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Sample records for al si ca

  1. Thermochemistry of glasses and liquids in the systems CaMgSi 2O 6-CaAl 2Si 2O 8-NaAlSi 3O 8, SiO 2-CaAl 2Si 2O 8-NaAlSi 3O 8 and SiO 2-Al 2O 3-CaO-Na 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navrotsky, A.; Hon, R.; Weill, D. F.; Henry, D. J.

    1980-10-01

    Enthalpies of solution in 2PbO· B 2O 3 at 712°C have been measured for glasses in the systems albite anorthite diopside, NaAlO 2-SiO 2, Ca 0.5AlO 2-SiO 2 and albite-anorthite-quartz. The systems albite-anorthite and diopside-anorthite show substantial negative enthalpies of mixing, albite-diopside shows significant positive heats of mixing. For compositions up to NaAlO2 = 0.42 (which includes the subsystem albite-silica) the system NaAlO 2-SiO 2 shows essentially zero heats of mixing. A negative ternary excess heat of mixing is found in the plagioclase-rich portion of the albite-anorthite-diopside system. The join Si 4O 8-CaAl 2Si 2O 8 shows small but significant heats of mixing. In albite-anorthite-quartz. ternary glasses, the ternary excess enthalpy of mixing is positive. Based on available heat capacity data and appropriate consideration of the glass transition, the enthalpy of the crystal-glass transition (vitrification) is a serious underestimate of the enthalpy of the crystal-liquid transition (fusion) especially when the melting point, Tf, is many hundreds of degrees higher than the glass transition temperature, Tg. On the other hand, the same heat capacity data suggest that the enthalpies of mixing in albite-anorthite-diopside liquids are calculated to be quite similar to those in the glasses. The enthalpies of mixing observed in general support the structural models proposed by TAYLOR and BROWN (1979a, b) and others for the structure of aluminosilicate glasses.

  2. Refinement of Eutectic Si in High Purity Al-5Si Alloys with Combined Ca and P Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Thomas Hartmut; Li, Jiehua; Schaffer, Paul Louis; Schumacher, Peter; Arnberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The effects of combined additions of Ca and P on the eutectic Si in a series of high purity Al-5 wt pct Si alloys have been investigated with the entrained droplet technique and complementary sets of conventional castings. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal analysis were used to investigate the eutectic droplet undercooling and the recalescence undercooling, respectively. Optical microscopy, SEM, EPMA, and TEM were employed to characterize the resultant microstructures. It was found that 250 ppm Ca addition to Al-5Si wt pct alloys with higher P contents leads to a significant increase of the eutectic droplet undercooling. For low or moderate cooling rates, the TEM results underline that Ca additions do not promote Si twinning. Thus, a higher twin density cannot be expected in Ca containing Al-Si alloys after, e.g., sand casting. Consequently, a refinement of the eutectic Si from coarse flake-like to fine plate-like structure, rather than a modification of the eutectic Si to a fibrous morphology, was achieved. This strongly indicates that the main purpose of Ca additions is to counteract the coarsening effect of the eutectic Si imposed by higher P concentrations. Significant multiple Si twinning was observed in melt-spun condition; however, this can be attributed to the higher cooling rate. After DSC heating (slow cooling), most of Si twins disappeared. Thus, the well-accepted impurity-induced twinning mechanism may be not valid in the case of Ca addition. The possible refinement mechanisms were discussed in terms of nucleation and growth of eutectic Si. We propose that the pre-eutectic Al2Si2Ca phase and preferential formation of Ca3P2 deactivate impurity particles, most likely AlP, poisoning the nucleation sites for eutectic Si.

  3. Density Measurements of Low Silica CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhmood, Luckman; Seetharaman, Seshadri

    2010-08-01

    Density measurements of a low-silica CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 system were carried out using the Archimedes principle. A Pt 30 pct Rh bob and wire arrangement was used for this purpose. The results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained from the model developed in the current group as well as with other results reported earlier. The density for the CaO-SiO2 and the CaO-Al2O3 binary slag systems also was estimated from the ternary values. The extrapolation of density values for high-silica systems also showed good agreement with previous works. An estimation for the density value of CaO was made from the current experimental data. The density decrease at high temperatures was interpreted based on the silicate structure. As the mole percent of SiO2 was below the 33 pct required for the orthosilicate composition, discrete {text{SiO}}4^{4 - } tetrahedral units in the silicate melt would exist along with O2- ions. The change in melt expansivity may be attributed to the ionic expansions in the order of {text{Al}}^{ 3+ } - {text{O}}^{ 2- } < {text{Ca}}^{ 2+ } - {text{O}}^{ 2- } < {text{Ca}}^{ 2+ } - {text{O}}^{ - } Structural changes in the ternary slag also could be correlated to a drastic change in the value of enthalpy of mixing.

  4. Combustion Synthesis of CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+, Dy3+ And CaSrAl2SiO7:Eu2+ Long After Glow Phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talwar, Gurjeet; Joshi, C. P.; Moharil, S. V.; Kondawar, V. K.

    2011-10-01

    CaSrAl2SiO7:Eu2+ and CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+, Dy3+ are prepared through modified combustion technique. The photoluminescence and long after glow decay characteristics are studied. PL emission spectra of both the phosphors are obtained in blue region.

  5. Low-temperature heat capacities of CaAl2SiO6 glass and pyroxene and thermal expansion of CaAl2SiO6 pyroxene.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haselton, H.T.; Hemingway, B.S.; Robie, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Low-T heat capacities (5-380 K) have been measured by adiabatic calorimetry for synthetic CaAl2SiO6 glass and pyroxene. High-T unit cell parameters were measured for CaAl2SiO6 pyroxene by means of a Nonius Guinier-Lenne powder camera in order to determine the mean coefficient of thermal expansion in the T range 25-1200oC. -J.A.Z.

  6. Dissolution Behavior of Indium in CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Kyu Yeol; Park, Joo Hyun

    2011-12-01

    The solubility of indium in a molten CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 system was measured at 1773 K (1500 °C) to establish the dissolution mechanism of indium under a highly reducing atmosphere. The solubility of indium increases with increasing oxygen potential, whereas it decreases with increased activity of basic oxide. Therefore, a dissolution mechanism of indium can be constructed according to the following equation: {{In}}({{s}}) + 1/4{{O}}2 ({{g}}) = ({{In}}^{ + } ) + 1/2({{O}}^{2 - } ) The relationship between indium capacity and sulfide capacity shows a good correlation that is consistent with theoretical expectations. The enthalpy change of the indium dissolution reaction is negative, which indicates that the dissolution is an exothermic reaction. The heat of dissolution into high-silica melts is greater than that into low-silica melts. The solubility of indium is strongly dependent on the silica content. The activity coefficient, and thus the excess free energy of In2O, decreases linearly with increasing silica content, indicating that the In2O is believed to behave as a weak basic oxide in the current CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 ternary system under reducing conditions.

  7. Constraints on Titanite Acitvity in the System CaTiSiO4O-CaAlSiO4F: Implications for Thermobarometry in Metamorphic Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tropper, P.; Manning, C. E.; Essene, E. J.

    2006-12-01

    Titanite is a common accessory mineral that could be used reliably in phase equilibrium calculations, if activity-composition relations in Al-F titanites were known. Troitzsch and Ellis (2001, CMP, 142, 543) and Tropper et al. (2002, JPet., 43, 1787) gave non-ideal mixing models along the join CaTiSiO4O- CaAlSiO4F. Tropper et al. (2002) derived a negative interaction parameter W, whereas Troitzsch and Ellis (2001) derived a regular model with both positive and negative W, but favored positive values. These differences strongly influence calculated CaTiSiO4O activity (attn). Although more experiments are needed, our result that γttn<1 at high T indicates a large degree of non-ideal behavior, even at >900°C, which in turn will affect thermobarometry. Comparing available activity models shows that at these T, attn is substantially underestimated by the fully ionic model used by Manning and Bohlen (1991, CMP, 109, 1), in which attn = XCaXTiXSi(XO)5. This model assumes independent mixing of Al for Ti and random mixing of F and O on all O sites. However, F substitutes only in one O site (O1; Oberti et al., 1991, EJM, 3, 777). A fully ionic model should therefore be recast as attn = XCaXTiXSiXO, where XO indicates the mole fraction of O on the (O1) site. The substitution of F on the O1 site is coupled with Al, so it is called the ideal coupled model. Unlike the regular model, the prefered ionic model departs strongly from ideality at ≤600°C, consistent with independent constraints. However, experimentally determined attn is approximated by an ideal molecular model (XTi) at ≥900°C, so this model is recommended for thermobarometry in high- T metamorphic rocks until more data are available. Recalculation of the P recorded by the three eclogites from Manning and Bohlen (1991) using the different activity models discussed here yields differences that may be as high as 2.0 GPa.

  8. New acoustic velocity measurements on CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 liquids: Reevaluation of the volume and compressibility of CaMgSi2O6-CaAl2Si2O8 liquids to 25 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Yuhui; Lange, Rebecca A.

    2008-04-01

    Relaxed sound speed measurements on 12 liquids in the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMAS) system have been performed from 1410 to 1620°C at 1 bar with a frequency sweep acoustic interferometer. In all liquids, the sound speeds either decrease or remain constant with increasing temperature. These data are combined with those in the literature to calibrate models for βT and (∂V/∂P)T as a function of composition and temperature for CMAS liquids. CaO is the only oxide component that contributes to the temperature dependence of compressibility. The new compressibility models permit the bulk modulus (KT,0) of CaMgSi2O6 (Di), CaAl2Si2O8 (An), and the Di64-An36 eutectic liquid to be directly obtained. These results are used to uniquely constrain values for the pressure dependence of the bulk modulus (K0' = dK0/dP) in a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state (EOS) for these three liquids from shock wave data in the literature. The revised K0' value is 6.8 (versus 6.9) for CaMgSi2O6 liquid, 4.7 (versus 5.3) for CaAl2Si2O8 liquid, and 5.6 (versus 4.85) for Di64-An36 liquid. Information on both KT,0 and K0' allows the density and compressibility for each of these three liquids to be calculated as a function of pressure to 25 GPa. Both the molar volume and isothermal compressibility of CaMgSi2O6-CaAl2Si2O8 liquids mix ideally between 0 and 25 GPa. The dominant mechanism of compression at low pressure (0-5 GPa) for all three liquids (CaMgSi2O6, CaAl2Si2O8, and the Di64-An36 eutectic) is topological, whereas gradual Al/Si coordination change plays an increasingly important role at higher pressure as topological mechanisms of compression are diminished.

  9. Structure, thermodynamic and transport properties of CaAl 2Si 2O 8 liquid. Part I: Molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spera, Frank J.; Nevins, Dean; Ghiorso, Mark; Cutler, Ian

    2009-11-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations for liquid CaAl 2Si 2O 8 have been carried out at 72 state points spanning ranges in density ( ρ: 2398-4327 kg/m 3), temperature ( T: 3490-6100 K) and pressure ( P: 0.84-120 GPa) relevant to geosystems. The atomic scale structure of the melt is determined by analysis of nearest neighbor coordination statistics as a function of T and P. Dramatic structural change occurs as pressure increases especially for 0 < P <20 GPa at all temperatures. Changes in structure are encapsulated by examining the coordination of Si, Al, Ca and O around oxygen and vice versa. Si and Al change from predominantly fourfold at low- P to dominantly sixfold for P >˜ 20 GPa. Pentahedrally coordinated Si and Al in distorted trigonal bipyramids attain abundance maxima corresponding to ˜60% of total (Si, Al)O n at 3-5 GPa and weakly depend on T. The coordination of Ca by oxygen increases from 7 to 10 for 0 < P < 20 GPa and changes slowly for P > 20 GPa at 3500 K. Similar behavior is seen at 6000 K except that the interval of rapid changes occurs at higher pressure. Oxygen with only one nearest Si or Al neighbor (i.e., non-bridging oxygen, NBO) decreases whereas oxygen with two or three nearest neighbors of Si, Al or Ca increases as pressure increases. Changes in melt structure are reflected in the variation of thermodynamic and transport properties of the liquid. Values of the self-diffusivities of Ca, Al, Si and O are fit to a modified Arrhenian expression and compare well to limited laboratory data. Self-diffusivities are best fit using 'low P' and 'high- P' expressions, identical in form but with different parameters, with activation energies and activation volumes in the range 150-200 kJ/mol and +5 to -1 cm 3/mol, respectively. Green-Kubo calculations for liquid shear viscosity are presented and compare well with limited laboratory results. Application of the Eyring model to determine the characteristic size and number of atoms in the activated cluster based

  10. Charge-compensation effect of Al on luminescence properties of M2(Si, Al)5N8:Ce3+ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramoto, Daiki; Horikawa, Takashi; Hanzawa, Hiromasa; Machida, Ken-ichi

    2013-09-01

    The charge-compensated materials, M2AlxSi5-xN8:Ce3+ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba), were synthesized from appropriate mixtures of MSi, MAlSi, (MSiHy, MAlSiHy), Si3N4 and CeF3 by a direct nitriding process in a N2 gas and the luminescence properties were characterized. The resultant phosphors showed green emission suitable for LED illumination by optimizing the mixing ratio of metal elements. These phosphors were effectively excited by violet or blue light (400-430 nm) and the emission bands were observed at various wavelength regions for Ca: 489-528 nm, Sr: 511-520 nm, and Ba: 508-514 nm. Although the emission intensity of Ca2(Si, Al)5N8:Ce3+ was decreased with increasing amount of Al, those of Sr- and Ba-analogues were maximized at x = 0.5 of Al content in M2Si5-xAlxN8:Ce3+.

  11. Host lattice materials in the system Ca3N2-AlN-Si3N4 for white light emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uheda, K.; Hirosaki, N.; Yamamoto, H.

    2006-09-01

    New host lattice materials whose red phosphors for white LEDs have been investigated in the ternary system Ca3N2-AlN-Si3N4, just as Ca2Si5N8 and CaSiN2:Eu were found in the binary system Ca3N2-Si3N4. A new red phosphor of CaAlSiN3:Eu which is effectively excited by blue-GaN and near UV-GaInN LED chips has been synthesized at 1600 °C for 2 h and subsequently at 1800 °C for 2 h under nitrogen pressure of 1 MPa. The host-compound has an orthorhombic structure with the space group Cmc21 (No. 36), which is isotypic with LiSi2N3 and NaSi2N3. The red phosphor showed the emission peak around 650 nm which was assinged to 5d 4f of Eu2+ ion, and its color coordinates were estimated to be 0.667 and 0.327. The optimum concentration of Eu2+ ion was 1.6 mol%. The phosphor also had a high chemical stability, high quantum output, and especially a good thermal property compared to the other phosphors, Ca2Si5N8:Eu2+ and CaSiN2:Eu2+. CaAlSiN3:Eu2+ maintained 83% of the initial efficiency above 150 °C.

  12. Optimum Composition of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO Slag for Spring Steel Deoxidized by Si and Mn in Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hulin; Ye, Jiansong; Wu, Xiaoliang; Peng, Yongsheng; Fang, Yi; Zhao, Xinbing

    2016-04-01

    The relations between plasticity of inclusions and contents of oxygen, aluminum, and sulfur in molten steel were overall discussed by thermodynamics and FactSage software. Then, the optimum compositions of slag were obtained and the activities of components of refining slag system were analyzed. Finally, experiments were carried out based on the results of calculation. According to the relations, it could achieve better effect to improve basicity R ( R = CaO/SiO2 by mass pct) and C/ A ( C/ A = CaO/Al2O3 by mass pct) in the low melting temperature [≤1673 K (≤1400 °C)] region of refining slag as far as possible. For the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO slag, the optimum compositions are MgO: 5-9 pct, CaO: 47.4-50.2 pct, SiO2: 41.9-45.6 pct and Al2O3: ≤2.79 pct, respectively, in which the basicity is at the range of 1.0 to 1.19 and C/ A is above 9.0. It is proved by experiments that the plasticity of inclusions and the contents of [O], [Al], and [S] can be controlled effectively by the optimum composition of refining slag, and the high cleanness is achieved in spring wire rods.

  13. The Influence of Na2O on the Solidification and Crystallization Behavior of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-Based Mold Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jinxing; Wen, Guanghua; Sun, Qihao; Tang, Ping; Liu, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    The reaction between [Al] and SiO2 sharply increased the Al2O3 and decreased SiO2 contents in mold flux during the continuous casting of high-Al steels. These changes converted original CaO-SiO2-based flux into CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-based flux, promoting the crystallization and deteriorating the mold lubrication. Therefore, study on the solidification and crystallization behavior of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-based mold flux, with the applicable fluidizers, is of importance. The effect of Na2O, predominantly used as the fluidizer in mold flux, on the solidification and crystallization behavior of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-based mold flux needs to be investigated. In this study, a CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-based mold flux containing 6.5 wt pct Li2O was designed; the effect of Na2O on the solidification and crystallization behavior of these mold fluxes was investigated using the single hot thermocouple technique (SHTT) and the double hot thermocouple technique (DHTT). Moreover, the slag film obtained by a heat flux simulator was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicate that the solid fraction of molten slag (Fs) and the crystalline fraction of solid slag (Fc) in the mold slag films decrease with increasing Na2O content from 0 to 2 wt pct. However, Fs and Fc increased when the Na2O content increased from 2 to 6 wt pct. The critical cooling rates initially decreases and then increases with increasing Na2O content. The XRD analysis results show that LiAlO2 and CaF2 were the basic crystals for all the mold fluxes. Increasing the Na2O content both inhibits the Ca2Al2SiO7 formation and promotes the production of Ca12Al14O33, indicating that the mold lubrication deteriorated because of the high melting-point phase formation of Ca2Al2SiO7 in the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-based mold flux containing 6.5 wt pct Li2O, without Na2O. The strong crystallization tendency also deteriorated the mold lubrication for the mold flux with a higher Na2O content. Therefore, the addition of Na2O was less than 2 wt pct in

  14. High-pressure phase relations and thermodynamic properties of CaAl 4Si 2O 11 CAS phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akaogi, M.; Haraguchi, M.; Yaguchi, M.; Kojitani, H.

    2009-03-01

    Phase relations in CaAl4Si2O11 were examined at 12-23 GPa and 1000-1800 °C by multianvil experiments. A three-phase mixture of grossular, kyanite and corundum is stable below about 13 GPa at 1000-1800 °C. At higher pressure and at temperature below about 1200 °C, a mixture of grossular, stishovite and corundum is stable, indicating the decomposition of kyanite. Above about 1200 °C, CaAl4Si2O11 CAS phase is stable at pressure higher than about 13 GPa. The triple point is placed at 14.7 GPa and 1280 °C. The equilibrium boundary of formation of CAS phase from the mixture of grossular, kyanite and corundum has a small negative slope, and that from the mixture of grossular, stishovite and corundum has a strongly negative slope, while the decomposition boundary of kyanite has a small positive slope. Enthalpies of the transitions were measured by high-temperature drop-solution calorimetry. The enthalpy of formation of CaAl4Si2O11 CAS phase from the mixture of grossular, kyanite and corundum was 139.5 ± 15.6 kJ/mol, and that from the mixture of grossular, stishovite and corundum was 94.2 ± 15.4 kJ/mol. The transition boundaries calculated using the measured enthalpy data were consistent with those determined by the high-pressure experiments. The boundaries in this study are placed about 3 GPa higher in pressure and about 200 °C lower in temperature than those by Zhai and Ito [Zhai, S., Ito, E., 2008. Phase relations of CaAl4Si2O11 at high-pressure and high-temperature with implications for subducted continental crust into the deep mantle. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 167, 161-167]. Combining the thermodynamic data measured in this study with those in the literature, dissociation boundary of CAS phase into a mixture of Ca-perovskite, corundum and stishovite and that of grossular into Ca-perovskite plus corundum were calculated to further constrain the stability field of CAS phase. The result suggests that the stability of CAS phase would be limited at the bottom of

  15. Syntheses and luminescent properties of CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphors for white LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Sook Hyun; Moon, Byung Kee; Choi, Byung Chun; Jeong, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Aluminosilicate-based luminescent materials, a series of CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+ samples were prepared by using a solid-state reaction method. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples confirmed their triclinic structure after annealing at 1100 °C. The excitation spectra of CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+ exhibited a broad band ranging between 220 to 420 nm with a point peak at a longer wavelength. Moreover, a shift in the broad band was also recorded with increasing Eu2+ concentration. The emission spectrum of CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+ consists of a broad band from 390 to 550 nm with a maximum intensity at about 438 nm, which can be ascribed to the electric-dipole-allowed 4f65d1-8S7/2(4f7) transition of the Eu2+ ions. A series of Eu2+ and Mn2+ co-activated CaAl2Si2O8 samples were synthesized at 1400 °C. The CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+, Mn2+ samples had a wide emission band ranging from blue to yellow and peaking at 438 and 550 nm under an excitation wavelength of 352 nm. The PL spectrum of the CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+, Mn2+ samples reveal an effective energy transfer from Eu2+ to Mn2+ in CaAl2Si2O8. By utilizing the principle of energy transfer, we also demonstrated that with appropriate tuning of the activator content, CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+, Mn2+ phosphors exhibit great potential as a phosphor for white-light-emitting diodes.

  16. Phase equilibria and elements partitioning in zirconolite-rich region of Ca-Zr-Ti-Al-Gd-Si-O system

    SciTech Connect

    Knyazev, O.A.; Stefanovsky, S.V.; Ioudintsev, S.V.; Nikonov, B.S.; Omelianenko, B.I.; Mokhov, A.V.; Yakushev, A.I.

    1997-12-31

    Zirconolite-rich ceramics were produced by the cold crucible melting technique in an air atmosphere, at 1550 {+-} 50 C and 1 atm. Four samples with overall composition (in wt.%): 4.9-14.3 CaO; 19.0-41.3 ZrO{sub 2}; 24.1-42.6 TiO{sub 2}; 1.3-11.3 Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}; 6.8-30.0 Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}; and 1.1-8.5 SiO{sub 2} have been studied. Total phases in the ceramics consist of major zirconolite and minor rutile, perovskite, zirconia, aluminium titanate, and glass. The Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} content in zirconolite reaches up to 31.4 wt.% corresponding to the formula: (Ca{sub 0.4},Gd{sub 0.7})Zr{sub 1.0}(Ti{sub 1.4},Al{sub 0.5})O{sub 7.0}. The data on the phase composition agree well with coupled Gd incorporation into the mineral structure: Ca(II) + Ti(IV) = Gd(III) + Al(III), and 2Gd(III) = Ca(II) + Zr(IV). The highest Gd contents observed in the other phases are 25.4% for zirconia, 12.6% in glass, 8.8% in perovskite, and 1.4% for rutile. The rest of the elements` distribution in the samples are analyzed.

  17. Effects of CaO/SiO2 Ratio and Na2O Content on Melting Properties and Viscosity of SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-B2O3-Na2O Mold Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Zhang, Chen; Cai, Dexiang; Zhang, Jianqiang; Sasaki, Yasushi; Ostrovski, Oleg

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigated the effects of CaO/SiO2 ratio (0.8 to 1.5) and Na2O concentration (6 to 9 wt pct) on melting properties and viscosity of SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-B2O3-Na2O mold fluxes with a fixed B2O3 content. Melting properties of fluxes (softening temperature T s, hemispherical temperature T h, and fluidity temperature T f) were determined by the hot-stage microscopy method. Viscosity was measured using rotating cylindrical viscometer, and structure of quenched fluxes was studied using Raman spectroscopy. Equilibrium phases in the SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-B2O3-Na2O system were calculated using FactSage. It was found that T h decreased with increasing CaO/SiO2 ratio from 0.8 to 1.0 and increased with a further increase in the CaO/SiO2 ratio to 1.5. The effect of Na2O content in the range of 6 to 9 wt pct on T h of the flux with a fixed CaO/SiO2 ratio at 1.3 was marginal. Increasing CaO/SiO2 ratio and Na2O content increased the break temperature and reduced the value of viscosity at 1673 K (1400 °C). Viscosity of liquid fluxes was discussed in the relationship with the flux structure. Melting properties and viscosity of boracic fluxes were compared with those of industrial fluorine-containing mold fluxes.

  18. Cross sections for He and Ne isotopes in natural Mg, Al, and Si, He isotopes in CaF2, Ar isotopes in natural Ca, and radionuclides in natural Al, Si, Ti, Cr, and stainless steel induced by 12- to 45-MeV protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J. R.; Heymann, D.; Yaniv, A.; Edgerley, D.; Rowe, M. W.

    1976-01-01

    Stacks of thin Mg, Al, Si, Ca, CaF2, Ti, and stainless steel foils were bombarded in twelve irradiations by a variable energy cyclotron. Cross sections are reported for He and Ne in natural Mg, Al, and Si, and for He in CaF2, and for Ar in natural Ca, as determined from mass spectrometer analysis of the inert gases. In addition, cross sections of Na-22 in natural Al and Si, of V-48 in natural Ti, and of Cr-51, Mn-52, and Co-57 in stainless steel are reported. From these were deduced Cr-51 and Mn-52 cross sections in natural Cr.

  19. Carbon in silicate liquids: the systems NaAlSi3O8-CO2, CaAl2Si2O8-CO2, and KAlSi3O8-CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Art; Luth, Robert W.; White, Bradford S.

    1987-11-01

    To further our knowledge of the effects of volatile components on phase relationships in aluminosilicate systems, we determined the vapor saturated solidi of albite, anorthite, and sanidine in the presence of CO2 vapor. The depression of the temperature of the solidus of albite by CO2 decreases from ˜30° C at 10 kbar, to ˜10° C at 20 kbar, to about 0 at 25 kbar, suggesting that the solubility of CO2 in NaAlSi3O8 liquid in equilibrium with solid albite decreases with increasing pressure and temperature. In contrast, CO2 lowers the temperature of the solidus of anorthite by ˜30° C at 14 kbar, and by ˜70dg C at 25 kbar. This contrasting behavior of albite and anorthite is also reflected in the behavior of melting in the absence of volatile components. Whereas albite melts congruently to a liquid of NaAl-Si3O8 composition to pressures of ˜35 kbar, anorthite melts congruently to only about 10 kbar and, at higher pressures, incongruently to corundum plus a liquid that is enriched in SiO2 and CaO and depleted in Al2O3 relative to CaAl2Si2O8. The tendency toward incongruent melting with increasing pressure in albite and anorthite produces an increase in the activity of SiO2 component in the liquid (a_{SiO_2 }^l ). We predict that this increases the ratio of molecular CO2/CO{3/2-}in these liquids, but the experimental results from other workers are mutually contradictory. Because of the positive dP/dT of the albite solidus and the negative dP/dT of the anorthite solidus, we propose that a negative temperature derivative of the solubility of molecular CO2 in plagioclase liquids may partly explain the decrease in solubility of carbon with increasing pressure in near-solidus NaAlSi3O8 liquids, which is in contrast to that in CaAl2Si2O8 liquid. Also, reaction of CO2 with NaAlSi3O8 liquid to form CO{3/2-}that is complexed with Na+ must be accompanied by a change in Al3+ from network-former to network-modifier, as Na+ is no longer abailable to charge-balance Al3+ in a

  20. Effect of partial nitridation on the structure and luminescence properties of melilite-type Ca2Al2SiO7:Eu2+ phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yi; Xia, Zhiguo

    2014-09-01

    Ca1.97Al2-xSi1+xO7-xNx:0.03Eu2+ (x = 0-0.4) phosphors have been prepared by using the high temperature solid-state reaction. The effect of phase structures, photoluminescence (PL) properties and the thermal stabilities have been investigated based on the substitution of Al-O bond in Ca2Al2SiO7:Eu2+ phosphor with Si-N bond. The XRD Rietveld refinement and 29Si NMR analysis results verify the introduction of partial Si-N bonds. It is found that the PL spectra shift to the blue region abnormally from 530 to 515 nm, and the possible mechanism has been proposed. The activation energy becomes large along with the nitridation process, which coincides with the explanation of configuration coordinate diagram.

  1. Formation Mechanism of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-(MgO) Inclusions in Si-Mn-Killed Steel with Limited Aluminum Content During the Low Basicity Slag Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kunpeng; Jiang, Min; Wang, Xinhua; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Haoqian; Cao, Zhanmin

    2016-02-01

    Pilot trails were carried out to study the formation mechanism of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-(MgO) inclusions in tire cord steel. 48 samples were taken from 8 heats of liquid steel during secondary refining, which were subsequently examined by an automatic scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). Characteristics of thousands of oxide inclusions at different refining stages were obtained, including their compositions, sizes, morphologies, etc. Based on the obtained information of inclusions, details during formation of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-(MgO) inclusions were revealed and a new mechanism was proposed, including their origin, formation, and evolution during the refining process. It was found that CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-(MgO) inclusions were initially originated from the CaO-SiO2-MnO-(MgO) inclusions, which were formed during BOF tapping by the coalescence between MnO-SiO2 deoxidation products and the emulsified slag particles because of violent flow of steel. This can be well confirmed by the evaluation of the formation thermodynamics of CaO-SiO2-MnO-(MgO) inclusions, which was proved very difficult to be produced by intrinsic reactions inside liquid steel. Because of chemical reactions between CaO-SiO2-MnO-(MgO) inclusions and molten steel, they were mainly changed into CaO-SiO2-MnO-Al2O3-(MgO) and partially into CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-(MgO), which may be detrimental to the cold drawing ability of coils. Based on this finding, improvements were made in industrial production during BOF tapping and secondary refining. The results indicated that such (CaO-SiO2)-based inclusions existed in conventional process were effectively decreased after the improvements.

  2. Antiferromagnetism in CaAl2Si2-type CaMn2As2 and SrMn2As2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangeetha, N. S.; Pandey, Abhishek; Benson, Zackery A.; Johnston, D. C.

    Magnetic susceptibility versus temperature χ (T) measurements of CaMn2As2 and SrMn2As2 crystals show clear antiferromagnetic (AFM) transitions at TN ~ 65 K and 120 K,1 respectively. The anisotropic behaviors in χ (T <=TN) suggest that both compounds are noncollinear antiferromagnets which may result either from an intrinsic noncollinear structure or from multiple collinear AFM domains that are not aligned collinearly.2 The χ (T) data at T >TN reveal that both compounds exhibit strong short-range AFM ordering, evidently associated with quasi-two-dimensional spin lattices. The electrical resistivities show insulating ground states with activation energies of ~ 63 meV in CaMn2As2 and 44 meV in SrMn2As2 . The experimental results thus reveal that both (Ca , Sr) Mn2As2 materials are AFM insulators at low temperatures and in analogy with the high Tc cuprates, may be potential parent compounds for CaAl2Si2-type superconductors. Work was supported by the USDOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  3. Enhanced Emission from Li2CaSiO4:Dy3+ Phosphors by Doping with Al3+ and B3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdoğmuş, E.

    2016-05-01

    Pure Li2CaSiO4, Li2CaSiO4:Dy3+ and Al3+, B3+ co-doped materials were prepared by a solid-state reaction in air at 900°C for 6 h and characterized by using powder XRD. The luminescence properties of the synthesized phosphors were measured at room temperature with a spectrofluorometer. Li2CaSiO4:Dy3+ emits at 484, 575, and 660 nm upon 352 nm excitation. The emission spectrum intensity of Dy3+ increased from 0.01 to 0.06 mol.%, and beyond 0.06 mol.%, concentration quenching was observed. Also, in this study, the effects of boric acid and aluminum oxide concentration on the photoluminescence properties of Dy3+ doped phosphors were investigated. The results showed that boric acid and aluminum oxide were effective in improving the photoluminescence intensity of Li2CaSiO4:Dy3+ compounds.

  4. Super Smooth Modification of Al2O3 Ceramic Substrate by High Temperature Glaze of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jihua; Zhen, Shanxue; Yang, Lijun; Lou, Feizhi; Chen, Hongwei; Yang, Chuanren

    2011-01-01

    The rough surface of ceramic substrate is an obstacle for the scale down of line-width for thin film passive integrated devices (PID). In this paper, a modification method for Al2O3 ceramic substrate with super smooth in surface was proposed. Coating a layer of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CAS) glass was performed to flat the rough surface of alumina substrate by sol-gel method. It was found that addition of 0.06% V2O5 can inhibit the recrystallization of the glaze. The root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the glazed substrates reached a surprising flatness as small as 0.5 nm, and its melting temperature is higher than 1300 °C. This substrate with super flatness and high temperature endurance may be promising for high performance thin film devices.

  5. Tululite, Ca14(Fe3+,Al)(Al,Zn,Fe3+,Si,P,Mn,Mg)15O36: a new Ca zincate-aluminate from combustion metamorphic marbles, central Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoury, Hani N.; Sokol, Ella V.; Kokh, Svetlana N.; Seryotkin, Yurii V.; Nigmatulina, Elena N.; Goryainov, Sergei V.; Belogub, Elena V.; Clark, Ian D.

    2016-02-01

    Tululite (Ca14(Fe3+,Al)(Al,Zn,Fe3+,Si,P,Mn,Mg)15O36 (the hypothetical end-member formula Ca14{Fe3+O6}[SiO4][Zn5Al9]O26) (IMA2014-065) is a new natural Ca zincate-aluminate, identified in medium-temperature (800-850 °C) combustion metamorphic (CM) spurrite-fluorellestadite marbles from central Jordan. The type locality (Tulul Al Hammam area) is situated in the northern part of the Siwaqa complex, the largest area of the "Mottled Zone" Formation in the Dead Sea region. The marbles originated from bitumen-rich chalky marine sediments of the Maastrichtian-Paleogene Muwaqqar Chalk Marl Formation, which have low clay content (and, consequently, low Al) and high Zn, Cd, and U enrichments. The bulk CM rocks derived from the low-Al protolith have unusually high (Zn + Cd)/Al ratios ( 0.2) and, as a result, a mineralogy with negligibly small percentages of Ca aluminates having low Ca:Al molar ratios (minerals of mayenite supergroup, Ca:Al = 6:7) common to most of calcareous CM rocks in the Mottled Zone. Instead, the mineral assemblage of the Zn-rich marbles contains tululite, with high Ca:Al = 2.55 molar ratios and Zn substituting for a large portion of Al (Zn:Al = 1.1). Tululite occurs in thin clusters as irregular grains with indented outlines (20-100 μm in size), having typical open-work textures associated with rock-forming calcite, fluorellestadite, spurrite, and accessory Zn-rich periclase, lime-monteponite solid solutions, calcium uranates, and zincite. Marbles also bear brownmillerite, dorrite, fluormayenite, high-fluorine Ca aluminate, and lakargiite. Secondary phases are brucite, gel-like calcium silicate hydrates and calcium silicate aluminate hydrates, including Zn- and U-bearing and Cd-rich compounds, Si-bearing hydrated compounds after calcium uranates, and basic Cd chlorides. The empirical formula of the holotype tululite (a mean of 32 analyses) is (Ca13.29Cd0.75)Σ14.04(Al5.46Zn5.20Fe3+ 2.23Si0.95Mn3+ 1.01Mg0.78P0.41)Σ16.04O36. Tululite is cubic, space

  6. Dependence of acoustic property on Al substitution for Ca3Ta(Ga1‑ x Al x )3Si2O14 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Yuji; Arakawa, Mototaka; Kudo, Tetsuo; Yokota, Yuui; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Kamada, Kei; Kushibiki, Jun-ichi; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2016-07-01

    The acoustic properties of Ca3Ta(Ga1‑ x Al x )3Si2O14 (CTGASx) were experimentally studied as a function of the Al substitution content x in the ranges from x = 0 to 0.50. Five specimens, X-, Y-, Z-, 35°Y-, and 140°Y-cut, were prepared from each crystal of CTGASx (x = 0, 0.25, and 0.50) grown by the Czochralski technique. Longitudinal wave and shear wave velocities for CTGASx linearly increase with Al content for all propagation directions. Dielectric constants and density were measured and then elastic and piezoelectric constants were determined from the measured velocities for each crystal. The results revealed that all of the constants change linearly with Al content. From the relationship, the constants for CTAS (x = 1) were estimated. Calculations of the velocities using the determined constants also suggested that the maximum electromechanical coupling factor k 2 for the slow shear wave mode propagating along the rotated Y-axis direction of CTAS was improved to 4.42% compared with 3.83% for CTGS, owing to the Al substitution effect.

  7. Photoluminescence of CaAlSiN3:Eu2+-based fine red-emitting phosphors synthesized by carbothermal reduction and nitridation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuxing; Peng, Xia; Liu, Xuejian; Huang, Zhengren

    2014-12-01

    In this research, we have presented the synthesis and characterization of the various Ca1-xEuxAl0.76Si1.18N3 (x = 0.01 ∼ 0.1) red-emitting phosphors, which were successfully prepared by carbothermal reduction and nitridation (CTRN) method without the strict needs of high pressure. Here, raw materials were CaCO3, AlN, Si3N4, Eu2O3, and C. In particular, C was considered as efficient and robust reducing agent. The influences of reaction temperature, holding time, C content, and Eu2+ concentration were investigated in the crystal phase compositions and photoluminescence properties of the as-prepared phosphors. Importantly, CaAlSiN3:Eu2+-based red phosphors with interesting properties were obtained with reaction temperature at 1600 °C for 4 h by atmospheric N2-10%H2 pressure, and the C/O ratio of 1.5:1, respectively. The emission peak positions of as-prepared phosphors were red-shifted from 607 nm to 654 nm with Eu2+ concentration from 1 mol% to 10 mol%. Meanwhile the highest luminescence intensity was achieved with 2 mol% of Eu2+ concentration, which showed high external quantum efficiency up to 71%. Combining the phosphor blend of green-emitting β-sialon:Eu2+, yellow-emitting Ca-α-sialon:Eu2+, and red-emitting Ca0.98Eu0.02Al0.76Si1.18N3 with a blue LED (light emitting diodes), warm white LED can be generated, yielding the color rendering index (Ra) of 93 at correlated color temperature (CCT) of 3295 K. These results indicate that CaAlSiN3:Eu2+-based red-emitting phosphors prepared by facile CTRN are highly promising candidates for warm white LEDs.

  8. [Research on the Relationship between Surface Structure and Fluorescence Intensity of Ca(1-x)Al2Si2O8 : Eu(x)].

    PubMed

    He, Xiao; Zhang, Li-sheng; Zu, En-dong; Yang, Xiao-yun; Dong, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Ca(1-x)Al2Si2O8 : Eu(x)(x = 0, 0.01, 0.05, 0.15) were synthesized by solid-state reaction respectively at 1 150, 1 250 1350 and 1 450 degrees C. With X-ray diffraction(XRD), Raman spectroscopy(Raman), photoluminescence spectroscopy(PL) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometer(XRF), the relationship between surface structure and fluorescence intensity of Ca(1-x) Al2Si2O8: Eu(x) were studied. XRD and Raman results show that, CaAl2Si2O8 anorthite single-phase has formed gradually along with the temperature rising in the process of synthesis. Raman spectroscopy is clear that when the Eu doping amount is the same, Si-O amorphous phase disappear gradually and the CaAl2Si2O8 phase form gradually with the temperature increases. As the temperature increases, vibration peaks position silicon oxygen tetrahedron shift to lower wave number. When 1 450 degrees C, the temperature is too high to destroy the structure of silicon oxygen tetrahedron. At the same time, there is a broadening amorphous peak appears in Raman spectroscopy. The procedure of Al to replace Si is hindered with Eu doped in. It is the result that the peak at 1 620 cm(-1) decreases after the first increases. The change of surface structure associated with the scattering amount of Eu. PL and XRF results show that: as the temperature increases, the amount of Eu atom scattering on the material surface increases gradually, this change lead to the fluorescence intensity raise. Therefore, there is proportional relationship between the fluorescence intensity of the samples and the number of samples per unit surface area of Eu atoms. PMID:27228758

  9. The pressure-volume equation of state of a synthetic grossular Ca3Al2Si3O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Sula; Boffa Ballaran, Tiziana; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of a wide research project focused on mineral inclusions in diamonds we have investigated the compressibility of a synthetic grossular garnet (Ca3Al2Si3O12) with the purpose of providing new constraints on the diamond geobarometry. In fact, not only garnets are among the important phases of the Earth upper mantle but at the same time are one of the main phases found as inclusion in diamonds. Garnets are a crucial marker in determining the origin source of diamonds, which can be eclogitic and/or peridotitic. In particular, peridotitic diamonds include garnets characterized by about 90-92% of pyrope-almandine with the grossular component reaching about 6-8%, whereas eclogitic diamonds have garnets with the grossular component increased up to about 20-22%. In order to obtain information about the depth of formation of the diamond-garnet pair, beyond the classical chemical method, we propose the so called "elastic method", which is based on the knowledge of precise and accurate thermoelastic parameters for both diamond and inclusion (e.g. Nestola et al. 2011 and references therein). We have determined the pressure - volume equation of state of a pure synthetic grossular garnet by single-crystal X-ray diffraction up to about 8 GPa. The resulting equation of state coefficients, together with those previously determined for pyrope and almandine end-members and their intermediate compositions (see Milani et al. 2013) will cover the compositional range of garnets found as inclusions in diamonds, allowing to construct a robust model to predict the elastic parameters for any garnet composition typical of eclogitic and/or peridotitic diamond. The research was funded by the ERC Starting Grant to FN (grant agreement n° 307322). References Milani S., Mazzucchelli M., Nestola F., Alvaro M., Angel R.J., Geiger C.A., Domeneghetti M.C. (2013) The P-T conditions of garnet inclusion formation in diamond: thermal expansion of synthetic end-member pyrope. EGU General

  10. Excellent stability of plasma-sprayed bioactive Ca 3ZrSi 2O 9 ceramic coating on Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ying; Xie, Youtao; Ji, Heng; Huang, Liping; Zheng, Xuebin

    2010-05-01

    In this work, novel zirconium incorporated Ca-Si based ceramic powder Ca 3ZrSi 2O 9 was synthesized. The aim of this study was to fabricate Ca 3ZrSi 2O 9 coating onto Ti-6Al-4V substrate using atmospheric plasma-spraying technology and to evaluate its potential applications in the fields of orthopedics and dentistry. The phase composition, surface morphologies of the coating were examined by XRD and SEM, which revealed that the Ca 3ZrSi 2O 9 coating was composed of grains around 100 nm and amorphous phases. The bonding strength between the coating and the substrate was 28 ± 4 MPa, which is higher than that of traditional HA coating. The dissolution rate of the coating was assessed by monitoring the ions release and mass loss after immersion in the Tris-HCl buffer solution. The in vitro bioactivity of the coating was determined by observing the formation of apatite on its surface in simulated body fluids. It was found that the Ca 3ZrSi 2O 9 coating possessed both excellent chemical stability and good apatite-formation ability, suggesting its potential use as bone implants.

  11. Ladle and Continuous Casting Process Models for Reduction of SiO2 in SiO2-Al2O3-CaO Slags by Al in Fe-Al(-Si) Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jiwon; Sridhar, S.; Fruehan, Richard J.

    2015-02-01

    Based on a mixed control or two-phase mass transfer model considering mass transport in the metal and the slag phases, process models for ladle and continuous castor mold were developed to predict the changes in the metal and the slag chemistry and viscosity. In the ladle process model, the rate of reaction is primarily determined by stirring gas flow rate, which greatly alters the mass transports of the metal and the slag phases. In the continuous casting process model, the effects of the Al, Si, and SiO2 contents in the incoming flow of the fluid phases, casting speed, mold flux consumption rate, and depth of the liquid mold flux pool on the steady-state compositions of the metal and the mold flux were assessed.

  12. [Effect of temperature on the structure of CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 nanocrystalline glass-ceramics studied by Raman spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Li, Bao-Wei; Ouyang, Shun-Li; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Jia, Xiao-Lin; Deng, Lei-Bo; Liu, Fang

    2014-07-01

    In the present paper, nanocrystalline glass-ceramic of CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system was produced by melting method. The CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 nanocrystalline glass-ceramic was measured by Raman spectroscopy in the temperature range from -190 to 310 degrees C in order to study the effect of temperature on the structure of this system nanocrystalline glass-ceramics. The results showed that different non-bridge oxygen bond silicon-oxygen tetrahedron structural unit changes are not consistent with rising temperature. Further analyses indicated that: the SiO4 tetrahedron with 2 non-bridged oxygen (Q2), the SiO4 tetrahedron with 3 non-bridged oxygen (Q(1)), which are situated at the edge of the 3-D SiO4 tetrahedrons network, and the SiO4 tetrahedron with 4 non-bridged oxygen (Q(0)), which is situated outside the 3-D network all suffered a significant influence by the temperature change, which has been expressed as: shifts towards the high wave-number, increased bond force constants, and shortened bond lengths. This paper studied the influence of temperature on CMAS system nanocrystalline glass-ceramics using variable temperature Raman technology. It provides experiment basis to the research on external environment influence on CMAS system nanocrystalline glass-ceramics materials in terms of structure and performance. In addition, the research provides experimental basis for controlling the expansion coefficient of nanocrystalline glass-ceramic of CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system.

  13. Directional solidification, thermo-mechanical and optical properties of (Mg(x)Ca(1-x))(3)Al(2)Si(3)O(12) glasses doped with Nd(3+) ions.

    PubMed

    Sola, D; Conejos, D; Martínez de Mendivil, J; Ortega-San-Martín, L; Lifante, G; Peña, J I

    2015-10-01

    In this work glass rods of (Mg(x)Ca(1-x))(3)Al(2)Si(3)O(12) (x = 0, 0.5 and 1) doped with 1 wt% Nd(2)O(3) were produced by the laser floating zone technique. Thermo-mechanical and spectroscopic properties have been evaluated. The three glass samples present good thermo-mechanical properties, with similar hardness, toughness and glass transition temperatures. The spectroscopic characterization shows spectral shifts in absorption and emission spectra. These spectral shifts together with Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters and ionic packing ratio have been used to investigate the local structure surrounding the Nd(3+) ions and the covalency of the Nd-O bond. All obtained results agree and confirm the higher covalency of the Nd-O bond in the Ca(3)Al(2)Si(3)O(12) glass.

  14. (CaO · Al2O3 · SiO2): Eu phosphors for violet/ultraviolet-to-white radiation conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurin, N. T.; Paksyutov, K. V.; Terent'ev, M. A.; Shirokov, A. V.

    2012-02-01

    (2CaO · 0.5Al2O3 · 5SiO2): Eu and (CaO · 0.2Al2O3 · SiO2): Eu phosphors doped with B2O3 in an amount of 3 wt % are obtained by direct solid-phase synthesis at 1350°C. When excited by LED radiation with a maximum at 380 nm, these phosphors emit white light with color coordinates, which are close to those in the EBU and NTSC TV standards and fall into the field of white light corresponding to light warning systems according to the International Commission on Illumination (CIE).

  15. Directional solidification, thermo-mechanical and optical properties of (Mg(x)Ca(1-x))(3)Al(2)Si(3)O(12) glasses doped with Nd(3+) ions.

    PubMed

    Sola, D; Conejos, D; Martínez de Mendivil, J; Ortega-San-Martín, L; Lifante, G; Peña, J I

    2015-10-01

    In this work glass rods of (Mg(x)Ca(1-x))(3)Al(2)Si(3)O(12) (x = 0, 0.5 and 1) doped with 1 wt% Nd(2)O(3) were produced by the laser floating zone technique. Thermo-mechanical and spectroscopic properties have been evaluated. The three glass samples present good thermo-mechanical properties, with similar hardness, toughness and glass transition temperatures. The spectroscopic characterization shows spectral shifts in absorption and emission spectra. These spectral shifts together with Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters and ionic packing ratio have been used to investigate the local structure surrounding the Nd(3+) ions and the covalency of the Nd-O bond. All obtained results agree and confirm the higher covalency of the Nd-O bond in the Ca(3)Al(2)Si(3)O(12) glass. PMID:26480149

  16. SiO 2-CaO-B 2O 3-Al 2O 3 ceramic glaze as sealant for planar ITSOFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, R.; Wang, S. R.; Nie, H. W.; Wen, T.-L.

    A series of ceramic glazes based on the SiO 2-CaO-B 2O 3-Al 2O 3 system as sealant for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (ITSOFC) were investigated. Different ratios of B 2O 3/SiO 2 and Al 2O 3/CaO were investigated to control softening process, phase separation, and crystallization. When B 2O 3/SiO 2 ratio was in the range of 0.14-0.27, the glazes showed good wetting and bonding behavior with both 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) electrolyte and stainless steel interconnect which could satisfy the sealing demand at 850 °C. And the dimension stability can be kept for over 100 h by introducing ceramic felt and controlling the glazes viscosity in the range of 10 4 to 10 6 Pa s. By means of controlling Al 2O 3/CaO ratio in the range of 0.4-0.68, phase separation and crystallization were restrained effectively. After holding at 850 °C for 100 h, non-crystalline network in the glazes could be found, and a suitable viscous flow could well relax thermal stress. The sealing was effective even after 10 thermal cycles. Element analysis showed a good chemical stability at the ceramic glazes/stainless steel interconnect and ceramic glazes/8YSZ electrolyte interfaces.

  17. White LED based on CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+ Mn2+ phosphor and CdS/ZnS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Changyu; Zhong, Chuan; Hou, Qianglong; Li, Ke

    2011-02-01

    Core/shell CdS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with the emission wavelength of 610nm, was synthesized by thermal deposition using cadmium oxide and selenium as precursors in a hot lauric acid and hexadecylamine trioctylphosphine oxide hybrid. CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+ Mn2+ phosphor was synthesized by high-temperature solid state reaction at 1290 °C for 2 hours under the H2 reducing atmosphere, and X-ray powder diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of it. It has two emission bands peaking at 420 nm and 580nm originated from the transition 5d to 4f of Eu2+ and 4T1-6A1 of Mn2+, respectively. Blends of CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphor and CdS/ZnS QDs exhibited the prominent spectral evolution with an increasing content of QDs. A hybrid white LED, which combines a blue LED with the blend of CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+ Mn2+ phosphor and QDs with a weight ratio of 2:1, with the CIE coordinate of (0.3183, 0.3036) and CRI of 85 was obtained.

  18. Synthesis of MgO-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 nanocomposite powder by polymeric complex method as a novel sintering additive of AlN ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hwa-Jun; Cho, Woo-Seok; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Pan, Wei; Shahid, Mohammad; Ryu, Sung-Soo

    2016-09-01

    A MgO-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 (MCAS) nanocomposite powder with a particle size of 50 nm and a specific surface area of 40.6 m2/g was successfully synthesized via heat-treatment of polymeric precursors containing Mg, Ca, Al and Si in air at 700 °C for 5 h. It was characterized as a novel sintering additive for the densification AlN ceramics at a low temperature below 1600 °C. It was found that the nanosized MCAS powder was suitable for the densification of AlN ceramics. In particular, full densification could be achieved when only 1.0 wt% MCAS additive-doped AlN powder compact was sintered for 1 h at 1600 °C, and a thermal conductivity of 84 W/m·K was attained.

  19. Structural and optical characterizations of Ca2Al2SiO7:Ce3+, Mn2+ nanoparticles produced via a hybrid route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, V. C.; Montes, P. J. R.; Valerio, M. E. G.

    2014-07-01

    Pure, Ce3+ doped and Ce3+ and Mn2+ co-doped Ca2Al2SiO7 ceramic powders were prepared by two different methodologies which are the proteic sol-gel process and a new hybrid route combining the proteic sol-gel with solid state reaction processes. The second one is an eco-friendly method because it uses natural raw materials in replacement of the metal alkoxides used in the traditional sol-gel routes. X-ray diffraction showed that Ca2Al2SiO7 crystalline phase was obtained for both preparations. Differential thermal analysis indicated that the exothermic event around 850 °C, for sample produced by proteic sol-gel method, and around 927 °C, for ceramics prepared by hybrid synthesis, can be associated to crystallization of Ca2Al2SiO7. Transmission electron microscope indicates that regular and spherical nanoparticles were obtained with average sizes of about 12 nm. The Scherrer’s method was used to determine the average crystallite sizes and it was shown that nanometric crystallites were obtained of about 74 nm for samples produced via hybrid route. For all the single phase samples, the crystallite sizes are about the same and that agrees with TEM results. Diffuse optical reflectance measurements were used to estimate the Ca2Al2SiO7 optical band gap and the obtained value is about 6 eV, photoluminescence (PL) spectra presented typical emissions of Ce3+ and Mn2+ ions. Upon excitation at 352 nm the emission spectra showed a broad band centered at 415 nm due to the Ce3+ 4f1 → 5d1 typical transition. This emission is resonant with Mn2+ excitation and it transfers energy to Mn ions generating a second broad emission band centered at 620 nm due to the Mn2+. The PL results were used to obtain, as a fist approach, the Ce3+ energy levels diagram and, using the Tanabe-Sugano diagrams, the transitions due to the Mn2+ were calculated. X-ray excited optical luminescence measurements showed the same emission spectra as the PL emission spectra. Luminescence lifetime decay

  20. Plasma-sprayed CaTiSiO5 ceramic coating on Ti-6Al-4V with excellent bonding strength, stability and cellular bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chengtie; Ramaswamy, Yogambha; Liu, Xuanyong; Wang, Guocheng; Zreiqat, Hala

    2008-01-01

    Novel Ca-Si-Ti-based sphene (CaTiSiO5) ceramics possess excellent chemical stability and cytocompatibility. The aim of this study was to prepare sphene coating on titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) for orthopaedic applications using the plasma spray method. The phase composition, surface and interface microstructure, coating thickness, surface roughness and bonding strength of the plasma-sprayed sphene coating were analysed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and the standard mechanical testing of the American Society for Testing and Materials, respectively. The results indicated that sphene coating was obtained with a uniform and dense microstructure at the interface of the Ti-6Al-4V surface and the thickness and surface roughness of the coating were approximately 150 and 10 μm, respectively. Plasma-sprayed sphene coating on Ti-6Al-4V possessed a significantly improved bonding strength and chemical stability compared with plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HAp) coating. Plasma-sprayed sphene coating supported human osteoblast-like cell (HOB) attachment and significantly enhanced HOB proliferation and differentiation compared with plasma-sprayed HAp coating and uncoated Ti-6Al-4V. Taken together, plasma-sprayed sphene coating on Ti-6Al-4V possessed excellent bonding strength, chemical stability and cellular bioactivity, indicating its potential application for orthopaedic implants. PMID:18664431

  1. Plasma-sprayed CaTiSiO5 ceramic coating on Ti-6Al-4V with excellent bonding strength, stability and cellular bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengtie; Ramaswamy, Yogambha; Liu, Xuanyong; Wang, Guocheng; Zreiqat, Hala

    2009-02-01

    Novel Ca-Si-Ti-based sphene (CaTiSiO5) ceramics possess excellent chemical stability and cytocompatibility. The aim of this study was to prepare sphene coating on titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) for orthopaedic applications using the plasma spray method. The phase composition, surface and interface microstructure, coating thickness, surface roughness and bonding strength of the plasma-sprayed sphene coating were analysed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and the standard mechanical testing of the American Society for Testing and Materials, respectively. The results indicated that sphene coating was obtained with a uniform and dense microstructure at the interface of the Ti-6Al-4V surface and the thickness and surface roughness of the coating were approximately 150 and 10 microm, respectively. Plasma-sprayed sphene coating on Ti-6Al-4V possessed a significantly improved bonding strength and chemical stability compared with plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HAp) coating. Plasma-sprayed sphene coating supported human osteoblast-like cell (HOB) attachment and significantly enhanced HOB proliferation and differentiation compared with plasma-sprayed HAp coating and uncoated Ti-6Al-4V. Taken together, plasma-sprayed sphene coating on Ti-6Al-4V possessed excellent bonding strength, chemical stability and cellular bioactivity, indicating its potential application for orthopaedic implants.

  2. High pressure synthesis and crystal structure of a ternary superconductor Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 3}Si{sub 4} containing layer structured calcium sub-network isomorphous with black phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Masashi; Zhang, Shuai; Tanaka, Yuki; Inumaru, Kei; Yamanaka, Shoji

    2013-02-15

    The Zintl compound CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2} is peritectically decomposed to a mixture of Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 3}Si{sub 4} and aluminum metal at temperatures above 600 Degree-Sign C under a pressure of 5 GPa. The new ternary compound Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 3}Sl{sub 4} crystalizes with the space group Cmc2{sub 1} and the lattice parameters a=5.8846(8), b=14.973(1), and c=7.7966(5) A. The structure is composed of aluminum silicide framework [Al{sub 3}Si{sub 4}] and layer structured [Ca{sub 2}] network interpenetrating with each other. The electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) shows the formation of solid solutions Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 3-x}Si{sub 4+x} (x<0.6). The layer structured [Ca{sub 2}] sub-network is isomorphous with black phosphorus. The new ternary compound shows superconductivity with a transition temperature (T{sub c}) of 6.4 K. The band structure calculation suggests that the superconductivity should occur through the conduction bands mainly composed of 3p orbitals of the aluminum silicide framework. - Graphical abstract: A new ternary superconductor Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 3}Si{sub 4} has been prepared under high pressure and high temperature conditions, which includes layer structured calcium sub-network isomorphous with black phosphorus. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A typical Zintl compound CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2} melts congruently at ambient pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Under high pressure CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2} decomposes to Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 3}Si{sub 4} and Al at {approx}600 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 3}Si{sub 4} contains Ca sub-network isomorphous with black phosphorus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 3}Si{sub 4} shows superconductivity with a transition temperature of 6.4 K.

  3. Analysis of the Fe-Ce-O-C- M phase diagrams ( M = Ca, Mg, Al, Si) by constructing a component-solubility surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, G. G.; Makrovets, L. A.; Smirnov, L. A.; Dresvyankina, L. E.

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of the ternary phase diagrams of Ce2O3- and CeO2-containing oxide systems allowed us to find the oxide compounds that form during steel deoxidizing with cerium and with cerium together with aluminum, calcium, magnesium, or silicon. The temperature dependences of the equilibrium constants of formation of Ce2O3 oxides and Ce2O3 · Al2O3, Ce2O3 · 11Al2O3, Ce2O3 · 2SiO2, 7Ce2O3 · 9SiO2 and Ce2O3 · SiO2 compounds are found. Surfaces for the component solubility in metallic melts Fe-Al-Ce-O-C, Fe- Ca-Ce-O-C, Fe-Mg-Ce-O-C, and Fe-Si-Ce-O-C are constructed. Nonmetallic inclusions that form in the course of experimental melts of St20 steel after its deoxidizing with silicocalcium and rare-earth metal (REM)-containing master alloys in a ladle furnace after degassing are studied. Phase inhomogeneity of the inclusions is found. As a rule, they consist of phases classified into the following three groups: oxide-sulfide, sulfide-oxide, and multiphase oxide-sulfide melt. Calcium aluminates are found to be components of complex sulfide-oxide noncorrosive inclusions.

  4. Facile synthesis of Ca0.68Si9Al3(ON)16:Eu2+ microbelts mat with the enhanced fluorescence and mechanical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hailei; Cui, Bo; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang

    2016-01-01

    Yellow-emitting phosphor mat consisting of Ca0.68Si9Al3(ON)16:Eu2+ microbelts was prepared by electrospinning and subsequent nitridation. The as-prepared fiber precursor is smooth and uniform with diameter of 800 to 900 nm. After removing organic templates and nitridation, the morphology of the fiber is well retained and thus a smooth microbelts phosphor mat was obtained. X-ray diffraction and the photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveals that a relatively pure Ca0.68Si9Al3(ON)16 phase and the highest spectral intensity could be obtained at a relatively low temperature of 1500 °C and Eu2+ doping molar concentration of 0.1. The excitation spectra exhibits a broad band, ranging from 300 to 550 nm, which could be excited by blue LED chip at room temperature. The emission spectra of all exhibits a single broad band in the 400 to 700 nm region, with the maximum intensity always being at 580 nm. The Ca0.68Si9Al3(ON)16:Eu2+ microbelts phosphor mat has the bending strength about 4.5 MPa with a photoluminescence quantum yield as high as 65%. By employing it as yellow phosphor, a high-performance warm white LED could be fabricated with low correlated color temperature (2985 K), high-color-rendering index (Ra=86) and luminous efficacy of 129.5 lm W-1. Different color temperatures also could be tuned by employing microbelts phosphor mats with different thicknesses.

  5. Effect of Agitation on Crystallization Behavior of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-Na2O-CaF2 Mold Fluxes with Varying Basicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiangling; Shu, Qifeng; Chou, Kuochih

    2015-08-01

    The effect of agitation on crystallization behaviors of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-Na2O-CaF2 mold fluxes with basicity of 1.1 and 1.2 was investigated. It was found that crystallization temperatures of agitated samples were higher than those of static samples. The morphology of cuspidine shifted from dendrites to facet crystals with the decrease of temperature. The agitation was conducive to the formation of small dendritic cuspidine and could lead to crystals with smaller size. Crystalline fraction could be significantly enhanced by agitation at the initial stage of crystallization.

  6. The effect of H2O gas on volatilities of planet-forming major elements. I - Experimental determination of thermodynamic properties of Ca-, Al-, and Si-hydroxide gas molecules and its application to the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, Akihiko

    1992-01-01

    The vapor pressures of Ca(OH)2(g), Al(OH)3(g), and Si(OH)4(g) molecules in equilibrium with solid calcium-, aluminum, and silicon-oxides, respectively, were determined, and were used to derive the heats of formation and entropies of these species, which are expected to be abundant under the currently postulated physical conditions in the primordial solar nebula. These data, in conjunction with thermodynamic data from literature, were used to calculate the relative abundances of M, MO(x), and M(OH)n gas species and relative volatilities of Fe, Mg, Si, Ca, and Al for ranges of temperature, total pressure, and H/O abundance ratio corresponding to the plausible ranges of physical conditions in the solar nebula. The results are used to explain how Ca and Al could have evaporated from Ca,Al-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites, while Si, Mg, and Fe condensed onto them during the preaccretion alteration of CAIs.

  7. Melts in the Deep Earth: Calculating the Densities of CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.; Guo, X.; Agee, C. B.; Asimow, P. D.; Lange, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    We present new equation of state (EOS) measurements for hedenbergite (Hd, CaFeSi2O6) and forsterite (Fo, Mg2SiO4) liquids. These liquid EOS add to the basis set in the CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMASF) oxide space at elevated temperatures and pressures; other liquids include: enstatite (En, MgSiO3), anorthite (An, CaAl2Si2O8), diopside (Di, CaMgSi2O6), and fayalite (Fa, Fe2SiO4). The Hd EOS measurement was a multi-technique collaboration using 1-atm double-bob Archimedean, ultrasonic, sink/float, and shock wave techniques. Un-weighted linear fitting of the shock data in shock velocity (US)-particle velocity (up) space defines a pre-heated (1400 °C) Hugoniot US = 2.628(0.024) + 1.54(0.01)up km/s. The slope corresponds to a K' of 5.16(0.04), consistent with piston-cylinder and multi-anvil sink/float experiments. The intercept is fixed at the ultrasonic sound speed (Co) since the unconstrained intercept is within the stated error. This behavior demonstrates consistency across methods and that the liquid is relaxed during shock compression. Shock compression of pre-heated (2000°C) single crystal Fo gives an un-weighted linear Hugoniot of US = 2.674(0.188) + 1.64(0.06)up km/s. The unconstrained Co falls below estimates based on extrapolation in both temperature and composition from two published partial molar sound speed models, 3.195m/s [1] and 3.126 m/s [2]. The shock-derived Co indicates that dC/dT is negative for Fo liquid, contrary to the positive [1] and zero [2] temperature dependences derived over relatively narrow temperature intervals. CMASF liquid isentropes were calculated using five end-members (En, Fo, Fa, An, Di). For modeling crystallization of a fictive magma ocean, we examined two liquids: peridotite [3] (P=.33En+.56Fo+.07Fa+.03An+.007Di) and simplified chondrite [4] (Ch=.62En+.24Fo+.08Fa+.04An+.02Di). Each end-member is defined by a 3rd or 4th order Birch-Murnaghan isentrope, Mie-Grüneisen thermal pressure and a constant heat capacity. The volumes are

  8. Some thermodynamic properties of the Berman and Brown model for CaO-Al2O3-SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, Lawrence M.

    1986-12-01

    The BERMAN and BROWN (1984) excess free energy model (B&B) is extremely convenient to use in modelling multicomponent solutions. However, spinodal calculations reveal that their calibration of this model for CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 produces liquation tielines that do not appear to be in agreement with experimental work. In addition, their calibration contains some strongly negative excess entropy parameters and these permit a most unusual inverted liquation field to start at approximately >2115°C, wt% (SiO2, Al2O3, CaO) = (70, 16, 14). This inverted field expands rapidly to cover most of the ternary for T > 2300°C and continues to expand at all higher temperatures. The Berman and Brown calibration for this system carries these negative excess entropies of mixing because the solution model is very strongly asymmetric as a result of the use of normal oxide mole weights in modelling the configurational entropy of mixing. A suggestion is made for a fairly natural restriction on the relative sizes of empirical models for excess versus configurational entropy. Expressions are presented for the general consolute condition (all solution models) and for the second and third partials of the B&B Gx model.

  9. Diffusion in silicate melts: I. Self diffusion in CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} at 1500{degrees}C and 1 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Yan |; Richter, F.M.; Davis, A.M.

    1996-11-01

    Self diffusion coefficients of calcium (D{sub Ca}), aluminum (D{sub A1}), silicon (D{sub Si}), and oxygen (D{sub o}) were measured in molten CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} at 1500{degrees}C and 1 GPa over a range of melt compositions, using the isotope tracer method. For all but one composition, the measured self diffusion coefficients decrease in the order D{sub Ca} > D{sub Al} > D{sub o} > D{sub Si}, with D{sub Ca} {approximately} 4-19D{sub Si}, D{sub Al}, {approximately} 2D{sub Si}, and D{sub o} {approximately} 1-2D{sub Si}. The relative uncertainties, based on replicated experiments, are 8% for D{sub Ca}, 27% for D{sub Al}, 28% for D{sub Si}, and 18% for D{sub o}. Although the self diffusion coefficients of calcium, aluminum, silicon, and oxygen increase with the decrease of melt viscosity, they do not obey the Stokes-Einstein equation or the Eyring equation. 69 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Effects of the mixing ratio of the CaAl12O19:mn and Zn2SiO4:mn color-conversion layer on the color tunable emissions of white organic light-emitting devices.

    PubMed

    Jeong, H S; Kim, S H; Bang, H S; Choo, D C; Kim, T W; Hwang, D H; Kwon, M S; Chu, C

    2012-02-01

    The optical properties of white organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs) fabricated utilizing a CaAl12O19:Mn and Zn2SiO4:Mn phosphor layer were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns for CaAl12O19:Mn and Zn2SiO4:Mn phosphors showed that Mn ions in the CaAl12O19:Mn phosphors were completely substituted into Ca ions and that Mn ions in the Zn2SiO4:Mn phosphors were completely substituted into Zn ions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images showed that the size of the CaAl12O19:Mn phosphor was approximately between 0.1 and 3 microm, and that the size of the Zn2SiO4:Mn phosphor was smaller than 7 microm. The color coordinates of the electroluminescence spectra for WOLEDs with phosphor thicknesses of 0.25 and 0.35 mm shifted to the white emission side because the generated blue light from the blue OLEDs combined with the red and green lights was converted by the CaAl12O19:Mn and the Zn2SiO4:Mn phosphor down-conversion layers. PMID:22630022

  11. Effects of the mixing ratio of the CaAl12O19:mn and Zn2SiO4:mn color-conversion layer on the color tunable emissions of white organic light-emitting devices.

    PubMed

    Jeong, H S; Kim, S H; Bang, H S; Choo, D C; Kim, T W; Hwang, D H; Kwon, M S; Chu, C

    2012-02-01

    The optical properties of white organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs) fabricated utilizing a CaAl12O19:Mn and Zn2SiO4:Mn phosphor layer were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns for CaAl12O19:Mn and Zn2SiO4:Mn phosphors showed that Mn ions in the CaAl12O19:Mn phosphors were completely substituted into Ca ions and that Mn ions in the Zn2SiO4:Mn phosphors were completely substituted into Zn ions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images showed that the size of the CaAl12O19:Mn phosphor was approximately between 0.1 and 3 microm, and that the size of the Zn2SiO4:Mn phosphor was smaller than 7 microm. The color coordinates of the electroluminescence spectra for WOLEDs with phosphor thicknesses of 0.25 and 0.35 mm shifted to the white emission side because the generated blue light from the blue OLEDs combined with the red and green lights was converted by the CaAl12O19:Mn and the Zn2SiO4:Mn phosphor down-conversion layers.

  12. From atomic structure to excess entropy: a neutron diffraction and density functional theory study of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Maoyuan; Jacob, Aurélie; Schmetterer, Clemens; Masset, Patrick J.; Hennet, Louis; Fischer, Henry E.; Kozaily, Jad; Jahn, Sandro; Gray-Weale, Angus

    2016-04-01

    Calcium aluminosilicate \\text{CaO}-\\text{A}{{\\text{l}}2}{{\\text{O}}3}-\\text{Si}{{\\text{O}}2} (CAS) melts with compositions {{≤ft(\\text{CaO}-\\text{Si}{{\\text{O}}2}\\right)}x}{{≤ft(\\text{A}{{\\text{l}}2}{{\\text{O}}3}\\right)}1-x} for x  <  0.5 and {{≤ft(\\text{A}{{\\text{l}}2}{{\\text{O}}3}\\right)}x}{{≤ft(\\text{Si}{{\\text{O}}2}\\right)}1-x} for x≥slant 0.5 are studied using neutron diffraction with aerodynamic levitation and density functional theory molecular dynamics modelling. Simulated structure factors are found to be in good agreement with experimental structure factors. Local atomic structures from simulations reveal the role of calcium cations as a network modifier, and aluminium cations as a non-tetrahedral network former. Distributions of tetrahedral order show that an increasing concentration of the network former Al increases entropy, while an increasing concentration of the network modifier Ca decreases entropy. This trend is opposite to the conventional understanding that increasing amounts of network former should increase order in the network liquid, and so decrease entropy. The two-body correlation entropy S 2 is found to not correlate with the excess entropy values obtained from thermochemical databases, while entropies including higher-order correlations such as tetrahedral order, O-M-O or M-O-M bond angles and Q N environments show a clear linear correlation between computed entropy and database excess entropy. The possible relationship between atomic structures and excess entropy is discussed.

  13. Synthesis and Luminescent Properties of CaSr(1-x)Al2SiO7:xEu3+ Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes Applications.

    PubMed

    Hakeem, D A; Park, K

    2016-02-01

    CaSr(1-x)Al2SiO7:xEu3+ (0.01 < or = x < or = 0.12) red phosphors are prepared by the solid-state reaction method. The photoluminescence properties of the CaSr(1-x)Al2SiO7:xEu+ phosphors are studied as a function of Eu3+ content. The CaSr(1-x)Al2SiO7:xEu3+ phosphors form an orthorhombic structure with a space group of P2(1)2(1)2(1). The phosphors are effectively excited by 393 nm light. The emission spectra consist of several peaks at 575, 585, 616, 654, and 700 nm, which are attributed to the transitions from the excited 5Do to 7Fj (j = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4) levels of Eu3+, respectively. The phosphors show intense red emission due to the 5Do --> (7)F2 transition of Eu3+. The strongest red emission is observed for the CaSr0.94Al2SiO7:0.06Eu3+ phosphor. This study proposes that the CaSr(1-x)Al2SiO7:xEu3+ red phosphors have a high potential for near ultraviolet-based white light-emitting diodes. PMID:27433657

  14. Hydrothermal origin of hexagonal CaAl2Si2O8 (dmisteinbergite) in a compact type A CAI from the Northwest Africa 2086 CV3 chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fintor, Krisztian; Park, Changkun; Nagy, Szabolcs; Pál-Molnár, Elemér; Krot, Alexander N.

    2014-05-01

    We report an occurrence of hexagonal CaAl2Si2O8 (dmisteinbergite) in a compact type A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the CV3 (Vigarano-like) carbonaceous chondrite Northwest Africa 2086. Dmisteinbergite occurs as approximately 10 μm long and few micrometer-thick lath-shaped crystal aggregates in altered parts of the CAI, and is associated with secondary nepheline, sodalite, Ti-poor Al-diopside, grossular, and Fe-rich spinel. Spinel is the only primary CAI mineral that retained its original O-isotope composition (Δ17O ~ -24‰); Δ17O values of melilite, perovskite, and Al,Ti-diopside range from -3 to -11‰, suggesting postcrystallization isotope exchange. Dmisteinbergite, anorthite, Ti-poor Al-diopside, and ferroan olivine have 16O-poor compositions (Δ17O ~ -3‰). We infer that dmisteinbergite, together with the other secondary minerals, formed by replacement of melilite as a result of fluid-assisted thermal metamorphism experienced by the CV chondrite parent asteroid. Based on the textural appearance of dmisteinbergite in NWA 2086 and petrographic observations of altered CAIs from the Allende meteorite, we suggest that dmisteinbergite is a common secondary mineral in CAIs from the oxidized Allende-like CV3 chondrites that has been previously misidentified as a secondary anorthite.

  15. Solubilities of Chlorine in CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO Slags: Correlation Between Sulfide and Chloride Capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okeda, M.; Hasegawa, M.; Iwase, M.

    2011-04-01

    To derive a correlation between sulfide and chloride capacities through our own systematic experimental studies by using a gas equilibrium technique involving Ar-H2-H2O-HCl gas mixtures, the solubilities of chlorine were determined for CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 slags at temperatures between 1673 K and 1823 K (1400 °C and 1550 °C). As a formula to correlate sulfide and chloride capacities, the following equation that is the function of temperature only was obtainable; 2log C_{{Cl}} - log C_{{S}} = - 64.4 + {82,890/{T({{K})}}} ± 0.75 whereas chloride capacities were formulated as the function of temperature and optical basicity in the following equation: 2log C_{{Cl}} = ( {43.6 - {54,600/{T({{K})}}}} )Uplambda + ( { - 39.2 + {60,200/{T({{K})}}}} ) ± 0.5{.}

  16. High-Temperature Vaporization Behavior of Oxides II. Oxides of Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, B, Al, Ga, In, Tl, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Hg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamoreaux, R. H.; Hildenbrand, D. L.; Brewer, L.

    1987-07-01

    In order to assess the high-temperature vaporization behavior and equilibrium gas phase compositions over the condensed oxides of Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, B, Al, Ga, In, Tl, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Hg, the relevant thermodynamic and molecular constant data have been compiled and critically evaluated. Selected values of the Gibbs energy functions of condensed and vapor phases are given in the form of equations valid over wide temperature ranges, along with the standard entropies and enthalpies of formation. These data were used to generate plots of equilibrium partial pressures of vapor species as functions of temperature for representative environmental conditions ranging from reducing to oxidizing. The calculated partial pressures and compositions agree, for the most part, with experimental results obtained under comparable conditions. Maximum vaporization rates have been calculated using the Hertz-Knudsen equation. Literature references are given.

  17. Highly improved reliability of amber light emitting diode with Ca -α-SiAlON phosphor in glass formed by gas pressure sintering for automotive applications.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Chang-Bun; Kim, Sanghyun; Choi, Sung-Woo; Yoon, Chulsoo; Ahn, Sang Hyeon; Chung, Woon Jin

    2016-04-01

    Phosphor in glass (PiG) with 40 wt% of Ca-α-SiAlON phosphor and 60 wt% of Pb-free silicate glass was synthesized and mounted on a high-power blue LED to make an amber LED for automotive applications. Gas pressure sintering was applied after the conventional sintering process was used to achieve fully dense PiG plates. Changes in photoluminescence spectra and color coordination were inspected by varying the thickness of the plates that were mounted after optical polishing and machining. A trade-off between luminous flux and color purity was observed. The commercial feasibility of amber PiG packaged LED, which can satisfy international regulations for automotive components, was successfully demonstrated by examining the practical reliability under 85% humidity at an 85°C condition. PMID:27192294

  18. Sulfide Capacities of CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-CrO x Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijun; Wang, Yaxian; Chou, Kuo-chih; Seetharaman, Seshadri

    2016-08-01

    The sulfide capacities of CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-CrO x slags were measured by gas-slag equilibration method in the temperature range of 1823 K to 1898 K (1550 °C to 1625 °C) to reveal the effect of CrO x on the sulfide capacities of slags. Both higher basicity and temperature enhanced sulfide capacities. The CrO x additions in the range of 0 to 5 mass pct increased the sulfide capacity, but, further increase of CrO x contents to 7 pct was found to lower the sulfide capacity. Utilizing the relationship for estimating the ratio of Cr(II)/Cr(III) put forward by the present authors, the influence of Cr(II) on the sulfide capacities of the slags studied is discussed.

  19. Evaluation of Existing Viscosity Data and Models and Developments of New Viscosity Model for Fully Liquid Slag in the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chen; Chen, Mao; Zhang, Weidong; Zhao, Zhixing; Evans, Tim; Zhao, Baojun

    2016-10-01

    Metallurgical properties of slag are determined to a great extent by its viscosity. High-temperature viscosity measurements are time-consuming and expensive. It is necessary to develop an accurate viscosity model for blast furnace slag in the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO system using reliable viscosity data. This paper describes a systemic evaluation procedure to determine the viscosity data to be used for model development. 1780 viscosity data from 10 to 65 wt pct SiO2, 3.5 to 40 wt pct Al2O3, 2 to 60 wt pct CaO, and 2 to 38 wt pct MgO in the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO system have been accepted for model evaluation after critical reviews. The existing 14 viscosity models in SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO system is also reviewed and evaluated. Based on the structure of alumina-silicate slag and evaluated viscosity data, a new viscosity model has been proposed for the system SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO. A new term "probability," based on the basic oxide and electronegativity, is introduced to calculate the integral activation energy of slag. The model has been evaluated and compared with existing viscosity models in three different composition ranges in SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO system for different applications. The new model reports an outstanding agreement between predictions and experimental data. The industrial implications of the new model have also been discussed in ironmaking and steelmaking processes.

  20. Evaluation of Existing Viscosity Data and Models and Developments of New Viscosity Model for Fully Liquid Slag in the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chen; Chen, Mao; Zhang, Weidong; Zhao, Zhixing; Evans, Tim; Zhao, Baojun

    2016-07-01

    Metallurgical properties of slag are determined to a great extent by its viscosity. High-temperature viscosity measurements are time-consuming and expensive. It is necessary to develop an accurate viscosity model for blast furnace slag in the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO system using reliable viscosity data. This paper describes a systemic evaluation procedure to determine the viscosity data to be used for model development. 1780 viscosity data from 10 to 65 wt pct SiO2, 3.5 to 40 wt pct Al2O3, 2 to 60 wt pct CaO, and 2 to 38 wt pct MgO in the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO system have been accepted for model evaluation after critical reviews. The existing 14 viscosity models in SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO system is also reviewed and evaluated. Based on the structure of alumina-silicate slag and evaluated viscosity data, a new viscosity model has been proposed for the system SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO. A new term "probability," based on the basic oxide and electronegativity, is introduced to calculate the integral activation energy of slag. The model has been evaluated and compared with existing viscosity models in three different composition ranges in SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO system for different applications. The new model reports an outstanding agreement between predictions and experimental data. The industrial implications of the new model have also been discussed in ironmaking and steelmaking processes.

  1. Structure and Crystallization Kinetics of Glassy CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CaF2-Na2O Mold Fluxes with Varying Basicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiangling; Yan, Baijun; Shu, Qifeng; Chou, Kuochih

    2015-12-01

    The structure and the crystallization kinetics of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CaF2-Na2O mold fluxes with varying basicities were investigated by solid-state 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance with magic angular spinning (MAS-NMR) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) technique, respectively. 29Si MAS-NMR study indicated that the increase of basicity decreased the degree of polymerization of mold fluxes. With the increasing basicity, Q 0, Q 2, and Q 3 gradually decreased, while Q 1 gradually increased, and the overall degree of polymerization was reduced. Crystallization analysis showed the cuspidine first crystallized from glass, and wollastonite crystal crystallized at elevated temperature for the samples with basicity (defined as CaO/SiO2 mass ratio) values of 0.9 and 1.0, respectively. Only cuspidine was found to crystallize from glass for the samples with basicity values of 1.1 and 1.2, indicating that the crystallization of wollastonite was suppressed with the increase of basicity. Crystallization kinetics analysis by DTA and field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy investigation showed that growth mechanism of cuspidine is mainly of the diffusion-controlled three-dimensional growth with the increasing number of nuclei during heating. Activation energies for growth of cuspidine decreased with the increasing basicity of mold flux, which indicated that the crystallization ability was enhanced with the increase of basicity. The relationship between structure and crystallization of mold fluxes was established.

  2. A double substitution induced Ca(Mg0.8, Al0.2)(Si1.8, Al0.2)O6:Eu(2+) phosphor for w-LEDs: synthesis, structure, and luminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Liu, Wenjing; Wang, Xicheng; Zhu, Ge; Wang, Chuang; Wang, Yuhua

    2015-08-01

    A double substitution induced blue-emitting phosphor Ca(Mg0.8, Al0.2)(Si1.8, Al0.2)O6:Eu(2+) (CMAS:Eu(2+)) was successfully synthesized by a solid-state reaction process, and its structure and luminescence properties were investigated in detail. The crystal structure and chemical composition of the CMAS matrix were analyzed and determined based on Rietveld refinements and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The composition-optimized CMAS:Eu(2+) exhibited a strong blue light, centered at 446 nm upon excitation at 365 nm with the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.144, 0.113). Under 380 nm excitation, the PL emission intensity area of the optimized phosphor was found to be 46.95% of that of the commercial BaMgAl10O17:Eu(2+) (BAM:Eu(2+)) phosphor and the quantum efficiency of the phosphor is 41.32%. The temperature-dependent PL studies have been investigated which show the thermal stability of the CMAS:Eu(2+) phosphor compared with that of the CaMgSi2O6:Eu(2+) (CMS:Eu(2+)) phosphor. PMID:26115078

  3. A double substitution induced Ca(Mg0.8, Al0.2)(Si1.8, Al0.2)O6:Eu(2+) phosphor for w-LEDs: synthesis, structure, and luminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Liu, Wenjing; Wang, Xicheng; Zhu, Ge; Wang, Chuang; Wang, Yuhua

    2015-08-01

    A double substitution induced blue-emitting phosphor Ca(Mg0.8, Al0.2)(Si1.8, Al0.2)O6:Eu(2+) (CMAS:Eu(2+)) was successfully synthesized by a solid-state reaction process, and its structure and luminescence properties were investigated in detail. The crystal structure and chemical composition of the CMAS matrix were analyzed and determined based on Rietveld refinements and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The composition-optimized CMAS:Eu(2+) exhibited a strong blue light, centered at 446 nm upon excitation at 365 nm with the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.144, 0.113). Under 380 nm excitation, the PL emission intensity area of the optimized phosphor was found to be 46.95% of that of the commercial BaMgAl10O17:Eu(2+) (BAM:Eu(2+)) phosphor and the quantum efficiency of the phosphor is 41.32%. The temperature-dependent PL studies have been investigated which show the thermal stability of the CMAS:Eu(2+) phosphor compared with that of the CaMgSi2O6:Eu(2+) (CMS:Eu(2+)) phosphor.

  4. Influences of CaO on Crystallization, Microstructures, and Properties of BaO-Al2O3-B2O3-SiO2 Glass-Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Tang, Bo; Xu, Mingjiang

    2015-10-01

    We have developed BaO-CaO-Al2O3-B2O3-SiO2 glass-ceramics with high thermal coefficient of expansion (TCE) to overcome thermal mismatch at board level. The crystalline phases include quartz (major), cristobalite (minor), and bazirite BaZrSi3O9 (minor). Calculations from whole-pattern fitting show that the crystallinity varies slightly within the range of 33.48% to 34.89%, while the mass fraction of the phases changes remarkably with the CaO content. This indicates that CaO cannot promote crystallization of Ba-Al-B-Si glass, but effectively suppresses the phase transformation from quartz to cristobalite, making the thermal expansion curves linear. An empirical equation for the TCE versus the temperature and the amount of CaO is established. Furthermore, the densification mechanism of Ca modifiers is revealed. Due to its higher field strength than Ba, substitution of Ca increases the glass viscosity and inhibits ion diffusion. Excessive CaO is thus harmful to the density, bending strength, and electrical properties. The sample with 10 wt.% CaO sintered at 950°C exhibited high bending strength (154.1 MPa) and high TCE (12.38 ppm/°C) as well as good electrical properties ( ɛ = 6.2, tan δ = 5 × 10-4, ρ = 3.8 × 1012 Ω cm).

  5. Evolution of Structure and Photoluminescence by Cation Cosubstitution in Eu(2+)-Doped (Ca(1-x)Li(x))(Al(1-x)Si(1+x))N3 Solid Solutions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Xiang, Qianchuan; Xia, Zhiguo; Chen, Jun; Liu, Quanlin

    2016-03-21

    Red-emitting nitride phosphors excited with blue light have great potential for the fabrication of warm white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs). Chemical composition and structural modification are generally adopted to optimize the photoluminescence behaviors of the targeted phosphors. Herein, on the basis of the famous CaAlSiN3 phosphors, Eu(2+)-doped (Ca(1-x)Li(x))(Al(1-x)Si(1+x))N3 solid solutions via the cations' cosubstitution of (CaAl)(5+) pair by (LiSi)(5+) pair are successfully synthesized by a solid state reaction, and the lattice parameters show a linear decrease with chemical compositions suggesting the formation of the isostructural phase relationship. Four types of coordinated structure models, corresponding to different coordination environments of Eu(2+), are proposed over the course of structural evolution, which induces different structural rigidity and stability, and then they are responsible for three-stage changes of emission spectra of Eu(2+) in (Ca(1-x)Li(x))(Al(1-x)Si(1+x))N3 solid solution. PMID:26930108

  6. Thermodynamic simulation on mineralogical composition of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO quaternary slag system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Zhang, Yu-Zhu; Li, Jie; Li, Jun-Guo; Kang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    It is necessary to elucidate the crystallization thermodynamic of mineralogical phases during the cooling process of the molten BFS with different chemical composition, because the high-melting point mineral phase maybe crystallized during the fiber forming and thereafter cooling process. Thermodynamic calculation software FactSage6.4 and the hot remelting experiments were performed to explore the influence of basicity, Al2O3 content and MgO content on the crystallization of mineralogical components and their transformation. The results showed that the main mineralography of the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO quaternary slag system was melilite, and a certain amount of anorthite and calcium metasilicate. The crystallographic temperature of melilite is increased with the increasing of basicity, MgO and Al2O3 content, which has a significant impact on the utilization performance of the mineral wool prepared with the hot blast furnace slag directly. With the increasing of basicity, there was a tendency that crystallographic amount of melilite increased to the summit and then declined, while the amount of anorthite and calcium metasilicate decreased consistently. Finally, these two mineralogical components could be replaced by magnesium rhodonite and spinel with the increasing of basicity. When the basicity and MgO content were 1.0 and 9 %, the crystallographic mass ratio of melilite and anorthite increased, while that of calcium silicate declined, and replaced by spinel finally with the increasing of Al2O3 content. When the basicity and Al2O3 content were 1.0 and 13 %, the crystallographic mass ratio of melilite increased, while that of anorthite and calcium silicate declined, and replaced by pyroxene and spinel with the increasing of MgO content. To decline fiberization temperature of the melt BFS, the basicity, MgO and Al2O3 content should be decreased during the modification process of chemical composition, because the crystallization temperature of the primary crystalline

  7. An Investigation of Armenite, BaCa2Al6Si9O302H2O.H2O Molecules and H Bonding in Microporous Silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, C. A.; Gatta, G.; Xue, X.; McIntyre, G.

    2012-12-01

    The crystal chemistry of armenite, ideally BaCa2Al6Si9O30.2H2O, a double-ring structure belonging to the milarite group, was studied to better understand the nature of extra-framework "Ca-oxygen-anion-H2O-molecule quasi-clusters" and H bonding behavior in microporous silicates. Neutron and X-ray single-crystal diffraction and IR powder and 1H NMR spectroscopic measurements were made. Four crystallographically independent Ca and H2O molecule sites were refined from the diffraction data, whereby both sites appear to have partial occupancies such that locally a Ca atom can have only a single H2O molecule bonded to it through an ion-dipole interaction. The Ca cation is further bonded to six O atoms of the framework forming a quasi cluster around it. The neutron results give the first static description of the protons in armenite, allowing bond distances and angles relating to the H2O molecules and H bonds to be determined. The IR spectrum of armenite is characterized in the OH-stretching region at RT by two broad bands at roughly 3470 and 3410 cm-1 and by a single H2O bending mode at 1654 cm-1. At 10 K four intense OH bands are located at 3479, 3454, 3401 and 3384 cm-1 and two H2O bending modes at 1650 and 1606 cm-1. The 1H MAS NMR spectrum shows a single strong resonance near 5.3 ppm and a smaller one near 2.7 ppm. The former can be assigned to H2O molecules bonded to Ca and the latter to weakly bonded H2O located at a site at the center of the structural double ring and it is partially occupied. The nature of H bonding in the microporous Ca-bearing zeolites scolecite, wairakite and epistilbite are also analyzed. The average OH stretching wavenumber shown by the IR spectra of armenite (~3435 cm-1) and scolecite (~3430 cm-1) are similar, while the average OH wavenumbers for wairakite (~3475 cm-1) and epistilbite (~3500 cm-1) are greater. In all cases the average OH stretching wavenumber is more similar to that of liquid water (~3400 cm-1) than of ice (~3220 cm-1). The

  8. Effect of Sulfur on Liquidus Temperatures in the ZnO-"FeO"-Al2O3-CaO-SiO2-S System in Equilibrium with Metallic Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Baojun; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni

    2011-10-01

    The phase equilibria in the ZnO-"FeO"-Al2O3-CaO-SiO2-S system have been determined experimentally in equilibrium with metallic iron. A pseudoternary section of the form ZnO-"FeO"-(Al2O3+CaO+SiO2) for CaO/SiO2 = 0.71 (weight), (CaO+SiO2)/Al2O3 = 5.0 (weight), and fixed 2.0 wt pct S concentration has been constructed. It was found that the addition of 2.0 wt pct S to the liquid extends the spinel primary phase field significantly and decreases the size of the wustite primary phase field. The liquidus temperature in the wustite primary phase field is decreased by approximately 80 K and the liquidus temperature in the spinel primary phase field is decreased by approximately 10 K with addition of 2.0 wt pct S in the composition range investigated. It was also found that iron-zinc sulfides are present in some samples in the spinel primary phase field, which are matte appearing at low zinc concentrations and sphalerite (Zn,Fe)S at higher zinc concentrations. The presence of sulfur in the slag has a minor effect on the partitioning of ZnO between the wustite and liquid phases but no effect on the partitioning of ZnO between the spinel and liquid phases.

  9. Phase Equilibrium Studies of CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 System with Binary Basicity of 1.5 Related to Blast Furnace Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Mingyin; Wu, Shengli; Ma, Xiaodong; Wang, Laixin; Chen, Mao; Cai, Qingwu; Zhao, Baojun

    2016-04-01

    Slags play an important role in blast furnace operation, and their compositions are based on the CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 quaternary system in many steel companies. The binary basicity (CaO/SiO2 weight ratio) of blast furnace slags, especially primary slag and bosh slag, can be as high as 1.5 or higher. Phase equilibria and liquidus temperatures in the CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 system with binary basicity of 1.50 are experimentally determined for temperatures in the range 1723 K to 1823 K (1450 °C to 1550 °C). High temperature equilibration, quenching, and electron probe X-ray microanalysis techniques have been used in the present study. The isotherms are obtained in the primary phase fields of Ca2SiO4, melilite, spinel, periclase, and merwinite related to blast furnace slags. Effects of Al2O3, MgO, and binary basicity on liquidus temperatures have been discussed. In addition, extensive solid solutions have been measured for different primary phases and will be used for development and optimization of the thermodynamic database.

  10. K -shell ionization cross sections of Al, Si, S, Ca, and Zn for oxygen ions in the energy range 1. 1--8 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Geretschlaeger, M. ); Smit, Z. ); Steinbauer, E. )

    1992-03-01

    {ital K}-shell ionization cross sections induced by 1.1--8-MeV oxygen ions in Al, Si, S, Ca, and Zn were measured using different target thicknesses. The cross sections for vanishingly thin and for charge-equilibrium targets were obtained by extrapolation. The experimental results are compared to the perturbed stationary-state approximation with energy-loss, Coulomb, and relativistic corrections (ECPSSR) cross sections (Brandt and Lapicki, Phys. Rev. A 23, 1717 (1981)), to the modification of the ECPSSR theory (MECPSSR) (Benka, Geretschlaeger, and Paul, J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. Suppl. 12, C9-251 (1987)), to the theory for direct Coulomb ionization of the 1{ital s}{sigma} molecular orbital (Montenegro and Sigaud, J. Phys. B 18, 299 (1985)), and to several semiclassical approximation codes using either the united atom binding procedure or the variational approach of Andersen {ital et} {ital al}. (Nucl. Instrum. Methods 192, 79 (1982)). The cross sections were also compared to the statistical molecular-orbital theory of inner-shell ionization for (nearly) symmetric atomic collisions (Mittelman and Wilets, Phys. Rev. 154, 12 (1967)). For fast collisions ({xi}{similar to}1), the ionization cross sections are well reproduced by theories for direct Coulomb ionization. For slower collisions ({xi}{lt}1), the experimental cross sections are systematically higher than the direct-ionization values, but they agree satisfactorily with the summed cross sections for direct Coulomb ionization and for molecular-orbital ionization. Best agreement (within a factor of 2) was found for the sums of MECPSSR and statistical cross sections.

  11. Multifunctional effect of Al2O3, SiO2 and CaO on the volatilization of PbO and PbCl2 during waste thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Si-Jia; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming; Zhang, Hua

    2016-10-01

    Minerals including Al2O3, SiO2 and CaO are predominant matrixes in waste, and are thought to facilitate lead (Pb) emission control. This study distinguished the inhibition of each mineral on common stable Pb-containing compounds, including highly volatile PbCl2 and less volatile PbO. Al2O3 can lower the volatilization temperature of Pb by 29 °C due to the generation of a eutectic compound and play a minor but non-negligible role in reducing Pb volatilization. The most conspicuous inhibition effect was exerted by SiO2 and a mixture of Al2O3 and SiO2, which completely integrated PbO into the glass phase at 690 °C and prohibited its migration. In contrast, SiO2 had no significant inhibition on volatile PbCl2. CaO inhibited PbO volatilization in the absence of oxygen by controlling its diffusion, while it converted PbO to Ca2PbO4 in the presence of oxygen, thus controlling Pb diffusion and decreasing the Pb volatilization ratio and rate. The influence of CaO on PbCl2 was complex because CaO can convert PbCl2 to PbO with formation of CaCl2, and CaCl2 can also be a Cl-donor for PbO. The roles of mineral matrixes in Pb conversion were shown to be important for Pb emission control. PMID:27434254

  12. Multifunctional effect of Al2O3, SiO2 and CaO on the volatilization of PbO and PbCl2 during waste thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Si-Jia; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming; Zhang, Hua

    2016-10-01

    Minerals including Al2O3, SiO2 and CaO are predominant matrixes in waste, and are thought to facilitate lead (Pb) emission control. This study distinguished the inhibition of each mineral on common stable Pb-containing compounds, including highly volatile PbCl2 and less volatile PbO. Al2O3 can lower the volatilization temperature of Pb by 29 °C due to the generation of a eutectic compound and play a minor but non-negligible role in reducing Pb volatilization. The most conspicuous inhibition effect was exerted by SiO2 and a mixture of Al2O3 and SiO2, which completely integrated PbO into the glass phase at 690 °C and prohibited its migration. In contrast, SiO2 had no significant inhibition on volatile PbCl2. CaO inhibited PbO volatilization in the absence of oxygen by controlling its diffusion, while it converted PbO to Ca2PbO4 in the presence of oxygen, thus controlling Pb diffusion and decreasing the Pb volatilization ratio and rate. The influence of CaO on PbCl2 was complex because CaO can convert PbCl2 to PbO with formation of CaCl2, and CaCl2 can also be a Cl-donor for PbO. The roles of mineral matrixes in Pb conversion were shown to be important for Pb emission control.

  13. Melting enthalpies of mantle peridotite: calorimetric determinations in the system CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2 and application to magma generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojitani, Hiroshi; Akaogi, Masaki

    1997-12-01

    High-temperature drop calorimetry in the temperature range of 1398-1785 K was performed for the samples of mixtures of synthetic anorthite (An), diopside (Di), enstatite (En) and forsterite (Fo) with the same compositions as those of primary melts generated at 1.1, 3 and 4 GPa at most 10° above the solidus of anhydrous mantle peridotite in the CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2 system. From the differences between the heat contents ( H T-H 298) of liquid and that of crystal mixture at the liquidus temperature, melting enthalpies of the samples of 1.1, 3 and 4 GPa-primary melt compositions were determined at 1 atm to be 531 ± 39 J · g -1 at 1583 K, 604 ± 21 J · g -1 at 1703 K, 646 ± 21 J · g -1 at 1753 K, respectively. These heat of fusion values suggest that mixing enthalpy of the melt in the An-Di-En-Fo system is approximately zero within the experimental errors when we use the heat of fusion of Fo by Richet et al. (P. Richet, F. Leclerc, L. Benoist, Melting of forsterite and spinel, with implications for the glass transition of Mg 2SiO 4 liquid, Geophys. Res. Lett. 20 (1993) 1675-1678). The measured enthalpies of melting at 1 atm were converted into those for melting reactions which occur under high pressures by correcting enthalpy changes associated with solid-state mineral reactions. Correcting the effects of pressure, temperature and FeO and Na 2O components on the melting enthalpies at 1 atm, heat of fusion values of a representative mantle peridotite just above the solidus under high pressure were estimated to be 590 J at 1.1 GPa and 1523 K, 692 J at 3 GPa and 1773 K, and 807 J at 4 GPa and 1923 K for melting reactions producing liquid of 1 g, with uncertainties of 50 J. By applying these melting enthalpies to a mantle diapir model which generates present MORBs, a potential mantle temperature of 1533 K has been estimated, assuming an eruption temperature of magma of 1473 K.

  14. Tissintite, (Ca, Na, □)AlSi2O6, a highly-defective, shock-induced, high-pressure clinopyroxene in the Tissint martian meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chi; Tschauner, Oliver; Beckett, John R.; Liu, Yang; Rossman, George R.; Zhuravlev, Kirill; Prakapenka, Vitali; Dera, Przemyslaw; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2015-07-01

    Tissintite is a new vacancy-rich, high-pressure clinopyroxene, with a composition essentially equivalent to plagioclase. It was discovered in maskelynite (shocked plagioclase) and is commonly observed included within, or in contact with, shock-melt pockets in the Tissint meteorite, a depleted olivine-phyric shergottite fall from Mars. The simple composition of tissintite (An58-69) and its precursor plagioclase (An59-69) together with the limited occurrence, both spatially (only in maskelynite less than ˜25 μm of a shock melt pocket) and in terms of bulk composition, make tissintite a "goldilocks" phase. It formed during a shock event severe enough to allow nucleation and growth of vacancy-rich clinopyroxene from a melt of not too calcic and not too sodic plagioclase composition that was neither too hot nor too cold. With experimental calibration, these limitations on occurrence can be used to place strong constraints on the thermal history of a shock event. The kinetics for nucleation and growth of tissintite are probably slower for more-sodic plagioclase precursors, so tissintite is most likely to occur in depleted olivine-phyric shergottites like Tissint and other highly shocked meteorites and lunar and terrestrial rocks that consistently contained calcic plagioclase precursors in the appropriate compositional range for a shock of given intensity. Tissintite, (Ca0.45Na0.31□0.24) (Al0.97Fe0.03Mg0.01) (Si1.80Al0.20)O6, is a C 2 / c clinopyroxene, containing 42-60 mol% of the Ca-Eskola component, by far the highest known. The cell parameters are a = 9.21 (17) Å, b = 9.09 (4) Å, c = 5.20 (2) Å, β = 109.6 (9)°, V = 410 (8) Å3, Z = 4. The density is 3.32 g/cm3 and we estimate a cell volume for the Ca-Eskola end-member pyroxene of 411 ± 13 Å3, which is consistent with a previous estimate and, therefore, supports the importance of this component in clinopyroxenes from ultra-high pressure metamorphic rocks from the Earth's upper mantle. At least in C 2 / c

  15. Experimental Determination of the Phase Diagram of the CaO-SiO2-5 pctMgO-10 pctAl2O3-TiO2 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Junjie; Sun, Lifeng; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Xuqiang; Qiu, Jiyu; Wang, Zhaoyun; Jiang, Maofa

    2016-02-01

    Ti-bearing CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-TiO2 slags are important for the smelting of vanadium-titanium bearing magnetite. In the current study, the pseudo-melting temperatures were determined by the single-hot thermocouple technique for the specified content of 5 to 25 pct TiO2 in the CaO-SiO2-5 pctMgO-10 pctAl2O3-TiO2 phase diagram system. The 1573 K to 1773 K (1300 °C to 1500 °C) liquidus lines were first calculated based on the pseudo-melting temperatures according to thermodynamic equations in the specific primary crystal field. The phase equilibria at 1573 K (1300 °C) were determined experimentally using the high-temperature equilibrium and quench method followed by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope analysis; the liquid phase, melilite solid solution phase (C2MS2,C2AS)ss, and perovskite phase of CaO·TiO2 were found. Therefore, the phase diagram was constructed for the specified region of the CaO-SiO2-5 pctMgO-10 pctAl2O3-TiO2 system.

  16. Solubility and Stability of Grossular in the System CaSiO3-Al2O3-NaCl-H2O at 800 C and 10 Kbar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, R. C.; Manning, C. E.

    2006-12-01

    The solubility of grossular garnet (Ca3Al2Si3O12) in H2O-NaCl solutions was investigated in a piston-cylinder apparatus at 800°C, 10 kbar, at NaCl mole fractions (XNaCl) of 0-0.4 (68.4 wt% NaCl). Starting materials included synthetic corundum and grossular, and natural, very pure wollastonite. Solubilities were determined by weight changes of single crystals and polycrystalline aggregates enclosed in perforated Pt inner capsules which were in turn sealed with H2O and halite in larger Pt outer capsules. Grossular dissolves congruently at all NaCl mole fractions. Experimental XNaCl and measured solubilities (mol/kg H2O) are: 0, 0.0055(4); 0.05, 0.030(1); 0.1, 0.056(4); 0.2, 0.079(5); 0.3, 0.100(4); 0.4, 0.127(7). The large initial solubility enhancement with NaCl indicates complexing, probably to Na-aluminates which are also probably hydrates. All quenched fluids from NaCl-bearing runs with CaSiO3 were strongly basic (pH 11-12), indicating that Ca forms chloride. NaCl also produces great enhancement of wollastonite solubility (Newton and Manning, 2006). Solubility of corundum in CaSiO3-bearing brines and of wollastonite in Al2O3-bearing brines were measured up to grossular saturation. CaSiO3 together with NaCl increases corundum solubility up to 100-fold over pure H2O at 800°C and 10 kbar, but Al2O3 added to NaCl has only a small effect on wollastonite solubility, indicating that increased pH, rather than Ca-Al-(Si) complexing, accounts for the Al2O3 enhancement. Zoisite replaces corundum in equilibrium with grossular at XNaCl ≥ 0.3; this is the only departure from the quaternary system. The high solubility of grossular and high mobility of Al2O3 in basic chloride solutions at high P and T suggest that brine infiltration may be an important factor in metasomatism of deep-crust calcareous rocks.

  17. Luminescence and energy-transfer properties of color-tunable Ca2Mg0.25Al1.5Si1.25O7:Ce(3+)/Eu(2+)/Tb(3+) phosphors for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bo; Song, Yanhua; Sheng, Ye; Zheng, Keyan; Huo, Qisheng; Xu, Xuechun; Zou, Haifeng

    2016-03-01

    A series of Ca2Mg0.25Al1.5Si1.25O7:Ce(3+)/Eu(2+)/Tb(3+) phosphors was been prepared via a conventional high temperature solid-state reaction and their luminescence properties were studied. The emission spectra of Ca2Mg0.25Al1.5Si1.25O7:Ce(3+),Eu(2+) and Ca2Mg0.25Al1.5Si1.25O7:Ce(3+),Tb(3+) phosphors show not only a band due to Ce(3+) ions (409 nm) but also as a band due to Eu(2+) (520 nm) and Tb(3+) (542 nm) ions. More importantly, the effective energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Eu(2+) and Tb(3+) ions was confirmed and investigated by emission/excitation spectra and luminescent decay behaviors. Furthermore, the energy level scheme and energy transfer mechanism were investigated and were demonstrated to be of resonant type via dipole-dipole (Ce(3+) to Eu(2+)) and dipole-quadrupole (Ce(3+) to Tb(3+)) reactions, respectively. Under excitation at 350 nm, the emitting color could be changed from blue to green by adjusting the relative doping concentration of Ce(3+) and Eu(2+) ions as well as Ce(3+) and Tb(3+) ions. The above results indicate that Ca2Mg0.25Al1.5Si1.25O7:Ce(3+),Eu(2+)/Tb(3+) are promising single-phase blue-to-green phosphors for application in phosphor conversion white-light-emitting diodes. PMID:26249728

  18. Tunable color and energy transfer in single-phase white-emitting Ca20Al26Mg3Si3O68:Ce3+,Dy3+ phosphors for UV white light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Bo; Song, Yanhua; Sheng, Ye; Zheng, Keyan; Zhou, Xiuqing; Ma, Pingchuan; Xu, Xuechun; Zou, Haifeng

    2015-12-01

    Ce3+ and/or Dy3+ activated Ca20Al26Mg3Si3O68 phosphors were synthesized by high temperature solid state reaction and their luminescent properties were studied. There are two emissions peaking at 407 and 577 nm in the emission spectra of Ca20Al26Mg3Si3O68:Ce3+, Dy3+, which are due to the transitions of Ce3+ and Dy3+ ions, respectively. More importantly, the effective energy transfer from Ce3+ to Dy3+ ions has been confirmed and investigated by emission/excitation spectra and luminescent decay behaviors. Furthermore, the energy level scheme and mechanism of energy transfer were investigated and it was demonstrated to be resonant type via dipole-dipole reaction. Under the excitation of 345 nm, the emitting color can change from blue to white by adjusting the relative doping concentration of Ce3+ and Dy3+ ions, indicating that the phosphors Ca20Al26Mg3Si3O68:Ce3+, Dy3+ are promising single-phase white-emitting phosphors for application in pc-white LEDs.

  19. White long-lasting phosphorescence generation in a CaAl2Si2O8 : Eu2+, Mn2+, Dy3+ system through persistent energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinsu; Chen, Baojiu; Sun, Jiashi; Li, Xiangping; Cheng, Lihong; Zhong, Haiyang

    2012-08-01

    Based on the persistent energy transfer principle, Mn2+ was introduced into a CaAl2Si2O8 : Eu2+/Dy3+ phosphor to achieve white long-lasting emissions. Eu2+, Mn2+ and Dy3+ tri-doped CaAl2Si2O8 phosphors with various Mn2+ concentrations were prepared via a solid-state reaction, and the crystal structure of the phosphors was identified by the x-ray diffraction technique. The luminescent properties of the Eu2+, Mn2+ and Dy3+ tri-doped CaAl2Si2O8 phosphors were studied. The energy transfer behaviour from Eu2+ to Mn2+ was analysed within the framework of Dexter theory. The physical mechanism of energy transfer was assigned to the electric dipole-quadrupole interaction. It was also demonstrated that the colour coordinates of the phosphors can be tuned from the blue region to the white region in the colour space. Furthermore, the afterglow decay and thermoluminescence curves were measured, indicating excellent phosphorescence properties of the current phosphors.

  20. Detailed structure of the carbonated peridotite solidus ledge in the system CaO-MgO- Al2O3-SiO2-CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S.; Keshav, S.; Gudfinnsson, G.; Presnall, D.

    2008-12-01

    The presence of carbonatitic melts in the sub-oceanic mantle has been inferred on the basis of geochemistry of ocean-island basalts and xenoliths, CO2-vesicles in voluminous mid-ocean ridge basalts, geophysical observations, and experimental petrology. The carbonate ledge somewhere between 2.0-3.0 GPa is a prominent feature of the solidus of carbonated peridotite. The ledge is formed by a precipitous temperature drop of the mantle solidus as the solubility of CO2 in the melt rapidly increases with increasing pressure, leading to a negative Clapeyron slope of the mantle solidus over some pressure interval. It is terminated by the appearance of crystalline carbonate, on the high-pressure side, at the expense of CO2 vapor that exists on the low pressure side. The solidus temperature of carbonated peridotite decreases by roughly 200 C at the ledge. The carbonate ledge was first noted at the solidus of carbonated peridotite in the system CaO- MgO-SiO2-CO2 [CMS-CO2], and it persists in the more complex model system CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-CO2 [CMAS-CO2]. In the system CMAS-CO2, the ledge appears to be bounded by two invariant points consisting of spinel-garnet peridotite+CO2+melt, on the low pressure side, and garnet peridotite+CO2+dolomite+melt, on the high pressure side. While the lower pressure invariant point is created by the intersection of the spinel-garnet (sp-gt) peridotite subsolidus boundary curve with the solidus of vapor-bearing peridotite, the higher pressure invariant point occurs where the CO2-bearing phase coexisting with the garnet peridotite phase assemblage changes from vapor to dolomite. The precise position and shape of the ledge and the position of the two invariant points is very significant because the temperatures at which the mantle melts and the melt compositions are dependent on the behavior of CO2, the depth interval in the Earth where carbon exists as CO2, and the onset of transformation of CO2 to crystalline carbonate in the Earth. Due to these

  1. Hillesheimite, (K,Ca,□)2(Mg,Fe,Ca,□)2[(Si,Al)13O23(OH)6](OH) · 8H2O, a new phyllosilicate mineral of the Günterblassite group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukanov, N. V.; Zubkova, N. V.; Pekov, I. V.; Belakovskiy, D. I.; Schüller, W.; Ternes, B.; Blass, G.; Pushcharovsky, D. Yu.

    2013-12-01

    A new mineral, hillesheimite, has been found in the Graulai basaltic quarry, near the town of Hillesheim, the Eifel Mountains, Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz), Germany. It occurs in the late assemblage comprising nepheline, augite, fluorapatite, magnetite, perovskite, priderite, götzenite, lamprophyllite-group minerals, and åkermanite. Colorless flattened crystals of hillesheimite reaching 0.2 × 1 × 1.5 mm in size and aggregates of the crystals occur in miarolitic cavities in alkali basalt. The mineral is brittle, with Mohs' hard-ness 4. Cleavage is perfect parallel to (010) and distinct on (100) and (001). D calc = 2.174 g/cm3, D meas = 2.16(1) g/cm3. IR spectrum is given. Hillesheimite is biaxial (-), α = 1.496(2), β = 1.498(2), γ = 1.499(2), 2 V meas = 80°. The chemical composition (electron microprobe, mean of 4 point analyses, H2O determined from structural data, wt %) is as follows: 0.24 Na2O, 4.15 K2O, 2.14 MgO, 2.90 CaO, 2.20 BaO, 2.41 FeO, 15.54 Al2O3, 52.94 SiO2, 19.14 H2O, total is 101.65. The empirical formula is: K0.96Na0.08Ba0.16Ca0.56Mg0.58Fe{0.37/2+}[Si9.62Al3.32O23(OH)6][(OH)0.82(H2O)0.18] · 8H2O. The crystal structure has been determined from X-ray single-crystal diffraction data, R = 0.1735. Hillesheimite is orthorhombic, space group Pmmn, the unit-cell dimensions are: a = 6.979(11), b = 37.1815(18), c = 6.5296(15) Å; V=1694(3) Å3, Z = 2. The crystal structure is based on the block [(Si,Al)13O25(OH)4] consisting of three single tetrahedral layers linked via common vertices and is topologically identical to the triple layers in günterblassite and umbrianite. The strong reflections [ d Å ( I %)] in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern are: 6.857(58), 6.545(100), 6.284(53), 4.787(96), 4.499(59), 3.065(86), 2.958(62), 2.767(62). The mineral was named after its type locality. Type specimens are deposited in the Fersman Mineralogical Museum, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, registration number 4174/1.

  2. The effect of SiO2/Al2O3 ratio on the structure and microstructure of the glazes from SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO-Na2O-K2O system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partyka, Janusz; Sitarz, Maciej; Leśniak, Magdalena; Gasek, Katarzyna; Jeleń, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Ceramic glazes are commonly used to covering of the facing surface of ceramics ware. A well-chosen oxide composition and firing conditions of glazes causes significant improvement of technical parameters of ceramic products. Modern glazes are classified as glass-ceramic composites with different crystalline phases arising during firing. The presence of crystals in the glass matrix is influenced by many factors, especially by oxides molar composition. A crucial role is played by the molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3. In this work the six composition of glazes from SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO-Na2O-K2O system were examined. The only variable is the ratio of the silicon oxideto alumina at a constant content of other components: MgO, CaO, K2O, Na2O, ZnO. In order to determine the real phase composition of the obtained glazes research on fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) were done. For structural studies X-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectroscopic in the middle infrared (MIR) were performed. In order to determine the state of the surface (microstructure) research on the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with EDX. The research allowed to determine the influence of SiO2/Al2O3 ratio on the structure and phase composition of glazes and the nature, and type of formed crystalline phases.

  3. Raman and infrared spectroscopy study on structure and microstructure of glass-ceramic materials from SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O-K2O-CaO system modified by variable molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Partyka, Janusz; Leśniak, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on the effect of the molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3 on the microstructure and structure of the internal aluminium-silicon-oxide lattice of the glass-ceramic materials from the SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O-K2O-CaO system. In order to examine the real composition of the obtained samples, a chemical analysis was performed. Following the heat-treatment procedure, pseudowollastonite, anorthite and the vitreous phase were identified. In order to determine the microstructure, research using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with EDS was done. For the inner structural study, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy as well as MIR and FIR spectroscopy were performed.

  4. Stability relations in the system CaSiO3-CaMnSi2O6-CaFeSi2O6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrecht, Jürgen

    1980-10-01

    In the system CaSiO3-CaMnSi2O6-CaFeSi2O6 extensive miscibility gaps between pyroxenoids and clinopyroxenes are observed. The miscibility gap between Mn-bustamite and Mn-wollastonite has been determined experimentally by a hydrothermal technique between 400° and 1200° C at P f= 2 kbar. Further experiments have been performed at P f=9 kbar, which revealed a shifting of the miscibility gap towards more Ca-rich compositions. The bustamite phase is stabilized by high pressures and the wollastonite structure is the stable phase at high temperatures. Similar phase relations as along the join CaSiO3-CaMnSi2O6 exist along the join CaSiO3-CaFeSi2O6 but with a more extensive two-phase field of bustamite-clinopyroxene. Possible phase relations along the joins CaSiO3-CaMnSi2O6, CaSiO3-CaFeSi2O6 and CaFeSi2O6-CaMnSi2O6 are given in temperature-composition diagrams for low pressures, based on natural and experimental data.

  5. Shear viscosities of CaO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2 and MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2 liquids: Implications for the structural role of aluminium and the degree of polymerisation of synthetic and natural aluminosilicate melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toplis, Michael J.; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2004-12-01

    The shear viscosity of 66 liquids in the systems CaO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2 (CAS) and MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2 (MAS) have been measured in the ranges 1-10 4 Pa s and 10 8-10 12 Pa s. Liquids belong to series, nominally at 50, 67, and 75 mol.% SiO 2, with atomic M 2+/(M 2++ 2Al) typically in the range 0.60 to 0.40 for each isopleth. In the system CAS at 1600°C, viscosity passes through a maximum at all silica contents. The maxima are clearly centered in the peraluminous field, but the exact composition at which viscosity is a maximum is poorly defined. Similar features are observed at 900°C. In contrast, data for the system MAS at 1600°C show that viscosity decreases with decreasing Mg/(Mg + 2Al) at all silica contents, but that a maximum in viscosity must occur in the field where Mg/2Al >1. On the other hand, the viscosity at 850°C increases with decreasing Mg/(Mg + 2Al) and shows no sign of reaching a maximum, even for the most peraluminous composition studied. The data from both systems at 1600°C have been analysed assuming that shear viscosity is proportional to average bond strength and considering the equilibrium: Al-(⇔(-NBO+Al where Al [4]-(Mg,Ca) 0.5 represents a charge-balanced tetrahedrally coordinated Al; (Mg, Ca) 0.5-NBO represents a nonbridging oxygen (NBO) associated with Ca or Mg, and Al XS represents any structural role of Al that does not require a charge-balancing cation. The viscosity data were fitted using two adjustable variables: i) the equilibrium constant of the above reaction, and ii) the relative bond strength of Al XS. The values of these parameters in the system CAS suggest that Al XS remains in tetrahedral coordination, its charge deficit being satisfied by association with a three-coordinate oxygen in a structure called a tricluster. In contrast, fits to the MAS data at 1600°C infer the presence of high-coordinate Al. These interpretations are found to be consistent with independent spectroscopic and theoretical data. Furthermore, the fitted

  6. Effects of Al2O3 and MgO on Softening, Melting, and Permeation Properties of CaO-FeO-SiO2 on a Coke Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Shigeru; Kon, Tatsuya; Miki, Takahiro; Kim, Sun-Joong; Nogami, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    In ironmaking, maintaining gas permeability in blast furnace with low coke rate operation is essential to reduce carbon emissions. The high pressure loss in the cohesive zone decreases the gas permeability and affects the productivity of blast furnace. In order to increase the gas permeability in the cohesive zone, the thickness of the cohesive layer should be decreased. For this purpose, increasing softening temperature and decreasing dripping temperature of the iron ore are desired. In this study, softening, melting, and permeation of SiO2-FeO-CaO-Al2O3-MgO on a coke bed were investigated. The oxide sample in a tablet form was heated under CO/CO2 atmosphere, and the shape of the tablet was observed. The softening and melting temperatures of the SiO2-FeO-CaO system changed with the addition of Al2O3 and MgO. Oxide tablets with and without Al2O3 softened below and above the solidus temperature, respectively. The melting temperatures varied with the ratio of CO/CO2 in the gas. The permeation temperature was independent of the melting temperature, but dependent on the wettability.

  7. Crystal and electronic structures, luminescence properties of Eu{sup 2+}-doped Si{sub 6-z}Al{sub z}O{sub z}N{sub 8-z} and M{sub y}Si{sub 6-z}Al{sub z-y}O{sub z+y}N{sub 8-z-y} (M=2Li, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.Q. Hirosaki, N.; Xie, R.J.; Takeda, T.; Mitomo, M.

    2008-12-15

    The crystal structure, electronic structure, and photoluminescence properties of Eu{sub x}Si{sub 6-z}Al{sub z-x}O{sub z+x}N{sub 8-z-x} (x=0-0.1, 0Si{sub 6-z}Al{sub z-x-y}O{sub z+x+y}N{sub 8-z-x-y} (M=2Li, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) have been studied. Single-phase Eu{sub x}Si{sub 6-z}Al{sub z-x}O{sub z+x}N{sub 8-z-x} can be obtained in very narrow ranges of x{<=}0.06 (z=0.15) and z<0.5 (x=0.3), indicating that limited Eu{sup 2+} ions can be incorporated into nitrogen-rich Si{sub 6-z}Al{sub z}O{sub z}N{sub 8-z}. The Eu{sup 2+} ion is found to occupy the 2b site in a hexagonal unit cell (P6{sub 3}/m) and directly connected by six adjacent nitrogen/oxygen atoms ranging 2.4850-2.5089 A. The calculated host band gaps by the relativistic DV-X{alpha} method are about 5.55 and 5.45 eV (without Eu{sup 2+} 4f5d levels) for x=0 and 0.013 in Eu{sub x}Si{sub 6-z}Al{sub z-x}O{sub z+x}N{sub 8-z-x} (z=0.15), in which the top of the 5d orbitals overlap with the Si-3s3p and N-2p orbitals within the bottom of the conduction band of the host. Eu{sub x}Si{sub 6-z}Al{sub z-x}O{sub z+x}N{sub 8-z-x} shows a strong green emission with a broad Eu{sup 2+} band centered at about 530 nm under UV to near-UV excitation range. The excitation and emission spectra are hardly modified by Eu concentration and dual-doping ions of Li and other alkaline-earth ions with Eu. Higher Eu concentrations can significantly quench the luminescence of Eu{sup 2+} and decrease the thermal quenching temperature. In addition, the emission spectrum can only be slightly tuned to the longer wavelengths ({approx}529-545 nm) by increasing z within the solid solution range of z<0.5. Furthermore, the luminescence intensity of Eu{sub x}Si{sub 6-z}Al{sub z-x}O{sub z+x}N{sub 8-z-x} can be improved by increasing z and the dual-doping of Li and Ba. - Graphical abstract: Excitation and emission spectra of Eu{sub x}Si{sub 6-z}Al{sub z-x}O{sub z+x}N{sub 8-z-x} with the project of a 2x2x2 supercell crystal structure

  8. Ehimeite, NaCa2Mg4CrSi6Al2O22(OH)2: The first Cr-dominant amphibole from the Akaishi Mine, Higashi-Akaishi Mountain, Ehime Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio-Hamane, Daisuke; Ohnishi, Masayuki; Minakawa, Tetsuo; Yamaura, Jun-Ichi; Saito, Shohei; Kadota, Ryo

    The first Cr-dominant amphibole, ehimeite, ideally NaCa2Mg4CrSi6Al2O22(OH)2, has been found in a chromitite deposit in the Akaishi Mine, Higashi-Akaishi Mountain, Ehime Prefecture, Japan. Ehimeite occurs as prismatic crystals of up to 1.5 cm in length and 0.5 cm in width and is found in association with chromite, kämmererite (Cr-rich clinochlore), Cr-poor clinochlore, phlogopite, and uvarovite. It is transparent, emerald green to pale green in color with pale green streaks, and has a vitreous luster. Optically, it is biaxial positive with α = 1.644(2), β = 1.647(2), γ = 1.659(2), and 2Vcalc. = 53°. It has a Mohs’ hardness of 6 and densities of 3.08(3) g/cm3 (measured using heavy liquids) and 3.121 g/cm3 (calculated from powder diffraction data and the empirical formula). The empirical formula is (Na0.88K0.07)Σ0.95(Ca1.89Na0.02Mg0.09)Σ2.00(Mg4.03Cr0.62Al0.19Fe3+0.07Fe2+0.07Ti0.03)Σ5.00(Si6.14Al1.86)Σ8.00O22(OH)2 on the basis of O = 22 and OH = 2, and ehimeite mainly forms a solid solution, NaCa2Mg4(Cr, Al)Si6Al2O22(OH)2, with pargasite. It has a monoclinic unit cell with a = 9.9176(14) Å, b = 18.0009(12) Å, c = 5.2850(7) Å, β = 105.400(7)°, V = 909.6 (17) Å3, and Z = 2, and it belongs to the space group C2/m, as refined from powder XRD data. The eight strongest lines in the powder XRD pattern [d (Å), I/I0, hkl] are (3.370, 58, 150), (2.932, 43, 221), (2.697, 81, 151), (2.585, 50, 061), (2.546, 100, 202), (2.346, 42, 351), (2.156, 35, 261), and (1.514, 55, 263). The crystal structure has been refined to R1 = 0.0488 using single-crystal XRD data. It has been concluded that ehimeite in the Akaishi Mine was formed by the reaction of chromitite and the metamorphic fluid in the retrograde stage of serpentinization during the Sanbagawa metamorphism.

  9. Electrophoretic deposition of porous CaO-MgO-SiO2 glass-ceramic coatings with B2O3 as additive on Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xianchun; Liao, Xiaoming; Huang, Zhongbing; Dan, Xiuli; Yin, Guangfu

    2011-10-01

    The sub-micron glass-ceramic powders in CaO-MgO-SiO(2) system with 10 wt% B(2)O(3) additive were synthesized by sol-gel process. Then bioactive porous CaO-MgO-SiO(2) glass-ceramic coatings on Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrates were fabricated using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique. After being calcined at 850°C, the above coatings with thickness of 10-150 μm were uniform and crack-free, possessing porous structure with sub-micron and micron size connected pores. Ethanol was employed as the most suitable solvent to prepare the suspension for EPD. The coating porous appearance and porosity distribution could be controlled by adjusting the suspension concentration, applied voltage and deposition time. The heat-treated coatings possessed high crystalline and was mainly composed of diopside, akermanite, merwinite, calcium silicate and calcium borate silicate. Bonelike apatite was formed on the coatings after 7 days of soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). The bonding strength of the coatings was needed to be further improved.

  10. Revealing heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik S; Liu, Xiangfa; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2016-04-28

    The heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si can be attributed to the presence of AlP. Although P, in the form of AlP particles, is usually observed in the centre of primary Si, there is still a lack of detailed investigations on the distribution of P within primary Si and eutectic Si in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys at the atomic scale. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental investigation on the distribution of P in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. P, in the form of AlP particles, was observed in the centre of primary Si. However, no significant amount of P was detected within primary Si, eutectic Si and the Al matrix. Instead, P was observed at the interface between the Al matrix and eutectic Si, strongly indicating that P, in the form of AlP particles (or AlP 'patch' dependent on the P concentration), may have nucleated on the surface of the Al matrix and thereby enhanced the heterogeneous nucleation of eutectic Si. The present investigation reveals some novel insights into heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys and can be used to further develop heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms based on adsorption.

  11. Revealing heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik S; Liu, Xiangfa; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si can be attributed to the presence of AlP. Although P, in the form of AlP particles, is usually observed in the centre of primary Si, there is still a lack of detailed investigations on the distribution of P within primary Si and eutectic Si in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys at the atomic scale. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental investigation on the distribution of P in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. P, in the form of AlP particles, was observed in the centre of primary Si. However, no significant amount of P was detected within primary Si, eutectic Si and the Al matrix. Instead, P was observed at the interface between the Al matrix and eutectic Si, strongly indicating that P, in the form of AlP particles (or AlP 'patch' dependent on the P concentration), may have nucleated on the surface of the Al matrix and thereby enhanced the heterogeneous nucleation of eutectic Si. The present investigation reveals some novel insights into heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys and can be used to further develop heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms based on adsorption. PMID:27120994

  12. Revealing heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik S.; Liu, Xiangfa; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si can be attributed to the presence of AlP. Although P, in the form of AlP particles, is usually observed in the centre of primary Si, there is still a lack of detailed investigations on the distribution of P within primary Si and eutectic Si in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys at the atomic scale. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental investigation on the distribution of P in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. P, in the form of AlP particles, was observed in the centre of primary Si. However, no significant amount of P was detected within primary Si, eutectic Si and the Al matrix. Instead, P was observed at the interface between the Al matrix and eutectic Si, strongly indicating that P, in the form of AlP particles (or AlP ‘patch’ dependent on the P concentration), may have nucleated on the surface of the Al matrix and thereby enhanced the heterogeneous nucleation of eutectic Si. The present investigation reveals some novel insights into heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys and can be used to further develop heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms based on adsorption. PMID:27120994

  13. Menzerite-(Y) a New Species {(Y REE)(Ca Fe2plus)2}[(Mg Fe2plus)(Fe3plus Al)](Si3)O12 from a Felsic Granulite Parry Sound Ontario and a New Garnet End-member (Y2Ca)Mg2(SiO4)3

    SciTech Connect

    E Grew; J Marsh; M Yates; B Lazic; T Armbruster; A Locock; S Bell; M Dyar; H Bernhardt; O Medenbach

    2011-12-31

    Menzerite-(Y), a new mineral species, forms reddish brown cores, n = 1.844 (20), up to 70 {micro}m across, rimmed successively by euhedral almandine containing up to 2.7 wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and by K-feldspar in a felsic granulite on Bonnet Island in the interior Parry Sound domain, Grenville Orogenic Province, Canada. It is named after Georg Menzer (1897-1989), the German crystallographer who solved the crystal structure of garnet. Single-crystal X-ray-diffraction results yielded space group Ia3d, a = 11.9947(6) {angstrom}. An electron-microprobe analysis of the grain richest in Y (16.93 wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) gave the following formula, normalized to eight cations and 12 oxygen atoms: {l_brace}Y{sub 0.83}Gd{sub 0.01}Dy{sub 0.05}Ho{sub 0.02}Er{sub 0.07}Tm{sub 0.01}Yb{sub 0.06}Lu{sub 0.02}Ca{sub 1.37}Fe{sub 0.49}{sup 2+}Mn{sub 0.07}{r_brace} [Mg{sub 0.55}Fe{sub 0.42}{sup 2+}Fe{sub 0.58}{sup 3+}Al{sub 0.35} V{sub 0.01}Sc{sub 0.01}Ti{sub 0.08}](Si{sub 2.82}Al{sub 0.18})O{sub 12}, or {l_brace}(Y,REE)(Ca,Fe{sup 2+}){sub 2}{r_brace}[(Mg,Fe{sup 2+})(Fe{sup 3+},Al)](Si{sub 3})O{sub 12}. Synchrotron micro-XANES data gave Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe = 0.56(10) versus 0.39(2) calculated from stoichiometry. The scattering power refined at the octahedral Y site, 17.68 epfu, indicates that a relatively light element contributes to its occupancy. Magnesium, as determined by electron-microprobe analyses, would be a proper candidate. In addition, considering the complex occupancy of this site, the average Y-O bond length of 2.0244(16) {angstrom} is in accord with a partial occupancy by Mg. The dominance of divalent cations with Mg > Fe{sup 2+} and the absence of Si at the octahedral Y site (in square brackets) are the primary criteria for distinguishing menzerite-(Y) from other silicate garnet species; the menzerite-(Y) end-member is {l_brace}Y{sub 2}Ca{r_brace}[Mg{sub 2}](Si{sub 3})O{sub 12}. The contacts of menzerite-(Y) with almandine are generally sharp and, in places, cuspate. It is

  14. Sulfide Capacities of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 Slags in the Temperature Range 1673 K to 1773 K (1400 °C to 1500 °C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Yoshinori; Wang, Lijun; Sano, Nobuo; Seetharaman, Seshadri

    2012-06-01

    With a goal to estimate the sulfide capacities of slags used in the pretreatment of hot metal, the sulfide capacities of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 slags were measured at 1673 K to 1773 K (1400 °C to 1500 °C). The gas-slag equilibrium technique has been used for this measurement. From the results obtained, it was found that the temperature dependence of the sulfide capacity of this slag is independent of the slag compositions. Therefore, a new empirical model based on optical basicity for sulfide capacity estimation of this slag was developed using the measured values of the current work and literature. With the use of the new model, the isosulfide capacity curves at 1673 K (1400 °C) were mapped.

  15. (Sr1-xNax)(Cd1-xMnx)2As2: A new charge and spin doping decoupled diluted magnetic semiconductors with CaAl2Si2-type structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bijuan; Deng, Zheng; Li, Wenmin; Gao, Moran; Li, Zhi; Zhao, Guoqiang; Yu, Shuang; Wang, Xiancheng; Liu, Qingqing; Jin, Changqing

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a new bulk diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor via Na and Mn co-doping in SrCd2As2 with a hexagonal CaAl2Si2-type structure. Together with carrier doping via (Sr,Na) substitution, spin doping via (Cd,Mn) substitution results in ferromagnetic order with Curie temperature of TC up to 13 K. Negative magnetoresistance is assigned to weak localization at low temperatures, where the magnetization of samples becomes saturated. The hexagonal structure of (Sr1-xNax)(Cd1-xMnx)2As2 can be acted as a promising candidate for spin manipulations owing to its relatively small coercive field of less than 24 Oe.

  16. CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMAS) corrosion of Gd2Zr2O7 and Sm2Zr2O7

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Honglong; Bakal, Ahmet; Zhang, Xingxing; Tarwater, Emily; Sheng, Zhizhi; Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    2016-08-08

    Ceramic thermal barrier coatings are applied to superalloys used in gas turbine engineering to increase the operating temperature and the energy conversion efficiency. However, dust consisting of CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMAS) from the air can be injected into the engines and corrode the thermal barrier coatings. Lanthanide zirconates are promising materials in thermal barrier coatings due to their low thermal conductivities, good phase stability and good corrosion resistance. However, the corrosion resistance mechanism of CMAS on lanthanide zirconates is still not clearly understood. In this work, the corrosion mechanism of Gd2Zr2O7 and Sm2Zr2O7 in CMAS is studied. Here, the results show thatmore » the CMAS can easily react with lanthanide zirconate thermal barrier coatings to form a dense layer, which can resist further corrosion« less

  17. Crystallization, densification and dielectric properties of CaO–MgO–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2} glass with ZrO{sub 2} as nucleating agent

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiang, Hsing-I; Yung, Shi-Wen; Wang, Chung-Ching

    2014-12-15

    SEM micrographs for the pure CaO–MgO–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2} glass sintered at 850–1000 °C (a) 850 °C, (b) 900 °C, (c) 950 °C, (d) 1000 °C. - Highlights: • ZrO{sub 2} effects on the crystallization of LTCC glass system were investigated. • ZrO{sub 2} effects on the dielectric properties of LTCC glass system were investigated. • LTCC with a dielectric constant of 6.65 and a low dielectric loss can be obtained. - Abstract: The zirconium oxide effects on the crystallization and dielectric properties of CaO–MgO–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2} (CMAS) glass were investigated. The results showed that phyllosiloxide and anorthite crystallites were observed in sequence during sintering. For glass added with 8 wt% ZrO{sub 2}, homogeneously dispersed tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} crystallites were observed at 850 °C. The as-prepared CMAS glass–ceramics exhibited a dielectric constant of about 6–7 and a dielectric loss below 0.005 at 100 MHz. The dielectric properties of CMAS glass with 8 wt% ZrO{sub 2} sintered at 850 °C show a low dielectric constant of 6.65 and a dielectric loss tangent of about 2.5 × 10{sup −3}, which provides a promising candidate for LTCC applications.

  18. The 3R polymorph of CaSi{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Nedumkandathil, Reji; Benson, Daryn E.; Grins, Jekabs; Spektor, Kristina; Häussermann, Ulrich

    2015-02-15

    The Zintl phase CaSi{sub 2} commonly occurs in the 6R structure where puckered hexagon layers of Si atoms are stacked in an AA′BB′CC′ fashion. In this study we show that sintering of CaSi{sub 2} in a hydrogen atmosphere (30 bar) at temperatures between 200 and 700 °C transforms 6R-CaSi{sub 2} quantitatively into 3R-CaSi{sub 2}. In the 3R polymorph (space group R-3m (no. 166), a=3.8284(1), c=15.8966(4), Z=3) puckered hexagon layers are stacked in an ABC fashion. The volume per formula unit is about 3% larger compared to 6R-CaSi{sub 2}. First principles density functional calculations reveal that 6R and 3R-CaSi{sub 2} are energetically degenerate at zero Kelvin. With increasing temperature 6R-CaSi{sub 2} stabilizes over 3R because of its higher entropy. This suggests that 3R-CaSi{sub 2} should revert to 6R at elevated temperatures, which however is not observed up to 800 °C. 3R-CaSi{sub 2} may be stabilized by small amounts of incorporated hydrogen and/or defects. - Graphical abstract: The common 6R form of CaSi{sub 2} can be transformed quantitatively into 3R-CaSi{sub 2} upon sintering in a hydrogen atmosphere. - Highlights: • Quantitative and reproducible bulk synthesis of the rare 3R polymorph of CaSi{sub 2}. • Clarification of the energetic relation between 3R and conventional 6R form. • 3R-CaSi{sub 2} is presumably stabilized by small amounts of incorporated hydrogen and/or defects.

  19. Development of SiAlON materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layden, G. K.

    1979-01-01

    Cold pressing and sintering techniques were used to produce ceramic test specimens in which the major phase was either Si3N4 or a solid solution having the beta Si3N4 structure. Additional components were incorporated to promote liquid phase sintering. Glass and/or crystalline phase were consequently retained in boundaries between Si3N4 grains which largely determined the physical properties of the bodies. Systems investigated most extensively included R-Si-Al-O-N (R = rare earth element) Zr-Si-Al-O-N, Y-Si-Be-O-N, and R1-R2-Si-O-N. Room temperature and 1370 C modulus of ruptured, 1370 C creep, and oxidation behavior are discussed in terms of phase relationships in a parent quinery, and relavent oxide systems.

  20. Vladimirivanovite, Na6Ca2[Al6Si6O24](SO4,S3,S2,Cl)2 · H2O, a new mineral of sodalite group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapozhnikov, A. N.; Kaneva, E. V.; Cherepanov, D. I.; Suvorova, L. F.; Levitsky, V. I.; Ivanova, L. A.; Reznitsky, L. Z.

    2012-12-01

    The results of an examination of vladimirivanovite, a new mineral of the sodalite group, found at the Tultui deposit in the Baikal region are discussed. The mineral occurs in the form of outer rims (0.01-3 mm thick) of lazurite, elongated segregations without faced crystals (0.2 to 3-4 mm in size; less frequently, 4 × 12-15 × 20 mm), and rare veinlets (up to 5 mm) hosted in calciphyre and marble. Vladimirivanovite is irregular and patchy dark blue. The mineral is brittle; on average, the microhardness VHN is 522-604, 575 kg/mm2; and the Mohs hardness is 5.0-5.5. The measured and calculated densities are 2.48(3) and 2.436 g/cm3, respectively. Vladimirivanovite is optically biaxial; 2 V meas = 63(±1)°, 2 V calc = 66.2°; the refractive indices are α = 1.502-1.507 (±0.002), N m = 1.509-1.514 (±0.002), and N g = 1.512-1.517 (±0.002). The chemical composition is as follows, wt %: 32.59 SiO2, 27.39 Al2O3, 7.66 CaO, 17.74 Na2O, 11.37 SO3, 1.94 S, 0.12 Cl, and 1.0 H2O; total is 99.62. The empirical formula calculated based on (Si + Al) = 12 with sulfide sulfur determined from the charge balance is Na6.36Ca1.52(Si6.03Al5.97)Σ12O23.99(SO4)1.58(S3)0.17(S2)0.08 · Cl0.04 · 0.62H2O; the idealized formula is Na6Ca2[Al6Si6O24](SO4,S3,S2,Cl)2 · H2O. The new mineral is orthorhombic, space group Pnaa; the unit-cell dimensions are a = 9.066, b = 12.851, c = 38.558 Å, V = 4492 Å3, and Z = 6. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern ( dÅ— I[ hkl]) are: 6.61-5[015], 6.43-11[020, 006], 3.71-100[119, 133], 2.623-30[20.12, 240], 2.273-6[04.12], 2.141-14[159, 13.15], 1.783-9[06.12, 04.18], and 1.606-6[080, 00.24]. The crystal structure has been solved with a single crystal. The mineral was named in memoriam of Vladimir Georgievich Ivanov (1947-2002), Russian mineralogist and geochemist. The type material of the mineral is deposited at the Mineralogical Museum of St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia.

  1. Cross sections for the production of residual nuclides by low- and medium-energy protons from the target elements C, N, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba and Au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, R.; Bodemann, R.; Busemann, H.; Daunke, R.; Gloris, M.; Lange, H.-J.; Klug, B.; Krins, A.; Leya, I.; Lüpke, M.; Neumann, S.; Reinhardt, H.; Schnatz-Büttgen, M.; Herpers, U.; Schiekel, Th.; Sudbrock, F.; Holmqvist, B.; Condé, H.; Malmborg, P.; Suter, M.; Dittrich-Hannen, B.; Kubik, P.-W.; Synal, H.-A.; Filges, D.

    1997-07-01

    Cross sections for residual nuclide production by p-induced reactions were measured from thresholds up to 2.6 GeV using accelerators at CERN/Geneve, IPN/Orsay, KFA/Jülich, LANL/Los Alamos, LNS/Saclay, PSI/Villigen, TSL/Uppsala, LUC/Louvain La Neuve. The target elements C, N, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba and Au were investigated. Residual nuclides were measured by X- and γ-spectrometry and by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The measured cross sections were corrected for interfering secondary particles in experiments with primary proton energies above 200 MeV. Our consistent database covers presently ca 550 nuclear reactions and contains nearly 15000 individual cross sections of which about 10000 are reported here for the first time. They provide a basis for model calculations of the production of cosmogenic nuclides in extraterrestrial matter by solar and galactic cosmic ray protons. They are of importance for many other applications in which medium energy nuclear reactions have to be considered ranging from astrophysics over space and environmental sciences to accelerator technology and accelerator-based nuclear waste transmutation and energy amplification. The experimental data are compared with theoretical ones based on calculations using an INC/E model in form of the HETC/KFA2 code and on the hybrid model of preequilibrium reactions in form of the AREL code.>

  2. An investigation of CaO-MgO-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]-SiO[sub 2] liquids by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, vibrational spectroscopy, and ion dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, B.T.

    1993-01-01

    A multi-directional approach has been taken in order to investigate the structural and dynamic properties associated with liquid phases in the system CaO-MgO-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]-SiO[sub 2] (CMAS). Using a newly developed high temperature [sup 27]Al Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic technique, which involves simultaneously levitating and heating the sample with a CO[sub 2] laser, direct structural and dynamic information on refractory aluminate and aluminosilicate liquids has been obtained at temperature of 2000 K and above. From this technique, measured isotropic chemical shifts and NMR linewidths of the liquids exhibit systematic trends with variations in composition which can be associated with the static and relaxation behavior of the structural environment about aluminum. Structural information of the liquids is time-averaged due to the rapid motional averaging characteristic of these liquids at the timescale of the NMR experiment. Comparison of these results with those of corresponding glasses both from solid state NMR and vibrational spectroscopic experiments allows for a more detailed interpretation of the structural makeup of these liquids. Combined with results and next-nearest-neighbor environments allows for a more quantitative estimation of the melts investigated suggest greater proportions of high coordinate aluminum species (AlO[sub 5] and AlO[sub 6] units) compared to existing data compiled for corresponding glasses. Finally, in-situ high temperature Raman spectra have been obtained which show direct experimental evidence for the presence of distinct molecular species in these refractory liquids, and also indicate structural changes as a function to temperature.

  3. Crystallization control for remediation of an FetO-rich CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO EAF waste slag.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung Suk; Sohn, Il

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the crystallization behavior of synthesized FetO-rich electric arc furnace (EAF) waste slags with a basicity range of 0.7 to 1.08 was investigated. Crystal growth in the melts was observed in situ using a confocal laser scanning microscope, and a delayed crystallization for higher-basicity samples was observed in the continuous cooling transformation and time temperature transformation diagrams. This result is likely due to the polymerization of the melt structure as a result of the increased number of network-forming FeO4 and AlO4 units, as suggested by Raman analysis. The complex incorporation of Al and Fe ions in the form of AlO4 and FeO4 tetrahedral units dominant in the melt structure at a higher basicity constrained the precipitation of a magnetic, nonstoichiometric, and Fe-rich MgAlFeO4 primary phase. The growth of this spinel phase caused a clear compositional separation from amorphous phase during isothermal cooling at 1473 K leading to a clear separation between the primary and amorphous phases, allowing an efficient magnetic separation of Fe compounds from the slag for effective remediation and recycling of synthesized EAF waste slags for use in higher value-added ordinary Portland cement.

  4. Crystallization control for remediation of an FetO-rich CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO EAF waste slag.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung Suk; Sohn, Il

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the crystallization behavior of synthesized FetO-rich electric arc furnace (EAF) waste slags with a basicity range of 0.7 to 1.08 was investigated. Crystal growth in the melts was observed in situ using a confocal laser scanning microscope, and a delayed crystallization for higher-basicity samples was observed in the continuous cooling transformation and time temperature transformation diagrams. This result is likely due to the polymerization of the melt structure as a result of the increased number of network-forming FeO4 and AlO4 units, as suggested by Raman analysis. The complex incorporation of Al and Fe ions in the form of AlO4 and FeO4 tetrahedral units dominant in the melt structure at a higher basicity constrained the precipitation of a magnetic, nonstoichiometric, and Fe-rich MgAlFeO4 primary phase. The growth of this spinel phase caused a clear compositional separation from amorphous phase during isothermal cooling at 1473 K leading to a clear separation between the primary and amorphous phases, allowing an efficient magnetic separation of Fe compounds from the slag for effective remediation and recycling of synthesized EAF waste slags for use in higher value-added ordinary Portland cement. PMID:24410350

  5. Thermodynamic modeling of non-ideal mineral-fluid equilibria in the system Si-Al-Fe-Mg-Ca-Na-K-H-O-Cl at elevated temperatures and pressures: Implications for hydrothermal mass transfer in granitic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolejš, David; Wagner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of thermodynamic modeling of fluid-rock interaction in the system Si-Al-Fe-Mg-Ca-Na-H-O-Cl using the GEM-Selektor Gibbs free energy minimization code. Combination of non-ideal mixing properties in solids with multicomponent aqueous fluids represents a substantial improvement and it provides increased accuracy over existing modeling strategies. Application to the 10-component system allows us to link fluid composition and speciation with whole-rock mineralogy, mass and volume changes. We have simulated granite-fluid interaction over a wide range of conditions (200-600 °C, 100 MPa, 0-5 m Cl and fluid/rock ratios of 10-2-104) in order to explore composition of magmatic fluids of variable salinity, temperature effects on fluid composition and speciation and to simulate several paths of alteration zoning. At low fluid/rock ratios (f/r) the fluid composition is buffered by the silicate-oxide assemblage and remains close to invariant. This behavior extends to a f/r of 0.1 which exceeds the amount of exsolved magmatic fluids controlled by water solubility in silicate melts. With increasing peraluminosity of the parental granite, the Na-, K- and Fe-bearing fluids become more acidic and the oxidation state increases as a consequence of hydrogen and ferrous iron transfer to the fluid. With decreasing temperature, saline fluids become more Ca- and Na-rich, change from weakly acidic to alkaline, and become significantly more oxidizing. Large variations in Ca/Fe and Ca/Mg ratios in the fluid are a potential geothermometer. The mineral assemblage changes from cordierite-biotite granites through two-mica granites to chlorite-, epidote- and zeolite-bearing rocks. We have carried out three rock-titration simulations: (1) reaction with the 2 m NaCl fluid leads to albitization, chloritization and desilication, reproducing essential features observed in episyenites, (2) infiltration of a high-temperature fluid into the granite at 400 °C leads to hydrolytic

  6. A thermodynamic model for subsolidus equilibria in the system CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, B. J.; Holloway, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that the high temperature enthalpy of solution data for pure phases and solid solutions in the CMAS system are, for 'gabbroic' and 'peridotitic' compositions, consistent with available phase equilibrium data for the MAS, CAS and CMAS systems. A refined set of values of thermodynamic properties for these phases and solid solutions is tabulated. The small differences between the new data set and that of Helgeson et al. (1978) arise from new data on heat capacity and enthalpy being incorporated. The important constraints applied and the major difficulties in fitting which arose are summarized.

  7. Glass-Ceramic Material from the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO System Using Sugar-Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, S. R.; Romero, M.; Ma Rincón, J.; Magalhães, R. S.; Souza, A. E.; Santos, G. T. A.; Silva, R. A.

    2011-10-01

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of alcohol and sugar from sugarcane. Currently, sugarcane bagasse is burned in boilers to produce steam and electrical energy, producing a huge volume of ash. The major component of the ash is SiO2, and among the minor components there are some mineralizing agents or fluxing. Published works have shown the potential of transforming silicate-based residues into glass-ceramic products of great utility. This work reports the research results of SCBA use to produce glass-ceramics with wollastonite, rankinite and gehlenite as the major phases. These silicates have important applications as building industry materials, principally wollastonite, due to their special properties: high resistance to weathering, zero water absorption, and hardness among others. The glasses (frits) were prepared mixing ash, calcium carbonate and sodium or potassium carbonates as flux agents, in different concentrations. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the chemical composition of the glasses and their crystallization was assessed by using thermal analysis (DTA/DSC/TGA) and X-ray diffraction. The crystallization kinetics was evaluated using the Kissinger method, giving activation energies ranging from 200 to 600 kJ/mol.

  8. Günterblassite, (K,Ca)3 - x Fe[(Si,Al)13O25(OH,O)4] · 7H2O, a new mineral: the first phyllosilicate with triple tetrahedral layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukanov, N. V.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Aksenov, S. M.; Pekov, I. V.; Zubkova, N. V.; Britvin, S. N.; Belakovskiy, D. I.; Schüller, W.; Ternes, B.

    2012-12-01

    A new mineral, günterblassite, has been found in the basaltic quarry at Mount Rother Kopf near Gerolstein, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany as a constituent of the late assemblage of nepheline, leucite, augite, phlogopite, åkermanite, magnetite, perovskite, a lamprophyllite-group mineral, götzenite, chabazite-K, chabazite-Ca, phillipsite-K, and calcite. Günterblassite occurs as colorless lamellar crystals up to 0.2 × 1 × 1.5 mm in size and their clusters. The mineral is brittle, with perfect cleavage parallel to (001) and less perfect cleavage parallel to (100) and (010). The Mohs hardness is 4. The calculated and measured density is 2.17 and 2.18(1) g/cm3, respectively. The IR spectrum is given. The new mineral is optically biaxial and positive as follows: α = 1.488(2), β = 1.490(2), γ = 1.493(2), 2 V meas = 80(5)°. The chemical composition (electron microprobe, average of seven point analyses, H2O is determined by gas chromatography, wt %) is as follows: 0.40 Na2O, 5.18 K2O, 0.58 MgO, 3.58 CaO, 4.08 BaO, 3.06 FeO, 13.98 Al2O3, 52.94 SiO2, 15.2 H2O, and the total is 98.99. The empirical formula is Na0.15K1.24Ba0.30Ca0.72Mg0.16F{0.48/2+}[Si9.91Al3.09O25.25(OH)3.75] · 7.29H2O. The crystal structure has been determined from a single crystal, R = 0.049. Günterblassite is orthorhombic, space group Pnm21; the unit-cell dimensions are a = 6.528(1), b = 6.970(1), c = 37.216(5) Å, V = 1693.3(4) Å3, Z = 2. Günterblassite is a member of a new structural type; its structure is based on three-layer block [Si13O25(OH,O)4]. The strong reflections in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern [ d Å ( I, %) are as follows: 6.532 (100), 6.263 (67), 3.244 (49), 3.062 (91), 2.996 (66), 2.955 (63), and 2.763 (60). The mineral was named in honor of Günter Blass (born in 1943), a well-known amateur mineralogist and specialist in electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction. The type specimen of günterblassite is deposited in the collections of the Fersman Mineralogical Museum of the

  9. A Sulfide Capacity Prediction Model of CaO-SiO2-MgO-FeO-MnO-Al2O3 Slags during the LF Refining Process Based on the Ion and Molecule Coexistence Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xue-Min; Zhang, Meng; Shi, Cheng-Bin; Chai, Guo-Ming; Zhang, Jian

    2012-04-01

    A sulfide capacity prediction model of CaO-SiO2-MgO-FeO-MnO-Al2O3 ladle furnace (LF) refining slags has been developed based on the ion and molecule coexistence theory (IMCT). The predicted sulfide capacity of the LF refining slags has better accuracy than the measured sulfide capacity of the slags at the middle and final stages during the LF refining process. Increasing slag binary basicity, optical basicity, and the Mannesmann index can lead to an increase of the predicted sulfide capacity for the LF refining slags as well as to an increase of the sulfur distribution ratio between the slags and molten steel at the middle and final stages during the LF refining process. The calculated equilibrium mole numbers, mass action concentrations of structural units or ion couples, rather than mass percentages of components, are recommended to represent the slag composition for correlating with the sulfide capacity of the slags. The developed sulfide capacity IMCT model can calculate not only the total sulfide capacity of the slags but also the respective sulfide capacity of free CaO, MgO, FeO, and MnO in the slags. The comprehensive contribution of the combined ion couples (Ca2+ + O2-) and (Mn2+ + O2-) on the desulfurization reactions accounts for 96.23 pct; meanwhile, the average contribution of the ion couple (Fe2+ + O2-) and (Mg2+ + O2-) only has a negligible contribution as 3.13 pct and 0.25 pct during the LF refining process, respectively. The oxygen activity of bulk molten steel in LF is controlled by the [Al]-[O] equilibrium, and the oxygen activity of molten steel at the slag-metal interface is controlled by the (FeO)-[O] equilibrium. The ratio of the oxygen activity of molten steel at the slag-metal interface to the oxygen activity of bulk molten steel will decrease from 37 to 5 at the initial stage, and further decrease from 28 to 4 at the middle stage, but will maintain at a reliable constant as 5 to 14 at the final stage during the LF refining process. The

  10. Post-magmatic solid solutions of CaCeAl2(Fe3+ 2/3□1/3)[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH), allanite-(Ce) and REE-bearing epidote in miarolitic pegmatites of Permian Baveno granite (Verbania, central-southern alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guastoni, Alessandro; Nestola, Fabrizio; Schiazza, Mariangela

    2016-09-01

    CaCeAl2(Fe3+ 2/3□1/3)[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH), allanite-(Ce) and rare earth element (REE)-bearing epidote occur as globular aggregates and platy prismatic crystals in miarolitic cavities in a niobium, yttrium, fluorine (NYF) granitic pegmatite at Baveno, Verbania, Southern Alps, Italy. These samples were investigated by means of an electron probe micro-analyser (EPMA) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Our EPMA results show that the globular aggregates have the highest REE content in the core portion and decreases to REE-bearing epidote towards the rim whereas the prismatic crystals are characterized by marked oscillatory zoning that have the highest REE contents at the rim of the crystal. The unit-cell parameters of "allanites" have an intermediate unit-cell between CaCeAl2(Fe3+ 2/3□1/3)[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH), allanite-(Ce) and REE-free epidote, because reflect the strong chemical heterogeneity of the samples which form complete solid solutions. Hydrothermal fluids control the activity and precipitation of incompatible elements like high field strength elements (HFSE), Sc and REE by hydrous F-rich fluids below the critical temperature which allow to deposit accessory minerals in the cavities with decreasing temperature. The source of REE and Y are the sheet and REE-silicates like siderophyllite-annite, and gadolinite-(Y) which underwent partial to complete decomposition by the activity of aggressive F-rich hydrothermal fluids.

  11. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of zinc-modified ca-si-based ceramic coating for bone implants.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiangming; Li, Kai; Zheng, Xuebin; He, Dannong; Ye, Xiaojian; Wang, Meiyan

    2013-01-01

    The host response to calcium silicate ceramic coatings is not always favorable because of their high dissolution rates, leading to high pH within the surrounding physiological environment. Recently, a zinc-incorporated calcium silicate-based ceramic Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating, developed on a Ti-6Al-4V substrate using plasma-spray technology, was found to exhibit improved chemical stability and biocompatibility. This study aimed to investigate and compare the in vitro response of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating, CaSiO3 coating, and uncoated Ti-6Al-4V titanium control at cellular and molecular level. Our results showed Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating enhanced MC3T3-E1 cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation compared to CaSiO3 coating and control. In addition, Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating increased mRNA levels of osteoblast-related genes (alkaline phosphatase, procollagen α1(I), osteocalcin), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). The in vivo osteoconductive properties of Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating, compared to CaSiO3 coating and control, was investigated using a rabbit femur defect model. Histological and histomorphometrical analysis demonstrated new bone formation in direct contact with the Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating surface in absence of fibrous tissue and higher bone-implant contact rate (BIC) in the Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating group, indicating better biocompatibility and faster osseointegration than CaSiO3 coated and control implants. These results indicate Ca2ZnSi2O7 coated implants have applications in bone tissue regeneration, since they are biocompatible and able to osseointegrate with host bone.

  12. P- T- X controls on Ca and Na distribution between Mg-Al tourmaline and fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryman, Eleanor J.; Wunder, Bernd; Rhede, Dieter; Schettler, Georg; Franz, Gerhard; Heinrich, Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    Ca-Na partitioning between tourmaline and a coexisting fluid is investigated in the system CaO-Na2O-B2O3-Al2O3-MgO-SiO2-H2O-Cl between 0.2-4.0 GPa and 500-700 °C. The synthesis experiments produced a mineral assemblage of tourmaline, coesite/quartz, and in some cases additional phases, typically comprising <1 wt% of the solid product. The synthesized tourmalines are solid solutions of dravite [NaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)], "oxy-uvite" (i.e. "Ca-Mg-O root name") [CaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3O], and magnesio-foitite [☐(Mg2Al)Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)]. Starting materials comprised a fluid of constant ionic strength (2.00 m) and an oxide mixture with a constant Mg/Al ratio. As a result, the number of vacancies at the X site and the Mg/Al ratio of tourmaline crystals synthesized at the same temperature vary only slightly. The major solid solution is Ca-Na exchange at the X site via the exchange vector X Ca W O[ X Na W (OH)]-1, with the exchange vector X (Ca☐)[ X Na2]-1 serving as a secondary Ca-incorporation mechanism. Tourmaline's X-site composition reflects the fluid composition, whereby the Ca (or Na) concentration in the fluid corresponds with the Ca (or Na) content in tourmaline at each pressure and temperature. At 0.2 GPa, 700 °C, Ca preferentially partitions into tourmaline, producing the most Ca-rich tourmaline crystals synthesized here. At pressures >1.0 GPa, Ca partitions preferentially into the fluid, resulting in Na-dominant tourmaline compositions. Temperature has a secondary effect on Ca-Na partitioning, with higher temperatures correlating with increased Ca incorporation in tourmaline. Based on the experimental findings, tourmaline is expected to have Ca-rich compositions when it forms in low pressure, high-temperature Ca-rich rocks, consistent with the current record of tourmaline occurrence. The bulk Mg/Al ratio and the pH of the tourmaline-forming system may also affect Ca incorporation in tourmaline, but remain to be investigated experimentally.

  13. Development and characterization of glass-ceramic sealants in the (CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-B2O3) system for Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khedim, Hichem; Nonnet, Hélène; Méar, François O.

    2012-10-01

    The efficiency of glass-ceramic sealants plays a crucial role in Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cell performance and durability. In order to develop suitable sealants, operating around 800 °C, two parent glass compositions, CAS1B and CAS2B, from the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-B2O3 system were prepared and explored. The thermal and physicochemical properties of the glass ceramics and their crystallization behavior were investigated by HSM, DTA and XRD analyses. The microstructure and chemical compositions of the crystalline phases were investigated by microprobe analysis. Bonding characteristic as well as chemical interactions of the parent glass with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and ferritic steel-based interconnect (Crofer®) were also investigated. The preliminary results revealed the superiority of CAS2B glass for sealing application in SOECs. The effect of minor additions of V2O5, K2O and TiO2 on the thermal properties was also studied and again demonstrated the advantages of the CAS2B glass composition. Examining the influence of heat treatment on the seal behavior showed that the choice of the heating rate is a compromise between delaying the crystallization process and delaying the viscosity drop. The thermal Expansion Coefficients (TEC) obtained for the selected glass ceramic are within the desired range after the heat treatment of crystallization. The crystallization kinetic parameters of the selected glass composition were also determined under non-isothermal conditions by means of differential thermal analysis (DTA) and using the formal theory of transformations for heterogeneous nucleation.

  14. Three series of quaternary rare-earth transition-metal pnictides with CaAl2Si2-type structures: RECuZnAs2, REAgZnP2, and REAgZnAs2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyko, Stanislav S.; Ramachandran, Krishna K.; Blanchard, Peter E. R.; Rosmus, Kimberly A.; Aitken, Jennifer A.; Mar, Arthur

    2014-05-01

    Three series of quaternary rare-earth transition-metal pnictides REMM‧Pn2 (M=Cu, Ag; M‧=Zn; Pn=P, As) have been prepared by reaction of the elements at 800 °C, with crystal growth promoted through the addition of iodine. The extent of RE substitution is broad in these series: RECuZnAs2 (RE=Y, Lasbnd Nd, Sm, Gd-Lu), REAgZnP2 (RE=La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Dy), and REAgZnAs2 (RE=Lasbnd Nd, Sm, Gdsbnd Dy). Powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that they adopt the trigonal CaAl2Si2-type structure (space group P3barm1, Z=1), in which Cu or Ag atoms are disordered with Zn atoms over the unique tetrahedrally coordinated transition-metal site. Magnetic measurements indicated Curie-Weiss behavior for several members of the RECuZnAs2 and REAgZnP2 series. Core-line X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) collected on some RECuZnAs2 members corroborate the charge assignment deduced by the Zintl concept for these compounds, (RE3+)(M1+)(Zn2+)(Pn3-)2. Optical diffuse reflectance spectra and valence band XPS spectra established that these compounds are small band-gap semiconductors (up to ~0.8 eV in REAgZnP2) or semimetals (RECuZnAs2). Band structure calculations also support this electronic structure and indicate that the band gap can be narrowed through appropriate chemical substitution (RE=smaller atoms, M=Cu, and Pn=As).

  15. Atomic data from the iron project. 3: Rate coefficients for electron impact excitation of boron-like ions: Ne VI, Mg VIII, Al IX, Si X, S XII, Ar XIV, Ca XVI and Fe XXII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Hong Lin; Graziani, Mark; Pradhan, Anil K.

    1994-01-01

    Collison strengths and maxwellian averaged rate coefficients have been calculated for the 105 transitions among all 15 fine structure levels of the 8 LS terms 2s(sup 2) 2 P(P-2(sup 0 sub 1/, 3/2)), 2s2p(sup 2)(P-4(sub 1/2,3/2,5/2), D-2(sub 3/2, 5/2), S-2(sub 1/2), P-2(sub 1/2, 3/2)), 2p(sup 3)(S-4(sup 0)(sub 3/2), D-2(sup 0 sub 3/2, 5/2), P-2(sup 0 sub 1/2, 3/2)) in highly- charged B-like Ne, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ar, Ca and Fe. Rate coefficients have been tabulated at a wide range of temperatures, depending on the ion charge and abundance in plasma sources. Earlier work for O IV has also been extended to include the high temperature range. A brief discussion of the calculations, sample results, and comparison with earlier works is also given. While much of the new data should be applicable to UV spectral diagnostics, the new rates for the important ground state fine structure transition P-2(sup 0 sub 1/2)-P-2(sup 0 sub 3/2) should result in significant revision of the IR cooling rates in plasmas where B-like ions are prominent constituents, since the new rate coefficients are generally higher by several factors compared with the older data.

  16. Ge/Si, Ca/Sr and 87Sr/86Sr tracers of biogeochemical sources and cycling of Si and Ca at the Shale Hills CZO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derry, L. A.; Meek, K.; Sparks, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Plant uptake and cycling of nutrients is commonly the largest flux of nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems. Hydrologic and other losses are offset by inputs from atmospheric deposition and weathering. We measured elemental and isotopic compositions from soil solution, soil exchange complex, leaves and sapwater from two canopy species, soil and rock samples, and stream and ground waters at the Shale Hills CZO. Xylem fluid and leaf samples have similar Ge/Si < 1 μmo/mol, consistent with fractionation at the root-soil water interface. Ge/Si in soil waters is higher Ge/Si near the surface and increases over the growing season, indicating preferential uptake of Si. Ca/Sr in leaves of Quercus are significantly higher (450±150) than for Acer (200±100), and Ca/Sr is generally higher in leaves than in xylem, consistent with Ca uptake during transpiration. 87Sr/86Sr in both are similar for a given site, implying that the trees access similar pools of Sr and Ca, although there are site-to-site differences. Data on litterfall rates and transpiration rates yield similar estimates of plant cycling of Ca and Si. 87Sr/86Sr in soil solutions from ridgtop and swale sites are well explained by mixing Sr derived from shale and atmospheric deposition. Valley bottom soil solutions and stream and groundwater samples include Sr and Ca derived from dissolution of diagenetic carbonates, found in drill cuttings. A preliminary estimate of the Sr and Ca stream fluxes and isotopic mass balances imply propagation of a carbonate weathering front of ca. 200 m/Ma, faster than previously reported regolith weathering advance rates based on on cosmogenic nuclides and U series (Jin et al., 2010; Ma et al., 2010). These rates are not strictly comparable and differences are at least in part consistent with the greater depth of the carbonate weathering front (Brantley et al, 2013). The data for Ca, Sr, Si and Ge in soil, soil solutions and stream waters reflects the interaction of slower weathering

  17. Glass-ceramic nuclear waste forms obtained by crystallization of SiO 2-Al 2O 3-CaO-ZrO 2-TiO 2 glasses containing lanthanides (Ce, Nd, Eu, Gd, Yb) and actinides (Th): Study of the crystallization from the surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiseau, P.; Caurant, D.

    2010-07-01

    Glass-ceramic materials containing zirconolite (nominally CaZrTi 2O 7) crystals in their bulk can be envisaged as potential waste forms for minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) and Pu immobilization. In this study such matrices are synthesized by crystallization of SiO 2-Al 2O 3-CaO-ZrO 2-TiO 2 glasses containing lanthanides (Ce, Nd, Eu, Gd, Yb) and actinides (Th) as surrogates. A thin partially crystallized layer containing titanite and anorthite (nominally CaTiSiO 5 and CaAl 2Si 2O 8, respectively) growing from glass surface is also observed. The effect of the nature and concentration of surrogates on the structure, the microstructure and the composition of the crystals formed in the surface layer is presented in this paper. Titanite is the only crystalline phase able to significantly incorporate trivalent lanthanides whereas ThO 2 precipitates in the layer. The crystal growth thermal treatment duration (2-300 h) at high temperature (1050-1200 °C) is shown to strongly affect glass-ceramics microstructure. For the system studied in this paper, it appears that zirconolite is not thermodynamically stable in comparison with titanite growing form glass surface. Nevertheless, for kinetic reasons, such transformation (i.e. zirconolite disappearance to the benefit of titanite) is not expected to occur during interim storage and disposal of the glass-ceramic waste forms because their temperature will never exceed a few hundred degrees.

  18. CaSiO3-walstromite inclusions in super-deep diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzolini, Chiara; Nestola, Fabrizio; Milani, Sula; Brenker, Frank E.

    2015-04-01

    Diamonds are considered the unique way to trap and convey real fragments of deep material to the surface of our planet. Over the last thirty years, great strides have been made in understanding of Earth's lower mantle, mainly thanks to technological and instrumental advances; nevertheless, it is only in the last two decades that a whole range of inclusion parageneses derived from the lower mantle was discovered in diamonds from São Luiz (Brazil) (Kaminsky, 2008 and references therein), thereby establishing a 'window' into the lower mantle. These so-called super-deep diamonds form at depths greater than lithospheric diamonds, more precisely between 300 and 800 km depth, and contain mostly ferropericlase, enstatite (believed to be derived from MgSi-perovskite) and CaSiO3-walstromite (believed to be derived from CaSiO3-perovskite). Even though CaSiO3 not only adopts the perovskite structure with increased pressure and temperature, but also it is considered the dominant Ca-bearing phase in the Earth's lower mantle (Tamai and Yagi, 1989), at the present day there are no reliable literature data on the pressure at which CaSiO3 crystallizes within diamonds. In order to obtain for the first time a pressure of formation value for CaSiO3-walstromite, several inclusions still trapped in a diamond coming from Juina (Mato Grosso, Brazil) were investigated both by in-situ microRaman spectroscopy and in-situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction. First, we applied 'single-inclusion elastic barometry' as improved by Angel et al. (2014) to determine the pressure of formation of the diamond-inclusion pairs. Starting from the maximum remnant pressure value ever reported (Joswig et al., 2003) and adopting the thermoelastic parameters already present in literature (Swamy and Dubrovinsky, 1997; Liu et al., 2012), we obtained an apparent entrapment pressure of ~7.1 GPa, corresponding to ~250 km, at 1500 K. The presence of fractures around the inclusions indicates this is a minimum estimate

  19. Melting in the system CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-FeO-Cr2O3 spanning the plagioclase-spinel lherzolite transition at 7 to 10 kbar: experiments versus thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshav, S.; Tirone, M.; Gudfinnsson, G.; Presnall, D.

    2008-12-01

    Voluminous basaltic magmas erupt at mid-oceanic ridges (mid-ocean ridge basalts, MORB) as a consequence of mantle upwelling and melting beneath spreading plates. However, because the geochemistry of MORB is distinct from OIB (ocean-island basalts), both have great petrogenetic significance and carry important information about the chemical and physical properties/dynamics of the mantle. In the context of MORB, a critical yet unresolved question is how phase transitions within a polybaric melting zone affect melt productivity and thereby, possibly exert control on major and trace element composition of erupted magmas. Currently, the disagreements on these issues are fundamental, with great consequences that extend beyond petrology to global issues of potential temperatures, mantle melting, mantle heterogeneity, and mantle dynamics. Thermodynamics show that melt productivity depends critically on the transition reaction, and melting can in principle increase, decrease, or even stop at a transition. Phase equilibrium work from both systems CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-Na2O (CMASN) and CMAS-FeO (CMASF) have been used to argue that melt productivity may increase at the plagioclase-spinel (pl-sp) transition because the univariant solidus transition reaction has a positive dT/dP slope in these systems, moving to higher pressure relative to the CMAS system. However, melting models derived on the basis of MELTS and pMELTS show that the solidus has a negative slope on the pl-sp transition. If correct, this would cause suppression of melting as the mantle decompresses along a pertinent adiabat. Owing to these vast discrepancies between experiments and thermodynamics and to further clarify MORB genesis, in this work we present melting phase relations in the system CMASFCr at the plagioclase-spinel lherzolite transition from 7 to 10 kbar. Cr was chosen since recent work has shown that the addition of Cr to CMAS has an unusually large effect on Ca/Al of melt compositions at 1.1 GPa. With

  20. Crystal structure of the mineral (Na,Ca,K){sub 2}(Ca,Na){sub 4}(Mg,Fe){sub 5}(Mg,Fe,Ti){sub 5}[Si{sub 12}Al{sub 4}O{sub 44}](F,O){sub 4}: a triclinic representative of the amphibole family

    SciTech Connect

    Rastsvetaeva, R. K. Aksenov, S. M.

    2012-05-15

    A mineral belonging to the amphibole family found at the Rothenberg paleovolcano (Eifel, Germany) was studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The triclinic pseudomonoclinic unit-cell parameters are a = 5.3113(1) Angstrom-Sign , b = 18.0457(3) Angstrom-Sign ; c = 9.8684(2) Angstrom-Sign , {alpha} = 90.016(2) Degree-Sign , {beta} = 105.543(4) Degree-Sign , {gamma} = 89.985(2) Degree-Sign . The structure was solved by direct methods in sp. gr. P1 and refined to the R factor of 2.7% based on 6432 reflections with |F| > 3{sigma}(F) taking into account twinning. The mineral with the idealized formula (Na,Ca,K){sub 2}(Ca,Na){sub 4}(Mg,Fe){sub 5}(Mg,Fe,Ti){sub 5}[Si{sub 12}Al{sub 4}O{sub 44}](F,O){sub 4} has some symmetry and structural features that distinguish it from other minerals of this family.

  1. Understanding Structural Properties of Carbonate-Silicate Melts: An EXAFS Study on Y and Sr in the System Na2O-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohlenz, J.; Pascarelli, S.; Mathon, O.; Belin, S.; Shiryaev, A.; Safonov, O.; Murzin, V.; Shablinskaya, K.; Irifune, T.; Wilke, M.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonatite volcanism generally occurs in intra-plate settings associated with continental rifting. The only active carbonatitic volcano is the Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, which generates sodium-rich carbonatites in close association with phonolites and nephelinites1. The processes of carbonatite genesis are still unresolved, however carbonate-bearing melts evidently play a crucial role during mantle melting, in diamond formation and as metasomatic agents. Carbonate melts show extraordinary properties, especially in regard to their low melt viscosities and densities, high surface tensions and electrical conductivities as well as distinct geochemical affinities to a wide range of trace elements2. Understanding the structural properties of carbonate-bearing melts is fundamental to explaining their chemical and physical behaviour as well as modeling processes operating in the deep Earth. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy is a versatile tool for element specific investigation of the short to medium range structure of melts and glasses. This study focuses on unraveling the influence of carbonate concentration on the structural incorporation of the geochemically important trace elements Y and Sr in silicate and carbonate melts in the system Na2O-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CO2. First, we present structural data of silicate glasses with up to 10 wt% CO2, quenched from melts under high temperature and pressure, which indicate that the local structure of Y and Sr is not or only slightly affected by CO2. Melts with higher CO2 contents could not be quenched to glass, so far. Second, we show results of high pressure, high temperature experiments conducted in the Paris Edinburgh-Press, which provides in-situ insight into carbonate-silicate melts. All EXAFS measurements were performed at the synchrotron facility beamlines SAMBA (SOLEIL) and BM23 (ESRF). Information derived from the trace elements' local structure is used to develop a structural model for carbonate

  2. Lanthanum and neodymium solubility in simplified SiO{sub 2}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO high level waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Kidari, Abdessamad; Bardez-Giboire, Isabelle

    2012-08-15

    Lanthanum and neodymium incorporation in simplified high level waste glasses has been investigated for SiO{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 3}Na{sub 2}OAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}CaO compositions quenched from 1200 degrees C, for varying La /(La + Nd) (atomic) and increasing rare-earth oxides contents. In this system and beyond the solubility limit, rare-earths (RE) elements are reported to form apatite phases with the general formula Ca{sub 2}RE{sub 8}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}. In the current study, speciation of these trivalent RE{sup 3+} cations in both amorphous network and crystal phases was determined from X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical absorption at 10 K, Raman spectroscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. It appeared that RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility was higher for La -rich formulations than for Nd -rich ones and that an increase in the RE oxide content reduces the connectivity of the network building units through formation of non-bridging oxygens at the expense of the oxygen bridges. This depolymerization of the glass network did not affect neodymium environment which consisted in silicate tetrahedra. The composition of the apatite crystals was found to be affected by the La /(La + Nd) of the parent glass and deviation from the ideal composition (Ca{sub 2}RE{sub 8}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}) occurred in the neodymium end of the system. It thus appears that both RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility and crystal composition are strongly dependent on the type and crystal chemistry of the RE elements. (authors)

  3. Development of SiAlON materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layden, G. K.

    1977-01-01

    Cold pressing and sintering techniques were used to produce ceramic bodies in which the major phase was beta prime Si3-Al-O-N4 solid solution. A variety of foreign oxides were used to promote liquid phase sintering, and this resulted in the incorporation of additional solid phases in the ceramic bodies which controlled elevated temperature properties. None of the bodies studied to date exhibited both adequate high temperature mechanical properties and oxidation resistance. Criteria are suggested to guide the formulation of bodies with improved high temperature properties.

  4. Sulfide capacity of CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susaki, Katsujiro; Maeda, Masafumi; Sano, Nobuo

    1990-02-01

    The sulfide capacity C S 2- = (pct S2-) · ( P O 2/ P S 2)1/2) of CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slags saturated with CaO, 3CaO · SiO2 or 2CaOSiO2 was determined at 1200 °C, 1250 °C, 1300 °C, and 1350 °C by equilibrating molten slag, molten silver, and CO-CO2 gas mixtures. Higher sulfide capacities were obtained for CaO-saturated slags. A drastic decrease was observed in those values when the ratio pct CaO/pct SiO2 is less than 2. The sulfur partition between carbon-saturated iron melts and presently investigated slags was calculated by using the sulfide capacities obtained and the activity coefficient of sulfur in carbon-saturated iron, which was also experimentally determined. For slags saturated with CaO, partitions of sulfur as high as 10,000 were obtained at 1300 °C and 1350 °C. Correlations between the sulfide capacity and other basicity indexes such as carbonate capacity and theoretical optical basicity were also discussed.

  5. Indium oxide diffusion barriers for Al/Si metallizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolawa, E.; Garland, C.; Tran, L.; Nieh, C. W.; Molarius, J. M.; Flick, W.; Nicolet, M.-A.; Wei, J.

    1988-12-01

    Indium oxide (In2O3) films were prepared by reactive rf sputtering of an In target in O2/Ar plasma. We have investigated the application of these films as diffusion barriers in <Si>/In2O3/Al and <Si>/TiSi2.3/In2O3/Al metallizations. Scanning transmission electron microscopy together with energy dispersive analysis of x ray of cross-sectional Si/In2O3/Al specimens, and electrical measurements on shallow n+-p junction diodes were used to evaluate the diffusion barrier capability of In2O3 films. We find that 100-nm-thick In2O3 layers prevent the intermixing between Al and Si in <Si>/In2O3/Al contacts up to 650 °C for 30 min, which makes this material one of the best thin-film diffusion barriers on record between Al and Si. (The Si-Al eutectic temperature is 577 °C, Al melts at 660 °C.) When a contacting layer of titanium silicide is incorporated to form a <Si>/TiSi2.3/In2O3/Al metallization structure, the thermal stability of the contact drops to 600 °C for 30 min heat treatment.

  6. Effect of boron on the microstructure of near-eutectic Al-Si alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Yuying . E-mail: wyy532001@163.com; Liu Xiangfa; Bian Xiufang

    2007-02-15

    The effect of boron on the microstructure of a near-eutectic Al-Si alloy (ZL109) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron beam microprobe analysis (EPMA). It was found that {alpha}-Al dendrites and eutectic clusters were significantly refined by the addition of boron. Another interesting discovery is that the near-eutectic alloy exhibited hypereutectic structure characteristics when the level of boron added exceeds 0.3%, i.e., primary Si is precipitated in the eutectic microstructure. A new type of nucleation substrate for the primary Si is found, Al {sub x}Ca {sub m}B {sub n}Si. This appears to be the main reason for the precipitation of primary Si.

  7. Ca(Ti,Si)O3 Diamond Inclusions Crystallized From Carbonate Melts in the Transition Zone: Experimental Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, L. S.; Walter, M. J.; Keshav, S.; Bulanova, G.; Pickles, J.; Lord, O. T.; Lennie, A.

    2007-12-01

    the Juina inclusions, suggesting that melt may be involved in their formation. The MgSiO3-content of calcium perovskite in nominally volatile-free melting experiments on natural peridotite and eclogite compositions8-9 is also much higher than that of the Juina inclusions (>3 mol%). We have made melting experiments on model carbonated peridotite (CMS-Ti- CO2) and eclogite (CMAS-Ti-CO2) compositions at 20 GPa using multi-anvil techniques at the Bayerisches Geoinstitut. We find that liquidus Ca(Ti,Si)-perovskite coexisting with Ca-carbonatite melt is remarkably depleted in MgSiO3 component, and that the Ti-rich diamond inclusion compositions are well-matched by perovskite crystallized from melt derived from a model eclogite source. We suggest that diamond and CaTi-perovskite crystallized syngenetically from a melt derived from carbonated eclogite in the transition zone.1. Hayman, Kopylova, & Kaminsky, CMP 149, 430-445 (2005). 2. Kaminsky et al., CMP 140, 734-753 (2001). 3. Kubo, Suzuki, & Akaogi, PCM 24, 488-494 (1997). 4. Brenker et al., EPSL 236, 579-587 (2005). Harte et al., GS Spec. Pub. #6, 125-153 (1999). 6. Stachel et al, CMP 140, 16-27 (2000). 7. Hirose et al.. Nature 397, 53-56 (1999). 8. Irifune & Ringwood, EPSL 117, 101-110 (1993). 9. Corgne et al., GCA 69, 485-496 (2005).

  8. CVD of SiC and AlN using cyclic organometallic precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interrante, L. V.; Larkin, D. J.; Amato, C.

    1992-01-01

    The use of cyclic organometallic molecules as single-source MOCVD precursors is illustrated by means of examples taken from our recent work on AlN and SiC deposition, with particular focus on SiC. Molecules containing (AlN)3 and (SiC)2 rings as the 'core structure' were employed as the source materials for these studies. The organoaluminum amide, (Me2AlNH2)3, was used as the AlN source and has been studied in a molecular beam sampling apparatus in order to determine the gas phase species present in a hot-wall CVD reactor environment. In the case of SiC CVD, a series of disilacyclobutanes (Si(XX')CH2)2 (with X and X' = H, CH3, and CH2SiH2CH3), were examined in a cold-wall, hot-stage CVD reactor in order to compare their relative reactivities and prospective utility as single-source CVD precursors. The parent compound, disilacyclobutane, (SiH2CH2)2, was found to exhibit the lowest deposition temperature (ca. 670 C) and to yield the highest purity SiC films. This precursor gave a highly textured, polycrystalline film on the Si(100) substrates.

  9. Observations of Al, Fe and Ca(+) in Mercury's Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bida, Thomas A.; Killen, Rosemary M.

    2011-01-01

    We report 5-(sigma) tangent column detections of Al and Fe, and strict 3-(sigma) tangent column upper limits for Ca(+) in Mercury's exosphere obtained using the HIRES spectrometer on the Keck I telescope. These are the first direct detections of Al and Fe in Mercury's exosphere. Our Ca(-) observation is consistent with that reported by The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft.

  10. A semi-empirical thermodynamic formalism for high-pressure aqueous silicate solutions in the model system K2O-Na2O-CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-CO2, a first approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertl, H.; Burchard, M.; Hertwig, A.; Maresch, W. V.

    2012-12-01

    The results of experimental solubility determinations in aqueous solutions at high pressures up to 5 GPa are often difficult to gauge with respect to precision and accuracy, because of the potential uncertainties inherent in the available experimental approaches. Existing models of aqueous silicate solutions at low pressures are either unsuitable for extrapolation beyond 0.5 to 1.0 GPa or involve polynomial fits in which the fit parameters lack direct physical meaning. An approach described by Gerya et al. [1,2], based on statistical thermodynamics, allows aqueous silicate solutions to be described as mixtures of fictive oxide "components" together with water molecules in both clustered and "gas-like", i.e. unassociated, states. Burchard et al. [3] presented a first data set for fluids in the system CaO-SiO2-H2O, using the statistical thermodynamic formulation of Gerya et al [1,2] and extending it to include charged fluid species such as Ca2+, Ca(OH)+, Ca(OH)2, OH- and H+. We have now further developed the data set of Burchard et al. [3] by including carbonic fluid species and extending the model system to include MgO and Al2O3. In addition, initial progress has been made in including potassium and sodium model species. Solid phase data were obtained by mathematical conversion of existing thermodynamic mineral data into the semi-empirical form. With this semi-empirical data set calculations for simple, "wet" silicate rocks are now possible. We present applications to suites of jadeitites and jadeite-lawsonite-quartz rocks from the Rio San Juan serpentinite mélanges of the northern Dominican Republic. These rocks have crystallized from high-pressure aqueous fluids in a long-lived intra-oceanic subduction-zone environment at various times and at different P-T conditions (Schertl et al. [4]). The fluid-rock interactions leading to these spectacular rocks are still poorly understood. [1] Gerya et al. (2004) Phys. Chem. Minerals 31, 429-455; [2] Gerya et al. (2005) Eur

  11. Influence of Lanthanum on Solidification, Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties of Eutectic Al-Si Piston Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, R.; Asmael, M. B. A.

    2016-07-01

    The effects of Lanthanum (La) concentration on the solidification parameters of the α-Al, Al-Si, and Al-Cu phases and on the microstructure, tensile, and hardness properties of eutectic Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy were systematically investigated. The solidification parameters were examined using computer-aided cooling curve thermal analysis (CA-CCTA). The cooling curve and microstructure analysis showed that La altered the Si structure. The nucleation and growth temperatures of eutectic Si decreased when 0.3 wt.% La was added, and a high depression temperature was obtained with 1.0 wt.% La. High amounts of La considerably modified the Si structure and decreased the area and aspect ratio by 69.9 and 51%, respectively. The thermal analysis result recorded a faster freezing time with the La addition and a 36% alteration in the secondary dendrite arm spacing. Two secondary or ternary La-rich intermetallic phases were formed with needle- and plate-like structures. Furthermore, the mechanical properties were investigated by hardness and tensile tests with different La concentrations. The addition of small amounts of La (0.1 wt.%) significantly improved the ultimate tensile strength and quality index of the Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy. In addition, the hardness value of Al-11Si-Cu increased by 7-8% with the increasing amount of La added.

  12. Vacuum ultraviolet thin films. I - Optical constants of BaF2, CaF2, LaF3, MgF2, Al2O3, HfO2, and SiO2 thin films. II - Vacuum ultraviolet all-dielectric narrowband filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zukic, Muamer; Torr, Douglas G.; Spann, James F.; Torr, Marsha R.

    1990-01-01

    An iteration process matching calculated and measured reflectance and transmittance values in the 120-230 nm VUV region is presently used to ascertain the optical constants of bulk MgF2, as well as films of BaF2, CaF2, LaF3, MgF2, Al2O3, HfO2, and SiO2 deposited on MgF2 substrates. In the second part of this work, a design concept is demonstrated for two filters, employing rapidly changing extinction coefficients, centered at 135 nm for BaF2 and 141 nm for SiO2. These filters are shown to yield excellent narrowband spectral performance in combination with narrowband reflection filters.

  13. Thermodynamic tabulations for selected phases in the system CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2 at 101.325 kPa (1 atm) between 273.15 and 1800 K

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haas, John L.; Robinson, Glipin R.; Hemingway, Bruch S.

    1981-01-01

    The standard thermodynamic properties of phases in the lime‐alumina‐silica‐ water system between 273.15 and 1800 K at 101.325 kPa (1 atm) were evalated from published experimental data. Phases included in the compilation are boehmite, diaspore, gibbsite, kaolinite, dickite, halloysite, andalusite, kyanite, sillimanite, Ca‐Al cliniopyroxene, anorthite, gehlenite, grossular, prehnite, zoisite, margarite, wollastonite, cyclowollastonite ( = pseudowollastonite), larnite, Ca olivine, hatrurite, and rankinite. The properties include heat capacity, entropy, relative enthalpy, and the Gibbs energy function of the phases and the enthalpies, Gibbs energies, and equilibrium constants for formation both from the elements and the oxides. Tabulated values are given at 50 K intervals with the 2‐sigma confidence limit at 250 K intervals. Summaries for each phase give the temperature‐ dependent functions for heat capacity, entropy, and relative enthalpy and the experimental data used in the final evaluation.

  14. Tracing high-pressure metamorphism in marbles: Phase relations in high-grade aluminous calcite-dolomite marbles from the Greek Rhodope massif in the system CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2-CO 2 and indications of prior aragonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proyer, A.; Mposkos, E.; Baziotis, I.; Hoinkes, G.

    2008-08-01

    Four different types of parageneses of the minerals calcite, dolomite, diopside, forsterite, spinel, amphibole (pargasite), (Ti-)clinohumite and phlogopite were observed in calcite-dolomite marbles collected in the Kimi-Complex of the Rhodope Metamorphic Province (RMP). The presence of former aragonite can be inferred from carbonate inclusions, which, in combination with an analysis of phase relations in the simplified system CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2-CO 2 (CMAS-CO 2) show that the mineral assemblages preserved in these marbles most likely equilibrated at the aragonite-calcite transition, slightly below the coesite stability field, at ca. 720 °C, 25 kbar and aCO 2 ~ 0.01. The thermodynamic model predicts that no matter what activity of CO 2, garnet has to be present in aluminous calcite-dolomite-marble at UHP conditions.

  15. The molar volume of cubic garnets in the system SiO2-Al2O3-TiO2-Fe2O3-Cr2O3-FeO-MnO-MgO-CaO-Na2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamecher, E. A.; Antoshechkina, P. M.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Asimow, P. D.

    2012-12-01

    Garnet is a critical phase that controls major and trace element partitioning at pressures above ~3 GPa during partial melting of the Earth's upper mantle. A molar volume model is calibrated for cubic garnets (space group Ia3d) in the oxide system listed in the title. This model and a recent calibration of spinel molar volume (Hamecher et al., in press, CMP) will be used in calibration of thermodynamic activity-composition models of garnet and pyroxene solid solutions. The activity and molar volume models will be incorporated into the next generation MELTS (Ghiorso & Sack, 1995, CMP) model, xMELTS. A new garnet volume model calibrated with recent in situ high-P, T diffraction data is crucial for accurately modeling key mineralogical transitions in the mantle, e.g., the spinel-garnet transition and the mantle transition zone. Above 5 GPa a majorite component is an essential part of any thermodynamic model of mantle garnets, which to be useful must accurately predict garnet stability with respect to spinel, pyroxene, perovskites, and melt. Our model system contains nine independent end members: Ca3Al2Si3O12, Mg3Al2Si3O12, Fe2+3Al2Si3O12, Mg3Cr2Si3O12, Mg3Fe3+2Si3O12, Mn3Al2Si3O12, Na2(MgSi2)Si3O12, Mg3(TiMg)Si3O12, and cubic majorite component Mg3(MgSi)Si3O12. An inclusive set of end-member components is formed by linear combinations of these explicit end members. Approximately 950 published X-ray diffraction experiments performed on garnets at ambient and in situ high-P, T conditions are used to calibrate end-member equations of state and an excess volume model for this system. Optimal values of the bulk modulus and its pressure derivative are obtained by analyzing published compression and/or ultrasonic data for the end members for which such studies exist; for other end members, density functional theory results are used. For any cubic garnet in this chemical system, the model molar volume is obtained by adding excess volume terms to a linear combination of the

  16. Valence-electron spectral change and charge transfer mechanism of CaSi 2 during CaSi 2H 2O reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, S.; Nakayama, H.; Nishino, T.; Iida, S.

    1997-04-01

    The changes in the valence electron states of CaSi 2 during the chemical reaction with H 2O have been investigated by Auger valence electron spectroscopy (AVES). The drastic changes in the valence electron spectra of 3s and 3p states, which are caused by the oxidization of the Si atoms in CaSi 2, were observed in Si[2s, 2p, V] spectra for CaSi 2 after the reaction. In particular, the Si[2s, 2p, V] spectra of CaSi 2 samples reacted with H 2O at 60 or 80°C for 3 h were almost similar to that of SiO 2. The peak shift of Ca[2p, 3p, 3p] Auger transition toward the lower energy side has been observed, suggesting the formation of bonds between Ca 3p and O orbitals. New peaks due to CaO or CaOH bonds also appeared in the valence electron region of Ca[2p, 3p, V] Auger transition. The charge transfer and the chemical-bond formation can be well demonstrated by AVES during the CaSi 2H 2O reaction.

  17. Solid-state {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si NMR characterization of hydrates formed in calcium aluminate-silica fume mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, P.; Rivas Mercury, J.M.

    2008-08-15

    Partially deuterated Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(SiO{sub 4}){sub y}(OH){sub 12-4y}-Al(OH){sub 3} mixtures, prepared by hydration of Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} (C{sub 3}A), Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 33} (C{sub 12}A{sub 7}) and CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} (CA) phases in the presence of silica fume, have been characterized by {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al magic-angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopies. NMR spectroscopy was used to characterize anhydrous and fully hydrated samples. In hydrated compounds, Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 12} and Al(OH){sub 3} phases were detected. From the quantitative analysis of {sup 27}Al NMR signals, the Al(OH){sub 3}/Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 12} ratio was deduced. The incorporation of Si into the katoite structure, Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 3-x}(OH){sub 4x}, was followed by {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si NMR spectroscopies. Si/OH ratios were determined from the quantitative analysis of {sup 27}Al MAS-NMR components associated with Al(OH){sub 6} and Al(OSi)(OH){sub 5} environments. The {sup 29}Si NMR spectroscopy was also used to quantify the unreacted silica and amorphous calcium aluminosilicate hydrates formed, C-S-H and C-A-S-H for short. From {sup 29}Si NMR spectra, the amount of Si incorporated into different phases was estimated. Si and Al concentrations, deduced by NMR, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, and Rietveld analysis of both X-ray and neutron data, indicate that only a part of available Si is incorporated in katoite structures. - Graphical abstract: Transmission electron micrograph of CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}-microsilica mixture hydrated at 90 deg. C for 31 days showing a cubic Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2.0{+-}}{sub 0.2}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 0.9{+-}}{sub 0.2}(OH){sub 1.8} crystal surrounded by unreacted amorphous silica spheres.

  18. Temperature dependence diode parameters studies of Al/CuPc/n-Si/Al structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ratnesh; Kaur, Ramneek; Sharma, Mamta; Kaur, Maninder; Tripathi, S. K.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the fabrication of Al/CuPc/n-Si/Al metal-organic-semiconductor diode. The copper phthalocyanine as organic layer is deposited on Si substrate by thermal evaporation technique. The temperature dependent current-voltage measurements are performed on Al/CuPc/n-Si structure. The important diode parameters i.e. the barrier height and ideality factor have been calculated. The temperature dependence of barrier height and ideality factor has been studied.

  19. Synthesis of Vertically-Aligned Carbon Nanotubes from Langmuir-Blodgett Films Deposited Fe Nanoparticles on Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si Substrate.

    PubMed

    Takagiwa, Shota; Kanasugi, Osamu; Nakamura, Kentaro; Kushida, Masahito

    2016-04-01

    In order to apply vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) to a new Pt supporting material of polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), number density and outer diameter of CNTs must be controlled independently. So, we employed Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique for depositing CNT growth catalysts. A Fe nanoparticle (NP) was used as a CNT growth catalyst. In this study, we tried to thicken VA-CNT carpet height and inhibit thermal aggregation of Fe NPs by using Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si substrate. Fe NP LB films were deposited on three typed of substrates, SiO2/Si, as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si and annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si at 923 K in Ar atmosphere of 16 Pa. It is known that Al2O3/Al catalyzes hydrocarbon reforming, inhibits thermal aggregation of CNT growth catalysts and reduces CNT growth catalysts. It was found that annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si exerted three effects more strongly than as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si. VA-CNTs were synthesized from Fe NPs-C16 LB films by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. As a result, at the distance between two nearest CNTs 28 nm or less, VA-CNT carpet height on annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si was about twice and ten times thicker than that on SiO2/Si and that on as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si, respectively. Moreover, distribution of CNT outer diameter on annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si was inhibited compared to that on SiO2/Si. These results suggest that since thermal aggregation of Fe NPs is inhibited, catalyst activity increases and distribution of Fe NP size is inhibited.

  20. Molecular Structures of Al/Si and Fe/Si Coprecipitates and the Implication for Selenite Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Ya-Ting; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Tzou, Yu-Min; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Liu, Yu-Ting; Wang, Ming-Kuang; Teah, Heng-Yi

    2016-04-01

    Aluminum and iron oxides have been often used in the coagulation processes during water purification due to their unique surface properties toward anions. In the presence of silica, the coprecipitation of Al/Si or Fe/Si might decrease the efficiency of wastewater purification and reuse. In this study, surface properties and molecular structures of Al/Si and Fe/Si coprecipitates were characterized using spectroscopic techniques. Also, the selenite removal efficiency of Al/Si and Fe/Si coprecipitates in relation to their surface and structural properties was investigated. While dissolved silicate increased with increasing pH from Fe/Si coprecipitates, less than 7% of silicate was discernible from Al/Si samples over the range from acidic to alkaline conditions. Our spectroscopic results showed that the associations between Al and Si were relatively stronger than that between Fe and Si in coprecipitates. In Al/Si coprecipitates, core-shell structures were developed with AlO6/AlO4 domains as the shells and Si frameworks polymerized from the SiO2 as the cores. However, Si framework remained relatively unchanged upon coprecipitation with Fe hydroxides in Fe/Si samples. The Si core with Al shell structure of Al/Si coprecipitates shielded the negative charges from SiO2 and thereby resulted in a higher adsorption capacity of selenite than Fe/Si coprecipitates.

  1. Molecular Structures of Al/Si and Fe/Si Coprecipitates and the Implication for Selenite Removal

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ya-Ting; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Tzou, Yu-Min; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Liu, Yu-Ting; Wang, Ming-Kuang; Teah, Heng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum and iron oxides have been often used in the coagulation processes during water purification due to their unique surface properties toward anions. In the presence of silica, the coprecipitation of Al/Si or Fe/Si might decrease the efficiency of wastewater purification and reuse. In this study, surface properties and molecular structures of Al/Si and Fe/Si coprecipitates were characterized using spectroscopic techniques. Also, the selenite removal efficiency of Al/Si and Fe/Si coprecipitates in relation to their surface and structural properties was investigated. While dissolved silicate increased with increasing pH from Fe/Si coprecipitates, less than 7% of silicate was discernible from Al/Si samples over the range from acidic to alkaline conditions. Our spectroscopic results showed that the associations between Al and Si were relatively stronger than that between Fe and Si in coprecipitates. In Al/Si coprecipitates, core-shell structures were developed with AlO6/AlO4 domains as the shells and Si frameworks polymerized from the SiO2 as the cores. However, Si framework remained relatively unchanged upon coprecipitation with Fe hydroxides in Fe/Si samples. The Si core with Al shell structure of Al/Si coprecipitates shielded the negative charges from SiO2 and thereby resulted in a higher adsorption capacity of selenite than Fe/Si coprecipitates. PMID:27095071

  2. Molecular Structures of Al/Si and Fe/Si Coprecipitates and the Implication for Selenite Removal.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ya-Ting; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Tzou, Yu-Min; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Liu, Yu-Ting; Wang, Ming-Kuang; Teah, Heng-Yi

    2016-04-20

    Aluminum and iron oxides have been often used in the coagulation processes during water purification due to their unique surface properties toward anions. In the presence of silica, the coprecipitation of Al/Si or Fe/Si might decrease the efficiency of wastewater purification and reuse. In this study, surface properties and molecular structures of Al/Si and Fe/Si coprecipitates were characterized using spectroscopic techniques. Also, the selenite removal efficiency of Al/Si and Fe/Si coprecipitates in relation to their surface and structural properties was investigated. While dissolved silicate increased with increasing pH from Fe/Si coprecipitates, less than 7% of silicate was discernible from Al/Si samples over the range from acidic to alkaline conditions. Our spectroscopic results showed that the associations between Al and Si were relatively stronger than that between Fe and Si in coprecipitates. In Al/Si coprecipitates, core-shell structures were developed with AlO6/AlO4 domains as the shells and Si frameworks polymerized from the SiO2 as the cores. However, Si framework remained relatively unchanged upon coprecipitation with Fe hydroxides in Fe/Si samples. The Si core with Al shell structure of Al/Si coprecipitates shielded the negative charges from SiO2 and thereby resulted in a higher adsorption capacity of selenite than Fe/Si coprecipitates.

  3. Molecular Structures of Al/Si and Fe/Si Coprecipitates and the Implication for Selenite Removal.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ya-Ting; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Tzou, Yu-Min; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Liu, Yu-Ting; Wang, Ming-Kuang; Teah, Heng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum and iron oxides have been often used in the coagulation processes during water purification due to their unique surface properties toward anions. In the presence of silica, the coprecipitation of Al/Si or Fe/Si might decrease the efficiency of wastewater purification and reuse. In this study, surface properties and molecular structures of Al/Si and Fe/Si coprecipitates were characterized using spectroscopic techniques. Also, the selenite removal efficiency of Al/Si and Fe/Si coprecipitates in relation to their surface and structural properties was investigated. While dissolved silicate increased with increasing pH from Fe/Si coprecipitates, less than 7% of silicate was discernible from Al/Si samples over the range from acidic to alkaline conditions. Our spectroscopic results showed that the associations between Al and Si were relatively stronger than that between Fe and Si in coprecipitates. In Al/Si coprecipitates, core-shell structures were developed with AlO6/AlO4 domains as the shells and Si frameworks polymerized from the SiO2 as the cores. However, Si framework remained relatively unchanged upon coprecipitation with Fe hydroxides in Fe/Si samples. The Si core with Al shell structure of Al/Si coprecipitates shielded the negative charges from SiO2 and thereby resulted in a higher adsorption capacity of selenite than Fe/Si coprecipitates. PMID:27095071

  4. Thermal Properties of Amorphous Al-Ni-Si Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Goegebakan, Musa; Okumus, Mustafa

    2007-04-23

    Thermal properties of the amorphous phases in rapidly solidified Al70Ni13Si17 alloy has been investigated by a combination of differential scanning calorimetry DSC. During continuous heating, three exothermic crystallization peaks were observed. Activation energies for the three crystallization peaks were calculated by the Kissinger and Ozawa methods give good agreement. This study describes the thermal properties of rapidly solidified Al70Ni13Si17 amorphous alloy.

  5. SiAlON ceramic compositions and methods of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, M.H.; Park, B.H.

    1994-05-31

    A method of fabricating a SiAlON ceramic body includes: (a) combining quantities of Si[sub 3]N[sub 4], Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] and CeO[sub 2] to produce a mixture; (b) forming the mixture into a desired body shape; (c) heating the body to a densification temperature of from about 1,550 C to about 1,850 C; (d) maintaining the body at the densification temperature for a period of time effective to densify the body; (e) cooling the densified body to a devitrification temperature of from about 1,200 C to about 1,400 C; and (f) maintaining the densified body at the devitrification temperature for a period of time effective to produce a [beta][prime]-SiAlON crystalline phase in the body having elemental or compound form Ce incorporated in the [beta][prime]-SiAlON crystalline phase. Further, a SiAlON ceramic body comprises: (a) an amorphous phase; and (b) a crystalline phase, the crystalline phase comprising [beta][prime]-SiAlON having lattice substituted elemental or compound form Ce.

  6. Refinement of primary Si grains in Al-20%Si alloy slurry through serpentine channel pouring process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhi-kai; Mao, Wei-min; Liu, Zhi-yong; Wang, Dong; Yue, Rui

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a serpentine channel pouring process was used to prepare the semi-solid Al-20%Si alloy slurry and refine primary Si grains in the alloy. The effects of the pouring temperature, number of curves in the serpentine channel, and material of the serpentine channel on the size of primary Si grains in the semi-solid Al-20%Si alloy slurry were investigated. The results showed that the pouring temperature, number of the curves, and material of the channel strongly affected the size and distribution of the primary Si grains. The pouring temperature exerted the strongest effect, followed by the number of the curves and then the material of the channel. Under experimental conditions of a four-curve copper channel and a pouring temperature of 701°C, primary Si grains in the semi-solid Al-20%Si alloy slurry were refined to the greatest extent, and the lath-like grains were changed into granular grains. Moreover, the equivalent grain diameter and the average shape coefficient of primary Si grains in the satisfactory semi-solid Al-20%Si alloy slurry were 24.4 μm and 0.89, respectively. Finally, the refinement mechanism and distribution rule of primary Si grains in the slurry prepared through the serpentine channel pouring process were analyzed and discussed.

  7. Interdiffusion in Diffusion Couples: U-Mo v. Al and Al-Si

    SciTech Connect

    D. D. Keiser, Jr.; E. Perez; B. Yao; Y. H. Sohn

    2009-11-01

    Interdiffusion and microstructural development in the U-Mo-Al system was examined using solid-tosolid diffusion couples consisting of U-7wt.%Mo, U-10wt.%Mo and U-12wt.%Mo vs. pure Al, annealed at 600°C for 24 hours. The influence of Si alloying addition (up to 5 wt.%) in Al on the interdiffusion microstructural development was also examined using solid-to-solid diffusion couples consisting of U-7wt.%Mo, U-10wt.%Mo and U-12wt.%Mo vs. pure Al, Al-2wt.%Si, and Al-5wt.%Si annealed at 550°C up to 20 hours. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) were employed to examine the development of a very fine multiphase intermetallic layer. In ternary U-Mo-Al diffusion couples annealed at 600°C for 24 hours, interdiffusion microstructure varied of finely dispersed UAl3, UAl4, U6Mo4Al43, and UMo2Al20 phases while the average composition throughout the interdiffusion zone remained constant at approximately 80 at.% Al. Interdiffusion microstructure observed by SEM/TEM analyses and diffusion paths drawn from concentration profiles determined by EPMA appear to deviate from the assumption of “local thermodynamic equilibrium,” and suggest that interdiffusion occurs via supersaturated UAl4 followed by equilibrium transformation into UAl3, U6Mo4Al43, UAl4 and UMo2Al20 phases. Similar observation was made for U-Mo vs. Al diffusion couples annealed at 550°C. The addition of Si (up to 5 wt.%) in Al significantly reduced the thickness of the intermetallic layer by changing the constituent phases of the interdiffusion zone developed in U-Mo vs. Al-Si diffusion couples. Specifically, the formation of (U,Mo)(Al,Si)3 with relatively large solubility for Mo and Si, along with UMo2Al20 phases was observed along with disappearance of U6Mo4Al43 and UAl4 phases. Simplified understanding based on U-Al, U-Si, and Mo-Si binary phase diagrams is discussed in the light of the beneficial effect of Si alloying addition.

  8. Measurement of the Phase Diagram of the SiO2-CaCl2 System and Liquid Area Study of the SiO2-CaO-CaCl2 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ye; Morita, Kazuki

    2016-06-01

    To optimize the process of boron removal from molten silicon, the slag refining treatment using the CaO-SiO2-CaCl2 slag system has been proven to be effective. However, the phase relations of the SiO2-CaCl2 and CaO-SiO2-CaCl2 systems have not been reported yet. Thus, in this study, the phase diagram of the SiO2-CaCl2 system was determined by using thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). Moreover, the liquid area of the CaO-SiO2-CaCl2 ternary system at 1723 K (1450 °C) was also measured by using TG-DTA and morphological observations.

  9. Structure and optical properties of aSiAl and aSiAlHx magnetron sputtered thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thøgersen, Annett; Stange, Marit; Jensen, Ingvild J. T.; Røyset, Arne; Ulyashin, Alexander; Diplas, Spyros

    2016-03-01

    Thin films of homogeneous mixture of amorphous silicon and aluminum were produced with magnetron sputtering using 2-phase Al-Si targets. The films exhibited variable compositions, with and without the presence of hydrogen, aSi1-xAlx and aSi1-xAlxHy. The structure and optical properties of the films were investigated using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-VisNIR spectrometry, ellipsometry, and atomistic modeling. We studied the effect of alloying aSi with Al (within the range 0-25 at. %) on the optical band gap, refractive index, transmission, and absorption. Alloying aSi with Al resulted in a non-transparent film with a low band gap (<1 eV). Hydrogenation of the films increased the band gap to values >1 eV. Variations of the Al and hydrogen content allowed for tuning of the optoelectronic properties. The films are stable up to a temperature of 300 °C. At this temperature, we observed Al induced crystallization of the amorphous silicon and the presence of large Al particles in a crystalline Si matrix.

  10. Self-Separation of Sublimation-Grown AlN with AlSiN Buffer Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Katsushi; Nakauchi, Jun; Hayashi, Kotaro; Tsukihara, Masashi

    2013-08-01

    AlN was grown by a sublimation method on 6H-SiC. We found the grown AlN layer is easily separated from the substrate when Si powder is added to the AlN source powder. The formation of AlSiN layer with the Si content of 15% at the AlN/6H-SiC interface was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). This AlSiN layer causes the separation of AlN.

  11. Recycling of Al-Si die casting scraps for solar Si feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Kum-Hee; Jeon, Je-Beom; Youn, Ji-Won; Kim, Suk Jun; Kim, Ki-Young

    2016-05-01

    Recycling of aluminum die-casting scraps for solar-grade silicon (SOG-Si) feedstock was performed successfully. 3 N purity Si was extracted from A383 die-casting scrap by using the combined process of solvent refining and an advanced centrifugal separation technique. The efficiency of separating Si from scrap alloys depended on both impurity level of scraps and the starting temperature of centrifugation. Impurities in melt and processing temperature governed the microstructure of the primary Si. The purity of Si extracted from the scrap melt was 99.963%, which was comparable to that of Si extracted from a commercial Al-30 wt% Si alloy, 99.980%. The initial purity of the scrap was 2.2% lower than that of the commercial alloy. This result confirmed that die-casting scrap is a potential source of high-purity Si for solar cells.

  12. Novel CaO-SiO2 sorbent and bifunctional Ni/Co-CaO/SiO2 complex for selective H2 synthesis from cellulose.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Yang, Xiaoshuang; Church, Tamara L; Harris, Andrew T

    2012-03-01

    Catalysis- and sorption-enhanced biomass gasification is a promising route to high-purity hydrogen (H(2)); however, most CaO-based sorbents for CO(2) capture have poor surface area and mechanical properties, lose carrying capacity over multiple uses, and have insufficient porosity to accommodate extra catalyst sites. We aimed to develop a high-surface-area CaO-SiO(2) framework onto which catalysts could be grafted. The best CaO-SiO(2) sorbent (n(Ca)/n(Si) = 2:1) maintained a CaO conversion of 65% even after 50 carbonation-decarbonation cycles, better than commercial micrometer-sized CaO or tailored CaO, because of stabilization via Ca-O-Si interactions and an ordered porous structure. Bimetallic catalyst grains (Ni/Co alloy, <20 nm) could be evenly loaded onto this structure by impregnation. The resulting bifunctional complex produced H(2) at nearly the same rate as a mixture of catalyst and commercial CaO while using less total sorbent/catalyst. Furthermore, this complex was much more durable due to its higher coking resistance and stable structure. After 25 carbonation-decarbonation cycles, the new catalyst-sorbent complex enhanced the H(2) yield from cellulose far more than a mixture of catalyst and commercial CaO did following the same treatment. PMID:22250813

  13. Novel CaO-SiO2 sorbent and bifunctional Ni/Co-CaO/SiO2 complex for selective H2 synthesis from cellulose.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Yang, Xiaoshuang; Church, Tamara L; Harris, Andrew T

    2012-03-01

    Catalysis- and sorption-enhanced biomass gasification is a promising route to high-purity hydrogen (H(2)); however, most CaO-based sorbents for CO(2) capture have poor surface area and mechanical properties, lose carrying capacity over multiple uses, and have insufficient porosity to accommodate extra catalyst sites. We aimed to develop a high-surface-area CaO-SiO(2) framework onto which catalysts could be grafted. The best CaO-SiO(2) sorbent (n(Ca)/n(Si) = 2:1) maintained a CaO conversion of 65% even after 50 carbonation-decarbonation cycles, better than commercial micrometer-sized CaO or tailored CaO, because of stabilization via Ca-O-Si interactions and an ordered porous structure. Bimetallic catalyst grains (Ni/Co alloy, <20 nm) could be evenly loaded onto this structure by impregnation. The resulting bifunctional complex produced H(2) at nearly the same rate as a mixture of catalyst and commercial CaO while using less total sorbent/catalyst. Furthermore, this complex was much more durable due to its higher coking resistance and stable structure. After 25 carbonation-decarbonation cycles, the new catalyst-sorbent complex enhanced the H(2) yield from cellulose far more than a mixture of catalyst and commercial CaO did following the same treatment.

  14. High performance AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with AlN/SiNx passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Tan; Yuanjie, Lü; Guodong, Gu; Li, Wang; Shaobo, Dun; Xubo, Song; Hongyu, Guo; Jiayun, Yin; Shujun, Cai; Zhihong, Feng

    2015-07-01

    AlGaN/GaN high electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) with 5 nm AlN passivation by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) were fabricated, covered by 50 nm SiNx which was grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). With PEALD AlN passivation, current collapse was suppressed more effectively and the devices show better subthreshold characteristics. Moreover, the insertion of AlN increased the RF transconductance, which lead to a higher cut-off frequency. Temperature dependence of DC characteristics demonstrated that the degradations of drain current and maximum transconductance at elevated temperatures for the AlN/SiNx passivated devices were much smaller compared with the devices with SiNx passivation, indicating that PEALD AlN passivation can improve the high temperature operation of the AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 60890192).

  15. Thermodynamics of Reducing Refining of Phosphorus from Si-Mn Alloy Using CaO-CaF2 Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jae Hong; Park, Joo Hyun

    2012-12-01

    The thermodynamic behavior of phosphide ions in the CaO-CaF2 flux in equilibrium with a SiMn(-Fe) alloy melt was investigated under a strongly reducing atmosphere at 1823 K (1550 °C). The phosphide capacity increased with increasing CaO concentration in the flux before reaching a constant value. The composition for the saturating capacity is in good agreement with the saturation content of CaO in the CaO-CaF2 flux at 1823 K (1550 °C). The relationship between the phosphide capacity and the activity of CaO in the flux exhibited a linear relationship on the logarithmic scale, indicating that phosphorus was removed from the SiMn(-Fe) melt by the reducing refining mechanism.

  16. B Removal by Zr Addition in Electromagnetic Solidification Refinement of Si with Si-Al Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yun; Ma, Wenhui; Sun, Luen; Dai, Yongnian; Morita, Kazuki

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated a new process of enhancing B removal by adding small amounts of Zr in the electromagnetic solidification refinement of Si with Si-Al melt. B in Si was removed by as much as 97.2 pct by adding less than 1057 ppma Zr, and the added Zr was removed by as much as 99.7 pct. In addition, Zr is more effective in enhancing B removal than Ti in the same electromagnetic solidification refining process.

  17. Dissolution of Si in Molten Al with Gas Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyed Ahmadi, Mehran

    Silicon is an essential component of many aluminum alloys, as it imparts a range of desirable characteristics. However, there are considerable practical difficulties in dissolving solid Si in molten Al, because the dissolution process is slow, resulting in material and energy losses. It is thus essential to examine Si dissolution in molten Al, to identify means of accelerating the process. This thesis presents an experimental study of the effect of Si purity, bath temperature, fluid flow conditions, and gas stirring on the dissolution of Si in molten Al, plus the results of physical and numerical modeling of the flow to corroborate the experimental results. The dissolution experiments were conducted in a revolving liquid metal tank to generate a bulk velocity, and gas was introduced into the melt using top lance injection. Cylindrical Si specimens were immersed into molten Al for fixed durations, and upon removal the dissolved Si was measured. The shape and trajectory of injected bubbles were examined by means of auxiliary water experiments and video recordings of the molten Al free surface. The gas-agitated liquid was simulated using the commercial software FLOW-3D. The simulation results provide insights into bubble dynamics and offer estimates of the fluctuating velocities within the Al bath. The experimental results indicate that the dissolution rate of Si increases in tandem with the melt temperature and bulk velocity. A higher bath temperature increases the solubility of Si at the solid/liquid interface, resulting in a greater driving force for mass transfer, and a higher liquid velocity decreases the resistance to mass transfer via a thinner mass boundary layer. Impurities (with lower diffusion coefficients) in the form of inclusions obstruct the dissolution of the Si main matrix. Finally, dissolution rate enhancement was observed by gas agitation. It is postulated that the bubble-induced fluctuating velocities disturb the mass boundary layer, which

  18. The roles of Eu during the growth of eutectic Si in Al-Si alloys

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik; Wiessner, Manfred; Romaner, Lorenz; Scheiber, Daniel; Sartory, Bernhard; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the growth of eutectic Si and thereby modifying the eutectic Si from flake-like to fibrous is a key factor in improving the properties of Al-Si alloys. To date, it is generally accepted that the impurity-induced twinning (IIT) mechanism and the twin plane re-entrant edge (TPRE) mechanism as well as poisoning of the TPRE mechanism are valid under certain conditions. However, IIT, TPRE or poisoning of the TPRE mechanism cannot be used to interpret all observations. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental and theoretical investigation on the roles of Eu during the growth of eutectic Si in Al-Si alloys. Both experimental and theoretical investigations reveal three different roles: (i) the adsorption at the intersection of Si facets, inducing IIT mechanism, (ii) the adsorption at the twin plane re-entrant edge, inducing TPRE mechanism or poisoning of the TPRE mechanism, and (iii) the segregation ahead of the growing Si twins, inducing a solute entrainment within eutectic Si. This investigation not only demonstrates a direct experimental support to the well-accepted poisoning of the TPRE and IIT mechanisms, but also provides a full picture about the roles of Eu atoms during the growth of eutectic Si, including the solute entrainment within eutectic Si. PMID:26328541

  19. The roles of Eu during the growth of eutectic Si in Al-Si alloys.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik; Wiessner, Manfred; Romaner, Lorenz; Scheiber, Daniel; Sartory, Bernhard; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2015-09-02

    Controlling the growth of eutectic Si and thereby modifying the eutectic Si from flake-like to fibrous is a key factor in improving the properties of Al-Si alloys. To date, it is generally accepted that the impurity-induced twinning (IIT) mechanism and the twin plane re-entrant edge (TPRE) mechanism as well as poisoning of the TPRE mechanism are valid under certain conditions. However, IIT, TPRE or poisoning of the TPRE mechanism cannot be used to interpret all observations. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental and theoretical investigation on the roles of Eu during the growth of eutectic Si in Al-Si alloys. Both experimental and theoretical investigations reveal three different roles: (i) the adsorption at the intersection of Si facets, inducing IIT mechanism, (ii) the adsorption at the twin plane re-entrant edge, inducing TPRE mechanism or poisoning of the TPRE mechanism, and (iii) the segregation ahead of the growing Si twins, inducing a solute entrainment within eutectic Si. This investigation not only demonstrates a direct experimental support to the well-accepted poisoning of the TPRE and IIT mechanisms, but also provides a full picture about the roles of Eu atoms during the growth of eutectic Si, including the solute entrainment within eutectic Si.

  20. Glass-ceramic nuclear waste forms obtained from SiO 2-Al 2O 3-CaO-ZrO 2-TiO 2 glasses containing lanthanides (Ce, Nd, Eu, Gd, Yb) and actinides (Th): study of internal crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiseau, P.; Caurant, D.; Baffier, N.; Mazerolles, L.; Fillet, C.

    2004-10-01

    Glass-ceramic waste forms such as zirconolite (nominally CaZrTi 2O 7) based ones can be envisaged as good candidates for minor actinides or Pu immobilization. Such materials, in which the actinides (or lanthanides used as actinide surrogates) would be preferentially incorporated into zirconolite crystals homogeneously dispersed in a durable glassy matrix, can be prepared by controlled crystallization (nucleation + crystal growth) of parent glasses belonging to the SiO 2-Al 2O 3-CaO-ZrO 2-TiO 2 system. In this work we present the effects of the nature of the minor actinide surrogate (Ce, Nd, Eu, Gd, Yb, Th) on the structure, the microstructure and the composition of the zirconolite crystals formed in the bulk of the glass-ceramics. The amount of lanthanides and thorium incorporated into zirconolite crystals is discussed in relation with the capacity of the glass to accommodate these elements and of the crystals to incorporate them in the calcium and zirconium sites of their structure.

  1. Irradiation mixing of Al into U{sub 3}Si

    SciTech Connect

    Birtcher, R.C.; Ding, F.R.; Kestel, B.J.; Baldo, P.M.; Zaluzec, N.J.

    1995-11-01

    Thermal and irradiation induced intermixing of uranium silicide reactor fuels with the aluminum cladding is an important consideration in understanding their fission gas and fuel swelling behavior. The authors have used Rutherford backscattering to follow the behavior of an Al thin film on U{sub 3}Si and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} during 1.5 MeV Kr ion irradiation at temperatures of 30 and 350 C. After an initial dose during which no intermixing occurs, the Al mixes quickly into U{sub 3}Si. The threshold dose is believed to be associated with an oxide layer between the Al and the uranium silicide. At 300 C and doses greater than threshold, rates of mixing and aluminide phase growth are extracted.

  2. Al-Ca and Al-Fe metal-metal composite strength, conductivity, and microstructure relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyong June

    2011-01-01

    Deformation processed metal-metal composites (DMMC’s) are composites formed by mechanical working (i.e., rolling, swaging, or wire drawing) of two-phase, ductile metal mixtures. Since both the matrix and reinforcing phase are ductile metals, the composites can be heavily deformed to reduce the thickness and spacing of the two phases. Recent studies have shown that heavily drawn DMMCs can achieve anomalously high strength and outstanding combinations of strength and conductivity. In this study, Al-Fe wire composite with 0.07, 0.1, and 0.2 volume fractions of Fe filaments and Al-Ca wire composite with 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09 volume fractions of Ca filaments were produced in situ, and their mechanical properties were measured as a function of deformation true strain. The Al-Fe composites displayed limited deformation of the Fe phase even at high true strains, resulting in little strengthening effect in those composites. Al-9vol%Ca wire was deformed to a deformation true strain of 13.76. The resulting Ca second-phase filaments were deformed to thicknesses on the order of one micrometer. The ultimate tensile strength increased exponentially with increasing deformation true strain, reaching a value of 197 MPa at a true strain of 13.76. This value is 2.5 times higher than the value predicted by the rule of mixtures. A quantitative relationship between UTS and deformation true strain was determined. X-ray diffraction data on transformation of Al + Ca microstructures to Al + various Al-Ca intermetallic compounds were obtained at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Electrical conductivity was measured over a range of true strains and post-deformation heat treatment schedules.

  3. Crystal structure of the NaCa(Fe{sup 2+}, Al, Mn){sub 5}[Si{sub 8}O{sub 19}(OH)](OH){sub 7} {center_dot} 5H{sub 2}O mineral: A new representative of the palygorskite group

    SciTech Connect

    Rastsvetaeva, R. K. Aksenov, S. M.; Verin, I. A.

    2012-01-15

    A specimen of a new representative of the palygorskite-sepiolite family from Aris phonolite (Namibia) is studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The parameters of the triclinic (pseudomonoclinic) unit cell are as follows: a = 5.2527(2) Angstrom-Sign , b = 17.901(1) Angstrom-Sign , c = 13.727(1) Angstrom-Sign , {alpha} = 90.018(3) Degree-Sign , {beta} = 97.278(4) Degree-Sign , and {gamma} = 89.952(3) Degree-Sign . The structure is solved by the direct methods in space group P1-bar and refined to R = 5.5% for 4168 |F| > 7{sigma}(F) with consideration for twinning by the plane perpendicular to y (the ratio of the twin components is 0.52: 0.48). The crystal chemical formula (Z = 1) is (Na{sub 1.6}K{sub 0.2}Ca{sub 0.2})[Ca{sub 2}(Fe{sub 3.6}{sup 2+}Al{sub 1.6}Mn{sub 0.8})(OH){sub 9}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}][(Fe{sub 3.9}{sup 2+}Ti{sub 0.1})(OH){sub 5} (H{sub 2}O){sub 2}][Si{sub 16}O{sub 38}(OH){sub 2}] {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O, where the compositions of two ribbons of octahedra and a layer of Si tetrahedra are enclosed in brackets. A number of specific chemical, symmetrical, and structural features distinguish this mineral from other minerals of this family, in particular, from tuperssuatsiaite and kalifersite, which are iron-containing representatives with close unit cell parameters.

  4. The Bauschinger effect in a SiC/Al composite

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, N.; Pillai, U.T.S.; Arsenault, R.J.

    1995-09-01

    SiC/Al composites have interesting mechanical properties, the tensile yield stress, whereas, the apparent modulus in tension is greater than that in compression. The Bauschinger effect of SiC/Al composites is also asymmetric with regard to loading directions. Quantitative measurements of the asymmetry of composite Bauschinger Effect was made in this research . An investigation was undertaken to determine the origin of the asymmetrical Bauschinger effect. We have successfully reconstructed the observed asymmetry using an internal stress model based on the development of internal stresses, conveniently referred to as the ``black stress``, and work hardening.

  5. The improved mechanical properties of β-CaSiO3 bioceramics with Si3N4 addition.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ying; Zuo, Kaihui; Yao, Dongxu; Yin, Jinwei; Xin, Yunchuan; Xia, Yongfeng; Liang, Hanqin; Zeng, Yuping

    2015-03-01

    The motivation of this study is to investigate the effect of Si3N4 addition on the sinterability of β-CaSiO3 ceramics. β-CaSiO3 ceramics with different content of Si3N4 were prepared at the sintering temperature ranging from 1000°C to 1150°C. The results showed that Si3N4 can be successfully used as sintering additive by being oxidized to form SiO2. The β-CaSiO3 ceramics with 3wt% Si3N4 sintered at 1100°C revealed flexural strength, hardness and fracture toughness of 157.2MPa, 4.4GPa and 2.3MPam(1/2) respectively, which was much higher than that of pure β-CaSiO3 ceramics (41.1MPa, 1.0GPa, 1.1MPam(1/2)). XRD analysis and SEM observation indicated that the main phase maintained to be β-phase after sintering. PMID:26580024

  6. Microstructure evolution and properties of Al/Al-Mg-Si alloy clad wire during heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang; Guan, Ren-guo; Zhang, Yang; Su, Ning; Ji, Lian-ze; Li, Yuan-dong; Chen, Ti-jun

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, heat treatment was carried out on Al/Al-Mg-Si alloy clad wire, and microstructure evolution and properties of Al/Al-Mg-Si alloy clad wire during heat treatment were investigated. During solution, contents of Mg and Si in inner matrix increased due to dissolution of primary Mg2Si, and they also increased in outer matrix because Mg and Si diffused across the interface. Tensile strength of the clad wire increased firstly and then decreased, and elongation continuously increased, while conductivity continuously decreased with the increase in solution time. In aging process, Mg2Si precipitated in both inner core and outer layer, and the content and average diameter of the precipitate increased with the increase in aging time. The content of precipitate was higher, and the average diameter was bigger in inner core. Tensile strength of the clad wire increased firstly and then decreased with the increase in aging time, and the elongation continuously decreased, while the conductivity continuously increased. The peak tensile strength of 202 MPa occurred at 8 h, when the corresponding elongation was 20 % and the conductivity reached 56.07 %IACS. Even tensile strength of the prepared clad wire approximately equaled to that of Al-0.5Mg-0.35Si alloy 203 MPa, the conductivity was obviously improved from 54.2 to 56.07 %IACS.

  7. Exploration of metaphosphate glasses dispersed with Eu-doped SiAlON for white LED applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segawa, Hiroyo; Hirosaki, Naoto; Ohki, Shinobu; Deguchi, Kenzo; Shimizu, Tadashi

    2015-04-01

    Ca-α-SiAlON:Eu2+ oxynitride phosphors are typical luminescent materials with a high thermal tolerance. A series of metaphosphate glass samples (50MO-50P2O5; mol%, M = Zn, Ca, and Ba) were prepared in order to investigate their ability to disperse Ca-α-SiAlON:Eu2+ phosphor powders. The glass structures of all of the samples were formed using Q2 species and composed in long chain networks by investigation of the NMR and Raman spectra. In the glass samples, SiAlON was dispersed until reaching 5 or 6 mass%. The color due to irradiation by a blue LED (wavelength of 450 nm) depended on the glass composition, concentration of SiAlON, and thickness of the composite. Regarding the glass formation and quantum efficiency, the BaP glass with between 3 and 4 mass% SiAlON composite was determined to be the most suitable for use as a host material for white LEDs.

  8. Raman spectroscopy of CaCoSi2O6-Co2Si2O6 clinopyroxenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantovani, Luciana; Tribaudino, Mario; Aliatis, Irene; Lambruschi, Erica; Lottici, Pier Paolo; Bersani, Danilo

    2014-08-01

    Raman spectra were collected on a set of synthetic clinopyroxenes along the series CaCoSi2O6-Co2Si2O6. Changes in peak position and peak width show: (1) evidence of a phase transition from C2/c to P21/c, at Ca0.4Co1.6Si2O6, in agreement with previous X-ray observations; (2) peak broadening for intermediate compositions, with sharper peaks close to the end members. The phase transition is revealed by a decrease or inversion in the slope of the peak position versus composition and by peak splitting of the peaks at 660 and 1,000 cm-1, related to Si-O bending and stretching modes within the tetrahedral chains, respectively. The observed changes with composition depend more on variation in bond lengths due to structural rearrangement with cation substitution, rather than by changes of the M2 cation mass. A comparison with the structurally analogous CaMgSi2O6-Mg2Si2O6 (Diopside-Estatite, Ca-Mg) series shows that one of the two splitted peaks is fainter than the Ca-Co pyroxenes. Therefore the frequency of the peak at about 1,000 cm-1 does not change for Ca-Mg substitution, whereas it shifts by as much as 20 cm-1 between CaCoSi2O6 and Co2Si2O6. Despite the mechanism of cation substitution is qualitatively similar in the two series, the effect of structural changes and polyhedral deformation on the Raman spectra appeared different. Peak broadening in samples with intermediate compositions could be interpreted as arising by compositional disorder, due to coexistence of local Ca-rich and Co-rich configurations which affect the short range interactions and therefore the Raman frequencies.

  9. Raman spectroscopy of CaCoSi2O6-Co2Si2O6 clinopyroxenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantovani, Luciana; Tribaudino, Mario; Aliatis, Irene; Lambruschi, Erica; Lottici, Pier Paolo; Bersani, Danilo

    2015-03-01

    Raman spectra were collected on a set of synthetic clinopyroxenes along the series CaCoSi2O6-Co2Si2O6. Changes in peak position and peak width show: (1) evidence of a phase transition from C2/ c to P21/ c, at Ca0.4Co1.6Si2O6, in agreement with previous X-ray observations; (2) peak broadening for intermediate compositions, with sharper peaks close to the end members. The phase transition is revealed by a decrease or inversion in the slope of the peak position versus composition and by peak splitting of the peaks at 660 and 1,000 cm-1, related to Si-O bending and stretching modes within the tetrahedral chains, respectively. The observed changes with composition depend more on variation in bond lengths due to structural rearrangement with cation substitution, rather than by changes of the M2 cation mass. A comparison with the structurally analogous CaMgSi2O6-Mg2Si2O6 (Diopside-Estatite, Ca-Mg) series shows that one of the two splitted peaks is fainter than the Ca-Co pyroxenes. Therefore the frequency of the peak at about 1,000 cm-1 does not change for Ca-Mg substitution, whereas it shifts by as much as 20 cm-1 between CaCoSi2O6 and Co2Si2O6. Despite the mechanism of cation substitution is qualitatively similar in the two series, the effect of structural changes and polyhedral deformation on the Raman spectra appeared different. Peak broadening in samples with intermediate compositions could be interpreted as arising by compositional disorder, due to coexistence of local Ca-rich and Co-rich configurations which affect the short range interactions and therefore the Raman frequencies.

  10. Synthesis of Vertically-Aligned Carbon Nanotubes from Langmuir-Blodgett Films Deposited Fe Nanoparticles on Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si Substrate.

    PubMed

    Takagiwa, Shota; Kanasugi, Osamu; Nakamura, Kentaro; Kushida, Masahito

    2016-04-01

    In order to apply vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) to a new Pt supporting material of polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), number density and outer diameter of CNTs must be controlled independently. So, we employed Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique for depositing CNT growth catalysts. A Fe nanoparticle (NP) was used as a CNT growth catalyst. In this study, we tried to thicken VA-CNT carpet height and inhibit thermal aggregation of Fe NPs by using Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si substrate. Fe NP LB films were deposited on three typed of substrates, SiO2/Si, as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si and annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si at 923 K in Ar atmosphere of 16 Pa. It is known that Al2O3/Al catalyzes hydrocarbon reforming, inhibits thermal aggregation of CNT growth catalysts and reduces CNT growth catalysts. It was found that annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si exerted three effects more strongly than as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si. VA-CNTs were synthesized from Fe NPs-C16 LB films by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. As a result, at the distance between two nearest CNTs 28 nm or less, VA-CNT carpet height on annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si was about twice and ten times thicker than that on SiO2/Si and that on as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si, respectively. Moreover, distribution of CNT outer diameter on annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si was inhibited compared to that on SiO2/Si. These results suggest that since thermal aggregation of Fe NPs is inhibited, catalyst activity increases and distribution of Fe NP size is inhibited. PMID:27451619

  11. Resistance switching memory characteristics of CaF2/Si/CaF2 resonant-tunneling quantum-well heterostructures sandwiched by nanocrystalline Si secondary barrier layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwata, Yuya; Suda, Keita; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    A novel resistance switching memory using CaF2/Si/CaF2 resonant-tunneling quantum well heterostructures sandwiched by nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si) as secondary barrier layers has been proposed and the room temperature current–voltage characteristics of the basic resistance switching memory operation have been demonstrated. A resistance switching voltage of 1.0 V, a peak current density of approximately 42 kA/cm2, and an ON/OFF ratio of 2.8 were observed. In particular, more than 28000 write-read-erase cyclic memory operations have been demonstrated by applying pulsed input voltage sequences, which suggests better endurance than the device using a CaF2/CdF2/CaF2 heterostructure.

  12. Resistance switching memory characteristics of CaF2/Si/CaF2 resonant-tunneling quantum-well heterostructures sandwiched by nanocrystalline Si secondary barrier layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwata, Yuya; Suda, Keita; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    A novel resistance switching memory using CaF2/Si/CaF2 resonant-tunneling quantum well heterostructures sandwiched by nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si) as secondary barrier layers has been proposed and the room temperature current-voltage characteristics of the basic resistance switching memory operation have been demonstrated. A resistance switching voltage of 1.0 V, a peak current density of approximately 42 kA/cm2, and an ON/OFF ratio of 2.8 were observed. In particular, more than 28000 write-read-erase cyclic memory operations have been demonstrated by applying pulsed input voltage sequences, which suggests better endurance than the device using a CaF2/CdF2/CaF2 heterostructure.

  13. Crystal growth of Ca3SiO4Br2: New photoluminescence bromosilicate host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Zhiguo; Li, Qiang; Li, Guowu; Xiong, Ming; Liao, Libing

    2011-03-01

    Single crystals of new bromosilicate compound Ca3SiO4Br2 were grown out of high-temperature Ca2SiO4/CaBr2 melts by the slow cooling process. Colorless, transparent and flaky crystals of Ca3SiO4Br2 were directly isolated from the final solid coagulation. The as-obtained crystals were investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and polarized light microscope (PLM). The structure of the new Ca3SiO4Br2 compound was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and it crystallized in the triclinic system, space group P-1 with unit cell parameters a=8.0051(18) Å, b=8.720(3) Å, c=11.749(3) Å, α=69.07(0)°, β=89.98(0)°, γ=75.46(0)° and V=737.88(196) Å3, Z=3. Interestingly, a significant amount of Eu2+ enters the Ca3SiO4Br2 phase, and the Eu2+-doped Ca3SiO4Br2 phosphor shows a strong blue emission band centered at 469 nm under 365 nm UV light, which demonstrates that Ca3SiO4Br2:Eu2+ is a promising blue phosphor for use in white light LEDs.

  14. LiCaAl/sub 6/:Cr/sup 3+/

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, S.A.; Chase, L.L.; Newkirk, H.W.; Smith, L.K.; Krupke, W.F. )

    1988-11-01

    The authors report the discovery of a new laser, LiCaAIF/sub 6/:Cr/sup 3/ (Cr/sup 3+/ :LiCAF). The intrinsic (extrapolated maximum) slope efficiency was found to be 67 percent. For comparison, they also measured the intrinsic slope efficiencies of BeAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/:Cr/sup 3+/ (alexandrite), Na/sub 3/Ga/sub 2/Li/sub 3/F/sub 12/:Cr/sup 3+/, and ScBO/sub 3/:Cr/sup 3+/, and obtained values of 65,28, and 26 percent, respectively. The tuning range of LiCaAIF/sub 6/:Cr/sup 3+/ was determined to be at least 720-840 nm. The conventional spectroscopic properties, such as the absorption, emission, and emission lifetimes as a function of temperature, are reported as well.

  15. Hibonite, Ca2/Al, Ti/24O38, from the Leoville and Allende chondritic meteorites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, K.; Fuchs, L. H.

    1971-01-01

    Hibonite was discovered in light-colored, Ca-Al-Ti-rich and Si-Fe-poor, achondritic inclusions of the Leoville and Allende HL-group chondrites. Two varieties of hibonite occur: one emits a bright red-orange luminescence under electron bombardment and has high amounts of Al2O3 (87.7; 87.9) and low amounts of MgO (0.65; 0.8) and TiO2 (0.68; 0.8). The other emits a bright blue luminescence and is low in Al2O3 (78.7; 79.2) and high in MgO (3.3; 3.7) and TiO2 (6.5; 7.9) (in wt. %). The oxide CaO is about the same in both varieties. It is suggested that the change in the color of the visible luminescence results from changes in composition. The origin of hibonite which occurs in complex mineral assemblages together with anorthite, gelhenite, wollastonite, aluminous diopside, andradite, Ca-pyroxene, perovskite, spinel, taenite, chromite, and pentlandite, and in close proximity to nodules containing calcite, whewellite, forsterite and many of the aforementioned phases, is discussed. The proposition that hibonite and associated phases originated by contact metamorphism and metasomatism of calcite-dolomite bearing assemblages cannot, at this time, be completely ruled out.

  16. Correlation between microstructure evolution and high temperature properties of TiAlSiN hard coatings with different Si and Al content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tian; Xie, Zhiwen; Gong, Feng; Luo, Zhuangzhu; Yang, Zhi

    2014-09-01

    TiAlSiN coatings with different Si and Al content are synthesized by multi-plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (MPIIID). The microstructure, oxidation resistance and wear resistance of as-deposited coatings are characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nano-indentation, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and friction tests. Studies show that TiAlSiN coating has nc-TiAlN/a-Si3N4 structure. The grain size of nc-TiAlN decreases gradually and the volume fraction of the interfacial a-Si3N4 increases with the increased Si level. The obvious reduction in grain size together with the increase in interfacial a-Si3N4 eventually leads to the superior oxidation resistance of TiAlSiN coating. In addition, TiAlSiN coating with low Si and Al content exhibits poor oxidation stability and thermal stability, which results in its unsatisfied wear resistance at 800 ̊C. However, TiAlSiN coating with higher Si and Al content possesses better oxidation stability and thermal stability, and this coating shows excellent wear resistance both at RT and 800 ̊C. The correlation between microstructure evolution and oxidation resistance and wear resistance of as-deposited coatings are systematically discussed.

  17. Transport and magnetic properties of the Co2MnSi/Al/Co2MnSi trilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H. L.; Zhang, H. B.; Jiang, X. F.; Zheng, Y.; Yang, G. W.

    2012-05-01

    Using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function analysis, we studied the interface structure, interface stability, and magnetic and transport properties of the Co2MnSi/Al/Co2MnSi trilayer. It was found that only the CoCo/Al architecture is thermodynamically stable among four interfacial architectures, CoCo/Al, MnSi/Al, MnMn/Al, and SiSi/Al, and the other interface architectures are not accessible within the limits set under thermodynamic equilibrium with other phases. Calculations of the transmission spectrum, conductance, and resistance-area product showed that the Co2MnSi/Al/Co2MnSi trilayer is a promising candidate for the next-generation of recording sensors in ultrahigh-density hard disks.

  18. Phase-separated Al-Si thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Fukutani, Kazuhiko; Tanji, Koichi; Saito, Tatsuya; Den, Tohru

    2005-08-01

    Phase-separated Al-Si films composed of Al nanocylinders embedded in an amorphous-Si matrix have been prepared by a sputtering method. By controlling the deposition rate, substrate temperature, and film composition, the average diameter of the Al cylinders can be varied systematically from less than 5 to 13 nm with a cylinder density ranging from 10{sup 15} to in excess of 10{sup 16} cylinders m{sup -2}. A three-dimensional simulation of phase separation in binary thin films was performed using a modified Cahn-Hilliard [J. Chem. Phys. 28, 258 (1958)] equation to understand the growth mechanism. The simulation studies indicate that the surface diffusion length and film composition are important factors which determine film morphology. Experimental and simulation studies are compared and discussed.

  19. Melting of CaO and CaSiO3 at Deep Mantle Condition Using First Principles Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajgain, S. K.; Ghosh, D. B.; Karki, B. B.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate prediction of melting temperatures of major mantle minerals at high pressures is important to understand the Hadean Earth as well as to explain the observed seismic anomalies at ultra-low velocity zone (ULVZ). To further investigate the geophysical implications of our recent first principles study of molten CaO and CaSiO­3, we calculated the melting temperatures of the corresponding solid phases by integrating the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. The melting behavior of their high-pressure phases can constrain the lower mantle solidus. Our calculations show melting temperature of 5700 ± 500 kelvins for CaSiO3 and 7800 ± 600 kelvins for CaO at the base of the lower mantle (136 GPa). The bulk sound velocities of CaO and CaSiO3 liquids at the core-mantle boundary are found to be 40 % lower than P-wave seismic velocity and 22 % lower than that of MgSiO3 liquid. With substantial decrease of melting temperature by freezing point depression and iron partitioning, the partial melting of multi-component silicate and its gravitational buoyancy at ULVZ cannot be ruled out.

  20. Fabrication and Analysis of the Wear Properties of Hot-Pressed Al-Si/SiCp + Al-Si-Cu-Mg Metal Matrix Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Jeongil; Oak, Jeong-Jung; Park, Yong Ho

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize microstructures and mechanical properties of aluminum metal matrix composites (MMC's) prepared by powder metallurgy method. Consolidation of mixed powder with gas atomized Al-Si/SiCp powder and Al-14Si-2.5Cu-0.5Mg powder by hot pressing was classified according to sintering temperature and sintering time. Sintering condition was optimized using tensile properties of sintered specimens. Ultimate tensile strength of the optimized sintered specimen was 228 MPa with an elongation of 5.3% in longitudinal direction. In addition, wear properties and behaviors of the sintered aluminum-based MMC's were analyzed in accordance with vertical load and linear speed. As the linear speed and vertical load of the wear increased, change of the wear behavior occurred in order of oxidation of Al-Si matrix, formation of C-rich layer, Fe-alloying to matrix, and melting of the specimen

  1. Refinement performance and mechanism of an Al-50Si alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, H.S.; Liu, X.F.

    2008-11-15

    The microstructure and melt structure of primary silicon particles in an Al-50%Si (wt.%) alloy have been investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe micro-analysis and a high temperature X-ray diffractometer. The results show that the Al-50Si alloy can be effectively refined by a newly developed Si-20P master alloy, and the melting temperature is crucial to the refinement process. The minimal overheating degree {delta}T{sub min} ({delta}T{sub min} is the difference between the minimal overheating temperature T{sub min} and the liquidus temperature T{sub L}) for good refinement is about 260 deg. C. Primary silicon particles can be refined after adding 0.2 wt.% phosphorus amount at sufficient temperature, and their average size transforms from 2-4 mm to about 30 {mu}m. The X-ray diffraction data of the Al-50Si melt demonstrate that structural change occurs when the melting temperature varies from 1100 deg. C to 1300 deg. C. Additionally, the relationship between the refinement mechanism and the melt structure is discussed.

  2. Photoluminescence and electroluminescence characteristics of CaSiN2:Eu phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soon S.; Lim, Sungkyoo; Sun, Sey-Shing; Wager, John F.

    1997-11-01

    Photoluminescenc eand electroluminescence of CaSiN2:Eu materials were investigted to develop a new phosphor for thin film electroluminescence (TFEL) device applications. Ca3N2 and Si3N4 powders were mixed to form CaSiN2 hostmaterials and Eu was added as the luminescent center. The mixed powermatrials were cold pressed under the pressure of 1 Kg/cm2 to make pellets, and fired at 1400 degrees Celsius for 2 hours under N2H2 envrionemtn. Th ex-ry diffraction(CRD) patterns of synthesizd materals wer well matched with CaSiN2 of joint committee for powder diffraction standards (JCPDS) csrad. When illuminated by ultravilet rays, th enew phosphors emitted very bright red ligh of peak wav lenegth centered at 620 nm. Th TFEL devices with CaSiN2:Eu phosphor layser swre grown by sputter depositonof CaSiN2:Eu target. Red light emission was observed when the peak amplitude of the applied voltge exceeded 116 V.l The luminance was shown to increase sharply withth increase of the applied voltage. The maximum luminance was 1.62 Cd/m2 at the applied peak voltage of 276 V. The red emission from CaSiN2:Eu TFEL device seems to result from electronic transition of Eu3+ ions.The emission spectra of TFEl devices matchwell withth ephotoluminescence spectra of CaSiN2:Ey powders. The new devices structure and fabrication processes for the iimprovement of emission intenityof CaSiN2:Eu TFEl devices ar under investigation.

  3. Effect of reaction time and (Ca+Mg)/Al molar ratios on crystallinity of Ca-Mg-Al layered double Hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heraldy, E.; Nugrahaningtyas, K. D.; Sanjaya, F. B.; Darojat, A. A.; Handayani, D. S.; Hidayat, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Ca-Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxides (Ca-Mg-Al-LDH) compounds were successfully synthesized from brine water and AlCl3.6H2O as the starting materials by coprecipitation method. The product result was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The effects of the reaction time and the molar ratios of the raw material on the crystallinity of Ca-Mg-Al-LDH were examining. Results show that increasing reaction time (30; 60 and 90 min.) could improve the crystallinity and monodispersity of layered double hydroxide compounds particles. The well-defined Ca-Mg- Al-LDH could be prepared with (Ca+Mg)/Al molar ratios 0.5.

  4. Development of advanced batteries at Argonne National Laboratory. Summary report for 1979. [Li-Al/LiCl-KCl/FeS or FeS/sub 2/, 40 kWh; also Ca-Si/FeS/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    A summary for 1979 of Argonne National Laboratory's program on the development of advanced batteries is presented. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy-storage applications. The principal cells under investigation at present are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, facing negative electrodes of Li-Al alloy, and molten LiCl-KCl electrolyte; the cell operating temperature is 400 to 500/sup 0/C. A small effort on the development of a calcium/metal sulfide cell is also being conducted. During 1979, cell and battery development work continued at ANL and contractors' laboratories. A 40-kWh electric-vehicle battery (designated Mark IA) was fabricated and delivered by Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. to ANL for testing. During heat-up, one of the modules failed due to a short circuit. A failure analysis was conducted, and the Mark IA program, completed. Development work on the next electric-vehicle battery (Mark II) was initiated at Eagle-Picher and Gould, Inc. Work on stationary energy-storage batteries consisted primarily of conceptual design studies. 9 figures, 7 tables.

  5. Impact of Al passivation and cosputter on the structural property of β-FeSi2 for Al-doped β-FeSi2/n-Si(100) based solar cells application.

    PubMed

    Dalapati, Goutam Kumar; Kumar, Avishek; Tan, Cheng Cheh; Liew, Siao Li; Sonar, Prashant; Seng, Hwee Leng; Hui, Hui Kim; Tripathy, Sudhiranjan; Chi, Dongzhi

    2013-06-26

    The aluminum (Al) doped polycrystalline p-type β-phase iron disilicide (p-β-FeSi2) is grown by thermal diffusion of Al from Al-passivated n-type Si(100) surface into FeSi2 during crystallization of amorphous FeSi2 to form a p-type β-FeSi2/n-Si(100) heterostructure solar cell. The structural and photovoltaic properties of p-type β-FeSi2/n-type c-Si structures is then investigated in detail by using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy analysis, and electrical characterization. The results are compared with Al-doped p-β-FeSi2 prepared by using cosputtering of Al and FeSi2 layers on Al-passivated n-Si(100) substrates. A significant improvement in the maximum open-circuit voltage (Voc) from 120 to 320 mV is achieved upon the introduction of Al doping through cosputtering of Al and amorphous FeSi2 layer. The improvement in Voc is attributed to better structural quality of Al-doped FeSi2 film through Al doping and to the formation of high quality crystalline interface between Al-doped β-FeSi2 and n-type c-Si. The effects of Al-out diffusion on the performance of heterostructure solar cells have been investigated and discussed in detail.

  6. Eutectic Morphology of Al-7Si-0.3Mg Alloys with Scandium Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandee, Phromphong; Gourlay, C. M.; Belyakov, S. A.; Ozaki, Ryota; Yasuda, Hideyuki; Limmaneevichitr, Chaowalit

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms of Al-Si eutectic refinement due to scandium (Sc) additions have been studied in an Al-7Si-0.3Mg foundry alloy. The evolution of eutectic microstructure is studied by thermal analysis and interrupted solidification, and the distribution of Sc is studied by synchrotron micro-XRF mapping. Sc is shown to cause significant refinement of the eutectic silicon. The results show that Sc additions strongly suppress the nucleation of eutectic silicon due to the formation of ScP instead of AlP. Sc additions change the macroscopic eutectic growth mode to the propagation of a defined eutectic front from the mold walls opposite to the heat flux direction similar to past work with Na, Ca, and Y additions. It is found that Sc segregates to the eutectic aluminum and AlSi2Sc2 phases and not to eutectic silicon, suggesting that impurity-induced twinning does not operate. The results suggest that Sc refinement is mostly caused by the significantly reduced silicon nucleation frequency and the resulting increase in mean interface growth rate.

  7. Prediction of a hexagonal SiO2 phase affecting stabilities of MgSiO3 and CaSiO3 at multimegabar pressures.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Taku; Tsuchiya, Jun

    2011-01-25

    Ultrahigh-pressure phase relationship of SiO(2) silica in multimegabar pressure condition is still quite unclear. Here, we report a theoretical prediction on a previously uncharacterized stable structure of silica with an unexpected hexagonal Fe(2)P-type form. This phase, more stable than the cotunnite-type structure, a previously postulated postpyrite phase, was discovered to stabilize at 640 GPa through a careful structure search by means of ab initio density functional computations over various structure models. This is the first evidential result of the pressure-induced phase transition to the Fe(2)P-type structure among all dioxide compounds. The crystal structure consists of closely packed, fairly regular SiO(9) tricapped trigonal prisms with a significantly compact lattice. Additional investigation further elucidates large effects of this phase change in SiO(2) on the stability of MgSiO(3) and CaSiO(3) at multimegabar pressures. A postperovskite phase of MgSiO(3) breaks down at 1.04 TPa along an assumed adiabat of super-Earths and yields Fe(2)P-type SiO(2) and CsCl (B2)-type MgO. CaSiO(3) perovskite, on the other hand, directly dissociates into SiO(2) and metallic CaO, skipping a postperovskite polymorph. Predicted ultrahigh-pressure and temperature phase diagrams of SiO(2), MgSiO(3), and CaSiO(3) indicate that the Fe(2)P-type SiO(2) could be one of the dominant components in the deep mantles of terrestrial exoplanets and the cores of gas giants. PMID:21209327

  8. Preparation of Al-Si Master Alloy by Electrochemical Reduction of Fly Ash in Molten Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Aimin; Li, Liangxing; Xu, Junli; Shi, Zhongning; Hu, Xianwei; Gao, Bingliang; Wang, Zhaowen; Yu, Jiangyu; Chen, Gong

    2014-05-01

    An electrochemical method on preparation of Al-Si master alloy was investigated in fluoride-based molten salts of 47.7wt.%NaF-43.3wt.%AlF3-4wt.%CaF2 containing 5 wt.% fly ash at 1233 K. The cathodic products obtained by galvanostatic electrolysis were analyzed by means of x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectrometry. The result showed that the compositions of the products are Al, Si, and Al3.21Si0.47. Meanwhile, the cathodic electrochemical process was studied by cyclic voltammetry, and the results showed the reduction peak of aluminum deposition is at -1.3 V versus the platinum quasi-reference electrode in 50.3wt.%NaF-45.7wt.%AlF3-4wt.%CaF2 molten salts, while the reduction peak at -1.3 V was the co-deposition of aluminum and silicon when the fly ash was added. The silicon and iron were formed via both co-deposition and aluminothermic reduction. In the electrolysis experiments, current efficiency first increased to a maximum value of 40.7% at a current density of 0.29 A/cm2, and then it decreased with the increase of current density. With the electrolysis time lasting, the content of aluminum in the alloys decreased from 76.05 wt.% to 48.29 wt.% during 5 h, while the content of silicon increased from 15.94 wt.% to 37.89 wt.%.

  9. Theoretical investigation of metastable Al2SiO5 polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Oganov, A R; Price, G D; Brodholt, J P

    2001-09-01

    Using theoretical simulations based on density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation, a series of metastable phase transitions occurring in low-pressure Al2SiO5 polymorphs (andalusite and sillimanite) are predicted; similar results were obtained using semiclassical interatomic potentials within the ionic shell model. Soft lattice modes as well as related structural changes are analysed. For sillimanite, an isosymmetric phase transition at ca 35 GPa is predicted; an incommensurately modulated form of sillimanite can also be obtained at low temperatures and high pressures. The high-pressure isosymmetric phase contains five-coordinate Si and Al atoms. The origin of the fivefold coordination is discussed in detail. Andalusite was found to transform directly into an amorphous phase at ca 50 GPa. This study provides an insight into the nature of metastable modifications of crystal structures and the ways in which they are formed. Present results indicate the existence of a critical bonding distance, above which interatomic interactions cannot be considered as bonding. The critical distance for the Si-O bond is 2.25 A. PMID:11526304

  10. A Comparative Study of Si-BaSO4 and Si-CaSO4 Pyrotechnic Time-Delay Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichapondwa, Shepherd M.; Focke, Walter W.; del Fabbro, Olinto; Gisby, John; Kelly, Cheryl

    2016-07-01

    Slow-burning Si-BaSO4 pyrotechnic delay compositions are employed commercially for intermediate to long-time delays. However, there is very little information on this composition available in open literature. The reactivity of this composition was therefore characterized and compared to that of Si-CaSO4. The Si-BaSO4 composition supported combustion in the range of 20-60 wt% Si in the bomb calorimeter. However, burning was only sustained between 20 and 40 wt% Si in rigid aluminum tubes, with burning rates of between 8.4 and 16 mm s-1. These values are comparable to those for the Si-CaSO4 system (6.9-12.5 mm s-1). However, the CaSO4-based formulations tended to have higher energy output and produced more transient pressure compared to the barium sulfate compositions. Both formulations were insensitive to impact, friction, and electrostatic discharge stimuli. The reaction products were a complex mixture that contained crystalline phases in addition to an amorphous phase. Although barium sulfate is insoluble in water and decidedly nontoxic, the reaction products produced by the Si-BaSO4 compositions were found to release soluble barium ions when contacted with water. This ranged from 50 to 140 mg per gram of barium sulfate reacted.

  11. Precipitation Sequence of a SiC Particle Reinforced Al-Mg-Si Alloy Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Rujuan; Wang, Yihan; Guo, Baisong; Song, Min

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the precipitation sequence of a 5 vol.% SiC particles reinforced Al-1.12 wt.%Mg-0.77 wt.%Si alloy composite fabricated by traditional powder metallurgy method was investigated by transmission electron microscopy and hardness measurements. The results indicated that the addition of SiC reinforcements not only suppresses the initial aging stage but also influences the subsequent precipitates. The precipitation sequence of the composite aged at 175 °C can be described as: Guinier-Preston (G.P.) zone → β″ → β' → B', which was confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. This work might provide the guidance for the design and fabrication of hardenable automobile body sheet by Al-based composites with enhanced mechanical properties.

  12. Elasticity and inelasticity of the SiC/Al-13Si-9Mg biomorphic metal ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardashev, B. K.; Orlova, T. S.; Smirnov, B. I.; Wilkes, T. E.; Faber, K. T.

    2008-10-01

    The acoustic investigations of the elastic (Young’s modulus) and microplastic properties of a composite material, the SiC/Al-13Si-9Mg biomorphic metal ceramic, were performed. The ceramic was prepared by infiltration of the Al-13Si-9Mg melt into porous silicon carbide derived from wood of two species of trees, beech and sapele. The measurements were performed with a composite piezoelectric vibrator under resonance conditions, with rod-shaped samples vibrated longitudinally at about 100 kHz over a wide range of vibrational strain amplitudes, which included both the linear (amplitude-independent) and nonlinear (microplastic) regions. It was shown that the Young’s modulus and the microplastic properties of the composite are anisotropic and depend substantially on the tree species, particularly when longitudinal vibrations are excited in samples cut along the tree fibers.

  13. Atomic arrangement at the AlN/SiC interface

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, F.A.; Van de Walle, C.G.; Northrup, J.E.

    1996-03-01

    The lattice structure of the AlN/SiC interface has been studied in cross section by high-resolution transmission-electron microscopy. Lattice images show planar and crystallographically abrupt interfaces. The atomic arrangement at the plane of the interface is analyzed based on the image characteristics. Possible bonding configurations are discussed. Variations in local image contrast and interplanar separations are used to identify atomic bonding configurations consistent with the lattice images. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  14. Wettability of AlSi5Mg on Spodumene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fankhänel, Beate; Stelter, Michael; Voigt, Claudia; Aneziris, Christos G.

    2015-02-01

    The development of new filters for the aluminum industry requires investigations on the wettability of aluminum and its alloys on novel filter materials. The requested filter effects require not only an adequate wetting but also information about the interaction between the filter material and the metal. In the present work the wettability of an AlSi5Mg alloy on spodumene (LiAl[Si2O6]) containing substrates is investigated using the sessile drop technique. These measurements were carried out at 1223 K (950 °C) under vacuum. The spodumene-based substrates showed a completely different wetting behavior compared with an alumina substrate. The contact angel reduced more quickly and leveled out at a lower value (75 ± 2 deg) than in case of a pure alumina substrate (90 ± 1 deg). The reason for this behavior is a reaction between the LiAl(Si2O6) and the alloy droplet which supported deoxidation and formed a silica-rich reaction layer at the droplet/substrate interface.

  15. Estimation Model for Electrical Conductivity of CaF2-CaO-Al2O3 Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Guan-yong; Zhang, Ting-an; Dou, Zhi-he; Niu, Li-ping

    2016-09-01

    Electrical conductivity is one of the most important properties of molten slags. It has an important influence on process parameter selection of the electroslag remelting process. In the present work, a new model for estimating electrical conductivity of high-temperature slags has been proposed via calculating the conductivity by electrical conductivity of pure substances and interaction parameters between the different components in the slag has been proposed. In this model, the Arrhenius law is used to describe the relationship between electrical conductivity and temperature of slags. This model has been successfully applied to the CaF2-Al2O3, CaF2-CaO, and CaO-Al2O3, as well as CaF2-CaO-Al2O3 systems, and the calculated results are in good agreement with the measured values.

  16. Investigation of the Electrical Characteristics of Al/p-Si/Al Schottky Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şenarslan, Elvan; Güzeldir, Betül; Sağlam, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    In this study, p-type Si semiconductor wafer with (100) orientation, 400 μm thickness and 1-10 Ω cm resistivity was used. The Si wafer before making contacts were chemically cleaned with the Si cleaning procedure which for remove organic contaminations were ultrasonically cleaned at acetone and methanol for 10 min respectively and then rinsed in deionized water of 18 MΩ and dried with high purity N2. Then respectively RCA1(i.e., boiling in NH3+H2O2+6H2O for 10 min at 60°C ), RCA2 (i.e., boiling in HCl+H2O2+6H2O for 10 min at 60°C ) cleaning procedures were applied and rinsed in deionized water followed by drying with a stream of N2. After the cleaning process, the wafer is immediately inserted in to the coating unit. Ohmic contact was made by evaporating of Al on the non-polished side of the p-Si wafer pieces under ~ 4,2 10-6 Torr pressure. After process evaporation, p-Si with omic contac thermally annealed 580°C for 3 min in a quartz tube furnace in N2. Then, the rectifier contact is made by evaporation Al metal diameter of about 1.0 mm on the polished surface of p-Si in turbo molecular pump at about ~ 1 10-6 Torr. Consequently, Al/p-Si/Al Schottky diode was obtained. The I–V measurements of this diode performed by the use of a KEITLEY 487 Picoammeter/Voltage Source and the C–V measurements were performed with HP 4192A (50–13 MHz) LF Impedance Analyzer at room temperature and in dark.

  17. Investigation of the Electrical Characteristics of Al/p-Si/Al Schottky Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şenarslan, Elvan; Güzeldir, Betül; Sağlam, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    In this study, p-type Si semiconductor wafer with (100) orientation, 400 μm thickness and 1-10 Ω cm resistivity was used. The Si wafer before making contacts were chemically cleaned with the Si cleaning procedure which for remove organic contaminations were ultrasonically cleaned at acetone and methanol for 10 min respectively and then rinsed in deionized water of 18 MΩ and dried with high purity N2. Then respectively RCA1(i.e., boiling in NH3+H2O2+6H2O for 10 min at 60°C ), RCA2 (i.e., boiling in HCl+H2O2+6H2O for 10 min at 60°C ) cleaning procedures were applied and rinsed in deionized water followed by drying with a stream of N2. After the cleaning process, the wafer is immediately inserted in to the coating unit. Ohmic contact was made by evaporating of Al on the non-polished side of the p-Si wafer pieces under ~ 4,2 10-6 Torr pressure. After process evaporation, p-Si with omic contac thermally annealed 580°C for 3 min in a quartz tube furnace in N2. Then, the rectifier contact is made by evaporation Al metal diameter of about 1.0 mm on the polished surface of p-Si in turbo molecular pump at about ~ 1 10-6 Torr. Consequently, Al/p-Si/Al Schottky diode was obtained. The I-V measurements of this diode performed by the use of a KEITLEY 487 Picoammeter/Voltage Source and the C-V measurements were performed with HP 4192A (50-13 MHz) LF Impedance Analyzer at room temperature and in dark.

  18. Actinide chemistry in Allende Ca-Al-rich inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murrell, M. T.; Burnett, D. S.

    1987-01-01

    Fission track radiography is used to investigate the U and Th microscale distribution in a set of Allende-meteorite Ca-Al-rich inclusions. In the Type B inclusions, the major phases melilite and fassaite are important actinide host phases, and on the rims of Type B inclusions and throughout all other inclusions studied, perovskite is the dominant actinide host phase. Results suggest that neither alteration nor loss or gain of an actinide-rich phase appears to have been an important Th/U fractionation mechanism, and that volatility differences may be the dominant factor. Th/U and rare earth element abundance patterns for the spinel and perovskite rim suggest rim formation by volatilization of interior material, and within the constraints of the brief time scale required for this heating, several mechanisms for spinel-perovskite rim formation are possible.

  19. Thermal Stability of the Dynamic Magnetic Properties of FeSiAl-Al2O3 and FeSiAl-SiO2 Films Grown by Gradient-Composition Sputtering Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xiaoxi; Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Soh, Wee Tee; Ong, C. K.; Peng, Long; Li, Lezhong

    2016-08-01

    We carry out a systematic investigation of the dynamic magnetic properties of FeSiAl-Al2O3 and FeSiAl-SiO2 thin films prepared by gradient-composition deposition technique with respect to temperature in the range of 300 K to 420 K. It was found that the magnetic anisotropy field (H K) and ferromagnetic resonance frequency (f FMR) are increased with increasing deposition angle (β) due to the enhancement of stress (σ) when concentrations of Al and O or Si and O are increased. The thermal stability of FeSiAl-Al2O3 films show a very interesting behavior with the magnetic anisotropy increasing with temperature when the deposition angle is increased. In contrast, when the deposition angle is lower, the usual trend of decreasing magnetic anisotropy with increasing temperature is observed. Moreover, the temperature-dependent behaviors of the dynamic permeability and effective Gilbert damping coefficient (α eff) for FeSiAl-Al2O3 and FeSiAl-SiO2 films at different deposition angles are discussed in detail.

  20. Effect of Ca-doping on the ionic conductivity of LiSi2N3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narimatsu, E.; Yamamoto, Y.; Takeda, T.; Nishimura, T.; Hirosaki, N.

    2011-05-01

    Effect of Ca-doping on the ionic conductivity of LiSi2N3 was studied. The compositions of Li1-2xCaxSi2N3 (x=0-0.2) were synthesized by the reaction of Li3N, Si3N4, and Ca3N2 at temperature of 1873K-2073K. Ca was incorporated into the LiSi2N3 host lattice and formed the solid solution, Li1-2xCaxSi2N3. Activation energy for ionic conduction was decreased and ionic conductivity at room temperature was enhanced by Ca doping. At 298K, the ionic conductivity of densified Li1-2xCaxSi2N3 (x=0.075) ceramics achieved 1.6×10-5Sm-1, almost 4 orders of magnitude higher than that of densified Li1-2xCaxSi2N3(x=0) ceramics (3.1×10-9Sm-1). The LiSi2N3 framework change by Ca doping decreased the interaction between the ions and increased the defects of the structure. Thus, mobile Li+ ion could migrate easier. Moreover, incorporation of aliovalent substitutional Ca2+ ions in the LiSi2N3 lattice might be expected to create a Li+ vacancy (VLi) for charge compensation (Li1-2xCaxVLiSi2N3), thereby increasing the number of mobile Li+ ions.

  1. Composition et volume molaire apparent des gels Ca_Si, une approche expérimentaleComposition and apparent molar volume of Ca_Si gels, an experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perruchot, Alain; Massard, Pierre; Lombardi, Jérôme

    2003-11-01

    Synthetic CaSi gels of various compositions were prepared from sodium metasilicate and calcium chloride solutions. These synthetic CaSi gels are good analogues of fresh natural gels found within concrete affected by Alkalis-Silica Reaction (ASR). Results show that these synthetic gels in equilibrium with their formation solutions present an optimum of composition for a molar ratio CaO/SiO 2=(C/S) g≅0.48. Correspondingly, this characteristic value of (C/S) g denotes a rearrangement in the structure of gels accounted for the variation with (C/S) g of the apparent molar volume Vg. To cite this article: A. Perruchot et al., C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  2. Biocompatibility property of 100% strontium-substituted SiO2 -Al2 O3 -P2 O5 -CaO-CaF2 glass ceramics over 26 weeks implantation in rabbit model: Histology and micro-Computed Tomography analysis.

    PubMed

    Basu, Bikramjit; Sabareeswaran, A; Shenoy, S J

    2015-08-01

    One of the desired properties for any new biomaterial composition is its long-term stability in a suitable animal model and such property cannot be appropriately assessed by performing short-term implantation studies. While hydroxyapatite (HA) or bioglass coated metallic biomaterials are being investigated for in vivo biocompatibility properties, such study is not extensively being pursued for bulk glass ceramics. In view of their inherent brittle nature, the implant stability as well as impact of long-term release of metallic ions on bone regeneration have been a major concern. In this perspective, the present article reports the results of the in vivo implantation experiments carried out using 100% strontium (Sr)-substituted glass ceramics with the nominal composition of 4.5 SiO2 -3Al2 O3 -1.5P2 O5 -3SrO-2SrF2 for 26 weeks in cylindrical bone defects in rabbit model. The combination of histological and micro-computed tomography analysis provided a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the bone regeneration around the glass ceramic implants in comparison to the highly bioactive HA bioglass implants (control). The sequential polychrome labeling of bone during in vivo osseointegration using three fluorochromes followed by fluorescence microscopy observation confirmed homogeneous bone formation around the test implants. The results of the present study unequivocally confirm the long-term implant stability as well as osteoconductive property of 100% Sr-substituted glass ceramics, which is comparable to that of a known bioactive implant, that is, HA-based bioglass.

  3. Biocompatibility property of 100% strontium-substituted SiO2 -Al2 O3 -P2 O5 -CaO-CaF2 glass ceramics over 26 weeks implantation in rabbit model: Histology and micro-Computed Tomography analysis.

    PubMed

    Basu, Bikramjit; Sabareeswaran, A; Shenoy, S J

    2015-08-01

    One of the desired properties for any new biomaterial composition is its long-term stability in a suitable animal model and such property cannot be appropriately assessed by performing short-term implantation studies. While hydroxyapatite (HA) or bioglass coated metallic biomaterials are being investigated for in vivo biocompatibility properties, such study is not extensively being pursued for bulk glass ceramics. In view of their inherent brittle nature, the implant stability as well as impact of long-term release of metallic ions on bone regeneration have been a major concern. In this perspective, the present article reports the results of the in vivo implantation experiments carried out using 100% strontium (Sr)-substituted glass ceramics with the nominal composition of 4.5 SiO2 -3Al2 O3 -1.5P2 O5 -3SrO-2SrF2 for 26 weeks in cylindrical bone defects in rabbit model. The combination of histological and micro-computed tomography analysis provided a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the bone regeneration around the glass ceramic implants in comparison to the highly bioactive HA bioglass implants (control). The sequential polychrome labeling of bone during in vivo osseointegration using three fluorochromes followed by fluorescence microscopy observation confirmed homogeneous bone formation around the test implants. The results of the present study unequivocally confirm the long-term implant stability as well as osteoconductive property of 100% Sr-substituted glass ceramics, which is comparable to that of a known bioactive implant, that is, HA-based bioglass. PMID:25303146

  4. A comparative wear study on Al-Li and Al-Li/SiC composite

    SciTech Connect

    Okumus, S. Cem Karslioglu, Ramazan Akbulut, Hatem

    2013-12-16

    Aluminum-lithium based unreinforced (Al-8090) alloy and Al-8090/SiCp/17 vol.% metal matrix composite produced by extrusion after spray co-deposition. A dry ball-on disk wear test was carried out for both alloy and composite. The tests were performed against an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ball, 10 mm in diameter, at room temperature and in laboratory air conditions with a relative humidity of 40-60%. Sliding speed was chosen as 1.0 ms{sup −1} and normal loads of 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 N were employed at a constant sliding distance of 1000 m. The wear damage on the specimens was evaluated via measurement of wear depth and diameter. Microstructural and wear characterization was carried out via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that wear loss of the Al-8090/SiC composite was less than that of the Al-8090 matrix alloy. Plastic deformation observed on the wear surface of the composite and the matrix alloy, and the higher the applied load the greater the plastic deformation. Scanning electron microscopy examinations of wear tracks also reveal that delamination fracture was the dominant wear mechanism during the wear progression. Friction coefficient was maximum at the low applied load in the case of the Al-8090/SiC composite while a gradual increase was observed with applied load for the matrix alloy.

  5. A comparative wear study on Al-Li and Al-Li/SiC composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumus, S. Cem; Karslioglu, Ramazan; Akbulut, Hatem

    2013-12-01

    Aluminum-lithium based unreinforced (Al-8090) alloy and Al-8090/SiCp/17 vol.% metal matrix composite produced by extrusion after spray co-deposition. A dry ball-on disk wear test was carried out for both alloy and composite. The tests were performed against an Al2O3 ball, 10 mm in diameter, at room temperature and in laboratory air conditions with a relative humidity of 40-60%. Sliding speed was chosen as 1.0 ms-1 and normal loads of 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 N were employed at a constant sliding distance of 1000 m. The wear damage on the specimens was evaluated via measurement of wear depth and diameter. Microstructural and wear characterization was carried out via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that wear loss of the Al-8090/SiC composite was less than that of the Al-8090 matrix alloy. Plastic deformation observed on the wear surface of the composite and the matrix alloy, and the higher the applied load the greater the plastic deformation. Scanning electron microscopy examinations of wear tracks also reveal that delamination fracture was the dominant wear mechanism during the wear progression. Friction coefficient was maximum at the low applied load in the case of the Al-8090/SiC composite while a gradual increase was observed with applied load for the matrix alloy.

  6. XPS study of the Al/SiO2 interface viewed from the SiO2 side

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, M. H.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Maserjian, J.

    1984-01-01

    The first nondestructive measurement of the chemical and physical characteristics of the interface between bulk SiO2 and thick aluminum films is presented. Both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrical measurements of unannealed resistively evaporated Al films on thermal SiO2 indicate an atomically abrupt interface. Postmetallization annealing (PMA) at 450 C induces reduction of the SiO2 by the aluminum, resulting in the layer ordering SiO2/Al2O3/Si/Al. The XPS measurement is performed from the SiO2 side after removal of the Si substrate after etching with XeF2 gas and thinning of the SiO2 layer with HF:ETOH. This represents a powerful new approach to the study of metal-insulator and other interfaces.

  7. Slow Si-Al interdiffusion in garnet and stagnation of subducting slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Masayuki; Kubo, Tomoaki; Ohfuji, Hiroaki; Kato, Takumi; Nishihara, Yu; Irifune, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Si4++M2+↔2Al3+ (M=Mg+Fe+Ca) interdiffusion rates in majoritic garnet have been determined at pressure of 17 GPa and temperatures of 1550-1700 °C using a Kawai-type high-pressure apparatus. The diffusion profiles were measured across the interface between pyropic garnet and majoritic garnet samples by an analytical transmission electron microscope, and the rate of the Si4++M2+↔2Al3+ interdiffusion was determined to be a DSi-Al (m2 s-1)=2×10-10 exp [-364 (kJ mol-1)/RT]. We found that the diffusion rate is low compared to the Si diffusion rate in other silicate minerals relevant to the deep mantle. Slow kinetics of the pyroxene-garnet transformation due to the low diffusion rate indicates that large low-density metastable regions may exist in the slab, greatly contributing to the slab stagnation around the transition region. Stagnant slabs possibly stay in this region over 108 yr because of the sluggish pyroxene-garnet transformation, but may eventually fall into the lower mantle after the completion of the transformation.

  8. Wear and Friction Behavior of the Spray-Deposited SiCp/Al-20Si-3Cu Functionally Graded Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, B.; Yan, H. G.; Chen, J. H.; Zeng, P. L.; Chen, G.; Chen, C. C.

    2013-05-01

    The spray-deposited SiCp/Al-20Si-3Cu functionally graded material (FGM) can meet the structure design requirements of brake disk. The effects of rotational speed and load on the wear and friction behaviors of the SiCp/Al-20Si-3Cu FGM sliding against the resin matrix friction material were investigated. For comparison, the wear and friction behaviors of a commercially used cast iron (HT250) brake rotor were also studied. The results indicate that the friction coefficient of the SiCp/Al-20Si-3Cu FGM decreases constantly with the increase of load or rotational speed and is affected by the gradient distribution of SiC particles. The wear rate of the SiCp/Al-20Si-3Cu FGM firstly increases, then decreases and finally increases again with increasing load or speed, and is about 1/10 of that of HT250. Based on observations and analyses on the morphology and substructure of the worn surface, the mechanical mixing layer acts as a protective coating and lubricant, and its thickness reduces with the SiC content increasing. Furthermore, it is proposed that the dominant wear mechanism of SiCp/Al-20Si-3Cu FGM changes from the abrasive wear to the oxidative wear and further to the delamination wear with increasing load or speed.

  9. Enthalpies of formation of CaAl4O7 and CaAl12O19 (hibonite) by high temperature, alkali borate solution calorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, C. A.; Kleppa, O. J.; Grossman, L.; Mysen, B. O.; Lattimer, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    Enthalpies of formation were determined for two calcium aluminate phases, CaAl4O7 and CaAl12O19, using high-temperature alkali borate solution calorimetry. The aluminates were synthesized by multiple-cycle heating and grinding stoichiometric mixtures of CaCO3 and Al2O3, and the products were characteized by X-ray diffraction and SEM microbeam analysis. The data on impurities (CaAl4O7 was found to be about 89.00 percent pure by weight and the CaAl12O19 samples about 91.48 percent pure) were used to correct the heat of solution values of the synthetic products. The enthalpies of formation, at 1063 K, from oxides, were found to be equal to -(25.6 + or - 4.7) kJ/g.f.w. for CaAl4O7 and -(33.0 + or - 9.7) kJ/g.f.w. for CaAl12O19; the respective standard enthalpies of formation from elements, at 298 K, were estimated to be -4007 + or - 5.2 kJ/g.f.w. and -10,722 + or - 12 kJ/g.f.w.

  10. The effect of CaF2 on thermodynamics of CaO-CaF2-SiO2(-MgO) slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Chul-Hwan; Jo, Sung-Koo; Kim, Seon-Hyo; Lee, Kwang-Ro; Kim, Jeong-Tae

    2004-02-01

    To address the role of CaF2 in the CaO-CaF2-SiO2(-MgO) slag system employed for the production of low-pressure rotor steels, the thermodynamic aspects of the slag were investigated by equilibrating it with liquid iron at 1873 K in CaO or MgO crucibles. Presaturation of slag with an oxide block piece of CaO or MgO in a Pt crucible and application of a carbon paste to the outside of an oxide crucible were designed to prevent crucible failure during the slag-metal experiments. The liquidus isotherm and phase boundary of the preceding slag system were investigated using the slag-metal equilibria. Also, the effect of CaF2 on the sulfide capacity and the activity coefficient of Fe t O were of particular interest in controlling the sulfur level and cleanliness of low-pressure rotor steels.

  11. Wetting behavior of Al Si Mg alloys on Si3N4/Si substrates: optimization of processing parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Peña, J. L.; Pech-Canul, M. I.

    2008-06-01

    The wetting behavior of Al Si Mg alloys on Si3N4/Si substrates has been investigated using the sessile drop technique. Based on a Taguchi experiment design, the effect of the following processing parameters on the contact angle (θ) and surface tension (σLV) was studied: processing time and temperature, atmosphere (Ar and N2), substrate surface condition (with and without a silicon wafer), as well as the Mg and Si contents in the aluminium alloy. In nitrogen, non-wetting conditions prevail during the isothermal events while in argon a remarkable non-wetting to wetting transition leads to contact angles θ as low as 11±3° and a liquid surface tension σLV of 33± 10×10-5 kJ/m2. According to the multiple analysis of variance (Manova), the optimum conditions for minimizing the values of θ and σLV are as follows: temperature of 1100 °C, processing time of 90 min, argon atmosphere, no use of a silicon wafer, and the use of the Al-18% Mg-1% Si alloy. A verification test conducted under the optimized conditions resulted in a contact angle of θ=9±3° and a surface tension of σLV=29± 9×10-5 kJ/m2, both indicative of excellent wetting.

  12. Structural and electronic properties of a single Si chain doped zigzag AlN nanoribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian-Min; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Ke-Wei

    2015-04-01

    The first-principles projector-augmented wave (PAW) potentials within the density function theory (DFT) framework have been used to determine the geometry structures and electronic properties of the zigzag edge AlN nanoribbons (ZAlNNRs) doped with a single Si chain under generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The average Al-Si, Si-Si, Al-N, Si-N, Al-H and N-H bond lengths are 2.39, 2.16, 1.83, 1.74, 1.59 and 1.03 Å, respectively. Pure 7-ZAlNNR is an indirect semiconductor with a large band gap of 2.235 eV, while a semiconductor to metal transformation is taken place after a single Si chain substituting for a single Al-N chain at various positions. In pure 7-ZAlNNR, the HVB and LCB are mainly attributed to the edge N and Al atoms, respectively, while in a single Si chain substituting doped 7-ZAlNNR, the HVB and LCB are mainly attributed to the Si atoms. The Al-N, Al-H and Al-Si bonds are ionic bond, the Si-Si and Si-H bonds are covalent bond, the N-H and N-Si bonds are covalent bond modified ionic bond.

  13. Phase relations in the greenschist-blueschist-amphibolite-eclogite facies in the system Na2O-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (NCFMASH), with application to metamorphic rocks from Samos, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Thomas; Okrusch, Martin; Schmädicke, Esther; Chen, Guoli

    Calculated phase equilibria among the minerals sodic amphibole, calcic amphibole, garnet, chloritoid, talc, chlorite, paragonite, margarite, omphacite, plagioclase, carpholite, zoisite/clinozoisite, lawsonite, pyrophyllite, kyanite, sillimanite, quartz and H2O are presented for the model system Na2O-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (NCFMASH), which is relevant for many greenschist, blueschist, amphibolite and eclogite facies rocks. Using the activity-composition relationships for multicomponent amphiboles constrained by Will and Powell (1992), equilibria containing coexisting calcic and sodic amphiboles could be determined. The blueschist-greenschist transition reaction in the NCFMASH system, for example, is defined by the univariant reaction sodic amphibole + zoisite=calcic amphibole + chlorite + paragonite + plagioclase (+ quartz + H2O) occurring between approximately 420 and 450°C at 9.5 to 10kbar. The calculated petrogenetic grid is a valuable tool for reconstructing the PT-evolution of metabasic rocks. This is shown for rocks from the island of Samos, Greece. On the basis of mineral and whole rock analyses, PT-pseudosections were calculated and, together with the observed mineral assemblages and reaction textures, are used to reconstruct PT-paths. For rocks from northern Samos, pseudomorphs after lawsonite preserved in garnet, the assemblage sodic amphibole-garnet-paragonite-chlorite-zoisite-quartz and the retrograde appearance of albitic plagioclase and the formation of calcic amphibole around sodic amphibole constrain a clockwise PT-path that reaches its thermal maximum at some 520°C and 19kbar. The derived PT-trajectory indicates cooling during exhumation of the rocks and is similar to paths for rocks from the western part of the Attic-Cycladic crystalline complex. Rocks from eastern Samos indicate lower pressures and are probably related to high-pressure rocks from the Menderes Massif in western Turkey.

  14. Anisotropic Responses of Mechanical and Thermal Processed Cast Al-Si-Mg-Cu Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeosun, S. O.; Akpan, E. I.; Balogun, S. A.; Onoyemi, O. K.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of ambient directional rolling and heat treatments on ultimate tensile strength (UTS), hardness (HD), percent elongation (PE), and impact energy (IE) on Al-Si-Mg-Cu alloy casting with reference to inclination to rolling direction are discussed in this article. The results show that rolled and quenched (CQ) sample possess superior UTS and HD to as-cast and those of rolled and aged samples (CA). Improved IE resistance with ductility is shown by both CQ and CA samples. However, these mechanical properties are enhanced as changes in the test sample direction moved away from rolling direction for all heat-treated samples. The CQ samples displayed highest tensile strength (108 MPa) and PE (19.8%) in the 90° direction.

  15. Plant diversity and functional groups affect Si and Ca pools in aboveground biomass of grassland systems.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jörg; Roscher, Christiane; Hillebrand, Helmut; Weigelt, Alexandra; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Anne; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2016-09-01

    Plant diversity is an important driver of nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in aboveground plant biomass of grassland ecosystems, but plant diversity effects on other elements also important for plant growth are less understood. We tested whether plant species richness, functional group richness or the presence/absence of particular plant functional groups influences the Si and Ca concentrations (mmol g(-1)) and stocks (mmol m(-2)) in aboveground plant biomass in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). In the experiment including 60 temperate grassland species, plant diversity was manipulated as sown species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16) and richness and identity of plant functional groups (1-4; grasses, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes). We found positive species richness effects on Si as well as Ca stocks that were attributable to increased biomass production. The presence of particular functional groups was the most important factor explaining variation in aboveground Si and Ca stocks (mmol m(-2)). Grass presence increased the Si stocks by 140 % and legume presence increased the Ca stock by 230 %. Both the presence of specific plant functional groups and species diversity altered Si and Ca stocks, whereas Si and Ca concentration were affected mostly by the presence of specific plant functional groups. However, we found a negative effect of species diversity on Si and Ca accumulation, by calculating the deviation between mixtures and mixture biomass proportions, but in monoculture concentrations. These changes may in turn affect ecosystem processes such as plant litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in grasslands.

  16. Plant diversity and functional groups affect Si and Ca pools in aboveground biomass of grassland systems.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jörg; Roscher, Christiane; Hillebrand, Helmut; Weigelt, Alexandra; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Anne; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2016-09-01

    Plant diversity is an important driver of nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in aboveground plant biomass of grassland ecosystems, but plant diversity effects on other elements also important for plant growth are less understood. We tested whether plant species richness, functional group richness or the presence/absence of particular plant functional groups influences the Si and Ca concentrations (mmol g(-1)) and stocks (mmol m(-2)) in aboveground plant biomass in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). In the experiment including 60 temperate grassland species, plant diversity was manipulated as sown species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16) and richness and identity of plant functional groups (1-4; grasses, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes). We found positive species richness effects on Si as well as Ca stocks that were attributable to increased biomass production. The presence of particular functional groups was the most important factor explaining variation in aboveground Si and Ca stocks (mmol m(-2)). Grass presence increased the Si stocks by 140 % and legume presence increased the Ca stock by 230 %. Both the presence of specific plant functional groups and species diversity altered Si and Ca stocks, whereas Si and Ca concentration were affected mostly by the presence of specific plant functional groups. However, we found a negative effect of species diversity on Si and Ca accumulation, by calculating the deviation between mixtures and mixture biomass proportions, but in monoculture concentrations. These changes may in turn affect ecosystem processes such as plant litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in grasslands. PMID:27164912

  17. Calcio-olivine γ-Ca2SiO4: I. Rietveld refinement of the crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobechiya, E. R.; Yamnova, N. A.; Zadov, A. E.; Gazeev, V. M.

    2008-05-01

    The structure of the natural mineral calcio-olivine (γ-Ca2SiO4) found in skarn xenoliths in the region of the Lakargi Mountain (North Caucasus, Kabardino-Balkaria, Russia) is refined by the Rietveld method [ a = 5.07389(7) Å, b = 11.21128(14) Å, c = 6.75340(9) Å, V = 384.170(5) Å3, Z = 4, ρcalcd = 2.98 g/cm3, space group Pbnm]. The X-ray diffraction pattern of a powdered sample is recorded on a STOE STADI MP diffractometer [λCu K α1; Ge(111) primary monochromator; 6.00° < 2θ < 100.88°; step width, 2.5° in 2θ; number of reflections, 224]. All calculations are performed with the WYRIET (version 3.3) software package. The structural model is refined in the anisotropic approximation to R p = 6.44, R wp = 8.52, R exp = 5.85, R B = 4.98, R F = 6.90, and s = 1.46. It is shown that the sample under investigation is a mixture of several mineral phases, among which calcio-olivine (the natural analogue of the γ-Ca2SiO4 compound) (83%), hillebrandite (13%), and wadalite (4%) are dominant. Only the scale factors and the unit cell parameters are refined for hillebrandite Ca2SiO3(OH)2 [ a = 3.63472(16) Å, b = 16.4140(10) Å, c = 11.7914(8) Å, space group Cmc21, Z = 6] and wadalite Ca6Al5Si2O16Cl3 ( a = 12.0088 Å, space group, I bar 4 3 d Z = 4). The results of the structure refinement of the main component of the sample confirm that the mineral calcio-olivine is isostructural to the synthetic compound γ-Ca2SiO4. The structure of this compound is formed by the heteropolyhedral framework composed of Ca octahedra joined together into olivine-like ribbons and isolated Si tetrahedra.

  18. Chemical stability and antimicrobial activity of plasma sprayed bioactive Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Yu, Jiangming; Xie, Youtao; Huang, Liping; Ye, Xiaojian; Zheng, Xuebin

    2011-12-01

    Calcium silicate ceramic coatings have received considerable attention in recent years due to their excellent bioactivity and bonding strength. However, their high dissolution rates limit their practical applications. In this study, zinc incorporated calcium silicate based ceramic Ca(2)ZnSi(2)O(7) coating was prepared on Ti-6Al-4V substrate via plasma spraying technology aiming to achieve higher chemical stability and additional antibacterial activity. Chemical stability of the coating was assessed by monitoring mass loss and ion release of the coating after immersion in the Tris-HCl buffer solution and examining pH value variation of the solution. Results showed that the chemical stability of zinc incorporated coating was improved significantly. Antimicrobial activity of the Ca(2)ZnSi(2)O(7) coating was evaluated, and it was found that the coating exhibited 93% antibacterial ratio against Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, in vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility were confirmed for the Ca(2)ZnSi(2)O(7) coating by simulated body fluid test, MC3T3-E1 cells adhesion investigation and cytotoxicity assay.

  19. Crystal structure and luminescence of Sr 0.99Eu 0.01AlSiN 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hiromu; Yamane, Hisanori; Kijima, Naoto

    2008-08-01

    Strontium europium aluminum silicon nitride, Sr 0.99Eu 0.01AlSiN 3, was synthesized by heating a mixture of binary nitrides at 2173 K and a N 2 gas pressure of 190 MPa. Single crystals of Sr 0.99Eu 0.01AlSiN 3 approximately 30 μm were obtained. The structure was confirmed to be an isotypic structure of CaAlSiN 3 in the orthorhombic space group Cmc2 1, analyzed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The lattice parameters are a=9.843(3), b=5.7603(16), c=5.177(2) Å, cell volume=293.53(17) Å 3. It shows an orange-red photoluminescence by 5 d→4 f transition of Eu 2+ at around 610 nm under excitation ranging from ultraviolet to 525 nm. The photoluminescence intensity, temperature characteristics, and oxidative stability were comparable or superior to those of CaAlSiN 3:Eu 2+ phosphor.

  20. Microstructure Evolution of Cold-Sprayed Al-Si Alloy Coatings on γ-TiAl During Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiqiang; Kong, Lingyan; Li, Tiefan; Xiong, Tianying

    2015-08-01

    This paper investigated the influence of heat treatment on the microstructure of Al-Si alloy coatings on γ-TiAl alloy. The coatings were prepared by cold spraying with Al-12Si and Al-20Si alloy powders as the feedstock, and then the as-sprayed coatings were subjected to heat treatment. The microstructure, chemical composition, and phase transformation of the coatings were studied by SEM, XRD, and EPMA. The diffusing behavior of Al and Si during heat treatment was investigated. The results showed that a silicon-aluminizing coating was formed through the inward diffusion of Al/Si elements into the substrate. The obtained kinetics curve of the formation of silicon-aluminizing coating at 580 °C similarly followed parabolic law.

  1. Post-stishovite transition in AlOOH-incorporated SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Umemoto, K.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.; Hirose, K.

    2010-12-01

    In 2007, Lakshtanov et al. [Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 104, 13588 (2007)] demonstrated that the incorporation of AlOOH into SiO2 significantly reduces the transition pressure between stishovite and CaCl2-type phases. In the present paper, we investigate theoretically the effect of hydrogen (and aluminum) on this transition. First-principles calculations show that aluminum has no effect on the transition pressure. However, hydrogen bonds play a crucial role, suggesting that a cooperative redistribution of hydrogens aids the post-stishovite transition. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations using model potentials confirm this effect and reveal the nature of the hydrogen motion. This effect produces a strong temperature dependence on the transition pressure and should make the latter sensitive to hydrogen content in the material. This work was supported by NSF under ATM-0428774 (VLab), EAR-0757903, and EAR-1019853. The computations were performed at the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute (MSI).

  2. Structure, phase composition, and strengthening of cast Al-Ca-Mg-Sc alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, N. A.; Naumova, E. A.; Bazlova, T. A.; Alekseeva, E. V.

    2016-02-01

    The structure and phase composition of Al-Ca-Mg-Sc alloys containing 0.3 wt % Sc, up to 10 wt % Ca, and up to 10 wt % Mg have been investigated in the cast state and state after heat treatment. It has been shown that only binary phases Al4Ca, Al3Sc, and Al3Mg2 can be in equilibrium with the aluminum solid solution. It has been found that the maximum strengthening effect caused by the precipitation of Al3Sc nanoparticles for all investigated alloys is attained after annealing at 300-350°C.

  3. Effect of SiC interlayer between Ti6Al4V alloy and hydroxyapatite films.

    PubMed

    Azem, Funda Ak; Birlik, Isil; Braic, Viorel; Toparli, Mustafa; Celik, Erdal; Parau, Anca; Kiss, Adrian; Titorencu, Irina; Vladescu, Alina

    2015-04-01

    Bioactive coatings are frequently used to improve the osseointegration of the metallic implants used in dentistry or orthopaedics. Among different types of bioactive coatings, hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is one of the most extensively used due to its chemical similarities to the components of bones and teeth. In this article, production and characterization of hydroxyapatite films deposited on Ti6Al4V alloy prepared by magnetron sputtering were reported. Besides, SiC was deposited on substrate surface to study the interlayer effect. Obtained coatings were annealed at 600 °C for 30 and 120 min in a mixed atmosphere of N2 + H2O vapours with the heating rate of 12 °C min(-1). The effects of SiC interlayer and heat treatment parameters on the structural, mechanical and corrosion properties were investigated. After heat treatment process, the crystalline hydroxyapatite was obtained. Additionally, cell viability tests were performed. The results show that the presence of the SiC interlayer contributes a decrease in surface roughness and improves the mechanical properties and corrosion performance of the hydroxyapatite coatings. Biological properties were not affected by the presence of the SiC interlayer. PMID:25934259

  4. The sulfur partition ratio with Fe-CSAT melts and the sulfide capacity of CaO-SiO2-Na2O- (Ai2O3) slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, A. H.; Fruehan, R. J.

    1989-02-01

    The sulfur partition ratio between slag and carbon saturated iron and the sulfide capacity of CaO-Na2O-SiO2 slags and a 48 pet CaO-45 pet Al2O3-7 pet SiO2-(Na2O) slag have been mea-sured at 1400 °C. The addition of Na2O to a CaO-SiO2 slag increases the sulfur partition ratio and the sulfide capacity; however, Na2O at low concentrations has no measurable effect on the sulfide capacity of a CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 slag. To convert the sulfur partition ratio to the sulfide capacity, the oxygen potential was calculated assuming equilibrium between iron in the alloy and FeO in the slag with the activity of FeO calculated via a regular solution model. The optical basicity may be used to correlate the data, but at high Na2O contents the data do not adhere to the correlation previously developed for CaO-based slags.

  5. Bioactivity of CaSiO3/poly-lactic acid (PLA) composites prepared by various surface loading methods of CaSiO3 powder.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kiyoshi; Hasegawa, Fumikazu; Kameshima, Yoshikazu; Nakajima, Akira

    2007-08-01

    Mixing bioactive ceramic powders with polymers is an effective method for generating bioactivity to the polymer-matrix composites but it is necessary to incorporate up to 40 vol% of bioactive ceramic powder. However, such a high mixing ratio offsets the advantages of the flexibility and formability of polymer matrix and it would be highly advantageous to lower the mixing ratio. Since surface loading of ceramic powders in the polymer is thought to be an effective way of reducing the mixing ratio of the ceramic powder while maintaining bioactive activity, CaSiO(3)/poly-lactic acid (PLA) composites were prepared by three methods; (1) casting, (2) spin coating and (3) hot pressing. In methods (1) and (2), a suspension was prepared by dissolving PLA in chloroform and dispersing CaSiO(3) powder in it. The suspension was cast and dried to form a film in the case of method (1) while it was spin-coated on a PLA substrate in method (2). In method (3), CaSiO(3) powder was surface loaded on to a PLA substrate by hot-pressing. The bioactivity of these samples was investigated in vitro using simulated body fluid (SBF). Apatite formation was not observed in the samples prepared by method (1) but some apatite formation was achieved by mixing polyethylene glycol (PEG) with the PLA, producing a porous polymer matrix. In method (2), apatite was clearly observed after soaking for 7 days. Enhanced apatite formation was observed in method (3), the thickness of the resulting apatite layers becoming about 20 microm after soaking for 14 days. Since the amount of CaSiO(3) powder used in these samples was only < or =0.4 vol%, it is concluded that this preparation method is very effective in generating bioactivity in polymer-matrix composites by loading with only very small amounts of ceramic powder. PMID:17483882

  6. Bioactivity of CaSiO3/poly-lactic acid (PLA) composites prepared by various surface loading methods of CaSiO3 powder.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kiyoshi; Hasegawa, Fumikazu; Kameshima, Yoshikazu; Nakajima, Akira

    2007-05-01

    Mixing bioactive ceramic powders with polymers is an effective method for generating bioactivity to the polymer-matrix composites but it is necessary to incorporate up to 40 vol% of bioactive ceramic powder. However, such a high mixing ratio offsets the advantages of the flexibility and formability of polymer matrix and it would be highly advantageous to lower the mixing ratio. Since surface loading of ceramic powders in the polymer is thought to be an effective way of reducing the mixing ratio of the ceramic powder while maintaining bioactive activity, CaSiO(3)/poly-lactic acid (PLA) composites were prepared by three methods; (1) casting, (2) spin coating and (3) hot pressing. In methods (1) and (2), a suspension was prepared by dissolving PLA in chloroform and dispersing CaSiO(3) powder in it. The suspension was cast and dried to form a film in the case of method (1) while it was spin-coated on a PLA substrate in method (2). In method (3), CaSiO(3) powder was surface loaded on to a PLA substrate by hot pressing. The bioactivity of these samples was investigated in vitro using simulated body fluid (SBF). Apatite formation was not observed in the samples prepared by method (1) but some apatite formation was achieved by mixing polyethylene glycol (PEG) with the PLA, producing a porous polymer matrix. In method (2), apatite was clearly observed after soaking for 7 days. Enhanced apatite formation was observed in method (3), the thickness of the resulting apatite layers becoming about 20 microm after soaking for 14 days. Since the amount of CaSiO(3) powder used in these samples was only

  7. Simulation Study of Al-1Mn/Al-10Si Circular Clad Ingots Prepared by Direct Chill Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Li; Kang, Huijun; Chen, Zongning; Fu, Ying; Wang, Tongmin

    2016-02-01

    A modified direct chill casting process based on Novelis FusionTM Technology co-casting process was used recently to prepare Al-1Mn/Al-10Si circular clad ingots. In the current study, a comprehensive simulation model was developed to investigate the direct chill casting process for preparing the Al-1Mn/Al-10Si circular clad ingots, and a parametric study and experimental research of the direct chill casting process was conducted to explore potential success and failure casting conditions. The simulation results revealed the bonding mechanism of the Al-1Mn/Al-10Si interface in the direct chill casting process and identified the effect of certain parameters on casting performance. The results indicated that the effect of casting speed and Al-1Mn casting temperature on the variations of the minimum solid fraction of Al-1Mn at the interface is stronger than that of cooling water flow rate in inner mold, while Al-10Si casting temperature is the weakest of the four casting parameters. The corresponding experimental results verified that Al-1Mn/Al-10Si circular clad ingot with acceptable metallurgical bonding can be successfully prepared by direct chill casting process under the proper casting parameters. The thickness of diffusion zone is about 40 μm, and the fractured position in tensile test was located in the Al-1Mn alloy side which indicated the strength of the interfacial region is higher than that of Al-1Mn alloy.

  8. Ca(2+) and CaM are involved in Al(3+) pretreatment-promoted fluoride accumulation in tea plants (Camellia sinesis L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian-Chen; Gao, Hong-Jian; Wu, Hong-Hong; Yang, Tian-Yuan; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Mao, Jing-Dong; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2015-11-01

    Tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. kuntze) is known to be a fluoride (F) and aluminum (Al(3+)) hyper-accumulator. Previous study showed that pre-treatment of Al(3+) caused a significant increase of F accumulation in tea plants. However, less is known about the intricate network of Al(3+) promoted F accumulation in tea plants. In this study, the involvement of endogenous Ca(2+) and CaM in Al(3+) pretreatment-promoted F accumulation in tea plants was investigated. Our results showed that Al(3+) induced the inverse change of intracellular Ca(2+) fluorescence intensity and stimulated Ca(2+) trans-membrane transport in the mature zone of tea root. Also, a link between internal Ca(2+) and CaM was found in tea roots under the presence of Al(3+). In order to investigate whether Ca(2+) and CaM were related to F accumulation promoted by Al(3+) pretreatment, Ca(2+) chelator EGTA and CaM antagonists CPZ and TFP were used. EGTA, CPZ, and TFP pretreatment inhibited Al(3+)-induced increase of Ca(2+) fluorescence intensity and CaM content in tea roots, and also significantly reduced Al(3+)-promoted F accumulation in tea plants. Taken together, our results suggested that the endogenous Ca(2+) and CaM are involved in Al(3+) pretreatment-promoted F accumulation in tea roots. PMID:26318146

  9. Dissolution Kinetics of SiO2 into CaO-Fe2O3-SiO2 Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bin; Lv, Xuewei; Xiang, Shenglin; Xu, Jian

    2016-06-01

    High-basicity sinter is the predominant Fe-bearing material used in blast furnace process in East Asia. The dissolution of SiO2 into molten calcium ferrite influences the assimilation process. In this study, a rotating cylinder method was used to explore the dissolution kinetics of SiO2 into CaO-Fe2O3-SiO2 slag. The influencing factors, including temperature, rotating time and speed, and initial composition of the slag, were considered. Results showed that the dissolution rate increased with increasing rotation speed and temperature, whereas the increase in ω(SiO2) or ω(Fe2O3)/ ω(CaO) ratio in the initial slag composition decreased the dissolution rate. The diffusion coefficient and activation energy of SiO2 during the dissolution process ranged from 2.09 × 10-6 to 6.40 × 10-6 cm2 s-1 and 106.62 to 248.20 kJ mol-1, respectively. Concentration difference between the boundary layer and bulk phase was the primary driving force of the dissolution process; however, this process was also influenced by the slag viscosity and ion diffusivity.

  10. Structure and wear behavior of AlCrSiN-based coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yun; Du, Hao; Chen, Ming; Yang, Jun; Xiong, Ji; Zhao, Haibo

    2016-05-01

    AlCrN, AlCrSiCN, AlCrSiN/MoN, and AlCrSiN/NbN coatings have been deposited on high-polished WC-Co cemented carbide substrate and tools by mid-frequency magnetron sputtering in Ar/N2 mixtures. Al0.6Cr0.4, Al0.6Cr0.3Si0.1, and C/Mo/Nb targets were used during the deposition. The microstructure and mechanical properties of as-deposited coatings were investigated. Investigations of the wear behaviors of coated tools were also performed. The results showed that cubic structure was formed in the coatings. Broader CrAlN (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) peaks without SiNx peak were formed in the AlCrSiN/MexN coatings, which showed a nanocomposited structure. Meanwhile, according to SEM micrographs, AlCrN exhibited a columnar structure, while, AlCrSiCN, AlCrSiN/MoN, and AlCrSiN/NbN coatings showed nanocrystalline morphology. The nano-multilayered coatings performed higher hardness, H/E, and H3/E2 ratios compared with AlCrN coating. Through the Rockwell adhesion test, all the coatings exhibited adhesion strength quality HF1. After turning Inconel 718 under dry condition, the nano-multilyered coatings showed better wear resistance than AlCrN coating. Due to the molybdenum and niobium in the coating, AlCrSiN/MoN and AlCrSiN/NbN coatings showed the best wear resistance.

  11. Evolution of Fe Bearing Intermetallics During DC Casting and Homogenization of an Al-Mg-Si Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Grant, P. S.; O'Reilly, K. A. Q.

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of iron (Fe) bearing intermetallics (Fe-IMCs) during direct chill casting and homogenization of a grain-refined 6063 aluminum-magnesium-silicon (Al-Mg-Si) alloy has been studied. The as-cast and homogenized microstructure contained Fe-IMCs at the grain boundaries and within Al grains. The primary α-Al grain size, α-Al dendritic arm spacing, IMC particle size, and IMC three-dimensional (3D) inter-connectivity increased from the edge to the center of the as-cast billet; both α c-AlFeSi and β-AlFeSi Fe-IMCs were identified, and overall α c-AlFeSi was predominant. For the first time in industrial billets, the different Fe-rich IMCs have been characterized into types based on their 3D chemistry and morphology. Additionally, the role of β-AlFeSi in nucleating Mg2Si particles has been identified. After homogenization, α c-AlFeSi predominated across the entire billet cross section, with marked changes in the 3D morphology and strong reductions in inter-connectivity, both supporting a recovery in alloy ductility.

  12. Kinetics of Isothermal Melt Crystallization in CaO-SiO2-CaF2-Based Mold Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Myung-Duk; Shi, Cheng-Bin; Baek, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Jung-Wook; Kim, Seon-Hyo

    2015-10-01

    A kinetic study for isothermal melt crystallization of CaO-SiO2-CaF2-based mold fluxes with different basicity of 0.94 and 1.34 has been carried out systematically by DSC measurements. The kinetic parameters were determined by Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation. The average Avrami exponent of cuspidine (3CaO·2SiO2·CaF2) crystallization for mold flux of lower basicity (0.94) is calculated to be 3.1, implying that the crystallization mode is instantaneous nucleation followed by 3-dimensional growth. For the mold flux of higher basicity (1.34), the average Avrami exponent of cuspidine equals to 3.4, strongly suggesting that the growth is still 3 dimensional but the nucleation should be continuous. It was found that the effective crystallization rate constant for both mold fluxes increases as the crystallization temperature decreases, showing that the crystallization rate could be governed by nucleation rate. The negative effective activation energy indicates an anti-Arrhenius behavior for crystallization of the mold fluxes studied. Therefore, it is concluded that the melt crystallization for the commercial mold fluxes will be determined by thermodynamics of nucleation which is relevant to degree of undercooling. The morphology of cuspidine crystals observed by SEM agreeds well with the isothermal crystallization kinetics results.

  13. A study on the sealing ability and antibacterial activity of Ca3SiO5/CaCl2 composite cement for dental applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Chang, Jiang; Hu, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability and antibacterial activity of Ca3SiO5/CaCl2 composite cement. Fifty maxillary anterior teeth were instrumented according to step-back technique and filled with experimental and control materials. To evaluate the sealing ability, a fluid transport model using glucose was employed for quantitative analysis of endodontic microleakage. To evaluate antibacterial activity, E. colias (ATCC 25922) was cultivated on agar plates. Results showed that the sealing ability of Ca3SiO5/CaCl2 composite cement and cortisomol paste were higher than that of zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) cement, and that no significant difference was observed between Ca3SiO5/CaCl2 composite cement and cortisomol paste. On antibacterial activity, Ca3SiO5/CaCl2 composite cements composed of varying amounts of CaCl2 (0-15%) exhibited similar levels of activity against E. coliasas calcium hydroxide cement, whereas cortisomol paste had little effect on E. colias. All these results suggested that Ca3SiO5/CaCl2 composite cement demonstrated good potential for root canal treatment applications.

  14. Infiltration of Saffil alumina fiber with AlCu and AlSi alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Garbellini, O.; Morando, C.; Biloni, H.; Palacio, H. . Inst. de Fisica de Materiales)

    1999-06-18

    Currently there is a considerable scientific and technological interest in the composite materials, which a strong ceramic reinforcement is incorporated into a metal matrix (MMC) to tailor its properties for specific applications. Among the various techniques for fabricating MMC, the liquid metal infiltration process by means of a pressurized gas is an attractive fabrication route for near net shaped metal matrix composite and has been successfully used to fabricate Al, Mg and more recently, Ni and Ni aluminide matrix composites, which can be reinforced by SiC or Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] particles, whiskers, or short fibers. This paper describes the experimental technique used and presents an experimental investigation of the effects of the process parameters employed, such as the preform and melt temperatures, the volume fraction of fibers in the preform and the applied pressure upon the infiltration length of a chopped preform during a unidirectional infiltration aided by gas pressure casting. The experiments of the present work were conducted to provide kinetic data with a view to optimizing the selection of the process initial conditions for infiltration which have an effect on the infiltration length of the molten matrix alloy into a preform and it is a first step in investigating the correlation between the infiltration length (fluidity) of AlCuSi matrix alloys and the microstructure of the composites fabricated by pressure casting. For this purpose, this paper focuses on AlCu and AlSi matrix alloys reinforced by short-fibers [delta]-alumina SAFFIL. The experiments reported here were performed with the fibers initially at a temperature significantly below the metal melting point. This is the case of practical interest for the fabrication of many fiber-reinforced metal components.

  15. Influence of SiC surface polarity on the wettability and reactivity in an Al/SiC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ping; Wang, Yi; Ren, Lihua; Li, Shixin; Liu, Yuhua; Jiang, Qichuan

    2015-11-01

    The wetting of (0 0 0 1) 6H-SiC single crystals by molten Al was investigated using a dispensed sessile drop method in a high vacuum at 973-1173 K. The wettability and reactivity in this system are sensitive to the surface polarity of SiC. The interfacial reaction on the Si-terminated surface is rapid. The formation of a continuous Al4C3 product layer at the interface leads to an equilibrium contact angle of 56 ± 1° at 1173 K. In comparison, the interfacial reaction on the C-terminated surface is sluggish. The interface is only partially covered by discrete Al4C3 platelets even after dwelling at 1173 K for 2 h. The final wettability, however, is much better (θF = 41 ± 1°) than that of the Si-terminated surface which was covered by a dense Al4C3 layer, suggesting that the formation of Al4C3 should not always contribute to the wetting in the Al/SiC system. A plausible explanation is that the clean (i.e., deoxidized) C-terminated surface should be well wetted by molten Al in nature, owing to the strong chemical interactions between liquid Al and the surface atoms of the C-terminated SiC. It is likely that the presence of the oxide film at the surface of the molten Al drop or the SiC substrate and the rapid formation of Al4C3, which prevent the establishment of a real Al/SiC interface, conceal the intrinsic wettability of this system.

  16. n-type conductivity in Si-doped amorphous AlN: an ab initio investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durandurdu, Murat

    2016-04-01

    We report the electronic structure and topology of a heavily Si-doped amorphous aluminium nitride (Al37.5Si12.5N50) using ab initio simulations. The amorphous Al37.5Si12.5N50 system is found to be structurally similar to pure amorphous aluminium nitride. It has an average coordination number of about 3.9 and exhibits a small amount of Si-Si homopolar bonds. The formation of Si-Al bonds is not very favourable. Electronic structure calculations reveal that the Si doping has a negligible effect on the band gap width but causes delocalization of the valence band tail states and a shift of the Fermi level towards the conduction band. Thus, amorphous Al37.5Si12.5N50 alloys show n-type conductivity.

  17. Density functional study of CaN monolayer on Si(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saati asr, Maryam; Zahedifar, Maedeh; Hashemifar, S. Javad; Akbarzadeh, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the first-principles computations are performed to study the structural and magnetic properties of CaN/Si(001) interface. Bulk CaN in the zinc-blende (ZB) structure is argued to be an ionic magnetic compound with a total spin moment of 1 μB per formula unit, originated from the p electrons of N ions. Various interface configurations of a ZB CaN monolayer on Si (001) surface are investigated and the lowest energy and the highest spin polarized interfaces are extracted. Then the minimum energy path between the lowest energy and the highest spin polarized interfaces are calculated by using the nudged elastic band method and it is argued that both these systems are unstable toward a nonmagnetic interface with a rock-salt arrangement of Ca and N atoms.

  18. Evaluation of the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of Ca3SiO5-based cement.

    PubMed

    Nai, Gisele Alborghetti; Logar, Gustavo de Almeida; Mori, Graziela Garrido; Teixeira, Ligia Moraes; Silva, Bruna Camila Ferreira da; Moraes, Ana Elisa Maranho de; Cabral, Felipe André

    2016-01-01

    Ca3SiO5 is new cement based on the composition of Portland that has been developed to have superior physicochemical and biological properties. In a clinical evaluation, the cement did not appear to have cytotoxic properties and allowed for the proliferation of pulp cells and gingival fibroblasts. However, no previous studies have evaluated the genotoxicity or the mutagenicity of Ca3SiO5in vivo. Therefore, the goal of this study is to evaluate the genotoxic and mutagenic potential of Ca3SiO5-based cement in vivo. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups (n = 8). Group A rats received subcutaneous implantation of Ca3SiO5 in the dorsum. Group B rats received a single dose of cyclophosphamide (positive control). Group C rats received subcutaneous implantation of empty tubes in the dorsum (negative control). After 24 hours, all animals were euthanized and the bone marrow of the femurs was collected for use in the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The comet assay revealed that the Ca3SiO5 group had a tail intensity of 23.57 ± 7.70%, the cyclophosphamide group had a tail intensity of 27.43 ± 7.40%, and the negative control group had a tail intensity of 24.75 ± 5.55%. The average number of micronuclei was 6.25 (standard deviation, SD = 3.53) in the Ca3SiO5 group, 9.75 (SD = 2.49) in the cyclophosphamide group, and 0.75 (SD = 1.03) in the negative control group. There was an increase in the micronuclei frequency in the Ca3SiO5 group compared to that of the negative control group (p < 0.05). Our data showed that exposure to the Ca3SiO5-based cement resulted in an increase in the frequency of micronuclei, but no genotoxicity was detected according to the comet assay. PMID:27556557

  19. Using Atom-Probe Tomography to Understand Zn O ∶Al /SiO 2/Si Schottky Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, R.; Youssef, Amanda; Akey, Austin; Schoofs, Frank; Ramanathan, Shriram; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2016-09-01

    We use electronic transport and atom-probe tomography to study Zn O ∶Al /SiO 2/Si Schottky diodes on lightly doped n - and p -type Si. We vary the carrier concentration in the ZnO ∶Al films by 2 orders of magnitude, but the Schottky barrier height remains nearly constant. Atom-probe tomography shows that Al segregates to the interface, so that the ZnO ∶Al at the junction is likely to be metallic even when the bulk of the ZnO ∶Al film is semiconducting. We hypothesize that the observed Fermi-level pinning is connected to the insulator-metal transition in doped ZnO. This implies that tuning the band alignment at oxide/Si interfaces may be achieved by controlling the transition between localized and extended states in the oxide, thereby changing the orbital hybridization across the interface.

  20. Direct observation of Dirac cone in multilayer silicene intercalation compound CaSi2.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Eiichi; Sugawara, Katsuaki; Yaokawa, Ritsuko; Hitosugi, Taro; Nakano, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    Calcium-intercalated multilayer silicene CaSi2 exhibits a massless Dirac-cone π-electron-band dispersion like graphene, while the Dirac point is about 2 eV away from the Fermi level due to diiimide-based charge transfer from the Ca atoms to the silicene layers. This indicates that the graphene-like electronic structure with a massless Dirac cone is stably formed in the metal-intercalated multilayer silicene.

  1. Compositions and morphologies of TiAlSi intermetallics in different diffusion couples

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Tong; Liu, Guiliang; Liu, Xiangfa

    2014-09-15

    Two kinds of diffusion couples were designed to investigate the formation of ternary TiAlSi phases in Al–Si–Ti alloys. It was found that different diffusion processes result in various compositions and morphologies of TiAlSi intermetallics. The melted Al, Si and Ti atoms in the diffusion couple leads to the formation of flake-like TiAlSi phase through liquid–liquid reaction. Besides, unidirectional diffusion of Al and Si atoms into blocky TiAl{sub 3} particles or Ti powders via a liquid–solid diffusion process also results in the formation of TiAlSi, while keeping the block-like morphology. This kind of diffusion is a gradual process, driven by the concentration gradient. The reactions in the diffusion couples are helpful to understand the compositional and morphological evolutions of TiAlSi as reported in previous work. - Highlights: • Two diffusion couples were designed to investigate the formation of TiAlSi phases. • Compositions and morphologies of TiAlSi are influenced by the diffusion process. • Liquid–liquid and liquid–solid diffusions were detected. • The corresponding mechanisms were discussed.

  2. Fabrication and electrical properties of p-CuAlO2/(n-, p-)Si heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzhen, Wu; Zanhong, Deng; Weiwei, Dong; Jingzhen, Shao; Xiaodong, Fang

    2014-04-01

    CuAlO2 thin films have been prepared by the chemical solution deposition method on both n-Si and p-Si substrates. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the obtained CuAlO2 films have a single delafossite structure. The current transport properties of the resultant p-CuAlO2/n-Si and p-CuAlO2/p-Si heterojunctions are investigated by current-voltage measurements. The p-CuAlO2/n-Si has a rectifying ratio of ~35 within the applied voltages of -3.0 to +3.0 V, while the p-CuAlO2/p-Si shows Schottky diode-like characteristics, dominated in forward bias by the flow of space-charge-limited current.

  3. Original electrochemical mechanisms of CaSnO{sub 3} and CaSnSiO{sub 5} as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mouyane, M.; Womes, M.; Jumas, J.C.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Lippens, P.E.

    2011-11-15

    Calcium stannate (CaSnO{sub 3}) and malayaite (CaSnSiO{sub 5}) were synthesized by means of a high temperature solid-state reaction. Their crystal structures and morphologies were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy; their electrochemical properties were analyzed by galvanostatic tests. The amorphization of the initial electrode materials was followed by XRD. The first discharge of the oxides CaSnO{sub 3} and CaSnSiO{sub 5} shows a plateau at low potential, which is due to the progressive formation of Li-Ca-Sn and/or Li-Sn alloys as shown by {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy. The results reveal similar electrochemical mechanisms for CaSnO{sub 3} and CaSnSiO{sub 5} but they completely differ from those related to SnO{sub 2}. - Graphical abstract: {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectra at the end of the first discharge of CaSnO{sub 3} (dashed line) and CaSnSiO{sub 5} (solid line) anodes for Li-ion batteries. Inset shows that relative amounts of Sn(0) based alloys formed during the first discharge are similar for CaSnO{sub 3} and CaSnSiO{sub 5} pristine materials. Highlights: > CaSnSiO{sub 5} and CaSnO{sub 3} as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. > X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy, to explain the electrochemical mechanisms. > Similar mechanisms for the two compounds but different from those of SnO{sub 2} due to Ca.

  4. Laser shock processing of Al-SiC composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnick, T.; Steinhäuser, S.; Wielage, B.; Hofmann, U.; Tondu, S.; Peyre, P.; Bartnicki, E.; Pawlowski, L.

    1999-06-01

    Laser shock processing (LSP) is a technique of surface treatment (similar to shot peening) in which laser-induced mechanical shocks develop compressive stresses in the material. The stresses are of sufficient intensity to modify microstructure and properties of the coatings. In the present study, laser shocks of power density of 5 to 8 GW/cm2 power density, generated by means of a neodymium-glass laser, were used to treat Al + SiC composite coatings deposited by means of a HVOF spraying technique. The laser processed samples were metallographically prepared, and their microstructure was investigated by optical microscope and SEM. The latter was also used to investigate the surface morphology of the laser treated specimens. Finally, the microhardness and oscillating wear resistance of the coatings were tested and compared to data obtained for as-sprayed samples.

  5. Pulse TIG Welding of Two Al-Mg-Si Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manti, Rajesh; Dwivedi, D. K.; Agarwal, A.

    2008-10-01

    This article reports the influence of pulse tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding parameters on the microstructure, hardness and tensile strength of weld joints of two Al-(0.5-0.8%)Si-(0.5-0.6%)Mg alloy (T4) produced by using three pulse frequencies (25, 33, and 50 Hz) and two duty cycles (40 and 50%). It has been observed that the mechanical properties (hardness and tensile strength) are sensitive to microstructure of weld metal, which is appreciably affected by the pulse parameters. Low frequency produced higher strength and hardness than high pulse frequency under identical welding conditions. Weld metal and HAZ were found stronger than the base metal. SEM study showed that the fracture of weldment was mostly brittle type.

  6. Phase Compositions of Self Reinforcement Al2O3/CaAl12O19 Composite using X-ray Diffraction Data and Rietveld Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, D.; Low, I. M.; O'Connor, B.

    2008-03-01

    The analysis of x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns by the Rietveld technique was tested to the quantitatively phase compositions of self reinforcement Al2O3/CaAl12O19 composite. Room-temperature XRD patterns revealed that α-Al2O3 was the only phase presence in the CA0 sample, whereas the α-Al2O3 and CaAl12O19 phases were found for CA5, CA15, CA30, and CA50 samples. The peak intensity of CA6 in the self reinforcement Al2O3/CaAl12O19 composites increased in proportion with increase in CaAl12O19 content in contrast to α-Al2O3. The diffraction patterns for CA100 sample shows minor traces of α-Al2O3 even in relatively low peak intensity. It is suggesting that the in-situ reaction sintering of raw materials were not react completely to form 100 wt% CaAl12O19 at temperature 1650 °C. Quantitative phase compositions of self reinforcement Al2O3/CaAl12O19 composites by Rietveld analysis with XRD data has been well demonstrated. The results showed that the GOF values are relatively low and the fluctuation in the difference plots shows a reasonable fit between the observed and the calculated plot.

  7. Microstructural Development in Al-Si Powder During Rapid Solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Genau, Amber Lynn

    2004-01-01

    Powder metallurgy has become an increasingly important form of metal processing because of its ability to produce materials with superior mechanical properties. These properties are due in part to the unique and often desirable microstructures which arise as a result of the extreme levels of undercooling achieved, especially in the finest size powder, and the subsequent rapid solidification which occurs. A better understanding of the fundamental processes of nucleation and growth is required to further exploit the potential of rapid solidification processing. Aluminum-silicon, an alloy of significant industrial importance, was chosen as a model for simple eutectic systems displaying an unfaceted/faceted interface and skewed coupled eutectic growth zone, Al-Si powder produced by high pressure gas atomization was studied to determine the relationship between microstructure and alloy composition as a function of powder size and atomization gas. Critical experimental measurements of hypereutectic (Si-rich) compositions were used to determine undercooling and interface velocity, based on the theoretical models which are available. Solidification conditions were analyzed as a function of particle diameter and distance from nucleation site. A revised microstructural map is proposed which allows the prediction of particle morphology based on temperature and composition. It is hoped that this work, by providing enhanced understanding of the processes which govern the development of the solidification morphology of gas atomized powder, will eventually allow for better control of processing conditions so that particle microstructures can be optimized for specific applications.

  8. Microstructural development of rapid solidification in Al-Si powder

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, F.

    1995-11-01

    The microstructure and the gradient of microstructure that forms in rapidly solidificated powder were investigated for different sized particles. High pressure gas atomization solidification process has been used to produce a series of Al-Si alloys powders between 0.2 {mu}m to 150 {mu}m diameter at the eutectic composition (12.6 wt pct Si). This processing technique provides powders of different sizes which solidify under different conditions (i.e. interface velocity and interface undercooling), and thus give different microstructures inside the powders. The large size powder shows dendritic and eutectic microstructures. As the powder size becomes smaller, the predominant morphology changes from eutectic to dendritic to cellular. Microstructures were quantitatively characterized by using optical microscope and SEM techniques. The variation in eutectic spacing within the powders were measured and compared with the theoretical model to obtain interface undercooling, and growth rate during the solidification of a given droplet. Also, nucleation temperature, which controls microstructures in rapidly solidified fine powders, was estimated. A microstructural map which correlates the microstructure with particle size and processing parameters is developed.

  9. SDAS, Si and Cu Content, and the Size of Intermetallics in Al-Si-Cu-Mg-Fe Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivarupan, Tharmalingam; Taylor, John Andrew; Cáceres, Carlos Horacio

    2015-05-01

    Plates of Al-(a)Si-(b)Cu-Mg-(c)Fe alloys with varying content of (mass pct) Si ( a = 3, 4.5, 7.5, 9, 10, or 11), Cu ( b = 0, 1, or 4), and Fe ( c = 0.2, 0.5 or 0.8) were cast in sand molds with a heavy chill at one end to ensure quasi-directional solidification over a wide range of Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing (SDAS). Statistical analysis on the size of the β-Al5FeSi, α-Al8Fe2Si, or Al2Cu intermetallics on Backscattered Electron images showed that a high Si content reduced the size of the β platelets in alloys with up to 0.5 Fe content regardless of the SDAS, whereas at small SDAS the refining effect extended up to 0.8 Fe, and involved α-phase intermetallics which replaced the beta platelets at those concentrations. At low Si contents, a high Cu level appeared to have similar refining effects as increased Si, through the formation of α-phase particles in the post-eutectic stage which agglomerated with the Al2Cu intermetallics. A high content of Si appears to make the overall refining process less critical in terms of SDAS/cooling rate.

  10. Oxidation and microstructure evolution of Al-Si coated Ni3Al based single crystal superalloy with high Mo content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Xiaolu; Peng, Hui; Zheng, Lei; Qi, Wenyan; He, Jian; Guo, Hongbo; Gong, Shengkai

    2015-01-01

    A Si modified aluminide (Al-Si) coating was prepared on a Ni3Al based single crystal superalloy with high Mo content by high-activity pack cementation. Cyclic oxidation test at 1150 °C was carried out and the microstructure evolution of the coating was investigated. The results show that the oxidation resistance of the substrate was greatly increased by applying an Al-Si coating. During oxidation, outward diffusion of Mo was effectively blocked due to its high affinity with Si. Besides, a layered structure was formed as a result of the elements inter-diffusion. An obvious degradation of the Al-Si coating was observed after 100 h oxidation. Possible mechanisms related to the oxidation and elements inter-diffusion behaviours were also discussed.

  11. The atomic details of the interfacial interaction between the bottom electrode of Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions and HF-treated Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, L. J.; Krantz, P.; Nik, S.; Delsing, P.; Olsson, E.

    2015-04-01

    The interface between the Al bottom contact layer and Si substrates in Al based Josephson junctions is believed to have a significant effect on the noise observed in Al based superconducting devices. We have studied the atomic structure of it by transmission electron microscopy. An amorphous layer with a thickness of ˜5 nm was found between the bottom Al electrode and HF-treated Si substrate. It results from intermixing between Al, Si, and O. We also studied the chemical bonding states among the different species using energy loss near edge structure. The observations are of importance for the understanding of the origin of decoherence mechanisms in qubits based on these junctions.

  12. Microstructural characteristics and aging response of Zn-containing Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yuan-hua; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Ji-shan

    2013-07-01

    Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys with and without Zn addition were fabricated by conventional ingot metallurgy method. The microstructures and properties were investigated using optical microscopy (OM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), tensile test, hardness test, and electrical conductivity measurement. It is found that the as-cast Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Zn alloy is composed of coarse dendritic grains, long needle-like β/δ-AlFeSi white intermetallics, and Chinese script-like α-AlFeSi compounds. During high temperature homogenization treatment, only harmful needle-like β-AlFeSi phase undergoes fragmentation and spheroidizing at its tips, and the destructive needle-like δ-phase does not show any morphological and size changes. Phase transitions from β-AlFeSi to α-AlFeSi and from δ-AlFeSi to β-AlFeSi are also not found. Zn addition improves the aging hardening response during the former aging stage and postpones the peak-aged hardness to a long aging time. In T4 condition, Zn addition does not obviously increase the yield strength and decrease the elongation, but it markedly improves paint-bake hardening response during paint-bake cycle. The addition of 0.5wt% Zn can lead to an increment of 99 MPa in yield strength compared with the value of 69 MPa for the alloy without Zn after paint-bake cycle.

  13. 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR spectra of mullites from different kaolinites.

    PubMed

    He, Hongping; Guo, Jiugao; Zhu, Jianxi; Yuan, Peng; Hu, Cheng

    2004-04-01

    Mullites synthesized from four kaolinites with different random defect densities have been studied by 27Al and 29Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS NMR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). All these mullites show the same XRD pattern. However, 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR spectra reveal that the mullites derived from kaolinites with high defect densities, have a sillimanite-type Al/Si ordering scheme and are low in silica, whereas those mullites derived from kaolinites with low defect densities, consist of both sillimanite- and mullite-type Al/Si ordering schemes and are rich in silica. PMID:15084323

  14. The Tribological Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Al-Si Composite Coatings Reinforced with Nanodiamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Mingdong; Zhang, Cheng; Lahiri, Debrupa; Agarwal, Arvind

    2012-06-01

    Al-Si composite coatings reinforced with 0 vol.%, 0.5 vol.%, and 2 vol.% nanodiamond were synthesized by plasma spraying. The effect of the addition of nanodiamond on the microstructure, hardness, and tribological performance of the composite coatings is investigated. The addition of 2 vol.% nanodiamond results in 45% improvement in the wear resistance of Al-Si coating. Al-Si coating with 0.5 vol.% nanodiamond exhibited lower coefficient of friction (0.45) with a 12% improvement in the wear resistance. Plasma-sprayed AlSi coatings with nanodiamond have excellent potential as wear-resistant coatings in automotive applications.

  15. Chemical Stability and Biological Properties of Plasma-Sprayed CaO-SiO2-ZrO2 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ying; Xie, Youtao; Ji, Heng; Huang, Liping; Zheng, Xuebin

    2010-12-01

    In this work, calcia-stabilized zirconia powders were coated by silica derived from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) hydrolysis. After calcining at 1400 °C, decalcification of calcia-stabilized zirconia by silica occurred and powders composed of Ca2SiO4, ZrO2, and CaZrO3 were prepared. We produced three kinds of powders with different Ca2SiO4 contents [20 wt.% (denoted as CZS2), 40 wt.% (denoted as CZS4), and 60 wt.% (denoted as CZS6)]. The obtained powders were sprayed onto Ti-6Al-4V substrates using atmospheric plasma spraying. The microstructure of the powders and coatings were analyzed. The dissolution rates of the coatings were assessed by monitoring the ions release and mass losses after immersion in Tris-HCl buffer solution. Results showed that the chemical stability of the coatings were significantly improved compared with pure calcium silicate coatings, and increased with the increase of Zr contents. The CZS4 coating showed not only good apatite-formation ability in simulated body fluid, but also well attachment and proliferation capability for the canine bone marrow stem cells. Results presented here indicate that plasma-sprayed CZS4 coating has medium dissolution rate and good biological properties, suggesting its potential use as bone implants.

  16. Fabrication of a 2014Al-SiC/2014Al Sandwich Structure Composite with Good Tensile Strength and Ductility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xian; Zhao, Yu-Guang; Wang, Hui-Yuan; Wang, Zhi-Guo; Wu, Min; Pei, Chang-hao; Chen, Chao; Jiang, Qi-Chuan

    2016-09-01

    A sandwich structure laminate composed of a ductile 2014Al inter-layer and two nanoscale SiC reinforced 2014Al (SiC/2014Al) composite outer layers was successfully fabricated through the combination of powder metallurgy and hot rolling. The ductile 2014Al inter-layer effectively improved the processability of the sandwiched laminates. Tensile test revealed that the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the sandwiched laminate were 287 and 470 MPa, respectively, compared with 235 and 425 MPa for monolithic 2014Al. The good performance of the sandwiched laminate results from the strong bonding between the SiC/2014Al composites layer and the ductile 2014Al layer. Thus, the sandwich structure with a composite surface and ductile core is effective for increasing the strength and toughness of composite laminates.

  17. Mechanistic Selection and Growth of Twinned Bicrystalline Primary Si in Near Eutectic Al-Si Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Choonho

    2006-01-01

    Morphological evolution and selection of angular primary silicon is investigated in near-eutectic Al-Si alloys. Angular silicon arrays are grown directionally in a Bridgman furnace at velocities in the regime of 10-3 m/sec and with a temperature gradient of 7.5 x 103 K/m. Under these conditions, the primary Si phase grows as an array of twinned bicrystalline dendrites, where the twinning gives rise to a characteristic 8-pointed star-shaped primary morphology. While this primary Si remains largely faceted at the growth front, a complex structure of coherent symmetric twin boundaries enables various adjustment mechanisms which operate to optimize the characteristic spacings within the primary array. In the work presented here, this primary silicon growth morphology is examined in detail. In particular, this thesis describes the investigation of: (1) morphological selection of the twinned bicrystalline primary starshape morphology; (2) primary array behavior, including the lateral propagation of the starshape grains and the associated evolution of a strong <100> texture; (3) the detailed structure of the 8-pointed star-shaped primary morphology, including the twin boundary configuration within the central core; (4) the mechanisms of lateral propagation and spacing adjustment during array evolution; and (5) the thermosolutal conditions (i.e. operating state) at the primary growth front, including composition and phase fraction in the vicinity of the primary tip.

  18. Interfacial bonding and friction in SiC fiber/{beta}` SiAlON composites

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.M.; Zhu, D.; Xu, D.

    1994-12-31

    Interfacial mechanical properties of SiC fiber-reinforced, combustion synthesized {beta}`-SiAlON composites were studied by a fiber push-out technique. Interfacial debonding and parameters were studied in terms of embedded fiber length. Stable, progressive interfacial debonding prior to fiber frictional sliding was observed in specimens with large embedded fiber lengths. Linear, shear-lag and progressive debonding models were used in the analysis of interfacial parameters. The coefficient of friction and the residual radial stress estimated from the progressive debonding model was 0.25 and 158 MPa, respectively, as compared to 0.26 and 102 MPa, respectively obtained from the shear-lag model. The radial residual stress extracted from either model was reasonably close to that (125 MPa) calculated from the thermal expansion mismatch and cooling temperature range. An axial residual load (8.7 N) extracted from the progressive debonding model was compared well with that (6.7 N) obtained from a calculation based on thermal expansion mismatch. The interfacial fracture toughness was calculated to be 0.5 J/m{sup 2}. TEM interfacial characterization correlated with SEM observation of the interfacial debonding site, revealed that interfacial debonding was attributed to the weak physical bonding between the outermost carbon-rich layer of the SiC fiber and the matrix.

  19. On the infiltration behavior of Al, Al-Li, and Mg melts through SiC{sub p} bed

    SciTech Connect

    Murty, B.S.; Thakur, S.K.; Dhindaw, B.K.

    2000-01-01

    Aluminum, Al-Li(8090), and Mg matrix composites with uniform distributions of SiC{sub p} reinforcement have been prepared by the vacuum infiltration technique. The infiltration kinetics have been found to increase in the order of Al, Al-Li, and Mg. The Al-Li alloy and Mg as matrix materials have shown improved wettability with SiC{sub p} in comparison to Al, leading to enhanced infiltration kinetics and reduced reinforcement degradation in the former cases. The infiltration kinetics are insensitive to preheat temperature beyond a critical temperature, which is close to the melting point of the matrix. A marginal improvement in infiltration kinetics could be obtained with Cu and Ni coating on SiC. The Vickers hardness, measured on the SiC p articles, has been shown to be an index of the strength of the interface between the matrix and reinforcement in the composite.

  20. CaFeAl mixed oxide derived heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Zaiwu; Xu, Yunfeng; Liu, Qiang; Qian, Guangren

    2015-08-01

    CaAl layered double oxides (LDO) were prepared by co-precipitation and calcined at 750°C, and then applied to biodiesel production by transesterification reaction between methanol and soybean oil. Compared with characteristics of CaFe/LDO and CaAl/LDO, CaFeAl/LDO had the best performance based on prominent catalytic activity and stability, and achieved over 90% biodiesel yield, which stayed stable (over 85%) even after 8 cycles of reaction. The optimal catalytic reaction condition was 12:1M-ratio of methanol/oil, reaction temperatures of 60°C, 270rpm stirring rate, 60min reaction time, and 6% weight-ratio of catalyst/oil. In addition, the CaFeAl/LDO catalyst is insoluble in both methanol and methyl esters and can be easily separated for further reaction, turning it into an excellent alternative for biodiesel synthesis.

  1. CaFeAl mixed oxide derived heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Zaiwu; Xu, Yunfeng; Liu, Qiang; Qian, Guangren

    2015-08-01

    CaAl layered double oxides (LDO) were prepared by co-precipitation and calcined at 750°C, and then applied to biodiesel production by transesterification reaction between methanol and soybean oil. Compared with characteristics of CaFe/LDO and CaAl/LDO, CaFeAl/LDO had the best performance based on prominent catalytic activity and stability, and achieved over 90% biodiesel yield, which stayed stable (over 85%) even after 8 cycles of reaction. The optimal catalytic reaction condition was 12:1M-ratio of methanol/oil, reaction temperatures of 60°C, 270rpm stirring rate, 60min reaction time, and 6% weight-ratio of catalyst/oil. In addition, the CaFeAl/LDO catalyst is insoluble in both methanol and methyl esters and can be easily separated for further reaction, turning it into an excellent alternative for biodiesel synthesis. PMID:25740001

  2. Site selectivity of dopant cations in Ca3(SiO4)Cl2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    A series of static lattice calculations were performed to determine the site selectivity of cations of differing size and valence when substituted onto the Ca sites of the calcium chlorosilicate (Ca3(SiO4)Cl2) lattice, a potential host phase for the immobilisation of halide-rich wastes arising from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium. Atomic-scale simulations indicate that divalent cations are preferentially substituted onto the Ca1 site, whilst tri- and tetravalent cations are preferentially hosted on the Ca2 site, with the Ca1 site favoured for forming the vacancies necessary to charge-balance the lattice as a whole. Multi-defect calculations reveal that the site selectivity of the dopant cations is dependent on their ionic radii; as the ionic radii of the divalent cations increase, substitution onto the preferred site becomes more and more strongly favoured, whereas the inverse is true of the trivalent cations.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured CaSiO3 biomaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadale, Pramod N.; Kulal, Shivaji R.; Joshi, Meghanath G.; Jagtap, Pramod P.; Khetre, Sanjay M.; Bamane, Sambhaji R.

    2013-04-01

    Here we report a successful preparation of nanostructured calcium silicate by wet chemical approach. The synthesized sample was characterized by various physico-chemical methods. Thermal stability was investigated using thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). Structural characterization of the sample was carried out by the X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) which confirmed its single phase hexagonal structure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the nanostructure of the ceramics while homogeneous grain distribution was revealed by scanning electron microscopy studies (SEM). The elemental analysis data obtained from energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) were in close agreement with the starting composition used for the synthesis. Superhydrophilic nature of CaSiO3 was investigated at room temperature by sessile drop technique. Effect of porous nanosized CaSiO3 on early adhesion and proliferation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and cord blood mesenchymal stem (CBMSCs) cells was measured in vitro. MTT cytotoxicity test and cell adhesion test showed that the material had good biocompatibility and promoted cell viability and cell proliferation. It has been stated that the cell viability and proliferation are significantly affected by time and concentration of CaSiO3. These findings indicate that the CaSiO3 ceramics has good biocompatibility and that it is promising as a biomaterial.

  4. Dissolution of Precipitates During Solution Treatment of Al-Mg-Si-Cu Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xukai; Guo, Mingxing; Zhang, Jishan; Zhuang, Linzhong

    2016-02-01

    A model combining classical diffusion-controlled dissolution equation for a single spherical particle and Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-like equation is used to deal with dissolution process for different kinds of precipitations (Si, Mg2Si, Q(Al1.9Mg4.1Si3.3Cu)) in Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys. The results reveal that the dissolution time of precipitates increases with increasing their sizes and solute concentrations in the alloy matrix; for the same size and concentration, their dissolution times follow Si > Q(Al1.9Mg4.1Si3.3Cu) > Mg2Si. Two precipitates (Mg2Si and Al1.9Mg4.1Si3.3Cu) with a size of about 700 nm were obtained in a cold rolled Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Zn alloy, and the complete dissolution time is about 15 seconds, which is basically the same as the calculated time by the developed model. The theoretical prediction of dissolution time can be greatly used to design solution treatment and thermomechanical processing parameters of Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys.

  5. Fabrication of Spherical AlSi10Mg Powders by Radio Frequency Plasma Spheroidization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linzhi; Liu, Ying; Chang, Sen

    2016-05-01

    Spherical AlSi10Mg powders were prepared by radio frequency plasma spheroidization from commercial AlSi10Mg powders. The fabrication process parameters and powder characteristics were investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, laser particle size analyzer, powder rheometer, and UV/visible/infrared spectrophotometer were used for analyses and measurements of micrographs, phases, granulometric parameters, flowability, and laser absorption properties of the powders, respectively. The results show that the obtained spherical powders exhibit good sphericity, smooth surfaces, favorable dispersity, and excellent fluidity under appropriate feeding rate and flow rate of carrier gas. Further, acicular microstructures of the spherical AlSi10Mg powders are composed of α-Al, Si, and a small amount of Mg2Si phase. In addition, laser absorption values of the spherical AlSi10Mg powders increase obviously compared with raw material, and different spectra have obvious absorption peaks at a wavelength of about 826 nm.

  6. From atomic structure to excess entropy: a neutron diffraction and density functional theory study of CaO-Al₂O₃-SiO₂ melts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Maoyuan; Jacob, Aurélie; Schmetterer, Clemens; Masset, Patrick J; Hennet, Louis; Fischer, Henry E; Kozaily, Jad; Jahn, Sandro; Gray-Weale, Angus

    2016-04-01

    Calcium aluminosilicate CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CAS) melts with compositions (CaO-SiO2)(x)(Al2O3)(1-x) for x  <  0.5 and (Al2O3)(x)(SiO2)(1-x) for x ≥ 0.5 are studied using neutron diffraction with aerodynamic levitation and density functional theory molecular dynamics modelling. Simulated structure factors are found to be in good agreement with experimental structure factors. Local atomic structures from simulations reveal the role of calcium cations as a network modifier, and aluminium cations as a non-tetrahedral network former. Distributions of tetrahedral order show that an increasing concentration of the network former Al increases entropy, while an increasing concentration of the network modifier Ca decreases entropy. This trend is opposite to the conventional understanding that increasing amounts of network former should increase order in the network liquid, and so decrease entropy. The two-body correlation entropy S2 is found to not correlate with the excess entropy values obtained from thermochemical databases, while entropies including higher-order correlations such as tetrahedral order, O-M-O or M-O-M bond angles and Q(N) environments show a clear linear correlation between computed entropy and database excess entropy. The possible relationship between atomic structures and excess entropy is discussed.

  7. From atomic structure to excess entropy: a neutron diffraction and density functional theory study of CaO-Al₂O₃-SiO₂ melts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Maoyuan; Jacob, Aurélie; Schmetterer, Clemens; Masset, Patrick J; Hennet, Louis; Fischer, Henry E; Kozaily, Jad; Jahn, Sandro; Gray-Weale, Angus

    2016-04-01

    Calcium aluminosilicate CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CAS) melts with compositions (CaO-SiO2)(x)(Al2O3)(1-x) for x  <  0.5 and (Al2O3)(x)(SiO2)(1-x) for x ≥ 0.5 are studied using neutron diffraction with aerodynamic levitation and density functional theory molecular dynamics modelling. Simulated structure factors are found to be in good agreement with experimental structure factors. Local atomic structures from simulations reveal the role of calcium cations as a network modifier, and aluminium cations as a non-tetrahedral network former. Distributions of tetrahedral order show that an increasing concentration of the network former Al increases entropy, while an increasing concentration of the network modifier Ca decreases entropy. This trend is opposite to the conventional understanding that increasing amounts of network former should increase order in the network liquid, and so decrease entropy. The two-body correlation entropy S2 is found to not correlate with the excess entropy values obtained from thermochemical databases, while entropies including higher-order correlations such as tetrahedral order, O-M-O or M-O-M bond angles and Q(N) environments show a clear linear correlation between computed entropy and database excess entropy. The possible relationship between atomic structures and excess entropy is discussed. PMID:26940854

  8. Development of a Novel Cast 6351 Al-Al4SiC4 In Situ Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Manas Kumar; Biswas, Koushik; Maity, Joydeep

    2013-11-01

    In this research work 6351 Al-Al4SiC4 composite has been developed through stir casting route with incorporation of fine TiC powder in 6351 Al melt. During stir casting, round shaped Al4SiC4 particles were generated as TiC reacted with molten aluminum. These Al4SiC4 particles were found to be acting as nucleation sites for primary α (causing grain refinement) along with engulfment effects promoting particle distribution without clustering. Furthermore, as the volume fraction of Al4SiC4 particles increased, the proportion of dendritic region decreased (more equiaxed grains appeared) and the overall grain size of the matrix decreased. This resulted in an improved strength and ductility of the composite. Equations were developed with a reasonable accuracy correlating the strength with microstructural parameters. An excellent combination of strength (UTS = 215 MPa) and ductility (%Elongation = 10) was obtained for 6351 Al-7 vol.% Al4SiC4 composite as compared to base cast 6351 Al alloy (UTS = 121 MPa, %Elongation = 3).

  9. Radial macrosegregation and dendrite clustering in directionally solidified Al-7Si and Al-19Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghods, M.; Johnson, L.; Lauer, M.; Grugel, R. N.; Tewari, S. N.; Poirier, D. R.

    2016-05-01

    Hypoeutectic Al-7 wt% Si and Al-19 wt% Cu alloys were directionally solidified upward in a Bridgman furnace through a range of constant growth speeds and thermal gradients. Though processing is thermo-solutally stable, flow initiated by gravity-independent advection at, slightly leading, central dendrites moves rejected solute out ahead and across the advancing interface. Here any lagging dendrites are further suppressed which promotes a curved solid-liquid interface and the eventual dendrite "clustering" seen in transverse sections (dendrite "steepling" in longitudinal orientations) as well as extensive radial macrosegregation. Both aluminum alloys showed considerable macrosegregation at the low growth speeds (10 and 30 μm s-1) but not at higher speed (72 μm s-1). Distribution of the fraction eutectic-constituent on transverse sections was determined in order to quantitatively describe radial macrosegregation. The convective mechanisms leading to dendrite-steepling were elucidated with numerical simulations, and their results compared with the experimental observations.

  10. Effects of silica sol on the microstructure and mechanical properties of CaSiO3 bioceramics.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ying; Yin, Jinwei; Yao, Dongxu; Zuo, Kaihui; Xia, Yongfeng; Liang, Hanqin; Zeng, YuPing

    2016-07-01

    CaSiO3 ceramics were fabricated with silica sol addition by pressureless sintering. The effects of silica sol on phase composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of CaSiO3 ceramics were investigated. The silica sol additive was found to be effective in speeding up pore elimination, improving the grain growth, decreasing the sintering temperature and shortening the sintering time. When the amount of SiO2 was 5wt%, a flexural strength of 186.2MPa was achieved with an open porosity of 3.9%. The main crystal phase was β-CaSiO3 below sintering temperature of 1150°C.

  11. Effects of silica sol on the microstructure and mechanical properties of CaSiO3 bioceramics.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ying; Yin, Jinwei; Yao, Dongxu; Zuo, Kaihui; Xia, Yongfeng; Liang, Hanqin; Zeng, YuPing

    2016-07-01

    CaSiO3 ceramics were fabricated with silica sol addition by pressureless sintering. The effects of silica sol on phase composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of CaSiO3 ceramics were investigated. The silica sol additive was found to be effective in speeding up pore elimination, improving the grain growth, decreasing the sintering temperature and shortening the sintering time. When the amount of SiO2 was 5wt%, a flexural strength of 186.2MPa was achieved with an open porosity of 3.9%. The main crystal phase was β-CaSiO3 below sintering temperature of 1150°C. PMID:27127061

  12. [Release of Si, Al and Fe in red soil under simulated acid rain].

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Song, Cun-yi; Li, Fa-sheng

    2007-10-01

    bstract:A laboratory leaching experiment on simulated acid rain was carried out using soil columns. The release of Si, Al and Fe from soils and pH values of eluates were investigated. The results showed that under the given leaching volume, the release amounts of cations were influenced by the pH value of simulated acid rain, while their response to acid rain was different. Acid rain led to Si release, nearly none of Fe. Within the range from pH 3.0 to 5.6, a little Al release but mass Al only release at the pH below 3.0, both Si and Al had a declining release ability with the undergoing eluviation. At pH 2.5, the release amounts of Si and Al, especially Al, increased significantly with the strengthened weathering process of soil mineral. With an increase of the leaching amount of acid rain, the release of Si and Al increased, but acceleration of Si was slower than Al which was slower and slower. When the soil pH falling down to a certain grade, there are negative correlation between pH and both Al and DOC concentration of eluate. released, but most of Al derived from the aluminosilicates dissolved. Acid deposition can result in solid-phase alumino-organics broken and Al released, but most of Al derived from the aluminosilicates dissolved.

  13. Pressure-induced amorphous-to-amorphous configuration change in Ca-Al metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Lou, H. B.; Fang, Y. K.; Zeng, Q. S.; Lu, Y. H.; Wang, X. D.; Cao, Q. P.; Yang, K.; Yu, X. H.; Zheng, L.; Zhao, Y. D.; Chu, W. S.; Hu, T. D.; Wu, Z. Y.; Ahuja, R.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Pressure-induced amorphous-to-amorphous configuration changes in Ca-Al metallic glasses (MGs) were studied by performing in-situ room-temperature high-pressure x-ray diffraction up to about 40 GPa. Changes in compressibility at about 18 GPa, 15.5 GPa and 7.5 GPa during compression are detected in Ca80Al20, Ca72.7Al27.3, and Ca66.4Al33.6 MGs, respectively, whereas no clear change has been detected in the Ca50Al50 MG. The transfer of s electrons into d orbitals under pressure, reported for the pressure-induced phase transformations in pure polycrystalline Ca, is suggested to explain the observation of an amorphous-to-amorphous configuration change in this Ca-Al MG system. Results presented here show that the pressure induced amorphous-to-amorphous configuration is not limited to f electron-containing MGs. PMID:22530094

  14. Micro-nano filler metal foil on vacuum brazing of SiCp/Al composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Gao, Zeng; Niu, Jitai

    2016-06-01

    Using micro-nano (Al-5.25Si-26.7Cu)- xTi (wt%, x = 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0) foils as filler metal, the research obtained high-performance joints of aluminum matrix composites with high SiC particle content (60 vol%, SiCp/Al-MMCs). The effect of brazing process and Ti content on joint properties was investigated, respectively. The experimental results indicate that void free dense interface between SiC particle and metallic brazed seam with C-Al-Si-Ti product was readily obtained, and the joint shear strength enhanced with increasing brazing temperature from 560 to 580 °C or prolonging soaking time from 10 to 90 min. Sound joints with maximum shear strength of 112.5 MPa was achieved at 580 °C for soaking time of 90 min with (Al-5.25Si-26.7Cu)-2Ti filler, where Ti(AlSi)3 intermetallic is in situ strengthening phase dispersed in the joint and fracture occured in the filler metal layer. In this research, the beneficial effect of Ti addition into filler metal on improving wettability between SiC particle and metallic brazed seam was demonstrated, and capable welding parameters were broadened for SiCp/Al-MMCs with high SiC particle content.

  15. 18.5% efficient AlOx/SiNy rear passivated industrial multicrystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Qi; Lu, Hongyan; Ge, Jian; Xi, Xi; Chen, Rulong; Yang, Jian; Zhu, Jingbing; Shi, Zhengrong; Chu, Junhao

    2014-06-01

    Due to the trend toward thinner and higher efficient crystalline silicon solar cells, excellent rear surface passivation and internal optical reflectance have become more and more important. Aluminum oxide (AlOx) capped with silicon nitride (SiNy), which is considered as one of the most promising candidates to achieve superior rear passivation and internal reflectance, has to date been mostly used for the rear side of p-type monocrystalline silicon (mono-Si) solar cells. In this paper, we have optimized rear AlOx/SiNy stacks deposited by industrial plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) for multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) passivated emitter and rear cells (PERC). Sufficient passivation activation effect from industrial fast-firing process and SiNy deposition process have been demonstrated, so the samples were not subjected to additional thermal treatment process in the cell fabrication flow. For rear AlOx/SiNy stack, it is shown that when PECVD AlOx is thicker than 40 nm, apparent blisters in fired AlOx deteriorate the cell performance, and the appropriate SiNy capping is N-rich SiNy with thickness of at least 180 nm. After process optimization with the least additional process steps, independently confirmed efficiency of 18.5% for Pluto-PERC with PECVD AlOx/SiNy rear passivation on standard 156 mm × 156 mm p-type mc-Si wafers has been achieved.

  16. Initial Wetting and Spreading Rates Between SiC and CaO-SiO2-MnO Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jungseon; Jeon, Junmo; Lee, Kyuyoung; Park, Joo Hyun; Chung, Yongsug

    2016-06-01

    The wetting of CaO-SiO2-MnO slag on silicon carbide was studied with a variety of slag compositions at 1823 K (1550 °C). Wetting experiments were performed by the dispensed drop technique. We observed complete wetting of the slag on SiC (within 1 second) without a bubble reaction regardless of the basicity (=CaO/SiO2 = C/S ratio). However, after 8 seconds, the bubble reaction was observed under conditions of C/S = 0.8 and 1.1, whereas it was not observed at temperatures lower than 1823 K (1550 °C). The contact angle was independent of MnO content, while the spreading rate increased with the increasing MnO content at the early stage of wetting. Inertial force acts on the early stage of spreading, and viscous force acts with lower MnO content due to higher viscosity. The low-viscosity slag did not fit with the nonreactive viscous model. However, the high-viscosity slag fitted the model well.

  17. Electrical characterization of Si doped AlN films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonov, Simeon; Bakalova, Silvia; Szekeres, Anna; Minkov, Ivaylo; Socol, Gabriel; Ristoscu, Carmen; Mihailescu, Ion

    2015-04-01

    The electrical properties of thin AlN films doped with Si (AlN:Si) have been investigated. The films were synthesized on Si substrates at 800 °C by pulsed laser deposition in low-pressure nitrogen ambient. The AlN:Si films exhibit non-ohmic I-V characteristics and the current through these films is controlled by space charge limited current. The C-V dependence of metal-insulator-silicon (MIS) structures with AlN:Si films exhibits an excess capacitance around zero bias voltage. This excess capacitance indicates the presence of deep acceptor levels situated at the boundaries of adjacent grains in the AlN:Si films. The Si donor density in the AlN:Si films, estimated from the 1 MHz C-V characteristics, is of the order of 1018 cm-3. The impedance measurements of these AlN:Si structures at different test voltage frequencies reveal that the charge transport mechanism is dominated by either thermally-activated hopping or electron tunneling from occupied to nearest unoccupied deep levels.

  18. Covalent bonds and their crucial effects on pseudogap formation in α-Al(Mn,Re)Si icosahedral quasicrystalline approximant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirihara, K.; Nagata, T.; Kimura, K.; Kato, K.; Takata, M.; Nishibori, E.; Sakata, M.

    2003-07-01

    X-ray charge densities of Al-based icosahedral quasicrystalline approximant crystals α-AlReSi, α-AlMnSi, and Al12Re were observed by a combination of the maximum entropy method with the Rietveld method. We successfully obtained the clear images of interatomic covalent bonds between Al and transition metals (Mn, Re) and those in the Al (or Si) icosahedron in Mackay icosahedral clusters of both α-AlReSi and α-AlMnSi approximant crystals. The bonding nature of the three kinds of glue atom sites connecting Mackay icosahedral clusters was also clarified. This covalent bonding nature should strongly relate with the enhancement of the electron density-of-states pseudogap near the Fermi level. In addition, the interatomic covalent bonds of α-AlReSi are stronger than those of α-AlMnSi. This fact leads to the low effective carrier density of α-AlReSi in comparison with that of α-AlMnSi. Unlike the covalent bonding nature of an icosahedron in α-AlReSi and α-AlMnSi crystals, the Al icosahedron with an Re center atom exhibits no Al-Al interatomic covalent bonds in the Al12Re crystal. The tendency for metallic-covalent bonding conversion in the Al icosahedron, which is related to the atom site occupancy of the icosahedral cluster center, is also strongly supported.

  19. Structure and properties of bioactive eutectic glasses based on the Ca3(PO4)2-CaSiO3-CaMg(SiO3)2 system.

    PubMed

    Magallanes-Perdomo, M; De Aza, A H; Sobrados, I; Sanz, J; Pena, P

    2012-02-01

    Taking into account the phase equilibrium relationships within the Ca3(PO4)2-CaSiO3-CaMg(SiO3)2 ternary system, three bioactive glasses with a eutectic composition and analogous amounts of Ca3(PO4)2 (∼40 wt.%) have been prepared. The structure of the glasses was investigated by 31P and 29Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopy. The glasses exhibited thermal expansion coefficients (50-600 °C) of 11.8-13.3×10(-6) °C(-1), a glass transition temperature of 790-720 °C and a softening temperature of 811-750 °C. The mechanical properties of the glasses were as follows: bending strength ∼100 MPa, Young's modulus 94-83 GPa, Vickers microhardness 7.1-4.1 GPa and toughness 0.8 MPa m1/2. The bioactive properties were discussed in terms of their structure deduced by MAS-NMR spectroscopy and the field strength of the network modifiers (Mg2+ and Ca2+). A knowledge of the glass structure was important in predicting its bioactivity.

  20. An assessment of the CaO-SiO2 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillert, Mats; Sundman, Bo; Wang, Xizhen

    1990-04-01

    An evaluation of the CaO-SiO2 system has been made using a newly developed model, a two-sublattice model for ionic solutions. Two alternatives were tested. In the first one, three anions were assumed, O-2, SiO4 -4, and SiO3 -2. In the second one, SiO3 -2 was omitted. A set of parameter values describing the Gibbs energy of the liquid phase and solid phases was fixed for each alternative by a computer-operated optimization procedure called PARROT. Satisfactory assessments were achieved over the whole phase diagram range with both alternatives. The main difference between them occurs at the monotectic point. A comparison between calculated properties and experimental data is given.

  1. Structure of Fe3Si/Al/Fe3Si thin film stacks on GaAs(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenichen, B.; Jahn, U.; Nikulin, A.; Herfort, J.; Kirmse, H.

    2015-11-01

    Fe3Si/Al/Fe3Si/GaAs(001) structures were deposited by molecular-beam epitaxy and characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The first Fe3Si film on GaAs(001) grew epitaxially as a (001) oriented single crystal. The subsequent Al film grew almost {111} oriented in a fibrous texture although the underlying Fe3Si is exactly (001) oriented. The growth in this orientation is triggered by a thin transition region which is formed at the Fe3Si/Al interface. In the end, after the growth of the second Fe3Si layer on top of the Al, the final properties of the whole stack depended on the substrate temperature T s during deposition of the last film. The upper Fe3Si films are mainly {110} oriented although they are poly-crystalline. At lower T s, around room temperature, all the films retain their original structural properties.

  2. The microstructure-strength relationship in a deformation processed Al-Ca composite

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Liang; Kim, Hyongjune; Anderson, Iver; Russell, Alan

    2013-02-07

    An Al-9 vol% Ca composite was produced by powder metallurgy and deformation processing. The Al–Ca composite was extruded, swaged and wire drawn to a deformation true strain of 13.8. Both Al and Ca are face-centered cubic, so the Ca second phase deformed into continuous, nearly cylindrical filaments in the Al matrix. The formation of intermetallic compounds, filament coarsening, and spheriodization at elevated temperature was observed by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction. Both the thickness and spacing of the Ca filaments decreased exponentially with increasing deformation. The ultimate tensile strength of the composite increased rapidly with increased deformation, especially at high deformation processing strains. The relation between deformation true strain and ultimate tensile strength is underestimated by the rule of mixtures; a modified Hall–Petch barrier strengthening model was found to fit the data better.

  3. The application of cast SiC/Al to rotary engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoller, H. M.; Carluccio, J. R.; Norman, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    A silicon carbide reinforced aluminum (SiC/Al) material fabricated by Dural Aluminum Composites Corporation was tested for various components of rotary engines. Properties investigated included hardness, high temperature strength, wear resistance, fatigue resistance, thermal conductivity, and expansion. SiC/Al appears to be a viable candidate for cast rotors, and may be applicable to other components, primarily housings.

  4. Improvement of magnetic and structural stabilities in high-quality Co{sub 2}FeSi{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}/Si heterointerfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, S.; Tanikawa, K.; Oki, S.; Kawano, M.; Miyao, M.; Hamaya, K.

    2014-08-18

    We study high-quality Co{sub 2}FeSi{sub 1−x}Al{sub x} Heusler compound/Si (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) heterointerfaces for silicon (Si)-based spintronic applications. In thermal treatment conditions, the magnetic and structural stabilities of the Co{sub 2}FeSi{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}/Si heterointerfaces are improved with increasing x in Co{sub 2}FeSi{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}. Compared with L2{sub 1}-ordered Co{sub 2}FeSi/Si, B2-ordered Co{sub 2}FeAl/Si can suppress the diffusion of Si atoms into the Heusler-compound structure. This experimental study will provide an important knowledge for applications in Si-based spin transistors with metallic source/drain contacts.

  5. Microwave absorption capability of microcapsules by coating FeSiAlCr with SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Weirong; Zhang, Penghua; Yan, Wenjing; Zhou, Liang; Xu, Hui

    2012-10-01

    Electromagnetic wave absorption of microcapsules by coating FeSiAlCr with SiO2 is investigated. The absorption amplitude of the microcapsules is found to increase significantly in the lower frequency of microwave compared with the corpuscles of FeSiAlCr alloy. Reflection loss (RL) exceeding -10 dB can be obtained for all frequencies within 2.6-7.3 GHz, covering half of the S-band, and the whole C-band when the absorber layer thickness is 2 mm. The maximum RL can exceed -18 dB at 4.3 GHz, while the RL is only -4 dB with the corpuscles of FeSiAlCr alloy. The reason is that the microcapsules's conductance is decreased and the absorption of electromagnetic wave in the microcapsule materials is easier.

  6. Inhomogeneous distribution of defect-related emission in Si-doped AlGaN epitaxial layers with different Al content and Si concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Kurai, Satoshi Ushijima, Fumitaka; Yamada, Yoichi; Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa

    2014-02-07

    The spatial distribution of luminescence in Si-doped AlGaN epitaxial layers that differ in Al content and Si concentration has been studied by cathodoluminescence (CL) mapping in combination with scanning electron microscopy. The density of surface hillocks increased with decreasing Al content and with increasing Si concentration. The mechanisms giving rise to those hillocks are likely different. The hillocks induced surface roughening, and the compositional fluctuation and local donor-acceptor-pair (DAP) emission at hillock edges in AlGaN epitaxial layers were enhanced irrespective of the origin of the hillocks. The intensity of local DAP emission was related to Si concentration, as well as to hillock density. CL observation revealed that DAP emission areas were present inside the samples and were likely related to dislocations concentrated at hillock edges. Possible candidates for acceptors in the observed DAP emission that are closely related in terms of both Si concentration and hillock edges with large deformations are a V{sub III}-Si{sub III} complex and Si{sub N}, which are unfavorable in ordinary III-nitrides.

  7. Corrosion and protection of heterogeneous cast Al-Si (356) and Al-Si-Cu-Fe (380) alloys by chromate adn cerium inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Syadwad

    In this study, the localized corrosion and conversion coating on cast alloys 356 (Al-7.0Si-0.3Mg) and 380 (Al-8.5Si-3.5Cu-1.6Fe) were characterized. The intermetallic phases presence in the permanent mold cast alloy 356 are primary-Si, Al5FeSi, Al8Si6Mg3Fe and Mg2Si. The die cast alloy 380 is rich in Cu and Fe elements. These alloying elements result in formation of the intermetallic phases Al 5FeSi, Al2Cu and Al(FeCuCr) along with primary-Si. The Cu- and Fe-rich IMPS are cathodic with respect to the matrix phase and strongly govern the corrosion behavior of the two cast alloys in an aggressive environment due to formation of local electrochemical cell in their vicinity. Results have shown that corrosion behavior of permanent mould cast alloy 356 is significantly better than the die cast aluminum alloy 380, primarily due to high content of Cu- and Fe-rich phases such as Al2Cu and Al 5FeSi in the latter. The IMPS also alter the protection mechanism of the cast alloys in the presence of inhibitors in an environment. The presence of chromate in the solution results in reduced cathodic activity on all the phases. Chromate provides some anodic inhibition by increasing pitting potentials and altering corrosion potentials for the phases. Results have shown that performance of CCC was much better on 356 than on 380, primarily due to inhomogeneous and incomplete coating deposition on Cu- and Fe- phases present in alloy 380. XPS and Raman were used to characterize coating deposition on intermetallics. Results show evidence of cyanide complex formation on the intermetallic phases. The presence of this complex is speculated to locally suppress CCC formation. Formation and breakdown of cerium conversion coatings on 356 and 380 was also analyzed. Results showed that deposition of cerium hydroxide started with heavy precipitation on intermetallic particles with the coatings growing outwards onto the matrix. Electrochemical analysis of synthesized intermetallics compounds in the

  8. Nanoscale chemical templating of Si nanowires seeded with Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khayyat, Maha M.; Wacaser, Brent A.; Reuter, Mark C.; Ross, Frances M.; Sadana, Devendra K.; Chen, Tze-Chiang

    2013-06-01

    We describe a new approach for achieving controlled spatial placement of VLS-grown nanowires that uses an oxygen-reactive seed material and an oxygen-containing mask. Oxygen-reactive seed materials are of great interest for electronic applications, yet they cannot be patterned using the approaches developed for noble metal seed materials such as Au. This new process, nanoscale chemical templating, takes advantage of the reactivity of the blanket seed layer by depositing it over a patterned oxide that reacts with the seed material to prevent nanowire growth in undesired locations. Here we demonstrate this technique using Al as the seed material and SiO2 as the mask, and we propose that this methodology will be applicable to other reactive metals that are of interest for nanowire growth. The method has other advantages over conventional patterning approaches for certain applications including reducing patterning steps, flexibility in lithographic techniques, and high growth yields. We demonstrate its application with standard and microsphere lithography. We show a high growth yield and fidelity, with no NWs between openings and a majority of openings occupied by a single vertical nanowire, and discuss the dependence of yield on parameters.

  9. Lattice dynamics and thermal equation of state of cubic CaSiO3 perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, T.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    CaSiO3 perovskite (CaPv) is believed to be the third most abundant mineral in the Earth's lower mantle and is a major component of subducted mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB). A well constrained thermal equation of state for CaPv is key to several geophysical problems, e.g., lower mantle composition, density contrast between mantle and plates, nature of D' region, etc. Its experimental and theoretical determination have been very challenging because the cubic structure that CaPv adopts at lower mantle conditions is unstable at low temperatures and some of its harmonic phonons have imaginary frequencies. We have used a recently developed hybrid method combining ab initio molecular dynamics with vibrational normal mode analysis to compute its free energy and thermal equation of state at lower mantle conditions. These results are essential to understand the fate of subducted MORB in the mantle. Research supported by NSF grants EAR-1319361 and EAR-1019853

  10. Ca-rich Ca-Al-oxide, high-temperature-stable sorbents prepared from hydrotalcite precursors: synthesis, characterization, and CO2 capture capacity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Po-Hsueh; Chang, Yen-Po; Chen, San-Yuan; Yu, Ching-Tsung; Chyou, Yau-Pin

    2011-12-16

    We present the design and synthesis of Ca-rich Ca-Al-O oxides, with Ca(2+)/Al(3+) ratios of 1:1, 3:1, 5:1, and 7:1, which were prepared by hydrothermal decomposition of coprecipitated hydrotalcite-like Ca-Al-CO(3) precursors, for high-temperature CO(2) adsorption at 500-700 °C. In situ X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that the coprecipitated, Ca-rich, hydrotalcite-like powders with Ca(2+)/Al(3+) ratios of 5:1 and 7:1 contained Ca(OH)(2) and layered double hydroxide (LDH) phases. Upon annealing, LDH was first destroyed at approximately 200 °C to form an amorphous matrix, and then at 450-550 °C, the Ca(OH)(2) phase was converted into a CaO matrix with incorporated Al(3+) to form a homogeneous solid solution without a disrupted lattice structure. CaO nanocrystals were grown by thermal treatment of the weakly crystalline Ca-Al-O oxide matrix. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that a CO(2) adsorption capacity of approximately 51 wt. % can be obtained from Ca-rich Ca-Al-O oxides prepared by calcination of 7:1 Ca-Al-CO(3) LDH phases at 600-700 °C. Furthermore, a relatively high CO(2) capture capability can be achieved, even with gas flows containing very low CO(2) concentrations (CO(2)/N(2) = 10 %). Approximately 95.6 % of the initial CO(2) adsorption capacity of the adsorbent is retained after 30 cycles of carbonation-calcination. TEM analysis indicates that carbonation-promoted CaCO(3) formation in the Ca-Al-O oxide matrix at 600 °C, but a subsequent desorption in N(2) at 700 °C, caused the formation CaO nanocrystals of approximately 10 nm. The CaO nanocrystals are widely distributed in the weakly crystalline Ca-Al-O oxide matrix and are present during the carbonation-calcination cycles. This demonstrates that Ca-Al-O sorbents that developed through the synthesis and calcination of Ca-rich Ca-Al LDH phases are suitable for long-term cyclic operation in severe temperature environments.

  11. Heat Pipe Embedded AlSiC Plates for High Conductivity - Low CTE Heat Spreaders

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Matthew ); Weyant, J.; Garner, S. ); Occhionero, M. )

    2010-01-07

    Heat pipe embedded aluminum silicon carbide (AlSiC) plates are innovative heat spreaders that provide high thermal conductivity and low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Since heat pipes are two phase devices, they demonstrate effective thermal conductivities ranging between 50,000 and 200,000 W/m-K, depending on the heat pipe length. Installing heat pipes into an AlSiC plate dramatically increases the plate’s effective thermal conductivity. AlSiC plates alone have a thermal conductivity of roughly 200 W/m-K and a CTE ranging from 7-12 ppm/ deg C, similar to that of silicon. An equivalent sized heat pipe embedded AlSiC plate has effective thermal conductivity ranging from 400 to 500 W/m-K and retains the CTE of AlSiC.

  12. Interfacial valence electron localization and the corrosion resistance of Al-SiC nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Mosleh-Shirazi, Sareh; Hua, Guomin; Akhlaghi, Farshad; Yan, Xianguo; Li, Dongyang

    2015-01-01

    Microstructural inhomogeneity generally deteriorates the corrosion resistance of materials due to the galvanic effect and interfacial issues. However, the situation may change for nanostructured materials. This article reports our studies on the corrosion behavior of SiC nanoparticle-reinforced Al6061 matrix composite. It was observed that the corrosion resistance of Al6061 increased when SiC nanoparticles were added. Overall electron work function (EWF) of the Al-SiC nanocomposite increased, along with an increase in the corrosion potential. The electron localization function of the Al-SiC nanocomposite was calculated and the results revealed that valence electrons were localized in the region of SiC-Al interface, resulting in an increase in the overall work function and thus building a higher barrier to hinder electrons in the nano-composite to participate in corrosion reactions. PMID:26667968

  13. Thermoelectric properties of Al-doped Mg2Si thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-jian; Zhou, Bai-yang; Li, Jian-xin; Wen, Cui-lian

    2016-11-01

    The Al-doped Mg2Si thin films were fabricated by two-target alternative magnetron sputtering technique, and the influences of different Al doping contents on the thermoelectric properties of Al-doped Mg2Si thin films were investigated. The compositions, crystal structures, electronic transport properties and thermoelectric properties of the thin films were examined using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Hall coefficient measurement and Seebeck coefficient measurement system, respectively. The EDS results show that the thin films doped with Al target sputtering power of 30 W, 60 W and 90 W have the Al content of 0.68 at.%, 1.56 at.% and 2.85 at.%, respectively. XRD results indicate that the diffraction peaks of Mg2Si become stronger with increasing Al dopant. The results of Hall coefficient measurement and Seebeck coefficient measurement system reveal that all the samples are n-type. The conductivities of Al-doped Mg2Si thin films are significantly greater than that of undoped Mg2Si thin film, and increase with increasing Al doping content. With the increase of temperature, the absolute value of the Seebeck coefficients of Mg2Si base thin films increase firstly and then decrease. The maximum power factor obtained is 3.8 mW m-1 k-2 for 1.56 at.% Al-doped Mg2Si thin film at 573 K.

  14. A molecular dynamics study of the atomic structure of (CaO)x(SiO2)1-x glasses.

    PubMed

    Mead, Robert N; Mountjoy, Gavin

    2006-07-27

    The local atomic environment of Ca in (CaO)x(SiO2)1-x glasses is of interest because of the role of Ca in soda-lime glass, the application of calcium silicate glasses as biomaterials, and the previous experimental measurement of the Ca-Ca correlation in CaSiO(3) glass. Molecular dynamics has been used to obtain models of (CaO)x(SiO2)1-x glasses with x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5, and with approximately 1000 atoms and size approximately 25 A. As expected, the models contain a tetrahedral silica network, the connectivity of which decreases as x increases. In the glass-forming region, i.e., x = 0.4 and 0.5, Ca has a mixture of 6- and 7-fold coordination. Bridging oxygen makes an important contribution to the coordination of Ca, with most bridging oxygens coordinated to 2 Si plus 1 Ca. The x = 0.5 model is in reasonable agreement with previous experimental studies, and does not substantiate the previous theory of cation ordering, which predicted Ca arranged in sheets. In the phase-separated region, i.e., x = 0.1 and 0.2, there is marked clustering of Ca.

  15. Extrusion textures in Al, 6061 alloy and 6061/SiC{sub p} nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, X.; Galano, M.; Audebert, F.

    2014-02-15

    The 6061 alloy matrix composites reinforced with 10 wt.% and 15 wt.% of SiC nanoparticles with an average diameter of ∼ 500 nm were hot extruded in strip shape from ball milled powders. The microstructures and textures of the hot extruded nanocomposites have been investigated by means of three dimensional orientation distribution functions and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. Pure Al and 6061 alloy extruded strips from atomised powders have been produced for comparison purposes. The results show that the non-deformable SiC particulates have a strong influence on the formation of extrusion textures in the matrix. Pure Al and 6061 alloy develop a typical β fibre texture after extrusion in strip shape. For 6061/SiC{sub p} nanocomposites, the intensities of major texture components decrease with increasing amount of SiC particles. The total intensities of Brass, Dillamore and S components have decreased by 19% for 6061/10 wt.% SiC{sub p} and 40% for 6061/15 wt.% SiC{sub p} composites when compared with the 6061 alloy. EBSD analysis on local grain orientations shows limited Al grain rotations in SiC rich zones and decreased texture intensities. - Highlights: • The effect of nano-SiCp to the extrusion texture of Al alloy matrix was analysed. • The Intensity of major texture components decreases with increasing amount of SiCp. • Deformation zones with limited Al grain rotations formed in SiCp rich zones.

  16. Nucleation Effects in Thermally Managed Graphite Fiber-Reinforced Al-Cu and Al-Si Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, H. G.; Lopez, H. F.; Gajdardziska-Josifovska, M.; Rohatgi, P. K.

    2007-11-01

    The influence of heat extraction through fiber reinforcements on the resultant solidification morphologies was investigated in cast Al-Cu and Al-Si alloy composites reinforced with graphite fibers (GRFs). For this purpose, the GRFs were externally cooled by exposing their ends to ambient air during pressure infiltration. It was found that in the Al-Cu system, heat extraction through the fiber ends promoted the development of single α-Al envelopes around the GRFs. In particular, radial growth of the α envelopes occurred with a planar solid/liquid solidification front as a result of heat extraction. Apparently, the high thermal conductivity of GRFs causes significant heat extraction to enable the development of a positive temperature gradient at the GRF/melt interface. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAD) unveiled the occurrence of (002) α-Al//(0002)GR orientation relationship at α-Al/GRF interfaces. Preferential nucleation of primary Si along the graphite surfaces of the GRF-reinforced Al-Si alloy composite was also promoted by external fiber heat extraction. However, in this case, numerous nucleation events along the fiber interfaces were common, as well as nucleation at active substrates within the constrained melt. Finally, differential thermal analysis (DTA) indicated that the onset temperatures for nucleation shift toward higher values (by 7 °C for the Al-Cu composite and 2 °C for the Al-Si composite) when compared with their corresponding matrix alloys.

  17. Characterization of Hypereutectic Al-Si Powders Solidified under Far-From Equilibrium Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Y.E. Kalay; L.S. Chumbley; I.E. Anderson; R.E. Napolitano

    2007-07-01

    The rapid solidification microstructure of gas-atomized Al-Si powders of 15, 18, 25, and 50 wt pct Si were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In order of increasing particle size, the powders exhibited microcellular Al, cellular/dendritic Al, eutectic Al, and primary Si growth morphologies. Interface velocity and undercooling were estimated from measured eutectic spacing based on the Trivedi-Magnin-Kurz (TMK) model, permitting a direct comparison with theoretical predictions of solidification morphology. Based on our observations, additional conditions for high-undercooling morphological transitions are proposed as an extension of coupled-zone predictions.

  18. Similarities and differences in sublimation growth of SiC and AlN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epelbaum, B. M.; Bickermann, M.; Nagata, S.; Heimann, P.; Filip, O.; Winnacker, A.

    2007-07-01

    The similarities and differences in development of crystal growth of bulk silicon carbide (SiC) and aluminum nitride (AlN) are discussed. It is concluded that AlN is going to become the second crystal grown in production scale using PVT technique. The growth technology of AlN may take advantage of learning from SiC technology as the latter is based on significant advances achieved in the course of last 20 years. The main differences between two materials are in incongruent evaporation of SiC and in poor compatibility of AlN with regular high-temperature crucible materials.

  19. Structure and properties of the slags of continuous converting of copper nickel-containing mattes and concentrates: II. Effect of the SiO2/CaO ratio on the structure and liquidus temperature of the slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigarev, S. P.; Tsymbulov, L. B.; Selivanov, E. N.; Chumarev, V. M.

    2012-03-01

    The structure and liquidus temperature of the SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-FeO x -Cu2O-NiO slags that form during continuous converting of copper mattes and concentrates into blister copper are analyzed. The slag melt compositions are varied over a wide SiO2/CaO range. The slags are studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron-probe microanalysis. The liquidus temperature of the slags is determined by differential thermal analysis. It is found that, depending on the SiO2/CaO ratio, the structure and liquidus temperature of the slags change and the forms of copper in a slag also change. The SiO2/CaO range in a slag is recommended for the process of continuous converting of a copper nickel-containing sulfide raw materials.

  20. Identification of phases in the interaction layer between U-Mo-Zr/Al and U-Mo-Zr/Al-Si

    SciTech Connect

    Varela, C.L. Komar; Arico, S.F.; Mirandou, M.; Balart, S.N.; Gribaudo, L.M.

    2008-07-15

    Out-of-pile diffusion experiments were performed between U-7wt.% Mo-1wt.% Zr and Al or Al A356 (7,1wt.% Si) at 550 deg. C. In this work morphological characterization and phase identification on both interaction layer are presented. They were carried out by the use of different techniques: optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-Ray diffraction and WDS microanalysis. In the interaction layer U-7wt.% Mo-1wt.% Zr/Al, the phases UAl{sub 3}, UAl{sub 4}, Al{sub 20}Mo{sub 2}U and Al{sub 43}Mo{sub 4}U{sub 6} were identified. In the interaction layer U-7wt.% Mo-1wt.% Zr/Al A356, the phases U(Al, Si) with 25at.% Si and Si{sub 5}U{sub 3} were identified. This last phase, with a higher Si concentration, was identified with XRD Synchrotron radiation performed at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, Brasil. (author)

  1. Band alignment at AlN/Si (111) and (001) interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    King, Sean W. Davis, Robert F.; Nemanich, Robert J.

    2015-07-28

    To advance the development of III-V nitride on silicon heterostructure semiconductor devices, we have utilized in-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to investigate the chemistry and valence band offset (VBO) at interfaces formed by gas source molecular beam epitaxy of AlN on Si (001) and (111) substrates. For the range of growth temperatures (600–1050 °C) and Al pre-exposures (1–15 min) explored, XPS showed the formation of Si-N bonding at the AlN/Si interface in all cases. The AlN/Si VBO was determined to be −3.5 ± 0.3 eV and independent of the Si orientation and degree of interfacial Si-N bond formation. The corresponding AlN/Si conduction band offset (CBO) was calculated to be 1.6 ± 0.3 eV based on the measured VBO and band gap for wurtzite AlN. Utilizing these results, prior reports for the GaN/AlN band alignment, and transitive and commutative rules for VBOs, the VBO and CBO at the GaN/Si interface were determined to be −2.7 ± 0.3 and −0.4 ± 0.3 eV, respectively.

  2. Localized TiSi and TiN phases in Si/Ti/Al/Cu Ohmic contacts to AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seonno; Song, Yunwon; Lee, Seung Min; Lee, Hi-Deok; Oh, Jungwoo

    2016-05-01

    Microstructural changes in Si/Ti/Al/Cu (10/40/60/50 nm) Ohmic contacts to AlGaN/GaN heterostructure were investigated for complementary metal-oxide semiconductor compatible processes. Si/Ti/Al/Cu metallization exhibited a low specific contact resistance of 3.6 × 10-6 Ω-cm2 and contact resistance of 0.46 Ω-mm when a Si interfacial layer was used. Without a designated barrier metal, TiSix alloys that formed in the metallic region effectively suppressed Cu diffusion. The shallow TiN junction in AlGaN/GaN was attributed to TiSix in the metallic regions. Microstructural changes were detected by systematic physical characterization.

  3. Fabrication and Properties of Thermal Sprayed AlSi-Based Coatings from Nanocomposite Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limpichaipanit, A.; Banjongprasert, C.; Jaiban, P.; Jiansirisomboon, S.

    2013-02-01

    AlSi-based nanocomposite powders (where nanoparticles were TiO2, ZrO2, and Al2O3 and the amount of reinforcement was 2.5, 5, and 10 wt.%) were made by ball milling and then thermal sprayed using low velocity oxy-fuel technique. The AlSi-based nanocomposite powders had nanosized ceramic reinforcement adhered to the surface of the powders after ball milling. The AlSi-based coatings had the typical thermal spray microstructure where lamellae, oxide layers, unmelted particles, and pores could be seen. Submicron second phase in the form of agglomerates, molten splats, or unmelted particles between AlSi lamellae could be observed as well. Hardness and porosity of the coatings increased when more ceramic second phase particles (harder than AlSi) were added. Sliding wear tests were carried out in pin-on-disk geometry. The wear tracks of AlSi and AlSi-based coatings show plastic deformation as the main material removal mechanism during the sliding wear test. The sliding wear rate of the coatings decreased as more second phase ceramic particles were added. It was due to an increase in the hardness and a decrease in the friction coefficient of the coatings.

  4. Oxidation behavior of arc evaporated Al-Cr-Si-N thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Tritremmel, Christian; Daniel, Rostislav; Mitterer, Christian; Mayrhofer, Paul H.; Lechthaler, Markus; Polcik, Peter

    2012-11-15

    The impact of Al and Si on the oxidation behavior of Al-Cr-(Si)-N thin films synthesized by arc evaporation of powder metallurgically prepared Al{sub x}Cr{sub 1-x} targets with x = Al/(Al + Cr) of 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7 and (Al{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}){sub 1-z}Si{sub z} targets with Si contents of z = 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 in N{sub 2} atmosphere was studied in detail by means of differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. Dynamical measurements in synthetic air (up to 1440 Degree-Sign C) revealed the highest onset temperature of pronounced oxidation for nitride coatings prepared from the Al{sub 0.4}Cr{sub 0.4}Si{sub 0.2} target. Isothermal TGA at 1100, 1200, 1250, and 1300 Degree-Sign C highlight the pronounced improvement of the oxidation resistance of Al{sub x}Cr{sub 1-x}N coatings by the addition of Si. The results show that Si promotes the formation of a dense coating morphology as well as a dense oxide scale when exposed to air.

  5. NMR study of crystallization in MgO-CaO-SiO 2-P 2O 5 glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hai-Lan; Yue, Yong; Ye, Chao-Hui; Guo, Li-Ping; Lei, Jia-Heng

    1998-08-01

    29Si and 31P magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements were employed to investigate crystallization in MgO-CaO-SiO 2-P 2O 5 bioglass-ceramics. The results suggest that wollastonite (β-CaSiO 3) is separated as a new crystalline phase, corresponding to the appearance of a sharp signal in the 29Si MAS NMR spectra, while oxyapatite (Ca 10(PO 4) 6O) forms in the process of the order of the phosphorus-rich phases increasing as a whole, corresponding to the gradual narrowing of 31P MAS NMR spectra. ZnO can make the glass stable and difficult to crystallize at a low temperature, while at a high temperature, ZnO can participate in the crystallization of β-CaSiO 3 and promote it.

  6. STRESS ANNEALING INDUCED DIFFUSE SCATTERING FROM Ni3(Al,Si) PRECIPITATES

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, Rozaliya; Ice, Gene E; Karapetrova, Evgenia; Zschack, P.

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse scattering caused by L12 type Ni3 (Al,Si) precipitates after stress annealing of Ni-Al-Si alloys is studied. Experimental reciprocal space maps are compared to the theoretical ones. Oscillations of diffuse scattering due to Ni3 (Al,Sc) precipitates are observed. Peculiarities of diffuse scattering in asymptotic region as compared to Huang scattering region are discussed. Coupling between the stress annealing direction and the precipitate shape is demonstrated.

  7. Resistive switching characteristics of Al/Si3N4/p-Si MIS-based resistive switching memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hee-Dong; Yun, Min Ju; Kim, Sungho

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we proposed and demonstrated a self-rectifying property of a silicon nitride (Si3N4)-based resistive random access memory (RRAM) device by employing p-type silicon ( p-Si) as the bottom electrode. The RRAM devices consisting of Al/Si3N4/ p-Si are fabricated by using a low-pressure chemical-vapor deposition and exhibited an intrinsic diode property with non-linear current-voltage ( I-V) behavior. In addition, compared to the conventional metal/insulator/metal (MIM) structure of Al/Si3N4/Ti RRAM cells, the operating current over the entire bias region for the proposed metal/insulator/semiconductor (MIS) cells is dramatically lower because the introduced p-Si bottom electrode efficiently suppresses the current in both the low- and the high resistance states. Then, the results mean that when p-Si is employed as a bottom electrode, the Si3N4-based RRAM cells can be applied to selector-free RRAM cells.

  8. Ligand-based virtual screening interface between PyMOL and LiSiCA.

    PubMed

    Dilip, Athira; Lešnik, Samo; Štular, Tanja; Janežič, Dušanka; Konc, Janez

    2016-01-01

    Ligand-based virtual screening of large small-molecule databases is an important step in the early stages of drug development. It is based on the similarity principle and is used to reduce the chemical space of large databases to a manageable size where chosen ligands can be experimentally tested. Ligand-based virtual screening can also be used to identify bioactive molecules with different basic scaffolds compared to already known bioactive molecules, thus having the potential to increase the structural variability of compounds. Here, we present an interface between the popular molecular graphics system PyMOL and the ligand-based virtual screening software LiSiCA available at http://insilab.org/lisica-plugin and demonstrate how this interface can be used in the early stages of drug discovery process.Graphical AbstractLigand-based virtual screening interface between PyMOL and LiSiCA. PMID:27606012

  9. The influence of ternary alloying elements on the Al-Si eutectic microstructure and the Si morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darlapudi, A.; McDonald, S. D.; Terzi, S.; Prasad, A.; Felberbaum, M.; StJohn, D. H.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the ternary alloying elements Cu, Mg and Fe on the Al-Si eutectic microstructure is investigated using a commercial purity Al-10 wt%Si alloy in unmodified and Sr-modified conditions. A change in the Al-Si eutectic microstructure was associated with a change in the nucleation density of the eutectic grains caused by the addition of ternary alloying elements. When the ternary alloying element addition resulted in an increase in the eutectic nucleation frequency, a fibrous to flake-like transition was observed within the eutectic grain. When the ternary alloying element addition decreased the eutectic nucleation frequency significantly, a change in the eutectic morphology from flake-like to a mixture of flake-like and fibrous morphologies was observed. The mechanism of Al-Si eutectic modification is discussed. The growth velocity of the eutectic grain - liquid interface and the constitutional driving force available for growth are proposed as important parameters that influence the degree of eutectic modification in Al-Si alloys.

  10. A series of new infrared NLO semiconductors, ZnY6Si2S14, Al(x)Dy3(Si(y)Al(1-y))S7, and Al0.33Sm3SiS7.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sheng-Ping; Guo, Guo-Cong; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Zou, Jian-Ping; Xu, Gang; Wang, Guo-Jian; Long, Xi-Fa; Huang, Jin-Shun

    2009-08-01

    Four new quaternary isostructural rare-earth thiosilicates, ZnY(6)Si(2)S(14) (1), Al(0.50)Dy(3)(Si(0.50)Al(0.50))S(7) (2), Al(0.38)Dy(3)(Si(0.85)Al(0.15))S(7) (3), and Al(0.33)Sm(3)SiS(7) (4), crystallized in the chiral and polar space group P6(3), have been prepared by a facile synthetic routine. Compounds 1-3 show strong second harmonic generation effects at 2.1 um with the intensities of 1, 2, and 3 being about 2, 2, and 1 times that of KTP (KTiOPO(4)), respectively. The calculated band structure of 1 implies that the optical absorptions of BLn(6)M(2)Q(14) and ALn(3)MQ(7) family compounds are mainly ascribed to the charge transitions from Q-p to Ln-4f (4d for Y) states. Compounds 2-4 exhibit antiferromagnetic-like interactions.

  11. Structure of molten CaSiO3: neutron diffraction isotope substitution with aerodynamic levitation and molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Skinner, L B; Benmore, C J; Weber, J K R; Tumber, S; Lazareva, L; Neuefeind, J; Santodonato, L; Du, J; Parise, J B

    2012-11-15

    We have performed neutron diffraction isotopic substitution experiments on aerodynamically levitated droplets of CaSiO(3), to directly extract intermediate and local structural information on the Ca environment. The results show a substantial broadening of the first Ca-O peak in the pair distribution function of the melt compared to the glass, which comprises primarily of 6- and 7-fold coordinated Ca-polyhedra. The broadening can be explained by a redistribution of Ca-O bond lengths, especially toward longer distances in the liquid. The first order neutron difference function provides a test of recent molecular dynamics simulations and supports the MD model which contains short chains or channels of edge shared Ca-octahedra in the liquid state. It is suggested that the polymerization of Ca-polyhedra is responsible for the fragile viscosity behavior of the melt and the glass forming ability in CaSiO(3). PMID:23106223

  12. The structure of molten CaSiO3: A neutron diffraction isotope substitution and aerodynamic levitation study.

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Lawrie; Benmore, Chris J; Weber, Richard; Santodonato, Louis J; Tumber, Sonia; Neuefeind, Joerg C; Lazareva, Lena; Du, Jincheng; Parise, John B

    2012-01-01

    We have performed neutron diffraction isotopic substitution experiments on aerodynamically levitated droplets of CaSiO3, to directly extract intermediate and local structural information on the Ca environment. The results show a substantial broadening of the Ca-O peak in the pair distribution function of the melt compared to the glass, which comprises primarily of 6- and 7-fold coordinated Ca-polyhedra. The broadening can be explained by a re-distribution of Ca-O bond lengths, especially towards longer distances in the liquid. The first order neutron difference function provides a rigorous test of recent molecular dynamics simulations and supports the model of the presence of short chains or channels of edge shared Ca-octahedra in the liquid state. It is suggested that the polymerization of Ca-polyhedra is responsible for the fragile viscosity behavior of the melt and the glass forming ability in CaSiO3.

  13. Native cation vacancies in Si-doped AlGaN studied by monoenergetic positron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uedono, A.; Tenjinbayashi, K.; Tsutsui, T.; Shimahara, Y.; Miyake, H.; Hiramatsu, K.; Oshima, N.; Suzuki, R.; Ishibashi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Native defects in Si-doped AlGaN grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy were probed by monoenergetic positron beams. Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation and positron lifetimes were measured, and these were compared with results obtained using first-principles calculation. For Si-doped AlxGa1-xN (4 × 1017 Si/cm3), the vacancy-type defects were introduced at above x = 0.54, and this was attributed to the transition of the growth mode to the Stranski-Krastanov mechanism from the Frank-van der Merwe mechanism. For Si-doped Al0.6Ga0.4N, the vacancy concentration increased with increasing Si concentration, and the major defect species was identified as Al vacancies. A clear correlation between the suppression of cathodoluminescence and the defect concentration was obtained, suggesting the cation vacancies act as nonradiative centers in AlGaN.

  14. Phosphate-sulfide assemblages and Al/Ca ratios in type-3 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, A. E.; Grossman, J. N.

    1985-09-01

    Electron microscopic examinations were carried out on various chondrites to re-examine previously reported anomalously high Al/Ca ratios. Polished thin sections of the three CV3, two CO3 and the Krymka LL3 chondrites were scanned to characterize the phosphate-sulfide inclusions. The formation of the assemblages was interpreted as proceeding in five steps, starting with the formation of metal grains with early nebular material and finishing with a reaction between schreibersite with Ca, O and Cl to form merrillite and chloropatite. The abundances of the observed assemblages were not high enough to imply Al/Ca ratios similar to whole-rocks. It is concluded that the specimens were originally examined with a broader electron beam than used to examine standard samples, and resulted in the anomalously high Al/Ca ratios.

  15. Phosphate-sulfide assemblages and Al/Ca ratios in type-3 chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, A. E.; Grossman, J. N.

    1985-01-01

    Electron microscopic examinations were carried out on various chondrites to re-examine previously reported anomalously high Al/Ca ratios. Polished thin sections of the three CV3, two CO3 and the Krymka LL3 chondrites were scanned to characterize the phosphate-sulfide inclusions. The formation of the assemblages was interpreted as proceeding in five steps, starting with the formation of metal grains with early nebular material and finishing with a reaction between schreibersite with Ca, O and Cl to form merrillite and chloropatite. The abundances of the observed assemblages were not high enough to imply Al/Ca ratios similar to whole-rocks. It is concluded that the specimens were originally examined with a broader electron beam than used to examine standard samples, and resulted in the anomalously high Al/Ca ratios.

  16. Si diffusion and intermixing in AlGaAs/GaAs structures using buried impurity sources

    SciTech Connect

    Beernink, K.J.; Thornton, R.L.; Anderson, G.B.; Emanuel, M.A.

    1995-05-08

    Si diffusion and impurity-induced layer intermixing from a buried impurity source have been studied by transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy of isolated, Si-doped GaAs layers in an undoped Al{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}As/GaAs superlattice and by photoluminescence measurements on Si-doped GaAs quantum wells with undoped Al{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}As barriers. In annealed samples, the Si profile suggests a Si diffusion process involving multiply ionized column III vacancies. The width of the resulting Si profile and the spatial extent and completeness of intermixing strongly depend on the initial Si concentration in the doped layer.

  17. Formation Mechanism of CaS-Bearing Inclusions and the Rolling Deformation in Al-Killed, Low-Alloy Steel with Ca Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guang; Jiang, Zhouhua; Li, Yang

    2016-08-01

    The existing form of CaS inclusion in Ca-treated, Al-killed steel during secondary refining process was investigated with scanning electron microscopy and an energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The results of 12 heats industrial tests showed that CaS has two kinds of precipitation forms. One form takes place by the direct reaction of Ca and S, and the other takes place by the reaction of CaO in calcium aluminates with dissolved Al and S in liquid steel. Thermodynamic research for different precipitation modes of CaS under different temperature was carried out. In particular, CaO-Al2O3-CaS isothermal section diagrams and component activities of calcium aluminates were calculated by the thermodynamic software FactSage. By thermodynamic calculation, a precipitation-area diagram of oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion was established by fixing the sulfur content. The quantity of CaS, which was precipitated in a reaction between [Al], [S] and (CaO), can be calculated and predicted based on the precipitation-area diagram of oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion. Electron probe microanalysis and EDS were used for observing rolling deformation of different types of CaS-bearing inclusions during the rolling process. Low modification of calcium aluminates wrapped by CaS has different degrees of harm to steel in the rolling process. A thick CaS layer can prevent some fragile calcium aluminates from being crushed during the rolling process. Some oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion contains little CaS performed better deformation during the rolling process, but when CaS in oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion becomes more, it will cause the whole inclusion to lose plastic yielding ability. The plastic deformation region of CaS-bearing inclusion in a CaO-Al2O3-CaS isothermal section diagram is confirmed.

  18. The 28Si(p,t)26Si*(p) reaction and implications for the astrophysical 25Al(p,gamma)26Si reaction rate

    SciTech Connect

    Chipps, K.; Bardayan, Daniel W; Chae, K. Y.; Cizewski, J. A.; Kozub, R. L.; Liang, J Felix; Matei, Catalin; Moazen, Brian; Nesaraja, Caroline D; O'Malley, Patrick; Pain, S. D.; Peters, W. A.; Pittman, S. T.; Schmitt, Kyle; Smith, Michael Scott

    2010-10-01

    Several resonances in 25Al(p, )26Si have been studied via the 28Si(p,t)26Si reaction. Triton energies and angular distributions were measured using a segmented annular detector array. An additional silicon detector array was used to simultaneously detect the coincident protons emitted from the decay of states in 26Si above the proton threshold, in order to determine branching ratios. A resonance at 5927 4 keV has been experimentally confirmed as the first = 0 state above the proton threshold, with a proton branching ratio consistent with one.

  19. A Chemical and Structural Study of the AlN-Si Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beye, R.; George, T.; Yang, J. W.; Khan, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    The growth of low defect density heteroepitaxial AlN has great implications for optoelectronic and high power devices since the AlN can be used either as device material or as a buffer layer for the overgrowth of other group-III nitrides. In this work, the results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) involving both high resolution imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) of AlN/Si layers is reported and the relationship between Si-Al-N interactions and the misorientation of AlN nuclei is elucidated.

  20. Carbonation of C–S–H and C–A–S–H samples studied by {sup 13}C, {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sevelsted, Tine F.; Skibsted, Jørgen

    2015-05-15

    Synthesized calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H) samples with Ca/Si ratios of 0.66, 1.0, and 1.5 have been exposed to atmospheric CO{sub 2} at room temperature and high relative humidity and studied after one to 12 weeks. {sup 29}Si NMR reveals that the decomposition of C–S–H caused by carbonation involves two steps and that the decomposition rate decreases with increasing Ca/Si ratio. The first step is a gradual decalcification of the C–S–H where calcium is removed from the interlayer and defect sites in the silicate chains until Ca/Si = 0.67 is reached, ideally corresponding to infinite silicate chains. In the seconds step, calcium from the principal layers is consumed, resulting in the final decomposition of the C–S–H and the formation of an amorphous silica phase composed of Q{sup 3} and Q{sup 4} silicate tetrahedra. The amount of solid carbonates and of carbonate ions in a hydrous environment increases with increasing Ca/Si ratio for the C–S–H, as shown by {sup 13}C NMR. For C–A–S–H samples with Ca/Si = 1.0 and 1.5, {sup 27}Al NMR demonstrates that all aluminium sites associated with the C–S–H are consumed during the carbonation reactions and incorporated mainly as tetrahedral Al(–OSi){sub 4} units in the amorphous silica phase. A small amount of penta-coordinated Al sites has also been identified in the silica phase.

  1. Directional solidification and microstructural control of the TiAl/Ti{sub 3}Al lamellar microstructure in TiAl-Si alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.; Inui, H.; Yamaguchi, M.

    1996-06-01

    Composite microstructures were grown from TiAl-Si alloys with the gamma/alpha2 lamellar microstructure aligned parallel to the growth direction by directional solidification techniques using a seed material. Within the composition range of 40--50 at% Al, the addition of Si to TiAl shifts the primary alpha region towards a much lower Al content. At a composition of Ti-43Al-3Si, either alpha or alpha2 can be stable, from melting temperature to room temperature and the orientation of the lamellar microstructure can be controlled using a seed material. In addition to the gamma/alpha2 lamellae, large Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} particles which formed from the liquid, and much smaller Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} particles which formed from an eutectoid reaction were observed. The room temperature mechanical properties were determined by tensile and three-point bend tests. From bend specimens oriented with the notch parallel to the lamellar microstructure, the Ti-43Al-3Si alloy was found to have a greater fracture toughness than a TiAl-PST crystal of the same orientation.

  2. Nanosynthesis routes to new tetrahedral crystalline solids: silicon-like Si3AlP.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Tylan; Chizmeshya, Andrew V G; Jiang, Liying; Smith, David J; Beeler, Richard T; Grzybowski, Gordon; Poweleit, Christian D; Menéndez, José; Kouvetakis, John

    2011-10-12

    We introduce a synthetic strategy to access functional semiconductors with general formula A(3)XY (A = IV, X-Y = III-V) representing a new class within the long-sought family of group IV/III-V hybrid compounds. The method is based on molecular precursors that combine purposely designed polar/nonpolar bonding at the nanoscale, potentially allowing precise engineering of structural and optical properties, including lattice dimensions and band structure. In this Article, we demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed strategy by growing a new monocrystalline AlPSi(3) phase on Si substrates via tailored interactions of P(SiH(3))(3) and Al atoms using gas source (GS) MBE. In this case, the high affinity of Al for the P ligands leads to Si(3)AlP bonding arrangements, which then confer their structure and composition to form the corresponding Si(3)AlP target solid via complete elimination of H(2) at ∼500 °C. First principle simulations at the molecular and solid-state level confirm that the Si(3)AlP building blocks can readily interlink with minimal distortion to produce diamond-like structures in which the P atoms are arranged on a common sublattice as third-nearest neighbors in a manner that excludes the formation of unfavorable Al-Al bonds. High-resolution XRD, XTEM, and RBS indicate that all films grown on Si(100) are tetragonally strained and fully coherent with the substrate and possess near-cubic symmetry. The Raman spectra are consistent with a growth mechanism that proceeds via full incorporation of preformed Si(3)AlP tetrahedra with residual orientational disorder. Collectively, the characterization data show that the structuro-chemical compatibility between the epilayer and substrate leads to flawless integration, as expected for pseudohomoepitaxy of an Si-like material grown on a bulk Si platform. PMID:21877711

  3. Epitaxial Growth of CaF2 Films on Si(111) Studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kametani, Keisuke; Sudoh, Koichi; Iwasaki, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    Using ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy, we have studied the early stages of the epitaxial growth of CaF2 films on Si(111) at 630°C at a slow deposition rate of 0.2 monolayer (ML) per minute. After formation of CaF interface layer, we observe the film grows in the sequence of step edge decoration, one-dimensional islands growth on the terrace, formation of clusters of the islands, coalescence of the island cluster and filling of gaps between the one-dimensional islands in the cluster and between the island clusters to complete a layer. By such a sequence, epitaxial CaF2 films with atomically flat surface could be grown in layer-by-layer fashion up to 3 ML. The growth mode is discussed in relation to kinetic phase diagram [M. A. Olmstead: Thin Films: Heteroepitaxial Systems, eds. W. K. Liu and M. B. Santos (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999) Chap. 5].

  4. Seeded growth of AlN on SiC substrates and defect characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, P.; Edgar, J. H.; Cao, C.; Hohn, K.; Dalmau, R.; Schlesser, R.; Sitar, Z.

    2008-05-01

    In this study, seeded sublimation growth of aluminum nitride (AlN) on SiC substrates was investigated. Large diameter (15-20 mm) and thick (1-2 mm) AlN layers were demonstrated on Si-face, 3.5° off-axis 6H-SiC (0 0 0 1). A c-axis growth rate of 15-20 μm/h was achieved at 1830 °C, and the surface morphology was highly textured: step features were formed with a single facet on the top of the layer. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and molten KOH/NaOH etching were employed to characterize the AlN layers. The AlN crystals grew highly orientated along the c-axis, however, the impurities of Si (3-6 at%) and C (5.9-8 at%) from the SiC changed the lattice constants of AlN and shifted the AlN (0 0 .2) 2 θ value from pure AlN toward SiC. All the growth surfaces had Al-polarity and the dislocation density decreased from 10 8 to 10 6 cm -2 as the film thickness increased from 30 μm to 2 mm.

  5. Radiation-induced charge trapping in thin Al2O3/SiOxNy/Si(100) gate dielectric stacks.

    SciTech Connect

    D'Emic, Chris; Gusev, Evgeni P.; Schrimpf, Ronald D.; Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Schwank, James Ralph; Felix, James Andrew; Shaneyfelt, Marty Ray; Dodd, Paul Emerson; Meisenheimer, Timothy Lee

    2003-07-01

    We examine the total-dose radiation response of capacitors and transistors with stacked Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on oxynitride gate dielectrics with Al and poly-Si gates after irradiation with 10 keV X-rays. The midgap voltage shift increases monotonically with dose and depends strongly on both Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub x}N{sub y} thickness. The thinnest dielectrics, of most interest to industry, are extremely hard to ionizing irradiation, exhibiting only {approx}50 mV of shift at a total dose of 10 Mrad(SiO{sub 2}) for the worst case bias condition. Oxygen anneals are found to improve the total dose radiation response by {approx}50% and induce a small amount of capacitance-voltage hysteresis. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub x}N{sub y} dielectrics which receive a {approx}1000 C dopant activation anneal trap {approx}12% more of the initial charge than films annealed at 550 C. Charge pumping measurements show that the interface trap density decreases with dose up to 500 krad(SiO{sub 2}). This surprising result is discussed with respect to hydrogen effects in alternative dielectric materials, and may be the result of radiation-induced hydrogen passivation of some of the near-interfacial defects in these gate dielectrics.

  6. Understanding the Origins of Intergranular Corrosion in Copper-Containing Al-Mg-Si Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairy, Shravan K.; Alam, Talukder; Rometsch, Paul A.; Davies, Chris H. J.; Banerjee, Raj; Birbilis, Nick

    2016-03-01

    A definitive understanding of the mechanism of intergranular corrosion (IGC) in under-aged (UA) Cu-containing Al-Mg-Si alloys has not been clear to date. The grain boundary microstructure and chemistry in an UA Cu-containing Al-Mg-Si alloy were characterized by coupling atom probe tomography and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The rapid formation of an ultra-thin wetting Cu layer and discrete Q-phase (Al4Cu2Mg8Si7) precipitates along the grain boundaries, and a precipitate-free zone adjacent to the grain boundaries in the UA condition contribute to IGC.

  7. Experimental Studies on the Sulfide Capacities of CaO-SiO2-CrOx Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijun; Seetharaman, Seshadri

    2010-04-01

    To understand the desulfurization process during the refining of Cr-containing steel grades, this work was initiated to study the reactions between Cr-sulfur and chromium-containing slags. The sulfide capacities of CaO-SiO2-CrOx pseudo-ternary slags were measured using the traditional gas-slag equilibration technique between 1823 K and 1923 K. Sixteen different slag compositions were examined, and two different equilibrium oxygen partial pressures were used to understand the impact of the varying valence of Cr on the sulfide capacities. The results showed that log10 Cs varied linearly with the reciprocal T, and the slope was higher than the corresponding value reported for the binary CaO-SiO2 of corresponding composition. It was difficult to isolate the relative effects of the bi- and trivalent Cr in the slags because the Cr2+/Cr3+ ratio was influenced by the basicity of the slag. By using the equation developed by these authors earlier that related Cr2+/Cr3+ with basicity, oxygen partial pressure, and temperature, it was possible to obtain an approximate trend of the CrO effect on the sulfide capacities; viz. the sulfide shows a decreasing trend as Cr2+ replaces Ca2+ in the slag. With a continued increase of Cr2+ content, indications of the occurrence of a minimum point were observed; beyond which the sulfide capacities showed a slight increasing trend. The latter was attributed, based on slag-structure analysis by Gaskell et al., to the increasing extent of the polymerization reaction releasing oxygen ions for sulfide reactions.

  8. Hypereutectic AlSi Alloy: Gathering of 3D Microstructure Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaberger-Zimmermann, E.; Mathes, M.; Zimmermann, G.

    2016-08-01

    Hypereutectic and eutectic AlSi-base alloys find frequent application in casting automotive components. The properties of this type of alloy depend significantly on their solidification microstructure, especially the size, shape, and distribution of primary and eutectic silicon. The serial sectioning technique was applied for determining the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of an Al-18wt.%Si alloy. For clear identification of both the larger primary Si particles grown in the melt and the fine lamellar eutectic Si, a series of two-dimensional equidistant cross sections were metallographically prepared. The microstructure in these cross sections was detected and observed at high resolution using a light microscope. The images were stored in a digital library. The 3D reconstruction of primary Si particles and AlSi eutectic was achieved through the application of various software tools. This provided data about the faceted growth behavior of octahedral Si particles and feathery eutectic Si. The image stack was also imported to hierarchical data format (version 5) (HDF5) open source format, thus, enabling availability of the 3D image data to the wider community. In this way, 3D reconstructions of this kind can contribute to a greater understanding of processing/microstructure property relationships in hypereutectic AlSi alloys.

  9. Hypereutectic AlSi Alloy: Gathering of 3D Microstructure Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaberger-Zimmermann, E.; Mathes, M.; Zimmermann, G.

    2016-06-01

    Hypereutectic and eutectic AlSi-base alloys find frequent application in casting automotive components. The properties of this type of alloy depend significantly on their solidification microstructure, especially the size, shape, and distribution of primary and eutectic silicon. The serial sectioning technique was applied for determining the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of an Al-18wt.%Si alloy. For clear identification of both the larger primary Si particles grown in the melt and the fine lamellar eutectic Si, a series of two-dimensional equidistant cross sections were metallographically prepared. The microstructure in these cross sections was detected and observed at high resolution using a light microscope. The images were stored in a digital library. The 3D reconstruction of primary Si particles and AlSi eutectic was achieved through the application of various software tools. This provided data about the faceted growth behavior of octahedral Si particles and feathery eutectic Si. The image stack was also imported to hierarchical data format (version 5) (HDF5) open source format, thus, enabling availability of the 3D image data to the wider community. In this way, 3D reconstructions of this kind can contribute to a greater understanding of processing/microstructure property relationships in hypereutectic AlSi alloys.

  10. Pyroelectric and piezoelectric responses of thin AlN films epitaxy-grown on a SiC/Si substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukushkin, S. A.; Osipov, A. V.; Sergeeva, O. N.; Kiselev, D. A.; Bogomolov, A. A.; Solnyshkin, A. V.; Kaptelov, E. Yu.; Senkevich, S. V.; Pronin, I. P.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the results of pyroelectric and piezoelectric studies of AlN films formed by chloride-hydride epitaxy (CHE) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on epitaxial SiC nanolayers grown on Si by the atom substitution method. The surface topography and piezoelectric and pyroelecrtric responses of AlN films have been analyzed. The results of the study have shown that the vertical component of the piezoresponse in CHE-grown AlN films is more homogeneous over the film area than that in MBE-grown AlN films. However, the signal from the MBE-synthesized AlN films proved to be stronger. The inversion of the polar axis (polarization vector) on passage from MBE-grown AlN films to CHE-grown AlN films has been found experimentally. It has been shown that the polar axis in MBE-grown films is directed from the free surface of the film toward the Si substrate while, in CHE-grown films, the polarization vector is directed toward the free surface.

  11. Different behavior of lithium interaction with SiO2 and Al2 O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yufeng; Ban, Chunmei; Kappes, Branden B.; Xu, Qiang; Engtrakul, Chaiwat; Ciobanu, Cristian V.; Dillon, Anne C.

    2014-03-01

    Lithiation of SiO2 and lithium intercalation in Al2O3 is studied both theoretically and experimentally. Lithium interacts with these two types of oxides in distinctly different behaviors. Reversible insertion/extraction of lithium in SiO2 up to a Li density of 2/3 Li per Si are demonstrated experimentally. Density-functional-theory (DFT) calculation shows that neither free interstitial Li atoms (no reduction) nor formation of a local Li2O cluster plus a Si-Si bond (full reduction) is energetically favorable. However, two Li atoms can effectively break a Si-O bond and be stabilized between the Si and O atoms. Such a defect, representing a state of partial reduction of SiO2, is energetically favorable. DFT simulation shows that intercalation of SiO2 at high Li density through partial reduction results in crystalline compounds LixSiO2 (x <2/3) with tunable band-gaps in the range of 2-3.4 eV. In sharp contrast, Al2O3 is very stable against lithiation through any form of reduction. However, good conductivity of Li ions is shown in porous Al2O3. Work funded by the U.S. DOE under Subcontract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 through the Office of EERE, the Office of the Vehicle Technologies Program, and by NSF through Award Nos. OCI-1048586 and CMMI-0846858.

  12. On the entropy of glaucophane Na2Mg3Al2Si8O22(OH)2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.; Gillet, P.; Reynard, B.

    1991-01-01

    The heat capacity of glaucophane from the Sesia-Lanza region of Italy having the approximate composition (Na1.93Ca0.05Fe0.02) (Mg2.60Fe0.41) (Al1.83Fe0.15Cr0.01) (Si7.92Al0.08)O22(OH)2 was measured by adiabatic calorimetry between 4.6 and 359.4 K. After correcting the Cp0data to values for ideal glaucophane, Na2Mg3Al2Si8O22(OH)2 the third-law entropy S2980-S00was calculated to be 541.2??3.0 J??mol-1??K-1. Our value for S2980-S00is 12.0 J??mol-1??K-1 (2.2%) smaller than the value of Likhoydov et al. (1982), 553.2??3.0, is within 6.2 J??mol-1??K-1 of the value estimated by Holland (1988), and agrees remarkably well with the value calculated by Gillet et al. (1989) from spectroscopic data, 539 J??mol-1??K-1. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

  13. Al Incorporation at All Growth Stages of Al x Ga1- x N Epilayers Using SiN Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzarti, Z.; Halidou, I.; Touré, A.; El Jani, B.

    2016-02-01

    Al compositional distribution of Al x Ga1- x N epilayers grown on SiN-treated sapphire substrate by atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy is investigated. The growth process was interrupted at various stages allowing a systematic study of Al x Ga1- x N epilayers during the smoothing process. A transition from three-dimensional (3D) to two-dimensional (2D) growth mode is revealed by in situ laser reflectometry (λ = 632.8 nm) as well as by atomic force microscopic images. Then, ion mass spectrometry analysis was performed to obtain the solid Al composition ( x) profile as well as by photoluminescence measurements. Moreover, the in situ reflectivity signal is simulated; thereby Al x Ga1- x N growth rate is derived and compared with that of GaN layer in order to study the effect of the aluminum incorporation on the growth mechanism. It is worth emphasising that the growth mode of Al x Ga1- x N layers is dictated by SiN treatment, which influences the Al compositional distribution. Electron mobility and refractive index against the thickness of Al x Ga1- x N layers have similar trends, which confirm a competitive mechanism between growth mode and Al incorporation. Therefore, the correlation between the Al composition and morphological, optical, and electrical properties of Al x Ga1- x N layers is established.

  14. Temperature variation of the size effect in dilute AlMg and AlCa alloys: Measurement and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilder, H. M.; Asty, M.; Audit, Ph.

    1980-12-01

    Optical-interferometric-differential-length and x-ray lattice-parameter measurements performed at low temperatures in dilute AlMg and AlCa alloys indicate that the temperature variation of the size effect corresponds to a relatively large difference between the intrinsic coefficient of thermal expansion βi of the solute atom structure and that, β, of the solvent. This result is another example of the surprising expansive properties of point defects previously described by Gilder and co-workers (high-temperature vacancy diffusion) and more recently by Ganne (low-temperature dilatometry on irradiated specimens). Specifically, in the temperature range 0.2Ca)β~-4. This, as well as the fact that the sign of the change in the coefficient of thermal expansion Δβ of the host metal caused by the introduction of the solute atom is positive for Mg and negative for Ca, indicates that solute-solvent valence effects play a minor role in determining the coefficient of thermal expansion of the dilute alloy. It is also found, to within the experimental precision, that Δβ(Mg) and Δβ(Ca) are temperature independent, suggesting a type of Matthiessen's rule for thermal expansion. A model calculation of the size effect and its temperature variation in the infinitely dilute alloy is presented. The volume-dependent forces are treated by means of a term describing the elastic energy associated with the solute-solvent volume misfit, whereas the temperature-dependent potential of Dagens et al. is used to calculate the pairwise interaction between the solvent ions and the solute ion. Good agreement with the experimental data is obtained for the size effect in both AlMg and AlCa. The calculated values of Δβ(Mg)Ci, Ci being the solute concentration, and βi(Mg) fall between the measured values in the two AlMg alloys studied. The calculation of Δβ(Ca)Ci and βi(Ca) is not possible due to a lack of elastic-constants data for pure, metallic

  15. Crystal growth of mixed AlN-SiC bulk crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filip, Octavian; Bickermann, Matthias; Epelbaum, Boris M.; Heimann, Paul; Winnacker, Albrecht

    2010-09-01

    Bulk AlN-SiC mixed single crystals are prepared by sublimation growth employing pure AlN or mixed AlN-SiC sources and 6H-SiC seed crystals. As the growth temperature is increased from 1900 to 2050 °C, using seeds with different off-axis orientations, inclined up to 42° from the basal plane toward the (0 1 -1 0)-plane, or using different source materials, crystals with different Si/C contents are obtained. Dependent on the Si and/or C content, crystal coloration changes from yellowish to greenish to blackish. Modification in crystals' coloration and corresponding changes in below band-gap optical absorption and cathodoluminescence spectra are discussed.

  16. The atomic details of the interfacial interaction between the bottom electrode of Al/AlO{sub x}/Al Josephson junctions and HF-treated Si substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, L. J.; Nik, S.; Olsson, E.; Krantz, P.; Delsing, P.

    2015-04-28

    The interface between the Al bottom contact layer and Si substrates in Al based Josephson junctions is believed to have a significant effect on the noise observed in Al based superconducting devices. We have studied the atomic structure of it by transmission electron microscopy. An amorphous layer with a thickness of ∼5 nm was found between the bottom Al electrode and HF-treated Si substrate. It results from intermixing between Al, Si, and O. We also studied the chemical bonding states among the different species using energy loss near edge structure. The observations are of importance for the understanding of the origin of decoherence mechanisms in qubits based on these junctions.

  17. Improved source assessment of Si, Al and related mineral components to PM10 based on a daily sampling procedure.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ge; Puxbaum, Hans; Bauer, Heidi; Jankowski, Nicole; Shi, Yao

    2010-01-01

    Samples obtained from an industrialized valley in the East Alpine region were collected daily for a half year and analyzed using X-ray fluorescence to examine the elements Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Zn, P, S and Cl. Some factors affecting the changes of these elements were considered, including time, elemental correlations, weekday, weekend and seasonal changes. Diagnostic analysis provided an insight into a decoupling behavior that occursin siliceous and carbonates minerals. A decrease in Si and Al and an increase in carbonates, Na, K, Zn and P were observed during the cold season. However, a consistently high correlation of Si and Al was observed in all seasons. It was established that such high levels originated from street surface abrasion. The increase in variability and absolute levels of carbonates during the cold season was demonstrated by adding carbonates to the street surface as gritting material to increase the grip on snowy surfaces. A marked increase in Na and Cl was observed in winter which may have been caused by thaw salt that is widely used in winter in Austria. This was associated with a significant increase in K, Zn, and P in the cold season that was the result of domestic space heating with wood. PM10 levels in December were 12 microg/m3 and were higher than levels detected in July. It was established that such high levels originated from mineral oxides, wood smoke, and inorganic ionic material(s).

  18. Effect of Ca addition on the corrosion behavior of Mg-Al-Mn alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiang; Peng, Jian; Nyberg, Eric A.; Pan, Fu-sheng

    2016-04-01

    The microstructures and corrosion resistance of magnesium-5 wt% aluminum-0.3 wt% manganese alloys (Mg-Al-Mn) with different Ca additions (0.2-4 wt%) were investigated. Results showed that with increasing Ca addition, the grain of the alloys became more refined, whereas the corrosion resistant ability of the alloys initially increased and then decreased. The alloy with 2 wt% Ca addition exhibited the best corrosion resistance, attributed to the effect of the oxide film and (Mg,Al)2Ca phases which were discontinuously distributed on the grain boundaries. These phases acted as micro-victims, they preferentially corroded to protect the α-Mg matrix. The oxide film formed on the alloy surface can hinder the solution further to protect the α-Mg matrix.

  19. Stable ferromagnetic state in Si-doped AlN with cation vacancies: Ab-initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chintalapati, Sandhya; Feng, Yuan Ping

    2016-09-01

    The magnetic property of Si-doped AlN with Al-vacancy is studied using first principles calculations based on spin polarized density functional theory. The Si dopant alone does not introduce the magnetic moment in AlN. However, the doping of Si in AlN reduces the formation energy caused by Al-vacancy, and stabilizes the spin polarized state. The magnetic moments are mainly localized on N atoms surrounding the defect. The strong ferromagnetic state is obtained in AlN due to the combined role of Al-vacancy and Si-dopant.

  20. Evaluation of CNT Dispersion Methodology Effect on Mechanical Properties of an AlSi Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, O.; Buciumeanu, M.; Soares, D.; Silva, F. S.; Miranda, G.

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effect of different dispersion methodologies on mechanical properties of the aluminum-silicon (AlSi) composites reinforced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) coated with Ni. Different mixing procedures of MWCNTs with AlSi powder were tested, and AlSi-CNT composites were produced by hot pressing—powder metallurgy technique. The shear tests were performed to get the mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscopy with x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis and thermal analysis was used to investigate the microstructure of AlSi-CNT composites, interface reactions, and fracture morphology after shear tests. The experimental results proved that an improvement of dispersion of CNTs was achieved by using a combination of different mixing processes.

  1. In situ toughened SiC ceramics with Al-B-C additions and oxide-coated SiC platelet/SiC composites

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, J. |

    1996-12-01

    This work aimed at fabrication and characterization of high toughness SiC ceramics through the applications of in situ toughening and SiC platelet reinforcement. The processing-microstructure-property relations of hot pressed SiC with Al, B, and C additions (designated as ABC-SiC) were investigated. Through a liquid phase sintering mechanism, dense SiC was obtained by hot pressing at a temperature as low as 1,700 C with 3 wt% Al, 0.6 wt% B, and 2 wt% C additions. These sintering aids also enhanced the {beta}-to-{alpha} (3C-to-4H) phase transformation, which promoted SiC grains to grow into plate-like shapes. Under optimal processing conditions, the microstructure exhibited high-aspect-ratio plate-shaped grains with a thin (< 1 nm) Al-containing amorphous grain boundary film. The mechanical properties of the toughened SiC and the composites were evaluated in comparison with a commercial Hexoloy SiC under identical test conditions. The C-curve behavior was examined using the strength-indentation load relationship and compared with that directly measured using precracked compact tension specimens. The in situ toughened ABC-SiC exhibited much improved flaw tolerance and a significantly rising R-curve behavior. A steady-state toughness in excess of 9 MPam{sup 1/2} was recorded for the ABC-SiC in comparison to a single valued toughness below 3 MPam{sup 1/2} for the Hexoloy. Toughening in the ABC-SiC was mainly attributed to grain bridging and subsequent pullout of the plate-shaped grains. The high toughness ABC-SiC exhibited a bend strength of 650 MPa with a Weibull modulus of 19; in comparison, the commercial SiC showed a bend strength of 400 MPa with a Weibull modulus of 6. Higher fracture toughness was also achieved by the reinforcement of SiC platelets, encapsulated with alumina, yttria, or silica, in a SiC matrix.

  2. Liquid immiscibility in a CTGS (Ca3TaGa3Si2O14) melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Jun; Zhao, Hengyu; Koyama, Chihiro; Maeda, Kensaku; Fujiwara, Kozo; Koizumi, Haruhiko; Uda, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    Although many studies have indicated that Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 (CTGS) grows congruently from a stoichiometric melt when using the Czochralski (Cz) technique, the occurrence of a secondary phase during growth when using the micro-pulling down (μ-PD) technique has been reported. We have examined the detailed growth mechanism of μ-PD grown CTGS as well as its congruency. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) at an elevated temperature up to 1650 °C shows no peaks associated with the presence of a secondary phase, whereas a secondary phase related peak was detected at an elevated temperature up to 1490 °C with the same heating rate. Back-scattered electron images (BEIs) revealed the occurrence of Ca3Ta2Ga4O14 (CTG) as a secondary phase. The secondary phase appears at the very early stage of growth, which is not possible to explain by a eutectic reaction. The experimental results suggest that liquid immiscibility was present in the melt at around 1490 °C during the growth of s-CTGS. Liquid immiscibility produces Si-rich and Si-poor melts, from which different phases with different compositions are solidified. The μ-PD technique poses a more static environment in the melt than that of Cz technique due to low melt convection and the lack of stirring, which enables liquid immiscibility to emerge.

  3. Bending fatigue tests on SiC-Al tapes under alternating stress at room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzog, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a testing method for fatigue tests on SiC-Al tapes containing a small amount of SiC filaments under alternating stress is reported. The fatigue strength curves resulting for this composite are discussed. They permit an estimate of its behavior under continuous stress and in combination with various other matrices, especially metal matrices.

  4. Energy transfer processes in Ca3Tb2-xEuxSi3O12 (x = 0-2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, I.; Bartosiewicz, K.; Nikl, M.; Piccinelli, F.; Bettinelli, M.

    2015-10-01

    The luminescent properties of Tb3+ and Eu3+ have been studied in several silicates having a silico-carnotite-type structure. Fast energy migration among Tb3+ ions has been found in Ca3Tb2Si3O12 and Ca3Tb2-xEuxSi3O12 (x = 0-0.1). In the case of Ca3Tb2-xEuxSi3O12, Tb3+-Eu3+ energy transfer is observed upon excitation in the UV bands of Tb3+. The transfer gives rise to strong emission from Eu3+ in the red spectral region at 612 nm. The efficiency of the transfer at room temperature in Ca3Tb1.9Eu0.1Si3O12 has been evaluated. The temperature evolution of the luminescent properties of Ca3Tb2Si3O12 and Ca3Tb1.9Eu0.1Si3O12 has been studied at temperatures ranging from 8 to 330 K.

  5. SiAlON COATINGS OF SILICON NITRIDE AND SILICON CARBIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Jan W. Nowok; John P. Hurley; John P. Kay

    2000-06-01

    The need for new engineering materials in aerospace applications and in stationary power turbine blades for high-efficiency energy-generating equipment has led to a rapid development of ceramic coatings. They can be tailored to have superior physical (high specific strength and stiffness, enhanced high-temperature performance) and chemical (high-temperature corrosion resistance in more aggressive fuel environments) properties than those of monolithic ceramic materials. Among the major chemical properties of SiAlON-Y ceramics are their good corrosion resistance against aggressive media combined with good thermal shock behavior. The good corrosion resistance results from the yttria-alumina-garnet (YAG), Al{sub 5}Y{sub 3}O{sub 12}, formed during the corrosion process of SiAlON-Y ceramics in combustion gases at 1300 C. The interfacial chemical precipitation of the YAG phase is beneficial. This phase may crystallize in cubic and/or tetragonal modifications and if formed in SiAlON-Y ceramic may simultaneously generate residual stress. Also, this phase can contain a large number of point defects, which is a consequence of the large unit cell and complexity of the YAG structure because it has no close-packed oxygen planes. Therefore, the need exists to elucidate the corrosion mechanism of a multilayered barrier with respect to using SiAlON-YAG as a corrosion-protective coating. Stress corrosion cracking in the grain boundary of a silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) ceramic enriched in a glassy phase such as SiAlON can significantly affect its mechanical properties. It has been suggested that the increased resistance of the oxynitride glass to stress corrosion is related to the increased surface potential of the fracture surface created in the more durable and highly cross-linked oxynitride glass network structure. We expect that either increased or decreased surface potential of the intergranular glassy phase is brought about by changes in the residual stress of the SiAl

  6. State-of-the-art of SiAlON materials. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, S.

    1979-01-01

    Research presented includes work on phase relations, crystal structure, synthesis, fabrication, and properties of various SiAlONs. The essential features of compositions, fabrication methods, and microstructure are reviewed. High temperature flexure strength, creep, fracture toughness, oxidation, and thermal shock resistance are discussed. These data are compared to those for some currently produced silicon nitride ceramics to assess the potential SiAlON materials for use in advanced gas turbine engines.

  7. Sulfur passivation for the formation of Si-terminated Al2O3/SiGe(0 0 1) interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardashti, Kasra; Hu, Kai-Ting; Tang, Kechao; Park, Sangwook; Kim, Hyonwoong; Madisetti, Shailesh; McIntyre, Paul; Oktyabrsky, Serge; Siddiqui, Shariq; Sahu, Bhagawan; Yoshida, Noami; Kachian, Jessica; Kummel, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Sulfur passivation is used to electrically and chemically passivate the silicon-germanium (SiGe) surfaces before and during the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide (Al2O3). The electrical properties of the interfaces were examined by variable frequency capacitance-voltage (C-V) spectroscopy. Interface compositions were determined by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS). The sulfur adsorbs to a large fraction of surface sites on the SiGe(0 0 1) surface, protecting the surface from deleterious surface reactions during processing. Sulfur passivation (a) improved the air stability of the cleaned surfaces prior to ALD, (b) increased the stability of the surface during high-temperature deposition, and (c) increased the Al2O3 ALD nucleation density on SiGe, thereby lowering the leakage current. S passivation suppressed formation of Gesbnd O bonds at the interface, leaving the majority of the Al2O3-SiGe interface terminated with direct Sisbnd Osbnd Al bonding.

  8. AlSi matrices for U(Mo) dispersion fuel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenaers, A.; Van den Berghe, S.; Detavernier, C.

    2013-08-01

    Several irradiation experiments of U(Mo) dispersion fuel performed with aluminum as matrix resulted in unacceptable swelling of the fuel plate due to the formation of an interaction layer between Al and U(Mo). It was found that an improvement in fuel behavior can be achieved by adding Si to the Al matrix and creating a Si rich preformed layer which delays the formation of the interaction layer. Such Al-Si matrices can be formed either by mixing silicon powder with aluminum or using an AlSi alloy. AlSi alloy powders have very different mechanical properties which complicate fuel plate fabrication. Aging experiments on AlSi alloys reveal that giving the alloy the correct heat treatment results in a homogenous dispersion of fine Si precipitates in a soft and strain free Al matrix. The diffusion of such small precipitates towards the U(Mo) particles will be more effective than the transportation of Si from the larger Si particles used in a mixture matrix. Out of pile experiments are performed to show the difference between using a mixture or an alloy for the interaction with U(Mo). It was found that the U(Mo) particles dispersed in an AlSi alloy matrix have a more uniform Si rich preformed layer after heat treatment. the thermal component of the in-pile diffusion (340 °C); the fabrication behavior (450 °C); the enhanced diffusion due to fission product recoils (550 °C). At the same time, they have been chosen at values where literature data exists for comparison [26]. Although only the true in-reactor behavior can provide final conclusions, the results of these out-of-pile tests provide some good indications on the expected relative behavior. Table 3 provides an overview of the experiment.After the thermal treatment, the pellets are removed from the capsules and cut in their longitudinal direction. One half of the pellet is embedded in epoxy resin and polished on successively finer grid finishing on cloth using 1 μm diamond paste.The samples have been investigated

  9. Mixed Al and Si doping in ferroelectric HfO{sub 2} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Lomenzo, Patrick D.; Nishida, Toshikazu; Takmeel, Qanit; Zhou, Chuanzhen; Chung, Ching-Chang; Jones, Jacob L.; Moghaddam, Saeed

    2015-12-14

    Ferroelectric HfO{sub 2} thin films 10 nm thick are simultaneously doped with Al and Si. The arrangement of the Al and Si dopant layers within the HfO{sub 2} greatly influences the resulting ferroelectric properties of the polycrystalline thin films. Optimizing the order of the Si and Al dopant layers led to a remanent polarization of ∼20 μC/cm{sup 2} and a coercive field strength of ∼1.2 MV/cm. Post-metallization anneal temperatures from 700 °C to 900 °C were used to crystallize the Al and Si doped HfO{sub 2} thin films. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction detected differences in peak broadening between the mixed Al and Si doped HfO{sub 2} thin films, indicating that strain may influence the formation of the ferroelectric phase with variations in the dopant layering. Endurance characteristics show that the mixed Al and Si doped HfO{sub 2} thin films exhibit a remanent polarization greater than 15 μC/cm{sup 2} up to 10{sup 8} cycles.

  10. Preparation and Properties of a Novel Al-Si-Ge-Zn Filler Metal for Brazing Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Zhiwei; Huang, Jihua; Yang, Hao; Chen, Shuhai; Zhao, Xingke

    2015-06-01

    The study is concerned with developing a filler metal with low melting temperature and good processability for brazing aluminum and its alloys. For this purpose, a novel Al-Si-Ge-Zn alloy was prepared according to Al-Si-Ge and Al-Si-Zn ternary phase diagrams. The melting characteristics, microstructures, wettability, and processing property of the alloy were investigated. The results showed that the melting temperature range of the novel filler metal was 505.2-545.1 °C, and the temperature interval between the solidus and the liquidus was 39.9 °C. Compared with a common Al-Si-Ge alloy, it had smaller and better dispersed β-GeSi solid solution precipitates, and the Zn-rich phases distributed on the boundary of the β-GeSi precipitates. The novel filler metal has good processability and good wettability with Al. There was one obvious transition layer with a thin α-Al solid solution between the filler metal and base metal, which is favorable to improve the strength of brazing joint.

  11. Mixed Al and Si doping in ferroelectric HfO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomenzo, Patrick D.; Takmeel, Qanit; Zhou, Chuanzhen; Chung, Ching-Chang; Moghaddam, Saeed; Jones, Jacob L.; Nishida, Toshikazu

    2015-12-01

    Ferroelectric HfO2 thin films 10 nm thick are simultaneously doped with Al and Si. The arrangement of the Al and Si dopant layers within the HfO2 greatly influences the resulting ferroelectric properties of the polycrystalline thin films. Optimizing the order of the Si and Al dopant layers led to a remanent polarization of ˜20 μC/cm2 and a coercive field strength of ˜1.2 MV/cm. Post-metallization anneal temperatures from 700 °C to 900 °C were used to crystallize the Al and Si doped HfO2 thin films. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction detected differences in peak broadening between the mixed Al and Si doped HfO2 thin films, indicating that strain may influence the formation of the ferroelectric phase with variations in the dopant layering. Endurance characteristics show that the mixed Al and Si doped HfO2 thin films exhibit a remanent polarization greater than 15 μC/cm2 up to 108 cycles.

  12. Elastic scattering of Al25+p to explore the resonance structure in Si26

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H. S.; Lee, C. S.; Kwon, Y. K.; Moon, J. Y.; Lee, J. H.; Yun, C. C.; Kim, M. J.; Hashimoto, T.; Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Kubono, S.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Togano, Y.; Choi, Seonho; Kim, Y. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Park, J. S.; Kim, E. J.; Moon, C.-B.; Teranishi, T.; Iwasa, N.; Yamada, T.; Kato, S.; Cherubini, S.; Hayakawa, S.; Rapisarda, G. G.

    2014-09-01

    Background: The properties of resonances in Si26 are important to better constrain the Al25(p,γ)Si26 reaction rate relevant to the synthesis of galactic Al26gs and energy generation in explosive stellar environment at higher temperature. Purpose: Al25+p elastic scattering was measured to further constrain and investigate disagreements in resonance parameters for the high-lying excited states of Si26 with high statistics and without background contamination within the target. Methods: The experiment was performed by bombarding a thick H2 target with an Al25 radioactive ion beam. The resonances at excitation energies of 6.6-8.3 MeV in the Si26 compound nucleus were studied at the low-energy radioactive-ion beam facility CRIB (Center for Nuclear Study Radioactive Ion Beam separator) at the University of Tokyo. Results: Six resonant states were observed and their resonance parameters were extracted by an R-matrix analysis. Our resonance parameters for two levels are in good agreement with the results of previous studies, while for four others, excitation energy, proton partial width, and spin-parity assignment disagree with the results of recent study via elastic scattering of Al25+p. Conclusion: The parameters of resonant states in Si26 determined in the present work for the Al25(p,γ)Si26 reaction rate are consistent with that of the previous result, solving spin-parity assignment discrepancies between experiments, relevant at higher temperatures.

  13. Study of multi-carbide B4C-SiC/(Al, Si) reaction infiltrated composites by SEM with EBSD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, B. A.; Ferro, M. C.; Ravanan, A.; Grave, P. M. F.; Wu, H.-Y.; Gao, M.-X.; Pan, Y.; Oliveira, F. J.; Lopes, A. B.; Vieira, J. M.

    2014-03-01

    In the definition of conceptual developments and design of new materials with singular or unique properties, characterisation takes a key role in clarifying the relationships of composition, properties and processing that define the new material. B4C has a rare combination of properties that makes it suitable for a wide range of applications in engineering: high refractoriness, thermal stability, high hardness and abrasion resistance coupled to low density. However, the low self-diffusion coefficient of B4C limits full densification by sintering. A way to overturn this constraint is by using an alloy, for example Al-Si, forming composites with B4C. Multi-carbide B4C-SiC/(Al, Si) composites were produced by the reactive melt infiltration technique at 1200 - 1350 °C with up to 1 hour of isothermal temperature holds. Pressed preforms made from C-containing B4C were spontaneously infiltrated with Al-Si alloys of composition varying from 25 to 50 wt% Si. The present study involves the characterisation of the microstructure and crystalline phases in the alloys and in the composites by X-ray diffraction and SEM/EDS with EBSD. Electron backscatter diffraction is used in detail to look for segregation and spatial distribution of Si and Al containing phases during solidification of the metallic infiltrate inside the channels of the ceramic matrix when the composite cools down to the eutectic temperature (577 °C). It complements elemental maps of the SEM/EDS. The production of a flat surface by polishing is intrinsically difficult and the problems inherent to the preparation of EBSD qualified finishing in polished samples of such type of composites are further discussed.

  14. Influence of Si Addition on Quenching Sensitivity and Formation of Nano-Precipitate in Al-Mg-Si Alloys.

    PubMed

    Kim, JaeHwang; Hayashi, Minoru; Kobayashi, Equo; Sato, Tatsuo

    2016-02-01

    The age-hardening is enhanced with the high cooling rate since more vacancies are formed during quenching, whereas the stable beta phase is formed with the slow cooling rate just after solid solution treatment resulting in lower increase of hardness during aging. Meanwhile, the nanoclusters are formed during natural aging in Al-Mg-Si alloys. The formation of nanoclusters is enhanced with increasing the Si amount. High quench sensitivity based on mechanical property changes was confirmed with increasing the Si amount. Moreover, the nano-size beta" phase, main hardening phase, is more formed by the Si addition resulting in enhancement of the age-hardening. The quench sensitivity and the formation behavior of precipitates are discussed based on the age-hardening phenomena. PMID:27433677

  15. Magnetic structure of the antiferromagnetic Kondo lattice compounds CeRhAl4Si2 and CeIrAl4Si2

    DOE PAGES

    Ghimire, N. J.; Calder, S.; Janoschek, M.; Bauer, E. D.

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we have investigated the magnetic ground state of the antiferromagnetic Kondo-lattice compounds CeMAl4Si2(M = Rh, Ir) using neutron powder diffraction. Although both of these compounds show two magnetic transitions TN1 and TN2 in the bulk properties measurements, evidence for magnetic long-range order was only found below the lower transition TN2. Analysis of the diffraction profiles reveals a commensurate antiferromagnetic structure with a propagation vector k = (0, 0, 1/2). The magnetic moment in the ordered state of CeRhAl4Si2 and CeIrAl4Si2 were determined to be 1.14(2) and 1.41(3) μB/Ce, respectively, and are parallel to the crystallographic c-axis inmore » agreement with magnetic susceptibility measurements.« less

  16. Influence of Si content on microstructure of TiAl alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, F.Y.; Klaar, H.J.; Wang, G.X.; Dahms, M.

    1996-04-01

    A systematic study of four ternary TiAl-based alloys with constant Ti content of 52.2 at. % and variable Si content ranging from 0.3 to 2.7 at. % (Al in balance) was conducted. The alloys were prepared from elemental powders via a route including powder mixing, precompaction, cold extrusion, and reactive hot-isostatic pressing. All investigated alloys contain the intermetallic compounds {gamma}-TiAl, {alpha}{sub 2}-Ti{sub 3}Al, and {zeta}-Ti{sub 5}(Si,Al){sub 3}. The microstructure can be described as a duplex structure (i.e., lamella {gamma}/{alpha}{sub 2} regions distributed in a {gamma} matrix) containing {zeta} precipitates. With increasing Si content, the number of primary {zeta} precipitates increased and the {gamma} grain size became finer while the lamellar volume fraction decreased slightly.

  17. Elimination of interface states of Co2MnSi/MgO/Co2MnSi magnetic tunneling junction by inserting an Al atomic layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H. L.; Yang, G. W.

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at improvement performance of Co2MnSi/MgO/Co2MnSi magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ), we have studied interface behaviors of Co2MnSi/MgO by inserting an Al atomic layer between Heusler alloy and barrier, i.e., CoCo/Al/O, MnSi/Al/O, MnMn/Al/O and SiSi/Al/O four interfaces. It was found that CoCo/Al/O is stable and half-metallic, meaning interface states can be eliminated in this system. Hybridization and repulsion of transition-metal d and p states of sp atoms at interface and electrons transfer between interfacial atoms were suggested to be responsible for interface states elimination. These findings open a way to eliminate the interface states in MTJ.

  18. Stable and metastable Si negative-U centers in AlGaN and AlN

    SciTech Connect

    Trinh, Xuan Thang; Nilsson, Daniel; Ivanov, Ivan G.; Janzén, Erik; Kakanakova-Georgieva, Anelia; Son, Nguyen Tien

    2014-10-20

    Electron paramagnetic resonance studies of Si-doped Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N (0.79 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) reveal two Si negative-U (or DX) centers, which can be separately observed for x ≥ 0.84. We found that for the stable DX center, the energy |E{sub DX}| of the negatively charged state DX{sup −}, which is also considered as the donor activation energy, abruptly increases with Al content for x ∼ 0.83–1.0 approaching ∼240 meV in AlN, whereas E{sub DX} remains to be close to the neutral charge state E{sub d} for the metastable DX center (∼11 meV below E{sub d} in AlN).

  19. Fluorescence and phosphorescence properties of the low temperature forms of the MAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}:Eu{sup 2+} (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Clabau, Frederic; Garcia, Alain; Bonville, Pierre; Gonbeau, Danielle; Le Mercier, Thierry; Deniard, Philippe; Jobic, Stephane

    2008-06-15

    The fluorescence and phosphorescence properties of Europium-doped MAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) are reinvestigated and discussed on the basis of the propensity of an activator to agglomerate with an oxygen vacancy. Due to a stronger attraction of the anion vacancy towards Eu{sup 2+} cations going from BaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} to SrAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} and CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} host lattices, the interpretation of the fluorescence spectra turns out to be less trivial in the Ca and Sr host lattices than in the Ba one and requests the account for Eu{sup 2+} cations lying at alkaline-earth sites with or without vacancy in their neighborhood. Phosphorescence in these compounds is highlighted. - Graphical abstract: The Eu{sup 2+}-doped MAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8} (M=Ca, Sr, and Ba) aluminosilicates exhibit a bluish white luminescence, which can last several minutes after the removal of the excitation. The account for Eu{sup 2+} cations coupled with defects is required to explain fluorescence spectra.

  20. Characterization and Formation of Rod-Shaped (Al,Si)3Ti Particles in an Al-7Si-0.35Mg-0.12Ti (Wt Pct) Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang; Zhu, Yuman; Easton, Mark A.; Rinderer, Barbara; Couper, Mal; Nie, Jian-Feng

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the rod-shaped particles in an Al-7Si-0.35Mg-0.12Ti (wt pct) casting alloy have been characterized using transmission electron microscopy. It is found that these particles invariably contain Ti, Al, and Si and that they have the structure of the equilibrium phase (Al,Si)3Ti. A near-rational orientation relationship is observed between the (Al,Si)3Ti particles and the α-Al matrix phase. For this orientation relationship, the long axes of the (Al,Si)3Ti rods are invariably parallel to the moiré planes defined by the intersection of closest-packed planes of the (Al,Si)3Ti and α-Al phases. In contrast to the (Al,Si)3Ti or Al3Ti particles form directly from the melt act as heterogeneous nucleation sites for aluminum grains and thus grain-refined Al-Si foundry alloys, the (Al,Si)3Ti particles are found to form during solution treatment at temperatures above 673 K (400 °C). Their formation occurs in the center of aluminum grains and/or dendrites which is Ti enriched due to partitioning during solidification. The low diffusivity of Ti in α-Al allows the particles to form in the Ti-enriched areas near the center of grains as the Ti concentration is not able to be homogenized during typical solution treatment times.

  1. Structure Investigation of CaSiO3 Perovskite at 91 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, C.; Prakapenka, V.; Parise, J. B.

    2007-12-01

    The crystallographic structure of CaSiO3 perovskite at 91(2) GPa is investigated using monochromatic X-ray diffraction and the laser-heated diamond anvil cell with a graphite gasket-insert to increase the volume of the sample under diffraction conditions. We report observations of weak X-ray reflections at d-spaces matching a perovskite super-structure, which appear in addition to splitting of diffraction from the cubic sub-structure. Considering this data in context with the space groups (SGs) of all perovskite structures observed experimentally and recorded in the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database, CaSiO3 perovskite adopts one of two possible tetragonal structures ( P4/ mbm, SG #127, rather than I4/ mcm, SG #123) after cooling from 2000(300) K at this pressure if an orthorhombic or monoclinic unit cell is discounted. When an orthorhombic perovskite structure is considered, reflections from the perovskite super-structure discount Imam (SG #74) and could favor Cmcm (SG #74) above Pbnm (SG #62). The raw diffraction data from CaSiO3 and our analysis are presented in addition to a detailed procedure for the construction of the graphite gasket-insert used during the high pressure experiment. In brief, graphite is machined from a monochromator by electronic discharge and placed within a conventional tungsten gasket. Oriented with its a-axis perpendicular to the direction of force in the diamond anvil cell, a sample chamber is machined within the graphite-insert after indenting with the diamond anvils.

  2. Assessment of SiCaP-30 in a Rabbit Posterolateral Fusion Model with Concurrent Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Smucker, Joseph D; Petersen, Emily B; Al-Hili, Ali; Nepola, James V; Fredericks, Douglas C

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy derivatives of the rabbit posterolateral fusion model are considered a challenging environment in which to test bone graft materials. The purpose of this study was to determine the performance characteristics of SiCaP-30 as a bone graft substitute relative to autograft (iliac crest bone graft [ICBG]), Actifuse ABX and β-Tricalcium Phosphate-Bioactive Glass-Type I Collagen (βTCP-BG) in a rabbit posterolateral spine fusion model with concurrent chemotherapy treatment This was a randomized, controlled study in a laboratory setting with blinded assessment of fusion by manual palpation and flexibility testing. Sixty rabbits were entered into the study with 45 used for analysis. Chemotherapeutic agents, doxorubicin and cis-platin (2.5 mg/kg), were administered one week prior to surgery, and one, two and three weeks post surgery. Bilateral posterolateral lumbar intertransverse process fusions were performed at L5-L6. The lateral two thirds of the transverse processes were decorticated and covered with 3cc/side of one of the following graft materials: autologous ICBG, Actifuse ABX (ApaTech Ltd, UK), Vitoss BA (Orthovita, USA) or SiCaP-30 (ApaTech Ltd., UK). Animals were euthanized 12 weeks post surgery. The ICBG group had a 45% (5/11) manual palpation fusion rate and correlated with motion analysis fusion results of 36% (4/11). The Actifuse ABX group had a 33% (4/12) manual palpation fusion rate and a motion analysis fusion rate of 25% (3/12). No motion segments in the Vitoss BA group (0/11) showed any signs of fusion. The SiCaP-30 group demonstrated a statistically higher manual palpation and motion analysis fusion rate of 82% (9/11; p<0.05) and produced superior bone formation compared with Actifuse ABX and βTCP-BG.

  3. Assessment of SiCaP-30 in a Rabbit Posterolateral Fusion Model with Concurrent Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Smucker, Joseph D; Petersen, Emily B; Al-Hili, Ali; Nepola, James V; Fredericks, Douglas C

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy derivatives of the rabbit posterolateral fusion model are considered a challenging environment in which to test bone graft materials. The purpose of this study was to determine the performance characteristics of SiCaP-30 as a bone graft substitute relative to autograft (iliac crest bone graft [ICBG]), Actifuse ABX and β-Tricalcium Phosphate-Bioactive Glass-Type I Collagen (βTCP-BG) in a rabbit posterolateral spine fusion model with concurrent chemotherapy treatment This was a randomized, controlled study in a laboratory setting with blinded assessment of fusion by manual palpation and flexibility testing. Sixty rabbits were entered into the study with 45 used for analysis. Chemotherapeutic agents, doxorubicin and cis-platin (2.5 mg/kg), were administered one week prior to surgery, and one, two and three weeks post surgery. Bilateral posterolateral lumbar intertransverse process fusions were performed at L5-L6. The lateral two thirds of the transverse processes were decorticated and covered with 3cc/side of one of the following graft materials: autologous ICBG, Actifuse ABX (ApaTech Ltd, UK), Vitoss BA (Orthovita, USA) or SiCaP-30 (ApaTech Ltd., UK). Animals were euthanized 12 weeks post surgery. The ICBG group had a 45% (5/11) manual palpation fusion rate and correlated with motion analysis fusion results of 36% (4/11). The Actifuse ABX group had a 33% (4/12) manual palpation fusion rate and a motion analysis fusion rate of 25% (3/12). No motion segments in the Vitoss BA group (0/11) showed any signs of fusion. The SiCaP-30 group demonstrated a statistically higher manual palpation and motion analysis fusion rate of 82% (9/11; p<0.05) and produced superior bone formation compared with Actifuse ABX and βTCP-BG. PMID:26361457

  4. High Temperature Aerogels in the Al2O3-SiO2 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.; Aranda, Denisse V.; Gallagher, Meghan E.

    2008-01-01

    Al2O3-SiO2 aerogels are of interest as constituents of thermal insulation systems for use at high temperatures. Al2O3 and mullite aerogels are expected to crystallize at higher temperatures than their SiO2 counterparts, hence avoiding the shrinkages that accompany the formation of lower temperature SiO2 phases and preserving pore structures into higher temperature regimes. The objective of this work is to determine the influence of processing parameters on shrinkage, gel structure (including surface area, pore size and distribution) and pyrolysis behavior.

  5. Optical properties of the Al2O3/SiO2 and Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marszałek, Konstanty; Winkowski, Paweł; Jaglarz, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of bilayer and trilayer Al2O3/SiO2 and Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings are presented in this paper. The oxide films were deposited on a heated quartz glass by e-gun evaporation in a vacuum of 5 × 10-3 [Pa] in the presence of oxygen. Depositions were performed at three different temperatures of the substrates: 100 °C, 200 °C and 300 °C. The coatings were deposited onto optical quartz glass (Corning HPFS). The thickness and deposition rate were controlled with Inficon XTC/2 thickness measuring system. Deposition rate was equal to 0.6 nm/s for Al2O3, 0.6 nm - 0.8 nm/s for HfO2 and 0.6 nm/s for SiO2. Simulations leading to optimization of the thin film thickness and the experimental results of optical measurements, which were carried out during and after the deposition process, have been presented. The optical thickness values, obtained from the measurements performed during the deposition process were as follows: 78 nm/78 nm for Al2O3/SiO2 and 78 nm/156 nm/78 nm for Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2. The results were then checked by ellipsometric technique. Reflectance of the films depended on the substrate temperature during the deposition process. Starting from 240 nm to the beginning of visible region, the average reflectance of the trilayer system was below 1 % and for the bilayer, minima of the reflectance were equal to 1.6 %, 1.15 % and 0.8 % for deposition temperatures of 100 °C, 200 °C and 300 °C, respectively.

  6. EDM machinability of SiCw/Al composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramulu, M.; Taya, M.

    1989-01-01

    Machinability of high temperature composites was investigated. Target materials, 15 and 25 vol pct SiC whisker-2124 aluminum composites, were machined by electrodischarge sinker machining and diamond saw. The machined surfaces of these metal matrix composites were examined by SEM and profilometry to determine the surface finish. Microhardness measurements were also performed on the as-machined composites.

  7. Dielectric properties of spark plasma sintered AlN/SiC composite ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Peng; Jia, Cheng-chang; Cao, Wen-bin; Wang, Cong-cong; Liang, Dong; Xu, Guo-liang

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we have investigated how the dielectric loss tangent and permittivity of AlN ceramics are affected by factors such as powder mixing methods, milling time, sintering temperature, and the addition of a second conductive phase. All ceramic samples were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) under a pressure of 30 MPa. AlN composite ceramics sintered with 30wt%-40wt% SiC at 1600°C for 5 min exhibited the best dielectric loss tangent, which is greater than 0.3. In addition to AlN and β-SiC, the samples also contained 2H-SiC and Fe5Si3, as detected by X-ray difraction (XRD). The relative densities of the sintered ceramics were higher than 93%. Experimental results indicate that nano-SiC has a strong capability of absorbing electromagnetic waves. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of AlN-SiC ceramics with the same content of SiC decreased as the frequency of electromagnetic waves increased from 1 kHz to 1 MHz.

  8. Compensating defects in Si-doped AlN bulk crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irmscher, K.; Schulz, T.; Albrecht, M.; Hartmann, C.; Wollweber, J.; Fornari, R.

    2007-12-01

    The rather low n-type conductivity observed in Si-doped sublimation-grown AlN bulk crystals is explained by the formation of high concentrations of compensating defects. The model is based on the experimental verification of a shallow impurity band formed by Si donors and the presence of acceptor-like electron traps within 1 eV below the conduction band edge. Further it is suggested that the majority of the Si donors is compensated by deep acceptors in the lower half of the band gap. This compensation model is an alternative to the controversially discussed assumption of Si DX center formation.

  9. Synthesis and luminous characteristics of Ba3CaSi2-xAlxO8:Eu, Mn phosphor for white LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Changyu; Yang, Yi; Jin, Shangzhong; Ming, Jiangzhou

    2008-12-01

    Ba3CaSi1.7Al0.3O8: Eu, Mn white-emitting phosphor was prepared by solid reaction and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the formation of Ba3CaSi1.7Al0.3O8: 0.1Eu, 0.1Mn. It was found experimentally that, its three-color emission peaks situated at 621, 491 and 435 nm respectively under excitation of 350-450nm irradiation. The 435nm and 491nm emission bands are attributed to 4f to 5d transition of Eu2+ ions. The emission band peaking at 621nm originates from the 4T1-6A1 transition of Mn2+ ions after the energy transferring from Eu2+ to Mn2+ ions. When the concentrations of the Al3+, Eu2+ and Mn2+ ions were 0.8 mol, 0.1mol and 0.1mol respectively, the sample presented intense white emitting. The addition of Al ion to the host leads to a substantial change of intensity ratio between blue to green emission.

  10. Bone-bonding ability of P2O5-free CaO.SiO2 glasses.

    PubMed

    Ohura, K; Nakamura, T; Yamamuro, T; Kokubo, T; Ebisawa, Y; Kotoura, Y; Oka, M

    1991-03-01

    An apatite- and wollastonite-containing glass-ceramic (A.W-GC) has been reported to form a tight bond with living bone through an apatite layer formed on its surface. This layer is considered to be formed by dissolution of Ca2+ and HSiO3- ions from the glass-ceramic into the surrounding body fluids. In order to confirm this proposed mechanism for the surface reaction of A.W-GC, three kinds of glass in the systems CaO-SiO2, CaO-SiO2-CaF2, and CaO-SiO2-P2O5 were implanted into the tibiae of rabbits for 3 or 8 weeks. Contact microradiography and SEM-EPMA showed that all three kinds of glass formed a Ca,P-rich layer in combination with a Si-rich layer on their surfaces within 3 weeks and formed a direct bond with bone via these layers. The detaching test, performed 8 weeks after implantation, showed that the loads required to detach the implants from the bone were almost equal for the phosphorus-free and the phosphorus-containing glasses. It was concluded that even P2O5-free CaO.SiO2 glass formed a Ca,P-rich layer on its surface and bonded tightly with living bone. If glasses and glass-ceramics release at least Ca2+ and HSiO3- ions, this would be sufficient for them to form the Ca,P-rich layer on their surfaces in vivo, enabling them to bond directly with bone.

  11. Strengthening Mechanisms in Nanostructured Al/SiCp Composite Manufactured by Accumulative Press Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirkhanlou, Sajjad; Rahimian, Mehdi; Ketabchi, Mostafa; Parvin, Nader; Yaghinali, Parisa; Carreño, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    The strengthening mechanisms in nanostructured Al/SiCp composite deformed to high strain by a novel severe plastic deformation process, accumulative press bonding (APB), were investigated. The composite exhibited yield strength of 148 MPa which was 5 and 1.5 times higher than that of raw aluminum (29 MPa) and aluminum-APB (95 MPa) alloys, respectively. A remarkable increase was also observed in the ultimate tensile strength of Al/SiCp-APB composite, 222 MPa, which was 2.5 and 1.2 times greater than the obtained values for raw aluminum (88 MPa) and aluminum-APB (180 MPa) alloys, respectively. Analytical models well described the contribution of various strengthening mechanisms. The contributions of grain boundary, strain hardening, thermal mismatch, Orowan, elastic mismatch, and load-bearing strengthening mechanisms to the overall strength of the Al/SiCp microcomposite were 64.9, 49, 6.8, 2.4, 5.4, and 1.5 MPa, respectively. Whereas Orowan strengthening mechanism was considered as the most dominating strengthening mechanism in Al/SiCp nanocomposites, it was negligible for strengthening the microcomposite. Al/SiCp nanocomposite showed good agreement with quadratic summation model; however, experimental results exhibited good accordance with arithmetic and compounding summation models in the microcomposite. While average grain size of the composite reached 380 nm, it was less than 100 nm in the vicinity of SiC particles as a result of particle-stimulated nucleation mechanism.

  12. Separation Mechanism of Primary Silicon from Hypereutectic Al-Si Melts Under Alternating Electromagnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Haiyang; Lv, Guoqiang; Ma, Wenhui; Chen, Daotong; Yu, Jie

    2015-07-01

    Solar grade silicon (SOG-Si) and hypereutectic Al-Si alloys with low silicon (silicon composition below 25 pct) can be successfully obtained by separation of hypereutectic Al-Si alloy with high silicon (silicon composition above 30 pct) under an alternating electromagnetic field after post-processing. To explore the separation mechanism in detail, experiments were conducted in this study using a high-frequency induction furnace with different pulling conditions of the crucible which is loaded with Al-45 wt pct Si melt. Results demonstrate that the separation of hypereutectic Al-Si alloy is feasible through either a pull-up or drop-down process. The height of each separation interface between the compact and sparse parts of the primary silicon decrease as the pull-up distance rose. When the pulling rate is very low, resultant morphologies of compact primary silicon are rounded and polygonal, allowing for more effective separation of the primary silicon. A novel physical model is presented here based on the experimental results and simulation. The model can be used to effectively describe the separation mechanism of primary silicon from hypereutectic Al-Si melts under alternating electromagnetic fields.

  13. Microstructural refinement of Al-Si alloy upon ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification treatment.

    PubMed

    He, Yinsheng; Li, Kejian; Cho, In Shik; Park, In Gyu; Shin, Keesam

    2014-11-01

    In this work, an Al-7 wt.% Si alloy, which is widely used as the structural materials in the automotive and aerospace industries for their high specific strength, was subjected to ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM) treatment. After UNSM treatment, the effect of UNSM on the microstructural evolution of both Al grain and the dispersed Si particles was studied by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Experimental results show that the ultra-fine grain (UFG, - 400 nm in size) structure is developed in the top surface layer (up to - 15 μm in depth). The coarse Si particles were refined and well dispersed in the UFG Al matrix. Cross-sectional TEM observation revealed that the grain refinement mechanism involved the formation of new grain boundaries dividing the coarse grain into UFG structure. Nanotwin and nanosize Si were formed within the original coarse Si particles. The presence of dispersed Si particles in the Al matrix accelerated the Al grain refinement process. PMID:25958593

  14. Correlation Between Interfacial Structure and Toughness in SiC-Al Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Yaru; Guo, Qiang; Guo, Xiaolei; Fan, Genlian; Li, Zhiqiang; Xiong, Ding-Bang; Su, Yishi; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Di

    2016-10-01

    Reinforcement surface modification is often used to improve the mechanical properties of particle-reinforced metal matrix composites, however, the extent to which such modifications affect the interfacial properties is yet to be revealed. In this study, we fabricated SiC-Al composite bilayers where the SiC underwent different surface treatments before Al deposition. Four-point bending tests showed that the samples made from acid-pickled and thermally oxidized SiC possessed substantially higher interfacial toughness than their untreated counterpart, a presumption inferred from mechanical tests on bulk SiCp-Al composites but never justified quantitatively. These findings were rationalized by the different interfacial constituents and structure in these samples.

  15. Chemical short-range order and the Meyer - Neldel rule for liquid alloys: AlCa and GaAlCa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, D.; Schnyders, H. S.; Van Zytveld, J. B.

    1997-02-01

    We have measured the electrical resistivity, 0953-8984/9/7/006/img1, its specific temperature dependence, 0953-8984/9/7/006/img2, and the thermopower, S, of two series of ternary liquid alloys: 0953-8984/9/7/006/img3 and 0953-8984/9/7/006/img4. We also provide new analysis for the binary liquid alloy AlCa. We do not see the unusually large values for S that were found earlier for amorphous solid ternary alloys of the approximate composition 0953-8984/9/7/006/img5. We do find that, while chemical short-range order (CSRO) appears to occur in the liquid binary alloy 0953-8984/9/7/006/img6, CSRO is apparently destroyed by substitution of one Ga atom for one Al per complex: 0953-8984/9/7/006/img7. CSRO may exist in the liquid alloy 0953-8984/9/7/006/img8. And we find that the activated conductivities of these ternary liquid alloys (and also of liquid AlCa) are consistent with the Meyer - Neldel rule (MNR), extending the range of applicability of the MNR to systems with activation energies about an order of magnitude smaller than previously observed. These results appear to rule out two physical models as universal bases for the MNR, but are consistent with one based on a hopping conductivity whose characteristic energy is that of a polaron shift.

  16. Nucleation of AlN on SiC substrates by seeded sublimation growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, P.; Edgar, J. H.; Lee, R. G.; Chaudhuri, J.

    2007-03-01

    The nucleation of aluminum nitride (AlN) on silicon carbide (SiC) seed by sublimation growth was investigated. Silicon-face, 8∘ off-axis 4H-SiC (0 0 0 1) and on-axis 6H-SiC (0 0 0 1) were employed as seeds. Initial growth for 15 min and extended growth for 2 h suggested that 1850 °C was the optimum temperature of AlN crystal growth: on an 8∘ off-axis substrate, AlN grew laterally forming a continuous layer with regular "step" features; on the on-axis substrate, AlN grew vertically as well as laterally, generating an epilayer with hexagonal sub-grains of different sizes. The layer's c-lattice constant was larger than pure AlN, which was caused by the compression of the AlN film and impurities (Si, C) incorporation. Polarity sensitive and defect selective etchings were performed to examine the surface polarity and dislocation density. All the samples had an Al-polar surface and no N-polar inversion domains were observed. Threading dislocations were present regardless of the substrate misorientation. Basal plane dislocations (BPDs) were revealed only on the AlN films on the 8∘ off-axis substrates. The total dislocation density was in the order of 108 cm-2 when the film was 20- 30 μm thick.

  17. Effects of Ca, Cu, Al and La on pectin gel strength: implications for plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Brigid A; Nicholson, Timothy M; Wehr, J Bernhard; Menzies, Neal W

    2010-06-16

    Rheology of Ca-pectate gels is widely studied, but the behaviour of pectate gels formed by Cu, Al and La is largely unknown. It is well known that gel strength increases with increasing Ca concentration, and it is hypothesised that this would also be the case for other cations. Pectins are a critical component of plant cell walls, imparting various physicochemical properties. Furthermore, the mechanism of metal toxicity in plants is hypothesised to be, in the short term, related to metal interactions with cell wall pectin. This study investigated the influence of Ca, Cu, Al and La ion concentrations at pH 4 on the storage modulus as a function of frequency for metal-pectin gels prepared from pectin (1%) with a degree of esterification of 30%. Gels were formed in situ over 6d in metal chloride solution adjusted daily to pH 4. Cation concentration was varied to develop a relationship between gel strength and cation concentration. At similar levels of cation saturation, gel strength increased in the order of La<Ca < or =AlCa gels being the most swollen.

  18. Effects of Ca, Cu, Al and La on pectin gel strength: implications for plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Brigid A; Nicholson, Timothy M; Wehr, J Bernhard; Menzies, Neal W

    2010-06-16

    Rheology of Ca-pectate gels is widely studied, but the behaviour of pectate gels formed by Cu, Al and La is largely unknown. It is well known that gel strength increases with increasing Ca concentration, and it is hypothesised that this would also be the case for other cations. Pectins are a critical component of plant cell walls, imparting various physicochemical properties. Furthermore, the mechanism of metal toxicity in plants is hypothesised to be, in the short term, related to metal interactions with cell wall pectin. This study investigated the influence of Ca, Cu, Al and La ion concentrations at pH 4 on the storage modulus as a function of frequency for metal-pectin gels prepared from pectin (1%) with a degree of esterification of 30%. Gels were formed in situ over 6d in metal chloride solution adjusted daily to pH 4. Cation concentration was varied to develop a relationship between gel strength and cation concentration. At similar levels of cation saturation, gel strength increased in the order of La<Ca < or =AlCa gels being the most swollen. PMID:20457449

  19. Fabrication of Lotus-Type Porous Al-Si Alloys Using Thermal Decomposition Method Combined with Mold Casting and Continuous Casting Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae Bum; Jung, Taek Kyun; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Taek Soo; Hyun, Soong Keun

    2013-05-01

    Porous Al-Si alloys with directional pores were fabricated using thermal decomposition methods combined with mold casting and continuous casting techniques. The melt of Al-14 mass pct Si alloy was unidirectionally solidified in argon atmospheres by the mold casting or continuous casting technique. Ca(OH)2 compound was added into the melt as a source of hydrogen which forms pores during the solidification. In order to clarify the pore formation behavior, the effects of transfer velocity, ambient argon pressure, the amount, and the morphology of Ca(OH)2 compounds on the porosity were investigated. It was found that the porosity decreases with the increasing transfer velocity (solidification velocity). The pores are formed under the argon pressure of 1 kPa, while not being formed under the pressure higher than 20 kPa. The porosity increases with the increasing amount of Ca(OH)2 when the compacted Ca(OH)2 pellets are used, while pores are not formed when Ca(OH)2 powders are used because of the rapid decomposition of Ca(OH)2.

  20. Ca,Al-rich inclusions, amoeboid olivine aggregates, and Al-rich chondrules from the unique carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094: I. mineralogy and petrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, Alexander N.; Fagan, Timothy J.; Keil, Klaus; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Sahijpal, Sandeep; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Petaev, Mikhail I.; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2004-05-01

    Based on their mineralogy and petrography, ˜200 refractory inclusions studied in the unique carbonaceous chondrite, Acfer 094, can be divided into corundum-rich (0.5%), hibonite-rich (1.1%), grossite-rich (8.5%), compact and fluffy Type A (spinel-melilite-rich, 50.3%), pyroxene-anorthite-rich (7.4%), and Type C (pyroxene-anorthite-rich with igneous textures, 1.6%) Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs), pyroxene-hibonite spherules (0.5%), and amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs, 30.2%). Melilite in some CAIs is replaced by spinel and Al-diopside and/or by anorthite, whereas spinel-pyroxene assemblages in CAIs and AOAs appear to be replaced by anorthite. Forsterite grains in several AOAs are replaced by low-Ca pyroxene. None of the CAIs or AOAs show evidence for Fe-alkali metasomatic or aqueous alteration. The mineralogy, textures, and bulk chemistry of most Acfer 094 refractory inclusions are consistent with their origin by gas-solid condensation and may reflect continuous interaction with SiO and Mg of the cooling nebula gas. It appears that only a few CAIs experienced subsequent melting. The Al-rich chondrules (ARCs; >10 wt% bulk Al 2O 3) consist of forsteritic olivine and low-Ca pyroxene phenocrysts, pigeonite, augite, anorthitic plagioclase, ± spinel, FeNi-metal, and crystalline mesostasis composed of plagioclase, augite and a silica phase. Most ARCs are spherical and mineralogically uniform, but some are irregular in shape and heterogeneous in mineralogy, with distinct ferromagnesian and aluminous domains. The ferromagnesian domains tend to form chondrule mantles, and are dominated by low-Ca pyroxene and forsteritic olivine, anorthitic mesostasis, and Fe,Ni-metal nodules. The aluminous domains are dominated by anorthite, high-Ca pyroxene and spinel, occasionally with inclusions of perovskite; have no or little FeNi-metal; and tend to form cores of the heterogeneous chondrules. The cores are enriched in bulk Ca and Al, and apparently formed from melting of CAI

  1. First-principles investigation of the thermo-physical properties of Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Xiaoma; Yang, Jiong; Xi, Lili; Ouyang, Yifang

    2012-10-15

    The first-principles calculations were applied to investigate the thermo-physical properties of Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 4} compound with increasing pressure. Those properties are based on density functional theory (DFT) method within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and local density approximation (LDA) for exchange and correlation. The optimized lattice constant and formation enthalpy are in good agreement with the experimental data and other theoretical data available. The calculated band structures confirm that Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 4} is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 0.363 eV (GGA) and 0.311 eV (LDA) at 0 GPa, and the calculated band gap decreased with the increasing pressure. The elastic constants, elastic anisotropy, elastic moduli and Poisson's ratio of Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 4} have also been obtained under high pressures. The Debye temperature, heat capacity, coefficient of thermal expansion and Grueneisen parameter have also been calculated in the quasiharmonic Debye model. - Graphical abstract: The Partial Density of States and Band Structure of Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 4}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermo-physical properties of Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 4} have been investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 4} is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanical properties of Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 4} have been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The heat capacity and thermal expansion have been obtained.

  2. Electrical characteristics of p-Si/TiO2/Al and p-Si/TiO2-Zr/Al Schottky devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüdai Taşdemir, İbrahim; Vural, Özkan; Dökme, İlbilge

    2016-06-01

    Electrical devices involve different types of diode in prospective electronics is of great importance. In this study, p-type Si surface was covered with thin film of TiO2 dispersion in H2O to construct p-Si/TiO2/Al Schottky barrier diode (D1) and the other one with TiO2 dispersion doped with zirconium to construct p-Si/TiO2-Zr/Al diode (D2) by drop-casting method in the same conditions. Electrical properties of as-prepared diodes and effect of zirconium as a dopant were investigated. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of these devices were measured at ambient conditions. Some parameters including ideality factor (n), barrier height (ΦB0), series resistance (Rs) and interface state density (Nss) were calculated from I-V behaviours of diodes. Structural comparisons were based on SEM and EDX measurements. Experimental results indicated that electrical parameters of p-Si/TiO2/Al Schottky device were influenced by the zirconium dopant in TiO2.

  3. Optically stimulated luminescence in LiCaAlF6:Eu2+ phosphor.

    PubMed

    More, Y K; Wankhede, S P; Moharil, S V; Kumar, Munish; Chougaonkar, M P

    2015-09-01

    Results on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in LiCaAlF6:Eu(2+) are reported. Continuous wave OSL signal as recorded using blue (470 nm) stimulation was found to be ~31% that of standard phosphor lithium magnesium phosphate. The rate of OSL depletion for standard phosphor lithium magnesium phosphate is only three times less as compared with that of LiCaAlF6:Eu(2+). Strong photoluminescence (PL) in the near ultraviolet region is observed for LiCaAlF6:Eu(2+) with the characteristic Eu(2+) emission at 369 nm for 254 nm excitation. The thermoluminescence (TL) glow peak for LiCaAlF6:Eu(2+) was observed at around 180°C. The glow peak was about six times more intense compared with the dosimetric peak of the well known thermoluminescence dosimetric (TLD) phosphor LiF-TLD 100. Thus this phosphor deserves much more attention than it has received until now and may be useful as a dosimetric material in radiation dosimetry. PMID:25620581

  4. Formation Mechanism of CaS-Al2O3 Inclusions in Low Sulfur Al-Killed Steel After Calcium Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianfei; Huang, Fuxiang; Wang, Xinhua

    2016-04-01

    The laboratory experiments of alumina inclusions modified by calcium treatment in Al-killed steel were carried out at 1873 K (1600 °C), and the inclusions in steel samples were characterized at 1, 5, and 10 minutes after calcium addition. The results show that the type of inclusions after calcium treatment was determined by the sulfur and T.O contents of steel. CaS-Al2O3 inclusions were obtained in steels with high sulfur and low T.O contents. The mass ratio between CaS and Al2O3 was determined by T.Ca and T.O contents of steel. The influence of holding time after calcium addition on the composition of inclusions was negligible. The thermodynamics for the formation of CaS-Al2O3 inclusions after calcium treatment was discussed, and a simple formation mechanism was proposed. Moreover, the CaO, Al2O3, and CaS contents in the inclusions were predicted through the sulfur, total calcium (T.Ca), and T.O contents, and it was found that the CaO content decreases with increasing S/T.O, while (pctCaS)/(pctAl2O3)1/3 increases with increasing T.Ca/T.O.

  5. Bose-Einstein correlations in Si + Al and Si + Au collisions at 14.6A GeV/c

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, T.; Akiba, Y.; Beavis, D.; Bloomer, M. A.; Bond, P. D.; Chasman, C.; Chen, Z.; Chu, Y. Y.; Cole, B. A.; Costales, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    The E802 Spectrometer at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron has been used to measure the correlation in relative momentum between like-sign pions emitted in central Si + Al and Si + Au collisions at 14.6A GeV/c. Data are presented in terms of the correlation function for both identified pi(-) and pi(+) pairs near the nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass rapidity. All parametrizations of the correlation function are consistent with a spherically symmetric source of rms radius 3.5 +/- 0.4 fm and lifetime fm/c.

  6. Ca-,Al-rich inclusions in the unique chondrite ALH85085 - Petrology, chemistry, and isotopic compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, M.; El Goresy, A.; Palme, H.; Zinner, E.

    1993-05-01

    A comprehensive study is performed for the Ca-,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in the unique chondrite ALH85085. The ALH85085 inclusions are smaller (5-80 microns) and more refractory than their counterparts in carbonaceous chondrites. The study includes 42 inclusions for petrography and mineralogy, 15 for bulk major and minor element chemical composition, six for Mg-Al isotopic systematics, 10 for Ca isotopes, nine for Ti isotopes, and six for trace element abundances. In addition, oxygen-isotopic compositions were determined in minerals from a single inclusion. No correlation is found between mineralogy, major element chemistry, and trace element abundances. It is further shown that the high-temperature geochemical behavior of ultrarefractory trace elements is decoupled from that of the major elements Ca and Ti (Ti is correlated with the relatively volatile elements Nb and Yb) implying that perovskite is of only minor importance as carrier of ultrarefractories.

  7. Thermoelectric properties of Al doped Mg{sub 2}Si material

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Kulwinder Kumar, Ranjan; Rani, Anita

    2015-08-28

    In the present paper we have calculated thermoelectric properties of Al doped Mg{sub 2}Si material (Mg{sub 2−x}Al{sub x}Si, x=0.06) using Pseudo potential plane wave method based on DFT and Semi classical Boltzmann theory. The calculations showed n-type conduction, indicating that the electrical conduction are due to electron. The electrical conductivity increasing with increasing temperature and the negative value of Seebeck Coefficient also show that the conduction is due to electron. The thermal conductivity was increased slightly by Al doping with increasing temperature due to the much larger contribution of lattice thermal conductivity over electronic thermal conductivity.

  8. Mechanical properties of Al-Cu alloy-SiC composites

    SciTech Connect

    Anggara, B. S.; Handoko, E.; Soegijono, B.

    2014-09-25

    The synthesis of aluminum (Al) alloys, Al-Cu, from mixture 96.2 % Al and 3.8 % Cu has been prepared by melting process at a temperature of 1200°C. The adding 12.5 wt% up to 20 wt% of SiC on Al-Cu alloys samples has been investigated. The structure analyses were examined by X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Moreover, the morphology of Al-Cu alloys has been seen as structure in micrometer range. The hardness was measured by hardness Vickers method. According to the results, it can be assumed that the 15 wt% of SiC content is prefer content to get better quality of back to back hardness Vickers of Al-Cu alloys.

  9. A novel X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the Al/SiO2 interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, M. H.; Vasquez, R. P.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Zamani, N.; Maserjian, J.

    1985-01-01

    The nondestructive measurement of the chemical and physical characteristics of the interface between bulk SiO2 and thick aluminum films is reported. Both X-ray phototelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrical measurements of unannealed, resistively evaporated Al films on thermal SiO2 indicate an atomically abrupt interface. Post metallization annealing at 450 C induces reduction of the SiO2 by the aluminum, at a rate consistent with the bulk reaction rate. The XPS measurement is performed from the SiO2 side after the removal of the Si substrate with XeF2 gas and thinning of the SiO2 layer with HF:ETOH. This represents a powerful new approach to the study of metal-insulator and related interfaces.

  10. Molecular dynamics study on the nucleation of Al-Si melts on sheet substrates at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sida; Zhou, Xuyan; Wu, Weikang; Zhu, Xiangzhen; Duan, Yunrui; Li, Hui; Wang, Xin

    2016-02-28

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to study the freezing process of Al-Si melts on heterogeneous Si substrates in detail. We highlight the inherent nanostructure of both the Si primary phase and the Al-Si binary phase. It is found for the first time that the primary Si phase displays a "pyramidal configuration" when the Al-Si melt congeals. Experimental measurements could also verify our simulation results. It can be found that the binary Al-Si phase turns into a "Si-Al-Si sandwich construction" during solidification, regardless of freezing on a single substrate or in the restricted space between substrates. This peculiar phenomenon results from the combined effects of the van der Waals potential well and the interatomic interaction between Al and Si. Furthermore, it is also able to control the thickness of the Si atomic shell of the "sandwich construction", resulting in the silicene-like unilaminar Si nanostructure. Our findings provide novel strategies to fabricate desired shaped nanostructures by means of nanocasting in Al-Si melts at the nanoscale. PMID:26612569

  11. Molecular dynamics study on the nucleation of Al-Si melts on sheet substrates at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sida; Zhou, Xuyan; Wu, Weikang; Zhu, Xiangzhen; Duan, Yunrui; Li, Hui; Wang, Xin

    2016-02-28

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to study the freezing process of Al-Si melts on heterogeneous Si substrates in detail. We highlight the inherent nanostructure of both the Si primary phase and the Al-Si binary phase. It is found for the first time that the primary Si phase displays a "pyramidal configuration" when the Al-Si melt congeals. Experimental measurements could also verify our simulation results. It can be found that the binary Al-Si phase turns into a "Si-Al-Si sandwich construction" during solidification, regardless of freezing on a single substrate or in the restricted space between substrates. This peculiar phenomenon results from the combined effects of the van der Waals potential well and the interatomic interaction between Al and Si. Furthermore, it is also able to control the thickness of the Si atomic shell of the "sandwich construction", resulting in the silicene-like unilaminar Si nanostructure. Our findings provide novel strategies to fabricate desired shaped nanostructures by means of nanocasting in Al-Si melts at the nanoscale.

  12. Effect of alloying elements Al and Ca on corrosion resistance of plasma anodized Mg alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anawati, Asoh, Hidetaka; Ono, Sachiko

    2016-04-01

    Plasma anodizing is a surface treatment used to form a ceramic-type oxide film on Mg alloys by the application of a high anodic voltage to create intense plasma near the metal surface. With proper selection of the process parameters, the technique can produce high quality oxide with superior adhesion, corrosion resistance, micro-hardness, wear resistance and strength. The effect of alloying element Al on plasma anodizing process of Mg alloys was studied by comparing the anodizing curves of pure Mg, AZ31, and AZ61 alloys while the effect of Ca were studied on AZ61 alloys containing 0, 1, and 2 wt% Ca. Anodizing was performed in 0.5 M Na3PO4 solution at a constant current density of 200 Am-2 at 25°C. Anodic oxide films with lava-like structure having mix composition of amorphous and crystal were formed on all of the alloys. The main crystal form of the oxide was Mg3(PO4)2 as analyzed by XRD. Alloying elements Al and Ca played role in modifying the plasma lifetime during anodization. Al tended to extend the strong plasma lifetime and therefore accelerated the film thickening. The effect of Ca on anodizing process was still unclear. The anodic film thickness and chemical composition were altered by the presence of Ca in the alloys. Electrochemical corrosion test in 0.9% NaCl solution showed that the corrosion behavior of the anodized specimens depend on the behavior of the substrate. Increasing Al and Ca content in the alloys tended to increase the corrosion resistance of the specimens. The corrosion resistance of the anodized specimens improved significantly about two orders of magnitude relative to the bare substrate.

  13. Surface Behavior of Bioactive Glass of Si-Na-Ca-P System in Simulated Body Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jie; Chen, Chuanzhong; Wang, Diangang; Dang, Xing; Bao, Ruiliang; Yao, Liang

    Glass of the Si-Na-Ca-P system has been synthesized by normal melting and annealing technique. The obtained glass powders and annealed blocks were showed to be amorphous by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The thermal properties of glasses were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), it showed that the glass transformation temperature (Tg) was 556.3°C. The behavior of annealed glass discs in simulated body fluid solution (SBF) was studied in polyethylene containers at a constant temperature of 37°C for different time up to 14 days. The changes in the surface morphology and composition were observed by electronic probe microanalyzer (EPMA) associated with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Glass surface changed quickly as soon as immersion took place, and after longer soaking time, it showed different superimposed internal and external layers, which were identified as SiO2-rich and CaO-P2O5-rich layers, and on the external layer, spherical particles were also discovered.

  14. High oxidation state at the epitaxial interface of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films grown on Si(111) and Si(001)

    SciTech Connect

    El Kazzi, M.; Silly, M.; Sirotti, F.; Merckling, C.; Saint-Girons, G.; Grenet, G.; Hollinger, G.

    2010-10-11

    High resolution synchrotron radiation x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy allowed us to identify the chemical bonding at the interface between epitaxial {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Si substrate. The experiments were performed on 1 nm thick epitaxial {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers grown on both Si(111) and Si(001) substrates. In both cases, the Si 2p core level decomposition recorded at photon energy of 160 eV provided evidence for the absence of Si{sup 2+} and Si{sup 3+} species and the presence of two different Si{sup 4+} species. A microscopic model is proposed for the interface obtained with two incomplete SiO{sub 2} planes based on the Si 2p{sub 3/2} line shape.

  15. 3D characterization by tomography of beta Al9Fe2Si2 phase precipitation in a Al6.5Si1Fe alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdian, D.; Salvo, L.; Lacaze, J.; Tenailleau, C.; Duployer, B.; Malard, B.

    2016-03-01

    The microstructure evolution of beta phase during solidification of a synthetic Al6.5Si1Fe (wt.%) alloy has been investigated by in-situ synchrotron micro-tomography and post-mortem tomography. In-situ solidification was observed at a constant cooling rate of 10°C min-1, from above the alloy's liquidus with the melt at 618°C down to 575°C which is just above the (Al)-Si-beta invariant eutectic reaction. Primary (Al) dendrites nucleated at 608°C, followed by the formation of beta-Al9Fe2Si2 phase starting at 593°C. After a rapid growth stage until 587°C as thin plates, beta phase continued to grow at a paced rate. Thickening of the plates was also evaluated and it was observed that the decrease in the lateral growth rate of the plates did not lead to an increase of their thickening rate. It was noted that the interconnectivity between beta precipitates increased as the solidification progressed. While nucleation of beta phase has previously been reported to occur on the alumina scale formed at the outer surface of the material, it is shown from post mortem tomography that bulk nucleation can occur as well.

  16. Phase transformation upon cooling path in Ca2SiO4: Possible geological implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yun-Ting; Kung, Jennifer; Hsu, Han

    2016-04-01

    At the contact metamorphism zone two different Ca2SiO4 phases can be found; calcio-olivine (γ phase) and larnite (β phase). In-situ experiments illustrated the existence of five various polymorphs in Ca2SiO4, i.e., α, α'H, α'L, β and γ. The path of phase transformation and the transformation temperatures are shown as follows. γ → α'L(700° C) → α'H(1100° C) → α (1450° C) α'L → β (680° C) → γ (500° C) Experiments showed that the phase transitions at lower temperature is not reversible and seemed to be complicated; β phase is only stable from 500° C to 680° C upon cooling. To understand the possible mechanism of the β phase being metastable at room temperature, atmosphere condition, we were motivated to investigate the route of phase transition in Ca2SiO4 in different thermal process. Powder samples were synthesized by the solid-state reaction. Pure reagent oxides CaCO3 and SiO2 were mixed in 2:1 stoichiometric mole. Two control factors were designated in the experiments; the sintering temperature of starting materials and the cooling path. The sintering temperature was set within the range of stable phase field of α'L phase (˜900° C) and α'H phase (1300° C). The cooling process was designed in three different routes: 1) the quenched procedure from sintering temperature with rate of 900° C/min and 1300° C/min, 2) the furnace cooling procedure, 3) set a slow cooling rate (0.265 ° C/min). The products were examined for the crystal structure by X-ray powder diffraction. First-principle calculation was also applied to investigate the thermodynamic properties of α'H, β and γ phases. A major finding in this study showed that the γ phase presented in the final product when the sintering temperature was set at the stable field of α'H phase; on the other hand, the β phase would present when the sintering temperature was set within the field of α'L phase. It was noted that the existing phase in the product would be modified by the

  17. Heat capacities of synthetic hedenbergite, ferrobustamite and CaFeSi2O6 glass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haselton, H.T.; Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    Heat capacities have been measured for synthetic hedenbergite (9-647 K), ferrobustamite (5-746 K) and CaFeSi2O6 glass (6-380 K) by low-temperature adiabatic and differential scanning calorimetry. The heat capacity of each of these structural forms of CaFeSiO6 exhibits anomalous behavior at low temperatures. The X-peak in the hedenbergite heat-capacity curve at 34.5 K is due to antiferromagnetic ordering of the Fe2+ ions. Ferrobustamite has a bump in its heat-capacity curve at temperatures less than 20 K, which could be due to weak cooperative magnetic ordering or to a Schottky anomaly. Surprisingly, a broad peak with a maximum at 68 K is present in the heat-capacity curve of the glass. If this maximum, which occurs at a higher temperature than in hedenbergite is caused by magnetic ordering, it could indicate that the range of distortions of the iron sites in the glass is quite small and that coupling between iron atoms is stronger in the glass than in the edge-shared octahedral chains of hedenbergite. The standard entropy change, So298.15 - So0, is 174.2 ?? 0.3, 180.5 ?? 0.3 and 185.7 ?? 0.4 J/mol??K for hedenbergite, ferrobustamite and CaFeSi2O6 glass, respectively. Ferrobustamite is partially disordered in Ca-Fe distribution at high temperatures, but the dependence of the configuratonal entropy on temperature cannot be evaluated due to a lack of information. At high temperatures (298-1600 K), the heat capacity of hedenbergite may be represented by the equation Cop(J/mol??K) = 3l0.46 + 0.01257T-2039.93T -1 2 - 1.84604?? l06T-2 and the heat capacity of ferrobustamite may be represented by Cop(J/mol??K) = 403.83-0.04444T+ 1.597?? 10-5T2-3757.3T -1 2. ?? 1987.

  18. Optically pumped cerium-doped LiSrAlF.sub.6 and LiCaAlF.sub.6

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, Christopher D.; Payne, Stephen A.; Krupke, William F.

    1996-01-01

    Ce.sup.3+ -doped LiSrAlF.sub.6 crystals are pumped by ultraviolet light which is polarized along the c axis of the crystals to effectively energize the laser system. In one embodiment, the polarized fourth harmonic light output from a conventional Nd:YAG laser operating at 266 nm is arranged to pump Ce:LiSrAlF.sub.6 with the pump light polarized along the c axis of the crystal. The Ce:LiSrAlF.sub.6 crystal may be placed in a laser cavity for generating tunable coherent ultraviolet radiation in the range of 280-320 nm. Additionally, Ce-doped crystals possessing the LiSrAlF.sub.6 type of chemical formula, e.g. Ce-doped LiCaAlF.sub.6 and LiSrGaF.sub.6, can be used. Alternative pump sources include an ultraviolet-capable krypton or argon laser, or ultraviolet emitting flashlamps. The polarization of the pump light will impact operation. The laser system will operate efficiently when light in the 280-320 nm gain region is injected or recirculated in the system such that the beam is also polarized along the c axis of the crystal. The Ce:LiSrAlF.sub.6 laser system can be configured to generate ultrashort pulses, and it may be used to pump other devices, such as an optical parametric oscillator.

  19. Optically pumped cerium-doped LiSrAlF{sub 6} and LiCaAlF{sub 6}

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, C.D.; Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F.

    1996-05-14

    Ce{sup 3+}-doped LiSrAlF{sub 6} crystals are pumped by ultraviolet light which is polarized along the c axis of the crystals to effectively energize the laser system. In one embodiment, the polarized fourth harmonic light output from a conventional Nd:YAG laser operating at 266 nm is arranged to pump Ce:LiSrAlF{sub 6} with the pump light polarized along the c axis of the crystal. The Ce:LiSrAlF{sub 6} crystal may be placed in a laser cavity for generating tunable coherent ultraviolet radiation in the range of 280-320 nm. Additionally, Ce-doped crystals possessing the LiSrAlF{sub 6} type of chemical formula, e.g. Ce-doped LiCaAlF{sub 6} and LiSrGaF{sub 6}, can be used. Alternative pump sources include an ultraviolet-capable krypton or argon laser, or ultraviolet emitting flashlamps. The polarization of the pump light will impact operation. The laser system will operate efficiently when light in the 280-320 nm gain region is injected or recirculated in the system such that the beam is also polarized along the c axis of the crystal. The Ce:LiSrAlF{sub 6} laser system can be configured to generate ultrashort pulses, and it may be used to pump other devices, such as an optical parametric oscillator. 10 figs.

  20. Microstructure of the irradiated U 3Si 2/Al silicide dispersion fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, J.; Keiser, D. D.; Miller, B. D.; Jue, J.-F.; Robinson, A. B.; Madden, J. W.; Medvedev, P. G.; Wachs, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    The silicide dispersion fuel of U 3Si 2/Al is recognized as the best performance fuel for many nuclear research and test reactors with up to 4.8 gU/cm 3 fuel loading. An irradiated U 3Si 2/Al dispersion fuel ( 235U ˜ 75%) from the high-flux side of a fuel plate (U0R040) from the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR)-8 test was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The fuel was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) for 105 days. The average irradiation temperature and fission density of the U 3Si 2 fuel particles for the TEM sample are estimated to be approximately 110 °C and 5.4 × 10 27 f/m 3. The characterization was performed using a 200-kV TEM. The U/Si ratio for the fuel particle and (Si + Al)/U for the fuel-matrix-interaction layer are approximately 1.1 and 4-10, respectively. The estimated average diameter, number density and volume fraction for small bubbles (<1 μm) in the fuel particle are ˜94 nm, 1.05 × 10 20 m -3 and ˜11%, respectively. The results and their implication on the performance of the U 3Si 2/Al silicide dispersion fuel are discussed.

  1. Localized Corrosion Behavior of Al-Si-Mg Alloys Used for Fabrication of Aluminum Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pech-Canul, M. A.; Giridharagopal, R.; Pech-Canul, M. I.; Coral-Escobar, E. E.

    2013-12-01

    The relationship between microstructure and localized corrosion behavior in neutral aerated chloride solutions was investigated with SEM/EDAX, conventional electrochemical techniques, and with scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) for two custom-made alloys with Si/Mg molar ratios of 0.12 and 0.49. In this order, Al3Fe, Al3Mg2, and Mg2Si intermetallics were identified in the first alloy and Al(FeMn)Si and Mg2Si particles in the second one. Anodic polarization curves and corrosion morphology showed that the alloy with higher Si/Mg molar ratio exhibited a better corrosion performance and evidence was shown that it had a more corrosion-resistant passive film. The corrosion process for both alloys in aerated 0.1 M NaCl solutions was localized around the Fe-rich intermetallics. They acted as local cathodes and produced dissolution of the aluminum matrix surrounding such particles. Mg2Si and Al3Mg2 exhibited anodic behavior. SKPFM was successfully used to map the Volta potential distribution of main intermetallics. The localized corrosion behavior was correlated with a large Volta potential difference between the Fe-rich intermetallics and the matrix. After immersion in the chloride solution, such Volta potential difference decreased.

  2. Redetermination of junitoite, CaZn2Si2O7·H2O

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hexiong; Jenkins, Neil G.; Downs, Robert T.

    2012-01-01

    The crystal structure of the mineral junitoite, ideally CaZn2Si2O7·H2O (calcium dizinc disilicate monohydrate), was first determined by Hamilton & Finney [Mineral. Mag. (1985), 49, 91–95] based on the space group Ama2, yielding a reliability factor R of 0.10, with isotropic displacement parameters for all non-H atoms. The present study reports a structure redetermination of junitoite using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data from a natural sample, demonstrating that the space group of this mineral is actually Aea2, which can be attained simply by shifting the origin. Topologically, the structure models in the space groups Aea2 and Ama2 are analogous, consisting of chains of corner-sharing ZnO4 tetra­hedra parallel to the b axis, cross-linked by Si2O7 tetra­hedral dimers (the site symmetry of the bridging O atom is ..2) along a and c, forming a three-dimensional framework. The Ca2+ cations (site symmetry ..2) are situated in cavities of the framework and are bonded to five O atoms and one H2O mol­ecule (site symmetry ..2) in a distorted octa­hedral coordination environment. However, some bond lengths, especially for the SiO4 tetra­hedron, are noticeably different between the two structure models. Hydrogen bonding in junitoite is found between the water mol­ecule and a framework O atom. PMID:23125564

  3. Aluminum-Magnesium and Oxygen Isotope Study of Relict Ca-Al-rich Inclusions in Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, Alexander N.; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Huss, Gary R.; Liffman, Kurt; Sahijpal, Sandeep; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Srinivasan, Gopalan; Bischoff, Adolph; Keil, Klaus

    2006-03-01

    Relict Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondrules crystallized before their host chondrules and were subsequently partly melted together with chondrule precursors during chondrule formation. Like most CAIs, relict CAIs are 16O enriched (Δ17O<-20‰) compared to their host chondrules (Δ17O>-9‰). Hibonite in a relict CAI from the ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite Adelaide has a large excess of radiogenic 26Mg (26Mg*) from the decay of 26Al, corresponding to an initial 26Al/27Al ratio [(26Al/27Al)I] of (3.7+/-0.5)×10-5 in contrast, melilite in this CAI and plagioclase in the host chondrule show no evidence for 26Mg* [(26Al/27Al)I of <5×10-6]. Grossite in a relict CAI from the CH carbonaceous chondrite PAT 91546 has little 26Mg*, corresponding to a (26Al/27Al)I of (1.7+/-1.3)×10-6. Three other relict CAIs and their host chondrules from the ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094, CH chondrite Acfer 182, and H3.4 ordinary chondrite Sharps do not have detectable 26Mg* [(26Al/27Al)I<1×10-5, <(4-6)×10-6, and <1.3×10-5, respectively]. Isotopic data combined with mineralogical observations suggest that relict CAIs formed in an 16O-rich gaseous reservoir before their host chondrules, which originated in an 16O-poor gas. The Adelaide CAI was incorporated into its host chondrule after 26Al had mostly decayed, at least 2 Myr after the CAI formed, and this event reset 26Al-26Mg systematics.

  4. Corrosion resistance of sintered NdFeB coated with SiC/Al bilayer thin films by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yiqin; Li, Heqin; Zuo, Min; Tao, Lei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Tang, Qiong; Bai, Peiwen

    2016-07-01

    The poor corrosion resistance of sintered NdFeB imposes a great challenge in industrial applications. In this work, the SiC/Al bilayer thin films with the thickness of 510 nm were deposited on sintered NdFeB by magnetron sputtering to improve the corrosion resistance. A 100 nm Al buffer film was used to reduce the internal stress between SiC and NdFeB and improve the surface roughness of the SiC thin film. The morphologies and structures of SiC/Al bilayer thin films and SiC monolayer film were investigated with FESEM, AFM and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion behaviors of sintered NdFeB coated with SiC monolayer film and SiC/Al bilayer thin films were analyzed by polarization curves. The magnetic properties were measured with an ultra-high coercivity permanent magnet pulse tester. The results show that the surface of SiC/Al bilayer thin films is more compact and uniform than that of SiC monolayer film. The corrosion current densities of SiC/Al bilayer films coated on NdFeB in acid, alkali and salt solutions are much lower than that of SiC monolayer film. The SiC/Al bilayer thin films have little influence to the magnetic properties of NdFeB.

  5. Microstructure of as-fabricated UMo/Al(Si) plates prepared with ground and atomized powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungwirth, R.; Palancher, H.; Bonnin, A.; Bertrand-Drira, C.; Borca, C.; Honkimäki, V.; Jarousse, C.; Stepnik, B.; Park, S.-H.; Iltis, X.; Schmahl, W. W.; Petry, W.

    2013-07-01

    UMo-Al based fuel plates prepared with ground U8wt%Mo, ground U8wt%MoX (X = 1 wt%Pt, 1 wt%Ti, 1.5 wt%Nb or 3 wt%Nb) and atomized U7wt%Mo have been examined. The first finding is that that during the fuel plate production the metastable γ-UMo phases partly decomposed into two different γ-UMo phases, U2Mo and α'-U in ground powder or α″-U in atomized powder. Alloying small amounts of a third element to the UMo had no measurable effect on the stability of the γ-UMo phase. Second, the addition of some Si inside the Al matrix and the presence of oxide layers in ground and atomized samples is studied. In the case with at least 2 wt%Si inside the matrix a Silicon rich layer (SiRL) forms at the interface between the UMo and the Al during the fuel plate production. The SiRL forms more easily when an Al-Si alloy matrix - which is characterized by Si precipitates with a diameter ⩽1 μm - is used than when an Al-Si mixed powder matrix - which is characterized by Si particles with some μm diameter - is used. The presence of an oxide layer on the surface of the UMo particles hinders the formation of the SiRL. Addition of some Si into the Al matrix [7-11]. Application of a protective barrier at the UMo/Al interface by oxidizing the UMo powder [7,12]. Increase of the Mo content or use of UMo alloys with ternary element addition X (e.g. X = Nb, Ti, Pt) to stabilize the γ-UMo with respect to α-U or to control the UMo-Al interaction layer kinetics [9,12-24]. Use of ground UMo powder instead of atomized UMo powder [10,25] The points 1-3 are to limit the formation of the undesired UMo/Al layer. Especially the addition of Si into the matrix has been suggested [3,7,8,10,11,26,27]. It has been often mentioned that Silicon is efficient in reducing the Uranium-Aluminum diffusion kinetics since Si shows a higher chemical affinity to U than Al to U. Si suppresses the formation of brittle UAl4 which causes a huge swelling during the irradiation. Furthermore it enhances the

  6. Ca3(PO4)2 precipitated layering of an in situ hybridized PVA/Ca2O4Si nanofibrous antibacterial wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Mabrouk, Mostafa; Choonara, Yahya E; Marimuthu, Thashree; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; van Vuuren, Sandy; Pillay, Viness

    2016-06-30

    The aim of this study was to develop an in situ hybridized poly(vinyl alcohol)/calcium silicate (PVA/Ca2OSi) nanofibrous antibacterial wound dressing with calcium phosphate [Ca3(PO4)2] surface precipitation for enhanced bioactivity. This was achieved by hybridizing the antibacterial ions Zn(2+) and/or Ag(+) in a Ca2O4Si composite. The hybridization effect on the thermal behavior, physicochemical, morphological, and physicomechanical properties of the nanofibers was studied using Differential Scanning calorimetric (DSC), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Textural Analysis, respectively. In vitro bioactivity, biodegradation and pH variations of the nanofiber composite were evaluated in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). The antibacterial activity was assessed against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Hybridization of Zn(2+) and/or Ag(+) into the PVA/Ca2O4Si nanofiber composite was confirmed by DSC, XRD and FTIR. The thickness of the nanofibers was dependent on the presence of Zn(2+) and Ag(+) as confirmed by SEM. The nanofibers displayed enhanced tensile strength (19-115.73MPa) compared to native PVA. Zn(2+) and/or Ag(+) hybridized nanofibers showed relatively enhanced in vitro bioactivity, biodegradation (90%) and antibacterial activity compared with the native PVA/Ca2O4Si nanofiber composite. Results of this study has shown that the PVA/Ca2O4Si composite hybridized with both Zn(2+) and Ag(+) may be promising as an antibacterial wound dressing with a nanofibrous archetype with enhanced bioactivity. PMID:27154257

  7. Effect composition of SiCp and TiB to the mechanical properties of composite Al7Si-Mg-SiCp by the method of semi solid stir casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhiftime, E. I.; Sulardjaka, Nugroho, Sri

    2016-04-01

    Recently, studies on Aluminum Matrix Composite (AMC) were growing rapidly. AMC reinforced with SiCp particles in the semi solid stir casting method was the most simple way. In particular, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect composition of SiCp and TiB to the mechanical properties of the composites Al7Si-Mg-SiCp and Al7Si-Mg-TiB-SiCp. The composites used were Al7Si as the matrix and SiCp as the reinforcement (10, 15, 20 wt%). The casting method used on the study was the semi solid stir casting. The matrix was melted at the temperature of 800 °C. Then, the stirring process started at 590 °C with the speed of 500 rpm for 180 seconds. The composites was heated again until the pouring temperature was at 750 °C. The results of the present study indicated to be successful in which SiCp particles dispersed uniformly in the matrix composites. Further, the hardness value and porosity of the composites Al7Si-Mg-SiCp and Al7Si-Mg-TiB-SiCp increased along with the addition of TiB. Besides, the hardness value increased in the average of 10.5% at the variation of 20% SiCp. Whereas, the porosity value increased in the average of 54.3% at the variation of 20% SiCp.

  8. EBSD characterization of high-temperature phase transformations in an Al-Si coating on Cr-Mo steel

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Wei-Jen Wang, Chaur-Jeng

    2012-02-15

    5Cr-0.5Mo steel was coated by hot-dipping in a molten bath containing Al-10 wt.% Si. The phase transformation in the aluminide layer during diffusion at 750 Degree-Sign C in static air was analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction. The results show the aluminide layer of the as-coated specimen consisted of an outer Al-Si topcoat, a middle layer formed of scattered {tau}{sub 5(C)}-Al{sub 7}(Fe,Cr){sub 2}Si particles and minor plate-shaped {tau}{sub 4}-Al{sub 4}FeSi{sub 2} and {tau}{sub 6}-Al{sub 4}FeSi phases in the Al-Si matrix and an inner continuous {tau}{sub 5(H)}-Al{sub 7}Fe{sub 2}Si layer, respectively from the coating surface to the steel substrate. The formation of FeAl{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} with {tau}{sub 1}-(Al,Si){sub 5}Fe{sub 3} precipitates can be observed with increasing exposure time at 750 Degree-Sign C. After 5 h of exposure, the Al-Si topcoat has been consumed, and the aluminide layer consisted of Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} and a few {tau}{sub 1}-(Al,Si){sub 5}Fe{sub 3} precipitates. The FeAl phase not only formed at the interface between Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} and the steel substrate, but also transformed from {tau}{sub 1}-(Al,Si){sub 5}Fe{sub 3} after diffusion for 10 h. With prolonged exposure, the aluminide layer comprised only FeAl{sub 2} and FeAl. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EBSD can differentiate phases in aluminide layer with similar chemical compositions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mapping and EBSPs functions in EBSD provide a reliable phase identification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A phase transformation in the aluminide layer has been described in detail. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 5 Fe-Al-Si and 4 Fe-Al intermetallic phases are performed during the diffusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cubic {tau}{sub 5(C)}-Al{sub 7} (Fe,Cr){sub 2}Si and hexagonal {tau}{sub 5(H)}-Al{sub 7}(Fe,Cr){sub 2}Si are identified.

  9. Spontaneously intermixed Al-Mg barriers enable corrosion-resistant Mg/SiC multilayer coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Soufli, Regina; Fernandez-Perea, Monica; Baker, Sherry L.; Robinson, Jeff C.; Alameda, Jennifer; Walton, Christopher C.

    2012-07-24

    Magnesium/silicon carbide (Mg/SiC) has the potential to be the best-performing reflective multilayercoating in the 25–80 nm wavelength region but suffers from Mg-related corrosion, an insidious problem which completely degrades reflectance. We have elucidated the origins and mechanisms of corrosion propagation within Mg/SiC multilayers. Based on our findings, we have demonstrated an efficient and simple-to-implement corrosion barrier for Mg/SiC multilayers. In conclusion, the barrier consists of nanometer-scale Mg and Al layers that intermix spontaneously to form a partially amorphous Al-Mg layer and is shown to prevent atmospheric corrosion while maintaining the unique combination of favorable Mg/SiC reflective properties.

  10. Wear behavior and microstructure of hypereutectic Al-Si alloys prepared by selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Nan; Coddet, Pierre; Liao, Hanlin; Baur, Tiphaine; Coddet, Christian

    2016-08-01

    This work investigates the microstructure and wear behavior of hypereutectic Al-Si alloys, in-situ fabricated using selective laser melting of a mixture of eutectic Al-12Si (wt.%) and pure Si powders. The first observation was that the size and morphology of the Si phase are strongly influenced by the laser power. In addition, it was also observed that a high laser power causes serious evaporation of aluminum during the remelting process. Dry sliding wear test and Vickers microhardness measurements were employed to characterize the mechanical properties of the material. The lowest wear rate of about 7.0 × 10-4 mm3 N-1 m-1 was observed for samples having the highest value of relative density (96%) and microhardness (105 Hv0.3).

  11. Global Mg/Si and Al/Si Distributions on the Lunar Surface Derived from Chang'E-2 X-ray Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wu-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Zhu, Meng-Hua; Xu, Ao-Ao; Tang, Ze-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The technique of X-ray fluorescence remote sensing plays a significant role in research related to the chemical compositions of the Moon. Here we describe the data analysis method for China's Chang'E-2 X-ray spectrometer in detail and present the preliminary results about the first global Mg/Si and Al/Si maps of the lunar surface. Our results show that the distributions of Mg/Si and Al/Si correlate well with terrains on the Moon. The higher Mg/Si ratio corresponds to the mare regions while the lower value corresponds to the highland terrains. The map of the Al/Si ratio shows a reversed distribution compared with the map of the Mg/Si ratio.

  12. Effect of tin addition on the distribution of phosphorus and metallic impurities in Si-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tianyu; Lai, Huixian; Sheng, Zhilin; Gan, Chuanhai; Xing, Pengfei; Luo, Xuetao

    2016-11-01

    Metallurgical grade silicon was purified through solvent refining method by adding tin to the Si-Al alloy. The distribution of phosphorus and metallic impurities in the resulting Si-Al-Sn melts was investigated. Compared with the primary Si and the eutectic αAl+Si, the phosphorus and metallic impurities were more distinctly distributed in the βSn phase, which was always accompanied by needle-like intermetallic β-Al5SiFe compounds. To improve the phosphorus and metallic impurity removal ratios, Si-Al-Sn ternary alloys with different composition were investigated. The phosphorus removal ratio increased with the aluminum and tin content in the Si-Al-Sn ternary alloy. Compared to increasing the Al content and keeping the Si/Sn ratio fixed, the impurity removal ratios were higher when the Sn content was increased to the same mass percentage and the Si/Al ratio was kept fixed in the Si-Al-Sn melt.

  13. Crystal structure study of (Ca, Gd){sub 2}(Al, Ti)O{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada, Haruo; Marumo, Fumiyuki; Kodama, Nobuhiro

    1998-08-01

    The crystal structures of two crystals of (Ca, Gd){sub 2} (Al, Ti)O{sub 4} [tetragonal I4/mmm; Z = 4], one strongly fluorescent and the other weakly fluorescent, having minor differences in their precise compositions have been studied with single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The unit cell is significantly smaller for the weakly fluorescent crystal, which also shows alteration of the coordination polyhedraon around the (Ca, Gd) site, suggesting the formation of vacancies at an oxygen site.

  14. Multiexciton complex from extrinsic centers in AlGaAs epilayers on Ge and Si substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Sarti, F.; Muñoz Matutano, G.; Bauer, D.; Dotti, N.; Vinattieri, A.; Gurioli, M.; Bietti, S.; Sanguinetti, S.; Isella, G.

    2013-12-14

    The multiexciton properties of extrinsic centers from AlGaAs layers on Ge and Si substrates are addressed. The two photon cascade is found both in steady state and in time resolved experiments. Polarization analysis of the photoluminescence provides clearcut attribution to neutral biexciton complexes. Our findings demonstrate the prospect of exploiting extrinsic centers for generating entangled photon pairs on a Si based device.

  15. On the Precipitation Hardening of Selective Laser Melted AlSi10Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboulkhair, Nesma T.; Tuck, Chris; Ashcroft, Ian; Maskery, Ian; Everitt, Nicola M.

    2015-08-01

    Precipitation hardening of selective laser melted AlSi10Mg was investigated in terms of solution heat treatment and aging duration. The influence on the microstructure and hardness was established, as was the effect on the size and density of Si particles. Although the hardness changes according to the treatment duration, the maximum hardening effect falls short of the hardness of the as-built parts with their characteristic fine microstructure. This is due to the difference in strengthening mechanisms.

  16. Phase composition and structure of aluminum Al-Cu-Si-Sn-Pb alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, N. A.; Stolyarova, O. O.; Murav'eva, T. I.; Zagorskii, D. L.

    2016-06-01

    The structure and phase composition of cast and heat treated Al-Cu-Si-Sn-Pb alloys containing 6 wt % Sn, 2 wt % Pb, 0-4 wt % Cu, 0-10 wt % Si have been studied using calculations and experimental methods. Polythermal and isothermal sections are reported, which indicate the existence of two liquid phases. It was found that the low-melting phase is inhomogeneous and consists of individual leadand tin-based particles.

  17. Thermal transformation of quaternary compounds in NaF-CaF{sub 2}-AlF{sub 3} system

    SciTech Connect

    Zaitseva, Julia N.; Yakimov, Igor S.; Kirik, Sergei D.

    2009-08-15

    Details of quaternary compounds formation in the system NaF-CaF{sub 2}-AlF{sub 3} are specified. To achieve this aim, the samples of phases NaCaAlF{sub 6} and Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}F{sub 14} have been obtained by high-temperature solid-phase synthesis. Their thermal behavior when heated up to 800 deg. C has been studied using the methods of high-temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis (TA). The system under consideration can be regarded as a quasibinary section CaF{sub 2}-NaAlF{sub 4}, where at T=745-750 deg. C invariant equilibrium is implemented with the phases CaF{sub 2}-NaCaAlF{sub 6}-Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}F{sub 14}-(liquid melt)-(NaAlF{sub 4}). The peculiarity of the equilibrium is NaAlF{sub 4} metastability at normal pressure. Below the equilibrium temperature the quaternary phase Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}F{sub 14} is stable and NaCaAlF{sub 6} above this temperature. The phase NaCaAlF{sub 6} fixed by rapid quenching from high temperatures and when heated up to 640 deg. C decomposes, yielding Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}F{sub 14}. Further heating in vacuum at temperature up to 740 deg. C results in decomposition of Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}F{sub 14} into CaF{sub 2} and Na{sub 3}AlF{sub 6}. The expected reverse transformation of Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}F{sub 14} into NaCaAlF{sub 6} has not been observed under experimental conditions. Transformations in bulk samples reveal direct and reverse transformation of quaternary phases. Synopsis: Thermal transformation of the quaternary compounds in system (NaF-CaF{sub 2}-AlF{sub 3}) was investigated using high-temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis (TA). In the system the invariant equilibrium is implemented with the phases CaF{sub 2}-NaCaAlF{sub 6}-Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}F{sub 14}-(liquid melt)-(NaAlF{sub 4}) at T=745-750 deg. C. - Graphical Abstract: The paper concerns of a small piece of the ternary system (NaF-CaF{sub 2}-AlF{sub 3}) which is very important for

  18. CaCl 2 -Accelerated Hydration of Tricalcium Silicate: A STXM Study Combined with 29 Si MAS NMR

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Qinfei; Ge, Yong; Geng, Guoqing; Bae, Sungchul; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Tmore » he effect of calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) on tricalcium silicate (C 3 S) hydration was investigated by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) with Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectra and 29 Si MAS NMR. STXM is demonstrated to be a powerful tool for studying the chemical composition of a cement-based hydration system.he Ca L 3,2 -edge NEXAFS spectra obtained by examining C 3 S hydration in the presence of CaCl 2 showed that this accelerator does not change the coordination of calcium in the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), which is the primary hydration product. O K-edge NEXAFS is also very useful in distinguishing the chemical components in hydrated C 3 S. Based on the Ca L 3,2 -edge spectra and chemical component mapping, we concluded that CaCl 2 prefers to coexist with unhydrated C 3 S instead of C-S-H. In Si K-edge NEXAFS analysis, CaCl 2 increases the degree of silicate polymerization of C-S-H in agreement with the 29 Si CP/MAS NMR results, which show that the presence of CaCl 2 in hydrated C 3 S considerably accelerates the formation of middle groups ( Q 2 ) and branch sites ( Q 3 ) in the silicate chains of C-S-H gel at 1-day hydration.« less

  19. AlSiTiN and AlSiCrN multilayer coatings: Effects of structure and surface composition on tribological behavior under dry and lubricated conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faga, Maria Giulia; Gautier, Giovanna; Cartasegna, Federico; Priarone, Paolo C.; Settineri, Luca

    2016-03-01

    Nanocomposite coatings have been widely studied over the last years because of their high potential in several applications. The increased interest for these coatings prompted the authors to study the tribological properties of two nanocomposites under dry and lubricated conditions (applying typical MQL media), in order to assess the influence of the surface and bulk properties on friction evolution. To this purpose, multilayer and nanocomposite AlSiTiN and AlSiCrN coatings were deposited onto tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) samples. Uncoated WC-Co materials were used as reference. Coatings were analyzed in terms of hardness and adhesion. The structure of the samples was assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), while the surface composition was studied by XPS analysis. Friction tests were carried out under both dry and lubricated conditions using an inox ball as counterpart. Both coatings showed high hardness and good adhesion to the substrate. As far as the friction properties are concerned, in dry conditions the surface properties affect the sliding contact at the early beginning, while bulk structure and tribolayer formation determine the main behavior. Only AlSiTiN coating shows a low and stable coefficient of friction (COF) under dry condition, while the use of MQL media results in a rapid stabilization of the COF for all the materials.

  20. A DFT study on SO3 capture and activation over Si- or Al-doped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esrafili, Mehdi D.; Saeidi, Nasibeh; Nematollahi, Parisa

    2016-08-01

    This study reports the adsorption and favorable reaction mechanism of SO3 reduction by CO molecule over Si- or Al-doped graphene using DFT calculations. The adsorption energy of the most stable configuration of SO3 is calculated to be about -103 and -124 kcal/mol over the Si- and Al-doped graphene, respectively. The SO3 reduction over these surfaces proceeds through the following elementary steps (a) SO3 → SO2 + Oads and (b) Oads + CO → CO2. The estimated activation energy (Eact) for the dissociation of SO3 over the Si-doped graphene is about 9 kcal/mol smaller than that on the Al-doped graphene.

  1. Experimental Research on Ultrasonic Vibration Milling Metal Matrix Composites SiCp/Al

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, G. F.; Zhao, B.; Xiang, D. H.; Zhao, M. L.

    2011-01-17

    Although particle reinforced metal matrix composites possess excellent physical properties, its machining performance is rather bad because of its specific structure. It is difficult to obtain good cutting effect by traditional machining method. So machining has become the bottleneck which strictly restricts its industry application. This paper mainly focuses on both wear characteristics of different tool materials and material removal mechanism in ultrasonic milling high volume fraction particle reinforced metal matrix composites SiCp/Al. An acoustic device for ultrasonic vibration milling was developed to introduce the ultrasonic vibration into the traditional machining process. Through the contrast experiment of traditional milling and ultrasonic vibration milling SiCp/Al, the mechanism of tool wear and characteristics of surface topography were analyzed. The experimental results showed that the surface integrity and tool life in the ultrasonic vibration milling SiCp/Al were improved.

  2. Al4SiC4 wurtzite crystal: Structural, optoelectronic, elastic, and piezoelectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedesseau, L.; Even, J.; Modreanu, M.; Chaussende, D.; Sarigiannidou, E.; Chaix-Pluchery, O.; Durand, O.

    2015-12-01

    New experimental results supported by theoretical analyses are proposed for aluminum silicon carbide (Al4SiC4). A state of the art implementation of the density functional theory is used to analyze the experimental crystal structure, the Born charges, the elastic properties, and the piezoelectric properties. The Born charge tensor is correlated to the local bonding environment for each atom. The electronic band structure is computed including self-consistent many-body corrections. Al4SiC4 material properties are compared to other wide band gap wurtzite materials. From a comparison between an ellipsometry study of the optical properties and theoretical results, we conclude that the Al4SiC4 material has indirect and direct band gap energies of about 2.5 eV and 3.2 eV, respectively.

  3. SiO2 and CaF2 Behavior During Shielded Metal Arc Welding and Their Effect on Slag Detachability of the CaO-CaF2-SiO2 Type ENiCrFe-7-Covered Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huang; Qin, Renyao; He, Guo

    2016-09-01

    The metallurgical behavior during shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and the slag detachability of the CaO-CaF2-SiO2 type ENiCrFe-7-covered electrodes was investigated. The results indicated that the slag detachability could be improved as the SiO2 in the flux coatings decreased. When the SiO2 in the flux coating was 10.9 pct, about 28.3 pct CaF2 resulted in the best slag detachability. The CaF2 and SiO2 in the flux coating interacted during SMAW to form gaseous SiF4 to be evacuated. In the reactions, one SiO2 consumed two CaF2, leading to the reduction of the ratio of CaF2/SiO2. After comparing the slag compositions, the best slag detachability was obtained at CaO:CaF2:SiO2 = 1.7:1.8:1, but the worst slag detachability appeared at CaO:CaF2:SiO2 = 1.3:0.9:1. The XRD analysis revealed that the oxides and fluorides in the slags preferred to gather together to form cuspidine and other complex phases. If the CaF2 was dominant in the slags, they intended to form homogenous porous microstructures that were relatively strong and would most likely detach from the weld metal in blocks, exhibiting good slag detachability. If the cuspidine phase was dominant, the slags exhibited a `rock strata'-like microstructure in the intergranular area. Such microstructure was very fragile and could be broken into fine powders that were easily embedded in the weld ripples, leading to slag adhesions. This work provides the researcher with a wealth of information and data, which will also be beneficial to the welding material producers and users.

  4. Flaky FeSiAl alloy-carbon nanotube composite with tunable electromagnetic properties for microwave absorption

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lina; Liu, Xiaofang; Chuai, Dan; Chen, Yaxin; Yu, Ronghai

    2016-01-01

    Flaky FeSiAl alloy/multi-wall carbon nanotube (FeSiAl/MWCNT) composite was fabricated by facile and scalable ball milling method. The morphology and electromagnetic properties of the FeSiAl alloy can be well tuned by controlling the milling time. It is found that the magnetic loss of the FeSiAl alloy is improved by optimizing the milling time due to the increased anisotropy field. Meanwhile the addition of MWCNTs enhances the dielectric loss of the composite by increasing the interfacial polarizations, dipolar polarizations and conductive paths. Relative to conventional FeSiAl absorbers, the FeSiAl/MWCNT composite exhibits greatly improved microwave absorption performance with advantages of strong absorption and small thickness. The minimum reflection loss of the composite reaches −42.8 dB at 12.3 GHz at a very thin thickness of 1.9 mm. PMID:27762327

  5. Elasticity and structure of the compounds in the wollastonite (CaSiO3)-Na 2SiO 3 system: from amorphous to crystalline state.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Cherng; Leung, Kak Si; Shen, Pouyan; Chen, Shih-Fan

    2015-01-01

    The elastic properties and structure of four potential bioactive compounds in the CaSiO3-Na2SiO3 system were characterized by Raman and Brillouin spectroscopy at ambient conditions. The increase of Na2O content in the Na2O-CaO-SiO2 glass with the same silica content and hence polymerization was found to lower the elastic moduli with accompanied decrease of Q(0) and Q(2) species, increase of Q(1) species and negligible change of Q(3) species, corresponding to a lower and higher equilibrium constant for the disproportional reactions [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] (without balance), respectively. The composition-dependent variation in the shear modulus (G) of the Na2O-CaO-SiO2 glass can be attributed to the concentration change of Q(2) and probably Q(4) species; while bulk modulus (K) ascribed to the cohesion factor. The elastic moduli of the corresponding crystalline phases in this system also lower with the increase of Na2O content following two general criteria as a function of Na2O/CaO molar ratio: (1) K decreases faster than G for both the amorphous and crystalline phases and (2) both K and G decreases faster for the crystals than the glasses.

  6. Comprehensive study of Al-induced layer-exchange growth for orientation-controlled Si crystals on SiO{sub 2} substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Kurosawa, Masashi; Sadoh, Taizoh; Miyao, Masanobu

    2014-11-07

    Orientation-controlled crystalline Si films on insulating substrates are strongly required to achieve high-performance thin-film devices for next-generation electronics. We have comprehensively investigated the layer-exchange kinetics of Al-induced crystallization (AIC) in stacked structures, i.e., amorphous-Si/Al-oxide/Al/SiO{sub 2}-substrates, as a function of the air-exposure time of Al surfaces (t{sub air}: 0–24 h) to form Al-oxide interface-layers, the thickness of Al and Si layers (d{sub Al,} d{sub Si}: 50–200 nm), the annealing temperature (450–500 °C), and the annealing time (0–50 h). It has been clarified that longer t{sub air} (>60 min) and/or thinner d{sub Al} and d{sub Si} (<50 nm) lead to the (111) oriented growth; in contrast, shorter t{sub air} (<60 min) and/or thicker d{sub Al} and d{sub Si} (>100 nm) lead to the (100) oriented growth. No correlation between the annealing temperature and the crystal orientation is observed. Detailed analysis reveals that the layer-exchange kinetics are dominated by “supply-limited” processing, i.e., diffusion of Si atoms into Al layers through Al-oxide layer. Based on the growth rate dependent Si concentration profiles in Al layers, and the free-energy of Si at Al-oxide/Al or Al/SiO{sub 2} interfaces, a comprehensive model for layer-exchange growth is proposed. This well explains the experimental results of not only Si-AIC but also another material system such as gold-induced crystallization of Ge. In this way, a growth technique achieving the orientation-controlled Si crystals on insulating substrates is established from both technological and scientific points of view.

  7. Reduced interaction layer growth of U-Mo dispersion in Al-Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Park, Jong Man; Ryu, Ho Jin; Jung, Yang Hong; Hofman, G. L.

    2012-11-01

    Development of high U-density U-Mo fuel particle dispersion in Al is needed to convert high power research and test reactors from HEU to LEU. Interaction layer growth between U-Mo and Al poses a challenge to this goal. The KOMO-4 test was designed at KAERI and irradiated in the HANARO reactor to ˜50% burnup of initial 19.75% U-235 enrichment at ˜200 °C. The main objective of the test was to examine the effect of the Si content in the matrix up to 8 wt.%. U-Mo/Al-Si dispersion samples with a Si addition in the range 0-8 wt.% in the matrix were tested. A sample with pre-irradiation Si-containing interaction layers (ILs) was also tested. As the Si content in the matrix increases, the IL growth was progressively reduced. Contrary to the thermodynamics prediction and out-of-pile observations, however, Si accumulation in the ILs occurred near the IL-matrix interface with only a slight increase in concentration. The effect of the pre-formed ILs was insignificant in reducing IL growth.

  8. Origin of Ca-Al-rich inclusions. II - Sputtering and collisions in the three-ph8se interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    The theory put forward by Clayton (1977) for the formation of the Ca-Al-rich inclusions within C3 meteorites is extended to an evolutionary history in a three-phase interstellar medium. Widespread supersonic turbulence in the hot interstellar medium is maintained by supernova shock waves, giving rise to heavy sputtering of the refractory dust. Subsequent reaccumulation with varying dust/gas ratios or varying particle sizes produces isotopically fractionated Ca-Al-rich accumulates. It is thought that the Ca-Al-rich inclusions themselves are formed by the following sequence in the solar system: (1) cold accumulation of larger-than-average Ca-Al-rich particles containing supernova condensate cores into macroscopic (approximately 1 cm) Ca-Al-rich agglomerates, probably by sedimentation; and (2) fusion of the supernova condensates into macroscopic minerals by exothermic chemical reactions that begin when the accumulate has been warmed, thereby releasing energy from the unequilibrated forms accumulated from the interstellar medium.

  9. Secondary Al-Si-Mg High-pressure Die Casting Alloys with Enhanced Ductility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bösch, Dominik; Pogatscher, Stefan; Hummel, Marc; Fragner, Werner; Uggowitzer, Peter J.; Göken, Mathias; Höppel, Heinz Werner

    2015-03-01

    Al-Si-Mg-based secondary cast alloys are attractive candidates for thin-walled high-pressure die castings for applications in the transport industry. The present study investigates the effect of manganese additions at high cooling rates on microstructure, mechanical properties, and on the dominating fracture mechanisms of alloy AlSi10Mg with an elevated iron concentration. Systematic variations of the Mn content from 0.20 to 0.85 wt pct at a constant Fe content of 0.55 wt pct illustrate the key changes in type, phase fraction, and shape of the Fe-containing intermetallic phases, and the corresponding influence on the alloy's ductility. For high-pressure die casting (HPDC), an optimal range of the Mn content between 0.40 and 0.60 wt pct, equivalent to a Mn/Fe ratio of approximately 1, has been identified. At these Mn and Fe contents, the high cooling rates obtained in HPDC result in the formation of fine and homogeneously distributed α-Al15(Fe,Mn)3Si2 phase, and crack initiation is transferred from AlFeSi intermetallics to eutectic silicon. The study interprets the microstructure-property relationship in the light of thermodynamic calculations which reveal a significant increase in undercooling of the α-Al15(Fe,Mn)3Si2 phase with increased Mn content. It concludes that the interdependence of the well-defined Mn/Fe ratio and the high cooling rate in HPDC can generate superior ductility in secondary AlSi10Mg cast alloys.

  10. Influence of Reinforcement Size on Microplastic Deformation Behavior of SiCP/Al Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yiwu; Geng, Lin; Liu, Dayong

    The microplastic deformation behavior of 20 vol.% SiCp/Al composites with various SiC particle sizes were investigated. The SiC particles are in four nominal sizes of 1, 5, 20 and 56 µm. The experimental results showed that the micro-yield strength is very sensitive to composite microstructure features. As the particle size increases, the micro-yield strength of composites decrease firstly, and then increase. The observed results were attributed to thermal residual stress and dislocation density due to the large difference in coefficient of thermal expansion between the matrix and reinforcement.

  11. Preliminary study of the characteristics of a high Mg containing Al-Mg-Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, F.; McKay, B. J.; Fan, Z.; Chen, M. F.

    2012-01-01

    An Al-20Mg-4Si high Mg containing alloy has been produced and its characteristics investigated. The as-cast alloy revealed primary Mg2Si particles evenly distributed throughout an α-Al matrix with a β-Al3Mg2 fully divorced eutectic phase observed in interdendritic regions. The Mg2Si particles displayed octahedral, truncated octahedral, and hopper morphologies. Additions of Sb, Ti and Zr had a refining influence reducing the size of the Mg2Si from 52 ± 4 μm to 25 ± 0.1 μm, 35 ± 1 μm and 34 ± 1 μm respectively. HPDC tensile test samples could be produced with a 0.6 wt.% Mn addition which prevented die soldering. Solution heating for 1 hr was found to dissolve the majority of the Al3Mg2 eutectic phase with no evidence of any effect on the primary Mg2Si. Preliminary results indicate that the heat treatment has a beneficial effect on the elongation and the UTS.

  12. Degradation of Al/SiCp composites produced with rice-hull ash and aluminum cans.

    PubMed

    Escalera-Lozano, R; Gutiérrez, C A; Pech-Canul, M A; Pech-Canul, M I

    2008-01-01

    The use of recycling aluminum from beverage containers and rice-hull ash (RHA) offers to be an attractive alternative for the economic production of Al/SiCp composites. However, corrosion phenomena in the composites represent technological barriers yet to be resolved before they can be exploited to their full potential. A simple methodology involving characterization by XRD, SEM, EDX, FTIR and ICP was designed in order to investigate the causes of the rapid degradation in a humid environment of Al/SiCp composites produced with RHA and aluminum cans. Results reveal that the use of RHA was beneficial to avoid degradation through the formation and subsequent hydration of the Al4C3 phase. However with condensed moisture acting as an electrolyte, localized corrosion took place with aggressive damage manifested by the disintegration of the composite into a powdery mixture. The relevant corrosion mechanism was mainly attributed to microgalvanic coupling between the Mg2Si intermetallic compound and the matrix (although other phases such as SiC, Si, MgAl2O4 could also work as microcathodes). PMID:17320370

  13. Dielectric and electrical studies of Pr{sup 3+} doped nano CaSiO{sub 3} perovskite ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, Sandhya; Nagabhushana, B.M.; Parvatikar, Narsimha; Koppalkar, Anilkumar; Shivakumara, C.; Damle, R.

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • CaSiO{sub 3}:Pr{sup 3+} was prepared by facile low temperature solution combustion method. • The crystalline phase of the product is obtained by adopting sintering method. • Samples prepared at 500 °C and calcined at 900 °C for 3 h showed β-phase. • The Pr{sup 3+} doped CaSiO{sub 3} shows “unusual results”. • The electrical microstructure has been accepted to be of internal barrier layer capacitor. - Abstract: CaSiO{sub 3} nano-ceramic powder doped with Pr{sup 3+} has been prepared by solution combustion method. The powder Ca{sub 0.95}Pr{sub 0.05}SiO{sub 3} is investigated for its dielectric and electrical properties at room temperature to study the effect of doping. The sample is characterized by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The size of either of volume elements of CaSiO{sub 3}:Pr{sup 3+} estimated from transmission electron microscopy is about 180–200 nm. The sample shows colossal dielectric response at room temperature. This colossal dielectric behaviour follows Debye-type relaxation and can be explained by Maxwell–Wagner (MW) polarization. However, analysis of impedance and electric modulus data using Cole–Cole plot shows that it deviates from ideal Debye behaviour resulting from the distribution of relaxation times. The distribution in the relaxation times may be attributed to existence of electrically heterogeneous grains, insulating grain boundary, and electrode contact regions. Doping, thus, results in substantial modifications in the dielectric and electrical properties of the nano-ceramic CaSiO{sub 3}.

  14. Impact of CrSiTi and NiSi on the Thermodynamics, Microstructure, and Properties of AlCoCuFe-Based High-Entropy Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Rong; Wang, Zhao-Qin; Lin, Tie-Song; He, Peng; Sekulic, Dusan P.

    2016-05-01

    Aiming to solve the problem of spontaneous combustion on titanium via electrospark deposition (ESD), two AlCoCuFe-based high-entropy alloys (HEAs), AlCoCuFe- x ( x = CrSiTi, NiSi), were produced by vacuum arc melting as electrodes in ESD process. The thermodynamic analysis of AlCoCuFe-based HEAs were carried out using the concept of mixing enthalpy matrix and a powerful thermodynamic calculation toolbox (HEA-Thermo-Calcu). The microstructure and mechanical properties of the two alloys were investigated. The AlCoCuFeCrSiTi alloy contains a body-centered cubic (BCC) phase and a face-centered cubic (FCC) phase. The AlCoCuFeNiSi alloy is composed of two BCC phases and an FCC phase. Addition of CrSiTi and NiSi to AlCoCuFe-based alloys makes the enthalpy of mixing to be sizably more negative than for the other AlCoCuFe-based HEAs. Notwithstanding the fact that the thermodynamic parameters do not agree with Yang's proposition, the two alloys form simple solid solutions. The electronegativity difference (Δ χ) favors a formation of the solid solution when Δχ ≤ 14.2. The hardness of AlCoCuFe- x ( x = CrSiTi, NiSi) alloys reaches 935 HV and 688 HV, respectively. The yield strength, fracture strength, and ultimate strain of AlCoCuFeNiSi are larger, i.e., 29, 30, and 45%, respectively, than those of the AlCoCuFeCrSiTi alloy.

  15. Role of Si on the Diffusional Interactions between U-Mo and Al-Si Alloys at 823 K (550 degrees C)

    SciTech Connect

    E. Perez; Y.H. Sohn; D.D. Keiser, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    U-Mo dispersions in Al-alloy matrix and monolithic fuels encased in Al-alloy are under development to fulfill the requirements for research and test reactors to use low-enriched molybdenum stabilized uranium alloys fuels. Significant interaction takes place between the U-Mo fuel and Al during manufacturing and in-reactor irradiation. The interactions products are Al-rich phases with physical and thermal characteristics that adversely affect fuel performance and lead to premature failure. Detailed analysis of the interdiffusion and microstructural development of this system was carried through diffusion couples consisting of U-7wt.%Mo, U-10wt.%Mo and U-12wt.%Mo in contact with pure Al, Al-2wt.%Si, and Al-5wt.%Si, annealed at 823K for 1, 5 and 20 hours. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed for the analysis. Diffusion couples consisting of U-Mo vs. pure Al contained UAl3, UAl4, U6Mo4Al43, and UMo2Al20 phases. The addition of Si to the Al significantly reduced the thickness of the interdiffusion zone. The interdiffusion zones developed Al and Si enriched regions, whose locations and size depended on the Si and Mo concentrations in the terminal alloys. In the couples, the (U,Mo)(Al,Si)3 phase was observed throughout interdiffusion zone, and the U6Mo4Al43 and UMo2Al20 phases were observed only where the Si concentrations were low.

  16. On the existence of a high-temperature polymorph of Na2Ca6Si4O15—implications for the phase equilibria in the system Na2O-CaO-SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahlenberg, Volker; Maier, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Singe crystals of a new high-temperature polymorph of Na2Ca6Si4O15 have been obtained from solid state reactions performed at 1300 °C. The basic crystallographic data of this so-called β-phase at ambient conditions are as follows: space group P1c1, a = 9.0112(5) Å, b = 7.3171(5) Å, c = 10.9723(6) Å, β = 107.720(14)°, V = 689.14(7) Å3, Z = 2. The crystals showed twinning by reticular merohedry (mimicking an orthorhombic C-centred unit cell) which was accounted for during data processing and structure solution. Structure determination was accomplished by direct methods. Least-squares refinements resulted in a residual of R(|F|) = 0.043 for 5811 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). From a structural point of view β-Na2Ca6Si4O15 can be attributed to the group of mixed-anion silicates containing [Si2O7]-dimers as well as isolated [SiO4]-tetrahedra in the ratio 1:2, i.e. more precisely the formula can be written as Na2Ca6[SiO4]2[Si2O7]. The tetrahedral groups are arranged in layers parallel to (100). Sodium and calcium cations are located between the silicate anions for charge compensation and are coordinated by six to eight nearest oxygen ligands. Alternatively, the structure can be described as a mixed tetrahedral-octahedral framework based on kröhnkite-type [Ca(SiO4)2O2]-chains in which the CaO6-octahedra are corner-linked to bridging SiO4-tetrahedra. The infinite chains are running parallel to [001] and are concentrated in layers parallel to (010). Adjacent layers are shifted relative to each other by an amount of +δ or -δ along a*. Consequently, a …ABABAB… stacking sequence is created. A detailed comparison with related structures such as α-Na2Ca6Si4O15 and other A2B6Si4O15 representatives including topological as well as group theoretical aspects is presented. There are strong indications that monoclinic Na2Ca3Si2O8 mentioned in earlier studies is actually misinterpreted β-Na2Ca6Si4O15. In addition to the detailed crystallographic analysis of the

  17. Synthesis and characterization of nanoscale Al-Si-O gradient membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Trouillet, V.; Troesse, H.; Bruns, M.; Nold, E.; White, R. G.

    2007-07-15

    Novel ultrathin gas-permeable Al-Si-oxide membranes have been developed by means of ion induced chemical vapor deposition in order to improve the gas analytical performance of an electronic nose. Dependent on the used precursor tailored Al/Si concentration ratios and even concentration gradients are attainable. The diversity in chemical composition and thickness across the gas sensor microarray has been proven by the combination of ellipsometry for the freshly prepared membrane and line scans derived from Auger electron spectroscopy and angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively, for the baked membrane.

  18. Functionally graded MoSi2-Al2O3 tubes for temperature sensor application.

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, M. I.; Vaidya, R. U.; Castro, R. G.; Petrovic, J. J.; Hollis, K. J.; Gallegos, D. E.

    2001-01-01

    MoSi{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are thermodynamically stable elevated temperature materials whose thermal expansion coefficients match closely. Composites of these materials have potential for applications such as protective sheaths for high temperature sensors. MoSi{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} functionally graded tubes were fabricated using advanced plasma spray-forming techniques. Both continuously-graded and layered-graded tube microstructures were synthesized. The characteristics of the graded microstructures and the features of the graded mechanical properties of these tubes will be discussed.

  19. Si-doped GaAs/AlGaAs TJS laser by MBE

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsunaga, K.; Fujiwara, K.; Nunoshita, M.; Nakayama, T.

    1984-04-01

    The effect of high temperature annealing on the properties of silicon-doped GaAs/AlGaAs double heterostructure (DH) grown by molecular beam expitaxy (MBE)= and its application to the fabrication of transverse junction stripe (TJS) lasers are reported. In spite of the amphoteric nature of Si, it was found that the high temperature annealing gave little influence on the electrical and optical quality of the n-type DH wafer. The TJS laser using Si-doped GaAs/AlGaAs wafer has been oscillated cw at room temperature and exhibited low threshold current of 30 mA and high quantum efficiency of 60%.

  20. Melting and thermodynamic properties of pyrope (Mg3Al2Si3O12)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tequi, C.; Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.; Neuville, D.R.; Richet, P.

    1991-01-01

    The heat capacity of Mg3Al2Si3O12 glass has been measured from 10 to 1000 K by adiabatic and differential scanning calorimetry. The heat capacity of crystalline pyrope has been determined from drop-calorimetry measurements between 820 and 1300 K. From these and previously published results a consistent set of thermodynamic data is presented for pyrope and Mg3Al2Si3O12 glass and liquid for the interval 0-2000 K. The enthalpy of fusion at 1570 ?? 30 K, the metastable congruent 1-bar melting point, is 241 ?? 12 kJ/mol. ?? 1991.

  1. Microstructures and microhardness evolutions of melt-spun Al-8Ni-5Nd-4Si alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Karakoese, Ercan; Keskin, Mustafa

    2012-03-15

    Al-Ni-Nd-Si alloy with nominal composition of Al-8 wt.%Ni-5 wt.%Nd-4 wt.%Si was rapidly solidified by using melt-spinning technique to examine the influence of the cooling rate/conditions on microstructure and mechanical properties. The resulting conventional cast (ingot) and melt-spun ribbons were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersive spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, differential thermal analysis and Vickers microhardness tester. The ingot alloys consists of four phases namely {alpha}-Al, intermetallic Al{sub 3}Ni, Al{sub 11}Nd{sub 3} and fcc Si. Melt-spun ribbons are completely composed of {alpha}-Al phase. The optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy results show that the microstructures of rapidly solidified ribbons are clearly different from their ingot alloy. The change in microhardness is discussed based on the microstructural observations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid solidification allows a reduction in grain size, extended solid solution ranges. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We observed the matrix lattice parameter increases with increasing wheel speed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Melt-spun ribbons consist of partly amorphous phases embedded in crystalline phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The solidification rate is high enough to retain most of alloying elements in the Al matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The rapid solidification has effect on the phase constitution.

  2. Cathodic Potential Dependence of Electrochemical Reduction of SiO2 Granules in Molten CaCl2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao; Yasuda, Kouji; Nohira, Toshiyuki; Hagiwara, Rika; Homma, Takayuki

    2016-09-01

    As part of an ongoing fundamental study to develop a new process for producing solar-grade silicon, this paper examines the effects of cathodic potential on reduction kinetics, current efficiency, morphology, and purity of Si product during electrolysis of SiO2 granules in molten CaCl2 at 1123 K (850 °C). SiO2 granules were electrolyzed potentiostatically at different cathodic potentials (0.6, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 V vs Ca2+/Ca). The reduction kinetics was evaluated based on the growth of the reduced Si layer and the current behavior during electrolysis. The results suggest that a more negative cathodic potential is favorable for faster reduction. Current efficiencies in 60 minutes are greater than 65 pct at all the potentials examined. Si wires with sub-micron diameters are formed, and their morphologies show little dependence on the cathodic potential. The impurities in the Si product can be controlled at low level. The rate-determining step for the electrochemical reduction of SiO2 granules in molten CaCl2 changes with time. At the initial stage of electrolysis, the electron transfer is the rate-determining step. At the later stage, the diffusion of O2- ions is the rate-determining step. The major cause of the decrease in reduction rate with increasing electrolysis time is the potential drop from the current collector to the reaction front due to the increased contact resistance among the reduced Si particles.

  3. Interaction of CaO-FeO-SiO[sub 2] slags with partially stabilized zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Yau Don; Schlesinger, M.E. . Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering)

    1994-03-01

    Calcia- and magnesia-partially-stabilized zirconia samples were corroded under static and dynamic conditions in three slags from the CaO-FeO-SiO[sub 2] system. Low-basicity and high-FeO slags corroded the samples by leaching magnesia from the cubic phase in the specimen, causing its destabilization and ultimate dissolution. However, a higher-basicity slag which proved the most corrosive of the three promoted bulk dissolution of the cubic phase instead, the rate of which was controlled by the thickness of the adjacent slag boundary layer. The levels of sample corrosion both at and below the slag line are used to illustrate the effects of experimental variables, including slag composition, specimen density, and slag motion.

  4. K-SHELL PHOTOIONIZATION AND PHOTOABSORPTION OF Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, AND Ca

    SciTech Connect

    Witthoeft, M. C.; Kallman, T. R.; Bautista, M. A.; Mendoza, C.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.

    2009-05-15

    We present extensive computations of photoabsorption and photoionization cross sections across the K-edge of Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, and Ca ions with less than 11 electrons. The calculations are performed using the Breit-Pauli R-matrix method and include the effects of radiative and Auger damping by means of an optical potential. The wave functions are constructed from single-electron orbital bases obtained using a Thomas-Fermi-Dirac statistical model potential. Configuration interaction is considered among all fine-structure levels within the n = 2 complex. The damping processes affect the resonances converging to the K thresholds causing them to display symmetric profiles of constant width that smear the otherwise sharp edge at the photoionization thresholds.

  5. High temperature stability of the dielectric and insulating properties of Ca(Ti, Zr)SiO5 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Junichi; Taniguchi, Hiroki; Iijima, Takashi; Shimizu, Takao; Yasui, Shintaro; Itoh, Mitsuru; Funakubo, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Useful dielectric properties for high-temperature ceramic capacitors are demonstrated in a non-perovskite oxide, Ca(Ti0.85 Zr0.15)SiO5, which is mainly composed of one-dimensional chains of oxygen octahedra that are mutually linked by SiO4 tetrahedra. Its dielectric constant and low temperature coefficient of capacitance were found to be 43 and -102 ppm/K, respectively, over the wide temperature range of 300-780 K. The high insulating performance was also indicated by the high resistivity, exceeding 1011 Ω cm up to 523 K. The systematic dielectric measurements for Ca(Ti1-x Zrx)SiO5 as functions of the composition and temperature indicate that the suppression of the anti-ferroelectric phase transition of CaTiSiO5 by Zr4+-substitution is a key to improve the temperature-stability and the high-resistivity in Ca(Ti1-x Zrx)SiO5. The present results shed light on the development of a designing principle for ceramic capacitors for the high-temperature use.

  6. Analysis of {sup 25}Al energy levels observed in the {sup 28}Si(p,{alpha}){sup 25}Al reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Pittman, S. T.; Bardayan, D. W.; Smith, M. S.; Blackmon, J. C.; Kozub, R. L.

    2009-09-15

    The level structure of {sup 25}Al has been studied at the ORNL Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility by measuring the angular and energy distributions of {alpha} particles from the {sup 28}Si(p,{alpha}){sup 25}Al reaction. Proton beams ({approx}10 nA) at laboratory energies of 40 and 42 MeV were generated by the 25 MV tandem accelerator and bombarded a natural silicon target (50 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}). Seventeen levels were observed and spins for several were constrained through a distorted-wave Born approximation analysis of the angular distributions.

  7. AlN Nanowall Structures Grown on Si (111) Substrate by Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yosuke; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    AlN nanowall structures were grown on Si (111) substrate using molecular beam epitaxy at substrate temperature of 700 °C with N/Al flux ratios ranging from 50 to 660. A few types of other AlN nanostructures were also grown under the nitrogen-rich conditions. The AlN nanowalls were ranged typically 60-120 nm in width and from 190 to 470 nm in length by changing N/Al flux ratio. The AlN nanowall structures grown along the c-plane consisted of AlN (0002) crystal with full-width at half maximum of the rocking curve about 5000 arcsec.

  8. Observations of the Minor Species Al, Fe and Ca(+) in Mercury's Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bida, Thomas A.; Killen, Rosemary M.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of Al and Fe, and strict upper limits for Ca(+) in the exosphere of Mercury, using the HIRES spectrometer at the Keck I telescope. We report observed 4-sigma tangent columns of 1.5x10(exp 7) Al atoms per square centimeter at an altitude of 1220 km (1.5 Mercury radii (R(sub M)) from planet center), and that for Fe of 1.6 x 10 per square centimeter at an altitude of 950 km (1.4 R(sub M)). The observed 3-sigma Ca(+) column was 3.9x10(exp 6) ions per square centimeter at an altitude of 1630 km (1.67 R(sub M). A simple model for zenith column abundances of the neutral species were 9.5 x 10(exp 7) Al per square centimeter, and 3.0 x 10(exp 8) Fe per square centimeter. The observations appear to be consistent with production of these species by impact vaporization with a large fraction of the ejecta in molecular form. The scale height of the Al gas is consistent with a kinetic temperature of 3000 - 9000 K while that of Fe is 10500 K. The apparent high temperature of the Fe gas would suggest that it may be produced by dissociation of molecules. A large traction of both Al and Fe appear to condense in a vapor cloud at low altitudes.

  9. Calcic amphibole thermobarometry in metamorphic and igneous rocks: New calibrations based on plagioclase/amphibole Al-Si partitioning and amphibole/liquid Mg partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, J. F.; Moreno, J. A.; Castro, A.; Rodríguez, C.; Fershtater, G. B.

    2015-09-01

    Dependencies of plagioclase/amphibole Al-Si partitioning, DAl/Siplg/amp, and amphibole/liquid Mg partitioning, DMgamp/liq, on temperature, pressure and phase compositions are investigated employing robust regression methods based on MM-estimators. A database with 92 amphibole-plagioclase pairs - temperature range: 650-1050 °C; amphibole compositional limits: > 0.02 apfu (23O) Ti and > 0.05 apfu Al - and 148 amphibole-glass pairs - temperature range: 800-1100 °C; amphibole compositional limit: CaM4/(CaM4 + NaM4) > 0.75 - compiled from experiments in the literature was used for the calculations (amphibole normalization scheme: 13-CNK method). Statistical analysis reveals a significant dependence of DAl/Siplg/amp on pressure, temperature, Al fraction in amphibole T1-site, XAlT1, and albite fraction in plagioclase, XAb, leading to the barometric expression:

  10. Effects of high-temperature O2 annealing on Al2O3 blocking layer and Al2O3/Si3N4 interface for MANOS structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhongguang; Zhu, Chenxin; Huo, Zongliang; Zhao, Shengjie; Liu, Ming

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the effects of O2 post-deposition annealing (PDA) on metal/Al2O3/Si3N4/SiO2/Si (MANOS) devices. Compared with low-energy plasma oxygen pre-treatment and the N2 PDA process, the O2 PDA process can lead to a significant retention improvement. The improvement is attributed to the removal of oxygen vacancies in Al2O3 block oxide and the oxygen incorporation at the Si3N4/Al2O3 interfacial layer which is determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling and electrical characteristics. Metal/Al2O3/SiO2/Si (MAOS) devices are also studied to confirm these effects. As a result, we consider that the O2 PDA process is a crucial process for future MANOS-type memory devices.

  11. Sr isotopic fractionation in Ca-Al inclusions from the Allende meteorite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patchett, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    True relative Sr isotopic compositions, determined by double spiking on Ca-Al inclusions from the Allende meteorite show up to 1.5??? per mass unit mass fractionation relative to the Earth and bulk chondrites. All abnormal inclusions are light-isotope enriched. A lack of isotopically heavy Sr in inclusions would place constraints on the time, place and mechanism of origin of these objects. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  12. Laser cladding of quasi-crystal-forming Al-Cu-Fe-Bi on an Al-Si alloy substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Krishanu; Chattopadhyay, Kamanio; Galun, Rolf; Mordike, Barry L.

    2005-07-01

    We report here the results of an investigation aimed at producing coatings containing phases closely related to the quasi-crystalline phase with dispersions of soft Bi particles using an Al-Cu-Fe-Bi elemental powder mixture on Al-10.5 at. pct Si substrates. A two-step process of cladding followed by remelting is used to fine-tune the alloying, phase distribution, and microstructure. A powder mix of Al64Cu22.3Fe11.7Bi2 has been used to form the clads. The basic reason for choosing Bi lies in the fact that it is immiscible with each of the constituent elements. Therefore, it is expected that Bi will solidify in the form of dispersoids during the rapid solidification. A detailed microstructural analysis has been carried out by using the backscattered imaging mode in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The microstructural features are described in terms of layers of different phases. Contrary to our expectation, the quasi-crystalline phase could not form on the Al-Si substrate. The bottom of the clad and remelted layers shows the regrowth of aluminum. The formation of phases such as blocky hexagonal Al-Fe-Si and a ternary eutectic (Al + CuAl2 + Si) have been found in this layer. The middle layer shows the formation of long plate-shaped Al13Fe4 along with hexagonal Al-Fe-Si phase growing at the periphery of the former. The formation of metastable Al-Al6Fe eutectic has also been found in this layer. The top layer, in the case of the as-clad track, shows the presence of plate-shaped Al13Fe4 along with a 1/1 cubic rational approximant of a quasi-crystal. The top layer of the remelted track shows the presence of a significant amount of a 1/1 cubic rational approximant. In addition, the as-clad and remelted microstructures show a fine-scale dispersion of Bi particles of different sizes formed during monotectic solidification. The remelting is found to have a strong effect on the size and distribution of Bi particles. The dry

  13. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and characterization of (Al,Si)O dielectrics for GaN–based devices

    DOE PAGES

    Chan, Silvia; Mishra, Umesh K.; Tahhan, Maher; Liu, Xiang; Bisi, David; Gupta, Chirag; Koksaldi, Onur; Li, Haoran; Mates, Tom; DenBaars, Steven P.; et al

    2016-01-20

    In this study, we report on the growth and electrical characterization of (Al,Si)O dielectrics grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using trimethylaluminum, oxygen, and silane as precursors. The growth rates, refractive indices, and composition of (Al,Si)O films grown on Si(001) were determined from ellipsometry and XPS measurements. Crystallinity and electrical properties of (Al,Si)O films grown in situ on c-plane GaN were characterized using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and capacitance–voltage with current–voltage measurements, respectively. Si concentration in the films was found to be tunable by varying the trimethylaluminum and/or oxygen precursor flows. The Si incorporation suppressed the formation of crystallinemore » domains, leading to amorphous films that resulted in reduced interfacial trap density, low gate leakage and ultra-low hysteresis in (Al,Si)O/n-GaN MOS-capacitors.« less

  14. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and characterization of (Al,Si)O dielectrics for GaN-based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Silvia H.; Tahhan, Maher; Liu, Xiang; Bisi, Davide; Gupta, Chirag; Koksaldi, Onur; Li, Haoran; Mates, Tom; DenBaars, Steven P.; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the growth and electrical characterization of (Al,Si)O dielectrics grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using trimethylaluminum, oxygen, and silane as precursors. The growth rates, refractive indices, and composition of (Al,Si)O films grown on Si(001) were determined from ellipsometry and XPS measurements. Crystallinity and electrical properties of (Al,Si)O films grown in situ on c-plane GaN were characterized using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and capacitance-voltage with current-voltage measurements, respectively. Si concentration in the films was found to be tunable by varying the trimethylaluminum and/or oxygen precursor flows. The Si incorporation suppressed the formation of crystalline domains, leading to amorphous films that resulted in reduced interfacial trap density, low gate leakage and ultra-low hysteresis in (Al,Si)O/n-GaN MOS-capacitors.

  15. Crystal growth, polarized spectra, and laser performance of Yb:CaGdAlO4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, J. Q.; Xu, X. D.; Xia, C. T.; Zheng, L. H.; Aka, G.; Yu, H. H.; Sai, Q. L.; Guo, X. Y.; Zhu, L.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the crystal growth, polarized spectra, and laser performance of Yb:CaGdAlO4 crystal were reported. The segregation coefficient of Yb3+ ions was calculated to be 0.47. The cell parameters were determined to be a  =  b  =  0.3658 nm, c  =  1.1985 nm. The peak absorption cross-section was calculated to be 2.65  ×  10-20 cm2 at 979 nm and the peak stimulated emission cross-section was 2.23  ×  10-20 cm2 at 980 nm for the π polarization. The continuous-wave (CW) laser operations of uncoated Yb:CaGdAlO4 crystals with 5  ×  5  ×  3 mm3 in size were demonstrated. A maximum output power of 1.6 W at 1048 nm was obtained with a slope efficiency of 28%. The results show that Yb:CaGdAlO4 crystal is a promising laser medium.

  16. Polymer Coated CaAl-Layered Double Hydroxide Nanomaterials for Potential Calcium Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-A; Choi, Soo-Jin; Oh, Jae-Min

    2014-01-01

    We have successfully prepared layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanomaterials containing calcium and aluminum ions in the framework (CaAl-LDH). The surface of CaAl-LDH was coated with enteric polymer, Eudragit®L 100 in order to protect nanomaterials from fast dissolution under gastric condition of pH 1.2. The X-ray diffraction patterns, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the pristine LDH was well prepared having hydrocalumite structure, and that the polymer effectively coated the surface of LDH without disturbing structure. From thermal analysis, it was determined that only a small amount (less than 1%) of polymer was coated on the LDH surface. Metal dissolution from LDH nanomaterials was significantly reduced upon Eudragit®L 100 coating at pH 1.2, 6.8 and 7.4, which simulates gastric, enteric and plasma conditions, respectively, and the dissolution effect was the most suppressed at pH 1.2. The LDH nanomaterials did not exhibit any significant cytotoxicity up to 1000 μg/mL and intracellular calcium concentration significantly increased in LDH-treated human intestinal cells. Pharmacokinetic study demonstrated absorption efficiency of Eudragit®L 100 coated LDH following oral administration to rats. Moreover, the LDH nanomaterials did not cause acute toxic effect in vivo. All the results suggest the great potential of CaAl-LDH nanomaterials as a calcium supplement. PMID:25490138

  17. A failure mechanism in Al-SiC composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nutt, S. R.; Duva, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Divecha et al. (1981) have discussed the advantages of materials obtained by adding silicon carbide whiskers to commercial aluminum alloys, taking into account also certain problems which are related to poor ductility and low fracture toughness. The present investigation has the objective to advance the understanding of the deformation at the whisker ends in reinforced aluminum composites through both observation and analysis. It is suggested that the low fracture toughness of the considered materials is the result of the rapid accumulation of damage at the whisker ends. It is pointed out that the whisker ends are sites of severe stress concentration and intense localized plastic strain. In connection with this situation, voids nucleate and grow at relatively low macroscopic stress levels. The reported studies include an examination of the deformation microstructure beneath the fracture surfaces of specimens with the aid of transmission electron microscopy.

  18. Dissolution of Cu/Mg Bearing Intermetallics in Al-Si Foundry Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidani, Mousa; Larouche, Daniel; Grant Chen, X.

    2016-08-01

    Evolutions of the Cu/Mg bearing intermetallics were thoroughly investigated in four Al-Si hypoeutectic alloys containing various Cu (1 and 1.6 wt pct) and Mg (0.4 and 0.8 wt pct) contents. The area fractions of Cu/Mg bearing phases before and after solution heat treatment (SHT) were quantified to evaluate the solubility/stability of the phases. Two Mg-bearing intermetallics (Q-Al5Cu2Mg8Si6, π-Al8FeMg3Si6) which appear as gray color under optical microscope were discriminated by the developed etchant. Moreover, the concentrations of the elements (Cu, Mg, and Si) in α-Al were analyzed. The results illustrated that in the alloys containing ~0.4 pct Mg, Q-Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 phase was dissolved after 6 hours of SHT at 778 K (505 °C); but containing in the alloys ~0.8 pct Mg, it was insoluble/ partially soluble. Furthermore, after SHT at 778 K (505 °C), Mg2Si was partially substituted by Q-phase. Applying a two-step SHT [6 hours@778 K (505 °C) + 8 hours@798 K (525 °C)] in the alloys containing ~0.4 pct Mg helped to further dissolve the remaining Mg bearing intermetallics and further modified the microstructure, but in the alloys containing ~0.8 pct Mg, it caused partial melting of Q-phase. Thermodynamic calculations were carried out to assess the phase formation in equilibrium and in non-equilibrium conditions. There was an excellent agreement between the experimental results and the predicted results.

  19. Dissolution of Cu/Mg Bearing Intermetallics in Al-Si Foundry Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidani, Mousa; Larouche, Daniel; Grant Chen, X.

    2016-10-01

    Evolutions of the Cu/Mg bearing intermetallics were thoroughly investigated in four Al-Si hypoeutectic alloys containing various Cu (1 and 1.6 wt pct) and Mg (0.4 and 0.8 wt pct) contents. The area fractions of Cu/Mg bearing phases before and after solution heat treatment (SHT) were quantified to evaluate the solubility/stability of the phases. Two Mg-bearing intermetallics (Q-Al5Cu2Mg8Si6, π-Al8FeMg3Si6) which appear as gray color under optical microscope were discriminated by the developed etchant. Moreover, the concentrations of the elements (Cu, Mg, and Si) in α-Al were analyzed. The results illustrated that in the alloys containing ~0.4 pct Mg, Q-Al5Cu2Mg8Si6 phase was dissolved after 6 hours of SHT at 778 K (505 °C); but containing in the alloys ~0.8 pct Mg, it was insoluble/ partially soluble. Furthermore, after SHT at 778 K (505 °C), Mg2Si was partially substituted by Q-phase. Applying a two-step SHT [6 hours@778 K (505 °C) + 8 hours@798 K (525 °C)] in the alloys containing ~0.4 pct Mg helped to further dissolve the remaining Mg bearing intermetallics and further modified the microstructure, but in the alloys containing ~0.8 pct Mg, it caused partial melting of Q-phase. Thermodynamic calculations were carried out to assess the phase formation in equilibrium and in non-equilibrium conditions. There was an excellent agreement between the experimental results and the predicted results.

  20. Effect of Amount of Aluminum on the Performance of Si-Al Codeposited Anodes for Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Patil, Vaishali; Patil, Arun; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Choi, Ji-Won

    2015-11-01

    Silicon is considered one of the most promising anode materials for high-performance Li-ion batteries due to its 4000 mAh/g theoretical specific capacity, relative abundance, low cost, and environmental benignity. However, silicon experiences a dramatic volume change (-300%) during full charge/discharge cycling, leading to severe capacity decay and poor cycling stability. Here, we report Si-Al codeposited anode material for Li-ion batteries. The Si-Al thin films were deposited by co-deposition from Si and Al target on nickel substrate. The composition of Si and Al in the film is estimated by energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The XRD and SEM analysis revealed that the Si-Al thin films were amorphous in structure. The electrochemical performance of the Si-Al thin film as anode material for lithium ion battery was investigated by the charge/discharge tests. Galvanostatic half-cell electrochemical measurements were conducted in between 0 mV to 2 V using a Li counter electrode, demonstrating that the Al rich Si-Al thin film achieved a good cycleability up to 100 cycles with a high capacity retention. Si-Al sample having 11.04% Al shows capacity 825 mAh/g over the 100 cycles.

  1. Recrystallization and Dielectric Properties of CaHfOx Flms on Si

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Y. W.; Norton, David P.; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle

    2003-01-01

    The recrystallization and dielectric behavior for amorphous CaHfO{sub x} films on Si substrates has been investigated. Upon conventional annealing in air, the CaHfO{sub x} films remain amorphous up to an annealing temperature of 800 C for annealing times of 1 h. This recrystallization temperature is significantly higher than that reported for HfO{sub 2} subjected to rapid thermal annealing. Metal-insulator-semiconductor structures with Pt gate electrodes were fabricated with various CaHfO{sub x} film thickness for capacitance-voltage and leakage current measurements. From this, the permittivity of CaHfO{sub x} was determined, along with interface layer capacitance for films on Si. The enhanced stability against polycrystalline grain growth, along with the thermodynamic stability of both CaO and HfO{sub 2} in contact with Si, suggests that CaHfO{sub x} may be an attractive gate dielectric for future generation metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor applications.

  2. Development of a Cast Al-Mg2Si-Si In Situ Composite: Microstructure, Heat Treatment, and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgatis, E.; Lekatou, A.; Karantzalis, A. E.; Petropoulos, H.; Katsamakis, S.; Poulia, A.

    2013-03-01

    An Al-11Mg2Si-Si in situ composite was prepared by a modified investment casting technique that employs sub-pressure for castability improvement and immersion of ceramic shell molds in fluidized beds of silica sand and iron particles for heat extraction improvement. The microstructure of the as-cast composite is explained according to the pseudoeutectic Al-Mg2Si phase diagram. The positive effect of a decreased number of mold investment layers and cooling assisted by immersion of the mold in a metallic bed on the tensile strength and hardness of the heat treated composite is noted. A minor presence of Fe in the master alloys constitutes an essential factor for the brittleness of the composite. Solution treatment notably improves the tensile strength of the composite; however, prolonged treatment deteriorates its ductility. The effect of time and temperature of the aging treatment on the hardness of the composite is investigated. The positive influence of cooling assisted by a metallic fluidized bed on the effectiveness of the aging treatment is noticed.

  3. Study of Proton Resonances in 2626Si and 27P by the Elastic Scattering of 1H(25Al, p) 25Al, 1H(26Si, p)26Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, J. Y.; Lee, C. S.; Lee, J. H.; Yun, C. C.; Kim, J. C.; Youn, M.; Kubono, S.; Teranishi, T.; He, J. J.; Notani, M.; Nishimura, S.; Nishimura, M.; Guimarães, V.; Lihitenthaler, R. F.; Kato, S.

    2005-12-01

    The observational space map of 1.809-MeV gamma rays - coming from the decay of 26Al - taken by COMPTEL requires the sources and their nucleosynthetic activity to be unveiled. One suggestion for the observation is the explosive hydrogen burning process which occurs in novae or X-ray bursts. Two capture reactions such as 25 Al(p,γ)26Si and 26Si(p,γ)27P are of great importance in the production of 1.809-MeV gamma rays. Resonance states within the Gamow window should be precisely known to determine their reaction rates. As for the latter reaction, only a few levels in 27P have been known above the proton threshold in comparison with many levels known in its mirror nucleus 27Mg. We studied proton resonances in 26Si and 27P by the elastic scattering at low energies, respectively using low-energy 25Al and 26Si radioactive ion beams available from the CRIB facility at CNS, University of Tokyo. We carried out an experiment to investigate proton resonances in 26Si up to EC.M. = 3.016 MeV, especially to determine the resonance parameters of the states at Ex = 7.019 and 8.120 MeV. We also measured the elastic scattering of p + 26Si up to EC.M. = 3.290 MeV.

  4. In vitro remineralization of acid-etched human enamel with Ca 3SiO 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhihong; Chang, Jiang; Deng, Yan; Joiner, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    Bioactive and inductive silicate-based bioceramics play an important role in hard tissue prosthetics such as bone and teeth. In the present study, a model was established to study the acid-etched enamel remineralization with tricalcium silicate (Ca 3SiO 5, C 3S) paste in vitro. After soaking in simulated oral fluid (SOF), Ca-P precipitation layer was formed on the enamel surface, with the prolonged soaking time, apatite layer turned into density and uniformity and thickness increasingly from 250 to 350 nm for 1 day to 1.7-1.9 μm for 7 days. Structure of apatite crystals was similar to that of hydroxyapatite (HAp). At the same time, surface smoothness of the remineralized layer is favorable for the oral hygiene. These results suggested that C 3S treated the acid-etched enamel can induce apatite formation, indicating the biomimic mineralization ability, and C 3S could be used as an agent of inductive biomineralization for the enamel prosthesis and protection.

  5. Influence of SiC reinforcement particles on the tribocorrosion behaviour of Al-SiCp FGMs in 0.05M NaCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, A. C.; Rocha, L. A.; Mischler, S.

    2011-05-01

    The main aim of this work was to study and understand the influence of SiC particles on the corrosion and tribocorrosion of Al-matrix composite materials. For that, Al-SiCp functionally graded composites were produced by centrifugal casting and different SiCp contents were achieved. Their mechanical properties were improved by age-hardening heat treatments. The tribocorrosion behaviour was studied in 0.05M NaCl solutions using a reciprocating motion tribometer involving an alumina ball sliding against the Al-based samples. Above critical SiC particles' content the matrix alloy surface was found to be protected against wear by SiC particles protruding from the surface. Below this threshold content, the SiC reinforcement was inefficient and the wear rate of the composite was the same as the non-reinforced alloy.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of NaAlSi2O6 jadeite under high pressure and high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang Biao; Li, Yong; Chen, Ning; Jia, Xiao Peng; Ma, Hong An

    2014-08-01

    With Al2(SiO3)3 and Na2SiO3 ṡ 9H2O as raw materials, the NaAlSi2O6 jadeite was synthesized in the temperature range of 1000-1600°C under 5.0 GPa conditions. Amorphous glass materials are entirely converted to crystalline NaAlSi2O6 jadeite at 5.0 GPa and 1450°C. All the experimental results reveal that the properties of synthetic NaAlSi2O6 resemble the natural jadeite very much. The research indicates that we provide a new approach to synthesize NaAlSi2O6 and offer an essential guideline for jewelry, which will be helpful for deep understanding on the origin of natural jadeite and the metamorphism of magma within the Earth.

  7. Tailored growth of in situAl4SiC4 in laser melted aluminum melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Fei; Gu, Dongdong

    2015-04-01

    The crystallization and growth of in situ crystals during non-equilibrium laser rapid melting/solidification process is an important research topic in the fields of both Applied Physics and Materials Science. The present paper studies the development mechanisms of in situ formed Al4SiC4 ceramic phase within the selective laser melted SiC/AlSi10Mg composites. Two different-structured Al4SiC4 having strip and particle morphologies were disclosed and their growth mechanisms were influenced by laser linear energy density (LED). An elevated LED resulted in a larger degree formation of strip-structured Al4SiC4 with the gradually coarsened crystal sizes in its length and thickness. The homogeneously dispersed particle-shaped Al4SiC4 exhibited a considerably refined nanostructure with a proper increase in LED, but showing a significant coarsening of particles at an excessive LED.

  8. Electrical properties of n-type AlGaN with high Si concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Kunihiro; Iwaya, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Akasaki, Isamu

    2016-05-01

    The electrical properties of Si-doped AlGaN layers (AlN molar fractions: 0.03-0.06) with the donor concentrations (N D) from 8.8 × 1017 to 4.5 × 1020 cm-3 were investigated by variable-temperature Hall effect measurement using the van der Pauw method. A minimum resistivity of 3.6 × 10-4 Ω cm was obtained for Si-doped AlGaN with a smooth surface at room temperature. We found that the activation energy of the Si donor is affected by the Coulomb interaction in the AlGaN layer with N D values from 8.8 × 1017 to 2.5 × 1020 cm-3. In several AlGaN layers, the free-electron concentration did not vary with sample temperature, as expected in the case of degeneracy. The localization of GaN in the AlGaN layer was speculated as a cause of degeneracy of samples.

  9. High temperature stability limit of phase egg, AlSiO3(OH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Shigeaki

    The stability relations of phase egg, AlSiO3(OH), have been investigated at pressures from 7 to 20GPa, and temperatures from 900 to 1700°C in a multi-anvil apparatus. At the lower pressures phase egg breaks down according to the univariant reaction, phase egg=stishovite+topaz-OH, which extends from 1100°C at 11GPa to 1400°C at 13GPa where it terminates at an invariant point involving corundum. At pressures above the invariant point, the stability of phase egg is limited by the breakdown reaction, phase egg=stishovite+corundum+fluid, which extends from the invariant point to 1700°C at 20GPa. Stishovite crystallized in the Al2O3-SiO2-H2O system contains Al2O3, and the amount of Al2O3 increases with increasing temperature. It is inferred that the Al2O3 content is controlled by the charge-balanced substitution of Si4+ by Al3+ and H+. Aluminum-bearing stishovite coexisting with an H2O-rich fluid may contain a certain amount of water. Therefore, phase egg and stishovite in a subducting slab could transport some H2O into the deep Earth.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Al-Doped Mg2Si Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, S.; Fiameni, S.; Saleemi, M.; Boldrini, S.; Famengo, A.; Agresti, F.; Stingaciu, M.; Toprak, M. S.; Fabrizio, M.; Barison, S.

    2013-07-01

    Magnesium silicide (Mg2Si)-based alloys are promising candidates for thermoelectric (TE) energy conversion for the middle to high range of temperature. These materials are very attractive for TE research because of the abundance of their constituent elements in the Earth's crust. Mg2Si could replace lead-based TE materials, due to its low cost, nontoxicity, and low density. In this work, the role of aluminum doping (Mg2Si:Al = 1: x for x = 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, and 0.04 molar ratio) in dense Mg2Si materials was investigated. The synthesis process was performed by planetary milling under inert atmosphere starting from commercial Mg2Si pieces and Al powder. After ball milling, the samples were sintered by means of spark plasma sintering to density >95%. The morphology, composition, and crystal structure of the samples were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction analyses. Moreover, Seebeck coefficient analyses, as well as electrical and thermal conductivity measurements were performed for all samples up to 600°C. The resultant estimated ZT values are comparable to those reported in the literature for these materials. In particular, the maximum ZT achieved was 0.50 for the x = 0.01 Al-doped sample at 600°C.

  11. Work of Adhesion in Al/SiC Composites with Alloying Element Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xin; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di

    2013-11-01

    In the current work, a general methodology was proposed to demonstrate how to calculate the work of adhesion in a reactive multicomponent alloy/ceramic system. Applying this methodology, the work of adhesion of Al alloy/SiC systems and the influence of different alloying elements were predicted. Based on the thermodynamics of interfacial reaction and calculation models for component activities, the equilibrium compositions of the melts in Al alloy/SiC systems were calculated. Combining the work of adhesion models for reactive metal/ceramic systems, the work of adhesion in Al alloy/SiC systems both before and after the reaction was calculated. The results showed that the addition of most alloying elements, such as Mg, Si, and Mn, could increase the initial work of adhesion, while Fe had a slightly decreasing effect. As for the equilibrium state, the additions of Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ti, and La could increase the equilibrium work of adhesion, but the additions of Mg and Zn had an opposite effect. Si was emphasized due to its suppressing effect on the interfacial reaction.

  12. Characterization of Rapidly Solidified Al-27 Si Hypereutectic Alloy: Effect of Solidification Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhiyong; Wang, Richu; Zhang, Chun; Peng, Chaoqun; Xie, Lichuan; Wang, Linqian

    2015-03-01

    Rapidly solidified Al-27wt.%Si hypereutectic alloy was fabricated by gas atomization, and its characterization as a function of particle size was investigated. A relationship between the particle size and solidification condition was established to understand the microstructural characteristics. While the irregular primary Si phase transformed to quasi-spherical shape, and its size decreased gradually with the particle size, the primary Si morphology similar to that in ingot metallurgy sample was found from the deep-etched images. In the fine powder, the eutectic Si phase formed a network structure densely distributed in the matrix, while a tangled dendritic formed at the surface. From the distribution of the Si phase, it is suggested that the microstructure inhomogeneity increased as the particle size decreases. The structural distortion of the Al matrix was observed from x-ray diffraction patterns and differential scanning calorimetry curves. From the calculated results, an undercooling of 33 K (or interface velocity of 8 mm/s) was sufficient to suppress the primary Si to less than 2 μm in the present composition. The microhardness increased significantly while the particle size decreases. The microstructure and properties of the bulk material consolidated by hot pressing of the powders obtained were also conducted.

  13. Measurement of 25Al+p resonant elastic scattering for studying the 25Al(p,γ)26Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Y. K.; Lee, C. S.; Jung, H. S.; Moon, J. Y.; Lee, J. H.; Yun, C. C.; Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Kahl, D.; Hayakawa, S.; Choi, Seonho; Kim, M. J.; Kim, Y. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Park, J. S.; Kim, E. J.; Moon, C.-B.; Teranishi, T.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Iwasa, N.; Yamada, T.; Togano, Y.; Kato, S.; Cherubini, S.; Rapisarda, G. G.

    2012-11-01

    Proton resonant states in 26Si have been studied by the resonant elastic scattering of 25Al+p with a 25Al radioactive ion beam at 2.863 MeV/nucleon bombarding a thick H2 gas target with the inverse kinematics method at the low-energy RI beam facility CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator), University of Tokyo. The properties of these resonance states are important to better determine the production rates of 25Al(p,γ)26Si reaction, which is one of the astrophysically important nuclear reactions to understand the production of the ground state of 26Al, the emitter of its characteristic 1.809-MeV gamma-ray, under the explosive stellar environments such as novae and X-ray bursts. In this work, several resonances above the proton threshold level have been observed with a high statistics and background free through a covered the range of excitation energies from Ex ~ 6.8 to 8.2 MeV.

  14. Amorphous structure and properties in laser-clad Ni-Cr-Al coating on Al-Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Gongying; Wong, T. T.; Su, J. Y.; Woo, C. H.

    1999-09-01

    A Ni-Cr-Al coating was clad by a 5 kW CO2 laser with different laser power on Al-Si alloy. Using transmission electron microscopy, a mixing microstructure containing Ni- based amorphous structures was observed in the laser clad zones. As the uniformity of chemical composition and temperature is poor in the laser cladding, the amorphous structure with some Ni3Al crystals coexisted in the cladding. According to the morphologies of Ni-based amorphous structures, the amorphous structure existed not only in the net-like boundaries surrounding the granular structure but also in the granular structure. The microhardness of the mixture amorphous structure is between HV 600 - 800, which is lower than that of crystal phases in the coating. A differential thermal analysis showed that Ni- based amorphous structure exhibits a higher initial crystallizing temperature (about 588 degree(s)C), which is slightly higher than that of the eutectic temperature of Al- Si alloy. The wear experimental results showed that some amorphous structure exist in the laser cladding can reduce the peeling of the granular phases from matrix, and improve the its wear resistance.

  15. Defect reduction in Si-doped Al{sub 0.45}Ga{sub 0.55}N films by SiN{sub x} interlayer method

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yang; Chen, Shengchang; Kong, Man; Li, Senlin; Tian, Wu; Sun, Shichuang; Wu, Zhihao E-mail: cqchen@mail.hust.edu.cn; Fang, Yanyan; Dai, Jiangnan; Chen, Changqing E-mail: cqchen@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2014-01-28

    The dislocation density in AlGaN epitaxial layers with Al content as high as 45% grown on sapphire substrates has been effectively reduced by introducing an in-situ deposited SiN{sub x} nanomask layer in this study. By closely monitoring the evolution of numerous material properties, such as surface morphology, dislocation density, photoluminescence, strain states, and electron mobility of the Si-Al{sub 0.45}Ga{sub 0.55}N layers as the functions of SiN{sub x} interlayer growth time, the surface coverage fraction of SiN{sub x} is found to be a crucial factor determining the strain states and dislocation density. The dependence of the strain states and the dislocation density on the surface coverage fraction of SiN{sub x} nanomask supports the very different growth models of Al-rich AlGaN on SiN{sub x} interlayer due to the reduced nucleation selectivity compared with the GaN counterpart. Compared with GaN, which can only nucleate at open pores of SiN{sub x} nanomask, Al-rich AlGaN can simultaneously nucleate at both open pores and SiN{sub x} covered areas. Dislocations will annihilate at the openings due to the 3D growth initiated on the opening area, while 2D growth mode is preserved on SiN{sub x} and the threading dislocations are also preserved. During the following growth process, lateral overgrowth will proceed from the Al{sub 0.45}Ga{sub 0.55}N islands on the openings towards the regions covered by SiN{sub x}, relaxing the compressive strain and bending the dislocations at the same time.

  16. Postperovskite phase equilibria in the MgSiO3-Al2O3 system.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Jun; Tsuchiya, Taku

    2008-12-01

    We investigate high-P,T phase equilibria of the MgSiO(3)-Al(2)O(3) system by means of the density functional ab initio computation methods with multiconfiguration sampling. Being different from earlier studies based on the static substitution properties with no consideration of Rh(2)O(3)(II) phase, present calculations demonstrate that (i) dissolving Al(2)O(3) tends to decrease the postperovskite transition pressure of MgSiO(3) but the effect is not significant ( approximately -0.2 GPa/mol% Al(2)O(3)); (ii) Al(2)O(3) produces the narrow perovskite+postperovskite coexisting P,T area (approximately 1 GPa) for the pyrolitic concentration (x(Al2O3) approximately 6 mol%), which is sufficiently responsible to the deep-mantle D'' seismic discontinuity; (iii) the transition would be smeared (approximately 4 GPa) for the basaltic Al-rich composition (x(Al2O3) approximately 20 mol%), which is still seismically visible unless iron has significant effects; and last (iv) the perovskite structure spontaneously changes to the Rh(2)O(3)(II) with increasing the Al concentration involving small displacements of the Mg-site cations.

  17. Surface Al doping of 4H-SiC via low temperature annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Junbo; Kim, Ki-hwan; Park, Young-rak; Kim, Minki; Lee, Hyungseok; Jun, Chi-Hoon; Koo, Sangmo; Ko, Sang Choon

    2016-07-01

    We present a method of forming shallow p-doping on a 4H-SiC surface by depositing a thin Al layer (d = 5 nm) and then thermally annealing it at 1000 °C for 10 min. A secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis of the annealed Al/SiC sample reveals an Al concentration in excess of 1017 cm-3 up to a depth of d ≤ 250 nm. I-V measurements and CV characterizations of Ti-SiC Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) fabricated on a n-type SiC epi-wafer indicate that the shallow Al doping increases the built-in potential of the junction and the barrier height by Δ V b i = 0.51 eV and Δ ϕ B = 0.26 eV , respectively. Assuming a rectangular doping profile, calculations of the built-in voltage shift and the Schottky barrier height indicate that partial dopant activation (activation ratio ˜2%) can induce the observed barrier height shift. The shallow doping method was then used to fabricate junction terminations in SBDs which increased the breakdown voltage and reduced the reverse leakage current. Technology CAD simulations of the SBD with and without doping verify that a reduction of peak electric field can explain the improvement of the breakdown voltage.

  18. Nanoheteroepitaxy of GaN on AlN/Si(111) nanorods fabricated by nanosphere lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Donghyun; Shin, In-Su; Jin, Lu; Kim, Donghyun; Park, Yongjo; Yoon, Euijoon

    2016-06-01

    Nanoheteroepitaxy (NHE) of GaN on an AlN/Si(111) nanorod structure was investigated by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Silica nanosphere lithography was employed to fabricate a periodic hexagonal nanorod array with a narrow gap of 30 nm between the nanorods. We were successful in obtaining a fully coalesced GaN film on the AlN/Si(111) nanorod structure. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that threading dislocation (TD) bending and termination by stacking faults occurred near the interface between GaN and the AlN/Si(111) nanorods, resulting in the reduction of TD density for the NHE GaN layer. The full width at half-maximum of the X-ray rocking curve for (102) plane of the NHE GaN was found to decrease down to 728 arcsec from 1005 arcsec for the GaN layer on a planar AlN/Si(111) substrate, indicating that the crystalline quality of the NHE GaN was improved. Also, micro-Raman measurement showed that tensile stress in the NHE GaN layer was reduced significantly as much as 70% by introducing air voids between the nanorods.

  19. Effects of Anions on Local Structure of Al and Si in Aluminosilicates.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki; Yokoyama

    1999-06-15

    Three kinds of amorphous aluminosilicates were synthesized by coprecipitation of silicic acid with aluminum hydroxide in the presence of different inorganic ions: sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Although the bulk composition of the aluminosilicates obtained was not affected by anion species, their DTA spectra were significantly different, suggesting that their structures also differ. The local structure of Al and Si in the aluminosilicates was studied in detail by 27Al and 29Si MAS NMR. From the 27Al MAS NMR spectra and comparison between 29Si HD- and CP-MAS NMR spectra, it was concluded that the aluminosilicate obtained in the presence of sulfate ions has only a montmorillonite-like structure, whereas in the cases of chloride and nitrate, the solids are composed of three phases: aluminum hydroxide, silica, and the montmorillonite-like aluminosilicate. The difference in the local structure of Al and Si in the aluminosilicates was explained by the difference in interaction between the anions and aluminum ions. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  20. Effects of anions on local structure of Al and Si in aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, Akane; Yokoyama, Takushi

    1999-06-15

    Three kinds of amorphous aluminosilicates were synthesized by coprecipitation of silicic acid with aluminum hydroxide in the presence of different inorganic ions: sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Although the bulk composition of the aluminosilicates obtained was not affected by anion species, their DTA spectra were significantly different, suggesting that their structures also differ. The local structure of Al and Si in the aluminosilicates was studied in detail by {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR. From the {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectra and comparison between {sup 29}Si HD- and CP-MAS NMR spectra, it was concluded that the aluminosilicate obtained in the presence of sulfate ions has only a montmorillonite-like structure, whereas in the cases of chloride and nitrate, the solids are composed of three phases: aluminum hydroxide, silica, and the montmorillonite-like aluminosilicate. The difference in the local structure of Al and Si in the aluminosilicates was explained by the difference in interaction between the anions and aluminum ions.

  1. FeAl and Mo-Si-B Intermetallic Coatings Prepared by Thermal Spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Totemeier, T.C.; Wright, R.N.; Swank, W.D.

    2003-04-22

    FeAl and Mo-Si-B intermetallic coatings for elevated temperature environmental resistance were prepared using high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and air plasma spray (APS) techniques. For both coating types, the effect of coating parameters (spray particle velocity and temperature) on the microstructure and physical properties of the coatings was assessed. Fe-24Al (wt.%) coatings were prepared using HVOF thermal spraying at spray particle velocities varying from 540 m/s to 700 m/s. Mo-13.4Si-2.6B coatings were prepared using APS at particle velocities of 180 and 350 m/s. Residual stresses in the HVOF FeAl coatings were compressive, while stresses in the APS Mo-Si-B coatings were tensile. In both cases, residual stresses became more compressive with increasing spray particle velocity due to increased peening imparted by the spray particles. The hardness and elastic moduli of FeAl coatings also increased with increasing particle velocity, again due to an increased peening effect. For Mo-Si-B coatings, plasma spraying at 180 m/s resulted in significant oxidation of the spray particles and conversion of the T1 phase into amorphous silica and {alpha}-Mo. The T1 phase was retained after spraying at 350 m/s.

  2. High temperature fatigue behavior of a SiC/Ti-24Al-11Nb composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolotta, P. A.; Brindley, P. K.

    1990-01-01

    A series of tension-tension strain- and load-controlled tests were conducted on unidirectional SiC/Ti-24Al-11Nb (at percent) composites at 425 and 815 C. Several regimes of damage were identified using Talrega's concept of fatigue life diagrams. Issues of test technique, test control mode, and definition of failure were also addressed.

  3. Quaternary aluminum silicides grown in Al flux: RE5Mn4Al(23-x)Si(x) (RE = Ho, Er, Yb) and Er44Mn55(AlSi)237.

    PubMed

    Calta, Nicholas P; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2013-09-01

    Four novel intermetallic silicides, RE5Mn4Al(23-x)Si(x) (x = 7.9(9), RE = Ho, Er, Yb) and Er44Mn55(AlSi)237, have been prepared by reaction in aluminum flux. Three RE5Mn4Al(23-x)Si(x) compounds crystallize in the tetragonal space group P4/mmm with the relatively rare Gd5Mg5Fe4Al(18-x)Si(x) structure type. Refinement of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data yielded unit cell parameters of a = 11.3834(9)-11.4171(10) Å and c = 4.0297(2)-4.0575(4) Å with volumes ranging from 522.41(5) to 528.90(8) Å(3). Structure refinements on single-crystal diffraction data show that Er44Mn55(AlSi)237 adopts a new cubic structure type in the space group Pm3n with a very large unit cell edge of a = 21.815(3) Å. This new structure is best understood when viewed as two sets of nested polyhedra centered on a main group atom and a manganese atom. These polyhedral clusters describe the majority of the atomic positions in the structure and form a perovskite-type network. We also report the electrical and magnetic properties of the title compounds. All compounds except the Ho analogue behave as normal paramagnetic metals without any observed magnetic transitions above 5 K and exhibit antiferromagnetic correlations deduced from the value of their Curie constants. Ho5Mn4Al(23-x)Si(x) exhibits a ferromagnetic transition at 20 K and an additional metamagnetic transition at 10 K, suggesting independent ordering temperatures for two distinct magnetic sublattices. PMID:23931551

  4. New type of Al-based decagonal quasicrystal in Al60Cr20Fe10Si10 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhanbing; Ma, Haikun; Li, Hua; Li, Xingzhong; Ma, Xiuliang

    2016-03-01

    A new kind of decagonal quasicrystal (DQC) with a periodicity of 1.23 nm was observed in the as-cast quaternary Al60Cr20Fe10Si10 alloy. The intensity distribution of some spots in the selected-area electron diffraction pattern along the tenfold zone axis was found to be different from other Al-based DQCs. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy was adopted to reveal the structural features at an atomic level. Both the tenfold symmetry and symmetry-broken decagonal (D) clusters of 1.91 nm in diameter were found, but with structural characteristics different from the corresponding D clusters in the other Al-based DQCs. The neighboring D clusters are connected by sharing one edge rather than covering, suggesting the tiling model is better than the covering model for structural description.

  5. New type of Al-based decagonal quasicrystal in Al60Cr20Fe10Si10 alloy

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhanbing; Ma, Haikun; Li, Hua; Li, Xingzhong; Ma, Xiuliang

    2016-01-01

    A new kind of decagonal quasicrystal (DQC) with a periodicity of 1.23 nm was observed in the as-cast quaternary Al60Cr20Fe10Si10 alloy. The intensity distribution of some spots in the selected-area electron diffraction pattern along the tenfold zone axis was found to be different from other Al-based DQCs. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy was adopted to reveal the structural features at an atomic level. Both the tenfold symmetry and symmetry-broken decagonal (D) clusters of 1.91 nm in diameter were found, but with structural characteristics different from the corresponding D clusters in the other Al-based DQCs. The neighboring D clusters are connected by sharing one edge rather than covering, suggesting the tiling model is better than the covering model for structural description. PMID:26928759

  6. Crystallization from high temperature solutions of Si in Cu/Al solvent

    DOEpatents

    Ciszek, Theodore F.; Wang, Tihu

    1996-01-01

    A liquid phase epitaxy method for forming thin crystalline layers of device quality silicon having less than 3.times.10.sup.16 Cu atoms/cc impurity, comprising: preparing a saturated liquid solution of Si in a Cu/Al solvent at about 20 to about 40 at. % Si at a temperature range of about 850.degree. to about 1100.degree. C. in an inert gas; immersing or partially immersing a substrate in the saturated liquid solution; super saturating the solution by lowering the temperature of the saturated solution; holding the substrate in the saturated solution for a period of time sufficient to cause Si to precipitate out of solution and form a crystalline layer of Si on the substrate; and withdrawing the substrate from the solution.

  7. Crystallization from high temperature solutions of Si in Cu/Al solvent

    DOEpatents

    Ciszek, T.F.; Wang, T.

    1996-08-13

    A liquid phase epitaxy method is disclosed for forming thin crystalline layers of device quality silicon having less than 3{times}10{sup 16} Cu atoms/cc impurity, comprising: preparing a saturated liquid solution of Si in a Cu/Al solvent at about 20 to about 40 at. % Si at a temperature range of about 850 to about 1100 C in an inert gas; immersing or partially immersing a substrate in the saturated liquid solution; super saturating the solution by lowering the temperature of the saturated solution; holding the substrate in the saturated solution for a period of time sufficient to cause Si to precipitate out of solution and form a crystalline layer of Si on the substrate; and withdrawing the substrate from the solution. 3 figs.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and photoluminescence properties of Bi3+ co-doped CaSiO3:Eu3+ nanophosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madesh Kumar, M.; Hari Krishna, R.; Nagabhushana, B. M.; Shivakumara, C.

    2015-03-01

    Ceramic luminescent powders with the composition Ca0.96-xEu0.04BixSiO3 (x = 0.01-0.05) were prepared by solution combustion method. The nanopowders are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and photoluminescence (PL) techniques. PXRD patterns of calcined (950 °C for 3 h) Ca0.96-xEu0.04BixSiO3 powders exhibit monoclinic phase with mean crystallite sizes ranging from 28 to 48 nm. SEM micrographs show the products are foamy, agglomerated and fluffy in nature due to the large amount of gases liberated during combustion reaction. TEM micrograph shows the crystalline characteristics of the nanoparticles. Upon 280 nm excitation, the photoluminescence of the Ca0.96-xEu0.04BixSiO3 particles show red emission at 611 nm corresponding to 5D0→7F2 transition. It is observed that PL intensity increases with Bi3+ concentration. Our work demonstrates very interesting energy transfer from Bi3+ to Eu3+ in CaSiO3 host.

  9. Understanding the composition-structure-bioactivity relationships in diopside (CaO·MgO·2SiO₂)-tricalcium phosphate (3CaO·P₂O₅) glass system.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Saurabh; Semitela, Ângela; Goel, Ashutosh; Xiang, Ye; Du, Jincheng; Lourenço, Ana H; Sousa, Daniela M; Granja, Pedro L; Ferreira, José M F

    2015-03-01

    The present work is an amalgamation of computation and experimental approach to gain an insight into composition-structure-bioactivity relationships of alkali-free bioactive glasses in the CaO-MgO-SiO2-P2O5 system. The glasses have been designed in the diopside (CaO·MgO·2SiO2; Di)-tricalcium phosphate (3CaO·P2O5; TCP) binary join by varying the Di/TCP ratio. The melt-quenched glasses have been investigated for their structure by molecular dynamic (MD) simulations as well as by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). In all the investigated glasses silicate and phosphate components are dominated by Q(2) (Si) and Q(0) (P) species, respectively. The apatite forming ability of the glasses was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy after immersion of glass powders in simulated body fluid (SBF) for time durations varying between 1 h and 14 days, while their chemical degradation has been studied in Tris-HCl in accordance with ISO 10993-14. All the investigated glasses showed good bioactivity without any substantial variation. A significant statistical increase in metabolic activity of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) when compared to the control was observed for Di-60 and Di-70 glass compositions under both basal and osteogenic conditions.

  10. Vibrational spectroscopic study of the copper silicate mineral kinoite Ca2Cu2Si3O10(OH)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; Xi, Yunfei

    2012-04-01

    Kinoite Ca2Cu2Si3O10(OH)4 is a mineral named after a Jesuit missionary. Raman and infrared spectroscopy have been used to characterise the structure of the mineral. The Raman spectrum is characterised by an intense sharp band at 847 cm-1 assigned to the ν1 (A1g) symmetric stretching vibration. Intense sharp bands at 951, 994 and 1000 cm-1 are assigned to the ν3 (Eu, A2u, B1g) SiO4 antisymmetric stretching vibrations. Multiple ν2 SiO4 vibrational modes indicate strong distortion of the SiO4 tetrahedra. Multiple CaO and CuO stretching bands are observed. Raman spectroscopy confirmed by infrared spectroscopy clearly shows that hydroxyl units are involved in the kinoite structure. Based upon the infrared spectra, it is proposed that water is also involved in the kinoite structure. Based upon vibrational spectroscopy, the formula of kinoite is defined as Ca2Cu2Si3O10(OH)4·xH2O.

  11. Vibrational spectroscopic study of the copper silicate mineral kinoite Ca2Cu2Si3O10(OH)4.

    PubMed

    Frost, Ray L; Xi, Yunfei

    2012-04-01

    Kinoite Ca2Cu2Si3O10(OH)4 is a mineral named after a Jesuit missionary. Raman and infrared spectroscopy have been used to characterise the structure of the mineral. The Raman spectrum is characterised by an intense sharp band at 847 cm(-1) assigned to the ν1 (A1g) symmetric stretching vibration. Intense sharp bands at 951, 994 and 1000 cm(-1) are assigned to the ν3 (Eu, A2u, B1g) SiO4 antisymmetric stretching vibrations. Multiple ν2 SiO4 vibrational modes indicate strong distortion of the SiO4 tetrahedra. Multiple CaO and CuO stretching bands are observed. Raman spectroscopy confirmed by infrared spectroscopy clearly shows that hydroxyl units are involved in the kinoite structure. Based upon the infrared spectra, it is proposed that water is also involved in the kinoite structure. Based upon vibrational spectroscopy, the formula of kinoite is defined as Ca2Cu2Si3O10(OH)4·xH2O. PMID:22257713

  12. Competitive growth mechanisms of AlN on Si (111) by MOVPE

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yuxia; Wei, Hongyuan; Yang, Shaoyan; Chen, Zhen; Wang, Lianshan; Kong, Susu; Zhao, Guijuan; Liu, Xianglin

    2014-01-01

    To improve the growth rate and crystal quality of AlN, the competitive growth mechanisms of AlN under different parameters were studied. The mass transport limited mechanism was competed with the gas-phase parasitic reaction and became dominated at low reactor pressure. The mechanism of strain relaxation at the AlN/Si interface was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Improved deposition rate in the mass-transport-limit region and increased adatom mobility were realized under extremely low reactor pressure. PMID:25231628

  13. Structure and Thermal Expansion of Calcium-Thorium Apatite, [Ca4]F[Ca2Th4]T[(SiO4)6]O2.

    PubMed

    Bulanov, Evgeny N; Wang, Jingxian; Knyazev, Alexander V; White, Tim; Manyakina, Marina E; Baikie, Tom; Lapshin, Alexander N; Dong, ZhiLi

    2015-12-01

    Thorium silicate apatite with the formula [Ca3.84Th0.16]F[Ca2.79Th3.21]T(SiO4)6O2 · x(H) was synthesized by solid-state reaction, and its structure refined in P63/m from powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) data using the Rietveld method (a = 9.50172(9) Å, c = 6.98302(8) Å, V = 545.98(1) Å(3); R-Bragg = 2.102%). It was found that thorium partitions strongly to the tunnel (T) 6h position rather than the framework (F) 4f site. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed only SiO4 tetrahedron, with SiO5 and SiO6 groups, sometimes observed in siliceous apatites absent, at least to the limit of detection of this technique. Thermal expansion of the thorium apatite determined by high-temperature XRD from 298-1173 K found Δa (0.87%) dilation to exceed Δc (0.73%) with increasing temperature consistent with other silicate apatites. PMID:26562353

  14. Epitaxial growth of higher transition-temperature VO2 films on AlN/Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slusar, Tetiana; Cho, Jin-Cheol; Kim, Bong-Jun; Yun, Sun Jin; Kim, Hyun-Tak

    2016-02-01

    We report the epitaxial growth and the mechanism of a higher temperature insulator-to-metal-transition (IMT) of vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films synthesized on aluminum nitride (AlN)/Si (111) substrates by a pulsed-laser-deposition method; the IMT temperature is TIMT ≈ 350 K. X-ray diffractometer and high resolution transmission electron microscope data show that the epitaxial relationship of VO2 and AlN is VO2 (010) ‖ AlN (0001) with VO2 [101] ‖ AlN [ 2 1 ¯ 1 ¯ 0 ] zone axes, which results in a substrate-induced tensile strain along the in-plane a and c axes of the insulating monoclinic VO2. This strain stabilizes the insulating phase of VO2 and raises TIMT for 10 K higher than TIMT single crystal ≈ 340 K in a bulk VO2 single crystal. Near TIMT, a resistance change of about four orders is observed in a thick film of ˜130 nm. The VO2/AlN/Si heterostructures are promising for the development of integrated IMT-Si technology, including thermal switchers, transistors, and other applications.

  15. Raman characterization and stress analysis of AlN grown on SiC by sublimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Liu, B.; Edgar, J. H.; Rajasingam, S.; Kuball, M.

    2002-11-01

    The stress distribution in bulk AlN crystals seeded on 6H-SiC was theoretically modeled and also determined experimentally from Raman peak positions. The full width at half maximum of the AlN Raman peaks showed the crystal quality improved as its thickness increased. The theoretical frequency shifts of the E1 (transverse optical) mode calculated from model-predicted stress were in good agreement with experimental values taken along the edges of crystal samples. The stress was linearly distributed along the depth of the samples, and changed from compressive at the growing surface to tensile at the interface between AlN and SiC for thickness range of several hundred micrometers. Large tensile stresses, up to 0.6 GPa, were detected in the AlN at the interface. The effects of growth temperature and sample thickness were investigated. It is predicted that the AlN on 6H-SiC must be at least 2 mm thick to prevent it from cracking while cooling down the sample from a growth temperature of 2000 degC.

  16. Ordered hexagonal mesoporous aluminosilicates with low Si/Al ratio: synthesis, characterization, and catalytic application.

    PubMed

    Liu, Aifeng; Che, Hongwei; Liu, Chuanzhi; Fu, Quanrong; Jiang, Ruijiao; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Liang

    2014-06-01

    Ordered hexagonal mesoporous aluminosilicates with lower Si/Al ratio below 5 have been successfully synthesized via the co-assembly of preformed aluminosilicate precursors with Gemini surfactant [C12H25N+(CH3)2(CH2)6N+(CH3)2C12H25] x 2Br(-) as the template. Powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance, thermogravimetric analysis, and temperature-programmed desorption of cyclohexylamine are employed to characterize the resulting samples. The phenol alkylation reaction is carried out to evaluate their catalytic performances. These studies indicate that the sample with a low Si/Al ratio of 3 still retains a highly ordered hexagonal mesoporous structure. And it also possesses the highest acidity of 0.96 mmol among the samples with lower Si/Al ratios below 5 due to its higher specific surface area together with more content of tetrahedrally coordinated Al in the framework. The catalytic tests confirm that the acidity of the samples plays a key role in determining their catalytic performances.

  17. {sup 29}Si solid state NMR investigation of pozzolanic reaction occurring in lime-treated Ca-bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Pomakhina, Elena; Deneele, Dimitri; Gaillot, Anne-Claire; Paris, Michael; Ouvrard, Guy

    2012-04-15

    Lime is widely used as additive to improve the mechanical properties of natural soil used in earthworks. However, the physico-chemical mechanisms involved are yet not well understood. In order to develop and optimize this treatment method, a better understanding of the interaction between lime and the minerals of the soils, in particular clay minerals, is required. In this study, Ca-bentonite was treated with 2, 5 and 10 wt.% of lime during 1 to 98 days. Modifications in the Si local environment were then monitored by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance to investigate the pozzolanic reaction. All the soil mineral phases contribute to the release of Si and to the pozzolanic reaction, with a rapid and total consumption of Si-polymorph and an exacerbated dissolution of montmorillonite. Mechanism of C-S-H formation, function of the Ca content in the system, was found to match the sorosilicate-tobermorite model described in cement systems.

  18. Electron density distribution and disordered crystal structure of 15R-SiAlON, SiAl{sub 4}O{sub 2}N{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Banno, Hiroki; Hanai, Takaaki; Asaka, Toru; Kimoto, Koji; Fukuda, Koichiro

    2014-03-15

    The crystal structure of SiAl{sub 4}O{sub 2}N{sub 4} was characterized by laboratory X-ray powder diffraction (CuKα{sub 1}). The title compound is trigonal with space group R3-bar m. The hexagonal unit-cell dimensions (Z=3) are a=0.301332(3) nm, c=4.18616(4) nm and V=0.3291825(5) nm{sup 3}. The initial structural model was successfully derived by the charge-flipping method and further refined by the Rietveld method. The final structural model showed the positional disordering of one of the three (Si,Al) sites. The maximum-entropy method-based pattern fitting (MPF) method was used to confirm the validity of the split-atom model, in which conventional structure bias caused by assuming intensity partitioning was minimized. The reliability indices calculated from the MPF were R{sub wp}=5.05%, S (=R{sub wp}/R{sub e})=1.21, R{sub p}=3.77%, R{sub B}=1.29% and R{sub F}=1.01%. The disordered crystal structure was successfully described by overlapping three types of domains with ordered atom arrangements. The distribution of atomic positions in one of the three types of domains can be achieved in the space group R3-bar m. The atom arrangements in the other two types of domains are noncentrosymmetrical with the space group R3m. These two structural configurations are related by the pseudo-symmetry inversion. -- Graphical abstract: A bird's eye view of electron densities up to 75.3% (0.133 nm{sup −3}) of the maximum on the plane parallel to (110) with the corresponding atomic arrangements of SiAl{sub 4}O{sub 2}N{sub 4}. Highlights: • Crystal structure of SiAl{sub 4}O{sub 2}N{sub 4} is determined by laboratory X-ray powder diffraction. • The atom arrangements are represented by the split-atom model. • The maximum-entropy method-based pattern fitting method is used to confirm the validity of the model. • The disordered structure is described by overlapping three types of domains with ordered atom arrangements.

  19. Complex Formation Between Ca(II), Mg(II), Al(III) Ions and Salicylglycine

    PubMed Central

    Kilyén, Melinda; Labádi, lmre; Tombácz, Etelka; Kiss, Tamás

    2003-01-01

    For modelling the interactions of proteins/peptides with hard metal ions the complex formation of salicylglycine (SalGly) with Ca(II), Mg(ll) and AI(III) ions was studied in aqueous solution using pHpotentiometric and UV-vis spectroscopic techniques. Al(lll) ion was found to form more stable complexes with SalGiy than Ca(ll) or Mg(ll) ions. While AI(III) ion forms various 1:1 complexes of different protonation states in the pH range 2-7, Ca(ll), Mg(ll) ions seem to interact with SalGly only in the basic pH range and form mixed hydroxo species MLH-1 at pH ~ 8. According to the UV-vis spectroscopic measurements in the species MLH-1 the carboxylate-O- atom and the phenolate-O- coordinate to the metal ions. SaIGiy is able to keep Al(lll) in solution through inner and outer sphere coordination to metastable amorphous AI(OH)3 particles. Deprotonation of the peptide amide Nil does not occur in these systems. PMID:18365063

  20. Electron irradiation response on Ge and Al-doped SiO 2 optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaakob, N. H.; Wagiran, H.; Hossain, I.; Ramli, A. T.; Bradley, D. A.; Hashim, S.; Ali, H.

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes the thermoluminescence response, sensitivity, stability and reproducibility of SiO 2 optical fibres with various electron energies and doses. The TL materials that comprise Al- and Ge-doped silica fibres were used in this experiment. The TL results are compared with those of the commercially available TLD-100. The doped SiO 2 optical fibres and TLD-100 are placed in a solid phantom and irradiated with 6, 9 and 12 MeV electron beams at doses ranging from 0.2 to 4.0 Gy using the LINAC at Hospital Sultan Ismail, Johor Bahru, Malaysia. It was found that the commercially available Al- and Ge-doped optical fibres have a linear dose-TL signal relationship. The intensity of TL response of Ge-doped fibre is markedly greater than that of the Al-doped fibre.