CFR 81.31 - Selection of an exclusive licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Selection of an exclusive licensee. 81.31 Section 81.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE GRANTING OF PATENT LICENSES Nrc-Owned Inventions-Patents and Applications § 81.31 Selection of an exclusive licensee....

  8. 47 CFR 90.667 - Grandfathering provisions for incumbent licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of Mta-Based Smr Systems in the 896-901/935-940 Mhz Band § 90.667 Grandfathering provisions for... licensees operating at multiple sites may, after grant of MTA licenses has been completed, exchange multiple..., 1994 shall be authorized on a secondary, non-interference basis to MTA licensee operations....

  9. 13 CFR 107.530 - Restrictions on investments of idle funds by leveraged Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Cash Management by A Licensee § 107.530 Restrictions on investments of idle funds by leveraged Licensees....

  10. 13 CFR 107.530 - Restrictions on investments of idle funds by leveraged Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Cash Management by A Licensee § 107.530 Restrictions on investments of idle funds by leveraged Licensees....

  11. Climate Control of Photosynthetic Parameters across Biomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, S.; Yi, C.

    2011-12-01

    Meteorological tower networks measure net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2, which is a balance between ecosystem respiration (Reco) and gross primary production (GPP). For understanding the mechanistic response of CO2 exchange to climate factors at process-level, it's necessary to separate NEE into its two components. A light-response analysis model (Ruimy, et al., 1995) has proved to be an efficient tool for this purpose. Principal light-response parameters-apparent quantum yield (α), photosynthetic capacity (Fmax) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) are important for modeling of CO2 exchange from regional scale to global domains using remote sensing. A major challenge lies in understanding how those parameters vary across biomes under different climatic conditions. So far, few large-sample studies have been conducted on this purpose. In our study, we partition seasonal NEE into photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration of 247 unique fluxnet sites, which represents over 900 site-years. Our results indicate that: (1) apparent quantum yield (α) of deciduous broadleaf forests and mixed forests is sensitive to seasonal temperature; (2) photosynthetic capacity (Fmax) of deciduous forests and evergreen broadleaf forests is controlled by Bowen Ratio; and (3) Ecosystem respiration of evergreen needle forests and mixed forests is controlled by temperature, while evergreen broadleaf forests controlled by Bowen Ratio. Our results also demonstrate that some relationships between photosynthetic parameters and climate controls are latitude dependent. Ecosystem respiration of croplands and deciduous broadleaf forests in high latitudes shows better temperature correlations than that in low latitudes; apparent quantum yield (α) of evergreen needle forests only display temperature control in latitudes above 40N. On biome-scale average, the magnitudes of photosynthetic capacity are categorized into two groups: (1) with high value (from 31.96 to 37.13 umol m-2s-1) of croplands

  12. Glaciers and ice sheets as a biome.

    PubMed

    Anesio, Alexandre M; Laybourn-Parry, Johanna

    2012-04-01

    The tundra is the coldest biome described in typical geography and biology textbooks. Within the cryosphere, there are large expanses of ice in the Antarctic, Arctic and alpine regions that are not regarded as being part of any biome. During the summer, there is significant melt on the surface of glaciers, ice caps and ice shelves, at which point microbial communities become active and play an important role in the cycling of carbon and other elements within the cryosphere. In this review, we suggest that it is time to recognise the cryosphere as one of the biomes of Earth. The cryospheric biome encompasses extreme environments and is typified by truncated food webs dominated by viruses, bacteria, protozoa and algae with distinct biogeographical structures.

  13. 75 FR 70042 - In the Matter of All Power Reactor Licensees and Research Reactor Licensees Who Transport Spent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... All Power Reactor Licensees and Research Reactor Licensees Who Transport Spent Nuclear Fuel; Order... above, shall be submitted to the NRC to the attention of the Director, Office of Nuclear Reactor... properly marked and handled in accordance with 10 CFR 73.21. The Director, Office of Nuclear...

  14. Thresholds for boreal biome transitions.

    PubMed

    Scheffer, Marten; Hirota, Marina; Holmgren, Milena; Van Nes, Egbert H; Chapin, F Stuart

    2012-12-26

    Although the boreal region is warming twice as fast as the global average, the way in which the vast boreal forests and tundras may respond is poorly understood. Using satellite data, we reveal marked alternative modes in the frequency distributions of boreal tree cover. At the northern end and at the dry continental southern extremes, treeless tundra and steppe, respectively, are the only possible states. However, over a broad intermediate temperature range, these treeless states coexist with boreal forest (∼75% tree cover) and with two more open woodland states (∼20% and ∼45% tree cover). Intermediate tree covers (e.g., ∼10%, ∼30%, and ∼60% tree cover) between these distinct states are relatively rare, suggesting that they may represent unstable states where the system dwells only transiently. Mechanisms for such instabilities remain to be unraveled, but our results have important implications for the anticipated response of these ecosystems to climatic change. The data reveal that boreal forest shows no gradual decline in tree cover toward its limits. Instead, our analysis suggests that it becomes less resilient in the sense that it may more easily shift into a sparse woodland or treeless state. Similarly, the relative scarcity of the intermediate ∼10% tree cover suggests that tundra may shift relatively abruptly to a more abundant tree cover. If our inferences are correct, climate change may invoke massive nonlinear shifts in boreal biomes.

  15. Thresholds for boreal biome transitions

    PubMed Central

    Scheffer, Marten; Hirota, Marina; Holmgren, Milena; Van Nes, Egbert H.; Chapin, F. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Although the boreal region is warming twice as fast as the global average, the way in which the vast boreal forests and tundras may respond is poorly understood. Using satellite data, we reveal marked alternative modes in the frequency distributions of boreal tree cover. At the northern end and at the dry continental southern extremes, treeless tundra and steppe, respectively, are the only possible states. However, over a broad intermediate temperature range, these treeless states coexist with boreal forest (∼75% tree cover) and with two more open woodland states (∼20% and ∼45% tree cover). Intermediate tree covers (e.g., ∼10%, ∼30%, and ∼60% tree cover) between these distinct states are relatively rare, suggesting that they may represent unstable states where the system dwells only transiently. Mechanisms for such instabilities remain to be unraveled, but our results have important implications for the anticipated response of these ecosystems to climatic change. The data reveal that boreal forest shows no gradual decline in tree cover toward its limits. Instead, our analysis suggests that it becomes less resilient in the sense that it may more easily shift into a sparse woodland or treeless state. Similarly, the relative scarcity of the intermediate ∼10% tree cover suggests that tundra may shift relatively abruptly to a more abundant tree cover. If our inferences are correct, climate change may invoke massive nonlinear shifts in boreal biomes. PMID:23236159

  16. 13 CFR 107.1520 - How a Licensee computes and allocates Prioritized Payments to SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1520 How a Licensee computes and allocates...

  17. 13 CFR 107.1580 - Special rules for In-Kind Distributions by Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1580 Special rules for In-Kind Distributions by Licensees. (a)...

  18. 13 CFR 107.1520 - How a Licensee computes and allocates Prioritized Payments to SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1520 How a Licensee computes and allocates...

  19. 13 CFR 107.1520 - How a Licensee computes and allocates Prioritized Payments to SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1520 How a Licensee computes and allocates...

  20. 13 CFR 107.1520 - How a Licensee computes and allocates Prioritized Payments to SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1520 How a Licensee computes and allocates...

  1. 13 CFR 107.1580 - Special rules for In-Kind Distributions by Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1580 Special rules for In-Kind Distributions by Licensees. (a)...

  2. 13 CFR 107.1580 - Special rules for In-Kind Distributions by Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1580 Special rules for In-Kind Distributions by Licensees. (a)...

  3. 13 CFR 107.1580 - Special rules for In-Kind Distributions by Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1580 Special rules for In-Kind Distributions by Licensees. (a)...

  4. Holocene biome shifts in the East Asian monsoon margin region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallmeyer, Anne; Claussen, Martin; Ni, Jian; Wang, Yongbo; Cao, Xianyong; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2013-04-01

    East Asia is affected by three major atmospheric circulation systems determining the regional climate and vegetation distribution: The moisture advected by the Indian and East Asian monsoon support the growing of forest in large parts of Eastern China. The influence of the monsoon gets weaker further on the continent yielding a transition of forest to steppe and of steppe to desert in Central East Asia (e.g. Inner Mongolia) where the dry westerly winds prevail. Particularly in these transition zones, vegetation is supposed to be very sensitive to climate change and strong feedbacks are expected in case of climate and vegetation shifts due to large environmental changes (Feng et al., 2006). During mid-Holocene, cyclic variations in the Earth's orbit around the sun led to an enhancement of the Asian monsoon system probably causing strong shifts in the biome distribution. According to reconstructions, the steppe-forest margin moved to the northwest by about 500km (Yu et al., 2000) and the desert area in China and Inner Mongolia was substantially reduced compared to today (Feng et al., 2006). However, in the complex environment of Asia, the locally limited reconstructions may not portray the general vegetation change. To get a systematic overview on the spatial pattern of biome shifts in the Asian monsoon - westerly wind transition zone since mid-Holocene, we use the diagnostic vegetation model BIOME4 and force this model with climate anomalies from different transient Holocene climate simulations performed in coupled atmosphere-ocean-vegetation models. The main aims of this study are to a) get a consistent ensemble of possible changes in biome distribution since the mid-Holocene b) test the robustness of the simulated vegetation changes and quantify the differences between the models, and c) allow for a better comparison of simulated and reconstructed vegetation changes. Preliminary results confirm the general trend seen in the reconstructions. The simulations reveal

  5. The underestimated biodiversity of tropical grassy biomes.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Brett P; Andersen, Alan N; Parr, Catherine L

    2016-09-19

    For decades, there has been enormous scientific interest in tropical savannahs and grasslands, fuelled by the recognition that they are a dynamic and potentially unstable biome, requiring periodic disturbance for their maintenance. However, that scientific interest has not translated into widespread appreciation of, and concern about threats to, their biodiversity. In terms of biodiversity, grassy biomes are considered poor cousins of the other dominant biome of the tropics-forests. Simple notions of grassy biomes being species-poor cannot be supported; for some key taxa, such as vascular plants, this may be valid, but for others it is not. Here, we use an analysis of existing data to demonstrate that high-rainfall tropical grassy biomes (TGBs) have vertebrate species richness comparable with that of forests, despite having lower plant diversity. The Neotropics stand out in terms of both overall vertebrate species richness and number of range-restricted vertebrate species in TGBs. Given high rates of land-cover conversion in Neotropical grassy biomes, they should be a high priority for conservation and greater inclusion in protected areas. Fire needs to be actively maintained in these systems, and in many cases re-introduced after decades of inappropriate fire exclusion. The relative intactness of TGBs in Africa and Australia make them the least vulnerable to biodiversity loss in the immediate future. We argue that, like forests, TGBs should be recognized as a critical-but increasingly threatened-store of global biodiversity.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation'.

  6. Defining functional biomes and monitoring their change globally.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Steven I; Buitenwerf, Robert; Moncrieff, Glenn R

    2016-11-01

    Biomes are important constructs for organizing understanding of how the worlds' major terrestrial ecosystems differ from one another and for monitoring change in these ecosystems. Yet existing biome classification schemes have been criticized for being overly subjective and for explicitly or implicitly invoking climate. We propose a new biome map and classification scheme that uses information on (i) an index of vegetation productivity, (ii) whether the minimum of vegetation activity is in the driest or coldest part of the year, and (iii) vegetation height. Although biomes produced on the basis of this classification show a strong spatial coherence, they show little congruence with existing biome classification schemes. Our biome map provides an alternative classification scheme for comparing the biogeochemical rates of terrestrial ecosystems. We use this new biome classification scheme to analyse the patterns of biome change observed over recent decades. Overall, 13% to 14% of analysed pixels shifted in biome state over the 30-year study period. A wide range of biome transitions were observed. For example, biomes with tall vegetation and minimum vegetation activity in the cold season shifted to higher productivity biome states. Biomes with short vegetation and low seasonality shifted to seasonally moisture-limited biome states. Our findings and method provide a new source of data for rigorously monitoring global vegetation change, analysing drivers of vegetation change and for benchmarking models of terrestrial ecosystem function.

  7. 9 CFR 2.7 - Annual report by licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., dealers, exhibitors, retail pet stores, and persons for use as pets, by the licensee during the preceding..., exhibitors, retail pet stores, and persons for use as pets, during the preceding business year (calendar...

  8. 9 CFR 2.7 - Annual report by licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., dealers, exhibitors, retail pet stores, and persons for use as pets, by the licensee during the preceding..., exhibitors, retail pet stores, and persons for use as pets, during the preceding business year (calendar...

  9. Toward a rule-based biome model (journal article)

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, R.P.; King, G.A.; Koerper, G.

    1992-01-01

    The current projections of the response of the biosphere to global climatic change indicate as much as 50% to 90% spatial displacement of extratropical biomes. The mechanism of spatial shift could be dominated by either (1) competitive displacement of northern biomes by southern biomes, or (2) drought-induced dieback of areas susceptible to change. The current suite of global biosphere models cannot distinguish between these two processes, thus determining the need for a mechanistically based biome model.

  10. Licensee Event Report (LER) compilation for month of March 1988

    SciTech Connect

    1988-04-01

    This monthly report contains Licensee Event Report (LER) operational information that was processed into the LER data file of the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) during the one-month period identified on the cover of the document. The LERS, from which this information is derived, are submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by nuclear power plant licensees in accordance with federal regulations. Procedures for LER reporting for revisions to those events occurring prior to 1984 are described in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.16 and NUREG-1061, Instructions for preparation of data entry sheets for licensee event reports. For those events occurring on and after January 1, 1984, LERs are being submitted in accordance with the revised rule contained in Title 10 Part 50.73 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 50.73 - Licensee Event Report System) which was published in the Federal Register (Vol. 48, No. 144) on July 26, 1983. NUREG-1022, Licensee Event Report System - Description of systems and guidelines for reporting, provides supporting guidance and information on the revised LER rule.

  11. Global climate and the distribution of plant biomes.

    PubMed

    Woodward, F I; Lomas, M R; Kelly, C K

    2004-10-29

    Biomes are areas of vegetation that are characterized by the same life-form. Traditional definitions of biomes have also included either geographical or climatic descriptors. This approach describes a wide range of biomes that can be correlated with characteristic climatic conditions, or climatic envelopes. The application of remote sensing technology to the frequent observation of biomes has led to a move away from the often subjective definition of biomes to one that is objective. Carefully characterized observations of life-form, by satellite, have been used to reconsider biome classification and their climatic envelopes. Five major tree biomes can be recognized by satellites based on leaf longevity and morphology: needleleaf evergreen, broadleaf evergreen, needleleaf deciduous, broadleaf cold deciduous and broadleaf drought deciduous. Observations indicate that broadleaf drought deciduous vegetation grades substantially into broadleaf evergreen vegetation. The needleleaf deciduous biome occurs in the world's coldest climates, where summer drought and therefore a drought deciduous biome are absent. Traditional biome definitions are quite static, implying no change in their life-form composition with time, within their particular climatic envelopes. However, this is not the case where there has been global ingress of grasslands and croplands into forested vegetation. The global spread of grasses, a new super-biome, was probably initiated 30-45 Myr ago by an increase in global aridity, and was driven by the natural spread of the disturbances of fire and animal grazing. These disturbances have been further extended over the Holocene era by human activities that have increased the land areas available for domestic animal grazing and for growing crops. The current situation is that grasses now occur in most, if not all biomes, and in many areas they dominate and define the biome. Croplands are also increasing, defining a new and relatively recent component to the

  12. Biome Is Where the Art Is

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooden, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    The author is surprised every year when fifth-grade students react to the study of biomes as if they've never given any thought to the differences across parts of the world. Sure, they've all heard of the tropical rain forest and the desert, but it seems as though they think the rest of the world is just some undefined area with climate, animals,…

  13. 77 FR 65220 - Certain Licensees Requesting Unescorted Access to Radioactive Material; Order Imposing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Certain Licensees Requesting Unescorted Access to Radioactive Material; Order Imposing Trustworthiness and Reliability Requirements for Unescorted Access to Certain Radioactive Material (Effective Immediately) I The Licensee identified...

  14. 47 CFR 73.1216 - Licensee-conducted contests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....1216 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1216 Licensee-conducted contests. A..., based upon chance, diligence, knowledge or skill, to members of the public. (b) Material terms...

  15. 44 CFR 352.5 - FEMA action on licensee certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FEMA action on licensee certification. 352.5 Section 352.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS COMMERCIAL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS...

  16. 44 CFR 352.5 - FEMA action on licensee certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FEMA action on licensee certification. 352.5 Section 352.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS COMMERCIAL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS...

  17. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan, as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL...

  18. 13 CFR 107.210 - Minimum capital requirements for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... except the minimum capital requirement, as determined solely by SBA; (ii) Has a viable business plan... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum capital requirements for Licensees. 107.210 Section 107.210 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION...

  19. 13 CFR 107.200 - Adequate capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operate actively in accordance with your Articles and within the context of your business plan, as... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adequate capital for Licensees. 107.200 Section 107.200 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL...

  20. 27 CFR 478.78 - Operations by licensee after notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Operations by licensee after notice. 478.78 Section 478.78 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... revocation proceedings are pending before the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, or notice of...

  1. 27 CFR 478.78 - Operations by licensee after notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Operations by licensee after notice. 478.78 Section 478.78 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... revocation proceedings are pending before the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, or notice of...

  2. 27 CFR 478.78 - Operations by licensee after notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operations by licensee after notice. 478.78 Section 478.78 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... revocation proceedings are pending before the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, or notice of...

  3. 27 CFR 478.78 - Operations by licensee after notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Operations by licensee after notice. 478.78 Section 478.78 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO... revocation proceedings are pending before the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, or notice of...

  4. 9 CFR 2.7 - Annual report by licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 2.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... animals, upon which the license fee is based, directly or through an auction sale, to research facilities... commissions or fees charged for the sale of animals by the licensee to research facilities,...

  5. 9 CFR 2.7 - Annual report by licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 2.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... animals, upon which the license fee is based, directly or through an auction sale, to research facilities... commissions or fees charged for the sale of animals by the licensee to research facilities,...

  6. 47 CFR 90.667 - Grandfathering provisions for incumbent licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... area shall be defined by its originally-licensed 40 dBu field strength contour. Incumbent licensees are... the Commission so long as their original 40 dBu field strength contour is not expanded. (b) Incumbent... dBu field strength contours of the multiple sites. Incumbents exercising this license...

  7. 18 CFR 12.5 - Responsibilities of licensee or applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Responsibilities of licensee or applicant. 12.5 Section 12.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER...

  8. 18 CFR 12.5 - Responsibilities of licensee or applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Responsibilities of licensee or applicant. 12.5 Section 12.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER...

  9. 18 CFR 12.5 - Responsibilities of licensee or applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Responsibilities of licensee or applicant. 12.5 Section 12.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER...

  10. 18 CFR 12.5 - Responsibilities of licensee or applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Responsibilities of licensee or applicant. 12.5 Section 12.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER...

  11. 18 CFR 12.5 - Responsibilities of licensee or applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Responsibilities of licensee or applicant. 12.5 Section 12.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER...

  12. 13 CFR 107.1580 - Special rules for In-Kind Distributions by Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Distributions by Licensees. 107.1580 Section 107.1580 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1580 Special rules for In-Kind Distributions by Licensees. (a)...

  13. 13 CFR 107.510 - SBA approval of Licensee's Investment Adviser/Manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Management and... management contract. SBA's approval of an Investment Adviser/Manager for one Licensee does not indicate approval of that manager for any other Licensee. (a) Management contract. The contract must: (1)...

  14. 13 CFR 107.865 - Control of a Small Business by a Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of a Small Business by a Licensee. 107.865 Section 107.865 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by Licensees Structuring Licensee's...

  15. 76 FR 77855 - Criteria for Identifying Material Licensees for the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Agency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... for those nuclear material licensees, including fuel cycle facilities, with significant safety or... identifies nuclear material licensees, including fuel cycle and Agreement State licensees, for AARM..., one additional element (i.e., criterion), has been added that focuses on those material...

  16. 13 CFR 107.1700 - Transfer by SBA of its interest in Licensee's Leverage security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Licensee's Leverage security. 107.1700 Section 107.1700 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Miscellaneous § 107.1700 Transfer by SBA of its interest in Licensee's Leverage security. Upon such...

  17. 13 CFR 107.1700 - Transfer by SBA of its interest in Licensee's Leverage security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Licensee's Leverage security. 107.1700 Section 107.1700 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Miscellaneous § 107.1700 Transfer by SBA of its interest in Licensee's Leverage security. Upon such...

  18. 13 CFR 107.1700 - Transfer by SBA of its interest in Licensee's Leverage security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Licensee's Leverage security. 107.1700 Section 107.1700 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Miscellaneous § 107.1700 Transfer by SBA of its interest in Licensee's Leverage security. Upon such...

  19. 13 CFR 107.1700 - Transfer by SBA of its interest in Licensee's Leverage security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Licensee's Leverage security. 107.1700 Section 107.1700 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Miscellaneous § 107.1700 Transfer by SBA of its interest in Licensee's Leverage security. Upon such...

  20. 13 CFR 107.1700 - Transfer by SBA of its interest in Licensee's Leverage security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Licensee's Leverage security. 107.1700 Section 107.1700 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Miscellaneous § 107.1700 Transfer by SBA of its interest in Licensee's Leverage security. Upon such...

  1. 13 CFR 107.1230 - Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's Leverage commitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's Leverage commitment. 107.1230 Section 107.1230 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Licensee § 107.1230 Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's...

  2. 13 CFR 107.1230 - Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's Leverage commitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's Leverage commitment. 107.1230 Section 107.1230 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Licensee § 107.1230 Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's...

  3. 13 CFR 107.1230 - Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's Leverage commitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's Leverage commitment. 107.1230 Section 107.1230 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Licensee § 107.1230 Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's...

  4. 13 CFR 107.1230 - Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's Leverage commitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's Leverage commitment. 107.1230 Section 107.1230 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Licensee § 107.1230 Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's...

  5. 13 CFR 107.1230 - Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's Leverage commitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's Leverage commitment. 107.1230 Section 107.1230 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Licensee § 107.1230 Draw-downs by Licensee under SBA's...

  6. 18 CFR 11.6 - Exemption of State and municipal licensees and exemptees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... was primarily designed to provide or improve navigation; (2) To the extent that power generated... that the project was primarily designed to provide or improve navigation unless the licensee... operating licensee's water or sewerage system, or in performing other public functions of the licensee....

  7. 18 CFR 11.6 - Exemption of State and municipal licensees and exemptees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... was primarily designed to provide or improve navigation; (2) To the extent that power generated... that the project was primarily designed to provide or improve navigation unless the licensee... operating licensee's water or sewerage system, or in performing other public functions of the licensee....

  8. 18 CFR 11.6 - Exemption of State and municipal licensees and exemptees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... was primarily designed to provide or improve navigation; (2) To the extent that power generated... that the project was primarily designed to provide or improve navigation unless the licensee... operating licensee's water or sewerage system, or in performing other public functions of the licensee....

  9. 18 CFR 11.6 - Exemption of State and municipal licensees and exemptees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... was primarily designed to provide or improve navigation; (2) To the extent that power generated... that the project was primarily designed to provide or improve navigation unless the licensee... operating licensee's water or sewerage system, or in performing other public functions of the licensee....

  10. 18 CFR 11.6 - Exemption of State and municipal licensees and exemptees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... was primarily designed to provide or improve navigation; (2) To the extent that power generated... that the project was primarily designed to provide or improve navigation unless the licensee... operating licensee's water or sewerage system, or in performing other public functions of the licensee....

  11. Microbes to Biomes at Berkeley Lab

    SciTech Connect

    2015-10-28

    Microbes are the Earth's most abundant and diverse form of life. Berkeley Lab's Microbes to Biomes initiative -- which will take advantage of research expertise at the Joint Genome Institute, Advanced Light Source, Molecular Foundry, and the new computational science facility -- is designed to explore and reveal the interactions of microbes with one another and with their environment. Microbes power our planet’s biogeochemical cycles, provide nutrients to our plants, purify our water and are integral components in keeping the human body free of disease and may hold the key to the Earth’s future.

  12. Airborne remote sensing of forest biomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sader, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne sensor data of forest biomes obtained using an SAR, a laser profiler, an IR MSS, and a TM simulator are presented and examined. The SAR was utilized to investigate forest canopy structures in Mississippi and Costa Rica; the IR MSS measured forest canopy temperatures in Oregon and Puerto Rico; the TM simulator was employed in a tropical forest in Puerto Rico; and the laser profiler studied forest canopy characteristics in Costa Rica. The advantages and disadvantages of airborne systems are discussed. It is noted that the airborne sensors provide measurements applicable to forest monitoring programs.

  13. Microbes to Biomes at Berkeley Lab

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Microbes are the Earth's most abundant and diverse form of life. Berkeley Lab's Microbes to Biomes initiative -- which will take advantage of research expertise at the Joint Genome Institute, Advanced Light Source, Molecular Foundry, and the new computational science facility -- is designed to explore and reveal the interactions of microbes with one another and with their environment. Microbes power our planet’s biogeochemical cycles, provide nutrients to our plants, purify our water and are integral components in keeping the human body free of disease and may hold the key to the Earth’s future.

  14. Holocene Biomes and Climate Reconstruction of Northwestern Mexico Based on High Resolution Pollen Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Rosas, C. I.; Guiot, J.; Peñalba, C.

    2005-12-01

    New paleovegetation and paleoclimate data from the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) in northwestern Mexico are presented. This work involves three main studies: 1) the fossil pollen analysis of five Holocene peat bogs located at different altitudes (1500 to 2000 m) inside the states of Sonora and Chihuahua; 2) the modern pollen analysis across an altitudinal transect (28° latitude north) from the Sonoran desert towards the highlands of the temperate SMO; and 3) the climatic and biomes reconstruction using Plant Functional Types and Biomization methods. For this last study a modern pollen dataset of 630 sites across the NW Mexico and the SW United States was compiled from different sources (North American Pollen Dataset, Latin-American Pollen Dataset, personal data, and different scientific papers). For the biomization method (Prentice et al., 1996); we have modified the pollen-PFT and PFT-Biomes assignation of Thompson and Anderson (2000) for a better representation of the modern vegetation of NW Mexico. The biomes reconstructed from the modern pollen sites let us to validate the reconstruction method and then his application to the fossil sites. The preliminary results of biome reconstruction from the pollen fossil records shows during the early Holocene that a Cool conifer forest was well distributed at 1700 m, and possibly lower elevation, at the SMO while today this biome is present only at altitudes higher than 2000 m in the Chihuahua state, the annual temperature reconstructed were at less of 2°C colder than today, but annual precipitation was 300 mm/yr lower than the actual (800 mm/yr). The middle Holocene at 6000 yr BP is marked by the installation of the warm mixed forest biome at 1700 m elevation, similar to present vegetation in the region. While at higher elevations (1900 m) the cool conifer forest was still present at the middle Holocene. The increasing in temperature characterize the period from 6000 to 4000 yr BP being more marked at 6000 yr BP with 3

  15. Quantifying modern biomes based on surface pollen data in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Ni, Jian; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2010-12-01

    Large-scale surface pollen records and reconstructions of modern biomes are a necessary prerequisite for the understanding of past vegetation and climate changes, especially in large countries such as China which is subject to a variety of climatic regimes and has experienced long-term intensive anthropogenic disturbances. An updated surface pollen data set consisting of 2324 samples and 737 taxa is used to reconstruct biome distribution in China according to a newly established and well-tested global classification of plant functional types, based on the regional assessment of pollen taxa and the quantitative pollen-biome assignment method of biomization. Nineteen reconstructed types of biome present a reasonable reflection of the latitudinal and altitudinal distributions of modern vegetation in China. Incorrect assignment has previously occurred in some biomes, for example among the cold and cool temperate coniferous forests and mixed forest, among warm-temperate evergreen forest, mixed forest and tropical forests, and among temperate shrubland, grassland, desert and tundra biomes. Mega-biomes, grouped for the same bioclimatic zones, result in a better reconstruction than the nineteen separate biome types. The correct assignments increased from 68.8% to 80.6%. However, comparison of pollen-based biome reconstructions to climate-driven vegetation simulations performed using the global vegetation model BIOME4 indicates a low correlation rate (only 24.8%), suggesting that more needs to be done to combine palaeoenvironmental data with model simulations of past vegetation changes. The misassignment of surface pollen to modern biomes usually occurs in areas which have similar bioclimatic features and vegetation types and for biomes which share the same plant functional types. These mis-matches often occur in mountainous regions where transitional vegetation zones occur on hill slopes at mid-altitudes. Our new modern biome reconstruction for China is more robust and

  16. The effects of variable biome distribution on global climate

    SciTech Connect

    Noever, D.A.; Brittain, A.; Matsos, H.C.; Baskaran, S.; Obenhuber, D.

    1996-12-31

    In projecting climatic adjustments to anthropogenically elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide, most global climate models fix biome distribution to current geographic conditions. The authors develop a model that examines the albedo-related effects of biome distribution on global temperature. The model was tested on historical biome changes since 1860 and the results fit both the observed trend and order of magnitude change in global temperature. Once backtested in this way on historical data, the model is then used to generate an optimized future biome distribution which minimizes projected greenhouse effects on global temperature. Because of the complexity of this combinatorial search an artificial intelligence method, the genetic algorithm, was employed. The genetic algorithm assigns various biome distributions to the planet, then adjusts their percentage area and albedo effects to regulate or moderate temperature changes.

  17. Changes in forest productivity across Alaska consistent with biome shift.

    PubMed

    Beck, Pieter S A; Juday, Glenn P; Alix, Claire; Barber, Valerie A; Winslow, Stephen E; Sousa, Emily E; Heiser, Patricia; Herriges, James D; Goetz, Scott J

    2011-04-01

    Global vegetation models predict that boreal forests are particularly sensitive to a biome shift during the 21st century. This shift would manifest itself first at the biome's margins, with evergreen forest expanding into current tundra while being replaced by grasslands or temperate forest at the biome's southern edge. We evaluated changes in forest productivity since 1982 across boreal Alaska by linking satellite estimates of primary productivity and a large tree-ring data set. Trends in both records show consistent growth increases at the boreal-tundra ecotones that contrast with drought-induced productivity declines throughout interior Alaska. These patterns support the hypothesized effects of an initiating biome shift. Ultimately, tree dispersal rates, habitat availability and the rate of future climate change, and how it changes disturbance regimes, are expected to determine where the boreal biome will undergo a gradual geographic range shift, and where a more rapid decline.

  18. Climate-biomes, pedo-biomes and pyro-biomes: which world view explains the tropical forest - savanna boundary in South America?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langan, Liam; Higgins, Steven; Scheiter, Simon

    2015-04-01

    Elucidating the drivers of broad vegetation formations improves our understanding of earth system functioning. The biome, defined primarily by the dominance of a particular growth strategy, is commonly employed to group vegetation into similar units. Predicting tropical forest and savanna biome boundaries in South America has proven difficult. Process based DGVMs (Dynamic global vegetation models) are our best tool to simulate vegetation patterns, make predictions for future changes and test theory, however, many DGVMs fail to accurately simulate the spatial distribution or indeed presence of the South American savanna biome which can result in large differences in modelled ecosystem structural properties. Evidence suggests fire plays a significant role in mediating these forest and savanna biome boundaries, however, fire alone does not appear to be sufficient to predict these boundaries in South America using DGVMs hinting at the presence of one or more missing environmental factors. We hypothesise that soil depth, which affects plant available water by determining maximum storage potential and influences temporal availability, may be one of these missing environmental factors. To test our hypothesis we use a novel vegetation model, the aDGVM2. This model has been specifically designed to allow plant trait strategies, constrained by trade-offs between traits, evolve based on the abiotic and biotic conditions where the resulting community trait suites are emergent properties of model dynamics. Furthermore it considers root biomass in multiple soil layers and therefore allows the consideration of alternative rooting strategies, which in turn allows us to explore in more detail the role of soil hydraulic factors in controlling biome boundary distributions. We find that changes in soil depth, interacting with fire, affect the relative dominance of tree and grass strategies and thus the presence and spatial distribution of forest and savanna biomes in South America

  19. U.S. Tundra Biome-International Biological Program. U.S. Tundra Biome Publication List.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    Provisional checklist to the vascular, bryophyte , and lichen flora of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. In Ecological Investigations of the Tundra Biome in the Prudhoe Bay...4040) /Bib 33-4561/ Rastorfer, J.R., H.J. Webster and D.K. Smith (1973) Floristic and ecologic studies of bryophytes of selected habitats at...57: 1025-1033. (2759) /Bib 31-1286/ Steere, W.C. (1976) Ecology , phytogeography, and floristics of arctic Alaskan bryophytes . Journal of Hattori

  20. Global middle Pliocene biome reconstruction: A data/model synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haywood, Alan M.; Valdes, Paul J.; Francis, Jane E.; Sellwood, Bruce W.

    2002-12-01

    The middle Pliocene warm interval (ca. 3 Ma BP) has been extensively studied. However, our knowledge concerning the global distribution of middle Pliocene biomes remains far from complete. This paper presents the results from a "first attempt" at simulating the distribution of different mid-Pliocene biomes using an advanced numerical general circulation climate model (Hadley Centre Atmospheric Model Version 3) and the BIOME 4 vegetation model. The modeling indicates that during the middle Pliocene the geographical coverage of tundra type biomes may have been significantly reduced compared with the present day in the Northern Hemisphere. High-latitude forests expand in the place of tundra forms of vegetation. Total area covered by forest increases for the Pliocene case compared with the present day. Arid deserts become less prevalent in the Pliocene scenario and are replaced by tropical xerophytic shrublands and savanna-type vegetation. These results compare favorably with geological data in general and with the U.S. Geological Survey's PRISM2 middle Pliocene vegetation reconstruction, although data/model inconsistencies are apparent. Although some of these inconsistencies relate to the weaknesses of the climate and biome model employed, others identify deficiencies in the extant geological data set or the interpretation of this data. This modeled biome reconstruction will serve as a useful vehicle for aiding in future comparisons between geological data on middle Pliocene biomes and model predictions.

  1. 44 CFR 352.26 - Arrangements for Federal response in the licensee offsite emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING Federal Participation § 352.26 Arrangements for... from commercial nuclear power plant licensees to State and local governments and to surrounding...

  2. 44 CFR 352.26 - Arrangements for Federal response in the licensee offsite emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING Federal Participation § 352.26 Arrangements for... from commercial nuclear power plant licensees to State and local governments and to surrounding...

  3. 13 CFR 107.1540 - Distributions by Licensee-Prioritized Payments and Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1540 Distributions by Licensee—Prioritized Payments and...

  4. 13 CFR 107.1540 - Distributions by Licensee-Prioritized Payments and Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1540 Distributions by Licensee—Prioritized Payments and...

  5. 13 CFR 107.1540 - Distributions by Licensee-Prioritized Payments and Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1540 Distributions by Licensee—Prioritized Payments and...

  6. 13 CFR 107.1540 - Distributions by Licensee-Prioritized Payments and Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1540 Distributions by Licensee—Prioritized Payments and...

  7. Using an Exploratory Internet Activity & Trivia Game to Teach Students about Biomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Matthew L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in life science classes need an introduction to biomes, including an introduction to the concept, key biotic and abiotic features of biomes, and geographic locations of biomes. In this activity, students in seventh- and eighth-grade science classes used a directed exploratory Internet activity to learn about biomes. The author tested…

  8. Dynamic vegetation modeling of tropical biomes during Heinrich events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handiani, Dian Noor; Paul, André; Dupont, Lydie M.

    2010-05-01

    Heinrich events are thought to be associated with a slowdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), which in turn would lead to a cooling of the North Atlantic Ocean and a warming of the South Atlantic Ocean (the "bipolar seesaw" hypothesis). The accompanying abrupt climate changes occurred not only in the ocean but also on the continents. Changes were strongest in the Northern Hemisphere but were registered in the tropics as well. Pollen data from Angola and Brazil showed that climate changes during Heinrich events affected vegetation patterns very differently in eastern South America and western Africa. To understand the differential response in the terrestrial tropics, we studied the vegetation changes during Heinrich events by using a dynamic global vegetation model (TRIFFID) as part of the University of Victoria (UVic) Earth System-Climate Model (ESCM). The model results show a bipolar seesaw pattern in temperature and precipitation during a near-collapse of the AMOC. The succession in plant-functional types (PFTs) showed changes from forest to shrubs to desert, including spreading desert in northwest Africa, retreating broadleaf trees in West Africa and northern South America, but advancing broadleaf trees in Brazil. The pattern is explained by a southward shift of the tropical rainbelt resulting in a strong decrease in precipitation over northwest and West Africa as well as in northern South America, but an increase in precipitation in eastern Brazil. To facilitate the comparison between modeled vegetation results with pollen data, we diagnosed the distribution of biomes from the PFT coverage and the simulated model climate. The biome distribution was computed for Heinrich event 1 and the Last Glacial Maximum as well as for pre-industrial conditions. We used a classification of biomes in terms of "mega-biomes", which were defined following a scheme originally proposed by BIOME 6000 (v 4.2). The biome distribution of the Sahel region

  9. Generality of leaf trait relationships: A test across six biomes

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, P.B.; Ellsworth, D.S.; Walters, M.B.; Vose, J.M.; Gresham, C.; Volin, J.C.; Bowman, W.D. |

    1999-09-01

    Convergence in interspecific leaf trait relationships across diverse taxonomic groups and biomes would have important evolutionary and ecological implications. Such convergence has been hypothesized to result from trade-offs that limit the combination of plant traits for any species. Here the authors address this issue by testing for biome differences in the slope and intercept of interspecific relationships among leaf traits: longevity, net photosynthetic capacity (A{sub max}), leaf diffusive conductance (G{sub S}), specific leaf area (SLA), and nitrogen (N) status, for more than 100 species in six distinct biomes of the Americas. The six biomes were: alpine tundra-subalpine forest ecotone, cold temperate forest-prairie ecotone, montane cool temperate forest, desert shrubland, subtropical forest, and tropical rain forest. Despite large differences in climate and evolutionary history, in all biomes mass-based leaf N (N{sub mass}), SLA, G{sub S}, and A{sub max} were positively related to one another and decreased with increasing leaf life span. The relationships between pairs of leaf traits exhibited similar slopes among biomes, suggesting a predictable set of scaling relationships among key leaf morphological, chemical, and metabolic traits that are replicated globally among terrestrial ecosystems regardless of biome or vegetation type. However, the intercept (i.e., the overall elevation of regression lines) of relationships between pairs of leaf traits usually differed among biomes. With increasing aridity across sites, species had greater A{sub max} for a given level of G{sub S} and lower SLA for any given leaf life span. Using principal components analysis, most variation among species was explained by an axis related to mass-based leaf traits (A{sub max}, N, and SLA) while a second axis reflected climate, G{sub S}, and other area-based leaf traits.

  10. Diverging responses of tropical Andean biomes under future climate conditions.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Carolina; Arnillas, Carlos Alberto; Cuesta, Francisco; Buytaert, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    Observations and projections for mountain regions show a strong tendency towards upslope displacement of their biomes under future climate conditions. Because of their climatic and topographic heterogeneity, a more complex response is expected for biodiversity hotspots such as tropical mountain regions. This study analyzes potential changes in the distribution of biomes in the Tropical Andes and identifies target areas for conservation. Biome distribution models were developed using logistic regressions. These models were then coupled to an ensemble of 8 global climate models to project future distribution of the Andean biomes and their uncertainties. We analysed projected changes in extent and elevational range and identified regions most prone to change. Our results show a heterogeneous response to climate change. Although the wetter biomes exhibit an upslope displacement of both the upper and the lower boundaries as expected, most dry biomes tend to show downslope expansion. Despite important losses being projected for several biomes, projections suggest that between 74.8% and 83.1% of the current total Tropical Andes will remain stable, depending on the emission scenario and time horizon. Between 3.3% and 7.6% of the study area is projected to change, mostly towards an increase in vertical structure. For the remaining area (13.1%-17.4%), there is no agreement between model projections. These results challenge the common believe that climate change will lead to an upslope displacement of biome boundaries in mountain regions. Instead, our models project diverging responses, including downslope expansion and large areas projected to remain stable. Lastly, a significant part of the area expected to change is already affected by land use changes, which has important implications for management. This, and the inclusion of a comprehensive uncertainty analysis, will help to inform conservation strategies in the Tropical Andes, and to guide similar assessments for other

  11. Diverging Responses of Tropical Andean Biomes under Future Climate Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tovar, Carolina; Arnillas, Carlos Alberto; Cuesta, Francisco; Buytaert, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    Observations and projections for mountain regions show a strong tendency towards upslope displacement of their biomes under future climate conditions. Because of their climatic and topographic heterogeneity, a more complex response is expected for biodiversity hotspots such as tropical mountain regions. This study analyzes potential changes in the distribution of biomes in the Tropical Andes and identifies target areas for conservation. Biome distribution models were developed using logistic regressions. These models were then coupled to an ensemble of 8 global climate models to project future distribution of the Andean biomes and their uncertainties. We analysed projected changes in extent and elevational range and identified regions most prone to change. Our results show a heterogeneous response to climate change. Although the wetter biomes exhibit an upslope displacement of both the upper and the lower boundaries as expected, most dry biomes tend to show downslope expansion. Despite important losses being projected for several biomes, projections suggest that between 74.8% and 83.1% of the current total Tropical Andes will remain stable, depending on the emission scenario and time horizon. Between 3.3% and 7.6% of the study area is projected to change, mostly towards an increase in vertical structure. For the remaining area (13.1%–17.4%), there is no agreement between model projections. These results challenge the common believe that climate change will lead to an upslope displacement of biome boundaries in mountain regions. Instead, our models project diverging responses, including downslope expansion and large areas projected to remain stable. Lastly, a significant part of the area expected to change is already affected by land use changes, which has important implications for management. This, and the inclusion of a comprehensive uncertainty analysis, will help to inform conservation strategies in the Tropical Andes, and to guide similar assessments for

  12. biojs-io-biom, a BioJS component for handling data in Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM) format.

    PubMed

    Ankenbrand, Markus J; Terhoeven, Niklas; Hohlfeld, Sonja; Förster, Frank; Keller, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM) format is widely used to store data from high-throughput studies. It aims at increasing interoperability of bioinformatic tools that process this data. However, due to multiple versions and implementation details, working with this format can be tricky. Currently, libraries in Python, R and Perl are available, whilst such for JavaScript are lacking. Here, we present a BioJS component for parsing BIOM data in all format versions. It supports import, modification, and export via a unified interface. This module aims to facilitate the development of web applications that use BIOM data. Finally, we demonstrate its usefulness by two applications that already use this component. Availability: https://github.com/molbiodiv/biojs-io-biom, https://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.218277.

  13. biojs-io-biom, a BioJS component for handling data in Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM) format

    PubMed Central

    Ankenbrand, Markus J.; Terhoeven, Niklas; Hohlfeld, Sonja; Förster, Frank; Keller, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM) format is widely used to store data from high-throughput studies. It aims at increasing interoperability of bioinformatic tools that process this data. However, due to multiple versions and implementation details, working with this format can be tricky. Currently, libraries in Python, R and Perl are available, whilst such for JavaScript are lacking. Here, we present a BioJS component for parsing BIOM data in all format versions. It supports import, modification, and export via a unified interface. This module aims to facilitate the development of web applications that use BIOM data. Finally, we demonstrate its usefulness by two applications that already use this component. Availability: https://github.com/molbiodiv/biojs-io-biom, https://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.218277 PMID:28105307

  14. 13 CFR 107.1540 - Distributions by Licensee-Prioritized Payments and Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distributions by Licensee... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1540 Distributions by Licensee—Prioritized Payments and...

  15. 77 FR 24746 - Constraint on Releases of Airborne Radioactive Materials to the Environment for Licensees Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... COMMISSION Constraint on Releases of Airborne Radioactive Materials to the Environment for Licensees Other..., ``Constraint on Releases of Airborne Radioactive Materials to the Environment for Licensees other than Power... on airborne emissions of radioactive material to the environment. ADDRESSES: Please refer to...

  16. 13 CFR 107.510 - SBA approval of Licensee's Investment Adviser/Manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBA approval of Licensee's Investment Adviser/Manager. 107.510 Section 107.510 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Management...

  17. 13 CFR 107.230 - Permitted sources of Private Capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permitted sources of Private... Permitted sources of Private Capital for Licensees. Private Capital means the contributed capital of a..., or the partners' contributed capital of a Partnership Licensee, in either case subject to...

  18. 13 CFR 107.1130 - Leverage fees and additional charges payable by Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 107.1130 Leverage fees and additional charges payable by Licensee. (a... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leverage fees and...

  19. 13 CFR 107.1170 - Maximum amount of Participating Securities for any Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Maximum Amount of Leverage for Which A Licensee Is Eligible § 107.1170 Maximum amount of Participating Securities... is 200 percent of your Leverageable Capital. Special Rules for Leverage Issued by an Early Stage SBIC...

  20. 13 CFR 107.1150 - Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section 301(c) Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Maximum Amount of Leverage for Which A Licensee Is Eligible § 107.1150 Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum amount of Leverage for...

  1. 13 CFR 107.1505 - Liquidity requirements for Licensees issuing Participating Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1505 Liquidity requirements for Licensees issuing... the terms of your Leverage under § 107.1820(e). (a) Definition of Liquidity Impairment. A condition...

  2. 13 CFR 107.1505 - Liquidity requirements for Licensees issuing Participating Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1505 Liquidity requirements for Licensees issuing... the terms of your Leverage under § 107.1820(e). (a) Definition of Liquidity Impairment. A condition...

  3. 13 CFR 107.1160 - Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section 301(d) Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Maximum Amount of Leverage for Which A Licensee Is Eligible § 107.1160 Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum amount of Leverage for...

  4. 13 CFR 107.1510 - How a Licensee computes Earmarked Profit (Loss).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1510 How a Licensee computes Earmarked Profit (Loss). Computing your Earmarked... Management Expenses (ii) For the purpose of determining Net Income (Loss), leverage fees paid to SBA...

  5. 13 CFR 107.1130 - Leverage fees and additional charges payable by Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 107.1130 Leverage fees and additional charges payable by Licensee. (a... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leverage fees and...

  6. 13 CFR 107.1505 - Liquidity requirements for Licensees issuing Participating Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1505 Liquidity requirements for Licensees issuing... the terms of your Leverage under § 107.1820(e). (a) Definition of Liquidity Impairment. A condition...

  7. 13 CFR 107.1170 - Maximum amount of Participating Securities for any Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Maximum Amount of Leverage for Which A Licensee Is Eligible § 107.1170 Maximum amount of Participating Securities... is 200 percent of your Leverageable Capital. Conditional Commitments by SBA To Reserve Leverage for...

  8. 13 CFR 107.1160 - Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section 301(d) Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Maximum Amount of Leverage for Which A Licensee Is Eligible § 107.1160 Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum amount of Leverage for...

  9. 13 CFR 107.1170 - Maximum amount of Participating Securities for any Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Maximum Amount of Leverage for Which A Licensee Is Eligible § 107.1170 Maximum amount of Participating Securities... is 200 percent of your Leverageable Capital. Conditional Commitments by SBA To Reserve Leverage for...

  10. 13 CFR 107.1510 - How a Licensee computes Earmarked Profit (Loss).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1510 How a Licensee computes Earmarked Profit (Loss). Computing your Earmarked... Management Expenses (ii) For the purpose of determining Net Income (Loss), leverage fees paid to SBA...

  11. 13 CFR 107.1130 - Leverage fees and additional charges payable by Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 107.1130 Leverage fees and additional charges payable by Licensee. (a... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leverage fees and...

  12. 13 CFR 107.1130 - Leverage fees and additional charges payable by Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 107.1130 Leverage fees and additional charges payable by Licensee. (a... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leverage fees and...

  13. 13 CFR 107.1130 - Leverage fees and additional charges payable by Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 107.1130 Leverage fees and additional charges payable by Licensee. (a... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leverage fees and...

  14. 13 CFR 107.1150 - Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section 301(c) Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Maximum Amount of Leverage for Which A Licensee Is Eligible § 107.1150 Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum amount of Leverage for...

  15. 13 CFR 107.1150 - Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section 301(c) Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Maximum Amount of Leverage for Which A Licensee Is Eligible § 107.1150 Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum amount of Leverage for...

  16. 13 CFR 107.1510 - How a Licensee computes Earmarked Profit (Loss).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1510 How a Licensee computes Earmarked Profit (Loss). Computing your Earmarked... Management Expenses (ii) For the purpose of determining Net Income (Loss), leverage fees paid to SBA...

  17. 13 CFR 107.1170 - Maximum amount of Participating Securities for any Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Maximum Amount of Leverage for Which A Licensee Is Eligible § 107.1170 Maximum amount of Participating Securities... is 200 percent of your Leverageable Capital. Conditional Commitments by SBA To Reserve Leverage for...

  18. 13 CFR 107.1150 - Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section 301(c) Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Maximum Amount of Leverage for Which A Licensee Is Eligible § 107.1150 Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum amount of Leverage for...

  19. 13 CFR 107.1170 - Maximum amount of Participating Securities for any Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Maximum Amount of Leverage for Which A Licensee Is Eligible § 107.1170 Maximum amount of Participating Securities... is 200 percent of your Leverageable Capital. Special Rules for Leverage Issued by an Early Stage SBIC...

  20. 13 CFR 107.1160 - Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section 301(d) Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Maximum Amount of Leverage for Which A Licensee Is Eligible § 107.1160 Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum amount of Leverage for...

  1. 13 CFR 107.1150 - Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section 301(c) Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Maximum Amount of Leverage for Which A Licensee Is Eligible § 107.1150 Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum amount of Leverage for...

  2. 47 CFR 3.75 - Licensee's failure to make timely payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensee's failure to make timely payment. 3.75... OF ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Enforcement § 3.75 Licensee's failure to make timely payment. Failure to remit proper and timely payment to the Commission...

  3. 13 CFR 107.1920 - Licensee's application for exemption from a regulation in this part 107.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Licensee's application for exemption from a regulation in this part 107. 107.1920 Section 107.1920 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Miscellaneous § 107.1920 Licensee's...

  4. 13 CFR 107.250 - Exclusion of stock options issued by Licensee from Management Expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Sbic § 107.250 Exclusion of stock options issued by Licensee from Management Expenses. Stock options... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exclusion of stock options issued by Licensee from Management Expenses. 107.250 Section 107.250 Business Credit and Assistance...

  5. 13 CFR 107.1530 - How a Licensee computes SBA's Profit Participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How a Licensee computes SBA's...) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1530 How a Licensee computes SBA's Profit Participation. This section tells you how to compute SBA's Profit Participation. Profit Participation is included in...

  6. 13 CFR 107.1510 - How a Licensee computes Earmarked Profit (Loss).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How a Licensee computes Earmarked... Securities Leverage § 107.1510 How a Licensee computes Earmarked Profit (Loss). Computing your Earmarked... and Charges under § 107.1520 and Profit Participation under § 107.1530. (a) Requirement to...

  7. Multiband radar characterization of forest biomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, M. Craig; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.

    1990-01-01

    The utility of airborne and orbital SAR in classification, assessment, and monitoring of forest biomes is investigated through analysis of orbital synthetic aperature radar (SAR) and multifrequency and multipolarized airborne SAR imagery relying on image tone and texture. Preliminary airborne SAR experiments and truck-mounted scatterometer observations demonstrated that the three dimensional structural complexity of a forest, and the various scales of temporal dynamics in the microwave dielectric properties of both trees and the underlying substrate would severely limit empirical or semi-empirical approaches. As a consequence, it became necessary to develop a more profound understanding of the electromagnetic properties of a forest scene and their temporal dynamics through controlled experimentation coupled with theoretical development and verification. The concatenation of various models into a physically-based composite model treating the entire forest scene became the major objective of the study as this is the key to development of a series of robust retrieval algorithms for forest biophysical properties. In order to verify the performance of the component elements of the composite model, a series of controlled laboratory and field experiments were undertaken to: (1) develop techniques to measure the microwave dielectric properties of vegetation; (2) relate the microwave dielectric properties of vegetation to more readily measured characteristics such as density and moisture content; (3) calculate the radar cross-section of leaves, and cylinders; (4) improve backscatter models for rough surfaces; and (5) relate attenuation and phase delays during propagation through canopies to canopy properties. These modeling efforts, as validated by the measurements, were incorporated within a larger model known as the Michigan Microwave Canopy Scattering (MIMICS) Model.

  8. 77 FR 65215 - In the Matter of Licensee Identified in Attachment 1 and all Other Persons Who Obtain Safeguards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... at least the past three (3) years, and, at a minimum, include verification of employment, education... official, contractual, or licensee duties of employment. The Licensee and all other persons who obtain..., contractual, or licensee duties of employment. The recipient should be made aware that the information is...

  9. 78 FR 41428 - In the Matter of Licensee Identified in Attachment 1 and All Other Persons Who Obtain Safeguards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ..., contractual, or licensee duties of employment. The Licensee and all other persons who obtain Safeguards... investigation shall address at least the past three years and, at a minimum, include verification of employment, education, and personal references. The licensee shall also, to the extent possible, obtain...

  10. 18 CFR 141.400 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 141.400 Section 141..., licensees, and natural gas companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies, designated as FERC Form No. 3-Q, is prescribed for the...

  11. 18 CFR 141.400 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 141.400 Section 141..., licensees, and natural gas companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies, designated as FERC Form No. 3-Q, is prescribed for the...

  12. 18 CFR 141.400 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 141.400 Section 141..., licensees, and natural gas companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies, designated as FERC Form No. 3-Q, is prescribed for the...

  13. 18 CFR 141.400 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 141.400 Section 141..., licensees, and natural gas companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies, designated as FERC Form No. 3-Q, is prescribed for the...

  14. 18 CFR 141.400 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 141.400 Section 141..., licensees, and natural gas companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies, designated as FERC Form No. 3-Q, is prescribed for the...

  15. Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Caroline E R; Parr, Catherine L

    2016-09-19

    Tropical grassy biomes (TGBs) are changing rapidly the world over through a coalescence of high rates of land-use change, global change and altered disturbance regimes that maintain the ecosystem structure and function of these biomes. Our theme issue brings together the latest research examining the characterization, complex ecology, drivers of change, and human use and ecosystem services of TGBs. Recent advances in ecology and evolution have facilitated a new perspective on these biomes. However, there continues to be controversies over their classification and state dynamics that demonstrate critical data and knowledge gaps in our quantitative understanding of these geographically dispersed regions. We highlight an urgent need to improve ecological understanding in order to effectively predict the sensitivity and resilience of TGBs under future scenarios of global change. With human reliance on TGBs increasing and their propensity for change, ecological and evolutionary understanding of these biomes is central to the dual goals of sustaining their ecological integrity and the diverse services these landscapes provide to millions of people.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation'.

  16. Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Catherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical grassy biomes (TGBs) are changing rapidly the world over through a coalescence of high rates of land-use change, global change and altered disturbance regimes that maintain the ecosystem structure and function of these biomes. Our theme issue brings together the latest research examining the characterization, complex ecology, drivers of change, and human use and ecosystem services of TGBs. Recent advances in ecology and evolution have facilitated a new perspective on these biomes. However, there continues to be controversies over their classification and state dynamics that demonstrate critical data and knowledge gaps in our quantitative understanding of these geographically dispersed regions. We highlight an urgent need to improve ecological understanding in order to effectively predict the sensitivity and resilience of TGBs under future scenarios of global change. With human reliance on TGBs increasing and their propensity for change, ecological and evolutionary understanding of these biomes is central to the dual goals of sustaining their ecological integrity and the diverse services these landscapes provide to millions of people. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation’. PMID:27502385

  17. Tropical grassy biomes: misunderstood, neglected, and under threat.

    PubMed

    Parr, Catherine L; Lehmann, Caroline E R; Bond, William J; Hoffmann, William A; Andersen, Alan N

    2014-04-01

    Tropical grassy biomes (TGBs) are globally extensive, provide critical ecosystem services, and influence the earth-atmosphere system. Yet, globally applied biome definitions ignore vegetation characteristics that are critical to their functioning and evolutionary history. Hence, TGB identification is inconsistent and misinterprets the ecological processes governing vegetation structure, with cascading negative consequences for biodiversity. Here, we discuss threats linked to the definition of TGB, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation schemes (REDD+), and enhanced atmospheric CO2, which may facilitate future state shifts. TGB degradation is insidious and less visible than in forested biomes. With human reliance on TGBs and their propensity for woody change, ecology and evolutionary history are fundamental to not only the identification of TGBs, but also their management for future persistence.

  18. Characterizing forest carbon stocks at tropical biome and landscape level in Mount Apo National Park, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubas, L. C.

    2012-12-01

    Forest resources sequester and store carbon, and serve as a natural brake on climate change. In the tropics, the largest source of greenhouse emission is from deforestation and forest degradation (Gibbs et al 2007). This paper attempts to compile sixty (60) existing studies on using remote sensing to measure key environmental forest indicators at two levels of scales: biome and landscape level. At the tropical forest biome level, there is not as much remote sensing studies that have been done as compared to other forest biomes. Also, existing studies on tropical Asia is still sparse compared to other tropical regions in Latin America and Africa. Biomass map is also produced for the tropical biome using keyhole macro language (KML) which is projected on Google Earth. The compiled studies showed there are four indicators being measured using remote sensors in tropical forest. These are biomass, landcover classification, deforestation and cloud cover. The landscape level will focus on Mount Apo National Park in the Philippines which is encompassing a total area of 54,974.87 hectares. It is one of the ten priority sites targeted in the World Bank-assisted Biodiversity Conservation Program. This park serves as the major watershed for the three provinces with 19 major rivers emanating from the montane formations. Only a small fraction of the natural forest that once covered the country remains. In spite of different policies that aim to reduce logging recent commercial deforestation, illegal logging and agricultural expansion pose an important threat to the remaining forest areas. In some locations in the country, these hotspots of deforestation overlap with the protected areas (Verburg et al 2006). The study site was clipped using ArcGIS from the forest biomass carbon density map produced by Gibbs and Brown (2007). Characterization on this national park using vegetation density, elevation, slope, land cover and precipitation will be conducted to determine factors that

  19. NMSS handbook for decommissioning fuel cycle and materials licensees

    SciTech Connect

    Orlando, D.A.; Hogg, R.C.; Ramsey, K.M.

    1997-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission amended its regulations to set forth the technical and financial criteria for decommissioning licensed nuclear facilities. These regulations were further amended to establish additional recordkeeping requirements for decommissioning; to establish timeframes and schedules for the decommissioning; and to clarify that financial assurance requirements must be in place during operations and updated when licensed operations cease. Reviews of the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP) program found that, while the NRC staff was overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear facilities in a manner that was protective of public health and safety, progress in decommissioning many sites was slow. As a result NRC determined that formal written procedures should be developed to facilitate the timely decommissioning of licensed nuclear facilities. This handbook was developed to aid NRC staff in achieving this goal. It is intended to be used as a reference document to, and in conjunction with, NRC Inspection Manual Chapter (IMC) 2605, ``Decommissioning Inspection Program for Fuel Cycle and Materials Licensees.`` The policies and procedures discussed in this handbook should be used by NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at licensed fuel cycle and materials sites; formerly licensed sites for which the licenses were terminated; sites involving source, special nuclear, or byproduct material subject to NRC regulation for which a license was never issued; and sites in the NRC`s SDMP program. NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear reactor facilities subject to regulation under 10 CFR Part 50 are not required to use the procedures discussed in this handbook.

  20. A mechanistic-bioclimatic modeling analysis of the potential impact of climate change on biomes of the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jian-Sheng; Reynolds, James F; Li, Feng-Min

    2014-08-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is experiencing high rates of climatic change. We present a novel combined mechanistic-bioclimatic modeling approach to determine how changes in precipitation and temperature on the TP may impact net primary production (NPP) in four major biomes (forest, shrub, grass, desert) and if there exists a maximum rain use efficiency (RUE(MAX)) that represents Huxman et al.'s "boundary that constrain[s] site-level productivity and efficiency." We used a daily mechanistic ecosystem model to generate 40-yr outputs using observed climatic data for scenarios of decreased precipitation (25-100%); increased air temperature (1 degrees - 6 degrees C); simultaneous changes in both precipitation (+/- 50%, +/- 25%) and air temperature (+1 to +6 degrees C) and increased interannual variability (IAV) of precipitation (+1 sigma to +3 sigma, with fixed means, where sigma is SD). We fitted model output from these scenarios to Huxman et al.'s RUE(MAX) bioclimatic model, NPP = alpha + RUE x PPT (where alpha is the intercept, RUE is rain use efficiency, and PPT is annual precipitation). Based on these analyses, we conclude that there is strong support (when not explicit, then trend-wise) for Huxman et al.'s assertion that biomes converge to a common RUE(MAX) during the driest years at a site, thus representing the boundary for highest rain use efficiency; the interactive effects of simultaneously decreasing precipitation and increasing temperature on NPP for the TP is smaller than might be expected from additive, single-factor changes in these drivers; and that increasing IAV of precipitation may ultimately have a larger impact on biomes of the Tibetan Plateau than changing amounts of rainfall and air temperature alone.

  1. 78 FR 41314 - Review of Foreign Ownership Policies for Common Carrier and Aeronautical Radio Licensees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Radio Licensees AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Federal Communications Commission (Commission) modifies the policies and procedures that apply...

  2. 9 CFR 2.10 - Licensees whose licenses have been suspended or revoked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.10 Licensees whose licenses... of suspension is in effect. No partnership, firm, corporation, or other legal entity in which...

  3. 13 CFR 107.506 - Safeguarding Licensee's assets/Internal controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .../Internal controls. 107.506 Section 107.506 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Safeguarding Licensee's assets/Internal controls. You must adopt a plan to safeguard your assets and monitor... your control procedures....

  4. 75 FR 160 - In the Matter of: Certain Licensees Requesting Unescorted Access to Radioactive Material; Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... Licensees Requesting Unescorted Access to Radioactive Material; Order Imposing Trustworthiness and Reliability Requirements for Unescorted Access to Certain Radioactive Material (Effective Immediately) I The... Agreement State, authorizing them to perform services on devices containing certain radioactive material...

  5. 10 CFR 26.713 - Recordkeeping requirements for licensees and other entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., credit and criminal history checks, and psychological assessments of FFD program personnel, conducted... is later. (g) If a licensee's or other entity's FFD program includes tests for drugs in addition...

  6. 10 CFR 26.713 - Recordkeeping requirements for licensees and other entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., credit and criminal history checks, and psychological assessments of FFD program personnel, conducted... is later. (g) If a licensee's or other entity's FFD program includes tests for drugs in addition...

  7. 10 CFR 26.713 - Recordkeeping requirements for licensees and other entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., credit and criminal history checks, and psychological assessments of FFD program personnel, conducted... is later. (g) If a licensee's or other entity's FFD program includes tests for drugs in addition...

  8. 10 CFR 26.713 - Recordkeeping requirements for licensees and other entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., credit and criminal history checks, and psychological assessments of FFD program personnel, conducted... is later. (g) If a licensee's or other entity's FFD program includes tests for drugs in addition...

  9. Convergence across biomes to a common rain-use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Huxman, Travis E; Smith, Melinda D; Fay, Philip A; Knapp, Alan K; Shaw, M Rebecca; Loik, Michael E; Smith, Stanley D; Tissue, David T; Zak, John C; Weltzin, Jake F; Pockman, William T; Sala, Osvaldo E; Haddad, Brent M; Harte, John; Koch, George W; Schwinning, Susan; Small, Eric E; Williams, David G

    2004-06-10

    Water availability limits plant growth and production in almost all terrestrial ecosystems. However, biomes differ substantially in sensitivity of aboveground net primary production (ANPP) to between-year variation in precipitation. Average rain-use efficiency (RUE; ANPP/precipitation) also varies between biomes, supposedly because of differences in vegetation structure and/or biogeochemical constraints. Here we show that RUE decreases across biomes as mean annual precipitation increases. However, during the driest years at each site, there is convergence to a common maximum RUE (RUE(max)) that is typical of arid ecosystems. RUE(max) was also identified by experimentally altering the degree of limitation by water and other resources. Thus, in years when water is most limiting, deserts, grasslands and forests all exhibit the same rate of biomass production per unit rainfall, despite differences in physiognomy and site-level RUE. Global climate models predict increased between-year variability in precipitation, more frequent extreme drought events, and changes in temperature. Forecasts of future ecosystem behaviour should take into account this convergent feature of terrestrial biomes.

  10. Anthropogenic biomes: a key contribution to earth-system science.

    PubMed

    Alessa, Lilian; Chapin, F Stuart

    2008-10-01

    Human activities now dominate most of the ice-free terrestrial surface. A recent article presents a classification and global map of human-influenced biomes of the world that provides a novel and potentially appropriate framework for projecting changes in earth-system dynamics.

  11. Importance of ecotone type to landscape dynamics at biome transition zones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Landscapes in biome transition zones consist of a mosaic of patches dominated or codominated by species from adjacent biomes. Shifts in the vegetation composition and dynamics of a biome transition zone depend upon the underlying patch dynamics of the ecotones between these dominant species. Landsc...

  12. The effect of heterogeneous landscape dynamics on ecotone types at two convergent semi-arid biomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Landscapes in biome transition zones consist of a mosaic of patches dominated or codominated by species from adjacent biomes. Shifts in the vegetation composition and dynamics of a biome transition zone depend upon the underlying patch dynamics of the ecotones between these dominant species. Landsca...

  13. User's Guide to Biome Information from the United States International Biological Program (IBP). First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinckley, A. Dexter; Haug, Peter T.

    This publication is a guide to the biome research conducted under the International Biological Program. The guide lists biome researchers by interest and by biome as well as a central list. A site list, map, information sources section reporting abstracts, bibliographies, journals, books, evaluations, and data books are also included. Three…

  14. 75 FR 69710 - Florida Power Corporation, et al.; Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Corporation, et al.; Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding of No... (the licensee), for operation of the Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant (CR- 3), located...

  15. 41 CFR 50-204.34 - AEC licensees-AEC contractors operating AEC plants and facilities-AEC agreement State licensees...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... contractors operating AEC plants and facilities-AEC agreement State licensees or registrants. 50-204.34... Radiation Standards § 50-204.34 AEC licensees—AEC contractors operating AEC plants and facilities—AEC... possession and use. (b) AEC contractors operating AEC plants and facilities: Any employer who possesses...

  16. 41 CFR 50-204.34 - AEC licensees-AEC contractors operating AEC plants and facilities-AEC agreement State licensees...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contractors operating AEC plants and facilities-AEC agreement State licensees or registrants. 50-204.34... Radiation Standards § 50-204.34 AEC licensees—AEC contractors operating AEC plants and facilities—AEC... possession and use. (b) AEC contractors operating AEC plants and facilities: Any employer who possesses...

  17. 41 CFR 50-204.34 - AEC licensees-AEC contractors operating AEC plants and facilities-AEC agreement State licensees...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contractors operating AEC plants and facilities-AEC agreement State licensees or registrants. 50-204.34... Radiation Standards § 50-204.34 AEC licensees—AEC contractors operating AEC plants and facilities—AEC... possession and use. (b) AEC contractors operating AEC plants and facilities: Any employer who possesses...

  18. 41 CFR 50-204.34 - AEC licensees-AEC contractors operating AEC plants and facilities-AEC agreement State licensees...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contractors operating AEC plants and facilities-AEC agreement State licensees or registrants. 50-204.34... Radiation Standards § 50-204.34 AEC licensees—AEC contractors operating AEC plants and facilities—AEC... possession and use. (b) AEC contractors operating AEC plants and facilities: Any employer who possesses...

  19. BIOME: A browser-aware search and order system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grubb, Jon W.; Jennings, Sarah V.; Yow, Teresa G.; Daughterty, Patricia F.

    1996-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), which is associated with NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), provides access to a large number of tabular and imagery datasets used in ecological and environmental research. Because of its large and diverse data holdings, the challenge for the ORNL DAAC is to help users find data of interest from the hundreds of thousands of files available at the DAAC without overwhelming them. Therefore, the ORNL DAAC developed the Biogeochemical Information Ordering Management Environment (BIOME), a search and order system for the World Wide Web (WWW). The WWW provides a new vehicle that allows a wide range of users access to the data. This paper describes the specialized attributes incorporated into BIOME that allow researchers easy access to an otherwise bewildering array of data products.

  20. BIOME: A browser-aware search and order system

    SciTech Connect

    Grubb, J.W.; Jennings, S.V.; Yow, T.G.; Daugherty, P.F.

    1996-05-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), which is associated with NASA`s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), provides access to a large number of tabular and imagery datasets used in ecological and environmental research. Because of its large and diverse data holdings, the challenge for the ORNL DAAC is to help users find data of interest from the hundreds of thousands of files available at the DAAC without overwhelming them. Therefore, the ORNL DAAC developed the Biogeochemical Information Ordering Management Environment (BIOME), a search and order system for the World Wide Web (WWW). The WWW provides a new vehicle that allows a wide range of users access to the data. This paper describes the specialized attributes incorporated into BIOME that allow researchers easy access to an otherwise bewildering array of data products.

  1. Parameterisation of Biome BGC to assess forest ecosystems in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Sishir; Pietsch, Stephan A.

    2010-05-01

    African forest ecosystems are an important environmental and economic resource. Several studies show that tropical forests are critical to society as economic, environmental and societal resources. Tropical forests are carbon dense and thus play a key role in climate change mitigation. Unfortunately, the response of tropical forests to environmental change is largely unknown owing to insufficient spatially extensive observations. Developing regions like Africa where records of forest management for long periods are unavailable the process-based ecosystem simulation model - BIOME BGC could be a suitable tool to explain forest ecosystem dynamics. This ecosystem simulation model uses descriptive input parameters to establish the physiology, biochemistry, structure, and allocation patterns within vegetation functional types, or biomes. Undocumented parameters for larger-resolution simulations are currently the major limitations to regional modelling in African forest ecosystems. This study was conducted to document input parameters for BIOME-BGC for major natural tropical forests in the Congo basin. Based on available literature and field measurements updated values for turnover and mortality, allometry, carbon to nitrogen ratios, allocation of plant material to labile, cellulose, and lignin pools, tree morphology and other relevant factors were assigned. Daily climate input data for the model applications were generated using the statistical weather generator MarkSim. The forest was inventoried at various sites and soil samples of corresponding stands across Gabon were collected. Carbon and nitrogen in the collected soil samples were determined from soil analysis. The observed tree volume, soil carbon and soil nitrogen were then compared with the simulated model outputs to evaluate the model performance. Furthermore, the simulation using Congo Basin specific parameters and generalised BIOME BGC parameters for tropical evergreen broadleaved tree species were also

  2. Extreme precipitation patterns reduced terrestrial ecosystem production across biomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Moran, S. M.; Nearing, M.; Ponce Campos, G. E.; Huete, A. R.; Buda, A. R.; Bosch, D. D.; Gunter, S. A.; Kitchen, S. G.; McNab, W.; Morgan, J. A.; McClaran, M. P.; Montoya, D. S.; Peters, D. P.; Starks, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Precipitation regimes are predicted to shift to more extreme patterns that are characterized by more intense rainfall events and longer dry intervals, yet their ecological impacts on vegetation production remain uncertain across biomes in natural climatic conditions. This in situ study investigated the effects of novel climatic conditions on aboveground net primary production (ANPP) by combining a greenness index from satellite measurements and climatic records during 2000 to 2009 from 11 long-term experimental sites in multiple biomes and climates. Results showed that extreme precipitation patterns decreased the sensitivity of ANPP to total annual precipitation (PT), at the regional and decadal scales, leading to a mean 20% decrease in rain-use efficiency across biomes. Relative decreases in ANPP were greatest for arid grassland (16%) and Mediterranean forest (20%), and less for mesic grassland and temperate forest (3%). The co-occurrence of more heavy rainfall events and longer dry intervals caused greater water stress that resulted in reduced vegetation production. A new generalized model was developed to improve predictions of the ANPP response to changes in extreme precipitation patterns by using a function of both PT and an index of precipitation extremes. These findings suggest that extreme precipitation patterns have more substantial and complex effects on vegetation production across biomes, and are as important as total annual precipitation in understanding vegetation processes. With predictions of more extreme weather events, forecasts of ecosystem production should consider these non-linear responses to altered precipitation patterns associated with climate change. Figure. Relation of production across precipitation gradients for 11 sites for two groups (Low: R95p% < 20%, High: R95p% ≥ 20%). See Table 2 for R95p% definitions. The relations were significantly different for the two groups (F2, 106 = 18.51, P < 0.0001).

  3. Deforestation changes land-atmosphere interactions across South American biomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, Alvaro; Katzfey, Jack; Thatcher, Marcus; Syktus, Jozef; Wong, Kenneth; McAlpine, Clive

    2016-04-01

    South American biomes are increasingly affected by land use/land cover change. However, the climatic impacts of this phenomenon are still not well understood. In this paper, we model vegetation-climate interactions with a focus on four main biomes distributed in four key regions: The Atlantic Forest, the Cerrado, the Dry Chaco, and the Chilean Matorral ecosystems. We applied a three member ensemble climate model simulation for the period 1981-2010 (30 years) at 25 km resolution over the focus regions to quantify the changes in the regional climate resulting from historical deforestation. The results of computed modelling experiments show significant changes in surface fluxes, temperature and moisture in all regions. For instance, simulated temperature changes were stronger in the Cerrado and the Chilean Matorral with an increase of between 0.7 and 1.4 °C. Changes in the hydrological cycle revealed high regional variability. The results showed consistent significant decreases in relative humidity and soil moisture, and increases in potential evapotranspiration across biomes, yet without conclusive changes in precipitation. These impacts were more significant during the dry season, which resulted to be drier and warmer after deforestation.

  4. FIFE data analysis: Testing BIOME-BGC predictions for grasslands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) was conducted in a 15 km by 15 km research area located 8 km south of Manhattan, Kansas. The site consists primarily of native tallgrass prairie mixed with gallery oak forests and croplands. The objectives of FIFE are to better understand the role of biology in controlling the interactions between the land and the atmosphere, and to determine the value of remotely sensed data for estimating climatological parameters. The goals of FIFE are twofold: the upscale integration of models, and algorithm development for satellite remote sensing. The specific objectives of the field campaigns carried out in 1987 and 1989 were the simultaneous acquisition of satellite, atmospheric, and surface data; and the understanding of the processes controlling surface energy and mass exchange. Collected data were used to study the dynamics of various ecosystem processes (photosynthesis, evaporation and transpiration, autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration, etc.). Modelling terrestrial ecosystems at scales larger than that of a homogeneous plot led to the development of simple, generalized models of biogeochemical cycles that can be accurately applied to different biomes through the use of remotely sensed data. A model was developed called BIOME-BGC (for BioGeochemical Cycles) from a coniferous forest ecosystem model, FOREST-BGC, where a biome is considered a combination of a life forms in a specified climate. A predominately C4-photosynthetic grassland is probably the most different from a coniferous forest possible, hence the FIFE site was an excellent study area for testing BIOME-BGC. The transition from an essentially one-dimensional calculation to three-dimensional, landscape scale simulations requires the introduction of such factors as meteorology, climatology, and geomorphology. By using remotely sensed geographic information data for important model inputs, process

  5. 47 CFR 27.1111 - Relocation of fixed microwave service licensees in the 2110-2150 MHz band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Relocation of fixed microwave service licensees..., 2110-2155 MHz, 2160-2180 MHz Bands Relocation of Incumbents § 27.1111 Relocation of fixed microwave... contain provisions governing the relocation of incumbent fixed microwave service licensees in the...

  6. 47 CFR 27.1111 - Relocation of fixed microwave service licensees in the 2110-2150 MHz band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relocation of fixed microwave service licensees... fixed microwave service licensees in the 2110-2150 MHz band. Part 22, subpart E and part 101, subpart B of this chapter contain provisions governing the relocation of incumbent fixed microwave...

  7. 13 CFR 107.1550 - Distributions by Licensee-permitted “tax Distributions” to private investors and SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distributions by Licensee... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1550 Distributions by Licensee—permitted...

  8. 78 FR 35990 - All Operating Boiling-Water Reactor Licensees With Mark I And Mark II Containments; Docket Nos...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... COMMISSION All Operating Boiling-Water Reactor Licensees With Mark I And Mark II Containments; Docket Nos... Licensees operate boiling-water reactors (BWRs) with Mark I and Mark II containment designs. II. The events... Boiling Water Reactors with Mark I and Mark II Containments'' (November 26, 2012). Option 2 in...

  9. 47 CFR 22.877 - Unacceptable interference to Part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air-ground systems. 22.877 Section 22.877...-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.877 Unacceptable interference to Part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air-ground systems. The...

  10. 47 CFR 22.877 - Unacceptable interference to Part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air-ground systems. 22.877 Section 22.877...-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.877 Unacceptable interference to Part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air-ground systems. The...

  11. 47 CFR 22.877 - Unacceptable interference to Part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air-ground systems. 22.877 Section 22.877...-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.877 Unacceptable interference to Part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air-ground systems. The...

  12. 47 CFR 22.877 - Unacceptable interference to Part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air-ground systems. 22.877 Section 22.877...-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.877 Unacceptable interference to Part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air-ground systems. The...

  13. 47 CFR 22.877 - Unacceptable interference to part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air-ground systems. 22.877 Section 22.877...-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.877 Unacceptable interference to part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air-ground systems. The...

  14. 13 CFR 107.1200 - SBA's Leverage commitment to a Licensee-application procedure, amount, and term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false SBA's Leverage commitment to a... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Conditional Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Licensee § 107.1200 SBA's...

  15. 13 CFR 107.1200 - SBA's Leverage commitment to a Licensee-application procedure, amount, and term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBA's Leverage commitment to a... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Conditional Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Licensee § 107.1200 SBA's...

  16. 13 CFR 107.1200 - SBA's Leverage commitment to a Licensee-application procedure, amount, and term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false SBA's Leverage commitment to a... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Conditional Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Licensee § 107.1200 SBA's...

  17. 13 CFR 107.1200 - SBA's Leverage commitment to a Licensee-application procedure, amount, and term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false SBA's Leverage commitment to a... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Conditional Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Licensee § 107.1200 SBA's...

  18. 13 CFR 107.1200 - SBA's Leverage commitment to a Licensee-application procedure, amount, and term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false SBA's Leverage commitment to a... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Conditional Commitments by Sba to Reserve Leverage for A Licensee § 107.1200 SBA's...

  19. 47 CFR 27.1111 - Relocation of fixed microwave service licensees in the 2110-2150 MHz band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relocation of fixed microwave service licensees..., 2110-2155 MHz, 2160-2180 MHz Bands Relocation of Incumbents § 27.1111 Relocation of fixed microwave... contain provisions governing the relocation of incumbent fixed microwave service licensees in the...

  20. 47 CFR 27.1111 - Relocation of fixed microwave service licensees in the 2110-2150 MHz band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relocation of fixed microwave service licensees..., 2110-2155 MHz, 2160-2180 MHz Bands Relocation of Incumbents § 27.1111 Relocation of fixed microwave... contain provisions governing the relocation of incumbent fixed microwave service licensees in the...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 544 - Motor Vehicle Rental and Leasing Companies (Including Licensees and Franchisees) Subject to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Motor Vehicle Rental and Leasing Companies (Including Licensees and Franchisees) Subject to the Reporting Requirements of Part 544 C Appendix C to Part... Appendix C to Part 544—Motor Vehicle Rental and Leasing Companies (Including Licensees and...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 544 - Motor Vehicle Rental and Leasing Companies (Including Licensees and Franchisees) Subject to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Motor Vehicle Rental and Leasing Companies (Including Licensees and Franchisees) Subject to the Reporting Requirements of Part 544 C Appendix C to Part... Appendix C to Part 544—Motor Vehicle Rental and Leasing Companies (Including Licensees and...

  3. 18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section 260... ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.300 FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. (a)...

  4. 18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section 260... ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.300 FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. (a)...

  5. 18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section 260... ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.300 FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. (a)...

  6. 18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section 260... ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.300 FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. (a)...

  7. 18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section 260... ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.300 FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. (a)...

  8. Climate and biome simulations for the past 21,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutzbach, J.; Gallimore, R.; Harrison, S.; Behling, P.; Selin, R.; Laarif, F.

    This paper reports on a set of paleoclimate simulations for 21, 16, 14, 11 and 6 ka (thousands of years ago) carried out with the Community Climate Model, Version 1 (CCM1) of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). This climate model uses four interactive components that were not available in our previous simulations with the NCAR CCM0 ( COHMAP, 1988Science, 241, 1043-1052; Wright et al., 1993Global Climate Since the Last Glocial Maximum, University of Minnesota Press, MN): soil moisture, snow hydrology, sea-ice, and mixed-layer ocean temperature. The new simulations also use new estimates of ice sheet height and size from ( Peltier 1994, Science, 265, 195-201), and synchronize the astronomically dated orbital forcing with the ice sheet and atmospheric CO 2 levels corrected from radiocarbon years to calendar years. The CCM1 simulations agree with the previous simulations in their most general characteristics. The 21 ka climate is cold and dry, in response to the presence of the ice sheets and lowered CO 2 levels. The period 14-6 ka has strengthened northern summer monsoons and warm mid-latitude continental interiors in response to orbital changes. Regional differences between the CCM1 and CCM0 simulations can be traced to the effects of either the new interactive model components or the new boundary conditions. CCM1 simulates climate processes more realistically, but has additional degrees of freedom that can allow the model to 'drift' toward less realistic solutions in some instances. The CCM1 simulations are expressed in terms of equilibrium vegetation using BIOME 1, and indicate large shifts in biomes. Northern tundra and forest biomes are displaced southward at glacial maximum and subtropical deserts contract in the mid-Holocene when monsoons strengthen. These vegetation changes could, if simulated interactively, introduce additional climate feedbacks. The total area of vegetated land remains nearly constant through time because the exposure of

  9. USGS: providing scientific understanding of the sagebrush biome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    Early explorers wrote about the vast sea of sagebrush that stretched in front of them. Today, the consequences of land-use practices, invasion by exotic plants, and altered disturbance regimes have touched virtually all of these seemingly endless expanses. Increasing human populations in the western United States, the infrastructure necessary to support these populations, and a growing demand for natural resources exert a large influence. Changes within the biome have resulted in its designation as one of the most endangered ecosystems in North America.

  10. 47 CFR 90.363 - Grandfathering provisions for existing AVM licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Grandfathering provisions for existing AVM licensees. 90.363 Section 90.363 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Intelligent Transportation Systems Radio...

  11. 47 CFR 97.31 - Cancellation on account of the licensee's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cancellation on account of the licensee's death. 97.31 Section 97.31 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.31 Cancellation on account of...

  12. 47 CFR 97.31 - Cancellation on account of the licensee's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cancellation on account of the licensee's death. 97.31 Section 97.31 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.31 Cancellation on account of...

  13. 47 CFR 97.31 - Cancellation on account of the licensee's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cancellation on account of the licensee's death. 97.31 Section 97.31 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.31 Cancellation on account of...

  14. 47 CFR 97.31 - Cancellation on account of the licensee's death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cancellation on account of the licensee's death. 97.31 Section 97.31 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.31 Cancellation on account of...

  15. 47 CFR 101.309 - Requirement that licensees respond to official communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirement that licensees respond to official communications. 101.309 Section 101.309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions §...

  16. 47 CFR 101.309 - Requirement that licensees respond to official communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirement that licensees respond to official communications. 101.309 Section 101.309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions §...

  17. 47 CFR 101.309 - Requirement that licensees respond to official communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirement that licensees respond to official communications. 101.309 Section 101.309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions §...

  18. 10 CFR 140.21 - Licensee guarantees of payment of deferred premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... premiums. Each licensee required to have and maintain financial protection for each nuclear reactor as....21 Section 140.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS... million for each reactor he is licensed to operate: (a) Surety bond, (b) Letter of credit, (c)...

  19. 10 CFR 140.21 - Licensee guarantees of payment of deferred premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... premiums. Each licensee required to have and maintain financial protection for each nuclear reactor as....21 Section 140.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS... million for each reactor he is licensed to operate: (a) Surety bond, (b) Letter of credit, (c)...

  20. 13 CFR 107.1570 - Distributions by Licensee-optional Distribution to private investors and SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distributions by Licensee-optional Distribution to private investors and SBA. 107.1570 Section 107.1570 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for...

  1. 47 CFR 25.140 - Qualifications of Fixed-Satellite space station licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Qualifications of Fixed-Satellite space station... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.140 Qualifications of Fixed-Satellite space station licensees. (a) (b) Each applicant for a space station...

  2. 47 CFR 25.140 - Qualifications of fixed-satellite space station licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualifications of fixed-satellite space station... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.140 Qualifications of fixed-satellite space station licensees. (a) New fixed-satellites shall comply with...

  3. 47 CFR 25.140 - Qualifications of fixed-satellite space station licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Qualifications of fixed-satellite space station... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.140 Qualifications of fixed-satellite space station licensees. (a) New fixed-satellites shall comply with...

  4. 47 CFR 90.656 - Responsibilities of base station licensees of Specialized Mobile Radio systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Specialized Mobile Radio systems. 90.656 Section 90.656 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Regulations Governing... Bands § 90.656 Responsibilities of base station licensees of Specialized Mobile Radio systems. (a)...

  5. 47 CFR 90.656 - Responsibilities of base station licensees of Specialized Mobile Radio systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Specialized Mobile Radio systems. 90.656 Section 90.656 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Regulations Governing... Bands § 90.656 Responsibilities of base station licensees of Specialized Mobile Radio systems. (a)...

  6. 78 FR 44028 - Review of Foreign Ownership Policies for Common Carrier and Aeronautical Radio Licensees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 1 Review of Foreign Ownership Policies for Common Carrier and Aeronautical Radio... carrier, aeronautical en route and aeronautical fixed radio station licensees. DATES: Effective on August..., July 10, 2013, the following corrections are made: Subpart F--Wireless Radio Services Applications...

  7. 47 CFR 90.656 - Responsibilities of base station licensees of Specialized Mobile Radio systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Specialized Mobile Radio systems. 90.656 Section 90.656 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Regulations Governing... Bands § 90.656 Responsibilities of base station licensees of Specialized Mobile Radio systems. (a)...

  8. 47 CFR 90.656 - Responsibilities of base station licensees of Specialized Mobile Radio systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Specialized Mobile Radio systems. 90.656 Section 90.656 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Regulations Governing... Bands § 90.656 Responsibilities of base station licensees of Specialized Mobile Radio systems. (a)...

  9. 47 CFR 90.656 - Responsibilities of base station licensees of Specialized Mobile Radio systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Specialized Mobile Radio systems. 90.656 Section 90.656 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Regulations Governing... Bands § 90.656 Responsibilities of base station licensees of Specialized Mobile Radio systems. (a)...

  10. 13 CFR 107.600 - General requirement for Licensee to maintain and preserve records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or, in the case of paragraph (b)(3) of this section, at the branch office that is primarily... documents and supporting materials related to your business transactions, except for any items held by a... preserve for at least 15 years or, in the case of a Partnership Licensee, at least two years beyond...

  11. 47 CFR 90.363 - Grandfathering provisions for existing AVM licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... grandfathered operation by automatic vehicle monitoring (AVM) systems licensed on or before February 3, 1995. To... April 1, 1998 to convert to the spectrum identified in their LMS system license. Such licensees may... operation on the spectrum identified in their LMS system license on or before September 1, 1996, or...

  12. 47 CFR 90.363 - Grandfathering provisions for existing AVM licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... grandfathered operation by automatic vehicle monitoring (AVM) systems licensed on or before February 3, 1995. To... April 1, 1998 to convert to the spectrum identified in their LMS system license. Such licensees may... operation on the spectrum identified in their LMS system license on or before September 1, 1996, or...

  13. 9 CFR 2.10 - Licensees whose licenses have been suspended or revoked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Licensees whose licenses have been suspended or revoked. 2.10 Section 2.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... have been suspended or revoked. (a) Any person whose license has been suspended for any reason...

  14. Managing the University Patent Portfolio and Making It Attractive to Licensees: A Commonsense Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garabedian, Todd E.; Galletta, Elizabeth A.

    2005-01-01

    Building an attractive patent and technology portfolio for potential licensees requires involvement and diligence by the technology transfer office and the inventors. Steps outlined in this article, such as proper treatment of IP to assure rights are not lost, preventing premature disclosures, assuring proper ownership and inventorship of…

  15. 13 CFR 107.160 - Special rules for Licensees formed as limited partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... as limited partnerships. 107.160 Section 107.160 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... Special rules for Licensees formed as limited partnerships. A limited partnership organized under State... under the Act may apply for a license under section 301(c) or section 301 (d) of the Act...

  16. 13 CFR 107.230 - Permitted sources of Private Capital for Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Licensee, plus unfunded binding commitments by Institutional Investors (including commitments evidenced by... section. (4) Any portion of a commitment from an Institutional Investor with a net worth of less than $10 million that exceeds 10 percent of such Institutional Investor's net worth and is not backed by a...

  17. 13 CFR 107.865 - Control of a Small Business by a Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Business by a Licensee. (a) In general. You, or you and your Associates (in the latter case, the “Investor... of voting securities will be presumed to exist whenever you or the Investor Group own or control... appropriate, and the Investor Group can elect no more than 40 percent. The balance of such officials may...

  18. 13 CFR 107.160 - Special rules for Licensees formed as limited partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special rules for Licensees formed as limited partnerships. 107.160 Section 107.160 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Qualifying for an SBIC License Organizing An Sbic §...

  19. 10 CFR 26.713 - Recordkeeping requirements for licensees and other entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recordkeeping requirements for licensees and other entities. 26.713 Section 26.713 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS...-disclosures, employment histories, and suitable inquiries that are required under §§ 26.55, 26.57, 26.59,...

  20. 10 CFR 140.21 - Licensee guarantees of payment of deferred premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... premiums. Each licensee required to have and maintain financial protection for each nuclear reactor as....21 Section 140.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS... million for each reactor he is licensed to operate: (a) Surety bond, (b) Letter of credit, (c)...

  1. 10 CFR 140.21 - Licensee guarantees of payment of deferred premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... premiums. Each licensee required to have and maintain financial protection for each nuclear reactor as....21 Section 140.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS... million for each reactor he is licensed to operate: (a) Surety bond, (b) Letter of credit, (c)...

  2. 10 CFR 140.21 - Licensee guarantees of payment of deferred premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... premiums. Each licensee required to have and maintain financial protection for each nuclear reactor as....21 Section 140.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS... million for each reactor he is licensed to operate: (a) Surety bond, (b) Letter of credit, (c)...

  3. 13 CFR 107.1220 - Requirement for Licensee to file quarterly financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... quarterly financial statements. 107.1220 Section 107.1220 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Conditional... financial statements. As long as any part of SBA's Leverage commitment is outstanding, you must give SBA...

  4. 13 CFR 107.1220 - Requirement for Licensee to file quarterly financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... quarterly financial statements. 107.1220 Section 107.1220 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Conditional... financial statements. As long as any part of SBA's Leverage commitment is outstanding, you must give SBA...

  5. 13 CFR 107.1220 - Requirement for Licensee to file quarterly financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... quarterly financial statements. 107.1220 Section 107.1220 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Conditional... financial statements. As long as any part of SBA's Leverage commitment is outstanding, you must give SBA...

  6. 13 CFR 107.1220 - Requirement for Licensee to file quarterly financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... quarterly financial statements. 107.1220 Section 107.1220 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Conditional... financial statements. As long as any part of SBA's Leverage commitment is outstanding, you must give SBA...

  7. 13 CFR 107.1220 - Requirement for Licensee to file quarterly financial statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... quarterly financial statements. 107.1220 Section 107.1220 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Conditional... financial statements. As long as any part of SBA's Leverage commitment is outstanding, you must give SBA...

  8. 78 FR 51213 - In the Matter of Certain Licensees Requesting Unescorted Access to Radioactive Material; Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Licensees Requesting Unescorted Access to Radioactive Material; Order Imposing Trustworthiness and Reliability Requirements for Unescorted Access to Certain Radioactive Material... radioactive material for customers licensed by the NRC or an Agreement State to possess and use...

  9. 47 CFR 101.309 - Requirement that licensees respond to official communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement that licensees respond to official communications. 101.309 Section 101.309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions §...

  10. 47 CFR 101.309 - Requirement that licensees respond to official communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirement that licensees respond to official communications. 101.309 Section 101.309 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Miscellaneous Common Carrier Provisions §...

  11. 47 CFR 25.140 - Qualifications of fixed-satellite space station licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualifications of fixed-satellite space station... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.140 Qualifications of fixed-satellite space station licensees. (a) New fixed-satellites shall comply with...

  12. 10 CFR 170.41 - Failure by applicant or licensee to pay prescribed fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Failure by applicant or licensee to pay prescribed fees. 170.41 Section 170.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FEES FOR FACILITIES, MATERIALS, IMPORT AND EXPORT LICENSES, AND OTHER REGULATORY SERVICES UNDER THE ATOMIC ENERGY ACT OF 1954, AS...

  13. 10 CFR 170.41 - Failure by applicant or licensee to pay prescribed fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Failure by applicant or licensee to pay prescribed fees. 170.41 Section 170.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FEES FOR FACILITIES, MATERIALS, IMPORT AND EXPORT LICENSES, AND OTHER REGULATORY SERVICES UNDER THE ATOMIC ENERGY ACT OF 1954, AS...

  14. 13 CFR 107.1560 - Distributions by Licensee-required Distributions to private investors and SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distributions by Licensee-required... (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1560 Distributions by Licensee—required Distributions to.... You must make the required Distributions on either the first or second Payment Date following the...

  15. 13 CFR 107.660 - Other items required to be filed by Licensee with SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Other items required to be filed by Licensee with SBA. 107.660 Section 107.660 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Recordkeeping, Reporting, and Examination Requirements...

  16. 47 CFR 90.727 - Extended implementation schedules for Phase I licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... proposed construction schedule (with milestones), and must show either that: (1) The proposed system will... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Extended implementation schedules for Phase I... Frequencies in the 220-222 MHz Band § 90.727 Extended implementation schedules for Phase I licensees....

  17. 44 CFR 352.26 - Arrangements for Federal response in the licensee offsite emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... centers or shelters and related facilities and services for evacuees; (4) Providing emergency medical... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Arrangements for Federal response in the licensee offsite emergency response plan. 352.26 Section 352.26 Emergency Management...

  18. 44 CFR 352.26 - Arrangements for Federal response in the licensee offsite emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... centers or shelters and related facilities and services for evacuees; (4) Providing emergency medical... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Arrangements for Federal response in the licensee offsite emergency response plan. 352.26 Section 352.26 Emergency Management...

  19. 44 CFR 352.26 - Arrangements for Federal response in the licensee offsite emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... centers or shelters and related facilities and services for evacuees; (4) Providing emergency medical... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Arrangements for Federal response in the licensee offsite emergency response plan. 352.26 Section 352.26 Emergency Management...

  20. 13 CFR 107.660 - Other items required to be filed by Licensee with SBA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., including any prospectus, letter, or other publication concerning your financial operations or those of any... derivative capacity, against an officer, director, Investment Adviser or other Associate of yours for alleged..., director, or general partner of the Licensee, or any other person who was required by SBA to complete...

  1. 47 CFR 27.1111 - Relocation of fixed microwave service licensees in the 2110-2150 and 2160-2200 MHz bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Relocation of fixed microwave service licensees... Incumbents § 27.1111 Relocation of fixed microwave service licensees in the 2110-2150 and 2160-2200 MHz bands... of incumbent fixed microwave service licensees in the 2110-2150 MHz and 2160-2200 MHz bands. [79...

  2. 13 CFR 107.760 - How a change in size or activity of a Portfolio Concern affects the Licensee and the Portfolio...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of a Portfolio Concern affects the Licensee and the Portfolio Concern. 107.760 Section 107.760... § 107.760 How a change in size or activity of a Portfolio Concern affects the Licensee and the Portfolio Concern. (a) Effect on Licensee of a change in size of a Portfolio Concern. If a Portfolio Concern...

  3. Ticks parasitizing bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Caatinga Biome, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Almeida, Juliana Cardoso de; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report ticks parasitizing bats from the Serra das Almas Natural Reserve (RPPN) located in the municipality of Crateús, state of Ceará, in the semiarid Caatinga biome of northeastern Brazil. The study was carried out during nine nights in the dry season (July 2012) and 10 nights in the rainy season (February 2013). Only bats of the Phyllostomidae and Mormoopidae families were parasitized by ticks. The species Artibeus planirostris and Carolia perspicillata were the most parasitized. A total of 409 larvae were collected and classified into three genera: Antricola (n = 1), Nothoaspis (n = 1) and Ornithodoros (n = 407). Four species were morphologically identified as Nothoaspis amazoniensis, Ornithodoros cavernicolous, Ornithodoros fonsecai, Ornithodoros hasei, and Ornithodoros marinkellei. Ornithodoros hasei was the most common tick associated with bats in the current study. The present study expand the distributional ranges of at least three soft ticks into the Caatinga biome, and highlight an unexpected richness of argasid ticks inhabiting this arid ecosystem.

  4. Plant functional traits and soil carbon sequestration in contrasting biomes.

    PubMed

    De Deyn, Gerlinde B; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Bardgett, Richard D

    2008-05-01

    Plant functional traits control a variety of terrestrial ecosystem processes, including soil carbon storage which is a key component of the global carbon cycle. Plant traits regulate net soil carbon storage by controlling carbon assimilation, its transfer and storage in belowground biomass, and its release from soil through respiration, fire and leaching. However, our mechanistic understanding of these processes is incomplete. Here, we present a mechanistic framework, based on the plant traits that drive soil carbon inputs and outputs, for understanding how alteration of vegetation composition will affect soil carbon sequestration under global changes. First, we show direct and indirect plant trait effects on soil carbon input and output through autotrophs and heterotrophs, and through modification of abiotic conditions, which need to be considered to determine the local carbon sequestration potential. Second, we explore how the composition of key plant traits and soil biota related to carbon input, release and storage prevail in different biomes across the globe, and address the biome-specific mechanisms by which plant trait composition may impact on soil carbon sequestration. We propose that a trait-based approach will help to develop strategies to preserve and promote carbon sequestration.

  5. Climate sensitivity of shrub growth across the tundra biome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers-Smith, Isla H.; Elmendorf, Sarah C.; Beck, Pieter S. A.; Wilmking, Martin; Hallinger, Martin; Blok, Daan; Tape, Ken D.; Rayback, Shelly A.; Macias-Fauria, Marc; Forbes, Bruce C.; Speed, James D. M.; Boulanger-Lapointe, Noémie; Rixen, Christian; Lévesque, Esther; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Baittinger, Claudia; Trant, Andrew J.; Hermanutz, Luise; Collier, Laura Siegwart; Dawes, Melissa A.; Lantz, Trevor C.; Weijers, Stef; Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan; Buchwal, Agata; Buras, Allan; Naito, Adam T.; Ravolainen, Virve; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela; Wheeler, Julia A.; Wipf, Sonja; Guay, Kevin C.; Hik, David S.; Vellend, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Rapid climate warming in the tundra biome has been linked to increasing shrub dominance. Shrub expansion can modify climate by altering surface albedo, energy and water balance, and permafrost, yet the drivers of shrub growth remain poorly understood. Dendroecological data consisting of multi-decadal time series of annual shrub growth provide an underused resource to explore climate-growth relationships. Here, we analyse circumpolar data from 37 Arctic and alpine sites in 9 countries, including 25 species, and ~42,000 annual growth records from 1,821 individuals. Our analyses demonstrate that the sensitivity of shrub growth to climate was: (1) heterogeneous, with European sites showing greater summer temperature sensitivity than North American sites, and (2) higher at sites with greater soil moisture and for taller shrubs (for example, alders and willows) growing at their northern or upper elevational range edges. Across latitude, climate sensitivity of growth was greatest at the boundary between the Low and High Arctic, where permafrost is thawing and most of the global permafrost soil carbon pool is stored. The observed variation in climate-shrub growth relationships should be incorporated into Earth system models to improve future projections of climate change impacts across the tundra biome.

  6. Comparison of North and South American biomes from AVHRR observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goward, Samuel N.; Dye, Dennis; Kerber, Arlene; Kalb, Virginia

    1987-01-01

    Previous analysis of the North American continent with AVHRR-derived vegetation index measurements showed a strong relation between known patterns of vegetation seasonality, productivity and the spectral vegetation index measurements. This study extends that analysis to South America to evaluate the degree to which these findings extend to tropical regions. The results show that the spectral vegetation index measurements provide a general indicator of vegetation activity across the major biomes of the Western Hemisphere of the earth, including tropical regions. The satellite-observed patterns are strongly related to the known climatology of the continents and may offer a means to improve understanding of global bioclimatology. For example, South America is shown to have a longer growing season with much earlier spring green-up than North America. The time integral of the measurements, computed from 12 composited monthly values, produces a value that is related to published net primary productivity data. However, limited net primary production data does not allow complete evaluation of satellite-observed contrasts between North and South American biomes. These results suggest that satellite-derived spectral vegetation index measurements are of great potential value in improving knowledge of the earth's biosphere.

  7. Increasing atmospheric CO2 overrides the historical legacy of multiple stable biome states in Africa.

    PubMed

    Moncrieff, Glenn R; Scheiter, Simon; Bond, William J; Higgins, Steven I

    2014-02-01

    The dominant vegetation over much of the global land surface is not predetermined by contemporary climate, but also influenced by past environmental conditions. This confounds attempts to predict current and future biome distributions, because even a perfect model would project multiple possible biomes without knowledge of the historical vegetation state. Here we compare the distribution of tree- and grass-dominated biomes across Africa simulated using a dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM). We explicitly evaluate where and under what conditions multiple stable biome states are possible for current and projected future climates. Our simulation results show that multiple stable biomes states are possible for vast areas of tropical and subtropical Africa under current conditions. Widespread loss of the potential for multiple stable biomes states is projected in the 21st Century, driven by increasing atmospheric CO2 . Many sites where currently both tree-dominated and grass-dominated biomes are possible become deterministically tree-dominated. Regions with multiple stable biome states are widespread and require consideration when attempting to predict future vegetation changes. Testing for behaviour characteristic of systems with multiple stable equilibria, such as hysteresis and dependence on historical conditions, and the resulting uncertainty in simulated vegetation, will lead to improved projections of global change impacts.

  8. Climate and litter quality differently modulate the effects of soil fauna on litter decomposition across biomes.

    PubMed

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Maestre, Fernando T; Kattge, Jens; Wall, Diana H

    2013-08-01

    Climate and litter quality have been identified as major drivers of litter decomposition at large spatial scales. However, the role played by soil fauna remains largely unknown, despite its importance for litter fragmentation and microbial activity. We synthesised litterbag studies to quantify the effect sizes of soil fauna on litter decomposition rates at the global and biome scales, and to assess how climate, litter quality and soil fauna interact to determine such rates. Soil fauna consistently enhanced litter decomposition at both global and biome scales (average increment ~ 37%). [corrected]. However, climate and litter quality differently modulated the effects of soil fauna on decomposition rates between biomes, from climate-driven biomes to those where climate effects were mediated by changes in litter quality. Our results advocate for the inclusion of biome-specific soil fauna effects on litter decomposition as a mean to reduce the unexplained variation in large-scale decomposition models.

  9. Flammable biomes dominated by eucalypts originated at the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Michael D; Burrows, Geoffrey E; Cook, Lyn G; Thornhill, Andrew H; Bowman, David M J S

    2011-02-15

    Fire is a major modifier of communities, but the evolutionary origins of its prevalent role in shaping current biomes are uncertain. Australia is among the most fire-prone continents, with most of the landmass occupied by the fire-dependent sclerophyll and savanna biomes. In contrast to biomes with similar climates in other continents, Australia has a tree flora dominated by a single genus, Eucalyptus, and related Myrtaceae. A unique mechanism in Myrtaceae for enduring and recovering from fire damage likely resulted in this dominance. Here, we find a conserved phylogenetic relationship between post-fire resprouting (epicormic) anatomy and biome evolution, dating from 60 to 62 Ma, in the earliest Palaeogene. Thus, fire-dependent communities likely existed 50 million years earlier than previously thought. We predict that epicormic resprouting could make eucalypt forests and woodlands an excellent long-term carbon bank for reducing atmospheric CO(2) compared with biomes with similar fire regimes in other continents.

  10. Molecular phylogenetics reveals a pattern of biome conservatism in New World anchovies (family Engraulidae).

    PubMed

    Bloom, Devin D; Lovejoy, N R

    2012-04-01

    Evolutionary transitions between marine and freshwater biomes are relatively rare events, yielding a widespread pattern of biome conservatism among aquatic organisms. We investigated biome transitions in anchovies (Engraulidae), a globally distributed clade of economically important fishes. Most anchovy species are near-shore marine fishes, but several exclusively freshwater species are known from tropical rivers of South America and were previously thought to be the product of six or more independent freshwater invasions. We generated a comprehensive molecular phylogeny for Engraulidae, including representatives from 15 of 17 currently recognized genera. Our data support previous hypotheses of higher-level relationships within Engraulidae, but show that most New World genera are not monophyletic and in need of revision. Ancestral character reconstruction reveals that New World freshwater anchovies are the product of a single marine to freshwater transition, supporting a pattern of biome conservatism. We argue that competition is the principal mechanism that regulates aquatic biome transitions on a continental scale.

  11. Climate and litter quality differently modulate the effects of soil fauna on litter decomposition across biomes

    PubMed Central

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Maestre, Fernando T.; Kattge, Jens; Wall, Diana H.

    2015-01-01

    Climate and litter quality have been identified as major drivers of litter decomposition at large spatial scales. However, the role played by soil fauna remains largely unknown, despite its importance for litter fragmentation and microbial activity. We synthesized litterbag studies to quantify the effect sizes of soil fauna on litter decomposition rates at the global and biome scales, and to assess how climate, litter quality and soil fauna interact to determine such rates. Soil fauna consistently enhanced litter decomposition at both global and biome scales (average increment ~27%). However, climate and litter quality differently modulated the effects of soil fauna on decomposition rates between biomes, from climate-driven biomes to those where climate effects were mediated by changes in litter quality. Our results advocate for the inclusion of biome-specific soil fauna effects on litter decomposition as a mean to reduce the unexplained variation in large-scale decomposition models. PMID:23763716

  12. Response of vegetation to drought time-scales across global land biomes.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M; Gouveia, Célia; Camarero, Jesús Julio; Beguería, Santiago; Trigo, Ricardo; López-Moreno, Juan I; Azorín-Molina, César; Pasho, Edmond; Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jorge; Revuelto, Jesús; Morán-Tejeda, Enrique; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2013-01-02

    We evaluated the response of the Earth land biomes to drought by correlating a drought index with three global indicators of vegetation activity and growth: vegetation indices from satellite imagery, tree-ring growth series, and Aboveground Net Primary Production (ANPP) records. Arid and humid biomes are both affected by drought, and we suggest that the persistence of the water deficit (i.e., the drought time-scale) could be playing a key role in determining the sensitivity of land biomes to drought. We found that arid biomes respond to drought at short time-scales; that is, there is a rapid vegetation reaction as soon as water deficits below normal conditions occur. This may be due to the fact that plant species of arid regions have mechanisms allowing them to rapidly adapt to changing water availability. Humid biomes also respond to drought at short time-scales, but in this case the physiological mechanisms likely differ from those operating in arid biomes, as plants usually have a poor adaptability to water shortage. On the contrary, semiarid and subhumid biomes respond to drought at long time-scales, probably because plants are able to withstand water deficits, but they lack the rapid response of arid biomes to drought. These results are consistent among three vegetation parameters analyzed and across different land biomes, showing that the response of vegetation to drought depends on characteristic drought time-scales for each biome. Understanding the dominant time-scales at which drought most influences vegetation might help assessing the resistance and resilience of vegetation and improving our knowledge of vegetation vulnerability to climate change.

  13. Response of vegetation to drought time-scales across global land biomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Gouveia, Célia; Julio Camarero, Jesús; Beguería, Santiago; Trigo, Ricardo; López-Moreno, Juan I.; Azorín-Molina, César; Pasho, Edmond; Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jorge; Revuelto, Jesús; Morán-Tejeda, Enrique; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the response of the Earth land biomes to drought by correlating a drought index with three global indicators of vegetation activity and growth: vegetation indices from satellite imagery, tree-ring growth series, and Aboveground Net Primary Production (ANPP) records. Arid and humid biomes are both affected by drought, and we suggest that the persistence of the water deficit (i.e., the drought time-scale) could be playing a key role in determining the sensitivity of land biomes to drought. We found that arid biomes respond to drought at short time-scales; that is, there is a rapid vegetation reaction as soon as water deficits below normal conditions occur. This may be due to the fact that plant species of arid regions have mechanisms allowing them to rapidly adapt to changing water availability. Humid biomes also respond to drought at short time-scales, but in this case the physiological mechanisms likely differ from those operating in arid biomes, as plants usually have a poor adaptability to water shortage. On the contrary, semiarid and subhumid biomes respond to drought at long time-scales, probably because plants are able to withstand water deficits, but they lack the rapid response of arid biomes to drought. These results are consistent among three vegetation parameters analyzed and across different land biomes, showing that the response of vegetation to drought depends on characteristic drought time-scales for each biome. Understanding the dominant time-scales at which drought most influences vegetation might help assessing the resistance and resilience of vegetation and improving our knowledge of vegetation vulnerability to climate change.

  14. Response of vegetation to drought time-scales across global land biomes

    PubMed Central

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Gouveia, Célia; Camarero, Jesús Julio; Beguería, Santiago; Trigo, Ricardo; López-Moreno, Juan I.; Azorín-Molina, César; Pasho, Edmond; Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jorge; Revuelto, Jesús; Morán-Tejeda, Enrique; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the response of the Earth land biomes to drought by correlating a drought index with three global indicators of vegetation activity and growth: vegetation indices from satellite imagery, tree-ring growth series, and Aboveground Net Primary Production (ANPP) records. Arid and humid biomes are both affected by drought, and we suggest that the persistence of the water deficit (i.e., the drought time-scale) could be playing a key role in determining the sensitivity of land biomes to drought. We found that arid biomes respond to drought at short time-scales; that is, there is a rapid vegetation reaction as soon as water deficits below normal conditions occur. This may be due to the fact that plant species of arid regions have mechanisms allowing them to rapidly adapt to changing water availability. Humid biomes also respond to drought at short time-scales, but in this case the physiological mechanisms likely differ from those operating in arid biomes, as plants usually have a poor adaptability to water shortage. On the contrary, semiarid and subhumid biomes respond to drought at long time-scales, probably because plants are able to withstand water deficits, but they lack the rapid response of arid biomes to drought. These results are consistent among three vegetation parameters analyzed and across different land biomes, showing that the response of vegetation to drought depends on characteristic drought time-scales for each biome. Understanding the dominant time-scales at which drought most influences vegetation might help assessing the resistance and resilience of vegetation and improving our knowledge of vegetation vulnerability to climate change. PMID:23248309

  15. Biogeography of photoautotrophs in the high polar biome

    PubMed Central

    Pointing, Stephen B.; Burkhard Büdel; Convey, Peter; Gillman, Len N.; Körner, Christian; Leuzinger, Sebastian; Vincent, Warwick F.

    2015-01-01

    The global latitudinal gradient in biodiversity weakens in the high polar biome and so an alternative explanation for distribution of Arctic and Antarctic photoautotrophs is required. Here we identify how temporal, microclimate and evolutionary drivers of biogeography are important, rather than the macroclimate features that drive plant diversity patterns elsewhere. High polar ecosystems are biologically unique, with a more central role for bryophytes, lichens and microbial photoautotrophs over that of vascular plants. Constraints on vascular plants arise mainly due to stature and ontogenetic barriers. Conversely non-vascular plant and microbial photoautotroph distribution is correlated with favorable microclimates and the capacity for poikilohydric dormancy. Contemporary distribution also depends on evolutionary history, with adaptive and dispersal traits as well as legacy influencing biogeography. We highlight the relevance of these findings to predicting future impacts on diversity of polar photoautotrophs and to the current status of plants in Arctic and Antarctic conservation policy frameworks. PMID:26442009

  16. Softball Games Bring NCI and Leidos Biomed Employees Together | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    NCI and Leidos Biomed employees took to the fields at Nallin Pond for the third annual slow-pitch softball games on August 26. The series attracted 54 employees who were divided into four teams, Red, Blue, Gray, and White, and they were cheered on by about 40 enthusiastic spectators. In the first set of games, the Gray team defeated the Blue team, 15–8, and the White team pulled out a win against the Red team, 17–15. After a brief rest, the two winning teams and the two losing teams faced each other in a second set of games. On Field 1, the “winners” match-up of the Gray and White teams was a nail biter, with a close score throughout the game. Daylight was a factor, however, and the team captains decided to call the game for safety reasons. With a lead of 15 to 13, the Gray team was declared the overall winner.

  17. Comparative patterns of plant invasions in the Mediterranean biome.

    PubMed

    Arianoutsou, Margarita; Delipetrou, Pinelopi; Vilà, Montserrat; Dimitrakopoulos, Panayiotis G; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Wardell-Johnson, Grant; Henderson, Lesley; Fuentes, Nicol; Ugarte-Mendes, Eduardo; Rundel, Philip W

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare and contrast the patterns of alien plant invasions in the world's five mediterranean-climate regions (MCRs). We expected landscape age and disturbance history to have bearing on levels of invasion. We assembled a database on naturalized alien plant taxa occurring in natural and semi-natural terrestrial habitats of all five regions (specifically Spain, Italy, Greece and Cyprus from the Mediterranean Basin, California, central Chile, the Cape Region of South Africa and Southwestern - SW Australia). We used multivariate (hierarchical clustering and NMDS ordination) trait and habitat analysis to compare characteristics of regions, taxa and habitats across the mediterranean biome. Our database included 1627 naturalized species with an overall low taxonomic similarity among the five MCRs. Herbaceous perennials were the most frequent taxa, with SW Australia exhibiting both the highest numbers of naturalized species and the highest taxonomic similarity (homogenization) among habitats, and the Mediterranean Basin the lowest. Low stress and highly disturbed habitats had the highest frequency of invasion and homogenization in all regions, and high natural stress habitats the lowest, while taxonomic similarity was higher among different habitats in each region than among regions. Our analysis is the first to describe patterns of species characteristics and habitat vulnerability for a single biome. We have shown that a broad niche (i.e. more than one habitat) is typical of naturalized plant species, regardless of their geographical area of origin, leading to potential for high homogenization within each region. Habitats of the Mediterranean Basin are apparently the most resistant to plant invasion, possibly because their landscapes are generally of relatively recent origin, but with a more gradual exposure to human intervention over a longer period.

  18. Comparative Patterns of Plant Invasions in the Mediterranean Biome

    PubMed Central

    Arianoutsou, Margarita; Delipetrou, Pinelopi; Vilà, Montserrat; Dimitrakopoulos, Panayiotis G.; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Wardell-Johnson, Grant; Henderson, Lesley; Fuentes, Nicol; Ugarte-Mendes, Eduardo; Rundel, Philip W.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare and contrast the patterns of alien plant invasions in the world’s five mediterranean-climate regions (MCRs). We expected landscape age and disturbance history to have bearing on levels of invasion. We assembled a database on naturalized alien plant taxa occurring in natural and semi-natural terrestrial habitats of all five regions (specifically Spain, Italy, Greece and Cyprus from the Mediterranean Basin, California, central Chile, the Cape Region of South Africa and Southwestern - SW Australia). We used multivariate (hierarchical clustering and NMDS ordination) trait and habitat analysis to compare characteristics of regions, taxa and habitats across the mediterranean biome. Our database included 1627 naturalized species with an overall low taxonomic similarity among the five MCRs. Herbaceous perennials were the most frequent taxa, with SW Australia exhibiting both the highest numbers of naturalized species and the highest taxonomic similarity (homogenization) among habitats, and the Mediterranean Basin the lowest. Low stress and highly disturbed habitats had the highest frequency of invasion and homogenization in all regions, and high natural stress habitats the lowest, while taxonomic similarity was higher among different habitats in each region than among regions. Our analysis is the first to describe patterns of species characteristics and habitat vulnerability for a single biome. We have shown that a broad niche (i.e. more than one habitat) is typical of naturalized plant species, regardless of their geographical area of origin, leading to potential for high homogenization within each region. Habitats of the Mediterranean Basin are apparently the most resistant to plant invasion, possibly because their landscapes are generally of relatively recent origin, but with a more gradual exposure to human intervention over a longer period. PMID:24244443

  19. Carbon dioxide measurements in tropical East African biomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, R. C.; Odh, S.-A.; Njau, L. N.

    1981-06-01

    From January 1977 through May 1978 atmospheric CO2 concentrations were measured hourly and/or continuously at bimonthly intervals over periods varying from 5 to 8 days at 10 different locations in Kenya, East Africa. During each of these periods, at least two, and in some cases five, vertical profile measurements of CO2 concentrations were conducted above different biomes. A large diurnal CO2 periodicity was observed over land, with daytime drawdowns to 322 ppm and nighttime buildups to more than 400 ppm observed in savannah regions. In and around tropical rain forests, drawdowns to 310 ppm and buildups to more than 400 ppm were regularly observed. On the higher reaches of Mount Kenya, the diurnal CO2 cycle was considerably reduced in amplitude, with variations in the range of 2-6 ppm throughout the 16-month study period. On sunny days, the drawdown of CO2 was measurable to heights of at least 4000 m above ground level. Other CO2 concentration measurements in air over the Indian Ocean (to distances of up to 450 km upwind of the coast) produced fairly consistent concentrations of about 328.5 ppm which did not fluctuate diurnally. The weekly mean CO2 concentrations over Kenya appear to have a bimodal structure, with minima occurring in July and January. On the basis of the data collected during the study it appears likely that regular observations at a high-altitude station on Mount Kenya, either with flask sampling or continuous analyzer measurements, are likely to yield data useful for estimates of CO2 concentration backgrounds and trends. Also, there is strong evidence that Mount Kenya would be a good location to measure large-scale interhemispheric CO2 exchanges and provide a unique base from which to study the effects of the tropical biome on biogeochemical phenomena.

  20. Improved simulation of poorly drained forests using Biome-BGC.

    PubMed

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Gower, Stith T; Ahl, Douglas E

    2007-05-01

    Forested wetlands and peatlands are important in boreal and terrestrial biogeochemical cycling, but most general-purpose forest process models are designed and parameterized for upland systems. We describe changes made to Biome-BGC, an ecophysiological process model, that improve its ability to simulate poorly drained forests. Model changes allowed for: (1) lateral water inflow from a surrounding watershed, and variable surface and subsurface drainage; (2) adverse effects of anoxic soil on decomposition and nutrient mineralization; (3) closure of leaf stomata in flooded soils; and (4) growth of nonvascular plants (i.e., bryophytes). Bryophytes were treated as ectohydric broadleaf evergreen plants with zero stomatal conductance, whose cuticular conductance to CO(2) was dependent on plant water content. Individual model changes were parameterized with published data, and ecosystem-level model performance was assessed by comparing simulated output to field data from the northern BOREAS site in Manitoba, Canada. The simulation of the poorly drained forest model exhibited reduced decomposition and vascular plant growth (-90%) compared with that of the well-drained forest model; the integrated bryophyte photosynthetic response accorded well with published data. Simulated net primary production, biomass and soil carbon accumulation broadly agreed with field measurements, although simulated net primary production was higher than observed data in well-drained stands. Simulated net primary production in the poorly drained forest was most sensitive to oxygen restriction on soil processes, and secondarily to stomatal closure in flooded conditions. The modified Biome-BGC remains unable to simulate true wetlands that are subject to prolonged flooding, because it does not track organic soil formation, water table changes, soil redox potential or anaerobic processes.

  1. Summary of inspection findings of licensee inservice testing programs at United States commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlop, A.; Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    Periodic inspections of pump and valve inservice testing (IST) programs in United States commercial nuclear power plants are performed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regional Inspectors to verify licensee regulatory compliance and licensee commitments. IST inspections are conducted using NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, {open_quotes}Inservice Testing of Pumps and Valves{close_quotes} (IP 73756), which was updated on July 27, 1995. A large number of IST inspections have also been conducted using Temporary Instruction 2515/114, {open_quotes}Inspection Requirements for Generic Letter 89-04, Acceptable Inservice Testing Programs{close_quotes} (TI-2515/114), which was issued January 15, 1992. A majority of U.S. commercial nuclear power plants have had an IST inspection to either IP 73756 or TI 2515/114. This paper is intended to summarize the significant and recurring findings from a number of these inspections since January of 1990.

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  3. 76 FR 30154 - Maritime Communications/Land Mobile, LLC, Licensee of Various Authorizations in the Wireless...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...This document commences a hearing proceeding to determine ultimately whether Maritime Communications/Land Mobile, LLC (Maritime) is qualified to be and to remain a Commission licensee, and as a consequence whether any or all of its licenses should be revoked, and whether any or all of the applications to which Maritime is a party should be denied. The issues designated for hearing also include......

  4. 47 CFR 27.1255 - Relocation Criteria for Broadband Radio Service Licensees in the 2150-2160/62 MHz band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... co-channel to the 2150-2160/62 MHz band, must relocate any incumbent BRS system that is within the... to Enable Multipoint Distribution Service and Instructional Television Fixed Service Licensees...

  5. 15 CFR 971.801 - Records to be maintained and information to be submitted by licensees and permittees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS... applicant, licensee or permittee will be required to submit to the Administrator, upon request, data...

  6. 15 CFR 971.801 - Records to be maintained and information to be submitted by licensees and permittees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS... applicant, licensee or permittee will be required to submit to the Administrator, upon request, data...

  7. 10 CFR 140.93 - Appendix C-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees furnishing proof of financial protection in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the conduct of a third person or an act of God. As used herein, conduct of the claimant includes... property, whether real or personal, belonging to such licensee. The lien shall arise at the time payment...

  8. 10 CFR 140.93 - Appendix C-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees furnishing proof of financial protection in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the conduct of a third person or an act of God. As used herein, conduct of the claimant includes... property, whether real or personal, belonging to such licensee. The lien shall arise at the time payment...

  9. 10 CFR 140.92 - Appendix B-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees furnishing insurance policies as proof of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... third person or an act of God. As used herein, conduct of the claimant includes conduct of persons... to property, whether real or personal, belonging to such licensee. The lien shall arise at the...

  10. 10 CFR 140.93 - Appendix C-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees furnishing proof of financial protection in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the conduct of a third person or an act of God. As used herein, conduct of the claimant includes... property, whether real or personal, belonging to such licensee. The lien shall arise at the time payment...

  11. 10 CFR 140.92 - Appendix B-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees furnishing insurance policies as proof of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... third person or an act of God. As used herein, conduct of the claimant includes conduct of persons... to property, whether real or personal, belonging to such licensee. The lien shall arise at the...

  12. 10 CFR 140.92 - Appendix B-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees furnishing insurance policies as proof of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... third person or an act of God. As used herein, conduct of the claimant includes conduct of persons... to property, whether real or personal, belonging to such licensee. The lien shall arise at the...

  13. 10 CFR 140.93 - Appendix C-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees furnishing proof of financial protection in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the conduct of a third person or an act of God. As used herein, conduct of the claimant includes... property, whether real or personal, belonging to such licensee. The lien shall arise at the time payment...

  14. 10 CFR 140.92 - Appendix B-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees furnishing insurance policies as proof of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... third person or an act of God. As used herein, conduct of the claimant includes conduct of persons... to property, whether real or personal, belonging to such licensee. The lien shall arise at the...

  15. 10 CFR 140.93 - Appendix C-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees furnishing proof of financial protection in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the conduct of a third person or an act of God. As used herein, conduct of the claimant includes... property, whether real or personal, belonging to such licensee. The lien shall arise at the time payment...

  16. 15 CFR 971.801 - Records to be maintained and information to be submitted by licensees and permittees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS... applicant, licensee or permittee will be required to submit to the Administrator, upon request, data...

  17. 15 CFR 971.801 - Records to be maintained and information to be submitted by licensees and permittees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS... applicant, licensee or permittee will be required to submit to the Administrator, upon request, data...

  18. 15 CFR 971.801 - Records to be maintained and information to be submitted by licensees and permittees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS... applicant, licensee or permittee will be required to submit to the Administrator, upon request, data...

  19. A regulatory analysis on emergency preparedness for fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    The question this Regulatory Analysis sought to answer is: should the NRC impose additional emergency preparedness requirements on certain fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees for dealing with accidents that might have offsite releases of radioactive material. To answer the question, we analyzed potential accidents for 15 types of fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees. An appropriate plan would: (1) identify accidents for which protective actions should be taken by people offsite; (2) list the licensee's responsibilities for each type of accident, including notification of local authorities (fire and police generally); and (3) give sample messages for local authorities including protective action recommendations. This approach more closely follows the approach used for research reactors than for power reactors. The low potential offsite doses (acute fatalities and injuries not possible except possibly for UF/sub 6/ releases), the small areas where actions would be warranted, the small number of people involved, and the fact that the local police and fire departments would be doing essentially the same things they normally do, are all factors that tend to make a simple plan adequate. This report discusses the potentially hazardous accidents, and the likely effects of these accidents in terms of personnel danger.

  20. NRC staff review of licensee responses to pressure-locking and thermal-binding issue

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, H.J.

    1996-12-01

    Commercial nuclear power plant operating experience has indicated that pressure locking and thermal binding represent potential common mode failure mechanisms that can cause safety-related power-operated gate valves to fail in the closed position, thus rendering redundant safety-related systems incapable of performing their safety functions. In Generic Letter (GL) 95-07, {open_quotes}Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves,{close_quotes} the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff requested that nuclear power plant licensees take certain actions to ensure that valves susceptible to pressure locking or thermal binding are capable of performing their safety functions within the current licensing bases of the facility. The NRC staff has received summary information from licensees in response to GL 95-07 describing actions they have taken to prevent the occurrence of pressure locking and thermal binding. The NRC staff has developed a systematic process to help ensure uniform and consistent review of licensee submittals in response to GL 95-07.

  1. The diversification of eastern South American open vegetation biomes: Historical biogeography and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werneck, Fernanda P.

    2011-06-01

    The eastern-central South American open vegetation biomes occur across an extensive range of environmental conditions and are organized diagonally including three complexly interacting tropical/sub-tropical biomes. Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests (SDTFs), Cerrado, and Chaco biomes are seasonally stressed by drought, characterized by significant plant and animal endemism, high levels of diversity, and highly endangered. However, these open biomes have been overlooked in biogeographic studies and conservation projects in South America, especially regarding fauna studies. Here I compile and evaluate the biogeographic hypotheses previously proposed for the diversification of these three major open biomes, specifically their distributions located eastern and southern of Andes. My goal is to generate predictions and provide a background for testable hypotheses. I begin by investigating both continental (inter-biome) and regional (within-biome) levels, and I then provide a biogeographical summary for these regions. I also suggest how novel molecular-based historical biogeographic/phylogeographic approaches could contribute to the resolution of long-standing questions, identify potential target fauna groups for development of these lines of study, and describe fertile future research agendas.

  2. Pollen-based biomes for Beringia 18,000, 6000 and 0 14C yr BP

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, M.E.; Anderson, P.M.; Brubaker, L.B.; Ager, T.A.; Andreev, A.A.; Bigelow, N.H.; Cwynar, L.C.; Eisner, Wendy R.; Harrison, S.P.; Hu, F.-S.; Jolly, D.; Lozhkin, A.V.; MacDonald, G.M.; Mock, C.J.; Ritchie, J.C.; Sher, A.V.; Spear, R.W.; Williams, J.W.; Yu, G.

    2000-01-01

    The objective biomization method developed by Prentice et al. (1996) for Europe was extended using modern pollen samples from Beringia and then applied to fossil pollen data to reconstruct palaeovegetation patterns at 6000 and 18,000 14C yr BP. The predicted modern distribution of tundra, taiga and cool conifer forests in Alaska and north-western Canada generally corresponds well to actual vegetation patterns, although sites in regions characterized today by a mosaic of forest and tundra vegetation tend to be preferentially assigned to tundra. Siberian larch forests are delimited less well, probably due to the extreme under-representation of Larix in pollen spectra. The biome distribution across Beringia at 6000 14C yr BP was broadly similar to today, with little change in the northern forest limit, except for a possible northward-advance in the Mackenzie delta region. The western forest limit in Alaska was probably east of its modern position. At 18,000 14C yr BP the whole of Beringia was covered by tundra. However, the importance of the various plant functional types varied from site to site, supporting the idea that the vegetation cover was a mosaic of different tundra types.

  3. Synergistic impacts of deforestation, climate change and fire on the future biomes distribution in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaio, G.; Cardoso, M. F.; Nobre, C. A.; Salazar, L. F.

    2013-05-01

    Several studies indicate future increase of environmental risks for the ecosystems in the Amazon region as a result of climate and land-use change, and their synergistic interactions. Modeling studies (e.g. Oyama and Nobre 2004, Salazar et al. 2007, Malhi et al. 2008) project rapid and irreversible replacement of forests by savannas with large-scale losses of biodiversity and livelihoods for people in the region. This process is referred to as the Amazon Dieback, where accelerated plant mortality due to environmental changes lead to forest collapse and savannas expansion after "tipping points" in climate and land surface changes are achieved. In this study we performed new analyses to quantify how deforestation, climate change and fire may combine to affect the distribution of major biomes in Amazonia. Changes in land use consider deforestation scenarios of 0%, 20%, 40%, and 50% (Sampaio et al., 2007), with and without fires (Cardoso et al., 2008), under the two greenhouse gases scenarios B1 and A2 and three "representative concentration pathways" (RCPs): 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5, for years 2015-2034 and 2040-2059 ("2025" and "2050" time-slices), from IPCC AR4 and CMIP5. The results show that the area affected in scenarios A2 and RCP 8.5 is larger than in the climate scenario B1 and RCP 2.6, and in both cases the effect is progressively higher in time. Most important changes occur in the East and South of the Amazon, with replacement of tropical forest by seasonal forest and savanna. The effect of fire in this region is important in all scenarios. The Northwest Amazon presents the smallest changes in the area of tropical forest, indicating that even for substantial land-use modifications and global climate change, the resulting atmospheric conditions would still support tropical forest in the region. In summary, we conclude that the synergistic combination of deforestation, climate change resulting from global warming, and the potential for higher fire occurrence may lead

  4. BIOME: A scientific data archive search-and-order system using browser-aware, dynamic pages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, S. V.; Yow, T. G.; Ng, V. W.

    1997-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is a data archive and distribution center for the National Air and Space Administration's (NASA) Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). Both the Earth Observing System (EOS) and EOSDIS are components of NASA's contribution to the US Global Change Research Program through its Mission to Planet Earth Program. The ORNL DAAC provides access to data used in ecological and environmental research such as global change, global warming, and terrestrial ecology. Because of its large and diverse data holdings, the challenge for the ORNL DAAC is to help users find data of interest from the hundreds of thousands of files available at the DAAC without overwhelming them. Therefore, the ORNL DAAC has developed the Biogeochemical Information Ordering Management Environment (BIOME), a customized search and order system for the World Wide Web (WWW). BIOME is a public system located at http://www-eosdis. ornl.gov/BIOME/biome.html.

  5. Carbon sources and sinks in forest biomes of the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

    1993-06-01

    Net primary productivity (NPP) of Soviet forest biomes has been estimated from an equilibrium analysis at seven percent of the global terrestrial NPP, 20 percent of the world's total forest NPP, and half of boreal and temperate forest NPP. However, an equilibrium analysis does not allow the assessment of the role of forest biomes in carbon sequestration because it is based on the assumption that the annual carbon increment in forest biomes equals the amount of carbon released to the atmosphere through respiration. A non-equilibrium analysis accounts for carbon sequestration during specific stages of forest ecosystem development. Sources and sinks of carbon and the sequestration potential of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union are assessed in the present study under non-equilibrium conditions by considering (1) net ecosystem productivity of different age forest stands and their actual coverage, (2) carbon flux related to forest fires, (3) the rate of peat accumulation, and (4) anthropogenic influences.

  6. Cross-biome comparison of microbial association networks

    PubMed Central

    Faust, Karoline; Lima-Mendez, Gipsi; Lerat, Jean-Sébastien; Sathirapongsasuti, Jarupon F.; Knight, Rob; Huttenhower, Curtis; Lenaerts, Tom; Raes, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and environmental meta-omics studies are accumulating an ever-growing amount of microbial abundance data over a wide range of ecosystems. With a sufficiently large sample number, these microbial communities can be explored by constructing and analyzing co-occurrence networks, which detect taxon associations from abundance data and can give insights into community structure. Here, we investigate how co-occurrence networks differ across biomes and which other factors influence their properties. For this, we inferred microbial association networks from 20 different 16S rDNA sequencing data sets and observed that soil microbial networks harbor proportionally fewer positive associations and are less densely interconnected than host-associated networks. After excluding sample number, sequencing depth and beta-diversity as possible drivers, we found a negative correlation between community evenness and positive edge percentage. This correlation likely results from a skewed distribution of negative interactions, which take place preferentially between less prevalent taxa. Overall, our results suggest an under-appreciated role of evenness in shaping microbial association networks. PMID:26579106

  7. BIOME: An Ecosystem Remote Sensor Based on Imaging Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, David L.; Hammer, Philip; Smith, William H.; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Until recent times, optical remote sensing of ecosystem properties from space has been limited to broad band multispectral scanners such as Landsat and AVHRR. While these sensor data can be used to derive important information about ecosystem parameters, they are very limited for measuring key biogeochemical cycling parameters such as the chemical content of plant canopies. Such parameters, for example the lignin and nitrogen contents, are potentially amenable to measurements by very high spectral resolution instruments using a spectroscopic approach. Airborne sensors based on grating imaging spectrometers gave the first promise of such potential but the recent decision not to deploy the space version has left the community without many alternatives. In the past few years, advancements in high performance deep well digital sensor arrays coupled with a patented design for a two-beam interferometer has produced an entirely new design for acquiring imaging spectroscopic data at the signal to noise levels necessary for quantitatively estimating chemical composition (1000:1 at 2 microns). This design has been assembled as a laboratory instrument and the principles demonstrated for acquiring remote scenes. An airborne instrument is in production and spaceborne sensors being proposed. The instrument is extremely promising because of its low cost, lower power requirements, very low weight, simplicity (no moving parts), and high performance. For these reasons, we have called it the first instrument optimized for ecosystem studies as part of a Biological Imaging and Observation Mission to Earth (BIOME).

  8. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    SciTech Connect

    Ricciuto, Daniel M; Gu, Lianhong

    2010-07-01

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and continents are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and climate factors as measured using the eddy covariance method at 125 unique sites in various ecosystems over six continents with a total of 559 site-years. We find that NEE observed at eddy covariance sites is (1) a strong function of mean annual temperature at mid- and high-latitudes, (2) a strong function of dryness at mid- and low-latitudes, and (3) a function of both temperature and dryness around the mid-latitudinal belt (45 N). The sensitivity of NEE to mean annual temperature breaks down at ~ 16 C (a threshold value of mean annual temperature), above which no further increase of CO2 uptake with temperature was observed and dryness influence overrules temperature influence.

  9. Evolution of Philodendron (Araceae) species in Neotropical biomes

    PubMed Central

    Loss-Oliveira, Leticia; Sakuragui, Cassia; Soares, Maria de Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Philodendron is the second most diverse genus of the Araceae, a tropical monocot family with significant morphological diversity along its wide geographic distribution in the Neotropics. Although evolutionary studies of Philodendron were conducted in recent years, the phylogenetic relationship among its species remains unclear. Additionally, analyses conducted to date suggested the inclusion of all American representatives of a closely-related genus, Homalomena, within the Philodendron clade. A thorough evaluation of the phylogeny and timescale of these lineages is thus necessary to elucidate the tempo and mode of evolution of this large Neotropical genus and to unveil the biogeographic history of Philodendron evolution along the Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests as well as open dry forests of South America. To this end, we have estimated the molecular phylogeny for 68 Philodendron species, which consists of the largest sampling assembled to date aiming the study of the evolutionary affinities. We have also performed ancestral reconstruction of species distribution along biomes. Finally, we contrasted these results with the inferred timescale of Philodendron and Homalomena lineage diversification. Our estimates indicate that American Homalomena is the sister clade to Philodendron. The early diversification of Philodendron took place in the Amazon forest from Early to Middle Miocene, followed by colonization of the Atlantic forest and the savanna-like landscapes, respectively. Based on the age of the last common ancestor of Philodendron, the species of this genus diversified by rapid radiations, leading to its wide extant distribution in the Neotropical region. PMID:27042390

  10. Plant community responses to experimental warming across the tundra biome.

    PubMed

    Walker, Marilyn D; Wahren, C Henrik; Hollister, Robert D; Henry, Greg H R; Ahlquist, Lorraine E; Alatalo, Juha M; Bret-Harte, M Syndonia; Calef, Monika P; Callaghan, Terry V; Carroll, Amy B; Epstein, Howard E; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S; Klein, Julia A; Magnússon, Borgthór; Molau, Ulf; Oberbauer, Steven F; Rewa, Steven P; Robinson, Clare H; Shaver, Gaius R; Suding, Katharine N; Thompson, Catharine C; Tolvanen, Anne; Totland, Ørjan; Turner, P Lee; Tweedie, Craig E; Webber, Patrick J; Wookey, Philip A

    2006-01-31

    Recent observations of changes in some tundra ecosystems appear to be responses to a warming climate. Several experimental studies have shown that tundra plants and ecosystems can respond strongly to environmental change, including warming; however, most studies were limited to a single location and were of short duration and based on a variety of experimental designs. In addition, comparisons among studies are difficult because a variety of techniques have been used to achieve experimental warming and different measurements have been used to assess responses. We used metaanalysis on plant community measurements from standardized warming experiments at 11 locations across the tundra biome involved in the International Tundra Experiment. The passive warming treatment increased plant-level air temperature by 1-3 degrees C, which is in the range of predicted and observed warming for tundra regions. Responses were rapid and detected in whole plant communities after only two growing seasons. Overall, warming increased height and cover of deciduous shrubs and graminoids, decreased cover of mosses and lichens, and decreased species diversity and evenness. These results predict that warming will cause a decline in biodiversity across a wide variety of tundra, at least in the short term. They also provide rigorous experimental evidence that recently observed increases in shrub cover in many tundra regions are in response to climate warming. These changes have important implications for processes and interactions within tundra ecosystems and between tundra and the atmosphere.

  11. Plant community responses to experimental warming across the tundra biome

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Marilyn D.; Wahren, C. Henrik; Hollister, Robert D.; Henry, Greg H. R.; Ahlquist, Lorraine E.; Alatalo, Juha M.; Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia; Calef, Monika P.; Callaghan, Terry V.; Carroll, Amy B.; Epstein, Howard E.; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S.; Klein, Julia A.; Magnússon, Borgþór; Molau, Ulf; Oberbauer, Steven F.; Rewa, Steven P.; Robinson, Clare H.; Shaver, Gaius R.; Suding, Katharine N.; Thompson, Catharine C.; Tolvanen, Anne; Totland, Ørjan; Turner, P. Lee; Tweedie, Craig E.; Webber, Patrick J.; Wookey, Philip A.

    2006-01-01

    Recent observations of changes in some tundra ecosystems appear to be responses to a warming climate. Several experimental studies have shown that tundra plants and ecosystems can respond strongly to environmental change, including warming; however, most studies were limited to a single location and were of short duration and based on a variety of experimental designs. In addition, comparisons among studies are difficult because a variety of techniques have been used to achieve experimental warming and different measurements have been used to assess responses. We used metaanalysis on plant community measurements from standardized warming experiments at 11 locations across the tundra biome involved in the International Tundra Experiment. The passive warming treatment increased plant-level air temperature by 1-3°C, which is in the range of predicted and observed warming for tundra regions. Responses were rapid and detected in whole plant communities after only two growing seasons. Overall, warming increased height and cover of deciduous shrubs and graminoids, decreased cover of mosses and lichens, and decreased species diversity and evenness. These results predict that warming will cause a decline in biodiversity across a wide variety of tundra, at least in the short term. They also provide rigorous experimental evidence that recently observed increases in shrub cover in many tundra regions are in response to climate warming. These changes have important implications for processes and interactions within tundra ecosystems and between tundra and the atmosphere. PMID:16428292

  12. Psychiatric Diagnoses and Punishment for Misconduct: The Effects of PTSD in Combat-Developed Marines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-25

    journals or any BioMed Central journal, go to http://www.biomedcentral.com/info/authors/ BMC Psychiatry © 2010 Highfill-McRoy et al. , licensee BioMed ...Psychol 1989;45:860-67. 12. Rothberg JM, Koshes RJ, Shanahan J, Christman K: Desert shield deployment and social problems on a U.S. Army combat support

  13. Licensee contractor and vendor inspection status report. Quarterly progress report, April 1996--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The federal government and nuclear industry have established a system for the inspection of commercial nuclear facilities to provide for multiple levels of inspection and verification. The Vendor Inspection System (VIS) of the Special Inspection Branch reviews and inspects the quality and suitability of vendor products, licensee-vendor interface, environmental qualification of equipment, and review of equipment problems found during operation and their corrective action. This report contains copies of all vendor inspection reports issued during the calendar year for which it is published.

  14. Audit Report on "The Department's Management of Nuclear Materials Provided to Domestic Licensees"

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    The objective if to determine whether the Department of Energy (Department) was adequately managing its nuclear materials provided to domestic licensees. The audit was performed from February 2007 to September 2008 at Department Headquarters in Washington, DC, and Germantown, MD; the Oak Ridge Office and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, TN. In addition, we visited or obtained data from 40 different non-Departmental facilities in various states. To accomplish the audit objective, we: (1) Reviewed Departmental and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for the control and accountability of nuclear materials; (2) Analyzed a Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS) report with ending inventory balances for Department-owned nuclear materials dated September 30, 2007, to determine the amount and types of nuclear materials located at non-Department domestic facilities; (3) Held discussions with Department and NRC personnel that used NMMSS information to determine their roles and responsibilities related to the control and accountability over nuclear materials; (4) Selected a judgmental sample of 40 non-Department domestic facilities; (5) Met with licensee officials and sent confirmations to determine whether their actual inventories of Department-owned nuclear materials were consistent with inventories reported in the NMMSS; and, (6) Analyzed historical information related to the 2004 NMMSS inventory rebaselining initiative to determine the quantity of Department-owned nuclear materials that were written off from the domestic licensees inventory balances. This performance audit was conducted in accordance with generally accepted Government auditing standards. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions based on our audit objective. We believe that the evidence obtained provides a reasonable basis for our

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees. Quarterly progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Semiannual progress report, July 1996--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July-December 1996) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  17. Biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial ecosystems of the Caatinga Biome.

    PubMed

    Menezes, R S C; Sampaio, E V S B; Giongo, V; Pérez-Marin, A M

    2012-08-01

    The biogeochemical cycles of C, N, P and water, the impacts of land use in the stocks and flows of these elements and how they can affect the structure and functioning of Caatinga were reviewed. About half of this biome is still covered by native secondary vegetation. Soils are deficient in nutrients, especially N and P. Average concentrations of total soil P and C in the top layer (0-20 cm) are 196 mg kg(-1) and 9.3 g kg(-1), corresponding to C stocks around 23 Mg ha(-1). Aboveground biomass of native vegetation varies from 30 to 50 Mg ha(-1), and average root biomass from 3 to 12 Mg ha(-1). Average annual productivities and biomass accumulation in different land use systems vary from 1 to 7 Mg ha(-1) year(-1). Biological atmospheric N2 fixation is estimated to vary from 3 to 11 kg N ha(-1) year-1 and 21 to 26 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) in mature and secondary Caatinga, respectively. The main processes responsible for nutrient and water losses are fire, soil erosion, runoff and harvest of crops and animal products. Projected climate changes in the future point to higher temperatures and rainfall decreases. In face of the high intrinsic variability, actions to increase sustainability should improve resilience and stability of the ecosystems. Land use systems based on perennial species, as opposed to annual species, may be more stable and resilient, thus more adequate to face future potential increases in climate variability. Long-term studies to investigate the potential of the native biodiversity or adapted exotic species to design sustainable land use systems should be encouraged.

  18. Effectively displaying broad scope sub-licensee radioactive material inventory allocations and possession quantities.

    PubMed

    Emery, Robert J; McCrary, J R

    2003-08-01

    As part of its annual broad scope license radiation protection program review, the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston radiation safety program discovered that although inventory control and monitoring mechanisms were being effectively implemented at the sublicensee level, a method did not exist to demonstrate compliance with collective broad scope license possession limits at the institutional level. To address this shortcoming, the radiation safety program data warehouse system was modified, and an automatic summary report showing collective sub-licensee maximum possession authorizations was created. But this report did not effectively present the summary information in a manner that key stakeholders could readily comprehend, as the data was not referenced to collective institutional possession limits. So a graphic version of the summary report was created wherein, for each isotope possessed, the collective institutional limit was displayed, along with the totals of all the individual sub-licensee maximum possession limits and current amounts on hand. This simple graphic served to effectively communicate the current status of the institution's radiation source inventory to the radiation safety committee, executive management, and state regulatory officials. The effort has served to simplify the sometimes-complicated source inventory control process and has facilitated subsequent program reviews. In the future, the method is expected to assist the radiation protection program in anticipating when broad license amendments may be needed to accommodate operational changes.

  19. Expanding the global network of protected areas to save the imperiled mediterranean biome.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Emma C; Klausmeyer, Kirk R; Cox, Robin L; Busby, Sylvia M; Morrison, Scott A; Shaw, M Rebecca

    2009-02-01

    : Global goals established by the Convention on Biological Diversity stipulate that 10% of the world's ecological regions must be effectively conserved by 2010. To meet that goal for the mediterranean biome, at least 5% more land must be formally protected over the next few years. Although global assessments identify the mediterranean biome as a priority, without biologically meaningful analysis units, finer-resolution data, and corresponding prioritization analysis, future conservation investments could lead to more area being protected without increasing the representation of unique mediterranean ecosystems. We used standardized analysis units and six potential natural vegetation types stratified by 3 elevation zones in a global gap analysis that systematically explored conservation priorities across the mediterranean biome. The highest levels of protection were in Australia, South Africa, and California-Baja California (from 9-11%), and the lowest levels of protection were in Chile and the mediterranean Basin (<1%). Protection was skewed to montane elevations in three out of five regions. Across the biome only one of the six vegetation types--mediterranean shrubland--exceeded 10% protection. The remaining vegetation types--grassland, scrub, succulent dominated, woodland, and forest--each had <3% protection. To guard against biases in future protection efforts and ensure the protection of species characteristic of the mediterranean biome, we identified biodiversity assemblages with <10% protection and subject to >30% conversion and suggest that these assemblages be elevated to high-priority status in future conservation efforts.

  20. An intercomparison of biogenic emissions estimates from BEIS2 and BIOME: Reconciling the differences

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, J.G.; Emigh, R.A.; Pierce, T.E.

    1996-12-31

    Biogenic emissions play a critical role in urban and regional air quality. For instance, biogenic emissions contribute upwards of 76% of the daily hydrocarbon emissions in the Atlanta, Georgia airshed. The Biogenic Emissions Inventory System-Version 2.0 (BEIS2) and the Biogenic Model for Emissions (BIOME) are two models that compute biogenic emissions estimates. BEIS2 is a FORTRAN-based system, and BIOME is an ARC/INFO{reg_sign} - and SAS{reg_sign}-based system. Although the technical formulations of the models are similar, the models produce different biogenic emissions estimates for what appear to be essentially the same inputs. The goals of our study are the following: (1) Determine why BIOME and BEIS2 produce different emissions estimates; (2) Attempt to understand the impacts that the differences have on the emissions estimates; (3) Reconcile the differences where possible; and (4) Present a framework for the use of BEIS2 and BIOME. In this study, we used the Coastal Oxidant Assessment for Southeast Texas (COAST) biogenics data which were supplied to us courtesy of the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC), and we extracted the BEIS2 data for the same domain. We compared the emissions estimates of the two models using their respective data sets BIOME Using TNRCC data and BEIS2 using BEIS2 data.

  1. Evolutionary biology and anthropology suggest biome reconstitution as a necessary approach toward dealing with immune disorders.

    PubMed

    Parker, William; Ollerton, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Industrialized society currently faces a wide range of non-infectious, immune-related pandemics. These pandemics include a variety of autoimmune, inflammatory and allergic diseases that are often associated with common environmental triggers and with genetic predisposition, but that do not occur in developing societies. In this review, we briefly present the idea that these pandemics are due to a limited number of evolutionary mismatches, the most damaging being 'biome depletion'. This particular mismatch involves the loss of species from the ecosystem of the human body, the human biome, many of which have traditionally been classified as parasites, although some may actually be commensal or even mutualistic. This view, evolved from the 'hygiene hypothesis', encompasses a broad ecological and evolutionary perspective that considers host-symbiont relations as plastic, changing through ecological space and evolutionary time. Fortunately, this perspective provides a blueprint, termed 'biome reconstitution', for disease treatment and especially for disease prevention. Biome reconstitution includes the controlled and population-wide reintroduction (i.e. domestication) of selected species that have been all but eradicated from the human biome in industrialized society and holds great promise for the elimination of pandemics of allergic, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

  2. Evolutionary biology and anthropology suggest biome reconstitution as a necessary approach toward dealing with immune disorders

    PubMed Central

    Parker, William; Ollerton, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Industrialized society currently faces a wide range of non-infectious, immune-related pandemics. These pandemics include a variety of autoimmune, inflammatory and allergic diseases that are often associated with common environmental triggers and with genetic predisposition, but that do not occur in developing societies. In this review, we briefly present the idea that these pandemics are due to a limited number of evolutionary mismatches, the most damaging being ‘biome depletion’. This particular mismatch involves the loss of species from the ecosystem of the human body, the human biome, many of which have traditionally been classified as parasites, although some may actually be commensal or even mutualistic. This view, evolved from the ‘hygiene hypothesis’, encompasses a broad ecological and evolutionary perspective that considers host-symbiont relations as plastic, changing through ecological space and evolutionary time. Fortunately, this perspective provides a blueprint, termed ‘biome reconstitution’, for disease treatment and especially for disease prevention. Biome reconstitution includes the controlled and population-wide reintroduction (i.e. domestication) of selected species that have been all but eradicated from the human biome in industrialized society and holds great promise for the elimination of pandemics of allergic, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. PMID:24481190

  3. Models and the paleo record of biome responses to glacial climate and CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Prentice; Colin, I.; Haxeltine

    1995-06-01

    Continental-scale reconstructions of the distribution of biomes at the last glacial maximum (LGM) indicate big changes, which can primarily be explained by climate. The climate was different from today mainly because of a combination of low concentrations of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases and the presence of large continental ice sheets. Atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations, driven by these factors and linked to simple biome models in {open_quotes}diagnostic{close_quotes} mode, account for the broad outlines of the changes in vegetation patterns, including encroachment of C4 grasslands and savannas on what are now tropical forests. Physiological effects of low CO{sub 2} might also have played a role by altering the partitioning of precipitation to evapotranspiration and runoff, and altering the competitive balance of C3 and C4 plants. Such effects have not been quantified until recently, with the development of integrated biome/biochemistry models like those used in the VEMAP project. In these models, vegetation composition affects the coupled C and H{sub 2}O fluxes, which in turn influence the competitive balance of the constituent plant types. The relative importance of climatic and physiological effects of CO{sub 2} on biome distributions is a key issue for the future. This is gives added impetus to research that aims to exploit the potential of palaeo, data, through global data synthesis projects like BIOME 6000, to provide objective benchmarks against which to test models of the biosphere and climate.

  4. 76 FR 16012 - STP Nuclear Operating Company, et al. South Texas Project, Units 1 and 2 Notice of Consideration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... COMMISSION STP Nuclear Operating Company, et al. South Texas Project, Units 1 and 2 Notice of Consideration... issued to STP Nuclear Operating Company, et al. (the licensee) for operation of the South Texas Project (STP), Units 1 and 2, located in Matagorda County, Texas. The notice is being reissued in its...

  5. 13 CFR 107.1140 - Licensee's acceptance of SBA remedies under §§ 107.1800 through 107.1820.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 107.1140 Licensee's acceptance of SBA remedies under §§ 107.1800 through 107.1820. If you issue Leverage after April 25, 1994, you automatically...

  6. 13 CFR 107.1140 - Licensee's acceptance of SBA remedies under §§ 107.1800 through 107.1820.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 107.1140 Licensee's acceptance of SBA remedies under §§ 107.1800 through 107.1820. If you issue Leverage after April 25, 1994, you automatically...

  7. 13 CFR 107.1140 - Licensee's acceptance of SBA remedies under §§ 107.1800 through 107.1820.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 107.1140 Licensee's acceptance of SBA remedies under §§ 107.1800 through 107.1820. If you issue Leverage after April 25, 1994, you automatically...

  8. 13 CFR 107.1140 - Licensee's acceptance of SBA remedies under §§ 107.1800 through 107.1820.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 107.1140 Licensee's acceptance of SBA remedies under §§ 107.1800 through 107.1820. If you issue Leverage after April 25, 1994, you automatically...

  9. 13 CFR 107.1140 - Licensee's acceptance of SBA remedies under §§ 107.1800 through 107.1820.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) General Information About Obtaining Leverage § 107.1140 Licensee's acceptance of SBA remedies under §§ 107.1800 through 107.1820. If you issue Leverage after April 25, 1994, you automatically...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix C- to Part 544... - Appendix C- to Part 544 Motor Vehicle Rental and Leasing Companies (Including Licensees and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Leasing Companies (Including Licensees and Franchisees) Subject to the Reporting Requirements of Part 544 C Appendix C- to Part 544 Motor Vehicle Rental and Leasing Companies (Including Licensees and... REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Pt. 544, App. C Appendix C— to Part 544 Motor Vehicle Rental and Leasing...

  11. 18 CFR 16.19 - Procedures for an existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of a hydroelectric power....19 Procedures for an existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of a hydroelectric power project with a license not subject to sections 14 and 15 of the Federal Power Act....

  12. 18 CFR 16.19 - Procedures for an existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of a hydroelectric power....19 Procedures for an existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of a hydroelectric power project with a license not subject to sections 14 and 15 of the Federal Power Act....

  13. 18 CFR 16.19 - Procedures for an existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of a hydroelectric power....19 Procedures for an existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of a hydroelectric power project with a license not subject to sections 14 and 15 of the Federal Power Act....

  14. 18 CFR 16.19 - Procedures for an existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of a hydroelectric power....19 Procedures for an existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of a hydroelectric power project with a license not subject to sections 14 and 15 of the Federal Power Act....

  15. 18 CFR 16.19 - Procedures for an existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of a hydroelectric power....19 Procedures for an existing licensee of a minor hydroelectric power project or of a minor part of a hydroelectric power project with a license not subject to sections 14 and 15 of the Federal Power Act....

  16. A Seafloor Microbial Biome Hosted within Incipient Ferromanganese Crusts

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, Alexis S.; Knowles, A. S.; Eldridge, D. L.; Arey, Bruce W.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Webb, Samuel M.; Bailey, B. E.; Tebo, Bradley M.; Staudigel, Hubert

    2009-11-15

    Unsedimented volcanic rocks exposed on the seafloor at ridge systems and Seamounts host complex, abundant and diverse microbial communities that are relatively cosmopolitan in distribution (Lysnes, Thorseth et al. 2004; Mason, Stingl et al. 2007; Santelli, Orcutt et al. 2008). The most commonly held hypothesis is that the energy released by the hydration, dissolution and oxidative alteration of volcanic glasses in seawater drives the formation of an ocean crust biosphere (Thorseth, Furnes et al. 1992; Fisk, Giovannoni et al. 1998; Furnes and Staudigel 1999). The combined thermodynamically favorable weathering reactions could theoretically support anywhere from 105 to 109 cells/gram of rock depending upon the metabolisms utilized and cellular growth rates and turnover (Bach and Edwards 2003; Santelli, Orcutt et al. 2008). Yet microbially-mediated basalt alteration and energy conservation has not been directly demonstrated on the seafloor. By using synchrotron-based x-ray microprobe mapping, x-ray absorption spectroscopy and high-resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy observations of young volcanic glasses recovered from the outer flanks of Loihi Seamount, we intended to identify the initial rates and mechanisms of microbial basalt colonization and bioalteration. Instead, here we show that microbial biofilms are intimately associated with ferromanganese crusts precipitating onto basalt surfaces from cold seawater. Thus we hypothesize that microbial communities colonizing seafloor rocks are established and sustained by external inputs of potential energy sources, such as dissolved and particulate Fe(II), Mn(II) and organic matter, rather than rock dissolution.

  17. Drivers of greening trend across vertically distributed biomes in temperate arid Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Ji; Liu, Hongyan; Yin, Yi; He, Siyuan

    2007-04-01

    This study investigates vegetation responses to climate changes by analyzing 19 years (1982-2000) of both climatic data and growing season Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for vertically distributed desert, steppe, forest and meadow, in the middle part of the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains. Vegetation activity exhibited greening trend in all biomes, owing mainly to reduction of water stress caused by increasing precipitation, although warming trend negated that effect because of temperature-induced drought. Precipitation acted as a remarkable driving force of plant growth in each biome through the whole growing season (spring, summer, autumn), its effect could always persist into the next season, however, the sensitivity decreased across biomes with increasing precipitation. Warming-induced snow melt played a positive role in boosting plant growth during spring in steppe, forest and meadow. Except that, warming produced negative effects.

  18. Concluding remarks: overall impacts on biodiversity and future perspectives for conservation in the Pantanal biome.

    PubMed

    Alho, C J R

    2011-04-01

    The Pantanal biome is characterised by seasonal flooding which determines specific ecosystem processes, with the occurrence of adapted plants and animals to the annual shrinking and expansion of habitats due to the seasonal hydrological regime. Biodiversity abundance varies during the dry and wet seasons. The Pantanal's biodiversity is a fundamental component of ecosystem services for human society, including nutrient cycling, fish production, ecotourism, carbon storage, flood control, among others, which are relevant to regional and global environmental consequences. The biome has been impacted by the conversion of natural vegetation into agricultural fields and pasture for cattle raising, with alteration and loss of natural habitats and biodiversity. Major negative impacts occur in uplands, with drastic deforestation of savanna vegetation, where main rivers feeding the Pantanal have their springs. This article discusses future needs and priorities for ecological research, in order to better understand the biome's natural system, to achieve conservation and sustainable use.

  19. Site-specific seasonal models of carbon fluxes in terrestrial biomes

    SciTech Connect

    King, A.W.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    A set of site-specific computer simulation models of seasonal terrestrial carbon exchange has been assembled from open-literature sources. This collection is designed to facilitate the development of biome-level models for each of the principal terrestrial vegetation biomes on earth, for their integration into a global model of seasonal CO/sub 2/ variation in the atmosphere. The models are described in sufficient detail that their underlying assumptions can be compared. Descriptions include the following aspects of each model: (1) the compartments; (2) the carbon fluxes between compartments; and (3) the climatic variables that drive the carbon fluxes. In particular, the functional forms of the dependencies of respiration and photosynthesis on the driving variables are described. The methods by which these models will be extrapolated to biome-level models are also discussed.

  20. Combining climatic and soil properties better predicts covers of Brazilian biomes.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Daniel M; Fernandes-Filho, Elpídio I; Solar, Ricardo R C; Schaefer, Carlos E G R

    2017-04-01

    Several techniques have been used to model the area covered by biomes or species. However, most models allow little freedom of choice of response variables and are conditioned to the use of climate predictors. This major restriction of the models has generated distributions of low accuracy or inconsistent with the actual cover. Our objective was to characterize the environmental space of the most representative biomes of Brazil and predict their cover, using climate and soil-related predictors. As sample units, we used 500 cells of 100 km(2) for ten biomes, derived from the official vegetation map of Brazil (IBGE 2004). With a total of 38 (climatic and soil-related) predictors, an a priori model was run with the random forest classifier. Each biome was calibrated with 75% of the samples. The final model was based on four climate and six soil-related predictors, the most important variables for the a priori model, without collinearity. The model reached a kappa value of 0.82, generating a highly consistent prediction with the actual cover of the country. We showed here that the richness of biomes should not be underestimated, and that in spite of the complex relationship, highly accurate modeling based on climatic and soil-related predictors is possible. These predictors are complementary, for covering different parts of the multidimensional niche. Thus, a single biome can cover a wide range of climatic space, versus a narrow range of soil types, so that its prediction is best adjusted by soil-related variables, or vice versa.

  1. Combining climatic and soil properties better predicts covers of Brazilian biomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arruda, Daniel M.; Fernandes-Filho, Elpídio I.; Solar, Ricardo R. C.; Schaefer, Carlos E. G. R.

    2017-04-01

    Several techniques have been used to model the area covered by biomes or species. However, most models allow little freedom of choice of response variables and are conditioned to the use of climate predictors. This major restriction of the models has generated distributions of low accuracy or inconsistent with the actual cover. Our objective was to characterize the environmental space of the most representative biomes of Brazil and predict their cover, using climate and soil-related predictors. As sample units, we used 500 cells of 100 km2 for ten biomes, derived from the official vegetation map of Brazil (IBGE 2004). With a total of 38 (climatic and soil-related) predictors, an a priori model was run with the random forest classifier. Each biome was calibrated with 75% of the samples. The final model was based on four climate and six soil-related predictors, the most important variables for the a priori model, without collinearity. The model reached a kappa value of 0.82, generating a highly consistent prediction with the actual cover of the country. We showed here that the richness of biomes should not be underestimated, and that in spite of the complex relationship, highly accurate modeling based on climatic and soil-related predictors is possible. These predictors are complementary, for covering different parts of the multidimensional niche. Thus, a single biome can cover a wide range of climatic space, versus a narrow range of soil types, so that its prediction is best adjusted by soil-related variables, or vice versa.

  2. BiomeNet: A Bayesian Model for Inference of Metabolic Divergence among Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Chipman, Hugh; Gu, Hong; Bielawski, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomics yields enormous numbers of microbial sequences that can be assigned a metabolic function. Using such data to infer community-level metabolic divergence is hindered by the lack of a suitable statistical framework. Here, we describe a novel hierarchical Bayesian model, called BiomeNet (Bayesian inference of metabolic networks), for inferring differential prevalence of metabolic subnetworks among microbial communities. To infer the structure of community-level metabolic interactions, BiomeNet applies a mixed-membership modelling framework to enzyme abundance information. The basic idea is that the mixture components of the model (metabolic reactions, subnetworks, and networks) are shared across all groups (microbiome samples), but the mixture proportions vary from group to group. Through this framework, the model can capture nested structures within the data. BiomeNet is unique in modeling each metagenome sample as a mixture of complex metabolic systems (metabosystems). The metabosystems are composed of mixtures of tightly connected metabolic subnetworks. BiomeNet differs from other unsupervised methods by allowing researchers to discriminate groups of samples through the metabolic patterns it discovers in the data, and by providing a framework for interpreting them. We describe a collapsed Gibbs sampler for inference of the mixture weights under BiomeNet, and we use simulation to validate the inference algorithm. Application of BiomeNet to human gut metagenomes revealed a metabosystem with greater prevalence among inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Based on the discriminatory subnetworks for this metabosystem, we inferred that the community is likely to be closely associated with the human gut epithelium, resistant to dietary interventions, and interfere with human uptake of an antioxidant connected to IBD. Because this metabosystem has a greater capacity to exploit host-associated glycans, we speculate that IBD-associated communities might arise

  3. Observing and Quantifying Ecological Disturbance Impacts on Semi-arid Biomes in the Southwestern US.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, M. E.; Krofcheck, D. J.; Morillas, L.; Fox, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    The magnitude of carbon fluxes through arid and semi-arid ecosystems is considered modest, but integrated over the ~40% of the global land surface covered by these ecosystems, the total carbon stored is almost twice that in temperate forest ecosystems. In the semi-arid Southwestern U.S., drought and rising temperatures have triggered insect outbreaks, fire and widespread mortality in the past 5 years, all of which are predicted to increase in the next century. Understanding how resilient carbon pools and fluxes in these biomes are to these disturbances constitutes a large uncertainty in our ability to understand both carbon and energy flux dynamics in this region. We use an 8 year record (2007-2014) of continuous measurements of net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and its components (gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re), and evapotranspiration (ET) made over the New Mexico Elevation Gradient (NMEG) network of flux tower sites (desert grassland, creosote shrubland, juniper savanna, piñon-juniper woodland, ponderosa pine and subalpine mixed conifer) to quantify the biome-specific responses of carbon and water dynamics to these disturbances. In particular, we focus on biome-specific responses across the NMEG biomes to the extended drought in this region from 2011-2014, and to the widespread mortality observed in piñon-juniper woodlands following the turn of the century drought (1999-2002) and multi-year recent drought. Finally, we compare functional responses of land-surface fluxes to recent catastrophic fires (grassland, subalpine conifer biomes), and insect outbreaks (subalpine conifer and piñon-juniper woodland biomes). We discuss the results in terms of which disturbances have contributed to and are likely to trigger the largest changes in carbon sequestration in this region in response to predicted climate change scenarios.

  4. BOREAS RSS-8 BIOME-BGC Model Simulations at Tower Flux Sites in 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Kimball, John

    2000-01-01

    BIOME-BGC is a general ecosystem process model designed to simulate biogeochemical and hydrologic processes across multiple scales (Running and Hunt, 1993). In this investigation, BIOME-BGC was used to estimate daily water and carbon budgets for the BOREAS tower flux sites for 1994. Carbon variables estimated by the model include gross primary production (i.e., net photosynthesis), maintenance and heterotrophic respiration, net primary production, and net ecosystem carbon exchange. Hydrologic variables estimated by the model include snowcover, evaporation, transpiration, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and outflow. The information provided by the investigation includes input initialization and model output files for various sites in tabular ASCII format.

  5. 18 CFR 141.1 - FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities, licensees and others.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities, licensees and others. 141.1 Section 141.1 Conservation of Power and... instrumentality engaged in generation, transmission, distribution, or sale of electric energy, however...

  6. 18 CFR 141.1 - FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities, licensees and others.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false FERC Form No. 1, Annual report of Major electric utilities, licensees and others. 141.1 Section 141.1 Conservation of Power and... instrumentality engaged in generation, transmission, distribution, or sale of electric energy, however...

  7. 10 CFR 140.108 - Appendix H-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of... Appendixes to Part 140 § 140.108 Appendix H—Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of...

  8. 10 CFR 140.108 - Appendix H-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of... Appendixes to Part 140 § 140.108 Appendix H—Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of...

  9. 10 CFR 140.108 - Appendix H-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of... Appendixes to Part 140 § 140.108 Appendix H—Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of...

  10. 10 CFR 140.108 - Appendix H-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of... Appendixes to Part 140 § 140.108 Appendix H—Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of...

  11. 13 CFR 107.420 - Prohibition on exercise of ownership or Control rights in Licensee before SBA approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prohibition on exercise of... Prohibition on exercise of ownership or Control rights in Licensee before SBA approval. Without prior written... to the proposed new owner(s); (b) Permit the proposed new owner(s) to exercise voting rights...

  12. 13 CFR 107.420 - Prohibition on exercise of ownership or Control rights in Licensee before SBA approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibition on exercise of... Prohibition on exercise of ownership or Control rights in Licensee before SBA approval. Without prior written... to the proposed new owner(s); (b) Permit the proposed new owner(s) to exercise voting rights...

  13. 13 CFR 107.420 - Prohibition on exercise of ownership or Control rights in Licensee before SBA approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prohibition on exercise of... Prohibition on exercise of ownership or Control rights in Licensee before SBA approval. Without prior written... to the proposed new owner(s); (b) Permit the proposed new owner(s) to exercise voting rights...

  14. 47 CFR 1.9048 - Special provisions relating to spectrum leasing arrangements involving licensees in the Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special provisions relating to spectrum leasing... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9048 Special provisions relating to spectrum leasing arrangements involving licensees in...

  15. 47 CFR 1.9048 - Special provisions relating to spectrum leasing arrangements involving licensees in the Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special provisions relating to spectrum leasing... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9048 Special provisions relating to spectrum leasing arrangements involving licensees in...

  16. 47 CFR 27.1255 - Relocation Criteria for Broadband Radio Service Licensees in the 2150-2160/62 MHz band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in the 2150-2160/62 MHz band, prior to initiating operations from any base or fixed station that is... line of sight of the AWS licensee's base or fixed station. For purposes of this section, a... meters (30 feet) for the receiving antenna height, use of the actual transmitting antenna height...

  17. 47 CFR 27.1255 - Relocation Criteria for Broadband Radio Service Licensees in the 2150-2160/62 MHz band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in the 2150-2160/62 MHz band, prior to initiating operations from any base or fixed station that is... line of sight of the AWS licensee's base or fixed station. For purposes of this section, a... meters (30 feet) for the receiving antenna height, use of the actual transmitting antenna height...

  18. 47 CFR 27.1255 - Relocation Criteria for Broadband Radio Service Licensees in the 2150-2160/62 MHz band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... in the 2150-2160/62 MHz band, prior to initiating operations from any base or fixed station that is... line of sight of the AWS licensee's base or fixed station. For purposes of this section, a... meters (30 feet) for the receiving antenna height, use of the actual transmitting antenna height...

  19. 10 CFR 73.67 - Licensee fixed site and in-transit requirements for the physical protection of special nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Licensee fixed site and in-transit requirements for the... fixed site and in-transit requirements for the physical protection of special nuclear material of... superseded material must be retained for three years after each change. (e) In-transit requirements...

  20. 10 CFR 73.67 - Licensee fixed site and in-transit requirements for the physical protection of special nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Licensee fixed site and in-transit requirements for the... fixed site and in-transit requirements for the physical protection of special nuclear material of... superseded material must be retained for three years after each change. (e) In-transit requirements...

  1. 10 CFR 73.67 - Licensee fixed site and in-transit requirements for the physical protection of special nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Licensee fixed site and in-transit requirements for the... fixed site and in-transit requirements for the physical protection of special nuclear material of... superseded material must be retained for three years after each change. (e) In-transit requirements...

  2. 10 CFR 73.67 - Licensee fixed site and in-transit requirements for the physical protection of special nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Licensee fixed site and in-transit requirements for the... fixed site and in-transit requirements for the physical protection of special nuclear material of... superseded material must be retained for three years after each change. (e) In-transit requirements...

  3. 10 CFR 73.67 - Licensee fixed site and in-transit requirements for the physical protection of special nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Licensee fixed site and in-transit requirements for the... fixed site and in-transit requirements for the physical protection of special nuclear material of... superseded material must be retained for three years after each change. (e) In-transit requirements...

  4. 10 CFR 140.108 - Appendix H-Form of indemnity agreement with licensees possessing plutonium for use in plutonium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... financial protection in the form of the licensee's resources. 140.108 Section 140.108 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Violations... for use in plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants and furnishing proof of...

  5. 13 CFR 107.420 - Prohibition on exercise of ownership or Control rights in Licensee before SBA approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prohibition on exercise of... Prohibition on exercise of ownership or Control rights in Licensee before SBA approval. Without prior written... to the proposed new owner(s); (b) Permit the proposed new owner(s) to exercise voting rights...

  6. 18 CFR 2.12 - Calculation of taxes for property of public utilities and licensees constructed or acquired after...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of taxes for property of public utilities and licensees constructed or acquired after January 1, 1970. 2.12 Section 2.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT...

  7. 18 CFR 2.12 - Calculation of taxes for property of public utilities and licensees constructed or acquired after...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calculation of taxes for property of public utilities and licensees constructed or acquired after January 1, 1970. 2.12 Section 2.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT...

  8. 18 CFR 2.12 - Calculation of taxes for property of public utilities and licensees constructed or acquired after...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calculation of taxes for property of public utilities and licensees constructed or acquired after January 1, 1970. 2.12 Section 2.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT...

  9. 75 FR 54917 - Criteria for Nominating Materials Licensees for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Agency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... by the agency to ensure the operational safety performance of licensees. As a part of the AARM... additional criterion has been added is to allow NRC's senior management to address why the previously... Agencywide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS): Publicly available documents created or...

  10. 13 CFR 107.900 - Management fees for services provided to a Small Business by Licensee or its Associate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Management fees for services... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by Licensees Management Services and Fees § 107.900 Management fees for services provided to a Small...

  11. 13 CFR 107.900 - Management fees for services provided to a Small Business by Licensee or its Associate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management fees for services... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by Licensees Management Services and Fees § 107.900 Management fees for services provided to a Small...

  12. 13 CFR 107.1240 - Funding of Licensee's draw request through sale to short-term investor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... through sale to short-term investor. 107.1240 Section 107.1240 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...'s draw request through sale to short-term investor. (a) Licensee's authorization of SBA to arrange sale of securities to short-term investor. By submitting a request for a draw of Debenture...

  13. 13 CFR 107.1240 - Funding of Licensee's draw request through sale to short-term investor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... through sale to short-term investor. 107.1240 Section 107.1240 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...'s draw request through sale to short-term investor. (a) Licensee's authorization of SBA to arrange sale of securities to short-term investor. By submitting a request for a draw of Debenture...

  14. 13 CFR 107.1240 - Funding of Licensee's draw request through sale to short-term investor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... through sale to short-term investor. 107.1240 Section 107.1240 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...'s draw request through sale to short-term investor. (a) Licensee's authorization of SBA to arrange sale of securities to short-term investor. By submitting a request for a draw of Debenture...

  15. 13 CFR 107.1240 - Funding of Licensee's draw request through sale to short-term investor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... through sale to short-term investor. 107.1240 Section 107.1240 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...'s draw request through sale to short-term investor. (a) Licensee's authorization of SBA to arrange sale of securities to short-term investor. By submitting a request for a draw of Debenture...

  16. 13 CFR 107.1240 - Funding of Licensee's draw request through sale to short-term investor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... through sale to short-term investor. 107.1240 Section 107.1240 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...'s draw request through sale to short-term investor. (a) Licensee's authorization of SBA to arrange sale of securities to short-term investor. By submitting a request for a draw of Debenture...

  17. 13 CFR 107.860 - Financing fees and expense reimbursements a Licensee may receive from a Small Business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financing fees and expense reimbursements a Licensee may receive from a Small Business. 107.860 Section 107.860 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses...

  18. 13 CFR 107.420 - Prohibition on exercise of ownership or Control rights in Licensee before SBA approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition on exercise of... Prohibition on exercise of ownership or Control rights in Licensee before SBA approval. Without prior written... to the proposed new owner(s); (b) Permit the proposed new owner(s) to exercise voting rights...

  19. 47 CFR 1.768 - Notification by and prior approval for submarine cable landing licensees that are or propose to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... submarine cable landing licensees that are or propose to become affiliated with a foreign carrier. 1.768... Title II of Communications Act § 1.768 Notification by and prior approval for submarine cable landing... the Commission (“licensee”) to land or operate a submarine cable landing in a particular...

  20. 47 CFR 90.421 - Operation of mobile station units not under the control of the licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90..., frequencies assigned to licensees in the Private Land Mobile Radio Services may be installed in the facilities... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operation of mobile station units not under...

  1. 47 CFR 90.421 - Operation of mobile station units not under the control of the licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90..., frequencies assigned to licensees in the Private Land Mobile Radio Services may be installed in the facilities... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operation of mobile station units not under...

  2. 47 CFR 90.421 - Operation of mobile station units not under the control of the licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90..., frequencies assigned to licensees in the Private Land Mobile Radio Services may be installed in the facilities... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operation of mobile station units not under...

  3. 47 CFR 90.421 - Operation of mobile station units not under the control of the licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90..., frequencies assigned to licensees in the Private Land Mobile Radio Services may be installed in the facilities... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operation of mobile station units not under...

  4. 47 CFR 90.421 - Operation of mobile station units not under the control of the licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90..., frequencies assigned to licensees in the Private Land Mobile Radio Services may be installed in the facilities... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of mobile station units not under...

  5. 47 CFR 1.768 - Notification by and prior approval for submarine cable landing licensees that are or propose to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... submarine cable landing licensees that are or propose to become affiliated with a foreign carrier. 1.768... Title II of Communications Act § 1.768 Notification by and prior approval for submarine cable landing... the Commission (“licensee”) to land or operate a submarine cable landing in a particular...

  6. 47 CFR 1.768 - Notification by and prior approval for submarine cable landing licensees that are or propose to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... submarine cable landing licensees that are or propose to become affiliated with a foreign carrier. 1.768... Title II of Communications Act § 1.768 Notification by and prior approval for submarine cable landing... the Commission (“licensee”) to land or operate a submarine cable landing in a particular...

  7. 47 CFR 1.768 - Notification by and prior approval for submarine cable landing licensees that are or propose to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... submarine cable landing licensees that are or propose to become affiliated with a foreign carrier. 1.768... Title II of Communications Act § 1.768 Notification by and prior approval for submarine cable landing... the Commission (“licensee”) to land or operate a submarine cable landing in a particular...

  8. 47 CFR 1.768 - Notification by and prior approval for submarine cable landing licensees that are or propose to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... submarine cable landing licensees that are or propose to become affiliated with a foreign carrier. 1.768... Title II of Communications Act § 1.768 Notification by and prior approval for submarine cable landing... the Commission (“licensee”) to land or operate a submarine cable landing in a particular...

  9. 18 CFR 16.12 - Application for exemption from licensing by a licensee whose license is subject to sections 14...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for... Act. 16.12 Section 16.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... application for exemption filed by the existing licensee, the Commission will decide among the...

  10. Where do the treeless tundra areas of northern highlands fit in the global biome system: toward an ecologically natural subdivision of the tundra biome.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Risto; Oksanen, Lauri; Oksanen, Tarja; Cohen, Juval; Forbes, Bruce C; Johansen, Bernt; Käyhkö, Jukka; Olofsson, Johan; Pulliainen, Jouni; Tømmervik, Hans

    2016-01-01

    According to some treatises, arctic and alpine sub-biomes are ecologically similar, whereas others find them highly dissimilar. Most peculiarly, large areas of northern tundra highlands fall outside of the two recent subdivisions of the tundra biome. We seek an ecologically natural resolution to this long-standing and far-reaching problem. We studied broad-scale patterns in climate and vegetation along the gradient from Siberian tundra via northernmost Fennoscandia to the alpine habitats of European middle-latitude mountains, as well as explored those patterns within Fennoscandian tundra based on climate-vegetation patterns obtained from a fine-scale vegetation map. Our analyses reveal that ecologically meaningful January-February snow and thermal conditions differ between different types of tundra. High precipitation and mild winter temperatures prevail on middle-latitude mountains, low precipitation and usually cold winters prevail on high-latitude tundra, and Scandinavian mountains show intermediate conditions. Similarly, heath-like plant communities differ clearly between middle latitude mountains (alpine) and high-latitude tundra vegetation, including its altitudinal extension on Scandinavian mountains. Conversely, high abundance of snowbeds and large differences in the composition of dwarf shrub heaths distinguish the Scandinavian mountain tundra from its counterparts in Russia and the north Fennoscandian inland. The European tundra areas fall into three ecologically rather homogeneous categories: the arctic tundra, the oroarctic tundra of northern heights and mountains, and the genuinely alpine tundra of middle-latitude mountains. Attempts to divide the tundra into two sub-biomes have resulted in major discrepancies and confusions, as the oroarctic areas are included in the arctic tundra in some biogeographic maps and in the alpine tundra in others. Our analyses based on climate and vegetation criteria thus seem to resolve the long-standing biome

  11. Climate change in Inner Mongolia from 1955 to 2005—trends at regional, biome and local scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, N.; Wilske, B.; Ni, J.; John, R.; Chen, J.

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated the climate change in Inner Mongolia based on 51 meteorological stations from 1955 to 2005. The climate data was analyzed at the regional, biome (i.e. forest, grassland and desert) and station scales, with the biome scale as our primary focus. The climate records showed trends of warmer and drier conditions in the region. The annual daily mean, maximum and minimum temperature increased whereas the diurnal temperature range (DTR) decreased. The decreasing trend of annual precipitation was not significant. However, the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) increased significantly. On the decadal scale, the warming and drying trends were more significant in the last 30 years than the preceding 20 years. The climate change varied among biomes, with more pronounced changes in the grassland and the desert biomes than in the forest biome. DTR and VPD showed the clearest inter-biome gradient from the lowest rate of change in the forest biome to the highest rate of change in the desert biome. The rates of change also showed large variations among the individual stations. Our findings correspond with the IPCC predictions that the future climate will vary significantly by location and through time, suggesting that adaptation strategies also need to be spatially viable.

  12. 75 FR 13320 - Florida Power Corporation, et al., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, et al., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Environmental.... DPR 72 issued to Florida Power Corporation (the licensee), for operation of the Crystal River Unit...

  13. First report of geophilid centipedes of the genus Ribautia (Myriapoda: Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha) from the Atlantic Forest biome, with description of a new miniature species from Misiones Province, Northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luis Alberto

    2014-03-18

    Ribautia paranaensis sp. nov. a new miniature species of geophilid centipede from the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest (the westernmost of the fifteen ecoregions comprising the Atlantic Forest biome sensu Di Bitetti et al. 2003), is herein described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by having the coxal organs grouped in clusters (one of these in each coxopleuron of the ultimate leg-bearing segment) and a claw-like pretarsus in the ultimate legs; these traits being shared by three other Neotropical members of the genus, i.e., R. combinata Pereira, Uliana & Minelli, 2006 (from the Amazonian rainforest of Peru), R. jakulicai Pereira, 2007 (from the Yungas rainforest of Northwestern Argentina), and R. lewisi Pereira, 2013 (collected in a gallery forest in the Mesopotamian region, Northeastern Argentina). R. paranaensis sp. nov. represents the first report of Ribautia Brölemann, 1909 in the entire Atlantic Forest biome, and the third confirmed record of the taxon from Argentina.

  14. Explicit Not Implicit Preferences Predict Conservation Intentions for Endangered Species and Biomes.

    PubMed

    Echeverri, Alejandra; Callahan, Megan M; Chan, Kai M A; Satterfield, Terre; Zhao, Jiaying

    2017-01-01

    Conservation of biodiversity is determined in part by human preferences. Preferences relevant to conservation have been examined largely via explicit measures (e.g., a self-reported degree of liking), with implicit measures (e.g., preconscious, automatic evaluations) receiving relatively less attention. This is the case despite psychological evidence from other contexts that implicit preferences are more informative of behavior. Thus, the type of measure that predicts conservation intentions for biodiversity is unknown. We conducted three studies to examine conservation intentions in light of people's explicit and implicit preferences toward four endangered species (sea otter, American badger, caribou, yellow-breasted chat) and four biomes (forest, ocean, grassland, tundra). In Study 1 (n = 55), we found that people implicitly preferred caribou most, but explicitly preferred sea otter most, with a significant multiple regression where participants' explicit preferences dictated their stated intended donations for conservation of each species. In Study 2 (n = 57) we found that people implicitly and explicitly preferred forest and ocean over grassland and tundra. Explicit rather than implicit preferences predicted the intended donation for conservation of the ocean biome. Study 3 involved a broader online sample of participants (n = 463) and also found that explicit preferences dictated the intended donations for conservation of biomes and species. Our findings reveal discrepancies between implicit and explicit preferences toward species, but not toward biomes. Importantly, the results demonstrate that explicit rather than implicit preferences predict conservation intentions for biodiversity. The current findings have several implications for conservation and the communication of biodiversity initiatives.

  15. Response of Cross-biome Productivity to the Early 21st Century Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce-Campos, G. E.; Moran, S. M.; Huete, A. R.; Zhang, Y.; Bresloff, C. J.; Huxman, T. E.; Bosch, D. D.; Buda, A. R.; Gunter, S. A.; Kitchen, S. G.; McNab, W.; McClaran, M. P.; Morgan, J. A.; Peters, D. P.; Sadler, E.; Seyfried, M. S.; Starks, P. J.; Montoya, D. S.; Heartsill, T.; Eamus, D.

    2012-12-01

    The response of ecosystem productivity to contemporary drought coupled with record warming presents important challenges to predictive ecological modeling. In this study, we investigated the response of annual above-ground net primary production (ANPP) to precipitation variability during the early 21st century drought (2000-2009). The analysis combined satellite estimates of vegetation greenness with meteorological data from in situ climate network stations at experimental sites across a range of biomes from grassland to forest in Northern and Southern Hemispheres. We found that despite enduring prolonged warm drought conditions, all biomes retained their ANPP sensitivities to mean annual precipitation. Rain use efficiencies (RUE = ANPP/precipitation) were highest for the grassland and decreased with higher precipitation over the humid forest sites. For the most extreme drought conditions in the driest years, cross-biome RUE converged to a common, maximum rain use efficiency (RUEmax) that exceeded values previously reported. These results have implications for predicting productivity responses to potential climate change across a range of terrestrial biomes. The satellite-based approach demonstrated here may provide a means of monitoring productivity at experimental sites to better understand the consequences of predicted climate change on food security and resource management.

  16. Extreme precipitation patterns and reductions of terrestrial ecosystem production across biomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongguang; Susan Moran, M.; Nearing, Mark A.; Ponce Campos, Guillermo E.; Huete, Alfredo R.; Buda, Anthony R.; Bosch, David D.; Gunter, Stacey A.; Kitchen, Stanley G.; Henry McNab, W.; Morgan, Jack A.; McClaran, Mitchel P.; Montoya, Diane S.; Peters, Debra P. C.; Starks, Patrick J.

    2013-03-01

    Precipitation regimes are predicted to shift to more extreme patterns that are characterized by more heavy rainfall events and longer dry intervals, yet their ecological impacts on vegetation production remain uncertain across biomes in natural climatic conditions. This in situ study investigated the effects of these climatic conditions on aboveground net primary production (ANPP) by combining a greenness index from satellite measurements and climatic records during 2000-2009 from 11 long-term experimental sites in multiple biomes and climates. Results showed that extreme precipitation patterns decreased the sensitivity of ANPP to total annual precipitation (PT) at the regional and decadal scales, leading to decreased rain use efficiency (RUE; by 20% on average) across biomes. Relative decreases in ANPP were greatest for arid grassland (16%) and Mediterranean forest (20%) and less for mesic grassland and temperate forest (3%). The cooccurrence of heavy rainfall events and longer dry intervals caused greater water stress conditions that resulted in reduced vegetation production. A new generalized model was developed using a function of both PT and an index of precipitation extremes and improved predictions of the sensitivity of ANPP to changes in precipitation patterns. Our results suggest that extreme precipitation patterns have substantially negative effects on vegetation production across biomes and are as important as PT. With predictions of more extreme weather events, forecasts of ecosystem production should consider these nonlinear responses to altered extreme precipitation patterns associated with climate change.

  17. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and rodent reservoirs in the savanna-like biome of Brazil's southeastern region.

    PubMed

    Limongi, J E; Oliveira, R C; Guterres, A; Costa Neto, S F; Fernandes, J; Vicente, L H B; Coelho, M G; Ramos, V N; Ferreira, M S; Bonvicino, C R; D'Andrea, P S; Lemos, E R S

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the diversity of rodent fauna in an area endemic for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in Brazil, the population dynamics and the relationship of rodents with hantavirus in the Cerrado (savanna-like) biome. Additionally, an analysis is made of the partial S segment sequences of the hantaviruses obtained from serologically confirmed human HCPS cases and from rodent specimens. Rodents were collected during four campaigns. Human serum samples were collected from suspected cases of HCPS at hospitals in the state of Minas Gerais. The samples antibody-reactive by ELISA were processed by RT-PCR. The PCR product was amplified and sequenced. Hantavirus was detected only in Necromys lasiurus, the wild rodent species most prevalent in the Cerrado biome (min-max: 50-83·7%). All the six human serum samples were hantavirus seropositive and five showed amplified PCR products. The analysis of the nucleotide sequences showed the circulation of a single genotype, the Araraquara hantavirus. The environmental changes that have occurred in the Cerrado biome in recent decades have favoured N. lasiurus in interspecific competition of habitats, thus increasing the risk of contact between humans and rodent species infected with hantavirus. Our data corroborate the definition of N. lasiurus as the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome.

  18. BIOME: A scientific data archive search-and-order system using browser-aware, dynamic pages.

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, S.V.; Yow, T.G.; Ng, V.W.

    1997-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is a data archive and distribution center for the National Air and Space Administration`s (NASA) Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). Both the Earth Observing System (EOS) and EOSDIS are components of NASA`s contribution to the US Global Change Research Program through its Mission to Planet Earth Program. The ORNL DAAC provides access to data used in ecological and environmental research such as global change, global warming, and terrestrial ecology. Because of its large and diverse data holdings, the challenge for the ORNL DAAC is to help users find data of interest from the hundreds of thousands of files available at the DAAC without overwhelming them. Therefore, the ORNL DAAC has developed the Biogeochemical Information Ordering Management Environment (BIOME), a customized search and order system for the World Wide Web (WWW). BIOME is a public system located at http://www-eosdis.ornl.gov/BIOME/biome.html.

  19. Isolation and phylogenetic relationships of bat trypanosomes from different biomes in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marcili, Arlei; da Costa, Andrea P; Soares, Herbert S; Acosta, Igor da C L; de Lima, Julia T R; Minervino, Antonio H H; Melo, Andréia T L; Aguiar, Daniel M; Pacheco, Richard C; Gennari, Solange M

    2013-12-01

    In the order Chiroptera, more than 30 trypanosome species belonging to the subgenera Herpetosoma, Schizotrypanum, Megatrypanum, and Trypanozoon have been described. The species Trypanosoma cruzi , Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, and Trypanosoma dionisii are the most common in bats and belong to the Schizotrypanum subgenus. Bats from 2 different biomes, Pantanal and Amazonia/Cerrado in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were evaluated according to the presence of trypanosome parasites by means of hemoculture and PCR in primary samples (blood samples). A total of 211 bats from 20 different species were caught and the trypanosome prevalence, evaluated through hemoculture, was 9.0% (19), 15.5% (13), and 4.8% (6) in the municipalities of Confresa (Amazonia/Cerrado biome) and Poconé (Pantanal biome). Among the 123 primary samples obtained from the bats, only 3 (2.4%) were positive. Phylogenetic analysis using trypanosomatid barcoding (V7V8 region of SSU rDNA) identified all the isolates and primary samples as T. c. marinkellei. The sequences of the isolates were segregated according to the bat host genus or species and suggest that co-evolutionary patterns exist between hosts and parasites. Further studies in different Brazilian regions and biomes need to be conducted in order to gain real understanding of the diversity of trypanosomes in bats.

  20. Biome-specific scaling of ocean productivity, temperature, and carbon export efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britten, Gregory L.; Primeau, François W.

    2016-05-01

    Mass conservation and metabolic theory place constraints on how marine export production (EP) scales with net primary productivity (NPP) and sea surface temperature (SST); however, little is empirically known about how these relationships vary across ecologically distinct ocean biomes. Here we compiled in situ observations of EP, NPP, and SST and used statistical model selection theory to demonstrate significant biome-specific scaling relationships among these variables. Multiple statistically similar models yield a threefold variation in the globally integrated carbon flux (~4-12 Pg C yr-1) when applied to climatological satellite-derived NPP and SST. Simulated NPP and SST input variables from a 4×CO2 climate model experiment further show that biome-specific scaling alters the predicted response of EP to simulated increases of atmospheric CO2. These results highlight the need to better understand distinct pathways of carbon export across unique ecological biomes and may help guide proposed efforts for in situ observations of the ocean carbon cycle.

  1. Environmental Literacy through Relationships: Connecting Biomes and Society in a Sustainable City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haverkos, Kimberly; Bautista, Nazan

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors share a project developed and implemented in an eighth-grade science classroom in which students apply what they have learned about biomes to create sustainable cities. This project promotes environmental literacy through helping students understand the interrelated elements of sustainable environmental systems and how…

  2. Carbon storage in frozen loess and soils of the mammoth tundra-steppe biome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimov, N.; Zimov, S.; Zimova, A.; Zimova, G.; Chuprynin, V.; Chapin, S. F.

    2008-12-01

    During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), atmospheric CO2 concentration was 80-100 ppmv lower than in pre- industrial times. At the time of LGM steppe-tundra was the most extensive biome on Earth. Some estimates of the C storage in that biome assume that it was similar to cold desert and that the terrestrial carbon (C) reservoir increased at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition by 400-1300 Gt, requiring that the world oceans be a large C source. To estimate C storage in the entire steppe-tundra biome we used data of C storage in soils of this biome that persisted in permafrost of Siberia and Alaska and developed a model that describes C accumulation in soil profiles and in permafrost. The model shows a slow but consistent C increase in soil when permafrost appears. At the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary tundra-steppe soils became a C source of greater than 1000 Gt to the atmosphere. The implications of these model results are that the ocean was not a source of carbon but absorbed several hundreds of gigatons of C at that time. The model results also show that restoring the tundra-steppe ecosystem in northern Siberia would enhance soil C storage.

  3. The Biome Project: Developing a Legitimate Parallel Curriculum for Physical Education and Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastie, Peter Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the outcomes of a parallel curriculum project between life sciences and physical education. Throughout a 6-week period, students in grades two through five became members of teams that represented different animal species and biomes, and concurrently participated in a season of gymnastics skills and…

  4. Vegetation productivity responds to sub-annual climate conditions across semiarid biomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Southwestern United States (SW), the current prolonged warm drought is similar to the predicted future climate change scenarios for the region. This study aimed to determine patterns in vegetation response to the early 21st century drought across multiple biomes. We hypothesized that differen...

  5. Long term biosustainability in a high energy, low diversity crustal biome

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, L-H.; Wang, P-L.; Rumble, D.; Lippmann-Pipke, J.; SherwoodLollar, B.; Boice, E.; Pratt, L.; Brodie, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Andersen,G.L.; DeSantis, T.; Moser, D.P.; Kershaw, D.; Onstott, T.

    2006-10-01

    Geochemical, microbiological, and molecular analyses of alkaline saline groundwater at 2.8 kilometers depth in Archaean metabasalt revealed a microbial biome dominated by a single phylotype affiliated with thermophilic sulfate reducers belonging to Firmicutes. These sulfate reducers were sustained by geologically produced sulfate and hydrogen at concentrations sufficient to maintain activities for millions of years with no apparent reliance on photosynthetically derived substrates.

  6. Assessing the Urban Heat Island Effect Across Biomes in the Continental USA Using Landsat and MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, L.; Zhang, Ping; Wolfe, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Impervious surface area (ISA) from the Landsat TM and land surface temperature (LST) from MODIS averaged over three annual cycles (2003-2005) are used in a spatial analysis to assess the urban heat island (UHI) skin temperature amplitude and its relationship to development intensity, size, and ecological setting for 38 of the most populous cities in the continental United States. Development intensity zones based on %ISA are defined across urban gradients and used to stratify sampling of LST and NDVI. We find that ecological context significantly influences the amplitude of summer daytime UHI (urban - rural temperature difference) with the largest 8 C (average) for cities built in mixed forest biomes. For all cities ISA is the primary driver for increase in temperature explaining 70% of the total variance. Annually, urban areas are warmer than the non-urban fringe by 2.9 C, except in biomes with arid and semiarid climates. The average amplitude of the UHI is asymmetric with a 4.3 C difference in summer and 1.3 C in winter. In desert environments, UHI's point to a possible heat sink effect. Results show that the urban heat island amplitude increases with city size and is seasonally asymmetric for a large number of cities across most biomes. The implications are that for urban areas developed within forested ecosystems the summertime UHI can be quite high relative to the wintertime UHI suggesting that the residential energy consumption required for summer cooling is likely to increase with urban growth within those biomes.

  7. Nitrate uptake across biomes and the influence of elemental stoichiometry: A new look at LINX II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wymore, Adam S.; Coble, Ashley A.; Rodríguez-Cardona, Bianca; McDowell, William H.

    2016-08-01

    Considering recent increases in anthropogenic N loading, it is essential to identify the controls on N removal and retention in aquatic ecosystems because the fate of N has consequences for water quality in streams and downstream ecosystems. Biological uptake of nitrate (NO3-) is a major pathway by which N is removed from these ecosystems. Here we used data from the second Lotic Intersite Nitrogen eXperiment (LINX II) in a multivariate analysis to identify the primary drivers of variation in NO3- uptake velocity among biomes. Across 69 study watersheds in North America, dissolved organic carbon:NO3- ratios and photosynthetically active radiation were identified as the two most important predictor variables in explaining NO3- uptake velocity. However, within a specific biome the predictor variables of NO3- uptake velocity varied and included various physical, chemical, and biological attributes. Our analysis demonstrates the broad control of elemental stoichiometry on NO3- uptake velocity as well as the importance of biome-specific predictors. Understanding this spatial variation has important implications for biome-specific watershed management and the downstream export of NO3-, as well as for development of spatially explicit global models that describe N dynamics in streams and rivers.

  8. Late Quaternary and future biome simulations for Alaska and Eastern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Amy S.

    Arctic biomes across a region including Alaska and Eastern Russia were investigated using the BIOME4 biogeochemical and biogeography vegetation model. This study investigated past (the last 21,000 years), present, and future vegetation distributions in the study area, using climate forcing from five CMIP5 models (CCSM4, GISS-E2-R, MIROC-ESM, MPI-ESM, and MRI-CGCM3). The present-day BIOME4 simulations were generally consistent with current vegetation observations in the study region characterized by evergreen and deciduous taiga and shrub tundras. Paleoclimatological simulations were compared with pollen data samples collected in the study region. Pre-industrial biome simulations are generally similar to the modern reconstruction but differ by having more shrub tundra in both Russia and Alaska to the north, as well as less deciduous taiga in Alaska. Pre-industrial simulations were in good agreement with the pollen data. Mid-Holocene simulations place shrub tundras along the Arctic coast, and in some cases along the eastern coast of Russia. Simulations for the Mid-Holocene are in good agreement with pollen-based distributions of biomes. Simulations for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) show that the Bering Land Bridge was covered almost entirely by cushion forb, lichen and moss tundra, shrub tundra, and graminoid tundra. Three out of the five models' climate data produce evergreen and deciduous taiga in what is now southwestern Alaska, however the pollen data does not support this. The distributions of cushion forb, lichen, and moss tundra and graminoid tundra differ noticeably between models, while shrub tundra distributions are generally similar. Future simulations of BIOME4 based on the RCP8.5 climate scenario indicate a northward shift of the treeline and a significant areal decrease of shrub tundra and graminoid tundra regions in the 21st century. Intrusions of cool mixed, deciduous, and conifer forests above 60°N, especially in southwest Alaska, were notable

  9. Forgotten forests - issues and prospects in biome mapping using Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests as a case study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background South America is one of the most species diverse continents in the world. Within South America diversity is not distributed evenly at both local and continental scales and this has led to the recognition of various areas with unique species assemblages. Several schemes currently exist which divide the continental-level diversity into large species assemblages referred to as biomes. Here we review five currently available biome maps for South America, including the WWF Ecoregions, the Americas basemap, the Land Cover Map of South America, Morrone's Biogeographic regions of Latin America, and the Ecological Systems Map. The comparison is performed through a case study on the Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest (SDTF) biome using herbarium data of habitat specialist species. Results Current biome maps of South America perform poorly in depicting SDTF distribution. The poor performance of the maps can be attributed to two main factors: (1) poor spatial resolution, and (2) poor biome delimitation. Poor spatial resolution strongly limits the use of some of the maps in GIS applications, especially for areas with heterogeneous landscape such as the Andes. Whilst the Land Cover Map did not suffer from poor spatial resolution, it showed poor delimitation of biomes. The results highlight that delimiting structurally heterogeneous vegetation is difficult based on remote sensed data alone. A new refined working map of South American SDTF biome is proposed, derived using the Biome Distribution Modelling (BDM) approach where georeferenced herbarium data is used in conjunction with bioclimatic data. Conclusions Georeferenced specimen data play potentially an important role in biome mapping. Our study shows that herbarium data could be used as a way of ground-truthing biome maps in silico. The results also illustrate that herbarium data can be used to model vegetation maps through predictive modelling. The BDM approach is a promising new method in biome mapping, and could be

  10. Estimating 40 years of nitrogen deposition in global biomes using the SCIAMACHY NO2 column

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Xuehe; Zhang, Xiuying; Liu, Jinxun; Jin, Jiaxin

    2016-01-01

    Owing to human activity, global nitrogen (N) cycles have been altered. In the past 100 years, global N deposition has increased. Currently, the monitoring and estimating of N deposition and the evaluation of its effects on global carbon budgets are the focus of many researchers. NO2 columns retrieved by space-borne sensors provide us with a new way of exploring global N cycles and these have the ability to estimate N deposition. However, the time range limitation of NO2 columns makes the estimation of long timescale N deposition difficult. In this study we used ground-based NOx emission data to expand the density of NO2columns, and 40 years of N deposition (1970–2009) was inverted using the multivariate linear model with expanded NO2 columns. The dynamic of N deposition was examined in both global and biome scales. The results show that the average N deposition was 0.34 g N m–2 year–1 in the 2000s, which was an increase of 38.4% compared with the 1970s’. The total N deposition in different biomes is unbalanced. N deposition is only 38.0% of the global total in forest biomes; this is made up of 25.9%, 11.3, and 0.7% in tropical, temperate, and boreal forests, respectively. As N-limited biomes, there was little increase of N deposition in boreal forests. However, N deposition has increased by a total of 59.6% in tropical forests and croplands, which are N-rich biomes. Such characteristics may influence the effects on global carbon budgets.

  11. Forest carbon emissions from cropland expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado biome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noojipady, Praveen; Morton, C. Douglas; Macedo, N. Marcia; Victoria, C. Daniel; Huang, Chengquan; Gibbs, K. Holly; Edson Bolfe, L.

    2017-02-01

    Land use, land use change, and forestry accounted for two-thirds of Brazil’s greenhouse gas emissions profile in 2005. Amazon deforestation has declined by more than 80% over the past decade, yet Brazil’s forests extend beyond the Amazon biome. Rapid expansion of cropland in the neighboring Cerrado biome has the potential to undermine climate mitigation efforts if emissions from dry forest and woodland conversion negate some of the benefits of avoided Amazon deforestation. Here, we used satellite data on cropland expansion, forest cover, and vegetation carbon stocks to estimate annual gross forest carbon emissions from cropland expansion in the Cerrado biome. Nearly half of the Cerrado met Brazil’s definition of forest cover in 2000 (≥0.5 ha with ≥10% canopy cover). In areas of established crop production, conversion of both forest and non-forest Cerrado formations for cropland declined during 2003–2013. However, forest carbon emissions from cropland expansion increased over the past decade in Matopiba, a new frontier of agricultural production that includes portions of Maranhão, Tocantins, Piauí, and Bahia states. Gross carbon emissions from cropland expansion in the Cerrado averaged 16.28 Tg C yr‑1 between 2003 and 2013, with forest-to-cropland conversion accounting for 29% of emissions. The fraction of forest carbon emissions from Matopiba was much higher; between 2010–2013, large-scale cropland conversion in Matopiba contributed 45% of total Cerrado forest carbon emissions. Carbon emissions from Cerrado-to-cropland transitions offset 5%–7% of the avoided emissions from reduced Amazon deforestation rates during 2011–2013. Comprehensive national estimates of forest carbon fluxes, including all biomes, are critical to detect cross-biome leakage within countries and achieve climate mitigation targets to reduce emissions from land use, land use change, and forestry.

  12. The Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM) format or: how I learned to stop worrying and love the ome-ome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We present the Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM, pronounced “biome”) format: a JSON-based file format for representing arbitrary observation by sample contingency tables with associated sample and observation metadata. As the number of categories of comparative omics data types (collectively, the “ome-ome”) grows rapidly, a general format to represent and archive this data will facilitate the interoperability of existing bioinformatics tools and future meta-analyses. Findings The BIOM file format is supported by an independent open-source software project (the biom-format project), which initially contains Python objects that support the use and manipulation of BIOM data in Python programs, and is intended to be an open development effort where developers can submit implementations of these objects in other programming languages. Conclusions The BIOM file format and the biom-format project are steps toward reducing the “bioinformatics bottleneck” that is currently being experienced in diverse areas of biological sciences, and will help us move toward the next phase of comparative omics where basic science is translated into clinical and environmental applications. The BIOM file format is currently recognized as an Earth Microbiome Project Standard, and as a Candidate Standard by the Genomic Standards Consortium. PMID:23587224

  13. Licensee contractor and vendor inspection status report: Quarterly report, October--September, 1994. Volume 18, Number 4

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This periodical covers the results of inspections performed by the NRC`s Special Inspection Branch, Vendor Inspection Section, that have been distributed to the inspected organizations during the period from October 1994 through December 1994. The Vendor Inspection Section (VIS) of the Special Inspection Branch reviews and inspects nuclear steam system suppliers (NSSSs), architect engineering (AE) firms, suppliers of products and services, independent testing laboratories performing equipment qualification tests, and holders of NRC licenses (construction permit holders and operating licenses) in vendor-related areas. These inspections are performed to assure that the root causes of reported vendor-related problems are determined and appropriate corrective actions are developed. The inspections also review the vendors` conformance with applicable NRC and industry quality requirements, the adequacy of licensees` oversight of their vendors, and that adequate interfaces exist between licensees and vendors.

  14. Defining global syndromes of fire and the relationship of these to biomes, climate and human activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, C.; Archibald, S.; Gomez-Dans, J.; Bradstock, R.

    2012-12-01

    Fire is a ubiquitous component of the Earth system that remains poorly understood. To date, global scale understanding of fire is limited largely to the annual extent of burning as detected by satellites. This is problematic because fire is multi-dimensional, and focus on individual metrics belies both the complexity and importance of fire within the Earth system. In an applied sense, the lack of a unified understanding of fire impedes estimation of GHG emissions or prediction of future fire regimes as a consequence of changing patterns of climate and land use. To address this we identified five key characteristics of fire regimes: size, frequency, intensity, season and extent. We combined new global datasets with existing datasets to examine cross-correlations among characteristics. We demonstrate that only certain combinations of fire characteristics are possible and this likely reflects fundamental energetic constraints derived from interactions between under-lying fuel types, climate and rates of re-growth post-fire. For example, very intense fires can only occur infrequently because a system requires a lengthy period to develop sufficient fuel to burn. Further, very cool fires only occur infrequently because fuels are not available to burn. Following, we applied a clustering algorithm to these data to determine whether we could identify syndromes of fire regimes. Pyromes, as global syndromes of fire are conceptually analogous to biomes (global syndromes of vegetation) where the extent of each pyrome is determined solely as a product of the fire characteristics themselves. A point of difference to biomes being that no one has previously attempted to quantify the global range of fire syndromes. We identified five pyromes, four of which we believe represent distinctions between crown, litter and grass-fuelled fires. The relationship of pyromes to biomes and climate are not deterministic as different biomes and climates may be represented within a single pyrome

  15. Remote Sensing of the Urban Heat Island Effect Across Biomes in the Continental USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Zhang, Ping; Wolfe, Robert E.; Bounoua, Lahouari

    2010-01-01

    Impervious surface area (ISA) from the Landsat TM-based NLCD 2001 dataset and land surface temperature (LST) from MODIS averaged over three annual cycles (2003-2005) are used in a spatial analysis to assess the urban heat island (UHI) skin temperature amplitude and its relationship to development intensity, size, and ecological setting for 38 of the most populous cities in the continental United States. Development intensity zones based on %ISA are defined for each urban area emanating outward from the urban core to the nonurban rural areas nearby and used to stratify sampling for land surface temperatures and NDVI. Sampling is further constrained by biome and elevation to insure objective intercomparisons between zones and between cities in different biomes permitting the definition of hierarchically ordered zones that are consistent across urban areas in different ecological setting and across scales. We find that ecological context significantly influences the amplitude of summer daytime UHI (urban-rural temperature difference) the largest (8 C average) observed for cities built in biomes dominated by temperate broadleaf and mixed forest. For all cities combined, ISA is the primary driver for increase in temperature explaining 70% of the total variance in LST. On a yearly average, urban areas are substantially warmer than the non-urban fringe by 2.9 C, except for urban areas in biomes with arid and semiarid climates. The average amplitude of the UHI is remarkably asymmetric with a 4.3 C temperature difference in summer and only 1.3 C in winter. In desert environments, the LST's response to ISA presents an uncharacteristic "U-shaped" horizontal gradient decreasing from the urban core to the outskirts of the city and then increasing again in the suburban to the rural zones. UHI's calculated for these cities point to a possible heat sink effect. These observational results show that the urban heat island amplitude both increases with city size and is seasonally

  16. Licensee contractor and vendor inspection status report: Quarterly report, January--March 1997. Volume 21, Number 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    A fundamental premise of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing and inspection program is that licensees are responsible for the proper construction and safe and efficient operation of their nuclear power plants. The Federal government and nuclear industry have established a system for the inspection of commercial nuclear facilities to provide for multiple levels of inspection and verification. Each licensee, contractor, and vendor participates in a quality verification process in compliance with requirements prescribed by the NRC`s rules and regulations (Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations). The NRC does inspections to oversee the commercial nuclear industry to determine whether its requirements are being met by licensees and their contractors, while the major inspection effort is performed by the industry within the framework of quality verification programs. This periodical covers the results of inspections performed by the NRC`s Special Inspection Branch, Vendor Inspection Section, that have been distributed to the inspected organizations during the period from January 1997 through March 1997.

  17. Licensee contractor and vendor inspection status report: Quarterly report, July--September 1997. Volume 21, Number 3

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    A fundamental premise of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing and inspection program is that licensees are responsible for the proper construction and safe and efficient operation of their nuclear power plants. The Federal government and nuclear industry have established a system for the inspection of commercial nuclear facilities to provide for multiple levels of inspection and verification. Each licensee, contractor, and vendor participates in a quality verification process in compliance with requirements prescribed by the NRC`s rules and regulations (Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations). The NRC does inspections to oversee the commercial nuclear industry to determine whether its requirements are being met by licensees and their contractors, while the major inspection effort is performed by the industry within the framework of quality verification programs. This periodical covers the results if inspections that were performed by the NRC`s Special Inspection Branch, Vendor Inspection Section, and that were distributed to the inspected organizations during the period from July through September 1997.

  18. Licensee contractor and vendor inspection status report: Quarterly report, January--March 1996. Volume 20, Number 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    A fundamental premise of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing and inspection program is that licensees are responsible for the proper construction and safe and efficient operation of their nuclear power plants. The Federal government and nuclear industry have established a system for the inspection of commercial nuclear facilities to provide for multiple levels of inspection and verification. Each licensee, contractor, and vendor participates in a quality verification process in compliance with requirements prescribed by the NRC`s rules and regulations (Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations). The NRC does inspections to oversee the commercial nuclear industry to determine whether its requirements are being met by licensees and their contractors, while the major inspection effort is performed by the industry within the framework of quality verification programs. This periodical covers the results of inspections performed by the NRC`s Special Inspection Branch, Vendor Inspection Section, that have been distributed to the inspected organizations during the period from January 1996 through March 1996.

  19. Aridity, not fire, favors nitrogen-fixing plants across tropical savanna and forest biomes.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Adam F A; Staver, A Carla; Hedin, Lars O; Charles-Dominique, Tristan; Tourgee, Amy

    2016-09-01

    Tropical savannas are hypothesized to be hot spots of nitrogen-fixer diversity and activity because of the high disturbance and low nitrogen characteristic of savanna landscapes. Here we compare the abundances of nitrogen-fixing and non-fixing trees in both tropical savannas and tropical forests under climatically equivalent conditions, using plant inventory studies across 566 plots in South America and Africa. A single factor, aridity, explained 19-54% of the variance in fixer abundance, and unexpectedly was more important than fire frequency, biome, and continent. Nitrogen fixers were more abundant in arid environments; as a result, African savannas, which tend to be drier, were richer in nitrogen fixers than South American savannas. Fixer abundance converged on similar levels in forests in both continents. We conclude that climate plays a greater role than fire in determining the distribution of nitrogen fixers across tropical savanna and forest biomes.

  20. Developing Land Surface Type Map with Biome Classification Scheme Using Suomi NPP/JPSS VIIRS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Huang, Chengquan; Zhan, Xiwu; Jin, Huiran

    2016-08-01

    Accurate representation of actual terrestrial surface types at regional to global scales is an important element for a wide range of applications, such as land surface parameterization, modeling of biogeochemical cycles, and carbon cycle studies. In this study, in order to meet the requirement of the retrieval of global leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the vegetation (fPAR) and other studies, a global map generated from Suomi National Polar- orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) surface reflectance data in six major biome classes based on their canopy structures, which include: Grass/Cereal Crops, Shrubs, Broadleaf Crops, Savannas, Broadleaf Forests, and Needleleaf Forests, was created. The primary biome classes were converted from an International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) legend global surface type data that was created in previous study, and the separation of two crop types are based on a secondary classification.

  1. Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, a spotted fever group agent infecting Amblyomma parvum ticks in two Brazilian biomes.

    PubMed

    Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda Aparecida; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; Rossa, Giselle Ayres Razera; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Gennari, Solange Maria; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2014-04-01

    Adult ticks of the species Amblyomma parvum were collected from the vegetation in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and from horses in the Cerrado biome (state of Piauí) in Brazil. The ticks were individually tested for rickettsial infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting three rickettsial genes, gltA, ompA and ompB. Overall, 63.5% (40/63) and 66.7% (2/3) of A. parvum ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively, contained rickettsial DNA, which were all confirmed by DNA sequencing to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments of the gltA, ompA and ompB genes of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This report is the first to describe Ca. R. andeanae in Brazil.

  2. Estimation of Carbon Flux of Forest Ecosystem over Qilian Mountains by BIOME-BGC Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Min; Tian, Xin; Li, Zengyuan; Chen, Erxue; Li, Chunmei

    2014-11-01

    The gross primary production (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) are important indicators for carbon fluxes. This study aims at evaluating the forest GPP and NEE over the Qilian Mountains using meteorological, remotely sensed and other ancillary data at large scale. To realize this, the widely used ecological-process-based model, Biome-BGC, and remote-sensing-based model, MODIS GPP algorithm, were selected for the simulation of the forest carbon fluxes. The combination of these two models was based on calibrating the Biome-BGC by the optimized MODIS GPP algorithm. The simulated GPP and NEE values were evaluated against the eddy covariance observed GPPs and NEEs, and the well agreements have been reached, with R2=0.76, 0.67 respectively.

  3. Estimation of Carbon Flux of Forest Ecosystem over Qilian Mountains by BIOME-BGC Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Min; Tian, Xin; Li, Zengyuan; Chen, Erxue; Li, Chunmei

    2014-11-01

    The gross primary production (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) are important indicators for carbon fluxes. This study aims at evaluating the forest GPP and NEE over the Qilian Mountains using meteorological, remotely sensed and other ancillary data at large scale. To realize this, the widely used ecological-process- based model, Biome-BGC, and remote-sensing-based model, MODIS GPP algorithm, were selected for the simulation of the forest carbon fluxes. The combination of these two models was based on calibrating the Biome-BGC by the optimized MODIS GPP algorithm. The simulated GPP and NEE values were evaluated against the eddy covariance observed GPPs and NEEs, and the well agreements have been reached, with R2=0.76, 0.67 respectively.

  4. Equilibrium analysis of carbon pools and fluxes of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    Forests are an important component of the biosphere and sequestration of carbon in boreal forests may represent one of the few realistic alternatives to ameliorate changes in atmospheric chemistry. The former Soviet Union has the greatest expanse of boreal forests in the world; however, the role of these forests in the terrestrial carbon cycle is not fully understood because the carbon budget of the Soviet forest sector has not been established. In recognition of the need to determine the role of these forests in the global carbon cycle, the carbon budget of forest biomes in the former Soviet Union was assessed based on an equilibrium analysis of carbon cycle pools and fluxes. Net primary productivity was used to identify the rate of carbon turnover in the forest biomes.

  5. Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, a spotted fever group agent infecting Amblyomma parvum ticks in two Brazilian biomes

    PubMed Central

    Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda Aparecida; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; Rossa, Giselle Ayres Razera; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Gennari, Solange Maria; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2014-01-01

    Adult ticks of the species Amblyomma parvum were collected from the vegetation in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and from horses in the Cerrado biome (state of Piauí) in Brazil. The ticks were individually tested for rickettsial infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting three rickettsial genes, gltA, ompA and ompB. Overall, 63.5% (40/63) and 66.7% (2/3) of A. parvum ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively, contained rickettsial DNA, which were all confirmed by DNA sequencing to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments of the gltA, ompA and ompB genes of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This report is the first to describe Ca. R. andeanae in Brazil. PMID:24714968

  6. [The application of biomed-informatics in cardiovascular research--data and knowledge].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Peng; Sun, Dong-Yong; Lu, Ming; Qin, Pu; Shang, Tong

    2005-04-01

    With the development of biotechnology, especially the projects which lead to high throughout experimental results, lots of data have been jammed in every related fields, and broke the balance between data and knowledge in these fields. It is urgent to refine these data, and let them be more productive. To avoid these data being decaying into rubbish, technology and theory such as database, statistics, data mining, knowledge management, and artificial intelligence had been applied into biologic and medical study fields. So, a new standalone research subject--biomed-informatics has been formed. This paper reviewed the application of biomed-informatics in cardiovascular research, and gave the view for the future development of this subject.

  7. A hierarchical analysis of terrestrial ecosystem model Biome-BGC: Equilibrium analysis and model calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Peter E; Wang, Weile; Law, Beverly E.; Nemani, Ramakrishna R

    2009-01-01

    The increasing complexity of ecosystem models represents a major difficulty in tuning model parameters and analyzing simulated results. To address this problem, this study develops a hierarchical scheme that simplifies the Biome-BGC model into three functionally cascaded tiers and analyzes them sequentially. The first-tier model focuses on leaf-level ecophysiological processes; it simulates evapotranspiration and photosynthesis with prescribed leaf area index (LAI). The restriction on LAI is then lifted in the following two model tiers, which analyze how carbon and nitrogen is cycled at the whole-plant level (the second tier) and in all litter/soil pools (the third tier) to dynamically support the prescribed canopy. In particular, this study analyzes the steady state of these two model tiers by a set of equilibrium equations that are derived from Biome-BGC algorithms and are based on the principle of mass balance. Instead of spinning-up the model for thousands of climate years, these equations are able to estimate carbon/nitrogen stocks and fluxes of the target (steady-state) ecosystem directly from the results obtained by the first-tier model. The model hierarchy is examined with model experiments at four AmeriFlux sites. The results indicate that the proposed scheme can effectively calibrate Biome-BGC to simulate observed fluxes of evapotranspiration and photosynthesis; and the carbon/nitrogen stocks estimated by the equilibrium analysis approach are highly consistent with the results of model simulations. Therefore, the scheme developed in this study may serve as a practical guide to calibrate/analyze Biome-BGC; it also provides an efficient way to solve the problem of model spin-up, especially for applications over large regions. The same methodology may help analyze other similar ecosystem models as well.

  8. Shifting Environmental Ranges and Biome Potential According to the Whittaker Relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, R.; Garonna, I.; Schaepman, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Robert H. Whittaker classified biome types mainly as a function of Mean Annual Temperature (MAT) and Mean Annual Precipitation (MAP), resulting in the well-known Whittaker plot1. This relationship is still being used to map biomes globally2. The same inputs (MAT and MAP), augmented with a radiation proxy, are used in the resource-balance perspective for modeling large-scale vegetation productivity as a function of abiotic factors3. These two approaches, used in a temporally dynamic manner, provided us indicators of shifts in growth-limiting factors4 and associated environmental ranges of vegetation, which, in turn, are key indicators for the study of global change and biodiversity5. We present a study in which we used the Whittaker relationship and CRU TS 3.22 climatic data to map regions that showed variable biome potential. These regions are likely to indicate ecotones - i.e. interactions zones between biomes - that have been subject to abiotic change and where a change in the vegetation system can be anticipated. At the same time, we used remotely sensed data (GIMMS v3g 1982-2012) to study gradients in vegetation dynamics in these zones. Preliminary results show strongest environmental shifts in northern ecotones, e.g. on the tundra - boreal boundary, and associated changes in climatic growth-limiting factors4. [1] Whittaker RH (1975) Communities and Ecosystems, Macmillan, 385p.[2] Ricklefs RE (2008) The Economy of Nature, W. H. Freeman, 620p.[3] Field CB, Randerson JT, Malmström CM (1995) Global net primary production: Combining ecology and remote sensing. Remote Sensing of Environment, 51, 74-88.[4] Schenkel D, Garonna I, De Jong R, Schaepman ME (this conference) Linking Land Surface Phenology and Growth Limiting Factor Shifts over the Past 30 Years.[5] University of Zurich Research Priority Program on Global Change and Biodiversity, http://www.gcb.uzh.ch

  9. Ecological consequences of the expansion of N₂-fixing plants in cold biomes.

    PubMed

    Hiltbrunner, Erika; Aerts, Rien; Bühlmann, Tobias; Huss-Danell, Kerstin; Magnusson, Borgthor; Myrold, David D; Reed, Sasha C; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D; Körner, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Research in warm-climate biomes has shown that invasion by symbiotic dinitrogen (N2)-fixing plants can transform ecosystems in ways analogous to the transformations observed as a consequence of anthropogenic, atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition: declines in biodiversity, soil acidification, and alterations to carbon and nutrient cycling, including increased N losses through nitrate leaching and emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Here, we used literature review and case study approaches to assess the evidence for similar transformations in cold-climate ecosystems of the boreal, subarctic and upper montane-temperate life zones. Our assessment focuses on the plant genera Lupinus and Alnus, which have become invasive largely as a consequence of deliberate introductions and/or reduced land management. These cold biomes are commonly located in remote areas with low anthropogenic N inputs, and the environmental impacts of N2-fixer invasion appear to be as severe as those from anthropogenic N deposition in highly N polluted areas. Hence, inputs of N from N2 fixation can affect ecosystems as dramatically or even more strongly than N inputs from atmospheric deposition, and biomes in cold climates represent no exception with regard to the risk of being invaded by N2-fixing species. In particular, the cold biomes studied here show both a strong potential to be transformed by N2-fixing plants and a rapid subsequent saturation in the ecosystem's capacity to retain N. Therefore, analogous to increases in N deposition, N2-fixing plant invasions must be deemed significant threats to biodiversity and to environmental quality.

  10. Explicit Not Implicit Preferences Predict Conservation Intentions for Endangered Species and Biomes

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kai M. A.; Satterfield, Terre; Zhao, Jiaying

    2017-01-01

    Conservation of biodiversity is determined in part by human preferences. Preferences relevant to conservation have been examined largely via explicit measures (e.g., a self-reported degree of liking), with implicit measures (e.g., preconscious, automatic evaluations) receiving relatively less attention. This is the case despite psychological evidence from other contexts that implicit preferences are more informative of behavior. Thus, the type of measure that predicts conservation intentions for biodiversity is unknown. We conducted three studies to examine conservation intentions in light of people’s explicit and implicit preferences toward four endangered species (sea otter, American badger, caribou, yellow-breasted chat) and four biomes (forest, ocean, grassland, tundra). In Study 1 (n = 55), we found that people implicitly preferred caribou most, but explicitly preferred sea otter most, with a significant multiple regression where participants’ explicit preferences dictated their stated intended donations for conservation of each species. In Study 2 (n = 57) we found that people implicitly and explicitly preferred forest and ocean over grassland and tundra. Explicit rather than implicit preferences predicted the intended donation for conservation of the ocean biome. Study 3 involved a broader online sample of participants (n = 463) and also found that explicit preferences dictated the intended donations for conservation of biomes and species. Our findings reveal discrepancies between implicit and explicit preferences toward species, but not toward biomes. Importantly, the results demonstrate that explicit rather than implicit preferences predict conservation intentions for biodiversity. The current findings have several implications for conservation and the communication of biodiversity initiatives. PMID:28135298

  11. The 13th Annual Aurora Biomed Ion Channel Retreat: Three Days of Research, Technology, and Networking.

    PubMed

    Magee, Kaylee E A; Stanwood, Shawna R

    2016-03-01

    The 13th Annual Ion Channel Retreat was held by Aurora Biomed in Vancouver, Canada from July 7 to 9, 2015. The meeting showcased prominent current research including cardiac safety and pharmacology; ion channel structure, function and engineering; transporters and ion pumps; screening technologies; ion channels as disease targets; alcohol, tobacco, and ion channels; and ion channels as pain targets. This report summarizes the work presented at the retreat.

  12. Ecological consequences of the expansion of N2-fixing plants in cold biomes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hiltbrunner, Erika; Aerts, Rien; Bühlmann, Tobias; Huss-Danell, Kerstin; Magnusson, Borgthor; Myrold, David D.; Reed, Sasha C.; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Körner, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Research in warm-climate biomes has shown that invasion by symbiotic dinitrogen (N2)-fixing plants can transform ecosystems in ways analogous to the transformations observed as a consequence of anthropogenic, atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition: declines in biodiversity, soil acidification, and alterations to carbon and nutrient cycling, including increased N losses through nitrate leaching and emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Here, we used literature review and case study approaches to assess the evidence for similar transformations in cold-climate ecosystems of the boreal, subarctic and upper montane-temperate life zones. Our assessment focuses on the plant genera Lupinus and Alnus, which have become invasive largely as a consequence of deliberate introductions and/or reduced land management. These cold biomes are commonly located in remote areas with low anthropogenic N inputs, and the environmental impacts of N2-fixer invasion appear to be as severe as those from anthropogenic N deposition in highly N polluted areas. Hence, inputs of N from N2 fixation can affect ecosystems as dramatically or even more strongly than N inputs from atmospheric deposition, and biomes in cold climates represent no exception with regard to the risk of being invaded by N2-fixing species. In particular, the cold biomes studied here show both a strong potential to be transformed by N2-fixing plants and a rapid subsequent saturation in the ecosystem’s capacity to retain N. Therefore, analogous to increases in N deposition, N2-fixing plant invasions must be deemed significant threats to biodiversity and to environmental quality.

  13. Quantifying the resilience of carbon dynamics in semi-arid biomes in the Southwestern U.S. to drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, M. E.; Krofcheck, D. J.; Maurer, G.

    2015-12-01

    Semi-arid biomes in many parts of the Southwestern U.S. have experienced a range of precipitation over the last decade, ranging from wetter than average years 2006-2010 (relative to the 40-year PRISM mean), extreme drought years (2010-2011) and slightly dry-average precipitation years (2013-2015). While annual carbon uptake in semi-arid biomes of the Southwestern US is relatively low, compared to more temperate ecosystems, collectively these biomes store a significant amount of carbon on a regional scale. It is therefore of great interest to understand what impact this range in precipitation variability has on inter- and intra- annual variability in regional carbon dynamics. We use an 9 year record from 2007-2015 of continuous measurements of net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and its components (gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re), made across a network of flux towers along an elevation/aridity gradient in New Mexico, the New Mexico Elevation Gradient (NMEG), to quantify biome-specific responses of carbon dynamics to climate variability over this time period. Biomes include a desert grassland, creosote shrubland, juniper savanna, piñon-juniper woodland, and ponderosa pine and subalpine mixed conifer forests. We compared daily, seasonal and annual NEP, GPP and Re means between pre-drought (2007-2010), drought (2011-2012), and post-drought years (2013-2015). All biomes sequestered less carbon in the drought years, compared to the pre-drought years (~30-40, 270 and 60 g C/m2 less in low and middle elevation biomes, ponderosa pine, and mixed conifer forest, respectively), as GPP in all biomes was more sensitive to the drought than Re. In the post-drought years, GPP was still only 80-90% what it was in the pre-drought years. Re, however, in all biomes except for the creosote shrubland, was 5-15% higher in the post-drought years compared to pre-drought. As a result, carbon sequestration in these biomes was 20-75% lower in the post

  14. Satellite-based Biome Productivity Responses to Large Scale Drought and Wet Cycles in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huete, A. R.; Ma, X.; Ponce-Campos, G. E.; Moran, S. M.; Davies, K.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Broich, M.; Eamus, D.

    2012-12-01

    Australia's climate is extremely variable with inter annual rainfall at any location varying up to eight-fold. Understanding water and productivity relationships represent key issues in climate change models that aim to predict how carbon and water relationships will shift with projected changes in the frequency, timing, amount and intensity of rainfall. After a decadal long drought cycle, Australia has experienced one of the wettest periods of recorded rainfall. In this study we assessed cross-biome responses to extreme drought and wet periods across continental Australia through investigations of rainfall use efficiencies (RUE), defined as above-ground net primary production (ANPP) divided by annual rainfall. 12 years of annually integrated MODIS satellite enhanced vegetation index (iEVI) were used as proxies of ANPP and combined with rainfall data to assess large area spatial and temporal patterns in rainfall use efficiency (RUE). Positive curvilinear relationships were found between iEVI and annual rainfall with decreasing sensitivity of iEVI to additional rainfall at the more humid and energy-limited tropical savannas and forests. The driest years resulted in all biomes converging to a common and maximum RUE, or RUEmax with ANPP and precipitation relationships that became strongly linear. Standardized anomaly values showed significantly enhanced ANPP values during the 2010 and 2011 wet years, however, these values were less than encountered prior to the decade long drought, suggesting a significant loss in resilience in many Australian biomes.

  15. Development of the BIOME-BGC model for the simulation of managed Moso bamboo forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mao, Fangjie; Li, Pingheng; Zhou, Guomo; Du, Huaqiang; Xu, Xiaojun; Shi, Yongjun; Mo, Lufeng; Zhou, Yufeng; Tu, Guoqing

    2016-05-01

    Numerical models are the most appropriate instrument for the analysis of the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems and their interactions with changing environmental conditions. The process-based model BIOME-BGC is widely used in simulation of carbon balance within vegetation, litter and soil of unmanaged ecosystems. For Moso bamboo forests, however, simulations with BIOME-BGC are inaccurate in terms of the growing season and the carbon allocation, due to the oversimplified representation of phenology. Our aim was to improve the applicability of BIOME-BGC for managed Moso bamboo forest ecosystem by implementing several new modules, including phenology, carbon allocation, and management. Instead of the simple phenology and carbon allocation representations in the original version, a periodic Moso bamboo phenology and carbon allocation module was implemented, which can handle the processes of Moso bamboo shooting and high growth during "on-year" and "off-year". Four management modules (digging bamboo shoots, selective cutting, obtruncation, fertilization) were integrated in order to quantify the functioning of managed ecosystems. The improved model was calibrated and validated using eddy covariance measurement data collected at a managed Moso bamboo forest site (Anji) during 2011-2013 years. As a result of these developments and calibrations, the performance of the model was substantially improved. Regarding the measured and modeled fluxes (gross primary production, total ecosystem respiration, net ecosystem exchange), relative errors were decreased by 42.23%, 103.02% and 18.67%, respectively.

  16. Seasonal patterns of horse fly richness and abundance in the Pampa biome of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Rodrigo Ferreira; Krolow, Tiago Kütter

    2015-12-01

    Fluctuations in seasonal patterns of horse fly populations were examined in rainforests of tropical South America, where the climate is seasonal. These patterns were evaluated with robust analytical models rather than identifying the main factors that influenced the fluctuations. We examined the seasonality of populations of horse flies in fields and lowland areas of the Pampa biome of southern Brazil with generalized linear models. We also investigated the diversity of these flies and the sampling effort of Malaise traps in this biome over two years. All of the 29 species had clear seasonality with regard to occurrence and abundance, but only seven species were identified as being influenced by temperature and humidity. The sampling was sufficient and the estimated diversity was 10% more than observed. Seasonal trends were synchronized across species and the populations were most abundant between September and March and nearly zero in other months. While previous studies demonstrated that seasonal patterns in population fluctuations are correlated with climatic conditions in horse fly assemblages in South America rainforests, we show a clear effect of each factor on richness and abundance and the seasonality in the prevalence of horse fly assemblages in localities of the Pampa biome.

  17. iBIOMES Lite: summarizing biomolecular simulation data in limited settings.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Julien C; Cheatham, Thomas E; Facelli, Julio C

    2014-06-23

    As the amount of data generated by biomolecular simulations dramatically increases, new tools need to be developed to help manage this data at the individual investigator or small research group level. In this paper, we introduce iBIOMES Lite, a lightweight tool for biomolecular simulation data indexing and summarization. The main goal of iBIOMES Lite is to provide a simple interface to summarize computational experiments in a setting where the user might have limited privileges and limited access to IT resources. A command-line interface allows the user to summarize, publish, and search local simulation data sets. Published data sets are accessible via static hypertext markup language (HTML) pages that summarize the simulation protocols and also display data analysis graphically. The publication process is customized via extensible markup language (XML) descriptors while the HTML summary template is customized through extensible stylesheet language (XSL). iBIOMES Lite was tested on different platforms and at several national computing centers using various data sets generated through classical and quantum molecular dynamics, quantum chemistry, and QM/MM. The associated parsers currently support AMBER, GROMACS, Gaussian, and NWChem data set publication. The code is available at https://github.com/jcvthibault/ibiomes .

  18. Global negative vegetation feedback to climate warming responses of leaf litter decomposition rates in cold biomes.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Johannes H C; van Bodegom, Peter M; Aerts, Rien; Callaghan, Terry V; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Alatalo, Juha; Chapin, F Stuart; Gerdol, Renato; Gudmundsson, Jon; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan; Hartley, Anne E; Hik, David S; Hofgaard, Annika; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S; Karlsson, Staffan; Klein, Julia A; Laundre, Jim; Magnusson, Borgthor; Michelsen, Anders; Molau, Ulf; Onipchenko, Vladimir G; Quested, Helen M; Sandvik, Sylvi M; Schmidt, Inger K; Shaver, Gus R; Solheim, Bjørn; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A; Stenström, Anna; Tolvanen, Anne; Totland, Ørjan; Wada, Naoya; Welker, Jeffrey M; Zhao, Xinquan

    2007-07-01

    Whether climate change will turn cold biomes from large long-term carbon sinks into sources is hotly debated because of the great potential for ecosystem-mediated feedbacks to global climate. Critical are the direction, magnitude and generality of climate responses of plant litter decomposition. Here, we present the first quantitative analysis of the major climate-change-related drivers of litter decomposition rates in cold northern biomes worldwide. Leaf litters collected from the predominant species in 33 global change manipulation experiments in circum-arctic-alpine ecosystems were incubated simultaneously in two contrasting arctic life zones. We demonstrate that longer-term, large-scale changes to leaf litter decomposition will be driven primarily by both direct warming effects and concomitant shifts in plant growth form composition, with a much smaller role for changes in litter quality within species. Specifically, the ongoing warming-induced expansion of shrubs with recalcitrant leaf litter across cold biomes would constitute a negative feedback to global warming. Depending on the strength of other (previously reported) positive feedbacks of shrub expansion on soil carbon turnover, this may partly counteract direct warming enhancement of litter decomposition.

  19. Diversity and molecular characterization of novel hemoplasmas infecting wild rodents from different Brazilian biomes.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; Matos, Carlos Antonio; Fernandes, Simone de Jesus; Olmos, Isabella Delamain Fernandez; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

    2015-12-01

    Although hemoplasma infection in domestic animals has been well documented, little is known about the prevalence and genetic diversity of these bacteria in wild rodents. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of hemotrophic mycoplasmas in wild rodents from five Brazilian biomes, assessing the 16S rRNA phylogenetic position of hemoplasma species by molecular approach. Spleen tissues were obtained from 500 rodents, comprising 52 different rodent species trapped between 2000 and 2011. DNA samples were submitted to previously described PCR protocols for amplifying Mycoplasma spp. based on 16S rRNA, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic inferences. Among 457 rodent spleen samples showing absence of inhibitors, 100 (21.9%) were PCR positive to Mycoplasma spp. The occurrence of hemotropic mycoplasmas among all sampled rodents was demonstrated in all five biomes and ranged from 9.3% (7/75) to 26.2% (38/145). The Blastn analysis showed that amplified sequences had a percentage of identity ranging from 86 to 99% with other murine hemoplasmas. The ML phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene of 24 positive randomly selected samples showed the presence of ten distinct groups, all clustering within the Mycoplasma haemofelis. The phylogenetic assessment suggests the circulation of novel hemoplasma species in rodents from different biomes in Brazil.

  20. Association of Bartonella Species with Wild and Synanthropic Rodents in Different Brazilian Biomes.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Favacho, Alexsandra Rodrigues de Mendonça; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; Mendes, Natalia Serra; Fidelis Junior, Otávio Luiz; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; D'Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

    2016-12-15

    Bartonella spp. comprise an ecologically successful group of microorganisms that infect erythrocytes and have adapted to different hosts, which include a wide range of mammals, besides humans. Rodents are reservoirs of about two-thirds of Bartonella spp. described to date; and some of them have been implicated as causative agents of human diseases. In our study, we performed molecular and phylogenetic analyses of Bartonella spp. infecting wild rodents from five different Brazilian biomes. In order to characterize the genetic diversity of Bartonella spp., we performed a robust analysis based on three target genes, followed by sequencing, Bayesian inference, and maximum likelihood analysis. Bartonella spp. were detected in 25.6% (117/457) of rodent spleen samples analyzed, and this occurrence varied among different biomes. The diversity analysis of gltA sequences showed the presence of 15 different haplotypes. Analysis of the phylogenetic relationship of gltA sequences performed by Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood showed that the Bartonella species detected in rodents from Brazil was closely related to the phylogenetic group A detected in other cricetid rodents from North America, probably constituting only one species. Last, the Bartonella species genogroup identified in the present study formed a monophyletic group that included Bartonella samples from seven different rodent species distributed in three distinct biomes. In conclusion, our study showed that the occurrence of Bartonella bacteria in rodents is much more frequent and widespread than previously recognized.

  1. Diverging shrub and tree growth from the Polar to the Mediterranean biomes across the European continent.

    PubMed

    Pellizzari, Elena; Camarero, Jesus Julio; Gazol, Antonio; Granda, Elena; Shetti, Rohan; Wilmking, Martin; Moiseev, Pavel; Pividori, Mario; Carrer, Marco

    2016-11-25

    Climate warming is expected to enhance productivity and growth of woody plants, particularly in temperature-limited environments at the northernmost or uppermost limits of their distribution. However, this warming is spatially uneven and temporally variable, and the rise in temperatures differently affects biomes and growth forms. Here, applying a dendroecological approach with generalized additive mixed models, we analysed how the growth of shrubby junipers and coexisting trees (larch and pine species) responds to rising temperatures along a 5000-km latitudinal range including sites from the Polar, Alpine to the Mediterranean biomes. We hypothesize that, being more coupled to ground microclimate, junipers will be less influenced by atmospheric conditions and will less respond to the post-1950 climate warming than coexisting standing trees. Unexpectedly, shrub and tree growth forms revealed divergent growth trends in all the three biomes, with juniper performing better than trees at Mediterranean than at Polar and Alpine sites. The post-1980s decline of tree growth in Mediterranean sites might be induced by drought stress amplified by climate warming and did not affect junipers. We conclude that different but coexisting long-living growth forms can respond differently to the same climate factor and that, even in temperature-limited area, other drivers like the duration of snow cover might locally play a fundamental role on woody plants growth across Europe.

  2. The future distribution of the savannah biome: model-based and biogeographic contingency.

    PubMed

    Moncrieff, Glenn R; Scheiter, Simon; Langan, Liam; Trabucco, Antonio; Higgins, Steven I

    2016-09-19

    The extent of the savannah biome is expected to be profoundly altered by climatic change and increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Contrasting projections are given when using different modelling approaches to estimate future distributions. Furthermore, biogeographic variation within savannahs in plant function and structure is expected to lead to divergent responses to global change. Hence the use of a single model with a single savannah tree type will likely lead to biased projections. Here we compare and contrast projections of South American, African and Australian savannah distributions from the physiologically based Thornley transport resistance statistical distribution model (TTR-SDM)-and three versions of a dynamic vegetation model (DVM) designed and parametrized separately for specific continents. We show that attempting to extrapolate any continent-specific model globally biases projections. By 2070, all DVMs generally project a decrease in the extent of savannahs at their boundary with forests, whereas the TTR-SDM projects a decrease in savannahs at their boundary with aridlands and grasslands. This difference is driven by forest and woodland expansion in response to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations in DVMs, unaccounted for by the TTR-SDM. We suggest that the most suitable models of the savannah biome for future development are individual-based dynamic vegetation models designed for specific biogeographic regions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tropical grassy biomes: linking ecology, human use and conservation'.

  3. Beyond the climate envelope: using trait filtering models to predict biome boundaries from plant physiology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, R.; Hoffmann, W. A.; Muszala, S.

    2014-12-01

    The introduction of second-generation dynamic vegetation models - which simulate the distribution of light resources between plant types along the vertical canopy profile, and therefore facilitate the representation of plant competition explicitly - is a large increase in the complexity and fidelity with which the terrestrial biosphere is abstracted into Earth System Models. In this new class of model, biome boundaries are predicted as the emergent properties of plant physiology, and are therefore sensitive to the high-dimensional parameterizations of plant functional traits. These new approaches offer the facility to quantitatively test ecophysiological hypotheses of plant distribution at large scales, a field which remains surprisingly under-developed. Here we describe experiments conducted with the Community Land Model Ecosystem Demography component, CLM(ED), in which we reduce the complexity of the problem by testing how individual plant functional trait changes to control the location of biome boundaries between functional types. Specifically, we investigate which physiological trade-offs determine the boundary between frequently burned savanna and forest biomes, and attempt to distinguish how each strategic life-history trade-off (carbon storage, bark investment, re-sprouting strategy) contributes towards the maintenance of sharp geographical gradients between fire adapted and typically inflammable closed canopy ecosystems. This study forms part of the planning for a model-inspired fire manipulation experiment at the cerrado-forest boundary in South-Eastern Brazil, and the results will be used to guide future data-collection and analysis strategies.

  4. Convergence in the temperature response of leaf respiration across biomes and plant functional types

    PubMed Central

    Heskel, Mary A.; O’Sullivan, Odhran S.; Reich, Peter B.; Tjoelker, Mark G.; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K.; Penillard, Aurore; Egerton, John J. G.; Creek, Danielle; Bloomfield, Keith J.; Xiang, Jen; Sinca, Felipe; Stangl, Zsofia R.; Martinez-de la Torre, Alberto; Griffin, Kevin L.; Huntingford, Chris; Hurry, Vaughan; Meir, Patrick; Turnbull, Matthew H.; Atkin, Owen K.

    2016-01-01

    Plant respiration constitutes a massive carbon flux to the atmosphere, and a major control on the evolution of the global carbon cycle. It therefore has the potential to modulate levels of climate change due to the human burning of fossil fuels. Neither current physiological nor terrestrial biosphere models adequately describe its short-term temperature response, and even minor differences in the shape of the response curve can significantly impact estimates of ecosystem carbon release and/or storage. Given this, it is critical to establish whether there are predictable patterns in the shape of the respiration–temperature response curve, and thus in the intrinsic temperature sensitivity of respiration across the globe. Analyzing measurements in a comprehensive database for 231 species spanning 7 biomes, we demonstrate that temperature-dependent increases in leaf respiration do not follow a commonly used exponential function. Instead, we find a decelerating function as leaves warm, reflecting a declining sensitivity to higher temperatures that is remarkably uniform across all biomes and plant functional types. Such convergence in the temperature sensitivity of leaf respiration suggests that there are universally applicable controls on the temperature response of plant energy metabolism, such that a single new function can predict the temperature dependence of leaf respiration for global vegetation. This simple function enables straightforward description of plant respiration in the land-surface components of coupled earth system models. Our cross-biome analyses shows significant implications for such fluxes in cold climates, generally projecting lower values compared with previous estimates. PMID:27001849

  5. Water and CO2 Exchange for Different Land Use in Pampa Biome in Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberti, D. R.; de Moraes, O. L. L.; Diaz, M.; Tatsch, J. D.; Acevedo, O. C.; Zimermann, H. R.; Rubert, G. C.; Acosta, R.; Campos Velho, H. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Pampa is the newest and most unknown Brazilian Biome. It is located in the Southern portion of the country, as well as part of Argentina and the entire Uruguay, and is formed principally by natural grasslands that have been used for centuries for grazing livestock. In recent decades it has gone through a process of intense land use change and degradation, with the replacement of natural vegetation by rice paddy crops, soybean and exotic forests. Recent studies show that the Pampa has only 36% of its original vegetation in Brazil. Research on carbon and greenhouse gas emissions in Pampa Biome are recent. It is known that the Pampa natural areas contain high stocks of soil organic carbon, and therefore their conservation is relevant for climate change mitigation. However, the net exchange of carbon and water between the surface and the atmosphere are unknown. To fill this gap, a flux tower network, SULFLUX - www.ufsm.br/sulfux, was created. Currently, SULFLUX comprises three flux towers in the Pampa biome, two of them being over natural vegetation and the other one over a rice paddy. The flux towers are nearly 100 km apart from each other. We examine the effects of climate on carbon fluxes of through the year 2014. Analysis of temporal variability in water and CO2 fluxes are examined at daily to annual scales. Overall, regional variability in climatic drivers, land use and soil proprieties appears to have a greater effect on evapotranspiration than on net carbon exchange.

  6. A quantitative assessment of a terrestrial biosphere model's data needs across North American biomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, Michael C.; Serbin, Shawn P.; Davidson, Carl; Desai, Ankur R.; Feng, Xiaohui; Kelly, Ryan; Kooper, Rob; LeBauer, David; Mantooth, Joshua; McHenry, Kenton; Wang, Dan

    2014-03-01

    Terrestrial biosphere models are designed to synthesize our current understanding of how ecosystems function, test competing hypotheses of ecosystem function against observations, and predict responses to novel conditions such as those expected under climate change. Reducing uncertainties in such models can improve both basic scientific understanding and our predictive capacity, but rarely are ecosystem models employed in the design of field campaigns. We provide a synthesis of carbon cycle uncertainty analyses conducted using the Predictive Ecosystem Analyzer ecoinformatics workflow with the Ecosystem Demography model v2. This work is a synthesis of multiple projects, using Bayesian data assimilation techniques to incorporate field data and trait databases across temperate forests, grasslands, agriculture, short rotation forestry, boreal forests, and tundra. We report on a number of data needs that span a wide array of diverse biomes, such as the need for better constraint on growth respiration, mortality, stomatal conductance, and water uptake. We also identify data needs that are biome specific, such as photosynthetic quantum efficiency at high latitudes. We recommend that future data collection efforts balance the bias of past measurements toward aboveground processes in temperate biomes with the sensitivities of different processes as represented by ecosystem models. ©2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Plant phylogeny as a window on the evolution of hyperdiversity in the tropical rainforest biome.

    PubMed

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L; Couvreur, Thomas L P; Baker, William J

    2017-03-09

    I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. References SUMMARY: Tropical rainforest (TRF) is the most species-rich terrestrial biome on Earth, harbouring just under half of the world's plant species in c. 7% of the land surface. Phylogenetic trees provide important insights into mechanisms underpinning TRF hyperdiversity that are complementary to those obtained from the fossil record. Phylogenetic studies of TRF plant diversity have mainly focused on whether this biome is an evolutionary 'cradle' or 'museum', emphasizing speciation and extinction rates. However, other explanations, such as biome age, immigration and ecological limits, must also be considered. We present a conceptual framework for addressing the drivers of TRF diversity, and review plant studies that have tested them with phylogenetic data. Although surprisingly few in number, these studies point to old age of TRF, low extinction and high speciation rates as credible drivers of TRF hyperdiversity. There is less evidence for immigration and ecological limits, but these cannot be dismissed owing to the limited number of studies. Rapid methodological developments in DNA sequencing, macroevolutionary analysis and the integration of phylogenetics with other disciplines may improve our grasp of TRF hyperdiversity in the future. However, such advances are critically dependent on fundamental systematic research, yielding numerous, additional, well-sampled phylogenies of TRF lineages.

  8. Convergence in the temperature response of leaf respiration across biomes and plant functional types.

    PubMed

    Heskel, Mary A; O'Sullivan, Odhran S; Reich, Peter B; Tjoelker, Mark G; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Penillard, Aurore; Egerton, John J G; Creek, Danielle; Bloomfield, Keith J; Xiang, Jen; Sinca, Felipe; Stangl, Zsofia R; Martinez-de la Torre, Alberto; Griffin, Kevin L; Huntingford, Chris; Hurry, Vaughan; Meir, Patrick; Turnbull, Matthew H; Atkin, Owen K

    2016-04-05

    Plant respiration constitutes a massive carbon flux to the atmosphere, and a major control on the evolution of the global carbon cycle. It therefore has the potential to modulate levels of climate change due to the human burning of fossil fuels. Neither current physiological nor terrestrial biosphere models adequately describe its short-term temperature response, and even minor differences in the shape of the response curve can significantly impact estimates of ecosystem carbon release and/or storage. Given this, it is critical to establish whether there are predictable patterns in the shape of the respiration-temperature response curve, and thus in the intrinsic temperature sensitivity of respiration across the globe. Analyzing measurements in a comprehensive database for 231 species spanning 7 biomes, we demonstrate that temperature-dependent increases in leaf respiration do not follow a commonly used exponential function. Instead, we find a decelerating function as leaves warm, reflecting a declining sensitivity to higher temperatures that is remarkably uniform across all biomes and plant functional types. Such convergence in the temperature sensitivity of leaf respiration suggests that there are universally applicable controls on the temperature response of plant energy metabolism, such that a single new function can predict the temperature dependence of leaf respiration for global vegetation. This simple function enables straightforward description of plant respiration in the land-surface components of coupled earth system models. Our cross-biome analyses shows significant implications for such fluxes in cold climates, generally projecting lower values compared with previous estimates.

  9. Evolutionary history of a keystone pollinator parallels the biome occupancy of angiosperms in the Greater Cape Floristic Region.

    PubMed

    de Jager, Marinus L; Ellis, Allan G

    2017-02-01

    The Greater Cape Floristic Region (GCFR) in South Africa has been extensively investigated for its phenomenal angiosperm diversity. A key emergent pattern is the occurrence of older plant lineages in the southern Fynbos biome and younger lineages in the northern Succulent Karoo biome. We know practically nothing, however, about the evolutionary history of the animals that pollinate this often highly-specialized flora. In this study, we explore the evolutionary history of an important GCFR fly pollinator, Megapalpus capensis, and ask whether it exhibits broadly congruent genetic structuring and timing of diversification to flowering plants within these biomes. We find that the oldest M. capensis lineages originated in Fynbos during the Miocene, while younger Succulent Karoo lineages diverged in the Pliocene and correspond to the proposed age of this recent biome. A strong signature of population expansion is also recovered for flies in this arid biome, consistent with recent colonization. Our first investigation into the evolutionary history of GCFR pollinators thus supports a recent origin of the SK biome, as inferred from angiosperm phylogenies, and suggests that plants and pollinators may have co-diverged within this remarkable area.

  10. Pollen-based biome reconstructions for Latin America at 0, 6000 and 18 000 radiocarbon years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marchant, R.; Harrison, S.P.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Markgraf, Vera; Van Boxel, J. H.; Ager, T.; Almeida, L.; Anderson, R.; Baied, C.; Behling, H.; Berrio, J.C.; Burbridge, R.; Bjorck, S.; Byrne, R.; Bush, M.B.; Cleef, A.M.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Flenley, J.R.; De Oliveira, P.; Van Geel, B.; Graf, K.J.; Gosling, W.D.; Harbele, S.; Van Der Hammen, T.; Hansen, B.C.S.; Horn, S.P.; Islebe, G.A.; Kuhry, P.; Ledru, M.

    2009-01-01

    The biomisation method is used to reconstruct Latin American vegetation at 6000±500 and 18 000±1000 radiocarbon years before present (14C yr BP) from pollen data. Tests using modern pollen data from 381 samples derived from 287 locations broadly reproduce potential natural vegetation. The strong temperature gradient associated with the Andes is recorded by a transition from high altitude cool grass/shrubland and cool mixed forest to mid-altitude cool temperate rain forest, to tropical dry, seasonal and rain forest at low altitudes. Reconstructed biomes from a number of sites do not match the potential vegetation due to local factors such as human impact, methodological artefacts and mechanisms of pollen representivity of the parent vegetation. At 6000±500 14C yr BP 255 samples are analysed from 127 sites. Differences between the modern and the 6000±500 14C yr BP reconstruction are comparatively small. Patterns of change relative to the modern reconstruction are mainly to biomes characteristic of drier climate in the north of the region with a slight more mesic shift in the south. Cool temperate rain forest remains dominant in western South America. In northwestern South America a number of sites record transitions from tropical seasonal forest to tropical dry forest and tropical rain forest to tropical seasonal forest. Sites in Central America also show a change in biome assignment to more mesic vegetation, indicative of greater plant available moisture, e.g. on the Yucat??n peninsula sites record warm evergreen forest, replacing tropical dry forest and warm mixed forest presently recorded. At 18 000±1000 14C yr BP 61 samples from 34 sites record vegetation that reflects a generally cool and dry environment. Cool grass/shrubland prevalent in southeast Brazil, Amazonian sites record tropical dry forest, warm temperate rain forest and tropical seasonal forest. Southernmost South America is dominated by cool grass/shrubland, a single site retains cool temperate

  11. Pollen-based biome reconstructions for Latin America at 0, 6000 and 18 000 radiocarbon years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marchant, R.; Harrison, S.P.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Markgraf, Vera; Van Boxel, J. H.; Ager, T.; Almeida, L.; Anderson, R.; Baied, C.; Behling, H.; Berrio, J.C.; Burbridge, R.; Bjorck, S.; Byrne, R.; Bush, M.B.; Cleef, A.M.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Flenley, J.R.; De Oliveira, P.; Van Geel, B.; Graf, K.J.; Gosling, W.D.; Harbele, S.; Van Der Hammen, T.; Hansen, B.C.S.; Horn, S.P.; Islebe, G.A.; Kuhry, P.; Ledru, M.-P.; Mayle, F.E.; Leyden, B.W.; Lozano-Garcia, S.; Melief, A.B.M.; Moreno, P.; Moar, N.T.; Prieto, A.; Van Reenen, G. B.; Salgado-Labouriau, M. L.; Schasignbitz, F.; Schreve-Brinkman, E. J.; Wille, M.

    2009-01-01

    The biomisation method is used to reconstruct Latin American vegetation at 6000±500 and 18 000±1000 radiocarbon years before present (14C yr BP) from pollen data. Tests using modern pollen data from 381 samples derived from 287 locations broadly reproduce potential natural vegetation. The strong temperature gradient associated with the Andes is recorded by a transition from high altitude cool grass/shrubland and cool mixed forest to mid-altitude cool temperate rain forest, to tropical dry, seasonal and rain forest at low altitudes. Reconstructed biomes from a number of sites do not match the potential vegetation due to local factors such as human impact, methodological artefacts and mechanisms of pollen representivity of the parent vegetation.

    At 6000±500 14C yr BP 255 samples are analysed from 127 sites. Differences between the modern and the 6000±500 14C yr BP reconstruction are comparatively small. Patterns of change relative to the modern reconstruction are mainly to biomes characteristic of drier climate in the north of the region with a slight more mesic shift in the south. Cool temperate rain forest remains dominant in western South America. In northwestern South America a number of sites record transitions from tropical seasonal forest to tropical dry forest and tropical rain forest to tropical seasonal forest. Sites in Central America also show a change in biome assignment to more mesic vegetation, indicative of greater plant available moisture, e.g. on the Yucat??n peninsula sites record warm evergreen forest, replacing tropical dry forest and warm mixed forest presently recorded.

    At 18 000±1000 14C yr BP 61 samples from 34 sites record vegetation that reflects a generally cool and dry environment. Cool grass/shrubland prevalent in southeast Brazil, Amazonian sites record tropical dry forest, warm temperate rain forest and tropical seasonal forest. Southernmost South America is dominated by cool grass/shrubland, a single site

  12. Determining the sensitivity of New Mexico biomes to predicted climate change scenarios of the Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, M. E.; Anderson-Teixeira, K.

    2009-12-01

    The southwestern U.S. stands to transition to a warmer, more arid climate in the coming decades, and it is critical for regional carbon balance to understand how these changes will affect Southwest ecosystems. In order to quantify how increased temperatures and prolonged drought are likely to affect regional carbon flux and storage, we have focused specifically on six dominant upland terrestrial biomes in the Southwest ranging from desert grassland and shrubland in low elevations, to juniper savanna and pinon-juniper woodland at mid-elevation and ponderosa pine and mixed conifer forest at the highest elevations. In all six biomes, we quantified aboveground carbon pools and used eddy-covariance to continuously measure net ecosystem exchange of carbon, water and energy from 2006-2009. Here we quantify how carbon storage, water use efficiency, and sensitivity to both precipitation variability and temperature vary across these six biomes. We use measured functional responses to variability in temperature and soil water content over the three year period to estimate how carbon storage in these biomes will likely respond to predicted climate change scenarios for the Southwest. Aboveground carbon storage increased dramatically with elevation, ranging from 371 g/m2 in the desert grassland to 53,382 g/m2 in the mixed conifer forest. Gross primary production increased more rapidly with elevation than did ecosystem respiration, such that net ecosystem productivity increased from a source of ~30 g C m-2 yr-1 in the desert grassland to a sink of approximately 350 g C m-2 yr-1 in the mixed conifer forest. Within sites, daily carbon uptake tended to peak at intermediate temperatures, often becoming negative on the hottest days, and this pattern strengthened with elevation. The fraction of gross primary productivity lost as respiration increased with temperature in all six biomes, but was most striking in both the pinon-juniper woodland and ponderosa pine forest. Carbon

  13. Introduction and synthesis: Plant phylogeny and the origin of major biomes.

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, R Toby; Cronk, Quentin C B; Richardson, James A

    2004-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees based upon DNA sequence data, when calibrated with a dimension of time, allow inference of: (i) the pattern of accumulation of lineages through time; (ii) the time of origin of monophyletic groups; (iii) when lineages arrived in different geographical areas; (iv) the time of origin of biome-specific morphologies. This gives a powerful new view of the history of biomes that in many cases is not provided by the incomplete plant fossil record. Dated plant phylogenies for angiosperm families such as Leguminoaceae (Fabaceae), Melastomataceae sensu stricto, Annonaceae and Rhamnaceae indicate that long-distance, transoceanic dispersal has played an important role in shaping their distributions, and that this can obscure any effect of tectonic history, previously assumed to have been the major cause of their biogeographic patterns. Dispersal from other continents has also been important in the assembly of the Amazonian rainforest flora and the Australian flora. Comparison of dated biogeographic patterns of plants and animals suggests that recent long-distance dispersal might be more prevalent in plants, which has major implications for community assembly and coevolution. Dated plant phylogenies also reveal the role of past environmental changes on the evolution of lineages in species-rich biomes, and show that recent Plio-Pleistocene diversification has contributed substantially to their current species richness. Because of the critical role of fossils and morphological characters in assigning ages to nodes in phylogenetic trees, future studies must include careful morphological consideration of fossils and their extant relatives in a phylogenetic context. Ideal study systems will be based upon DNA sequence data from multiple loci and multiple fossil calibrations. This allows cross-validation both of age estimates from different loci, and from different fossil calibrations. For a more complete view of biome history, future studies should emphasize full

  14. Pollen-based biome reconstructions for Latin America at 0, 6000 and 18 000 radiocarbon years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchant, R.; Harrison, S. P.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Markgraf, V.; van Boxel, J. H.; Ager, T.; Almeida, L.; Anderson, R.; Baied, C.; Behling, H.; Berrio, J. C.; Burbridge, R.; Björck, S.; Byrne, R.; Bush, M. B.; Cleef, A. M.; Duivenvoorden, J. F.; Flenley, J. R.; de Oliveira, P.; van Geel, B.; Graf, K. J.; Gosling, W. D.; Harbele, S.; van der Hammen, T.; Hansen, B. C. S.; Horn, S. P.; Islebe, G. A.; Kuhry, P.; Ledru, M.-P.; Mayle, F. E.; Leyden, B. W.; Lozano-García, S.; Melief, A. B. M.; Moreno, P.; Moar, N. T.; Prieto, A.; van Reenen, G. B.; Salgado-Labouriau, M. L.; Schäbitz, F.; Schreve-Brinkman, E. J.; Wille, M.

    2009-02-01

    The biomisation method is used to reconstruct Latin American vegetation at 6000±500 and 18 000±1000 radiocarbon years before present (14C yr BP) from pollen data. Tests using modern pollen data from 381 samples derived from 287 locations broadly reproduce potential natural vegetation. The strong temperature gradient associated with the Andes is recorded by a transition from high altitude cool grass/shrubland and cool mixed forest to mid-altitude cool temperate rain forest, to tropical dry, seasonal and rain forest at low altitudes. Reconstructed biomes from a number of sites do not match the potential vegetation due to local factors such as human impact, methodological artefacts and mechanisms of pollen representivity of the parent vegetation. At 6000±500 14C yr BP 255 samples are analysed from 127 sites. Differences between the modern and the 6000±500 14C yr BP reconstruction are comparatively small. Patterns of change relative to the modern reconstruction are mainly to biomes characteristic of drier climate in the north of the region with a slight more mesic shift in the south. Cool temperate rain forest remains dominant in western South America. In northwestern South America a number of sites record transitions from tropical seasonal forest to tropical dry forest and tropical rain forest to tropical seasonal forest. Sites in Central America also show a change in biome assignment to more mesic vegetation, indicative of greater plant available moisture, e.g. on the Yucatán peninsula sites record warm evergreen forest, replacing tropical dry forest and warm mixed forest presently recorded. At 18 000±1000 14C yr BP 61 samples from 34 sites record vegetation that reflects a generally cool and dry environment. Cool grass/shrubland prevalent in southeast Brazil, Amazonian sites record tropical dry forest, warm temperate rain forest and tropical seasonal forest. Southernmost South America is dominated by cool grass/shrubland, a single site retains cool temperate

  15. Late Quaternary and Future Biome Simulations for Alaska and Eastern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Amy; Walsh, John; Saito, Kazuyuki; Bigelow, Nancy

    2015-04-01

    We simulated Arctic biomes across a region including Alaska and Eastern Russia using the BIOME4 biogeochemical and biogeography vegetation model. BIOME4, which produces an equilibrium vegetation distribution under a given climate condition, was forced by CMIP5/PMIP3 climate data. We are exploring vegetation and permafrost distributions during the last 21,000 years and future projections (2100 C.E.) to gain an understanding of the effects of climate shifts on this complex subsystem. When forced with the baseline modern climatology, compiled from the University of Delaware temperature and precipitation climatology and ERA-40 sunshine data, our biome simulations were generally consistent with current vegetation observations in the study region. Much of the study area was simulated to have evergreen and deciduous taiga and shrub tundras. Paleoclimatological simulations were compared with pollen data samples taken through the study region. Simulations for the Last Glacial Maximum show the Bering Land Bridge covered almost entirely by cushion forb, lichen, and moss tundra, shrub tundra, and graminoid tundra. Three out of the five models' climate data produce evergreen and deciduous taiga in what is now southwestern Alaska. The distributions of cushion forb, lichen, and moss tundra and graminoid tundra differ noticeably between models, however, shrub tundra distributions are generally in agreement. Simulations for the Mid-Holocene are in better agreement on pollen-based distributions of biomes. Shrub tundra is simulated along the Arctic coast, and in some cases along the eastern coast of Russia. All models show evergreen taiga along the southern coast of Russia as well as covering the southern half of present-day Alaska. Deciduous taiga is simulated in the interior regions of eastern Russia and Alaska, though the distributions in Alaska differ between models. Pre-Industrial biome simulations were very similar to Mid-Holocene simulations. Differences include more shrub

  16. Consistent shifts in spring vegetation green-up date across temperate biomes in China, 1982-2006.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiuchen; Liu, Hongyan

    2013-03-01

    Understanding spring phenology changes in response to the rapid climate change at biome-level is crucial for projecting regional ecosystem carbon exchange and climate-biosphere interactions. In this study, we assessed the long-term changes and responses to changing climate of the spring phenology in six temperate biomes of China by analyzing the global inventory monitoring and modeling studies (GIMMS) NOAA/AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and concurrent mean temperature and precipitation data for 1982-2006. Results show that the spring phenology trends in the six temperate biomes are not continuous throughout the 25 year period. The spring phenology in most areas of the six biomes showed obvious advancing trends (ranging from -0.09 to -0.65 day/yr) during the 1980s and early 1990s, but has subsequently suffered consistently delaying trends (ranging from 0.22 to 1.22 day/yr). Changes in spring (February-April) temperature are the dominating factor governing the pattern of spring vegetation phenology in the temperate biomes of China. The recently delayed spring phenology in these temperate biomes has been mainly triggered by the stalling or reversal of the warming trend in spring temperatures. Results in this study also reveal that precipitation during November-January can explain 16.1% (P < 0.05), 20.9% (P < 0.05) and 14.2% (P < 0.05) of the variations in temperate deciduous forest (TDF), temperate steppe (TS), temperate desert (TD) respectively, highlighting the important role of winter precipitation in regulating changes in the spring vegetation phenology of water-limited biomes.

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, reactor licensees. Semiannual progress report, January--June 1997; Volume 16, Number 1, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (January--June 1997) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, material licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1997; Volume 16, Number 2, Part 3

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1997) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1994, Volume 13, No. 4, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1994) and includes copies of letters Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees (non-medical). Quarterly progress report, October 1994--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1994) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees (non-medical) with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Volume 14, No. 2, Part 2, Quarterly progress report, April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved medical licensees. Quarterly progress report, January 1995--March 1995. Volume 14, No. 1, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January-March 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to medical licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, reactor licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1997; Volume 16, Number 2, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1997) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  4. Diagnosing ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... that a person diagnosed with ALS seek a second opinion from an ALS "expert" - someone who diagnoses and treats many ALS patients and has training in this medical specialty. The ALS Association maintains a list of recognized experts in the field of ALS. See ALS Association Certified Centers of ...

  5. Identification of priority conservation areas and potential corridors for jaguars in the Caatinga biome, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; Ferraz, Katia Maria Paschoaletto Micchi de Barros; de Paula, Rogério Cunha; de Campos, Cláudia Bueno

    2014-01-01

    The jaguar, Panthera onca, is a top predator with the extant population found within the Brazilian Caatinga biome now known to be on the brink of extinction. Designing new conservation units and potential corridors are therefore crucial for the long-term survival of the species within the Caatinga biome. Thus, our aims were: 1) to recognize suitable areas for jaguar occurrence, 2) to delineate areas for jaguar conservation (PJCUs), 3) to design corridors among priority areas, and 4) to prioritize PJCUs. A total of 62 points records of jaguar occurrence and 10 potential predictors were analyzed in a GIS environment. A predictive distributional map was obtained using Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) as performed by the Maximum Entropy (Maxent) algorithm. Areas equal to or higher than the median suitability value of 0.595 were selected as of high suitability for jaguar occurrence and named as Priority Jaguar Conservation Units (PJCU). Ten PJCUs with sizes varying from 23.6 km2 to 4,311.0 km2 were identified. Afterwards, we combined the response curve, as generated by SDM, and expert opinions to create a permeability matrix and to identify least cost corridors and buffer zones between each PJCU pair. Connectivity corridors and buffer zone for jaguar movement included an area of 8.884,26 km2 and the total corridor length is about 160.94 km. Prioritizing criteria indicated the PJCU representing c.a. 68.61% of the total PJCU area (PJCU # 1) as of high priority for conservation and connectivity with others PJCUs (PJCUs # 4, 5 and 7) desirable for the long term survival of the species. In conclusion, by using the jaguar as a focal species and combining SDM and expert opinion we were able to create a valid framework for practical conservation actions at the Caatinga biome. The same approach could be used for the conservation of other carnivores.

  6. Reactivity continuum modeling of leaf, root, and wood decomposition across biomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, Birgit; Tranvik, Lars J.

    2015-07-01

    Large carbon dioxide amounts are released to the atmosphere during organic matter decomposition. Yet the large-scale and long-term regulation of this critical process in global carbon cycling by litter chemistry and climate remains poorly understood. We used reactivity continuum (RC) modeling to analyze the decadal data set of the "Long-term Intersite Decomposition Experiment," in which fine litter and wood decomposition was studied in eight biome types (224 time series). In 32 and 46% of all sites the litter content of the acid-unhydrolyzable residue (AUR, formerly referred to as lignin) and the AUR/nitrogen ratio, respectively, retarded initial decomposition rates. This initial rate-retarding effect generally disappeared within the first year of decomposition, and rate-stimulating effects of nutrients and a rate-retarding effect of the carbon/nitrogen ratio became more prevalent. For needles and leaves/grasses, the influence of climate on decomposition decreased over time. For fine roots, the climatic influence was initially smaller but increased toward later-stage decomposition. The climate decomposition index was the strongest climatic predictor of decomposition. The similar variability in initial decomposition rates across litter categories as across biome types suggested that future changes in decomposition may be dominated by warming-induced changes in plant community composition. In general, the RC model parameters successfully predicted independent decomposition data for the different litter-biome combinations (196 time series). We argue that parameterization of large-scale decomposition models with RC model parameters, as opposed to the currently common discrete multiexponential models, could significantly improve their mechanistic foundation and predictive accuracy across climate zones and litter categories.

  7. Identification of Priority Conservation Areas and Potential Corridors for Jaguars in the Caatinga Biome, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; Ferraz, Katia Maria Paschoaletto Micchi de Barros; de Paula, Rogério Cunha; de Campos, Cláudia Bueno

    2014-01-01

    The jaguar, Panthera onca, is a top predator with the extant population found within the Brazilian Caatinga biome now known to be on the brink of extinction. Designing new conservation units and potential corridors are therefore crucial for the long-term survival of the species within the Caatinga biome. Thus, our aims were: 1) to recognize suitable areas for jaguar occurrence, 2) to delineate areas for jaguar conservation (PJCUs), 3) to design corridors among priority areas, and 4) to prioritize PJCUs. A total of 62 points records of jaguar occurrence and 10 potential predictors were analyzed in a GIS environment. A predictive distributional map was obtained using Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) as performed by the Maximum Entropy (Maxent) algorithm. Areas equal to or higher than the median suitability value of 0.595 were selected as of high suitability for jaguar occurrence and named as Priority Jaguar Conservation Units (PJCU). Ten PJCUs with sizes varying from 23.6 km2 to 4,311.0 km2 were identified. Afterwards, we combined the response curve, as generated by SDM, and expert opinions to create a permeability matrix and to identify least cost corridors and buffer zones between each PJCU pair. Connectivity corridors and buffer zone for jaguar movement included an area of 8.884,26 km2 and the total corridor length is about 160.94 km. Prioritizing criteria indicated the PJCU representing c.a. 68.61% of the total PJCU area (PJCU # 1) as of high priority for conservation and connectivity with others PJCUs (PJCUs # 4, 5 and 7) desirable for the long term survival of the species. In conclusion, by using the jaguar as a focal species and combining SDM and expert opinion we were able to create a valid framework for practical conservation actions at the Caatinga biome. The same approach could be used for the conservation of other carnivores. PMID:24709817

  8. Sex-biased parasitism is not universal: evidence from rodent-flea associations from three biomes.

    PubMed

    Kiffner, Christian; Stanko, Michal; Morand, Serge; Khokhlova, Irina S; Shenbrot, Georgy I; Laudisoit, Anne; Leirs, Herwig; Hawlena, Hadas; Krasnov, Boris R

    2013-11-01

    The distribution of parasites among individual hosts is characterised by high variability that is believed to be a result of variations in host traits. To find general patterns of host traits affecting parasite abundance, we studied flea infestation of nine rodent species from three different biomes (temperate zone of central Europe, desert of Middle East and tropics of East Africa). We tested for independent and interactive effects of host sex and body mass on the number of fleas harboured by an individual host while accounting for spatial clustering of host and parasite sampling and temporal variation. We found no consistent patterns of the effect of host sex and body mass on flea abundance either among species within a biome or among biomes. We found evidence for sex-biased flea infestation in just five host species (Apodemus agrarius, Myodes glareolus, Microtus arvalis, Gerbillus andersoni, Mastomys natalensis). In six rodent species, we found an effect of body mass on flea abundance (all species mentioned above and Meriones crassus). This effect was positive in five species and negative in one species (Microtus arvalis). In M. glareolus, G. andersoni, M. natalensis, and M. arvalis, the relationship between body mass and flea abundance was mediated by host sex. This was manifested in steeper change in flea abundance with increasing body mass in male than female individuals (M. glareolus, G. andersoni, M. natalensis), whereas the opposite pattern was found in M. arvalis. Our findings suggest that sex and body mass are common determinants of parasite infestation in mammalian hosts, but neither of them follows universal rules. This implies that the effect of host individual characteristics on mechanisms responsible for flea acquisition may be manifested differently in different host species.

  9. Leaf phosphorus influences the photosynthesis-nitrogen relation: a cross-biome analysis of 314 species.

    PubMed

    Reich, Peter B; Oleksyn, Jacek; Wright, Ian J

    2009-05-01

    The ecophysiological linkage of leaf phosphorus (P) to photosynthetic capacity (A (max)) and to the A (max)-nitrogen relation remains poorly understood. To address this issue we compiled published and unpublished field data for mass-based A (max), nitrogen (N) and P (n = 517 observations) from 314 species at 42 sites in 14 countries. Data were from four biomes: arctic, cold temperate, subtropical (including Mediterranean), and tropical. We asked whether plants with low P levels have low A (max), a shallower slope of the A (max)-N relationship, and whether these patterns have a geographic signature. On average, leaf P was substantially lower in the two warmer than in the two colder biomes, with the reverse true for N:P ratios. The evidence indicates that the response of A (max) to leaf N is constrained by low leaf P. Using a full factorial model for all data, A (max) was related to leaf N, but not to leaf P on its own, with a significant leaf N x leaf P interaction indicating that the response of A (max) to N increased with increasing leaf P. This was also found in analyses using one value per species per site, or by comparing only angiosperms or only woody plants. Additionally, the slope of the A (max)-N relationship was higher in the colder arctic and temperate than warmer tropical and subtropical biomes. Sorting data into low, medium, and high leaf P groupings also showed that the A (max)-N slope increases with leaf P. These analyses support claims that in P-limited ecosystems the A (max)-N relationship may be constrained by low P, and are consistent with laboratory studies that show P-deficient plants have limited ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration, a likely mechanism for the P influence upon the A (max)-N relation.

  10. Comparing global models of terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP): Global pattern and differentiation by major biomes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kicklighter, D.W.; Bondeau, A.; Schloss, A.L.; Kaduk, J.; McGuire, A.D.

    1999-01-01

    Annual and seasonal net primary productivity estimates (NPP) of 15 global models across latitudinal zones and biomes are compared. The models simulated NPP for contemporary climate using common, spatially explicit data sets for climate, soil texture, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Differences among NPP estimates varied over space and time. The largest differences occur during the summer months in boreal forests (50??to 60??N) and during the dry seasons of tropical evergreen forests. Differences in NPP estimates are related to model assumptions about vegetation structure, model parameterizations, and input data sets.

  11. Mapping fire events in the transition of Amazon and Cerrado biome using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes Daldegan, G.; Roberts, D. A.; Peterson, S.; Ribeiro, F.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract to AGU Fire is considered one of the determinant factors that have shaped Cerrado biome, the Brazilian Savanna, considered the most biodiverse savanna in the world. At the same time, fire has not acted a major role during the evolution of the Amazon Forest due to the strong capacity it has to resist burning. Recently, with the expansion of the agricultural activities in the central Brazil, about 49% of the Cerrado has been converted to other uses and as deforestation vector runs towards the Amazon Forest it modifies the natural moist microclimate in the edges of the forest, increasing the likelihood of wildfires. Every year these ecosystems suffer with several fire events responsible for large burned areas, causing losses of biomass, biodiversity, soil nutrients, and releasing tons of CO2 that help climate change. The occurrence of fires has a direct relationship with the climate of the central portion of the south american continent, charaterized by a two seasons regime, wet and dry, each one lasting around 6 months. In this region is located the ecotone of these two majors Brazilians ecosystems. In the Cerrado biome fire is often used to manage pasture, stimulating the regrowth of natural grasses used as pasture and also to open new areas for agriculture. There are researches showing that people have been traditionally using fire as a lower cost way to manage their lands for different purposes. In the Amazon forest the cycle of deforestation started around the 60's with incentives from the federal government to populate the region in the middle of the last century, and most recently by the progress of the commodities prices, such as soybean and sugar-cane, that has occupied vast areas of the Cerrado and is marching towards the forest. In the Amazon, fire is frequently used to further open the areas that were previously logged selectively and then converted to agricultural uses.Given the ecological importance of the Amazon Forest and Cerrado biome and the

  12. Do Distinct Biomes Influence the Cuticular Chemical Profile in Orchid Bees?

    PubMed

    Santos, A B; Nascimento, F S

    2017-02-17

    Cuticular chemical profiles of Euglossa cordata L. males were analyzed to test whether ecological predictors affect their composition and relative proportion. Males were collected in areas of Caatinga and Atlantic Forest from Brazil during two distinct seasonal periods. We found 48 compounds from the cuticular extracts of males, which consisted of hydrocarbons (71.39%), acetates (16.79%), esters (10.5%), alcohols and others (1.31%). We verified that when specimens were separated between biomes, they did not show a qualitative differentiation, but a small quantitative variation of compounds was found between some alkanes. We suggest that these results reflect stability of epicuticular compounds even under variable environmental conditions.

  13. Global greenhouse to icehouse and back again: The origin and future of the Boreal Forest biome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taggart, Ralph E.; Cross, Aureal T.

    2009-02-01

    The Boreal Forest biome (Taiga), dominated by evergreen and deciduous coniferous trees (Pinaceae), is circumpolar in its present distribution, covering a significant part of the total land area of the Northern Hemisphere and representing perhaps a third of the total forest area of the planet. Nothing comparable to this extant biome existed during the global "greenhouse" interval of the Late Mesozoic and Paleogene. Latitudinal temperature gradients should have confined boreal taxa to extremely high latitudes, but evergreen taxa do not appear to have been competitive in the lowlands of the high arctic, where the vegetation consisted of a unique circumpolar forest dominated by deciduous conifers and broad-leaved taxa. Probable sources for the pinaceous taxa that now characterize boreal latitudes were the Paleogene evergreen montane coniferous forests of the western North American Cordillera. Taphonomic factors limit the fossil record for such forests, but assemblages such as the Eocene Thunder Mountain (Idaho) and Bull Run (Nevada) floras were dominated by evergreen and deciduous Pinaceae that dominate extant montane, subalpine, and Boreal Forest associations. In response to post-Eocene global cooling, such forests presumably would have migrated to lower elevations, eventually spreading across high-latitude North America, subsequently reaching Eurasia via the Beringian corridor. This high-diversity coniferous forest was differentially winnowed and modified during subsequent migration southward in both the New and Old World. Despite its extensive geographic distribution, the Boreal Forest may be the youngest of the major forest biomes. If global warming ultimately results in a significant redistribution of terrestrial vegetation, the history of the Boreal Forest may well be reversed. Northward migration of the Boreal Forest may be characterized by loss of taxa and extensive community reorganization as individual taxa are pushed to their limits with respect to rates of

  14. A brief botanical survey into Kumbira forest, an isolated patch of Guineo-Congolian biome

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Francisco M. P.; Goyder, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Kumbira forest is a discrete patch of moist forest of Guineo-Congolian biome in Western Angola central scarp and runs through Cuanza Norte and Cuanza Sul province. The project aimed to document the floristic diversity of the Angolan escarpment, a combination of general walk-over survey, plant specimen collection and sight observation was used to aid the characterization of the vegetation. Over 100 plant specimens in flower or fruit were collected within four identified vegetation types. The list of species includes two new records of Guineo-Congolian species in Angola, one new record for the country and one potential new species. PMID:27489484

  15. NEE and GPP dynamic evolution at two biomes in the upper Spanish plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, María Luisa; Pardo, Nuria; Pérez, Isidro Alberto; García, Maria de los Angeles

    2014-05-01

    In order to assess the ability of dominant biomes to act as a CO2 sink, two eddy correlation stations close to each other in central Spain have been concurrently operational since March 2008 until the present. The land use of the first station, AC, is a rapeseed rotating crop consisting of annual rotation of non-irrigated rapeseed, barley, peas, rye, and sunflower, respectively. The land use of the second, CIBA, is a mixture of open shrubs/crops, with open shrubs being markedly dominant. The period of measurements covered variable general meteorological conditions. 2009 and 2012 were dominated by drought, whereas 2010 was the rainiest year. Annual rainfall during 2008 and 2009 was close to the historical averaged annual means. This paper presents the dynamic evolution of NEE-8d and GPP-8d observed at the AC station over five years and compares the results with those concurrently observed at the CIBA station. GGP 8-d estimates at both stations were determined using a Light Use Efficiency Model, LUE. Input data for the LUE model were the FPAR 8-d products supplied by MODIS, PAR in situ measurements, and a scalar f, varying between 0 and 1, to take account of the reduction in maximum PAR conversion efficiency, ɛ0, under limiting environmental conditions. f values were assumed to be dependent on air temperature and evaporative fraction, EF, which was considered a proxy of soil moisture. ɛ0, a key parameter, which depends on land use types, was derived through the results of a linear regression fit between the GPP 8-d eddy covariance composites observed and the LUE concurrent 8-d model estimates. Over the five-year study period, both biomes behaved as CO2 sinks. However, the ratio of the NEE-8d total accumulated at AC and CIBA, respectively, was close to a factor two, revealing the effectiveness of the studied crops as CO2 sinks. On an annual basis, accumulated NEE-8d exhibited major variability in both biomes. At CIBA, the results were largely dominated by the

  16. Large-scale impact of climate change vs. land-use change on future biome shifts in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Boit, Alice; Sakschewski, Boris; Boysen, Lena; Cano-Crespo, Ana; Clement, Jan; Garcia-Alaniz, Nashieli; Kok, Kasper; Kolb, Melanie; Langerwisch, Fanny; Rammig, Anja; Sachse, René; van Eupen, Michiel; von Bloh, Werner; Clara Zemp, Delphine; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2016-11-01

    Climate change and land-use change are two major drivers of biome shifts causing habitat and biodiversity loss. What is missing is a continental-scale future projection of the estimated relative impacts of both drivers on biome shifts over the course of this century. Here, we provide such a projection for the biodiverse region of Latin America under four socio-economic development scenarios. We find that across all scenarios 5-6% of the total area will undergo biome shifts that can be attributed to climate change until 2099. The relative impact of climate change on biome shifts may overtake land-use change even under an optimistic climate scenario, if land-use expansion is halted by the mid-century. We suggest that constraining land-use change and preserving the remaining natural vegetation early during this century creates opportunities to mitigate climate-change impacts during the second half of this century. Our results may guide the evaluation of socio-economic scenarios in terms of their potential for biome conservation under global change.

  17. Biome depletion in conjunction with evolutionary mismatches could play a role in the etiology of neurofibromatosis 1.

    PubMed

    Beales, Donna L

    2015-04-01

    Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) arises de novo in a striking 30-50% of cases, pointing toward an environmental etiology, though none has been clearly identified. The Biome Depletion Theory posits that the absence of mutualistic and commensal organisms within the human body coupled with modern lifestyle alterations may have profoundly deleterious effects, inclusive of immunologic derangement that is thought to result in allergy, atopy, and numerous autoimmune diseases. Biome depletion has been implicated as a factor in the etiology of both multiple sclerosis and autism spectrum disorders; biome reconstitution, i.e. replenishment of the biome with certain keynote species, is being used in the treatment of these and other autoimmune states. Neurofibromatosis 1 has been associated with allergy, various autoimmune states, multiple sclerosis, and autism. Recent research has posited that NF1, multiple sclerosis and autism may all arise from disturbances in the neural crest during gestation. This paper hypothesizes that there is indirect evidence that a highly inflammatory uterine state may precipitate epigenetic changes in vulnerable NF-related genes in the course of fetal development. The etiology of NF1 may lie in the absence of immunomodulation by commensal and mutualistic species once ubiquitously present in the environment, as well as through adoption of a modern lifestyle that contributes to chronic inflammation. Replenishment of helminths and other missing organisms to the human biome prior to conception as well as addressing nutritional status, psychological stress, and environmental exposures may prevent the development of NF1.

  18. Terrestrial ecosystem process model Biome-BGCMuSo v4.0: summary of improvements and new modeling possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidy, Dóra; Barcza, Zoltán; Marjanović, Hrvoje; Zorana Ostrogović Sever, Maša; Dobor, Laura; Gelybó, Györgyi; Fodor, Nándor; Pintér, Krisztina; Churkina, Galina; Running, Steven; Thornton, Peter; Bellocchi, Gianni; Haszpra, László; Horváth, Ferenc; Suyker, Andrew; Nagy, Zoltán

    2016-12-01

    The process-based biogeochemical model Biome-BGC was enhanced to improve its ability to simulate carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles of various terrestrial ecosystems under contrasting management activities. Biome-BGC version 4.1.1 was used as a base model. Improvements included addition of new modules such as the multilayer soil module, implementation of processes related to soil moisture and nitrogen balance, soil-moisture-related plant senescence, and phenological development. Vegetation management modules with annually varying options were also implemented to simulate management practices of grasslands (mowing, grazing), croplands (ploughing, fertilizer application, planting, harvesting), and forests (thinning). New carbon and nitrogen pools have been defined to simulate yield and soft stem development of herbaceous ecosystems. The model version containing all developments is referred to as Biome-BGCMuSo (Biome-BGC with multilayer soil module; in this paper, Biome-BGCMuSo v4.0 is documented). Case studies on a managed forest, cropland, and grassland are presented to demonstrate the effect of model developments on the simulation of plant growth as well as on carbon and water balance.

  19. Skin Biomes.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  20. Vital area identification for U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission nuclear power reactor licensees and new reactor applicants.

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, Donnie Wayne; Varnado, G. Bruce

    2008-09-01

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission nuclear power plant licensees and new reactor applicants are required to provide protection of their plants against radiological sabotage, including the placement of vital equipment in vital areas. This document describes a systematic process for the identification of the minimum set of areas that must be designated as vital areas in order to ensure that all radiological sabotage scenarios are prevented. Vital area identification involves the use of logic models to systematically identify all of the malicious acts or combinations of malicious acts that could lead to radiological sabotage. The models available in the plant probabilistic risk assessment and other safety analyses provide a great deal of the information and basic model structure needed for the sabotage logic model. Once the sabotage logic model is developed, the events (or malicious acts) in the model are replaced with the areas in which the events can be accomplished. This sabotage area logic model is then analyzed to identify the target sets (combinations of areas the adversary must visit to cause radiological sabotage) and the candidate vital area sets (combinations of areas that must be protected against adversary access to prevent radiological sabotage). Any one of the candidate vital area sets can be selected for protection. Appropriate selection criteria will allow the licensee or new reactor applicant to minimize the impacts of vital area protection measures on plant safety, cost, operations, or other factors of concern.