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Sample records for al mono obeso

  1. Petrologic imaging of silicic magma chambers: new calibration of Al-in-hornblende barometry and applications to the Long Valley - Mono - Inyo active volcanic system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medard, E.; Martin, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Traditional Al-in-hornblende barometry relies on the hypothesis that the Al content in amphibole only depends on pressure, through the Tschermack substitution. However, Al content in amphibole also varies with temperature through the edenite substitution, resulting in large errors in amphibole barometry. Using literature data, we have recalibrated a temperature-independent barometer based on octahedral Al for amphiboles in rhyolitic and dacitic compositions (Médard et al., Goldschmidt 2013). Experimental pressures are reproduced with an average error of 36 MPa in the 100-400 MPa range. Our new amphibole barometer has been used to investigate the depth of magma storage underneath the recent eruptions of the Mono-Inyo volcanic chain. Preliminary investigation of samples from the Glass Creek and Obsidian flows, associated with the youngest eruptive activity to the South of the chain (the 1350 AD Inyo eruption), contain Al-rich amphiboles ( 10 wt% Al2O3) crystallized at pressures of 260 ± 20 MPa (9.8 ± 0.7 km) and a temperature of 835 °C. Similar amphibole crystals have been analyzed from products of the 1700 AD eruption on Pahoa island to the north of the chain by Bray (2014). Identical crystallization pressures of 260 ± 40 MPa are derived from their compositions, suggesting a constant pressure of magma storage under the entire Mono-Inyo volcanic chain. Highly crystalline mush samples from the Glass Creek dome have been interpreted as remobilized magma from the older Long Valley magma chamber. Low-Al amphiboles ( 7 wt% Al2O3) from a mush sample also crystallized at 260 ± 20 MPa and a temperature of 705 °C. The storage depth has thus been constant in the entire Long Valley - Mono - Inyo system over time. A storage depth of 9.8 ± 0.7 km is in excellent agreement with recent seismic work by Seccia et al. (2011) who used Vs to infer the presence of a highly molten (30-60 % melt) magmatic reservoir 7-11 km beneath the Long Valley caldera. Traditional Al

  2. Mono Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be ... Mononucleosis (Mono) Test Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ...

  3. Mono Lake, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-24

    In eastern California, along the western edge of the Great Basin, sits Mono Lake. This is a salty remnant of a wetter era. Estimates are that the lake existed for at least 760,000 years. Now surrounded by mountain ranges, however, Mono Lake has no outlet; water entering the lake can only evaporate away, so Mono Lake is saltier than the ocean. South of the lake appear some of the geologic features known as Mono Craters. Geologists estimate that the Mono Craters last erupted about 650 years ago. The image was acquired July 7, 2016, covers an area of 22.6 by 34 km, and is located at 37.9 degrees north, 119 degrees west. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21518

  4. Solvent-controlled halo-selective selenylation of aryl halides catalyzed by Cu(II) supported on Al2O3. A general protocol for the synthesis of unsymmetrical organo mono- and bis-selenides.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tanmay; Ranu, Brindaban C

    2013-07-19

    Alumina-supported Cu(II) efficiently catalyzes selenylation of aryl iodides and aryl bromides by diaryl, dialkyl, and diheteroaryl diselenides in water and PEG-600, respectively, leading to a general route toward synthesis of unsymmetrical diaryl, aryl-alkyl, aryl-heteroaryl, and diheteroaryl selenides. A sequential reaction of bromoiodobenzene with one diaryl/diheteroaryl/dialkyl diselenide in water and another diaryl/diheteroaryl/dialkyl diselenide in PEG-600 in the second step produces unsymmetrical diaryl, diheteroaryl, or aryl-alkyl bis-selanyl benzene. A library of functionalized organo mono- and bis-selenides, including a potent biologically active molecule and a couple of analogues of bioactive selenides, were obtained in high yields by this protocol. The reactions are chemoselective and high yielding. The Cu-Al2O3 catalyst is recycled for seven runs without any appreciable loss of activity.

  5. Preparation of mono-dispersed, high energy release, core/shell structure Al nanopowders and their application in HTPB propellant as combustion enhancers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengyi; Wu, Zhiguo; Shangguan, Xushui; Sun, Yunqiang; Feng, Juanjuan; Li, Zhongyou; Chen, Luyang; Zuo, Shiyong; Zhuo, Renfu; Yan, Pengxun

    2017-07-12

    Mono-dispersed, spherical and core/shell structure aluminum nanopowders (ANPs) were produced massively by high energy ion beam evaporation (HEIBE). And the number weighted average particle size of the ANPs is 98.9 nm, with an alumina shell (3-5 nm). Benefiting from the passivation treatment, the friction, impact and electrostatic spark sensitivity of the ANPs are almost equivalent to those of aluminum micro powders. The result of TG-DSC indicates the active aluminum content of ANPs is 87.14%, the enthalpy release value is 20.37 kJ/g, the specific heat release S 1/Δm 1* (392-611 °C) which determined the ability of energy release is 19.95 kJ/g. And the value of S 1/Δm 1* is the highest compared with ANPs produced by other physical methods. Besides, the ANPs perfectly compatible with hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), 3 wt. % of ANPs were used in HTPB propellant replaced micron aluminum powders, and improved the burning rate in the 3-12 MPa pressure range and reduced the pressure exponential by more than 31% in the 3-16 MPa pressure range. The production technology of ANPs with excellent properties will greatly promote the application of ANPs in the field of energetic materials such as propellant, explosive and pyrotechnics.

  6. Mono Lake, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-10-01

    STS068-150-020 (30 September-11 October 1994) --- An exceptionally clear, high-contrast view of the desert basins east and south of Mono Lake, California. Light clouds dot the mountain ranges; the clouds were transparent to radar beams from the Space Radar Laboratory 2 (SRL-2) payload.

  7. Mono County update

    SciTech Connect

    Lyster, D. )

    1988-12-01

    The Mono County Board of Supervisors approved the issuance of a use-permit for the Mammoth-Pacific II geothermal power plant. The power plant will be a binary, air-cooled, 10-megawatt, net, project. An appeal was filed by the California Department of Fish and Game, and the permit will not take effect until this appeal is resolved. Mono County also issued a project use-permit to proposers of Bonneville Pacific Corporations Mammoth Chance Geothermal Project, also a 10-megawatt, net, binary and air-cooled project. The permit was appealed by the Sierra Club, Cal-Trout, and the California Department of Fish and Game. Now, a subsequent EIR must be prepared for public review and comment. The subsequent EIR will address the issue of cumulative impacts and will include a discussion of new information.

  8. Mono County update

    SciTech Connect

    Lyster, D.L.

    1987-07-01

    In May 1987, the Mono County Energy Management Department recommended that a two-year moratorium be placed on geothermal power production projects on private lands within the Mono-Long Valley KGRA. The intent of the proposed moratorium was to allow for the collection and evaluation of hydrologic monitoring data in the Long Valley Caldera. Now, to still achieve this end, the Energy Management Department will suggest that mitigation measures and project-specific monitoring requirements be implemented via the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) documentation and the county use permit process. The monitoring data will provide important information to Mono County decision-makers regarding potential adverse impacts from geothermal production on such local resources as Hot Creek Gorge, the Hot Creek Fish Hatchery, and Hot Creek, itself. The Mammoth/Chance Geothermal Project is the proposed construction and operation of a 10 megawatt, net, geothermal binary-cycle power plant and production- and injection-well field by Bonneville Pacific Corporation. The project is currently under environmental review, pursuant to CEQA requirements. The Mono County Energy Management Director is providing assistance to the Town of Mammoth Lakes on its California Energy Commission (CEC) grant-funded resource assessment project. The grant of $220,000 provides for the drilling of at least two temperature-gradient wells (exploratory wells) within the town limits. If a geothermal resource is detected and found to provide adequate flows at a suitable temperature, the Town of Mammoth Lakes will proceed in the development of a geothermal space-heating system to provide heat to such users as the Centinela Mammoth Hospital, Mammoth elementary and high schools, the Gateway Industrial Park, and future residential development projects.

  9. Mono County update

    SciTech Connect

    Lyster, D.L.

    1987-06-01

    On February 9, 1988, the Mono County Board of Supervisors voted to approve Bonneville Pacific Corporation's Mammoth Chance Geothermal Project. The project is an air-cooled, binary, geothermal power plant, 10 megawatts, net. The Mono County Board of Supervisors issued a project use-permit with vigorous and stringent conditions. Specific emphasis was placed on the establishment of a monitoring program designed to detect the effects of geothermal development on the springs at the Hot Creek Fish Hatchery and Hot Creek Gorge. On October 5, 1987, the Mono County Planning Commission granted a use-permit to Mammoth Pacific for its Mammoth Pacific II Project, a binary, air-cooled, geothermal power plant, 10 megawatts, net. The issuance of the use-permit instigated an appeal by the Sierra Club. That appeal was heard on February 22, 1988, At the end of the testimony, the Board of Supervisors voted to uphold the appeal of the Sierra Club, thereby denying the project by a vote of 3 to 2. The main areas of concern voiced by the majority of the Board included potential hydrologic impacts to Hot Creek Gorge and Hot Creek Fish Hatchery, visual impacts, and impacts to mule deer migration and survival. One of the options now available to Mammoth Pacific is to request that the project be denied without prejudice. This would allow Mammoth Pacific to return to the Board immediately with additional material regarding its concerns.

  10. D{sub 3h} [A-CE{sub 3}-A]{sup −} (E = Al and Ga, A = Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb): A new class of hexatomic mono-anionic species with trigonal bipyramidal carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yan-Bo E-mail: zxwang@ucas.ac.cn; Li, Yan-Qin; Bai, Hui; Lu, Hai-Gang; Li, Si-Dian; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Wang, Zhi-Xiang E-mail: zxwang@ucas.ac.cn

    2014-03-14

    The non-classical trigonal bipyramidal carbon (TBPC) arrangement generally exists as transition states (TSs) in nucleophilic bimolecular substitution (S{sub N}2) reactions. Nevertheless, chemists have been curious about whether such a carbon bonding could be stable in equilibrium structures for decades. As the TBPC arrangement was normally realized as cationic species theoretically and experimentally, only one anionic example ([At-C(CN){sub 3}-At]{sup −}) was computationally devised. Herein, we report the design of a new class of anionic TBPC species by using the strategy similar to that for stabilizing the non-classical planar hypercoordinate carbon. When electron deficient Al and Ga were used as the equatorial ligands, eight D{sub 3h} [A-CE{sub 3}-A]{sup −} (E = Al and Ga, A = Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb) TBPC structures were found to be the energy minima rather than TSs at both the B3LYP and MP2 levels. Remarkably, the energetic results at the CCSD(T) optimization level further identify [Ge-CAl{sub 3}-Ge]{sup −} and [Sn-CGa{sub 3}-Sn]{sup −} even to be the global minima and [Si-CAl{sub 3}-Si]{sup −} and [Ge-CGa{sub 3}-Ge]{sup −} to be the local minima, only slightly higher than their global minima. The electronic structure analyses reveal that the substantial ionic C–E bonding, the peripheral E–A covalent bonding, and the axial mc-2e (multi center-two electrons) bonding play roles in stabilizing these TBPC structures. The structural simplicity and the high thermodynamic stability suggest that some of these species may be generated and captured in the gas phase. Furthermore, as mono-anionic species, their first vertical detachment energies are differentiable from those of their nearest isomers, which would facilitate their characterization via experiments such as the negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy.

  11. D3h [A-CE3-A]- (E = Al and Ga, A = Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb): A new class of hexatomic mono-anionic species with trigonal bipyramidal carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan-Bo; Li, Yan-Qin; Bai, Hui; Lu, Hai-Gang; Li, Si-Dian; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Wang, Zhi-Xiang

    2014-03-01

    The non-classical trigonal bipyramidal carbon (TBPC) arrangement generally exists as transition states (TSs) in nucleophilic bimolecular substitution (SN2) reactions. Nevertheless, chemists have been curious about whether such a carbon bonding could be stable in equilibrium structures for decades. As the TBPC arrangement was normally realized as cationic species theoretically and experimentally, only one anionic example ([At-C(CN)3-At]-) was computationally devised. Herein, we report the design of a new class of anionic TBPC species by using the strategy similar to that for stabilizing the non-classical planar hypercoordinate carbon. When electron deficient Al and Ga were used as the equatorial ligands, eight D3h [A-CE3-A]- (E = Al and Ga, A = Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb) TBPC structures were found to be the energy minima rather than TSs at both the B3LYP and MP2 levels. Remarkably, the energetic results at the CCSD(T) optimization level further identify [Ge-CAl3-Ge]- and [Sn-CGa3-Sn]- even to be the global minima and [Si-CAl3-Si]- and [Ge-CGa3-Ge]- to be the local minima, only slightly higher than their global minima. The electronic structure analyses reveal that the substantial ionic C-E bonding, the peripheral E-A covalent bonding, and the axial mc-2e (multi center-two electrons) bonding play roles in stabilizing these TBPC structures. The structural simplicity and the high thermodynamic stability suggest that some of these species may be generated and captured in the gas phase. Furthermore, as mono-anionic species, their first vertical detachment energies are differentiable from those of their nearest isomers, which would facilitate their characterization via experiments such as the negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy.

  12. Mono County geothermal activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lyster, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Three geothermal projects have been proposed or are underway in Mono County, California. The Mammoth/Chance geothermal development project plans to construct a 10-MW geothermal binary power plant which will include 8 production and 3 injection wells. Pacific Lighting Energy Systems is also planning a 10-MW binary power plant consisting of 5 geothermal wells and up to 4 injection wells. A geothermal research project near Mammoth Lakes has spudded a well to provide a way to periodically measure temperature gradient, pressure, and chemistry of the thermal waters and to investigate the space-heating potential of the area in the vicinity of Mammoth Lakes. All three projects are briefly described.

  13. How Long Is Mono Contagious?

    MedlinePlus

    ... it is contagious. Once someone gets mono, the virus stays in that person's body for life. That doesn't mean that you are always ... as long as 18 months. After that, the virus remains dormant (inactive) in the body for the rest of a person's life. If you've had mono, the virus can ...

  14. MonoColor CMOS sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ynjiun P.

    2009-02-01

    A new breed of CMOS color sensor called MonoColor sensor is developed for a barcode reading application in AIDC industry. The RGBW color filter array (CFA) in a MonoColor sensor is arranged in a 8 x 8 pixels CFA with only 4 pixels of them are color (RGB) pixels and the rest of 60 pixels are transparent or monochrome. Since the majority of pixels are monochrome, MonoColor sensor maintains 98% barcode decode performance compared with a pure monochrome CMOS sensor. With the help of monochrome and color pixel fusion technique, the resulting color pictures have similar color quality in terms of Color Semantic Error (CSE) compared with a Bayer pattern (RGB) CMOS color camera. Since monochrome pixels are more sensitive than color pixels, a MonoColor sensor produces in general about 2X brighter color picture and higher luminance pixel resolution.

  15. [Al

    PubMed

    Purath; Köppe; Schnöckel

    1999-10-04

    A "naked" aluminum atom links two aluminum tetrahedra in the [Al(7){N(SiMe(3))(2)}(6)](-) ion (see picture), which results from the reaction of a metastable AlCl solution with LiN(SiMe(3))(2) and crystallizes with [Li(OEt(2))(3)](+) as cation. This unique structure among molecular metal atom clusters represents a small but characteristic section of cubic close-packed aluminum.

  16. Searches with mono-leptons

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Yang; Tait, Tim M. P.

    2013-06-01

    We explore the implications of the mono-lepton plus missing transverse energy signature at the LHC, and point out its significance on understanding how dark matter interacts with quarks, where the signature arises from dark matter pair production together with a leptonically decaying W boson radiated from the initial state quarks. We derive limits using the existing W' searches at the LHC, and find an interesting interference between the contributions from dark matter couplings to up-type and down-type quarks. Mono-leptons can actually furnish the strongest current bound on dark matter interactions for axial-vector (spin-dependent) interactions and iso-spin violating couplings. Should a signal of dark matter production be observed, this process can also help disentangle the dark matter couplings to up- and down-type quarks.

  17. Mono-energetic mono-directional resonance neutron activation of natural indium metal target

    SciTech Connect

    Ertek, C.; Oigawa, Hiroyuki

    1994-12-31

    The mono-energetic neutrons of 1.456eV energy are obtained from 2 MWth TR-I swimming pool type research reactor using double collimated beams and BRAGG reflection of pure Beryllium mono-crystal with extremely fine energy resolution. Foil thickness for 3 foils were 26., 28, and 44.10-4 cm and they were perpendicular to the beam of mono-energetic neutrons and were irradiated in sandwich form. After irradiation, the saturation activities were obtained using Phillips two-pie special beta-ray detector in a well controlled and shielded geometry. Counting reproducibility was excellent (better than 0.1%). Special Attention was paid to the irradiated (side A) and non-irradiated (side B) sides of the foils. Usual irradiation and decay corrections were applied to obtain the saturation activities. In this work, the preliminary calculations of reaction rates using Nakazawa M. et al., JENDL Dosimetry file, JAERI 1325, (1992) were performed. Considerable differences are found between the calculations and experiment and possible reasons are still under investigation. The preliminary calculations of reaction rates using ENDFB/VI are in agreement with JENDL-3 estimates. Absolute reaction rate estimates are not yet ready. Considerable numbers of research centers are interested in the experiment and very constructive inputs are expressed and obtained from Hiroyuki Oigawa, Shigeaki Okajima and T. Mukaiyama, JAERI, Japan; N.P. Baumann and K.O. Ott, USA; E. Zsolnay and E. Szondy, Hungary; M.C. Lopes and J. Molina, Portugal; F. Bensch, H. Boeck Austria; and M. Turgut and A. Isyar, Turkey. Investigations using collision theory, multiple scattering and monte-carlo techniques have been undertaken.

  18. Radionuclides in Mono Lake, California

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Toggweiler, J.R.; Mathieu, G.; Deck, B.L.; Olsen, C.R.; Hammond, D.E.; Fuller, C.; Ku, T.L.

    1982-04-30

    Several radioisotopes of the naturally occurring uranium and thorium decay series, in addition to fallout plutonium, have unusually high concentrations in the water column of Mono Lake, a natural alkaline, saline lake. Complexing by carbonate ions appears to be responsible for the enhanced solubility of actinide elements with oxidation states of IV to VI. In contrast, fallout strontium-90 has been largely removed from the water, probably as a result of coprecipitation with calcium carbonate. The daughter/parent activity ratios of thorium, radium, and uranium isotopes suggest that thorium is removed from the water column to the sediments on time scales substantially longer than a month and that the desorption of thorium from the sediments to the water column requires less than a few years.

  19. Radionuclides in Mono Lake, California

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Toggweiler, J.R.; Mathieu, G.; Deck, B.L.; Olsen, C.R.; Hammond, D.E.; Fuller, C.; Ku, T.L.

    1982-04-01

    Several radioisotopes of the naturally occurring uranium and thorium decay series, in addition to fallout plutonium have unusually high concentrations in the water column of Mono Lake, a natural alkaline, saline lake. Complexing by carbonate ions appears to be responsible for the enhanced solubility of actinide elements with oxidation states of IV to VI. In contrast, fallout strontium-90 has been largely removed from the water, probably as a result of coprecipitation with calcium carbonate. The daughter/parent activity ratios of thorium, radium, and uranium isotopes suggest that thorium is removed from the water column to the sediments on time scales substantially longer than a month and that the desorption of thorium from the sediments to the water column requires less than a few years. 2 tables.

  20. Synthesis, crystal structure and mono-dimensional thallium ion conduction of TlFe{sub 0.22}Al{sub 0.78}As{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    SciTech Connect

    Ouerfelli, Najoua; Guesmi, Abderrahmen Mazza, Daniele; Madani, Adel; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi; Driss, Ahmed

    2007-04-15

    A new solid solution TlFe{sub 0.22}Al{sub 0.78}As{sub 2}O{sub 7} has been synthesized by a solid-state reaction. The structure of the title compound has been determined from a single-crystal X-ray diffraction and refined to final values of the reliability factors: R(F {sup 2})=0.030 and wR(F {sup 2})=0.081 for 1343 independent reflections with I>2{sigma}(I). It crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1, with a=6.296(2) A, b=6.397(2) A, c=8.242(2) A, {alpha}=96.74(2){sup o}, {beta}=103.78(2){sup o}, {gamma}=102.99(3){sup o}, V=309.0(2) A{sup 3} and Z=2. The structure can be described as a three-dimensional framework containing (Fe/Al)O{sub 6} octahedra connected through As{sub 2}O{sub 7} groups. The metallic units and diarsenate groups share oxygen corners to form a three-dimensional framework with interconnected tunnels parallel to the a, b and c directions, where Tl{sup +} cations are located. The ionic conductivity measurements are performed on pellets of the polycrystalline powder. At 683 K, The conductivity value is 5.23x10{sup -6} S cm{sup -1} and the ionic jump activation energy is 0.656 eV. The bond valence analysis reveals that the ionic conductivity is ensured by Tl{sup +} along the [001] direction. - Graphical abstract: Optimized trajectory for Tl(1)-Tl(2) jump.

  1. Sulfur poisoning of CeO[subscript 2]-Al[subscript 2]O[subscript 3]-supported mono- and bi-metallic Ni and Rh catalysts in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons at low and high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Chao; Chen, Yongsheng; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiaoxing; Song, Chunshan

    2010-12-01

    In order to develop a better understanding on sulfur poisoning of reforming catalysts in fuel processing for hydrogen production, steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons was performed over CeO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported monometallic Ni and Rh and bimetallic Rh-Ni catalysts at 550 and 800 C. XANES was used to identify the sulfur species in the used catalysts and to study their impacts on the metal surface properties probed by XPS. It was found that both monometallic catalysts rapidly deactivated at 550 C, and showed poor sulfur tolerance. Although ineffective for the Ni catalyst, increasing the temperature to 800 C dramatically improved the sulfur tolerance of the Rh catalyst. XANES revealed that metal sulfide and organic sulfide are the dominant sulfur species on the used Ni catalyst, while sulfonate and sulfate predominate on the used Rh catalyst. The presence of sulfur induced severe carbon deposition on the Ni catalyst at 800 C. The superior sulfur tolerance of the Rh catalyst at 800 C may be associated with its capability in sulfur oxidation. It is likely that the formation of the oxygen-shielded sulfur structure of sulfonate and sulfate can suppress the poisoning impact of sulfur on Rh by inhibiting direct rhodium-sulfur interaction. Moreover, XPS indicated that the metal surface properties of the Rh catalysts after the reaction without and with sulfur at 800 C are similar, suggesting that sulfur poisoning on Rh was mitigated under the high-temperature condition. Although the Rh-Ni catalyst exhibited better sulfur tolerance than the monometallic catalysts at 550 C, its catalytic performance was inferior compared with the Rh catalyst in the sulfur-containing reaction at 800 C probably due to the severe carbon deposition on the bimetallic catalyst.

  2. 238U-230Th crystallization ages for the oldest domes of the Mono Craters, eastern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcaida, M.; Vazquez, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Mono Craters volcanic chain is one of the youngest areas of rhyolitic volcanism in the Mono Lake-Long Valley region of eastern California. Located just south of Mono Lake, the Mono Craters comprise at least 28 individual domes and flows (numbered 3-30, north to south); however, the timing and frequency of eruptions remain poorly resolved. The earliest signs of volcanic activity are preserved as numerous tephra layers (Ashes 1-19, top to bottom) in the late Pleistocene Wilson Creek formation of ancestral Mono Lake, which indicate that rhyolitic volcanism from Mono Craters began by at least ca. 62 ka [1]. Although the current chronology indicates that most of the Mono Craters are younger than ca. 20 ka [2-4], similar compositions of titanomagnetite from both pumice and lava potentially correlate several Wilson Creek tephras to porphyritic biotite-bearing domes 11, 24, and 19 of the Mono Craters [5], suggesting that multiple domes in the Mono Craters chain reflect volcanism older than ca. 20 ka. Ash 3 is correlated to dome 11 based on similar ca. 20 ka ages and titanomagnetite compositions [6]. More recently, we performed ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of unpolished rims of allanite and zircon from domes 24 and 19, yielding isochron ages of ca. 38 ka and ca. 42 ka, respectively. The age of dome 24 is consistent with the ca. 38 ka age of its potential correlative tephra layers [1, 5], indicating that dome 24 is likely the extrusive equivalent of Ashes 9-10. Dome 19 has titanomagnetite crystals with similar bimodal chemistry to titanomagnetites from Ash 15 [5]. The age of dome 19 is indistinguishable from the 238U-230Th age of Ash 15 [1], which erupted during a prominent geomagnetic excursion, originally designated as the "Mono Lake" excursion. Combining geochronological and titanomagnetite compositional data confirms that Ash 15 and its extrusive equivalent, dome 19, erupted during the Laschamp excursion. [1] Vazquez, J.A. and Lidzbarski, M.I. (2012) EPSL 357

  3. Digital Bathymetric Model of Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raumann, Christian G.; Stine, Scott; Evans, Alexander; Wilson, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    In 1986 and 1987, Pelagos Corporation of San Diego (now Racal Pelagos) undertook a bathymetric survey of Mono Lake in eastern California for the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (DWP). The result of that survey was a series of maps at various scales and contour intervals. From these maps, the DWP hoped to predict consequences of the drop in lake level that resulted from their diversion of streams in the Mono Basin. No digital models, including shaded-relief and perspective-view renderings, were made from the data collected during the survey. With the permission of Pelagos Corporation and DWP, these data are used to produce a digital model of the floor of Mono Lake. The model was created using a geographic information system (GIS) to incorporate these data with new observations and measurements made in the field. This model should prove to be a valuable tool for enhanced visualization and analyses of the floor of Mono Lake.

  4. Mafic replenishment of multiple felsic reservoirs at the Mono domes and Mono Lake islands, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Brandon; Stix, John; Cousens, Brian

    2017-07-01

    The Mono Basin has been the site of frequent volcanic activity over the past 60,000 years, including the emplacement of the Mono domes and Mono Lake islands. The Mono Basin lavas are the youngest and most poorly understood products of the Long Valley Volcanic Field. We have undertaken a study of Mono Basin volcanism encompassing whole-rock major and trace element, Sr, Nd, Pb, and O isotopic, and electron microprobe glass, plagioclase, and amphibole analyses. Variations in major and trace elements suggest that fractional crystallization of feldspar (Sr, K2O), apatite (P2O5), titanomagnetite (V), zircon (Zr), and allanite (La, Ce) has influenced the evolution of the Mono Basin lavas. Field observations, petrography, and chemistry together demonstrate that injection of more mafic magma is a common process throughout the Mono Basin. Mafic enclaves of the Mono domes are stretched and rounded, with chilled margins between enclave and host rhyolite. Thin sections reveal millimeter-scale inclusions of rhyolite in the enclaves and vice versa along the host-enclave border. Paoha Island dacite has glass with 67-72 wt% SiO2 and contains microscopic clots of more mafic glasses, with SiO2 contents as low as 64 wt%. Isotopically, the June Lake and Black Point basalts and the Mono dome enclaves represent the least evolved material in the Long Valley Volcanic Field, with 87Sr/86Sri <0.7056 and 143Nd/144Nd >0.5126. The silicic Mono Lake lavas and Mono dome rhyolites display a significant crustal component, with 87Sr/86Sri >0.7058 and 143Nd/144Nd <0.5127. Oxygen and Pb isotopes throughout the sample suite also have crustal signatures, with 206Pb/204Pb >19 and δ18O >+6.5‰. The Mono Lake lavas generally are younger and less evolved than the Mono domes, with enrichment in trace elements including Ba and Sr accompanied by lower 143Nd/144Nd and higher 206Pb/204Pb. This implies that the Mono domes and the Mono Lake lavas are derived from different magma batches, if not from separate

  5. 40 CFR 721.2140 - Carbo-poly-cycli-col azo-alkyl-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. 721.2140 Section 721.2140 Protection of Environment...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-mino-al-kyl-car-bo-mon-o-cyc-lic ester, halogen acid salt (PMN P-88-1682) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2140 - Carbo-poly-cycli-col azo-alkyl-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. 721.2140 Section 721.2140 Protection of Environment...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-mino-al-kyl-car-bo-mon-o-cyc-lic ester, halogen acid salt (PMN P-88-1682) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2140 - Carbo-poly-cycli-col azo-alkyl-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. 721.2140 Section 721.2140 Protection of Environment...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-mino-al-kyl-car-bo-mon-o-cyc-lic ester, halogen acid salt (PMN P-88-1682) is subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2140 - Carbo-poly-cycli-col azo-alkyl-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. 721.2140 Section 721.2140 Protection of Environment...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-mino-al-kyl-car-bo-mon-o-cyc-lic ester, halogen acid salt (PMN P-88-1682) is subject to reporting under...

  9. Clark Canyon (Mono County) Riparian Demonstration Area

    Treesearch

    John W. Key; Mark A. Gish

    1989-01-01

    The Clark Canyon riparian demonstration area was established in 1984 within the East Walker River subbasin of Mono County, California. Destabilization of the meadow sections of the stream and the upper stream reaches contributed to an increase of suspended sediments, turbidity, and stream channel widening in the lower stream reaches where a viable population of rainbow...

  10. Lithium adsorption on heteroatom mono and dual doped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, Pablo A.

    2017-03-01

    Herein, we studied the interaction of lithium with monodoped (X) and dual-doped graphene (XY), X = Al, Si, P and S and Y = B, N and O. Dual-doping is the best choice to modulate the interaction of lithium with graphene. The strongest interaction with lithium was observed for SN-dual-doped graphene, while S-doped and N-doped graphene displayed the weakest interactions. With regards to the electronic properties, for some systems Li adsorption opened a band-gap, while for others restored the Dirac cones and the semimetallic character at the K-point. Therefore, Li-doping is a useful tool to fine-tune the band gap in mono and dual-doped graphene.

  11. Mono Lake Excursion as a Chronologic Marker in the U.S. Great Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, J. C.; Coe, R. S.; Knott, J. R.

    2008-05-01

    Nevada, Utah, and California east of the Sierra Nevada are in the Great Basin physiographic province of western North America. During periods of the Pleistocene, Lake Bonneville and Lake Lahontan covered valleys in Utah and Nevada, respectively, and other lakes such as Lake Russell in east-central California did likewise (Feth, 1964). Now dry except for its remnant, Mono Lake, Lake Russell provides an opportunity to study behavior of Earth's past magnetic field in lacustrine sediments that are exposed in natural outcrops. The sediments record at least 30,000 years of paleomagnetic secular variation (Liddicoat, 1976; Zimmerman et al., 2006) and have been of particular interest since the discovery of the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE) by Denham and Cox (1971) because the field behavior can be documented at numerous sites around Mono Lake (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979, Liddicoat, 1992; Coe and Liddicoat, 1994) and on Paoha Island in the lake. Moreover, there have been recent attempts to date the excursion (Kent et al., 2002, Benson et al., 2003) more accurately and use the age and relative field intensity in paleoclimate research (Zimmerman et al., 2006). It has been proposed that the excursion in the Mono Basin might be older than originally believed (Denham and Cox, 1971; Liddicoat and Coe, 1979) and instead be the Laschamp Excursion (LE), ~ 40,000 yrs B.P. (Guillou et al., 2004), on the basis of 14C and 40Ar/39Ar dates (Kent et al., 2002) and the relative paleointensity record (Zimmerman et al., 2006) for the excursion in the Mono Basin. On the contrary, we favor a younger age for the excursion, ~ 32,000 yrs B.P., using the relative paleointensity at the Mono and Lahontan basins and 14C dates from the Lahontan Basin (Benson et al., 2003). The age of ~ 32,000 yrs B.P. is in accord with the age (32,000-34,000 yrs B.P.) reported by Channell (2006) for the MLE at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 919 in the Irminger Basin in the North Atlantic Ocean, which contains as well an

  12. 40 CFR 721.10505 - Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and... Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12-16-alkyl... identified as phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10505 - Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and... Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12-16-alkyl... identified as phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono...

  14. Elevated concentrations of actinides in mono lake.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R F; Bacon, M P; Brewer, P G

    1982-04-30

    Tetravalent thorium, pentavalent protactinium, hexavalent uranium, and plutonium (oxidation state uncertain) are present in much higher concentrations in Mono Lake, a saline, alkaline lake in eastern central California, than in seawater. Low ratios of actinium to protactinium and of americium to plutonium indicate that the concentrations of trivalent actinides are not similarly enhanced. The elevated concentrations of the ordinarily very insoluble actinides are maintained in solution by natural ligands, which inhibit their chemical removal from the water column, rather than by an unusually large rate of supply.

  15. Elevated concentrations of actinides in Mono Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.F.; Bacon, M.P.; Brewer, P.G.

    1982-04-30

    Tetravalent thorium, pentavalent protactinium, hexavalent uranium, and plutonium (oxidation state uncertain) are present in much higher concentrations in Mono Lake, a saline, alkaline lake in eastern central California, than in seawater. Low ratios of actinium to protactinium and of americium to plutonium indicate that the concentrations of trivalent actinides are not similarly enhanced. The elevated concentrations of the ordinarily very insoluble actinides are maintained in solution by natural ligands, which inhibit their chemical removal from the water column, rather than by an unusually large rate of supply.

  16. Mono Lake earthquake of October 23, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, S.; Bryant, W.; Wilson, R.

    1991-02-01

    On October 23, 1990, a moderate earthquake of local magnitude (M{sub L}) 5.7 shook the Mono Lake area, a region known for its recent volcanic and tectonic activity. The earthquake was centered approximately 5 miles north of Lee Vining and 16 miles southeast of Bridgeport, near Black Point, an isolated flat-topped hill on the north shore of Mono Lake. Shaking from the earthquake was felt at approximately Modified Mercalli Intensity VI in the local area and weakly throughout much of north central California as far west as Sacramento and the San Francisco Bay area. This article summarizes the seismological features of the earthquake and relates the findings made during a surface fault rupture investigation of epicentral area by Division of Mines and Geology (DMG) geologists. To demonstrate how this earthquake fits into the regional tectonic setting, the character of this event is compared to that of other noteworthy seismic events that have occurred over the last 12 years.

  17. Three-Dimensional Resistivity Model of the Mono Craters Region in Eastern California from Magnetotellurics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, J.; Mangan, M.; McPhee, D.; Ponce, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Long Valley volcanic region in eastern California contains three magmatic foci; Long Valley Caldera (760-50 ka), Mammoth Mountain (120-8 ka), and Mono-Inyo Craters (60-0.3 ka). Zones of partial melt and/or hydrothermal fluids are known to exist under all three systems, but are not well constrained. In 2013-2014, we collected 110 magnetotelluric stations within a 40km x 45km grid, from Mono Craters through Long Valley Caldera. To date, a 3-D resistivity model has been created for Mono Craters showing three distinct features. Best constrained is a 150±50 km3, near vertical conductive anomaly (0.1-3 Ω·m) located under the southeast margin of Mono Craters at depths from 10km to >35km, which may reflect the deep, partially molten source region for Holocene eruptions. Electrical resistivity calculations suggest temperatures of 775°C±50 and a partial melt fraction 0.2 ±0.1. The location, melt fraction, and volume estimated in this study are consistent with those from teleseismic experiments conducted by Archauer (1986) and Dawson et al. (1990). A second conductive anomaly (0.5-5 Ω·m) at 12km to >35km depths was found 10km west of the Mono Craters near the eastern front of the Sierra Nevada. This anomaly coincides with a zone of sporadic, long-period earthquakes interpreted as "fluid-driven" by Pitt et al. (1994). This anomaly may reflect a zone of hydrothermal fluid infiltration originating from the aforementioned magmatic region. The third feature identified in this study is a resistive anomaly (103-104 Ω·m) under Aeolian Buttes, a Cretaceous quartz monzanite outcropping within the Bishop Tuff between Mono Craters and the Sierran front. The anomaly, which fills a crustal volume of 1500 ±500 km3, balloons upward from a deep root at >30 km to within 2 km of the surface and is interpreted as a cold, granitic pluton as supported by gravity and magnetic data. Future work will extend our three-dimensional resistivity model southwards to Inyo Craters and Long

  18. Capillary Electrophoresis of Mono- and Oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Toppazzini, Mila; Coslovi, Anna; Rossi, Marco; Flamigni, Anna; Baiutti, Edi; Campa, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reports an overview of the recent advances in the analysis of mono- and oligosaccharides by capillary electrophoresis (CE); furthermore, relevant reviews and research articles recently published in the field are tabulated. Additionally, pretreatments and procedures applied to uncharged and acidic carbohydrates (i.e., monosaccharides and lower oligosaccharides carrying carboxylate, sulfate, or phosphate groups) are described.Representative examples of such procedures are reported in detail, upon describing robust methodologies for the study of (1) neutral oligosaccharides derivatized by reductive amination and by formation of glycosylamines; (2) sialic acid derivatized with 2-aminoacridone, released from human serum immunoglobulin G; (3) anomeric couples of neutral glycosides separated using borate-based buffers; (4) unsaturated, underivatized oligosaccharides from lyase-treated alginate.

  19. Gaylussite formation at Mono Lake, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J. ); Herbst, D.B. )

    1991-06-01

    The salinity of Mono Lake has steadily increased since 1941 from 50{per thousand} to about 90{per thousand} due to diversion of tributary streams. This increase has resulted in the newly discovered precipitation of gaylussite (Na{sub 2}Ca(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center dot} 5H{sub 2}O). Chemical modeling of the lake water using Pitzer equations suggests that gaylussite has been forming year round since about 1970 when the salinity first exceeded 80{per thousand}, and that it was earlier forming intermittently at lower salinities in the winter shortly after diversion began, breaking down incongruently to aragonite during summers. Lake water appears to remain at a constant 9-fold supersaturation with aragonite at all salinities, perhaps buffered by monohydrocalcite which appears to be just at saturation for all salinities. Other saline lakes also appear to be buffered by monohydrocalcite.

  20. Gaylussite formation at mono lake, california

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Herbst, D.B.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The salinity of Mono Lake has steadily increased since 1941 from 50%. to about 90%. due to diversion of tributary streams. This increase has resulted in the newly discovered precipitation of gaylussite (Na2Ca(CO3)2 ?? 5H2O). Chemical modeling of the lake water using Pitzer equations suggests that gaylussite has been forming year round since about 1970 when the salinity first exceeded 80%., and that it was earlier forming intermittently at lower salinities in the winter shortly after diversion began, breaking down incongruently to aragonite during summers. Lake water appears to remain at a constant 9-fold supersaturation with aragonite at all salinities, perhaps buffered by monohydrocalcite which appears to be just at saturation for all salinities. Other saline lakes also appear to be buffered by monohydrocalcite. ?? 1991.

  1. Intercultural Interactions of Mono-Cultural, Mono-Lingual Local Students in Small Group Learning Activities: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Cassandra; Fozdar, Farida; Volet, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the understandings and experiences of mono-cultural, mono-lingual local students in relation to intercultural interactions within small group learning activities at university. Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and capital are employed to illuminate a number of barriers to intercultural interaction. Using qualitative…

  2. Intercultural Interactions of Mono-Cultural, Mono-Lingual Local Students in Small Group Learning Activities: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Cassandra; Fozdar, Farida; Volet, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the understandings and experiences of mono-cultural, mono-lingual local students in relation to intercultural interactions within small group learning activities at university. Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and capital are employed to illuminate a number of barriers to intercultural interaction. Using qualitative…

  3. Raman spectroscopy of suspended mono and bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitt, Alexander; Feldman, Benjamin; Remi, Sebastian; Martin, Jens; Swan, Anna; Yacoby, Amir; Goldberg, Bennett

    2010-03-01

    Suspended mono and bilayer graphene flakes have been shown to have higher mobility and lower disorder than their supported counterparts^1. The geometry which decouples the flake from the substrate also causes an as yet uncharacterized backgate specific strain due to an electrostatic attraction between the graphene and the back gated substrate. We study this strain using spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy with a diffraction limited spot size. Upon application of uni-axial strain the unit cell is stretched reducing the symmetry of the system and breaking the double degeneracy of the G band causing a split in the peak. Additionally the Raman modes show a linear softening as a function of strain in the case of supported graphene. Suspended flakes provide an ideal system to study back gate tunable strain while avoiding complications due to substrates including the determination of the Poisson ratio and sample slippage^2. Here we present preliminary results of our observations. 1: B Feldman, J Martin, A Yacoby, ``Broken-symmetry states and divergent resistance in suspended bilayer graphene'', Nature Physics, doi:10.1038/nphys1406 2: C Metzger et al, ``Biaxial strain in graphene adhered to shallow depressions'', Accepted for publication in Nano Letters

  4. Mono Lake Excursion in Cored Sediment from the Eastern Tyrrhenian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, Joseph; Iorio, Marina; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Incoronato, Alberto

    2013-04-01

    A search for the Laschamp and Mono Lake excursions in cored marine and lacustrine sediment younger than 50,000 years resulted in the discovery of both excursions in the Greenland Sea (73.3˚ N, 351.0˚ E, Nowaczyk and Antanow, 1997), in the North Atlantic Ocean (62.7˚ N, 222.5˚ E, Channell, 2006), in Pyramid Lake in the Lahontan Basin, NV, USA (40.1˚ N, 240.2˚ E, Benson et al., 2008), and in the Black Sea (43.2˚ N, 36.5˚ E, Nowaczyk et al., 2012). The inclination, declination, and relative field intensity during the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE) in the Black Sea sediment matches well the behaviour of the excursion in the Mono Basin, CA, in that a reduction in inclination during westerly declination is soon followed by steep positive inclination when declination is easterly, and relative field intensity increases after a low at the commencement of the excursion (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979). A large clockwise loop of Virtual Geomagnetic Poles (VGPs) at the Black Sea when followed from old to young patterns very well the VGP loop formed by the older portion of the MLE in the Mono Basin (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979). We also searched for the MLE in cored sediment from the eastern Tyrrhenian Sea (40.1˚ N, 14.7˚ E) where the age of the sediment is believed to be about 32,000 years when comparing the susceptibility in the core with the susceptibility in a nearby one that is dated by palaeomagnetic secular variation records, Carbon-14, and numerous tephra layers in the Tyrrhenian Sea sediment (Iorio et al., 2011). In the Tyrrhenian Sea core, called C1067, closely spaced samples demagnetized in an alternating field to100 mT record a shallowing of positive inclination to 48˚ that is followed by steep positive inclination of 82˚ when declination moves rapidly to the southeast. The old to young path of the VGPs in C1067 forms a narrow counter-clockwise loop that reaches 30.3˚ N, 30.8˚ E and that is centered at about 55˚ N, 15˚ E. Although descending to a latitude that is

  5. Three Dimensional Visualization of Mono Basin, California from Geophysical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, J.; McPhee, D.; Ponce, D. A.; Mangan, M.; MacPherson-Krutsky, C. C.; Matson, G.

    2013-12-01

    Mono Basin, east of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, is an area of great interest not only because of recent volcanic activity, but also as a region of geothermal potential. Not surprisingly, most of the geophysical data collected in the region has been focused on Long Valley Caldera and Mammoth Mountain due to recent seismic activity in the south moat, uplift of a central resurgent dome in the Caldera, and enhanced CO2 emissions near Mammoth Mountain. Consequently, there is a void of geophysical information on the Mono-Inyo Craters, a chemically distinct volcanic chain north of Long Valley. The Mono-Inyo chain is nominally two parts but volcanically similar; the Inyo Craters form a north trending linear chain and the Mono craters form an arcuate chain concave towards the west, bounding the east side of Mono Basin. In the last two years, gravity, high-resolution aeromagnetic, audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) and magnetotelluric (MT) data have been collected around Mono Craters. The focus of this study is the Mono Basin, where interesting features have been found from 3D visualization of these geophysical data. One prominent feature is a large circular magnetic anomaly with a diameter of 10~km stretching from Mono Craters to the base of the Sierra Nevada, where the geometry of Mono Craters follow the eastern part of this anomaly. This circular anomaly has been suggested to be a ring fracture, but sparse surface data leaves this theory unconstrained. Another feature is an interpreted deep (~ 600 m) fault (previously unmapped) just west of Mono Craters inside the circular magnetic anomaly. This structure correlates with a conductive high in the 3D resistivity model found from the AMT data and 2D resistivity model from newly collected MT data, a gravity gradient, and a positive magnetic anomaly in the aeromagnetic data. Moreover, this fault may be an important structural constraint on the formation of Mono Craters, because it may explain why the Mono Craters form an arcuate

  6. Investigations About the Recording of the Palaeomagnetic Field in the Mono Basin, CA, in Siltstone from a Granitic Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, Joseph; Coe, Robert

    2014-05-01

    For more than three decades, Reidar Lovlie did innovative laboratory and field experiments that advanced our understanding about how sediments acquire a remanent magnetization (Lovlie, 1979, and his subsequent publications about that research). The investigations we and our students have done with lacustrine sediments deposited during the late Pleistocene in the Mono Basin, CA, have benefited from those experiments. One of Lovlie's laboratory experiments that was especially useful in our investigation of the role of relative field intensity (RFI) during a rapidly changing field, the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE; Coe and Liddicoat, 1994), was his study of suspended magnetic grains in slowly curing epoxy resin as the field strength was varied (Lovlie, 1993). More recently we did comparative field and laboratory experiments with sediments from different depositional environments in the Mono Basin that help to explain the recording of the palaeomagnetic field in unweathered siltstone derived from a granitic provenance in the California Sierra Nevada. Our investigations are possible because inclination, declination, and RFI using alternating field and thermal demagnetization and intensity normalizing experiments of magnetic susceptibility (k), saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM), and anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM)(Lund et al., 2005) can be measured with precision for localities separated by as much as 15 kilometres using volcanic ash beds as marker horizons. In addition to making the comparison between localities in the Mono Basin that record the MLE, we have done that for a time interval following the MLE also in the Mono Basin where the palaeomagnetic directions are anomalous compared to secular variation (waveform Delta in Lund et al., 1988; Liddicoat and Coe, 2013). In that interval the RFI is nearly double the RFI during the MLE (Zimmerman et al., 2006), which again allows us to study RFI as a factor in the palaeomagnetic recording process in

  7. MONO FOR CROSS-PLATFORM CONTROL SYSTEM ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Hiroshi; Timossi, Chris

    2006-10-19

    Mono is an independent implementation of the .NET Frameworkby Novell that runs on multiple operating systems (including Windows,Linux and Macintosh) and allows any .NET compatible application to rununmodified. For instance Mono can run programs with graphical userinterfaces (GUI) developed with the C# language on Windows with VisualStudio (a full port of WinForm for Mono is in progress). We present theresults of tests we performed to evaluate the portability of our controlssystem .NET applications from MS Windows to Linux.

  8. Mono Lake, California as seen from STS-59

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-04-14

    STS059-154-160 (9-20 April 1994) --- Orient with Mono Lake, California at the lower right; then the view is westward across the Sierra Nevada into the San Joaquin River drainage. A tiny network of ski trails can be seen on the Mono Lake side of the Sierras, on a line between Mono Lake and the snow-free San Joaquin headwaters. The ski trails mark Mammoth Mountain, where SRL investigators are studying microwave measurements of the water content of snowpacks. Linhof camera.

  9. Geochemical fingerprinting of Wilson Creek formation tephra layers (Mono Basin, California) using titanomagnetite compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcaida, Mae; Mangan, Margaret T.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Bursik, Marcus; Lidzbarski, Marsha I.

    2014-03-01

    Nineteen tephra layers within the Wilson Creek formation near Mono Lake provide a record of late Pleistocene to early Holocene volcanic activity from the nearby Mono Craters and are important chronostratigraphic markers for paleomagnetic, paleoclimatic, and paleoecologic studies. These stratigraphically important tephra deposits can be geochemically identified using compositions of their titanomagnetite phenocrysts. Titanomagnetite compositions display a broad range (XUsp 0.26-0.39), which allow the tephra layers to be distinguished despite the indistinguishable major-element glass compositions (76-77 wt% SiO2) of their hosts. The concentrations of Ti and Fe in titanomagnetite display geochemical and stratigraphic groupings that allow clear discrimination between older (> 57 ka) and younger (< 41 ka) tephras. Some individual tephra layers can be uniquely identified on the basis of titanomagnetite MgO, MnO, and Al2O3 contents. In addition, a few tephra layers can be correlated to their source vents by their titanomagnetite compositions. The unique geochemical fingerprint of the Mono Craters-sourced titanomagnetites also allows the discrimination of two tephra layers apparently sourced from nearby Mammoth Mountain volcano in Long Valley.

  10. Travertine Hot Springs, Mono County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Chesterman, C.W.; Kleinhampl, F.J.

    1991-08-01

    This article is an abridgement of Special Report 172, Travertine Hot Springs at Bridgeport, Mono County, California, in preparation at the California Division of Mines and Geology. The Travertine Hot Springs area is on the northern edge of what many consider to be one of the most tectonically active areas in the United States. There is abundant geothermal and seismic activity. The landscape is dotted with volcanic features- cones, craters, domes, flows, fumaroles and hot springs-indicators of unrest in the present as well as reminders of activity in the past. Travertine, also known as calcareous sinter, is limestone formed by chemical precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) from ground or surface waters. It forms stalactites and stalagmites in caves, fills some veins and spring conduits and can also be found at the mouths of springs, especially hot springs. The less compact variety is called tufa and the dense, banded variety is known as Mexican onyx, or onyx marble. True onyx, however, is a banded silicate.

  11. Investigations of the Origin of the Magnetic Remanence in Late Pleistocene Lacustrine Sediments in the Mono Basin, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasquez, N.; Corley, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    In the Mono Basin, CA, fine sand, silt, and volcanic ash deposited in Pleistocene Lake Russell is exposed on the margin of Mono Lake, and on Paoha Island in the lake. The silt records the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE: Denham and Cox, 1971) and several tens of thousands of years of paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV: Denham and Cox, 1971; Liddicoat, 1976; Lund et al., 1988). The sediment is believed to be an accurate recorder of PSV because the MLE has the same signal at widely separated localities in the basin (Denham, 1974; Liddicoat and Coe, 1979; Liddicoat, 1992) with the exception at wave-cut cliffs on the southeast side of the lake (Coe and Liddicoat, 1994). Magnetite, titanomagnetite, and titanomaghemite are present in the sediment (Denham and Cox, 1971; Liddicoat, 1976; Liddicoat and Coe, 1979), which is glacial flour from the adjacent Sierra Nevada (Lajoie, 1968). X-rays of the sediment and lineation measurements show patterns of normal bedding with layers aligned such that the minimum axes are within 5-10 degrees of normal bedding, with 10 percent foliation and 1 percent lineation (Coe and Liddicoat, 1994). We explore reasons for the difference in part of the PSV record at the wave-cut cliffs beyond the interpretation of Coe and Liddicoat (1994) that paleomagnetic field strength is a controlling factor. Possibilities include the sedimentation rate - at localities on the margin of Mono Lake the rate is about 60 percent less than at the wave-cut cliffs - and lithology of the sediment. At Mill Creek on the northwest side of Mono Lake, the non-magnetic sediment fraction is coarser-grained than at the wave-cut cliffs by a factor of about two, and there is a similar difference in the total inorganic carbon (TIC) percentage by weight for the two localities. (Spokowski et al., 2011) Studies of the sediment at two localities in the basin where the Hilina Pali Excursion (Teanby et al., 2002) might be recorded (Wilson Creek and South Shore Cliffs; Liddicoat and Coe

  12. 9. GRANT LAKE AND MONO LAKE IN DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. GRANT LAKE AND MONO LAKE IN DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 1. LEE VINING INTAKE LOOKING EAST TO MONO LAKE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LEE VINING INTAKE LOOKING EAST TO MONO LAKE. - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 2. LEE VINING INTAKE, MONO LAKE IN BACKGROUND. Los ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. LEE VINING INTAKE, MONO LAKE IN BACKGROUND. - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Isotope-specific detection of low density materials with mono-energetic (gamma)-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Gibson, D J; Hagmann, C A; Johnson, M S; Messerly, M J; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Tremaine, A M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C J

    2009-03-16

    The first demonstration of isotope-specific detection of a low-Z, low density object, shielded by a high-Z and high density material using mono-energetic gamma-rays is reported. Isotope-specific detection of LiH shielded by Pb and Al is accomplished using the nuclear resonance fluorescence line of {sup 7}Li at 0.478 MeV. Resonant photons are produced via laser-based Compton scattering. The detection techniques are general and the confidence level obtained is shown to be superior to that yielded by conventional x-ray/{gamma}-ray techniques in these situations.

  16. Plutonium speciation in water from Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleveland, J.M.; Rees, T.F.; Nash, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    The solubility of plutonium in Mono Lake water is enhanced by the presence of large concentrations of indigenous carbonate ions and moderate concentrations of fluoride ions. In spite of the complex chemical composition of this water, only a few ions govern the behavior of plutonium, as demonstrated by the fact that it was possible to duplicate plutonium speciation in a synthetic water containing only the principal components of Mono Lake water.

  17. Plutonium speciation in water from Mono Lake, California

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, J.M.; Rees, T.F.; Nash, K.L.

    1983-12-23

    The solubility of plutonium in Mono Lake water is enhanced by the presence of large concentrations of indigenous carbonate ions and moderate concentrations of fluoride ions. In spite of the complex chemical composition of this water, only a few ions govern the behavior of plutonium, as demonstrated by the fact that it was possible to duplicate plutonium speciation in a synthetic water containing only the principal components of Mono Lake water.

  18. New mono-organotin (IV) dithiocarbamate complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthalib, Amirah Faizah Abdul; Baba, Ibrahim

    2014-09-01

    Eighteen new mono-organotin dithiocarbamate compounds derived each nine from methyltin(IV) and phenyltin(IV) reacted using in-situ method with various type of N-dialkylamine together with carbon disulphide with the ratio of 1:3:3. Elemental and gravimetric analysis showed that the general formula of these compounds were RSnCl[S2CNR'R″]2 (R= Ph, CH3, R' = CH3, C2H5, C7H7 and R″ = C2H5, C6H11, iC3H7, C7H7). These compounds had been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, 1H, 13C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The infrared spectra of these compounds showed three important peaks indicating the formation of dithiocarbamate compounds, ν(CN), ν(CS) and ν(Sn-S) band which present in the region of 1444-1519, 954-1098 and 318-349 cm-1 respectively. The ultraviolet-visible spectra showed an absorption band for the π - π* transition of NCS group in the range of 253 - 259 nm due to the intramolecular charge transfer of the ligand. The 13C NMR spectra showed an important shift for δ(N13CS2) in the range of 196.8 - 201.9 ppm.. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed three new structures with the general formula of PhSnCl[S2CN(Et)(i-Pr)]2, MeSnCl[S2CN(Me)(Cy)]2 and MeSnCl[S2CN(i-Pr)(CH2Ph)]2. All structures having a distorted octahedral geometry set by CClS4 donor atom from the two chelating dithiocarbamate ligands.

  19. New mono-organotin (IV) dithiocarbamate complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Muthalib, Amirah Faizah Abdul; Baba, Ibrahim

    2014-09-03

    Eighteen new mono-organotin dithiocarbamate compounds derived each nine from methyltin(IV) and phenyltin(IV) reacted using in-situ method with various type of N-dialkylamine together with carbon disulphide with the ratio of 1:3:3. Elemental and gravimetric analysis showed that the general formula of these compounds were RSnCl[S{sub 2}CNR′R″]{sub 2} (R= Ph, CH{sub 3}, R′ = CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7} and R″ = C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, C{sub 6}H{sub 11}, iC{sub 3}H{sub 7}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7}). These compounds had been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The infrared spectra of these compounds showed three important peaks indicating the formation of dithiocarbamate compounds, ν(CN), ν(CS) and ν(Sn-S) band which present in the region of 1444–1519, 954–1098 and 318–349 cm{sup −1} respectively. The ultraviolet-visible spectra showed an absorption band for the π - π* transition of NCS group in the range of 253 – 259 nm due to the intramolecular charge transfer of the ligand. The {sup 13}C NMR spectra showed an important shift for δ(N{sup 13}CS{sub 2}) in the range of 196.8 – 201.9 ppm.. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed three new structures with the general formula of PhSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(Et)(i−Pr)]{sub 2}, MeSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(Me)(Cy)]{sub 2} and MeSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(i−Pr)(CH{sub 2}Ph)]{sub 2}. All structures having a distorted octahedral geometry set by CClS{sub 4} donor atom from the two chelating dithiocarbamate ligands.

  20. Pairing preferences of the model mono-valence mono-atomic ions investigated by molecular simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Ruiting; Zhao, Ying; Li, HuanHuan; Gao, Yi Qin; Zhuang, Wei

    2014-05-14

    We carried out a series of potential of mean force calculations to study the pairing preferences of a series of model mono-atomic 1:1 ions with evenly varied sizes. The probabilities of forming the contact ion pair (CIP) and the single water separate ion pair (SIP) were presented in the two-dimensional plots with respect to the ion sizes. The pairing preferences reflected in these plots largely agree with the empirical rule of matching ion sizes in the small and big size regions. In the region that the ion sizes are close to the size of the water molecule; however, a significant deviation from this conventional rule is observed. Our further analysis indicated that this deviation originates from the competition between CIP and the water bridging SIP state. The competition is mainly an enthalpy modulated phenomenon in which the existing of the water bridging plays a significant role.

  1. Pairing preferences of the model mono-valence mono-atomic ions investigated by molecular simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Ruiting; Zhao, Ying; Li, HuanHuan; Zhuang, Wei E-mail: gaoyq@pku.edu.cn; Gao, Yi Qin E-mail: gaoyq@pku.edu.cn

    2014-05-14

    We carried out a series of potential of mean force calculations to study the pairing preferences of a series of model mono-atomic 1:1 ions with evenly varied sizes. The probabilities of forming the contact ion pair (CIP) and the single water separate ion pair (SIP) were presented in the two-dimensional plots with respect to the ion sizes. The pairing preferences reflected in these plots largely agree with the empirical rule of matching ion sizes in the small and big size regions. In the region that the ion sizes are close to the size of the water molecule; however, a significant deviation from this conventional rule is observed. Our further analysis indicated that this deviation originates from the competition between CIP and the water bridging SIP state. The competition is mainly an enthalpy modulated phenomenon in which the existing of the water bridging plays a significant role.

  2. Dating Lake Tahoe (CA/NV) and Mono Lake (CA) sediment using palaeomagnetic secular variation as a chronology for late Pleistocene palaeoclimate in the U.S. Great Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    In 1976, six meters of graded and varved sediment were recovered in three piston cores from Lake Tahoe, CA/NV, and used for palaeomagnetic and sedimentologic investigations (Palmer et al., 1979; Denham, 1981). The long-term changes (secular variation) in the Lake Tahoe palaeomagnetic record were compared to secular variation in exposed lacustrine sediment of the Wilson Creek Formation (Lajoie, 1993) in the Mono Basin, CA, (Denham and Cox, 1971), 100 km away. During the more than 30 years since the coring was done in Lake Tahoe, the record of palaeomagnetic secular variation in the Mono Basin and elsewhere in the Great Basin has been refined (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979; Lund et al., 1988, Liddicoat and Coe, 1997; Liddicoat and Coe, 1998; Benson et al., 1998; Negrini and Davis, 1992; Kent et al., 2002; Zimmerman et al., 2006) to allow a reexamination of the palaeomagnetic directions and environmental magnetic record in the Lake Tahoe cores and the age of those sediments. Inferences are also possible about the sedimentological importance during the recording of the palaeomagnetic field at Lake Tahoe and possibly in the Mono Basin, and the age of the Lake Tahoe sediment recovered, which postdates the Mono Lake Excursion. The age of the Mono Lake Excursion and Wilson Creek Formation is relevant to investigations of Late Pleistocene palaeoclimate reconstructions for the U.S. Great Basin (Zimmerman et al., 2006).

  3. Temporal correlation of U. S. Great Basin lake sediments below the Mono Lake Excursion using paleomagnetic secular variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, J. C.; Coe, R. S.; Negrini, R. M.; Knott, J. R.; Lund, S.; Benson, L. V.

    2015-12-01

    Beginning nearly 50 years ago with a paleomagnetic study of exposed lacustrine sediments in the Mono Basin, CA (Denham and Cox, 1971), there have been subsequent studies to document paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) in the basin and to establish a chronology for that record (Vazquez and Lidzbarski, 2012). We report a paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) investigation of lacustrine sediments in the Mono Basin, CA, that extends the base of the PSV record of Lund et al. (1988) by about 20 percent. We did our investigation at two localities separated by about 4 km on the southeastern and eastern sides of Mono Lake: South Shore Cliffs (SSC) and Warm Springs (WS). The sampled interval at SSC is from 0.1 m above to 2.2 m below Wilson Creek Ash 19 in the tephrostratigraphy of Lajoie (1968), ending in loose sand. At WS, we sampled from Ash 17 to 1.0 m below Ash 19, a total of 2 m. At SSC using back-to-back horizons 2-cm thick containing one to three samples each that were a.f. or thermally demagnetized, we found rapidly fluctuating PSV in the interval from ~ 0.3 to 1.0 m below Ash 19. The fluctuating PSV contains a change in declination of ~ 80˚ from 308˚ (n = 3, α-95: 6.1˚) to 29˚ (n = 3, α-95: 11.5˚) within a single hand sample that spans 14 cm. Inclination during that change in declination gradually rose from 56˚ to 63˚ and increased to 70˚ before reducing to a minimum of 29.9˚. The path of the Virtual Geomagnetic Poles when the declination is most westerly forms a narrow loop that reaches 49.7˚ N latitude near 170˚ E longitude. At WS the westerly swing in declination is absent, but the easterly declination and relatively steep inclination described above are recorded. A study of the relative paleomagnetic intensity (RPI) shows that the maximum RPI is ~1.5 m below Ash 19 and decreases to a minimum ~6 cm above the ash. Distinct PSV and RPI features below the Mono Lake excursion correlate well between records from the periphery of Mono Lake and those from

  4. Theoretical study of lanthanide mono cation-mediated C-F bond activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Aya; Mori, Hirotoshi

    2011-02-01

    The potential energy surface corresponding to the reaction of lanthanide mono-cations (Ln +; Ln = Ce-Yb) with CH 3F has been investigated using density functional theory calculations. In the initial step of the C-F activation reaction, Ln + directly coordinates to the F atom of CH 3F, and forms same [Ln⋯F⋯CH 3] + type transition state structures with an accompanying electron-transfer from the Ln + to the F atom. Performing intrinsic reaction coordinate calculations from the transition states, we found that all Ln + reactions can be classified into one of two different reaction mechanisms, "harpoon-like" and "insertion-elimination", which were experimentally proposed by Cohrnel et al. and Konayagi et al., respectively. The two mechanisms have been proposed exclusive to each other. Our results show that both reaction mechanisms are possible in Ln + reaction systems.

  5. Capillary electrophoresis of neutral carbohydrates: mono-, oligosaccharides, glycosides.

    PubMed

    Campa, Cristiana; Rossi, Marco

    2008-01-01

    This chapter reports an overview of the recent advances in the analysis of neutral sugars by capillary electrophoresis (CE); furthermore, some relevant reviews and research articles in the field are tabulated. Comparison of CE with chromatography is also presented, with special attention to separation efficiency and sensitivity. The main routes aimed at pretreatment and CE analysis of uncharged mono-, oligosaccharides, and glycosides are described. Representative examples of such procedures are reported in detail, upon describing robust methodologies for the study of (1) neutral mono- and oligosaccharides derivatized by reductive amination and by formation of glycosylamines; (2) underivatized mono- and di-saccharides analyzed using highly alkaline buffers; and (3) anomeric couples of glycosides separated using borate-based buffers.

  6. Gas exchange on Mono Lake and Crowley Lake, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanninkhof, Rik; Ledwell, James R.; Broecker, Wallace S.

    1987-01-01

    Gas exchange coefficients (k) have been determined for freshwater Crowley Lake and saline Mono Lake through the use of a man-made purposefully injected gas, SF6. The concentration decreased from an initial value of 40 to 4 pmol/L for Mono Lake and from 20 to 1 pmol/L for Crowley lake over a period of 6 wks. Wind-speed (u) records from anemometers on the shore of each lake made it possible to determine the relationship between k and u. The average u and k values for the experiment were identical for the two lakes, despite the large chemical differences. It is estimated that, for the u values observed over Mono Lake from July to December 1984, the exchange of CO2 occurred 2.5 times faster than without chemical enhancement. This is a factor of 4 lower than needed to explain the high invasion rate of C-14 produced by nuclear bomb tests.

  7. [A new implant system for orbital prosthetic rehabilitation: "epiplating mono"].

    PubMed

    Schneider, M; Federspil, P A; Neumann, A; Schick, B

    2014-06-01

    A New Implant System for Orbital Prosthetic Rehabilitation: "Epiplating Mono" Prosthetic or episthetic rehabilitation of ear, eye and nose are currently most common performed using magnetic fixation. While at the beginning single implants have been used, now-a-days a more extended approach with plate fixation are recommended to enhance the stability of the anchored magnets. A newly designed implant system epiplating mono is presented that combines the structure of a single implant with additional fixation elements. In a pilot study this new implant system was used in 4 patients for prosthetic orbital rehabilitation. Further experiences with this new implant system are required necessitating long-term experiences of implant stability to define the value of the presented epiplating mono system for prosthetic rehabilitation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Mono-isotope Prediction for Mass Spectra Using Bayes Network

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Rwebangira, Mugizi Robert; Burge, Legand

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is one of the widely utilized important methods to study protein functions and components. The challenge of mono-isotope pattern recognition from large scale protein mass spectral data needs computational algorithms and tools to speed up the analysis and improve the analytic results. We utilized naïve Bayes network as the classifier with the assumption that the selected features are independent to predict mono-isotope pattern from mass spectrometry. Mono-isotopes detected from validated theoretical spectra were used as prior information in the Bayes method. Three main features extracted from the dataset were employed as independent variables in our model. The application of the proposed algorithm to publicMo dataset demonstrates that our naïve Bayes classifier is advantageous over existing methods in both accuracy and sensitivity. PMID:25620856

  9. Modification of end phosphate gruops in mono- and oligonucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Shumyantzeva, V V; Sokolova, N I; Shabarova, Z A

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for selective activation of phosphomonoester end groups of oligonucleotides and nucleosidedi-(tri) phosphates via mixed anhydrides with mesitoic acid. Mixed anhydrides are synthesized in high yield and isolated by paper or DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The ability of such anhydrides to phosphorylate different nucleophilic agents was used for synthesis of amidates, imidazolidates, esters, thioesters and pyrophosphates of mono- and oligonucleotides. Mixed anhydrides mono-, oligonucleotides and nucleosidedi-(tri)phosphates and mesitoic acid were also applied to achieve immobilization of the mono- and oligonucleotides via their end groups on hexamethylenediamine - Sepharose support. Mixed anhydrides studied may be efficiently used for affinity labeling of proteins and nucleic acids and also as material for preparating reagents for template reactions. PMID:1272808

  10. Gas exchange on Mono Lake and Crowley Lake, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanninkhof, Rik; Ledwell, James R.; Broecker, Wallace S.

    1987-01-01

    Gas exchange coefficients (k) have been determined for freshwater Crowley Lake and saline Mono Lake through the use of a man-made purposefully injected gas, SF6. The concentration decreased from an initial value of 40 to 4 pmol/L for Mono Lake and from 20 to 1 pmol/L for Crowley lake over a period of 6 wks. Wind-speed (u) records from anemometers on the shore of each lake made it possible to determine the relationship between k and u. The average u and k values for the experiment were identical for the two lakes, despite the large chemical differences. It is estimated that, for the u values observed over Mono Lake from July to December 1984, the exchange of CO2 occurred 2.5 times faster than without chemical enhancement. This is a factor of 4 lower than needed to explain the high invasion rate of C-14 produced by nuclear bomb tests.

  11. Experimental and theoretical studies on mono-iodohistamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnuszek, P.; Dobrowolski, J. Cz; Sitkowski, J.; Bednarek, E.; Witowska, J.; Mazurek, A. P.

    2001-05-01

    The structure of mono-iodohistamine cation was determined by the 1H, 13C NMR, supported by ab initio calculations. Theoretical NMR spectra of the two mono-iodohistamine tautomers were calculated by using the CHF-GIAO approach. The N3-H tautomer of 4-I-histamine cationic form has been predicted to be the most stable, and its potential energy surface has been scanned at the HF/3-21G ∗∗ level. Reasons for higher stability of the 4-I-histamine comparing to the other iodohistamine isomers are also discussed.

  12. A mono harvest of California black oak acorns

    Treesearch

    Jonathan W. Long; Ron W. Goode

    2017-01-01

    In about 1925 or 1926, Margaret Baty, a tribal member of Big Sandy Rancheria, displayed a collection of acorns from California black oak (Quercus kelloggii, wi-yap' in Mono) and an acorn cooking basket. This photograph, taken by George Holt and courtesy of the Flegal Collection of the Jesse Peter Museum at Santa Rosa Junior College,...

  13. Risperidone Mono - Therapy as Prophylaxis in Bipolar Affective Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Mohit; Pinto, Denzil; Safeekh, A.T.

    2004-01-01

    Risperidone has been found to be useful in the treatment of acute bipolar disorders. This is a case report where risperidone mono therapy has been found to be effective in prophylaxis of bipolar affective disorder. The pharmacological and clinical implications of risperidone in the management of BPAD are discussed PMID:21224912

  14. Air quality in bedded mono-slope beef barns

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bedded mono-slope barns are becoming more common in the upper Midwest. Because these are new facilities, little research has been published regarding environmental quality, building management and animal performance in these facilities. A team of researchers from South Dakota State University, USDA ...

  15. TOXICOLOGY OF MONO- AND DI-ALKYLTIN CHLORIDES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mono- and di-alkyltin chlorides are reactive compounds used in the production of stabilizers for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, primarily used for water distribution pipes. Health effects data were compiled or developed by the manufacturers for the EPA's HPV Challenge progra...

  16. TOXICOLOGY OF MONO- AND DI-ALKYLTIN CHLORIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mono- and di-alkyltin chlorides are reactive compounds used in the production of stabilizers for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, primarily used for water distribution pipes. Health effects data were compiled or developed by the manufacturers for the EPA's HPV Challenge progra...

  17. TOXICOLOGY OF MONO- AND DI-ALKYLTIN CHLORIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mono- and di-alkyltin chlorides are reactive compounds used in the production of stabilizers for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, primarily used for water distribution pipes. Health effects data were compiled or developed by the manufacturers for the EPA's HPV Challenge progra...

  18. TOXICOLOGY OF MONO- AND DI-ALKYLTIN CHLORIDES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mono- and di-alkyltin chlorides are reactive compounds used in the production of stabilizers for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, primarily used for water distribution pipes. Health effects data were compiled or developed by the manufacturers for the EPA's HPV Challenge progra...

  19. 21 CFR 172.834 - Ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides. 172.834 Section 172.834 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives §...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... acids that are derived from edible sources. The most prevalent fatty acids include lauric, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Mono- and diglycerides are manufactured by the reaction of glycerin with fatty acids or the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides in the presence of an alkaline...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... prepared from fats or oils or fat-forming acids that are derived from edible sources. The most prevalent fatty acids include lauric, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Mono- and diglycerides are manufactured by the reaction of glycerin with fatty acids or the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides in...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... prepared from fats or oils or fat-forming acids that are derived from edible sources. The most prevalent fatty acids include lauric, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Mono- and diglycerides are manufactured by the reaction of glycerin with fatty acids or the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides in...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prepared from fats or oils or fat-forming acids that are derived from edible sources. The most prevalent fatty acids include lauric, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Mono- and diglycerides are manufactured by the reaction of glycerin with fatty acids or the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides in...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1505 - Mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... prepared from fats or oils or fat-forming acids that are derived from edible sources. The most prevalent fatty acids include lauric, linoleic, myristic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic. Mono- and diglycerides are manufactured by the reaction of glycerin with fatty acids or the reaction of glycerin with triglycerides in...

  5. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl Ether: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health. N/A

  6. Geophysical studies of Mono Lake, east-central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athens, N. D.; Ponce, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic and gravity investigations were undertaken in Mono Lake, California to study regional crustal structures and to aid understanding the geologic framework of Mono Lake, in particular regarding potential geothermal resources and volcanic hazards throughout Mono Basin. Recent geophysical surveys included over 600 line-kilometers of high-resolution ship-borne magnetometer data that augmented existing airborne data, 22 line-kilometers of ground magnetic data that were collected along six traverses across Paoha Island, 56 gravity stations that were collected on Paoha and Negit Islands, and 28 rock samples that were collected for physical property data. Magnetic highs in the study area occur to the east and west of Mono Lake, where pre-Tertiary basement is exposed. Magnetic data indicate that Mono Lake itself is dominated by three prominent magnetic anomalies that are from west to east: a magnetic high along the northwest part of the lake associated with the moderately magnetic basalt cinder cone at Black Point, a magnetic high associated with the young volcanic centers at Paoha and Negit Islands, and a broad magnetic high along the eastern margin of the lake probably associated with moderately magnetic granitic basement rocks at depth. Because volcanic rocks exposed at the surface of Paoha and Negit Islands are only weakly magnetic, magnetic data suggest that more mafic volcanic rocks probably occur at depth and are the source of the anomaly. The linear and steep magnetic gradient across the eastern part of the lake may reflect a fault. A fault may also be imaged in the northeastern part of the lake, where a possible laterally offset magnetic anomaly may be present. Within Mono Lake, gravity station control is poor because land-based gravity stations are limited to Paoha and Negit Islands. The gravity low in the basin reflects a moderately deep sedimentary basin filled with low density lacustrine and volcanic deposits. Isostatic gravity data indicate the central

  7. Quaternary Eruptions of the Mono-Inyo Craters, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bursik, M. I.; Pouget, S.; Mangan, M.; Marcaida, M.; Vazquez, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The eruptive products of the Mono-Inyo Craters volcanic chain include the tephra and associated volcanic rocks of Black Point, islands of Mono Lake, Mono Craters, Inyo Craters, late eruptions of Mammoth Mountain and Red Cones. Most of the eruptions were explosive, and generated numerous pyroclastic flows, surges and falls as well as the prominent domes and lava flows that now cover vents. The eruptions range in age from several hundred years to at least 60,000 yr BP. The Mono-Inyo tephras are dispersed throughout the Sierra Nevada and Basin and Range, providing key time-stratigraphic marker layers. Recent work has not only resulted in high-precision radiometric dating of many of the tephras, but also detailed geochemical data that for the first time provides fingerprinting sufficiently precise to discriminate among the tephras. Lithostratigraphy of many of the layers is herein described for the first time, based on careful sampling and description in the field, and laboratory grain size, grain shape and componentry analyses of the late Pleistocene tephras of the Wilson Creek Formation. Most of the Wilson Creek volcanic layers are fall deposits accumulated within paleolake Russell, which were generated by eruptions of variable intensity and influenced by paleowinds of different orientation. Prevailing winds were generally to the North and East, but often the Pleistocene layers less than 25 ka were dispersed to the West. Many of the fall layers show evidence of wave reworking, generally near the top, although in some cases it is pervasive. Only near the vent do some layers of apparent debris flow origin occur. Maximum pumice sizes range up to nearly 3 cm, and lithics range up to 1 cm in the rhyolitic fall beds, while thicknesses range up to c. 30 cm. These data are consistent with relatively low volume, subplinian style eruptive behavior for most of the life of the Mono-Inyo Craters.

  8. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  9. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  10. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  11. 21 CFR 172.824 - Sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates... sulfonates. The food additive sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates may be safely used in... statement declaring the presence of sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates....

  12. 21 CFR 172.824 - Sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates... sulfonates. The food additive sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates may be safely used in... statement declaring the presence of sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates....

  13. 40 CFR 747.115 - Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed mono and diamides of an organic... Substances § 747.115 Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. This section identifies activities with... subject to this section: P-84-529, mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. (b)...

  14. 40 CFR 747.115 - Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixed mono and diamides of an organic... Substances § 747.115 Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. This section identifies activities with... subject to this section: P-84-529, mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. (b)...

  15. 40 CFR 747.115 - Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixed mono and diamides of an organic... Substances § 747.115 Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. This section identifies activities with... subject to this section: P-84-529, mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. (b)...

  16. 40 CFR 747.115 - Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixed mono and diamides of an organic... Substances § 747.115 Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. This section identifies activities with... subject to this section: P-84-529, mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. (b)...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides, also know as DATEM, are composed of mixed esters of glycerin in which one or more of the...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides, also know as DATEM, are composed of mixed esters of glycerin in which one or more of the...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides, also know as DATEM, are composed of mixed esters of glycerin in which one or more of the...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides, also know as DATEM, are composed of mixed esters of glycerin in which one or more of the...

  1. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1101 Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides, also know as DATEM, are composed of mixed...

  3. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  4. Magmatic storage conditions along the Mono Craters chain, Eastern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M.; Befus, K.; Gardner, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    We employ a variety of petrologic tools to characterize the pre-eruptive storage conditions of individual units erupted from Mono Craters. The Mono Craters chain represents one of the systems within the Long Valley volcanic field in Eastern California, which has been a regional center for effusive to cataclysmic volcanism from 800 ka until recent times. The Long Valley system has been the focus of much research; however, there are little published petrologic data for the Mono Craters chain. Understanding the Mono Craters chain is critical because it was the center for the most recent eruptions in the region. Eruptions along the chain occurred from 20 ka to ~660 years ago, and it is the most likely focus for future volcanic activity in the Long Valley region. Thus, petrologic data from Mono Craters must provide excellent constraints on the development and nature of the existing magmatic system. The Mono Craters chain contains 27 high silica rhyolite domes and flows and 1 dacite dome that were erupted along a gently arcuate trend that extends for ~15 km south of Mono Lake. The high silica rhyolites can be subdivided based on phenocryst assemblages into the following groups: biotite-bearing rhyolite, orthopyroxene-bearing rhyolite, fayalite-bearing rhyolite, sparsely porphyritic rhyolite, and aphyric rhyolite. We collected samples from 14 of the domes and flows within the Mono Craters chain, obtaining samples from each of the groups except the orthopyroxene-bearing rhyolite. We examined the composition of the mineral phases using electron microprobe analyses. Biotite-bearing rhyolites contain phenocrysts of quartz, plagioclase (Ab74-77), sanidine (Or66-68), Fe-rich hornblende, Ti-rich biotite, pyroxene, and magnetite with lamellae of ilmenite. Fayalite-bearing rhyolites contain phenocrysts of quartz, plagioclase (Ab75-80), sanidine (Or61-69), fayalite (Fa92-93), Fe-rich hornblende, Ti-rich biotite, pyroxene, magnetite and ilmenite. Sparsely porphyritic rhyolites

  5. The Magma Transport System of the Mono Craters, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. R.; Putirka, K. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Mono Craters are a series of 28 volcanic domes, coulees, and craters, just 16 km north of Long Valley. The magmatic products of the Mono Craters include mostly small magmatic bodies, sills, and dikes set in a transtensional tectonic setting. New high-density sampling of the domes reveals a wider range of magma compositions than heretofore recognized, and thus reveals what is likely a more complex magmatic system, involving a greater number of batches of magma and a more complex magma storage/delivery system. Here, we present a model for the magma plumbing system based on space-composition patterns and preliminary estimates of crystallization temperatures and pressures based on olivine-, feldspar- and clinopyroxene-liquid equilibria. Whole rock analyses show three compositionally distinct batches of magma within the Mono Craters proper: a felsic (73-78.4% SiO2), intermediate (64.4-68% SiO2) and mafic (52.7-61% SiO2) group. The Mono Lake Islands (Paoha and Negit) fall into the intermediate group, but contain distinctly lower TiO2 and Fe2O3 at a given SiO2 compared to all other Mono Craters; on this basis, we surmise that the Paoha and Negit eruptions represent a distinct episode of magmatism that is not directly related to the magmatic activity that created the Mono Craters proper. The discontinuous nature of the three groups indicates that magma mixing, while evident to some degree within and between certain domes, did not encompass the entire range of compositions at any given time. The three groups, however, do form a rough linear trend, and some subsets of domes have compositions that fall on distinctly linear (if still discontinuous) trends that cannot be reproduced by fractional crystallization, but rather are indicative of magma mixing. Our high-density sampling also reveals interesting geographical patterns: for example, felsic magmas erupt throughout the entire Mono Craters chain, erupting at a wide range of temperatures, ranging from 650-995°C, but

  6. Possible recording of the Mono Lake Excursion in cored sediment from Clear Lake, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, Joseph; Verosub, Kenneth

    2010-05-01

    extrapolation between those dates and the three dates from higher in the core. The age of the possible palaeomagnetic excursion in the Clear Lake sediment is in reasonable agreement with the age assigned to the MLE by Benson et al. (2003; 2008) and is nearly 10,000 years younger than the Laschamp Excursion (Guillou et al., 2004). We believe that is an indication that the anomalous field behaviour known as the Mono Lake Excursion in the Mono Basin (Denham and Cox, 1971; Liddicoat and Coe, 1979) and possibly at Clear Lake is not the Laschamp Excursion.

  7. Holocene and Late Pleistocene Tephra Stratigraphy of the Mono Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyn, C. R.; Bursik, M. I.

    2007-05-01

    The Mono Craters consists of ~30 high-silica rhyolitic domes and flows and one rhyodacite dome. The exposed domes were emplaced during eruptions from the late Pleistocene to the most recent eruption 600 y BP. The ages of the eruptions with exposed domes were constrained by obsidian hydration rind dating by previous workers to two distinct phases; between 20,000 and 13,000 y BP and from 6,000 y BP to 600 y BP. The first eruptive phase consists of a biotite bearing assemblage while the more recent suite of eruptions began with alternating orthopyroxene and fayalite bearing rhyolites, which gave way to sparsely porphyritic and most recently aphyric rhyolites. By studying the Holocene tephra stratigraphy of the Mono Craters, this work aims to confirm the apparent gap in late Pleistocene and Holocene activity from 13,000 to 6,000 y BP and better constrain the local volcanic chronology. Excavation of a number of sites of tephra deposition from the Mono Craters were conducted and the various tephras were analyzed for petrology geochemistry and radiocarbon. The tephras include the full range of petrologic assemblages of the Mono Craters and range from the most recent eruptions to the biotite bearing eruptions of the late Pleistocene. Results of radiometric carbon dating are consistent with the cessation of the emplacement of a biotite bearing high silica porphyritic suite of eruptions prior to the 13,300 y BP eruption of the Black Point basalt, and the resumption of activity with alternating orthopyroxene and fayalite bearing assemblages. Between a pair of proximal radiocarbon dated layers (1672 +/- 36 and 1688 +/- 47 14C y BP) are four volcanic units, representing three of the petrological assemblages (aphyric, sparsely porphyritic, and porphyritic orthopyroxene-bearing); indicating that the different assemblages were, at least in this eruptive sequence, erupted contemporaneously. This indicates that the chamber beneath the Mono Chain is likely weakly zoned. Major and

  8. MONO1001: A source for singly charged ions applied to the production of multicharged fullerene beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maunoury, L.; Andersen, J. U.; Cederquist, H.; Huber, B. A.; Hvelplund, P.; Leroy, R.; Manil, B.; Pacquet, J. Y.; Pedersen, U. V.; Rangamma, J.; Tomita, S.

    2004-05-01

    The present article reports on a recent study of the production of multiply charged fullerene beams based on an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (ECRIS). As collision studies in fundamental physics are demanding intense beams of multiply charged ions of small molecules, clusters, and particularly of fullerenes, we have further developed the ion source ECRIS MONO1000 [P. Jardin et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 789 (2002)], originally devoted to produce singly charged ions, towards the production of multiply charged fullerene beams. In this article, the test measurements performed at the Electrostatic Ion Storage Ring Århus rf power (ELISA) facility will be described. Typical mass spectra (from pure C60 and C70 powder) will be shown and the influence of several source parameters (rf power, support gas, gas pressure,…) will be discussed specifying the conditions necessary for an optimum ion source operation.

  9. Sorption of mono-, di-, and trimethylamine on ZK-5 and Y zeolites studied by deuterium NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Kustanovich, I.; Luz, Z.; Vega, S. ); Vega, A.J. )

    1990-04-05

    Deuterium NMR is used to study the sorption complexes formed by (methyl-deuterated) mono-, di-, and trimethylamine (MMA-d{sub 3}, DMA-d{sub 6}, and TMA-d{sub 9}) in the acid forms of the zeolites HZK-5 and HY, as well as in dehydroxylated HY and DHY, obtained by high-temperature calcination of HY. The measurements were made in the range {minus}140 to 160{degree}C on samples loaded up to twice the equivalent of the number of Al atoms per unit cell. For HZK-5 the uptake of MMA and DMA is rapid at room temperature, but sorption of TMA requires thermal activation. In HY and DHY all amine gases are readily absorbed upon exposure at room temperature.

  10. An S to P Converted Phase Recorded Near Long Valley/Mono Craters Region, California

    SciTech Connect

    Ammon, C. J.; Zucca, J.; Kasameyer, P.

    1989-01-01

    We examine and model the arrival time of a large secondary seismic arrival recorded in the Long Valley/Mono Craters region of east-central California. Zucca et. al. (1987) and Peppin (1987) both previously reported on different features of this same arrival. Using both arrays of sources and receivers we demonstrate that the arrival is an S to P converted phase as first suggested by Lewis and Peppin (1988). Backprojection of the observed travel times allows us to constrain the location of the converting material to a southeast dipping zone between 7 and 16 km depth, and {+-} 5 km on either side of the topographic margin of the caldera. The analysis demonstrates the power of source and receiver array combinations when analyzing seismic arrivals in complicated environments.

  11. Mono Lake Analog Mars Sample Return Expedition for AMASE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, P. G.; Steele, A.; Younse, P.; DiCicco, M.; Morgan, A. R.; Backes, P.; Eigenbrode, J. E.; Marquardt, D.; Amundsen, H. E. F.

    2011-01-01

    We explored the performance of one robotic prototype for sample acquisition and caching of martian materials that has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for potential use in the proposed MAX-C Mars Sample Return architecture in an environment, rich in chemical diversity with a variety of mineralogical textures. Mono Lake State Tufa Reserve in Mono County, CA possesses a variety of minerals including a variety of evaporites, volcanic glass and lava, and sand and mudstones. The lake itself is an interesting chemical system: the water is highly alkaline (pH is approximately 10) and contains concentrations of Cl, K, B, with lesser amounts of S Ca Mg, F, As, Li, I and Wand generally enriched HREEs. There are also traces of radioactive elements U, Th, Pl.

  12. Modification and performance evaluation of a mono-valve engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, Justin W.

    A four-stroke engine utilizing one tappet valve for both the intake and exhaust gas exchange processes has been built and evaluated. The engine operates under its own power, but has a reduced power capacity than the conventional 2-valve engine. The reduction in power is traced to higher than expected amounts of exhaust gases flowing back into the intake system. Design changes to the cylinder head will fix the back flow problems, but the future capacity of mono-valve engine technology cannot be estimated. The back flow of exhaust gases increases the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate and deteriorates combustion. Intake pressure data shows the mono-valve engine requires an advanced intake valve closing (IVC) time to prevent back flow of charge air. A single actuation camshaft with advanced IVC was tested in the mono-valve engine, and was found to improve exhaust scavenging at TDC and nearly eliminated all charge air back flow at IVC. The optimum IVC timing is shown to be approximately 30 crank angle degrees after BDC. The mono-valve cylinder head utilizes a rotary valve positioned above the tappet valve. The open spaces inside the rotary valveand between the rotary valve and tappet valve represent a common volume that needs to be reduced in order to reduce the base EGR rate. Multiple rotary valve configurations were tested, and the size of the common volume was found to have no effect on back flow but a direct effect on the EGR rate and engine performance. The position of the rotary valve with respect to crank angle has a direct effect on the scavenging process. Optimum scavenging occurs when the intake port is opened just after TDC.

  13. A Lane Following Mobile Robot Navigation System Using Mono Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yeongcheol; Kim, Seungwoo; Park, Seongkeun

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we develop a lane following mobile robot using mono camera. By using camera, robot can recognize its left and right side lane, and maintain the center line of robot track. We use Hough Transform for detecting lane, and PID controller for control direction of mobile robot. The validity of our robot system is performed in a real world robot track environment which is built up in our laboratory.

  14. Post-middle Miocene Tuffs of Bodie Hills and Mono Basin, California: Paleomagnetic Reference Directions and Vertical Axis Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindeman, J. R.; Pluhar, C. J.; Farner, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The relative motions of the Pacific and North American plates about the Sierra Nevada-North American Euler pole is accommodated by dextral slip along the San Andreas Fault System (~75%) and the Walker Lane-Eastern California Shear Zone system of faults, east of the Sierra Nevada microplate (~25%). The Bodie Hills and Mono Basin regions lie within the Walker Lane and partially accommodate deformation by vertical axis rotation of up to 60o rotation since ~9.4 Ma. This region experienced recurrent eruptive events from mid to late Miocene, including John et al.'s (2012) ~12.05 Ma Tuff of Jack Springs (TJS) and Gilbert's (1968) 11.1 - 11.9 Ma 'latite ignimbrite' east of Mono Lake. Both tuffs can be identified by phenocrysts of sanidine and biotite in hand specimens, with TJS composed of a light-grey matrix and the latite ignimbrite composed of a grey-black matrix. Our paleomagnetic results show these units to both be normal polarity, with the latite ignimbrite exhibiting a shallow inclination. TJS's normal polarity is consistent with emplacement during subchron C5 An. 1n (12.014 - 12.116 Ma). The X-ray fluorescence analyses of fiamme from TJS in Bodie Hills and the latite ignimbrite located east of Mono Lake reveal them both to be rhyolites with the latite ignimbrite sharing elevated K composition seen in the slightly younger Stanislaus Group (9.0 - 10.2 Ma). We establish a paleomagnetic reference direction of D = 352.8o I = 42.7o α95 = 7.7o n = 5 sites (42 samples) for TJS in the Bodie Hills in a region hypothesized by Carlson (2012) to have experienced low rotation. Our reference for Gilbert's latite ignimbrite (at Cowtrack Mountain) is D = 352.9o I = 32.1o α95 = 4.7o. This reference locality is found on basement highland likely to have experienced less deformation then the nearby Mono Basin since ignimbrite emplacement. Paleomagnetic results from this latite ignimbrite suggests ~98.2o × 5.5o of clockwise vertical axis rotation of parts of eastern Mono Basin since

  15. Age of the Mono Lake excursion and associated tephra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.; Liddicoat, J.; Smoot, J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.; Negrini, R.; Lund, S.

    2003-01-01

    The Mono Lake excursion (MLE) is an important time marker that has been found in lake and marine sediments across much of the Northern Hemisphere. Dating of this event at its type locality, the Mono Basin of California, has yielded controversial results with the most recent effort concluding that the MLE may actually be the Laschamp excursion (Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 197 (2002) 151). We show that a volcanic tephra (Ash #15) that occurs near the midpoint of the MLE has a date (not corrected for reservoir effect) of 28,620 ?? 300 14C yr BP (??? 32,400 GISP2 yr BP) in the Pyramid Lake Basin of Nevada. Given the location of Ash #15 and the duration of the MLE in the Mono Basin, the event occurred between 31,500 and 33,300 GISP2 yr BP, an age range consistent with the position and age of the uppermost of two paleointensity minima in the NAPIS-75 stack that has been associated with the MLE (Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 358 (2000) 1009). The lower paleointensity minimum in the NAPIS-75 stack is considered to be the Laschamp excursion (Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 358 (2000) 1009).

  16. Bacterial oxidation of methyl bromide in Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connell, T.L.; Joye, S.B.; Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    The oxidation of methyl bromide (MeBr) in the water column of Mono Lake, CA, was studied by measuring the formation of H14CO3 from [14C]MeBr. Potential oxidation was detected throughout the water column, with highest rates occurring in the epilimnion (5-12 m depth). The oxidation of MeBr was eliminated by filter-sterilization, thereby demonstrating the involvement of bacteria. Vertical profiles of MeBr activity differed from those obtained for nitrification and methane oxidation, indicating that MeBr oxidation is not simply a co-oxidation process by either nitrifiers or methanotrophs. Furthermore, specific inhibitors of methane oxidation and/or nitrification (e.g., methyl fluoride, acetylene, allyl sulfide) had no effect upon the rate of MeBr oxidation in live samples. Of a variety of potential electron donors added to Mono Lake water, only trimethylamine resulted in the stimulation of MeBr oxidation. Cumulatively, these results suggest that the oxidation of MeBr in Mono Lake waters is attributable to trimethylamine-degrading methylotrophs. Neither methyl chloride nor methanol inhibited the oxidation of [14C]MeBr in live samples, indicating that these bacteria directly oxidized MeBr rather than the products of MeBr nucleophilic substitution reactions.

  17. Mono-Higgs signature in a fermionic dark matter model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorbani, Karim; Khalkhali, Leila

    2017-10-01

    In light of the discovery of the Higgs boson we explore a mono-Higgs signature in association with dark matter pair production at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in a renormalizable model with a fermionic dark matter candidate. For two channels with γγ+MET and b\\bar{b}+MET in the final state we simulate the standard model (SM) backgrounds and signal events at \\sqrt{s} =14 TeV. We then estimate the LHC sensitivities for various benchmark points for two integrated luminosities { L }=300 {{fb}}-1 and { L }=3 {{ab}}-1. We constrain the Yukawa coupling of the dark matter-SM interaction, taking into account bounds from mono-Higgs signature, observed dark matter relic density, Higgs physics, perturbativity requirement and electroweak measurements. Concerning the mono-Higgs search, it turns out that the channel with the largest branching ratio, the b\\bar{b} channel, provides better sensitivity. There are found regions in the parameter space of the model compatible with all the bounds mentioned above which can be reached in future LHC studies.

  18. Mono- versus polydrug abuse patterns among publicly funded clients.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Satish; Sell, Marie A; Relyea, George

    2007-11-08

    To examine patterns of mono- versus polydrug abuse, data were obtained from intake records of 69,891 admissions to publicly funded treatment programs in Tennessee between 1998 and 2004. While descriptive statistics were employed to report frequency and patterns of mono- and polydrug abuse by demographic variables and by study years, bivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the probability of being a mono- or polydrug abuser for a number of demographic variables. The researchers found that during the study period 51.3% of admissions reported monodrug abuse and 48.7% reported polydrug abuse. Alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana were the most commonly abused substances, both alone and in combination. Odds ratio favored polydrug abuse for all but one drug category-other drugs. Gender did not affect drug abuse patterns; however, admissions for African Americans and those living in urban areas exhibited higher probabilities of polydrug abuse. Age group also appeared to affect drug abuse patterns, with higher odds of monodrug abuse among minors and adults over 45 years old. The discernable prevalence of polydrug abuse suggests a need for developing effective prevention strategies and treatment plans specific to polydrug abuse.

  19. Mono- versus polydrug abuse patterns among publicly funded clients

    PubMed Central

    Kedia, Satish; Sell, Marie A; Relyea, George

    2007-01-01

    To examine patterns of mono- versus polydrug abuse, data were obtained from intake records of 69,891 admissions to publicly funded treatment programs in Tennessee between 1998 and 2004. While descriptive statistics were employed to report frequency and patterns of mono- and polydrug abuse by demographic variables and by study years, bivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the probability of being a mono- or polydrug abuser for a number of demographic variables. The researchers found that during the study period 51.3% of admissions reported monodrug abuse and 48.7% reported polydrug abuse. Alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana were the most commonly abused substances, both alone and in combination. Odds ratio favored polydrug abuse for all but one drug category–other drugs. Gender did not affect drug abuse patterns; however, admissions for African Americans and those living in urban areas exhibited higher probabilities of polydrug abuse. Age group also appeared to affect drug abuse patterns, with higher odds of monodrug abuse among minors and adults over 45 years old. The discernable prevalence of polydrug abuse suggests a need for developing effective prevention strategies and treatment plans specific to polydrug abuse. PMID:17996066

  20. Nongeocentric axial dipole field behavior during the Mono Lake excursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrini, Robert M.; McCuan, Daniel T.; Horton, Robert A.; Lopez, James D.; Cassata, William S.; Channell, James E. T.; Verosub, Kenneth L.; Knott, Jeffrey R.; Coe, Robert S.; Liddicoat, Joseph C.; Lund, Steven P.; Benson, Larry V.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.

    2014-04-01

    A new record of the Mono Lake excursion (MLE) is reported from the Summer Lake Basin of Oregon, USA. Sediment magnetic properties indicate magnetite as the magnetization carrier and imply suitability of the sediments as accurate recorders of the magnetic field including relative paleointensity (RPI) variations. The magnitudes and phases of the declination, inclination, and RPI components of the new record correlate well with other coeval but lower resolution records from western North America including records from the Wilson Creek Formation exposed around Mono Lake. The virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) path of the new record is similar to that from another high-resolution record of the MLE from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 919 in the Irminger Basin between Iceland and Greenland but different from the VGP path for the Laschamp excursion (LE), including that found lower in the ODP-919 core. Thus, the prominent excursion recorded at Mono Lake, California, is not the LE but rather one that is several thousands of years younger. The MLE VGP path contains clusters, the locations of which coincide with nonaxial dipole features found in the Holocene geomagnetic field. The clusters are occupied in the same time progression by VGPs from Summer Lake and the Irminger Basin, but the phase of occupation is offset, a behavior that suggests time-transgressive decay and return of the principal field components at the beginning and end of the MLE, respectively, leaving the nonaxial dipole features associated with the clusters dominant during the excursion.

  1. Visible light spectrometry measurements for studying an ECRIS plasma and especially applied to the MONO1001 ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuske, Olivier; Maunoury, Laurent; Pacquet, Jean-Yves; Barué, Christophe; Dubois, Mickael; Gaubert, Gabriel; Jardin, Pascal; Lecesne, Nathalie; Leherissier, Patrick; Lemagnen, Frederic; Leroy, Renan; Saint-Laurent, Marie-Genevieve; Villari, Antonio C. C.

    2004-05-01

    The cylindrical geometry of the magnetic confinement of the MONO1001 electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source made in GANIL [P. Jardin et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 789 (2002)] allows us to measure radial characteristics of the working ECR plasma with helium gas. The physical and the geometrical characteristics of the resonance surface inside the working ECR source have been quantified with the help of a visible light spectrometer. Hence, we have deduced a shape of the electron cyclotron resonance ion sources resonance surface which corresponds closely to our magnetic calculations.

  2. Geochemical fingerprinting of Wilson Creek Formation tephra layers (Mono Basin, CA) using titanomagnetite compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcaida, M.; Mangan, M.; Vazquez, J. A.; Bursik, M. I.

    2012-12-01

    The Wilson Creek Formation (WCF) near Mono Lake in eastern California is a 6-15 m thick sequence of lake sediments interbedded with 18 rhyolitic tephra layers attributed to eruptions from nearby Mono Craters, and 2 basaltic tephra layers erupted from Black Point and June Lake (not included in study). These tephra layers are numbered 1 to 19 (June Lake tephra designated as Ash 13*) from top to bottom (Lajoie, 1968), and range in age from ~14 to 67 ka (Zimmerman et al., 2006). The WCF tephras are important to understanding volcanism in the Long Valley region, and they provide age constraints for paleomagnetic, paleoclimatic, and paleoecologic studies. Major-oxide compositions of glass for the rhyolitic tephras are similar, with no reported compositional variations between layers. In this study, we show that titanomagnetite compositions can be used to fingerprint specific WCF tephra layers, thus enhancing their use as time-stratigraphic markers. We performed electron microprobe analyses of >700 titanomagnetite crystals and minor ilmenite. Compositional ranges of titanomagnetite are ~83-89 wt% FeO, and ~8-14 wt% TiO2, with MgO+MnO+Al2O3 <3 wt%. Major oxide concentrations trend linearly, with ratios of FeO/TiO2 generally increasing with age. There is a slight trend offset between the older (~57-67 ka) tephras (Ashes 16, 17, and 19) and younger (~14-40 ka) tephras (Ashes 1-15), and a compositional gap between Ash 8 and the rest of the WCF tephras. Compositional variability within individual tephra beds is minor (FeO <0.4 wt%; TiO2 <0.3 wt%). Older WCF tephra titanomagnetites (Ashes 16, 17, 19) are distinct and characterized by high FeO/TiO2 (~9-9.5). Ashes 7 and 8 have relatively high-TiO2 compositions (>12 wt%), although Ash 8 has the lowest FeO/TiO2 (~6). Titanomagnetite crystals in the other WCF tephra layers are not as compositionally distinct (FeO/TiO2 = ~7.5-8), although the youngest tephras (Ashes 1- 4) can be distinguished on the basis of MgO content. Ash 15 is

  3. Genetic Structure and Hierarchical Population Divergence History of Acer mono var. mono in South and Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hailong; Hu, Lijiang; Saito, Yoko; Ide, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the genetic structure and evolutionary history of tree species across their ranges is essential for the development of effective conservation and forest management strategies. Acer mono var. mono, an economically and ecologically important maple species, is extensively distributed in Northeast China (NE), whereas it has a scattered and patchy distribution in South China (SC). In this study, the genetic structure and demographic history of 56 natural populations of A. mono var. mono were evaluated using seven nuclear microsatellite markers. Neighbor-joining tree and STRUCTURE analysis clearly separated populations into NE and SC groups with two admixed-like populations. Allelic richness significantly decreased with increasing latitude within the NE group while both allelic richness and expected heterozygosity showed significant positive correlation with latitude within the SC group. Especially in the NE region, previous studies in Quercus mongolica and Fraxinus mandshurica have also detected reductions in genetic diversity with increases in latitude, suggesting this pattern may be common for tree species in this region, probably due to expansion from single refugium following the last glacial maximum (LGM). Approximate Bayesian Computation-based analysis revealed two major features of hierarchical population divergence in the species’ evolutionary history. Recent divergence between the NE group and the admixed-like group corresponded to the LGM period and ancient divergence of SC groups took place during mid-late Pleistocene period. The level of genetic differentiation was moderate (FST = 0.073; G′ST = 0.278) among all populations, but significantly higher in the SC group than the NE group, mirroring the species’ more scattered distribution in SC. Conservation measures for this species are proposed, taking into account the genetic structure and past demographic history identified in this study. PMID:24498039

  4. The Relationship between Mono-abundance and Mono-age Stellar Populations in the Milky Way Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minchev, I.; Steinmetz, M.; Chiappini, C.; Martig, M.; Anders, F.; Matijevic, G.; de Jong, R. S.

    2017-01-01

    Studying the Milky Way disk structure using stars in narrow bins of [Fe/H] and [α/Fe] has recently been proposed as a powerful method to understand the Galactic thick and thin disk formation. It has been assumed so far that these mono-abundance populations (MAPs) are also coeval, or mono-age, populations. Here we study this relationship for a Milky Way chemodynamical model and show that equivalence between MAPs and mono-age populations exists only for the high-[α/Fe] tail, where the chemical evolution curves of different Galactic radii are far apart. At lower [α/Fe]-values an MAP is composed of stars with a range in ages, even for small observational uncertainties and a small MAP bin size. Due to the disk inside-out formation, for these MAPs younger stars are typically located at larger radii, which results in negative radial age gradients that can be as large as 2 Gyr kpc-1. Positive radial age gradients can result for MAPs at the lowest [α/Fe] and highest [Fe/H] end. Such variations with age prevent the simple interpretation of observations for which accurate ages are not available. Studying the variation with radius of the stellar surface density and scale height in our model, we find good agreement to recent analyses of the APOGEE red-clump (RC) sample when 1-4 Gyr old stars dominate (as expected for the RC). Our results suggest that the APOGEE data are consistent with a Milky Way model for which mono-age populations flare for all ages. We propose observational tests for the validity of our predictions and argue that using accurate age measurements, such as from asteroseismology, is crucial for putting constraints on Galactic formation and evolution.

  5. Genetic structure and hierarchical population divergence history of Acer mono var. mono in South and Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunping; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Shen, Hailong; Hu, Lijiang; Saito, Yoko; Ide, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the genetic structure and evolutionary history of tree species across their ranges is essential for the development of effective conservation and forest management strategies. Acer mono var. mono, an economically and ecologically important maple species, is extensively distributed in Northeast China (NE), whereas it has a scattered and patchy distribution in South China (SC). In this study, the genetic structure and demographic history of 56 natural populations of A. mono var. mono were evaluated using seven nuclear microsatellite markers. Neighbor-joining tree and STRUCTURE analysis clearly separated populations into NE and SC groups with two admixed-like populations. Allelic richness significantly decreased with increasing latitude within the NE group while both allelic richness and expected heterozygosity showed significant positive correlation with latitude within the SC group. Especially in the NE region, previous studies in Quercus mongolica and Fraxinus mandshurica have also detected reductions in genetic diversity with increases in latitude, suggesting this pattern may be common for tree species in this region, probably due to expansion from single refugium following the last glacial maximum (LGM). Approximate Bayesian Computation-based analysis revealed two major features of hierarchical population divergence in the species' evolutionary history. Recent divergence between the NE group and the admixed-like group corresponded to the LGM period and ancient divergence of SC groups took place during mid-late Pleistocene period. The level of genetic differentiation was moderate (FST  = 0.073; G'ST  = 0.278) among all populations, but significantly higher in the SC group than the NE group, mirroring the species' more scattered distribution in SC. Conservation measures for this species are proposed, taking into account the genetic structure and past demographic history identified in this study.

  6. Chronology of late Pleistocene and Holocene volcanics, Long Valley and Mono Basin geothermal areas, eastern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    mono magma chamber suggests that rhyolite magma may have been emplaced in the shallow crust as recently as 32,000 to 40,000 yrs ago. Calculations by Lachenbruch et al. (1976, Jour. Geophys. Research, v. 81, p. 769-784) that a thermal disturbance at this age would have propagated upward by solid conduction only 4 km and offer an explanation for the lack of a heat-flow anomaly and surface indications of hydrothermal activity over the Mono magma chamber and its associated ring-fracture system. This report also contains new information on the age and chemistry of volcanics on the Mono Lake island, the Inyo domes, and tephras within the Long Valley Caldera. A newly discovered rhyolite tuff ring of late Quaternary age in the Toowa volcanic field of the southern Sierra Nevada is briefly described for it represents a new area that should be examined for potential as a geothermal area.

  7. Molecular analysis of the sulfate reducing and archaeal community in a meromictic soda lake (Mono Lake, California) by targeting 16S rRNA, mcrA, apsA, and dsrAB genes.

    PubMed

    Scholten, J C M; Joye, S B; Hollibaugh, J T; Murrell, J C

    2005-07-01

    Sulfate reduction is the most important process involved in the mineralization of carbon in the anoxic bottom waters of Mono Lake, an alkaline, hypersaline, meromictic Lake in California. Another important biogeochemical process in Mono Lake is thought to be sulfate-dependent methane oxidation (SDMO). However little is known about what types of organisms are involved in these processes in Mono Lake. Therefore, the sulfate-reducing and archaeal microbial community in Mono Lake was analyzed by targeting 16S rRNA, methyl-coenzyme M reductase (mcrA), adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (apsA), and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes to investigate the sulfate-reducing and archaeal community with depth. Most of the 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from the samples fell into the delta-subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the clones obtained represented sulfate-reducing bacteria, which are probably involved in the mineralization of carbon in Mono Lake, many of them belonging to a novel line of descent in the delta-Proteobacteria. Only 6% of the sequences retrieved from the samples affiliated to the domain Euryarchaeota but did not represent Archaea, which is considered to be responsible for SDMO [Orphan et al. 2001: Appl Environ Microbiol 67:1922-1934; Teske et al.: Appl Environ Microbiol 68:1994-2007]. On the basis of our results and thermodynamic arguments, we proposed that SDMO in hypersaline environments is presumably carried out by SRB alone. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifications of the mcrA-, apsA-, and dsrAB genes in Mono Lake samples were, in most cases, not successful. Only the PCR amplification of the apsA gene was partially successful. The amplification of these functional genes was not successful because there was either insufficient "target" DNA in the samples, or the microorganisms in Mono Lake have divergent functional genes.

  8. Intracellular Mono-ADP-Ribosylation in Signaling and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bütepage, Mareike; Eckei, Laura; Verheugd, Patricia; Lüscher, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    A key process in the regulation of protein activities and thus cellular signaling pathways is the modification of proteins by post-translational mechanisms. Knowledge about the enzymes (writers and erasers) that attach and remove post-translational modifications, the targets that are modified and the functional consequences elicited by specific modifications, is crucial for understanding cell biological processes. Moreover detailed knowledge about these mechanisms and pathways helps to elucidate the molecular causes of various diseases and in defining potential targets for therapeutic approaches. Intracellular adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation refers to the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent modification of proteins with ADP-ribose and is catalyzed by enzymes of the ARTD (ADP-ribosyltransferase diphtheria toxin like, also known as PARP) family as well as some members of the Sirtuin family. Poly-ADP-ribosylation is relatively well understood with inhibitors being used as anti-cancer agents. However, the majority of ARTD enzymes and the ADP-ribosylating Sirtuins are restricted to catalyzing mono-ADP-ribosylation. Although writers, readers and erasers of intracellular mono-ADP-ribosylation have been identified only recently, it is becoming more and more evident that this reversible post-translational modification is capable of modulating key intracellular processes and signaling pathways. These include signal transduction mechanisms, stress pathways associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and stress granules, and chromatin-associated processes such as transcription and DNA repair. We hypothesize that mono-ADP-ribosylation controls, through these different pathways, the development of cancer and infectious diseases. PMID:26426055

  9. Treatment of menstrual migraine; multidisciplinary or mono-disciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Witteveen, Hester; van den Berg, Peter; Vermeulen, Guus

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a multidisciplinary approach of menstrual (related) migraine, combining the neurological and gynaecological consultation, to a mono-disciplinary approach involving neurological treatment. There is a clear relationship between the menstruation cycle and the occurrence of migraine (menstrual migraine). Nowadays the treatment of menstrual (related) migraine is performed by a neurologist. A treatment with attention to hormonal treatment seems more convenient. This retrospective study was performed in a cohort using data of 88 women with menstrual (related) migraine who visited the menstrual migraine clinic between 2012 and 2014 (intervention group). The results were compared to a historical control group, which consisted of women with menstrual (related) migraine who were treated before 2012 and received a mono-disciplinary approach. In the intervention group the Headache Impact (HIT) score significantly improved (65 to 59 points). The mean headache days per month declined significantly (from 6 to 3.83 days) and these women needed less use of pain medication. In the control group the decline in HIT score was less striking (65 to 63.5 points) and the mean headache days per month increased (6 to 6,5 days). It appeared that 20 out of 27 patients in the control group required a gynaecological consultation in course of time. A multidisicplinary treatment of women with menstrual (related) migraine gives better results compared to a mono-disciplinary approach. These results should be interpreted with caution as we performed a retrospective study with a relative small control group.

  10. Treatment outcome of patients with isoniazid mono-resistant tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Chien, J-Y; Chen, Y-T; Wu, S-G; Lee, J-J; Wang, J-Y; Yu, C-J

    2015-01-01

    Isoniazid mono-resistance is the most common first-line drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB), but its treatment outcome remains unclear. From January 2004 to October 2011, 425 (5.1%) of 8414 patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB from four hospitals in Taiwan were identified as having isoniazid mono-resistant TB. Among them, 395 (92.9%) were included and followed up for 2 years after complete treatment. Although 328 (83.0%) patients were successfully treated, 67 (17.0%) had unfavourable outcomes, including death in 56 (14.2%) and treatment failure in 11 (2.8%). The treatment success rate was similar in patients with high-level and low-level isoniazid-resistant TB (82.2% versus 83.4%, p 0.785) and among those taking anti-TB treatment with and without isoniazid (83.1% versus 83.0%, p 1.000). Patients without rifampicin interruption had lower risk of unfavourable outcome (14.3% versus 37.0%, p <0.001), especially those with low-level isoniazid resistance (11.5% versus 56.5%, p <0.001). Supplementation with a new-generation fluoroquinolone improved treatment success (60.0% versus 12.5%, p 0.003). The presence of cavitary lesions was significantly associated with a higher relapse rate (4.1% versus 0.0%, p 0.006) and extended treatment of 7-9, 10-12 and >12 months had less relapse than 6-month treatment (3.2%, 0%, 3.7% and 25.0%, respectively, p 0.037). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed that co-morbidity with cancer (hazard ratio, 2.43) and rifampicin interruption (hazard ratio 1.91) were independent factors associated with unfavourable outcomes. Treatment throughout with rifampicin and extended treatment for cavitary disease are crucial for improving outcomes in patients with isoniazid mono-resistant TB.

  11. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Mono-Silane Siemens Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hosub; Park, Jong Hoon; Kang, Seung Oh; Jeong, Jong Hyun; Jeon, Soyoung; Jung, Jae Hak; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2012-10-01

    The computational fluid dynamics-based FLUENT program was employed to model the heat transfer and chemical reaction in a mono-silane Siemens reactor. The kinetic parameters for the 1-step overall reaction SiH4→Si+ 2H2, such as the pre-exponential factor, temperature coefficient, and activation energy, were carefully optimized to satisfy experimental data obtained from the 4-rod Siemens pilot reactor. Established models were successfully used to evaluate the effects of rod diameter, reaction temperature, and reactant gas flow rate on the deposition rate of silicon.

  12. Dust Storms From Owens and Mono Valleys, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    developed a model that predicts that the level of Mono Lake will stabilize at 6.223 feet just after the year 2050, if the present water export and...done on the behavior of the saline components. and models were c’nstructed usint! lake-bed clays and brines. We visited the plava monthly in 1985. 21...lake bed. Spiralling streamers of dust arose from south of the water body to the region of the sand dunes, where an opaque cloud rose to 8,500 feet

  13. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA released the draft report, Toxicological Review for Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from other Federal agencies and White House Offices are provided below with external peer review panel comments. EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of EGBE that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  14. Diagnosing ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... that a person diagnosed with ALS seek a second opinion from an ALS "expert" - someone who diagnoses and treats many ALS patients and has training in this medical specialty. The ALS Association maintains a list of recognized experts in the field of ALS. See ALS Association Certified Centers of ...

  15. Combined chelation based on glycosyl-mono- and bis-hydroxypyridinones for aluminium mobilization: solution and biodistribution studies.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Sílvia; Dron, Paul I; Danalache, Florina A; Sacoto, Diana; Gano, Lurdes; Santos, M Amélia

    2009-11-01

    Taking into account the recognized interest of a poly-pharmacological strategy in chelation therapy, a study of aluminium combined chelation based on 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone (3,4-HP) compounds with complementary properties, associated to different denticity, size and extrafunctionality, is presented herein. In particular, Al-chelation has been explored, using a tetradentate IDA bis-(3,4-HP) ligand, L, and two N-glycosyl mono-(3,4-HP) derivatives (A or B). Combined complexation studies with the tetradentate and the most promising bidentate ligand (A) evidenced the formation of ternary complexes with high thermodynamic stability (Al-L-A) being the predominant species at physiological pH. In vivo studies on the ability for radiotracer ((67)Ga) removal from loaded mice, as a model of aluminium accumulation in body, have shown that the simultaneous administration to (67)Ga-loaded mice of a mono- and a bis-(3,4-HP) chelator (e.g. A and L) leads to a rapid metal elimination from main organs and whole animal model. This may be rationalized by coadjuvation and eventual synergistic effects, due to complementary accessibility of the chelators to different cellular compartments.

  16. Mono-Energy Coronary Angiography with a Compact Synchrotron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggl, Elena; Mechlem, Korbinian; Braig, Eva; Kulpe, Stephanie; Dierolf, Martin; Günther, Benedikt; Achterhold, Klaus; Herzen, Julia; Gleich, Bernhard; Rummeny, Ernst; Noёl, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Muenzel, Daniela

    2017-02-01

    X-ray coronary angiography is an invaluable tool for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. However, the use of iodine-based contrast media can be contraindicated for patients who present with chronic renal insufficiency or with severe iodine allergy. These patients could benefit from a reduced contrast agent concentration, possibly achieved through application of a mono-energetic x-ray beam. While large-scale synchrotrons are impractical for daily clinical use, the technology of compact synchrotron sources strongly advanced during the last decade. Here we present a quantitative analysis of the benefits a compact synchrotron source can offer in coronary angiography. Simulated projection data from quasi-mono-energetic and conventional x-ray tube spectra is used for a CNR comparison. Results show that compact synchrotron spectra would allow for a significant reduction of contrast media. Experimentally, we demonstrate the feasibility of coronary angiography at the Munich Compact Light Source, the first commercial installation of a compact synchrotron source.

  17. Mono-Energy Coronary Angiography with a Compact Synchrotron Source

    PubMed Central

    Eggl, Elena; Mechlem, Korbinian; Braig, Eva; Kulpe, Stephanie; Dierolf, Martin; Günther, Benedikt; Achterhold, Klaus; Herzen, Julia; Gleich, Bernhard; Rummeny, Ernst; Noёl, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Muenzel, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    X-ray coronary angiography is an invaluable tool for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. However, the use of iodine-based contrast media can be contraindicated for patients who present with chronic renal insufficiency or with severe iodine allergy. These patients could benefit from a reduced contrast agent concentration, possibly achieved through application of a mono-energetic x-ray beam. While large-scale synchrotrons are impractical for daily clinical use, the technology of compact synchrotron sources strongly advanced during the last decade. Here we present a quantitative analysis of the benefits a compact synchrotron source can offer in coronary angiography. Simulated projection data from quasi-mono-energetic and conventional x-ray tube spectra is used for a CNR comparison. Results show that compact synchrotron spectra would allow for a significant reduction of contrast media. Experimentally, we demonstrate the feasibility of coronary angiography at the Munich Compact Light Source, the first commercial installation of a compact synchrotron source. PMID:28181544

  18. Biosynthesis and Degradation of Mono-, Oligo-, and Polysaccharides: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Iain B. H.

    Glycomolecules, whether they be mono-, oligo-, or polysaccharides or simple glycosides, are—as any biological molecules—the products of biosynthetic processes; on the other hand, at the end of their lifespan, they are also subject to degradation. The beginning point, biochemically, is the fixation of carbon by photosynthesis; subsequent metabolism in plants and other organisms results in the generation of the various monosaccharides. These must be activated—typically as nucleotide sugars or lipid-phosphosugars—before transfer by glycosyltransferases can take place in order to produce the wide variety of oligo- and polysaccharides seen in Nature; complicated remodelling processes may take place—depending on the pathway—which result in partial trimming of a precursor by glycosidases prior to the addition of further monosaccharide units. Upon completion of the 'life' of a glycoconjugate, glycosidases will degrade the macromolecule finally into monosaccharide units which can be metabolized or salvaged for incorporation into new glycan chains. In modern glycoscience, a wide variety of methods—genetic, biochemical, analytical—are being employed in order to understand these various pathways and to place them within their biological and medical context. In this chapter, these processes and relevant concepts and methods are introduced, prior to elaboration in the subsequent more specialized chapters on biosynthesis and degradation of mono-, oligo-, and polysaccharides.

  19. MonoSLAM: real-time single camera SLAM.

    PubMed

    Davison, Andrew J; Reid, Ian D; Molton, Nicholas D; Stasse, Olivier

    2007-06-01

    We present a real-time algorithm which can recover the 3D trajectory of a monocular camera, moving rapidly through a previously unknown scene. Our system, which we dub MonoSLAM, is the first successful application of the SLAM methodology from mobile robotics to the "pure vision" domain of a single uncontrolled camera, achieving real time but drift-free performance inaccessible to Structure from Motion approaches. The core of the approach is the online creation of a sparse but persistent map of natural landmarks within a probabilistic framework. Our key novel contributions include an active approach to mapping and measurement, the use of a general motion model for smooth camera movement, and solutions for monocular feature initialization and feature orientation estimation. Together, these add up to an extremely efficient and robust algorithm which runs at 30 Hz with standard PC and camera hardware. This work extends the range of robotic systems in which SLAM can be usefully applied, but also opens up new areas. We present applications of MonoSLAM to real-time 3D localization and mapping for a high-performance full-size humanoid robot and live augmented reality with a hand-held camera.

  20. Crustal structure between Lake Mead, Nevada, and Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Lane R.

    1964-01-01

    Interpretation of a reversed seismic-refraction profile between Lake Mead, Nevada, and Mono Lake, California, indicates velocities of 6.15 km/sec for the upper layer of the crust, 7.10 km/sec for an intermediate layer, and 7.80 km/sec for the uppermost mantle. Phases interpreted to be reflections from the top of the intermediate layer and the Mohorovicic discontinuity were used with the refraction data to calculate depths. The depth to the Moho increases from about 30 km near Lake Mead to about 40 km near Mono Lake. Variations in arrival times provide evidence for fairly sharp flexures in the Moho. Offsets in the Moho of 4 km at one point and 2 1/2 km at another correspond to large faults at the surface, and it is suggested that fracture zones in the upper crust may displace the Moho and extend into the upper mantle. The phase P appears to be an extension of the reflection from the top of the intermediate layer beyond the critical angle. Bouguer gravity, computed for the seismic model of the crust, is in good agreement with the measured Bouguer gravity. Thus a model of the crustal structure is presented which is consistent with three semi-independent sources of geophysical data: seismic-refraction, seismic-reflection, and gravity.

  1. Mono-W dark matter signals at the LHC: simplified model analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nicole F.; Cai, Yi; Leane, Rebecca K. E-mail: yi.cai@unimelb.edu.au

    2016-01-01

    We study mono-W signals of dark matter (DM) production at the LHC, in the context of gauge invariant renormalizable models. We analyze two simplified models, one involving an s-channel Z' mediator and the other a t-channel colored scalar mediator, and consider examples in which the DM-quark couplings are either isospin conserving or isospin violating after electroweak symmetry breaking. While previous work on mono-W signals have focused on isospin violating EFTs, obtaining very strong limits, we find that isospin violating effects are small once such physics is embedded into a gauge invariant simplified model. We thus find that the 8 TeV mono-W results are much less constraining than those arising from mono-jet searches. Considering both the leptonic (mono-lepton) and hadronic (mono fat jet) decays of the W, we determine the 14 TeV LHC reach of the mono-W searches with 3000 fb{sup −1} of data. While a mono-W signal would provide an important complement to a mono-jet discovery channel, existing constraints on these models imply it will be a challenging signal to observe at the 14 TeV LHC.

  2. Resolving the early chronology of Mono Craters volcanism with combined 238U-230Th and 40Ar/39Ar dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, J. A.; Calvert, A. T.; Marcaida, M.; Mangan, M.; Lidzbarski, M. I.; Stelten, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    zircon from ash 3 pumice and dome 11 yield indistinguishable U-Th isochron ages of ca. 21 ka, which match the 40Ar/39Ar age for dome 11 sanidine. Sanidine and the rims on allanite and zircon from rhyolite with the oldest hydration rind age (ca. 20 ka) yield a concordant Holocene age of ca. 7 ka, with evidence for significant scavenging of older sanidine immediately prior to eruption. These results reveal that multiple domes in the Mono Craters chain reflect volcanism as old as ca. 25 ka, and that the sources for Wilson Creek tephras older than this are buried by younger rhyolites. The new age and compositional link between ash 3 and dome 11 calibrates the record of late Pleistocene explosive volcanism from Wilson Creek tephras, and provides new age control for the pluvial sediments of the upper portion of the Wilson Creek formation. [1] Vazquez and Lidzbarski, 2012, EPSL 357-358: 54 [2] Zimmerman et al, 2006, EPSL 252: 94.

  3. Rare earth element and uranium-thorium variations in tufa deposits from the Mono Basin, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, E. S.; Tomascak, P. B.; Hemming, N.; Hemming, S. R.; Rasbury, T.; Stine, S.; Zimmerman, S. R.

    2009-12-01

    Samples of fossil tufa deposits from several localities in the Mono Basin, eastern California, were analyzed for trace element concentrations in order to better understand changes in lake composition in the past. These deposits were formed during the last glacial cycle, mostly during deglaciation (Benson et al., 1990, PPP). Three elevations are represented by the analyses. Samples from near Highway 167 were sampled between 2063 and 2069 m asl. Samples from near Thompson Road were sampled between 2015 and 2021 m. One layered mound was sampled at 1955 m. Concentrations of the lanthanide rare earth elements (REE), in particular the heavy/light (HREE/LREE) distributions, have been shown to be sensitive to alkalinity in modern saline lakes (e.g., Johannesson et al., 1994, GRL, 21, 773-776), and the same has been suggested for U/Th (Anderson et al., 1982, Science, 216, 514-516). Holocene to near-modern tufa towers exist in shallow water and around the current shoreline (1945 m). Tufa towers above 2000 m include a characteristic morphology termed thinolite, interpreted to represent pseudomorphs after the very cold water mineral ikaite. Most lower elevation towers do not have the thinolite morphology, but some layered tufa mounds at low elevations include several layers of thinolite, such as the one sampled for this project. Analyses were made on millimeter-scale bulk samples from tufa towers. Measurements were made on sample solutions with a Varian 820MS quadrupole ICP-MS. Mono Basin tufa samples have total REE concentrations ranging from 0.029 to 0.77 times average shales. Samples have flat to moderately HREE-enriched shale-normalized patterns with limited overall variability ([La/Lu]SN of 1.8 to 9.6) but with some variability in the slope of the HREE portion of the patterns. Tufa towers sampled from three elevations have (Gd/Lu)SN of 0.40 to 1.5. The REE patterns of most samples have small positive Ce anomalies, but a minority of samples, all from the layered tufa mound

  4. ALS Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... toward a world without ALS! Walk to Defeat ALS® Walk to Defeat ALS® draws people of all ... We need your help. I Will Advocate National ALS Registry The National ALS Registry is a congressionally ...

  5. Three-dimensional model of the Mono Basin (California): finite element analysis of the interaction between the Hartley Spring Fault and the Mono Dike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Marra, D.; Manconi, A.; McDonnell, A.; Battaglia, M.

    2012-12-01

    Mono Basin is a northward-trending structural depression lying immediately east of the central Sierra Nevada (California) that extends from the northern edge of Long Valley Caldera towards the center of Mono Lake. The Mono-Inyo Craters volcanic chain forms a prominent 17-km-long arcuate ridge within the Mono Basin. Recent studies have proposed that the volcanism and tectonism in this area is likely interrelated. Stratigraphic data suggest that a series of strong earthquakes occurred during the North Mono-Inyo eruption sequence of 1350 A.D. Geological data are consistent with rupture of the Hartley Springs fault during the eruption sequence. The temporal proximity of these events suggests the possibility of a causal relationship. We use the Finite Element Method (FEM) to generate a three-dimensional model of the Mono Basin and investigate the feedback mechanism between dike intrusion and slip along the Hartley Springs fault. First we combine the potential of the FEM with the Okada (1992) analytical solution for a homogeneous elastic flat half-space to validate our model. Then, to better simulate a geodynamic model of the Mono Basin, we implement more realistic dynamics that include gravity forces, vertical and lateral heterogeneities of the crust, and topography. We evaluate the distribution of local stress changes to study the influence of the Inyo dike intrusion on the Hartley Springs fault and how slip along the fault may encourage the propagation of dikes towards the surface. We employ the Coulomb stress change as a failure criterion on the Hartley Springs fault. Preliminary results indicate that slip along the Hartley Springs fault may have encouraged the intrusion of the Mono Dike.

  6. Inflation of Long Valley caldera, California, Basin and Range strain, and possible Mono Craters dike opening from 1990-94 GPS surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, G.A.; Langbein, J.; Stein, R.S.; Lisowski, M.; Svarc, J.

    1997-01-01

    Five years of annual Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys of a network centered on Long Valley, California, constrain displacement rates for these stations relative to a central station in the network. These observations are consistent with recent models of resurgent dome inflation in Long Valley (Langbein et al., 1995) and have sufficient signal to detect the presence of Basin and Range strain in the Long Valley region. The data also allow for the possibility of dike inflation beneath the Mono Craters; dike intrusion is consistent with the Mono Craters' recent geologic history of ash eruptions, with seismic tomography, leveling data, and geologic studies of these volcanic domes and flows. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Energetic N-trinitroethyl-substituted mono-, di-, and triaminotetrazoles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghua; Zhang, Jiaheng; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2013-08-12

    A series of dense energetic N-trinitroethyl-substituted mono-, bis-, and tri-5-aminotetrazoles were obtained by reacting primary amines with in situ generated cyanogen azide, followed by the trinitroethyl functionalization that involves a condensation of a hydroxymethyl intermediate (prepared by a reaction with formaldehyde) with trinitromethane. These compounds were fully characterized by using multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, IR, elemental analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and, in one case with 9, with single-crystal XRD analysis. The heats of formation for all compounds were calculated with Gaussian 03 and then combined with experimental densities to determine the detonation pressures (P) and velocities (D(v)) of the energetic materials. Interestingly, most of them exhibited high density, good thermal stability, acceptable oxygen balance, positive heat of formation, low impact sensitivity, and excellent detonation properties, which highlighted their practical application potentials as a fascinating class of highly energetic materials.

  8. Aryl hydrocarbon mono-oxygenase activity in human lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, G.D.; Schuresko, D.D.

    1981-06-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon mono-oxygenase (AHM), an enzyme of key importance in metabolism of xenobiotic chemicals such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNA), is present in human lymphocytes. Studies investing the relation of activity of AHM in human lymphocytes to parameters such as disease state, PNA exposure, in vitro mitogen stimulation, etc. have been summarized in this report. Some studies have demonstrated increased AHM activity in lymphocytes from cigarette smokers (compared to nonsmokers), and in lung cancer patients when compared to appropriate control groups. These observations are confused by extreme variability in human lymphocyte AHM activities, such variability arising from factors such as genetic variation in AHM activity, variation in in vitro culture conditions which affect AHM activity, and the problematical relationship of common AHM assays to actual PNA metabolism taking place in lymphocytes. If some of the foregoing problems can be adequately addressed, lymphocyte AHM activity could hold the promise of being a useful biomarker system for human PNA exposure.

  9. Mono-Higgs detection of dark matter at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlin, Asher; Lin, Tongyan; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2014-06-01

    Motivated by the recent discovery of the Higgs boson, we investigate the possibility that a missing energy plus Higgs final state is the dominant signal channel for dark matter at the LHC. We consider examples of higher-dimension operators where a Higgs and dark matter pair are produced through an off-shell Z or γ, finding potential sensitivity at the LHC to cutoff scales of around a few hundred GeV. We generalize this production mechanism to a simplified model by introducing a Z' as well as a second Higgs doublet, where the pseudoscalar couples to dark matter. Resonant production of the Z' which decays to a Higgs plus invisible particles gives rise to a potential mono-Higgs signal. This may be observable at the 14 TeV LHC at low tan β and when the Z' mass is roughly in the range 600 GeV to 1.3 TeV.

  10. Mono-jet signatures of gluphilic scalar dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godbole, Rohini M.; Mendiratta, Gaurav; Shivaji, Ambresh; Tait, Tim M. P.

    2017-09-01

    A gluphilic scalar dark matter (GSDM) model has recently been proposed as an interesting vision for WIMP dark matter communicating dominantly with the Standard Model via gluons. We discuss the collider signature of a hard jet recoiling against missing momentum (;mono-jet;) in such a construction, whose leading contribution is at one-loop. We compare the full one-loop computation with an effective field theory (EFT) treatment, and find (as expected) that EFT does not accurately describe regions of parameter space where mass of the colored mediator particles are comparable to the experimental cuts on the missing energy. We determine bounds (for several choices of SU(3) representation of the mediator) from the √{ s} = 8 TeV data, and show the expected reach of the √{ s} = 13 TeV LHC and a future 100 TeV pp collider to constrain or discover GSDM models.

  11. The radiocarbon budget for Mono Lake: an unsolved mystery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broecker, W.S.; Wanninkhof, R.; Mathieu, G.; Peng, T.-H.; Stine, S.; Robinson, S.; Herczeg, A.; Stuiver, M.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1957 the 14C C ratio of the dissolved inorganic carbon in Mono Lake has risen by about 60???. The magnitude of this increase is about four times larger than that expected from the invasion of bomb-produced 14C from the atmosphere. We have eliminated the following explanations: (1) measurement error, (2) an unusually high physical exchange rate for non-reactive gases, (3) inorganic enhancement of the CO2 exchange rate, and (4) biological enhancement of the CO2 exchange rate. Clandestine disposal of waste radiocarbon remains a dark-horse explanation. In the course of our investigations we have uncovered evidence for at least one episodic input of radiocarbon-free carbon to the lake over the last 1000 years. We speculate that this injection was related to a hydrothermal event resulting from sublacustrine volcanic activity. ?? 1988.

  12. AFM studies of homogeneous and mixed lipid mono- and bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runyan, Lindsay; Pantea, Mircea; Hoffmann, Peter

    2007-03-01

    Phospholipid mono- and bilayers have potential research applications in various areas of biology and medicine, where they serve as substitutes for cell membranes. The use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize such materials allows for the measurement of the topographic features of the material on a subnanometric scale and of the forces arising due to the interaction between the AFM tip and the phospholipid surface; the addition of biological molecules commonly found in cells to the AFM tip, such as proteins, allows the interaction between these molecules and a cell membrane to be studied. For this study, mixed phospholipid monolayers consisting of 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphoethanolamine (DSPE) and 1,2-Dioleoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) as well as bilayers consisting of 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphocholine (DPPC) were synthesized and studied using AFM imaging and force measurements.

  13. Electronics using hybrid-molecular and mono-molecular devices.

    PubMed

    Joachim, C; Gimzewski, J K; Aviram, A

    2000-11-30

    The semiconductor industry has seen a remarkable miniaturization trend, driven by many scientific and technological innovations. But if this trend is to continue, and provide ever faster and cheaper computers, the size of microelectronic circuit components will soon need to reach the scale of atoms or molecules--a goal that will require conceptually new device structures. The idea that a few molecules, or even a single molecule, could be embedded between electrodes and perform the basic functions of digital electronics--rectification, amplification and storage--was first put forward in the mid-1970s. The concept is now realized for individual components, but the economic fabrication of complete circuits at the molecular level remains challenging because of the difficulty of connecting molecules to one another. A possible solution to this problem is 'mono-molecular' electronics, in which a single molecule will integrate the elementary functions and interconnections required for computation.

  14. Study of viscosity of mono-, di-, and trialkylamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswal, S. L.; Sindhe, R. G.; Patel, A. T.; Dave, J. P.; Patel, S. G.; Patel, B. M.

    1992-07-01

    Viscosities of several mono-, di-, and trialkylamines have been measured in the temperature range 298 to 333 K. It is observed that viscosities are highly dependent on shape, size, and association through H-bond or through dipole. Following the transition state theory, energy, Gibbs free energy, and entropy of activation of viscous flow have been calculated. The values of expansion energy for these liquids have also been calculated using free volume theory, and subsequently amines have been classified as volume-restrained or energy-restrained liquids. The group contribution method of Van Velzen, Cardozo, and Langenkamp for estimating viscosity has been examined with the present and literature data, and the new group contribution increments ΔN i and ΔB i for amines have been evaluated.

  15. Effects of mono- and bicultural experiences on auditory perception.

    PubMed

    Wong, Patrick C M; Chan, Alice H D; Margulis, Elizabeth H

    2012-04-01

    The auditory system functions in the context of everyday life and the cultural environment in which we live. Although cultural-invariant, universal principles certainly contribute to sound processing, cultural factors play a role as well. In this review paper, we discuss two potential sources of cultural influence on auditory perception. We term the first type bottom-up, and use it to refer to the way that increased exposure to particular kinds of sound could shape our auditory and auditory-neural responses. The second type we term top-down, and use it to refer to the way our cultural upbringing broadly shapes how we think, which may in turn have an impact on how we perceive the world. An important consideration regarding cultural influences is that many individuals grow up with exposure to environmental stimulations of more than one culture. In our discussion, we will consider both mono- and bicultural experiences.

  16. Synthesis, purification, and time-dependent disposition studies of 9- or 10-mono-iodostearic acid and 9- and 10-mono-iodostearyl carnitine

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the potential use of radiolabeled 9- or 10-mono-iodostearyl carnitine as a perfusion and metabolic imaging agent for the heart. Radiochemical purity was achieved and determined by the use of silica gel and/or anion exchange resin chromatography. Radiochemical yields of 45-63 and 4% were obtained for the fatty acid and carnitine ester, respectively. Male albino mice were sacrificed at 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 50 minutes post-injection with either /sup 125/I 9- or 10-mono-iodostearic acid or 9- or 10-mono-iodostearyl (-) carnitine. The lungs, liver heart, kidney, spleen, pancreas, small intestine, stomach, thyroid, blood, fat, and skeletal muscle tissue were excised and assayed for levels of radioactivity in a NaI crystal well counter. The very low target-to-nontarget ratios obtained with /sup 125/I 9- or 10-mono-iodostearyl carnitine in mice strongly suggest that radioiodinated 9- or 10-mono-iodostearyl carnitine is not suitable for use as a myocardial imaging agent. However, radioiodinated 9- or 10-mono-iodostearic acid showed promise as a myocardial imaging agent and may warrant further investigation.

  17. Evaluation of fat sources (lecithin, mono-glyceride and mono-diglyceride) in weaned pigs: Apparent total tract and ileal nutrient digestibilities

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jin Ho; Chen, Ying Jie; Yoo, Jong Sang; Kim, Wan Tae; Chung, Il Byung

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of lecithin, mono-glyceride and mono-diglyceride on apparent total tract and ileal nutrient digestibilities in nursery pigs. Twenty [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc] barrows were surgically fitted with simple T-cannulas. Dietary treatments included 1) CON (basal diet: soy oil), 2) LO (lecithin 0.5%), 3) MO (mono-glyceride 0.5%), 4) MG (mono-glyceride 1.0%) and 5) MDG (mono-diglyceride 1.0%). In apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, dry matter (DM) and gross energy (GE) digestibilities of MDG treatments were higher than LO and MG treatments (p<0.05). In nitrogen (N) digestibility, LO treatment showed the lowest compared to others (p<0.05). The digestibility of crude fat was higher in MDG treatment than CON and LO treatments (p<0.05). In apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, DM digestibility was higher in MDG treatment than LO and MG treatments (p<0.05). GE digestibility was higher in MDG treatment than LO, MO and MG treatments (p<0.05). N digestibility of MDG treatment was greater than LO treatment (p<0.05). Also, the digestibility of crude fat was higher in MDG treatment than CON and LO treatments (p<0.05). In conclusion, mono-diglyceride can increase apparent total tract nutrient and apparent ileal nutrient digestibilities of DM, GE, N and crude fat. PMID:20126377

  18. 21 CFR 573.820 - Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.820 Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates. The food additive polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates may be safely used as an emulsifier...

  19. 21 CFR 573.800 - Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.800 Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. (a) The food additive polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate meets the following specifications...

  20. 21 CFR 573.800 - Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.800 Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. (a) The food additive polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate meets the following specifications...

  1. 21 CFR 573.820 - Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.820 Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates. The food additive polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates may be safely used as an emulsifier...

  2. 21 CFR 573.820 - Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.820 Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates. The food additive polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates may be safely used as an emulsifier...

  3. 21 CFR 573.820 - Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.820 Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates. The food additive polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates may be safely used as an emulsifier...

  4. 21 CFR 573.800 - Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.800 Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. (a) The food additive polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate meets the following specifications...

  5. 21 CFR 573.800 - Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.800 Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. (a) The food additive polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate meets the following specifications...

  6. 21 CFR 573.820 - Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.820 Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates. 573.820 Section 573.820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  7. 21 CFR 573.800 - Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.800 Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. (a... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. 573.800 Section 573.800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  8. Behavioral ecology of American Pikas (Ochotona princeps) at Mono Craters, California: living on the edge

    Treesearch

    Andrew T. Smith; John D. Nagy; Connie Millar

    2016-01-01

    The behavioral ecology of the American pika (Ochotona princeps) was investigated at a relatively hot south-facing, low-elevation site in the Mono Craters, California, a habitat quite different from the upper montane regions more typically inhabited by this species and where most prior investigations have been conducted. Mono Craters pikas exhibited...

  9. Magnetic and gravity studies of Mono Lake, east-central, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Athens, Noah D.; Ponce, David A.; Jayko, Angela S.; Miller, Matt; McEvoy, Bobby; Marcaida, Mae; Mangan, Margaret T.; Wilkinson, Stuart K.; McClain, James S.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Denton, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    From August 26 to September 5, 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected more than 600 line-kilometers of shipborne magnetic data on Mono Lake, 20 line-kilometers of ground magnetic data on Paoha Island, 50 gravity stations on Paoha and Negit Islands, and 28 rock samples on Paoha and Negit Islands, in east-central California. Magnetic and gravity investigations were undertaken in Mono Lake to study regional crustal structures and to aid in understanding the geologic framework, in particular regarding potential geothermal resources and volcanic hazards throughout Mono Basin. Furthermore, shipborne magnetic data illuminate local structures in the upper crust beneath Mono Lake where geologic exposure is absent. Magnetic and gravity methods, which sense contrasting physical properties of the subsurface, are ideal for studying Mono Lake. Exposed rock units surrounding Mono Lake consist mainly of Quaternary alluvium, lacustrine sediment, aeolian deposits, basalt, and Paleozoic granitic and metasedimentary rocks (Bailey, 1989). At Black Point, on the northwest shore of Mono Lake, there is a mafic cinder cone that was produced by a subaqueous eruption around 13.3 ka. Within Mono Lake there are several small dacite cinder cones and flows, forming Negit Island and part of Paoha Island, which also host deposits of Quaternary lacustrine sediments. The typical density and magnetic properties of young volcanic rocks contrast with those of the lacustrine sediment, enabling us to map their subsurface extent.

  10. 40 CFR 721.10437 - Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10437 Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono... chemical substances identified generically as sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10437 - Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10437 Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono... chemical substances identified generically as sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10360 - 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (generic). 721.10360... Substances § 721.10360 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol...)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (PMN P-09-628) is subject...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10360 - 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (generic). 721.10360... Substances § 721.10360 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol...)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (PMN P-09-628) is subject...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10360 - 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (generic). 721.10360... Substances § 721.10360 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol...)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (PMN P-09-628) is subject...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides. 184.1521 Section 184.1521 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1521 Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides...

  16. Mono and digallium selenide clusters as potential superhalogens.

    PubMed

    Seeburrun, Neelum; Archibong, Edet F; Ramasami, Ponnadurai

    2015-03-01

    We present a systematic theoretical study on mono and digallium selenide clusters, Ga(m)Se(n) (m = 1, 2 and n  =  1-4), along with their negatively and positively charged counterparts. Different theoretical methods, namely density functional theory (DFT), second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) and coupled cluster singles and doubles, including non-iterative triples [CCSD(T)], were employed in conjunction with the 6-311+G(2df) basis set. The lowest-energy configurations of gallium selenides prefer to be planar, with the exception of cationic GaSe4 and Ga2Se4. The adiabatic electron affinities (AEA) of Ga(m)Se(n) (m = 1, 2 and n  = 1-4) clusters range from 1.07 to 3.78 eV, and their adiabatic ionization potentials (AIP) vary from 7.57 to 8.76 eV using the CCSD(T)//B3LYP level of theory. It was found that the AEAs of gallium selenides do not depend solely on the electrophilicity of the clusters but also on their electronic structures. No significant trend was observed in the AIP values and HOMO-LUMO (H-L) gaps with increase in cluster size of the mono and digallium selenide series. Among the dissociation channels, the decomposition of GaSe4 → GaSe2 + Se2 was found to be thermodynamically most favored. Furthermore, the AEAs of GaSe2, GaSe3, GaSe4 and Ga2Se4 were found to exceed that of the chlorine atom and are therefore termed as 'superhalogens'. Finally, the AEAs of the Ga2X(n) (X = O-Se; n = 2-4) series were found to be almost similar.

  17. Exploring the differences between mono- and polysymptomatic nocturnal enuresis.

    PubMed

    Butler, Richard; Heron, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Recently the heterogeneity of nocturnal enuresis has been manifest in the distinction between mono- and polysymptomatic forms, based on the absence or presence of bladder overactivity, respectively. Although this classification has important clinical implications, there is a lack of empirical work relating to associated symptom expression and psychological functioning. The aim of this study was to identify variables associated with the two forms of nocturnal enuresis by means of a large population survey. From a cohort of 11,021 parents surveyed as part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children when their children were aged 7(1/2) years, 8242 questionnaires were returned, with 7935 children meeting the inclusion criteria. Parents were invited to complete a questionnaire containing items relating to bedwetting, toileting behaviour, day-time wetting, bowel functioning and psychological variables. A total of 194 children met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV definition of nocturnal enuresis, of whom 133 (68.5%) were classified as monosymptomatic and 61 (31.5%) as polysymptomatic. Those with the polysymptomatic form were significantly more likely to have multiple episodes of bedwetting, to show signs (such as fidgeting) of needing to urinate during the day, to need a reminder to toilet during the day and to have day-time wetting and soiling. The proportion of mono- to polysymptomatic nocturnal enuresis was 2:1. Children with the polysymptomatic form had a number of associated bladder and bowel problems. Clinically it is important to distinguish between the two types of nocturnal enuresis in order to identify the most appropriate treatment intervention.

  18. New particle formation from sulfuric acid and amines: Similarities and differences between mono-, di-, and trimethylamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olenius, Tinja; Halonen, Roope; Kurtén, Theo; Henschel, Henning; Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Ortega, Ismael K.; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Riipinen, Ilona

    2017-04-01

    Amines are organic base species that are emitted to the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural sources. Both theoretical and laboratory studies suggest that mono-, di-, and trimethylamines (MMA, DMA, and TMA, respectively) are capable of enhancing the initial steps of sulfuric acid-driven aerosol particle formation much more strongly than ammonia (Kurtén et al., 2008; Jen et al., 2014). Despite the potential importance for atmospheric new particle formation, quantitative estimates on the emissions and thermochemical properties of amines remain relatively uncertain. Because of this and also due to computational reasons, recent large-scale modeling studies have treated sulfuric acid-amine nucleation by introducing a single surrogate amine species, the total emissions of which combine together MMA, DMA and TMA but which resembles DMA or TMA in its various properties (e.g. Bergman et al., 2015). On the other hand, there are likely to be differences in the potentials of the three amines to enhance particle formation, causing uncertainties to the lumping approach. Systematic comparisons are needed to evaluate how to treat these species in atmospheric models and to assess what level of simplification is justifiable. In this work, we study the differences and similarities of MMA, DMA and TMA by modeling nanoparticle formation from sulfuric acid, water, and each of the three amines. We simulate molecular cluster concentrations and formation rates at boundary layer conditions with a dynamic cluster population model using quantum chemistry-based cluster evaporation rates, and study the dependence of particle formation rate on precursor vapor concentrations, temperature and relative humidity. The results suggest that for the three amines, there are differences in the nucleation mechanism and hygroscopicity of molecular clusters. However, for DMA and TMA, formation of nanometer-sized particles and its dependence on ambient conditions is roughly similar: both

  19. Solid-state NMR study of various mono- and divalent cation forms of the natural zeolite natrolite.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Bum; Vicente, Aurélie; Fernandez, Christian; Hong, Suk Bong

    2013-05-28

    Here we present the one-dimensional (29)Si and (27)Al MAS NMR and two-dimensional (27)Al MQMAS and DQF-STMAS NMR spectra of the monovalent (Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), Cs(+) and NH4(+)) and divalent (Ca(2+), Sr(2+) and Ba(2+)) cation forms of the natural zeolite natrolite (framework type NAT) with complete Si-Al ordering over the crystallographically distinct tetrahedral sites and with the same hydration state (hydrated, partially dehydrated or fully dehydrated). In the case of monovalent cation-exchanged natrolites, the differences in their crystal symmetry evidenced by (29)Si MAS NMR were found to be in good agreement with those determined by crystallographic analyses. However, (27)Al DQF-STMAS NMR spectroscopy shows the presence of two distinct Al sites in dehydrated K-NAT, Rb-NAT and NH4-NAT, suggesting that their actual crystal symmetry is lower than the reported one (i.e., orthorhombic Fdd2). The MAS NMR results also show that the space group of hydrated Ca-NAT is lower than that (monoclinic F1d1) of hydrated scolecite, the natural calcium counterpart of natrolite, which is also the case with hydrated Sr-NAT and Ba-NAT. We believe that the unexpected diversity in the crystal symmetry of natrolite caused by exchange of various mono- and divalent ions, as well as by dehydration, may be inherently due to the high framework flexibility of this natural zeolite.

  20. Intra-individual comparison between abdominal virtual mono-energetic spectral and conventional images using a novel spectral detector CT

    PubMed Central

    Wybranski, Christian; Byrtus, Jonathan; Houbois, Christian; Hauger, Myriam; Heneweer, Carola; Siedek, Florian; Hickethier, Tilman; Große Hokamp, Nils; Maintz, David; Haneder, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To quantitatively and qualitatively assess abdominal arterial and venous phase contrast-enhanced spectral detector computed tomography (SDCT) virtual mono-energetic (MonoE) datasets in comparison to conventional CT reconstructions provided by the same system. Materials and methods Conventional and MonoE images at 40–120 kilo-electron volt (keV) levels with a 10 keV increment as well as 160 and 200 keV were reconstructed in abdominal SDCT datasets of 55 patients. Attenuation, image noise, and contrast- / signal-to-noise ratios (CNR, SNR) of vessels and solid organs were compared between MonoE and conventional reconstructions. Two readers assessed contrast conditions, detail visualization, overall image quality and subjective image noise with both, fixed and adjustable window settings. Results Attenuation, CNR and SNR of vessels and solid organs showed a stepwise increase from high to low keV reconstructions in both contrast phases while image noise stayed stable at low keV MonoE reconstruction levels. Highest levels were found at 40 keV MonoE reconstruction (p<0.001), respectively. Solid abdominal organs showed a stepwise decrease from low to high energy levels in regard to attenuation, CNR and SNR with significantly higher values at 40 and 50 keV, compared to conventional images. The 70 keV MonoE was comparable to conventional poly-energetic reconstruction (p≥0.99). Subjective analysis displayed best image quality for the 70 keV MonoE reconstruction level in both phases at fixed standard window presets and at 40 keV if window settings could be adjusted. Conclusion SDCT derived low keV MonoE showed markedly increased CNR and SNR values due to constantly low image noise values over the whole energy spectrum from 40 to 200 keV. PMID:28837641

  1. Radiation-stimulated diffusion in Al-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiv, A.; Fuks, D.; Munitz, A.; Zenou, V.; Moiseenko, N.

    A di-vacancy low-temperature diffusion is proposed to explain diffusion-controlled processes in Al-Si alloys responsible for neutron-induced silicon precipitation. Ab initio calculations of potential barriers for Si atom hopping in aluminium lattice showed that in the case of di-vacancy diffusion, they are small compared with that of mono-vacancy diffusion. The low temperature diffusivity of mono-vacancies is too small to account for the measured Si diffusivities in aluminium. The dependencies of radiation-stimulated diffusion on the neutron flux and on the temperature are obtained and can be used for the experimental verification of the developed model.

  2. Digital mono- and 3D stereo-photogrammetry for geological and geomorphological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scapozza, Cristian; Schenker, Filippo Luca; Castelletti, Claudio; Bozzini, Claudio; Ambrosi, Christian

    2016-04-01

    corresponding real world pixel on the DEM, and then extract georeferenced vector data and orthorectified raster data from terrestrial photographs (Bozzini et al., 2012; Scapozza et al., 2014). Through some case studies, we show (1) how 3D digital stereo-photogrammetry makes it possible the production of Quaternary geological and geomorphological maps, (2) how digital mono-photogrammetry is a powerful tool for supporting geological mapping in very steep zones and (3) how the combination of these two digital tools permits diachronical mapping of phenomena evolution (such as landslides or rockglaciers) during the entire twentieth century. Ambrosi C. and Scapozza C. 2015. Improvements in 3-D digital mapping for geomorphological and Quaternary geological cartography. Geographica Helvetica 70: 121-133. doi: 10.5194/gh-70-121-2015 Bozzini C., Conedera M. and Krebs P. 2012. A new monoplotting tool to extract georeferenced vector data and orthorectified raster data from oblique non-metric photographs. International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era 1: 499-518. doi: 10.1260/2047-4970.1.3.499 Scapozza C., Lambiel C., Bozzini C., Mari S. and Conedera M. 2014. Assessing the rock glacier kinematics on three different timescales: a case study from the southern Swiss Alps. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 39: 2056-2069. doi: 10.1002/esp.3599

  3. Incremental Heating 40Ar/39Ar Analyses of Mono Basin Tephra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deino, A.; Hemming, S. R.; Ali, G. A.; Zimmerman, S. R.; Turrin, B. D.

    2012-12-01

    The glacially and volcanically derived sediments of the Wilson Creek Formation (Lajoie, 1968), Mono Basin, eastern California, contain an invaluable archive of hydroclimatic, volcanic, and paleomagnetic events encompassing the past ~85 ka. Accurate radioisotopic dating of this sequence, however, has been stymied by systematic problems encountered in applying C-14, U/Th, and 40Ar/39Ar methods. 40Ar/39Ar dating of the 19-plus locally derived tephra horizons within the formation has been foiled by the presence of excess argon, incorporation of older crystal components and by the difficulty of accurately measuring of the age of late Quaternary materials (Chen et al., 1996; Kent et al., 2002; Cassata et al., 2011). We have acquired detailed laser step-heating 40Ar/39Ar age spectra on individual sanidine crystals of several Wilson Creek ashes using the multiple ion counter capability of the BGC Noblesse noble gas mass spectrometer. This approach represents a breakthrough for young materials, as it allows examination of the internal argon systematics of each grain and identification of steps representing excess Ar components as distinct from primary volcanic ages. Typically, anomalously old ages occur in the first 10-50% of the 39Ar release, followed by an age 'plateau' that is generally consistent from grain to grain. This methodological advance is a result of improvements in extraction-line design and mass spectrometer manufacture (in particular, improved source ionization efficiency, utilization of low-noise ion counters, and fully simultaneous data collection of all relevant isotopes). For example, 15 single-grain step-heating experiments (8-13 steps each) have been performed on sanidine from Ash 12. All crystals yielded apparent-age plateaus in the latter stages of the release, often preceded by anomalously old steps. While the age distribution of the plateau results are unimodal and consistent, with a weighted-mean age of 42.1 ± 0.3 ka (0.7% 1σ error), the

  4. Environmental occurrence and potential toxicity of planar, mono-, and di-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls in the biota

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, C.S.; Xiao, J.; Bush, B.

    1995-12-31

    Coplanar PCBs without ortho-chlorine substituents and semicoplanar PCBs with one ortho-chlorination are stereochemically similar to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and, because of this similarity, exert biochemical activity and toxicity to biota comparable to that of TCDD. Four non-ortho-, eight mono-ortho-, and two di-ortho-chlorinated congeners have been determined in insect larvae, fresh water and salt water mussels, fish, mallard duck, seals, and in human milk and adipose tissue. The PCB congeners are separated from the remainder of PCBs by activated carbon chromatography or HPLC on porous graphitic carbon followed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. PCB toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) (1) recommended by WHO for 3 non-ortho, 8 mono-ortho and 2 di-ortho PCBs and a TEF for congener 81 (3,4,4{prime},5-tetrachlorobiphenyl) suggested by Harris et al. from AHH induction in rainbow trout (2) were used for calculation of the contribution to dioxin-like toxicity to each life form. In all the biota examined, PCB congener number 126 was the major contributor to PCB toxic equivalents (TEQs), followed by congener numbers 118, 114, 156, and 105. The ability to separate out planar PCBs from the majority of PCBs has allowed the use of TCDD toxicity equivalence to compare the relative dioxin-like potency of PCB residues in various species from 12 different locations.

  5. Characterization of deep level defects present in mono-like, quasi-mono and multicrystalline silicon solar substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, E.; García, H.; Castán, H.; Dueñas, S.

    2015-03-01

    Defects on mono-like (ml-Si), quasi-mono (qm-Si) and multicrystalline silicon solar cell substrates are studied in depth. Using the thermal admittance spectroscopy technique we found a single deep level with an activation energy between 213 and 224 meV and a capture cross section in the order of 10-15-10-14 cm2, in the case of ml-Si samples. The 271, 291 and 373 meV levels were found in qm-Si samples. The first one is associated with a capture cross section in the order of 10-16 cm2, the second one in the order of 10-14, while the third one is associated, for the same magnitude, with a value in the order of 10-12 cm2. Multicrystalline samples showed two tendencies in the Arrhenius plot fit associated with a deep level in each one. The activation energy of the first one ranges from 336 meV to 342 meV, and the capture cross sections are in the order of 10-13-10-11 cm2. The values obtained for the second one are 251 and 171 meV, with the capture cross section values in the order of 10-15 and 10-18 cm2, respectively. The nature of these defects is probably due to iron-based impurities in different complexes. Segregation into extended defects of Fei or Fei-V is the most probable cause of the deep levels with higher capture cross section value. Punctual complexes such as Fei or Fei-V2 are probably the reason for the deep levels with lower capture cross section value.

  6. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or...

  7. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or...

  8. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or...

  9. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or...

  10. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or...

  11. Formation of Siliceous Sinters on Paoha Island, Mono Lake USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, M. R.; Miller, L. G.; Oremland, R. S.; Campbell, K. M.; Kane, T.

    2016-12-01

    Small quantities of siliceous sinter are forming from geothermal springs emanating near the shoreline on the eastern shore of Paoha Island, Mono Lake. The location of the springs is linked to the shallow groundwater table of the island because as lake level has lowered over the past 4 years, the spring orifice has migrated downslope with the lake level. Spring water temperatures vary from about 80°C to 40°C with sinters only occurring on the edge of pools at the air- water interface, mostly near spring orifices at water temperatures between 80 and 60°C. Purple photosynthetic bacteria (e.g., Ectothiorhodospira shaposhnikovii) associated with arsenic metabolism, are present under the sinters at the edges of the pools. The location of the sinter may allow them to act as a refuge for bacteria when the pool temperatures are too hot or too cold. After almost 10 years of observation, the sinters do not appear to be accumulating and are formed in different places on the pool edges each year, indicating that they are ephemeral. Where springs have moved downslope, only small patches of sinter remain. Due to the highly alkaline nature of Mono Lake water, wave action during the winter may dissolve and/or erode the previous year's sinter and thereby constrain its accumulation over time. Although live bacteria are present under the sinters, there is little evidence from scanning electron microscopy that bacteria are being coated with silica or that bacteria are chemically taking part in in the precipitation of silica. The amorphous siliceous sinters are also associated with the diagenetic zeolite analcime and clays (mostly various smectites). A conceptual model of sinter formation starts with thermal spring water beginning to cool as the water heads downslope. When the water cools to the optimal temperatures for bacteria, sinter precipitates on the pool edges and is deposited over the entrapped bacteria. If the pool temperature increases above their tolerance, bacteria on the

  12. A low-voltage alterable EEPROM with Metal-Oxide-Nitride-Oxide-Semiconductor /MONOS/ structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, E.; Ishii, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Hiraishi, H.

    1983-02-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations to obtain lower voltage Electrically Erasable and Programmable ROM's (EEPROM's) than conventional devices have been performed. The scaled-down Metal-Oxide-Nitride-Oxide semiconductor (MONOS) structure is proposed to realize an extremely low-voltage programmable device. The proposed scaled down MONOS devices enjoy several advantages over MNOS devices, e.g., enlargement of the memory window, elimination of degradation phenomena, and drastic improvement in device yield. Low voltage operation with + or - 6-V supplies is demonstrated by the fabricated scaled down MONOS transistors.

  13. Balancing Public Trust Resources of Mono Lake and Los Angeles' Water Right: An Economic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, John B.

    1987-08-01

    The contingent valuation method (CVM) is used to quantify the Public Trust values of Mono Lake at alternative lake levels. The dichotomous choice approach to contingent valuation is employed using a logit model. The economic benefit to California residents of preserving Mono Lake is estimated to be 1.5 billion. Purchase of replacement water and power would cost 26.2 million annually. On efficiency grounds, reallocation of water for maintenance of Public Trust values at Mono Lake is warranted. The CVM appears to be a useful methodology to evaluate the balancing and feasibility tests of the expanded Public Trust doctrine suggested by the California Supreme Court.

  14. Interaction of potassium mono and di phosphates with bovine serum albumin studied by fluorescence quenching method.

    PubMed

    Bakkialakshmi, S; Shanthi, B; Chandrakala, D

    2011-03-01

    The interactions between potassium mono and di phosphates and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied using fluorescence spectroscopy (FS) and ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV). The experimental results showed that the potassium mono and di phosphates could insert into the BSA and quench the inner fluorescence of BSA by forming the potassium mono phosphate-BSA and pottassium di phosphate-BSA complexes. It was found that the static quenching was the main reason leading to the fluorescence quenching. It was conformed by XRD and SEM techniques.

  15. ALS - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- www.mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) ...

  16. Mono-energy coronary angiography with a compact light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggl, Elena; Mechlem, Korbinian; Braig, Eva; Kulpe, Stephanie; Dierolf, Martin; Günther, Benedikt; Achterhold, Klaus; Herzen, Julia; Gleich, Bernhard; Rummeny, Ernst; Noël, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Muenzel, Daniela

    2017-03-01

    While conventional x-ray tube sources reliably provide high-power x-ray beams for everyday clinical practice, the broad spectra that are inherent to these sources compromise the diagnostic image quality. For a monochromatic x-ray source on the other hand, the x-ray energy can be adjusted to optimal conditions with respect to contrast and dose. However, large-scale synchrotron sources impose high spatial and financial demands, making them unsuitable for clinical practice. During the last decades, research has brought up compact synchrotron sources based on inverse Compton scattering, which deliver a highly brilliant, quasi-monochromatic, tunable x-ray beam, yet fitting into a standard laboratory. One application that could benefit from the invention of these sources in clinical practice is coronary angiography. Being an important and frequently applied diagnostic tool, a high number of complications in angiography, such as renal failure, allergic reaction, or hyperthyroidism, are caused by the large amount of iodine-based contrast agent that is required for achieving sufficient image contrast. Here we demonstrate monochromatic angiography of a porcine heart acquired at the MuCLS, the first compact synchrotron source. By means of a simulation, the CNR in a coronary angiography image achieved with the quasi-mono-energetic MuCLS spectrum is analyzed and compared to a conventional x-ray-tube spectrum. The results imply that the improved CNR achieved with a quasi-monochromatic spectrum can allow for a significant reduction of iodine contrast material.

  17. Laser System for Livermore's Mono Energetic Gamma-Ray Source

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, D; Albert, F; Bayramian, A; Marsh, R; Messerly, M; Ebbers, C; Hartemann, F

    2011-03-14

    A Mono-energetic Gamma-ray (MEGa-ray) source, based on Compton scattering of a high-intensity laser beam off a highly relativistic electron beam, requires highly specialized laser systems. To minimize the bandwidth of the {gamma}-ray beam, the scattering laser must have minimal bandwidth, but also match the electron beam depth of focus in length. This requires a {approx}1 J, 10 ps, fourier-transform-limited laser system. Also required is a high-brightness electron beam, best provided by a photoinjector. This electron source requires a second laser system with stringent requirements on the beam including flat transverse and longitudinal profiles and fast rise times. Furthermore, these systems must be synchronized to each other with ps-scale accuracy. Using a novel hyper-dispersion compressor configuration and advanced fiber amplifiers and diode-pumped Nd:YAG amplifiers, we have designed laser systems that meet these challenges for the X-band photoinjector and Compton-scattering source being built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  18. Fringing in MonoCam Y4 filter images

    DOE PAGES

    Brooks, J.; Fisher-Levine, M.; Nomerotski, A.

    2017-05-05

    Here, we study the fringing patterns observed in MonoCam, a camera with a single Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) CCD sensor. Images were taken at the U.S. Naval Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona (NOFS) employing its 1.3 m telescope and an LSST y4 filter. Fringing occurs due to the reflection of infrared light (700 nm or larger) from the bottom surface of the CCD which constructively or destructively interferes with the incident light to produce a net "fringe" pattern which is superimposed on all images taken. Emission lines from the atmosphere, dominated by hydroxyl (OH) spectra, can change in their relativemore » intensities as the night goes on, producing different fringe patterns in the images taken. We found through several methods that the general shape of the fringe patterns remained constant, though with slight changes in the amplitude and phase of the fringes. Lastly, we also found that a superposition of fringes from two monochromatic lines taken in the lab offered a reasonable description of the sky data.« less

  19. The microbial arsenic cycle in Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Stolz, John F.; Hollibaugh, James T.

    2004-01-01

    Significant concentrations of dissolved inorganic arsenic can be found in the waters of a number of lakes located in the western USA and in other water bodies around the world. These lakes are often situated in arid, volcanic terrain. The highest concentrations of arsenic occur in hypersaline, closed basin soda lakes and their remnant brines. Although arsenic is a well-known toxicant to eukaryotes and prokaryotes alike, some prokaryotes have evolved biochemical mechanisms to exploit arsenic oxyanions (i.e., arsenate and arsenite); they can use them either as an electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration (arsenate), or as an electron donor (arsenite) to support chemoautotrophic fixation of CO2 into cell carbon. Unlike in freshwater or marine ecosystems, these processes may assume quantitative significance with respect to the carbon cycle in arsenic-rich soda lakes. For the past several years our research has focused on the occurrence and biogeochemical manifestations of these processes in Mono Lake, a particularly arsenic-rich environment. Herein we review some of our findings concerning the biogeochemical arsenic cycle in this lake, with the hope that it may broaden the understanding of the influence of microorganisms upon the speciation of arsenic in more common, less “extreme” environments, such as drinking water aquifers.

  20. Fringing in MonoCam Y4 filter images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, J.; Fisher-Levine, M.; Nomerotski, A.

    2017-05-01

    We study the fringing patterns observed in MonoCam, a camera with a single Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) CCD sensor. Images were taken at the U.S. Naval Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona (NOFS) employing its 1.3 m telescope and an LSST y4 filter. Fringing occurs due to the reflection of infrared light (700 nm or larger) from the bottom surface of the CCD which constructively or destructively interferes with the incident light to produce a net ``fringe'' pattern which is superimposed on all images taken. Emission lines from the atmosphere, dominated by hydroxyl (OH) spectra, can change in their relative intensities as the night goes on, producing different fringe patterns in the images taken. We found through several methods that the general shape of the fringe patterns remained constant, though with slight changes in the amplitude and phase of the fringes. We also found that a superposition of fringes from two monochromatic lines taken in the lab offered a reasonable description of the sky data.

  1. Glass liquid glass reentrance in mono-component colloidal dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-González, P. E.; Vizcarra-Rendón, A.; Guevara-Rodríguez, F. de J.; Medina-Noyola, M.

    2008-05-01

    The self-consistent generalized Langevin equation (SCGLE) theory of colloid dynamics is employed to describe the ergodic-non-ergodic transition in model mono-disperse colloidal dispersions whose particles interact through hard-sphere plus short-ranged attractive forces. The ergodic-non-ergodic phase diagram in the temperature-concentration state space is determined for the hard-sphere plus attractive Yukawa model within the mean spherical approximation for the static structure factor by solving a remarkably simple equation for the localization length of the colloidal particles. Finite real values of this property signals non-ergodicity and determines the non-ergodic parameters f(k) and fs(k). The resulting phase diagram for this system, which involves the existence of reentrant (repulsive and attractive) glass states, is compared with the corresponding prediction of mode coupling theory. Although both theories coincide in the general features of this phase diagram, there are also clear qualitative differences. One of the most relevant is the SCGLE prediction that the ergodic-attractive glass transition does not preempt the gas-liquid phase transition, but always intersects the corresponding spinodal curve on its high-concentration side. We also calculate the ergodic-non-ergodic phase diagram for the sticky hard-sphere model to illustrate the dependence of the predicted SCGLE dynamic phase diagram on the choice of one important constituent element of the SCGLE theory.

  2. Transcranial Propagation with an Ultrasonic Mono-element Focused Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, P. C.; Jiménez, N.; Konofagou, E.; Camarena, F.; Redondo, J.

    Focused Ultrasound is the only truly transient, local and non-invasive technique able to induce safe Blood-Brain Barrier Opening (BBBO), technique used in Parkinson or Alzheimer diseases research. However, the presence of the skull in the path usually affects the focus characteristics (gain, beam width, shape and maxima location). In this work, transcranial acoustic wave propagation generated by a mono-element focused transducer has been modeled using 2D and 3D FDTD methods. Skull structure of the non-human primate under test can be compared in terms of density and sound speed with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) films. Then, focus aberration and the phenomena that cause it are characterized, providing a better control of the beam focus using the BBBO technique. Results throw that focal axial displacements are constant with the angle of incidence for PMMA flat films. In normal incidence, a shift of 6 mm is given for axial displacement in the 2D transcranial propagation. Moreover, if the skull geometry under the action of the ultrasonic beam can be compared with the curvature radius of the transducer, displacements should be constant with angle independency, like those seeing in the homogenous flat films with the same thickness.

  3. Collaborative study on determination of mono methylmercury in seafood.

    PubMed

    Valdersnes, Stig; Fecher, Peter; Maage, Amund; Julshamn, Kaare

    2016-03-01

    Eight laboratories participated in an inter-laboratory method-performance (collaborative) study of a method for the determination of mono methylmercury (MMHg) in foodstuffs of marine origin by gas chromatography inductively coupled plasma isotope dilution mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-IDMS) after dissolution, derivatisation and extraction of the species. The method was tested on seven seafood products covering both a wide concentration range and variations in the MMHg concentrations as well as matrix compositions. The samples were mussel tissue, squid muscle, crab claw meat, whale meat, cod muscle, Greenland halibut muscle and dogfish liver (NRCC DOLT-4), with MMHg concentrations ranging from 0.035 to 3.58mg/kg (as Hg) dry weight. Repeatability relative standard deviations (RSDr) for MMHg ranged from 2.1% to 8.7%. Reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDR) ranged from 5.8% to 42%. All samples showed HorRat value below 1.0, except for the sample with the lowest MMHg content, mussel tissue, with a HorRat value of 1.6.

  4. Neutrino Mass Measurement Using a Directed Mono-Energetic Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsifrinovich, Vladimir; Folan, Lorcan

    2015-04-01

    It was shown that a directed mono-energetic neutrino beam can be generated by electron capture beta-decay in a sample with a strong hyperfine field at the radioactive nuclei. We study the conditions required to measure the neutrino rest mass using the recoil force produced by a directed neutrino beam. We consider the displacement of an atomic force microscope cantilever due to such a recoil force. We find the change in the cantilever displacement associated with the non-zero neutrino mass, as a function of nuclear half-life T1 / 2, cantilever spring constant, and temperature. We consider the opportunity to increase the sensitivity of the neutrino mass measurement using averaging of the measurement signal. We show that the optimal time for the signal accumulation is, approximately, 1.8T1 / 2. We compute the optimal signal-to-noise ratio for 119Sb nuclei decaying to 119Sn with a decrease in the nuclear spin from I = 5/2 to I = 3/2, and T1 / 2 = 38.2 hours. Finally, we present the parameters values required for detection of sub-eV neutrino rest mass, and estimate the angular distribution of neutrino radiation as a function of temperature.

  5. Sources and flux of natural gases from Mono lake, California

    SciTech Connect

    Oremland, R.S.; Miller, L.G. ); Whiticar, M.J. )

    1987-11-01

    The ability to identify a formation mechanism for natural gas in a particular environment requires consideration of several geochemical factors when there are multiple sources present. Four primary sources of methane have been identified in Mono Lake. Two of these sources were associated with numerous natural gas seeps which occur at various locations in the lake and extend beyond its present boundary; the two other gas sources result from current microbiological processes. Current microbiological processes responsible for sources of natural gas in the lake included pelagic methanogenesis and decomposition of terrestrial grasses in the littoral zone. Methanogenesis in the pelagic sediments resulted in methane saturation. Interstitial sulfate decreased from 133 mM at the surface to 35 mM by 110 cm depth, indicating that sulfate-reduction and methanogenesis operated concurrently. Methane diffused out of the sediments resulting in concentrations of about 50 {mu}M in the anoxic bottom waters. Methane oxidation in the oxic/anoxic boundary lowered the concentration by > 98%, but values in surface waters were supersaturated with respect to the atmosphere. The {delta}{sup 13}CH{sub 4} of this unoxidized residual methane was enriched in {sup 13}C relative to methane in the bottom water and sediments. Average outward flux of this methane was 2.77 {times} 10{sup 7} moles yr{sup {minus}1}. A fourth, but minor source of methane was associated with the decomposition of terrestrial grasses taking place in the lake's recently expanded littoral zone.

  6. The microbial arsenic cycle in Mono Lake, California.

    PubMed

    Oremland, Ronald S; Stolz, John F; Hollibaugh, James T

    2004-04-01

    Significant concentrations of dissolved inorganic arsenic can be found in the waters of a number of lakes located in the western USA and in other water bodies around the world. These lakes are often situated in arid, volcanic terrain. The highest concentrations of arsenic occur in hypersaline, closed basin soda lakes and their remnant brines. Although arsenic is a well-known toxicant to eukaryotes and prokaryotes alike, some prokaryotes have evolved biochemical mechanisms to exploit arsenic oxyanions (i.e., arsenate and arsenite); they can use them either as an electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration (arsenate), or as an electron donor (arsenite) to support chemoautotrophic fixation of CO(2) into cell carbon. Unlike in freshwater or marine ecosystems, these processes may assume quantitative significance with respect to the carbon cycle in arsenic-rich soda lakes. For the past several years our research has focused on the occurrence and biogeochemical manifestations of these processes in Mono Lake, a particularly arsenic-rich environment. Herein we review some of our findings concerning the biogeochemical arsenic cycle in this lake, with the hope that it may broaden the understanding of the influence of microorganisms upon the speciation of arsenic in more common, less "extreme" environments, such as drinking water aquifers.

  7. Vibration localization in mono- and bi-coupled bladed disks - A transfer matrix approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottarsson, Gisli; Pierre, Christophe

    1993-01-01

    A transfer matrix approach to the analysis of the dynamics of mistuned bladed disks is presented. The study focuses on mono-coupled systems, in which each blade is coupled to its two neighboring blades, and bi-coupled systems, where each blade is coupled to its four nearest neighbors. Transfer matrices yield the free dynamics, both the characteristic free wave and the normal modes - in closed form for the tuned assemblies. Mistuned assemblies are represented by random transfer matrices and an examination of the effect of mistuning on harmonic wave propagation yields the localization factor - the average rate of spatial wave amplitude decay per blade - in the mono-coupled assembly. Based on a comparison of the wave propagation characteristics of the mono- and bi-coupled assemblies, important conclusions are drawn about the effect of the additional coupling coordinate on the sensitivity to mistuning and the strength of mode localization predicted by a mono-coupled analysis.

  8. 11. GRANT LAKE AND MONO LAKE LOOKING NORTH/NORTHEAST Los ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GRANT LAKE AND MONO LAKE LOOKING NORTH/NORTHEAST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 10. GRANT LAKE AND MONO LAKE LOOKING EAST/NORTHEAST Los ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. GRANT LAKE AND MONO LAKE LOOKING EAST/NORTHEAST - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. An impedance study of complex Al/Cu-Al2O3 electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, J.; Katkevics, J.; Erts, D.; Viksna, A.

    2011-06-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate different Cu deposition regimes on Al surface obtained by internal electrolysis and to characterize properties of fabricated electrodes. EIS experimental data confirmed that Cu deposition by internal electrolysis is realized and the complex electrode system is obtained. The main difficulty in preparation of Al/Cu electrodes is to prevent aluminium oxidation before and during electrochemical deposition of Cu particles. In this work NaCl, CH3COONa, K2SO4, mono- and diammonium citrate electrolytes were examined to determine their suitability for impedance measurements. Al/Cu-Al2O3 electrode composition was approved by equivalent circuit analysis, optical and scanning electron microscope methods. The most optimal Cu deposition mode using internal electrolysis was determined. The obtained results are promising for future electrochemical fabrication of nanostructures directly on Al surfaces by internal electrolysis.

  11. Geothermal systems of the Mono Basin-Long Valley region, eastern California and western Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.T.; Flynn, T.; Chapman, R.H.; Trexler, D.T.; Chase, G.R.; Bacon, C.F.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The region that includes Mono Basin, Long Valley, the Bridgeport-Bodie Hills area, and Aurora, in eastern California and western Nevada was studied to determine the possible causes and interactions of the geothermal anomalies in the Mono Basin-Long Valley region as a whole. A special goal of the study was to locate possible shallow bodies of magma and to determine their influence on the hydrothermal systems in the region. (ACR)

  12. Discovery and industrial applications of lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Katja S

    2016-02-01

    The recent discovery of copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases (LPMOs) has opened up a vast area of research covering several fields of application. The biotech company Novozymes A/S holds patents on the use of these enzymes for the conversion of steam-pre-treated plant residues such as straw to free sugars. These patents predate the correct classification of LPMOs and the striking synergistic effect of fungal LPMOs when combined with canonical cellulases was discovered when fractions of fungal secretomes were evaluated in industrially relevant enzyme performance assays. Today, LPMOs are a central component in the Cellic CTec enzyme products which are used in several large-scale plants for the industrial production of lignocellulosic ethanol. LPMOs are characterized by an N-terminal histidine residue which, together with an internal histidine and a tyrosine residue, co-ordinates a single copper atom in a so-called histidine brace. The mechanism by which oxygen binds to the reduced copper atom has been reported and the general mechanism of copper-oxygen-mediated activation of carbon is being investigated in the light of these discoveries. LPMOs are widespread in both the fungal and the bacterial kingdoms, although the range of action of these enzymes remains to be elucidated. However, based on the high abundance of LPMOs expressed by microbes involved in the decomposition of organic matter, the importance of LPMOs in the natural carbon-cycle is predicted to be significant. In addition, it has been suggested that LPMOs play a role in the pathology of infectious diseases such as cholera and to thus be relevant in the field of medicine. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  13. Assessing Ecological Impact Assessment: Lessons from Mono Lake, California.

    PubMed

    Wiens, John A; Patten, Duncan T; Botkin, Daniel B

    1993-11-01

    Because of its high salinity and alkalinity, Mono Lake, in eastern California (USA), is a relatively simple ecosystem. It has become the focus of an environmental controversy over the effects of 50 yr of diversions of water from tributary streams to supply water to Los Angeles. Diversions lowered the lake level, increased the salinity, changed the availability of aquatic habitats, and altered the configuration of the shoreline and of islands that support breeding colonies of gulls. We consider (1) how two independent panels of experts synthesized scientific information on the lake ecosystem to assess the environmental consequences of these changes, and (2) how the findings of these groups influenced policy decisions and how well subsequent changes in the lake matched expectations. Despite differences in composition and approach, the two panels reached generally similar conclusions. These conclusions have been a major component of legal activities and the development of management plans for the lake and basin ecosystem. Both panels concluded that, because of the simplicity of the lake ecosystem, ecological consequences of changes in lake level and salinity associated with continuing diversions were likely to be unusually clear-cut. At certain lake levels these changes would be expected to alter algal and invertebrate populations and the populations of aquatic birds that feed upon them or to disrupt breeding activities in gull colonies. Projections about when critical lake levels might be reached, however, have not been met. This is largely because stream flows into the lake have been altered from recent historic patterns by the cessation of water diversions due to governmental and legal actions (prompted in part by the panels' findings) and by a prolonged drought. These events illustrate the difficulty of projecting a timetable for environmental changes, even in simple and well-studied ecosystems.

  14. OVERVIEW OF MONO-ENERGETIC GAMMA-RAY SOURCES & APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Albert, F; Anderson, G G; Anderson, S G; Bayramian, A J; Betts, S M; Chu, T S; Cross, R R; Ebbers, C A; Fisher, S E; Gibson, D J; Ladran, A S; Marsh, R A; Messerly, M J; O'Neill, K L; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C P; Vlieks, A E; Jongewaard, E N; Tantawi, S G; Raubenheimer, T O

    2010-05-18

    Recent progress in accelerator physics and laser technology have enabled the development of a new class of tunable gamma-ray light sources based on Compton scattering between a high-brightness, relativistic electron beam and a high intensity laser pulse produced via chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). A precision, tunable Mono-Energetic Gamma-ray (MEGa-ray) source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac is currently under development and construction at LLNL. High-brightness, relativistic electron bunches produced by an X-band linac designed in collaboration with SLAC NAL will interact with a Joule-class, 10 ps, diode-pumped CPA laser pulse to generate tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range via Compton scattering. This MEGa-ray source will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence in various isotopes. Applications include homeland security, stockpile science and surveillance, nuclear fuel assay, and waste imaging and assay. The source design, key parameters, and current status are presented, along with important applications, including nuclear resonance fluorescence. In conclusion, we have optimized the design of a high brightness Compton scattering gamma-ray source, specifically designed for NRF applications. Two different parameters sets have been considered: one where the number of photons scattered in a single shot reaches approximately 7.5 x 10{sup 8}, with a focal spot size around 8 {micro}m; in the second set, the spectral brightness is optimized by using a 20 {micro}m spot size, with 0.2% relative bandwidth.

  15. Roles of mono-ubiquitinated Smad4 in the formation of Smad transcriptional complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Bei; Suzuki, Hiroyuki Kato, Mitsuyasu

    2008-11-14

    TGF-{beta} activates receptor-regulated Smad (R-Smad) through phosphorylation by type I receptors. Activated R-Smad binds to Smad4 and the complex translocates into the nucleus and stimulates the transcription of target genes through association with co-activators including p300. It is not clear, however, how activated Smad complexes are removed from target genes. In this study, we show that TGF-{beta} enhances the mono-ubiquitination of Smad4. Smad4 mono-ubiquitination was promoted by p300 and suppressed by the c-Ski co-repressor. Smad4 mono-ubiquitination disrupted the interaction with Smad2 in the presence of constitutively active TGF-{beta} type I receptor. Furthermore, mono-ubiquitinated Smad4 was not found in DNA-binding Smad complexes. A Smad4-Ubiquitin fusion protein, which mimics mono-ubiquitinated Smad4, enhanced localization to the cytoplasm. These results suggest that mono-ubiquitination of Smad4 occurs in the transcriptional activator complex and facilitates the turnover of Smad complexes at target genes.

  16. Good quality blastocyst from non-/mono-pronuclear zygote may be used for transfer during IVF.

    PubMed

    Yin, Bao-Li; Hao, Hao-Ying; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Wei, Duo; Zhang, Cui-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Although healthy infants have developed from non- and mono-pronuclear zygotes, the transfer of embryos from non- and mono-pronuclear zygotes is not recommended because there are no proper selection criteria. In the present study, we discuss how to select non- and mono-pronuclear embryos with the highest developmental potential at 19-20 hours post-insemination. We found that the percentage of blastocysts with normal chromosome constitution in non-pronuclear zygotes was slightly higher than in mono-pronuclear zygotes. Non- and mono-pronuclear embryos that were at the 4-cell stage on D2 and/or at the 6- to 8-cell stage on D3 had higher incidence rates of blastocysts with normal chromosome constitutions. We also found higher incidences of blastocysts with normal chromosome constitution on D6 than on D5. The results suggest that if high quality non- and mono-pronuclear zygotes develop to the 4-cell stage on D2 and the 6-to 8- cell stages on D3, along with high quality D6 blastocysts, the incidence of blastocysts with normal chromosome constitution is higher.

  17. Climate Change Impacts to Water Quality in the Owens and Mono Lake Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Roy, S. B.; Mills, B.; Kurkjian, R.

    2011-12-01

    This study describes work to identify potential impacts of future climate changes on water quality in the Mono and Owens Lake basins that are sources of water supply to City of Los Angeles through the Los Angeles Aqueduct (LAA) System. A watershed hydrology and water quality model (the Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran-HSPF; Bicknell et al. 1996) was adapted to the basin to evaluate the potential impacts of climate change on water quality. The water quality parameters studied in this work include temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS), nutrients (nitrogen as nitrate and phosphorus as ortho-phosphate), chlorophyll a, total organic carbon (TOC), and arsenic. The model was calibrated to baseline water quality data observed for the period of 1994-2004 at six major locations, including streams and reservoirs. Statistically downscaled temperature and precipitation data from six climate models were used to make future projections of water quality impacts: GFDL CM2.1, CNRM CM3, NCAR PCM1.1, CCSM3, ECHAMS/MPI-OM, and MIROC3.2, and projections developed for 2005-2099. Results from this modeling exercise indicate that by the end of the 21st century, the following changes may occur in the watershed: increases in water temperature by 1-2 oC; decreases in DO, average TSS, and arsenic; increases in nutrients, both nitrogen and phosphorus species; and minimal changes in BOD and TOC. The recommended actions of the modeling analysis include more detailed monitoring for selected parameters to provide a foundation for evaluating long term trends and relationships of flow and concentrations of key constituents such as TSS, nutrients, and arsenic that are of interest from the standpoint of drinking water supply.

  18. Sources and flux of natural gases from Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.; Miller, L.G.; Whiticar, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    The ability to identify a formation mechanism for natural gas in a particular environment requires consideration of several geochemical factors when there are multiple sources present. Four primary sources of methane have been identified in Mono Lake. Two of these sources were associated with numerous natural gas seeps which occur at various locations in the lake and extend beyond its present boundary; the two other gas sources result from current microbiological processes. In the natural gas seeps, we observed flow rates as high as 160 moles CH4 day-1, and estimate total lakewide annual seep flux to be 2.1 ?? 106 moles CH4. Geochemical parameters (??13CH4,??DCH4,CH4/[C2H6+ C3H8]) and ??14CH4measurements revealed that most of the seeps originate from a paleo-biogenic (??13CH4 = about -70%.). natural gas deposit of Pleistocene age which underlies the current and former lakebed. Gas seeps in the vicinity of hot springs had, in combination with the biogenic gas, a prominent thermogenic gas component resulting from hydrothermal alteration of buried organic matter. Current microbiological processes responsible for sources of natural gas in the lake included pelagic meth- anogenesis and decomposition of terrestrial grasses in the littoral zone. Methanogenesis in the pelagic sediments resulted in methane saturation (2-3 mM at 50 cm; ??13CH4 = about -85%.). Interstitial sulfate decreased from 133 mM at the surface to 35 mM by 110 cm depth, indicating that sulfate-reduction and methanogenesis operated concurrently. Methane diffused out of the sediments resulting in concentrations of about 50 ??M in the anoxic bottom waters. Methane oxidation in the oxic/anoxic boundry lowered the concentration by >98%, but values in surface waters (0.1-1.3??M) were supersaturated with respect to the atmosphere. The ??13CH4 (range = -21.8 to -71.8%.) of this unoxidized residual methane was enriched in 13C relative to methane in the bottom water and sediments. Average outward flux of this

  19. Moisture sources of the Mono Lake deglacial pluvial events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Liang, M. C.; Ali, G.; Shen, C. C.; Cai, Y.; Ke, L.; Hemming, S. R.

    2016-12-01

    Enormously expanded lakes existed in the today's dry western US Great Basin during the last glacial period. The ancient shorelines located well above modern lake levels suggest that precipitation in lake basins must have been substantially higher in the past. It is however under debate whether the subtropical North Pacific or the tropical Pacific is the major moisture source that contributed to the pluvial events, particularly during the deglaciation. Here, we collected a suite of tufa carbonate samples deposited at the 2,080 meter terrace ( 135 meters above today's lake level) in the Mono Basin, California, a closed lake basin for the last 130 thousand years (kyr). At Goat Ranch, we discovered white, shiny, laminated botryoidal carbonate coatings on tufa mounds. Most of these coatings present two generations of formation separated by a hiatus, which indicates lake level fluctuations. Using high-precision U-Th dating techniques, we found that the lower layer was formed 14.1-14.4 kyr BP (corresponding to the North Atlantic Bølling warming period). The upper layer of the coating was formed 11.9-12.3 kyr BP (within the Younger Dryas event). We then obtained d18O, d13C, D47 and 17O-excess values for the two carbonate layers. The upper part is characterized by low d18O values, -8 to -12 ‰ VPDB, whereas the lower one has higher d18O values, -5 to -6 ‰ VPDB. Both share similar d13C values ( 1-2‰ VPDB). D47 analysis on the carbonates suggests that both layers were deposited in a water temperature of 9±2 oC (1s, n = 4 and 8, respectively). The two generations of carbonates present 17O-excess of moisture in values of 50±5 (1s, n=4) and 25±5 (1s, n=8) per meg VSMOW-SLAP, respectively. The large difference in 17O-excess of parent meteoric water points to different origins of moisture for the tufa carbonate formations. The high 17O-excess values during YD suggest a moisture source with a low relative humidity, consistent with the conventional view that the moisture

  20. Caspase-dependent and -independent suppression of apoptosis by monoHER in Doxorubicin treated cells

    PubMed Central

    Bruynzeel, A M E; Abou El Hassan, M A; Torun, E; Bast, A; van der Vijgh, W J F; Kruyt, F A E

    2007-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an antitumour agent for different types of cancer, but the dose-related cardiotoxicity limits its clinical use. To prevent this side effect we have developed the flavonoid monohydroxyethylrutoside (monoHER), a promising protective agent, which did not interfere with the antitumour activity of DOX. To obtain more insight in the mechanism underlying the selective protective effects of monoHER, we investigated whether monoHER (1 mM) affects DOX-induced apoptosis in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes (NeRCaMs), human endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the ovarian cancer cell lines A2780 and OVCAR-3. DOX-induced cell death was effectively reduced by monoHER in heart, endothelial and A2780 cells. OVCAR-3 cells were highly resistant to DOX-induced apoptosis. Experiments with the caspase-inhibitor zVAD-fmk showed that DOX-induced apoptosis was caspase-dependent in HUVECs and A2780 cells, whereas caspase-independent mechanisms seem to be important in NeRCaMs. MonoHER suppressed DOX-dependent activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in normal and A2780 cells as illustrated by p53 accumulation and activation of caspase-9 and -3 cleavage. Thus, monoHER acts by suppressing the activation of molecular mechanisms that mediate either caspase-dependent or -independent cell death. In light of the current work and our previous studies, the use of clinically achievable concentrations of monoHER has no influence on the antitumour activity of DOX whereas higher concentrations as used in the present study could influence the antitumour activity of DOX. PMID:17285121

  1. Multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells and in Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed Central

    Neumeister, B; Schöniger, S; Faigle, M; Eichner, M; Dietz, K

    1997-01-01

    Survival and distribution of legionellae in the environment are assumed to be associated with their multiplication in amoebae, whereas the ability to multiply in macrophages is usually regarded to correspond to pathogenicity. Since most investigations focused on Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, we examined the intracellular multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells, which express phenotypic and functional features of mature monocytes, and in Acanthamoeba castellanii, an environmental host of Legionella spp. According to the bacterial doubling time in Mono Mac 6 cells and in A. castellanii, seven clusters of legionellae could be defined which could be split further with regard to finer differences. L. longbeachae serogroup 1, L. jordanis, and L. anisa were not able to multiply in either A. castellanii or Mono Mac 6 cells and are members of the first cluster. L. dumoffi did not multiply in Mono Mac 6 cells but showed a delayed multiplication in A. castellanii 72 h after infection and is the only member of the second cluster. L. steigerwaltii, L. gormanii, L. pneumophila serogroup 6 ATCC 33215, L. bozemanii, and L. micdadei showed a stable bacterial count in Mono Mac 6 cells after infection but a decreasing count in amoebae. They can be regarded as members of the third cluster. As the only member of the fourth cluster, L. oakridgensis was able to multiply slight in Mono Mac 6 cells but was killed within amoebae. A strain of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 Philadelphia obtained after 30 passages on SMH agar and a strain of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 Philadelphia obtained after intraperitoneal growth in guinea pigs are members of the fifth cluster, which showed multiplication in Mono Mac 6 cells but a decrease of bacterial counts in A. castellanii. The sixth cluster is characterized by intracellular multiplication in both host cell systems and consists of several strains of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 Philadelphia, a strain of L. pneumophila

  2. MAGNESIUM MONO POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-01-05

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of magnesium mono potassium phosphate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Magnesium mono potassium phosphate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout (pH of about 12.4). A less alkaline material ({<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere. Fresh and cured properties were measured for: (1) commercially blended magnesium mono potassium phosphate packaged grouts, (2) commercially available binders blended with inert fillers at SRNL, (3) grouts prepared from technical grade MgO and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and inert fillers (quartz sands, Class F fly ash), and (4) Ceramicrete{reg_sign} magnesium mono potassium phosphate-based grouts prepared at Argonne National Laboratory. Boric acid was evaluated as a set retarder in the magnesium mono potassium phosphate mixes.

  3. PCNA Mono-ubiquitination and Activation of Translesion DNA Polymerases by DNA Polymerase α

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Motoshi; Niimi, Atsuko; Limsirichaikul, Siripan; Tomida, Shuta; Miao, Huang Qin; Izuta, Shunji; Usukura, Jiro; Itoh, Yasutomo; Hishida, Takashi; Akashi, Tomohiro; Nakagawa, Yoshiyuki; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Pavlov, Youri; Murate, Takashi; Takahashi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) involves PCNA mono-ubiquitination and TLS DNA polymerases (pols). Recent evidence has shown that the mono-ubiquitination is induced not only by DNA damage but also by other factors that induce stalling of the DNA replication fork. We studied the effect of spontaneous DNA replication errors on PCNA mono-ubiquitination and TLS induction. In the pol1L868F strain, which expressed an error-prone pol α, PCNA was spontaneously mono-ubiquitinated. Pol α L868F had a rate-limiting step at the extension from mismatched primer termini. Electron microscopic observation showed the accumulation of a single-stranded region at the DNA replication fork in yeast cells. For pol α errors, pol ζ participated in a generation of +1 frameshifts. Furthermore, in the pol1L868F strain, UV-induced mutations were lower than in the wild-type and a pol δ mutant strain (pol3-5DV), and deletion of the RAD30 gene (pol η) suppressed this defect. These data suggest that nucleotide misincorporation by pol α induces exposure of single-stranded DNA, PCNA mono-ubiquitination, and activates TLS pols. PMID:19279190

  4. An autosomal locus that controls chromosome-wide replication timing and mono-allelic expression.

    PubMed

    Stoffregen, Eric P; Donley, Nathan; Stauffer, Daniel; Smith, Leslie; Thayer, Mathew J

    2011-06-15

    Mammalian DNA replication initiates at multiple sites along chromosomes at different times, following a temporal replication program. Homologous alleles typically replicate synchronously; however, mono-allelically expressed genes such as imprinted genes, allelically excluded genes and genes on the female X chromosome replicate asynchronously. We have used a chromosome engineering strategy to identify a human autosomal locus that controls this replication timing program in cis. We show that Cre/loxP-mediated rearrangements at a discrete locus at 6q16.1 result in delayed replication of the entire chromosome. This locus displays asynchronous replication timing that is coordinated with other mono-allelically expressed genes on chromosome 6. Characterization of this locus revealed mono-allelic expression of a large intergenic non-coding RNA, which we have named asynchronous replication and autosomal RNA on chromosome 6, ASAR6. Finally, disruption of this locus results in the activation of the previously silent alleles of linked mono-allelically expressed genes. We previously found that chromosome rearrangements involving eight different autosomes display delayed replication timing, and that cells containing chromosomes with delayed replication timing have a 30-80-fold increase in the rate at which new gross chromosomal rearrangements occurred. Taken together, these observations indicate that human autosomes contain discrete cis-acting loci that control chromosome-wide replication timing, mono-allelic expression and the stability of entire chromosomes.

  5. An autosomal locus that controls chromosome-wide replication timing and mono-allelic expression

    PubMed Central

    Stoffregen, Eric P.; Donley, Nathan; Stauffer, Daniel; Smith, Leslie; Thayer, Mathew J.

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian DNA replication initiates at multiple sites along chromosomes at different times, following a temporal replication program. Homologous alleles typically replicate synchronously; however, mono-allelically expressed genes such as imprinted genes, allelically excluded genes and genes on the female X chromosome replicate asynchronously. We have used a chromosome engineering strategy to identify a human autosomal locus that controls this replication timing program in cis. We show that Cre/loxP-mediated rearrangements at a discrete locus at 6q16.1 result in delayed replication of the entire chromosome. This locus displays asynchronous replication timing that is coordinated with other mono-allelically expressed genes on chromosome 6. Characterization of this locus revealed mono-allelic expression of a large intergenic non-coding RNA, which we have named asynchronous replication and autosomal RNA on chromosome 6, ASAR6. Finally, disruption of this locus results in the activation of the previously silent alleles of linked mono-allelically expressed genes. We previously found that chromosome rearrangements involving eight different autosomes display delayed replication timing, and that cells containing chromosomes with delayed replication timing have a 30–80-fold increase in the rate at which new gross chromosomal rearrangements occurred. Taken together, these observations indicate that human autosomes contain discrete cis-acting loci that control chromosome-wide replication timing, mono-allelic expression and the stability of entire chromosomes. PMID:21459774

  6. Resolving the age of Wilson Creek Formation tephras and the Mono Lake excursion using high-resolution SIMS dating of allanite and zircon rims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, J. A.; Lidzbarski, M. I.

    2012-12-01

    the recorded event is instead the Laschamp excursion. The results are consistent with a depositional chronology from correlation of relative paleointensity (Zimmerman et al., 2006) that indicates quasi-synchronous glacial and hydrologic responses in the Sierra Nevada and Mono Basin to climate change, with intervals of lake filling and glacial-snowpack melting that are in phase with peaks in spring insolation. Moreover, the results demonstrate that high-spatial resolution SIMS dating of accessory mineral rims is an alternative and promising approach for resolving the depositional ages of silicic tephras containing minerals that crystallized over protracted intervals or that are plagued by incorporation of xenocrysts and/or antecrysts. References: Lajoie, K., 1968, PhD Dissertation, UC Berkeley; Zimmerman et al., 2006, EPSL 252: 94-106.

  7. On the existence of a scattering pre-peak in the mono-ols and diols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poz̆ar, Martina; Perera, Aurélien

    2017-03-01

    We report a computer simulation study of four 1,n-diols (1,2-ethanediol to 1,5-pentanediol). It is found that increasing the alkyl chain length increases chain-like clusters, and correspondingly the structure factor pre-peak, just like for mono-ols. However, our calculated X-ray intensities show that the pre-peak tends to diminish to a shoulder, in contrast with mono-ols where the pre-peak becomes more apparent with increasing alkyl chain. We attribute this contrasting finding to the fact that the alkyl chain is constrained between the two hydroxyl groups in linear diols, while they are free in linear mono-ols.

  8. Mono-X versus direct searches: simplified models for dark matter at the LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Liew, Seng Pei; Papucci, Michele; Vichi, Alessandro; ...

    2017-06-15

    We consider simplified models for dark matter (DM) at the LHC, focused on mono-Higgs, -Z or -b produced in the final state. Our primary purpose is to study the LHC reach of a relatively complete set of simplified models for these final states, while comparing the reach of the mono-X DM search against direct searches for the mediating particle. We find that direct searches for the mediating particle, whether in di-jets, jets+ET, multi-b+ET, or di-boson+ET, are usually stronger. We draw attention to the cases that the mono-X search is strongest, which include regions of parameter space in inelastic DM, twomore » Higgs doublet, and squark mediated production models with a compressed spectrum.« less

  9. Intramolecular aggregation and optical limiting properties of triazine-linked mono-, bis- and tris-phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Shuangqing; Hu, Rui; Li, Shayu; Ma, Jin Shi; Yang, Guoqiang

    2015-10-05

    A series of triazine-linked mono-, bis- and tris-phthalocyanines are synthesized, intramolecular aggregation is found in bis- and tris-phthalocyanines via π-π stacking interaction. Theoretical and experimental studies reveal the formation of the intramolecular aggregation. The spectrographic, photophysical and nonlinear optical properties of these compounds are adjusted for the formation of the intramolecular aggregation. The bis-phthalocyanine dimer presents smaller fluorescence quantum yield, lower triplet formation yield and the triplet-minus-ground state extinction coefficient, which causes poorer optical limiting performance. It is interesting that the tris-phthalocyanine is composed of a mono-phthalocyanine part and a bis-phthalocyanine part, the optical limiting property of the tris-phthalocyanine is similar to that of mono-phthalocyanine.

  10. Mono-acyl arsenosugar phospholipids in the edible brown alga Kombu (Saccharina japonica).

    PubMed

    Yu, Xinwei; Xiong, Chan; Jensen, Kenneth B; Glabonjat, Ronald A; Stiboller, Michael; Raber, Georg; Francesconi, Kevin A

    2018-02-01

    Twenty one arsenolipids, including eight new compounds (AsSugPL 692, AsSugPL 706, AsSugPL 720, AsSugPL 734, AsSugPL 742, AsSugPL 746, AsSugPL 748, and AsSugPL 776) were identified in the edible brown alga Kombu, Saccharina japonica, by means of HPLC coupled with elemental and molecular mass spectrometry. The hitherto undescribed compounds are all mono-acyl arsenosugar phospholipids, differing from previously reported natural arsenic-containing phospholipids by containing only one fatty acid on the glycerol group. Collectively, this new group of mono-acyl compounds constituted about 30% of total lipid arsenic; other significant groups were the di-acyl arsenosugar phospholipids (50%) and arsenic hydrocarbons (20%). The origin and relevance of the mono-acyl arsenosugar phospholipids in Kombu, a commercial seafood product, is briefly discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anaerobic Halo-Alkaliphilic Baterial Community of Athalassic, Hypersaline Mono Lake in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Marsic, Damien; Ng, Joseph D.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The microorganisms of soda Mono Lake and other similar athalassic hypersaline alkaline soda lakes are of significance to Astrobiology. The microorganisms of these regimes represent the best known terrestrial analogs for microbial life that might have inhabited the hypersaline alkaline lakes and evaporites confined within closed volcanic basins and impact craters during the late Noachian and early Hesperian epochs (3.6 - 4.2 Gya) of ancient Mars. We have investigated the anaerobic microbiota of soda Mono Lake in northern California. In this paper we discuss the astrobiological significance of these ecosystems and describe several interesting features of two novel new species of anaerobic halo-alkaliphilic bacteria (Spirochaeta americana, sp. nov. and Desulfonatronum paiuteum, sp. nov) that we have isolated from Mono Lake.

  12. Anaerobic Halo-Alkaliphilic Baterial Community of Athalassic, Hypersaline Mono Lake in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Marsic, Damien; Ng, Joseph D.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The microorganisms of soda Mono Lake and other similar athalassic hypersaline alkaline soda lakes are of significance to Astrobiology. The microorganisms of these regimes represent the best known terrestrial analogs for microbial life that might have inhabited the hypersaline alkaline lakes and evaporites confined within closed volcanic basins and impact craters during the late Noachian and early Hesperian epochs (3.6 - 4.2 Gya) of ancient Mars. We have investigated the anaerobic microbiota of soda Mono Lake in northern California. In this paper we discuss the astrobiological significance of these ecosystems and describe several interesting features of two novel new species of anaerobic halo-alkaliphilic bacteria (Spirochaeta americana, sp. nov. and Desulfonatronum paiuteum, sp. nov) that we have isolated from Mono Lake.

  13. DABCO mono-betaine hydrate studied by X-ray diffraction, DFT calculations and spectroscopic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barczyński, P.; Dega-Szafran, Z.; Katrusiak, A.; Perdoch, W.; Szafran, M.

    2009-09-01

    A new DABCO mono-betaine (1-carboxymethyl-1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane inner salt) has been synthesized. It crystallizes as monohydrate in orthorhombic space group Pmn2 1. The DABCO mono-betaine and water molecules are located on a mirror plane. The water molecules link DABCO mono-betaine into linear chains through the H-O-H⋯OOC and H-O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds of 2.709(2) and 2.875(2) Å. The structure of the title compound optimized at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory is consistent with X-ray diffraction. The absorption bands in the FTIR spectrum have been assigned. The calculated magnetic isotropic shielding tensors confirm the assignments of the 13C NMR resonance signals.

  14. Suicidal inactivation and labelling of ammonia mono-oxygenase by acetylene.

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, M R; Wood, P M

    1985-01-01

    Acetylene brings about a progressive inactivation of ammonia mono-oxygenase, the ammonia-oxidizing enzyme in Nitrosomonas europaea. High NH4+ ion concentrations were protective. The inactivation followed first-order kinetics, with a rate constant of 1.5 min-1 at saturating concentrations of acetylene. If acetylene was added in the absence of O2, the cells remained active until O2 was re-introduced. A protective effect was also demonstrated with thiourea, a reversible non-competitive inhibitor of ammonia oxidation. Incubation of cells with [14C]acetylene was found to cause labelling of a single membrane polypeptide. This ran on dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis with an Mr value of 28 000. It is concluded that acetylene is a suicide substrate for the mono-oxygenase. The labelling experiment provides the first identification of a constituent polypeptide of ammonia mono-oxygenase. Images Fig. 4. PMID:4004794

  15. Regioselective solid-phase synthesis of N-mono-hydroxylated and N-mono-methylated acylpolyamine spider toxins using an 2-(ortho-nitrophenyl)ethanal-modified resin.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Denise; Bienz, Stefan

    2015-04-21

    A recently introduced new SPS resin, possessing a 2-(ortho-nitrophenyl)ethanal linker, was used for the regioselective on-resin synthesis of N-mono-hydroxylated and N-mono-methylated polyamine spider toxins of Agelenopsis aperta and Larinioides folium. The polyamine backbones of the target compounds were efficiently constructed from the center by reductive amination of the aldehyde linker, followed by stepwise alkylation and acylation on solid support. Depending on the cleavage conditions, employing either oxidation/Cope elimination or methylation/Hofmann elimination, regioselectively the respective N-hydroxyl or N-methyl products were obtained. Employing this methodology, a number of acylpolyamine spider toxins were synthesized and identified as venom components by UHPLC and ESI-MS/MS.

  16. Selective synthesis of mono- and bis-butenolide α-aminomethyl adducts.

    PubMed

    Talbi, Arbia; Arfaoui, Aïcha; Bsaibess, Talia; Lotfi Efrit, Mohamed; Gaucher, Anne; Prim, Damien; M Rabet, Hédi

    2017-03-30

    The selective installation of α-methylamine residues at the butenolide core is described using α-bromomethylene-γ-butenolide and primary as well as secondary amines in methanol at 0 °C. The preparation of mono- and bis-butenolide α-adducts is described. Bis-γ-butenolide adducts as well as mono α-aminomethyl-γ-butenolides can be selectively obtained depending on the nature of the reacting primary amine. In contrast, the use of secondary amines allows two different pathways leading either to the expected amino derivatives or to the formation of a C-O bond.

  17. Pro-apoptotic activity and mono-/diubiquitylation of Xenopus Bid in egg extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, Tomohiro; Tsuchiya, Yuichi; Kinoshita, Toshihiko; Itoh, Motohiro; Yamashita, Shigeru

    2009-07-10

    Apoptosis in Xenopus egg extracts is carried out by maternally stockpiled materials, but the contributions of endogenous apoptosis regulators are still poorly characterized. Here we examined the physiological role of Xenopus Bid (xBid), a pro-apoptotic BH3-only member of Bcl-2 family proteins. We found that endogenous xBid was a physiological accelerator of apoptosis in egg extracts. Interestingly, xBid was mono-/diubiquitylated but not degraded by proteasome in egg extracts, and we identified three ubiquitylated Lys residues in the N-terminal propeptide region. Comparison with human Bid suggested that mono-/diubiquitylation is a specific feature of xBid.

  18. Communication: Linking the dielectric Debye process in mono-alcohols to density fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecksher, Tina

    2016-04-01

    This work provides the first direct evidence that the puzzling dielectric Debye process observed in mono-alcohols is coupled to density fluctuations. The results open up for an explanation of the Debye process within the framework of conventional liquid-state theory. The spectral shape of the dynamical bulk modulus of the two studied mono-alcohols, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and 4-methyl-3-heptanol, is nearly identical to that of their corresponding shear modulus, and thus the supramolecular structures believed to be responsible for the slow dielectric Debye process are manifested in the bulk modulus in the same way as in the shear modulus.

  19. Palladium-catalysed mono-α-alkenylation of ketones with alkenyl tosylates.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong; Fu, Wai Chung; Chiang, Chien-Wei; Choy, Pui Ying; Kwong, Fuk Yee; Lei, Aiwen

    2017-01-16

    The first example of palladium-catalysed selective mono-α-alkenylation of ketones with alkenyl tosylates is described. In the presence of a Pd/XPhos catalyst system (0.1-1.0 mol%), the reaction provides mono-α-alkenylated ketones in good yields and exhibits excellent substrate tolerance. Highly congested, tri- and tetra-substituted alkenyl tosylates react smoothly and even problematic heteroaryl and aliphatic ketones are applicable substrates. Notably, small β,γ-unsaturated ketones are successfully prepared using acetone as a simple three-carbon feedstock.

  20. Extracting the complex optical conductivity of mono- and bilayer graphene by ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, You-Chia; Liu, Chang-Hua; Liu, Che-Hung; Zhong, Zhaohui; Norris, Theodore B.

    2014-06-01

    A method for analysis of spectroscopic ellipsometry data is demonstrated to extract the optical conductivity of mono- and bilayer chemical-vapor-deposited graphene. We model graphene as a truly two-dimensional (2D) material with a sheet conductivity, rather than a phenomenological effective refractive index as has been used in the literature. This technique measures both the real and imaginary part of the optical conductivity, which is important for graphene optoelectronics and metamaterials. Using this method, we obtain broadband measurements of the complex optical conductivity for mono- and bilayer graphene from ultraviolet to mid-infrared wavelengths. We also study how chemical doping with nitric acid modifies the complex optical conductivity.

  1. Regulation of TGF–β signal transduction by mono- and deubiquitylation of Smads

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Sirio; Inui, Masafumi; Newfeld, Stuart J.

    2012-01-01

    Polyubiquitylation leading to proteasomal degradation is a well-established mechanism for regulating TGF-β signal transduction components such as receptors and Smads. Recently, an equally important role was suggested for monoubiquitylation of both Smad4 and Receptor-associated Smads that regulates their function without protein degradation. Monoubiquitylation of Smads was discovered following the identification of deubiquitylases required for TGF-β signaling, suggesting that continuous cycles of Smad mono- and deubiquitylation are required for proper TGF-β signal transduction. Here we summarize and discuss recent work on Smad mono- and deubiquitylation. PMID:22710170

  2. Method for separating mono- and di-octylphenyl phosphoric acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.

    1977-01-01

    A method for separating mono-octylphenyl phosphoric acid ester and di-octylphenyl phosphoric acid ester from a mixture thereof comprises reacting the ester mixture with a source of lithium or sodium ions to form a mixture of the phosphate salts; contacting the salt mixture with an organic solvent which causes the dioctylphenyl phosphate salt to be dissolved in the organic solvent phase and the mono-octylphenyl phosphate salt to exist in a solid phase; separating the phases; recovering the phosphate salts from their respective phases; and acidifying the recovered salts to form the original phosphoric acid esters.

  3. Comparative structure analysis of non-polar organic ferrofluids stabilized by saturated mono-carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Avdeev, M V; Bica, D; Vékás, L; Aksenov, V L; Feoktystov, A V; Marinica, O; Rosta, L; Garamus, V M; Willumeit, R

    2009-06-01

    The structure of ferrofluids (magnetite in decahydronaphtalene) stabilized with saturated mono-carboxylic acids of different chain lengths (lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic acids) is studied by means of magnetization analysis and small-angle neutron scattering. It is shown that in case of saturated acid surfactants, magnetite nanoparticles are dispersed in the carrier approximately with the same size distribution whose mean value and width are significantly less as compared to the classical stabilization with non-saturated oleic acid. The found thickness of the surfactant shell around magnetite is analyzed with respect to stabilizing properties of mono-carboxylic acids.

  4. A full-vector paleomagnetic secular variation record (PSV) from Pyramid Lake (Nevada) from 47-17 ka: Evidence for the successive Mono Lake and Laschamp Excursions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, S.; Benson, L.; Negrini, R.; Liddicoat, J.; Mensing, S.

    2017-01-01

    We have carried out a paleomagnetic study of late-Pleistocene Pyramid Lake core PLC08-1 (1680 cm). Our goals were to develop a full-vector paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) record for the core, establish a paleomagnetic chronostratigraphy for the lake based on correlation of the PSV record to other dated PSV records in the region, compare that chronostratigraphy with previously developed radiocarbon and ash chronologies, and search for evidence of the Mono Lake Excursion and Laschamp Excursion. We have recovered a full-vector PSV record (inclination, declination, relative paleointensity) for the interval 47 ka to 17 ka. Twenty radiocarbon dates and four dated ashes provided a chronostratigraphic framework for this record. We have also used the link between our PSV and other dated PSV records to develop an independent PSV chronostratigraphy for the core. The PSV chronostratigraphy is not significantly different from that estimated by the radiocarbon and ash chronologies. We note the existence of two intervals of anomalous paleomagnetic directions. The younger interval, centered at 34.1 ± 0.4 ka, has the characteristic vector component features of the Mono Lake Excursion. The older interval, centered at 40.9 ± 0.5 ka, has the characteristic paleomagnetic signature of the Laschamp Excursion. This is the first time both intervals of excursional behavior have been found in the same sediment record from the western USA. Our new PSV record also corroborates previous estimates of the Mono Lake Excursion directional field behavior (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979) and age (Benson et al., 2003).

  5. The Mono Lake geomagnetic excursion recorded in loess: Its application as time marker and implications for its geomagnetic nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambach, U.; Hark, M.; Zeeden, C.; Reddersen, B.; Zöller, L.; Fuchs, M.

    2009-04-01

    One of the youngest and worldwide documented geomagnetic excursions in the Brunhes Chron is the Mono Lake excursion (MLE). It has been detected in marine and terrestrial sedimentary archives as well as in lavas. Recent age determinations and age estimates for the MLE centre around an age interval of approximately 31 - 34 ka. Likewise the Laschamp excursion the MLE goes along with a distinct peak in cosmogenic radionuclides in ice cores and sedimentary archives. It provides therefore an additional geomagnetic time marker for various geoarchives to synchronise different climate archives. Here we report on a detailed record of the MLE from a loess site at Krems, Lower Austria. The site is situated on the southern slope of the Wachtberg hill in the vicinity of the old city centre of Krems. The archive comprises Middle to Upper Würmian (Late Pleistocene) loess in which an Upper Palaeolithic (Early Gravettian) cultural layer is embedded. The most spectacular finds are a double infant burial found in 2005 and a single burial discovered in 2006 (Einwögerer et al., 2006). Generally, archaeological findings show an extraordinarily good preservation due to embedding in rapidly sedimented loess (Händel et al., 2008). The about 10 m thick loess pile consists of calcareous sandy, coarse silt which is rich in mica indicating local sources. It is well stratified with brownish horizons representing embryonic soils pointing to incipient pedogenesis. Some of the pedo-horizons show occasionally indications of minor erosion and bedding-parallel sediment transport, but no linear erosional features. Pale greyish horizons are the result of partial gleying under permafrost conditions. No strong pedogenesis including decalcification and clay formation is present. The cultural layer is still covered by more than 5 m of loess, and dated by radiocarbon to ~27 ka 14C BP (Einwögerer et al., 2006). Below this layer up to 2.5 m of loess resting on Lower Pleistocene fluvial gravels are

  6. Open frameworks based on mono-lanthanide-substituted polyoxometaloaluminate building units: Syntheses, structures and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xin-Xiong; Cheng, Lin; Yang, Guo-Yu

    2013-07-15

    Metal-substituted polyoxometalates are one of the most important research branch in polyoxometalate chemistry and have attached an increasing attention due to not only their intriguing structural diversity but also their special properties applicable to material science. In this paper, A series of novel lanthanide-substituted polyoxometaloaluminates (LSPs), K{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}Ln(H{sub 2}O){sub 7}[Ln(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}HAlW{sub 11}O{sub 39}]·nH{sub 2}O (Ln=Pr 1, Nd 2, Sm 3, Eu 4, Gd 5, Tb 6; for 1, n=8; for 2,4,5,6, n=7; for 3, n=9), have been hydrothermally made and characterized by infrared (IR) spectra, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction, respectively. The experimental results indicate these compounds exhibit 3-D frameworks with Gra-type topology constructed by lanthanide cations, mono- lanthanide-substituted [Gd(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}HAlW{sub 11}O{sub 39}]{sup 5−} cluster units and K{sup +} cations. The photoluminescence measurements show that Compounds 2, 4, 6 exhibit the characteristic emission for Nd{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} cations, respectively. In addition, this series of LSPs show weak second harmonic generation effects and ferroelectric properties. The success in making 1−6 not only provides innovative examples in search of new POM species, but also may open up possibilities for the design of LSP-based materials with related functions. - Graphical abstract: A series of lanthanide-substituted polyoxometaloaluminates have been hydrothermally made and their photoluminescence, non-linear optical and ferroelectricity properties have also been investigated, respectively. - Highlights: • Six lanthanide-substituted Al-based polyoxometalates have first been made. • Eu/Nd/Tb-based compounds display photoluminescence property. • The nonlinear optical and ferroelectricity properties have been investigated.

  7. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject to...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as sulfuric...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as sulfuric...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as sulfuric...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as sulfuric...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as sulfuric...

  13. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  14. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  15. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  16. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  17. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  2. Three-Dimensional Analysis of dike/fault interaction at Mono Basin (California) using the Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Marra, D.; Battaglia, M.

    2013-12-01

    Mono Basin is a north-trending graben that extends from the northern edge of Long Valley caldera towards the Bodie Hills and is bounded by the Cowtrack Mountains on the east and the Sierra Nevada on the west. The Mono-Inyo Craters volcanic chain forms a north-trending zone of volcanic vents extending from the west moat of the Long Valley caldera to Mono Lake. The Hartley Springs fault transects the southern Mono Craters-Inyo Domes area between the western part of the Long Valley caldera and June Lake. Stratigraphic data suggest that a series of strong earthquakes occurred during the North Mono-Inyo eruption sequence of ~1350 A.D. The spatial and temporal proximity between Hartley Springs Fault motion and the North Mono-Inyo eruption sequence suggests a possible relation between seismic events and eruptions. We investigate the interactions between slip along the Hartley Springs fault and dike intrusion beneath the Mono-Inyo craters using a three-dimensional finite element model of the Mono Basin. We employ a realistic representation of the Basin that includes topography, vertical and lateral heterogeneities of the crust, contact relations between fault planes, and a physical model of the pressure required to propagate the dike. We estimate (a) the distribution of Coulomb stress changes to study the influence of dike intrusion on Hartley Springs fault, and (b) the local stress and volumetric dilatation changes to understand how fault slip may influence the propagation of a dike towards the surface.

  3. 40 CFR 721.522 - Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3,5,5,-trimethylhexyl) ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.522 Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3...) The chemical substance identified as oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3,5,5...

  4. 40 CFR 721.522 - Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3,5,5,-trimethylhexyl) ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.522 Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3...) The chemical substance identified as oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3,5,5...

  5. 40 CFR 721.522 - Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3,5,5,-trimethylhexyl) ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.522 Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3...) The chemical substance identified as oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3,5,5...

  6. The effect of trace element addition to mono-digestion of grass silage at high organic loading rates.

    PubMed

    Wall, David M; Allen, Eoin; Straccialini, Barbara; O'Kiely, Padraig; Murphy, Jerry D

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of trace element addition to mono-digestion of grass silage at high organic loading rates. Two continuous reactors were compared. The first mono-digested grass silage whilst the second operated in co-digestion, 80% grass silage with 20% dairy slurry (VS basis). The reactors were run for 65weeks with a further 5weeks taken for trace element supplementation for the mono-digestion of grass silage. The co-digestion reactor reported a higher biomethane efficiency (1.01) than mono-digestion (0.90) at an OLR of 4.0kgVSm(-3)d(-1) prior to addition of trace elements. Addition of cobalt, iron and nickel, led to an increase in the SMY in mono-digestion of grass silage by 12% to 404LCH4kg(-1)VS and attained a biomethane efficiency of 1.01. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The nest predator assemblage for songbirds in Mono Lake basin riparian habitats

    Treesearch

    Quresh S. Latif; Sacha K. Heath; Grant Ballard

    2012-01-01

    Because nest predation strongly limits avian fitness, ornithologists identify nest predators to inform ecological research and conservation. During 2002–2008, we used both video-monitoring of natural nests and direct observations of predation to identify nest predators of open-cup nesting riparian songbirds along tributaries of Mono Lake, California. Video cameras at...

  8. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be safely... and/or fatty acids in compliance with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids...

  9. Health Disparities and Relational Well-Being between Multi- and Mono-Ethnic Asian Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on Hawaii, a state with 21.3% of the population being multi-racial according to the 2010 U.S. Census, this study aims to examine the existence and nature of health disparities between mono- and multi-ethnic Asian Americans and the importance of Relational Well-Being in affecting the health of Asian Americans. A series of ordinary least…

  10. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether (Egbe) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA released the draft report, Toxicological Review for Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from ot...

  11. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl Ether (Egbe) (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl Ether: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.

  12. Performance limits of tunnel transistors based on mono-layer transition-metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiang-Wei; Li, Shu-Shen

    2014-05-01

    Performance limits of tunnel field-effect transistors based on mono-layer transition metal dichalcogenides are investigated through numerical quantum mechanical simulations. The atomic mono-layer nature of the devices results in a much smaller natural length λ, leading to much larger electric field inside the tunneling diodes. As a result, the inter-band tunneling currents are found to be very high as long as ultra-thin high-k gate dielectric is possible. The highest on-state driving current is found to be close to 600 μA/μm at Vg = Vd = 0.5 V when 2 nm thin HfO2 layer is used for gate dielectric, outperforming most of the conventional semiconductor tunnel transistors. In the five simulated transition-metal dichalcogenides, mono-layer WSe2 based tunnel field-effect transistor shows the best potential. Deep analysis reveals that there is plenty room to further enhance the device performance by either geometry, alloy, or strain engineering on these mono-layer materials.

  13. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether (Egbe) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA released the draft report, Toxicological Review for Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from ot...

  14. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl Ether (Egbe) (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl Ether: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.

  15. Synthesis of hierarchical zeolites using an inexpensive mono-quaternary ammonium surfactant as mesoporogen.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaochun; Rohling, Roderigh; Filonenko, Georgy; Mezari, Brahim; Hofmann, Jan P; Asahina, Shunsuke; Hensen, Emiel J M

    2014-12-04

    A simple amphiphilic surfactant containing a mono-quaternary ammonium head group (N-methylpiperidine) is effective in imparting substantial mesoporosity during synthesis of SSZ-13 and ZSM-5 zeolites. Highly mesoporous SSZ-13 prepared in this manner shows greatly improved catalytic performance in the methanol-to-olefins reaction compared to bulk SSZ-13.

  16. Health Disparities and Relational Well-Being between Multi- and Mono-Ethnic Asian Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on Hawaii, a state with 21.3% of the population being multi-racial according to the 2010 U.S. Census, this study aims to examine the existence and nature of health disparities between mono- and multi-ethnic Asian Americans and the importance of Relational Well-Being in affecting the health of Asian Americans. A series of ordinary least…

  17. Asynchronous Replication, Mono-Allelic Expression, and Long Range Cis-Effects of ASAR6

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Leslie; Montagna, Christina; Thayer, Mathew J.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian chromosomes initiate DNA replication at multiple sites along their length during each S phase following a temporal replication program. The majority of genes on homologous chromosomes replicate synchronously. However, mono-allelically expressed genes such as imprinted genes, allelically excluded genes, and genes on female X chromosomes replicate asynchronously. We have identified a cis-acting locus on human chromosome 6 that controls this replication-timing program. This locus encodes a large intergenic non-coding RNA gene named Asynchronous replication and Autosomal RNA on chromosome 6, or ASAR6. Disruption of ASAR6 results in delayed replication, delayed mitotic chromosome condensation, and activation of the previously silent alleles of mono-allelic genes on chromosome 6. The ASAR6 gene resides within an ∼1.2 megabase domain of asynchronously replicating DNA that is coordinated with other random asynchronously replicating loci along chromosome 6. In contrast to other nearby mono-allelic genes, ASAR6 RNA is expressed from the later-replicating allele. ASAR6 RNA is synthesized by RNA Polymerase II, is not polyadenlyated, is restricted to the nucleus, and is subject to random mono-allelic expression. Disruption of ASAR6 leads to the formation of bridged chromosomes, micronuclei, and structural instability of chromosome 6. Finally, ectopic integration of cloned genomic DNA containing ASAR6 causes delayed replication of entire mouse chromosomes. PMID:23593023

  18. Mono-PEGylated radix ophiopogonis polysaccharide for the treatment of myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Sun, GuiLan; Lin, Xiao; Shen, Lan; Wu, Fei; Xu, DeSheng; Ruan, KeFeng; Feng, Yi

    2013-07-16

    This work aimed to improve the clinical application of Radix Ophiopogonis polysaccharide (ROP), a natural anti-myocardial ischemic fructan with Mw of 4.80 kDa, by mono-PEGylation. Three mono-PEGylated ROPs were prepared by a moderate coupling reaction between amino-terminated methoxy-PEG (20-, 30-, or 40-kDa) and excessive hydroxyl-activated ROP. After being fully characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance as well as high-performance gel permeation chromatography and anthrone-sulfuric acid colorimetry coupled assay, they were evaluated for pharmacokinetics and anti-myocardial ischemic activities in rats with coronary artery ligation. The results showed that mono-PEGylated ROPs were successfully and effectively prepared. Compared with ROP, the three mono-PEGylated ROPs showed approximately 32-, 85-, and 100-fold prolonged retention in systemic circulation with plasma half-lives reaching 16.1, 42.4, and 49.8 h, respectively. Studies on anti-myocardial ischemic effects of the conjugates showed that administrated at the same molar dose of 4 μ mol/kg per injection as ROP, they could achieve comparable or even better therapeutic effects although their administration intervals were 2- to 6-fold longer than that of ROP. These findings confirm that PEGylation would be a promising approach to markedly reducing the injection-administered frequency of ROP and hence patient compliance without sacrifice of the therapeutic efficacy by significantly improving its pharmacokinetics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. One-pot reductive mono-N-alkylation of aniline and nitroarene derivatives using aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Byun, Eunyoung; Hong, Bomi; De Castro, Kathlia A; Lim, Minkyung; Rhee, Hakjune

    2007-12-07

    One-pot reductive mono-N-alkylation of aniline and nitroarene derivatives using various aldehydes by Pd/C catalyst in aqueous 2-propanol solvent with ammonium formate as in situ hydrogen donor is illustrated. The reaction proceeded smoothly and selectively with excellent yield at room temperature. Our protocol presents a facile, economical, and environmentally benign alternative for reductive amination.

  20. Water miscible mono alcohols' effect on the proteolytic performance of Bacillus clausii serine alkaline protease.

    PubMed

    Duman, Yonca Avci; Kazan, Dilek; Denizci, Aziz Akin; Erarslan, Altan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, our investigations showed that the increasing concentrations of all examined mono alcohols caused a decrease in the Vm, kcat and kcat/Km values of Bacillus clausii GMBE 42 serine alkaline protease for casein hydrolysis. However, the Km value of the enzyme remained almost the same, which was an indicator of non-competitive inhibition. Whereas inhibition by methanol was partial non-competitive, inhibition by the rest of the alcohols tested was simple non-competitive. The inhibition constants (KI) were in the range of 1.32-3.10 M, and the order of the inhibitory effect was 1-propanol>2-propanol>methanol>ethanol. The ΔG(≠) and ΔG(≠)E-T values of the enzyme increased at increasing concentrations of all alcohols examined, but the ΔG(≠)ES value of the enzyme remained almost the same. The constant Km and ΔG(≠)ES values in the presence and absence of mono alcohols indicated the existence of different binding sites for mono alcohols and casein on enzyme the molecule. The kcat of the enzyme decreased linearly by increasing log P and decreasing dielectric constant (D) values, but the ΔG(≠) and ΔG(≠)E-T values of the enzyme increased by increasing log P and decreasing D values of the reaction medium containing mono alcohols.

  1. Hoops and Mono-Slopes: What We Have Learned About Management and Performance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the past ten years, Iowa beef feedlots have striven to improve environmental management. To reduce the potential for feedlot run-off, there has been increased interest in feeding animals in deep-bedded enclosed facilities. Two types of deep-bedded facilities – hoop barns and mono-slope barns – ...

  2. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUOTOXICITY EVALUATION OF MIXTURES OF MONO- AND DIMETHYL TIN IN DRINKING WATER OF RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental Neurotoxicity Evaluation of Mixtures of Mono- and Dimethyl Tin in Drinking Water of Rats

    V.C. Moser, K.L. McDaniel, P.M. Phillips

    Neurotoxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC, USA

    Organotins, especially monomethyl (MMT) and dimethyl (D...

  3. Maillard reaction products of rice protein hydrolysates with mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice protein, a byproduct of rice syrup production, is abundant but, its lack of functionality prevents its wide use as a food ingredient. Maillard reaction products of (MRPs) hydrolysates from the limited hydrolysis of rice protein (LHRP) and various mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides were evaluat...

  4. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry of Naturally-Occurring Mixtures of Mono- and Di-rhamnolipids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been developed for high-throughput screening of naturally-occurring mixtures of rhamnolipids from Pseudomonas spp. Mono- and di-rhamnolipids are readily distinguished by characteristic molecular adduct i...

  5. Analysis of fae and fhcD genes in Mono Lake, California.

    PubMed

    Nercessian, Olivier; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G; Joye, Samantha B; Lidstrom, Mary E; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2005-12-01

    Genes for two enzymes of the tetrahydromethanopterin-linked C(1) transfer pathway (fae and fhcD) were detected in hypersaline, hyperalkaline Mono Lake (California), via PCR amplification and analysis. Low diversity for fae and fhcD was noted, in contrast to the diversity previously detected in a freshwater lake, Lake Washington (Washington).

  6. Cyclin D activates the Rb tumor suppressor by mono-phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Narasimha, Anil M; Kaulich, Manuel; Shapiro, Gary S; Choi, Yoon J; Sicinski, Piotr; Dowdy, Steven F

    2014-06-04

    The widely accepted model of G1 cell cycle progression proposes that cyclin D:Cdk4/6 inactivates the Rb tumor suppressor during early G1 phase by progressive multi-phosphorylation, termed hypo-phosphorylation, to release E2F transcription factors. However, this model remains unproven biochemically and the biologically active form(s) of Rb remains unknown. In this study, we find that Rb is exclusively mono-phosphorylated in early G1 phase by cyclin D:Cdk4/6. Mono-phosphorylated Rb is composed of 14 independent isoforms that are all targeted by the E1a oncoprotein, but show preferential E2F binding patterns. At the late G1 Restriction Point, cyclin E:Cdk2 inactivates Rb by quantum hyper-phosphorylation. Cells undergoing a DNA damage response activate cyclin D:Cdk4/6 to generate mono-phosphorylated Rb that regulates global transcription, whereas cells undergoing differentiation utilize un-phosphorylated Rb. These observations fundamentally change our understanding of G1 cell cycle progression and show that mono-phosphorylated Rb, generated by cyclin D:Cdk4/6, is the only Rb isoform in early G1 phase.

  7. One-step selection of Vaccinia virus-binding DNA aptamers by MonoLEX

    PubMed Central

    Nitsche, Andreas; Kurth, Andreas; Dunkhorst, Anna; Pänke, Oliver; Sielaff, Hendrik; Junge, Wolfgang; Muth, Doreen; Scheller, Frieder; Stöcklein, Walter; Dahmen, Claudia; Pauli, Georg; Kage, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Background As a new class of therapeutic and diagnostic reagents, more than fifteen years ago RNA and DNA aptamers were identified as binding molecules to numerous small compounds, proteins and rarely even to complete pathogen particles. Most aptamers were isolated from complex libraries of synthetic nucleic acids by a process termed SELEX based on several selection and amplification steps. Here we report the application of a new one-step selection method (MonoLEX) to acquire high-affinity DNA aptamers binding Vaccinia virus used as a model organism for complex target structures. Results The selection against complete Vaccinia virus particles resulted in a 64-base DNA aptamer specifically binding to orthopoxviruses as validated by dot blot analysis, Surface Plasmon Resonance, Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and real-time PCR, following an aptamer blotting assay. The same oligonucleotide showed the ability to inhibit in vitro infection of Vaccinia virus and other orthopoxviruses in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion The MonoLEX method is a straightforward procedure as demonstrated here for the identification of a high-affinity DNA aptamer binding Vaccinia virus. MonoLEX comprises a single affinity chromatography step, followed by subsequent physical segmentation of the affinity resin and a single final PCR amplification step of bound aptamers. Therefore, this procedure improves the selection of high affinity aptamers by reducing the competition between aptamers of different affinities during the PCR step, indicating an advantage for the single-round MonoLEX method. PMID:17697378

  8. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUOTOXICITY EVALUATION OF MIXTURES OF MONO- AND DIMETHYL TIN IN DRINKING WATER OF RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental Neurotoxicity Evaluation of Mixtures of Mono- and Dimethyl Tin in Drinking Water of Rats

    V.C. Moser, K.L. McDaniel, P.M. Phillips

    Neurotoxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC, USA

    Organotins, especially monomethyl (MMT) and dimethyl (D...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides. 184.1521 Section 184.1521 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1521 Monosodium phosphate...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides. 184.1521 Section 184.1521 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1521 Monosodium phosphate...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides. 184.1521 Section 184.1521 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1521 Monosodium phosphate...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides. 184.1521 Section 184.1521 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1521 Monosodium phosphate...

  13. Emotions in freely varying and mono-pitched vowels, acoustic and EGG analyses.

    PubMed

    Waaramaa, Teija; Palo, Pertti; Kankare, Elina

    2015-12-01

    Vocal emotions are expressed either by speech or singing. The difference is that in singing the pitch is predetermined while in speech it may vary freely. It was of interest to study whether there were voice quality differences between freely varying and mono-pitched vowels expressed by professional actors. Given their profession, actors have to be able to express emotions both by speech and singing. Electroglottogram and acoustic analyses of emotional utterances embedded in expressions of freely varying vowels [a:], [i:], [u:] (96 samples) and mono-pitched protracted vowels (96 samples) were studied. Contact quotient (CQEGG) was calculated using 35%, 55%, and 80% threshold levels. Three different threshold levels were used in order to evaluate their effects on emotions. Genders were studied separately. The results suggested significant gender differences for CQEGG 80% threshold level. SPL, CQEGG, and F4 were used to convey emotions, but to a lesser degree, when F0 was predetermined. Moreover, females showed fewer significant variations than males. Both genders used more hypofunctional phonation type in mono-pitched utterances than in the expressions with freely varying pitch. The present material warrants further study of the interplay between CQEGG threshold levels and formant frequencies, and listening tests to investigate the perceptual value of the mono-pitched vowels in the communication of emotions.

  14. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and/or fatty acids in compliance with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids in... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be...

  15. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and/or fatty acids in compliance with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids in... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be...

  16. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and/or fatty acids in compliance with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids in... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be...

  17. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids in compliance with § 172.862. (b... fatty acids. 172.856 Section 172.856 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.856 Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty...

  18. Synthesis of Mono-PEGylated Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-2 and Investigation of its Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Beihua; Zhou, Ziniu

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate an efficient synthetic route to the mono-PEGylated growth hormone releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2) and its biological activity in vivo. The commercially available key PEGylating reagent, mPEG-NHS ester, was successfully utilized to the synthesis of mono-PEGylated GHRP-2, during which the PEGylation profiles of GHRP-2 were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The product was purified by cation exchange chromatography, and its biological activity was conducted in rats. The desired mono-PEGylated GHRP-2 as the major product was readily obtained in anhydrous aprotic solvent, such as dimethyl formamide (DMF) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), when the molar ratio of mPEG-NHS ester to GHRP-2 was fixed to be 0.8:1. The products were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The evaluation of the biological activity for the products showed that the mono-PEGylated GHRP-2 gave a more stable activity than GHRP-2, suggesting that PEGylation led to the increase in the half-life of GHRP-2 in plasma without greatly impairing the biological activity. PEGylation of the GHRP-2 is a good choice for the development of the GHRP-2 applications.

  19. NMSSM Higgs boson search strategies at the LHC and the mono-Higgs signature in particular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, Sebastian; Freese, Katherine; Shah, Nausheen R.; Shakya, Bibhushan

    2017-06-01

    We study the collider phenomenology of the extended Higgs sector of the next-to-minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM). The region of NMSSM parameter space favored by a 125 GeV SM-like Higgs and naturalness generically features a light Higgs and neutralino spectrum as well as a large O (1 ) coupling between the Higgs doublets and the NMSSM singlet fields. In such regimes, the heavier Higgs bosons can decay dominantly into lighter Higgs bosons and neutralinos. We study the prospects of observing such decays at the 13 TeV LHC, focusing on mono-Higgs signatures as probes of such regions of parameter space. We present results for the mono-Higgs reach in a framework easily applicable to other models featuring similar decay topologies. In the NMSSM, we find that the mono-Higgs channel can probe TeV scale Higgs bosons and has sensitivity even in the low tan β , large mA regime that is difficult to probe in the MSSM. Unlike for many conventional Higgs searches, the reach of the mono-Higgs channel will improve significantly with the increased luminosity expected to be collected at the LHC in the ongoing and upcoming runs.

  20. The Effects of Operational Parameters on a Mono-wire Cutting System: Efficiency in Marble Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmazkaya, Emre; Ozcelik, Yilmaz

    2016-02-01

    Mono-wire block cutting machines that cut with a diamond wire can be used for squaring natural stone blocks and the slab-cutting process. The efficient use of these machines reduces operating costs by ensuring less diamond wire wear and longer wire life at high speeds. The high investment costs of these machines will lead to their efficient use and reduce production costs by increasing plant efficiency. Therefore, there is a need to investigate the cutting performance parameters of mono-wire cutting machines in terms of rock properties and operating parameters. This study aims to investigate the effects of the wire rotational speed (peripheral speed) and wire descending speed (cutting speed), which are the operating parameters of a mono-wire cutting machine, on unit wear and unit energy, which are the performance parameters in mono-wire cutting. By using the obtained results, cuttability charts for each natural stone were created on the basis of unit wear and unit energy values, cutting optimizations were performed, and the relationships between some physical and mechanical properties of rocks and the optimum cutting parameters obtained as a result of the optimization were investigated.

  1. Mono- and multimeric ferrocene congeners of quinoline-based polyamines as potential antiparasitics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of mono- and multimeric polyamine-containing ferrocenyl complexes bearing a quinoline motif were prepared. The complexes were characterised by standard techniques. The molecular structure of the monomeric salicylaldimine derivative was elucidated using single crystal X-ray diffraction and w...

  2. Performance limits of tunnel transistors based on mono-layer transition-metal dichalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xiang-Wei Li, Shu-Shen

    2014-05-12

    Performance limits of tunnel field-effect transistors based on mono-layer transition metal dichalcogenides are investigated through numerical quantum mechanical simulations. The atomic mono-layer nature of the devices results in a much smaller natural length λ, leading to much larger electric field inside the tunneling diodes. As a result, the inter-band tunneling currents are found to be very high as long as ultra-thin high-k gate dielectric is possible. The highest on-state driving current is found to be close to 600 μA/μm at V{sub g} = V{sub d} = 0.5 V when 2 nm thin HfO{sub 2} layer is used for gate dielectric, outperforming most of the conventional semiconductor tunnel transistors. In the five simulated transition-metal dichalcogenides, mono-layer WSe{sub 2} based tunnel field-effect transistor shows the best potential. Deep analysis reveals that there is plenty room to further enhance the device performance by either geometry, alloy, or strain engineering on these mono-layer materials.

  3. High-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the Mono Basin-Long Valley Caldera region, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce, D. A.; Mangan, M.; McPhee, D.

    2013-12-01

    A new high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the Mono Basin-Long Valley Caldera region greatly enhances previous magnetic interpretations that were based on older, low-resolution, and regional aeromagnetic data sets and provides new insights into volcano-tectonic processes. The surveyed area covers a 8,750 km2 NNW-trending swath situated between the Sierra Nevada to the west and the Basin and Range Province to the east. The surveyed area includes the volcanic centers of Mono Lake, Mono-Inyo Craters, Mammoth Mountain, Devils Postpile, and Long Valley Caldera. The NW-trending eastern Sierra frontal fault zone crosses through the study area, including the active Mono Lake, Silver Lake, Hartley Springs, Laurel Creek, and Hilton Creek faults. Over 6,000 line-kilometers of aeromagnetic data were collected at a constant terrain clearance of 150 m, a flight-line spacing of 400 m, and a tie-line spacing of 4 km. Data were collected via helicopter with an attached stinger housing a magnetic sensor using a Scintrex CS-3 cesium magnetometer. In the northern part of the survey area, data improve the magnetic resolution of the individual domes and coulees along Mono Craters and a circular shaped magnetic anomaly that coincides with a poorly defined ring fracture mapped by Kistler (1966). Here, aeromagnetic data combined with other geophysical data suggests that Mono Craters may have preferentially followed a pre-existing plutonic basement feature that may have controlled the sickle shape of the volcanic chain. In the northeastern part of the survey, aeromagnetic data reveal a linear magnetic anomaly that correlates with and extends a mapped fault. In the southern part of the survey, in the Sierra Nevada block just south of Long Valley Caldera, aeromagnetic anomalies correlate with NNW-trending Sierran frontal faults rather than to linear NNE-trends observed in recent seismicity over the last 30 years. These data provide an important framework for the further analysis of the

  4. Retrieving water surface temperature from archive LANDSAT thermal infrared data: Application of the mono-channel atmospheric correction algorithm over two freshwater reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, R. N.; Tormos, T.; Danis, P.-A.

    2014-08-01

    Water surface temperature is a key element in characterizing the thermodynamics of waterbodies, and for irregularly-shaped inland reservoirs, LANDSAT thermal infrared images are the best alternative yet for the retrieval of this parameter. However, images must be corrected mainly for atmospheric effects in order to be fully exploitable. The objective of this study is to validate the mono-channel correction algorithm for single-band thermal infrared LANDSAT data as put forward by Jiménez-Muñoz et al. (2009). Two freshwater reservoirs in continental France were selected as study sites, and best use was made of all accessible image and field data. Results obtained are satisfactory and in accordance with the literature: r2 values are above 0.90 and root-mean-square error values are comprised between 1 and 2 °C. Moreover, paired Wilcoxon signed rank tests showed a highly significant difference between field and uncorrected image data, a very highly significant difference between uncorrected and corrected image data, and no significant difference between field and corrected image data. The mono-channel algorithm is hence recommended for correcting archive LANDSAT single-band thermal infrared data for inland waterbody monitoring and study.

  5. Drainage reversals in Mono Basin during the late pliocene and Pleistocene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, M.C.; Stine, S.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.

    2002-01-01

    Mono Basin, on the eastern flank of the central Sierra Nevada, is the highest of the large hydrographically closed basins in the Basin and Range province. We use geomorphic features, shoreline deposits, and basalt-filled paleochannels to reconstruct an early to middle Pleistocene record of shorelines and changing spillways of Lake Russell in Mono Basin. During this period of time, Lake Russell repeatedly attained altitudes between 2205 and 2280 m-levels far above the present surface of Mono Lake (~1950 m) and above its last overflow level (2188 m). The spill point of Lake Russell shifted through time owing to late Tertiary and Quaternary faulting and volcanism. During the early Pleistocene, the lake periodically discharged through the Mount Hicks spillway on the northeastern rim of Mono Basin and flowed northward into the Walker Lake drainage basin via the East Walker River. Paleochannels recording such discharge were incised prior to 1.6 Ma, possibly between 1.6 and 1.3 Ma, and again after 1.3 Ma (ages of basaltic flows that plugged the paleochannels). Faulting in the Adobe Hills on the southeastern margin of the basin eventually lowered the rim in this area to below the altitude of the Mount Hicks spillway. Twice after 0.76 Ma, and possibly as late as after 0.1 Ma, Lake Russell discharged southward through the Adobe Hills spillway into the Owens-Death Valley system of lakes. This study supports a pre-Pleistocene aquatic connection through Mono Basin between the hydrologically distinct Lahontan and Owens-Death Valley systems, as long postulated by biologists, and also confirms a probable link during the Pleistocene for species adapted to travel upstream in fast-flowing water.

  6. Morphological characterization of viruses in the stratified water column of alkaline, hypersaline Mono Lake.

    PubMed

    Brum, Jennifer R; Steward, Grieg F

    2010-10-01

    Concentrations of viruses and prokaryotes in the alkaline, moderately hypersaline, seasonally stratified Mono Lake are among the highest reported for a natural aquatic environment. We used electron microscopy to test whether viral morphological characteristics differed among the epilimnion, metalimnion, and the anoxic hypolimnion of the lake and to determine how the properties of viruses in Mono Lake compare to other aquatic environments. Viral capsid size distributions were more similar in the metalimnion and hypolimnion of Mono Lake, while viral tail lengths were more similar in the epilimnion and metalimnion. The percentage of tailed viruses decreased with depth and the relative percentages of tailed phage families changed with depth. The presence of large (>125 nm capsid), untailed viruses in the metalimnion and hypolimnion suggests that eukaryotic viruses are produced in these suboxic and anoxic, hypersaline environments. Capsid diameters of viruses were larger on average in Mono Lake compared to other aquatic environments, and no lemon-shaped or filamentous viruses were found, in contrast to other high-salinity or high-altitude lakes and seas. Our data suggest that the physically and chemically distinct layers of Mono Lake harbor different viral assemblages, and that these assemblages are distinct from other aquatic environments that have been studied. Furthermore, we found that filtration of a sample through a 0.22-µm pore-size filter significantly altered the distribution of viral capsid diameters and tail lengths, resulting in a relative depletion of viruses having larger capsids and longer tails. This observation highlights the potential for bias in molecular surveys of viral diversity, which typically rely on filtration through 0.2- or 0.22-µm pore-size membrane filters to remove bacteria during sample preparation.

  7. AL Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) light chains (LC) (most commonly of lambda isotype) usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in β leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils. Epidemiology AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50. Clinical description The clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis. Diagnostic methods The diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and/or immunofluorescence. Due to the

  8. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with... acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with... acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with... acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10398 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). 721.10398 Section 721.10398 Protection of...-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). (a) Chemical substance... poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (PMN P-10-495)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10398 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). 721.10398 Section 721.10398 Protection of...-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). (a) Chemical substance... poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (PMN P-10-495)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10398 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). 721.10398 Section 721.10398 Protection of...-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). (a) Chemical substance... poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (PMN P-10-495)...

  14. Imaging the magmatic system of Mono Basin, California with magnetotellurics in three--dimensions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peacock, Jared R.; Mangan, Margaret T.; McPhee, Darcy K.; Ponce, David A.

    2015-01-01

    A three–dimensional (3D) electrical resistivity model of Mono Basin in eastern California unveils a complex subsurface filled with zones of partial melt, fluid–filled fracture networks, cold plutons, and regional faults. In 2013, 62 broadband magnetotelluric (MT) stations were collected in an array around southeastern Mono Basin from which a 3D electrical resistivity model was created with a resolvable depth of 35 km. Multiple robust electrical resistivity features were found that correlate with existing geophysical observations. The most robust features are two 300 ± 50 km3 near-vertical conductive bodies (3–10 Ω·m) that underlie the southeast and north-eastern margin of Mono Craters below 10 km depth. These features are interpreted as magmatic crystal–melt mush zones of 15 ± 5% interstitial melt surrounded by hydrothermal fluids and are likely sources for Holocene eruptions. Two conductive east–dipping structures appear to connect each magma source region to the surface. A conductive arc–like structure (< 0.9 Ω·m) links the northernmost mush column at 10 km depth to just below vents near Panum Crater, where the high conductivity suggests the presence of hydrothermal fluids. The connection from the southernmost mush column at 10 km depth to below South Coulée is less obvious with higher resistivity (200 Ω·m) suggestive of a cooled connection. A third, less constrained conductive feature (4–10 Ω·m) 15 km deep extending to 35 km is located west of Mono Craters near the eastern front of the Sierra Nevada escarpment, and is coincident with a zone of sporadic, long–period earthquakes that are characteristic of a fluid-filled (magmatic or metamorphic) fracture network. A resistive feature (103–105 Ω·m) located under Aeolian Buttes contains a deep root down to 25 km. The eastern edge of this resistor appears to structurally control the arcuate shape of Mono Craters. These observations have been combined to form a new conceptual model

  15. Dust Generation Resulting from Desiccation of Playa Systems: Studies on Mono and Owens Lakes, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Thomas Edward

    1995-01-01

    Playas, evaporites, and aeolian sediments frequently are linked components within the Earth system. Anthropogenic water diversions from terminal lakes form playas that release fugitive dust. These actions, documented worldwide, simulate aeolian processes activated during palaeoclimatic pluvial/interpluvial transitions, and have significant environmental impacts. Pluvial lakes Russell and Owens in North America's Great Basin preceded historic Mono and Owens Lakes, now desiccated by water diversions into dust-generating, evaporite -encrusted playas. Geochemical and hydrologic cycles acting on the Owens (Dry) Lake playa form three distinct crust types each year. Although initial dust production results from deflation of surface efflorescences after the playa dries, most aerosols are created by saltation abrasion of salt/silt/clay crusts at crust/ sand sheet contacts. The warm-season, clastic "cemented" crust is slowest to degrade into dust. If the playa surface is stabilized by an unbroken, non-efflorescent crust, dust formation is discouraged. When Mono Lake's surFace elevation does not exceed 1951 meters (6400 feet), similar processes will also generate dust from its saline lower playa. Six factors--related to wind, topography, groundwater, and sediments--control dust formation at both playas. These factors were combined into a statistical model relating suspended dust concentrations to playa/lake morphometry. The model shows the extent and severity of Mono Lake dust storms expands significantly below the surface level 6376 feet (1943.5 meters). X-ray diffraction analysis of Mono Basin soils, playa sediments, and aerosols demonstrates geochemical cycling of materials through land, air and water during Mono Lake's 1982 low stand. Soils and clastic playa sediments contain silicate minerals and tephra. Saline groundwater deposited calcite, halite, thenardite, gaylussite, burkeite and glauberite onto the lower playa. Aerosols contained silicate minerals (especially

  16. 1. Mono([8]annulene)Uranium(4) half-sandwich complexes, 2. Novel syntheses of symmetrically substituted cyclooctatetetraenes

    SciTech Connect

    Boussie, T.R.

    1991-10-01

    A reproducible, high-yield synthesis of mono([8]annulene)uranium(4)dichloride (1) is reported, along with the X-ray crystal structural of the bis(pyridine) adduct. Metathesis reactions of the half-sandwich complex 1 with a variety of simple alkyl and alkoxy reagents failed to generate any isolable mono-ring complexes. Reactions of 1 with polydentate, delocalized anions did produce stable derivatives, including mono([8]annulene)uranium(4)bis(acetylacetonate) (4). An X-ray crystal structure of 4 is reported.

  17. 1. Mono((8)annulene)Uranium(4) half-sandwich complexes, 2. Novel syntheses of symmetrically substituted cyclooctatetetraenes

    SciTech Connect

    Boussie, T.R.

    1991-10-01

    A reproducible, high-yield synthesis of mono((8)annulene)uranium(4)dichloride (1) is reported, along with the X-ray crystal structural of the bis(pyridine) adduct. Metathesis reactions of the half-sandwich complex 1 with a variety of simple alkyl and alkoxy reagents failed to generate any isolable mono-ring complexes. Reactions of 1 with polydentate, delocalized anions did produce stable derivatives, including mono((8)annulene)uranium(4)bis(acetylacetonate) (4). An X-ray crystal structure of 4 is reported.

  18. Preparation and one-step purification of mono-125I-angiotensin II for radioligand binding assays

    SciTech Connect

    Speth, R.C.; Husain, A.

    1984-04-01

    A one-step purification of mono-/sup 125/I-angiotensin II prepared by the chloramine T procedure is described. The purification is effected on a cellulose cation exchange column with isocratic elution by 50 mM sodium acetate, pH 5.0. The purity of the mono-/sup 125/I-angiotensin II was determined by thin layer chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, enzymatic digestion, radioreceptor assay, and radioimmunoassay. Preparation and purification of mono-/sup 125/I-angiotensin II by this procedure offers significant advantages over existing methods for its preparation in terms of purity, simplicity, efficiency, and cost.

  19. Design, Synthesis, Characterization and Electrochemical Properties of BODIPY Dyes Containing Mono, Bis-2-Naphthyloxyhexyloxy and 4-(Benzyloxy)Phenoxyhexyloxy Groups.

    PubMed

    Biyiklioglu, Zekeriya; Keleş, Turgut

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the synthesis of boron dipyrromethene dyes containing mono, bis-2-naphthyloxyhexyloxy and 4-(benzyloxy)phenoxyhexyloxy groups has been reported. Boron dipyrromethene dyes were synthesized from the mono, bis-benzaldehyde derivatives with 2,4-dimethylpyrrole in dichloromethane in the presence of trifluoroacetic, 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinon, triethyl amine and boron trifluoride diethyl etherate, respectively. Electrochemical characterization of boron dipyrromethene dyes were carried out with voltammetric measurements. Electrochemical studies show that boron dipyrromethene dyes containing mono, bis-2-naphthyloxyhexyloxy and 4-(benzyloxy)phenoxyhexyloxy groups have reversible one reduction potentials unlike irreversible one oxidation potentials. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  20. Non-destructive elemental analysis of large meteorite samples by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis with the internal mono-standard method.

    PubMed

    Latif, Sk A; Oura, Y; Ebihara, M; Nakahara, H

    2013-11-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) using the internal mono-standard method was tested for its applicability to analyzing large solid samples including irregularly shaped meteorite samples. For evaluating the accuracy and precision of the method, large quantities of the Geological Survey of Japan standardized rock powders (JB-1a, JG-1a, and JP-1) were analyzed and 12 elements (B, Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Sm, and Gd) were determined by using Si as an internal standard element. Analytical results were mostly in agreement with literature values within 10 %. The precision of the method was also shown to be within 10 % (1σ) for most of these elements. The analytical procedure was then applied to four stony meteorites (Allende, Kimble County, Leedey, Lake Labyrinth) and four iron meteorites (Canyon Diablo, Toluca (Mexico), Toluca (Xiquipilco), Squaw Creek) consisting of large chunks or single slabs. For stony meteorites, major elements (Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, and Ni), minor elements (Na and Mn) and trace element (B, Cl, K, Ti, Co, and Sm) were determined with adequate accuracy. For iron meteorites, results for the Co and Ni mass fractions determined are all consistent with corresponding literature values. After the analysis, it was confirmed that the residual radioactivity remaining in the sample after PGNAA was very low and decreased down to the background level. This study shows that PGNAA with the internal mono-standard method is highly practical for determining the elemental composition of large, irregularly shaped solid samples including meteorites.

  1. Search for mono-Higgs signals at the LHC in the B -L supersymmetric standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, W.; Hammad, A.; Khalil, S.; Moretti, S.

    2017-03-01

    We study mono-Higgs signatures emerging in the B -L supersymmetric standard model induced by new channels not present in the minimal supersymmetric standard model, i.e., via topologies in which the mediator is either a heavy Z', with mass of O (2 TeV ) , or an intermediate h' (the lightest C P -even Higgs state of B -L origin), with a mass of O (0.2 TeV ) . The mono-Higgs probe considered is the standard model-like Higgs state recently discovered at the Large Hadron Collider, so as to enforce its mass reconstruction for background reduction purposes. With this in mind, its two cleanest signatures are selected: γ γ and Z Z*→4 l (l =e , μ ). We show how both of these can be accessed with foreseen energy and luminosity options using a dedicated kinematic analysis performed in the presence of partonic, showering, hadronization and detector effects.

  2. Detection and Quantification of Crack in Composite Mono Leaf Spring by Vibration Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamadar, Nagendra Iranna; Kivade, Sangshetty Bheemanna; Pedada, Sudhakara Rao

    2016-06-01

    Automobile industries focus for the components alternative to conventional materials with composites. There is high demand for enhanced performance and light weight. The emphasis is given for composite mono leaf spring as potential item as it is made up of glass fibre reinforced plastics despite they are sensitive to damages such as crack, delamination, de-bonding etc., occurred during either manufacturing or in service condition. These damages grow in progression and results in catastrophic failure. This work aims to deal with structural health monitoring to study and analyse the damage levels in composite mono leaf spring such as detection, location and quantification of damage. An experimental investigation has been carried out to evaluate presence and severity of damage by vibration parameters and validated with simulation.

  3. The Identification of Mono-, Di-, Tri-, and Tetragalactosyldiacylglycerols and their Natural Estolides in Oat Kernels†

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Robert A.; Doehlert, Douglas C.; Welti, Ruth; Isaac, Giorgis; Roth, Mary; Tamura, Pamela; Nuñez, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Oat kernels were extracted with methanol, and glycolipid-enriched fractions were prepared using silica solid phase extraction. Using direct infusion electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ESI-MS, and HPLC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)-MS, we confirmed previous reports that digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) was the most abundant glycolipid in oat kernels and confirmed a previous report of the presence of a DGDG mono-estolide in oat kernels. In the current study we also identified several additional natural galactolipid estolides: two new DGDG estolides (di- and tri-estolides), two trigalactosyldiacylglycerol (TriGDG) estolides (mono- and di-estolides), and one tetragalactosyldiacylglycerol (TetraGDG) estolide (monoestolide). The levels of total galactolipid estolides in oat kernels were estimated to be about 29% of the total glycolipid fraction. To our knowledge, this report is the first evidence of natural diand tri-estolides of polar lipids. PMID:18481134

  4. Design and synthesis of potent inhibitors of the mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferase, PARP14.

    PubMed

    Upton, Kristen; Meyers, Matthew; Thorsell, Ann-Gerd; Karlberg, Tobias; Holechek, Jacob; Lease, Robert; Schey, Garrett; Wolf, Emily; Lucente, Adrianna; Schüler, Herwig; Ferraris, Dana

    2017-07-01

    A series of (Z)-4-(3-carbamoylphenylamino)-4-oxobut-2-enyl amides were synthesized and tested for their ability to inhibit the mono-(ADP-ribosyl)transferase, PARP14 (a.k.a. BAL-2; ARTD-8). Two synthetic routes were established for this series and several compounds were identified as sub-micromolar inhibitors of PARP14, the most potent of which was compound 4t, IC50=160nM. Furthermore, profiling other members of this series identified compounds with >20-fold selectivity over PARP5a/TNKS1, and modest selectivity over PARP10, a closely related mono-(ADP-ribosyl)transferase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High-efficiency graphene nanomesh magnets realized by controlling mono-hydrogenation of pore edges

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, T.; Kamijyo, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Yagi, Y.; Haruyama, J.; Nakamura, T.

    2014-06-23

    We demonstrate a drastic improvement in the efficiency of rare-element-free graphene nanomesh (GNM) magnets with saturation magnetization values as large as ∼10{sup −4 }emu/mm{sup 2}, which are 10–100 times greater than those in previous GNM magnets hydrogenated by only annealing under a hydrogen molecule (H{sub 2}) atmosphere, even at room temperature. This improvement is realized by a significant increase in the area of the mono-H-terminated pore edges by using hydrogen silsesquioxane resist treatment with electron beam irradiation, which can produce mono-H by detaching H-silicon (Si) bonds. This result must open the door for industrial applications of graphene magnets to rare-element-free magnetic and spintronic systems.

  6. Origin of Structural Transformation in Mono- and Bi-Layered Molybdenum Disulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Wang, Zhiguo; Li, Zhijie; Fu, Y. Q.

    2016-05-01

    Mono- and multi-layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is considered to be one of the next generation anode materials for rechargeable ion batteries. Structural transformation from trigonal prismatic (2H) to octahedral (1T) upon lithium or sodium intercalation has been in-situ observed experimentally using transmission electron microscope during studies of their electrochemical dynamics processes. In this work, we explored the fundamental mechanisms of this structural transformation in both mono- and bi-layered MoS2 using density functional theory. For the intercalated MoS2, the Li and Na donate their electrons to the MoS2. Based on the theoretical analysis, we confirmed that, for the first time, electron transfer is dominant in initiating this structural transformation, and the results provide an in-depth understanding of the transformation mechanism induced by the electron doping. The critical values of electron concentrations for this structural transformation are decreased with increasing the layer thickness.

  7. Photo-modulation of the spin Hall conductivity of mono-layer transition metal dichalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, Parijat; Bellotti, Enrico

    2016-05-23

    We report on a possible optical tuning of the spin Hall conductivity in mono-layer transition metal dichalcogenides. Light beams of frequencies much higher than the energy scale of the system (the off-resonant condition) do not excite electrons but rearrange the band structure. The rearrangement is quantitatively established using the Floquet formalism. For such a system of mono-layer transition metal dichalcogenides, the spin Hall conductivity (calculated with the Kubo expression in presence of disorder) exhibits a drop at higher frequencies and lower intensities. Finally, we compare the spin Hall conductivity of the higher spin-orbit coupled WSe{sub 2} to MoS{sub 2}; the spin Hall conductivity of WSe{sub 2} was found to be larger.

  8. Effect of benthic boundary layer transport on the productivity of Mono Lake, California

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Louise C; Jellison, Robert; Imberger, Jörg; Melack, John M

    2008-01-01

    The significance of the transport of nutrient-rich hypolimnetic water via the benthic boundary layer (BBL) to the productivity of Mono Lake was studied using a coupled hydrodynamic and ecological model validated against field data. The coupled model enabled us to differentiate between the role of biotic components and hydrodynamic forcing on the internal recycling of nutrients necessary to sustain primary productivity. A 4-year period (1991–1994) was simulated in which recycled nutrients from zooplankton excretion and bacterially-mediated mineralization exceeded sediment fluxes as the dominant source for primary productivity. Model outputs indicated that BBL transport was responsible for a 53% increase in the flux of hypolimnetic ammonium to the photic zone during stratification with an increase in primary production of 6% and secondary production of 5%. Although the estimated impact of BBL transport on the productivity of Mono Lake was not large, significant nutrient fluxes were simulated during periods when BBL transport was most active. PMID:18710583

  9. On the Quantum Hall Effect in mono(bi)-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheremisin, M. V.

    2014-11-01

    Based on a thermodynamic approach, we have calculated the specific resistivity of mono(bi)-layer graphene assumed dissipationless in quantizing magnetic field. The resistivity arises from combination of Peltier and Seebeck effects. The current I causes heating (cooling) at the first (second) sample contacts, due to the Peltier effect. The voltage measured across the sample is equal to the Seebeck thermoemf, and thus provides finite resistivity as I→0. The resistivity is a universal function of the magnetic field, e-h plasma density and temperature, expressed in fundamental units h/e2. At fixed magnetic field the magneto-transport problem is resolved in the vicinity of the Dirac point taking into account the splitting of zeroth Landau level. For mono(bi)- layer graphene the B-dependent splitting of zeroth Landau level is recovered from experimental data.

  10. Effect of benthic boundary layer transport on the productivity of Mono Lake, California.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Louise C; Jellison, Robert; Imberger, Jörg; Melack, John M

    2008-08-19

    The significance of the transport of nutrient-rich hypolimnetic water via the benthic boundary layer (BBL) to the productivity of Mono Lake was studied using a coupled hydrodynamic and ecological model validated against field data. The coupled model enabled us to differentiate between the role of biotic components and hydrodynamic forcing on the internal recycling of nutrients necessary to sustain primary productivity. A 4-year period (1991-1994) was simulated in which recycled nutrients from zooplankton excretion and bacterially-mediated mineralization exceeded sediment fluxes as the dominant source for primary productivity. Model outputs indicated that BBL transport was responsible for a 53% increase in the flux of hypolimnetic ammonium to the photic zone during stratification with an increase in primary production of 6% and secondary production of 5%. Although the estimated impact of BBL transport on the productivity of Mono Lake was not large, significant nutrient fluxes were simulated during periods when BBL transport was most active.

  11. Resurrecting an unsalvageable lower incisor with a mono-block approach

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rachit; Thomas, Manuel S.; Yadav, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary techniques, as well as the availability of bioactive and adhesive materials in endodontics, have helped revivifying teeth that were deemed hopeless. These newer materials and techniques would enable the clinician: (a) to predictably stop microbial activity (b) to achieve a total corono-apical fluid tight seal and (c) to strengthen mutilated teeth by obtaining intra-radicular reinforcement through mono-block effect. This case report demonstrates the successful treatment of a mutilated anterior tooth with the use of bioactive and adhesive materials to obtain a total seal and mono-block effect. This article also shows the use of a simple method in the placement of root filling cement into the root canal. PMID:26430310

  12. Novel Carboranyl Derivatives of Nucleoside Mono- and Diphosphites and Phosphonates: A Synthetic Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Vyakaranam, Kamesh; Hosmane, Narayan S.

    2004-01-01

    A number of nucleoside mono- and diphosphites and phosphonates containing 1,2-dicarbadodecaborane (12) (la-6b) at 5'-position of the sugar moiety have been synthesized in good yields. Experimental details along with the spectroscopic and analytical data, supporting the formation of the title compounds, are presented. These constitute a new generation of boron compounds that are envisioned to be useful in cancer treatment via Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). PMID:18365067

  13. IR and ESR studies on novel Cu(II) theophyllinato complexes containing mono- or bidentate ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forizs, Edit; David, L.; Cozar, O.; Chiş, V.; Damian, G.; Csibi, Jolán

    1999-05-01

    Three mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes containing theophylline and mono- or bidentate N-donor ligands (2,2'-bipyridine, 4-fluoraniline and 1,10-phenanthroline) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and ESR spectra. According to IR and ESR data the Cu(II) complexes exhibit a distorted tetrahedral coordination of copper by two nitrogen atoms of the monodentate or bidentate ligands and the two monodentate theophyllinate anion bonded through N(7) atom.

  14. Relative performance of a vibratory energy harvester in mono- and bi-stable potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masana, Ravindra; Daqaq, Mohammed F.

    2011-11-01

    Motivated by the need for broadband vibratory energy harvesting, many research studies have recently proposed energy harvesters with nonlinear characteristics. Based on the shape of their potential function, such devices are classified as either mono- or bi-stable energy harvesters. This paper aims to investigate the relative performance of these two classes under similar excitations and electric loading conditions. To achieve this goal, an energy harvester consisting of a clamped-clamped piezoelectric beam bi-morph is considered. The shape of the harvester's potential function is altered by applying a static compressive axial load at one end of the beam. This permits operation in the mono-stable (pre-buckling) and bi-stable (post-buckling) configurations. For the purpose of performance comparison, the axial load is used to tune the harvester's oscillation frequencies around the static equilibria such that they have equal values in the mono- and bi-stable configurations. The harvester is subjected to harmonic base excitations of different magnitudes and a slowly varying frequency spanning a wide band around the tuned oscillation frequency. The output voltage measured across a purely resistive load is compared over the frequency range considered. Two cases are discussed; the first compares the performance when the bi-stable harvester has deep potential wells, while the second treats a bi-stable harvester with shallow wells. Both numerical and experimental results demonstrate the essential role that the potential shape plays in conjunction with the base acceleration to determine whether the bi-stable harvester can outperform the mono-stable one and for what range of frequencies. Results also illustrate that, for a bi-stable harvester with shallow potential wells, super-harmonic resonances can activate the inter-well dynamics even for a small base acceleration, thereby producing large voltages in the low frequency range.

  15. The Calibration of Mono-Chromatic Infrared Star Formation Rate Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetti, Daniela; LVL Team

    2010-01-01

    I will present recent results on the calibration of mono-chromatic (single band) star formation rate indicators using Spitzer data of nearby galaxies from the SINGS and LVL samples. I will discuss not only the range of applicability of each indicator, but also the limitations and caveats. Many of these indicators can have immediate application in surveys of distant galaxies with the Herschel Space Telescope.

  16. Novel carboranyl derivatives of nucleoside mono- and diphosphites and phosphonates: a synthetic investigation.

    PubMed

    Vyakaranam, Kamesh; Hosmane, Narayan S

    2004-01-01

    A number of nucleoside mono- and diphosphites and phosphonates containing 1,2-dicarbadodecaborane (12) (la-6b) at 5'-position of the sugar moiety have been synthesized in good yields. Experimental details along with the spectroscopic and analytical data, supporting the formation of the title compounds, are presented. These constitute a new generation of boron compounds that are envisioned to be useful in cancer treatment via Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT).

  17. Nd and Sr isotopic study of the Inyo Dome-Mono Crater rhyolites, eastern California

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, K.L.; Kelleher, P.C.; Sampson, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of Late Pleistocene to Recent mafic to silicic volcanic rocks from the Inyo Domes and Mono Craters were analyzed to constrain the origin and evolution of magmas erupted during the most recent cycle of silicic volcanism in the Long Valley region. Whole rock samples of biot-, opx-, and ol-bearing rhyolites from the Mono Craters have similar epsilon/sub Nd/(0) and /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios, ranging from 0.9 to -1.4, and .70633 to .70680, respectively. Intermediate composition inclusions in the Mono Crater rhyolites have slightly higher epsilon/sub Nd/(0)=2.90 and lower /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr=.70526, which suggests that the rhyolites evolved via crustal assimilation from more mafic, higher epsilon/sub Nd/(0), parental magmas. However, young basaltic rocks at June Lake and Black Point have epsilon/sub Nd/(0)=-1.5 and 1.6, while the Mesozoic batholithic crust in the region has epsilon/sub Nd/(0)=-2.0, suggesting that the mantle-derived magmas parental to the rhyolites, and the assimilated crust, may have differed only by 2-4 epsilon/sub Nd/ units. Therefore, the uniform isotopic compositions of the Mono Crater rhyolites, Inyo Domes rhyolites, and Bishop Tuff may only reflect the similar isotopic compositions of the mantle and crustal source regions, and do not require that the rhyolites were all derived from the same magma body. More precise isotopic measurements will be required to establish the proportions of mantle and crustally-derived components in the rhyolites, and to determine if this proportion varies with time or rhyolite composition. The apparent similarity in the isotopic compositions of the upper mantle and continental crust in this region is enigmatic, but could be an artifact of extensive mass transfer between the upper mantle and lower continental crust during the subduction-related Mesozoic magmatism.

  18. First survey of fungi in hypersaline soil and water of Mono Lake area (California).

    PubMed

    Steiman, Régine; Ford, Larry; Ducros, Véronique; Lafond, Jean-Luc; Guiraud, Pascale

    2004-01-01

    Mono Lake is a closed lake located in central California, east of the Sierra Nevada mountains. It contains dissolved carbonates, sulfates and chlorides at high concentrations. Due to its high salinity, Mono Lake was sometimes compared to the Dead Sea. However, it appears that Mono Lake water and vicinity abound with life. In this work, the fungal flora living in this extreme ecosystem was studied for the first time. Soil, tufa, water and sediment samples were also analyzed for their mineral and salt composition. Results showed that water was particularly rich in sodium, potassium, phosphorus and boron. Soil and sediments contained very high levels of calcium and magnesium, but also barium, boron and strontium. Sodium, phosphorus and iron levels varied in a large extent from one to another sample. Neutral to very alkaline pH were recorded. Water samples were found sterile in the conditions chosen for fungi isolation, while sediment, soil and tufa samples led to the isolation of a total of 67 fungal species (from 23 samples), belonging to various taxonomic groups. From our results no clear effects of the chemical parameters of the samples were observed on fungal life apart from the pH. The methods chosen did not allow the isolation of extremely halotolerant species. We isolated in this work a series of ubiquitous species, suggesting that a selection of resistant and/or adaptable strains of some common species could have occurred. Depending on the medium and the temperature of isolation, it can be hypothesized that some species were present as dormant structures, while some others, isolated at pH 8 on a medium enriched in Na and Ca, could be in a growing form adapted to alkaline and saline conditions. This work contributes to a better knowledge of the mycobiota present in the Mono Lake's ecosystem.

  19. Systematic Behavior of the Non-dipole Magnetic Field during the 32 ka Mono Lake Excursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrini, R. M.; McCuan, D.; Cassata, W. S.; Channell, J. E.; Verosub, K. L.; Liddicoat, J. C.; Knott, J. R.; Coe, R. S.; Benson, L. V.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.; Lund, S.; Horton, R.; Lopez, J.

    2012-12-01

    Paleomagnetic excursions are enigmatic phenomena that reveal geodynamo behavior in its transitional state and provide important refinements in age control for the late Pleistocene, a critical time period for the study of paleoclimate and human evolution. We report here on two widely separated, unusually detailed records of the Mono Lake excursion (MLE) from sedimentary sequences dated at 32 ka. One of the records is from Summer Lake, Oregon. The vector components of this new record faithfully reproduce the principle features of the MLE as recorded at the type localities around Mono Lake, CA, though with greater detail and higher amplitude. Radiocarbon dates on bulk organics in the Summer Lake record confirm the 32 ka age of the MLE. The other record is from the marine Irminger Basin off of eastern Greenland and is based on the measurement of discrete samples rather than u-channels. The associated VGP paths of the two records strongly suggest systematic field behavior that includes three loci of nondipole flux whose relative dominance oscillates through time. The staggered sequence followed by the two paths through each flux locus further suggests that both the demise and return of the main field floods zonally during the excursion. The composite path is also compatible with the VGPs of a 32 ka set of lavas from New Zealand and, notably, it does not include VGPs associated with the 40 ka Laschamp excursion. This confirms that these two excursions are distinct events and, more specifically, shows that it is the 32 ka Mono Lake excursion that is recorded in the sediments surrounding Mono Lake rather than the ~40 ka Laschamp excursion.

  20. Liver test abnormalities in patients with HIV mono-infection: assessment with simple noninvasive fibrosis markers

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Rosa; Lever, Robert; Smith, Colette; Marshall, Neal; Rodger, Alison; Bhagani, Sanjay; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with HIV mono-infection may develop chronic liver disease due to a number of factors including hepatic steatosis. We estimated the prevalence and predictors of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in a cohort of HIV-mono-infected patients with persistently deranged liver function tests. Methods Of 2398 consecutive patients at one UK clinical center, 156 (6.5%) had persistently abnormal transaminases in at least two measurements six months apart. We used APRI and FIB4 scores to determine the presence of significant and/or advanced fibrosis in this group as well as its potential associations. Results Mean age was 47.5±8.5 years and 91% (142/156) were males. Diabetes mellitus was present in 11% of patients; hypertension in 18%; and dyslipidemia in 52%. Almost all were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) (97%) and most were virologically suppressed (94%). Steatosis was detected by ultrasound in 71% of patients. The prevalence of FIB4≤1.45, 1.46-3.24 and >3.25 was 67%, 29% and 4%, respectively, and that of APRI≤0.5, 0.51-1.49 and >1.5 was 52%, 45% and 3% respectively. In multivariate analysis, only cumulative ART exposure was associated with FIB4>1.45 (odds ratio [OR] 1.008, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.000-1.016), while APRI>0.5 was associated with higher alanine aminotransferase levels (OR 1.033, 95%CI 1.015-1.510). Twenty patients had a liver biopsy, of whom 13 had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Conclusions Elevated transaminases are often present in HIV-mono-infected patients and this may be associated with NAFLD and/or ART. Non-invasive screening for the presence of NAFLD and fibrosis in all HIV-mono-infected patients as part of their routine clinical management should be further explored. PMID:28469366

  1. Intraductal mono-octanoin for the direct dissolution of bile duct stones: experience in 343 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, K R; Hofmann, A F

    1986-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of mono-octanoin, a cholesterol solvent for the direct dissolution of stones in the biliary tract, was assessed by collating case reports on 343 patients provided by 222 physicians who used the material between 1977 and 1983. Most patients had previously undergone cholecystectomy, with common duct exploration, the majority within the preceding six weeks. In most, sphincterotomy was impossible or if carried out, had not induced stone passage. Stone dissolution was considered preferable to surgery, especially in patients who were frail, elderly, or had multiple medical problems. Treatment was unequivocally successful in 88 patients (26%) and was a valuable adjunct to interventional treatment in another 29 subjects (8%). In 70 patients (20%), calculi became smaller, but remained within the biliary tree. Thus, mono-octanoin was judged to have been useful in 54% of patients. Treatment was ineffective in 124 cases (36%). In the remaining 32 patients (9%), treatment was aborted because of side effects. Such side effects were common, occurring in 67% of cases, and in 41% of patients they were multiple. Abdominal pain was the most common complication. Other side effects reported were nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea. Side effects were usually dose related and responded to reduction in infusion rate. Side effects were life threatening in 12 patients (5%), but there were no permanent sequelae and no deaths occurred. These data indicate that mono-octanoin is moderately effective, generally second line, but sometimes first line, treatment for retained biliary duct calculi. PMID:3949248

  2. Performance of nanowire decorated mono- and multi-crystalline Si solarcells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Es, Fırat; Demircioglu, Olgu; Gunoven, Mete; Kulakci, Mustafa; Unalan, Husnu Emrah; Turan, Rasit

    2013-06-01

    Light trapping ability of a solar cell can be improved by the application of various texturing schemes to the surface of the solar cells. For monocrystalline (mono-c) silicon solar cells, this is practically accomplished through pyramid texturing in a hot alkaline solution. For multicrystalline (multi-c) silicon solar cells, texturing is done by continuous oxidation and random etching of silicon from the surface. In this study, we have used metal assisted etching (MAE) technique to form silicon nanowires on the surface of pyramid textured mono-c, flat mono-c and multi-c silicon solar cells with an area of 156 mm×156 mm using standard solar cell processing protocols. It was shown that nanowire texturing causes a dramatic decrease in the reflectivity of the cell surface. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics revealed that the solar cells with nanowires on top of pyramid texturing exhibit the best performance among all investigated cell types. This may be attributed to combined effect of nanowires and pyramids on the surface.

  3. Evidence that mono-ADP-ribosylation of CtBP1/BARS regulates lipid storage.

    PubMed

    Bartz, René; Seemann, Joachim; Zehmer, John K; Serrero, Ginette; Chapman, Kent D; Anderson, Richard G W; Liu, Pingsheng

    2007-08-01

    Mono-ADP-ribosylation is emerging as an important posttranslational modification that modulates a variety of cell signaling pathways. Here, we present evidence that mono-ADP-ribosylation of the transcriptional corepressor C terminal binding protein, brefeldin A (BFA)-induced ADP-ribosylated substrate (CtBP1/BARS) regulates neutral lipid storage in droplets that are surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipid and associated proteins. CtBP1/BARS is an NAD-binding protein that becomes ribosylated when cells are exposed to BFA. Both endogenous lipid droplets and droplets enlarged by oleate treatment are lost after 12-h exposure to BFA. Lipid loss requires new protein synthesis, and it is blocked by multiple ribosylation inhibitors, but it is not stimulated by disruption of the Golgi apparatus or the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response. Small interfering RNA knockdown of CtBP1/BARS mimics the effect of BFA, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from embryos that are deficient in CtBP1/BARS seem to be defective in lipid accumulation. We conclude that mono-ADP-ribosylation of CtBP1/BARS inactivates its repressor function, which leads to the activation of genes that regulate neutral lipid storage.

  4. Mono-Amine Functionalized Phthalocyanines: Mwave-Assisted Solid-Phase Synthesis and Bioconjugation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, S. Sibel; Nesterova, Irina V.; Soper, Steven A.; Hammer, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Phthalocyanines (Pcs) are excellent candidates for use as fluors for near-infrared (near-IR) fluorescent tagging of biomolecules for a wide variety of bioanalytical applications. Mono-functionalized Pcs, having two different types of peripheral substitutents; one for covalent conjugation of the Pc to biomolecules and others to improve the solubility of the macrocycle, ideally suit for the desired applications. To date, difficulties faced during the purification of the mono-functionalized Pcs limited their usage in various types of applications. Herein are reported a new synthetic method for rapid synthesis of the target Pcs and bioconjugation techniques for labeling of the oligonucleotides with the near-IR flours. A novel synthetic route was developed utilizing a hydrophilic, polyethylene glycol-based (PEG) support with an acid labile Rink Amide linker. The Pcs were functionalized with an amine group for covalent conjugation purposes and were decorated with short PEG chains, serving as solubilizing groups. Mwave-assisted solid-phase synthetic method was successfully applied to obtain pure asymmetrically-substituted mono-amine functionalized Pcs in a short period of time. Three different bioconjugation techniques, reductive amination, amidation and Huisgen cycloaddition, were employed for covalent conjugation of Pcs to oligonucleotides. The described μwave-assisted bioconjugation methods give an opportunity to synthesize and isolate the Pc-oligonucleotide conjugate in a few hours. PMID:19911767

  5. Geochemical fingerprinting of Wilson Creek formation tephra layers (Mono Basin, California) using titanomagnetite compositions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcaida, Mae; Mangan, Margaret T.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Bursik, Marcus; Lidzbarski, Marsha I.

    2014-01-01

    Nineteen tephra layers within the Wilson Creek formation near Mono Lake provide a record of late Pleistocene to early Holocene volcanic activity from the nearby Mono Craters and are important chronostratigraphic markers for paleomagnetic, paleoclimatic, and paleoecologic studies. These stratigraphically important tephra deposits can be geochemically identified using compositions of their titanomagnetite phenocrysts. Titanomagnetite compositions display a broad range (XUsp 0.26–0.39), which allow the tephra layers to be distinguished despite the indistinguishable major-element glass compositions (76–77 wt% SiO2) of their hosts. The concentrations of Ti and Fe in titanomagnetite display geochemical and stratigraphic groupings that allow clear discrimination between older (> 57 ka) and younger (2O3 contents. In addition, a few tephra layers can be correlated to their source vents by their titanomagnetite compositions. The unique geochemical fingerprint of the Mono Craters-sourced titanomagnetites also allows the discrimination of two tephra layers apparently sourced from nearby Mammoth Mountain volcano in Long Valley.

  6. The Torsional Spectrum of Mono-Deuterated Methanol CH_2DOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hilali, A.; Coudert, L. H.; Klee, S.

    2010-06-01

    Contrary to the isotopic specie of methanol with a symmetrical CH_3 or CD_3 methyl group, in the mono-deuterated species CH_2DOH the hindering potential no longer displays 3-fold symmetry and all moments of inertia depend on the angle of internal rotation. For this reason, this mono-deuterated species displays a fairly dense torsional spectrum difficult to compute and to assign. In this paper an analysis of the torsional spectrum of mono-deuterated methanol is presented. More than 40 torsional subbands have been assigned in the 20 to 800 cm-1 region. The body of data available for CH_2DOH consists of these newly assigned subbands and of the already available ones. The observed torsional subbands are characterized by K ≤ 10 and v_t ≤ 10. For 23 subbands, the rotational structure could be analyzed and this provides us with a mean to check their torsional assignment. The positions of the subband centers were analyzed with a theoretical approach accounting for the dependence of the inertia tensor on the angle of internal rotation. This allowed us to reproduce 58 experimental wavenumbers with an RMS value of 0.12 cm-1. The spectroscopic parameters corresponding to the hindering potential and to the inertia tensor were also retrieved. Quade and Lin, J. Chem. Phys. 38 (1963) 54. Lauvergnat, Coudert, Klee, and Smirnov, J. Mol. Spec. 239 (2009) 204.

  7. Systemic cytokine and interferon responsiveness Patterns in HIV and HCV mono and co-infections.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Joshi-Barve, Swati; Ghare, Smita; Barve, Shirish; Young, Mary; Plankey, Michael; Bordon, Jose

    2014-11-01

    The role of host response-related factors in the fast progression of liver disease in individuals co-infected with HIV and HCV viruses remains poorly understood. This study compared patterns of cytokines, caspase-1 activation, endotoxin exposure in plasma as well as interferon signaling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV/HCV co-infected (HIV(+)/HCV(+)), HCV mono-infected (HIV(-)/HCV(+)), HIV mono-infected (HIV(+)/HCV(-)) female patients and HIV- and HCV-uninfected women (HIV(-)/HCV(-)) who had enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). HIV(+)/HCV(+) women had higher plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as caspase-1 compared with other groups. Both HIV(+)/HCV(+) and HIV(+)/HCV(-) women had significantly higher sCD14 levels compared with other groups. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HCV mono-infected patients had reduced levels of phosphorylation of STAT1 compared with other groups as well as lower basal levels of expression of the IFN-stimulated genes, OAS1, ISG15, and USP18 (UBP43). Basal expression of USP18, a functional antagonist of ISG15, as well as USP18/ISG15 ratios were increased in the HIV(+)/HCV(+) group compared with HIV(-)/HCV(+) and HIV(+)/HCV(-) groups. A more pronounced systemic inflammatory profile as well as increased expression ratios of USP18 to ISG15 may contribute to the more rapid progression of liver disease in HIV(+)/HCV(+) individuals.

  8. Fusion of agarase and neoagarobiose hydrolase for mono-sugar production from agar.

    PubMed

    Alkotaini, Bassam; Han, Nam Soo; Kim, Beom Soo

    2017-02-01

    In enzymatic saccharification of agar, endo- and exo-agarases together with neoagarobiose hydrolase (NABH) are important key enzymes for the sequential hydrolysis reactions. In this study, a bifunctional endo/exo-agarase was fused with NABH for production of mono-sugars (D-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose) from agar using only one fusion enzyme. Two fusion enzymes with either bifunctional agarase (Sco3476) or NABH (Zg4663) at the N-terminus, Sco3476-Zg4663 (SZ) and Zg4663-Sco3476 (ZS), were constructed. Both fusion enzymes exhibited their optimal agarase and NABH activities at 40 and 35 °C, respectively. Fusions SZ and ZS enhanced the thermostability of the NABH activity, while only fusion SZ showed a slight enhancement in the NABH catalytic efficiency (K cat/K M) from 14.8 (mg/mL)(-1) s(-1) to 15.8 (mg/mL)(-1) s(-1). Saccharification of agar using fusion SZ resulted in 2-fold higher mono-sugar production and 3-fold lower neoagarobiose accumulation when compared to the physical mixture of Sco3476 and Zg4663. Therefore, this fusion has the potential to reduce enzyme production cost, decrease intermediate accumulation, and increase mono-sugar yield in agar saccharification.

  9. [A Generator of Mono-energetic Electrons for Response Test of Charged Particle Detectors.].

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Fumiyasu; Yoshida, Katsuhide; Maruyama, Koichi

    2005-01-01

    We designed and fabricated a generator of mono-energetic electrons for the response test of charged particle detectors, which is used to measure fragmented particles of the carbon beam for cancer therapy. Mono-energetic electrons are extracted from (90)Sr by analyzing the energy of beta rays in the generator with a magnetic field. We evaluated performance parameters of the generator such as the absolute energy, the energy resolution and the counting rates of extracted electrons. The generator supplies mono-energetic electrons from 0.5MeV to 1.7MeV with the energy resolution of 20% in FWHM at higher energies than 1.0MeV. The counting rate of electrons is 400cpm at the maximum when the activity of (90)Sr is 298kBq. The generator was used to measure responses of fragmented-particle detectors and to determine the threshold energy of the detectors. We evaluated the dependence of pulse height variation on the detector position and the threshold energy by using the generator. We concluded this generator is useful for the response test of general charged particle detectors.

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 is a non-virulent strain suitable for mono-rhamnolipids production.

    PubMed

    Grosso-Becerra, María-Victoria; González-Valdez, Abigail; Granados-Martínez, María-Jessica; Morales, Estefanía; Servín-González, Luis; Méndez, José-Luis; Delgado, Gabriela; Morales-Espinosa, Rosario; Ponce-Soto, Gabriel-Yaxal; Cocotl-Yañez, Miguel; Soberón-Chávez, Gloria

    2016-12-01

    Rhamnolipids produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa are biosurfactants with a high biotechnological potential, but their extensive commercialization is limited by the potential virulence of P. aeruginosa and by restrictions in producing these surfactants in heterologous hosts. In this work, we report the characterization of P. aeruginosa strain ATCC 9027 in terms of its genome-sequence, virulence, antibiotic resistance, and its ability to produce mono-rhamnolipids when carrying plasmids with different cloned genes from the type strain PAO1. The genes that were expressed from the plasmids are those coding for enzymes involved in the synthesis of this biosurfactant (rhlA and rhlB), as well as the gene that codes for the RhlR transcriptional regulator. We confirm that strain ATCC 9027 forms part of the PA7 clade, but contrary to strain PA7, it is sensitive to antibiotics and is completely avirulent in a mouse model. We also report that strain ATCC 9027 mono-rhamnolipid synthesis is limited by the expression of the rhlAB-R operon. Thus, this strain carrying the rhlAB-R operon produces similar rhamnolipids levels as PAO1 strain. We determined that strain ATCC 9027 with rhlAB-R operon was not virulent to mice. These results show that strain ATCC 9027, expressing PAO1 rhlAB-R operon, has a high biotechnological potential for industrial mono-rhamnolipid production.

  11. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of oleanolic mono- or di-glycosides against Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Huo, G; Liu, C; Hui, Y; Chen, X; Xiao, D

    2016-09-23

    Saponins are naturally-occurring units with broad diversity and are usually recognized as phytoanticipins. In order to develop new saponin chemical entities with high activity against Magnaporthe oryzae, we selected oleanolic acid (OA), which has wide natural distribution and rich content in plants. We used the ability of OA to act as an aglycone for glycosylation to obtain information on the structure-activity relationship (SAR) for rational molecular pesticide design. Oleanolic mono- or di-glycosides were synthesized at either the C3-hydroxy and/or C28-carboxyl position, using trichloroacetimidate or glycosyl bromide donors, respectively. Structures were confirmed by [(1)H]-,[(13)C]-NMR. Furthermore, the activity of the synthesized glycosides against M. oryzae was assessed in vitro, based on the mycelium growth rate. The twenty five oleanolic mono- or di-glycosides comprised fourteen saponins with 3-monosaccharide residue 1a-1n, six saponins with 28-monosaccharide residue 2a-2f, and five saponins with 3, 28-monosaccharide residue 3a-3e; all showed different activities against M. oryzae according to their different structures. We concluded that the optimal oleanolic mono- and di-glycoside structure for activity against M. oryzae is a C3 connection of a hexose such as mannose, galactose, or glucose, in combination with a C28 connection to a small group such as allyl or a C3 connection to a pentose accompanied by a larger group such as another pentose or heptenyl at C28.

  12. Synthesis and SAR study of opioid receptor ligands: mono- and bis-indolomorphinans.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuying; Yin, Chenlei; Chen, Jie; Liu, Jinggen; Xie, Xin; Zhang, Ao

    2009-10-01

    Mono- and bis-indolomorphinans were synthesized through a multi-step synthetic approach from the alkaloid, thebaine, to further explore the C-ring SAR (structure-activity relationship) of morphinan scaffold. Both mono-indoles displayed good binding affinity and selectivity for the delta receptor, with compound 6b possessed the highest K(i) value of 1.45 nm at this receptor. Bisindolomorphinans 7a,b did not have appreciable affinity for both delta and kappa receptors, but moderate binding at the mu receptor was observed. Functional assays indicated that the newly synthesized mono-indole 6b was delta-agonist, opposite to the delta-antagonist profile of naltrindole. Bisindoles 7a,b were mu-agonists. This work further confirms that the phenol component in opioids is essential for higher binding to the opioid receptors. The different binding ability, receptor selectivity, and the functional activity profiles of naltrindole 2, monoindole 6b, and bisindole 7b clearly indicated that they interact with the opioid receptors in different modes.

  13. Modeling of point defects and rare gas incorporation in uranium mono-carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartier, A.; Van Brutzel, L.

    2007-02-01

    An embedded atom method (EAM) potential has been established for uranium mono-carbide. This EAM potential was fitted on structural properties of metallic uranium and uranium mono-carbide. The formation energies of point defects, as well as activation energies for self migration, have been evaluated in order to cross-check the suitability of the potential. Assuming that the carbon vacancies are the main defects in uranium mono-carbide compounds, the migration paths and energies are consistent with experimental data selected by Catlow[C.R.A. Catlow, J. Nucl. Mater. 60 (1976) 151]. The insertion and migration energies for He, Kr and Xe have also been evaluated with available inter-atomic potentials [H.H. Andersen, P. Sigmund, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 38 (1965) 238]. Results show that the most stable defect configuration for rare gases is within uranium vacancies. The migration energy of an interstitial Xe is 0.5 eV, in agreement with the experimental value of 0.5 eV [Hj. Matzke, Science of advanced LMFBR fuels, Solid State Physics, Chemistry and Technology of Carbides, Nitrides and Carbonitrides of Uranium and Plutonium, North-Holland, 1986].

  14. Selenate-dependent anaerobic arsenite oxidation by a bacterium from Mono Lake, California.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jenny C; Hollibaugh, James T

    2008-05-01

    Arsenate was produced when anoxic Mono Lake water samples were amended with arsenite and either selenate or nitrate. Arsenite oxidation did not occur in killed control samples or live samples with no added terminal electron acceptor. Potential rates of anaerobic arsenite oxidation with selenate were comparable to those with nitrate ( approximately 12 to 15 mumol.liter(-1) h(-1)). A pure culture capable of selenate-dependent anaerobic arsenite oxidation (strain ML-SRAO) was isolated from Mono Lake water into a defined salts medium with selenate, arsenite, and yeast extract. This strain does not grow chemoautotrophically, but it catalyzes the oxidation of arsenite during growth on an organic carbon source with selenate. No arsenate was produced in pure cultures amended with arsenite and nitrate or oxygen, indicating that the process is selenate dependent. Experiments with washed cells in mineral medium demonstrated that the oxidation of arsenite is tightly coupled to the reduction of selenate. Strain ML-SRAO grows optimally on lactate with selenate or arsenate as the electron acceptor. The amino acid sequences deduced from the respiratory arsenate reductase gene (arrA) from strain ML-SRAO are highly similar (89 to 94%) to those from two previously isolated Mono Lake arsenate reducers. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain ML-SRAO places it within the Bacillus RNA group 6 of gram-positive bacteria having low G+C content.

  15. Effect of mono-vacancy on transport properties of zigzag carbon- and boron-nitride-nanotube heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, P.; Liu, D. S.; Chen, G.

    2013-04-01

    On the basis of first-principles density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function technique, we have investigated the effects of a mono-vacancy on the electronic transport properties of the carbon nanotube/boron nitride nanotube heterostructures. The results show that the electronic transport properties are strongly dependent on the position of the mono-vacancy, and the negative differential resistance and rectifying performances can be strengthened or weakened alternately with the position change of the mono-vacancy. Moreover, the performance change is more significant when the mono-vacancy occurs on the carbon nanotube part. These interesting phenomena are explained in terms of the evolution of the transmission spectrum with applied bias combined with molecular projected self-consistent Hamiltonian states analysis.

  16. Serum adiponectin in HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus mono- and co-infected Kenyan injection drug users

    PubMed Central

    Ndombi, Eric M; Budambula, Valentine; Webale, Mark K; Musumba, Francis O; Wesongah, Jesca O; Mibei, Erick; Ahmed, Aabid A; Lihana, Raphael; Were, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin is an important marker of anthropometric profiles of adipose tissue. However, association of adiponectin and adiposity in HIV mono- and co-infected and hepatitis (HCV) injection drug users (IDUs) has not been elucidated. Therefore, the relationship of total adiponectin levels with anthropometric indices of adiposity was examined in HIV mono-infected (anti-retroviral treatment, ART-naive, n=16 and -experienced, n=34); HCV mono-infected, n=36; HIV and HCV co-infected (ART-naive, n=5 and -experienced, n=13); uninfected, n=19 IDUs; and healthy controls, n=16 from coastal Kenya. Anthropometric indices of adiposity were recorded and total circulating adiponectin levels were measured in serum samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adiponectin levels differed significantly amongst the study groups (P<0.0001). Post-hoc analyses revealed decreased levels in HIV mono-infected ART-naive IDUs in comparison to uninfected IDUs (P<0.05) and healthy controls (P<0.05). However, adiponectin levels were elevated in HCV mono-infected IDUs relative to HIV mono-infected ART-naive (P<0.001) and -experienced (P<0.001) as well as HIV and HCV co-infected ART-naive (P<0.05) IDUs. Furthermore, adiponectin correlated with weight (ρ=0.687; P=0.003) and BMI (ρ=0.598; P=0.014) in HIV mono-infected ART-naive IDUs; waist circumference (ρ=−0.626; P<0.0001), hip (ρ=−0.561; P=0.001) circumference, and bust-to-waist ratio (ρ=0.561; P=0.001) in HIV mono-infected ART-experienced IDUs; waist girth (ρ=0.375; P=0.024) in HCV mono-infected IDUs; and waist-to-hip ratio (ρ=−0.872; P=0.048) in HIV and HCV co-infected ART-naive IDUs. Altogether, these results suggest suppression of adiponectin production in treatment-naive HIV mono-infected IDUs and that circulating adiponectin is a useful surrogate marker of altered adiposity in treatment-naive and -experienced HIV and HCV mono- and co-infected IDUs. PMID:26306727

  17. Symptoms and Immune Markers in Plasmodium/Dengue Virus Co-infection Compared with Mono-infection with Either in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Halsey, Eric S.; Baldeviano, G. Christian; Edgel, Kimberly A.; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Sihuincha, Moises; Lescano, Andres G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria and dengue are two of the most common vector-borne diseases in the world, but co-infection is rarely described, and immunologic comparisons of co-infection with mono-infection are lacking. Methodology and Principal Findings We collected symptom histories and blood specimens from subjects in a febrile illness surveillance study conducted in Iquitos and Puerto Maldonado, Peru, between 2002–2011. Nineteen symptoms and 18 immune markers at presentation were compared among those with co-infection with Plasmodium/dengue virus (DENV), Plasmodium mono-infection, and DENV mono-infection. Seventeen subjects were identified as having Plasmodium/DENV co-infection and were retrospectively matched with 51 DENV mono-infected and 44 Plasmodium mono-infected subjects. Those with Plasmodium mono-infection had higher levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17A, IFN-γ, and MIP1-α/CCL3 compared with DENV mono-infection or co-infection; those with Plasmodium mono-infection had more cough than those with DENV mono-infection. Subjects with DENV mono-infection had higher levels of TGF-β1 and more myalgia than those with Plasmodium mono-infection. No symptom was more common and no immune marker level was higher in the co-infected group, which had similar findings to the DENV mono-infected subjects. Conclusions/Significance Compared with mono-infection with either pathogen, Plasmodium/DENV co-infection was not associated with worse disease and resembled DENV mono-infection in both symptom frequency and immune marker level. PMID:27128316

  18. Range optimization for mono- and bi-energetic proton modulated arc therapy with pencil beam scanning.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Parcerisa, Daniel; Kirk, Maura; Fager, Marcus; Burgdorf, Brendan; Stowe, Malorie; Solberg, Tim; Carabe, Alejandro

    2016-11-07

    The development of rotational proton therapy plans based on a pencil-beam-scanning (PBS) system has been limited, among several other factors, by the energy-switching time between layers, a system-dependent parameter that ranges between a fraction of a second and several seconds. We are investigating mono- and bi-energetic rotational proton modulated arc therapy (PMAT) solutions that would not be affected by long energy switching times. In this context, a systematic selection of the optimal proton energy for each arc is vital. We present a treatment planning comparison of four different range selection methods, analyzing the dosimetric outcomes of the resulting treatment plans created with the ranges obtained. Given the patient geometry and arc definition (gantry and couch trajectories, snout elevation) our in-house treatment planning system (TPS) FoCa was used to find the maximum, medial and minimum water-equivalent thicknesses (WETs) of the target viewed from all possible field orientations. Optimal ranges were subsequently determined using four methods: (1) by dividing the max/min WET interval into equal steps, (2) by taking the average target midpoints from each field, (3) by taking the average WET of all voxels from all field orientations, and (4) by minimizing the fraction of the target which cannot be reached from any of the available angles. After the range (for mono-energetic plans) or ranges (for bi-energetic plans) were selected, the commercial clinical TPS in use in our institution (Varian Eclipse(™)) was used to produce the PMAT plans using multifield optimization. Linear energy transfer (LET) distributions of all plans were also calculated using FoCa and compared among the different methods. Mono- and bi-energetic PMAT plans, composed of a single 180° arc, were created for two patient geometries: a C-shaped target located in the mediastinal area of a thoracic tissue-equivalent phantom and a small brain tumor located directly above the brainstem

  19. Systemic lupus erythematosus patients contain significantly less igm against mono-methylated lysine than healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sha; Liu, Ying; Ma, Younan; Zhao, Qing; Zhu, Liping; Shao, Yuehu; Gao, Fengying; Wu, Fengqi; Gao, Ruitong; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modifications on proteins are important in biological processes but may create neo-epitopes that induce autoimmune responses. In this study, we measured the serum IgG and IgM response to a set of non-modified or acetyl- and methyl-modified peptides corresponding to residues 1-19 of the histone 3 N-terminal tail in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and healthy subjects. Our results indicated that the SLE patients and healthy subjects produced antibodies (Abs) to the peptides, but the two groups had different Ab isotype and epitope preferences. Abs to the non-modified form, H31-19, were of the IgG isotype and produced by SLE patients. They could not recognize the scrambled H31-19, which contained the same amino acid composition but a different sequence as H31-19. In comparison, healthy subjects in general did not produce IgG against H31-19. However, about 70% of the healthy subjects produced IgM Abs against mono-methylated K9 of H31-19 (H31-19K9me). Our further studies revealed that ε-amine mono-methylated lysine could completely inhibit the IgM binding to H31-19K9me, but lysine had no inhibitory effect. In addition, the IgM Abs could bind peptides containing a mono-methylated lysine residue but with totally different sequences. Thus, mono-methylated lysine was the sole epitope for the IgM. Interestingly, SLE patients had much lower levels of this type of IgM. There was no obvious correlation between the IgM levels and disease activity and the decreased IgM was unlikely caused by medical treatments.We also found that the IgM Abs were not polyreactive to dsDNA, ssDNA, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or insulin and they did not exist in umbilical cord serum, implying that they were not natural Abs. The IgM Abs against mono-methylated lysine are present in healthy subjects but are significantly lower in SLE patients, suggesting a distinct origin of production and special physiological functions.

  20. Fuel economy and emissions evaluation of BMW hydrogen 7 mono-fuel demonstration vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Wallner, T.; Lohse-Busch, H.; Gurski, S.; Duoba, M.; Thiel, W.; Martin, D.; Korn, T.; Energy Systems; BMW Group Munich Germany; BMW Group Oxnard USA

    2008-12-01

    This article summarizes the testing of two BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF). The BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles are derived from the BMW Hydrogen 7 bi-fuel vehicles and based on a BMW 760iL. The mono-fuel as well as the bi-fuel vehicle(s) is equipped with cryogenic hydrogen on-board storage and a gaseous hydrogen port fuel injection system. The BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles were tested for fuel economy as well as emissions on the Federal Test Procedure FTP-75 cold-start test as well as the highway test. The results show that these vehicles achieve emissions levels that are only a fraction of the Super Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (SULEV) standard for nitric oxide (NO{sub x}) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. For non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions the cycle-averaged emissions are actually 0 g/mile, which require the car to actively reduce emissions compared to the ambient concentration. The fuel economy numbers on the FTP-75 test were 3.7 kg of hydrogen per 100 km, which, on an energy basis, is equivalent to a gasoline fuel consumption of 17 miles per gallon (mpg). Fuel economy numbers for the highway cycle were determined to be 2.1 kg of hydrogen per 100 km or 30 miles per gallon of gasoline equivalent (GGE). In addition to cycle-averaged emissions and fuel economy numbers, time-resolved (modal) emissions as well as air/fuel ratio data is analyzed to further investigate the root causes of the remaining emissions traces. The BMW Hydrogen 7 vehicles employ a switching strategy with lean engine operation at low engine loads and stoichiometric operation at high engine loads that avoids the NO{sub x} emissions critical operating regime with relative air/fuel ratios between 1 < {lambda} < 2. The switching between these operating modes was found to be a major source of the remaining NO{sub x} emissions. The emissions results collected

  1. Range optimization for mono- and bi-energetic proton modulated arc therapy with pencil beam scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Parcerisa, Daniel; Kirk, Maura; Fager, Marcus; Burgdorf, Brendan; Stowe, Malorie; Solberg, Tim; Carabe, Alejandro

    2016-11-01

    The development of rotational proton therapy plans based on a pencil-beam-scanning (PBS) system has been limited, among several other factors, by the energy-switching time between layers, a system-dependent parameter that ranges between a fraction of a second and several seconds. We are investigating mono- and bi-energetic rotational proton modulated arc therapy (PMAT) solutions that would not be affected by long energy switching times. In this context, a systematic selection of the optimal proton energy for each arc is vital. We present a treatment planning comparison of four different range selection methods, analyzing the dosimetric outcomes of the resulting treatment plans created with the ranges obtained. Given the patient geometry and arc definition (gantry and couch trajectories, snout elevation) our in-house treatment planning system (TPS) FoCa was used to find the maximum, medial and minimum water-equivalent thicknesses (WETs) of the target viewed from all possible field orientations. Optimal ranges were subsequently determined using four methods: (1) by dividing the max/min WET interval into equal steps, (2) by taking the average target midpoints from each field, (3) by taking the average WET of all voxels from all field orientations, and (4) by minimizing the fraction of the target which cannot be reached from any of the available angles. After the range (for mono-energetic plans) or ranges (for bi-energetic plans) were selected, the commercial clinical TPS in use in our institution (Varian Eclipse™) was used to produce the PMAT plans using multifield optimization. Linear energy transfer (LET) distributions of all plans were also calculated using FoCa and compared among the different methods. Mono- and bi-energetic PMAT plans, composed of a single 180° arc, were created for two patient geometries: a C-shaped target located in the mediastinal area of a thoracic tissue-equivalent phantom and a small brain tumor located directly above the brainstem. All

  2. Mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and mono-n-butyl phthalate activation of peroxisome proliferator activated-receptors alpha and gamma in breast.

    PubMed

    Venkata, Nagaraj Gopisetty; Robinson, Jodie A; Cabot, Peter J; Davis, Barbara; Monteith, Greg R; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J

    2006-06-01

    The phthalates di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) are environmental contaminants with significant human exposures. Both compounds are known reproductive toxins in rodents and DEHP also induces rodent hepatocarcinogenesis in a process believed to be mediated via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). DEHP and DBP are metabolised to their respective monoesters, mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), which are the active metabolites. MEHP also activates another member of the PPAR subfamily, PPARgamma. The effects of PPARalpha and PPARgamma activation in human breast cells appears to be opposing; PPARalpha activators in breast cells cause an increase in proliferation, while PPARgamma activation in breast cells is associated with differentiation and an inhibition of cell proliferation. Further to this the activation of the PPARs is cell and ligand specific, suggesting the importance of examining the effect of MEHP and MBP on the activation of PPARalpha, PPARbeta and PPARgamma in human breast. We used the common model of human breast cancer MCF-7 and examined the ability of MEHP and MBP to activate human PPARs in this system. The ability of MBP and MEHP to block PPAR responses was also assessed. We found that both human PPARalpha and PPARgamma were activated by MEHP whereas MEHP could not activate PPARbeta. MBP was unable to activate any PPAR isoforms in this breast model, despite being a weak peroxisome proliferator in liver, although MBP was an antagonist for both PPARgamma and PPARbeta. Our results suggest that the toxicological consequences of MEHP in the breast could be complex given the opposing effects of PPARalpha and PPARgamma in human breast cells.

  3. What's Mono?

    MedlinePlus

    ... involve contact with saliva (spit) — so sharing straws, toothbrushes, or food from the same plate can spread ... cough or sneeze. Keep your straws, forks, and toothbrushes to yourself, and… no kissing for a few ...

  4. What's Mono?

    MedlinePlus

    ... all involve contact with saliva (spit) — so sharing straws, toothbrushes, or food from the same plate can ... it's important not to share things like forks, straws, water bottles, or lip gloss at school. continue ...

  5. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Treatment Outcomes of Isoniazid- and Rifampicin- Mono-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Leonela; Huaman, Moises A.; Van der Stuyft, Patrick; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Seas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background Isoniazid and rifampicin are the two most efficacious first-line agents for tuberculosis (TB) treatment. We assessed the prevalence of isoniazid and rifampicin mono-resistance, associated risk factors, and the association of mono-resistance on treatment outcomes. Methods A prospective, observational cohort study enrolled adults with a first episode of smear-positive pulmonary TB from 34 health facilities in a northern district of Lima, Peru, from March 2010 through December 2011. Participants were interviewed and a sputum sample was cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) media. Drug susceptibility testing was performed using the proportion method. Medication regimens were documented for each patient. Our primary outcomes were treatment outcome at the end of treatment. The secondary outcome included recurrent episodes among cured patients within two years after completion of the treatment. Results Of 1292 patients enrolled, 1039 (80%) were culture-positive. From this subpopulation, isoniazid mono-resistance was present in 85 (8%) patients and rifampicin mono-resistance was present in 24 (2%) patients. In the multivariate logistic regression model, isoniazid mono-resistance was associated with illicit drug use (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1–4.1), and rifampicin mono-resistance was associated with HIV infection (aOR = 9.43; 95%CI: 1.9–47.8). Isoniazid mono-resistant patients had a higher risk of poor treatment outcomes including treatment failure (2/85, 2%, p-value<0.01) and death (4/85, 5%, p<0.02). Rifampicin mono-resistant patients had a higher risk of death (2/24, 8%, p<0.01). Conclusion A high prevalence of isoniazid and rifampicin mono-resistance was found among TB patients in our low HIV burden setting which were similar to regions with high HIV burden. Patients with isoniazid and rifampicin mono-resistance had an increased risk of poor treatment outcomes. PMID:27045684

  6. Large-angle positronium emission for Al(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, P.J.; Lynn, K.G.; Frieze, W.E.

    1984-10-01

    Mono-energetic positrons have been used to study the time-of-flight distribution of ortho-positronium (o-Ps) formed just outside the surface of an Al(110) single crystal. The data are interpreted in terms of two predominant angular distributions for the directly formed o-Ps: one that is peaked towards the surface normal and another that is directed towards large angles. These processes are shown to be very sensitive to both oxygen exposure and Ar/sup +/ ion sputtering. Ps emitted at large-angles may be evidence of formation with electrons propagating in a two-dimensional surface state.

  7. Interactions of Verkade's Superbase with Strong Lewis Acids: From Labile Mono- and Binuclear Lewis Acid-Base Complexes to Phosphenium Cations.

    PubMed

    Mummadi, Suresh; Kenefake, Dustin; Diaz, Rony; Unruh, Daniel K; Krempner, Clemens

    2017-09-05

    A series of mono- and binuclear Lewis acid-base complexes of the formulas N[CH2CH2N(Pr(i))]3P→LA [LA = BH3 (8), Ga(C6F5)3 (10), GaCl3 (11)], LA←N[CH2CH2N(Pr(i))]3P [LA = Al(C6F5)3 (6a), AlMe3 (6b), AlEt3 (6c), AlBu(i)3 (6d), BF3 (13)], and LA←N[CH2CH2N(Pr(i))]3P→LA [Lewis acid (LA) = Al(C6F5)3 (7a), AlMe3 (7b), AlEt3 (7c), AlBu(i)3 (7d), AlCl3 (7e), BH3 (9)] were generated from reactions of Verkade's base, N[CH2CH2N(Pr(i))]3P (1), with various boron-, aluminum-, and gallium-containing Lewis acids, and characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. {N[CH2CH2N(Pr(i))]3P→C7H7}[BF4] (5) was synthesized via the treatment of 1 with [C7H7][BF4]. The reaction of 1 with B(C6F5)3, followed by the addition of [Ph3C]2[B12Cl12], gave rise to the rearranged borate salt [PN4C9H17(Pr(i))2][B12Cl12] (3), while treating 1 with [Ph3C]2[B12Cl12] exclusively afforded {N[CH2CH2N(Pr(i))]3PH}2[B12Cl12] (4). Reactions of 1 with 2 equiv of GaCl3 and BF3, respectively, afforded the novel phosphenium gallate and borate salts 12a, 12b, and 15. The solid-state structures of 1, 3-5, 6b, 7a, 7b, 7e, 8, 10, 11, 12b, 13, and 15 were determined by X-ray crystallography.

  8. Sulfide as a Chemoautotrophic Electron Donor for Dissimilatory Arsenate Reduction in Mono Lake, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeft, S. E.; Kulp, T. R.; Stolz, J. S.; Oremland, R. S.

    2003-12-01

    In aqueous systems, arsenic occurs as arsenate [As(V)] or as arsenite [As(III)], with the latter form being more toxic and mobile. Mono Lake, California is a meromictic soda lake (pH = 9.8; salinity = 70-90 g/L) with exceptionally high arsenic content ( ˜200 μ M), a consequence of hydrothermal inputs combined with evaporative concentration. Previous work has shown that arsenic speciation changes from As(V) to the more reduced As(III) with vertical transition from the lake's surface oxic waters to its unmixed, anoxic bottom waters and that dissimilatory reduction is responsible for the observed change in arsenic speciation. Rates of in situ dissimilatory As(V) reduction measured by radiotracer ( ˜1- 6 μ mol/L/d) were estimated to be significant enough to mineralize up to 14% of annual primary productivity. Subsequent lab-based investigations with As(V)-amended ( ˜1-2 mM) bottom water displayed significantly higher rates (150-260 μ mol/L/d) of As(V) reduction and were not limited by the availability of organic electron donors such as acetate, lactate, malate and glucose. The focus of this study was to identify a natural source of electrons for As(V) reduction in Mono Lake. While Mono Lake contains plentiful dissolved organic carbon ( ˜7 mM) this material is usually refractory and resistant to bacterial oxidation. Alternatively, the anoxic bottom waters contain high concentrations of sulfide ions ( ˜1-2 mM) that could potentially serve as an electron donor for dissimilatory As(V) reduction. In a time course experiment with As(V)-amended Mono Lake bottom water, we observed oxidation of sulfide linked to the reduction of As(V) to As(III). This reaction did not occur in filter sterilized controls and sulfide loss did not occur in samples lacking As(V). In bottom water amended with additional sulfide (total = 6 mM) and As(V), we observed a linear relationship between rates of dissimilatory As(V) reduction and As(V) concentration. The highest rate observed under

  9. Clinical differences between respiratory viral and bacterial mono- and dual pathogen detected among Singapore military servicemen with febrile respiratory illness

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Zheng Jie Marc; Zhao, Xiahong; Cook, Alex R; Loh, Jin Phang; Ng, Sock Hoon; Tan, Boon Huan; Lee, Vernon J

    2015-01-01

    Background Although it is known that febrile respiratory illnesses (FRI) may be caused by multiple respiratory pathogens, there are no population-level studies describing its impact on clinical disease. Methods Between May 2009 and October 2012, 7733 FRI patients and controls in the Singapore military had clinical data and nasal wash samples collected prospectively and sent for PCR testing. Patients with one pathogen detected (mono-pathogen) were compared with those with two pathogens (dual pathogen) for differences in basic demographics and clinical presentation. Results In total, 45.8% had one pathogen detected, 20.2% had two pathogens detected, 30.9% had no pathogens detected, and 3.1% had more than two pathogens. Multiple pathogens were associated with recruits, those with asthma and non-smokers. Influenza A (80.0%), influenza B (73.0%) and mycoplasma (70.6%) were most commonly associated with mono-infections, while adenovirus was most commonly associated with dual infections (62.9%). Influenza A paired with S. pneumoniae had higher proportions of chills and rigors than their respective mono-pathogens (P = 0.03, P = 0.009). H. influenzae paired with either enterovirus or parainfluenzae had higher proportions of cough with phlegm than their respective mono-pathogens. Although there were observed differences in mean proportions of body temperature, nasal symptoms, sore throat, body aches and joint pains between viral and bacterial mono-pathogens, there were few differences between distinct dual-pathogen pairs and their respective mono-pathogen counterparts. Conclusion A substantial number of FRI patients have multiple pathogens detected. Observed clinical differences between patients of dual pathogen and mono-pathogen indicate the likely presence of complex microbial interactions between the various pathogens. PMID:25827870

  10. Active site properties of monomeric triosephosphate isomerase (monoTIM) as deduced from mutational and structural studies.

    PubMed

    Schliebs, W; Thanki, N; Eritja, R; Wierenga, R

    1996-02-01

    MonoTIM is a stable monomeric variant of the dimeric trypanosomal enzyme triose phosphate isomerase (TIM) with less, but significant, catalytic activity. It is known that in TIM, three residues, Lys 13 (loop 1), His 95 (loop 4), and Glu 167 (loop 6) are the crucial catalytic residues. In the wild-type TIM dimer, loop 1 and loop 4 are very rigid because of tight interactions with residues of the other subunit. Previous structural studies indicate that Lys 13 and His 95 have much increased conformational flexibility in monoTIM. Using site-directed mutagenesis, it is shown here that Lys 13 and His 95 are nevertheless essential for optimal catalysis by monoTIM: monoTIM-K13A is completely inactive, although it can still bind substrate analogues, and monoTIM-H95A is 50 times less active. The best inhibitors of wild-type TIM are phosphoglycolohydroxamate (PGH) and 2-phosphoglycolate (2PG), with KI values of 8 microM and 26 microM, respectively. The affinity of the monoTIM active site for PGH has been reduced approximately 60-fold, whereas for 2PG, only a twofold weakening of affinity is observed. The mode of binding, as determined by protein crystallographic analysis of these substrate analogues, shows that, in particular, 2PG interacts with Lys 13 and His 95 in a way similar but not identical to that observed for the wild-type enzyme. This crystallographic analysis also shows that Glu 167 has the same interactions with the substrate analogues as in the wild type. The data presented suggest that, despite the absence of the second subunit, monoTIM catalyzes the interconversion of D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate via the same mechanism as in the wild type.

  11. Seed mediated synthesis of highly mono-dispersed gold nanoparticles in the presence of hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dhiraj; Mutreja, Isha; Sykes, Peter

    2016-09-02

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are being studied for several biomedical applications, including drug delivery, biomedical imaging, contrast agents and tumor targeting. The synthesis of nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution is critical for these applications. We report the synthesis of highly mono-dispersed AuNPs by a seed mediated approach, in the presence of tri-sodium citrate and hydroquinone (HQ). AuNPs with an average size of 18 nm were used for the synthesis of highly mono-dispersed nanocrystals of an average size 40 nm, 60 nm, 80 nm and ∼100 nm; but the protocol is not limited to these sizes. The colloidal gold was subjected to UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, showing a red shift in lambda max wavelength, peaks at 518.47 nm, 526.37 nm, 535.73 nm, 546.03 nm and 556.50 nm for AuNPs seed (18 nm), 40 nm, 60 nm, 80 nm and ∼100 nm respectively. The analysis was consistent with dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy. Hydrodynamic diameters measured were 17.6 nm, 40.8 nm, 59.8 nm, 74.1 nm, and 91.4 nm (size by dynamic light scattering-volume %); with an average poly dispersity index value of 0.088, suggesting mono-dispersity in the size distribution, which was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy analysis. The advantage of a seed mediated approach is a multi-step growth of nanoparticle size that enables us to control the number of nanoparticles in the suspension, for size ranging from 24.5 nm to 95.8 nm. In addition, the HQ-based synthesis of colloidal nanocrystals allowed control of the particle size and size distribution by tailoring either the number of seeds, amount of gold precursor or reducing agent (HQ) in the final reaction mixture.

  12. Seed mediated synthesis of highly mono-dispersed gold nanoparticles in the presence of hydroquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Dhiraj; Mutreja, Isha; Sykes, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are being studied for several biomedical applications, including drug delivery, biomedical imaging, contrast agents and tumor targeting. The synthesis of nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution is critical for these applications. We report the synthesis of highly mono-dispersed AuNPs by a seed mediated approach, in the presence of tri-sodium citrate and hydroquinone (HQ). AuNPs with an average size of 18 nm were used for the synthesis of highly mono-dispersed nanocrystals of an average size 40 nm, 60 nm, 80 nm and ˜100 nm; but the protocol is not limited to these sizes. The colloidal gold was subjected to UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, showing a red shift in lambda max wavelength, peaks at 518.47 nm, 526.37 nm, 535.73 nm, 546.03 nm and 556.50 nm for AuNPs seed (18 nm), 40 nm, 60 nm, 80 nm and ˜100 nm respectively. The analysis was consistent with dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy. Hydrodynamic diameters measured were 17.6 nm, 40.8 nm, 59.8 nm, 74.1 nm, and 91.4 nm (size by dynamic light scattering—volume %); with an average poly dispersity index value of 0.088, suggesting mono-dispersity in the size distribution, which was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy analysis. The advantage of a seed mediated approach is a multi-step growth of nanoparticle size that enables us to control the number of nanoparticles in the suspension, for size ranging from 24.5 nm to 95.8 nm. In addition, the HQ-based synthesis of colloidal nanocrystals allowed control of the particle size and size distribution by tailoring either the number of seeds, amount of gold precursor or reducing agent (HQ) in the final reaction mixture.

  13. Spectral Variation Across the Mono-Inyo Craters Chain, Weathering of a Young Volcanic System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, N.; Calvin, W. M.

    2014-12-01

    As part of the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HYSPIRI) preparation mission, the Airborne Visual Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) has over flown the Mono-Inyo Craters chain located in Mono County, California to study the geothermal potential of the area. Data was taken at a spatial scale of 15m, similar to that of the highest resolution Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) data. The Mono-Inyo Craters is a geologically young volcanic chain of 40 eruptive events, with the oldest eruptions dating to 40 Ka and the latest 200 years ago. Today 23 craters show exposure on the surface and vary from a more rhyolitic composition to a more basaltic composition in the north. This data shows spectral variability in the 1.0μm and 2.21μm absorption bands between volcanic centers. The 1.0μm absorption is attributed to iron and iron oxides and the 2.21μm to the Si-OH stretch likely due to the opalization of silica rich of volcanic materials. Such variation can be attributed to weathering of the exposed surface material within each crater. Older volcanic centers show a much deeper 2.21μm than younger volcanic centers. One exception to this is a volcanic dome known as the South Coulee. South Coulee is the location of a pumice mine that has exposed a fresh surface that has little to no weathering, and therefore a smaller 2.21μm band. We will show a correlation between crater exposure age and the 2.21μm band depth. On Mars weathering will take place at a slower pace, due to less water, but with much longer timescales such differences could still exist and be used to determine relative weathering and exposure ages of surfaces.

  14. ON THE ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF ISOLATED MONO-DEHYDROGENATED POLYAROMATIC HYDROCARBON IONS AND THEIR ASTROPHYSICAL RELEVANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Alvaro Galue, Hector; Oomens, Jos

    2012-02-10

    The attribution of the unidentified infrared bands to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules is a key argument for their abundant occurrence in interstellar environments, which has important implications for interstellar chemistry. In contrast to terrestrial conditions, their transient forms are of importance in the low-density astrophysical environments. Here, the gas-phase IR spectra of three PAH molecules in a carbocation state (naphthyl{sup +}, C{sub 10}H{sub 7}{sup +}; phenanthryl{sup +}, C{sub 14}H{sub 9}{sup +}; and pyrenyl{sup +}, C{sub 16}H{sub 9}{sup +}) are investigated by action spectroscopy methods using an infrared free electron laser and an ion-trap mass spectrometer. The IR spectra of the mono-dehydrogenated PAH{sup +} (aryl) ions in the 6-18 {mu}m spectral range are compared to computed IR spectra for various structural isomers of the aryl ions; the comparison indicates that the most stable structures under isolated conditions have a triplet electronic configuration. Electronic structure calculations on systems as large as the mono-dehydrogenated circumcoronene cation (C{sub 54}H{sub 17}{sup +}) provide further evidence for the higher stability of a triplet state as compared with the singlet state. Moreover, the gas-phase IR spectra reveal that the IR signatures of a PAH cation before and after H-atom loss are very similar, in particular in the 6-9 {mu}m region involving the skeletal CC stretching modes, so that triplet mono-dehydrogenated PAH ions are similarly compliant with the general match between PAH mid-IR features and the interstellar unidentified infrared emissions. The establishment of a triplet electronic ground state suggests that interstellar scenarios should consider the possible influence of triplet aromatic chemistry as well as the possible influence of the altered optical properties of triplet PAH species.

  15. High Resolution Seismic Imaging of the Trench Canyon Fault Zone, Mono Lake, Northeastern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novick, M. W.; Jayko, A. S.; Roeske, S.; McClain, J. S.; Hart, P. E.; Boyle, M.

    2009-12-01

    High resolution seismic imaging of Mono Lake, located in northeastern California, has revealed an approximately northwest striking fault in the area to the west of aerially exposed Negit Volcano. This fault, henceforth referred to as the Trench Canyon Fault (TCF), has also been mapped onshore along a correlating strike as far north as Cedar Hill Volcano, located to the northeast of the lake on the California/Nevada border. Onshore, the TCF was mapped for approximately 10 kilometers using air photos, DEM images, and standard geologic pace and compass mapping techniques. The TCF post- dates the last glacial maximum, evidenced by the cutting of wave cut benches along Cedar Hill Volcano. Relict, non-historic shorelines, left by the steady evaporation of Mono Lake beginning approximately 13k, are also repeatedly cut by the fault. Additional evidence of fault presence includes sag ponds, pressure ridges, tectonically fractured rocks, and normal fault scarps found along strike. Offshore, DEM images show a northeast striking structure to the northwest of Negit Volcano, which is co-linear with the onshore TCF. High resolution seismic imaging of the structure, using an applied acoustic/SIG mini-sparker system, reveals steeply dipping Holocene sediments, as well as volcanic deposits from active vents which have erupted in the last 1000 years, offset by the fault. Detailed structural analysis of the previously unstudied Trench Canyon Fault (TFC) and faults in the Cedar Hill region of northern California, along with seismic studies of sediments beneath Mono Lake not only allow for a better comprehension of this minor fault system, but provide greater understanding of the larger and more complex Walker Lane Shear Zone. Fault analyses, combined and correlated with those from CHV, give a better understanding of how slip is transferred into the complicated Mina defection to the east, from the dextral and normal faults along the Sierra Nevada Range front.

  16. Organic osmolytes in aerobic bacteria from mono lake, an alkaline, moderately hypersaline environment.

    PubMed

    Ciulla, R A; Diaz, M R; Taylor, B F; Roberts, M F

    1997-01-01

    The identity and concentrations of intracellular organic solutes were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for two strains of aerobic, gram-negative bacteria isolated from Mono Lake, Calif., an alkaline, moderately hypersaline lake. Ectoine (1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid) was the major endogenous solute in both organisms. Concentrations of ectoine varied with external NaCl levels in strain ML-D but not in strain ML-G, where the level was high but invariant from 1.5 to 3.0 M NaCl. Hydroxyectoine also occurred in strain ML-D, especially at elevated NaCl concentrations (2.5 and 3.0 M), but at levels lower than those of ectoine. Exogenous organic solutes that might occur in Mono Lake were examined for their effects on the de novo synthesis of ectoine. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) (0.1 or 1 mM) did not significantly lower ectoine levels in either isolate, and only strain ML-G showed any capacity for DMSP accumulation. With nitrogen limitation, however, DMSP (0.1 mM) substituted for ectoine in strain ML-G and became the main organic solute. Glycine betaine (GB) was more effective than DMSP in affecting ectoine levels, principally in strain ML-D. Strain ML-D accumulated GB to 50 or 67% of its organic solute pool at 2.5 M NaCl, at an external level of 0.1 or 1 mM GB, respectively. Strain ML-D also accumulated arsenobetaine. The methylated zwitterionic compounds, probably metabolic products of phytoplankton (DMSP and GB) or brine shrimps (arsenobetaine) in Mono Lake, may function as osmolytes for indigenous bacteria when present at high concentrations or under conditions of nitrogen limitation or salt stress.

  17. Primary studies of trace quantities of green vegetation in Mono Lake area using 1990 AVIRIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Zhi-Kang; Elvidge, Chris D.; Groeneveld, David P.

    1992-01-01

    Our primary results in Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve indicate that high spectral resolution Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data may provide a substantial advantage in vegetation, based on the chlorophyll red edge feature from 700-780 nm. The chlorophyll red edge was detected for green vegetation cover as low as 4.8 percent. The objective of our studies in Mono Lake area is to continue the experiments performed in Jasper Ridge and to examine the persistence of red edge feature of trace quantities of green vegetation for different plant communities with non-uniform soil backgrounds.

  18. New ruthenium nitrosyl pincer complexes bearing an O2 ligand. Mono-oxygen transfer.

    PubMed

    Fogler, Eran; Efremenko, Irena; Gargir, Moti; Leitus, Gregory; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Martin, Jan M L; Milstein, David

    2015-03-02

    We report on Ru((II))(μ(2)-O2) nitrosyl pincer complexes that can return to their original Ru(0) state by reaction with mono-oxygen scavengers. Potential intermediates were calculated by density functional theory (DFT) and a mechanism is proposed, revealing a new type of metal-ligand cooperation consisting of activation of the O2 moiety by both the metal center and the NO ligand. Reaction of the Ru(0) nitrosyl complex 1 with O2 quantitatively yielded the crystallographically characterized Ru((II)) (μ(2)-O2) nitrosyl complex 2. Reaction of 2 with the mono-oxygen scavengers phosphines or CO gave the Ru(0) complex 1 and phosphine oxides, or the carbonyl complex 3 (1 trapped by CO) and CO2, respectively. Reaction of 2 with 1 equiv of phosphine at room temperature or -40 °C resulted in immediate formation of half an equivalent of 1 and 1 equiv of phosphine oxide, while half an equivalent of 2 remained unchanged. Overnight reaction at room temperature of 2 with excess CO (≥3 equiv) resulted in 3 and CO2 gas as the only products. Reaction of 1 with 1 equiv of mono-oxygen source (dioxirane) at -78 °C yielded the Ru((II))(μ(2)-O2) complex 2. Similarly, reaction of the Ru(0) dearomatized complex 4 with O2 led to the crystallographicaly characterized Ru((II))(μ(2)-O2) complex 5. Further reaction of 5 with mono-oxygen scavengers (phosphines or CO) led to the Ru(0) complex 4 and phosphine oxides or complex 6 (4 trapped by CO) and CO2. When instead only 1 equiv of 5 was reacted with 1 equiv of phosphine at room temperature, immediate formation of half an equivalent of 4 and 1 equiv of phosphine oxide took place, while half an equivalent of 5 remained unchanged. When 5 reacted with an excess of CO (≥3 equiv), complex 6 and CO2 gas were the only products obtained. DFT studies indicate a new mode of metal-ligand cooperation involving the nitrosyl ligand in the oxygen transfer process.

  19. [Normal values of optokinetic nystagmus during mono- and binocular panorama stimulation].

    PubMed

    Likhachev, S A; Skliut, I A; Dukor, D M

    2001-01-01

    Optokinetic nystagmus was studied in 20 normals (14 females and 6 males) aged from 23 up to 35 with the use of mono- and binocular panorama stimulation (a 1.5-m optokinetic cylinder) with the intensity of 0.67, 1.33 and 2 Hz. In normal subjects, the coefficient of OKN amplitude asymmetry was equal to 6% and the coefficient of slow phase velocity was 7.7%. None of the subjects displayed inversion, i.e. change in nystagmus direction for opposite. Temporal nasal asymmetry in adult subjects was not registered either.

  20. Methods and spatial extent of geophysical Investigations, Mono Lake, California, 2009 to 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, A.S.; Hart, P.E.; Childs, J. R.; Cormier, M.-H.; Ponce, D.A.; Athens, N.D.; McClain, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the methods and spatial extent of geophysical surveys conducted on Mono Lake and Paoha Island by U.S. Geological Survey during 2009 and 2011. The surveys include acquisition of new high resolution seismic reflection data, shipborne high resolution magnetic data, and ground magnetic and gravity data on Paoha Island. Several trials to acquire swath bathymetry and side scan sonar were conducted, but were largely unsuccessful likely due to physical properties of the water column and (or) physical properites of the highly organic bottom sediment.

  1. Simulation study of accelerator based quasi-mono-energetic epithermal neutron beams for BNCT.

    PubMed

    Adib, M; Habib, N; Bashter, I I; El-Mesiry, M S; Mansy, M S

    2016-01-01

    Filtered neutron techniques were applied to produce quasi-mono-energetic neutron beams in the energy range of 1.5-7.5 keV at the accelerator port using the generated neutron spectrum from a Li (p, n) Be reaction. A simulation study was performed to characterize the filter components and transmitted beam lines. The feature of the filtered beams is detailed in terms of optimal thickness of the primary and additive components. A computer code named "QMNB-AS" was developed to carry out the required calculations. The filtered neutron beams had high purity and intensity with low contamination from the accompanying thermal, fast neutrons and γ-rays.

  2. Third order nonlinear optical response exhibited by mono- and few-layers of WS2

    DOE PAGES

    Torres-Torres, Carlos; Perea-López, Néstor; Elías, Ana Laura; ...

    2016-04-13

    In this work, strong third order nonlinear optical properties exhibited by WS2 layers are presented. Optical Kerr effect was identified as the dominant physical mechanism responsible for these third order optical nonlinearities. An extraordinary nonlinear refractive index together with an important contribution of a saturated absorptive response was observed to depend on the atomic layer stacking. Comparative experiments performed in mono- and few-layer samples of WS2 revealed that this material is potentially capable of modulating nonlinear optical processes by selective near resonant induced birefringence. In conclusion, we envision applications for developing all-optical bidimensional nonlinear optical devices.

  3. High-resolution seismic imaging, Mono Lake fault zone, eastern Sierra region, Walker Lane, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayko, A. S.; Childs, J. R.; Hart, P. E.; Bursik, M. I.; McClain, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Multiple strands of the Mono Lake fault zone (MLfz), a segment of the Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone, have been imaged on several high-resolution seismic reflection profiles collected during 2009 and 2011 at Mono Lake. The profiles show coherent reflectors to about 30-40 ms depth below the lake bottom (~30 m thick section) in nearshore areas north of the Lee Vining delta. The MLfz is well imaged on 8 lines including 4 lines ~normal to the trend of the fault zone. The fault zone is ~ 0.75 km wide. Deep reflection horizons appear gently tilted and rotated into the fault zone with a prominent clastic wedge overlying the west-tilted horizons. Shallow reflectors above the clastic wedge are generally east-sloping, but noticeably less inclined above the fault zone. At least two ruptures offset Holocene deposits, with ~0.5-1.8 m dip-slip offset around 2.5 ka and ~3.6-6.13 m dip-slip offset around 4.7 to 6.25 ka. The ages of reflection horizons are estimated using published Holocene and late Pleistocene sedimentation rates, as well as correlation with a published nearby shallow core. The short term fault slip rate based on the timing of the most recent event and multiple events in the profile lines suggests fault slip rates of about 0.26 to 0.55 m/ka using ages based only on sedimentation rate and of about 0.31 to 0.34 m/ka using correlation ages from nearby shallow core. This offshore dip-slip rate is significantly lower than previous published 1.0-2.0 m/ka dip-slip rates estimated using cosmogenic dating of Tioga glacial moraines in Lundy Canyon and offset older moraines. The offset on the large scarp in Lundy Canyon (~20 m) decreases both north and south of the canyon and flanking lateral moraines where the scarp is on the order of only ~4-7 m high. A possible explanation for the apparent difference in MLfz slip rates onshore and offshore in this part of Mono Basin may be soft sediment deformation of saturated glacial-deltaic sediment within Lundy Canyon that causes

  4. Gallstone dissolution using mono-octanoin infusion through an endoscopically placed nasobiliary catheter.

    PubMed

    Venu, R P; Geenen, J E; Toouli, J; Hogan, W J; Kozlov, N; Stewart, E T

    1982-04-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy is widely being used for the treatment of common bile duct stones. In a small group of patients the gallstones are large in size and, hence, difficult to be extracted after a successful endoscopic sphincterotomy. We used a constant infusion of mono-octanoin through a nasobiliary catheter in nine such patients. This method was successful in partial or complete dissolution of the stones in 74% of the patients. In the remaining 36% of the patients, the stones were noted to be soft allowing easy extraction by crushing.

  5. Tunneling transport of mono- and few-layers magnetic van der Waals MnPS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungmin; Choi, Ki-Young; Lee, Sangik; Park, Bae Ho; Park, Je-Geun

    2016-08-01

    We have investigated the tunneling transport of mono- and few-layers of MnPS3 by using conductive atomic force microscopy. Due to the band alignment of indium tin oxide/MnPS3/Pt-Ir tip junction, the key features of both Schottky junction and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling (FNT) were observed for all the samples with varying thickness. Using the FNT model and assuming the effective electron mass (0.5 me) of MnPS3, we estimate the tunneling barrier height to be 1.31 eV and the dielectric breakdown strength as 5.41 MV/cm.

  6. Polyelectrolyte Properties in Mono and Multi-Valent Ionic Media: Brushes and Complex Coacervates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, Robert M.

    Materials composed of polyelectrolytes have unique and interesting physical properties resulting primarily from their charged monomer segments. Polyelectrolytes, which exist in many different biological and industrial forms, have also been shown to be highly responsive to external environmental changes. Here, two specific polyelectrolyte systems, brushes and complex coacervates, are discussed in regards to how their properties can be tailored by adjusting the surrounding ionic environment with mono and multi-valent ions. End-tethered polyelectrolyte brushes, which constitute an interesting and substantial portion of polyelectrolyte applications, are well known for their ability to provide excellent lubrication and low friction when coated onto surfaces (e.g. articular cartilage and medical devices), as well as for their ability to stabilize colloidal particles in solution (e.g. paint and cosmetic materials). These properties have been extensively studied with brushes in pure mono-valent ionic media. However, polyelectrolyte brush interactions with multi-valent ions in solution are much less understood, although highly relevant considering mono and multi-valent counterions are present in most applications. Even at very low concentrations of multi-valent ions in solution, dramatic polyelectrolyte brush physical property changes can occur, resulting in collapsed chains which also adhere to one another via multi-valent bridging. Here, the strong polyelectrolyte poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) was studied using the Surface Forces Apparatus (SFA) and electrochemistry in order to investigate brush height and intermolecular interactions between two brushes as a function of multi-valent counterion population inside a brush. Complex coacervates are formed when polyanions and polycations are mixed together in proper conditions of an aqueous solution. This mixing results in a phase separation of a polymer-rich, coacervate phase composed of a chain network held together via

  7. Simultaneous determination of mono- and disubstituted polyfluoroalkyl phosphates in drinking water by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ding, Huanhuan; Peng, Hui; Yang, Min; Hu, Jianying

    2012-03-02

    A sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method was established for the simultaneous determination of five monosubstituted polyfluoroalkyl phosphates (monoPAPs) and eight disubstituted polyfluoroalkyl phosphates (diPAPs) in drinking water. Complete separation and good retention for 13 polyfluoroalkyls phosphates (PAPs) were achieved with a Waters ACUITY UPLC BEH C8 column using a mixture of methanol/water containing 0.1% NH₄OH as the mobile phases. Extraction of drinking water samples was performed on weak anion exchange (WAX) cartridges, and the recoveries of target compounds were from 65 to 110%. The limits of quantization (LOQs) for 13 analytes were in the range of 0.4-40 ng/L. This method was applied to analyze the PAPs in drinking water samples from three cities in China. Of the 13 PAPs, six PAPs including 6:2 monoPAP (13.0 ng/L), 8:2 monoPAP (3.6 ng/L), 10:1 monoPAP (4.3-70.3 ng/L), 10:2 monoPAP (1.4-5.6 ng/L), 8:2 diPAP (0.10 ng/L), and 10:1 diPAP (0.8-3.8 ng/L) were detected.

  8. Biochemical properties of a new cold-active mono- and diacylglycerol lipase from marine member Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dongjuan; Lan, Dongming; Xin, Ruipu; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2014-06-12

    Mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase has been applied to industrial usage in oil modification for its special substrate selectivity. Until now, the reported mono- and di-acylglycerol lipases from microorganism are limited, and there is no report on the mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase from bacteria. A predicted lipase (named MAJ1) from marine Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649 was purified and biochemical characterized. MAJ1 was clustered in the family I.7 of esterase/lipase. The optimum activity of the purified MAJ1 occurred at pH 7.0 and 30 °C. The enzyme retained 50% of the optimum activity at 5 °C, indicating that MAJ1 is a cold-active lipase. The enzyme activity was stable in the presence of various metal ions, and inhibited in EDTA. MAJ1 was resistant to detergents. MAJ1 preferentially hydrolyzed mono- and di-acylglycerols, but did not show activity to triacylglycerols of camellia oil substrates. Further, MAJ1 is low homologous to that of the reported fungal diacylglycerol lipases, including Malassezia globosa lipase 1 (SMG1), Penicillium camembertii lipase U-150 (PCL), and Aspergillus oryzae lipase (AOL). Thus, we identified a novel cold-active bacterial lipase with a sn-1/3 preference towards mono- and di-acylglycerides for the first time. Moreover, it has the potential, in oil modification, for special substrate selectivity.

  9. Mono- and bimetallic Rh and Pt NSR-catalysts prepared by controlled deposition of noble metals on support or storage component

    PubMed Central

    Büchel, Robert; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.; Baiker, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    Mono- and bimetallic Rh and Pt based NOx storage-reduction (NSR) catalysts, where the noble metals were deposited on the Al2O3 support or BaCO3 storage component, have been prepared using a twin flame spray pyrolysis setup. The catalysts were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, CO chemisorption combined with diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The NSR performance of the catalysts was investigated by fuel lean/rich cycling in the absence and presence of SO2 (25 ppm) as well as after H2 desulfation at 750 °C. The performance increased when Rh was located on BaCO3 enabling good catalyst regeneration during the fuel rich phase. Best performance was observed for bimetallic catalysts where the noble metals were separated, with Pt on Al2O3 and Rh on BaCO3. The Rh-containing catalysts generally showed much higher tolerance to SO2 during fuel rich conditions and lost only little activity during thermal aging at 750 °C. PMID:23741085

  10. Mono- and bimetallic Rh and Pt NSR-catalysts prepared by controlled deposition of noble metals on support or storage component.

    PubMed

    Büchel, Robert; Pratsinis, Sotiris E; Baiker, Alfons

    2012-02-22

    Mono- and bimetallic Rh and Pt based NOx storage-reduction (NSR) catalysts, where the noble metals were deposited on the Al2O3 support or BaCO3 storage component, have been prepared using a twin flame spray pyrolysis setup. The catalysts were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, CO chemisorption combined with diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The NSR performance of the catalysts was investigated by fuel lean/rich cycling in the absence and presence of SO2 (25 ppm) as well as after H2 desulfation at 750 °C. The performance increased when Rh was located on BaCO3 enabling good catalyst regeneration during the fuel rich phase. Best performance was observed for bimetallic catalysts where the noble metals were separated, with Pt on Al2O3 and Rh on BaCO3. The Rh-containing catalysts generally showed much higher tolerance to SO2 during fuel rich conditions and lost only little activity during thermal aging at 750 °C.

  11. Influence of biochar and nitrogen on fine root morphology, physiology, and chemistry of Acer mono.

    PubMed

    Razaq, Muhammad; Salahuddin; Shen, Hai-Long; Sher, Hassan; Zhang, Peng

    2017-07-14

    Fine roots play an important role in the overall functions of individual plants. Previous studies showed that fertilization and available soil resources have a notably profound effect on fine root, but there is lack of study centered on how fine root morphology, physiology, and chemistry respond to biochar with N additions. Different levels of biochar (0, 10, 15, and 20 g) and N (0, 2, 4 and 6 g) were applied to Acer mono seedling plants in a field nursery. The root system morphology and root chemistry and physiology were evaluated in line with root length, root diameter, SRL, N and N: C and root respiration. Biochar and N significantly affected root morphology, chemistry and root respiration. Morphological, chemical and physiological parameters were found to be at their maximum with 20 g biochar and 6 g N; however, no significant effect was noted on fourth- and fifth-order roots. Furthermore, a significant increase in root respiration was recognized with the increase in root tissue N concentration and the negative relationship of root respiration with higher branch order. Thus, overall, study parameters indicate that biochar and nitrogen positively influence the Acer mono fine root, and therefore should be used to improve fine root health.

  12. Production, purification and biological characterization of mono-PEGylated anti-IL-17A antibody fragments.

    PubMed

    Koussoroplis, Salome-Juliette; Heywood, Sam; Uyttenhove, Catherine; Barilly, Céline; Van Snick, Jacques; Vanbever, Rita

    2013-09-15

    The aim of this study was to maximize the yield of the production of mono-PEGylated anti-interleukin-17A (anti-IL-17A) antibody fragments using large (≥ 20 kDa) polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains. Particular attention was paid to selectively yield mono-PEGylated species to maintain the maximum possible functionality and to simplify the purification. Neutralization of IL-17A by antibody constructs might find application for the treatment of bronchial hyperreactivity. Amino-directed and sulfhydryl-directed PEGylation of the native antibody fragments were compared. The former was selected as it produced the most interesting construct in terms of yield and preservation of biological activity. In particular, the F(ab')2-PEG conjugate with one 40 kDa branched PEG prepared in this study was produced at a 42% yield. The conjugate presented only a slight decrease in its binding activity and in its in vitro inhibitory potency offering interesting perspectives for in vivo studies.

  13. Hydrogen bond formation in regioselectively functionalized 3-mono-O-methyl cellulose.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Tetsuo; Koschella, Andreas; Heublein, Brigitte; Klemm, Dieter; Heinze, Thomas

    2008-10-13

    The hydrogen bond systems of cellulose and its derivatives are one of the most important factors regarding their physical- and chemical properties such as solubility, crystallinity, gel formation, and resistance to enzymatic degradation. In this paper, it was attempted to clarify the intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bond formation in regioselectively functionalized 3-mono-O-methyl cellulose (3MC). First, the 3MC was synthesized and the cast film thereof was characterized in comparison to 2,3-di-O-methyl cellulose, 6-mono-O-methyl cellulose, and 2,3,6-tri-O-methyl cellulose by means of wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and (13)C cross polarization/magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy. Second, the hydrogen bonds in the 3MC film were analyzed by means of FTIR spectroscopy in combination with a curve fitting method. After deconvolution, the resulting two main bands (Fig. 3) indicated that instead of intramolecular hydrogen bonds between position OH-3 and O-5 another intramolecular hydrogen bond between OH-2 and OH-6 may exist. The large deconvoluted band at 3340cm(-1) referred to strong interchain hydrogen bonds involving the hydroxyl groups at C-6. The crystallinity of 54% calculated from the WAXD supports also the dependency of the usually observed crystallization in cellulose of the hydroxyl groups at C-6 to engage in interchain hydrogen bonding.

  14. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of mono-arylimidamides as antileishmanial agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaohua; Farahat, Abdelbasset A.; Mattamana, Meena; Joice, April; Pandharkar, Trupti; Holt, Elizabeth; Banerjee, Moloy; Gragg, Jamie L.; Hu, Laixing; Kumar, Arvind; Yang, Sihyung; Wang, Michael Zhuo; Boykin, David W.; Werbovetz, Karl A.

    2016-01-01

    Arylimidamide (AIA) compounds containing two pyridylimidamide terminal groups (bis-AIAs) possess outstanding in vitro antileishmanial activity, and the frontrunner bis-AIA DB766 (2,5-bis[2-(2-isopropoxy)-4-(2-pyridylimino)aminophenyl]furan) is active in visceral leishmaniasis models when given orally. Eighteen compounds containing a single pyridylimidamide terminal group (mono-AIAs) were synthesized and evaluated for their antileishmanial potential. Six of these compounds exhibited sub-micromolar potency against both intracellular Leishmania donovani and Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes, and three of these compounds also displayed selectivity indexes of 25 or greater for the parasites compared to a J774 macrophage cell line. When given orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day for five days, compound 1b (N-(3-isopropoxy-4-(5-phenylfuran-2-yl)phenyl)picolinimidamide methanesulfonate) reduced liver parasitemia by 46% in L. donovani-infected mice. Mono-AIAs are thus a new class of candidate molecules for antileishmanial drug development. PMID:27048943

  15. Distribution, production, and ecophysiology of Picocystis strain ML in Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roesler, Collin S.; Culbertson, Charles W.; Etheridge, Stacey M.; Goericke, Ralf; Kiene, Ronald P.; Miller, Laurence G.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2002-01-01

    A recently described unicellular chlorophytic alga isolated from meromictic Mono Lake, California, occupies a niche that spans two environments: the upper oxic mixolimnion and the deeper anoxic and highly reducing monimolimnion. This organism, Picocystis sp. strain ML, accounts for nearly 25% of the primary production during the winter bloom and more than 50% at other times of the year. In incubations, it is heavily grazed by the brine shrimp, Artemia monica. We assessed growth and photosynthetic parameters over broad ranges of irradiance, salinity, and pH and under oxic and anoxic conditions. Picocystis appears to be particularly adapted to low irradiance; we observed an order of magnitude increase in the cellular pigment concentrations, as well as marked increases in cellspecific photosynthetic parameters for cells acclimated to low-growth irradiance. Growth rates of 0.3–1.5 d21 were observed over a salinity range of 0–260‰ and a pH range of 4–12, with maximal growth at ;50 mmol photons m22 s21 , 40‰, and pH 6–10. Growth and oxygenic photosynthesis were observed under anoxic conditions at rates comparable to those measured under oxic conditions. The ability of the organism to acclimate and grow under such a broad range of environmental conditions makes it an important component of the Mono Lake ecosystem and likely contributes to its dominance of the monimolimnion/mixolimnion interface.

  16. Ash production and dispersal from sustained low-intensity Mono-Inyo eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Benjamin A.; Manga, Michael; Andrews, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Recent rhyolitic volcanism has demonstrated that prolonged low-intensity ash venting may accompany effusive dome formation. We examine the possibility and some consequences of episodes of extended, weak ash venting at the rhyolitic Mono-Inyo chain in Eastern California. We describe ash-filled cracks within one of the youngest domes, Panum Crater, which provide a textural record of ash venting during dome effusion. We use synchrotron-based X-ray computed tomography to characterize the particles in these tuffisites. Particle sizes in well-sorted tuffisite layers agree well with grain size distributions observed during weak ash venting at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, and yield approximate upper and lower bounds on gas velocity and mass flux during the formation of those layers. We simulate ash dispersal with Ash3d to assess the consequences of long-lived Mono-Inyo ash venting for ash deposition and the accompanying volcanic hazards. Our results highlight the sensitivity of large-scale outcomes of volcanic eruptions to small-scale processes.

  17. Photon, electron, magnon, phonon and plasmon mono-mode circuits [review article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasseur, J. O.; Akjouj, A.; Dobrzynski, L.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; El Boudouti, E. H.

    2004-06-01

    Photon circuits are light conducting networks formed by joining several dielectric wave-guide channels for the transmission of light. Their production utilizes the most advanced surface technologies and represents one of the most important challenges for the next decade. These circuits are usually mono-mode when the lateral dimensions of the conducting wires are small as compared to the photon wavelength. Plasmon circuits are plasmon conducting networks, a plasmon being a collective excitation of an electron gas in a metal. Such circuits made out of nanometric metallic clusters and wires can also be tuned to work at light wavelength. Similarly, electron circuits can be designed with modern surface technologies in which the propagation of electrons is non-diffusive. Similar investigations also started recently for circuits in which the propagating excitations are phonons and magnons (spin waves). In this review paper, we deal with mono-mode circuits for propagating photons, non-diffusive ballistic electrons, magnons, phonons and plasmons. In all these circuits, the interfaces between the different wires out of which the circuits are made of, play a fundamental role. All such circuits exhibit a variety of interference effects in their transport properties. Emphasis in this review paper is placed on the network creations, which include barriers, stubs or resonators, closed loops, interconnecting branched networks and multiplexers. Results for the transmission and reflection properties of such circuits are discussed as a function of the wavelength of the excitations and the physical properties of the circuits.

  18. Study of the molecularly imprinted polymers for selective binding of the mono-substituted sulfonylurea herbicides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengli; Dong, Xiangchao; Wang, Bo; Fan, Zhijin; Luan, Linbo; Li, Yanni

    2013-04-01

    A new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized for the selective extraction of mono-substituted sulfonylurea herbicides, with monosulfuron as the template and acrylamide as the functional monomer. The recognition property and affinity of the MIP for monosulfuron and its analog, monosulfuron-ester, were evaluated by equilibrium adsorption and a chromatographic study. Computer modeling, including simulated annealing and semi-empirical quantum calculation, was employed to study the recognition mechanism. The computer modeling demonstrated that monosulfuron can form multiple hydrogen bonds with methacrylic acid and acrylamide, whereas monosulfuron-ester cannot form a stable complex with these two functional monomers, which aligns with the results of the rebinding experiment. The selectivity study further demonstrated that binding sites in the MIP interact with the hydrogen in the acylamino group of mono-substituted sulfonylurea. A comparison experiment also showed that monosulfuron-imprinted MIP offers better selectivity for monosulfuron-ester than the commercial C18 high-performance liquid chromatography stationary phase material.

  19. Advances in fabrication of mono- and multifilament Ag-CLAD BSCCO superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, U.; Iyer, A.N.; Jammy, R.; Haldar, P.; Hoehn, J.G. Jr.; Suenaga, M.

    1995-07-01

    Fabricating long lengths of robust and high-quality conductors is imperative for various applications of high-{Tc} superconductors. Long lengths of mono- and multifilament Ag-clad Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-0 conductors have been fabricated by the powder-in-tube technique. High values for critical current density (J{sub c}) have been achieved in both short- and long-length conductors. J{sub c} values up to 12,000 A/cm{sup 2} have been achieved in an 850-m-long multifilament conductor. Pancake-shaped coils and test magnets fabricated from long-length conductors were characterized at various temperatures and applied magnetic fields. A magnet containing 770 m of high-{Tc} conductor generated a record high field of {approx} 1 T at 4.2 K in a background field of {approx} 20 T. In-situ tensile and bending characteristics of both mono- and multifilament conductors have also been studied. Multifilament conductors exhibited better axial strain tolerance ({var_epsilon} {approx} 1%) than that of monofilament conductor ({var_epsilon} {approx} 0.2%), while retaining 90% of their initial critical current. An analysis of the results is presented, along with effects of parameters such as thickness, superconductor/Ag ratio, and microstructural details.

  20. Mono-fermentation of chicken manure: ammonia inhibition and recirculation of the digestate.

    PubMed

    Nie, Hong; Jacobi, H Fabian; Strach, Katrin; Xu, Chunming; Zhou, Hongjun; Liebetrau, Jan

    2015-02-01

    The effects of ammonia concentration on the performance and stability of mono-fermentation of chicken manure were investigated in a lab-scale continuous stirred tank reactor at 40 °C. Technical stripping was performed to remove ammonia from the liquid fraction of digestate, and the entire product was recycled to the fermenter to control ammonia concentration in the fermenter. Organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.3 gVS/(L d) was achieved with an average free ammonia nitrogen (FAN) concentration of 0.77 g/L and a specific gas yield of 0.39 L/gVS. When OLR was increased to 6.0 gVS/(L d), stable operation could be obtained with an average FAN concentration of 0.86 g/L and a specific gas yield of 0.27 L/gVS. Mono-fermentation of chicken manure was successfully carried out at high ammonia concentrations. Controlled recirculation of treated liquid fraction of digestate could be a solution in large-scale application for both: to avoid ammonia inhibition and minimize digestate.

  1. Direct inhibitions of the activities of steroidogenic cytochrome P-450 mono-oxygenase systems by anticonvulsants.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, T; Ichikawa, Y

    1997-01-01

    The effects of anticonvulsants on the activities of cytochromes P-450(17alpha,lyase) (CYP17), P-450arom (CYP19), P-450C21 (CYP21), P-450SCC (CYP11A1), and P-450(11beta) (CYP11B1) mono-oxygenase systems were studied using rat testicular microsomes, human placental microsomes, bovine adrenocortical microsomes, bovine adrenocortical mitochondria and purified cytochrome P-450(11beta). Phenytoin, clonazepam and carbamazepine inhibited the steroidogenesis catalysed by these cytochrome P-450 mono-oxygenase systems and the Ki values for each anticonvulsant were determined. Neither hydantoin nor sodium valproate inhibited the activities of steroidogenic cytochromes P-450. When the activities of cytochromes P-450arom and P-450C21 were measured in the presence of anticonvulsants, the Ki values (0.15 mM) for phenytoin were close to the plasma concentration of phenytoin under therapeutic conditions. Phenytoin, clonazepam and carbamazepine directly inhibited the monooxygenase activities of cytochromes P-450, because they did not affect the activities of NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase, NADPH-adrenoferredoxin reductase and adrenoferredoxin.

  2. Mono- and di-bromo platinum(IV) prodrugs via oxidative bromination: synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zoufeng; Wang, Zhigang; Yiu, Shek-Man; Zhu, Guangyu

    2015-12-14

    Platinum(IV)-based anticancer prodrugs have attracted much attention due to their relative inertness under physiological conditions, being activated inside cells, and their capacity for functionalization with a variety of small-molecule or macromolecule moieties. Novel asymmetric platinum(IV) compounds synthesized through expedient and unique methods are desired. Here we utilize N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and carry out oxidative bromination on platinum(II) drugs, namely cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, to obtain asymmetric and mono-bromo platinum(IV) prodrugs. Different solvents are used to obtain various compounds, and the compounds are further functionalized. Di-bromo compounds are also obtained through NBS-directed oxidative bromination in ethanol. The crystal structures of representative compounds are discussed, and the reduction potentials of some compounds are examined. A cytotoxicity test shows that the mono- and di-bromo platinum(IV) compounds are active against human ovarian cancer cells. Our study enriches the family of asymmetric platinum(IV) prodrugs and provides with a convenient strategy to obtain brominated platinum(IV) complexes.

  3. Synthesis, structure and magnetism of homologous series of polycrystalline cobalt alkane mono- and dicarboxylate soaps.

    PubMed

    Rueff, Jean-Micel; Masciocchi, Norberto; Rabu, Pierre; Sironi, Angelo; Skoulios, Antoine

    2002-04-15

    Carboxylate-bridged chain complexes of Co(II) (the diaquacobalt(II) mono- and ,-dialkanoates) form two homologous series of layered compounds which have been fully characterised both structurally and magnetically. The crystal structures of two selected members, [Co[CH3(CH2)10COO]2(H2O)2] and [Co[CH3(CH2)18COO]2(H2O)2], have been solved by X-ray powder diffraction and selected-area electron diffraction methods, and refined by the Rietveld technique. Crystal data: monoclinic, P 2(1)/a; a=9.688(1), b=7.5495(9), c=37.281(5) A, =96.70(3) primary, Z=4; and monoclinic, P 2(1)/a; a=9.7260(7), b=7.5477(7), c=57.53(1) A, =94.66(4) primary, Z=4, respectively. Their isomorphous structures contain layers of octahedral diaquacobalt(II) ions bonded to two chemically inequivalent alkanoates, one chelating and one bridging two Co atoms about 6.3 A apart, thus confirming the rare anti-anti conformation mode of the -RCOO groups recently proposed for diaquacobalt(II) ,-dodecanedioate. Extensive magnetic characterisation allowed estimation of the feeble antiferromagnetic coupling, which is weaker in the mono- than in the dialkanoate series.

  4. Enhanced cooling in mono-crystalline ultra-thin silicon by embedded micro-air channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Fahad, Hossain M.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Rojas, Jhonathan P.; Torres Sevilla, Galo A.; Alfaraj, Nasir; Lizardo, Ernesto B.; Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2015-12-01

    In today's digital world, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology enabled scaling of bulk mono-crystalline silicon (100) based electronics has resulted in their higher performance but with increased dynamic and off-state power consumption. Such trade-off has caused excessive heat generation which eventually drains the charge of battery in portable devices. The traditional solution utilizing off-chip fans and heat sinks used for heat management make the whole system bulky and less mobile. Here we show, an enhanced cooling phenomenon in ultra-thin (>10 μm) mono-crystalline (100) silicon (detached from bulk substrate) by utilizing deterministic pattern of porous network of vertical "through silicon" micro-air channels that offer remarkable heat and weight management for ultra-mobile electronics, in a cost effective way with 20× reduction in substrate weight and a 12% lower maximum temperature at sustained loads. We also show the effectiveness of this event in functional MOS field effect transistors (MOSFETs) with high-κ/metal gate stacks.

  5. Origin of Structural Transformation in Mono- and Bi-Layered Molybdenum Disulfide

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoli; Wang, Zhiguo; Li, Zhijie; Fu, Y. Q.

    2016-01-01

    Mono- and multi-layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is considered to be one of the next generation anode materials for rechargeable ion batteries. Structural transformation from trigonal prismatic (2H) to octahedral (1T) upon lithium or sodium intercalation has been in-situ observed experimentally using transmission electron microscope during studies of their electrochemical dynamics processes. In this work, we explored the fundamental mechanisms of this structural transformation in both mono- and bi-layered MoS2 using density functional theory. For the intercalated MoS2, the Li and Na donate their electrons to the MoS2. Based on the theoretical analysis, we confirmed that, for the first time, electron transfer is dominant in initiating this structural transformation, and the results provide an in-depth understanding of the transformation mechanism induced by the electron doping. The critical values of electron concentrations for this structural transformation are decreased with increasing the layer thickness. PMID:27225416

  6. Structural and functional synthetic model of mono-iron hydrogenase featuring an anthracene scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Junhyeok; Manes, Taylor A.; Rose, Michael J.

    2017-06-01

    Mono-iron hydrogenase was the third type of hydrogenase discovered. Its Lewis acidic iron(II) centre promotes the heterolytic cleavage of the H-H bond and this non-redox H2 activation distinguishes it from the well-studied dinuclear [FeFe] and [NiFe] hydrogenases. Cleavage of the H-H bond is followed by hydride transfer to the enzyme's organic substrate, H4MPT+, which serves as a CO2 'carrier' in methanogenic pathways. Here we report a scaffold-based synthetic approach by which to model mono-iron hydrogenase using an anthracene framework, which supports a biomimetic fac-C,N,S coordination motif to an iron(II) centre. This arrangement includes the biomimetic and organometallic Fe-C σ bond, which enables bidirectional activity reminiscent of the native enzyme: the complex activates H2 under mild conditions, and catalyses C-H hydride abstraction plus H2 generation from a model substrate. Notably, neither H2 activation nor C-H hydride abstraction was observed in the analogous complex with a pincer-type mer-C,N,S ligation, emphasizing the importance of the fac-C,N,S-iron(II) motif in promoting enzyme-like reactivity.

  7. Novel surface-active oligofructose fatty acid mono-esters by enzymatic esterification.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, Silvia E H J; Boeriu, Carmen G; Schols, Henk A; de Waard, Pieter; van der Linden, Erik; Sagis, Leonard M C

    2013-06-01

    This article describes the synthesis of a series of oligofructose monoesters with fatty acids of different chain length (C8, C12, C16 and C18) to obtain food-grade surfactants with a range of amphiphilicity. Reactions were performed in a mixture of DMSO/Bu(t)OH (10/90 v/v) at 60°C and catalysed by immobilised Candida antarctica lipase B. MALDI-TOF-MS analysis showed that the crude reaction products were mixtures of unmodified oligofructose and mostly mono-esters. The conversion into mono-esters increased with the length of the fatty acid chain, reflecting the specificity of the lipase towards more lipophilic substrates. Reverse phase solid phase extraction was used to fractionate the products, which lead to sufficient purity (>93%) of the fatty acid esters for functionality testing. It was shown that derivatives of longer (C16 and C18) fatty acids were more efficient in lowering surface tension and gave a much higher dilatational modulus than derivatives of the shorter (C8 and C12) fatty acids.

  8. Interactions of squaric acid with DABCO mono-betaine: Structural, spectroscopic and calculation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barczyński, P.; Dega-Szafran, Z.; Katrusiak, A.; Szafran, M.

    2012-04-01

    The 1:1 complex of squaric acid (3,4-dihydroxy-3-cyclobutene-1,2-dion) with DABCO mono-betaine (1-carboxymethyl-1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane inner salt), 1, has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis, FTIR and NMR spectroscopies and by DFT calculations. The crystal of 1 is triclinic, space group P1¯. Short COOH⋯O and Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds of 2.445(2) and 2.582(2) Å, respectively, link the diprotonated DABCO mono-betaine dications and squarate dianions into chain. The structure is additionally stabilized by the N+⋯O electrostatic interactions and weak Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The FTIR spectrum shows two broad absorptions in the 3000-2000 cm-1 region assigned to the νNsbnd H⋯O vibration and in the 1900-500 cm-1 region attributed to the ν(OHO) and γ(OHO) vibrations of the short hydrogen bonds.

  9. Block of sodium channels by internal mono- and divalent guanidinium analogues. Modulation by sodium ion concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Danko, M; Smith-Maxwell, C; McKinney, L; Begenisich, T

    1986-01-01

    We have investigated the block of squid axon sodium channels by mono- and divalent guanidinium analogues. The action of these compounds on steady state sodium currents was independent of the presence or absence of the normal inactivation process. Block by both mono- and divalent analogues was voltage-dependent, but was a steeper function of potential for divalent molecules. The voltage-dependence could not, in general, be reproduced by a simple model based on Boltzmann's equation. Inhibition of steady state currents by guanidinium ions with 50 mM internal sodium was reasonably well described by a 1:1 drug/channel binding function. Increasing the internal sodium ion concentration increased both the degree and voltage-dependence of current inhibition. This is in sharp contrast to the decrease in inactivation caused by internal sodium. Changes in the external sodium concentration had very little effect on drug block. These results are consistent with a model of the sodium channel as a multi-ion pore. Only a small increase in block can be produced by increased internal sodium in a three-barrier two-site model, but a four-barrier three-site model can reproduce these experimental findings. The implications of these results for physical models of inactivation are discussed. PMID:2420382

  10. Evaluation of mono or mixed cultures of lactic acid bacteria in type II sourdough system.

    PubMed

    Ekinci, Raci; Şimşek, Ömer; Küçükçuban, Ayca; Nas, Sebahattin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of mono and mixed lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures to determine suitable LAB combinations for a type II sourdough system. In this context, previously isolated sourdough LAB strains with antimicrobial activity, which included Lactobacillus plantarum PFC22, Lactobacillus brevis PFC31, Pediococcus acidilactici PFC38, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis PFC80, were used as mono or mixed culture combinations in a fermentation system to produce type II sourdough, and subsequently in bread dough production. Compared to the monoculture fermentation of dough, the use of mixed cultures shortened the adaptation period by half. In addition, the use of mixed cultures ensured higher microbial viability, and enhanced the fruity flavor during bread dough production. It was determined that the combination of L. plantarum PFC22 + P. acidilactici PFC38 + L. sanfranciscensis PFC80 is a promising culture mixture that can be used in the production of type II sourdough systems, and that may also contribute to an increase in metabolic activity during bread production process.

  11. [Consultations in oncological supportive care mono-, multi-, ou interdisciplinary: What should we favour?].

    PubMed

    Garnier, Stéphanie Ranque; Pelletti, Caroline; Quenard, Christelle; Vallet, Fabienne; Lemoine, Patrick; Guastella, Virginie; Rhondali, Wadih

    2015-09-01

    According to the point 7.6 and 7.7 of the Cancer Plan 2014, all cancer patients should have access to supportive care. Indeed, the supportive care consultation in oncology is an important tool for the symptom management of cancer patients at all times of treatment. This consultation can be mono-disciplinary or multi-disciplinary (with different professions: physician, nurse, psychologist, social service assistant…) with or without integration (multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary). There are few studies focusing on the types of consultations (mono- or multidisciplinary) to promote based on their expected outcomes. After describing the different types of consultations (initial, follow-up, unscheduled, discharge) and having highlighted the main issues of these consultations, we will present the possible configurations. Our discussion will concern then the advantages and disadvantages of monodisciplinarity and different types of multidisciplinary highlighting the possible improvements. At the end of this work, after a brief synthesis of the different outcomes associated with each type of consultation, we would like to discuss the type of consultation to choose according to the outcomes.

  12. Digital database of the Holocene tephras of the Mono-Inyo Craters, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bursik, Marcus; Sieh, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    This digital product comprises a collection of age and isopach data for the Holocene tephras of the Mono-Inyo Craters, California. Data on the most recent eruptions from this volcanic chain are relatively comprehensive, getting less so the further back in time. For the most recent eruptions to about 1,500 years ago, tephra beds within separate eruptive sequences have been studied and isopached. Before this, from about 2,000 years ago to about 5,000 years ago, there are insufficient data for isopaching. However, one isolated tephra of about 9,000 years ago was studied and isopached in detail. Regarding ages, there are many tens of radiocarbon ages that have been obtained on the Holocene Mono-Inyo volcanic products. The vast majority of these radiocarbon dates are associated with tephras at locales that can be considered distal (basically where the primary tephra is less than several centimeters (cm) thick). These dates represent carbon that was sequestered perhaps within several hundred years of the eruption but do not represent the ages of separate eruptive pulses. There are two reasons for this. In some cases, it is clear that the dated material is not associated with the eruption products. This is the case in some lake strata where carbon is either not physically close to a given tephra layer or where an age for a tephra layer was obtained by interpolation assuming a sedimentation rate. In other cases, it is not clear that a given tephra layer represents a primary tephra; in such cases the layer could instead be redeposited. At most distal localities (beyond about 5 kilometers (km) from the chain), there was no record made of whether tephra was primary or redeposited, and at these distances where tephra is thin, it is generally redeposited during later events such as fires or thunderstorms. These age data are not appropriate for use in dating the eruptive history of the volcanic chain, and are therefore not included in the present contribution. The carbon age

  13. Ca isotope fractionation in a high-alkalinity lake system: Mono Lake, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Laura C.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2013-10-01

    Precipitation of calcium carbonate minerals from aqueous solutions causes surface-controlled kinetic stable Ca isotope fractionation. The magnitude of fractionation depends on the relative rates of ion attachment to and detachment from the mineral surface, which in turn is predicted to depend on both the saturation state and the solution stoichiometry or the Ca:CO32- activity ratio. Experimental studies have not directly investigated the effects of varying solution stoichiometry on calcium isotope partitioning during calcite or aragonite growth, but natural alkaline lake systems such as Mono Lake, California provide a test bed for the hypothesized stoichiometry dependence. Mono Lake has a Ca:CO32- activity ratio of about 0.0001, seven orders of magnitude lower than ocean water and typical terrestrial freshwater. We present chemical and isotopic measurements of streams, springs, lake water, and precipitated carbonates from the Mono Basin that yield evidence of stoichiometry-dependent Ca isotope fractionation during calcite, aragonite and Mg-calcite precipitation from the alkaline lake water. To estimate the Ca isotope fractionation factors, it is necessary to characterize the lake Ca balance and constrain the variability of lake water chemistry both spatially and temporally. Streams and springs supply Ca to the lake, and a substantial fraction of this supply is precipitated along the lake shore to form tufa towers. Lake water is significantly supersaturated with respect to carbonate minerals, so CaCO3 also precipitates directly from the water column to form carbonate-rich bottom sediments. Growth rate inhibition by orthophosphate likely preserves the high degree of supersaturation in the lake. Strontium isotope ratios are used to estimate the proportions of fresh and alkaline lake water from which each solid carbonate sample precipitated. Carbonate minerals that precipitate directly from lake water (low Ca:CO32-) experience relatively large Ca isotope fractionation

  14. Two coarse pyroclastic flow deposits, northern Mono-Inyo Craters, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennen, R. L.; Bursik, M. I.; Stokes, P. J.; Lagamba, M.; Fontanella, N.; Hintz, A. R.; Jayko, A. S.

    2010-12-01

    The ~1350 A.D., rhyolitic North Mono eruption, Mono-Inyo Craters, CA, included the extrusion and destruction of Panum Dome and associated clastic deposits. Overlying the tephras of the North Mono sequence, the Panum deposits include a block-and-ash flow (BAF) deposit, covering ~3.5 km2. Blocks within the deposit are typically lithic rhyolite and banded gray micro-vesicular glass, showing white, almost powdery marks ranging from circular to linear in shape. These marks are interpreted as friction marks resulting from collisions between clasts. The deposit also contains bread-crusted obsidians with pressed-in clasts as well as reticulite with a bread-crusted surface texture. Near the centerline of the deposit is a ridge-topping train of jigsaw fractured blocks, often with reddish-orange alteration. One house sized jigsaw block sits upstream of a long, thinning pile of reddish orange debris; this “flow shadow” indicates that the block remained relatively stationary while the block and ash flow continued to propagate around it. The bread-crusted reticulite is most common at proximal localities. It is proposed that the dome destruction included a debris avalanche emplacing the train of jigsaw fractured blocks and creating a topographic high, the block-and-ash flow (the farthest reaching deposit from this event) which flowed around the debris avalanche deposits, and a final “lateral expansion” of a magma foam, creating the reticulite seen concentrated at proximal locations. Another coarse pyroclastic flow (here termed the “lower blast deposit”) underlies the North Mono tephra. It is more obsidian rich and finer grained than the Panum BAF. The lower blast deposit may have originated from Pumice Pit vent, which is now capped with an older dome ~0.5 km southeast of Panum. The lower blast deposit extends farther from the Panum vent than does the Panum BAF deposit, and apparently was mistaken for the Panum BAF deposit by previous workers. Hence the run

  15. Benchmarking of the mono-energetic transport coefficients—results from the International Collaboration on Neoclassical Transport in Stellarators (ICNTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beidler, C. D.; Allmaier, K.; Isaev, M. Yu.; Kasilov, S. V.; Kernbichler, W.; Leitold, G. O.; Maaßberg, H.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Murakami, S.; Schmidt, M.; Spong, D. A.; Tribaldos, V.; Wakasa, A.

    2011-07-01

    Numerical results for the three mono-energetic transport coefficients required for a complete neoclassical description of stellarator plasmas have been benchmarked within an international collaboration. These transport coefficients are flux-surface-averaged moments of solutions to the linearized drift kinetic equation which have been determined using field-line-integration techniques, Monte Carlo simulations, a variational method employing Fourier-Legendre test functions and a finite-difference scheme. The benchmarking has been successfully carried out for past, present and future devices which represent different optimization strategies within the extensive configuration space available to stellarators. A qualitative comparison of the results with theoretical expectations for simple model fields is provided. The behaviour of the results for the mono-energetic radial and parallel transport coefficients can be largely understood from such theoretical considerations but the mono-energetic bootstrap current coefficient exhibits characteristics which have not been predicted.

  16. Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor alters levels of key sex steroids and steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Zelieann R.; Leslie, Traci C.; Hatfield, Kimberly P.; Gupta, Rupesh K.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2010-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by decreasing antral follicle numbers and increasing follicular death. MXC is metabolized in the body to mono-hydroxy MXC (mono-OH). Little is known about the effects of mono-OH on the ovary. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that mono-OH exposure decreases production of 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) by cultured mouse antral follicles. Antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mice (age 35-39 days) and exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or mono-OH (0.1-10 {mu}g/mL) for 96 h. Media and follicles were collected for analysis of sex steroid levels and mRNA expression, respectively. Mono-OH treatment (10 {mu}g/mL) decreased E{sub 2} (DMSO: 3009.72 {+-} 744.99 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 1679.66 {+-} 461.99 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 1752.72 {+-} 532.41 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 45.89 {+-} 33.83 ng/mL), testosterone (DMSO: 15.43 {+-} 2.86 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 17.17 {+-} 4.71 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 13.64 {+-} 3.53 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 1.29 {+-} 0.23 ng/mL), androstenedione (DMSO: 1.92 {+-} 0.34 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 1.49 {+-} 0.43 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 0.64 {+-} 0.31 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 0.12 {+-} 0.06 ng/mL) and progesterone (DMSO: 24.11 {+-} 4.21 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 26.77 {+-} 4.41 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 20.90 {+-} 3.75 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 9.44 {+-} 2.97 ng/mL) levels. Mono-OH did not alter expression of Star, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b1 and Cyp1b1, but it did reduce levels of Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1 and Cyp19a1 mRNA. Collectively, these data suggest that mono-OH significantly decreases levels of key sex steroid hormones and the expression of enzymes required for steroidogenesis.

  17. In vitro release study of mono-PEGylated growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 from PLGA microspheres.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Ji; Na, Dong Hee; Lee, Kang Choon

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro release property of mono-PEGylated growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6) microspheres. The microspheres encapsulating native GHRP-6 or mono-PEG-GHRP-6 were prepared using the single oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation method. In vitro release study was performed in 0.1M phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, containing 0.02% Tween 80 and sodium azide at 37 or 55 degrees C. The mono-PEG-GHRP-6 microspheres showed a lower initial burst compared with native GHRP-6 microspheres and zero-order release profile for a 1-month period. The release period was dependent on the PEG size attached to the GHRP-6 with more rapid drug release being observed with the smaller PEG size. This study suggests that PEGylated peptide has good potential as a source for a sustained release microsphere delivery system.

  18. Missing particle associated with two bottom quarks at the LHC: Mono-b versus 2 b with razor variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ning; Kang, Zhaofeng; Li, Jinmian

    2017-01-01

    The extended Higgs sector, such as by a second Higgs doublet of type II, provides portals to the dark sector which contain missing particles at the LHC, e.g., dark matter particles. In this paper, working in the simplified model and taking into consideration the wide decay-width effect of the mediator, we analyze the characteristic signatures of mono-b +MET and 2 b +MET at the LHC. The latter signature was believed to be ineffective, while we found that, with the aid of razor shape analysis, it should be as important as the mono-b signature. In the region of relatively low mediator mass (below a few hundred GeV), by requiring a signal-to-background ratio greater than a few percent, the 2 b -tagged razor analysis has comparable sensitivity to the mono-b search; it is even better for a mediator lighter than ˜200 GeV .

  19. Abu al-Layth al-Libi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    jihadi doctrine, al-Libi enrolled himself in the recently erected and highly popular al-Faruq 2 “Al-Sahab Releases ‘Winds of Paradise , Part III...February 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7220823.stm. 3 “Al-Sahab Releases ‘Winds of Paradise , Part III,’” Global Terrorism Research Project...5 “Al-Sahab Releases ‘Winds of Paradise , Part III,’” Global Terrorism Research Project. 6 Ibid. The date provided in the video is 1410

  20. Magmatic gas emissions at Holocene volcanic features near Mono Lake, California, and their relation to regional magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergfeld, Deborah; Evans, William C.; Howle, James F.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2015-02-01

    Silicic lavas have erupted repeatedly in the Mono Basin over the past few thousand years, forming the massive domes and coulees of the Mono Craters chain and the smaller island vents in Mono Lake. We report here on the first systematic study of magmatic CO2 emissions from these features, conducted during 2007-2010. Most notably, a known locus of weak steam venting on the summit of North Coulee is actually enclosed in a large area (~ 0.25 km2) of diffuse gas discharge that emits 10-14 t/d of CO2, mostly at ambient temperature. Subsurface gases sampled here are heavily air-contaminated, but after standard corrections are applied, show average δ13C-CO2 of - 4.72‰, 3He/4He of 5.89RA, and CO2/3He of 0.77 × 1010, very similar to the values in fumarolic gas from Mammoth Mountain and the Long Valley Caldera immediately to the south of the basin. If these values also characterize the magmatic gas source at Mono Lake, where CO2 is captured by the alkaline lake water, a magmatic CO2 upflow beneath the lake of ~ 4 t/d can be inferred. Groundwater discharge from the Mono Craters area transports ~ 13 t/d of 14C-dead CO2 as free gas and dissolved carbonate species, and adding in this component brings the estimated total magmatic CO2 output to 29 t/d for the two silicic systems in the Mono Basin. If these emissions reflect intrusion and degassing of underlying basalt with 0.5 wt.% CO2, a modest intrusion rate of 0.00075 km3/yr is indicated. Much higher intrusion rates are required to account for CO2 emissions from Mammoth Mountain and the West Moat of the Long Valley Caldera.

  1. Long-term thermophilic mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion with potato pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Bayr, S. Ojanperä, M.; Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Rendering wastes’ mono-digestion and co-digestion with potato pulp were studied. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was unstable in mono-digestion. • Free NH{sub 3} inhibited mono-digestion of rendering wastes. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was stable in co-digestion. • Co-digestion increased methane yield somewhat compared to mono-digestion. - Abstract: In this study, mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp were studied for the first time in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments at 55 °C. Rendering wastes have high protein and lipid contents and are considered good substrates for methane production. However, accumulation of digestion intermediate products viz., volatile fatty acids (VFAs), long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 4}-N and/or free NH{sub 3}) can cause process imbalance during the digestion. Mono-digestion of rendering wastes at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d was unstable and resulted in methane yields of 450 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}. On the other hand, co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp (60% wet weight, WW) at the same OLR and HRT improved the process stability and increased methane yields (500–680 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}). Thus, it can be concluded that co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp could improve the process stability and methane yields from these difficult to treat industrial waste materials.

  2. What Is ALS?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javits, actor David Niven, “Sesame Street” creator Jon Stone, boxing champion Ezzard Charles, NBA Hall of Fame ... Help for People with ALS and Caregivers Read stories from families living with ALS Forms of ALS ...

  3. A case report of primary hepatic carcinoma with prolonged HB virus infection and mono-clonal gammopathy.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, T; Tokuyama, K; Naito, K; Okazaki, S; Shinohara, T

    1977-01-01

    A case of alpha-feto protein (AFP) positive hepatic cell carcinoma has been presented in which the appearance of a mono-clonal gammopathy can be explained by persistent infection with HB virus (HBV). The patient, a fifty year old male, developed acute jaundice with hepatitis in July, 1952, and died of an hepatic cell carcinoma in December, 1973. The interest of this case lies in the fact that during the seven months prior to be patient's demise, a mono-clonal gammopathy of IgG (L type), together with positive titeres for HBs Ag (adr) and AFP, was demonstrated.

  4. Theoretical studies of the first- and second-row transition-metal mono- and dicarbonyl positive ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Leslie A.; Rosi, Marzio; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Ab initio calculations have been carried out on the first- and second-row transition-metal mono- and dicarbonyl positive ions. The bonding in these systems is discussed in detail. Trends in the series of mono- and dicarbonyl ions and between the first- and second-row transition metals are explained in terms of a dominantly electrostatic bonding interaction and differences in metal ion state separations, ionization potentials, and s and d orbital sizes. Dissociation energies are presented and a detailed comparison is made with experimental data. Where reliable experimental data exists, agreement with the theoretical results is generally good.

  5. Lake Level Changes in the Mono Basin During the Last Deglacial Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Ali, G.; Hemming, S. R.; Zimmerman, S. R. H.; Stine, S. W.; Hemming, G.

    2014-12-01

    Mono Basin, located in the southwestern corner of the US Great Basin, has long been known to have experienced large lake level changes, particularly during the last deglaciation. But until recently it was not possible to establish a reliable lake level time series. We discovered many visually clean, white, shiny, dense calcite samples in the basin, associated with tufa deposits from high terraces. Their low thorium, but high uranium contents allow precise and reproducible U/Th age determinations. A highly resolved history of a minimum lake level through the last deglaciation can therefore be inferred based on sample locations and their ages. We found that the lake level reached ~2030 m asl at ~20.4 ka, evidenced by calcite coatings on a tufa mound at the upper Wilson Creek. The lake then rose to ~2075 m by ~19.1 ka, shown by calcite cements on conglomerates from the Hansen Cut terrace. The lake climbed to at least ~2140 m at ~15.9 ka, indicated by beach calcites from the east Sierra slope. Such timing of the highest lake stand, occurring within Heinrich Stadial 1, is reinforced by U/Th dates on calcite coatings from widespread locations in the basin, including the Bodie Hills and Cowtrack Mountains. The lake then dropped rapidly to ~2075 m at ~14.5 ka. It stood near this height over the next ~300 years, evidenced by a few-centimeter thick, laminated calcite rims on the Goat Ranch tufa mounds. It subsequently plunged to ~2007 m at ~13.8 ka, indicated by calcite coatings from cemetery road tufa mounds. The lake level came back to ~2030 m at ~12.9 ka, as seen in upper Wilson Creek tufa mounds. The lake level had a few fluctuations within the Younger Dryas, and even shot up to ~2075 m at ~12.0 ka. It then fell to levels in accord with Holocene climatic conditions. Relative to the present lake level of ~1950 m, Mono Lake broadly stood high during Heinrich Stadial 1 and Younger Dryas, when the climate was extremely cold over the North Atlantic, and the Asian monsoon was

  6. Bubble geobarometry: A record of pressure changes, degassing, and regassing at Mono Craters, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, J. M.; Manga, M.; DePaolo, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    The mass discharge rate of volcanic eruptions depends on the amount and rate of volatile exsolution, and the efficiency of gas removal from rising magma. Although methods exist to estimate the total volatile budget of volcanic systems, it is more difficult to get information about the rates of exsolution and mechanisms of gas loss during magma ascent. Volcanic tephra deposits typically contain inclusions or fragments of quenched melt that preserve pre-eruptive volatile concentrations within the volcanic conduit. We focus specifically on detecting and characterizing gradients in dissolved H2O and CO2 concentration around small (ca. 1 mm diameter) bubbles (vesicles) in glass fragments. If diffusion prevents bubbles from growing (or shrinking) fast enough to maintain equilibrium, the sign and magnitude of pressure changes in the volcanic feeder systems can be inferred from H2O or CO2 concentration profiles adjacent to bubbles. We measured H2O and CO2 profiles in bubble-bearing pyroclastic obsidian clasts from Mono Craters, California, using high spatial resolution (5 μm) Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (SS-FTIR) at the Advanced Light Source. A key result is that H2O is enriched in the glass surrounding bubbles, indicating that (1) bubbles were redissolving into the melt just prior to the eruption, and (2) volatile concentration gradients are preserved during the eruption and record information about conduit processes at depth. We propose that bubble dissolution was triggered by a pressure increase within the conduit. The required pressure increase is inferred to be the last in a series of pressure cycles with amplitude 5-30 MPa that are caused by repeated fragmentation and annealing. Using a bubble dissolution model, we calculate a timescale of several hours for bubble dissolution at magmatic temperatures prior to quenching during the ca. 1340 A.D. Mono Craters eruption. Unlike H2O concentrations, CO2 concentrations are heterogeneous in the obsidian

  7. Anaerobic halo- alkaliphilic bacterial community of athalassic, hypersaline Mono lake and Owens Lake in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Detkova, Ekaterina N.; Bej, Asim K.; Marsic, Damien; Hoover, Richard B.

    2003-02-01

    The bacterial diversity of microbial extremophiles from the meromictic, hypersaline Mono Lake and a small evaporite pool in Owens Lake of California was studied. In spite of these regions had differing mineral background and different concentrations of NaCl in water they contain the same halo- alkaliphiles anaerobic bacterial community. Three new species of bacteria were detected in this community: primary anaerobe, dissipotrophic saccharolytic spirochete Spirochaeta americana strain AspG1T, primary anaerobe which is proteolytic Tindallia californiensis strain APOT, and secondary anaerobe, hydrogen using Desulfonatronum thiodismutans strain MLF1T, which is sulfate- reducer with chemo-litho-autotrophic metabolism. All of these bacteria are obligate alkaliphiles and dependent upon Na+ ions and CO32- ions in growth mediums. It is interesting that closest relationships for two of these species were isolates from samples of equatorial African soda Magadi lake: Spirochaeta americana AspG1T has 99.4% similarity on 16S rDNA- analyses with Spirochaeta alkalica Z- 7491T, and Tindallia californiensis APOT has 99.1% similarity with Tindallia magadiensis Z-7934T. But result of DNA-DNA- hybridization demonstrated less then 50% similarity between Spirochaeta americana AspG1T and Spirochaeta alkalica Z-7491T. Percent of homology between Tindallia californiensis APOT and Tindallia magadiensis Z-7934T is only 55%. The sulfate-reducer from the alkalic anaerobic community of Magadi lake Desulfonatronovibrio hydrogenovorans Z-7935T was phylogenetically distant from this sulfate-reducer in Mono lake, but genetically closer (99.7% similarity) to the sulfate-reducer, isolated from Central Asian alkalic lake Khadyn in Siberia Desulfonatronum lacustre Z-7951T. The study of key enzymes (hydrogenase and CO- hydrogenase) in Tindallia californiensis APOT and Desulfonatronum thiodismutans MLF1T showed the presence of high activity of both the enzymes in first and only hydrogenase in second

  8. Solubility and thermodynamics of apremilast in different mono solvents: Determination, correlation and molecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Shakeel, Faiyaz; Haq, Nazrul; Alanazi, Fars K; Alsarra, Ibrahim A

    2017-05-15

    The solubility data of recently launched poorly soluble antipsoriatic drug apremilast (APM) in any mono solvent or cosolvent mixtures with respect to temperature are not available in literature. Hence, in this research work, the solubility of APM in twelve different mono solvents namely "water, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol (IPA), ethylene glycol (EG), propylene glycol (PG), 1-butanol, 2-butanol, ethyl acetate (EA), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400) and Transcutol(®)" was determined at temperatures "T=298.2K to 318.2K" and pressure "p=0.1 MPa". Eexperimental solubilities of APM in mole fraction were determined by a static equilibrium method using high performance liquid chromatography at 254nm. Experimental solubilities of APM in mole fraction were correlated well with "Van't Hoff and Apelblat models". The solubilities of APM in mole fraction were recorded highest in DMSO (9.91×10(-2)), followed by EA (2.54×10(-2)), Transcutol (2.51×10(-2)), PEG-400 (2.16×10(-2)),PG (4.01×10(-3)), EG (1.61×10(-3)), IPA (4.96×10(-4)), 1-butanol (4.18×10(-4)), 2-butanol (3.91×10(-4)), methanol (2.25×10(-4)), ethanol (2.20×10(-4)) and water (1.29×10(-6)) at "T=318.2K" and similar results were also obtained at each temperature evaluated. The molecular interactions between solute and solvent molecules were evaluated by the determination of activity coefficients. Based on activity coefficients, the higher solute-solvents molecular interactions were recorded in APM-DMSO, APM-EA, APM-Transcutol and APM-PEG-400 in comparison with other combination of solute and solvents. "Apparent standard thermodynamic parameters" of APM indicated an "endothermic and entropy-driven dissolution" of APM in all mono solvents evaluated. Based on these results, APM was proposed as freely soluble in DMSO, EA and Transcutol, sparingly soluble in PEG0-400, slightly soluble in methanol, ethanol, IPA, EG, PG, 1-butanol and 2-butanol and practically insoluble in water. Hence

  9. Organic osmolytes in aerobic bacteria from Mono Lake, an alkaline, moderately hypersaline environment

    SciTech Connect

    Ciulla, R.A.; Roberts, M.F.; Diaz, M.R.; Taylor, B.F.

    1997-01-01

    The identity and concentrations of intracellular organic solutes were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for two strains of aerobic, gram-negative bacteria isolated from Mono Lake, California, an alkaline, moderately hypersaline lake. Ectoine (1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid) was the major endogenous solute in both organisms. Concentrations of ectoine varied with external NaCl levels in strain ML-D but not in strain ML-G, where the level was high but invariant from 1.5 to 3.0 M NaCl. Hydroxyectoine also occurred in strain ML-D, especially at elevated NaCl concentrations (2.5 and 3.0 M), but at levels lower than those of ectoine. Exogenous organic solutes that might occur in Mono Lake were examined for their effects on the de novo synthesis of ectoine. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) (0.1 or 1 mM) did not significantly lower ectoine levels in either isolate, and only strain ML-G showed any capacity for DMSP accumulation. With nitrogen limitation, however, DMSP (0.1 mM) substituted for ectoine in strain ML-G showed any capacity for DMSP accumulation. With nitrogen limitation, however, DMSP (0.1 mM) substituted for ectoine in strain ML-G and became the main organic solute. Glycine betaine (GB) was more effective than DMSP in affecting ectoine levels, principally in strain ML-D. Strain ML-D accumulated GB to 50 or 67% of its organic solute pool at 2.5 M NaCl, at an external level of 0.1 or 1 mM GB, respectively. Strain ML-D also accumulated arsenobetaine. The methylated zwitterionic compounds, probably metabolic products of phytoplankton (DMSP and GB) or brine shrimps (arsenobetaine) in Mono Lake, may function as osmolytes for indigenous bacteria when present at high concentrations or under conditions of nitrogen limitation or salt stress. 33 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. THE SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF MONO-ABUNDANCE SUB-POPULATIONS OF THE MILKY WAY DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Bovy, Jo; Rix, Hans-Walter; Liu Chao; Hogg, David W.; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun

    2012-07-10

    The spatial, kinematic, and elemental-abundance structure of the Milky Way's stellar disk is complex, and has been difficult to dissect with local spectroscopic or global photometric data. Here, we develop and apply a rigorous density modeling approach for Galactic spectroscopic surveys that enables investigation of the global spatial structure of stellar sub-populations in narrow bins of [{alpha}/Fe] and [Fe/H], using 23,767 G-type dwarfs from SDSS/SEGUE, which effectively sample 5 kpc < R{sub GC} < 12 kpc and 0.3 kpc {approx}< |Z| {approx}< 3 kpc. We fit models for the number density of each such ([{alpha}/Fe] and [Fe/H]) mono-abundance component, properly accounting for the complex spectroscopic SEGUE sampling of the underlying stellar population, as well as for the metallicity and color distributions of the samples. We find that each mono-abundance sub-population has a simple spatial structure that can be described by a single exponential in both the vertical and radial directions, with continuously increasing scale heights ( Almost-Equal-To 200 pc to 1 kpc) and decreasing scale lengths (>4.5 kpc to 2 kpc) for increasingly older sub-populations, as indicated by their lower metallicities and [{alpha}/Fe] enhancements. That the abundance-selected sub-components with the largest scale heights have the shortest scale lengths is in sharp contrast with purely geometric 'thick-thin disk' decompositions. To the extent that [{alpha}/Fe] is an adequate proxy for age, our results directly show that older disk sub-populations are more centrally concentrated, which implies inside-out formation of galactic disks. The fact that the largest scale-height sub-components are most centrally concentrated in the Milky Way is an almost inevitable consequence of explaining the vertical structure of the disk through internal evolution. Whether the simple spatial structure of the mono-abundance sub-components and the striking correlations between age, scale length, and scale height can

  11. Synthesis of glycerol mono-laurate from lauric acid and glycerol for food antibacterial additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setianto, W. B.; Wibowo, T. Y.; Yohanes, H.; Illaningtyas, F.; Anggoro, D. D.

    2017-05-01

    Synthesis of glycerol mono-laurate (GML) has been performed using esterification reaction of glycerol and lauric acid. The reaction was performed at the condition of temperature of 120-140 °C within 7 hour, variation of molar ratio of glycerol - lauric acid, and was using heterogeneous catalyst of zeolist Y. Without catalyst dealumination the maximum acid conversion was 78%, with GML contained in the sample was 38.6%, and it was obtained at the reaction condition of 140 oC, 15wt% catalyst, and 8:1 molar ratio of glycerol - lauric acid. At the same condition, using dealuminated catalyst, the maximum acid conversion was increased up to 98%, with GML contained in the sample was 50.4%. The GML antibacterial activity was examined. It was observed that the GML has antibacterial activity against gram positive bacterial such as B. cereus and S. aureus.

  12. Summary geochemical maps, Hoover Wilderness and adjacent study area, Mono and Tuolumne counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffee, M.A.; Hill, R.H.; Sutley, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Hoover Wilderness and the adjacent Hoover Extension (East), Hoover Extension (West), and Cherry Creek A Roadless Areas (the adjacent study area) encompass approximately 153,900 acres (241 mi2; 623 km2) in the Inyo, Stanislaus, and Toiyabe Naitonal Forests, Mono and Tuolumne Counties, Calif. These two areas lie along and mostly east of the crest of the Sierra Nevada, along the north and east sides of Yosemite National Park. Elevations vary from a high of 12,446 ft (3,793 m) on the crest of the Sierra Nevada to a low of about 6,500 ft (1,981 m) near the Bridgeport Ranger Station. Access to the Hoover Wilderness and adjacent study area is by U.S. Highway 395, California State Highways 108 (Sonora Pass) and 120 (Tioga Pass), and by other paved and graded roads that lead off of these U.S. and State highways.

  13. The rectification of mono- and bivalent ions in single conical nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Junzhe; Du, Guanghua; Guo, Jinlong; Li, Yaning; Liu, Wenjing; Yao, Huijun; Zhao, Jing; Wu, Ruqun; Chen, Hao; Ponomarov, Artem

    2017-08-01

    The polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films were irradiated with single 6.9 MeV/u 58Ni19+ ions at the Lanzhou Interdisciplinary Heavy Ion Microbeam (LIHIM), and single conical nanopores were produced by asymmetric chemical etching of the latent ion tracks. Then, the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic was measured in LiCl, NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2 solution at different concentrations to study the transport properties of different cations in the single conical nanopores respectively. The measured I-V data showed that the conical nanopores have rectified transportation of these cations at the applied voltage of between +2 V and -2 V. The rectification coefficient γ of the mono- and bivalent ions was determined in their solution of 0.0001-1 M measured at 1 V, the result showed that the rectification coefficient is dependent on the valence of the ions and the electrolyte solution.

  14. Optimizing seeded casting of mono-like silicon crystals through numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Andrés; Medina, Juan; Piñeiro, Axa; Dieguez, Ernesto

    2012-08-01

    Recently, silicon ingots produced by typical multicrystalline casting systems but having monocrystalline features are entering the photovoltaic market. In order to look into the particular properties of this novel method, the normal silicon casting process is numerically simulated, and compared to an optimized mono-like casting process, based on the use of oriented monocrystalline silicon seeds. The seeding process was optimized by reducing the time spent in the melt in order to reduce the back diffusion of harmful non-feedstock metal impurities such as iron, reducing the thermomechanical stress to avoid dislocation multiplication, and decreasing the overall interface curvature. Additionally, the growth conditions in the zone just above the seeds were fine-tuned to increase the production of vacancy point defects, in the hope of achieving "vacancy passivation" of harmful interstitial iron by moving it to substitutional position.

  15. Bottom-up formation of endohedral mono-metallofullerenes is directed by charge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunk, Paul W.; Mulet-Gas, Marc; Nakanishi, Yusuke; Kaiser, Nathan K.; Rodríguez-Fortea, Antonio; Shinohara, Hisanori; Poblet, Josep M.; Marshall, Alan G.; Kroto, Harold W.

    2014-12-01

    An understanding of chemical formation mechanisms is essential to achieve effective yields and targeted products. One of the most challenging endeavors is synthesis of molecular nanocarbon. Endohedral metallofullerenes are of particular interest because of their unique properties that offer promise in a variety of applications. Nevertheless, the mechanism of formation from metal-doped graphite has largely eluded experimental study, because harsh synthetic methods are required to obtain them. Here we report bottom-up formation of mono-metallofullerenes under core synthesis conditions. Charge transfer is a principal factor that guides formation, discovered by study of metallofullerene formation with virtually all available elements of the periodic table. These results could enable production strategies that overcome long-standing problems that hinder current and future applications of metallofullerenes.

  16. Mono- and bi-functional arenethiols as surfactants for gold nanoparticles: synthesis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Floriana; Fratoddi, Ilaria; Battocchio, Chiara; Piscopiello, Emanuela; Tapfer, Leander; Russo, Maria Vittoria; Polzonetti, Giovanni; Giannini, Cinzia

    2011-12-01

    Stable gold nanoparticles stabilized by different mono and bi-functional arenethiols, namely, benzylthiol and 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol, have been prepared by using a modified Brust's two-phase synthesis. The size, shape, and crystalline structure of the gold nanoparticles have been determined by high-resolution electron microscopy and full-pattern X-ray powder diffraction analyses. Nanocrystals diameters have been tuned in the range 2 ÷ 9 nm by a proper variation of Au/S molar ratio. The chemical composition of gold nanoparticles and their interaction with thiols have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In particular, the formation of networks has been observed with interconnected gold nanoparticles containing 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol as ligand.

  17. Thermodynamic Properties of Alkenes (Mono-Olefins Larger than C4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, W. V.; Chirico, R. D.

    1993-03-01

    The thermodynamic properties of the mono-olefins with carbon numbers greater than C4 were reviewed. Properties included critical properties, vapor pressures, densities, second virial coefficients, enthalpies of vaporization, heat capacities, and enthalpies of combustion. Enthalpies of formation for the liquid, gas, and ideal-gas state at 298.15 K were calculated for 47 compounds based on the experimental values. Sufficient experimental information was available to allow the calculation of entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies for the ideal-gas state (over approximately a 100 K range near 250 K to 400 K) for 14 compounds. Comparisons were made with experimental isomerization equilibria, isomerization enthalpies, and group-contribution estimates for enthalpies of formation and entropies. ``Gaps'' in the available data were identified and recommendations for additional experiments are made. Evidence for errors in several of the original experimental results is presented, and revised values are suggested.

  18. Quasi-mono-energetic ion acceleration from a homogeneous composite target by an intense laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Brantov, A. V.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Klimo, O.; Romanov, D. V.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Schnuerer, M.; Sokollik, T.; Nickles, P. V.

    2006-12-15

    The paper presents an analytical model and particle-in-cell simulations of the quasi-mono-energetic ion acceleration by an intense laser pulse in a multispecies target and the corresponding experimental observations. Homogeneous and heterogeneous targets are considered, and it is shown that the formation of the energy spectrum proceeds in three stages: (1) the initial light ion acceleration in the sheath electric field, (2) the ion species separation followed by the electrostatic shock formation, and (3) the interaction of spatially separated ion bunches accompanied by electron cooling. The field ionization of heavy ions and interaction between the heavy and light species play an important role in the formation and preservation of the energy spectrum of light ions. The simulation results are compared with the theoretical predictions and the experiments.

  19. Static and Ultrafast Transient Photophysics of Mono- and Dual-Branched Triarylamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng-Ming; Meng, Fan-Shun; Feng, Wen-Ke; Wang, Shu-Feng; Tian, He; Gong, Qi-Huang

    2010-06-01

    Mono- and dual-branched molecules, {4-[2-(4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenyl)-vinyl]-phenyl}-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-phenyl-amine (BS1) and bis-{4-[2-(4-benzothiazol-2-yl-phenyl)-vinyl]-phenyl}-(4-methoxy-phenyl)-phenyl-amine (BS2), are investigated with one- and two-photon static spectroscopy, and the femtosecond fluorescence up-conversion technique. The molecules show branch-based fluorescence emission at low quantum yield. Ultrafast non-radiative decay on a picosecond time scale is found and is attributed to intramolecular charge-transfer bridged by the central triphenylamine. The two-photon absorption cross-sections of BS1 and BS2 are 19.1 and 19.4 GM, respectively.

  20. Diffusion of a mono-energetic implanted species with a Gaussian profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malherbe, Johan B.; Selyshchev, P. A.; Odutemowo, O. S.; Theron, C. C.; Njoroge, E. G.; Langa, D. F.; Hlatshwayo, T. T.

    2017-09-01

    The implanted profile in an isotropic substrate of a mono-energetic ion species is usually very near a Gaussian profile. An exact solution to the time-dependent Fick diffusion equation of an initially Gaussian profile is presented. This solution is a general one also covering the diffusion within the two limiting cases usually considered in solutions to the Fick equation, viz. a perfect sink at the surface and a perfectly reflecting surface plane at the surface. An analysis of the solutions for these two cases shows that at small diffusion times the main effect of annealing is a nearly symmetric broadening of the implanted profile. At the origin and for longer diffusion times the profile deviates significantly from Gaussian. A review is also given of past attempts to extract diffusion coefficients by fitting experimental data to approximate equations based on simplified initial profiles.

  1. Accurate prediction of the linear viscoelastic properties of highly entangled mono and bidisperse polymer melts.

    PubMed

    Stephanou, Pavlos S; Mavrantzas, Vlasis G

    2014-06-07

    We present a hierarchical computational methodology which permits the accurate prediction of the linear viscoelastic properties of entangled polymer melts directly from the chemical structure, chemical composition, and molecular architecture of the constituent chains. The method entails three steps: execution of long molecular dynamics simulations with moderately entangled polymer melts, self-consistent mapping of the accumulated trajectories onto a tube model and parameterization or fine-tuning of the model on the basis of detailed simulation data, and use of the modified tube model to predict the linear viscoelastic properties of significantly higher molecular weight (MW) melts of the same polymer. Predictions are reported for the zero-shear-rate viscosity η0 and the spectra of storage G'(ω) and loss G″(ω) moduli for several mono and bidisperse cis- and trans-1,4 polybutadiene melts as well as for their MW dependence, and are found to be in remarkable agreement with experimentally measured rheological data.

  2. Probing a General Rule towards Thermodynamic Stabilities of Mono BN-doped Lower Polyenes.

    PubMed

    Rouf, Alvi Muhammad; Wu, Jingjing; Zhu, Jun

    2017-03-02

    The BN-doped organic analogues are interesting as aliphatic amineboranes for hydrogen storage, precursors for aromatic borazines and adsorbent cage azaboranes. However, BN-doped aliphatic polyenes remained undeveloped. Herein, we perform theoretical calculations on two mono BN-doped aliphatic lower polyenes, 1,3-butadiene and 1,3,5-hexatriene. A general rule is proposed, i.e., isomers with terminal nitrogen and directly BN-connected, N-B(R), in particular, are of significant thermodynamic stability as compared with their inverse analogues (where boron is at the terminal position). The N-B(R) type isomers are found to be the most stable ones in both polyenes. Isomers with terminal B and N are of intermediate stability. Highly destabilized isomers are those with one terminal methylene group and one terminal heteroatom in the butadiene series, and two terminal methylene groups in the hexatriene series. Rules established here may lead researchers to synthesize isomers with particular thermodynamic stability.

  3. Calcite-impregnated defluidization structures in littoral sands of Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloud, P.; Lajoie, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    Associated locally with well-known tufa mounds and towers of Mono Lake, California, are subvertical, concretionary sand structures through which fresh calcium-containing artesian waters moved up to sites of calcium carbonate precipitation beneath and adjacent to the lake. The structures include closely spaced calcite-impregnated columns, tubes, and other configurations with subcylindrical to bizarre cross sections and predominantly vertical orientation in coarse, barely coherent pumice sands along the south shore of the lake. Many structures terminate upward in extensive calcareous layers of caliche and tufa. Locally they enter the bases of tufa mounds and towers. A common form superficially resembles root casts and animal burrows except that branching is mostly up instead of down. Similar defluidization structures in ancient sedimentary rocks have been mistakenly interpreted as fossil burrows.

  4. Enzymatic routes for the production of mono- and di-glucosylated derivatives of hydroxytyrosol.

    PubMed

    Trincone, Antonio; Pagnotta, Eduardo; Tramice, Annabella

    2012-07-01

    In this work, a new eco-friendly procedure for the synthesis of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol α-glycosidic derivatives was proposed by using the marine α-glucosidase from Aplysia fasciata, and a commercial tyrosinase from mushroom for the bioconversion of tyrosol glycosidic derivatives into the corresponding hydroxytyrosol products. New hydroxytyrosol mono- and di-saccharide derivatives were synthesized at final concentrations of 9.35 and 10.8 g/l of reaction, respectively, and their antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH test. The best antioxidant agent resulted the (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethyl-α-D-glucopyranoside; it showed a radical scavenging activity similar to that of the hydroxytyrosol, together with an increased hydrosolubility. This molecule could be a good response to many food industry demands, always in search of cheap antioxidants with nutritional properties to improve the nutritional value and the quality of foods.

  5. Strain-Induced Spatial and Spectral Isolation of Quantum Emitters in Mono- and Bilayer WSe2

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors are intriguing hosts for quantum light sources due to their unique optoelectronic properties. Here, we report that strain gradients, either unintentionally induced or generated by substrate patterning, result in spatially and spectrally isolated quantum emitters in mono- and bilayer WSe2. By correlating localized excitons with localized strain variations, we show that the quantum emitter emission energy can be red-tuned up to a remarkable ∼170 meV. We probe the fine-structure, magneto-optics, and second-order coherence of a strained emitter. These results raise the prospect of strain-engineering quantum emitter properties and deterministically creating arrays of quantum emitters in two-dimensional semiconductors. PMID:26480237

  6. Pd-catalysed asymmetric mono- and bis-alkoxycarbonylation of vinylarenes.

    PubMed

    Godard, Cyril; Muñoz, Bianca K; Ruiz, Aurora; Claver, Carmen

    2008-02-21

    The asymmetric alkoxycarbonylation of vinylarenes catalysed by palladium complexes bearing chiral phosphine ligands has attracted much attention over the last decades. The products of both mono- and bis(alkoxycarbonylation) reactions are important intermediates in the syntheses of pharmaceuticals such as 2-arylpropionic acids, the most important class of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In this article, a general overview of the topics will be presented and the recent advances in this field will be particularly detailed. Besides the term alkoxycarbonylation, hydroesterification and hydroalkoxycarbonylation are also used in the literature to describe this reaction. Furthermore, more specific terms such as methoxycarbonylation can be found. In this report, the term alkoxycarbonylation will be used as the general term, and specific terms will be used to unambiguously define which reaction is meant.

  7. A quantum Monte Carlo study of mono(benzene) TM and bis(benzene) TM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, M. Chandler; Kulahlioglu, A. H.; Mitas, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present a study of mono(benzene) TM and bis(benzene) TM systems, where TM = {Mo, W}. We calculate the binding energies by quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) approaches and compare the results with other methods and available experiments. The orbitals for the determinantal part of each trial wave function were generated from several types of DFT functionals in order to optimize for fixed-node errors. We estimate and compare the size of the fixed-node errors for both the Mo and W systems with regard to the electron density and degree of localization in these systems. For the W systems we provide benchmarking results of the binding energies, given that experimental data is not available.

  8. Thermal Joining of Thermoplastic Metal Hybrids by Means Of Mono- and Polychromatic Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amend, P.; Pfindel, S.; Schmidt, M.

    In recent years, joining of plastics and metals for lightweight constructions has become more and more important for industrial applications. This paper presents a novel approach for thermal joining of thermoplastic metal hybrids by means of a combination of mono- and polychromatic radiation. During this work, hybrid joints of aluminum (EN AW-5182) and technical thermoplastics (PC, PA6, PA66-GF30) are studied. Thereby experiments for transmission and heat-conduction joining are performed. Besides, the influences of laser structuring of the metal surface on the joint connections are investigated. Additionally, climate tests according to BMW PR 308.2 from -30 °C to 90 °C and from -40 °C to 120 °C are performed to analyze the long-term durability of the hybrid joint connections.

  9. Syntheses, structures and characterization of novel cobalt(II) mono- and bi-triazole complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong-Quan; Ding, Bin; Gao, Hong-Ling; Cheng, Peng; Liao, Dai-Zheng; Yan, Shi-Ping; Jiang, Zhong-Hui

    2005-05-01

    Using the bi- and mono-triazole ligand, two novel cobalt(II) complexes [Co(L 1) 2(NCS) 2(H 2O) 2]·2H 2O ( 1) and [Co 3(L 2) 6(NCS) 4(H 2O) 2](NCS) 2·H 2O ( 2) (L 1=4-[3-(1,2,4-triazolyl)-1,2,4-triazole] and L 2=4-aminotriazole) have been synthesized. The crystal structures of 1 and 2 have been determined by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. 1 has the mononuclear fundamental structure unit while 2 form the linear trinuclear structure unit. 1 and 2 were furthermore assembled into two-dimensional (2D) network and three-dimensional (3D) supramolecular complex via the intermolecular hydrogen-bonds, respectively. The complexes 1 and 2 also have been characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV/vis spectra.

  10. Challenges in the Synthesis of a Unique Mono-Carboxylic Acid Antibiotic (+)-Zincophorin

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhenlei; Lohse, Andrew G.; Hsung, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    (+)-Zincophorin, also referred to as M144255 or griseochellin, is a polyoxygenated ionophoric antibiotic that was isolated from Streptomyces griseus in 1984. It possesses strong in vivo activity against Gram-positive bacteria and Clostridium coelchii. Its methyl ester was reported in a patent as having strong inhibitory properties against influenza WSN/virus with reduced toxicity for the host cell. Its ability to strongly bind with Zn2+, which is also present in its X-ray structure, is the basis for its name. Over the last two decades, (+)-zincophorin h as attracted an impressive array of synthetic efforts including Danishefsky's first total synthesis along with two recent elegant total syntheses reported by Cossy and Miyashita as well as our own formal total synthesis. This Account provides a comparison of the different synthetic efforts on this novel mono-carboxylic acid antibiotic and documents its interesting isolation, structure determination, and biological activities. PMID:19642422

  11. Challenges in the synthesis of a unique mono-carboxylic acid antibiotic, (+)-zincophorin.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhenlei; Lohse, Andrew G; Hsung, Richard P

    2009-04-01

    (+)-Zincophorin, also referred to as M144255 or griseocholin, is a polyoxygenated ionophoric antibiotic that was isolated from Streptomyces griseus in 1984. It possesses strong in vivo activity against Gram-positive bacteria and Clostridium coelchii. Its methyl ester was reported in a patent as having strong inhibitory properties against influenza WSN/virus with reduced toxicity for the host cell. Its ability to strongly bind with Zn2+, which is also present in its X-ray structure, is the basis for its name. Over the last two decades, (+)-zincophorin has attracted an impressive array of synthetic efforts including Danishefsky's first total synthesis, along with two recent elegant total syntheses reported by Cossy and Miyashita as well as our own formal total synthesis. This review provides a comparison of the different synthetic efforts on this novel mono-carboxylic acid antibiotic and documents its interesting isolation, structure determination, and biological activities.

  12. Antiproliferative activity and SARs of caffeic acid esters with mono-substituted phenylethanols moiety.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jin; Yang, Fengzhi; Zhang, Man; Lam, Celine; Qiao, Yixue; Xiao, Jia; Zhang, Dongdong; Ge, Yuxuan; Fu, Lei; Xie, Dongsheng

    2017-01-15

    A series of CAPE derivatives with mono-substituted phenylethanols moiety were synthesized and evaluated by MTT assay on growth of 4 human cancer cell lines (Hela, DU-145, MCF-7 and ECA-109). The substituent effects on the antiproliferative activity were systematically investigated for the first time. It was found that electron-donating and hydrophobic substituents at 2'-position of phenylethanol moiety could significantly enhance CAPE's antiproliferative activity. 2'-Propoxyl derivative, as a novel caffeic acid ester, exhibited exquisite potency (IC50=0.4±0.02 & 0.6±0.03μM against Hela and DU-145 respectively). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Scaling behaviour of hyaluronic acid in solution with mono- and divalent ions

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, E.; Hecht, A-M.; Horkay, F.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The effect of the simultaneous presence of mono- and divalent cations on the thermodynamics of polyelectrolyte solutions is not fully understood. In physiological conditions, combinations of these ions affect structure formation in biopolymer systems. It is known that divalent counterions form a tight sheath around the polymer backbone, while monovalent ions are distributed in a diffuse cloud. Dynamic light scattering measurements of the collective diffusion coefficient D and the osmotic compressibility of semi-dilute hyaluronan solutions containing different ratios of sodium and calcium ions are compared with simple polyelectrolyte models. Scaling relationships are derived in terms of polymer concentration and ionic strength J of the added salt. Differences in the effects of sodium and calcium ions are expressed only through J. PMID:21984864

  14. THE VERTICAL MOTIONS OF MONO-ABUNDANCE SUB-POPULATIONS IN THE MILKY WAY DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Bovy, Jo; Rix, Hans-Walter; Hogg, David W.; Zhang, Lan; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun

    2012-08-20

    We present the vertical kinematics of stars in the Milky Way's stellar disk inferred from Sloan Digital Sky Survey/Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SDSS/SEGUE) G-dwarf data, deriving the vertical velocity dispersion, {sigma}{sub z}, as a function of vertical height |z| and Galactocentric radius R for a set of 'mono-abundance' sub-populations of stars with very similar elemental abundances [{alpha}/Fe] and [Fe/H]. We find that all mono-abundance components exhibit nearly isothermal kinematics in |z|, and a slow outward decrease of the vertical velocity dispersion: {sigma}{sub z}(z, R | [{alpha}/Fe], [Fe/H]) Almost-Equal-To {sigma}{sub z}([{alpha}/Fe], [Fe/H]) Multiplication-Sign exp (- (R - R{sub 0})/7 kpc). The characteristic velocity dispersions of these components vary from {approx}15 km s{sup -1} for chemically young, metal-rich stars with solar [{alpha}/Fe], to {approx}> 50 km s{sup -1} for metal-poor stars that are strongly [{alpha}/Fe]-enhanced, and hence presumably very old. The mean {sigma}{sub z} gradient (d{sigma}{sub z}/dz) away from the mid-plane is only 0.3 {+-} 0.2 km s{sup -1} kpc{sup -1}. This kinematic simplicity of the mono-abundance components mirrors their geometric simplicity; we have recently found their density distribution to be simple exponentials in both the z- and R-directions. We find a continuum of vertical kinetic temperatures ({proportional_to}{sigma}{sup 2}{sub z}) as a function of ([{alpha}/Fe], [Fe/H]), which contribute to the total stellar surface-mass density approximately as {Sigma}{sub R{sub 0}}({sigma}{sup 2}{sub z}){proportional_to} exp(-{sigma}{sup 2}{sub z}). This and the existence of isothermal mono-abundance populations with intermediate dispersions (30-40 km s{sup -1}) reject the notion of a thin-thick-disk dichotomy. This continuum of disk components, ranging from old, 'hot', and centrally concentrated ones to younger, cooler, and radially extended ones, argues against models where the thicker

  15. Exposure to mono-n-butyl phthalate disrupts the development of preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    Chu, Da-Peng; Tian, Shi; Sun, Da-Guang; Hao, Chan-Juan; Xia, Hong-Fei; Ma, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Dibutyl phthalate (DBP), a widely used phthalate, is known to cause many serious diseases, especially in the reproductive system. However, little is known about the effects of its metabolite, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), on preimplantation embryo development. In the present study, we found that treatment of embryos with 10⁻³ M MBP impaired developmental competency, whereas exposure to 10⁻⁴ M MBP delayed the progression of preimplantation embryos to the blastocyst stage. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in embryos were significantly increased following treatment with 10⁻³ M MBP. In addition, 10⁻³ M MBP increased apoptosis via the release of cytochrome c, whereas immunofluorescent analysis revealed that exposure of preimplantation embryos to MBP concentration-dependently (10⁻⁵, 10⁻⁴ and 10⁻³ M) decreased DNA methylation. Together, the results indicate a possible relationship between MBP exposure and developmental failure in preimplantation embryos.

  16. Planar Position Sensor Based on Mono Sensing Electrode and Hybrid-Frequency Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongxiang; Zhang, Yu; Shen, Mengfeng; Zhang, Hongli; Gao, Zhao; Wang, Dongyun

    2016-01-01

    A new way of measuring planar position for micrometric and sub-micrometric applications is presented with a mono sensing electrode and hybrid-frequency excitation. The sensing theory and operation principle are described and summarized, and a printed circuit board (PCB) sensor prototype is built and tested. It is shown by the experimental results that a very simple structure and geometric relationship are achieved. Meanwhile, displacement sensitivity on an order of 1.50 mV per micron and measurement repeatability better than 0.002 mm are easily fulfilled for a square zone of 256 mm2, making it a valuable alternative measurement device candidate for flexible and low-cost planar position detection. PMID:27187404

  17. Surface-Controlled Mono/Diselective ortho C-H Bond Activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Yang, Biao; Lin, Haiping; Aghdassi, Nabi; Miao, Kangjian; Zhang, Junjie; Zhang, Haiming; Li, Youyong; Duhm, Steffen; Fan, Jian; Chi, Lifeng

    2016-03-02

    One of the most charming and challenging topics in organic chemistry is the selective C-H bond activation. The difficulty arises not only from the relatively large bond-dissociation enthalpy, but also from the poor reaction selectivity. In this work, Au(111) and Ag(111) surfaces were used to address ortho C-H functionalization and ortho-ortho couplings of phenol derivatives. More importantly, the competition between dehydrogenation and deoxygenation drove the diversity of reaction pathways of phenols on surfaces, that is, diselective ortho C-H bond activation on Au(111) surfaces and monoselective ortho C-H bond activation on Ag(111) surfaces. The mechanism of this unprecedented phenomenon was extensively explored by scanning tunneling microscopy, density function theory, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Our findings provide new pathways for surface-assisted organic synthesis via the mono/diselective C-H bond activation.

  18. An Advanced TALSPEAK Concept Using 2-Ethylhexylphosphonic Acid Mono-2-Ethylhexyl Ester as the Extractant

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Casella, Amanda J.; Rapko, Brian M.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Pence, Natasha K.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Niver, Cynthia M.; Smoot, Margaret R.

    2014-12-21

    A method for separating the trivalent actinides and lanthanides is being developed using 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) as the extractant. The method is based on the preferential binding of the actinides in the aqueous phase by N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N',N'-triacetic acid (HEDTA), which serves to keep the actinides in the aqueous phase while the lanthanides are extracted into an organic phase containing HEH[EHP]. The process is very robust, showing little dependence upon the pH or the HEH[EHP], HEDTA, and citrate concentrations over the ranges that might be expected in a nuclear fuel recycling plant. Single-stage runs with a 2-cm centrifugal contactor indicate that modifications to the process chemistry may be needed to increase the extraction rate for Sm, Eu, and Gd. The hydraulic properties of the system are favorable to application in centrifugal contactors.

  19. Arsenite-Dependent Anoxygenic Photosynthesis by Bacteria from Mono Lake, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollibaugh, J. T.; Budinoff, C. R.

    2007-12-01

    Chemolithoautotrophic growth of bacteria capable of using inorganic arsenic compounds is well documented. Energy conservation and carbon fixation have been demonstrated in both arsenite oxidizers and arsenate reducers from many bacterial lineages under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. However, phototrophic growth using reduced arsenic as an electron donor has not been described. Here we report the light-dependent oxidation of arsenite to arsenate, coupled with autotrophic growth, by an enrichment culture of bacteria from Mono Lake, California. The culture is dominated by a phototrophic member of the Ectothiorhodospiraceae that is >99% similar to Ectothiorhodospira sp. (strain Borgoria Red). It also contains an uncultured member of the Bacteriodetes and another member of the Ectothiorhodospiraceae that is 96% similar to Alkalilimnicola erhlichii. The bacteria grow more slowly and clump when grown on arsenite versus sulfide or thiosulfate. Scanning electron micrographs reveal that they are closely associated and enmeshed in an organic matrix.

  20. Pressure induced structural phase transition in actinide mono-bismuthides: Ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pataiya, J.; Makode, C.; Aynyas, M.; Sanyal, Sankar P.

    2013-06-01

    The structural and electronic properties of mono-bismuthides of Plutonium and Americium have been investigated using tight binding linear muffin-tin-orbital (TB-LMTO) method within the local density approximation (LDA). From present study with the help of total energy calculations it is found that PuBi and AmBi are stable in NaCl - type structure under ambient pressure. The structure stability of PuBi and AmBi changes under the application of pressure. We predict a structural phase transition from NaCl-type (B1-phase) structure to CsCl-type (B2-phase) structure for these phospides in the pressure range of 45 - 4.5 GPa for PuBi and AmBi respectively. The calculated equilibrium lattice parameters and bulk modulus are in good agreement with experimental and theoretical work.

  1. The Be Phenomenon in the Mono-Periodic STEREO Star 13 Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozuyar, D.; Stevens, I. R.

    2017-02-01

    13 Tau is a rarely studied bright B9 V type star (V = 5.68 mag), which shows a weak double-peaked H α emission profile in its spectra. In this study, we present high-precision photometric data of 13 Tau taken by the STEREO satellite between 2007 and 2011, and compare the results to the spectroscopic findings to shed light on the Be phenomenon in the star. From the frequency analysis of the five-year data, we detected that 13 Tau has exhibited a mono-periodic light variation (f = 1.80487(1) cycles d-1 and A ˜ 2.76(8) mmag). The analysis revealed that the frequency and amplitude of the seasonal light curves varied from one year to another. From the spectroscopic data we found that the equivalent widths of the Hα line also showed variability, which seemed connected to the changes seen in both frequency and amplitude.

  2. Probing atomic structure and Majorana wavefunctions in mono-atomic Fe chains on superconducting Pb surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlak, Rémy; Kisiel, Marcin; Klinovaja, Jelena; Meier, Tobias; Kawai, Shigeki; Glatzel, Thilo; Loss, Daniel; Meyer, Ernst

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by the striking promise of quantum computation, Majorana bound states (MBSs) in solid-state systems have attracted wide attention in recent years. In particular, the wavefunction localisation of MBSs is a key feature and is crucial for their future implementation as qubits. Here we investigate the spatial and electronic characteristics of topological superconducting chains of iron atoms on the surface of Pb(110) by combining scanning tunnelling microscopy and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrate that the Fe chains are mono-atomic, structured in a linear manner and exhibit zero-bias conductance peaks at their ends, which we interpret as signature for a MBS. Spatially resolved conductance maps of the atomic chains reveal that the MBSs are well localised at the chain ends (≲25 nm), with two localisation lengths as predicted by theory. Our observation lends strong support to use MBSs in Fe chains as qubits for quantum-computing devices.

  3. Bioacid hydroconversion over Co, Ni, Cu Mono- and indium-doped bimetallic catalysts.

    PubMed

    Onyestyák, György; Harnos, Szabolcs; Kalló, Dénes

    2015-01-01

    Caprylic acid (CA) as model reactant was selectively reduced in a flow-through reactor in hydrogen stream at 21 bar total pressure and 240-360 °C over alumina loaded with the adjacent Co, Ni, Cu host and In guest metals. The main target of this research is the recognition of efficient cobalt catalysts for carboxylic group hydroconversion compared to more familiar nickel and copper composites. The catalysts were activated in H(2) flow at 21 bar and 450 °C. By variation of main metal or modification with indium, mono- or bimetallic catalysts can be obtained with low hydrodecarbonylation activity and high alcohol selectivity. These composites have higher hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) activity and alcohol selectivity than the conventional commercial catalysts applied for fatty alcohol production. Great variety of catalytic behavior indicates complexity of the surface reactions determined by several interacting factors.

  4. Distribution of RuBisCO genotypes along a redox gradient in Mono Lake, California.

    PubMed

    Giri, Bruno J; Bano, Nasreen; Hollibaugh, James T

    2004-06-01

    Partial sequences of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) (EC 4.1.1.39) genes were retrieved from samples taken along a redox gradient in alkaline, hypersaline Mono Lake, Calif. The form I gene (cbbL) was found in all samples, whereas form II (cbbM) was not retrieved from any of the samples. None of the RuBisCO sequences we obtained were closely related (nucleotide similarity, <90%) to sequences in the database. Some could be attributed to organisms isolated from the lake (Cyanobium) or appearing in enrichment cultures. Most (52%) of the sequences fell into in one clade, containing sequences that were identical to sequences retrieved from an enrichment culture grown with nitrate and sulfide, and another clade contained sequences identical to those retrieved from an arsenate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing enrichment.

  5. Synthesis and anti-bacterial properties of mono-carbonyl analogues of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guang; Yang, Shulin; Jiang, Lijuan; Zhao, Yu; Shao, Lili; Xiao, Jian; Ye, Faqing; Li, Yueru; Li, Xiaokun

    2008-02-01

    The synthesis of three series of curcumin analogues with mono-carbonyl is described. Their in vitro anti-bacterial activities against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were tested and the effect of substituents on the aryl ring and the space structure of the linking strain were discussed. It was observed that part of the derivatives displayed significant activity when compared with curcumin and most of them exhibited activity against the ampicillin-resisted Enterobacter cloacae. Compounds A12, B09, B13, B14 and C09 show remarkable antibacterial activity in vitro. The result showed that heterocycle or long-chain substituents may enhance the activity of curcumin analogues.

  6. Near-Infrared Light Absorption and Scattering Based on a Mono-Layer of Gold Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanmoradi, R.; Wang, Q.; Qiu, M.; Popov, S.; Yan, M.

    2015-06-01

    We report fabrication and characterization of large-area ultrathin near-infrared light absorbers and scatterers based on a mono-layer of gold nanoparticles laying on top of a dielectric spacer and an aluminum reflector. The nanoparticles are formed through thermal annealing of an evaporated continuous gold film. Through optimization of initial gold-film thickness, spacer thickness, as well as annealing temperature we obtained samples that exhibit very low (~2%) broadband specular reflectance at near-infrared (NIR) wavelength range. By considering also diffuse reflection, we identify that the low specular reflectance can be due to either relatively high light absorption (~70%) or high light scattering (over 60%), with the latter achieved for samples having relatively sparse gold nanoparticles. Both strong absorption and scattering of NIR light are not inherent properties of the bulk materials used for fabricating the samples. Such composite optical surfaces can potentially be integrated to solar-energy harvesting and LED devices.

  7. Targeting HER3 using mono- and bispecific antibodies or alternative scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Malm, Magdalena; Frejd, Fredrik Y.; Ståhl, Stefan; Löfblom, John

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3) has in recent years been recognized as a key node in the complex signaling network of many different cancers. It is implicated in de novo and acquired resistance against therapies targeting other growth factor receptors, e.g., EGFR, HER2, and it is a major activator of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Consequently, HER3 has attracted substantial attention, and is today a key target for drugs in clinical development. Sophisticated protein engineering approaches have enabled the generation of a range of different affinity proteins targeting this receptor, including antibodies and alternative scaffolds that are either mono- or bispecific. Here, we describe HER3 and its role as a key tumor target, and give a comprehensive review of HER3-targeted proteins currently in development, including discussions on the opportunities and challenges of targeting this receptor. PMID:27532938

  8. Conversion of a Mono- and Diacylglycerol Lipase into a Triacylglycerol Lipase by Protein Engineering.

    PubMed

    Lan, Dongming; Popowicz, Grzegorz Maria; Pavlidis, Ioannis V; Zhou, Pengfei; Bornscheuer, Uwe T; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-07-06

    Despite the fact that most lipases are believed to be active against triacylglycerides, there is a small group of lipases that are active only on mono- and diacylglycerides. The reason for this difference in substrate scope is not clear. We tried to identify the reasons for this in the lipase from Malassezia globosa. By protein engineering, and with only one mutation, we managed to convert this enzyme into a typical triacylglycerol lipase (the wild-type lipase does not accept triacylglycerides). The variant Q282L accepts a broad spectrum of triacylglycerides, although the catalytic behavior is altered to some extent. From in silico analysis it seems that specific hydrophobic interactions are key to the altered substrate specificity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Pharmacokinetic Studies around the Mono- and Difunctionalization of a Bioavailable Cyclic Decapeptide Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Fouché, Marianne; Schäfer, Michael; Blatter, Markus; Berghausen, Jörg; Desrayaud, Sandrine; Roth, Hans-Jörg

    2016-05-19

    We previously reported the design of several cyclic decapeptides based on a generic scaffold that achieved favorable oral bioavailability and exposure. With the goal to further investigate the potential of this approach, we describe herein the effect of mono- and difunctionalization of this scaffold. A series of cyclic decapeptides were therefore subjected to a range of in vitro assays and pharmacokinetic (PK) studies to investigate whether the introduction of polar or charged groups could be tolerated by the "engineered" scaffold while maintaining good PK profiles. Whereas the introduction of charged amino acids proved-besides maintaining low clearance-to conceal the inherent PK properties of the scaffold, the introduction of polar amino acids (i.e., threonine and pyridyl alanine) led to several cyclic decapeptides exhibiting excellent PK profiles together with a solubility that was significantly improved relative to that of previously reported cyclic decapeptides.

  10. Flexible carbon nanotube/mono-crystalline Si thin-film solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Flexible heterojunction solar cells were fabricated from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and mono-crystalline Si thin films at room temperature. The Si thin films with thickness less than 50 μm are prepared by chemically etching Si wafer in a KOH solution. The initial efficiency of the thin-film solar cell varies from approximately 3% to 5%. After doping with a few drops of 1 M HNO3, the efficiency increases to 6% with a short-circuit current density of 16.8 mA/cm2 and a fill factor of 71.5%. The performance of the solar cells depends on the surface state and thickness of Si thin films, as well as the interface of CNT/Si. The flexible CNT/Si thin-film solar cells exhibit good stability in bending-recovery cycles. PMID:25258617

  11. A mono-diazenide complex from perrhenate: toward a new core for rhenium radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Andrew R; Dilworth, Jonathan R; Donnelly, Paul S

    2003-02-24

    A new method for the synthesis of low to intermediate oxidation state rhenium complexes containing a bifunctional ligand has been developed. Reaction of [ReO(4)](-) with substituted phenylhydrazines and triphenylphosphine in acetonitrile in the presence of HCl allows the isolation of [ReCl(2)(NNC(6)H(4)-4-R)(NCCH(3))(PPh(3))(2)] (where R = OCH(3), Cl, or CO(2)CH(3)). The substituted hydrazine acts as both a reductant and source of a monodentate diazenide ligand. The compounds have all been characterized in the solid state by X-ray crystallography and in the solution state by NMR, electrospray mass spectrometry, and HPLC. Cyclic voltammetry measurements show that the mono-diazenide complexes undergo a reversible oxidation.

  12. Validation of the prognostic Heidelberg re-irradiation score in an independent mono-institutional patient cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Re-irradiation has been shown to be a valid option with proven efficacy for recurrent high-grade glioma patients. Overall, up to now it is unclear which patients might be optimal candidates for a second course of irradiation. A recently reported prognostic score developed by Combs et al. may guide treatment decisions and thus, our mono-institutional cohort served as validation set to test its relevance for clinical practice. Patients and methods The prognostic score is built upon histology, age (< 50 vs. ≥ 50 years) and the time between initial radiotherapy and re-irradiation (≤ 12 vs. > 12 months). This score was initially introduced to distinguish patients with excellent (0 points), good (1 point), moderate (2 points) and poor (3–4 points) post-recurrence survival (PRS) after re-irradiation. Median prescribed radiation dose during re-treatment of recurrent malignant glioma was 36 Gy in 2 Gy single fractions. A substantial part of the patients was additionally treated with bevacizumab (10 mg/kg intravenously at d1 and d15 during re-irradiation). Results 88 patients (initially 61 WHO IV, 20 WHO III, 7 WHO II) re-irradiated in a single institution were retrospectively analyzed. Median follow-up was 30 months and median PRS of the entire patient cohort 7 months. Seventy-one patients (80.7%) received bevacizumab. PRS was significantly increased in patients receiving bevacizumab (8 vs. 6 months, p = 0.027, log-rank test). KPS, age, MGMT methylation status, sex, WHO grade and the Heidelberg score showed no statistically significant influence on neither PR-PFS nor PRS. Conclusion In our cohort which was mainly treated with bevacizumab the usefulness of the Heidelberg score could not be confirmed probably due to treatment heterogeneity; it can be speculated that larger multicentric data collections are needed to derive a more reliable score. PMID:24893775

  13. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  14. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  15. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  16. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or...

  17. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1645 - Benzenesulfonic acid, 4-methyl-, reaction products with oxirane mono[(C10-16-alkyloxy)methyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-, reaction products with oxirane mono derivatives and 2,2,4(or 2,4,4)-trimethyl-1,6-hexanediamine. 721.1645... Substances § 721.1645 Benzenesulfonic acid, 4-methyl-, reaction products with oxirane mono derivatives and 2... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance benzenesulfonic acid, 4-methyl-, reaction products...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1645 - Benzenesulfonic acid, 4-methyl-, reaction products with oxirane mono[(C10-16-alkyloxy)methyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-, reaction products with oxirane mono derivatives and 2,2,4(or 2,4,4)-trimethyl-1,6-hexanediamine. 721.1645... Substances § 721.1645 Benzenesulfonic acid, 4-methyl-, reaction products with oxirane mono derivatives and 2... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance benzenesulfonic acid, 4-methyl-, reaction products...

  20. Evolutionary history of a widespread tree species Acer mono in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xi-Di; Wang, Hong-Fang; Bao, Lei; Wang, Tian-Ming; Bai, Wei-Ning; Ye, Jun-Wei; Ge, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    East Asia has the most diverse temperate flora in the world primarily due to the lack of Pleistocene glaciation and the geographic heterogeneity. Although increasing phylogeography studies in this region provided more proofs in this issue, discrepancies and uncertainty still exist, especially in northern temperate deciduous broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forest region (II). And a widespread plant species could reduce the complexity to infer the relationship between diversity and physiographical pattern. Hence, we studied the evolution history of a widespread temperate tree, Acer mono, populations in region II and the influence of physiographic patterns on intraspecific genetic diversity. Analyses of chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites indicated high levels of genetic diversity. The diversity distribution was spatially heterogeneous and a latitudinal cline existed in both markers. The spatial distribution pattern between genetic diversity within A. mono and the diversity at species level was generally consistent. Western subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest subregion (IVb) had a unique ancient chloroplast clade (CP3) and a nuclear gene pool (GP5) with dominance indicating the critical role of this area in species diversification. Genetic data and ecological niche model results both suggested that populations in region II disappeared during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and recovered from south of Changbai Mt. and the Korean Peninsula. Two distribution centers were likely during the LGM, one in the north edge of warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest region (III) and another in the south edge of region III. This was reflected by the genetic pattern with two spatially independent genetic groups. This study highlights the key role of region III in sustaining genetic diversity in the northern range and connecting diversity between southern and northern range. We elucidated the diversity relationship between vegetation regions which could

  1. Exploration Of Mono Lake With An ROV: a prototype experiment for the MAPS AUV program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Barch, D.; Farmer, J.; Flagg, M.; Healy, T.; Tengdin, T.; Thomas, H.; Schwer, K.; Stakes, D.

    1996-06-01

    This paper describes a field experiment to explore Mono Lake using the Telepresence Controlled Remotely Operated Vehicle (TROV). This experiment was a prototype study demonstrating the science capabilities defined for a new AUV planned for development by a consortium project called MAPS. The goal of the experiment was to study mineralization processes associated with thermal and non-thermal spring inflow into Mono Lake, a hypersaline, alkaline lake in eastern California located in a volcanically active area. TROV is a tethered ROV, which can be controlled using a virtual reality-based user interface. TROV's video capabilities included a matched pair of stereo video cameras on a rapid pan and tilt platform and a single fixed downward pointing camera. Additional capabilities included high resolution 750 kHz pencil beam SONAR and 1 MHz scanning SONAR for navigating in the murky water, instruments for measuring water column properties (C,T,D, pH), a syringe water sample, and a three function manipulator arm used to collect mineral samples and place them in a sample box mounted on the vehicle. TROV was navigated using a DiveTracker acoustic navigation system. TROV was deployed from the deck of a houseboat anchored above the field sites with control and data recording equipment also onboard. The boat's location was continuously recorded using differential GPS system during 10 days of field operations. TROV had a total of 38 hours of bottom time. We studied 4 sites including (1) a broad, gently sloping, ooze-covered mound SE of Paoha island with copious methane gas seeps, (2) shallow, tufa-coated pinnacles of volcanic origin associated with islets NE of Paoha Island, (3) subaqueous thermal springs located along the SE shore of Paoha Island, and (4) a deep area (~50m) E of Paoha Island.

  2. Evolutionary history of a widespread tree species Acer mono in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xi-Di; Wang, Hong-Fang; Bao, Lei; Wang, Tian-Ming; Bai, Wei-Ning; Ye, Jun-Wei; Ge, Jian-Ping

    2014-11-01

    East Asia has the most diverse temperate flora in the world primarily due to the lack of Pleistocene glaciation and the geographic heterogeneity. Although increasing phylogeography studies in this region provided more proofs in this issue, discrepancies and uncertainty still exist, especially in northern temperate deciduous broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forest region (II). And a widespread plant species could reduce the complexity to infer the relationship between diversity and physiographical pattern. Hence, we studied the evolution history of a widespread temperate tree, Acer mono, populations in region II and the influence of physiographic patterns on intraspecific genetic diversity. Analyses of chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites indicated high levels of genetic diversity. The diversity distribution was spatially heterogeneous and a latitudinal cline existed in both markers. The spatial distribution pattern between genetic diversity within A. mono and the diversity at species level was generally consistent. Western subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest subregion (IVb) had a unique ancient chloroplast clade (CP3) and a nuclear gene pool (GP5) with dominance indicating the critical role of this area in species diversification. Genetic data and ecological niche model results both suggested that populations in region II disappeared during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and recovered from south of Changbai Mt. and the Korean Peninsula. Two distribution centers were likely during the LGM, one in the north edge of warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest region (III) and another in the south edge of region III. This was reflected by the genetic pattern with two spatially independent genetic groups. This study highlights the key role of region III in sustaining genetic diversity in the northern range and connecting diversity between southern and northern range. We elucidated the diversity relationship between vegetation regions which could

  3. Hepatic fibrosis and factors associated with liver stiffness in HIV mono-infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ferenci, Tamás; Makara, Mihály; Horváth, Gábor; Szlávik, János; Rupnik, Zsófia; Kormos, Luca; Gerlei, Zsuzsanna; Sulyok, Zita; Vályi-Nagy, István

    2017-01-01

    Background Liver disease has become an important cause of morbidity and mortality even in those HIV-infected individuals who are devoid of hepatitis virus co-infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of hepatic fibrosis and the role of associated factors using liver stiffness measurement in HIV mono-infected patients without significant alcohol intake. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 101 HIV mono-infected patients recruited prospectively from March 1, 2014 to October 30, 2014 at the Center for HIV, St István and St László Hospital, Budapest, Hungary. To determine hepatic fibrosis, liver stiffness was measured with transient elastography. Demographic, immunologic and other clinical parameters were collected to establish a multivariate model. Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) was performed to identify predictors of liver stiffness. Results Liver stiffness ranged from 3.0–34.3 kPa, with a median value of 5.1 kPa (IQR 1.7). BMA provided a very high support for age (Posterior Effect Probability-PEP: 84.5%), moderate for BMI (PEP: 49.3%), CD4/8 ratio (PEP: 44.2%) and lipodystrophy (PEP: 44.0%). For all remaining variables, the model rather provides evidence against their effect. These results overall suggest that age and BMI have a positive association with LS, while CD4/8 ratio and lipodystrophy are negatively associated. Discussion Our findings shed light on the possible importance of ageing, overweight and HIV-induced immune dysregulation in the development of liver fibrosis in the HIV-infected population. Nonetheless, further controlled studies are warranted to clarify causal relations. PMID:28097068

  4. Nitrogen fixation dynamics of two diazotrophic communities in Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Two types of diazotrophic microbial communities were found in the littoral zone of alkaline hypersaline Mono Lake, California. One consisted of anaerobic bacteria inhabiting the flocculent surface layers of sediments. Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) by flocculent surface layers occurred under anaerobic conditions, was not stimulated by light or by additions of organic substrates, and was inhibited by O2, nitrate, and ammonia. The second community consisted of a ball-shaped association of a filamentous chlorophyte (Ctenocladus circinnatus) with diazotrophic, nonheterocystous cyanobacteria, as well as anaerobic bacteria (Ctenocladus balls). Nitrogen fixation by Ctenocladus balls was usually, but not always, stimulated by light. Rates of anaerobic dark fixation equaled those in the light under air. Fixation in the light was stimulated by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and by propanil [N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)propanamide]. 3-(3,4-Dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea-elicited nitrogenase activity was inhibited by ammonia (96%) and nitrate (65%). Fixation was greatest when Ctenocladus balls were incubated anaerobically in the light with sulfide. Dark anaerobic fixation was not stimulated by organic substrates in short-term (4-h) incubations, but was in long-term (67-h) ones. Areal estimates of benthic N2 fixation were measured seasonally, using chambers. Highest rates (~29.3 ??mol of C2H4 m-2 h-1) occurred under normal diel regimens of light and dark. These estimates indicate that benthic N2 fixation has the potential to be a significant nitrogen source in Mono Lake.

  5. Analysis of gas membrane ultra-high purification of small quantities of mono-isotopic silane

    DOE PAGES

    de Almeida, Valmor F.; Hart, Kevin J.

    2017-01-03

    A small quantity of high-value, crude, mono-isotopic silane is a prospective gas for a small-scale, high-recovery, ultra-high membrane purification process. This is an unusual application of gas membrane separation for which we provide a comprehensive analysis of a simple purification model. The goal is to develop direct analytic expressions for estimating the feasibility and efficiency of the method, and guide process design; this is only possible for binary mixtures of silane in the dilute limit which is a somewhat realistic case. In addition, analytic solutions are invaluable to verify numerical solutions obtained from computer-aided methods. Hence, in this paper wemore » provide new analytic solutions for the purification loops proposed. Among the common impurities in crude silane, methane poses a special membrane separation challenge since it is chemically similar to silane. Other potential problematic compounds are: ethylene, diborane and ethane (in this order). Nevertheless, we demonstrate, theoretically, that a carefully designed membrane system may be able to purify mono-isotopic, crude silane to electronics-grade level in a reasonable amount of time and expenses. We advocate a combination of membrane materials that preferentially reject heavy impurities based on mobility selectivity, and light impurities based on solubility selectivity. We provide estimates for the purification of significant contaminants of interest. In this study, we suggest cellulose acetate and polydimethylsiloxane as examples of membrane materials on the basis of limited permeability data found in the open literature. We provide estimates on the membrane area needed and priming volume of the cell enclosure for fabrication purposes when using the suggested membrane materials. These estimates are largely theoretical in view of the absence of reliable experimental data for the permeability of silane. And finally, future extension of this work to the non-dilute limit may apply to the

  6. Metatranscriptomic analysis of prokaryotic communities active in sulfur and arsenic cycling in Mono Lake, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Edwardson, Christian F; Hollibaugh, James T

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluates the transcriptionally active, dissimilatory sulfur- and arsenic-cycling components of the microbial community in alkaline, hypersaline Mono Lake, CA, USA. We sampled five depths spanning the redox gradient (10, 15, 18, 25 and 31 m) during maximum thermal stratification. We used custom databases to identify transcripts of genes encoding complex iron-sulfur molybdoenzyme (CISM) proteins, with a focus on arsenic (arrA, aioA and arxA) and sulfur cycling (dsrA, aprA and soxB), and assigned them to taxonomic bins. We also report on the distribution of transcripts related to the ars arsenic detoxification pathway. Transcripts from detoxification pathways were not abundant in oxic surface waters (10 m). Arsenic cycling in the suboxic and microaerophilic zones of the water column (15 and 18 m) was dominated by arsenite-oxidizing members of the Gammaproteobacteria most closely affiliated with Thioalkalivibrio and Halomonas, transcribing arxA. We observed a transition to arsenate-reducing bacteria belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria and Firmicutes transcribing arsenate reductase (arrA) in anoxic bottom waters of the lake (25 and 31 m). Sulfur cycling at 15 and 18 m was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria (Thioalkalivibrio and Thioalkalimicrobium) oxidizing reduced S species, with a transition to sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria at 25 and 31 m. Genes related to arsenic and sulfur oxidation from Thioalkalivibrio were more highly transcribed at 15 m relative to other depths. Our data highlight the importance of Thioalkalivibrio to arsenic and sulfur biogeochemistry in Mono Lake and identify new taxa that appear capable of transforming arsenic.

  7. Distribution of mono-, di- and trisialo gangliosides in the brain of Actinopterygian fishes.

    PubMed

    Viljetić, Barbara; Labak, Irena; Majić, Senka; Stambuk, Anamaria; Heffer, Marija

    2012-09-01

    Mono-, di- and trisialo gangliosides are major glycosphingolipids in the brain of higher vertebrates involved in lipid raft assembly. In contrast, the fish brain is abundant in polisialo-gangliosides, whose function is implicated in the modulation of repulsive and attractive intercellular interactions during embryonic development and a temperature adaptation process. The histological distribution of gangliosides is usually studied in rodent and mammalian brains, but to date it has not been described in the case of fish brain. Gangliosides were extracted from adult brains of trout, carp and zebrafish and separated by TLC. High-affinity anti-ganglioside (GM1, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b) IgG antibodies were used for immunohistochemistry. In trout and carp brains GM1 and GT1b are expressed in the same neuronal cell bodies from the telencephalon to the spinal cord. In zebrafish brain GM1 was not detected, whereas GT1b is a general neuropil staining. GD1a is specific for unmyelinated parallel fibers in carp and zebrafish brains as well as parallel fibers in the molecular layer of all cerebellar divisions. In trout brain GD1b is found in parallel fibers of the cerebellum, but not in the tectum mesencephali. GD1b is expressed in zebrafish neuronal cell bodies. Each studied species has a different expression of complex gangliosides. GT1b is widely present, whereas GD1a and GD1b appear in a specific group of unmyelinated fibers and could be used as their specific marker. This is the first report on mono-, di- and trisialo ganglioside (GM1, GD1a, GD1b and GT1b) distribution in the brain of adult Actinopterygian fishes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Glycoproteomics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nitrogen Fixation Dynamics of Two Diazotrophic Communities in Mono Lake, California †

    PubMed Central

    Oremland, Ronald S.

    1990-01-01

    Two types of diazotrophic microbial communities were found in the littoral zone of alkaline hypersaline Mono Lake, California. One consisted of anaerobic bacteria inhabiting the flocculent surface layers of sediments. Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) by flocculent surface layers occurred under anaerobic conditions, was not stimulated by light or by additions of organic substrates, and was inhibited by O2, nitrate, and ammonia. The second community consisted of a ball-shaped association of a filamentous chlorophyte (Ctenocladus circinnatus) with diazotrophic, nonheterocystous cyanobacteria, as well as anaerobic bacteria (Ctenocladus balls). Nitrogen fixation by Ctenocladus balls was usually, but not always, stimulated by light. Rates of anaerobic dark fixation equaled those in the light under air. Fixation in the light was stimulated by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethylurea and by propanil [N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)propanamide]. 3-(3,4-Dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea-elicited nitrogenase activity was inhibited by ammonia (96%) and nitrate (65%). Fixation was greatest when Ctenocladus balls were incubated anaerobically in the light with sulfide. Dark anaerobic fixation was not stimulated by organic substrates in short-term (4-h) incubations, but was in long-term (67-h) ones. Areal estimates of benthic N2 fixation were measured seasonally, using chambers. Highest rates (∼29.3 μmol of C2H4 m−2 h−1) occurred under normal diel regimens of light and dark. These estimates indicate that benthic N2 fixation has the potential to be a significant nitrogen source in Mono Lake. Images PMID:16348136

  9. Constraining the Galactic potential via action-based distribution functions for mono-abundance stellar populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bovy, Jo; van de Ven, Glenn

    2013-09-01

    We present a rigorous and practical way of constraining the Galactic potential based on the phase-space information for many individual stars. Such an approach is needed to dynamically model the data from ongoing spectroscopic surveys of the Galaxy and in the future Gaia. This approach describes the orbit distribution of stars by a family of parametrized distribution function (DF) proposed by McMillan and Binney, which are based on actions. We find that these parametrized DFs are flexible enough to capture well the observed phase-space distributions of individual abundance-selected Galactic subpopulations of stars (`mono-abundance populations') for a disc-like gravitational potential, which enables independent dynamical constraints from each of the Galactic mono-abundance populations. We lay out a statistically rigorous way to constrain the Galactic potential parameters by constructing the joint likelihood of potential and DF parameters, and subsequently marginalizing over the DF parameters. This approach explicitly incorporates the spatial selection function inherent to all Galactic surveys, and can account for the uncertainties of the individual position-velocity observations. On that basis, we study the precision of the parameters of the Galactic potential that can be reached with various sample sizes and realistic spatial selection functions. By creating mock samples from the DF, we show that, even under a restrictive and realistic spatial selection function, given a two-parameter gravitational potential, one can recover the true potential parameters to a few per cent with sample sizes of a few thousands. The assumptions of axisymmetry, of DFs that are smooth in the actions and of no time variation remain important limitations in our current study.

  10. Sedimentary and Volcanic Records of the Laschamp and Mono Lake Excursions from Australia and New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingham, E. M.; Roberts, A. P.; Turner, G. M.; Heslop, D.; Ronge, T.; Conway, C.; Leonard, G.; Townsend, D.; Tiedemann, R.; Lamy, F.; Calvert, A. T.

    2014-12-01

    Geomagnetic excursions are short-lived deviations of the geomagnetic field from the normal range of secular variation. Despite significant advances in geomagnetic excursion research over the past 20 years, fundamental questions remain concerning the typical duration and global morphology of excursional geomagnetic fields. To answer such questions, more high-resolution, chronologically well-constrained excursion records are required, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere. We present preliminary paleomagnetic records of the Laschamp (~41 ka) and Mono Lake (~35 ka) excursions from three marine sediment cores from the Bounty Trough, New Zealand margin, and complementary volcanic records of the Laschamp excursion from lavas of Mt Ruapehu, New Zealand. Relatively high sedimentation rates of 12 - 26 cm/kyr in the Bounty Trough during glacial periods allow identification of excursional field behavior at each of the studied core locations. Each core displays one or two excursional events, with rapid directional swings between stable normal polarity and reversed excursional directions, each associated with coincident relative paleointensity minima. These anomalous paleomagnetic directions are interpreted to represent the Laschamp and Mono Lake excursions, based on a combination of tephrochronology, radiocarbon dating, and cyclostratigraphy (defined from core-scanning X-ray fluorescence and magnetic susceptibility records). Beside these records, we present results from fourteen lava flows, on Mt Ruapehu, for which 40Ar-39Ar dating indicates ages of between 39 and 45 ka. The step heating 40Ar-39Ar experiments produced particularly flat age plateaus, with corresponding 2 s.d. errors mostly approaching 1 kyr. The youngest and oldest flows carry normal polarity magnetization, however six flows, dated between 41 and 43 ka, display transitional field characteristics. Three of these flows display a declination swing of around 180o, which coincides with a previously published

  11. Abundance, distribution, and diversity of viruses in alkaline, hypersaline Mono Lake, California.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S; Steward, G; Jellison, R; Chu, W; Choi, S

    2004-01-01

    Mono Lake is a large (180 km2), alkaline (pH approximately 10), moderately hypersaline (70-85 g kg(-1)) lake lying at the western edge of the Great Basin. An episode of persistent chemical stratification (meromixis) was initiated in 1995 and has resulted in depletion of oxygen and accumulation of ammonia and sulfide beneath the chemocline. Although previous studies have documented high bacterial abundances and marked seasonal changes in phytoplankton abundance and community composition, there have been no previous reports on the occurrence of viruses in this unique lake. Based on the high concentrations and diversity of microbial life in this lake, we hypothesized that planktonic viruses are also abundant and diverse. To examine the abundance and distribution of viruses and bacteria, water samples were collected from four stations along 5 to 15 vertical depths at each station. Viral abundance ranged from 1 x 10(8) to 1 x 10(9) mL(-1), among the highest observed in any natural aquatic system examined so far. Increases (p < 0.1) in viral densities were observed in the anoxic bottom water at multiple stations. However, regression analysis indicated that viral abundance could not be predicted by any single environmental parameter. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed a diverse viral community in Mono Lake with genome sizes ranging from approximately 14 to >400 kb with most of the DNA in the 30 to 60 kb size range. Cluster analysis grouped the anoxic bottom-water viral community into a unique cluster differentiating it from surface and mid-water viral communities. A hybridization study using an indigenous viral isolate as a probe revealed an episodic pattern of temporal phage distribution with strong niche stratification between oxic and anoxic waters.

  12. Mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate accumulation disturbs energy metabolism of fat cells.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Huai-chih; Kuo, Ya-Ting; Shen, Chih-Che; Lin, Yi-Hua; Wang, Shu-Li; Tsou, Tsui-Chun

    2016-03-01

    Phthalates are lipophilic and tend to accumulate in adipose tissue, an important regulator of energy balance and glucose homeostasis. The study aimed to determine whether cellular phthalate accumulation influenced fat cell energy metabolism. Following a 3-day treatment with adipogenesis-inducing medium and a 2-day treatment with adipogenesis-maintaining medium, 3T3-L1 cells differentiated into adipocytes in the presence of a phthalate at a clinically relevant concentration (30-300 μM) for another 6 days. Two phthalates, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and di-n-butylphthalate, and their metabolites, mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) and mono-n-butylphthalate, were used here. The phthalate treatments caused no marked effect on cytotoxicity and adipogenesis. Only the MEHP-treated adipocytes were found having smaller lipid droplets; MEHP accumulated in cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The MEHP-treated adipocytes exhibited significant increases in lipolysis and glucose uptake; quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis revealed correlated changes in expression of marker genes involved in adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and glucose uptake. Analysis of oxygen consumption rate (a mitochondrial respiration indicator) and extracellular acidification rate (a glycolysis indicator) indicated a higher energy metabolism in the adipocytes. qPCR analysis of critical genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and/or energy metabolism showed that expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α, sirtuin 3, and protein kinase A were significantly enhanced in the MEHP-treated adipocytes. In vitro evidence of MEHP impacts on lipolysis, glucose uptake/glycolysis, and mitochondrial respiration/biogenesis demonstrates that MEHP accumulation disturbs energy metabolism of fat cells.

  13. Mono- to few-layered graphene oxide embedded randomness assisted microcavity amplified spontaneous emission source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Pratyusha; Maiti, Rishi; Barman, Prahalad K.; Ray, Samit K.; Shivakiran, Bhaktha B. N.

    2016-02-01

    The realization of optoelectronic devices using two-dimensional materials such as graphene and its intermediate product graphene oxide (GO) is extremely challenging owing to the zero band gap of the former. Here, a novel amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) system based on a GO-embedded all-dielectric one-dimensional photonic crystal (1DPhC) micro-resonator is presented. The mono- to few-layered GO sheet is inserted within a microcavity formed by two 5-bilayered SiO2/SnO2 Bragg reflectors. Significantly enhanced photoluminescence (PL) emission of GO embedded in 1DPhC is explicated by studying the electric field confined within the micro-resonator using the transfer matrix method. The inherent randomness, due to fabrication limitations, in the on-average periodic 1DPhC is exploited to further enhance the PL of the optically active micro-resonator. The 1DPhC and randomness assisted field confinement reduces the ASE threshold of the mono- to few-layered weak emitter making the realization of an ASE source feasible. Consequently, ASE at the microcavity resonance and at the low-frequency band-edge of photonic stop-band is demonstrated. Variation of the detection angle from 5° to 30°, with respect to the sample surface normal allows reallocation of the defect mode ASE peak over a spectral range of 558-542 nm, making the GO-incorporated 1DPhC a novel and attractive system for integrated optic applications.

  14. Analysis of Gas Membrane Ultra-High Purification of Small Quantities of Mono-Isotopic Silane

    SciTech Connect

    de Almeida, Valmor F.; Hart, Kevin J.

    2016-09-01

    A small quantity of high-value, crude, mono-isotopic silane is a prospective gas for a small-scale, high-recovery, ultra-high membrane purification process. This is an unusual application of gas membrane separation for which we provide a comprehensive analysis of a simple purification model. The goal is to develop direct analytic expressions for estimating the feasibility and efficiency of the method, and guide process design; this is only possible for binary mixtures of silane in the dilute limit which is a somewhat realistic case. Among the common impurities in crude silane, methane poses a special membrane separation challenge since it is chemically similar to silane. Other potential problematic surprises are: ethylene, diborane and ethane (in this order). Nevertheless, we demonstrate, theoretically, that a carefully designed membrane system may be able to purify mono-isotopic, crude silane to electronics-grade level in a reasonable amount of time and expenses. We advocate a combination of membrane materials that preferentially reject heavy impurities based on mobility selectivity, and light impurities based on solubility selectivity. We provide estimates for the purification of significant contaminants of interest. To improve the separation selectivity, it is advantageous to use a permeate chamber under vacuum, however this also requires greater control of in-leakage of impurities in the system. In this study, we suggest cellulose acetate and polydimethylsiloxane as examples of membrane materials on the basis of limited permeability data found in the open literature. We provide estimates on the membrane area needed and priming volume of the cell enclosure for fabrication purposes when using the suggested membrane materials. These estimates are largely theoretical in view of the absence of reliable experimental data for the permeability of silane. Last but not least, future extension of this work to the non-dilute limit may apply to the recovery of silane from

  15. Ecological factors influencing nest survival of greater sage-grouse in Mono County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolada, Eric J.; Casazza, Michael L.; Sedinger, James S.

    2009-01-01

    We studied nest survival of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in 5 subareas of Mono County, California, USA, from 2003 to 2005 to 1) evaluate the importance of key vegetation variables for nest success, and 2) to compare nest success in this population with other greater sage-grouse populations. We captured and radiotracked females (n  =  72) to identify nest sites and monitor nest survival. We measured vegetation at nest sites and within a 10-m radius around each nest to evaluate possible vegetation factors influencing nest survival. We estimated daily nest survival and the effect of explanatory variables on daily nest survival using nest-survival models in Program MARK. We assessed effects on daily nest survival of total, sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), and nonsagebrush live shrub-cover, Robel visual obstruction, the mean of grass residual height and grass residual cover measurements within 10 m of the nest shrub, and area of the shrub, shrub height, and shrub type at the nest site itself. Assuming a 38-day exposure period, we estimated nest survival at 43.4%, with percent cover of shrubs other than sagebrush as the variable most related to nest survival. Nest survival increased with increasing cover of shrubs other than sagebrush. Also, daily nest survival decreased with nest age, and there was considerable variation in nest survival among the 5 subareas. Our results indicate that greater shrub cover and a diversity of shrub species within sagebrush habitats may be more important to sage-grouse nest success in Mono County than has been reported elsewhere.

  16. Characterization of microbial arsenate reduction in the anoxic bottom waters of Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoeft, S.E.; Lucas, F.; Hollibaugh, J.T.; Oremland, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    Dissimilatory reduction of arsenate (DAsR) occurs in the arsenic-rich, anoxic water column of Mono Lake, California, yet the microorganisms responsible for this observed in situ activity have not been identified. To gain insight as to which microorganisms mediate this phenomenon, as well as to some of the biogeochemical constraints on this activity, we conducted incubations of arsenate-enriched bottom water coupled with inhibition/amendment studies and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) characterization techniques. DAsR was totally inhibited by filter-sterilization and by nitrate, partially inhibited (~50%) by selenate, but only slightly (~25%) inhibited by oxyanions that block sulfate-reduction (molybdate and tungstate). The apparent inhibition by nitrate, however, was not due to action as a preferred electron acceptor to arsenate. Rather, nitrate addition caused a rapid, microbial re-oxidation of arsenite to arsenate, which gave the overall appearance of no arsenate loss. A similar microbial oxidation of As(III) was also found with Fe(III), a fact that has implications for the recycling of As(V) in Mono Lake's anoxic bottom waters. DAsR could be slightly (10%) stimulated by substrate amendments of lactate, succinate, malate, or glucose, but not by acetate, suggesting that the DAsR microflora is not electron donor limited. DGGE analysis of amplified 16S rDNA gene fragments from incubated arsenate-enriched bottom waters revealed the presence of two bands that were not present in controls without added arsenate. The resolved sequences of these excised bands indicated the presence of members of the epsilon (Sulfurospirillum) and delta (Desulfovibrio) subgroups of the Proteobacteria, both of which have representative species that are capable of anaerobic growth using arsenate as their electron acceptor.

  17. Sources of SOA gaseous precursors in contrasted urban environments: a focus on mono-aromatic compounds and intermediate volatility compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameh, Therese; Borbon, Agnès; Ait-Helal, Warda; Afif, Charbel; Sauvage, Stéphane; Locoge, Nadine; Bonneau, Stéphane; Sanchez, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Among Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), the mono-aromatic compounds so-called BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylenes) and the intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOC) with C>12 are two remarkable chemical families having high impact on health, as well as on the production of secondary pollutants like secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and ozone. However, the nature and relative importance of their sources and, consequently, their impact on SOA formation at urban scale is still under debate. On the one hand, BTEX observations in urban areas of northern mid-latitudes do not reconcile with emission inventories; the latter pointing to solvent use as the dominant source compared to traffic. Moreover, a recent study by Borbon et al. (2013) has shown an enrichment in the C7-C9 aromatic fraction in Paris atmosphere by a factor of 3 compared to other cities. Causes would be: (i) differences in gasoline composition, (ii) differences in vehicle fleet composition, and (iii) differences in solvent use related sources. On the other hand, many smog chamber studies have highlighted IVOCs as important SOA precursors over the last decade but their origin and importance in urban areas relative to other precursors like BTEX is still poorly addressed. Here we combined large VOC datasets to investigate sources of BTEX and IVOC in contrasted urban areas by source-receptor approaches and laboratory experiments. Ambient data include multi-site speciated ambient measurements of C2 to C17 VOCs (traffic, urban background, and tunnel) from air quality networks (ie. AIRPARIF in Paris) and intensive field campaigns (MEGAPOLI-Paris, TRANSEMED in Beirut and Istanbul, PHOTOPAQ in Brussels). Preliminary results for Paris suggest that traffic dominates BTEX concentrations while traffic and domestic heating for IVOC (>70%). In parallel, the detailed composition of the fuel liquid phase was determined at the laboratory for typical fuels distributed in Ile de France region (diesel, SP95

  18. Pregnenolone co-treatment partially restores steroidogenesis, but does not prevent growth inhibition and increased atresia in mouse ovarian antral follicles treated with mono-hydroxy methoxychlor

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Zelieann R. Hannon, Patrick R. Flaws, Jodi A.

    2013-11-01

    Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor (mono-OH MXC) is a metabolite of the pesticide, methoxychlor (MXC). Although MXC is known to decrease antral follicle numbers, and increase follicle death in rodents, not much is known about the ovarian effects of mono-OH MXC. Previous studies indicate that mono-OH MXC inhibits mouse antral follicle growth, increases follicle death, and inhibits steroidogenesis in vitro. Further, previous studies indicate that CYP11A1 expression and production of progesterone (P{sub 4}) may be the early targets of mono-OH MXC in the steroidogenic pathway. Thus, this study tested whether supplementing pregnenolone, the precursor of progesterone and the substrate for HSD3B, would prevent decreased steroidogenesis, inhibited follicle growth, and increased follicle atresia in mono-OH MXC-treated follicles. Mouse antral follicles were exposed to vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide), mono-OH MXC (10 μg/mL), pregnenolone (1 μg/mL), or mono-OH MXC and pregnenolone together for 96 h. Levels of P{sub 4}, androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E{sub 1}), and 17β-estradiol (E{sub 2}) in media were determined, and follicles were processed for histological evaluation of atresia. Pregnenolone treatment alone stimulated production of all steroid hormones except E{sub 2}. Mono-OH MXC-treated follicles had decreased sex steroids, but when given pregnenolone, produced levels of P{sub 4}, A, T, and E{sub 1} that were comparable to those in vehicle-treated follicles. Pregnenolone treatment did not prevent growth inhibition and increased atresia in mono-OH MXC-treated follicles. Collectively, these data support the idea that the most upstream effect of mono-OH MXC on steroidogenesis is by reducing the availability of pregnenolone, and that adding pregnenolone may not be sufficient to prevent inhibited follicle growth and survival. - Highlights: • Mono-OH MXC inhibited antral follicle steroidogenesis, growth, and survival. • Pregnenolone partially restored steroidogenesis

  19. Site, environmental and airflow characteristics for mono-slope beef cattle facilities in the Northern Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In conjunction with an emission monitoring study, long-term airflow and environmental data were collected from four regional producer-owned and -operated mono-slope beef cattle facilities in the Northern Great Plains. The barns were oriented east-west, with approximate dimensions of an 8-m south wal...

  20. MONO, DI and TRI SSRs data extraction & storage from 1403 virus genomes with next generation retrieval mechanism.

    PubMed

    Murthy, K V S S R; Satyanarayana, K V V

    2017-08-01

    Now a day׳s SSRs occupy the dominant role in different areas of bio-informatics like new virus identification, DNA finger printing, paternity & maternity identification, disease identification, future disease expectations and possibilities etc., Due to their wide applications in various fields and their significance, SSRs have been the area of interest for many researchers. In the SSRs extraction, retrieval algorithms are used; if retrieval algorithms quality is improved then automatically SSRs extraction system will achieve the most relevant results. For this retrieval purpose in this paper a new retrieval mechanism is proposed which will extracted the MONO, DI and TRI patterns. To extract the MONO, DI and TRI patterns using proposed retrieval mechanism in this paper, DNA sequence of 1403 virus genome data sets are considered and different MONO, DI and TRI patterns are searched in the data genome sequence file. The proposed Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) retrieval mechanism extracted the MONO, DI and TRI patterns without missing anything. It is observed that the retrieval mechanism reduces the unnecessary comparisons. Finally the extracted SSRs provide the useful, single view and useful resource to researchers.