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Sample records for al-induced root growth

  1. Jasmonic Acid Enhances Al-Induced Root Growth Inhibition1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; Ma, Yanqi

    2017-01-01

    Phytohormones such as ethylene and auxin are involved in the regulation of the aluminum (Al)-induced root growth inhibition. Although jasmonate (JA) has been reported to play a crucial role in the regulation of root growth and development in response to environmental stresses through interplay with ethylene and auxin, its role in the regulation of root growth response to Al stress is not yet known. In an attempt to elucidate the role of JA, we found that exogenous application of JA enhanced the Al-induced root growth inhibition. Furthermore, phenotype analysis with mutants defective in either JA biosynthesis or signaling suggests that JA is involved in the regulation of Al-induced root growth inhibition. The expression of the JA receptor CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and the key JA signaling regulator MYC2 was up-regulated in response to Al stress in the root tips. This process together with COI1-mediated Al-induced root growth inhibition under Al stress was controlled by ethylene but not auxin. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that many responsive genes under Al stress were regulated by JA signaling. The differential responsive of microtubule organization-related genes between the wild-type and coi1-2 mutant is consistent with the changed depolymerization of cortical microtubules in coi1 under Al stress. In addition, ALMT-mediated malate exudation and thus Al exclusion from roots in response to Al stress was also regulated by COI1-mediated JA signaling. Together, this study suggests that root growth inhibition is regulated by COI1-mediated JA signaling independent from auxin signaling and provides novel insights into the phytohormone-mediated root growth inhibition in response to Al stress. PMID:27932419

  2. Association of specific pectin methylesterases with Al-induced root elongation inhibition in rice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao Ying; Zeng, Zhang Hui; Yan, Jing Ying; Fan, Wei; Bian, Hong Wu; Zhu, Mu Yuan; Yang, Jian Li; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2013-08-01

    The negative charges of cell wall pectin molecules attributed by pectin methylesterase (PME, EC 3.1.1.11) contribute to Al binding capacity. We examined the expression profiles of 35 members of the PME gene family in the root apex of an Al-sensitive rice 'Zhefu802' under Al stress. While root elongation was inhibited by 40% after 3-h exposure to 25 µM Al, cell wall PME activity and the abundance of eight PME genes transcripts were increased. The same Al treatment which had almost no effect on root elongation of an Al-resistant rice ssp. japonica 'Nipponbare' did not change the expression patterns of these eight PME genes. However, when Al concentration was increased to 50 µM, by which the root elongation of 'Nipponbare' was inhibited by 40% too, the expression of these PME genes were also upregulated except two genes with no signal. These suggest a possible correlation between the upregulated genes and Al-induced inhibition of root elongation in rice. Furthermore, these eight PME genes behaved differently when subjected to CdCl2 and LaCl3 treatments, implying the specificity of different PME genes in response to different metal toxicities. The transgenic rice overexpressing one of these eight PME genes OsPME14 showed higher PME activity and Al content in root tip cell wall, and became more sensitive to Al stress, verifying the involvement of the specific PME gene in Al toxicity. Therefore, our results provided the molecular evidence to connect the expression of specific PME genes with the Al-induced inhibition of root elongation in rice.

  3. Root hair sweet growth

    PubMed Central

    Velasquez, Silvia M; Iusem, Norberto D

    2011-01-01

    Root hairs are single cells specialized in the absorption of water and nutrients from the soil. Growing root hairs require intensive cell-wall changes to accommodate cell expansion at the apical end by a process known as tip or polarized growth. We have recently shown that cell wall glycoproteins such as extensins (EXTs) are essential components of the cell wall during polarized growth. Proline hydroxylation, an early posttranslational modification of cell wall EXTs that is catalyzed by prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs), defines the subsequent O-glycosylation sites in EXTs. Biochemical inhibition or genetic disruption of specific P4Hs resulted in the blockage of polarized growth in root hairs. Our results demonstrate that correct hydroxylation and also further O-glycosylation on EXTs are essential for cell-wall self-assembly and, hence, root hair elongation. The changes that O-glycosylated cell-wall proteins like EXTs undergo during cell growth represent a starting point to unravel the entire biochemical pathway involved in plant development. PMID:21918376

  4. Strigolactones Effects on Root Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltai, Hinanit

    2012-07-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) were defined as a new group of plant hormones that suppress lateral shoot branching. Our previous studies suggested SLs to be regulators of root development. SLs were shown to alter root architecture by regulating lateral root formation and to affect root hair elongation in Arabidopsis. Another important effect of SLs on root growth was shown to be associated with root directional growth. Supplementation of SLs to roots led to alterations in root directional growth, whereas associated mutants showed asymmetrical root growth, which was influenced by environmental factors. The regulation by SLs of root development was shown to be conducted via a cross talk of SLs with other plant hormones, including auxin. SLs were shown to regulate auxin transport, and to interfere with the activity of auxin-efflux carriers. Therefore, it might be that SLs are regulators of root directional growth as a result of their ability to regulated auxin transport. However, other evidences suggest a localized effect of SLs on cell division, which may not necessarily be associated with auxin efflux. These and other, recent hypothesis as to the SLs mode of action and the associated root perception and response to environmental factors will be discussed.

  5. The Roots of Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Synder, Agnes

    1973-01-01

    Effective planning for child growth through the curriculum takes into account three things: 1) the pace at which children grow, 2) the individuality of every child, and 3) the need for guidance in meeting the problems of living. (ST)

  6. Underground tuning: quantitative regulation of root growth.

    PubMed

    Satbhai, Santosh B; Ristova, Daniela; Busch, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    Plants display a high degree of phenotypic plasticity that allows them to tune their form and function to changing environments. The plant root system has evolved mechanisms to anchor the plant and to efficiently explore soils to forage for soil resources. Key to this is an enormous capacity for plasticity of multiple traits that shape the distribution of roots in the soil. Such root system architecture-related traits are determined by root growth rates, root growth direction, and root branching. In this review, we describe how the root system is constituted, and which mechanisms, pathways, and genes mainly regulate plasticity of the root system in response to environmental variation.

  7. New theories of root growth modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landl, Magdalena; Schnepf, Andrea; Vanderborght, Jan; Huber, Katrin; Javaux, Mathieu; Bengough, A. Glyn; Vereecken, Harry

    2016-04-01

    In dynamic root architecture models, root growth is represented by moving root tips whose line trajectory results in the creation of new root segments. Typically, the direction of root growth is calculated as the vector sum of various direction-affecting components. However, in our simulations this did not reproduce experimental observations of root growth in structured soil. We therefore developed a new approach to predict the root growth direction. In this approach we distinguish between, firstly, driving forces for root growth, i.e. the force exerted by the root which points in the direction of the previous root segment and gravitropism, and, secondly, the soil mechanical resistance to root growth or penetration resistance. The latter can be anisotropic, i.e. depending on the direction of growth, which leads to a difference between the direction of the driving force and the direction of the root tip movement. Anisotropy of penetration resistance can be caused either by microscale differences in soil structure or by macroscale features, including macropores. Anisotropy at the microscale is neglected in our model. To allow for this, we include a normally distributed random deflection angle α to the force which points in the direction of the previous root segment with zero mean and a standard deviation σ. The standard deviation σ is scaled, so that the deflection from the original root tip location does not depend on the spatial resolution of the root system model. Similarly to the water flow equation, the direction of the root tip movement corresponds to the water flux vector while the driving forces are related to the water potential gradient. The analogue of the hydraulic conductivity tensor is the root penetrability tensor. It is determined by the inverse of soil penetration resistance and describes the ease with which a root can penetrate the soil. By adapting the three dimensional soil and root water uptake model R-SWMS (Javaux et al., 2008) in this way

  8. Brassinosteroids Regulate Root Growth, Development, and Symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhuoyun; Li, Jia

    2016-01-04

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are natural plant hormones critical for growth and development. BR deficient or signaling mutants show significantly shortened root phenotypes. However, for a long time, it was thought that these phenotypes were solely caused by reduced cell elongation in the mutant roots. Functions of BRs in regulating root development have been largely neglected. Nonetheless, recent detailed analyses, revealed that BRs are not only involved in root cell elongation but are also involved in many aspects of root development, such as maintenance of meristem size, root hair formation, lateral root initiation, gravitropic response, mycorrhiza formation, and nodulation in legume species. In this review, current findings on the functions of BRs in mediating root growth, development, and symbiosis are discussed.

  9. Stochastic roots of growth phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lauro, E.; De Martino, S.; De Siena, S.; Giorno, V.

    2014-05-01

    We show that the Gompertz equation describes the evolution in time of the median of a geometric stochastic process. Therefore, we induce that the process itself generates the growth. This result allows us further to exploit a stochastic variational principle to take account of self-regulation of growth through feedback of relative density variations. The conceptually well defined framework so introduced shows its usefulness by suggesting a form of control of growth by exploiting external actions.

  10. Long-term control of root growth

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  11. Effect of lead on root growth

    PubMed Central

    Fahr, Mouna; Laplaze, Laurent; Bendaou, Najib; Hocher, Valerie; Mzibri, Mohamed El; Bogusz, Didier; Smouni, Abdelaziz

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most widespread heavy metal contaminant in soils. It is highly toxic to living organisms. Pb has no biological function but can cause morphological, physiological, and biochemical dysfunctions in plants. Plants have developed a wide range of tolerance mechanisms that are activated in response to Pb exposure. Pb affects plants primarily through their root systems. Plant roots rapidly respond either (i) by the synthesis and deposition of callose, creating a barrier that stops Pb entering (ii) through the uptake of large amounts of Pb and its sequestration in the vacuole accompanied by changes in root growth and branching pattern or (iii) by its translocation to the aboveground parts of plant in the case of hyperaccumulators plants. Here we review the interactions of roots with the presence of Pb in the rhizosphere and the effect of Pb on the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of root development. PMID:23750165

  12. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    DOEpatents

    Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.; Van Voris, P.

    1993-01-26

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a geotextile'' and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  13. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene; Van Voris, Peter

    1993-01-01

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a "geotextile" and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  14. Quest for Continual Growth Takes Root

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surdey, Mary M.; Hashey, Jane M.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how the quest for continual growth has taken its root at Vestal Central School district. Located at the heart of upstate New York, educators at Vestal Central School district have created a spirit of "kaizen," a Japanese word meaning the relentless quest for continual improvement and higher-quality…

  15. Shoot-derived abscisic acid promotes root growth.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Scott A M; Brodribb, Timothy J; Ross, John J

    2016-03-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a major role in regulating root growth. Most work to date has investigated the influence of root-sourced ABA on root growth during water stress. Here, we tested whether foliage-derived ABA could be transported to the roots, and whether this foliage-derived ABA had an influence on root growth under well-watered conditions. Using both application studies of deuterium-labelled ABA and reciprocal grafting between wild-type and ABA-biosynthetic mutant plants, we show that both ABA levels in the roots and root growth in representative angiosperms are controlled by ABA synthesized in the leaves rather than sourced from the roots. Foliage-derived ABA was found to promote root growth relative to shoot growth but to inhibit the development of lateral roots. Increased root auxin (IAA) levels in plants with ABA-deficient scions suggest that foliage-derived ABA inhibits root growth through the root growth-inhibitor IAA. These results highlight the physiological and morphological importance, beyond the control of stomata, of foliage-derived ABA. The use of foliar ABA as a signal for root growth has important implications for regulating root to shoot growth under normal conditions and suggests that leaf rather than root hydration is the main signal for regulating plant responses to moisture.

  16. TAA1-regulated local auxin biosynthesis in the root-apex transition zone mediates the aluminum-induced inhibition of root growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; Geng, Xiaoyu; He, Chunmei; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Rong; Horst, Walter J; Ding, Zhaojun

    2014-07-01

    The transition zone (TZ) of the root apex is the perception site of Al toxicity. Here, we show that exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana roots to Al induces a localized enhancement of auxin signaling in the root-apex TZ that is dependent on TAA1, which encodes a Trp aminotransferase and regulates auxin biosynthesis. TAA1 is specifically upregulated in the root-apex TZ in response to Al treatment, thus mediating local auxin biosynthesis and inhibition of root growth. The TAA1-regulated local auxin biosynthesis in the root-apex TZ in response to Al stress is dependent on ethylene, as revealed by manipulating ethylene homeostasis via the precursor of ethylene biosynthesis 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, the inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis aminoethoxyvinylglycine, or mutant analysis. In response to Al stress, ethylene signaling locally upregulates TAA1 expression and thus auxin responses in the TZ and results in auxin-regulated root growth inhibition through a number of auxin response factors (ARFs). In particular, ARF10 and ARF16 are important in the regulation of cell wall modification-related genes. Our study suggests a mechanism underlying how environmental cues affect root growth plasticity through influencing local auxin biosynthesis and signaling.

  17. Endosomal Interactions during Root Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    von Wangenheim, Daniel; Rosero, Amparo; Komis, George; Šamajová, Olga; Ovečka, Miroslav; Voigt, Boris; Šamaj, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic localization of endosomal compartments labeled with targeted fluorescent protein tags is routinely followed by time lapse fluorescence microscopy approaches and single particle tracking algorithms. In this way trajectories of individual endosomes can be mapped and linked to physiological processes as cell growth. However, other aspects of dynamic behavior including endosomal interactions are difficult to follow in this manner. Therefore, we characterized the localization and dynamic properties of early and late endosomes throughout the entire course of root hair formation by means of spinning disc time lapse imaging and post-acquisition automated multitracking and quantitative analysis. Our results show differential motile behavior of early and late endosomes and interactions of late endosomes that may be specified to particular root hair domains. Detailed data analysis revealed a particular transient interaction between late endosomes—termed herein as dancing-endosomes—which is not concluding to vesicular fusion. Endosomes preferentially located in the root hair tip interacted as dancing-endosomes and traveled short distances during this interaction. Finally, sizes of early and late endosomes were addressed by means of super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM) to corroborate measurements on the spinning disc. This is a first study providing quantitative microscopic data on dynamic spatio-temporal interactions of endosomes during root hair tip growth. PMID:26858728

  18. Local Transcriptional Control of YUCCA Regulates Auxin Promoted Root-Growth Inhibition in Response to Aluminium Stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangchao; Gao, Shan; Tian, Huiyu; Wu, Wenwen; Robert, Hélène S; Ding, Zhaojun

    2016-10-01

    Auxin is necessary for the inhibition of root growth induced by aluminium (Al) stress, however the molecular mechanism controlling this is largely unknown. Here, we report that YUCCA (YUC), which encodes flavin monooxygenase-like proteins, regulates local auxin biosynthesis in the root apex transition zone (TZ) in response to Al stress. Al stress up-regulates YUC3/5/7/8/9 in the root-apex TZ, which we show results in the accumulation of auxin in the root-apex TZ and root-growth inhibition during the Al stress response. These Al-dependent changes in the regulation of YUCs in the root-apex TZ and YUC-regulated root growth inhibition are dependent on ethylene signalling. Increasing or disruption of ethylene signalling caused either enhanced or reduced up-regulation, respectively, of YUCs in root-apex TZ in response to Al stress. In addition, ethylene enhanced root growth inhibition under Al stress was strongly alleviated in yuc mutants or by co-treatment with yucasin, an inhibitor of YUC activity, suggesting a downstream role of YUCs in this process. Moreover, ethylene-insensitive 3 (EIN3) is involved into the direct regulation of YUC9 transcription in this process. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) functions as a transcriptional activator for YUC5/8/9. PIF4 promotes Al-inhibited primary root growth by regulating the local expression of YUCs and auxin signal in the root-apex TZ. The Al-induced expression of PIF4 in root TZ acts downstream of ethylene signalling. Taken together, our results highlight a regulatory cascade for YUCs-regulated local auxin biosynthesis in the root-apex TZ mediating root growth inhibition in response to Al stress.

  19. Comprehensive study of Al-induced layer-exchange growth for orientation-controlled Si crystals on SiO{sub 2} substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Kurosawa, Masashi; Sadoh, Taizoh; Miyao, Masanobu

    2014-11-07

    Orientation-controlled crystalline Si films on insulating substrates are strongly required to achieve high-performance thin-film devices for next-generation electronics. We have comprehensively investigated the layer-exchange kinetics of Al-induced crystallization (AIC) in stacked structures, i.e., amorphous-Si/Al-oxide/Al/SiO{sub 2}-substrates, as a function of the air-exposure time of Al surfaces (t{sub air}: 0–24 h) to form Al-oxide interface-layers, the thickness of Al and Si layers (d{sub Al,} d{sub Si}: 50–200 nm), the annealing temperature (450–500 °C), and the annealing time (0–50 h). It has been clarified that longer t{sub air} (>60 min) and/or thinner d{sub Al} and d{sub Si} (<50 nm) lead to the (111) oriented growth; in contrast, shorter t{sub air} (<60 min) and/or thicker d{sub Al} and d{sub Si} (>100 nm) lead to the (100) oriented growth. No correlation between the annealing temperature and the crystal orientation is observed. Detailed analysis reveals that the layer-exchange kinetics are dominated by “supply-limited” processing, i.e., diffusion of Si atoms into Al layers through Al-oxide layer. Based on the growth rate dependent Si concentration profiles in Al layers, and the free-energy of Si at Al-oxide/Al or Al/SiO{sub 2} interfaces, a comprehensive model for layer-exchange growth is proposed. This well explains the experimental results of not only Si-AIC but also another material system such as gold-induced crystallization of Ge. In this way, a growth technique achieving the orientation-controlled Si crystals on insulating substrates is established from both technological and scientific points of view.

  20. Hormone symphony during root growth and development.

    PubMed

    Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; De La Paz Sánchez, María; García-Ponce, Berenice; Azpeitia, Eugenio; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R

    2012-12-01

    Hormones regulate plant growth and development in response to external environmental stimuli via complex signal transduction pathways, which in turn form complex networks of interaction. Several classes of hormones have been reported, and their activity depends on their biosynthesis, transport, conjugation, accumulation in the vacuole, and degradation. However, the activity of a given hormone is also dependent on its interaction with other hormones. Indeed, there is a complex crosstalk between hormones that regulates their biosynthesis, transport, and/or signaling functionality, although some hormones have overlapping or opposite functions. The plant root is a particularly useful system in which to study the complex role of plant hormones in the plastic control of plant development. Physiological, cellular, and molecular genetic approaches have been used to study the role of plant hormones in root meristem homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent findings on the synthesis, signaling, transport of hormones and role during root development and examine the role of hormone crosstalk in maintaining homeostasis in the apical root meristem.

  1. MES Buffer Affects Arabidopsis Root Apex Zonation and Root Growth by Suppressing Superoxide Generation in Root Apex

    PubMed Central

    Kagenishi, Tomoko; Yokawa, Ken; Baluška, František

    2016-01-01

    In plants, growth of roots and root hairs is regulated by the fine cellular control of pH and reactive oxygen species (ROS). MES, 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid as one of the Good’s buffers has broadly been used for buffering medium, and it is thought to suit for plant growth with the concentration at 0.1% (w/v) because the buffer capacity of MES ranging pH 5.5–7.0 (for Arabidopsis, pH 5.8). However, many reports have shown that, in nature, roots require different pH values on the surface of specific root apex zones, namely meristem, transition zone, and elongation zone. Despite the fact that roots always grow on a media containing buffer molecule, little is known about impact of MES on root growth. Here, we have checked the effects of different concentrations of MES buffer using growing roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results show that 1% of MES significantly inhibited root growth, the number of root hairs and length of meristem, whereas 0.1% promoted root growth and root apex area (region spanning from the root tip up to the transition zone). Furthermore, superoxide generation in root apex disappeared at 1% of MES. These results suggest that MES disturbs normal root morphogenesis by changing the ROS homeostasis in root apex. PMID:26925066

  2. Functional genomics of root growth and development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali; Simpson, June; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Benfey, Philip N

    2009-04-01

    Roots are vital for the uptake of water and nutrients, and for anchorage in the soil. They are highly plastic, able to adapt developmentally and physiologically to changing environmental conditions. Understanding the molecular mechanisms behind this growth and development requires knowledge of root transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Genomics approaches, including the recent publication of a root expression map, root proteome, and environment-specific root expression studies, are uncovering complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional networks underlying root development. The challenge is in further capitalizing on the information in these datasets to understand the fundamental principles of root growth and development. In this review, we highlight progress researchers have made toward this goal.

  3. Effects of glycoalkaloids from Solanum plants on cucumber root growth.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fang; Li, Shengyu; He, Dajun; Cao, Gang; Ni, Xiuzhen; Tai, Guihua; Zhou, Yifa; Wang, Deli

    2010-09-01

    The phytotoxic effect of four glycoalkaloids and two 6-O-sulfated glycoalkaloid derivatives were evaluated by testing their inhibition of cucumber root growth. The bioassays were performed using both compounds singly and in equimolar mixtures, respectively. Cucumber root growth was reduced by chaconine (C), solanine (S), solamargine (SM) and solasonine (SS) with IC(50) values of 260 (C), 380 (S), 530 (SM), and 610 microM (SS). The inhibitory effect was concentration-dependent. 6-O-sulfated chaconine and 6-O-sulfated solamargine had no inhibitory effects, which indicated that the carbohydrate moieties play an important role in inhibiting cucumber root growth. The equimolar mixtures of paired glycoalkaloids, both chaconine/solanine and solamargine/solasonine, produced synergistic effects on inhibition of cucumber root growth. By contrast, mixtures of unpaired glycoalkaloids from different plants had no obviously synergistic effects. The growth inhibited plant roots lacked hairs, which implied that inhibition was perhaps at the level of root hair growth.

  4. Determinate Root Growth and Meristem Maintenance in Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Shishkova, S.; Rost, T. L.; Dubrovsky, J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Background The difference between indeterminate and determinate growth in plants consists of the presence or absence of an active meristem in the fully developed organ. Determinate root growth implies that the root apical meristem (RAM) becomes exhausted. As a consequence, all cells in the root tip differentiate. This type of growth is widely found in roots of many angiosperm taxa and might have evolved as a developmental adaptation to water deficit (in desert Cactaceae), or low mineral content in the soil (proteoid roots in various taxa). Scope and Conclusions This review considers the mechanisms of determinate root growth to better understand how the RAM is maintained, how it functions, and the cellular and genetic bases of these processes. The role of the quiescent centre in RAM maintenance and exhaustion will be analysed. During root ageing, the RAM becomes smaller and its organization changes; however, it remains unknown whether every root is truly determinate in the sense that its RAM becomes exhausted before senescence. We define two types of determinate growth: constitutive where determinacy is a natural part of root development; and non-constitutive where determinacy is induced usually by an environmental factor. Determinate root growth is proposed to include two phases: the indeterminate growth phase, when the RAM continuously produces new cells; and the termination growth phase, when cell production gradually decreases and eventually ceases. Finally, new concepts regarding stem cells and a stem cell niche are discussed to help comprehend how the meristem is maintained in a broad taxonomic context. PMID:17954472

  5. [Effects nutrients on the seedlings root hair development and root growth of Poncirus trifoliata under hydroponics condition].

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiu; Xia, Ren-Xue; Zhang, De-Jian; Shu, Bo

    2013-06-01

    Ahydroponics experiment was conducted to study the effects of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn) deficiency on the length of primary root, the number of lateral roots, and the root hair density, length, and diameter on the primary root and lateral roots of Poncirus trifoliata seedlings. Under the deficiency of each test nutrient, root hair could generate, but was mainly concentrated on the root base and fewer on the root tip. The root hair density on lateral roots was significantly larger than that on primary root, but the root hair length was in adverse. The deficiency of each test nutrient had greater effects on the growth and development of root hairs, with the root hair density on primary root varied from 55.0 to 174.3 mm(-2). As compared with the control, Ca deficiency induced the significant increase of root hair density and length on primary root, P deficiency promoted the root hair density and length on the base and middle part of primary root and on the lateral roots significantly, Fe deficiency increased the root hair density but decreased the root hair length on the tip of primary root significantly, K deficiency significantly decreased the root hair density, length, and diameter on primary root and lateral roots, whereas Mg deficiency increased the root hair length of primary root significantly. In all treatments of nutrient deficiency, the primary root had the similar growth rate, but, with the exceptions of N and Mg deficiency, the lateral roots exhibited shedding and regeneration.

  6. Phenotyping jasmonate regulation of root growth.

    PubMed

    Kellermeier, Fabian; Amtmann, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Root architecture is a complex and highly plastic feature of higher plants. Direct treatments with jasmonates and alterations in jasmonate signaling have been shown to elicit a range of root phenotypes. Here, we describe a fast, noninvasive, and semiautomatic method to monitor root architectural responses to environmental stimuli using plant tissue culture and the software tool EZ-RHIZO.

  7. A Simple Device to Measure Root Growth Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauser, Wilfried E.; Horton, Roger F.

    1975-01-01

    Describes construction and use of a simple auxanometer which students can use to accurately measure root growth rates of intact seedlings. Typical time course data are presented for the effect of ethylene and indole acetic acid on pea root growth. (Author/BR)

  8. Melatonin promotes seminal root elongation and root growth in transgenic rice after germination.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangkyu; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2012-11-01

    The effect of melatonin on root growth after germination was examined in transgenic rice seedlings expressing sheep serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT). Enhanced melatonin levels were found in T(3) homozygous seedlings because of the ectopic overexpression of sheep NAT, which is believed to be the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis in animals. Compared with wild-type rice seeds, the transgenic rice seeds showed enhanced seminal root growth and an analogous number of adventitious roots 4 and 10 days after seeding on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium. The enhanced initial seminal root growth in the transgenic seedlings matched their increased root biomass well. We also found that treatment with 0.5 and 1 μM melatonin promoted seminal root growth of the wild type under continuous light. These results indicate that melatonin plays an important role in regulating both seminal root length and root growth after germination in monocotyledonous rice plants. This is the first report on the effects of melatonin on root growth in gain-of-function mutant plants that produce high levels of melatonin.

  9. Differential growth and hormone redistribution in gravireacting maize roots.

    PubMed

    Pilet, P E

    1989-01-01

    When growing roots are placed in a horizontal position gravity induces a positive curvature. It is classically considered to be the consequence of a faster elongation rate by the upper side compared to the lower side. A critical examination indicates that the gravireaction is caused by differential cell extension depending on several processes. Some of the endogenous regulators which may control the growth and gravitropism of elongating roots are briefly presented. The growth inhibitors produced or released from the root cap move preferentially in a basipetal direction and accumulate in the lower side of the elongation zone of horizontally maintained roots. The identity of these compounds is far from clear, but one of these inhibitors could be abscisic acid (ABA). However, indol-3y1 acetic acid (IAA) is also important for root growth and gravitropism. ABA may interact with IAA. Two other aspects of root cell extension have also to be carefully considered. An elongation gradient measured from the tip to the base of the root was found to be important for the growth of both vertical and horizontal gravireactive roots. It was changed significantly during the gravipresentation and can be considered as the origin of the differential elongation. Sephadex beads have been used as both growth markers and as monitors of surface pH changes when they contain some pH indicator. This technique has shown that the distribution of cell extension along the main root axis is related to a pH gradient, the proton efflux being larger for faster growing parts of roots. A lateral movement of calcium is obtained when Ca2+ is applied across the tips of horizontally placed roots with a preferential transport towards the lower side. Endogenous calcium, which may accumulate inside the endoplasmic reticulum of some cap cells, may also act in the gravireception. These observations and several others strongly suggest that calcium may play an essential role in controlling root growth and several

  10. Root growth, secondary root formation and root gravitropism in carotenoid-deficient seedlings of Zea mays L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Y. K.; Moore, R.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of ABA on root growth, secondary-root formation and root gravitropism in seedlings of Zea mays was investigated by using Fluridone-treated seedlings and a viviparous mutant, both of which lack carotenoids and ABA. Primary roots of seedlings grown in the presence of Fluridone grew significantly slower than those of control (i.e. untreated) roots. Elongation of Fluridone-treated roots was inhibited significantly by the exogenous application of 1 mM ABA. Exogenous application of 1 micromole and 1 nmole ABA had either no effect or only a slight stimulatory effect on root elongation, depending on the method of application. The absence of ABA in Fluridone-treated plants was not an important factor in secondary-root formation in seedlings less than 9-10 d old. However, ABA may suppress secondary-root formation in older seedlings, since 11-d-old control seedlings had significantly fewer secondary roots than Fluridone-treated seedlings. Roots of Fluridone-treated and control seedlings were graviresponsive. Similar data were obtained for vp-9 mutants of Z. mays, which are phenotypically identical to Fluridone-treated seedlings. These results indicate that ABA is necessary for neither secondary-root formation nor for positive gravitropism by primary roots.

  11. Plant development in space: Observations on root formation and growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, H. G.; Kann, R. P.; Krikorian, Abraham D.

    1990-01-01

    Root growth in space is discussed and observations on root production from plants flown as part of the Chromex project that were defined as to their origin, stage of development and physiological status, are presented. Roots were generated from fully differentiated, aseptically maintained individuals of Haplopappus gracilis (Compositae) under spaceflight conditions. Results are compared for tissue culture generated plantlets and comparably sized seedling clone individuals, both of which had their roots trimmed on Earth before they were loaded into NASA's plant growth unit and subjected to a 5 day shuttle flight (STS-29). Asepsis was maintained throughout the experiment. Overall root production was 40 to 50 percent greater under spaceflight conditions than during ground control tests. However, root formation slowed down towards the end of the flight. This decrease in new roots did not occur in the ground controls that sought to simulate flight except for microgravity.

  12. Cytokinin and growth of excised roots of Bryophyllum calycinum.

    PubMed

    Robbins, W J; Hervey, A

    1971-02-01

    Excised roots of Bryophyllum calycinum require for growth both auxin and cytokinin. This is demonstrated by the poor growth of 2-mm root tips in a basal medium of mineral salts, sucrose, and vitamins supplemented with either an auxin or a cytokinin, and much better growth when the basal medium is supplemented with both auxin and cytokinin. However, both substances are synthesized by the root, as is demonstrated by the growth of large inocula (dry wt 6-7 mg) through many successive passages in a medium limited to mineral salts, sugar, and vitamins.

  13. Cytokinin and Growth of Excised Roots of Bryophyllum calycinum

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, William J.; Hervery, Annette

    1971-01-01

    Excised roots of Bryophyllum calycinum require for growth both auxin and cytokinin. This is demonstrated by the poor growth of 2-mm root tips in a basal medium of mineral salts, sucrose, and vitamins supplemented with either an auxin or a cytokinin, and much better growth when the basal medium is supplemented with both auxin and cytokinin. However, both substances are synthesized by the root, as is demonstrated by the growth of large inocula (dry wt 6-7 mg) through many successive passages in a medium limited to mineral salts, sugar, and vitamins. Images PMID:5277083

  14. Ozone decreases spring root growth and root carbohydrate content in ponderosa pine the year following exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, C.P.; Hogsett, W.E.; Wessling, R.; Plocher, M.

    1991-01-01

    Storage carbohydrates are extremely important for new shoot and root development following dormancy or during periods of high stress. The hypothesis that ozone decreases carbohydrate storage and decreases new root growth during the year following exposure was investigated. The results suggest that (1) ponderosa pine seedlings exposed to 122 and 169 ppm hrs ozone for one season have significantly less root starch reserves available just prior to and during bud break the following year, and (2) spring root growth is decreased following ozone exposure. The carry-over effects of ozone stress may be important in long-lived perennial species which are annually subjected to ozone.

  15. Effects of microgravity on the growth of Lepidium roots.

    PubMed

    Antonsen, F; Johnsson, A

    1998-10-01

    The normal growth dynamics of plant roots is partly controlled by the gravitational force. In order to study the detailed growth behavior in absence of gravity, the growth of Lepidium sativum roots was recorded by time lapse photography at 1h intervals in a Spacelab ESA-experiment (IML-2). Plants were germinated and kept in microgravity during the experiments, while control roots were at 1 g with normal static gravistimulation. Extended image analyses allowed new information to be achieved about movements of all parts of the roots, extending earlier published results. Root contours were extracted from the images and divided into 0.6mm segments. Deviation angles were calculated for each root segment, both for the first 8-10 h (phase I) and for the last 6-8 h of the experiment (phase II). For phase I, the present analysis confirmed that the average square deviation increased linearly with time for roots in microgravity, while for roots under 1 g conditions it stayed constant. This was consistent with a random walk hypothesis for the bending pattern. In phase II, roots in microgravity stopped their spontaneous curvatures and showed more straight growth or even diminished the root curvatures that had occurred during phase I. Thus, the growth is distinctly different in the two phases and is thought to be controlled by autotropic reactions in phase II. Root hairs developed when the roots passed into phase II. During phase I, the root growth rates were equal in microgravity and on the ground (0.50 mm h-1 with SE 0.04 and 0.51 mm h-1 with SE 0.03, respectively). In phase II the growth rate on the ground was higher than in microgravity (1.44 mm h-1 with SE 0.10 and 1.07 mm h-1 with SE 0.04 in microgravity). Microgravity conditions, therefore, clearly affect Lepidium root growth: In phase I the bending pattern is random in contrast to the normal straight growth under 1g. In phase II the growth rate is reduced, as compared to the growth rate under 1 g.

  16. Exogenous nitrate induces root branching and inhibits primary root growth in Capsicum chinense Jacq.

    PubMed

    Celis-Arámburo, Teresita de Jesús; Carrillo-Pech, Mildred; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Miranda-Ham, María de Lourdes; Martínez-Estévez, Manuel; Echevarría-Machado, Ileana

    2011-12-01

    The effects of nitrate (NO₃⁻) on the root system are complex and depend on several factors, such as the concentration available to the plant, endogenous nitrogen status and the sensitivity of the species. Though these effects have been widely documented on Arabidopsis and cereals, no reports are available in the Capsicum genus. In this paper, we have determined the effect of an exogenous in vitro application of this nutrient on root growth in habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.). Exposure to NO₃⁻ inhibited primary root growth in both, dose- and time-dependent manners. The highest inhibition was attained with 0.1 mM NO₃⁻ between the fourth and fifth days of treatment. Inhibition of primary root growth was observed by exposing the root to both homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions of the nutrient; in contrast, ammonium was not able to induce similar changes. NO₃⁻-induced inhibition of primary root growth was reversed by treating the roots with IAA or NPA, a polar auxin transport inhibitor. Heterogeneous NO₃⁻ application stimulated the formation and elongation of lateral roots in the segment where the nutrient was present, and this response was influenced by exogenous phytohormones. These results demonstrate that habanero pepper responds to NO₃⁻ in a similar fashion to other species with certain particular differences. Therefore, studies in this model could help to elucidate the mechanisms by which roots respond to NO₃⁻ in fluctuating soil environments.

  17. Root growth during molar eruption in extant great apes.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Jay; Dean, Christopher; Ross, Sasha

    2009-01-01

    While there is gradually accumulating knowledge about molar crown formation and the timing of molar eruption in extant great apes, very little is known about root formation during the eruption process. We measured mandibular first and second molar root lengths in extant great ape osteological specimens that died while either the first or second molars were in the process of erupting. For most specimens, teeth were removed so that root lengths could be measured directly. When this was not possible, roots were measured radiographically. We were particularly interested in the variation in the lengths of first molar roots near the point of gingival emergence, so specimens were divided into early, middle and late phases of eruption based on the number of cusps that showed protein staining, with one or two cusps stained equated with immediate post-gingival emergence. For first molars at this stage, Gorilla has the longest roots, followed by Pongo and Pan. Variation in first molar mesial root lengths at this stage in Gorilla and Pan, which comprise the largest samples, is relatively low and represents no more than a few months of growth in both taxa. Knowledge of root length at first molar emergence permits an assessment of the contribution of root growth toward differences between great apes and humans in the age at first molar emergence. Root growth makes up a greater percentage of the time between birth and first molar emergence in humans than it does in any of the great apes.

  18. Growth, nitrogen uptake and flow in maize plants affected by root growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liangzheng; Niu, Junfang; Li, Chunjian; Zhang, Fusuo

    2009-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of a reduced maize root-system size on root growth and nitrogen (N) uptake and flow within plants. Restriction of shoot-borne root growth caused a strong decrease in the absorption of root: shoot dry weight ratio and a reduction in shoot growth. On the other hand, compensatory growth and an increased N uptake rate in the remaining roots were observed. Despite the limited long-distance transport pathway in the mesocotyl with restriction of shoot-borne root growth, N cycling within these plants was higher than those in control plants, implying that xylem and phloem flow velocities via the mesocotyl were considerably higher than in plants with an intact root system. The removal of the seminal roots in addition to restricting shoot-borne root development did not affect whole plant growth and N uptake, except for the stronger compensatory growth of the primary roots. Our results suggest that an adequate N supply to maize plant is maintained by compensatory growth of the remaining roots, increased N uptake rate and flow velocities within the xylem and phloem via the mesocotyl, and reduction in the shoot growth rate.

  19. Jatropha curcas L. Root Structure and Growth in Diverse Soils

    PubMed Central

    Valdés-Rodríguez, Ofelia Andrea; Sánchez-Sánchez, Odilón; Pérez-Vázquez, Arturo; Caplan, Joshua S.; Danjon, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Unlike most biofuel species, Jatropha curcas has promise for use in marginal lands, but it may serve an additional role by stabilizing soils. We evaluated the growth and structural responsiveness of young J. curcas plants to diverse soil conditions. Soils included a sand, a sandy-loam, and a clay-loam from eastern Mexico. Growth and structural parameters were analyzed for shoots and roots, although the focus was the plasticity of the primary root system architecture (the taproot and four lateral roots). The sandy soil reduced the growth of both shoot and root systems significantly more than sandy-loam or clay-loam soils; there was particularly high plasticity in root and shoot thickness, as well as shoot length. However, the architecture of the primary root system did not vary with soil type; the departure of the primary root system from an index of perfect symmetry was 14 ± 5% (mean ± standard deviation). Although J. curcas developed more extensively in the sandy-loam and clay-loam soils than in sandy soil, it maintained a consistent root to shoot ratio and root system architecture across all types of soil. This strong genetic determination would make the species useful for soil stabilization purposes, even while being cultivated primarily for seed oil. PMID:23844412

  20. Root growth dynamics linked to above-ground growth in walnut (Juglans regia)

    PubMed Central

    Contador, Maria Loreto; Comas, Louise H.; Metcalf, Samuel G.; Stewart, William L.; Porris Gomez, Ignacio; Negron, Claudia; Lampinen, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Examination of plant growth below ground is relatively scant compared with that above ground, and is needed to understand whole-plant responses to the environment. This study examines whether the seasonal timing of fine root growth and the spatial distribution of this growth through the soil profile varies in response to canopy manipulation and soil temperature. Methods Plasticity in the seasonal timing and vertical distribution of root production in response to canopy and soil water manipulation was analysed in field-grown walnut (Juglans regia ‘Chandler’) using minirhizotron techniques. Key Results Root production in walnuts followed a unimodal curve, with one marked flush of root growth starting in mid-May, with a peak in mid-June. Root production declined later in the season, corresponding to increased soil temperature, as well as to the period of major carbohydrate allocation to reproduction. Canopy and soil moisture manipulation did not influence the timing of root production, but did influence the vertical distribution of roots through the soil profile. Water deficit appeared to promote root production in deeper soil layers for mining soil water. Canopy removal appeared to promote shallow root production. Conclusions The findings of this study add to growing evidence that root growth in many ecosystems follows a unimodal curve with one marked flush of root growth in coordination with the initial leaf flush of the season. Root vertical distribution appeared to have greater plasticity than timing of root production in this system, with temperature and/or carbohydrate competition constraining the timing of root growth. Effects on root distribution can have serious impacts on trees, with shallow rooting having negative impacts in years with limited soil water or positive impacts in years with wet springs, and deep rooting having positive impacts on soil water mining from deeper soil layers but negative impacts in years with wet springs

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana root growth kinetics and lunisolar tidal acceleration.

    PubMed

    Fisahn, Joachim; Yazdanbakhsh, Nima; Klingele, Emile; Barlow, Peter

    2012-07-01

    • All living organisms on Earth are continually exposed to diurnal variations in the gravitational tidal force due to the Sun and Moon. • Elongation of primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings maintained at a constant temperature was monitored for periods of up to 14 d using high temporal- and spatial-resolution video imaging. The time-course of the half-hourly elongation rates exhibited an oscillation which was maintained when the roots were placed in the free-running condition of continuous illumination. • Correlation between the root growth kinetics collected from seedlings initially raised under several light protocols but whose roots were subsequently in the free-running condition and the lunisolar tidal profiles enabled us to identify that the latter is the probable exogenous determinant of the rhythmic variation in root elongation rate. Similar observations and correlations using roots of Arabidopsis starch mutants suggest a central function of starch metabolism in the response to the lunisolar tide. The periodicity of the lunisolar tidal signal and the concomitant adjustments in root growth rate indicate that an exogenous timer exists for the modulation of root growth and development. • We propose that, in addition to the sensitivity to Earthly 1G gravity, which is inherent to all animals and plants, there is another type of responsiveness which is attuned to the natural diurnal variations of the lunisolar tidal force.

  2. Growth and development of the root apical meristem.

    PubMed

    Perilli, Serena; Di Mambro, Riccardo; Sabatini, Sabrina

    2012-02-01

    A key question in plant developmental biology is how cell division and cell differentiation are balanced to modulate organ growth and shape organ size. In recent years, several advances have been made in understanding how this balance is achieved during root development. In the Arabidopsis root meristem, stem cells in the apical region of the meristem self-renew and produce daughter cells that differentiate in the distal meristem transition zone. Several factors have been implicated in controlling the different functional zones of the root meristem to modulate root growth; among these, plant hormones have been shown to play a main role. In this review, we summarize recent findings regarding the role of hormone signaling and transcriptional networks in regulating root development.

  3. Root growth and development in response to CO2 enrichment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Frank P., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A non-destructive technique (minirhizotron observation tubes) was used to assess the effects of CO2 enrichment on root growth and development in experimental plots in a scrub oak-palmetto community at the Kennedy Space Center. Potential effects of CO2 enrichment on plants have a global significance in light of concerns over increasing CO2 concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere. The study at Kennedy Space Center focused on aboveground physiological responses (photosynthetic efficiency and water use efficiency), effects on process rates (litter decomposition and nutrient turnover), and belowground responses of the plants. Belowground dynamics are an exceptionally important component of total plant response but are frequently ignored due to methodological difficulties. Most methods used to examine root growth and development are destructive and, therefore, severely compromise results. Minirhizotrons allow nondestructive observation and quantification of the same soil volume and roots through time. Root length density and root phenology were evaluated for CO2 effects with this nondestructive technique.

  4. Genetic improvement for root growth angle to enhance crop production

    PubMed Central

    Uga, Yusaku; Kitomi, Yuka; Ishikawa, Satoru; Yano, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    The root system is an essential organ for taking up water and nutrients and anchoring shoots to the ground. On the other hand, the root system has rarely been regarded as breeding target, possibly because it is more laborious and time-consuming to evaluate roots (which require excavation) in a large number of plants than aboveground tissues. The root growth angle (RGA), which determines the direction of root elongation in the soil, affects the area in which roots capture water and nutrients. In this review, we describe the significance of RGA as a potential trait to improve crop production, and the physiological and molecular mechanisms that regulate RGA. We discuss the prospects for breeding to improve RGA based on current knowledge of quantitative trait loci for RGA in rice. PMID:26069440

  5. High-throughput phenotyping of root growth dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yazdanbakhsh, Nima; Fisahn, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Plant organ phenotyping by noninvasive video imaging techniques provides a powerful tool to assess physiological traits, circadian and diurnal rhythms, and biomass production. In particular, growth of individual plant organs is known to exhibit a high plasticity and occurs as a result of the interaction between various endogenous and environmental processes. Thus, any investigation aiming to unravel mechanisms that determine plant or organ growth has to accurately control and document the environmental growth conditions. Here we describe challenges in establishing a recently developed plant root monitoring platform (PlaRoM) specially suited for noninvasive high-throughput plant growth analysis with highest emphasis on the detailed documentation of capture time, as well as light and temperature conditions. Furthermore, we discuss the experimental procedure for measuring root elongation kinetics and key points that must be considered in such measurements. PlaRoM consists of a robotized imaging platform enclosed in a custom designed phytochamber and a root extension profiling software application. This platform has been developed for multi-parallel recordings of root growth phenotypes of up to 50 individual seedlings over several days, with high spatial and temporal resolution. Two Petri dishes are mounted on a vertical sample stage in a custom designed phytochamber that provides exact temperature control. A computer-controlled positioning unit moves these Petri dishes in small increments and enables continuous screening of the surface under a binocular microscope. Detection of the root tip is achieved by applying thresholds on image pixel data and verifying the neighbourhood for each dark pixel. The growth parameters are visualized as position over time or growth rate over time graphs and averaged over consecutive days, light-dark periods and 24 h day periods. This setup enables the investigation of root extension profiles of different genotypes in various growth

  6. Helical growth trajectories in plant roots interacting with stiff barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbode, Sharon; Noar, Roslyn; Harrison, Maria

    2009-03-01

    Plant roots successfully navigate heterogeneous soil environments with varying nutrient and water concentrations, as well as a variety of stiff obstacles. While it is thought that the ability of roots to penetrate into a stiff lower soil layer is important for soil erosion, little is known about how a root actually responds to a rigid interface. We have developed a laser sheet imaging technique for recording the 3D growth dynamics of plant roots interacting with stiff barriers. We find that a root encountering an angled interface does not grow in a straight line along the surface, but instead follows a helical trajectory. These experiments build on the pioneering studies of roots grown on a tilted 2D surface, which reported ``root waving,'' a similar curved pattern thought to be caused by the root's sensitivity to both gravity and the rigid surface on which it is grown. Our measurements extend these results to the more physiologically relevant case of 3D growth, where the spiral trajectory can be altered by tuning the relative strengths of the gravity and touch stimuli, providing some intuition for the physical mechanism driving it.

  7. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and root system functioning

    PubMed Central

    Vacheron, Jordan; Desbrosses, Guilhem; Bouffaud, Marie-Lara; Touraine, Bruno; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Muller, Daniel; Legendre, Laurent; Wisniewski-Dyé, Florence; Prigent-Combaret, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The rhizosphere supports the development and activity of a huge and diversified microbial community, including microorganisms capable to promote plant growth. Among the latter, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) colonize roots of monocots and dicots, and enhance plant growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. Modification of root system architecture by PGPR implicates the production of phytohormones and other signals that lead, mostly, to enhanced lateral root branching and development of root hairs. PGPR also modify root functioning, improve plant nutrition and influence the physiology of the whole plant. Recent results provided first clues as to how PGPR signals could trigger these plant responses. Whether local and/or systemic, the plant molecular pathways involved remain often unknown. From an ecological point of view, it emerged that PGPR form coherent functional groups, whose rhizosphere ecology is influenced by a myriad of abiotic and biotic factors in natural and agricultural soils, and these factors can in turn modulate PGPR effects on roots. In this paper, we address novel knowledge and gaps on PGPR modes of action and signals, and highlight recent progress on the links between plant morphological and physiological effects induced by PGPR. We also show the importance of taking into account the size, diversity, and gene expression patterns of PGPR assemblages in the rhizosphere to better understand their impact on plant growth and functioning. Integrating mechanistic and ecological knowledge on PGPR populations in soil will be a prerequisite to develop novel management strategies for sustainable agriculture. PMID:24062756

  8. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and root system functioning.

    PubMed

    Vacheron, Jordan; Desbrosses, Guilhem; Bouffaud, Marie-Lara; Touraine, Bruno; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Muller, Daniel; Legendre, Laurent; Wisniewski-Dyé, Florence; Prigent-Combaret, Claire

    2013-09-17

    The rhizosphere supports the development and activity of a huge and diversified microbial community, including microorganisms capable to promote plant growth. Among the latter, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) colonize roots of monocots and dicots, and enhance plant growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. Modification of root system architecture by PGPR implicates the production of phytohormones and other signals that lead, mostly, to enhanced lateral root branching and development of root hairs. PGPR also modify root functioning, improve plant nutrition and influence the physiology of the whole plant. Recent results provided first clues as to how PGPR signals could trigger these plant responses. Whether local and/or systemic, the plant molecular pathways involved remain often unknown. From an ecological point of view, it emerged that PGPR form coherent functional groups, whose rhizosphere ecology is influenced by a myriad of abiotic and biotic factors in natural and agricultural soils, and these factors can in turn modulate PGPR effects on roots. In this paper, we address novel knowledge and gaps on PGPR modes of action and signals, and highlight recent progress on the links between plant morphological and physiological effects induced by PGPR. We also show the importance of taking into account the size, diversity, and gene expression patterns of PGPR assemblages in the rhizosphere to better understand their impact on plant growth and functioning. Integrating mechanistic and ecological knowledge on PGPR populations in soil will be a prerequisite to develop novel management strategies for sustainable agriculture.

  9. Physical effects of soil drying on roots and crop growth.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Andrew P; Whalley, W Richard

    2009-01-01

    The nature and effect of the stresses on root growth in crops subject to drying is reviewed. Drought is a complex stress, impacting on plant growth in a number of interacting ways. In response, there are a number of ways in which the growing plant is able to adapt to or alleviate these stresses. It is suggested that the most significant opportunity for progress in overcoming drought stress and increasing crop yields is to understand and exploit the conditions in soil by which plant roots are able to maximize their use of resources. This may not be straightforward, with multiple stresses, sometimes competing functions of roots, and conditions which impact upon roots very differently depending upon what soil, what depth or what stage of growth the root is at. Several processes and the interaction between these processes in soil have been neglected. It is our view that drought is not a single, simple stress and that agronomic practice which seeks to adapt to climate change must take account of the multiple facets of both the stress induced by insufficient water as well as other interacting stresses such as heat, disease, soil strength, low nutrient status, and even hypoxia. The potential for adaptation is probably large, however. The possible changes in stress as a result of the climate change expected under UK conditions are assessed and it appears possible that wet warm winters will impact on root growth as much if not more than dry warm summers.

  10. Correlations between polyamine ratios and growth patterns in seedling roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, H. J.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    The levels of putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine were determined in seedling roots of pea, tomato, millet and corn, as well as in corn coleoptiles and pea internodes. In all roots, putrescine content increased as elongation progressed, and the putrescine/spermine ratio closely paralleled the sigmoid growth curve up until the time of lateral root initiation. Spermidine and spermine were most abundant near the apices and declined progressively with increasing age of the cells. In the zone of differentiation of root hairs in pea roots, putrescine rose progressively with increasing age, while cadaverine declined. In both pea internodes and corn coleoptiles, the putrescine/spermidine ratio rises with increasing age and elongation. Thus, a block in the conversion of the diamine putrescine to the triamine spermidine may be an important step in the change from cell division to cell elongation.

  11. Phenotypic analysis of Arabidopsis mutants: quantitative analysis of root growth.

    PubMed

    Doerner, Peter

    2008-03-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe growth of plant roots is very easy to measure and is particularly straightforward in Arabidopsis thaliana, because the increase in organ size is essentially restricted to one dimension. The precise measurement of root apical growth can be used to accurately determine growth activity (the rate of growth at a given time) during development in mutants, transgenic backgrounds, or in response to experimental treatments. Root growth is measured in a number of ways, the simplest of which is to grow the seedlings in a Petri dish and record the position of the advancing root tip at appropriate time points. The increase in root length is measured with a ruler and the data are entered into Microsoft Excel for analysis. When dealing with large numbers of seedlings, however, this procedure can be tedious, as well as inaccurate. An alternative approach, described in this protocol, uses "snapshots" of the growing plants, which are taken using gel-documentation equipment (i.e., a video camera with a frame-grabber unit, now commonly used to capture images from ethidium-bromide-stained electrophoresis gels). The images are analyzed using publicly available software (NIH-Image), which allows the user simply to cut and paste data into Microsoft Excel.

  12. Arabidopsis alcohol dehydrogenase expression in both shoots and roots is conditioned by root growth environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, H. J.; Ferl, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the Arabidopsis Adh (alcohol dehydrogenase) gene is constitutively expressed at low levels in the roots of young plants grown on agar media, and that the expression level is greatly induced by anoxic or hypoxic stresses. We questioned whether the agar medium itself created an anaerobic environment for the roots upon their growing into the gel. beta-Glucuronidase (GUS) expression driven by the Adh promoter was examined by growing transgenic Arabidopsis plants in different growing systems. Whereas roots grown on horizontal-positioned plates showed high Adh/GUS expression levels, roots from vertical-positioned plates had no Adh/GUS expression. Additional results indicate that growth on vertical plates closely mimics the Adh/GUS expression observed for soil-grown seedlings, and that growth on horizontal plates results in induction of high Adh/GUS expression that is consistent with hypoxic or anoxic conditions within the agar of the root zone. Adh/GUS expression in the shoot apex is also highly induced by root penetration of the agar medium. This induction of Adh/GUS in shoot apex and roots is due, at least in part, to mechanisms involving Ca2+ signal transduction.

  13. AUXIN AND GROWTH OF EXCISED ROOTS OF Bryophyllum calycinum

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, William J.; Hervey, Annette

    1969-01-01

    Exogenous auxin (α-naphthalene acetic acid, indole acetic acid, or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) was essential for the growth of single excised root tips of Bryophyllum calycinum in 50 ml of a mineral salt-sucrose medium supplemented with vitamins. Large inocula with a dry weight of 2.0 mg or more grew with no auxin added to the medium. Evidence for the synthesis of auxin by the excised roots grown from the larger inocula is presented. Leaching of auxin from single root tips cultivated in 15 or 50 ml of basal medium is considered to account for their failure to grow. Images PMID:16591793

  14. AUXIN AND GROWTH OF EXCISED ROOTS OF Bryophyllum calycinum.

    PubMed

    Robbins, W J; Hervey, A

    1969-10-01

    Exogenous auxin (alpha-naphthalene acetic acid, indole acetic acid, or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) was essential for the growth of single excised root tips of Bryophyllum calycinum in 50 ml of a mineral salt-sucrose medium supplemented with vitamins. Large inocula with a dry weight of 2.0 mg or more grew with no auxin added to the medium. Evidence for the synthesis of auxin by the excised roots grown from the larger inocula is presented. Leaching of auxin from single root tips cultivated in 15 or 50 ml of basal medium is considered to account for their failure to grow.

  15. Tungsten disrupts root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana by PIN targeting.

    PubMed

    Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S; Panteris, Emmanuel; Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P

    2014-08-15

    Tungsten is a heavy metal with increasing concern over its environmental impact. In plants it is extensively used to deplete nitric oxide by inhibiting nitrate reductase, but its presumed toxicity as a heavy metal has been less explored. Accordingly, its effects on Arabidopsis thaliana primary root were assessed. The effects on root growth, mitotic cell percentage, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide levels, the cytoskeleton, cell ultrastructure, auxin and cytokinin activity, and auxin carrier distribution were investigated. It was found that tungsten reduced root growth, particularly by inhibiting cell expansion in the elongation zone, so that root hairs emerged closer to the root tip than in the control. Although extensive vacuolation was observed, even in meristematic cells, cell organelles were almost unaffected and microtubules were not depolymerized but reoriented. Tungsten affected auxin and cytokinin activity, as visualized by the DR5-GFP and TCS-GFP expressing lines, respectively. Cytokinin fluctuations were similar to those of the mitotic cell percentage. DR5-GFP signal appeared ectopically expressed, while the signals of PIN2-GFP and PIN3-GFP were diminished even after relatively short exposures. The observed effects were not reminiscent of those of any nitric oxide scavengers. Taken together, inhibition of root growth by tungsten might rather be related to a presumed interference with the basipetal flow of auxin, specifically affecting cell expansion in the elongation zone.

  16. The exploring root--root growth responses to local environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Monshausen, Gabriele B; Gilroy, Simon

    2009-12-01

    Because of their sessile lifestyle, the areas which plants can access to forage for resources are confined to those which can be explored by growth. High sensitivity to environmental conditions coupled to the appropriate readjustment of growth and developmental responses are thus critical to plant survival. In this review, we focus on how roots perceive physical cues such as soil water status and mechanical properties and translate them into physiological signals to redirect organ growth and modulate root system architecture. Because the precise molecular identity of most of the sensors used by the root to sample the soil environment remain to be determined, the mechanisms underlying similar processes in microbes are providing important models for how these receptor systems may be functioning in plants.

  17. Genetic control of root growth: from genes to networks

    PubMed Central

    Slovak, Radka; Ogura, Takehiko; Satbhai, Santosh B.; Ristova, Daniela; Busch, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Background Roots are essential organs for higher plants. They provide the plant with nutrients and water, anchor the plant in the soil, and can serve as energy storage organs. One remarkable feature of roots is that they are able to adjust their growth to changing environments. This adjustment is possible through mechanisms that modulate a diverse set of root traits such as growth rate, diameter, growth direction and lateral root formation. The basis of these traits and their modulation are at the cellular level, where a multitude of genes and gene networks precisely regulate development in time and space and tune it to environmental conditions. Scope This review first describes the root system and then presents fundamental work that has shed light on the basic regulatory principles of root growth and development. It then considers emerging complexities and how they have been addressed using systems-biology approaches, and then describes and argues for a systems-genetics approach. For reasons of simplicity and conciseness, this review is mostly limited to work from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, in which much of the research in root growth regulation at the molecular level has been conducted. Conclusions While forward genetic approaches have identified key regulators and genetic pathways, systems-biology approaches have been successful in shedding light on complex biological processes, for instance molecular mechanisms involving the quantitative interaction of several molecular components, or the interaction of large numbers of genes. However, there are significant limitations in many of these methods for capturing dynamic processes, as well as relating these processes to genotypic and phenotypic variation. The emerging field of systems genetics promises to overcome some of these limitations by linking genotypes to complex phenotypic and molecular data using approaches from different fields, such as genetics, genomics, systems biology and phenomics. PMID

  18. Root growth regulation and gravitropism in maize roots does not require the epidermis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorkman, T.; Cleland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    We have earlier published observations showing that endogenous alterations in growth rate during gravitropism in maize roots (Zea mays L.) are unaffected by the orientation of cuts which remove epidermal and cortical tissue in the growing zone (Bjorkman and Cleland, 1988, Planta 176, 513-518). We concluded that the epidermis and cortex are not essential for transporting a growth-regulating signal in gravitropism or straight growth, nor for regulating the rate of tissue expansion. This conclusion has been challenged by Yang et al. (1990, Planta 180, 530-536), who contend that a shallow girdle around the entire perimeter of the root blocks gravitropic curvature and that this inhibition is the result of a requirement for epidermal cells to transport the growth-regulating signal. In this paper we demonstrate that the entire epidermis can be removed without blocking gravitropic curvature and show that the position of narrow girdles does not affect the location of curvature. We therefore conclude that the epidermis is not required for transport of a growth-regulating substance from the root cap to the growing zone, nor does it regulate the growth rate of the elongating zone of roots.

  19. Regeneration of roots from callus reveals stability of the developmental program for determinate root growth in Sonoran Desert Cactaceae.

    PubMed

    Shishkova, Svetlana; García-Mendoza, Edith; Castillo-Díaz, Vicente; Moreno, Norma E; Arellano, Jesús; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2007-05-01

    In some Sonoran Desert Cactaceae the primary root has a determinate root growth: the cells of the root apical meristem undergo only a few cell division cycles and then differentiate. The determinate growth of primary roots in Cactaceae was found in plants cultivated under various growth conditions, and could not be reverted by any treatment tested. The mechanisms involved in root meristem maintenance and determinate root growth in plants remain poorly understood. In this study, we have shown that roots regenerated from the callus of two Cactaceae species, Stenocereus gummosus and Ferocactus peninsulae, have a determinate growth pattern, similar to that of the primary root. To demonstrate this, a protocol for root regeneration from callus was established. The determinate growth pattern of roots regenerated from callus suggests that the program of root development is very stable in these species. These findings will permit future analysis of the role of certain Cactaceae genes in the determinate pattern of root growth via the regeneration of transgenic roots from transformed calli.

  20. Root growth studies of willow cuttings using Rhizoboxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omarova, Dinara; Lammeranner, Walter; Florineth, Florin

    2014-05-01

    Riparian forests (Tugay forests) in Central Asia (Kazakhstan) play a significant in soil protection. However, unadapted forest use leads to damage and loss of these fragile ecosystems. Willows have a crucial function in the ecosystem of these riparian forests. Willows facilitate the colonization with other important tree species and furthermore they protect the soil from wind and water erosion. To propagate willows and to estimate the beneficial effects of these plants it is important to know the root growth development. The research design is planned as model experiment with rhizoboxes. Rhizoboxes are non-invasive investigation methods which offer the possibility to survey the root system growth dynamics in time and space. A total of 33 rhizoboxes in size of 50cm x 75 cm x 5 cm will be constructed. The rhizoboxes will be tilted by 45 degrees using the gravitropism of the roots. The willow cuttings (Salix purpurea) will be planted in three different soil types. Each test series (growth period) will take three months. Investigated parameters will be root architecture, dynamic of root growth and above and below ground biomass allocation. Data will be drawn from photographic surveys which will be performed once a week. The contribution will present the methodology of these rhizobox investigations.

  1. Root foraging influences plant growth responses to earthworm foraging.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Erin K; Cahill, James F; Bayne, Erin M

    2014-01-01

    Interactions among the foraging behaviours of co-occurring animal species can impact population and community dynamics; the consequences of interactions between plant and animal foraging behaviours have received less attention. In North American forests, invasions by European earthworms have led to substantial changes in plant community composition. Changes in leaf litter have been identified as a critical indirect mechanism driving earthworm impacts on plants. However, there has been limited examination of the direct effects of earthworm burrowing on plant growth. Here we show a novel second pathway exists, whereby earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) impact plant root foraging. In a mini-rhizotron experiment, roots occurred more frequently in burrows and soil cracks than in the soil matrix. The roots of Achillea millefolium L. preferentially occupied earthworm burrows, where nutrient availability was presumably higher than in cracks due to earthworm excreta. In contrast, the roots of Campanula rotundifolia L. were less likely to occur in burrows. This shift in root behaviour was associated with a 30% decline in the overall biomass of C. rotundifolia when earthworms were present. Our results indicate earthworm impacts on plant foraging can occur indirectly via physical and chemical changes to the soil and directly via root consumption or abrasion and thus may be one factor influencing plant growth and community change following earthworm invasion. More generally, this work demonstrates the potential for interactions to occur between the foraging behaviours of plants and soil animals and emphasizes the importance of integrating behavioural understanding in foraging studies involving plants.

  2. Cinnamic Acid Increases Lignin Production and Inhibits Soybean Root Growth

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, Victor Hugo; Lima, Rogério Barbosa; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Böhm, Paulo Alfredo Feitoza; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid is a known allelochemical that affects seed germination and plant root growth and therefore influences several metabolic processes. In the present work, we evaluated its effects on growth, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) oxidase and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) activities and lignin monomer composition in soybean (Glycine max) roots. The results revealed that exogenously applied cinnamic acid inhibited root growth and increased IAA oxidase and C4H activities. The allelochemical increased the total lignin content, thus altering the sum and ratios of the p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S) lignin monomers. When applied alone or with cinnamic acid, piperonylic acid (PIP, a quasi-irreversible inhibitor of C4H) reduced C4H activity, lignin and the H, G, S monomer content compared to the cinnamic acid treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that exogenously applied cinnamic acid can be channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway via the C4H reaction, resulting in an increase in H lignin. In conjunction with enhanced IAA oxidase activity, these metabolic responses lead to the stiffening of the cell wall and are followed by a reduction in soybean root growth. PMID:23922685

  3. Effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on rooting and root growth of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) stem cuttings.

    PubMed

    Erturk, Yasar; Ercisli, Sezai; Haznedar, Ayhan; Cakmakci, Ramazan

    2010-01-01

    The effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on the rooting and root growth of semi-hardwood and hardwood kiwifruit stem cuttings were investigated. The PGPR used were Bacillus RC23, Paenibacillus polymyxa RC05, Bacillus subtilis OSU142, Bacillus RC03, Comamonas acidovorans RC41, Bacillus megaterium RC01 and Bacillus simplex RC19. All the bacteria showed indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) producing capacity. Among the PGPR used, the highest rooting ratios were obtained at 47.50% for semi-hardwood stem cuttings from Bacillus RC03 and Bacillus simplex RC19 treatments and 42.50% for hardwood stem cuttings from Bacillus RC03. As well, Comamonas acidovorans RC41 inoculations indicated higher value than control treatments. The results suggest that these PGPR can be used in organic nursery material production and point to the feasibility of synthetic auxin (IBA) replacement by organic management based on PGPR.

  4. Root Growth Patterns and Morphometric Change Based on the Growth Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Eric R.; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Ferl, Robert J.

    2016-12-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana roots skew with minimal waving in the microgravity environment of the International Space Station. Root skewing and root waving have been studied on the ground as well as in spaceflight, but often using different media types. In this study, Arabidopsis seedlings were grown on nutrient media plates that were comprised of various gelling agents with varied hardness in order to better assess these media for spaceflight research experiments. ImageJ was used to quantify the root morphology of 8-dayold seedlings, while R was used to perform statistical analyses. Root growth was drastically different between Difco agar, agarose, and Phytagel. Additionally, root waving masked skewing in certain media. Regression analysis revealed overall patterns when organized by hardness but also revealed that differences in media type had more of an impact on root growth than hardness itself. Different arrangements of media around the root tip revealed that roots grown on the media surface were longer and had fewer waves per millimeter than roots grown embedded in media. The implications for spaceflight research are discussed.

  5. Postembryonic control of root meristem growth and development.

    PubMed

    Sozzani, Rosangela; Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali

    2014-02-01

    Organ development in multicellular organisms is dependent on the proper balance between cell proliferation and differentiation. In the Arabidopsis root apical meristem, meristem growth is the result of cell divisions in the proximal meristem and cell differentiation in the elongation and differentiation zones. Hormones, transcription factors and small peptides underpin the molecular mechanisms governing these processes. Computer modeling has aided our understanding of the dynamic interactions involved in stem cell maintenance and meristem activity. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of postembryonic root stem cell maintenance and control of meristem size.

  6. Impact of root growth and root hydraulic conductance on water availability of young walnut trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerszurki, Daniela; Couvreur, Valentin; Hopmans, Jan W.; Silva, Lucas C. R.; Shackel, Kenneth A.; de Souza, Jorge L. M.

    2015-04-01

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is a tree species of high economic importance in the Central Valley of California. This crop has particularly high water requirements, which makes it highly dependent on irrigation. The context of decreasing water availability in the state calls for efficient water management practices, which requires improving our understanding of the relationship between water application and walnut water availability. In addition to the soil's hydraulic conductivity, two plant properties are thought to control the supply of water from the bulk soil to the canopy: (i) root distribution and (ii) plant hydraulic conductance. Even though these properties are clearly linked to crop water requirements, their quantitative relation remains unclear. The aim of this study is to quantitatively explain walnut water requirements under water deficit from continuous measurements of its water consumption, soil and stem water potential, root growth and root system hydraulic conductance. For that purpose, a greenhouse experiment was conducted for a two month period. Young walnut trees were planted in transparent cylindrical pots, equipped with: (i) rhizotron tubes, which allowed for non-invasive monitoring of root growth, (ii) pressure transducer tensiometers for soil water potential, (iii) psychrometers attached to non-transpiring leaves for stem water potential, and (iv) weighing scales for plant transpiration. Treatments consisted of different irrigation rates: 100%, 75% and 50% of potential crop evapotranspiration. Plant responses were compared to predictions from three simple process-based soil-plant-atmosphere models of water flow: (i) a hydraulic model of stomatal regulation based on stem water potential and vapor pressure deficit, (ii) a model of plant hydraulics predicting stem water potential from soil-root interfaces water potential, and (iii) a model of soil water depletion predicting the water potential drop between the bulk soil and soil-root interfaces

  7. High-throughput two-dimensional root system phenotyping platform facilitates genetic analysis of root growth and development.

    PubMed

    Clark, Randy T; Famoso, Adam N; Zhao, Keyan; Shaff, Jon E; Craft, Eric J; Bustamante, Carlos D; McCouch, Susan R; Aneshansley, Daniel J; Kochian, Leon V

    2013-02-01

    High-throughput phenotyping of root systems requires a combination of specialized techniques and adaptable plant growth, root imaging and software tools. A custom phenotyping platform was designed to capture images of whole root systems, and novel software tools were developed to process and analyse these images. The platform and its components are adaptable to a wide range root phenotyping studies using diverse growth systems (hydroponics, paper pouches, gel and soil) involving several plant species, including, but not limited to, rice, maize, sorghum, tomato and Arabidopsis. The RootReader2D software tool is free and publicly available and was designed with both user-guided and automated features that increase flexibility and enhance efficiency when measuring root growth traits from specific roots or entire root systems during large-scale phenotyping studies. To demonstrate the unique capabilities and high-throughput capacity of this phenotyping platform for studying root systems, genome-wide association studies on rice (Oryza sativa) and maize (Zea mays) root growth were performed and root traits related to aluminium (Al) tolerance were analysed on the parents of the maize nested association mapping (NAM) population.

  8. Apical control, gravitropic signaling, and the growth of lateral roots in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, Jack L.; Wolverton, Chris; Hangarter, Roger P.

    Most research on gravity responses in plants has focused on primary roots and shoots, which typically grow in a vertical orientation. However, the patterns of lateral organ growth, which generally have large effects on overall plant architecture, are such that the organs are typically not vertical. In lateral roots of Arabidopsis, growth is initially in a nearly horizontal orientation but changes to a near-vertical orientation as the lateral root develops. Although the non-vertical lateral roots are gravitropically competent, following gravitropic reorientation of seedlings, the lateral roots on the upper flank of the primary root have different growth patterns from those on the lower side of the primary root. The differences are in part dependent on reorientation of the primary root, suggesting that gravitropic signaling from the primary root also contributes to the control of lateral root growth. The hormone auxin appears to play a role in this signaling between the primary and lateral roots, as auxin transport inhibitors applied to the primary root affect lateral root growth. Also, lateral roots of pin3 mutants, which are impaired in polar auxin transport, have altered lateral root orientations. However, other signals from the primary root tip also play an important role in regulating lateral root growth.

  9. Root morphological and proteomic responses to growth restriction in maize plants supplied with sufficient N.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huifeng; Li, Ke; Ding, Hong; Liao, Chengsong; Li, Xuexian; Yuan, Lixing; Li, Chunjian

    2011-07-01

    The primary objective of this study was to better understand how root morphological alteration stimulates N uptake in maize plants after root growth restriction, by investigating the changes in length and number of lateral roots, (15)NO(3)(-) influx, the expression level of the low-affinity Nitrate transporter ZmNrt1.1, and proteomic composition of primary roots. Maize seedlings were hydroponically cultured with three different types of root systems: an intact root system, embryonic roots only, or primary roots only. In spite of sufficient N supply, root growth restriction stimulated compensatory growth of remaining roots, as indicated by the increased lateral root number and root density. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in (15)NO(3)(-) influx between control and primary root plants; neither in ZmNrt1.1 expression levels in primary roots of different treatments. Our data suggested that increased N uptake by maize seedlings experiencing root growth restriction is attributed to root morphological adaptation, rather than explained by the variation in N uptake activity. Eight proteins were differentially accumulated in embryonic and primary root plants compared to control plants. These differentially accumulated proteins were closely related to signal transduction and increased root growth.

  10. Growth in Turface® clay permits root hair phenotyping along the entire crown root in cereal crops and demonstrates that root hair growth can extend well beyond the root hair zone.

    PubMed

    Goron, Travis L; Watts, Sophia; Shearer, Charles; Raizada, Manish N

    2015-04-12

    In cereal crops, root hairs are reported to function within the root hair zone to carry out important roles in nutrient and water absorption. Nevertheless, these single cells remain understudied due to the practical challenges of phenotyping these delicate structures in large cereal crops growing on soil or other growth systems. Here we present an alternative growth system for examining the root hairs of cereal crops: the use of coarse Turface® clay alongside fertigation. This system allowed for root hairs to be easily visualized along the entire lengths of crown roots in three different cereal crops (maize, wheat, and finger millet). Surprisingly, we observed that the root hairs in these crops continued to grow beyond the canonical root hair zone, with the most root hair growth occurring on older crown root segments. We suggest that the Turface® fertigation system may permit a better understanding of the changing dynamics of root hairs as they age in large plants, and may facilitate new avenues for crop improvement below ground. However, the relevance of this system to field conditions must be further evaluated in other crops.

  11. Root growth in response to nitrogen supply in Chinese maize hybrids released between 1973 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Wu, QiuPing; Chen, FanJun; Chen, YanLing; Yuan, LiXing; Zhang, FuSuo; Mi, GuoHua

    2011-07-01

    Root growth has a fundamental role in nitrogen (N) use efficiency. Nevertheless, little is known about how modern breeding progress has affected root growth and its responses to N supply. The root and shoot growth of a core set of 11 representative Chinese maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids released between 1973 and 2009 were investigated under high N (4 mmol L(-1), HN) and low N (0.04 mmol L(-1), LN) levels in a solution culture system. Compared with LN, HN treatment decreased root dry weight (RDW), the root: shoot ratio (R/S), and the relative growth rate for root dry weight (RGR(root)), but increased the total root length (TRL) and the total lateral root length (LRL). The total axial root length (ARL) per plant was reduced under HN, mostly in hybrids released before the 1990s. The number of seminal roots (SRN) was largely unaffected by different N levels. More recently released hybrids showed higher relative growth rates in the shoot under both HN and LN. However, the roots only showed increased RGR under HN treatment. Correspondingly, there was a positive linear relationship with the year of hybrid release for TRL, LRL and ARL under HN treatment. Together, these results suggest that while shoot growth of maize has improved, its root growth has only improved under high N conditions over the last 36 years of selective breeding in China. Improving root growth under LN conditions may be necessary to increase the N use efficiency of maize.

  12. Plant hormone cross-talk: the pivot of root growth.

    PubMed

    Pacifici, Elena; Polverari, Laura; Sabatini, Sabrina

    2015-02-01

    Root indeterminate growth and its outstanding ability to produce new tissues continuously make this organ a highly dynamic structure able to respond promptly to external environmental stimuli. Developmental processes therefore need to be finely tuned, and hormonal cross-talk plays a pivotal role in the regulation of root growth. In contrast to what happens in animals, plant development is a post-embryonic process. A pool of stem cells, placed in a niche at the apex of the meristem, is a source of self-renewing cells that provides cells for tissue formation. During the first days post-germination, the meristem reaches its final size as a result of a balance between cell division and cell differentiation. A complex network of interactions between hormonal pathways co-ordinates such developmental inputs. In recent years, by means of molecular and computational approaches, many efforts have been made aiming to define the molecular components of these networks. In this review, we focus our attention on the molecular mechanisms at the basis of hormone cross-talk during root meristem size determination.

  13. Growth and physiology of olive pioneer and fibrous roots exposed to soil moisture deficits.

    PubMed

    Polverigiani, S; McCormack, M L; Mueller, C W; Eissenstat, D M

    2011-11-01

    In woody plants, pioneer roots are the main roots used to expand the root system horizontally and vertically whereas fibrous 'feeder' roots are chiefly used in the absorption of water and nutrients. Because of their different roles, we expected newly emerged pioneer and fibrous roots to respond differently to restrictions in soil moisture. We hypothesized that fibrous roots would exhibit greater growth plasticity and greater physiological impairment from soil moisture deficits, especially under heterogeneous conditions. We compared the responses of fibrous and pioneer roots of olive seedlings (Olea europaea) to localized and uniform soil moisture deficits in transparent containers in the greenhouse. In comparison with uniformly wet conditions, uniformly dry conditions caused reduced shoot photosynthesis and reduced shoot growth, but no significant effect on root morphology, root respiration (measured in aerated buffer solution using excised roots) or electrolyte leakage as a function of root age. Under heterogeneous soil moisture conditions, root growth tended to preferentially occur in the moist sector, especially in the pioneer roots. In comparison with pioneer roots in the moist sector, pioneer roots in the dry sector had higher tissue density and higher suberin content, but no shift in root respiration, non-structural carbohydrates or electrolyte leakage. In contrast, fibrous roots in the dry sector exhibited evidence of impaired physiology in older (>38 days) roots compared with similar age fibrous roots in the moist sector. While we anticipated that, compared with pioneer roots, fibrous roots would be more sensitive to soil moisture deficits as expressed by higher electrolyte leakage, we did not expect the strong growth plasticity of pioneer roots under heterogeneous soil moisture conditions. Differentiating the responses of these two very different root types can improve our understanding of how different portions of the root system of woody plants cope with

  14. Tomato root growth, gravitropism, and lateral development: correlation with auxin transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muday, G. K.; Haworth, P.

    1994-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) roots were analyzed during growth on agar plates. Growth of these roots was inhibited by the auxin transport inhibitors naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and semicarbazone derivative I (SCB-1). The effect of auxin transport inhibitors on root gravitropism was analyzed by measurement of the angle of gravitropic curvature after the roots were reoriented 90 degrees from the vertical. NPA and SCB-1 abolished both the response of these roots to gravity and the formation of lateral roots, with SCB-1 being the more effective at inhibition. Auxins also inhibited root growth. Both auxins tested has a slight effect on the gravity response, but this effect is probably indirect, since auxins reduced the growth rate. Auxins also stimulated lateral root growth at concentration where primary root growth was inhibited. When roots were treated with both IAA and NPA simultaneously, a cumulative inhibition of root growth was found. When both compounds were applied together, analysis of gravitropism and lateral root formation indicated that the dominant effect was exerted by auxin transport inhibitors. Together, these data suggest a model for the role of auxin transport in controlling both primary and lateral root growth.

  15. Cytohistological analysis of roots whose growth is affected by a 60-Hz electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Brulfert, A.; Miller, M.W.; Robertson, D.; Dooley, D.A.; Economou, P.

    1985-01-01

    Roots of Pisum sativum were exposed for 48 h to 60-Hz electric fields of 430 V/m in an aqueous inorganic growth medium. The growth in length of the exposed roots was 44% of that for control roots. Root tips were analyzed for mitotic index and cell cycle duration. Mature, differentiated root sections from tissue produced after electrode energization were analyzed for cell lengths and number of files. The major reason for the observation that exposed roots are shorter than control roots is that cell elongation in the former is greatly diminished relative to controls. 15 references, 1 figures, 4 tables.

  16. Proteomic Profiling of the Microsomal Root Fraction: Discrimination of Pisum sativum L. Cultivars and Identification of Putative Root Growth Markers

    PubMed Central

    Meisrimler, Claudia-Nicole; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Lüthje, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Legumes are a large and economically important family, containing a variety of crop plants. Alongside different cereals, some fruits, and tropical roots, a number of leguminosae evolved for millennia as crops with human society. One of these legumes is Pisum sativum L., the common garden pea. In the past, breeding has been largely selective on improved above-ground organs. However, parameters, such as root-growth, which determines acquisition of nutrients and water, have largely been underestimated. Although the genome of P. sativum is still not fully sequenced, multiple proteomic studies have been published on a variety of physiological aspects in the last years. The presented work focused on the connection between root length and the influence of the microsomal root proteome of four different pea cultivars after five days of germination (cultivar Vroege, Girl from the Rhineland, Kelvedon Wonder, and Blauwschokker). In total, 60 proteins were identified to have significantly differential abundances in the four cultivars. Root growth of five-days old seedlings and their microsomal proteome revealed a similar separation pattern, suggesting that cultivar-specific root growth performance is explained by differential membrane and ribosomal protein levels. Hence, we reveal and discuss several putative root growth protein markers possibly playing a key role for improved primary root growth breeding strategies. PMID:28257117

  17. Plant-in-chip: Microfluidic system for studying root growth and pathogenic interactions in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parashar, Archana; Pandey, Santosh

    2011-06-01

    We report a microfluidic platform for the hydroponic growth of Arabidopsis plants with high-resolution visualization of root development and root-pathogen interactions. The platform comprises a set of parallel microchannels with individual input/output ports where 1-day old germinated seedlings are initially placed. Under optimum conditions, a root system grows in each microchannel and its images are recorded over a 198-h period. Different concentrations of plant growth media show different root growth characteristics. Later, the developed roots are inoculated with two plant pathogens (nematodes and zoospores) and their physicochemical interactions with the live root systems are observed.

  18. Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana root growth kinetics with high temporal and spatial resolution

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanbakhsh, Nima; Fisahn, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Background Methods exist to quantify the distribution of growth rate over the root axis. However, non-destructive, high-throughput evaluations of total root elongation in controlled environments and the field are lacking in growth studies. A new imaging approach to analyse total root elongation is described. Scope High pixel resolution of the images enables the study of growth in short time intervals and provides high temporal resolution. Using the method described, total root elongation rates are calculated from the displacement of the root tip. Although the absolute root elongation rate changes in response to growth conditions, this set-up enables root growth of Arabidopsis wild-type seedlings to be followed for more than 1 month after germination. The method provides an easy approach to decipher root extension rate and much simpler calculations compared with other methods that use segmental growth to address this question. Conclusions The high temporal resolution allows small modifications of total root elongation growth to be revealed. Furthermore, with the options to investigate growth of various mutants in diverse growth conditions the present tool allows modulations in root growth kinetics due to different biotic and abiotic stimuli to be unravelled. Measurements performed on Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type (Col0) plants revealed rhythms superimposed on root elongation. Results obtained from the starchless mutant pgm, however, present a clearly modified pattern. As expected, deviation is strongest during the dark period. PMID:20421235

  19. Improving root-zone soil moisture estimations using dynamic root growth and crop phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemian, Minoo; Ryu, Dongryeol; Crow, Wade T.; Kustas, William P.

    2015-12-01

    Water Energy Balance (WEB) Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) modelling can be used to estimate soil moisture by forcing the model with observed data such as precipitation and solar radiation. Recently, an innovative approach that assimilates remotely sensed thermal infrared (TIR) observations into WEB-SVAT to improve the results has been proposed. However, the efficacy of the model-observation integration relies on the model's realistic representation of soil water processes. Here, we explore methods to improve the soil water processes of a simple WEB-SVAT model by adopting and incorporating an exponential root water uptake model with water stress compensation and establishing a more appropriate soil-biophysical linkage between root-zone moisture content, above-ground states and biophysical indices. The existing WEB-SVAT model is extended to a new Multi-layer WEB-SVAT with Dynamic Root distribution (MWSDR) that has five soil layers. Impacts of plant root depth variations, growth stages and phenological cycle of the vegetation on transpiration are considered in developing stages. Hydrometeorological and biogeophysical measurements collected from two experimental sites, one in Dookie, Victoria, Australia and the other in Ponca, Oklahoma, USA, are used to validate the new model. Results demonstrate that MWSDR provides improved soil moisture, transpiration and evaporation predictions which, in turn, can provide an improved physical basis for assimilating remotely sensed data into the model. Results also show the importance of having an adequate representation of vegetation-related transpiration process for an appropriate simulation of water transfer in a complicated system of soil, plants and atmosphere.

  20. Increased soil phosphorus availability induced by faba bean root exudation stimulates root growth and phosphorus uptake in neighbouring maize.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deshan; Zhang, Chaochun; Tang, Xiaoyan; Li, Haigang; Zhang, Fusuo; Rengel, Zed; Whalley, William R; Davies, William J; Shen, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    Root growth is influenced by soil nutrients and neighbouring plants, but how these two drivers affect root interactions and regulate plant growth dynamics is poorly understood. Here, interactions between the roots of maize (Zea mays) and faba bean (Vicia faba) are characterized. Maize was grown alone (maize) or with maize (maize/maize) or faba bean (maize/faba bean) as competitors under five levels of phosphorus (P) supply, and with homogeneous or heterogeneous P distribution. Maize had longer root length and greater shoot biomass and P content when grown with faba bean than with maize. At each P supply rate, faba bean had a smaller root system than maize but greater exudation of citrate and acid phosphatase, suggesting a greater capacity to mobilize P in the rhizosphere. Heterogeneous P availability enhanced the root-length density of maize but not faba bean. Maize root proliferation in the P-rich patches was associated with increased shoot P uptake. Increased P availability by localized P application or by the presence of faba bean exudation stimulated root morphological plasticity and increased shoot growth in maize in the maize/faba bean mixture, suggesting that root interactions of neighbouring plants can be modified by increased P availability.

  1. Induction of hairy roots and characterization of peroxidase expression as a potential root growth marker in sesame.

    PubMed

    Chun, J-A; Lee, J-W; Yi, Y-B; Park, G-Y; Chung, C-H

    2009-01-01

    Using hypocotyl and cotyledon of sesame seedlings, hairy root cultures were established and cDNA coding for a peroxidase was cloned from the roots. The frequency of sesame hairy root formation was higher in hypocotyl (33.4%) than cotyledon (9.3%). Applicable levels of kanamycin and hygromycin as a selectable marker were 100 microg/mL and 30 microg/mL, respectively. The peroxidase cDNA showed relatively high sequence identity with and similarity to plant class III peroxidase family. The cDNA encoded polypeptide was identified with the presence of three sequence features: 1) the putative 4 disulfide bridges, 2) an ER-targeted signal sequence in the N-terminus, and 3) two triplets, NXS for glycosylation. A real-time RT-PCR exhibited an abrupt increase in the peroxidase transcription activity after 4-week cultures of the sesame hairy roots and its highest level in 6-week cultured hairy roots. In contrast, the growth pattern of sesame hairy roots showed a typical sigmoidal curve. The active hairy root growth began after 2-week culture and their stationary growth phase occurred after 5-week culture. These results suggested that the peroxidase expression patterns at its transcription level could be used a potential indicator signaling a message that there will be no longer active growth in hairy root cultures. The sesame peroxidase gene was differentially expressed in different tissues.

  2. How grow-and-switch gravitropism generates root coiling and root waving growth responses in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Tzer Han; Silverberg, Jesse L.; Floss, Daniela S.; Harrison, Maria J.; Henley, Christopher L.; Cohen, Itai

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies show that plant root morphologies can vary widely from straight gravity-aligned primary roots to fractal-like root architectures. However, the opaqueness of soil makes it difficult to observe how environmental factors modulate these patterns. Here, we combine a transparent hydrogel growth medium with a custom built 3D laser scanner to directly image the morphology of Medicago truncatula primary roots. In our experiments, root growth is obstructed by an inclined plane in the growth medium. As the tilt of this rigid barrier is varied, we find Medicago transitions between randomly directed root coiling, sinusoidal root waving, and normal gravity-aligned morphologies. Although these root phenotypes appear morphologically distinct, our analysis demonstrates the divisions are less well defined, and instead, can be viewed as a 2D biased random walk that seeks the path of steepest decent along the inclined plane. Features of this growth response are remarkably similar to the widely known run-and-tumble chemotactic behavior of Escherichia coli bacteria, where biased random walks are used as optimal strategies for nutrient uptake. PMID:26432881

  3. Spatial and directional variation of growth rates in Arabidopsis root apex: a modelling study.

    PubMed

    Nakielski, Jerzy; Lipowczan, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Growth and cellular organization of the Arabidopsis root apex are investigated in various aspects, but still little is known about spatial and directional variation of growth rates in very apical part of the apex, especially in 3D. The present paper aims to fill this gap with the aid of a computer modelling based on the growth tensor method. The root apex with a typical shape and cellular pattern is considered. Previously, on the basis of two types of empirical data: the published velocity profile along the root axis and dimensions of cell packets formed in the lateral part of the root cap, the displacement velocity field for the root apex was determined. Here this field is adopted to calculate the linear growth rate in different points and directions. The results are interpreted taking principal growth directions into account. The root apex manifests a significant anisotropy of the linear growth rate. The directional preferences depend on a position within the root apex. In the root proper the rate in the periclinal direction predominates everywhere, while in the root cap the predominating direction varies with distance from the quiescent centre. The rhizodermis is distinguished from the neighbouring tissues (cortex, root cap) by relatively high contribution of the growth rate in the anticlinal direction. The degree of growth anisotropy calculated for planes defined by principal growth directions and exemplary cell walls may be as high as 25. The changes in the growth rate variation are modelled.

  4. Root growth dynamics linked to aboveground growth in walnuts (Juglans regia L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and Aims: Examination of belowground plant responses to canopy and soil moisture manipulation is scant compared to that aboveground but needed to understand whole plant responses to environmental factors. Plasticity in the seasonal timing and vertical distribution of root growth in respon...

  5. [Impacts of root-zone hypoxia stress on muskmelon growth, its root respiratory metabolism, and antioxidative enzyme activities].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Ling; Li, Tian-Lai; Sun, Zhou-Ping; Chen, Ya-Dong

    2010-06-01

    By using aeroponics culture system, this paper studied the impacts of root-zone hypoxia (10% O2 and 5% O2) stress on the plant growth, root respiratory metabolism, and antioxidative enzyme activities of muskmelon at its fruit development stage. Root-zone hypoxia stress inhibited the plant growth of muskmelon, resulting in the decrease of plant height, root length, and fresh and dry biomass. Comparing with the control (21% O2), hypoxia stress reduced the root respiration rate and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity significantly, and the impact of 5% O2 stress was more serious than that of 10% O2 stress. Under hypoxic conditions, the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) activities and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content were significantly higher than the control. The increment of antioxidative enzyme activities under 10% O2 stress was significantly higher than that under 5% O2 stress, while the MDA content was higher under 5% O2 stress than under 10% O2 stress, suggesting that when the root-zone oxygen concentration was below 10%, the aerobic respiration of muskmelon at its fruit development stage was obviously inhibited while the anaerobic respiration was accelerated, and the root antioxidative enzymes induced defense reaction. With the increasing duration of hypoxic stress, the lipid peroxidation would be aggravated, resulting in the damages on muskmelon roots, inhibition of plant growth, and decrease of fruit yield and quality.

  6. Possible Involvement of Al-Induced Electrical Signals in Al Tolerance in Wheat.

    PubMed Central

    Papernik, L. A.; Kochian, L. V.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between Al-induced depolarization of root-cell transmembrane electrical potentials (Em) and Al tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was investigated. Al exposure induced depolarizations of Em in the Al-tolerant wheat cultivars Atlas and ET3, but not in the Al-sensitive wheat cultivars Scout and ES3. The depolarizations of Em occured in root cap cells and as far back as 10 mm from the root tip. The depolarization was specific to Al3+; no depolarization was observed when roots were exposed to the rhizotoxic trivalent cation La3+. The Al-induced depolarization occurred in the presence of anion-channel antagonists that blocked the release of malate, indicating that the depolarization is not due to the electrogenic efflux of malate2-. K+-induced depolarizations in the root cap were of the same magnitude as Al-induced depolarizations, but did not trigger malate release, indicating that Al-induced depolarization of root cap cell membrane potentials is probably linked to, but is not sufficient to trigger, malate release. PMID:12223834

  7. [Effects of drought stress on the root growth and development and physiological characteristics of peanut].

    PubMed

    Ding, Hong; Zhang, Zhi-Meng; Dai, Liang-Xiang; Kang, Tao; Ci, Dun-Wei; Song, Wen-Wu

    2013-06-01

    Taking two peanut varieties Huayu 17 and Tangke 8 as test objects, a soil column culture experiment was conducted in a rainproof tank to study the peanut root morphological development and physiological characteristics at late growth stages under moderate drought and well-watered conditions. Tanke 8 had more developed root system and higher yield and drought coefficient, while Huayu 17 had poorer root adaptability to drought stress. For the two varieties, their root length density and root biomass were mainly distributed in 0-40 cm soil layer, whereas their root traits differed in the same soil layer. The total root length, total root surface area, and total root volume of Huayu 17 at each growth stage were smaller under drought stress than under well-balanced water treatment, while these root characteristics of Tangke 8 under drought stress only decreased at flowering-pegging stage. Drought stress increased the root biomass, surface area, and volume of the two varieties in 20-40 cm soil layer, but decreased these root traits in the soil layers below 40 cm. Under drought stress, the root activity of the two varieties in the soil layers below 40 cm at pod filling stage decreased, and the decrement was larger for Huayu 17. The differences in the root system development and physiological characteristics of the two varieties at late growth stages under drought stress suggested that the root system of the two varieties had different water absorption and utilization under drought stress.

  8. Advancements in Root Growth Measurement Technologies and Observation Capabilities for Container-Grown Plants

    PubMed Central

    Judd, Lesley A.; Jackson, Brian E.; Fonteno, William C.

    2015-01-01

    The study, characterization, observation, and quantification of plant root growth and root systems (Rhizometrics) has been and remains an important area of research in all disciplines of plant science. In the horticultural industry, a large portion of the crops grown annually are grown in pot culture. Root growth is a critical component in overall plant performance during production in containers, and therefore it is important to understand the factors that influence and/or possible enhance it. Quantifying root growth has varied over the last several decades with each method of quantification changing in its reliability of measurement and variation among the results. Methods such as root drawings, pin boards, rhizotrons, and minirhizotrons initiated the aptitude to measure roots with field crops, and have been expanded to container-grown plants. However, many of the published research methods are monotonous and time-consuming. More recently, computer programs have increased in use as technology advances and measuring characteristics of root growth becomes easier. These programs are instrumental in analyzing various root growth characteristics, from root diameter and length of individual roots to branching angle and topological depth of the root architecture. This review delves into the expanding technologies involved with expertly measuring root growth of plants in containers, and the advantages and disadvantages that remain. PMID:27135334

  9. Advancements in Root Growth Measurement Technologies and Observation Capabilities for Container-Grown Plants.

    PubMed

    Judd, Lesley A; Jackson, Brian E; Fonteno, William C

    2015-07-03

    The study, characterization, observation, and quantification of plant root growth and root systems (Rhizometrics) has been and remains an important area of research in all disciplines of plant science. In the horticultural industry, a large portion of the crops grown annually are grown in pot culture. Root growth is a critical component in overall plant performance during production in containers, and therefore it is important to understand the factors that influence and/or possible enhance it. Quantifying root growth has varied over the last several decades with each method of quantification changing in its reliability of measurement and variation among the results. Methods such as root drawings, pin boards, rhizotrons, and minirhizotrons initiated the aptitude to measure roots with field crops, and have been expanded to container-grown plants. However, many of the published research methods are monotonous and time-consuming. More recently, computer programs have increased in use as technology advances and measuring characteristics of root growth becomes easier. These programs are instrumental in analyzing various root growth characteristics, from root diameter and length of individual roots to branching angle and topological depth of the root architecture. This review delves into the expanding technologies involved with expertly measuring root growth of plants in containers, and the advantages and disadvantages that remain.

  10. Nonfumigant Nematicides for Control of Root-knot Nematode to Protect Carrot Root Growth in Organic Soils.

    PubMed

    Vrain, T C; Belair, G; Martel, P

    1979-10-01

    Greenhouse tests were conducted to determine the effects of two kinds of Meloidogyne hapla inoculum on the growth and quality of carrot roots, and the protection afforded in each case by nonfumigant nematicides in organic soils. For all treatments the percentage of carrots damaged was greater with larvae alone as inoculum than with larvae and eggs, indicating that most of the damage occurs early during formation of the taproot. Fosthietan, aldicarb, and oxamyl at 4 and 6 kg ai/ha protected the roots during formation and gave a lasting control of root-knot nematode. There was some nematode damage to the roots with phenamiphos and carbofuran at 4 and 6 kg ai/ha. Isazophos, diflubenzuron, and fenvalerate gave little protection to carrot roots and did not control root-knot nematode effectively.

  11. AtOPR3 specifically inhibits primary root growth in Arabidopsis under phosphate deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hongyan; Pan, Xiaoying; Deng, Yuxia; Wu, Huamao; Liu, Pei; Li, Xuexian

    2016-01-01

    The primary root plays essential roles in root development, nutrient absorption, and root architectural establishment. Primary root growth is generally suppressed by phosphate (P) deficiency in A. thaliana; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely elusive to date. We found that AtOPR3 specifically inhibited primary root growth under P deficiency via suppressing root tip growth at the transcriptional level, revealing an important novel function of AtOPR3 in regulating primary root response to the nutrient stress. Importantly, AtOPR3 functioned to down-regulate primary root growth under P limitation mostly by its own, rather than depending on the Jasmonic acid signaling pathway. Further, AtOPR3 interacted with ethylene and gibberellin signaling pathways to regulate primary root growth upon P deficiency. In addition, the AtOPR3’s function in inhibiting primary root growth upon P limitation was also partially dependent on auxin polar transport. Together, our studies provide new insights into how AtOPR3, together with hormone signaling interactions, modulates primary root growth in coping with the environmental stress in Arabidopsis. PMID:27101793

  12. [Tomato root exudates and their effect on the growth and antifungal activity of Pseudomonas strains].

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, L V; Azarova, T S; Leonova-Erko, E I; Shaposhnikov, A I; Makarova, N M; Tikhonovich, I A

    2003-01-01

    The study of the effect of the root exometabolites of tomato plants on the growth and antifungal activity of the plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas strains showed that the antifungal activity of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in the plant rhizosphere may depend on the sugar and organic acid composition of root exudates.

  13. Effect of calmodulin antagonists on the growth and graviresponsiveness of primary roots of maize.

    PubMed

    Stinemetz, C L; Hasenstein, K H; Young, L M; Evans, M L

    1992-11-01

    We examined the effect of calmodulin (CaM) antagonists applied at the root tip on root growth, gravity-induced root curvature, and the movement of calcium across the root tip and auxin (IAA) across the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. All of the CaM antagonists used in these studies delayed gravity-induced curvature at a concentration (1 micromole) that did not affect root growth. Calmodulin antagonists (> or = 1 micromole) inhibited downward transport of label from 45Ca2+ across the caps of gravistimulated roots relative to the downward transport of 45Ca2+ in gravistimulated roots which were not treated with CaM antagonists. Application of CaM antagonists at the root tip (> or = 1 micromole) also decreased the relative downward movement of label from 3H-IAA applied to the upper side of the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. In general, tip application of antagonists inhibited neither the upward transport of 45Ca2+ in the root tip nor the upward movement of label from 3H-IAA in the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Thus, roots treated with CaM antagonists > or = 1 micromole become less graviresponsive and exhibit reduced or even a reversal of downward polarity of calcium transport across the root tip and IAA transport across the elongation zone. The results indicate that calmodulin-regulated events play a role in root gravitropism.

  14. Effect of calmodulin antagonists on the growth and graviresponsiveness of primary roots of maize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stinemetz, C. L.; Hasenstein, K. H.; Young, L. M.; Evans, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the effect of calmodulin (CaM) antagonists applied at the root tip on root growth, gravity-induced root curvature, and the movement of calcium across the root tip and auxin (IAA) across the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. All of the CaM antagonists used in these studies delayed gravity-induced curvature at a concentration (1 micromole) that did not affect root growth. Calmodulin antagonists (> or = 1 micromole) inhibited downward transport of label from 45Ca2+ across the caps of gravistimulated roots relative to the downward transport of 45Ca2+ in gravistimulated roots which were not treated with CaM antagonists. Application of CaM antagonists at the root tip (> or = 1 micromole) also decreased the relative downward movement of label from 3H-IAA applied to the upper side of the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. In general, tip application of antagonists inhibited neither the upward transport of 45Ca2+ in the root tip nor the upward movement of label from 3H-IAA in the elongation zone of gravistimulated roots. Thus, roots treated with CaM antagonists > or = 1 micromole become less graviresponsive and exhibit reduced or even a reversal of downward polarity of calcium transport across the root tip and IAA transport across the elongation zone. The results indicate that calmodulin-regulated events play a role in root gravitropism.

  15. Influence of Merosesquiterpenoids from Marine Sponges on Seedling Root Growth of Agricultural Plants.

    PubMed

    Chaikina, Elena L; Utkina, Natalia K; Anisimov, Mikhail M

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the merosesquiterpenoids avarol (1), avarone (2), 18-methylaminoavarone (3), melemeleone A (4), isospongiaquinone (5), ilimaquinone (6), and smenoquinone (7), isolated from marine sponges of the Dictyoceratida order, was studied on the root growth of seedlings of buckwheat (Fagopyrumesculentum Moench), wheat (Triticumaestivum L.), soy (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), and barley (Hordeumvulgare L.). Compounds 2and 6 were effective for the root growth of wheat seedlings, compound 3 stimulated the root growth of seedlings of buckwheat and soy, compound 4 affected the roots of barley seedlings, and compound 5 stimulated the root growth of seedlings of buckwheat and barley. Compounds 1 and 7 showed no activity on the root growth of the seedlings of any of the studied plants. The stimulatory effect depends on the chemical structure of the compounds and the type of crop plant.

  16. Characterization of the growth and auxin physiology of roots of the tomato mutant, diageotropica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muday, G. K.; Lomax, T. L.; Rayle, D. L.

    1995-01-01

    Roots of the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) mutant (diageotropica (dgt) exhibit an altered phenotype. These roots are agravitropic and lack lateral roots. Relative to wild-type (VFN8) roots, dgt roots are less sensitive to growth inhibition by exogenously applied IAA and auxin transport inhibitors (phytotropins), and the roots exhibit a reduction in maximal growth inhibition in response to ethylene. However, IAA transport through roots, binding of the phytotropin, tritiated naphthylphthalamic acid ([3H]NPA), to root microsomal membranes, NPA-sensitive IAA uptake by root segments, and uptake of [3H]NPA into root segments are all similar in mutant and wild-type roots. We speculate that the reduced sensitivity of dgt root growth to auxin-transport inhibitors and ethylene is an indirect result of the reduction in sensitivity to auxin in this single gene, recessive mutant. We conclude that dgt roots, like dgt shoots, exhibit abnormalities indicating they have a defect associated with or affecting a primary site of auxin perception or action.

  17. Light regulation of the growth response in corn root gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, M. O.; Leopold, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Roots of Merit variety corn (Zea mays L.) require red light for orthogravitropic curvature. Experiments were undertaken to identify the step in the pathway from gravity perception to asymmetric growth on which light may act. Red light was effective in inducing gravitropism whether it was supplied concomitant with or as long as 30 minutes after the gravity stimulus (GS). The presentation time was the same whether the GS was supplied in red light or in darkness. Red light given before the GS slightly enhanced the rate of curvature but had little effect on the lag time or on the final curvature. This enhancement was expanded by a delay between the red light pulse and the GS. These results indicate that gravity perception and at least the initial transduction steps proceed in the dark. Light may regulate the final growth (motor) phase of gravitropism. The time required for full expression of the light enhancement of curvature is consistent with its involvement in some light-stimulated biosynthetic event.

  18. Arabidopsis thaliana sku mutant seedlings show exaggerated surface-dependent alteration in root growth vector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutherford, R.; Masson, P. H.

    1996-01-01

    Roots of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in the Wassilewskija (WS) and Landsberg erecta (Ler) ecotypes often grow aslant on vertical agar surfaces. Slanted root growth always occurs to the right of the gravity vector when the root is viewed through the agar surface, and is not observed in the Columbia ecotype. Right-slanted root growth is surface-dependent and does not result directly from directional environmental stimuli or gradients in the plane of skewing. We have isolated two partially dominant mutations in WS (sku1 and sku2) that show an exaggerated right-slanting root-growth phenotype on agar surfaces. The right-slanting root-growth phenotype of wild-type and mutant roots is not the result of diagravitropism or of an alteration in root gravitropism. It is accompanied by a left-handed rotation of the root about its axis within the elongation zone, the rate of which positively correlates with the degree of right-slanted curvature. Our data suggest that the right-slanting root growth phenotype results from an endogenous structural asymmetry that expresses itself by a directional root-tip rotation.

  19. Tree growth and management in Ugandan agroforestry systems: effects of root pruning on tree growth and crop yield.

    PubMed

    Wajja-Musukwe, Tellie-Nelson; Wilson, Julia; Sprent, Janet I; Ong, Chin K; Deans, J Douglas; Okorio, John

    2008-02-01

    Tree root pruning is a potential tool for managing belowground competition when trees and crops are grown together in agroforestry systems. We investigated the effects of tree root pruning on shoot growth and root distribution of Alnus acuminata (H.B. & K.), Casuarina equisetifolia L., Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br., Maesopsis eminii Engl. and Markhamia lutea (Benth.) K. Schum. and on yield of adjacent crops in sub-humid Uganda. The trees were 3 years old at the commencement of the study, and most species were competing strongly with crops. Tree roots were pruned 41 months after planting by cutting and back-filling a trench to a depth of 0.3 m, at a distance of 0.3 m from the trees, on one side of the tree row. The trench was reopened and roots recut at 50 and 62 months after planting. We assessed the effects on tree growth and root distribution over a 3 year period, and crop yield after the third root pruning at 62 months. Overall, root pruning had only a slight effect on aboveground tree growth: height growth was unaffected and diameter growth was reduced by only 4%. A substantial amount of root regrowth was observed by 11 months after pruning. Tree species varied in the number and distribution of roots, and C. equisetifolia and M. lutea had considerably more roots per unit of trunk volume than the other species, especially in the surface soil layers. Casuarina equisetifolia and M. eminii were the tree species most competitive with crops and G. robusta and M. lutea the least competitive. Crop yield data provided strong evidence of the redistribution of root activity following root pruning, with competition increasing on the unpruned side of tree rows. Thus, one-sided root pruning will be useful in only a few circumstances.

  20. Effects of water and nutrient availability on fine root growth in eastern Amazonian forest regrowth, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Tâmara Thaiz Santana; Miranda, Izildinha Souza; Vasconcelos, Steel Silva

    2010-08-01

    *Fine root dynamics is widely recognized as an important biogeochemical process, but there are few data on fine root growth and its response to soil resource availability, especially for tropical forests. *We evaluated the response of fine root dynamics to altered availability of soil water and nutrients in a 20-yr-old forest regrowth in eastern Amazonia. In one experiment the dry season reduction in soil moisture was alleviated by irrigation. In the other experiment, nutrient supply was reduced by litter removal. We used the ingrowth core technique to measure fine root mass growth, length growth, mortality and specific root length. *Dry-season irrigation had no significant effect on mass and length of live and dead roots, whereas litter removal reduced mass and length of live roots. For both irrigation and litter removal experiments, root growth was significantly greater in the dry season than in the wet season. *Increased root growth was associated with decreased soil water availability. However, root growth did not increase in response to nutrient reduction in litter removal plots. Overall, our results suggest that belowground allocation may differ according to the type of soil resource limitation.

  1. Time-lapse fluorescence imaging of Arabidopsis root growth with rapid manipulation of the root environment using the RootChip.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Guido; Meier, Matthias; Cartwright, Heather N; Sosso, Davide; Quake, Stephen R; Ehrhardt, David W; Frommer, Wolf B

    2012-07-07

    The root functions as the physical anchor of the plant and is the organ responsible for uptake of water and mineral nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfate and trace elements that plants acquire from the soil. If we want to develop sustainable approaches to producing high crop yield, we need to better understand how the root develops, takes up a wide spectrum of nutrients, and interacts with symbiotic and pathogenic organisms. To accomplish these goals, we need to be able to explore roots in microscopic detail over time periods ranging from minutes to days. We developed the RootChip, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)- based microfluidic device, which allows us to grow and image roots from Arabidopsis seedlings while avoiding any physical stress to roots during preparation for imaging(1) (Figure 1). The device contains a bifurcated channel structure featuring micromechanical valves to guide the fluid flow from solution inlets to each of the eight observation chambers(2). This perfusion system allows the root microenvironment to be controlled and modified with precision and speed. The volume of the chambers is approximately 400 nl, thus requiring only minimal amounts of test solution. Here we provide a detailed protocol for studying root biology on the RootChip using imaging-based approaches with real time resolution. Roots can be analyzed over several days using time lapse microscopy. Roots can be perfused with nutrient solutions or inhibitors, and up to eight seedlings can be analyzed in parallel. This system has the potential for a wide range of applications, including analysis of root growth in the presence or absence of chemicals, fluorescence-based analysis of gene expression, and the analysis of biosensors, e.g. FRET nanosensors(3).

  2. Early Events in the Life of Apple Roots: Variation in Root Growth Rate is Linked to Mycorrhizal and Nonmycorrhizal Fungal Colonization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to characterize early events of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal fungal colonization in newly-emerging roots of mature apple (Malus domestica) trees and to determine the relationship to fine root growth rate and development. New roots were traced on root windows to measure growt...

  3. Touch and gravitropic set-point angle interact to modulate gravitropic growth in roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, G. D.; Gilroy, S.

    2003-01-01

    Plant roots must sense and respond to a variety of environmental stimuli as they grow through the soil. Touch and gravity represent two of the mechanical signals that roots must integrate to elicit the appropriate root growth patterns and root system architecture. Obstacles such as rocks will impede the general downwardly directed gravitropic growth of the root system and so these soil features must be sensed and this information processed for an appropriate alteration in gravitropic growth to allow the root to avoid the obstruction. We show that primary and lateral roots of Arabidopsis do appear to sense and respond to mechanical barriers placed in their path of growth in a qualitatively similar fashion. Both types of roots exhibited a differential growth response upon contacting the obstacle that directed the main axis of elongation parallel to the barrier. This growth habit was maintained until the obstacle was circumvented, at which point normal gravitropic growth was resumed. Thus, the gravitational set-point angle of the primary and lateral roots prior to encountering the barrier were 95 degrees and 136 degrees respectively and after growing off the end of the obstacle identical set-point angles were reinstated. However, whilst tracking across the barrier, quantitative differences in response were observed between these two classes of roots. The root tip of the primary root maintained an angle of 136 degrees to the horizontal as it traversed the barrier whereas the lateral roots adopted an angle of 154 degrees. Thus, this root tip angle appeared dependent on the gravitropic set-point angle of the root type with the difference in tracking angle quantitatively reflecting differences in initial set-point angle. Concave and convex barriers were also used to analyze the response of the root to tracking along a continuously varying surface. The roots maintained the a fairly fixed angle to gravity on the curved surface implying a constant resetting of this tip angle

  4. Root cooling strongly affects diel leaf growth dynamics, water and carbohydrate relations in Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Poiré, Richard; Schneider, Heike; Thorpe, Michael R; Kuhn, Arnd J; Schurr, Ulrich; Walter, Achim

    2010-03-01

    In laboratory and greenhouse experiments with potted plants, shoots and roots are exposed to temperature regimes throughout a 24 h (diel) cycle that can differ strongly from the regime under which these plants have evolved. In the field, roots are often exposed to lower temperatures than shoots. When the root-zone temperature in Ricinus communis was decreased below a threshold value, leaf growth occurred preferentially at night and was strongly inhibited during the day. Overall, leaf expansion, shoot biomass growth, root elongation and ramification decreased rapidly, carbon fluxes from shoot to root were diminished and carbohydrate contents of both root and shoot increased. Further, transpiration rate was not affected, yet hydrostatic tensions in shoot xylem increased. When root temperature was increased again, xylem tension reduced, leaf growth recovered rapidly, carbon fluxes from shoot to root increased, and carbohydrate pools were depleted. We hypothesize that the decreased uptake of water in cool roots diminishes the growth potential of the entire plant - especially diurnally, when the growing leaf loses water via transpiration. As a consequence, leaf growth and metabolite concentrations can vary enormously, depending on root-zone temperature and its heterogeneity inside pots.

  5. New findings in the mechanisms regulating polar growth in root hair cells.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Root hairs cells are highly polarized cellular structures resulting from tip growth of specific root epidermal cells. Root-hair morphogenesis involves many aspects regulating tip growth such as exocytosis, ion flux, calcium homeostasis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cytoskeleton. These cells are excellent models for studying polar growth and can be challenged with many extracellular factors affecting the pattern of growth named Nod factors, elicitors, hormones, etc. The general scenery is that the well described tip-high intracellular Ca(2+) gradient plays a central role in regulating tip growth. On the other hand, ROS plays a key role in various processes, for example hypersensitive response, root hair development, hormone action, gravitropism and stress responses. However, ROS has recently emerged as a key player together with calcium in regulating polar growth, not only in root hair cells but also in pollen tubes, filamentous fungi and fucoid cells. Furthermore, Ca(2+)-permeable channel modulation by ROS has been demonstrated in Vicia faba guard cells and Arabidopsis root hairs. Recently, root hair cells were shown to experiment ROS, pH and calcium oscillations coupled to growth oscillation. These recent findings allow considering that root hair cells present a similar pattern of growth as described for pollen tubes.

  6. Al Partitioning Patterns and Root Growth as Related to Al Sensitivity and Al Tolerance in Wheat.

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, T. D.; Kucukakyuz, K.; Rincon-Zachary, M.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of Al partitioning and accumulation and of the effect of Al on the growth of intact wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots of cultivars that show differential Al sensitivity were conducted. The effects of various Al concentrations on root growth and Al accumulation in the tissue were followed for 24 h. At low external Al concentrations, Al accumulation in the root tips was low and root growth was either unaffected or stimulated. Calculations based on regression analysis of growth and Al accumulation in the root tips predicted that 50% root growth inhibition in the Al-tolerant cv Atlas 66 would be attained when the Al concentrations were 105 [mu]M in the nutrient solution and 376.7 [mu]g Al g-1 dry weight in the tissue. In contrast, in the Al-sensitive cv Tam 105, 50% root growth inhibition would be attained when the Al concentrations were 11 [mu]M in the nutrient solution and 546.2 [mu]g Al g-1 dry weight in the tissue. The data support the hypotheses that differential Al sensitivity correlates with differential Al accumulation in the growing root tissue, and that mechanisms of Al tolerance may be based on strategies to exclude Al from the root meristems. PMID:12223623

  7. Manganese Toxicity Inhibited Root Growth by Disrupting Auxin Biosynthesis and Transport in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jingjing; Wang, Wenying; Zhou, Huakun; Wang, Ruling; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Huichun; Pan, Xiangliang; Xu, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Mn toxicity inhibits both primary root (PR) growth and lateral root development. However, the mechanism underlying Mn-mediated root growth inhibition remains to be further elucidated. Here, we investigated the role of auxin in Mn-mediated inhibition of PR growth in Arabidopsis using physiological and genetic approaches. Mn toxicity inhibits PR elongation by reducing meristematic cell division potential. Mn toxicity also reduced auxin levels in root tips by reducing IAA biosynthesis and down-regulating the expression of auxin efflux carriers PIN4 and PIN7. Loss of function pin4 and pin7 mutants showed less inhibition of root growth than col-0 seedlings. These results indicated that this inhibitory effect of Mn toxicity on PR growth was mediated by affecting auxin biosynthesis and the expression of auxin efflux transporters PIN4 and PIN7. PMID:28316607

  8. Manganese Toxicity Inhibited Root Growth by Disrupting Auxin Biosynthesis and Transport in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingjing; Wang, Wenying; Zhou, Huakun; Wang, Ruling; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Huichun; Pan, Xiangliang; Xu, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Mn toxicity inhibits both primary root (PR) growth and lateral root development. However, the mechanism underlying Mn-mediated root growth inhibition remains to be further elucidated. Here, we investigated the role of auxin in Mn-mediated inhibition of PR growth in Arabidopsis using physiological and genetic approaches. Mn toxicity inhibits PR elongation by reducing meristematic cell division potential. Mn toxicity also reduced auxin levels in root tips by reducing IAA biosynthesis and down-regulating the expression of auxin efflux carriers PIN4 and PIN7. Loss of function pin4 and pin7 mutants showed less inhibition of root growth than col-0 seedlings. These results indicated that this inhibitory effect of Mn toxicity on PR growth was mediated by affecting auxin biosynthesis and the expression of auxin efflux transporters PIN4 and PIN7.

  9. ABA Suppresses Root Hair Growth via the OBP4 Transcriptional Regulator1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Ayako; Schäfer, Sabine; Breuer, Christian; Shibata, Michitaro; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Matsui, Minami

    2017-01-01

    Plants modify organ growth and tune morphogenesis in response to various endogenous and environmental cues. At the cellular level, organ growth is often adjusted by alterations in cell growth, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this control remain poorly understood. In this study, we identify the DNA BINDING WITH ONE FINGER (DOF)-type transcription regulator OBF BINDING PROTEIN4 (OBP4) as a repressor of cell growth. Ectopic expression of OBP4 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inhibits cell growth, resulting in severe dwarfism and the repression of genes involved in the regulation of water transport, root hair development, and stress responses. Among the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors known to control root hair growth, OBP4 binds the ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE6-LIKE2 (RSL2) promoter to repress its expression. The accumulation of OBP4 proteins is detected in expanding root epidermal cells, and its expression level is increased by the application of abscisic acid (ABA) at concentrations sufficient to inhibit root hair growth. ABA-dependent induction of OBP4 is associated with the reduced expression of RSL2. Furthermore, ectopic expression of OBP4 or loss of RSL2 function results in ABA-insensitive root hair growth. Taken together, our results suggest that OBP4-mediated transcriptional repression of RSL2 contributes to the ABA-dependent inhibition of root hair growth in Arabidopsis. PMID:28167701

  10. Vigorous Root Growth Is a Better Indicator of Early Nutrient Uptake than Root Hair Traits in Spring Wheat Grown under Low Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaosheng; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Magid, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    A number of root and root hair traits have been proposed as important for nutrient acquisition. However, there is still a need for knowledge on which traits are most important in determining macro- and micronutrient uptake at low soil fertility. This study investigated the variations in root growth vigor and root hair length (RHL) and density (RHD) among spring wheat genotypes and their relationship to nutrient concentrations and uptake during early growth. Six spring wheat genotypes were grown in a soil with low nutrient availability. The root and root hair traits as well as the concentration and content of macro- and micronutrients were identified. A significant genetic variability in root and root hair traits as well as nutrient uptake was found. Fast and early root proliferation and long and dense root hairs enhanced uptake of macro- and micronutrients under low soil nutrient availability. Vigorous root growth, however, was a better indicator of early nutrient acquisition than RHL and RHD. Vigorous root growth and long and dense root hairs ensured efficient acquisition of macro- and micronutrients during early growth and a high root length to shoot dry matter ratio favored high macronutrient concentrations in the shoots, which is assumed to be important for later plant development. PMID:27379145

  11. Root Exudate-Induced Alterations in Bacillus cereus Cell Wall Contribute to Root Colonization and Plant Growth Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Swarnalee; Rani, T. Swaroopa; Podile, Appa Rao

    2013-01-01

    The outcome of an interaction between plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and plants may depend on the chemical composition of root exudates (REs). We report the colonization of tobacco, and not groundnut, roots by a non-rhizospheric Bacillus cereus (MTCC 430). There was a differential alteration in the cell wall components of B. cereus in response to the REs from tobacco and groundnut. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy revealed a split in amide I region of B. cereus cells exposed to tobacco-root exudates (TRE), compared to those exposed to groundnut-root exudates (GRE). In addition, changes in exopolysaccharides and lipid-packing were observed in B. cereus grown in TRE-amended minimal media that were not detectable in GRE-amended media. Cell-wall proteome analyses revealed upregulation of oxidative stress-related alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, and DNA-protecting protein chain (Dlp-2), in response to GRE and TRE, respectively. Metabolism-related enzymes like 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase and 2-methylcitrate dehydratase and a 60 kDa chaperonin were up-regulated in response to TRE and GRE. In response to B. cereus, the plant roots altered their exudate-chemodiversity with respect to carbohydrates, organic acids, alkanes, and polyols. TRE-induced changes in surface components of B. cereus may contribute to successful root colonization and subsequent plant growth promotion. PMID:24205213

  12. Aggressiveness of Fusarium species and impact of root infection on growth and yield of soybeans.

    PubMed

    Arias, María M Díaz; Leandro, Leonor F; Munkvold, Gary P

    2013-08-01

    Fusarium spp. are commonly isolated from soybean roots but the pathogenic activity of most species is poorly documented. Aggressiveness and yield impact of nine species of Fusarium were determined on soybean in greenhouse (50 isolates) and field microplot (19 isolates) experiments. Root rot severity and shoot and root dry weights were compared at growth stages V3 or R1. Root systems were scanned and digital image analysis was conducted; yield was measured in microplots. Disease severity and root morphology impacts varied among and within species. Fusarium graminearum was highly aggressive (root rot severity >90%), followed by F. proliferatum and F. virguliforme. Significant variation in damping-off (20 to 75%) and root rot severity (<20 to >60%) was observed among F. oxysporum isolates. In artificially-infested microplots, root rot severity was low (<25%) and mean yield was not significantly reduced. However, there were significant linear relationships between yield and root symptoms for some isolates. Root morphological characteristics were more consistent indicators of yield loss than root rot severity. This study provides the first characterization of aggressiveness and yield impact of Fusarium root rot species on soybean at different plant stages and introduces root image analysis to assess the impact of root pathogens on soybean.

  13. The influence of calcium and pH on growth in primary roots of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the interaction of Ca2+ and pH on root elongation in Zea mays L. cv. B73 x Missouri 17 and cv. Merit. Seedlings were raised to contain high levels of Ca2+ (HC, imbibed and raised in 10 mM CaCl2) or low levels of Ca2+ (LC, imbibed and raised in distilled water). In HC roots, lowering the pH (5 mM MES/Tris) from 6.5 to 4.5 resulted in strong, long-lasting growth promotion. Surprisingly, increasing the pH from 6.5 to 8.5 also resulted in strong growth promotion. In LC roots acidification of the medium (pH 6.5 to 4.5) resulted in transient growth stimulation followed by a gradual decline in the growth rate toward zero. Exposure of LC roots to high pH (pH shift from 6.5 to 8.5) also promoted growth. Addition of EGTA resulted in strong growth promotion in both LC and HC roots. The ability of EGTA to stimulate growth appeared not to be related to H+ release from EGTA upon Ca2+ chelation since, 1) LC roots showed a strong and prolonged response to EGTA, but only a transient response to acid pH, and 2) promotion of growth by EGTA was observed in strongly buffered solutions. We also examined the pH dependence of the release of 45Ca2+ from roots of 3-day-old seedlings grown from grains imbibed in 45Ca2+. Release of 45Ca2+ from the root into agar blocks placed on the root surface was greater the more acidic the pH of the blocks. The results indicate that Ca2+ may be necessary for the acid growth response in roots.

  14. The influence of calcium and pH on growth in primary roots of Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Hasenstein, K H; Evans, M L

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the interaction of Ca2+ and pH on root elongation in Zea mays L. cv. B73 x Missouri 17 and cv. Merit. Seedlings were raised to contain high levels of Ca2+ (HC, imbibed and raised in 10 mM CaCl2) or low levels of Ca2+ (LC, imbibed and raised in distilled water). In HC roots, lowering the pH (5 mM MES/Tris) from 6.5 to 4.5 resulted in strong, long-lasting growth promotion. Surprisingly, increasing the pH from 6.5 to 8.5 also resulted in strong growth promotion. In LC roots acidification of the medium (pH 6.5 to 4.5) resulted in transient growth stimulation followed by a gradual decline in the growth rate toward zero. Exposure of LC roots to high pH (pH shift from 6.5 to 8.5) also promoted growth. Addition of EGTA resulted in strong growth promotion in both LC and HC roots. The ability of EGTA to stimulate growth appeared not to be related to H+ release from EGTA upon Ca2+ chelation since, 1) LC roots showed a strong and prolonged response to EGTA, but only a transient response to acid pH, and 2) promotion of growth by EGTA was observed in strongly buffered solutions. We also examined the pH dependence of the release of 45Ca2+ from roots of 3-day-old seedlings grown from grains imbibed in 45Ca2+. Release of 45Ca2+ from the root into agar blocks placed on the root surface was greater the more acidic the pH of the blocks. The results indicate that Ca2+ may be necessary for the acid growth response in roots.

  15. Touch modulates gravity sensing to regulate the growth of primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Gilroy, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Plants must sense and respond to diverse stimuli to optimize the architecture of their root system for water and nutrient scavenging and anchorage. We have therefore analyzed how information from two of these stimuli, touch and gravity, are integrated to direct root growth. In Arabidopsis thaliana, touch stimulation provided by a glass barrier placed across the direction of growth caused the root to form a step-like growth habit with bends forming in the central and later the distal elongation zones. This response led to the main root axis growing parallel to, but not touching the obstacle, whilst the root cap maintained contact with the barrier. Removal of the graviperceptive columella cells of the root cap using laser ablation reduced the bending response of the distal elongation zone. Similarly, although the roots of the gravisensing impaired pgm1-1 mutant grew along the barrier at the same average angle as wild-type, this angle became more variable with time. These observations imply a constant gravitropic re-setting of the root tip response to touch stimulation from the barrier. In wild-type plants, transient touch stimulation of root cap cells, but not other regions of the root, inhibited both subsequent gravitropic growth and amyloplast sedimentation in the columella. Taken together, these results suggest that the cells of the root cap sense touch stimuli and their subsequent signaling acts on the columella cells to modulate their graviresponse. This interaction of touch and gravity signaling would then direct root growth to avoid obstacles in the soil while generally maintaining downward growth.

  16. The microtubule-associated protein MAP18 affects ROP2 GTPase activity during root hair growth.

    PubMed

    Kang, Erfang; Zheng, Mingzhi; Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Ming; Yalovsky, Shaul; Zhu, Lei; Fu, Ying

    2017-03-17

    Establishment and maintenance of the polar site are important for root hair tip growth. We previously reported that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN18 (MAP18) functions in controlling the direction of pollen tube growth and root hair elongation. Additionally, the Rop GTPase ROP2 was reported as a positive regulator of both root hair initiation and tip growth in Arabidopsis. Both loss-of-function of ROP2 or knock-down of MAP18 leads to a decrease in root hair length, whereas overexpression of either MAP18 or ROP2 causes multiple tips or a branching hair phenotype. However, it is unclear whether MAP18 and ROP2 coordinately regulate root hair growth. In the present study, we demonstrate that MAP18 and ROP2 interact genetically and functionally. MAP18 physically interacts with ROP2 in vitro and in vivo and preferentially binds to the inactive form of the ROP2 protein. MAP18 promotes ROP2 activity during root hair tip growth. Further investigation revealed that MAP18 competes with RhoGTPase GDP dissociation inhibitor 1 (AtRhoGDI1)/SUPERCENTIPEDE1 (SCN1) for binding to ROP2, in turn affecting localization of active ROP2 in the plasma membrane of the root hair tip. These results reveal a novel function of MAP18 in the regulation of ROP2 activation during root hair growth.

  17. Cytokinin-dependent secondary growth determines root biomass in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Jang, Geupil; Lee, Jung-Hun; Rastogi, Khushboo; Park, Suhyoung; Oh, Sang-Hun; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-08-01

    The root serves as an essential organ in plant growth by taking up nutrients and water from the soil and supporting the rest of the plant body. Some plant species utilize roots as storage organs. Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas), cassava (Manihot esculenta), and radish (Raphanus sativus), for example, are important root crops. However, how their root growth is regulated remains unknown. In this study, we characterized the relationship between cambium and radial root growth in radish. Through a comparative analysis with Arabidopsis root expression data, we identified putative cambium-enriched transcription factors in radish and analysed their expression in representative inbred lines featuring distinctive radial growth. We found that cell proliferation activities in the cambium positively correlated with radial growth and final yields of radish roots. Expression analysis of candidate transcription factor genes revealed that some genes are differentially expressed between inbred lines and that the difference is due to the distinct cytokinin response. Taken together, we have demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that cytokinin-dependent radial growth plays a key role in the yields of root crops.

  18. Phytotoxic effects of leukamenin E (an ent-kaurene diterpenoid) on root growth and root hair development in Lactuca sativa L. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lan; Qi, Linlin; Jing, Hongwei; Li, Juan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Tao

    2008-11-01

    Leukamenin E, an ent-kaurene diterpenoid isolated from Isodon racemosa (Hemsl) Hara, showed phytotoxic effects on root growth and root hair development of lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa L.). Lower concentrations (10 microM) of leukamenin E did not affect root growth, but at concentrations higher than 50 microM, the rate was inhibited. The influence of leukamenin E on root growth rate was closely correlated with alterations in the mitotic index. A low incidence of aberrant mitosis image was observed when lettuce roots were treated with higher concentrations (100 and 200 microM) of leukamenin E. This suggests that inhibition of root growth may be due to inhibition of cell division. All tested concentrations of the diterpenoid (10 microM or more) inhibited root hair development in a dose-dependent manner. At a concentration of 80 microM, leukamenin E completely blocked root hair initiation. Application of Ag(+)-an ethylene action inhibitor-to lettuce seedlings inhibited root hair elongation similar to the diterpenoid. Enhanced root hair length was stimulated by exogenous ethephon-an ethylene-releasing agent-and could be reversed by addition of leukamenin E. This suggests that leukamenin E may act as a potential ethylene action antagonist in the inhibition of lettuce root hair development. We conclude that leukamenin E may curb root hair development by interfering with ethylene action at concentrations above 10 microM and inhibits root growth via inhibition of cell division at concentrations above 50 microM.

  19. Field and laboratory root growth and development of Lesquerella germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesquerella roots have not been fully characterized as compared to other crop species. There is initial information gathered on root trait variation in young seedling grown in laboratory settings but studies to determine if the results can be extrapolated in field grown plants are lacking. We report...

  20. Chemical Mowing: Effect of Plant Growth Retardants on Plant Roots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    fructose, sucrose, and fructans were considerably greater in leaf and stem tissue than in roots. Annual bluegrass stems were the major storage organ...for fructans , with only minor fructan storage occurring in roots. The carbohydrate content of mefluidide-treated annual bluegrass decreased

  1. Nitric oxide is involved in the oxytetracycline-induced suppression of root growth through inhibiting hydrogen peroxide accumulation in the root meristem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qing-Xiang; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Jie; Yu, Yunlong; Yu, Jing-Quan; Xia, Xiao-Jian

    2017-02-01

    Use of antibiotic-contaminated manure in crop production poses a severe threat to soil and plant health. However, few studies have studied the mechanism by which plant development is affected by antibiotics. Here, we used microscopy, flow cytometry, gene expression analysis and fluorescent dyes to study the effects of oxytetracycline (OTC), a widely used antibiotic in agriculture, on root meristem activity and the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) in the root tips of tomato seedlings. We found that OTC caused cell cycle arrest, decreased the size of root meristem and inhibited root growth. Interestingly, the inhibition of root growth by OTC was associated with a decline in H2O2 levels but an increase in NO levels in the root tips. Diphenyliodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of H2O2 production, showed similar effects on root growth as those of OTC. However, exogenous H2O2 partially reversed the effects on the cell cycle, meristem size and root growth. Importantly, cPTIO (the NO scavenger) and tungstate (an inhibitor of nitrate reductase) significantly increased H2O2 levels in the root tips and reversed the inhibition of root growth by OTC. Out results suggest that OTC-induced NO production inhibits H2O2 accumulation in the root tips, thus leading to cell cycle arrest and suppression of root growth.

  2. Nitric oxide is involved in the oxytetracycline-induced suppression of root growth through inhibiting hydrogen peroxide accumulation in the root meristem

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qing-Xiang; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Jie; Yu, Yunlong; Yu, Jing-Quan; Xia, Xiao-Jian

    2017-01-01

    Use of antibiotic-contaminated manure in crop production poses a severe threat to soil and plant health. However, few studies have studied the mechanism by which plant development is affected by antibiotics. Here, we used microscopy, flow cytometry, gene expression analysis and fluorescent dyes to study the effects of oxytetracycline (OTC), a widely used antibiotic in agriculture, on root meristem activity and the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) in the root tips of tomato seedlings. We found that OTC caused cell cycle arrest, decreased the size of root meristem and inhibited root growth. Interestingly, the inhibition of root growth by OTC was associated with a decline in H2O2 levels but an increase in NO levels in the root tips. Diphenyliodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of H2O2 production, showed similar effects on root growth as those of OTC. However, exogenous H2O2 partially reversed the effects on the cell cycle, meristem size and root growth. Importantly, cPTIO (the NO scavenger) and tungstate (an inhibitor of nitrate reductase) significantly increased H2O2 levels in the root tips and reversed the inhibition of root growth by OTC. Out results suggest that OTC-induced NO production inhibits H2O2 accumulation in the root tips, thus leading to cell cycle arrest and suppression of root growth. PMID:28220869

  3. Vegetative growth and cluster development in Shiraz grapevines subjected to partial root-zone cooling.

    PubMed

    Rogiers, Suzy Y; Clarke, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneity in root-zone temperature both vertically and horizontally may contribute to the uneven vegetative and reproductive growth often observed across vineyards. An experiment was designed to assess whether the warmed half of a grapevine root zone could compensate for the cooled half in terms of vegetative growth and reproductive development. We divided the root system of potted Shiraz grapevines bilaterally and applied either a cool or a warm treatment to each half from budburst to fruit set. Shoot growth and inflorescence development were monitored over the season. Simultaneous cooling and warming of parts of the root system decreased shoot elongation, leaf emergence and leaf expansion below that of plants with a fully warmed root zone, but not to the same extent as those with a fully cooled root zone. Inflorescence rachis length, flower number and berry number after fertilization were smaller only in those vines exposed to fully cooled root zones. After terminating the treatments, berry enlargement and the onset of veraison were slowed in those vines that had been exposed to complete or partial root-zone cooling. Grapevines exposed to partial root-zone cooling were thus delayed in vegetative and reproductive development, but the inhibition was greater in those plants whose entire root system had been cooled.

  4. Effect of nitrate on nodule and root growth of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.).

    PubMed

    Saito, Akinori; Tanabata, Sayuri; Tanabata, Takanari; Tajima, Seiya; Ueno, Manabu; Ishikawa, Shinji; Ohtake, Norikuni; Sueyoshi, Kuni; Ohyama, Takuji

    2014-03-13

    The application of combined nitrogen, especially nitrate, to soybean plants is known to strongly inhibit nodule formation, growth and nitrogen fixation. In the present study, we measured the effects of supplying 5 mM nitrate on the growth of nodules, primary root, and lateral roots under light at 28 °C or dark at 18 °C conditions. Photographs of the nodulated roots were periodically taken by a digital camera at 1-h intervals, and the size of the nodules was measured with newly developed computer software. Nodule growth was depressed approximately 7 h after the addition of nitrate under light conditions. The nodule growth rate under dark conditions was almost half that under light conditions, and nodule growth was further suppressed by the addition of 5 mM nitrate. Similar results were observed for the extending growth rate of the primary root as those for nodule growth supplied with 5 mM nitrate under light/dark conditions. In contrast, the growth of lateral roots was promoted by the addition of 5 mM nitrate. The 2D-PAGE profiles of nodule protein showed similar patterns between the 0 and 5 mM nitrate treatments, which suggested that metabolic integrity may be maintained with the 5 mM nitrate treatment. Further studies are required to confirm whether light or temperature condition may give the primary effect on the growth of nodules and roots.

  5. Rates of Root and Organism Growth, Soil Conditions, and Temporal and Spatial Development of the Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    WATT, MICHELLE; SILK, WENDY K.; PASSIOURA, JOHN B.

    2006-01-01

    • Background Roots growing in soil encounter physical, chemical and biological environments that influence their rhizospheres and affect plant growth. Exudates from roots can stimulate or inhibit soil organisms that may release nutrients, infect the root, or modify plant growth via signals. These rhizosphere processes are poorly understood in field conditions. • Scope and Aims We characterize roots and their rhizospheres and rates of growth in units of distance and time so that interactions with soil organisms can be better understood in field conditions. We review: (1) distances between components of the soil, including dead roots remnant from previous plants, and the distances between new roots, their rhizospheres and soil components; (2) characteristic times (distance2/diffusivity) for solutes to travel distances between roots and responsive soil organisms; (3) rates of movement and growth of soil organisms; (4) rates of extension of roots, and how these relate to the rates of anatomical and biochemical ageing of root tissues and the development of the rhizosphere within the soil profile; and (5) numbers of micro-organisms in the rhizosphere and the dependence on the site of attachment to the growing tip. We consider temporal and spatial variation within the rhizosphere to understand the distribution of bacteria and fungi on roots in hard, unploughed soil, and the activities of organisms in the overlapping rhizospheres of living and dead roots clustered in gaps in most field soils. • Conclusions Rhizosphere distances, characteristic times for solute diffusion, and rates of root and organism growth must be considered to understand rhizosphere development. Many values used in our analysis were estimates. The paucity of reliable data underlines the rudimentary state of our knowledge of root–organism interactions in the field. PMID:16551700

  6. Low temperature inhibits root growth by reducing auxin accumulation via ARR1/12.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiang; Zhang, Kun-Xiao; Wang, Wen-Shu; Gong, Wen; Liu, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Hong-Guo; Xu, Heng-Hao; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2015-04-01

    Plants exhibit reduced root growth when exposed to low temperature; however, how low temperature modulates root growth remains to be understood. Our study demonstrated that low temperature reduces both meristem size and cell number, repressing the division potential of meristematic cells by reducing auxin accumulation, possibly through the repressed expression of PIN1/3/7 and auxin biosynthesis-related genes, although the experiments with exogenous auxin application also suggest the involvement of other factor(s). In addition, we verified that ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR 1 (ARR1) and ARR12 are involved in low temperature-mediated inhibition of root growth by showing that the roots of arr1-3 arr12-1 seedlings were less sensitive than wild-type roots to low temperature, in terms of changes in root length and meristem cell number. Furthermore, low temperature reduced the levels of PIN1/3 transcripts and the auxin level to a lesser extent in arr1-3 arr12-1 roots than in wild-type roots, suggesting that cytokinin signaling is involved in the low-temperature-mediated reduction of auxin accumulation. Taken together, our data suggest that low temperature inhibits root growth by reducing auxin accumulation via ARR1/12.

  7. Abscisic acid accumulation modulates auxin transport in the root tip to enhance proton secretion for maintaining root growth under moderate water stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weifeng; Jia, Liguo; Shi, Weiming; Liang, Jiansheng; Zhou, Feng; Li, Qianfeng; Zhang, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance of root growth is essential for plant adaptation to soil drying. Here, we tested the hypothesis that auxin transport is involved in mediating ABA's modulation by activating proton secretion in the root tip to maintain root growth under moderate water stress. Rice and Arabidopsis plants were raised under a hydroponic system and subjected to moderate water stress (-0.47 MPa) with polyethylene glycol (PEG). ABA accumulation, auxin transport and plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity at the root tip were monitored in addition to the primary root elongation and root hair density. We found that moderate water stress increases ABA accumulation and auxin transport in the root apex. Additionally, ABA modulation is involved in the regulation of auxin transport in the root tip. The transported auxin activates the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase to release more protons along the root tip in its adaption to moderate water stress. The proton secretion in the root tip is essential in maintaining or promoting primary root elongation and root hair development under moderate water stress. These results suggest that ABA accumulation modulates auxin transport in the root tip, which enhances proton secretion for maintaining root growth under moderate water stress.

  8. Myosin XIK of Arabidopsis thaliana Accumulates at the Root Hair Tip and Is Required for Fast Root Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eunsook; Nebenführ, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Myosin motor proteins are thought to carry out important functions in the establishment and maintenance of cell polarity by moving cellular components such as organelles, vesicles, or protein complexes along the actin cytoskeleton. In Arabidopsis thaliana, disruption of the myosin XIK gene leads to reduced elongation of the highly polar root hairs, suggesting that the encoded motor protein is involved in this cell growth. Detailed live-cell observations in this study revealed that xik root hairs elongated more slowly and stopped growth sooner than those in wild type. Overall cellular organization including the actin cytoskeleton appeared normal, but actin filament dynamics were reduced in the mutant. Accumulation of RabA4b-containing vesicles, on the other hand, was not significantly different from wild type. A functional YFP-XIK fusion protein that could complement the mutant phenotype accumulated at the tip of growing root hairs in an actin-dependent manner. The distribution of YFP-XIK at the tip, however, did not match that of the ER or several tip-enriched markers including CFP-RabA4b. We conclude that the myosin XIK is required for normal actin dynamics and plays a role in the subapical region of growing root hairs to facilitate optimal growth. PMID:24116145

  9. Impact of copper oxide nanoparticles exposure on Arabidopsis thaliana growth, root system development, root lignificaion, and molecular level changes.

    PubMed

    Nair, Prakash M Gopalakrishnan; Chung, Ill Min

    2014-11-01

    The effect of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) on physiological and molecular level responses were studied in Arabidopsis thaliana. The seedlings were exposed to different concentrations of CuONPs (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 mg/L) for 21 days in half strength Murashige and Skoog medium. The plant biomass significantly reduced under different concentrations (2, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 mg/L) of CuONPs stress. Exposure to 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 mg/L of CuONPs has resulted in significant reduction of total chlorophyll content. The anthocyanin content significantly increased upon exposure to 10, 20, 50, and 100 mg/L of CuONPs. Increased lipid peroxidation was observed upon exposure to 5, 10, and 20 mg/L of CuONPs and amino acid proline content was significantly high in plants exposed to 10 and 20 mg/L of CuONPs. Significant reduction in root elongation was observed upon exposure to 0.5-100 mg/L of CuONPs for 21 days. Exposure to CuONPs has resulted in retardation of primary root growth, enhanced lateral root formation, and also resulted in loss of root gravitropism. Staining with phloroglucionol detected the deposition of lignin in CuONPs-treated roots. Histochemical staining of leaves and roots of CuONPs-exposed plants with nitroblue tetrazolium and 3'3'-diaminobenzidine showed a concentration-dependant increase in superoxide and hydrogen peroxide formation in leaves and roots of CuONPs-exposed plants. Cytotoxicity was observed in root tips of CuONPs-exposed plants as evidenced by increased propidium iodide staining. Real-time PCR analysis showed significant induction of genes related to oxidative stress responses, sulfur assimilation, glutathione, and proline biosynthesis under CuONPs stress.

  10. Consequences of insect herbivory on grape fine root systems with different growth rates.

    PubMed

    Bauerle, T L; Eissenstat, D M; Granett, J; Gardner, D M; Smart, D R

    2007-07-01

    Herbivory tolerance has been linked to plant growth rate where plants with fast growth rates are hypothesized to be more tolerant of herbivory than slower-growing plants. Evidence supporting this theory has been taken primarily from observations of aboveground organs but rarely from roots. Grapevines differing in overall rates of new root production, were studied in Napa Valley, California over two growing seasons in an established vineyard infested with the sucking insect, grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch). The experimental vineyard allowed for the comparison of two root systems that differed in rates of new root tip production (a 'fast grower', Vitis berlandieri x Vitis rupestris cv. 1103P, and a slower-growing stock, Vitis riparia x Vitis rupestris cv. 101-14 Mgt). Each root system was grafted with a genetically identical shoot system (Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot). Using minirhizotrons, we did not observe any evidence of spatial or temporal avoidance of insect populations by root growth. Insect infestations were abundant throughout the soil profile, and seasonal peaks in phylloxera populations generally closely followed peaks in new root production. Our data supported the hypothesis that insect infestation was proportional to the number of growing tips, as indicated by similar per cent infestation in spite of a threefold difference in root tip production. In addition, infested roots of the fast-growing rootstock exhibited somewhat shorter median lifespans (60 d) than the slower-growing rootstock (85 d). Lifespans of uninfested roots were similar for the two rootstocks (200 d). As a consequence of greater root mortality of younger roots, infested root populations in the fast-growing rootstock had an older age structure. While there does not seem to be a trade-off between potential growth rate and relative rate of root infestation in these cultivars, our study indicates that a fast-growing root system may more readily shed infested roots that are

  11. Corn-on-a-chip: Mini-channel Device for Corn Root Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreis, Kevin; Ryu, Sangjin

    2015-11-01

    Plant growth heavily relies on interactions between the root and the soil environment, but it is impossible to observe such interactions because of opaqueness of soil. Microfluidics has been successfully utilized to monitor the root growth behaviors of Arabidopsis. In this study we have chosen Maize as a model plant because of its economic significance, and aim to develop transparent mini-channel devices accommodating the root growth of corn seedlings in a controlled environment. To mimic aspects of the soil environment, we try to impose concentration gradients of key chemical ions to the growing root using the device, and to investigate how the root responds to the applied stimuli. We acknowledge support from NASA Nebraska Space Grant Fellowship.

  12. Summer dormancy and winter growth: root survival strategy in a perennial monocotyledon.

    PubMed

    Shane, Michael W; McCully, Margaret E; Canny, Martin J; Pate, John S; Ngo, Hai; Mathesius, Ulrike; Cawthray, Gregory R; Lambers, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Here, we tested the alternation of root summer dormancy and winter growth as a critical survival strategy for a long-lived monocotyledon (Restionaceae) adapted to harsh seasonal extremes of Mediterranean southwest Western Australia. Measurements of growth and the results of comparative studies of the physiology, water content, metabolites, osmotic adjustments, and proteomics of the dormant and growing perennial roots of Lyginia barbata (Restionaceae) were assessed in field-grown plants. Formation of dormant roots occurred before the onset of summer extremes. They resumed growth (average 2.3 mm d(-1)) the following winter to eventually reach depths of 2-4 m. Compared with winter-growing roots, summer dormant roots had decreased respiration and protein concentration and c. 70% water content, sustained by sand-sheaths, osmotic adjustment and presumably hydraulic redistribution. Concentrations of compatible solutes (e.g. sucrose and proline) were significantly greater during dormancy, presumably mitigating the effects of heat and drought. Fifteen root proteins showed differential abundance and were correlated with either winter growth or summer dormancy. None matched currently available libraries. The specific features of the root dormancy strategy of L. barbata revealed in this study are likely to be important to understanding similar behaviour in roots of many long-lived monocotyledons, including overwintering and oversummering crop species.

  13. Combined effects of bisphenol A and cadmium on growth and nitrate assimilation of soybean seedling roots.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhaoguo; Wang, Lihong; Wang, Qingqing; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2014-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and cadmium (Cd) pollution exist simultaneously in many regions. However, little information is available regarding the combined effects of BPA and Cd pollution on plants. Plant roots are in direct contact with the soil, which is an important compartment of BPA and Cd. In the present study, the effects of combined BPA and Cd pollution on soybean seedling roots were evaluated in pot experiments. Combined treatment with BPA and Cd at low concentrations (1.5 mg/kg BPA and 0.2 mg/kg Cd) improved soybean seedling root growth. However, other combined BPA and Cd treatments, including combined treatment with BPA (Cd) at the low concentration and Cd (BPA) at the high concentration as well as combined treatment with BPA and Cd at the high concentration, inhibited soybean seedling root growth. The improvement or inhibition of soybean seedling root growth was greater in the combined BPA and Cd treatments than in single treatments. The effects of the combined BPA and Cd treatments on root growth resulted from changes in nitrate assimilation. In addition, the combined effects of BPA and Cd on the nitrate and ammonium contents in roots are discussed. The present research provides a basic understanding of the combined effects of BPA and Cd pollution on plant roots.

  14. Phytotoxic cyanamide affects maize (Zea mays) root growth and root tip function: from structure to gene expression.

    PubMed

    Soltys, Dorota; Rudzińska-Langwald, Anna; Kurek, Wojciech; Szajko, Katarzyna; Sliwinska, Elwira; Bogatek, Renata; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka

    2014-05-01

    Cyanamide (CA) is a phytotoxic compound produced by four Fabaceae species: hairy vetch, bird vetch, purple vetch and black locust. Its toxicity is due to complex activity that involves the modification of both cellular structures and physiological processes. To date, CA has been investigated mainly in dicot plants. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of CA in the restriction of the root growth of maize (Zea mays), representing the monocot species. CA (3mM) reduced the number of border cells in the root tips of maize seedlings and degraded their protoplasts. However, CA did not induce any significant changes in the organelle structure of other root cells, apart from increased vacuolization. CA toxicity was also demonstrated by its effect on cell cycle activity, endoreduplication intensity, and modifications of cyclins CycA2, CycD2, and histone HisH3 gene expression. In contrast, the arrangement of microtubules was not altered by CA. Treatment of maize seedlings with CA did not completely arrest mitotic activity, although the frequency of dividing cells was reduced. Furthermore, prolonged CA treatment increased the proportion of endopolyploid cells in the root tip. Cytological malformations were accompanied by an induction of oxidative stress in root cells, which manifested as enhanced accumulation of H2O2. Exposure of maize seedlings to CA resulted in an increased concentration of auxin and stimulated ethylene emission. Taken together, these findings suggested that the inhibition of root growth by CA may be a consequence of stress-induced morphogenic responses.

  15. Growth and microtubule orientation of Zea mays roots subjected to osmotic stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blancaflor, E. B.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1995-01-01

    Previous work has shown that microtubule (MT) reorientation follows the onset of growth inhibition on the lower side of graviresponding roots, indicating that growth reduction can occur independently of MT reorientation. To test this observation further, we examined whether the reduction in growth in response to osmotic stress is correlated with MT reorientation. The distribution and rate of growth in maize roots exposed to 350 mOsm sorbitol and KCl or 5 mM Mes/Tris buffer were measured with a digitizer. After various times roots were processed for indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Application of sorbitol or KCl had no effect on the organization of MTs in the apical 2 mm of the root but resulted in striking and different effects in the basal region of the root. Sorbitol treatment caused rapid appearance of oval to circular holes in the microtubular array that persisted for at least 9 h. Between 30 min and 4 h of submersion in KCl, MTs in cortical cells 4 mm and farther from the quiescent center began to reorient oblique to the longitudinal axis. After 9 h, the alignment of MTs had shifted to parallel to the root axis but MTs of the epidermal cells remained transverse. In KCl-treated roots MT reorientation appeared to follow a pattern of development similar to that in controls but without elongation. Our data provide additional evidence that MT reorientation is not the cause but a consequence of growth inhibition.

  16. Auxin, ethylene and the regulation of root growth under mechanical impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rameshwar; Santisree, Parankusam; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju

    2012-07-01

    Among the multitude functions performed by plant roots, little information is available about the mechanisms that allow roots to overcome the soil resistance, in order to grow in the soil to obtain water and nutrient. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedlings grown on horizontally placed agar plates showed a progressive decline in the root length with the increasing impedance of agar media. The incubation with 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP), an inhibitor of ethylene perception, led to aerial growth of roots. In contrast, in absence of 1-MCP control roots grew horizontally anchored to the agar surface. Though 1-MCP-treated and control seedlings showed differential ability to penetrate in the agar, the inhibition of root elongation was nearly similar for both treatments. While increased mechanical impedance also progressively impaired hypocotyl elongation in 1-MCP treated seedlings, it did not affect the hypocotyl length of control seedlings. The decline in root elongation was also associated with increased expression of DR5::GUS activity in the root tip signifying accumulation of auxin at the root tip. The increased expression of DR5::GUS activity in the root tip was also observed in 1-MCP treated seedlings, indicating independence of this response from ethylene signaling. Our results indicate operation of a sensing mechanism in root that likely operates independently of ethylene but involves auxin to determine the degree of impedance of the substratum.

  17. Intracerebroventricular administration of nerve growth factor induces gliogenesis in sensory ganglia, dorsal root, and within the dorsal root entry zone.

    PubMed

    Schlachetzki, Johannes C M; Pizzo, Donald P; Morrissette, Debbi A; Winkler, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that intracerebroventricular administration of nerve growth factor (NGF) leads to massive Schwann cell hyperplasia surrounding the medulla oblongata and spinal cord. This study was designed to characterize the proliferation of peripheral glial cells, that is, Schwann and satellite cells, in the trigeminal ganglia and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of adult rats during two weeks of NGF infusion using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. The trigeminal ganglia as well as the cervical and lumbar DRG were analyzed. Along the entire neuraxis a small number of dividing cells were observed within these regions under physiological condition. NGF infusion has dramatically increased the generation of new cells in the neuronal soma and axonal compartments of sensory ganglia and along the dorsal root and the dorsal root entry zone. Quantification of BrdU positive cells within sensory ganglia revealed a 2.3- to 3-fold increase in glial cells compared to controls with a similar response to NGF for the different peripheral ganglia examined. Immunofluorescent labeling with S100β revealed that Schwann and satellite cells underwent mitosis after NGF administration. These data indicate that intracerebroventricular NGF infusion significantly induces gliogenesis in trigeminal ganglia and the spinal sensory ganglia and along the dorsal root entry zone as well as the dorsal root.

  18. Alterations in plant growth and in root hormone levels of lodgepole pines inoculated with rhizobacteria.

    PubMed

    Bent, E; Tuzun, S; Chanway, C P; Enebak, S

    2001-09-01

    The presence of other soil microorganisms might influence the ability of rhizobacterial inoculants to promote plant growth either by reducing contact between the inoculant and the plant root or by interfering with the mechanism(s) involved in rhizobacterially mediated growth promotion. We conducted the following experiments to determine whether reductions in the extent of growth promotion of lodgepole pine mediated by Paenibacillus polymyxa occur in the presence of a forest soil isolate (Pseudomonas fluorescens M20) and whether changes in plant growth promotion mediated by P. polymyxa (i) are related to changes in P. polymyxa density in the rhizosphere or (ii) result from alterations in root hormone levels. The extent of plant growth, P. polymyxa rhizosphere density, and root hormone concentrations were determined for lodgepole pine treated with (i) a single growth-promoting rhizobacterial strain (P. polymyxa L6 or Pw-2) or (ii) a combination of bacteria: strain L6 + strain M20 or strain Pw-2 + strain M20. There was no difference in the growth of pines inoculated with strain L6 and those inoculated with strain L6 + strain M20. However, seedlings inoculated with strain Pw-2 had more lateral roots and greater root mass at 12 weeks after inoculation than plants inoculated with strain Pw-2 + strain M20. The extent of growth promotion mediated by P. polymyxa L6 and Pw-2 in each treatment was not correlated to the average population density of each strain in the rhizosphere. Bacterial species-specific effects were observed in root hormone levels: indole-3-acetic acid concentration was elevated in roots inoculated with P. polymyxa L6 or Pw-2, while dihydrozeatin riboside concentration was elevated in roots inoculated with P. fluorescens M20.

  19. The Regulation of Growth in the Distal Elongation Zone of Maize Roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    The major goals of the proposed research were 1. To develop specialized software for automated whole surface root expansion analysis and to develop technology for controlled placement of surface electrodes for analysis of relationships between root growth and root pH and electrophysiological properties. 2. To measure surface pH patterns and determine the possible role of proton flux in gravitropic sensing or response, and 3. To determine the role of auxin transport in establishment of patterns of proton flux and electrical gradients during the gravitropic response of roots with special emphasis on the role of the distal elongation zone in the early phases of the gravitropic response.

  20. Influence of nitrogen and phosphorous on the growth and root morphology of Acer mono

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Shen, Hai-long; Salahuddin

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorous are critical determinants of plant growth and productivity, and both plant growth and root morphology are important parameters for evaluating the effects of supplied nutrients. Previous work has shown that the growth of Acer mono seedlings is retarded under nursery conditions; we applied different levels of N (0, 5, 10, and 15 g plant-1) and P (0, 4, 6 and 8 g plant-1) fertilizer to investigate the effects of fertilization on the growth and root morphology of four-year-old seedlings in the field. Our results indicated that both N and P application significantly affected plant height, root collar diameter, chlorophyll content, and root morphology. Among the nutrient levels, 10 g N and 8 g P were found to yield maximum growth, and the maximum values of plant height, root collar diameter, chlorophyll content, and root morphology were obtained when 10 g N and 8 g P were used together. Therefore, the present study demonstrates that optimum levels of N and P can be used to improve seedling health and growth during the nursery period. PMID:28234921

  1. Root growth and plant biomass in Lolium perenne exploring a nutrient-rich patch in soil.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ryoji; Kachi, Naoki; Suzuki, Jun-Ichirou

    2008-11-01

    We investigated soil exploration by roots and plant growth in a heterogeneous environment to determine whether roots can selectively explore a nutrient-rich patch, and how nutrient heterogeneity affects biomass allocation and total biomass before a patch is reached. Lolium perenne L. plants were grown in a factorial experiment with combinations of fertilization (heterogeneous and homogeneous) and day of harvest (14, 28, 42, or 56 days after transplanting). The plant in the heterogeneous treatment was smaller in its mean total biomass, and allocated more biomass to roots. The distributions of root length and root biomass in the heterogeneous treatment did not favor the nutrient-rich patch, and did not correspond to the patchy distribution of inorganic nitrogen. Specific root length (length/biomass) was higher and root elongation was more extensive both laterally and vertically in the heterogeneous treatment. These characteristics may enable plants to acquire nutrients efficiently and increase the probability of encountering nutrient-rich patches in a heterogeneous soil. However, heterogeneity of soil nutrients would hold back plant growth before a patch was reached. Therefore, although no significant selective root placement in the nutrient-rich patch was observed, plant growth before reaching nutrient-rich patches differed between heterogeneous and homogeneous environments.

  2. Comparative effects of auxin and abscisic acid on growth, hydrogen ion efflux and gravitropism in primary roots of maize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, M. L.; Mulkey, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    In order to test the idea that auxin action on root growth may be mediated by H(+) movement, the correlation of auxin action on growth and H(+) movement in roots was examined along with changes in H(+) efflux patterns associated with the asymmetric growth which occurs during gravitropism. The effects of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (AbA) on growth, H(+) secretion, and gravitropism in roots were compared. Results show a close correlation existent between H(+) efflux and growth in maize roots. In intact roots there is strong H(+) efflux from the elongation zone. Growth-promoting concentrations of IAA stimulate H(+) efflux. During gravitropism the H(+) efflux from the elongation zone becomes asymmetric; the evidence indicates that auxin redistribution contributes to the development of acid efflux asymmetry. That AbA stimulates root growth is reflected in its ability to stimulate H(+) efflux from apical root segments.

  3. Growth of plant root cultures in liquid- and gas-dispersed reactor environments.

    PubMed

    McKelvey, S A; Gehrig, J A; Hollar, K A; Curtis, W R

    1993-01-01

    The growth of Agrobacterium transformed "hairy root" cultures of Hyoscyamus muticus was examined in various liquid- and gas-dispersed bioreactor configurations. Reactor runs were replicated to provide statistical comparisons of nutrient availability on culture performance. Accumulated tissue mass in submerged air-sparged reactors was 31% of gyratory shake-flask controls. Experiments demonstrate that poor performance of sparged reactors is not due to bubble shear damage, carbon dioxide stripping, settling, or flotation of roots. Impaired oxygen transfer due to channeling and stagnation of the liquid phase are the apparent causes of poor growth. Roots grown on a medium-perfused inclined plane grew at 48% of gyratory controls. This demonstrates the ability of cultures to partially compensate for poor liquid distribution through vascular transport of nutrients. A reactor configuration in which the medium is sprayed over the roots and permitted to drain down through the root tissue was able to provide growth rates which are statistically indistinguishable (95% T-test) from gyratory shake-flask controls. In this type of spray/trickle-bed configuration, it is shown that distribution of the roots becomes a key factor in controlling the rate of growth. Implications of these results regarding design and scale-up of bioreactors to produce fine chemicals from root cultures are discussed.

  4. Dynamic root growth and architecture responses to limiting nutrient availability: linking physiological models and experimentation.

    PubMed

    Postma, Johannes A; Schurr, Ulrich; Fiorani, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the study of root phenotypic plasticity in response to sub-optimal environmental factors and the genetic control of these responses have received renewed attention. As a path to increased productivity, in particular for low fertility soils, several applied research projects worldwide target the improvement of crop root traits both in plant breeding and biotechnology contexts. To assist these tasks and address the challenge of optimizing root growth and architecture for enhanced mineral resource use, the development of realistic simulation models is of great importance. We review this research field from a modeling perspective focusing particularly on nutrient acquisition strategies for crop production on low nitrogen and low phosphorous soils. Soil heterogeneity and the dynamics of nutrient availability in the soil pose a challenging environment in which plants have to forage efficiently for nutrients in order to maintain their internal nutrient homeostasis throughout their life cycle. Mathematical models assist in understanding plant growth strategies and associated root phenes that have potential to be tested and introduced in physiological breeding programs. At the same time, we stress that it is necessary to carefully consider model assumptions and development from a whole plant-resource allocation perspective and to introduce or refine modules simulating explicitly root growth and architecture dynamics through ontogeny with reference to key factors that constrain root growth. In this view it is important to understand negative feedbacks such as plant-plant competition. We conclude by briefly touching on available and developing technologies for quantitative root phenotyping from lab to field, from quantification of partial root profiles in the field to 3D reconstruction of whole root systems. Finally, we discuss how these approaches can and should be tightly linked to modeling to explore the root phenome.

  5. Cell wall-associated ROOT HAIR SPECIFIC 10, a proline-rich receptor-like kinase, is a negative modulator of Arabidopsis root hair growth

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Youra; Lee, Hyodong; Lee, Young-Sook; Cho, Hyung-Taeg

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell growth is restricted by the cell wall, and cell wall dynamics act as signals for the cytoplasmic and nuclear events of cell growth. Among various receptor kinases, ROOT HAIR SPECIFIC 10 (RHS10) belongs to a poorly known receptor kinase subfamily with a proline-rich extracellular domain. Here, we report that RHS10 defines the root hair length of Arabidopsis thaliana by negatively regulating hair growth. RHS10 modulates the duration of root hair growth rather than the growth rate. As poplar and rice RHS10 orthologs also showed a root hair-inhibitory function, this receptor kinase-mediated function appears to be conserved in angiosperms. RHS10 showed a strong association with the cell wall, most probably through its extracellular proline-rich domain (ECD). Deletion analysis of the ECD demonstrated that a minimal extracellular part, which includes a few proline residues, is required for RHS10-mediated root hair inhibition. RHS10 suppressed the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the root, which are necessary for root hair growth. A yeast two-hybrid screening identified an RNase (RNS2) as a putative downstream target of RHS10. Accordingly, RHS10 overexpression decreased and RHS10 loss increased RNA levels in the hair-growing root region. Our results suggest that RHS10 mediates cell wall-associated signals to maintain proper root hair length, at least in part by regulating RNA catabolism and ROS accumulation. PMID:26884603

  6. Soil microbial biomass and root growth in Bt and non-Bt cotton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, D. K. Y.; Broughton, K.; Knox, O. G.; Hulugalle, N. R.

    2012-04-01

    The introduction of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has had a substantial impact on pest management in the cotton industry. While there has been substantial research done on the impact of Bt on the above-ground parts of the cotton plant, less is known about the effect of Bt genes on below ground growth of cotton and soil microbial biomass. The aim of this research was to test the hypothesis that Bt [Sicot 80 BRF (Bollgard II Roundup Ready Flex®)] and non-Bt [Sicot 80 RRF (Roundup Ready Flex®)] transgenic cotton varieties differ in root growth and root turnover, carbon indices and microbial biomass. A field experiment was conducted in Narrabri, north-western NSW. The experimental layout was a randomised block design and used minirhizotron and core break and root washing methods to measure cotton root growth and turnover during the 2008/09 season. Root growth in the surface 0-0.1 m of the soil was measured using the core break and root washing methods, and that in the 0.1 to 1 m depth was measured with a minirhizotron and an I-CAP image capture system. These measurements were used to calculate root length per unit area, root carbon added to the soil through intra-seasonal root death, carbon in roots remaining at the end of the season and root carbon potentially added to the soil. Microbial biomass was also measured using the ninhydrin reactive N method. Root length densities and length per unit area of non-Bt cotton were greater than Bt cotton. There were no differences in root turnover between Bt and non-Bt cotton at 0-1 m soil depth, indicating that soil organic carbon stocks may not be affected by cotton variety. Cotton variety did not have an effect on soil microbial biomass. The results indicate that while there are differences in root morphology between Bt and non-Bt cotton, these do not change the carbon turnover dynamics in the soil.

  7. The transcription factor OBP4 controls root growth and promotes callus formation.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Parra, Elena; Perianez-Rodriguez, Juan; Navarro-Neila, Sara; Gude, Inmaculada; Moreno-Risueno, Miguel A; Del Pozo, Juan C

    2017-03-01

    Plant growth and development require a continuous balance between cell division and differentiation. In root meristems, differentiated cells acquire specialized functions, losing their mitotic potential. Some plant cells, such as pericycle cells, have a remarkable plasticity to regenerate new organs. The molecular mechanisms underlying cell reprogramming are not completely known. In this work, a functional screening of transcription factors identified Arabidopsis OBP4 (OBF Binding Protein 4) as a novel regulator of root growth and cell elongation and differentiation. Overexpression of OBP4 regulates the levels of a large number of transcripts in roots, many involved in hormonal signaling and callus formation. OBP4 controls cell elongation and differentiation in root cells. OBP4 does not induce cell division in the root meristem, but promotes pericycle cell proliferation, forming callus-like structures at the root tip, as shown by the expression of stem cell markers. Callus formation is enhanced by ectopic expression of OBP4 in the wild-type or alf4-1, but is significantly reduced in roots that have lower levels of OBP4. Our data provide molecular insights into how differentiated root cells acquire the potential to generate callus, a pluripotent mass of cells that can regenerate fully functional plant organs.

  8. Determination of zinc oxide nanoparticles toxicity in root growth in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Meppaloor G; Chung, Ill Min

    2016-09-01

    The effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) was studied in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings under in vitro exposure conditions. To avoid precipitation of nanoparticles, the seedlings were grown in half strength semisolid Murashige and Skoog medium containing 0, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 500 mg L(-1) of ZnONPs. Analysis of zinc (Zn) content showed significant increase in roots. In vivo detection using fluorescent probe Zynpyr-1 indicated accumulation of Zn in primary and lateral root tips. All concentrations of ZnONPs significantly reduced root growth. However, significant decrease in shoot growth was observed only after exposure to 400 and 500 mg L(-1) of ZnONPs. The reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation levels significantly increased in roots. Significant increase in cell-wall bound peroxidase activity was observed after exposure to 500 mg L(-1) of ZnONPs. Histochemical staining with phloroglucinol-HCl showed lignification of root cells upon exposure to 500 mg L(-1) of ZnONPs. Treatment with propidium iodide indicated loss of cell viability in root tips of wheat seedlings. These results suggest that redox imbalances, lignification and cell death has resulted in reduction of root growth in wheat seedlings exposed to ZnONPs nanoparticles.

  9. Elicitors from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma atroviride promote Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root growth and tanshinone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ming, Qianliang; Su, Chunyan; Zheng, Chengjian; Jia, Min; Zhang, Qiaoyan; Zhang, Hong; Rahman, Khalid; Han, Ting; Qin, Luping

    2013-12-01

    Biotic elicitors can be used to stimulate the production of secondary metabolites in plants. However, limited information is available on the effects of biotic elicitors from endophytic fungi on their host plant. Trichoderma atroviride D16 is an endophytic fungus isolated from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza and previously reported to produce tanshinone I (T-I) and tanshinone IIA (T-IIA). Here, the effects of extract of mycelium (EM) and the polysaccharide fraction (PSF), produced by T. atroviride D16, on the growth and secondary metabolism of S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots are reported. The results indicated that both EM and PSF promoted hairy root growth and stimulated the biosynthesis of tanshinones in hairy roots. EM slightly suppressed the accumulation of phenolic acids, while PSF had no significant influence on the accumulation of these compounds. When comparing the effects of EM versus PSF, it was concluded that PSF is one of the main active constituents responsible for promoting hairy root growth, as well as stimulating biosynthesis of tanshinones in the hairy root cultures. Moreover, the transcriptional activity of genes involved in the tanshinone biosynthetic pathway increased significantly with PSF treatment. Thus, PSF from endophytic T. atroviride D16 affected the chemical composition of the host plant by influencing the expression of genes related to the secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, treatment with PSF can be effectively utilized for large-scale production of tanshinones in the S. miltiorrhiza hairy root culture system.

  10. Overexpression of Arabidopsis plasmodesmata germin-like proteins disrupts root growth and development.

    PubMed

    Ham, Byung-Kook; Li, Gang; Kang, Byung-Ho; Zeng, Fanchang; Lucas, William J

    2012-09-01

    In plants, a population of non-cell-autonomous proteins (NCAPs), including numerous transcription factors, move cell to cell through plasmodesmata (PD). In many cases, the intercellular trafficking of these NCAPs is regulated by their interaction with specific PD components. To gain further insight into the functions of this NCAP pathway, coimmunoprecipitation experiments were performed on a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plasmodesmal-enriched cell wall protein preparation using as bait the NCAP, pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) PHLOEM PROTEIN16 (Cm-PP16). A Cm-PP16 interaction partner, Nt-PLASMODESMAL GERMIN-LIKE PROTEIN1 (Nt-PDGLP1) was identified and shown to be a PD-located component. Arabidopsis thaliana putative orthologs, PDGLP1 and PDGLP2, were identified; expression studies indicated that, postgermination, these proteins were preferentially expressed in the root system. The PDGLP1 signal peptide was shown to function in localization to the PD by a novel mechanism involving the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi secretory pathway. Overexpression of various tagged versions altered root meristem function, leading to reduced primary root but enhanced lateral root growth. This effect on root growth was corrected with an inability of these chimeric proteins to form stable PD-localized complexes. PDGLP1 and PDGLP2 appear to be involved in regulating primary root growth by controlling phloem-mediated allocation of resources between the primary and lateral root meristems.

  11. Physiological minimum temperatures for root growth in seven common European broad-leaved tree species.

    PubMed

    Schenker, Gabriela; Lenz, Armando; Körner, Christian; Hoch, Günter

    2014-03-01

    Temperature is the most important factor driving the cold edge distribution limit of temperate trees. Here, we identified the minimum temperatures for root growth in seven broad-leaved tree species, compared them with the species' natural elevational limits and identified morphological changes in roots produced near their physiological cold limit. Seedlings were exposed to a vertical soil-temperature gradient from 20 to 2 °C along the rooting zone for 18 weeks. In all species, the bulk of roots was produced at temperatures above 5 °C. However, the absolute minimum temperatures for root growth differed among species between 2.3 and 4.2 °C, with those species that reach their natural distribution limits at higher elevations also tending to have lower thermal limits for root tissue formation. In all investigated species, the roots produced at temperatures close to the thermal limit were pale, thick, unbranched and of reduced mechanical strength. Across species, the specific root length (m g(-1) root) was reduced by, on average, 60% at temperatures below 7 °C. A significant correlation of minimum temperatures for root growth with the natural high elevation limits of the investigated species indicates species-specific thermal requirements for basic physiological processes. Although these limits are not necessarily directly causative for the upper distribution limit of a species, they seem to belong to a syndrome of adaptive processes for life at low temperatures. The anatomical changes at the cold limit likely hint at the mechanisms impeding meristematic activity at low temperatures.

  12. A pathway of bisphenol A affecting mineral element contents in plant roots at different growth stages.

    PubMed

    Xia, Binxin; Wang, Lihong; Nie, Lijun; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental endocrine disruptor, is an important industrial raw material. The wide use of BPA has increased the risk of BPA release into the environment, and it has become a new environmental pollutant. In this work, the ecological deleterious effects of this new pollutant on soybean roots at different growth stages were investigated by determining the contents of mineral elements (P, K, Ca, and Mg) and analyzing root activity and the activities of critical respiratory enzymes (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase). Our results revealed that low dose (1.5mg/L) of BPA increased the levels of P, K, Mg, and Ca in soybean roots at different growth stages. Whereas, high doses (6.0 and 12.0mg/L) of BPA decreased the levels of P, K, and Mg contents in a dose-dependent manner. BPA had a promotive effect on the content of Ca in soybean roots. Synchronous observation showed that the aforementioned dual response to BPA were also observed in the root activity and respiratory enzyme activities. The effects of BPA on the mineral element contents, root activity and respiratory enzyme activities in soybean roots at different growth stages followed the order: flowering and podding stage>seed-filling stage>seedling stage (mineral element contents); seedling stage>flowering and podding stage>seed-filling stage (root activity and respiratory enzyme activities). In a word, the response of plant root activity and respiratory enzyme activities to BPA pollution is a pathway of BPA affecting mineral element contents in plant roots.

  13. Modeling hairy root tissue growth in in vitro environments using an agent-based, structured growth model.

    PubMed

    Lenk, Felix; Sürmann, Almuth; Oberthür, Patrick; Schneider, Mandy; Steingroewer, Juliane; Bley, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    An agent-based model for simulating the in vitro growth of Beta vulgaris hairy root cultures is described. The model fitting is based on experimental results and can be used as a virtual experimentator for root networks. It is implemented in the JAVA language and is designed to be easily modified to describe the growth of diverse biological root networks. The basic principles of the model are outlined, with descriptions of all of the relevant algorithms using the ODD protocol, and a case study is presented in which it is used to simulate the development of hairy root cultures of beetroot (Beta vulgaris) in a Petri dish. The model can predict various properties of the developing network, including the total root length, branching point distribution, segment distribution and secondary metabolite accumulation. It thus provides valuable information that can be used when optimizing cultivation parameters (e.g., medium composition) and the cultivation environment (e.g., the cultivation temperature) as well as how constructional parameters change the morphology of the root network. An image recognition solution was used to acquire experimental data that were used when fitting the model and to evaluate the agreement between the simulated results and practical experiments. Overall, the case study simulation closely reproduced experimental results for the cultures grown under equivalent conditions to those assumed in the simulation. A 3D-visualization solution was created to display the simulated results relating to the state of the root network and its environment (e.g., oxygen and nutrient levels).

  14. The small GTPase ROP10 of Medicago truncatula is required for both tip growth of root hairs and nod factor-induced root hair deformation.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ming-Juan; Wang, Qi; Li, Xiaolin; Chen, Aimin; Luo, Li; Xie, Yajun; Li, Guan; Luo, Da; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Wen, Jiangqi; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Staehelin, Christian; Wang, Yan-Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Rhizobia preferentially enter legume root hairs via infection threads, after which root hairs undergo tip swelling, branching, and curling. However, the mechanisms underlying such root hair deformation are poorly understood. Here, we showed that a type II small GTPase, ROP10, of Medicago truncatula is localized at the plasma membrane (PM) of root hair tips to regulate root hair tip growth. Overexpression of ROP10 and a constitutively active mutant (ROP10CA) generated depolarized growth of root hairs, whereas a dominant negative mutant (ROP10DN) inhibited root hair elongation. Inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti, the depolarized swollen and ballooning root hairs exhibited extensive root hair deformation and aberrant infection symptoms. Upon treatment with rhizobia-secreted nodulation factors (NFs), ROP10 was transiently upregulated in root hairs, and ROP10 fused to green fluorescent protein was ectopically localized at the PM of NF-induced outgrowths and curls around rhizobia. ROP10 interacted with the kinase domain of the NF receptor NFP in a GTP-dependent manner. Moreover, NF-induced expression of the early nodulin gene ENOD11 was enhanced by the overexpression of ROP10 and ROP10CA. These data suggest that NFs spatiotemporally regulate ROP10 localization and activity at the PM of root hair tips and that interactions between ROP10 and NF receptors are required for root hair deformation and continuous curling during rhizobial infection.

  15. Modeling potato root growth and water uptake under water stress conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) growth and yield are sensitive to drought starting at mild stress levels. Accurate simulation of root growth is critical for estimating water and nutrient uptake dynamics of major crops and improving agricultural decision support tools for natural resource management. ...

  16. CARRY-OVER EFFECTS OF OZONE ON ROOT GROWTH AND CARBOHYDRATE CONCENTRATIONS OF PONDEROSA PINE SEEDLINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone exposure decreases belowground carbon allocation and root growth of plants;however,the extent to which these effects persist and the cumulative impact of ozone stress on plant growth are poorly understood.To evaluate the potential for plant compensation,we followed the prog...

  17. Seedling root responses to soil moisture and the identification of a belowground trait spectrum across three growth forms.

    PubMed

    Larson, Julie E; Funk, Jennifer L

    2016-05-01

    Root trait variation and plasticity could be key factors differentiating plant performance under drought. However, water manipulation and root measurements are rarely coupled empirically across growth forms to identify whether belowground strategies are generalizable across species. We measured seedling root traits across three moisture levels in 18 Mediterranean forbs, grasses, and woody species. Drought increased the root mass fraction (RMF) and decreased the relative proportion of thin roots (indicated by increased root diameters and decreased specific root length (SRL)), rates of root elongation and growth, plant nitrogen uptake, and plant growth. Although responses varied across species, plasticity was not associated with growth form. Woody species differed from forbs and grasses in many traits, but herbaceous groups were similar. Across water treatments, trait correlations suggested a single spectrum of belowground trade-offs related to resource acquisition and plant growth. While effects of SRL and RMF on plant growth shifted with drought, root elongation rate consistently represented this spectrum. We demonstrate that general patterns of root morphology and plasticity are identifiable across diverse species. Root trait measurements should enhance our understanding of belowground strategy and performance across growth forms, but it will be critical to incorporate plasticity and additional aspects of root function into these efforts.

  18. Plant responses to heterogeneous salinity: growth of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia is determined by the root-weighted mean salinity of the root zone.

    PubMed

    Bazihizina, Nadia; Barrett-Lennard, Edward G; Colmer, Timothy D

    2012-11-01

    Soil salinity is generally spatially heterogeneous, but our understanding of halophyte physiology under such conditions is limited. The growth and physiology of the dicotyledonous halophyte Atriplex nummularia was evaluated in split-root experiments to test whether growth is determined by: (i) the lowest; (ii) the highest; or (iii) the mean salinity of the root zone. In two experiments, plants were grown with uniform salinities or horizontally heterogeneous salinities (10-450 mM NaCl in the low-salt side and 670 mM in the high-salt side, or 10 mM NaCl in the low-salt side and 500-1500 mM in the high-salt side). The combined data showed that growth and gas exchange parameters responded most closely to the root-weighted mean salinity rather than to the lowest, mean, or highest salinity in the root zone. In contrast, midday shoot water potentials were determined by the lowest salinity in the root zone, consistent with most water being taken from the least negative water potential source. With uniform salinity, maximum shoot growth was at 120-230 mM NaCl; ~90% of maximum growth occurred at 10 mM and 450 mM NaCl. Exposure of part of the roots to 1500 mM NaCl resulted in an enhanced (+40%) root growth on the low-salt side, which lowered root-weighted mean salinity and enabled the maintenance of shoot growth. Atriplex nummularia grew even with extreme salinity in part of the roots, as long as the root-weighted mean salinity of the root zone was within the 10-450 mM range.

  19. [Effects of partial root excision on the growth, photosynthesis, and antioxidant enzyme activities of maize under salt stress].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Cui, Li-Na; Meng, Jia-Jia; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Shi, De-Yang; Dong, Shu-Ting; Zhang, Ji-Wang; Liu, Peng

    2012-12-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of partial root excision on the growth of two maize cultivars (Zhengdan 958 and Denghai 9) throughout their growth period and the photosynthesis and leaf antioxidant enzyme activities at grain-filling stage under salt stress. Four treatments were installed, i. e., control (no salt), low salt (0.2% NaCl), moderate salt (0.4% NaCl), and high salt (0.6% NaCl). Under low salt stress, the grain yield of Zhengdan 958 and Denghai 9 with partial root excision was increased by 13.1% and 31.4%, respectively, as compared with that of the cultivars with no root excision. At jointing stage, the growth of the cultivars with partial root excision was restrained, the root- and shoot dry masses under the same salt stresses being lesser than those of the cultivars with no root excision, but the growth under the conditions of no salt and low salt recovered quickly. At milk-ripe stage and under no salt and low salt conditions, the root- and shoot dry masses, leaf area, total root length, total root surface area, root activity, leaf chlorophyll content, and ear leaf net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and CAT and POD activities of the cultivars with partial root excision were significantly larger than those of the cultivars with no root excision, while the shoot diameter and ear leaf MDA content were in adverse. Moderate and high salt stresses had greater effects on the cultivars with partial root excision. The root- and shoot dry masses, root morphology, and photosynthesis indices of the cultivars with partial root excision were smaller than those of the cultivars with no root excision, so did the grain yields. Throughout the growth period of the cultivars, the growth of the cultivars with partial root excision depended on the salt concentration, i. e., was promoted under no and low salt, and inhibited under moderate and high salt conditions.

  20. Experimental observations of root growth in a controlled photoelastic granular material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Serge; Bares, Jonathan; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Fourcaud, Thierry

    The mechanism of root growth in soil is a key issue to understand both how to improve plant development and how to stabilize grounds. However, no experimental studies have been carried out to directly observe root development and surrounding stress while imposing specific grain configurations or mechanical loading. We present a novel set-up which permits to observe the development of chickpea root networks in a 2D granular material made of bidisperse photoelastic discs while imposing the position of the grains, the intergranular spacing and the nature of the system confinement: (i) open cell, (ii) confined cell (iii) sheared cell. In the experimental apparatus several root development cells are treated in parallel to increase the statistical meaning of the observations. Evolution of the root network is followed as well as position and pressure inside each disc by mean of a camera and classical photoelastic techniques. Preliminary results will be presented.

  1. Lignification and related enzymes in Glycine max root growth-inhibition by ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes L; Finger, Aline; Teixeira, Aline C N; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2004-06-01

    Changes in soluble and cell wall bound peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) activity, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) activity, and lignin content in roots of ferulic acid-stressed soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seedlings and their relationships with root growth were investigated. Three-day-old soybean seedlings were cultivated in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution containing 1.0 mM ferulic acid for 24-72 hr. Length, fresh weight, and dry weight of roots decreased, while soluble and cell wall bound POD activity, PAL activity, and lignin content increased after ferulic acid treatment. These enzymes probably participate in root growth reduction in association with cell wall stiffening related to the formation of cross-linking among cell wall polymers and lignin production.

  2. Influence of Microgravity Environment on Root Growth, Soluble Sugars, and Starch Concentration of Sweetpotato Stem Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Mortley, Desmond G.; Bonsi, Conrad K.; Hill, Walter A.; Morris, Carlton E.; Williams, Carol S.; Davis, Ceyla F.; Williams, John W.; Levine, Lanfang H.; Petersen, Barbara V.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2009-01-01

    Because sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] stem cuttings regenerate very easily and quickly, a study of their early growth and development in microgravity could be useful to an understanding of morphological changes that might occur under such conditions for crops that are propagated vegetatively. An experiment was conducted aboard a U.S. Space Shuttle to investigate the impact of microgravity on root growth, distribution of amyloplasts in the root cells, and on the concentration of soluble sugars and starch in the stems of sweetpotatoes. Twelve stem cuttings of ‘Whatley/Loretan’ sweetpotato (5 cm long) with three to four nodes were grown in each of two plant growth units filled with a nutrient agarose medium impregnated with a half-strength Hoagland solution. One plant growth unit was flown on Space Shuttle Colombia for 5 days, whereas the other remained on the ground as a control. The cuttings were received within 2 h postflight and, along with ground controls, processed in ≈45 min. Adventitious roots were counted, measured, and fixed for electron microscopy and stems frozen for starch and sugar assays. Air samples were collected from the headspace of each plant growth unit for postflight determination of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and ethylene levels. All stem cuttings produced adventitious roots and growth was quite vigorous in both ground-based and flight samples and, except for a slight browning of some root tips in the flight samples, all stem cuttings appeared normal. The roots on the flight cuttings tended to grow in random directions. Also, stem cuttings grown in microgravity had more roots and greater total root length than ground-based controls. Amyloplasts in root cap cells of ground-based controls were evenly sedimented toward one end compared with a more random distribution in the flight samples. The concentration of soluble sugars, glucose, fructose, and sucrose and total starch concentration were all substantially greater in the stems of

  3. Spatial Regulation of Root Growth: Placing the Plant TOR Pathway in a Developmental Perspective.

    PubMed

    Barrada, Adam; Montané, Marie-Hélène; Robaglia, Christophe; Menand, Benoît

    2015-08-19

    Plant cells contain specialized structures, such as a cell wall and a large vacuole, which play a major role in cell growth. Roots follow an organized pattern of development, making them the organs of choice for studying the spatio-temporal regulation of cell proliferation and growth in plants. During root growth, cells originate from the initials surrounding the quiescent center, proliferate in the division zone of the meristem, and then increase in length in the elongation zone, reaching their final size and differentiation stage in the mature zone. Phytohormones, especially auxins and cytokinins, control the dynamic balance between cell division and differentiation and therefore organ size. Plant growth is also regulated by metabolites and nutrients, such as the sugars produced by photosynthesis or nitrate assimilated from the soil. Recent literature has shown that the conserved eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase pathway plays an important role in orchestrating plant growth. We will summarize how the regulation of cell proliferation and cell expansion by phytohormones are at the heart of root growth and then discuss recent data indicating that the TOR pathway integrates hormonal and nutritive signals to orchestrate root growth.

  4. Spatial Regulation of Root Growth: Placing the Plant TOR Pathway in a Developmental Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Barrada, Adam; Montané, Marie-Hélène; Robaglia, Christophe; Menand, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells contain specialized structures, such as a cell wall and a large vacuole, which play a major role in cell growth. Roots follow an organized pattern of development, making them the organs of choice for studying the spatio-temporal regulation of cell proliferation and growth in plants. During root growth, cells originate from the initials surrounding the quiescent center, proliferate in the division zone of the meristem, and then increase in length in the elongation zone, reaching their final size and differentiation stage in the mature zone. Phytohormones, especially auxins and cytokinins, control the dynamic balance between cell division and differentiation and therefore organ size. Plant growth is also regulated by metabolites and nutrients, such as the sugars produced by photosynthesis or nitrate assimilated from the soil. Recent literature has shown that the conserved eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase pathway plays an important role in orchestrating plant growth. We will summarize how the regulation of cell proliferation and cell expansion by phytohormones are at the heart of root growth and then discuss recent data indicating that the TOR pathway integrates hormonal and nutritive signals to orchestrate root growth. PMID:26295391

  5. Phosphorylation of CBP20 Links MicroRNA to Root Growth in the Ethylene Response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Lim, Jae Yun; Kim, Taewook; Pyo, Youngjae; Sung, Sibum; Shin, Chanseok; Qiao, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene is one of the most important hormones for plant developmental processes and stress responses. However, the phosphorylation regulation in the ethylene signaling pathway is largely unknown. Here we report the phosphorylation of cap binding protein 20 (CBP20) at Ser245 is regulated by ethylene, and the phosphorylation is involved in root growth. The constitutive phosphorylation mimic form of CBP20 (CBP20S245E or CBP20S245D), while not the constitutive de-phosphorylation form of CBP20 (CBP20S245A) is able to rescue the root ethylene responsive phenotype of cbp20. By genome wide study with ethylene regulated gene expression and microRNA (miRNA) expression in the roots and shoots of both Col-0 and cbp20, we found miR319b is up regulated in roots while not in shoots, and its target MYB33 is specifically down regulated in roots with ethylene treatment. We described both the phenotypic and molecular consequences of transgenic over-expression of miR319b. Increased levels of miR319b (miR319bOE) leads to enhanced ethylene responsive root phenotype and reduction of MYB33 transcription level in roots; over expression of MYB33, which carrying mutated miR319b target site (mMYB33) in miR319bOE is able to recover both the root phenotype and the expression level of MYB33. Taken together, we proposed that ethylene regulated phosphorylation of CBP20 is involved in the root growth and one pathway is through the regulation of miR319b and its target MYB33 in roots. PMID:27870849

  6. Genome-wide association mapping in plants exemplified for root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Slovak, Radka; Göschl, Christian; Seren, Ümit; Busch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) mapping is a powerful technique to address the molecular basis of genotype to phenotype relationships and to map regulators of biological processes. This chapter presents a protocol for genome-wide association mapping in Arabidopsis thaliana using the user-friendly internet application GWAPP, and provides a specific protocol for acquiring root trait data suitable for GWA studies using the semi-automated, high-throughput phenotyping pipeline BRAT for early root growth.

  7. Phytoglobins Improve Hypoxic Root Growth by Alleviating Apical Meristem Cell Death1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Stasolla, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic root growth in maize (Zea mays) is influenced by the expression of phytoglobins (ZmPgbs). Relative to the wild type, suppression of ZmPgb1.1 or ZmPgb1.2 inhibits the growth of roots exposed to 4% oxygen, causing structural abnormalities in the root apical meristems. These effects were accompanied by increasing levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), possibly through the transcriptional induction of four Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homologs. TUNEL-positive nuclei in meristematic cells indicated the involvement of programmed cell death (PCD) in the process. These cells also accumulated nitric oxide and stained heavily for ethylene biosynthetic transcripts. A sharp increase in the expression level of several 1-aminocyclopropane synthase (ZmAcs2, ZmAcs6, and ZmAcs7), 1-aminocyclopropane oxidase (Aco15, Aco20, Aco31, and Aco35), and ethylene-responsive (ZmErf2 and ZmEbf1) genes was observed in hypoxic ZmPgb-suppressing roots, which overproduced ethylene. Inhibiting ROS synthesis with diphenyleneiodonium or ethylene perception with 1-methylcyclopropene suppressed PCD, increased BAX inhibitor-1, an effective attenuator of the death programs in eukaryotes, and restored root growth. Hypoxic roots overexpressing ZmPgbs had the lowest level of ethylene and showed a reduction in ROS staining and TUNEL-positive nuclei in the meristematic cells. These roots retained functional meristems and exhibited the highest growth performance when subjected to hypoxic conditions. Collectively, these results suggest a novel function of Pgbs in protecting root apical meristems from hypoxia-induced PCD through mechanisms initiated by nitric oxide and mediated by ethylene via ROS. PMID:27702845

  8. Enhanced Lignin Monomer Production Caused by Cinnamic Acid and Its Hydroxylated Derivatives Inhibits Soybean Root Growth

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Rogério Barbosa; Salvador, Victor Hugo; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Bubna, Gisele Adriana; Finger-Teixeira, Aline; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids) are known allelochemicals that affect the seed germination and root growth of many plant species. Recent studies have indicated that the reduction of root growth by these allelochemicals is associated with premature cell wall lignification. We hypothesized that an influx of these compounds into the phenylpropanoid pathway increases the lignin monomer content and reduces the root growth. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids on soybean root growth, lignin and the composition of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) monomers. To this end, three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without allelochemical (or selective enzymatic inhibitors of the phenylpropanoid pathway) in a growth chamber for 24 h. In general, the results showed that 1) cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids reduced root growth and increased lignin content; 2) cinnamic and p-coumaric acids increased p-hydroxyphenyl (H) monomer content, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids increased guaiacyl (G) content, and sinapic acid increased sinapyl (S) content; 3) when applied in conjunction with piperonylic acid (PIP, an inhibitor of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, C4H), cinnamic acid reduced H, G and S contents; and 4) when applied in conjunction with 3,4-(methylenedioxy)cinnamic acid (MDCA, an inhibitor of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, 4CL), p-coumaric acid reduced H, G and S contents, whereas caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids reduced G and S contents. These results confirm our hypothesis that exogenously applied allelochemicals are channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway causing excessive production of lignin and its main monomers. By consequence, an enhanced stiffening of the cell wall restricts soybean root growth. PMID:24312480

  9. Enhanced lignin monomer production caused by cinnamic Acid and its hydroxylated derivatives inhibits soybean root growth.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rogério Barbosa; Salvador, Victor Hugo; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Bubna, Gisele Adriana; Finger-Teixeira, Aline; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids) are known allelochemicals that affect the seed germination and root growth of many plant species. Recent studies have indicated that the reduction of root growth by these allelochemicals is associated with premature cell wall lignification. We hypothesized that an influx of these compounds into the phenylpropanoid pathway increases the lignin monomer content and reduces the root growth. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids on soybean root growth, lignin and the composition of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) monomers. To this end, three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without allelochemical (or selective enzymatic inhibitors of the phenylpropanoid pathway) in a growth chamber for 24 h. In general, the results showed that 1) cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids reduced root growth and increased lignin content; 2) cinnamic and p-coumaric acids increased p-hydroxyphenyl (H) monomer content, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids increased guaiacyl (G) content, and sinapic acid increased sinapyl (S) content; 3) when applied in conjunction with piperonylic acid (PIP, an inhibitor of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, C4H), cinnamic acid reduced H, G and S contents; and 4) when applied in conjunction with 3,4-(methylenedioxy)cinnamic acid (MDCA, an inhibitor of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, 4CL), p-coumaric acid reduced H, G and S contents, whereas caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids reduced G and S contents. These results confirm our hypothesis that exogenously applied allelochemicals are channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway causing excessive production of lignin and its main monomers. By consequence, an enhanced stiffening of the cell wall restricts soybean root growth.

  10. Multilayered Organization of Jasmonate Signalling in the Regulation of Root Growth

    PubMed Central

    Gasperini, Debora; Chételat, Aurore; Acosta, Ivan F.; Goossens, Jonas; Pauwels, Laurens; Goossens, Alain; Dreos, René; Alfonso, Esteban; Farmer, Edward E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical damage can strongly affect plant growth, reducing the biomass of developing organs situated at a distance from wounds. These effects, previously studied in leaves, require the activation of jasmonate (JA) signalling. Using a novel assay involving repetitive cotyledon wounding in Arabidopsis seedlings, we uncovered a function of JA in suppressing cell division and elongation in roots. Regulatory JA signalling components were then manipulated to delineate their relative impacts on root growth. The new transcription factor mutant myc2-322B was isolated. In vitro transcription assays and whole-plant approaches revealed that myc2-322B is a dosage-dependent gain-of-function mutant that can amplify JA growth responses. Moreover, myc2-322B displayed extreme hypersensitivity to JA that totally suppressed root elongation. The mutation weakly reduced root growth in undamaged plants but, when the upstream negative regulator NINJA was genetically removed, myc2-322B powerfully repressed root growth through its effects on cell division and cell elongation. Furthermore, in a JA-deficient mutant background, ninja1 myc2-322B still repressed root elongation, indicating that it is possible to generate JA-responses in the absence of JA. We show that NINJA forms a broadly expressed regulatory layer that is required to inhibit JA signalling in the apex of roots grown under basal conditions. By contrast, MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 displayed cell layer-specific localisations and MYC3 and MYC4 were expressed in mutually exclusive regions. In nature, growing roots are likely subjected to constant mechanical stress during soil penetration that could lead to JA production and subsequent detrimental effects on growth. Our data reveal how distinct negative regulatory layers, including both NINJA-dependent and -independent mechanisms, restrain JA responses to allow normal root growth. Mechanistic insights from this work underline the importance of mapping JA signalling components to specific

  11. [Effects of Chinese onion' s root exudates on cucumber seedlings growth and rhizosphere soil microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Liu, Shou-wei; Pan, Kai; Wu, Feng-zhi

    2013-04-01

    Taking the Chinese onion cultivars with different allelopathy potentials as the donor and cucumber as the accepter, this paper studied the effects of Chinese onion' s root exudates on the seedlings growth of cucumber and the culturable microbial number and bacterial community structure in the seedlings rhizosphere soil. The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars could promote the growth of cucumber seedlings, and the stimulatory effect increased with the increasing concentration of the root exudates. However, at the same concentrations of root exudates, the stimulatory effect had no significant differences between the Chinese onion cultivars with strong and weak allelopathy potential. The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars increased the individual numbers of bacteria and actinomyces but decreased those of fungi and Fusarium in rhizosphere soil, being more significant for the Chinese onion cultivar with high allelopathy potential (L-06). The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars also increased the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil. The cloning and sequencing results indicated that the differential bacteria bands were affiliated with Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Anaerolineaceae, and Anaerolineaceae only occurred in the rhizosphere soil in the treatment of high allelopathy potential Chinese onion (L-06). It was suggested that high concentration (10 mL per plant) of root exudates from high allelopathy potential Chinese onion (L-06) could benefit the increase of bacterial community diversity in cucumber seedlings rhizosphere soil.

  12. Involvement of reactive oxygen species in lanthanum-induced inhibition of primary root growth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang-Yang; Wang, Ru-Ling; Zhang, Ping; Sun, Liang-Liang; Xu, Jin

    2016-11-01

    Although lanthanum (La) has been used as an agricultural plant growth stimulant for approximately 50 years, high concentrations are toxic to plants. Despite significant advances in recent years, the mechanisms underlying the effects of La on root system development remain unclear. Here, we report that a high concentration of La inhibits primary root (PR) elongation and induces lateral root (LR) development. La results in cell death in PR tips, thereby leading to the loss of meristematic cell division potential, stem cell niche activity, and auxin distribution in PR tips. Further analysis indicated that La induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) over-accumulation in PR tips. Reduction in ROS accumulation partially alleviated the inhibitory effects of La on PR elongation by improving cell survival in PR tips and thereby improving meristematic cell division potential and auxin distribution in PR tips. We also found ROS to be involved in La-induced endocytosis. Genetic analyses supported the described phenotype. Overall, our results indicate that La affects root growth, at least partially, by modulating ROS levels in roots to induce cell death in PR tips and subsequent auxin redistribution in roots, leading to remodeling of the root system architecture.

  13. Involvement of reactive oxygen species in lanthanum-induced inhibition of primary root growth

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang-Yang; Wang, Ru-Ling; Zhang, Ping; Sun, Liang-liang; Xu, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Although lanthanum (La) has been used as an agricultural plant growth stimulant for approximately 50 years, high concentrations are toxic to plants. Despite significant advances in recent years, the mechanisms underlying the effects of La on root system development remain unclear. Here, we report that a high concentration of La inhibits primary root (PR) elongation and induces lateral root (LR) development. La results in cell death in PR tips, thereby leading to the loss of meristematic cell division potential, stem cell niche activity, and auxin distribution in PR tips. Further analysis indicated that La induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) over-accumulation in PR tips. Reduction in ROS accumulation partially alleviated the inhibitory effects of La on PR elongation by improving cell survival in PR tips and thereby improving meristematic cell division potential and auxin distribution in PR tips. We also found ROS to be involved in La-induced endocytosis. Genetic analyses supported the described phenotype. Overall, our results indicate that La affects root growth, at least partially, by modulating ROS levels in roots to induce cell death in PR tips and subsequent auxin redistribution in roots, leading to remodeling of the root system architecture. PMID:27811082

  14. Root growth and exudate production define the frequency of horizontal plasmid transfer in the Rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Mølbak, Lars; Molin, Søren; Kroer, Niels

    2007-01-01

    To identify the main drivers of plasmid transfer in the rhizosphere, conjugal transfer was studied in the rhizospheres of pea and barley. The donor Pseudomonas putida KT2442, containing plasmid pKJK5::gfp, was coated onto the seeds, while the recipient P. putida LM24, having a chromosomal insertion of dsRed, was inoculated into the growth medium. Mean transconjugant-to-donor ratios in vermiculite were 4.0+/-0.8 x 10(-2) in the pea and 5.9+/-1.4 x 10(-3) in the barley rhizospheres. In soil, transfer ratios were about 10 times lower. As a result of a 2-times higher root exudation rate in pea, donor densities in pea (1 x 10(6)-2 x 10(9) CFU g(-1) root) were about 10 times higher than in barley. No difference in recipient densities was observed. In situ visualization of single cells on the rhizoplane and macroscopic visualization of the colonization pattern showed that donors and transconjugants were ubiquitously distributed in the pea rhizosphere, while they were only located on the upper parts of the barley roots. Because the barley root elongated about 10 times faster than the pea root, donors were probably outgrown by the elongating barley root. Thus by affecting the cell density and distribution, exudation and root growth appear to be key parameters controlling plasmid transfer in the rhizosphere.

  15. Waving and skewing: how gravity and the surface of growth media affect root development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Michele; Dunand, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Arabidopsis seedlings growing on inclined agar surfaces exhibit characteristic root behaviours called 'waving' and 'skewing': the former consists of a series of undulations, whereas the latter is a deviation from the direction of gravity. Even though the precise basis of these growth patterns is not well understood, both gravity and the contact between the medium and the root are considered to be the major players that result in these processes. The influence of these forces on root surface-dependent behaviours can be verified by growing seedlings at different gel pitches: plants growing on vertical plates present roots with slight waving and skewing when compared with seedlings grown on plates held at minor angles of < 90 degrees . However, other factors are thought to modulate root growth on agar; for instance, it has been demonstrated that the presence and concentration of certain compounds in the medium (such as sucrose) and of drugs able to modify the plant cell cytoskeleton also affect skewing and waving. The recent discovery of an active role of ethylene on surface-dependent root behaviour, and the finding of new mutants showing anomalous growth, pave the way for a more detailed description of these phenomena.

  16. Ramified Challenges: Monitoring and Modeling of Hairy Root Growth in Bioprocesses--A Review.

    PubMed

    Lenk, Felix; Bley, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The review presents a comprehensive overview on available solutions for the monitoring and modeling of various aspects of hairy root growth processes. Several online and offline measurement principles get explained exemplary and are being compared. It was found that no direct online measurement principle for hairy root biomass in submerged and solid-state culturing environment is available. However, certain indirect methods involving one or more measurement values have been developed for biomonitoring of hairy roots especially in bioreactors. In the field of modeling of hairy root growth processes, four independent architectures (continuous models, metabolic flux analysis, agent-based models, and artificial neural networks) are described and compared including literature references. The discussion is structured into microscopic model approaches, addressing only certain aspects of growth, and macroscopic model approaches, describing the hairy root network as a whole. An agent-based macroscopic model based on phenomenological data acquired with systematic imaging of hairy roots on culture dishes together with a 3D visualization of simulation results is presented in detail.

  17. The function of stilt roots in the growth strategy of Socratea exorrhiza (Arecaceae) at two neotropical sites.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Gregory R; Zahawi, Rakan A

    2007-01-01

    Arboreal palms have developed a variety of structural root modifications and systems to adapt to the harsh abiotic conditions of tropical rain forests. Stilt roots have been proposed to serve a number of functions including the facilitation of rapid vertical growth to the canopy and enhanced mechanical stability. To examine whether stilt roots provide these functions, we compared stilt root characteristics of the neotropical palm tree Socratea exorrhiza on sloped (>20 degrees) and flat locations at two lowland neotropical sites. S. exorrhiza (n=80 trees) did not demonstrate differences in number of roots, vertical stilt root height, root cone circumference, root cone volume, or location of roots as related to slope. However, we found positive relationships between allocation to vertical growth and stilt root architecture including root cone circumference, number of roots, and root cone volume. Accordingly, stilt roots may allow S. exorrhiza to increase height and maintain mechanical stability without having to concurrently invest in increased stem diameter and underground root structure. This strategy likely increases the species ability to rapidly exploit light gaps as compared to non-stilt root palms and may also enhance survival as mature trees approach the theoretical limits of their mechanical stability.

  18. Exaggerated root respiration accounts for growth retardation in a starchless mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Brauner, Katrin; Hörmiller, Imke; Nägele, Thomas; Heyer, Arnd G

    2014-07-01

    The knock-out mutation of plastidial phosphoglucomutase (pgm) causes a starchless phenotype in Arabidopsis thaliana, and results in a severe growth reduction of plants cultivated under diurnal conditions. It has been speculated that high soluble sugar levels accumulating during the light phase in leaf mesophyll might cause a reduction of photosynthetic activity or that shortage of reduced carbon during the night is the reason for the slow biomass gain of pgm. Separate simultaneous measurements of leaf net photosynthesis and root respiration demonstrate that photosynthetic activity per unit fresh weight is not reduced in pgm, whereas root respiration is strongly elevated. Comparison with a mutant defective in the dominating vacuolar invertase (AtβFruct4) revealed that high sucrose concentration in the cytosol, but not in the vacuole, of leaf cells is responsible for elevated assimilate transport to the root. Increased sugar supply to the root, as observed in pgm mutants, forces substantial respiratory losses. Because root respiration accounts for 80% of total plant respiration under long-day conditions, this gives rise to retarded biomass formation. In contrast, reduced vacuolar invertase activity leads to reduced net photosynthesis in the shoot and lowered root respiration, and affords an increased root/shoot ratio. The results demonstrate that roots have very limited capacity for carbon storage but exert rigid control of supply for their maintenance metabolism.

  19. Analysis of changes in relative elemental growth rate patterns in the elongation zone of Arabidopsis roots upon gravistimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, J. L.; Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    Although Arabidopsis is an important system for studying root physiology, the localized growth patterns of its roots have not been well defined, particularly during tropic responses. In order to characterize growth rate profiles along the apex of primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh (ecotype Columbia) we applied small charcoal particles to the root surface and analyzed their displacement during growth using an automated video digitizer system with custom software for tracking the markers. When growing vertically, the maximum elongation rate occurred 481 +/- 50 microns back from the extreme tip of the root (tip of root cap), and the elongation zone extended back to 912 +/- 137 microns. The distal elongation zone (DEZ) has previously been described as the apical region of the elongation zone in which the relative elemental growth rate (REGR) is < or = 30% of the peak rate in the central elongation zone. By this definition, our data indicate that the basal limit of the DEZ was located 248 +/- 30 microns from the root tip. However, after gravistimulation, the growth patterns of the root changed. Within the first hour of graviresponse, the basal limit of the DEZ and the position of peak REGR shifted apically on the upper flank of the root. This was due to a combination of increased growth in the DEZ and growth inhibition in the central elongation zone. On the lower flank, the basal limit of the DEZ shifted basipetally as the REGR decreased. These factors set up the gradient of growth rate across the root, which drives curvature.

  20. A molecular framework for the inhibition of Arabidopsis root growth in response to boron toxicity.

    PubMed

    Aquea, Felipe; Federici, Fernan; Moscoso, Cristian; Vega, Andrea; Jullian, Pastor; Haseloff, Jim; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2012-04-01

    Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants and is taken up in the form of boric acid (BA). Despite this, a high BA concentration is toxic for the plants, inhibiting root growth and is thus a significant problem in semi-arid areas in the world. In this work, we report the molecular basis for the inhibition of root growth caused by boron. We show that application of BA reduces the size of root meristems, correlating with the inhibition of root growth. The decrease in meristem size is caused by a reduction of cell division. Mitotic cell number significantly decreases and the expression level of key core cell cycle regulators is modulated. The modulation of the cell cycle does not appear to act through cytokinin and auxin signalling. A global expression analysis reveals that boron toxicity induces the expression of genes related with abscisic acid (ABA) signalling, ABA response and cell wall modifications, and represses genes that code for water transporters. These results suggest that boron toxicity produces a reduction of water and BA uptake, triggering a hydric stress response that produces root growth inhibition.

  1. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, M. J.; Singleton, I.

    2015-11-01

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing variation in pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the root system. After only 1 month, the highest AgNP level had significantly reduced the root length of pine seedlings, which in turn had a small effect on above ground plant biomass. However, after 4 months growth, both AgNP levels utilised had significantly reduced both pine root and shoot biomass. For example, even the lower levels of AgNP (350 mg Ag/kg) soil, reduced fresh root biomass by approximately 57 %. The root systems of the plants grown in AgNP-contaminated soils lacked the lateral and fine root development seen in the control plants (no AgNP). Although, only five different genera of EMF were found on roots of the control plants, only one genus Laccaria was found on roots of plants grown in soil containing 350 mg AgNP/kg. At the higher levels of AgNP contamination, no EMF were observed. Furthermore, extractable silver was found in soils containing AgNP, indicating potential dissolution of silver ions (Ag+) from the solid AgNP.

  2. Cytokinin interplay with ethylene, auxin, and glucose signaling controls Arabidopsis seedling root directional growth.

    PubMed

    Kushwah, Sunita; Jones, Alan M; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2011-08-01

    Optimal root architecture is established by multiple intrinsic (e.g. hormones) and extrinsic (e.g. gravity and touch) signals and is established, in part, by directed root growth. We show that asymmetrical exposure of cytokinin (CK) at the root tip in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) promotes cell elongation that is potentiated by glucose in a hexokinase-influenced, G protein-independent manner. This mode of CK signaling requires the CK receptor, ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE4 and, at a minimum, its cognate type B ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATORS ARR1, ARR10, and ARR11 for full responsiveness, while type A response regulators act redundantly to attenuate this CK response. Ethylene signaling through the ethylene receptor ETHYLENE RESISTANT1 and its downstream signaling element ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 are required for CK-induced root cell elongation. Negative and positive feedback loops are reinforced by CK regulation of the expression of the genes encoding these elements in both the CK and ethylene signaling pathways. Auxin transport facilitated by PIN-FORMED2 as well as auxin signaling through control of the steady-state level of transcriptional repressors INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID7 (IAA7), IAA14, and IAA17 via TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE1/AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX PROTEIN are involved in CK-induced root cell elongation. This action lies downstream of ethylene and CK induction. Intrinsic signaling in this response operates independently of the extrinsic signal touch, although actin filament organization, which is important in the touch response, may be important for this response, since latrunculin B can induce similar growth. This root growth response may have adaptive significance, since CK responsiveness is inversely related to root coiling and waving, two root behaviors known to be important for fitness.

  3. AtrbohD and AtrbohF positively regulate abscisic acid-inhibited primary root growth by affecting Ca2+ signalling and auxin response of roots in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yiheng; Sun, Lirong; Song, Yalin; Wang, Limin; Liu, Liping; Zhang, Liyue; Liu, Bo; Li, Ning; Miao, Chen; Hao, Fushun

    2013-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) originating from the NADPH oxidases AtrbohD and AtrbohF play an important role in abscisic acid (ABA)-inhibited primary root growth in Arabidopsis. However, the mechanisms underlying this process remain elusive. In this study, the double mutant atrbohD1/F1 and atrbohD2/F2, in which both AtrbohD and AtrbohF were disrupted, were less sensitive to ABA suppression of root cell elongation than wild-type (WT) plants. Furthermore, the double mutants showed impaired ABA responses in roots, including ROS generation, cytosolic Ca(2+) increases, and activation of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-permeable channels compared with WT. Exogenous H2O2 can activate the Ca(2+) currents in roots of atrbohD1/F1. In addition, exogenous application of the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid effectively promoted ABA inhibition of root growth of the mutants relative to that of WT. The ABA-induced decreases in auxin sensitivity of the root tips were more pronounced in WT than in atrbohD1/F1. These findings suggest that both AtrbohD and AtrbohF are essential for ABA-promoted ROS production in roots. ROS activate Ca(2+) signalling and reduce auxin sensitivity of roots, thus positively regulating ABA-inhibited primary root growth in Arabidopsis.

  4. Antisense expression of an Arabidopsis ran binding protein renders transgenic roots hypersensitive to auxin and alters auxin-induced root growth and development by arresting mitotic progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S. H.; Arnold, D.; Lloyd, A.; Roux, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    We cloned a cDNA encoding an Arabidopsis Ran binding protein, AtRanBP1c, and generated transgenic Arabidopsis expressing the antisense strand of the AtRanBP1c gene to understand the in vivo functions of the Ran/RanBP signal pathway. The transgenic plants showed enhanced primary root growth but suppressed growth of lateral roots. Auxin significantly increased lateral root initiation and inhibited primary root growth in the transformants at 10 pM, several orders of magnitude lower than required to induce these responses in wild-type roots. This induction was followed by a blockage of mitosis in both newly emerged lateral roots and in the primary root, ultimately resulting in the selective death of cells in the tips of both lateral and primary roots. Given the established role of Ran binding proteins in the transport of proteins into the nucleus, these findings are consistent with a model in which AtRanBP1c plays a key role in the nuclear delivery of proteins that suppress auxin action and that regulate mitotic progress in root tips.

  5. Human Life History Evolution Explains Dissociation between the Timing of Tooth Eruption and Peak Rates of Root Growth

    PubMed Central

    Dean, M. Christopher; Cole, Tim J.

    2013-01-01

    We explored the relationship between growth in tooth root length and the modern human extended period of childhood. Tooth roots provide support to counter chewing forces and so it is advantageous to grow roots quickly to allow teeth to erupt into function as early as possible. Growth in tooth root length occurs with a characteristic spurt or peak in rate sometime between tooth crown completion and root apex closure. Here we show that in Pan troglodytes the peak in root growth rate coincides with the period of time teeth are erupting into function. However, the timing of peak root velocity in modern humans occurs earlier than expected and coincides better with estimates for tooth eruption times in Homo erectus. With more time to grow longer roots prior to eruption and smaller teeth that now require less support at the time they come into function, the root growth spurt no longer confers any advantage in modern humans. We suggest that a prolonged life history schedule eventually neutralised this adaptation some time after the appearance of Homo erectus. The root spurt persists in modern humans as an intrinsic marker event that shows selection operated, not primarily on tooth tissue growth, but on the process of tooth eruption. This demonstrates the overarching influence of life history evolution on several aspects of dental development. These new insights into tooth root growth now provide an additional line of enquiry that may contribute to future studies of more recent life history and dietary adaptations within the genus Homo. PMID:23342167

  6. Aluminum stress inhibits root growth and alters physiological and metabolic responses in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Shuvasish; Sharma, Parul

    2014-12-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) roots were treated with aluminum (Al3+) in calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution (pH 4.7) and growth responses along with physiological and metabolic changes were investigated. Al3+ treatment for 7d resulted in a dose dependent decline of seed germination and inhibition of root growth. A significant (p ≤ 0.05) decline in fresh and dry biomass were observed after 7d of Al3+ stress.The root growth (length) was inhibited after 24 and 48 h of stress imposition. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with respect to control in Al3+ treated roots. The hematoxylin and Evans blue assay indicated significant (p ≤ 0.05) accumulation of Al3+ in the roots and loss of plasma membrane integrity respectively. The time-course evaluation of lipid peroxidation showed increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) after 12, 24 and 48 h of stress imposition. Al3+ treatment did not alter the MDA levels after 2 or 4 h of stress, however, a minor increase was observed after 6 and 10 h of treatment. The proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of the perchloric acid extracts showed variation in the abundance of metabolites and suggested a major metabolic shift in chickpea root during Al3+ stress. The key differences that were observed include changes in energy metabolites. Accumulation of phenolic compounds suggested its possible role in Al3+ exclusion in roots during stress. The results suggested that Al3+ alters growth pattern in chickpea and induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that causes physiological and metabolic changes.

  7. Growth response of Casuarina equisetifolia Forst. rooted stem cuttings to Frankia in nursery and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, A; Chandrasekaran, K; Geetha, M; Kalaiselvi, R

    2013-11-01

    Casuarina equisetifolia Forst. is a tree crop that provides fuel wood, land reclamation, dune stabilization, and scaffolding for construction, shelter belts, and pulp and paper production. C. equisetifolia fixes atmospheric nitrogen through a symbiotic relationship with Frankia, a soil bacterium of the actinobacteria group. The roots of C. equisetifolia produce root nodules where the bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen, which is an essential nutrient for all plant metabolic activities. However, rooted stem cuttings of elite clones of C. equisetifolia by vegetative propagation is being planted by the farmers of Pondicherry as costeffective method. As the vegetative propagation method uses inert material (vermiculite) for rooting there is no chance for Frankia association. Therefore after planting of these stocks the farmers are applying 150 kg of di-ammonium phosphate (DAP)/acre/year. To overcome this fertilizer usage, the Frankia-inoculated rooted stem cuttings were propagated under nursery conditions and transplanted in the nutrient-deficient soils of Karaikal, Pondicherry (India), in this study. Under nursery experiments the growth and biomass of C. equisetifolia rooted stem cuttings inoculated with Frankia showed 3 times higher growth and biomass than uninoculated control. These stocks were transplanted and monitored for their growth and survival for 1 year in the nutrient-deficient farm land. The results showed that the rooted stem cuttings of C. equisetifolia significantly improved growth in height (8.8 m), stem girth (9.6 cm) and tissue nitrogen content (3.3 mg g-1) than uninoculated controls. The soil nutrient status was also improved due to inoculation of Frankia.

  8. Correlated responses of root growth and sugar concentrations to various defoliation treatments and rhythmic shoot growth in oak tree seedlings (Quercus pubescens)

    PubMed Central

    Willaume, Magali; Pagès, Loïc

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims To understand whether root responses to aerial rhythmic growth and contrasted defoliation treatments can be interpreted under the common frame of carbohydrate availability; root growth was studied in parallel with carbohydrate concentrations in different parts of the root system on oak tree seedlings. Methods Quercus pubescens seedlings were submitted to selective defoliation (removal of mature leaves, cotyledons or young developing leaves) at appearance of the second flush and collected 1, 5 or 10 d later for morphological and biochemical measurements. Soluble sugar and starch concentrations were measured in cotyledons and apical and basal root parts. Key Results Soluble sugar concentration in the root apices diminished during the expansion of the second aerial flush and increased after the end of aerial growth in control seedlings. Starch concentration in cotyledons regularly decreased. Continuous removal of young leaves did not alter either root growth or apical sugar concentration. Starch storage in basal root segments was increased. After removal of mature leaves (and cotyledons), root growth strongly decreased. Soluble sugar concentration in the root apices drastically decreased and starch reserves in the root basal segments were emptied 5 d after defoliation, illustrating a considerable shortage in carbohydrates. Soluble sugar concentrations recovered 10 d after defoliation, after the end of aerial growth, suggesting a recirculation of sugar. No supplementary recourse to starch in cotyledons was observed. Conclusions The parallel between apical sugar concentration and root growth patterns, and the correlations between hexose concentration in root apices and their growth rate, support the hypothesis that the response of root growth to aerial periodic growth and defoliation treatments is largely controlled by carbohydrate availability. PMID:21239407

  9. Pollen tube and root-hair tip growth is disrupted in a mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Schiefelbein, J; Galway, M; Masucci, J; Ford, S

    1993-01-01

    The expansion of both root hairs and pollen tubes occurs by a process known as tip growth. In this report, an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant (tip1) is described that displays defects in both root-hair and pollen-tube growth. The root hairs of the tip1 mutant plants are shorter than those of the wild-type plants and branched at their base. The tip1 pollen-tube growth defect was identified by the aberrant segregation ratio of phenotypically normal to mutant seeds in siliques from self-pollinated, heterozygous plants. Homozygous mutant seeds are not randomly distributed in the siliques, comprising only 14.4% of the total seeds, 5.3% of the seeds from the bottom half, and 2.2% of the seeds from the bottom quarter of the heterozygous siliques. Studies of pollen-tube growth in vivo showed that mutant pollen tubes grow more slowly than wild-type pollen through the transmitting tissue of wild-type flowers. Cosegregation studies indicate that the root-hair and pollen-tube defects are caused by the same genetic lesion. Based on these findings, the TIP1 gene is likely to encode a product involved in a fundamental aspect of tip growth in plant cells. PMID:8022944

  10. Maize Fungal Growth Control with Scopoletin of Cassava Roots Produced in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Ba, Rafiatou; Alfa, Teou; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Novidzro, Kosi Mawuéna; Dotse, Kokouvi; Koudouvo, Koffi; Houngue, Ursula; Donou Hounsode, Marcel T.; Koumaglo, Kossi Honoré; Ameyapoh, Yaovi

    2017-01-01

    The chemical contamination of food is among the main public health issues in developing countries. With a view to find new natural bioactive products against fungi responsible for chemical contamination of staple food such as maize, the antifungal activity tests of scopoletin extracted from different components of the cassava root produced in Benin were carried out. The dosage of scopoletin from parts of the root (first skin, second skin, whole root, and flesh) was done by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The scopoletin extract was used to assess the activity of 12 strains (11 strains of maize and a reference strain). The presence of scopoletin was revealed in all components of the cassava root. Scopoletin extracted from the first skin cassava root was the most active both as inhibition of sporulation (52.29 to 87.91%) and the mycelial growth (36.51–80.41%). Scopoletin extract from the cassava root skins showed significant inhibitory activity on the tested strains with fungicide concentration (MFC) between 0.0125 mg/mL and 0.1 mg/mL. The antifungal scopoletin extracted from the cassava root skins may be well beneficial for the fungal control of the storage of maize. PMID:28197207

  11. Spatial separation of light perception and growth response in maize root phototropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, J. L.; Wolverton, C.; Ishikawa, H.; Hangarter, R. P.; Evans, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    Although the effects of gravity on root growth are well known and interactions between light and gravity have been reported, details of root phototropic responses are less documented. We used high-resolution image analysis to study phototropism in primary roots of Zea mays L. Similar to the location of perception in gravitropism, the perception of light was localized in the root cap. Phototropic curvature away from the light, on the other hand, developed in the central elongation zone, more basal than the site of initiation of gravitropic curvature. The phototropic curvature saturated at approximately 10 micromoles m-2 s-1 blue light with a peak curvature of 29 +/- 4 degrees, in part due to induction of positive gravitropism following displacement of the root tip from vertical during negative phototropism. However, at higher fluence rates, development of phototropic curvature is arrested even if gravitropism is avoided by maintaining the root cap vertically using a rotating feedback system. Thus continuous illumination can cause adaptation in the signalling pathway of the phototropic response in roots.

  12. Maize Fungal Growth Control with Scopoletin of Cassava Roots Produced in Benin.

    PubMed

    Ba, Rafiatou; Alfa, Teou; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Novidzro, Kosi Mawuéna; Dotse, Kokouvi; Koudouvo, Koffi; Houngue, Ursula; Donou Hounsode, Marcel T; Koumaglo, Kossi Honoré; Ameyapoh, Yaovi; Baba-Moussa, Lamine

    2017-01-01

    The chemical contamination of food is among the main public health issues in developing countries. With a view to find new natural bioactive products against fungi responsible for chemical contamination of staple food such as maize, the antifungal activity tests of scopoletin extracted from different components of the cassava root produced in Benin were carried out. The dosage of scopoletin from parts of the root (first skin, second skin, whole root, and flesh) was done by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The scopoletin extract was used to assess the activity of 12 strains (11 strains of maize and a reference strain). The presence of scopoletin was revealed in all components of the cassava root. Scopoletin extracted from the first skin cassava root was the most active both as inhibition of sporulation (52.29 to 87.91%) and the mycelial growth (36.51-80.41%). Scopoletin extract from the cassava root skins showed significant inhibitory activity on the tested strains with fungicide concentration (MFC) between 0.0125 mg/mL and 0.1 mg/mL. The antifungal scopoletin extracted from the cassava root skins may be well beneficial for the fungal control of the storage of maize.

  13. Root growth of Lotus corniculatus interacts with P distribution in young sandy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felderer, B.; Boldt-Burisch, K. M.; Schneider, B. U.; Hüttl, R. F. J.; Schulin, R.

    2013-03-01

    Large areas of land are restored with unweathered soil substrates following mining activities in eastern Germany and elsewhere. In the initial stages of colonization of such land by vegetation, plant roots may become key agents in generating soil formation patterns by introducing gradients in chemical and physical soil properties. On the other hand, such patterns may be influenced by root growth responses to pre-existing substrate heterogeneities. In particular, the roots of many plants were found to preferentially proliferate into nutrient-rich patches. Phosphorus (P) is of primary interest in this respect because its availability is often low in unweathered soils, limiting especially the growth of leguminous plants. However, leguminous plants occur frequently among the pioneer plant species on such soils, as they only depend on atmospheric nitrogen (N) fixation as N source. In this study we investigated the relationship between root growth allocation of the legume Lotus corniculatus and soil P distribution on recently restored land. As test sites, the experimental Chicken Creek Catchment (CCC) in eastern Germany and a nearby experimental site (ES) with the same soil substrate were used. We established two experiments with constructed heterogeneity, one in the field on the experimental site and the other in a climate chamber. In addition, we conducted high-density samplings on undisturbed soil plots colonized by L. corniculatus on the ES and on the CCC. In the field experiment, we installed cylindrical ingrowth soil cores (4.5 × 10 cm) with and without P fertilization around single two-month-old L. corniculatus plants. Roots showed preferential growth into the P-fertilized ingrowth-cores. Preferential root allocation was also found in the climate chamber experiment, where single L. corniculatus plants were grown in containers filled with ES soil and where a lateral portion of the containers was additionally supplied with a range of different P concentrations. In

  14. Root growth of Lotus corniculatus interacts with P distribution in young sandy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felderer, B.; Boldt-Burisch, K. M.; Schneider, B. U.; Hüttl, R. F. J.; Schulin, R.

    2012-07-01

    Large areas of land are restored with un-weathered soil substrates following mining activities in eastern Germany and elsewhere. In the initial stages of colonization of such land by vegetation, plant roots may become key agents in generating soil formation patterns by introducing gradients in chemical and physical soil properties. On the other hand, such patterns may be influenced by root growth responses to pre-existing substrate heterogeneities. In particular, the roots of many plants were found to preferentially proliferate into nutrient-rich patches. Phosphorus (P) is of primary interest in this respect because its availability is often low in unweathered soils, limiting especially the growth of leguminous plants. However, leguminous plants occur frequently among the pioneer plant species on such soils as they only depend on atmospheric nitrogen (N) fixation as N source. In this study we investigated the relationship between root growth allocation of the legume Lotus corniculatus and soil P distribution on recently restored land. As test sites the experimental Chicken Creek Catchment (CCC) in eastern Germany and a nearby experimental site (ES) with the same soil substrate were used. We established two experiments with constructed heterogeneity, one in the field on the experimental site and the other in a climate chamber. In addition we conducted high-density samplings on undisturbed soil plots colonized by L. corniculatus on the ES and on the CCC. In the field experiment, we installed cylindrical ingrowth soil cores (4.5×10 cm) with and without P fertilization around single two-month-old L. corniculatus plants. Roots showed preferential growth into the P-fertilized ingrowth-cores. Preferential root allocation was also found in the climate chamber experiment, where single L. corniculatus plants were grown in containers filled with ES soil and where a lateral portion of the containers was additionally supplied with a range of different P concentrations. In the

  15. The effect of ethylene on root growth of Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, M. C.; Feldman, L. J.

    1988-01-01

    The control of primary root growth in Zea mays cv. Merit by ethylene was examined. At applied concentrations of ethylene equal to or greater than 0.1 microliter L-1, root elongation during 24 h was inhibited. The half-maximal response occurred at 0.6 microliter L-1 and the response saturated at 6 microliters L-1. Inhibition of elongation took place within 20 min. However, after ethylene was removed, elongation recovered to control values within 15 min. Root elongation was also inhibited by green light. The inhibition caused by a 24-h exposure to ethylene was restricted to the elongating region just behind the apex, with inhibition of cortical cell elongation being the primary contributor to the effect. Based on use of 2,5-norbornadiene, a gaseous competitive inhibitor of ethylene, it was concluded that endogenous ethylene normally inhibits root elongation.

  16. [Effects of water storage in deeper soil layers on the root growth, root distribution and economic yield of cotton in arid area with drip irrigation under mulch].

    PubMed

    Luo, Hong-Hai; Zhang, Hong-Zhi; Zhang, Ya-Li; Zhang, Wang-Feng

    2012-02-01

    Taking cotton cultivar Xinluzao 13 as test material, a soil column culture expenment was conducted to study the effects of water storage in deeper (> 60 cm) soil layer on the root growth and its relations with the aboveground growth of the cultivar in arid area with drip irrigation under mulch. Two levels of water storage in 60-120 cm soil layer were installed, i. e., well-watered and no watering, and for each, the moisture content in 0-40 cm soil layer during growth period was controlled at two levels, i.e., 70% and 55% of field capacity. It was observed that the total root mass density of the cultivar and its root length density and root activity in 40-120 cm soil layer had significant positive correlations with the aboveground dry mass. When the moisture content in 0-40 cm soil layer during growth season was controlled at 70% of field capacity, the total root mass density under well-watered and no watering had less difference, but the root length density and root activity in 40-120 cm soil layer under well-watered condition increased, which enhanced the water consumption in deeper soil layer, increased the aboveground dry mass, and finally, led to an increased economic yield and higher water use efficiency. When the moisture content in 0-40 cm soil layer during growth season was controlled at 55% of field capacity and the deeper soil layer was well-watered, the root/shoot ratio and root length density in 40-120 cm soil layer and the root activity in 80-120 cm soil layer were higher, the water consumption in deeper soil layer increased, but it was still failed to adequately compensate for the negative effects of water deficit during growth season on the impaired growth of roots and aboveground parts, leading to a significant decrease in the economic yield, as compared with that at 70% of field capacity. Overall, sufficient water storage in deeper soil layer and a sustained soil moisture level of 65% -75% of field capacity during growth period could promote the

  17. Scanning electron microscopic investigations of root structural modifications arising from growth in crude oil-contaminated sand.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniyam, Anuluxshy; Harvey, Patricia J

    2014-11-01

    The choice of plant for phytoremediation success requires knowledge of how plants respond to contaminant exposure, especially their roots which are instrumental in supporting rhizosphere activity. In this study, we investigated the responses of plants with different architectures represented by beetroot (Beta vulgaris), a eudicot with a central taproot and many narrower lateral roots, and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), a monocot possessing a mass of threadlike fibrous roots to grow in crude oil-treated sand. In this paper, scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate modifications to plant root structure caused by growth in crude oil-contaminated sand. Root structural disorders were evident and included enhanced thickening in the endodermis, increased width of the root cortical zone and smaller diameter of xylem vessels. Inhibition in the rate of root elongation correlated with the increase in cell wall thickening and was dramatically pronounced in beetroot compared to the roots of treated fescue. The latter possessed significantly fewer (p < 0.001) and significantly shorter (p < 0.001) root hairs compared to control plants. Possibly, root hairs that absorb the hydrophobic contaminants may prevent contaminant absorption into the main root and concomitant axile root thickening by being sloughed off from roots. Tall fescue exhibited greater root morphological adaptability to growth in crude oil-treated sand than beetroot and, thus, a potential for long-term phytoremediation.

  18. Clinorotation influence on the growth of root hairs in Beta Vulgaris L. seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, G. V.; Kordyum, E. L.

    It is shown that clinorotation affects the angle of Beta Vulgaris L. root hair growth and changes it from 85-95° to 40-60° at the stage of hair initiation. The investigation of actin cytoskeleton arrangement and tip-based gradient of calcium ions proved the involvement of above components in the maintenance of the directed growth in simulated microgravity (clinorotation).

  19. Mathematical Modeling of the Dynamics of Shoot-Root Interactions and Resource Partitioning in Plant Growth.

    PubMed

    Feller, Chrystel; Favre, Patrick; Janka, Ales; Zeeman, Samuel C; Gabriel, Jean-Pierre; Reinhardt, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Plants are highly plastic in their potential to adapt to changing environmental conditions. For example, they can selectively promote the relative growth of the root and the shoot in response to limiting supply of mineral nutrients and light, respectively, a phenomenon that is referred to as balanced growth or functional equilibrium. To gain insight into the regulatory network that controls this phenomenon, we took a systems biology approach that combines experimental work with mathematical modeling. We developed a mathematical model representing the activities of the root (nutrient and water uptake) and the shoot (photosynthesis), and their interactions through the exchange of the substrates sugar and phosphate (Pi). The model has been calibrated and validated with two independent experimental data sets obtained with Petunia hybrida. It involves a realistic environment with a day-and-night cycle, which necessitated the introduction of a transitory carbohydrate storage pool and an endogenous clock for coordination of metabolism with the environment. Our main goal was to grasp the dynamic adaptation of shoot:root ratio as a result of changes in light and Pi supply. The results of our study are in agreement with balanced growth hypothesis, suggesting that plants maintain a functional equilibrium between shoot and root activity based on differential growth of these two compartments. Furthermore, our results indicate that resource partitioning can be understood as the emergent property of many local physiological processes in the shoot and the root without explicit partitioning functions. Based on its encouraging predictive power, the model will be further developed as a tool to analyze resource partitioning in shoot and root crops.

  20. Two distinct regions of response drive differential growth in Vigna root electrotropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, C.; Mullen, J. L.; Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    2000-01-01

    Although exogenous electric fields have been reported to influence the orientation of plant root growth, reports of the ultimate direction of differential growth have been contradictory. Using a high-resolution image analysis approach, the kinetics of electrotropic curvature in Vigna mungo L. roots were investigated. It was found that curvature occurred in the same root toward both the anode and cathode. However, these two responses occurred in two different regions of the root, the central elongation zone (CEZ) and distal elongation zone (DEZ), respectively. These oppositely directed responses could be reproduced individually by a localized electric field application to the region of response. This indicates that both are true responses to the electric field, rather than one being a secondary response to an induced gravitropic stimulation. The individual responses differed in the type of differential growth giving rise to curvature. In the CEZ, curvature was driven by inhibition of elongation, whereas curvature in the DEZ was primarily due to stimulation of elongation. This stimulation of elongation is consistent with the growth response of the DEZ to other environmental stimuli.

  1. The mechanism of boron tolerance for maintenance of root growth in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Young; Kolesik, Peter; McNeill, Ann; Collins, Helen; Zhang, Qisen; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Graham, Robin; Stangoulis, James

    2007-08-01

    Cultivar differences in root elongation under B toxic conditions were observed in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). A significant increase in the length and width of the root meristematic zone (RMZ) was observed in Sahara 3771 (B tolerant) when it was grown under excessive B concentration, compared to when grown at adequate B supply. This coincided with an increase in cell width and cell numbers in the meristematic zone (MZ), whereas a significant decrease in the length and no significant effect on the width of the MZ was observed in Clipper (B intolerant) when it was grown under excessive B supply. This was accompanied by a decrease in cell numbers, but an increase in the length and width of individual cells present along the MZ. Excessive B concentrations led to a significantly lower osmotic potential within the cell sap of the root tip in SloopVic (B tolerant) and Sahara 3771, while the opposite was observed in Clipper. Enhanced sugar levels in the root tips of SloopVic were observed between 48 and 96 h after excess B was applied. This coincided with an increase in the root elongation rate and with a 2.7-fold increase in sucrose level within mature leaf tissue. A significant decrease in reducing sugar levels was observed in the root tips of Clipper under excessive B concentrations. This coincided with significantly lower root elongation rates and lower sucrose levels in leaf tissues. Results indicate a B tolerance mechanism associated with a complex control of sucrose levels between leaf and root tip that assist in maintaining root growth under B toxicity.

  2. Root growth inhibition by NH(4)(+) in Arabidopsis is mediated by the root tip and is linked to NH(4)(+) efflux and GMPase activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Li, Bao-Hai; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Wei-Ming

    2010-09-01

    Root growth in higher plants is sensitive to excess ammonium (NH(4)(+)). Our study shows that contact of NH(4)(+) with the primary root tip is both necessary and sufficient to the development of arrested root growth under NH(4)(+) nutrition in Arabidopsis. We show that cell elongation and not cell division is the principal target in the NH(4)(+) inhibition of primary root growth. Mutant and expression analyses using DR5:GUS revealed that the growth inhibition is furthermore independent of auxin and ethylene signalling. NH(4)(+) fluxes along the primary root, measured using the Scanning Ion-selective Electrode Technique, revealed a significant stimulation of NH(4)(+) efflux at the elongation zone following treatment with elevated NH(4)(+), coincident with the inhibition of root elongation. Stimulation of NH(4)(+) efflux and inhibition of cell expansion were significantly more pronounced in the NH(4)(+)-hypersensitive mutant vtc1-1, deficient in the enzyme GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMPase). We conclude that both restricted transmembrane NH(4)(+) fluxes and proper functioning of GMPase in roots are critical to minimizing the severity of the NH(4)(+) toxicity response in Arabidopsis.

  3. Local Transcriptional Control of YUCCA Regulates Auxin Promoted Root-Growth Inhibition in Response to Aluminium Stress in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Huiyu; Wu, Wenwen; Ding, Zhaojun

    2016-01-01

    Auxin is necessary for the inhibition of root growth induced by aluminium (Al) stress, however the molecular mechanism controlling this is largely unknown. Here, we report that YUCCA (YUC), which encodes flavin monooxygenase-like proteins, regulates local auxin biosynthesis in the root apex transition zone (TZ) in response to Al stress. Al stress up-regulates YUC3/5/7/8/9 in the root-apex TZ, which we show results in the accumulation of auxin in the root-apex TZ and root-growth inhibition during the Al stress response. These Al-dependent changes in the regulation of YUCs in the root-apex TZ and YUC-regulated root growth inhibition are dependent on ethylene signalling. Increasing or disruption of ethylene signalling caused either enhanced or reduced up-regulation, respectively, of YUCs in root-apex TZ in response to Al stress. In addition, ethylene enhanced root growth inhibition under Al stress was strongly alleviated in yuc mutants or by co-treatment with yucasin, an inhibitor of YUC activity, suggesting a downstream role of YUCs in this process. Moreover, ethylene-insensitive 3 (EIN3) is involved into the direct regulation of YUC9 transcription in this process. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) functions as a transcriptional activator for YUC5/8/9. PIF4 promotes Al-inhibited primary root growth by regulating the local expression of YUCs and auxin signal in the root-apex TZ. The Al–induced expression of PIF4 in root TZ acts downstream of ethylene signalling. Taken together, our results highlight a regulatory cascade for YUCs-regulated local auxin biosynthesis in the root-apex TZ mediating root growth inhibition in response to Al stress. PMID:27716807

  4. Impact of treated wastewater on growth, respiration and hydraulic conductivity of citrus root systems in light and heavy soils.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Indira; Cohen, Shabtai; Shaviv, Avi; Bar-Tal, Asher; Bernstein, Nirit; Heuer, Bruria; Ephrath, Jhonathan

    2016-06-01

    Roots interact with soil properties and irrigation water quality leading to changes in root growth, structure and function. We studied these interactions in an orchard and in lysimeters with clay and sandy loam soils. Minirhizotron imaging and manual sampling showed that root growth was three times lower in the clay relative to sandy loam soil. Treated wastewater (TWW) led to a large reduction in root growth with clay (45-55%) but not with sandy loam soil (<20%). Treated wastewater increased salt uptake, membrane leakage and proline content, and decreased root viability, carbohydrate content and osmotic potentials in the fine roots, especially in clay. These results provide evidence that TWW challenges and damages the root system. The phenology and physiology of root orders were studied in lysimeters. Soil type influenced diameter, specific root area, tissue density and cortex area similarly in all root orders, while TWW influenced these only in clay soil. Respiration rates were similar in both soils, and root hydraulic conductivity was severely reduced in clay soil. Treated wastewater increased respiration rate and reduced hydraulic conductivity of all root orders in clay but only of the lower root orders in sandy loam soil. Loss of hydraulic conductivity increased with root order in clay and clay irrigated with TWW. Respiration and hydraulic properties of all root orders were significantly affected by sodium-amended TWW in sandy loam soil. These changes in root order morphology, anatomy, physiology and hydraulic properties indicate rapid and major modifications of root systems in response to differences in soil type and water quality.

  5. [Difference of anti-fracture mechanical characteristics between lateral-root branches and adjacent upper straight roots of four plant species in vigorous growth period].

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng-fei; Liu, Jing; Zhu, Hong-hui; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Ge; Li, You-fang; Su, Yu; Wang, Chen-jia

    2016-01-01

    Taking four plant species, Caragana korshinskii, Salix psammophila, Hippophae rhamnides and Artemisia sphaerocephala, which were 3-4 years old and in vigorous growth period, as test materials, the anti-fracture forces of lateral-root branches and adjacent upper straight roots were measured with the self-made fixture and the instrument of TY 8000. The lateral-root branches were vital and the diameters were 1-4 mm. The results showed that the anti-fracture force and anti-fracture strength of lateral-root branches were lesser than those of the adjacent upper straight roots even though the average diameter of lateral-root branches was greater. The ratios of anti-fracture strength of lateral-root branches to the adjacent upper straight roots were 71.5% for C. korshinskii, 62.9% for S. psammophila, 45.4% for H. rhamnides and 35.4% for A. sphaerocephala. For the four plants, the anti-fracture force positively correlated with the diameter in a power function, while the anti-fracture strength negatively correlated with diameter in a power function. The anti-fracture strengths of lateral-root branches and adjacent upper straight roots for the four species followed the sequence of C. korshinskii (33.66 and 47.06 MPa) > S. psammophila (17.31 and 27.54 MPa) > H. rhamnides (3.97 and 8.75 MPa) > A. sphaerphala (2.18 and 6.15 MPa).

  6. The effects of Vexar® seedling protectors on the growth and development of lodgepole pine roots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engeman, Richard M.; Anthony, R. Michael; Krupa, Heather W.; Evans, James

    1997-01-01

    The effects on the growth and development of lodgepole pine roots from the Vexar® tubes used to protect seedlings from pocket gopher damage were studied in the Targhee National Forest, Idaho and the Deschutes National Forest, Oregon. At each site, Vexar-protected and unprotected seedlings, with and without above-ground gopher damage were examined after six growing seasons for root deformities and growth. Undamaged seedlings exhibited greater growth, reflecting the importance of non-lethal gopher damage as a deterrent to tree growth. Protected seedlings with similar damage history as unprotected seedlings had greater root depth than unprotected seedlings, although unprotected seedlings with no above-ground damage generally had the greatest root weight. In general, the percent of seedlings with root deformities was greater for the unprotected seedlings than for the Vexar-protectd seedlings, although this could be largely due to the greater care required to plant protected seedlings. Acute deformities were more common for unprotected seedlings, whereas root deformities with less severe bending were more common for protected seedlings. The incidence of crossed roots was similar for protected and unprotected seedlings on the Deschutes site, where enough occurrences of this deformity permitted analyses. Protected seedlings were similar in root abundance, root distribution, root size and vigor to the unprotected seedlings, with some indication from the Deshutes study site that root distribution was improved with Vexar protection.

  7. Root foraging in response to heterogeneous soil moisture in two grapevines that differ in potential growth rate.

    PubMed

    Bauerle, Taryn L; Smart, David R; Bauerle, William L; Stockert, Christine; Eissenstat, David M

    2008-01-01

    * Linkages between plant growth rate and root responses to soil moisture heterogeneity were investigated. * Root dynamics were studied using genetically identical shoots (Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot) with genetically distinct root systems that promote higher (HSV) and lower (LSV) shoot growth rates (1103P and 101-14 Mgt, respectively). Three quantities of irrigation replenished different amounts of evapotranspiration (0, 40 and 100%ET(c)) in a California vineyard. * Roots of HSV vines exhibited more plasticity, as indicated by greater preferential growth in irrigated soil during the summer, and a larger shift in root diameter with a change in soil moisture than LSV vines. Higher tolerance of low soil moisture was not observed in LSV roots--root survivorship was similar for the two rootstocks. LSV vines produced a large fraction of its roots during the winter months and increased root density over the study, while HSV vines produced roots mainly in summer and only exhibited a high initial peak in root biomass in the first year. * These results demonstrated that a plant of higher vigor has greater morphological plasticity in response to lateral heterogeneity in soil moisture but similar tolerance to moisture stress as indicated by root survivorship in dry soil.

  8. Recovering the dynamics of root growth and development using novel image acquisition and analysis methods

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Darren M.; French, Andrew P.; Naeem, Asad; Ishaq, Omer; Traini, Richard; Hijazi, Hussein; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Pridmore, Tony P.

    2012-01-01

    Roots are highly responsive to environmental signals encountered in the rhizosphere, such as nutrients, mechanical resistance and gravity. As a result, root growth and development is very plastic. If this complex and vital process is to be understood, methods and tools are required to capture the dynamics of root responses. Tools are needed which are high-throughput, supporting large-scale experimental work, and provide accurate, high-resolution, quantitative data. We describe and demonstrate the efficacy of the high-throughput and high-resolution root imaging systems recently developed within the Centre for Plant Integrative Biology (CPIB). This toolset includes (i) robotic imaging hardware to generate time-lapse datasets from standard cameras under infrared illumination and (ii) automated image analysis methods and software to extract quantitative information about root growth and development both from these images and via high-resolution light microscopy. These methods are demonstrated using data gathered during an experimental study of the gravitropic response of Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:22527394

  9. Recovering the dynamics of root growth and development using novel image acquisition and analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Wells, Darren M; French, Andrew P; Naeem, Asad; Ishaq, Omer; Traini, Richard; Hijazi, Hussein I; Hijazi, Hussein; Bennett, Malcolm J; Pridmore, Tony P

    2012-06-05

    Roots are highly responsive to environmental signals encountered in the rhizosphere, such as nutrients, mechanical resistance and gravity. As a result, root growth and development is very plastic. If this complex and vital process is to be understood, methods and tools are required to capture the dynamics of root responses. Tools are needed which are high-throughput, supporting large-scale experimental work, and provide accurate, high-resolution, quantitative data. We describe and demonstrate the efficacy of the high-throughput and high-resolution root imaging systems recently developed within the Centre for Plant Integrative Biology (CPIB). This toolset includes (i) robotic imaging hardware to generate time-lapse datasets from standard cameras under infrared illumination and (ii) automated image analysis methods and software to extract quantitative information about root growth and development both from these images and via high-resolution light microscopy. These methods are demonstrated using data gathered during an experimental study of the gravitropic response of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  10. Contrasting strategies of water use: seasonal root growth and soil water depletion in maize and sunflower under deficit irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying root growth and soil water depletion in response to deficit irrigation is key to understanding crop ET under deficit irrigation as well as modeling crop water use across the season. We examined seasonal root growth and distribution patterns using a minirhizotron camera in maize and sunf...

  11. Water Relations of Pine Seedlings in Relation to Root and Shoot Growth 1

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Merrill R.

    1968-01-01

    The effects of water stress on growth and water relations of loblolly and white pine seedlings were studied during series of drying cycles. As mean soil water potential decreased, growth of roots, needles, and buds decreased. Growth of roots during successive severe drying cycles was not uniform, however. A study of needle and root extension showed that of the total growth of roots for 3 7-day drying cycles, only 6% occurred during the third cycle, while needle extension was uniform for the 3 cycles. The difference in response of needles and roots to drying cycles may be attributed primarily to the effect of water stress on the growing region. When subjected to a severe stress, roots matured toward the tip and became dormant, resulting in less growth during subsequent drying cycles. The intercalary growing region of needles, however, was not altered seriously enough by the stress to cause a difference in amount of growth during each drying cycle. Transpiration of loblolly pine was lower in the second drying cycle than in the first. Needle water potential after rewatering was as high as that of control plants watered daily; root resistance was apparently not important in restricting transpiration during a second drying cycle. Needle diffusion resistance of loblolly pine, measured with a low-resistance diffusion porometer, was slightly higher during the second drying cycle than during the first. In addition, many primary needles were killed during the first period of stress. These factors contributed to the reduction of transpiration during the second drying cycle. Diffusion resistance of Coleus increased and transpiration ceased during the first drying cycle while water potential remained relatively high. After rewatering, both leaf resistance and transpiration returned to the control level, presumably because the stress during the first period of drying was not severe. The diffusion resistances observed for well-watered plants were 30 to 50 sec·cm−1 for loblolly

  12. PIV as a method for quantifying root cell growth and particle displacement in confocal images.

    PubMed

    Bengough, A Glyn; Hans, Joachim; Bransby, M Fraser; Valentine, Tracy A

    2010-01-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) quantifies displacement of patches of pixels between successive images. We evaluated PIV as a tool for microscopists by measuring displacements of cells and of a surrounding granular medium in confocal laser scanning microscopy images of Arabidopsis thaliana roots labeled with cell-membrane targeted green fluorescent protein. Excellent accuracy (e.g., displacement standard deviation <0.006 pixels) was obtained for root images that had undergone rigid digital translations of up to 40 pixels. Analysis of zoomed images showed that magnifications of up to 5% maintained good linear relations between PIV-predicted and actual displacements (r(2) > 0.83). Root mean squared error for these distorted images was 0.4-1.1 pixels, increasing at higher magnification factors. Cell growth and rhizosphere deformation were tracked with good temporal (e.g., 1-min interval) and spatial resolution, with PIV patches located on recognizable cell features being tracked more successfully. Appropriate choice of GFP-label was important to decrease small-scale biological noise due to intracellular motion. PIV of roots grown in stiff 2% versus 0.7% agar showed patterns of cell expansion consistent with physically impeded roots of other species. Roots in glass ballotini underwent rapid changes in growth direction on a timescale of minutes, associated with localized arching of ballotini. By tracking cell vertices, we monitored automatically cell length, width, and area every minute for 0.5 h for cells in different stages of development. In conclusion, PIV measured displacements successfully in images of living root cells and the external granular medium, revealing much potential for use by microscopists.

  13. A circadian and an ultradian rhythm are both evident in root growth of rice.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Morio; Matsushita, Naofumi

    2011-11-15

    This paper presents evidence for the existence of both a circadian and an ultradian rhythm in the elongation growth of rice roots. Root elongation of rice (Oryza sativa) was recorded under dim green light by using a CCD camera connected to a computer. Four treatment conditions were set-up to investigate the existence of endogenous rhythms: 28°C constant temperature and continuous dark (28 DD); 28°C constant temperature and alternating light and dark (28 LD); 33°C constant temperature and continuous dark (33 DD); and diurnal temperature change and alternating light and dark (DT-LD). The resulting spectral densities suggested the existence of periodicities of 20.4-25.2 h (circadian cycles) and 2.0-6.0 h (ultradian cycles) in each of the 4 treatments. The shorter ultradian cycles can be attributed to circumnutational growth of roots and/or to mucilage exudation. The average values across all the replicate data showed that the highest power spectral densities (PSDs) corresponded to root growth rhythms with periods of 22.9, 23.7, and 2.1 h for the 28 DD, 28 LD, and 33 DD treatments, respectively. Accumulation of PSD for each data set indicated that the periodicity was similar in both the 28 DD and 33 DD treatments. We conclude that a 23-h circadian and a 2-h ultradian rhythmicity exist in rice root elongation. Moreover, root elongation rates during the day were 1.08 and 1.44 times faster than those during the night for the 28 LD and DT-LD treatments, respectively.

  14. Sulphadimethoxine inhibits Phaseolus vulgaris root growth and development of N-fixing nodules.

    PubMed

    Sartorius, Marilena; Riccio, Anna; Cermola, Michele; Casoria, Paolo; Patriarca, Eduardo J; Taté, Rosarita

    2009-07-01

    Sulphonamides contamination of cultivated lands occurs through the recurrent spreading of animal wastes from intensive farming. The aim of this study was to test the effect(s) of sulphadimethoxine on the beneficial N-fixing Rhizobium etli-Phaseolus vulgaris symbiosis under laboratory conditions. The consequence of increasing concentrations of sulphadimethoxine on the growth ability of free-living R. etli bacteria, as well as on seed germination, seedling development and growth of common bean plants was examined. We have established that sulphadimethoxine inhibited the growth of both symbiotic partners in a dose-dependent manner. Bacterial invasion occurring in developing root nodules was visualized by fluorescence microscopy generating EGFP-marked R. etli bacteria. Our results proved that the development of symbiotic N-fixing root nodules is hampered by sulphadimethoxine thus identifying sulphonamides as toxic compounds for the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis: a low-input sustainable agricultural practice.

  15. Fe-chlorophyllin promotes the growth of wheat roots associated with nitric oxide generation.

    PubMed

    Tong, Min; Zhang, Liefeng; Wang, Yifan; Jiang, Hui; Ren, Yong

    2010-01-01

    Effects of Fe-chlorophyllin on the growth of wheat root were investigated in this study. We found that Fe-chlorophyllin can promote root growth. The production of nitric oxide in wheat root was detected using DAF-2DA fluorescent emission. The intensity of fluorescent in the presence of 0.1 mg/L Fe-chlorophyllin was near to that observed with the positive control of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), the nitric oxide donor. IAA oxidase activity decreased with all treatments of Fe-chlorophyllin from 0.01 to 10 mg/L. At the relatively lower Fe-chlorophyllin concentration of 0.1 mg/L, the activity of IAA oxidase displayed a remarkable decrease, being 40.1% lower than the control. Meanwhile, Fe-chlorophyllin treatment could increase the activities of reactive oxygen scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD), as determined using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results indicate that Fe-chlorophyllin contributes to the growth of wheat root associated with nitric oxide generation.

  16. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): the bugs to debug the root zone.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Swarnalee; Podile, Appa Rao

    2010-08-01

    Interaction of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) with host plants is an intricate and interdependent relationship involving not only the two partners but other biotic and abiotic factors of the rhizosphere region. Survival and establishment of PGPR in the rhizosphere is a major concern of agricultural microbiologists. Various factors that play a determining role include the composition of root exudates, properties of bacterial strain, soil status, and activities of other soil microbes. This review focuses on the different components that affect root colonization of PGPR and the underlying principles behind the success of these bugs to tide over the unfavorable conditions.

  17. Juglone disrupts root plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity and impairs water uptake, root respiration, and growth in soybean (Glycine max) and corn (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Hejl, Angela M; Koster, Karen L

    2004-02-01

    Juglone is phytotoxic, but the mechanisms of growth inhibition have not been fully explained. Previous studies have proposed that disruption of electron transport functions in mitochondria and chloroplasts contribute to observed growth reduction in species exposed to juglone. In studies reported here, corn and soybean seedlings grown in nutrient solution amended with 10, 50, or 100 microM juglone showed significant decreases in root and shoot dry weights and lengths with increasing concentrations. However, no significant differences in leaf chlorophyll fluorescence or CO2-dependent leaf oxygen evolution were observed, even in seedlings that were visibly affected. Disruption of root oxygen uptake was positively correlated with increasing concentrations of juglone, suggesting that juglone may reach mitochondria in root cells. Water uptake and acid efflux also decreased for corn and soybean seedlings treated with juglone, suggesting that juglone may affect metabolism of root cells by disrupting root plasma membrane function. Therefore, the effect of juglone on H+-ATPase activity in corn and soybean root microsomes was tested. Juglone treatments from 10 to 1000 microM significantly reduced H+-ATPase activity compared to controls. This inhibition of H+-ATPase activity and observed reduction of water uptake offers a logical explanation for previously documented phytotoxicity of juglone. Impairment of this enzyme's activity could affect plant growth in a number of ways because proton-pumping in root cells drives essential plant processes such as solute uptake and, hence, water uptake.

  18. Root-to-shoot signalling when soil moisture is heterogeneous: increasing the proportion of root biomass in drying soil inhibits leaf growth and increases leaf abscisic acid concentration.

    PubMed

    Martin-Vertedor, Ana Isabel; Dodd, Ian C

    2011-07-01

    To determine whether root-to-shoot signalling of soil moisture heterogeneity depended on root distribution, wild-type (WT) and abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient (Az34) barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants were grown in split pots into which different numbers of seminal roots were inserted. After establishment, all plants received the same irrigation volumes, with one pot watered (w) and the other allowed to dry the soil (d), imposing three treatments (1 d: 3 w, 2 d: 2 w, 3 d: 1 w) that differed in the number of seminal roots exposed to drying soil. Root distribution did not affect leaf water relations and had no sustained effect on plant evapotranspiration (ET). In both genotypes, leaf elongation was less and leaf ABA concentrations were higher in plants with more roots in drying soil, with leaf ABA concentrations and water potentials 30% and 0.2 MPa higher, respectively, in WT plants. Whole-pot soil drying increased xylem ABA concentrations, but maximum values obtained when leaf growth had virtually ceased (100 nm in Az34, 330 nm in WT) had minimal effects (<40% leaf growth inhibition) when xylem supplied to detached shoots. Although ABA may not regulate leaf growth in vivo, genetic variation in foliar ABA concentration in the field may indicate different root distributions between upper (drier) and lower (wetter) soil layers.

  19. Adaptive shoot and root responses collectively enhance growth at optimum temperature and limited phosphorus supply of three herbaceous legume species

    PubMed Central

    Suriyagoda, Lalith D. B.; Ryan, Megan H.; Renton, Michael; Lambers, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Studies on the effects of sub- and/or supraoptimal temperatures on growth and phosphorus (P) nutrition of perennial herbaceous species at growth-limiting P availability are few, and the impacts of temperature on rhizosphere carboxylate dynamics are not known for any species. Methods The effect of three day/night temperature regimes (low, 20/13 °C; medium, 27/20 °C; and high, 32/25 °C) on growth and P nutrition of Cullen cinereum, Kennedia nigricans and Lotus australis was determined. Key Results The highest temperature was optimal for growth of C. cinereum, while the lowest temperature was optimal for K. nigricans and L. australis. At optimum temperatures, the relative growth rate (RGR), root length, root length per leaf area, total P content, P productivity and water-use efficiency were higher for all species, and rhizosphere carboxylate content was higher for K. nigricans and L. australis. Cullen cinereum, with a slower RGR, had long (higher root length per leaf area) and thin roots to enhance P uptake by exploring a greater volume of soil at its optimum temperature, while K. nigricans and L. australis, with faster RGRs, had only long roots (higher root length per leaf area) as a morphological adaptation, but had a higher content of carboxylates in their rhizospheres at the optimum temperature. Irrespective of the species, the amount of P taken up by a plant was mainly determined by root length, rather than by P uptake rate per unit root surface area. Phosphorus productivity was correlated with RGR and plant biomass. Conclusions All three species exhibited adaptive shoot and root traits to enhance growth at their optimum temperatures at growth-limiting P supply. The species with a slower RGR (i.e. C. cinereum) showed only morphological root adaptations, while K. nigricans and L. australis, with faster RGRs, had both morphological and physiological (i.e. root carboxylate dynamics) root adaptations. PMID:22847657

  20. Modeling the Hydraulics of Root Growth in Three Dimensions with Phloem Water Sources1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    Wiegers, Brandy S.; Cheer, Angela Y.; Silk, Wendy K.

    2009-01-01

    Primary growth is characterized by cell expansion facilitated by water uptake generating hydrostatic (turgor) pressure to inflate the cell, stretching the rigid cell walls. The multiple source theory of root growth hypothesizes that root growth involves transport of water both from the soil surrounding the growth zone and from the mature tissue higher in the root via phloem and protophloem. Here, protophloem water sources are used as boundary conditions in a classical, three-dimensional model of growth-sustaining water potentials in primary roots. The model predicts small radial gradients in water potential, with a significant longitudinal gradient. The results improve the agreement of theory with empirical studies for water potential in the primary growth zone of roots of maize (Zea mays). A sensitivity analysis quantifies the functional importance of apical phloem differentiation in permitting growth and reveals that the presence of phloem water sources makes the growth-sustaining water relations of the root relatively insensitive to changes in root radius and hydraulic conductivity. Adaptation to drought and other environmental stresses is predicted to involve more apical differentiation of phloem and/or higher phloem delivery rates to the growth zone. PMID:19542299

  1. Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ved Parkash; Singh, Harminder Pal; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Batish, Daizy Rani

    2009-10-15

    During the last couple of decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of cell phones. It has significantly added to the rapidly increasing EMF smog, an unprecedented type of pollution consisting of radiation in the environment, thereby prompting the scientists to study the effects on humans. However, not many studies have been conducted to explore the effects of cell phone EMFr on growth and biochemical changes in plants. We investigated whether EMFr from cell phones inhibit growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through induction of conventional stress responses. Effects of cell phone EMFr (power density: 8.55 microW cm(-2); 900 MHz band width; for 1/2, 1, 2, and 4 h) were determined by measuring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in terms of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) content, root oxidizability and changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Our results showed that cell phone EMFr significantly inhibited the germination (at > or =2 h), and radicle and plumule growths (> or =1 h) in mung bean in a time-dependent manner. Further, cell phone EMFr enhanced MDA content (indicating lipid peroxidation), and increased H(2)O(2) accumulation and root oxidizability in mung bean roots, thereby inducing oxidative stress and cellular damage. In response to EMFr, there was a significant upregulation in the activities of scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases, catalases and glutathione reductases, in mung bean roots. The study concluded that cell phone EMFr inhibit root growth of mung bean by inducing ROS-generated oxidative stress despite increased activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  2. Putting theory to the test: which regulatory mechanisms can drive realistic growth of a root?

    PubMed

    De Vos, Dirk; Vissenberg, Kris; Broeckhove, Jan; Beemster, Gerrit T S

    2014-10-01

    In recent years there has been a strong development of computational approaches to mechanistically understand organ growth regulation in plants. In this study, simulation methods were used to explore which regulatory mechanisms can lead to realistic output at the cell and whole organ scale and which other possibilities must be discarded as they result in cellular patterns and kinematic characteristics that are not consistent with experimental observations for the Arabidopsis thaliana primary root. To aid in this analysis, a 'Uniform Longitudinal Strain Rule' (ULSR) was formulated as a necessary condition for stable, unidirectional, symplastic growth. Our simulations indicate that symplastic structures are robust to differences in longitudinal strain rates along the growth axis only if these differences are small and short-lived. Whereas simple cell-autonomous regulatory rules based on counters and timers can produce stable growth, it was found that steady developmental zones and smooth transitions in cell lengths are not feasible. By introducing spatial cues into growth regulation, those inadequacies could be avoided and experimental data could be faithfully reproduced. Nevertheless, a root growth model based on previous polar auxin-transport mechanisms violates the proposed ULSR due to the presence of lateral gradients. Models with layer-specific regulation or layer-driven growth offer potential solutions. Alternatively, a model representing the known cross-talk between auxin, as the cell proliferation promoting factor, and cytokinin, as the cell differentiation promoting factor, predicts the effect of hormone-perturbations on meristem size. By down-regulating PIN-mediated transport through the transcription factor SHY2, cytokinin effectively flattens the lateral auxin gradient, at the basal boundary of the division zone, (thereby imposing the ULSR) to signal the exit of proliferation and start of elongation. This model exploration underlines the value of

  3. Putting Theory to the Test: Which Regulatory Mechanisms Can Drive Realistic Growth of a Root?

    PubMed Central

    De Vos, Dirk; Vissenberg, Kris; Broeckhove, Jan; Beemster, Gerrit T. S.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been a strong development of computational approaches to mechanistically understand organ growth regulation in plants. In this study, simulation methods were used to explore which regulatory mechanisms can lead to realistic output at the cell and whole organ scale and which other possibilities must be discarded as they result in cellular patterns and kinematic characteristics that are not consistent with experimental observations for the Arabidopsis thaliana primary root. To aid in this analysis, a ‘Uniform Longitudinal Strain Rule’ (ULSR) was formulated as a necessary condition for stable, unidirectional, symplastic growth. Our simulations indicate that symplastic structures are robust to differences in longitudinal strain rates along the growth axis only if these differences are small and short-lived. Whereas simple cell-autonomous regulatory rules based on counters and timers can produce stable growth, it was found that steady developmental zones and smooth transitions in cell lengths are not feasible. By introducing spatial cues into growth regulation, those inadequacies could be avoided and experimental data could be faithfully reproduced. Nevertheless, a root growth model based on previous polar auxin-transport mechanisms violates the proposed ULSR due to the presence of lateral gradients. Models with layer-specific regulation or layer-driven growth offer potential solutions. Alternatively, a model representing the known cross-talk between auxin, as the cell proliferation promoting factor, and cytokinin, as the cell differentiation promoting factor, predicts the effect of hormone-perturbations on meristem size. By down-regulating PIN-mediated transport through the transcription factor SHY2, cytokinin effectively flattens the lateral auxin gradient, at the basal boundary of the division zone, (thereby imposing the ULSR) to signal the exit of proliferation and start of elongation. This model exploration underlines the value of

  4. Montane forest root growth and soil organic layer depth as potential factors stabilizing Cenozoic global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, Christopher E.; Taylor, Lyla L.; Girardin, Cecile A. J.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Beerling, David J.

    2014-02-01

    Tree roots and their symbiotic fungal partners are believed to play a major role in regulating long-term global climate, but feedbacks between global temperature and biotic weathering have not yet been explored in detail. In situ field data from a 3000 m altitudinal transect in Peru show fine root growth decreases and organic layer depth increases with the cooler temperatures that prevail at increased altitude. We hypothesize that this observation suggests a negative feedback: as global temperatures rise, the soil organic layer will shrink, and more roots will grow in the mineral layer, thereby accelerating weathering and reducing atmospheric CO2. We examine this mechanism with a process-based biological weathering model and demonstrate that this negative feedback could have contributed to moderating long-term global Cenozoic climate during major Cenozoic CO2 changes linked to volcanic degassing and tectonic uplift events.

  5. A Markovian Growth Dynamics on Rooted Binary Trees Evolving According to the Gompertz Curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landim, C.; Portugal, R. D.; Svaiter, B. F.

    2012-08-01

    Inspired by biological dynamics, we consider a growth Markov process taking values on the space of rooted binary trees, similar to the Aldous-Shields (Probab. Theory Relat. Fields 79(4):509-542, 1988) model. Fix n≥1 and β>0. We start at time 0 with the tree composed of a root only. At any time, each node with no descendants, independently from the other nodes, produces two successors at rate β( n- k)/ n, where k is the distance from the node to the root. Denote by Z n ( t) the number of nodes with no descendants at time t and let T n = β -1 nln( n/ln4)+(ln2)/(2 β). We prove that 2- n Z n ( T n + nτ), τ∈ℝ, converges to the Gompertz curve exp(-(ln2) e - βτ ). We also prove a central limit theorem for the martingale associated to Z n ( t).

  6. Phosphorus and magnesium interactively modulate the elongation and directional growth of primary roots in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yaofang; Jin, Gulei; Li, Xin; Tang, Caixian; Zhang, Yongsong; Liang, Yongchao; Yu, Jingquan

    2015-07-01

    A balanced supply of essential nutrients is an important factor influencing root architecture in many plants, yet data related to the interactive effects of two nutrients on root growth are limited. Here, we investigated the interactive effect between phosphorus (P) and magnesium (Mg) on root growth of Arabidopsis grown in pH-buffered agar medium at different P and Mg levels. The results showed that elongation and deviation of primary roots were directly correlated with the amount of P added to the medium but could be modified by the Mg level, which was related to the root meristem activity and stem-cell division. High P enhanced while low P decreased the tip-focused fluorescence signal of auxin biosynthesis, transport, and redistribution during elongation of primary roots; these effects were greater under low Mg than under high Mg. The altered root growth in response to P and Mg supply was correlated with AUX1, PIN2, and PIN3 mRNA abundance and expression and the accumulation of the protein. Application of either auxin influx inhibitor or efflux inhibitor inhibited the elongation and increased the deviation angle of primary roots, and decreased auxin level in root tips. Furthermore, the auxin-transport mutants aux1-22 and eir1-1 displayed reduced root growth and increased the deviation angle. Our data suggest a profound effect of the combined supply of P and Mg on the development of root morphology in Arabidopsis through auxin signals that modulate the elongation and directional growth of primary root and the expression of root differentiation and development genes.

  7. Phosphorus and magnesium interactively modulate the elongation and directional growth of primary roots in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yaofang; Jin, Gulei; Li, Xin; Tang, Caixian; Zhang, Yongsong; Liang, Yongchao; Yu, Jingquan

    2015-01-01

    A balanced supply of essential nutrients is an important factor influencing root architecture in many plants, yet data related to the interactive effects of two nutrients on root growth are limited. Here, we investigated the interactive effect between phosphorus (P) and magnesium (Mg) on root growth of Arabidopsis grown in pH-buffered agar medium at different P and Mg levels. The results showed that elongation and deviation of primary roots were directly correlated with the amount of P added to the medium but could be modified by the Mg level, which was related to the root meristem activity and stem-cell division. High P enhanced while low P decreased the tip-focused fluorescence signal of auxin biosynthesis, transport, and redistribution during elongation of primary roots; these effects were greater under low Mg than under high Mg. The altered root growth in response to P and Mg supply was correlated with AUX1, PIN2, and PIN3 mRNA abundance and expression and the accumulation of the protein. Application of either auxin influx inhibitor or efflux inhibitor inhibited the elongation and increased the deviation angle of primary roots, and decreased auxin level in root tips. Furthermore, the auxin-transport mutants aux1-22 and eir1-1 displayed reduced root growth and increased the deviation angle. Our data suggest a profound effect of the combined supply of P and Mg on the development of root morphology in Arabidopsis through auxin signals that modulate the elongation and directional growth of primary root and the expression of root differentiation and development genes. PMID:25922494

  8. Effects of Phlomis umbrosa Root on Longitudinal Bone Growth Rate in Adolescent Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donghun; Kim, Young-Sik; Song, Jungbin; Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Hyun Jung; Guo, Hailing; Kim, Hocheol

    2016-04-07

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Phlomis umbrosa root on bone growth and growth mediators in rats. Female adolescent rats were administered P. umbrosa extract, recombinant human growth hormone or vehicle for 10 days. Tetracycline was injected intraperitoneally to produce a glowing fluorescence band on the newly formed bone on day 8, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine was injected to label proliferating chondrocytes on days 8-10. To assess possible endocrine or autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, we evaluated insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in response to P. umbrosa administration in either growth plate or serum. Oral administration of P. umbrosa significantly increased longitudinal bone growth rate, height of hypertrophic zone and chondrocyte proliferation of the proximal tibial growth plate. P. umbrosa also increased serum IGFBP-3 levels and upregulated the expressions of IGF-1 and BMP-2 in growth plate. In conclusion, P. umbrosa increases longitudinal bone growth rate by stimulating proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocyte with the increment of circulating IGFBP-3. Regarding the immunohistochemical study, the effect of P. umbrosa may also be attributable to upregulation of local IGF-1 and BMP-2 expressions in the growth plate, which can be considered as a GH dependent autocrine/paracrine pathway.

  9. Eugenol-inhibited root growth in Avena fatua involves ROS-mediated oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Nitina; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Plant essential oils and their constituent monoterpenes are widely known plant growth retardants but their mechanism of action is not well understood. We explored the mechanism of phytotoxicity of eugenol, a monoterpenoid alcohol, proposed as a natural herbicide. Eugenol (100-1000 µM) retarded the germination of Avena fatua and strongly inhibited its root growth compared to the coleoptile growth. We further investigated the underlying physiological and biochemical alterations leading to the root growth inhibition. Eugenol induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to oxidative stress and membrane damage in the root tissue. ROS generation measured in terms of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical content increased significantly in the range of 24 to 144, 21 to 91, 46 to 173% over the control at 100 to 1000 µM eugenol, respectively. The disruption in membrane integrity was indicated by 25 to 125% increase in malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation byproduct), and decreased conjugated diene content (~10 to 41%). The electrolyte leakage suggesting membrane damage increased both under light as well as dark conditions measured over a period from 0 to 30 h. In defense to the oxidative damage due to eugenol, a significant upregulation in the ROS-scavenging antioxidant enzyme machinery was observed. The activities of superoxide dismutases, catalases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases and glutathione reductases were elevated by ~1.5 to 2.8, 2 to 4.3, 1.9 to 5.0, 1.4 to 3.9, 2.5 to 5.5 times, respectively, in response to 100 to 1000 µM eugenol. The study concludes that eugenol inhibits early root growth through ROS-mediated oxidative damage, despite an activation of the antioxidant enzyme machinery.

  10. Effects of Irrigation and Verticillium dahliae on Cauliflower Root and Shoot Growth Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Xiao, C L; Subbarao, K V

    2000-09-01

    ABSTRACT Cauliflower root and plant growth and Verticillium wilt development were evaluated under different moisture regimes in the presence or absence of V. dahliae. Treatments included two main plots (V. dahliae-infested and fumigated), two subplots (furrow and subsurface drip irrigation), and three sub-subplots (deficit, moderate, and excessive regimes) that were arranged in a split-split-plot design in the field. Soil cores with roots were periodically sampled at 5 and 25 cm distance from plants. Total roots in each soil core were extracted with a hydropneumatic root elutriator, and root length from each sample was determined with a digital image analysis system. Incidence and severity of Verticillium wilt, plant height, number of leaves, and dry weights of leaves and roots were determined on 10 plants sampled at 7- to 10-day intervals 1 month after cauliflower transplanting and continued until harvest. To evaluate the effects of Verticillium wilt-induced stress on cauliflower plants, stomatal resistance was measured in upper healthy and lower (or diseased) leaves. Root length density at 5 and 25 cm from plant was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in subsurface drip than in furrow irrigation. Root length density was significantly higher in excessive irrigation regime than in the other regimes. Concomitantly, there was higher wilt incidence and severity in excessive and moderate regimes than deficit regime regardless of the irrigation method. Plant height was affected by irrigation methods and deficit regime. Neither the method of irrigation nor the quantity of water affected the other variables. Stomatal resistance in lower diseased leaves was significantly higher in infested than in fumigated plots but it was not in the upper healthy leaves. In this study, cauliflower yield was not affected by V. dahliae and irrigation method, but the deficit irrigation regime resulted in reduced yield even though it suppressed wilt in cauliflower. Thus, higher moisture levels

  11. Growth rate and mitotic index analysis of Vicia faba L. roots exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, M.; Miller, M.W.; Cox, C.; Carstesen, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    Growth, mitotic index, and growth rate recovery were determined for Vicia faba L. roots exposed to 60-Hz electric fields of 200, 290, and 360 V/m in an aqueous inorganic nutrient medium (conductivity 0.07-0.09 S/m). Root growth rate decreased in proportion to the increasing strength; the electric field threshold for a growth rate effect was about 230 V/m. The induced transmembrane potential at the threshold exposure was about 4-7 mV. The mitotic index was not affected by an electric field exposure sufficient to reduce root growth rate to about 35% of control. Root growth rate recovery from 31-96% of control occurred in 4 days after cessation of the 360 V/m exposure. The results support the postulate that the site of action of the applied electric fields is the cell membrane. 10 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  12. Root hair-specific disruption of cellulose and xyloglucan in AtCSLD3 mutants, and factors affecting the post-rupture resumption of mutant root hair growth.

    PubMed

    Galway, Moira E; Eng, Ryan C; Schiefelbein, John W; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O

    2011-05-01

    The glycosyl transferase encoded by the cellulose synthase-like gene CSLD3/KJK/RHD7 (At3g03050) is required for cell wall integrity during root hair formation in Arabidopsis thaliana but it remains unclear whether it contributes to the synthesis of cellulose or hemicellulose. We identified two new alleles, root hair-defective (rhd) 7-1 and rhd7-4, which affect the C-terminal end of the encoded protein. Like root hairs in the previously characterized kjk-2 putative null mutant, rhd7-1 and rhd7-4 hairs rupture before tip growth but, depending on the growth medium and temperature, hairs are able to survive rupture and initiate tip growth, indicating that these alleles retain some function. At 21°C, the rhd7 tip-growing root hairs continued to rupture but at 5ºC, rupture was inhibited, resulting in long, wild type-like root hairs. At both temperatures, the expression of another root hair-specific CSLD gene, CSLD2, was increased in the rhd7-4 mutant but reduced in the kjk-2 mutant, suggesting that CSLD2 expression is CSLD3-dependent, and that CSLD2 could partially compensate for CSLD3 defects to prevent rupture at 5°C. Using a fluorescent brightener (FB 28) to detect cell wall (1 → 4)-β-glucans (primarily cellulose) and CCRC-M1 antibody to detect fucosylated xyloglucans revealed a patchy distribution of both in the mutant root hair cell walls. Cell wall thickness varied, and immunogold electron microscopy indicated that xyloglucan distribution was altered throughout the root hair cell walls. These cell wall defects indicate that CSLD3 is required for the normal organization of both cellulose and xyloglucan in root hair cell walls.

  13. Experimental Salix shoot and root growth statistics on the alluvial sediment of a restored river corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquale, N.; Perona, P.; Verones, F.; Francis, R.; Burlando, P.

    2009-12-01

    River restoration projects encompass not only the amelioration of flood protection but also the rehabilitation of the riverine ecosystem. However, the interactions and feedbacks between river hydrology, riparian vegetation and aquifer dynamics are still poorly understood. Vegetation interacts with river hydrology on multiple time scales. Hence, there is considerable interest in understanding the morphodynamics of restored river reaches in relation to the characteristics of vegetation that may colonize the bare sediment, and locally stabilize it by root anchoring. In this paper we document results from a number of ongoing experiments within the project RECORD (Restored CORridor Dynamics, sponsored by CCES - www.cces.ch - and Cantons Zurich and Thurgau, CH). In particular, we discuss both the above and below ground biomass growth dynamics of 1188 Salix cuttings (individual and group survival rate, growth of the longest shoots and number of branches and morphological root analysis) in relation to local river hydrodynamics. Cuttings were organized in square plots of different size and planted in spring 2009 on a gravel island of the restored river section of River Thur in Switzerland. By periodical monitoring the plots we obtained a detailed and quite unique set of data, including root statistics of uprooted samples derived from image analysis from a high-resolution scanner. Beyond describing the survival rate dynamics in relation to river hydrology, we show the nature and strength of correlations between island topography and cutting growth statistics. In particular, by root analysis and by comparing empirical histograms of the vertical root distribution vs satured water surface in the sediment, we show that main tropic responses on such environment are oxytropism, hydrotropism and thigmotropism. The main factor influencing the survival rate is naturally found in erosion by floods, of which we also give an interesting example that helps demonstrate the role of river

  14. [Effects of nighttime warming on winter wheat root growth and soil nutrient availability].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Qian; Chen, Jin; Guo, Jia; Tian, Yun-Lu; Yang, Shi-Jia; Zhang, Li; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Wei-Jian

    2013-02-01

    Climate warming has an obvious asymmetry between day and night, with a greater increment of air temperature at nighttime than at daytime. By adopting passive nighttime warming (PNW) system, a two-year field experiment of nighttime warming was conducted in the main production areas of winter wheat in China (Shijiazhuang of Hebei Province, Xuzhou of Jiangsu Province, Xuchang of Henan Province, and Zhenjiang of Jiangsu Province) in 2009 and 2010, with the responses of soil pH and available nutrient contents during the whole growth periods and of wheat root characteristics at heading stage determined. As compared with the control (no nighttime warming), nighttime warming decreased the soil pH and available nutrient contents significantly, and increased the root dry mass and root/shoot ratio to a certain extent. During the whole growth period of winter wheat, nighttime warming decreased the soil pH in Shijiazhuang, Xuzhou, Xuchang, and Zhenjiang averagely by 0.4%, 0.4%, 0.7%, and 0.9%, the soil alkaline nitrogen content averagely by 8.1%, 8.1%, 7.1%, and 6.0%, the soil available phosphorus content averagely by 15.7%, 12.1%, 19.6%, and 25.8%, and the soil available potassium content averagely by 11.5%, 7.6%, 7.6% , and 10.1%, respectively. However, nighttime warming increased the wheat root dry mass at heading stage in Shijiazhuang, Xuzhou, and Zhenjiang averagely by 31. 5% , 27.0%, and 14.5%, and the root/shoot ratio at heading stage in Shijiazhuang, Xuchang, and Zhenjiang averagely by 23.8%, 13.7% and 9.7%, respectively. Our results indicated that nighttime warming could affect the soil nutrient supply and winter wheat growth via affecting the soil chemical properties.

  15. Genetic Variability in Nodulation and Root Growth Affects Nitrogen Fixation and Accumulation in Pea

    PubMed Central

    Bourion, Virginie; Laguerre, Gisele; Depret, Geraldine; Voisin, Anne-Sophie; Salon, Christophe; Duc, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Legume nitrogen is derived from two different sources, symbiotically fixed atmospheric N2 and soil N. The effect of genetic variability of root and nodule establishment on N acquisition and seed protein yield was investigated under field conditions in pea (Pisum sativum). In addition, these parameters were related to the variability in preference for rhizobial genotypes. Methods Five different spring pea lines (two hypernodulating mutants and three cultivars), previously identified in artificial conditions as contrasted for both root and nodule development, were characterized under field conditions. Root and nodule establishment was examined from the four-leaf stage up to the beginning of seed filling and was related to the patterns of shoot dry matter and nitrogen accumulation. The genetic structure of rhizobial populations associated with the pea lines was obtained by analysis of nodule samples. The fraction of nitrogen derived from symbiotic fixation was estimated at the beginning of seed filling and at physiological maturity, when seed protein content and yield were determined. Key Results The hypernodulating mutants established nodules earlier and maintained them longer than was the case for the three cultivars, whereas their root development and nitrogen accumulation were lower. The seed protein yield was higher in ‘Athos’ and ‘Austin’, the two cultivars with increased root development, consistent with their higher N absorption during seed filling. Conclusion The hypernodulating mutants did not accumulate more nitrogen, probably due to the C cost for nodulation being higher than for root development. Enhancing exogenous nitrogen supply at the end of the growth cycle, by increasing the potential for root N uptake from soil, seems a good option for improving pea seed filling. PMID:17670753

  16. Abscisic acid- and stress-induced highly proline-rich glycoproteins regulate root growth in rice.

    PubMed

    Tseng, I-Chieh; Hong, Chwan-Yang; Yu, Su-May; Ho, Tuan-Hua David

    2013-09-01

    In the root of rice (Oryza sativa), abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, salinity, or water deficit stress induces the expression of a family of four genes, REPETITIVE PROLINE-RICH PROTEIN (RePRP). These genes encode two subclasses of novel proline-rich glycoproteins with highly repetitive PX₁PX₂ motifs, RePRP1 and RePRP2. RePRP orthologs exist only in monocotyledonous plants, and their functions are virtually unknown. Rice RePRPs are heavily glycosylated with arabinose and glucose on multiple hydroxyproline residues. They are significantly different from arabinogalactan proteins that have glycan chains composed of arabinose and galactose. Transient and stable expressions of RePRP-green fluorescent protein reveal that a fraction of this protein is localized to the plasma membrane. In rice roots, ABA treatment increases RePRP expression preferentially in the elongation zone. Overexpression of RePRP in transgenic rice reduces root cell elongation in the absence of ABA, similar to the effect of ABA on wild-type roots. Conversely, simultaneous knockdown of the expression of RePRP1 and RePRP2 reduces the root sensitivity to ABA, indicating that RePRP proteins play an essential role in ABA/stress regulation of root growth and development. Moreover, rice RePRPs specifically interact with a polysaccharide, arabinogalactan, in a dosage-dependent manner. It is suggested that RePRP1 and RePRP2 are functionally redundant suppressors of root cell expansion and probably act through interactions with cell wall components near the plasma membrane.

  17. [Effects of wheat root exudates on cucumber growth and soil fungal community structure].

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng-Zhi; Li, Min; Cao, Peng; Ma, Ya-Fei; Wang, Li-Li

    2014-10-01

    With wheat as the donor plant and cucumber as the receptor plant, this study investigated the effects of root exudates from wheat cultivars with different allelopathic potentials (positive or negative) and companion cropping with wheat on soil fungal community structure by PCR-DGGE method and cucumber growth. Results showed that the wheat root exudates with positive allelopathic potential increased height and stem diameter of cucumber seedlings significantly, compared to the control seedlings (W) after 6 days and 12 days treatment, respectively. Also, wheat root exudates with both positive and negative allelopathic potential increased the seedling height of cucumber significantly after 18 days treatment. The wheat root exudates with different allelopathic potentials decreased the band number, Shannon and evenness indices of soil fungal community significantly in cucumber seedling rhizosphere, and those in the soil with the control seedlings (W) were also significantly higher than that in the control soil without seedlings (Wn) after 6 days treatment. The band number, Shannon and evenness indices in all the treatments were significantly higher than those in the control soil without seedlings (Wn) after 18 days treatment. Companion cropping with negative allelopathic potential wheat decreased the Shannon and evenness indices of soil fungi community significantly in the cucumber seedling rhizosphere, suggesting the wheat root exudates and companion cropping with wheat changed soil fungal community structure in the cucumber seedling rhizosphere. The results of DGGE map and the principal component analysis showed that companion cropping with wheat cultivars with different allelopathic potentials changed soil fungal community structure in cucumber seedling rhizosphere.

  18. Growth, root formation, and nutrient value of triticale plants fertilized with biosolids.

    PubMed

    Rauw, Wendy Mercedes; Teglas, Michael Bela; Chandra, Sudeep; Forister, Matthew Lewis

    2012-01-01

    Biosolids are utilized as nutrient rich fertilizer. Little material is available on benefits to forage crops resulting from fertilization with biosolids. This paper aimed to compare the effects of fertilization with biosolids versus commercial nitrogen fertilizer on growth, root formation, and nutrient value of triticale plants in a greenhouse experiment. Per treatment, five pots were seeded with five triticale seeds each. Treatments included a nonfertilized control, fertilization with 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ml biosolids per pot, and fertilization with a commercial nitrogen fertilizer at the recommended application rate and at double that rate. Biomass production, root length, root diameter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium concentration were analyzed at harvest. Fertilization with biosolids increased triticale production (P < 0.001); production was similar for the 100 to 400 mL treatments. Root length, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentration increased, and potassium concentration decreased linearly with application rate. At the recommended rate, biomass production was similar between fertilization with biosolids and commercial fertilizer. However, plants fertilized with commercial fertilizer had considerably longer roots (P < 0.001), higher nitrogen concentration (P < 0.05), and lower potassium concentration (P < 0.01) than those fertilized with biosolids. Our results indicate that at the recommended application rate, biomass production was similar between fertilization with biosolids and with commercial nitrogen fertilizer, indicating the value of biosolids fertilization as a potential alternative.

  19. Growth, Root Formation, and Nutrient Value of Triticale Plants Fertilized with Biosolids

    PubMed Central

    Rauw, Wendy Mercedes; Teglas, Michael Bela; Chandra, Sudeep; Forister, Matthew Lewis

    2012-01-01

    Biosolids are utilized as nutrient rich fertilizer. Little material is available on benefits to forage crops resulting from fertilization with biosolids. This paper aimed to compare the effects of fertilization with biosolids versus commercial nitrogen fertilizer on growth, root formation, and nutrient value of triticale plants in a greenhouse experiment. Per treatment, five pots were seeded with five triticale seeds each. Treatments included a nonfertilized control, fertilization with 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ml biosolids per pot, and fertilization with a commercial nitrogen fertilizer at the recommended application rate and at double that rate. Biomass production, root length, root diameter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium concentration were analyzed at harvest. Fertilization with biosolids increased triticale production (P < 0.001); production was similar for the 100 to 400 mL treatments. Root length, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentration increased, and potassium concentration decreased linearly with application rate. At the recommended rate, biomass production was similar between fertilization with biosolids and commercial fertilizer. However, plants fertilized with commercial fertilizer had considerably longer roots (P < 0.001), higher nitrogen concentration (P < 0.05), and lower potassium concentration (P < 0.01) than those fertilized with biosolids. Our results indicate that at the recommended application rate, biomass production was similar between fertilization with biosolids and with commercial nitrogen fertilizer, indicating the value of biosolids fertilization as a potential alternative. PMID:22593686

  20. Live substrate positively affects root growth and stolon direction in the woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Erica M.; Watson, Maxine A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of clonal plant foraging generally focus on growth responses to patch quality once rooted. Here we explore the possibility of true plant foraging; the ability to detect and respond to patch resource status prior to rooting. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate the morphological changes that occur when individual daughter ramets of Fragaria vesca (woodland strawberry) were exposed to air above live (non-sterilized) or dead (sterilized) substrates. Contact between daughter ramets and substrate was prohibited. Daughter ramet root biomass was significantly larger over live versus dead substrate. Root:shoot ratio also increased over live substrate, a morphological response we interpret as indicative of active nutrient foraging. Daughter ramet root biomass was positively correlated with mother ramet size over live but not dead substrate. Given the choice between a live versus a dead substrate, primary stolons extended preferentially toward live substrates. We conclude that exposure to live substrate drives positive nutrient foraging responses in F. vesca. We propose that volatiles emitted from the substrates might be effecting the morphological changes that occur during true nutrient foraging. PMID:26483826

  1. The effects of dopamine on root growth and enzyme activity in soybean seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Guidotti, Bruno Boni; Gomes, Bruno Ribeiro; Siqueira-Soares, Rita de Cássia; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of dopamine, an allelochemical exuded from the velvetbean (Mucuna pruriens L DC. var utilis), on the growth and cell viability of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) roots. We analyzed the effects of dopamine on superoxide dismutase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and cell wall-bound peroxidase activities as well as its effects on lignin contents in the roots. Three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (pH 6.0), without or with 0.25 to 1.0 mM dopamine, in a growth chamber (25°C, 12L:12D photoperiod, irradiance of 280 μmol m−2 s−1) for 24 h. In general, the length, fresh weight and dry weight of roots, cell viability, PAL and POD activities decreased, while SOD activities increased after dopamine treatment. The content of lignin was not altered. The data demonstrate the susceptibility of soybean to dopamine and reinforce the role of this catecholamine as a strong allelochemical. The results also suggest that dopamine-induced inhibition in soybean roots is not related to the production of lignin, but may be related to damage caused by reactive oxygen species. PMID:23838960

  2. Temperature constraints on the growth and functioning of root organ cultures with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Gavito, Mayra E; Olsson, Pål A; Rouhier, Hervé; Medina-Peñafiel, Almudena; Jakobsen, Iver; Bago, Albert; Azcón-Aguilar, Concepción

    2005-10-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of temperature on fungal growth and tested whether the differences in fungal growth were related to the effects of temperature on carbon movement to, or within, the fungus. Growth curves and C uptake-transfer-translocation measurements were obtained for three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) isolates cultured within a 6-30 degrees C temperature range. A series of experiments with a model fungal isolate, Glomus intraradices, was used to examine the effects of temperature on lipid body and 33P movement, and to investigate the role of acclimation and incubation time. Temperature effects on AMF growth were both direct and indirect because, despite clear independent root and AMF growth responses in some cases, the uptake and translocation of 13C was also affected within the temperature range tested. Root C uptake and, to a lesser extent, C translocation in the fungus, were reduced by low temperatures (< 18 degrees C). Uptake and translocation of 33P by fungal hyphae were, by contrast, similar between 10 and 25 degrees C. We conclude that temperature, between 6 and 18 degrees C, reduces AMF growth, and that C movement to the fungus is involved in this response.

  3. Development of a mathematical model for growth and oxygen transfer in in vitro plant hairy root cultivations.

    PubMed

    Palavalli, Rajashekar Reddy; Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, Ashok Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Genetically transformed, "Hairy roots" once developed can serve as a stable parent culture for in vitro production of plant secondary metabolites. However, the major bottleneck in the commercial exploitation of hairy roots remains its successful scale-up due to oxygen transfer limitation in three-dimensionally growing hairy root mass. Mass transfer resistances near the gas-liquid and liquid-solid boundary layer affect the oxygen delivery to the growing hairy roots. In addition, the diffusional mass transfer limitation due to increasing size of the root ball (matrix) with growth also plays a limiting role in the oxygen transfer rate. In the present study, a mathematical model is developed which describes the oxygen transfer kinetics in the growing Azadirachta indica hairy root matrix as a case study for offline simulation of process control strategies ensuring non-limiting concentrations of oxygen in the medium throughout the hairy root cultivation period. The unstructured model simulates the effect of oxygen transfer limitation in terms of efficiency factor (η) on specific growth rate (μ) of the hairy root biomass. The model is able to predict effectively the onset of oxygen transfer limitation in the inner core of the growing hairy root matrix such that the bulk oxygen concentration can be increased so as to prevent the subsequent inhibition in growth of the hairy root biomass due to oxygen transfer (diffusional) limitation.

  4. The role of auxin and ethylene for gravitropic differential growth of coleoptiles and roots of rye- and maize seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelmann, H. G.; Sabovljevic, A.; Njio, G.; Roth, U.

    The relevance of auxin and ethylene for differential gravitropic growth has been analyzed both in shoots and roots of etiolated rye- and maize seedlings. As previously demonstrated for indolyl-3-acetic acid (IAA), incubation of coleoptiles in dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) resulted in a two- to threefold length increase compared to water controls. In spite of this immense effect on elongation growth, gravi-curvature was similar to water controls. In contrast, inhibition of ethylene synthesis prevented differential growth of abraded coleoptiles as well as of roots without a significant inhibiting effect on elongation. Inhibition of ethylene perception in horizontally stimulated maize roots growing on surfaces eliminated the capacity of the roots to adapt growth to the surface and a vertical orientation of the root tip. This effect is accompanied by up- and down-regulation of a number of proteins as detected with the 2D-MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization- time of flight) method. Exogenous ethylene inhibited growth but enhanced gravitropic curvature in roots that were "freely" gravistimulated in a horizontal position, exhibiting a pronounced "waving" behavior. Together the data challenge the regulatory relevance of IAA-redistribution for gravitropic differential growth. They corroborate the crucial regulatory relevance of ethylene for gravitropic growth, in both roots and coleoptiles.

  5. Low humic acids promote in vitro lily bulblet enlargement by enhancing roots growth and carbohydrate metabolism * #

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yun; Xia, Yi-ping; Zhang, Jia-ping; Du, Fang; Zhang, Lin; Ma, Yi-di; Zhou, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Bulblet development is a problem in global lily bulb production and carbohydrate metabolism is a crucial factor. Micropropagation acts as an efficient substitute for faster propagation and can provide a controllable condition to explore bulb growth. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of humic acid (HA) on bulblet swelling and the carbohydrate metabolic pathway in Lilium Oriental Hybrids ‘Sorbonne’ under in vitro conditions. HA greatly promoted bulblet growth at 0.2, 2.0, and 20.0 mg/L, and pronounced increases in bulblet sucrose, total soluble sugar, and starch content were observed for higher HA concentrations (≥2.0 mg/L) within 45 d after transplanting (DAT). The activities of three major starch synthetic enzymes (including adenosine 5'-diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, granule-bound starch synthase, and soluble starch synthase) were enhanced dramatically after HA application especially low concentration HA (LHA), indicating a quick response of starch metabolism. However, higher doses of HA also caused excessive aboveground biomass accumulation and inhibited root growth. Accordingly, an earlier carbon starvation emerged by observing evident starch degradation. Relative bulblet weight gradually decreased with increased HA doses and thereby broke the balance between the source and sink. A low HA concentration at 0.2 mg/L performed best in both root and bulblet growth. The number of roots and root length peaked at 14.5 and 5.75 cm, respectively. The fresh bulblet weight and diameter reached 468 mg (2.9 times that under the control treatment) and 11.68 mm, respectively. Further, sucrose/starch utilization and conversion were accelerated and carbon famine was delayed as a result with an average relative bulblet weight of 80.09%. To our knowledge, this is the first HA application and mechanism research into starch metabolism in both in vitro and in vivo condition in bulbous crops. PMID:27819136

  6. Results of a combined model of root system growth and soil water uptake: evaluating the significance of root system architecture to plant water uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouda, M.; Saiers, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Root system hydraulic architecture is a key determinant of plants' ability to withdraw water from the soil, satisfying transpirational demand. Presently, the representation of this component of the hydrological cycle in large-scale models is generally very simplistic, even though transpiration accounts for much of the terrestrial heat and water surface fluxes, and exercises control over photosynthetic uptake of CO2. In order to address this gap, we have developed a modelling approach that relies on several components. The first is RootGrow, original MATLAB code that simulates the stochastic growth of a root system as a function of an intrinsic set of parameters as well as its environment. We ran RootGrow coupled to the second component, a finite-element 3D simulation of the physics of water transport in the soil and root system using COMSOL, resulting in a combined model of root system development and water uptake. Model results show that root system architecture can affect water uptake by two separate mechanisms: (a) root system geometry determines the distribution of absorbing surface area throughout the soil domain, and (b) root system topology affects the water potential at the absorbing surfaces. In this study we sample the model's parameter space to demonstrate over what ranges of physically meaningful parameters (including hydraulic conductivity of plant tissues, soil type, and soil moisture level) these mechanisms significantly affect root systems' water withdrawal rate. The two mechanisms identified and our quantitative results will form the basis of a third component in this approach: developing simple analytical relationships characterising water uptake as a function of root system architecture that can be used in Ecosystem Demography Model v2.1 (ED2), a large-scale Dynamic Vegetation Model, based on a method of upscaling individual-based models of plant ecology.

  7. An assessment of the role of ethylene in mediating lettuce (Lactuca sativa) root growth at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Qin, L; He, J; Lee, S K; Dodd, I C

    2007-01-01

    Growth of temperate lettuce (Lactuca sativa) plants aeroponically in tropical greenhouses under ambient root-zone temperatures (A-RZTs) exposes roots to temperatures of up to 40 degrees C during the middle of the day, and severely limits root and shoot growth. The role of ethylene in inhibiting growth was investigated with just-germinated (24-h-old) seedlings in vitro, and 10-d-old plants grown aeroponically. Compared with seedlings maintained at 20 degrees C, root elongation in vitro was inhibited by 39% and root diameter increased by 25% under a temperature regime (38 degrees C/24 degrees C for 7 h/17 h) that simulated A-RZT in the greenhouse. The effects on root elongation were partially alleviated by supplying the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitors aminooxyacetic acid (100-500 microM) or aminoisobutyric acid (5-100 microM) to the seedlings. Application of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid to seedlings grown at 20 degrees C mimicked the high temperature effects on root elongation (1 microM) and root diameter (1 mM). Compared with plants grown at a constant 20 degrees C root-zone temperature, A-RZT plants showed decreased stomatal conductance, leaf relative water content, photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation, shoot and root biomass, total root length, the number of root tips, and root surface area, but increased average root diameter. Addition of 10 microM ACC to the nutrient solution of plants grown at a constant 20 degrees C root-zone temperature mimicked the effects of A-RZT on these parameters but did not influence relative water content. Addition of 30 microM aminoisobutyric acid or 100 microM aminooxyacetic acid to the nutrient solution of A-RZT plants increased stomatal conductance and relative water content and decreased average root diameter, but had no effect on other root parameters or root and shoot biomass or photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation. Although ethylene is important in regulating root morphology and elongation at A

  8. Brassinolide Increases Potato Root Growth In Vitro in a Dose-Dependent Way and Alleviates Salinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Shitou; Su, Yi; Wang, Huiqun; Luo, Weigui; Su, Shengying

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal phytohormones that regulate various physiological processes, such as root development and stress tolerance. In the present study, we showed that brassinolide (BL) affects potato root in vitro growth in a dose-dependent manner. Low BL concentrations (0.1 and 0.01 μg/L) promoted root elongation and lateral root development, whereas high BL concentrations (1–100 μg/L) inhibited root elongation. There was a significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation between root activity and BL concentrations within a range from 0.01 to 100 μg/L, with the peak activity of 8.238 mg TTC·g−1 FW·h−1 at a BL concentration of 100 μg/L. Furthermore, plants treated with 50 μg/L BL showed enhanced salt stress tolerance through in vitro growth. Under this scenario, BL treatment enhanced the proline content and antioxidant enzymes' (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase) activity and reduced malondialdehyde content in potato shoots. Application of BL maintain K+ and Na+ homeostasis by improving tissue K+/Na+ ratio. Therefore, we suggested that the effects of BL on root development from stem fragments explants as well as on primary root development are dose-dependent and that BL application alleviates salt stress on potato by improving root activity, root/shoot ratio, and antioxidative capacity in shoots and maintaining K+/Na+ homeostasis in potato shoots and roots. PMID:27803931

  9. A new species of Burkholderia isolated from sugarcane roots promotes plant growth

    PubMed Central

    Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat; Lonhienne, Thierry G A; Yeoh, Yun Kit; Webb, Richard I; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Chan, Cheong Xin; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Ragan, Mark A; Schmidt, Susanne; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane is a globally important food, biofuel and biomaterials crop. High nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates aimed at increasing yield often result in environmental damage because of excess and inefficient application. Inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria is an attractive option for reducing N fertilizer needs. However, the efficacy of bacterial inoculants is variable, and their effective formulation remains a knowledge frontier. Here, we take a new approach to investigating diazotrophic bacteria associated with roots using culture-independent microbial community profiling of a commercial sugarcane variety (Q208A) in a field setting. We first identified bacteria that were markedly enriched in the rhizosphere to guide isolation and then tested putative diazotrophs for the ability to colonize axenic sugarcane plantlets (Q208A) and promote growth in suboptimal N supply. One isolate readily colonized roots, fixed N2 and stimulated growth of plantlets, and was classified as a new species, Burkholderia australis sp. nov. Draft genome sequencing of the isolate confirmed the presence of nitrogen fixation. We propose that culture-independent identification and isolation of bacteria that are enriched in rhizosphere and roots, followed by systematic testing and confirming their growth-promoting capacity, is a necessary step towards designing effective microbial inoculants. PMID:24350979

  10. Enhanced root and shoot growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by Trichoderma harzianum from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Cigdem

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that Trichoderma species can be used as biocontrol and plant growth promote agent. In this study, Trichoderma harzianum isolates were evaluated for their growth promotion effects on wheat in greenhouse experiments. Two isolates of T. harzianum were used. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications. Seeds were inoculated with conidial suspensions of each isolate. Wheat plants grown in steriled soil in pots. T. harzianum T8 and T15 isolates increased wheat length, root dry weight and shoot dry weight according to untreated control. Turkish isolates T8 and T15 did not produce damage in seeds nor in plants.

  11. Seed ageing-induced inhibition of germination and post-germination root growth is related to lower activity of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in maize roots.

    PubMed

    Sveinsdóttir, Hólmfrídur; Yan, Feng; Zhu, Yiyong; Peiter-Volk, Tina; Schubert, Sven

    2009-01-30

    Seeds of most crops can be severely damaged and lose vigor when stored under conditions of high humidity and temperature. The aged seeds are characterized by delayed germination and slow post-germination growth. To date, little is known about the physiological mechanisms responsible for slow root growth of seedlings derived from aged seeds. Plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase is a universal H(+) pump in plant cells and is involved in various physiological processes including the elongation growth of plant cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a mild seed ageing treatment on plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity of seedling roots. Maize (Zea mays L.) seeds with 17% water content were aged at 45 degrees C for 30h. The aged seeds showed a 20% reduction in germination. Seedlings from aged seeds grew slowly during an experimental period of 120h after imbibition. Plasma membranes of maize seedling roots were isolated for investigation in vitro. Plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (EC 3.6.3.6) activity was 14% lower for seedling roots developed from aged seeds as compared to control seeds. Protein gel immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that the reduced activity of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase was attributed to a decrease in steady-state protein concentration of this enzyme. In conclusion, seed ageing causes a lower steady-state enzyme concentration of the H(+)-ATPase in the plasma membrane, which is related to slow germination and post-germination growth of seedling roots.

  12. Co-ordinated Growth between Aerial and Root Systems in Young Apple Plants Issued from in vitro Culture

    PubMed Central

    COSTES, E.; GARCÍA-VILLANUEVA, E.; JOURDAN, C.; REGNARD, J. L.; GUÉDON, Y.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims In several species exhibiting a rhythmic aerial growth, the existence of an alternation between root and shoot growth has been demonstrated. The present study aims to investigate the respective involvement of the emergence of new organs and their elongation in relation to this phenomenon and its possible genotypic variation in young apple plants. • Methods Two apple varieties, X6407 (recently named ‘Ariane’) and X3305 (‘Chantecler’ × ‘Baujade’), were compared. Five plants per variety, issued from in vitro culture, were observed in minirhizotrons over 4 months. For each plant, root emergence and growth were observed twice per week. Growth rates were calculated for all roots with more than two segments and the branching density was calculated on primary roots. On the aerial part, the number of leaves, leaf area and total shoot length were observed weekly. • Key Results No significant difference was observed between varieties in any of the final characteristics of aerial growth. Increase in leaf area and shoot length exhibited a 3-week rhythm in X3305 while a weaker signal was observed in Ariane. The primary root growth rate was homogeneous between the plants and likewise between the varieties, while their branching density differed significantly. Secondary roots emerged rhythmically, with a 3-week and a 2-week rhythm, respectively, in X3305 and ‘Ariane’. Despite a high intra-variety variability, significant differences were observed between varieties in the secondary root life span and mean length. A synchronism between leaf emergence and primary root growth was highlighted in both varieties, while an opposition phase was observed between leaf area increments and secondary root emergence in X3305 only. • Conclusion A biological model of dynamics that summarizes the interactions between processes and includes the assumption of a feedback effect of lateral root emergence on leaf emergence is proposed. PMID:16260441

  13. [Influence of drought on leaf photosynthetic capacity and root growth of soybeans at grain filling stage].

    PubMed

    Guo, Shu-jin; Yang, Kai-min; Huo, Jin; Zhou, Yong-hang; Wang, Yan-ping; Li, Gui-quan

    2015-05-01

    A drought-resistant soybean cultivar Jinda 70 and a drought-sensitive soybean cultivar Jindou 26 were taken as test materials. At the grain filling stage, the cultivars were subject to three water treatments including sufficient water supply, light drought stress, and severe drought stress by using pot experiments for research on influence of drought on leaf photosynthetic capacity and root growth of soybeans. The results showed that as the degree of drought stress was aggravated, all of the indices including leaf area, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rates (Pn), stomatal conductance (g(s)), transpiration rate (Tr), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), plant mass, plant height, seed yield, and harvest index in the two cultivars declined. The root length and root mass increased under light drought stress, and decreased under severe drought stress. Root-shoot ratio ascended as the degree of drought stress was aggravated. Under severe drought stress, the increase of root-shoot ratio of the drought-resistant soybean cultivar Jinda 70 was up to 135.7%, which was higher than the that (116.7%) of the drought-sensitive soybean cultivar Jindou 26. Simultaneously, leaf area and chlorophyll content in Jinda 70 were respectively 69.3% and 85.5% of those in the control, which were better than those of Jindou 26. g(s) and Pn of Jinda 70 respectively declined 67.9% and 77.9%, but still lower than those of Jindou 26. Therefore, the decline range of harvest index of Jinda 70 was 43.8%, which was lower than the range of 78.8% of Jindou 26. The Biplot revealed that under different dry treatments, there were significant positive correlations among the six indexes including leaf area, chlorophyll content, Pn, g(s), Tr, and Ci of the two cultivars. There were also significant positive correlations among the six indices including plant mass, plant height, root length, root mass, seed yield, and harvest index. Root-shoot ratio only had significant positive correlation with root

  14. Plant and Root Growth Responses to Heterogeneous Supplies of Soil Water in Two Coastal Shrubs of California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, S.; Mahall, B. E.

    2007-05-01

    Much effort has been focused on identifying plant and root growth responses to heterogeneous supplies of soil nutrients. However, in many circumstances, soil water may limit plant growth and it too can have a patchy distribution. In our research we asked: 1) What is the ecological significance of soil moisture heterogeneity to plant growth in a California coastal dune habitat? 2) How does growth of whole plants and roots respond to soil moisture heterogeneity? and 3) Can roots of these species sense and grow towards moisture-rich areas (hydrotropism) in a natural medium? To address these questions: we conducted comparative field studies of water relations and growth of Artemisia californica and Eriogonum parvifolium; we performed a growth rate study of roots and plants in experimental pots with either patchy or homogeneous distributions of soil water; and we analyzed individual root growth in sand-filled observation chambers in response to moisture-rich patches and resultant soil water gradients. In the field, correlations between daily photosynthetic rates, active leaf display and predawn xylem pressure potentials (ΨPD) indicated that access to water limited growth in A. californica and E. parvifolium. These species, common in habit and habitat, differed in their ability to access water with E. parvifolium having overall higher ΨPD than A. californica (repeated measures ANOVA, P < 0.01). Our growth rate study revealed that patchy supplies of water did not reduce the relative growth rate or average size of E. parvifolium (two-tailed t-tests, P > 0.25). It appears that modified partitioning of growth both at the whole plant and root system level permitted E. parvifolium to maintain growth in patchy soil water conditions. We found that E. parvifolium increased allocation to roots and proliferated in moisture-rich patches in the patchy soil water treatment. Root length density and the proportion of root mass present in the patch was 20- to >100-fold greater in and

  15. Cytokinins negatively regulate the root iron uptake machinery in Arabidopsis through a growth-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Séguéla, Mathilde; Briat, Jean-François; Vert, Grégory; Curie, Catherine

    2008-07-01

    Plants display a number of biochemical and developmental responses to low iron availability in order to increase iron uptake from the soil. The ferric-chelate reductase FRO2 and the ferrous iron transporter IRT1 control iron entry from the soil into the root epidermis. In Arabidopsis, expression of IRT1 and FRO2 is tightly controlled to maintain iron homeostasis, and involves local and long-distance signals, as well as transcriptional and post-transcriptional events. FIT encodes a putative basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that regulates iron uptake responses in Arabidopsis. Here, we uncover a new regulation of the root iron uptake genes. We show that IRT1, FRO2 and FIT are repressed by the exogenous addition of cytokinins (CKs), and that this repression acts at the level of transcript accumulation, and depends on the AHK3 and CRE1 CK receptors. The CKs and iron-deficiency signals act through distinct pathways to regulate the soil iron uptake genes, as (i) CK repression is independent of the iron status, (ii) IRT1 and FRO2 downregulation is unchanged in a fit loss-of-function mutant, indicating that FIT does not mediate CK repression, and (iii) the iron-regulated genes AtNRAMP3 and AtNRAMP4 are not downregulated by CKs. We show that root growth-inhibitory conditions, such as abiotic stresses (mannitol, NaCl) and hormonal treatments (auxin, abscissic acid), repress the iron starvation response genes. We propose that CKs control the root iron uptake machinery through a root growth dependent pathway in order to adapt nutrient uptake to the demand of the plant.

  16. Cyclic GMP is involved in auxin signalling during Arabidopsis root growth and development.

    PubMed

    Nan, Wenbin; Wang, Xiaomin; Yang, Lei; Hu, Yanfeng; Wei, Yuantao; Liang, Xiaolei; Mao, Lina; Bi, Yurong

    2014-04-01

    The second messenger cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) plays an important role in plant development and responses to stress. Recent studies indicated that cGMP is a secondary signal generated in response to auxin stimulation. cGMP also mediates auxin-induced adventitious root formation in mung bean and gravitropic bending in soybean. Nonetheless, the mechanism of the participation of cGMP in auxin signalling to affect these growth and developmental processes is largely unknown. In this report we provide evidence that indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) induces cGMP accumulation in Arabidopsis roots through modulation of the guanylate cyclase activity. Application of 8-bromo-cGMP (a cell-permeable cGMP derivative) increases auxin-dependent lateral root formation, root hair development, primary root growth, and gene expression. In contrast, inhibitors of endogenous cGMP synthesis block these processes induced by auxin. Data also showed that 8-bromo-cGMP enhances auxin-induced degradation of Aux/IAA protein modulated by the SCF(TIR1) ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Furthermore, it was found that 8-bromo-cGMP is unable to directly influence the auxin-dependent TIR1-Aux/IAA interaction as evidenced by pull-down and yeast two-hybrid assays. In addition, we provide evidence for cGMP-mediated modulation of auxin signalling through cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). Our results suggest that cGMP acts as a mediator to participate in auxin signalling and may govern this process by PKG activity via its influence on auxin-regulated gene expression and auxin/IAA degradation.

  17. Selenite-induced hormonal and signalling mechanisms during root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana L.

    PubMed

    Lehotai, Nóra; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Peto, Andrea; Feigl, Gábor; Ördög, Attila; Kumar, Devanand; Tari, Irma; Erdei, László

    2012-09-01

    Selenium excess can cause toxicity symptoms, e.g. root growth inhibition in non-hyperaccumulator plants such as Arabidopsis. Selenite-induced hormonal and signalling mechanisms in the course of development are poorly understood; therefore this study set out to investigate the possible hormonal and signalling processes using transgenic and mutant Arabidopsis plants. Significant alterations were observed in the root architecture of the selenite-treated plants, due to the loss of cell viability in the root apex. During mild selenite excess, the plants showed symptoms of the morphogenic response: primary root (PR) shortening and increased initiation of laterals, ensuring better nutrient and water uptake and stress acclimation. As well as lower meristem cell activity, the second reason for the Se-induced growth hindrance is the hormonal imbalance, since the in situ expression of the auxin-responsive DR5::GUS, and consequently the auxin levels, significantly decreased, while that of the cytokinin-inducible ARR5::GUS and the ethylene biosynthetic ACS8::GUS increased. It is assumed that auxin and ethylene might positively regulate selenium tolerance, since reduced levels of them resulted in sensitivity. Moreover, high cytokinin levels caused notable selenite tolerance. During early seedling development, nitric oxide (NO) contents decreased but hydrogen peroxide levels increased reflecting the antagonism between the two signal molecules during Se excess. High levels of NO in gsnor1-3, lead to selenite tolerance, while low NO production in nia1nia2 resulted in selenite sensitivity. Consequently, NO derived from the root nitrate reductase activity is responsible for the large-scale selenite tolerance in Arabidopsis.

  18. Effects of soil temperature on shoot and root growth and nutrient uptake of 5-year-old Norway spruce seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lahti, M; Aphalo, P J; Finér, L; Ryyppö, A; Lehto, T; Mannerkoski, H

    2005-01-01

    Soil temperature is a main factor limiting root growth in the boreal forest. To simulate the possible soil-warming effect of future climate change, 5-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings were subjected to three simulated growing seasons in controlled environment rooms. The seedlings were acclimated to a soil temperature of 16 degrees C during the first (GS I) and third growing seasons (GS III), but were assigned to random soil-temperature treatments of 9, 13, 18 and 21 degrees C during the second growing season (GS II). In GS II, shoot diameter growth was lowest in the 21 degrees C treatment and root growth was lowest in the 9 degrees C treatment. In GS III, shoot height and root length growth improved in seedlings that had been kept at 9 degrees C during GS II, indicating compensatory growth in response to increased soil temperature. The temporary decrease in soil temperature had no long-lasting significant effect on seedling biomass or total nutrient uptake. At the end of GS III, fine roots of seedlings exposed to a soil temperature of 21 degrees C in GS II were distributed more evenly between the organic and mineral soil layers than roots of seedlings in the other treatments. During GS II and GS III, root growth started earlier than shoot growth, decreased during the rapid shoot elongation phase and increased again as shoot growth decreased.

  19. High temperatures limit plant growth but hasten flowering in root chicory (Cichorium intybus) independently of vernalisation.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Anne-Sophie; Lutts, Stanley; Vandoorne, Bertrand; Descamps, Christophe; Périlleux, Claire; Dielen, Vincent; Van Herck, Jean-Claude; Quinet, Muriel

    2014-01-15

    An increase in mean and extreme summer temperatures is expected as a consequence of climate changes and this might have an impact on plant development in numerous species. Root chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) is a major crop in northern Europe, and it is cultivated as a source of inulin. This polysaccharide is stored in the tap root during the first growing season when the plant grows as a leafy rosette, whereas bolting and flowering occur in the second year after winter vernalisation. The impact of heat stress on plant phenology, water status, photosynthesis-related parameters, and inulin content was studied in the field and under controlled phytotron conditions. In the field, plants of the Crescendo cultivar were cultivated under a closed plastic-panelled greenhouse to investigate heat-stress conditions, while the control plants were shielded with a similar, but open, structure. In the phytotrons, the Crescendo and Fredonia cultivars were exposed to high temperatures (35°C day/28°C night) and compared to control conditions (17°C) over 10 weeks. In the field, heat reduced the root weight, the inulin content of the root and its degree of polymerisation in non-bolting plants. Flowering was observed in 12% of the heat stressed plants during the first growing season in the field. In the phytotron, the heat stress increased the total number of leaves per plant, but reduced the mean leaf area. Photosynthesis efficiency was increased in these plants, whereas osmotic potential was decreased. High temperature was also found to induced flowering of up to 50% of these plants, especially for the Fredonia cultivar. In conclusion, high temperatures induced a reduction in the growth of root chicory, although photosynthesis is not affected. Flowering was also induced, which indicates that high temperatures can partly substitute for the vernalisation requirement for the flowering of root chicory.

  20. Alteration of root growth by lettuce, wheat, and soybean in response to wear debris from automotive brake pads.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Misty D; Ebbs, Stephen D; Gibson, David J; Filip, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Brakes from motor vehicles release brake pad wear debris (BPWD) with increased concentrations of heavy metals. Germination and root-elongation assays with lettuce, wheat, and soybean were used to provide an initial evaluation of the phytotoxicity of either a water extract of BPWD or BPWD particulates. In terms of germination, the only effect observed was that lettuce germination decreased significantly in the BPWD particulate treatment. Lettuce and wheat showed decreased root length and root-elongation rate in the presence of the BPWD particulates, whereas lettuce produced a significantly greater number of lateral roots in response to BPWD extract. There was no significant effect of either BPWD treatment on soybean root elongation or lateral roots. Treatment with BPWD extracts or particulates caused significant alterations in the bending pattern of the plant roots. These initial results suggest that BPWD may have effects on the early growth and development of plants.

  1. Effect of IAA on in vitro growth and colonization of Nostoc in plant roots

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Anwar; Shah, Syed T.; Rahman, Hazir; Irshad, Muhammad; Iqbal, Amjad

    2015-01-01

    Nostoc is widely known for its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen and the establishment of symbiotic relationship with a wide range of plants from various taxonomic groups. Several strains of Nostoc produce phytohormones that promote growth of its plant partners. Nostoc OS-1 was therefore selected for study because of the presence of putative ipdC gene that encodes a key enzyme to produce Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The results indicated that both cellular and released IAA was found high with increasing incubation time and reached to a peak value (i.e., 21 pmol mg-1ch-a) on the third week as determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Also the Nostoc OS-1 strain efficiently colonized the roots and promoted the growth of rice as well as wheat under axenic conditions and induced ipdC gene that suggested the possible involvement of IAA in these phenotypes. To confirm the impact of IAA on root colonization efficiency and plant promoting phenotypes of Nostoc OS-1, an ipdC knockout mutant was generated by homologous recombinant method. The amount of releasing IAA, in vitro growth, root colonization, and plant promoting efficiency of the ipdC knockout mutant was observed significantly lower than wild type strain under axenic conditions. Importantly, these phenotypes were restored to wild-type levels when the ipdC knockout mutant was complemented with wild type ipdC gene. These results together suggested that ipdC and/or synthesized IAA of Nostoc OS-1 is required for its efficient root colonization and plant promoting activity. PMID:25699072

  2. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 controls root growth in Arabidopsis by modulating Ca2+ -based Na+ flux in root cell under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Han, Shuan; Wang, Chi-wen; Wang, Wen-le; Jiang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 (MPK6) in Na(+) toxicity and inhibition of root growth in Arabidopsis under NaCl stress. In this study, we found that root elongation in seedlings of the loss-of-function mutants mpk6-2 and mpk6-3 was less sensitive to NaCl or Na-glutamate, but not to KCl or mannitol, as compared with that of wild-type (WT) seedlings. The less sensitive characteristic was eliminated by adding the Ca(2+) chelator EGTA or the Ca(2+) channel inhibitor LaCl3, but not the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187. This suggested that the tolerance of mpk6 to Na(+) toxicity was Ca(2+)-dependent. We measured plasma membrane (PM) Na(+)-conducted currents (NCCs) in root cells. Increased concentrations of NaCl increased the inward NCCs while decreased the outward NCCs in WT root cells, attended by a positive shift in membrane potential. In mpk6 root cells, NaCl significantly increased outward but not inward NCCs, accompanied by a negative shift in membrane potential. That is, mpk6 decreased NaCl-induced the Na(+) accumulation by modifying PM Na(+) flux in root cells. Observations of aequorin luminescence revealed a NaCl-induced increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) in mpk6 root cells, resulting from PM Ca(2+) influx. An increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) was required to alleviate the NaCl-increased Na(+) content and Na(+)/K(+) ratio in mpk6 roots. Together, these results show that mpk6 accumulated less Na(+) in response to NaCl because of the increased cytosolic Ca(2+) level in root cells; thus, its root elongation was less inhibited than that of WT by NaCl.

  3. Use of Stored Carbon Reserves in Growth of Temperate Tree Roots and Leaf Buds: Analyses Using Radiocarbon Measurements and Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudinski, Julia B.; Torn, Margaret S.; Riley, W. J.; Swanston, Christopher W.; Trumbore, Susan E.; JoslinJr., John D.; Majdi, H; Dawson, Todd E.; Hanson, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Characterizing the use of C reserves in trees is important for understanding stress responses, impacts of asynchrony between photosynthesis and growth demand, and isotopic exchanges in plant dynamic studies. Using an inadvertent, whole ecosystem radiocarbon (14C) exposure in a temperate deciduous oak forest and numerical modeling, we calculated that the mean age of stored C used to grow leaf buds and new fine root tissue is 0.5-1.0 y. The mean age of stored C used to grow new roots was about 0.7 y across a range of realistic values of 14C inputs to the system. The amount of stored C used on an annual basis to grow fine roots was between 15 and 55% of total root growth, with the range defined by the assumed 14C input profile. We estimate the annually-averaged mean age of C in new root tissues is 1-5 months. Therefore, accounting for storage C use in isotope root models may be unnecessary in all but the fastest cycling root populations (i.e., mean age <1 y). Consistent with the whole ecosystem labeling results, we found, using "bomb-14C," that the mean C age of new root tissues in three additional forest sites (one deciduous, two coniferous) was less than 2 years. We conclude that in many ecosystem types, growth from stored C is insufficient to impact bomb-14C based estimates of long root lifetimes.

  4. Computer-based video digitizer analysis of surface extension in maize roots: kinetics of growth rate changes during gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishikawa, H.; Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.

    1991-01-01

    We used a video digitizer system to measure surface extension and curvature in gravistimulated primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.). Downward curvature began about 25 +/- 7 min after gravistimulation and resulted from a combination of enhanced growth along the upper surface and reduced growth along the lower surface relative to growth in vertically oriented controls. The roots curved at a rate of 1.4 +/- 0.5 degrees min-1 but the pattern of curvature varied somewhat. In about 35% of the samples the roots curved steadily downward and the rate of curvature slowed as the root neared 90 degrees. A final angle of about 90 degrees was reached 110 +/- 35 min after the start of gravistimulation. In about 65% of the samples there was a period of backward curvature (partial reversal of curvature) during the response. In some cases (about 15% of those showing a period of reverse bending) this period of backward curvature occurred before the root reached 90 degrees. Following transient backward curvature, downward curvature resumed and the root approached a final angle of about 90 degrees. In about 65% of the roots showing a period of reverse curvature, the roots curved steadily past the vertical, reaching maximum curvature about 205 +/- 65 min after gravistimulation. The direction of curvature then reversed back toward the vertical. After one or two oscillations about the vertical the roots obtained a vertical orientation and the distribution of growth within the root tip became the same as that prior to gravistimulation. The period of transient backward curvature coincided with and was evidently caused by enhancement of growth along the concave and inhibition of growth along the convex side of the curve, a pattern opposite to that prevailing in the earlier stages of downward curvature. There were periods during the gravitropic response when the normally unimodal growth-rate distribution within the elongation zone became bimodal with two peaks of rapid elongation separated by

  5. Trichoderma spp. Improve growth of Arabidopsis seedlings under salt stress through enhanced root development, osmolite production, and Na⁺ elimination through root exudates.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Cornejo, Hexon Angel; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Alfaro-Cuevas, Ruth; López-Bucio, José

    2014-06-01

    Salt stress is an important constraint to world agriculture. Here, we report on the potential of Trichoderma virens and T. atroviride to induce tolerance to salt in Arabidopsis seedlings. We first characterized the effect of several salt concentrations on shoot biomass production and root architecture of Arabidopsis seedlings. We found that salt repressed plant growth and root development in a dose-dependent manner by blocking auxin signaling. Analysis of the wild type and eir1, aux1-7, arf7arf19, and tir1abf2abf19 auxin-related mutants revealed a key role for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) signaling in mediating salt tolerance. We also found that T. virens (Tv29.8) and T. atroviride (IMI 206040) promoted plant growth in both normal and saline conditions, which was related to the induction of lateral roots and root hairs through auxin signaling. Arabidopsis seedlings grown under saline conditions inoculated with Trichoderma spp. showed increased levels of abscissic acid, L-proline, and ascorbic acid, and enhanced elimination of Na⁺ through root exudates. Our data show the critical role of auxin signaling and root architecture to salt tolerance in Arabidopsis and suggest that these fungi may enhance the plant IAA level as well as the antioxidant and osmoprotective status of plants under salt stress.

  6. Genetic and chemical reductions in protein phosphatase activity alter auxin transport, gravity response, and lateral root growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashotte, A. M.; DeLong, A.; Muday, G. K.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Auxin transport is required for important growth and developmental processes in plants, including gravity response and lateral root growth. Several lines of evidence suggest that reversible protein phosphorylation regulates auxin transport. Arabidopsis rcn1 mutant seedlings exhibit reduced protein phosphatase 2A activity and defects in differential cell elongation. Here we report that reduced phosphatase activity alters auxin transport and dependent physiological processes in the seedling root. Root basipetal transport was increased in rcn1 or phosphatase inhibitor-treated seedlings but showed normal sensitivity to the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Phosphatase inhibition reduced root gravity response and delayed the establishment of differential auxin-induced gene expression across a gravity-stimulated root tip. An NPA treatment that reduced basipetal transport in rcn1 and cantharidin-treated wild-type plants also restored a normal gravity response and asymmetric auxin-induced gene expression, indicating that increased basipetal auxin transport impedes gravitropism. Increased auxin transport in rcn1 or phosphatase inhibitor-treated seedlings did not require the AGR1/EIR1/PIN2/WAV6 or AUX1 gene products. In contrast to basipetal transport, root acropetal transport was normal in phosphatase-inhibited seedlings in the absence of NPA, although it showed reduced NPA sensitivity. Lateral root growth also exhibited reduced NPA sensitivity in rcn1 seedlings, consistent with acropetal transport controlling lateral root growth. These results support the role of protein phosphorylation in regulating auxin transport and suggest that the acropetal and basipetal auxin transport streams are differentially regulated.

  7. Catechol, a major component of smoke, influences primary root growth and root hair elongation through reactive oxygen species-mediated redox signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Schoettner, Matthias; Xu, Shuqing; Paetz, Christian; Wilde, Julia; Baldwin, Ian T; Groten, Karin

    2017-03-01

    Nicotiana attenuata germinates from long-lived seedbanks in native soils after fires. Although smoke signals have been known to break seed dormancy, whether they also affect seedling establishment and root development remains unclear. In order to test this, seedlings were treated with smoke solutions. Seedlings responded in a dose-dependent manner with significantly increased primary root lengths, due mainly to longitudinal cell elongation, increased numbers of lateral roots and impaired root hair development. Bioassay-driven fractionations and NMR were used to identify catechol as the main active compound for the smoke-induced root phenotype. The transcriptome analysis revealed that mainly genes related to auxin biosynthesis and redox homeostasis were altered after catechol treatment. However, histochemical analyses of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the inability of auxin applications to rescue the phenotype clearly indicated that highly localized changes in the root's redox-status, rather than in levels of auxin, are the primary effector. Moreover, H2 O2 application rescued the phenotype in a dose-dependent manner. Chemical cues in smoke not only initiate seed germination, but also influence seedling root growth; understanding how these cues work provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms by which plants adapt to post-fire environments.

  8. Root-growth mechanism for single-walled boron nitride nanotubes in laser vaporization technique.

    PubMed

    Arenal, Raul; Stephan, Odile; Cochon, Jean-Lou; Loiseau, Annick

    2007-12-26

    We present a detailed study of the growth mechanism of single-walled boron nitride nanotubes synthesized by laser vaporization, which is the unique route known to the synthesis of this kind of tube in high quantities. We have performed a nanometric chemical and structural characterization by transmission electron microscopy (high-resolution mode (HRTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy) of the synthesis products. Different boron-based compounds and other impurities were identified in the raw synthesis products. The results obtained by the TEM analysis and from the synthesis parameters (temperature, boron, and nitrogen sources) combined with phase diagram analysis to provide identification of the fundamental factors determining the nanotube growth mechanism. Our experiments strongly support a root-growth model that involves the presence of a droplet of boron. This phenomenological model considers the solubility, solidification, and segregation phenomena of the elements present in this boron droplet. In this model, we distinguish three different steps as a function of the temperature: (1) formation of the liquid boron droplet from the decomposition of different boron compounds existing in the hexagonal boron nitride target, (2) reaction of these boron droplets with nitrogen gas present in the vaporization chamber and recombination of these elements to form boron nitride, and (3) incorporation of the nitrogen atoms at the root of the boron particle at active reacting sites that achieves the growth of the tube.

  9. Maize Root Growth and Localized Indol-3yl-Acetic Acid Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Meuwly, Philippe; Pilet, Paul-Emile

    1987-01-01

    Resin beads loaded with indol-3yl-acetic acid (IAA) were used as asymmetrical donors along the elongation zone of intact primary Zea mays L. roots. A strong curvature, towards and above the bead, occurred when IAA was applied at a mean distance of 2.20 mm from the tip. No curvature was detected after applications at 3.89 and 5.71 mm from the tip. Correspondence analysis, a new methodological approach in plant hormone studies, permitted the evaluation of the relative influence of several factors on the curvature observed for each root. The parameters considered were the initial growth rate, the exact location of the bead (1.64-2.73 millimeters from tip) and the quantity of IAA absorbed. Roots which grew rapidly bent earlier than slowly growing ones and the more basal the treatment was, the less curvature occurred. Surprisingly, the amount of IAA taken up (between 1.2 and 2.2 times the endogenous IAA content) was found to have no influence on either the time-course or the magnitude of this growth inhibition (curvature). The usefulness of this multivariate analysis is also discussed. PMID:16665595

  10. Responses of growth and primary metabolism of water-stressed barley roots to rehydration.

    PubMed

    Sicher, Richard C; Timlin, Dennis; Bailey, Bryan

    2012-05-01

    Barley seedlings were grown in pots in controlled environment chambers and progressive drought treatments were imposed 11 d after sowing. Soil water content decreased from 92 to 10% following 14 d without watering. Increases of biomass in shoots and roots slowed after 4 and 9 d of water stress, respectively. Thirty barley root metabolites were monitored in this study and 85% were significantly altered by drought. Sucrose, raffinose, glucose, fructose, maltose, malate, asparagine and proline increased and myo-inositol, glycerate, alanine, serine, glycine and glutamate decreased during drought. Primary metabolism was likely involved in various crucial processes during water stress including, osmotic adjustment, nitrogen sequestration and ammonia detoxification. Rates of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance recovered in 2 d and shoot growth commenced the 3rd day after rehydration. Root growth also exhibited a lag after rehydration but this was attributed to high nutrient concentrations during water stress. Malate and proline recovered within 1 d but serine was only partially reversed 6 d after rehydration. Malate, aspartate and raffinose decreased below well-watered, control levels following rehydration. Variation in the magnitude and time necessary for individual compounds to fully recover after rehydration suggested the complexity of metabolic processes initiated by re-watering.

  11. Graphene oxide modulates root growth of Brassica napus L. and regulates ABA and IAA concentration.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fan; Liu, Yu-Feng; Lu, Guang-Yuan; Zhang, Xue-Kun; Xie, Ling-Li; Yuan, Cheng-Fei; Xu, Ben-Bo

    2016-04-01

    Researchers have proven that nanomaterials have a significant effect on plant growth and development. To better understand the effects of nanomaterials on plants, Zhongshuang 11 was treated with different concentrations of graphene oxide. The results indicated that 25-100mg/l graphene oxide treatment resulted in shorter seminal root length compared with the control samples. The fresh root weight decreased when treated with 50-100mg/l graphene oxide. The graphene oxide treatment had no significant effect on the Malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Treatment with 50mg/l graphene oxide increased the transcript abundance of genes involved in ABA biosynthesis (NCED, AAO, and ZEP) and some genes involved in IAA biosynthesis (ARF2, ARF8, IAA2, and IAA3), but inhibited the transcript levels of IAA4 and IAA7. The graphene oxide treatment also resulted in a higher ABA content, but a lower IAA content compared with the control samples. The results indicated that graphene oxide modulated the root growth of Brassica napus L. and affected ABA and IAA biosynthesis and concentration.

  12. Enhanced Labeling Techniques to Study the Cytoskeleton During Root Growth and Gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blancaflor, Elison B.

    2005-01-01

    Gravity effects the growth and development of all living organisms. One of the most obvious manifestations of gravity's effects on biological systems lies in the ability of plants to direct their growth along a path that is dictated by the gravity vector (called gravitropism). When positioned horizontally, in florescence stems and hypocotyls in dicots, and pulvini in monocots, respond by bending upward whereas roots typically bend downward. Gravitropism allows plants to readjust their growth to maximize light absorption for photosynthesis and to more efficiently acquire water and nutrients form the soil. Despite its significance for plant survival, there are still major gaps in understanding the cellular and molecular processes by which plants respond to gravity. The major aim of this proposal was to develop improved fluorescence labeling techniques to aid in understanding how the cytoskeleton modulated plant responses to gravity.

  13. Root growth, mycorrhization and physiological effects of plants growing on oil tailing sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldt-Burisch, Katja M.; Naeth, Anne M.; Schneider, Bernd Uwe; Hüttl, Reinhard F.

    2015-04-01

    Surface mining creates large, intense disturbances of soils and produces large volumes of by-products and waste materials. After mining processes these materials often provide the basis for land reclamation and ecosystem restoration. In the present study, tailing sands (TS) and processed mature fine tailings (pMFT) from Fort McMurray (Alberta, Canada) were used. They represent challenging material for ecosystem rebuilding because of very low nutrient contents of TS and oil residuals, high density of MFT material. In this context, little is known about the interactions of pure TS, respectively mixtures of TS and MFT and root growth, mycorrhization and plant physiological effects. Four herbaceous plant species (Elymus trachycaulus, Koeleria macrantha, Deschampsia cespitosa, Lotus corniculatus) were chosen to investigate root development, chlorophyll fluorescence and mycorrhization intensity with and without application of Glomus mosseae (arbuscular mycorrhizae) on mainly tailing sands. Surprisingly both, plants growing on pure TS and plants growing on TS with additional AM-application showed mycorrhization of roots. In general, the mycorrhization intensity was lower for plants growing on pure tailings sands, but it is an interesting fact that there is a potential for mycorrhization available in tailing sands. The mycorrhizal intensity strongly increased with application of G. mosseae for K. macrantha and L. corniculatus and even more for E. trachycaulus. For D. cespitosa similar high mycorrhiza infection frequency was found for both variants, with and without AM-application. By the application of G. mosseae, root growth of E. trachycaulus and K. macrantha was significantly positively influenced. Analysis of leaf chlorophyll fluorescence showed no significant differences for E. trachycaulus but significant positive influence of mycorrhizal application on the physiological status of L. corniculatus. However, this effect could not be detected when TS was mixed with MFT

  14. Co-regulation of root hair tip growth by ROP GTPases and nitrogen source modulated pH fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Daria; Monshausen, Gabriele; Gilroy, Simon; Yalovsky, Shaul

    2011-03-01

    Growth of plant cells involves tight regulation of the cytoskeleton and vesicle trafficking by processes including the action of the ROP small G proteins together with pH-modulated cell wall modifications. Yet, little is known on how these systems are coordinated. In a paper recently published in Plant Cell and Environment we show that ROPs/RACs function synergistically with NH4NO3-modulated pH fluctuations to regulate root hair growth. Root hairs expand exclusively at their apical end in a strictly polarized manner by a process known as tip growth. The highly polarized secretion at the apex is maintained by a complex network of factors including the spatial organization of the actin cytoskeleton, tip-focused ion gradients and by small G proteins. Expression of constitutively active ROP mutants disrupts polar growth, inducing the formation of swollen root hairs. Root hairs are also known to elongate in an oscillating manner, which is correlated with oscillatory H(+) fluxes at the tip. Our analysis shows that root hair elongation in wild type plants and swelling in transgenic plants expressing a constitutively active ROP11 (rop11(CA)) is sensitive to the presence of NH4(+) at concentrations higher than 1 mM and on NO3(-). The NH4(+) and NO3(-) ions did not affect the localization of ROP in the membrane but modulated pH fluctuations at the root hair tip. Actin organization and reactive oxygen species distribution were abnormal in rop11CA root hairs but were similar to wild type root hairs when seedlings were grown on medium lacking NH4(+) and / or NO3(-). These observations suggest that the nitrogen source-modulated pH fluctuations may function synergistically with ROP regulated signaling during root hair tip growth. Interestingly, under certain growth conditions, expression of rop11 (CA) suppressed ammonium toxicity, similar to auxin resistant mutants. In this Addendum article we discuss these findings and their implications.

  15. Root hydraulic properties and growth of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) mycorrhizal with Hebeloma crustuliniforme and Wilcoxina mikolae var. mikolae.

    PubMed

    Siemens, J Aurea; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2008-10-01

    The effects of an E-strain fungus (Wilcoxina mikolae var. mikolae) and an ectomycorrhizal fungus (Hebeloma crustuliniforme) on growth and water relations of balsam poplar were examined and compared in the present study. Balsam poplar roots inoculated with W. mikolae var. mikolae (Wm) exhibited structures consistent with ectendomycorrhizal (EEM) associations, including a mantle surrounding the outside of the root and an extensive Hartig net that was located between cortical cells and extended to the vascular cylinder. Roots colonized with H. crustuliniforme (Hc) developed a mantle layer, indicative of an ectomycorrhizal (ECM) association, around the outer part of the root, but no distinct Hartig net was present. Wm-colonized balsam poplar also showed increased shoot growth, stomatal conductance (g(s)), and root volumes compared with non-inoculated and Hc-inoculated plants. However, Hc-inoculated plants had higher root hydraulic conductivity (L(pr)) compared with non-inoculated plants and Wm-inoculated plants. These results suggest that L(pr) was not a growth-limiting factor in balsam poplar and that hyphal penetration of the root cortex in itself may have little influence on root hydraulic properties.

  16. Growth and graviresponsiveness of primary roots of Zea mays seedlings deficient in abscisic acid and gibberellic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Dickey, K.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine if gibberellic acid (GA) and/or abscisic acid (ABA) are necessary for graviresponsiveness by primary roots of Zea mays. To accomplish this objective we measured the growth and graviresponsiveness of primary roots of seedlings in which the synthesis of ABA and GA was inhibited collectively and individually by genetic and chemical means. Roots of seedlings treated with Fluridone (an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis) and Ancymidol (an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis) were characterized by slower growth rates but not significantly different gravicultures as compared to untreated controls. Gravicurvatures of primary roots of d-5 mutants (having undetectable levels of GA) and vp-9 mutants (having undectable levels of ABA) were not significantly different from those of wild-type seedlings. Roots of seedlings in which the biosynthesis of ABA and GA was collectively inhibited were characterized by gravicurvatures not significantly different for those of controls. These results (1) indicate that drastic reductions in the amount of ABA and GA in Z. mays seedlings do not significantly alter root graviresponsiveness, (2) suggest that neither ABA nor GA is necessary for root gravicurvature, and (3) indicate that root gravicurvature is not necessarily proportional to root elongation.

  17. Tolerance to high soil temperature in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is related to shoot and root growth and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Aidoo, Moses Kwame; Bdolach, Eyal; Fait, Aaron; Lazarovitch, Naftali; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2016-09-01

    Roots play important roles in regulating whole-plant carbon and water relations in response to extreme soil temperature. Three foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) lines (448-Ames 21521, 463-P1391643 and 523-P1219619) were subjected to two different soil temperatures (28 and 38 °C). The gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, root morphology and central metabolism of leaves and roots were studied at the grain-filling stage. High soil temperature (38 °C) significantly influenced the shoot transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, root growth and metabolism of all lines. The root length and area were significantly reduced in lines 448 and 463 in response to the stress, while only a small non-specific reduction was observed in line 523 in response to the treatment. The shift of root metabolites in response to high soil temperature was also genotype specific. In response to high soil temperature, glutamate, proline and pyroglutamate were reduced in line 448, and alanine, aspartate, glycine, pyroglutamate, serine, threonine and valine were accumulated in line 463. In the roots of line 523, serine, threonine, valine, isomaltose, maltose, raffinose, malate and itaconate were accumulated. Root tolerance to high soil temperature was evident in line 523, in its roots growth potential, lower photosynthesis and stomatal conductance rates, and effective utilization and assimilation of membrane carbon and nitrogen, coupled with the accumulation of protective metabolites.

  18. Ethylene is critical to the maintenance of primary root growth and Fe homeostasis under Fe stress in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guangjie; Xu, Weifeng; Kronzucker, Herbert J.; Shi, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential microelement but is highly toxic when in excess. The response of plant roots to Fe toxicity and the nature of the regulatory pathways engaged are poorly understood. Here, we examined the response to excess Fe exposure in Arabidopsis wild type and ethylene mutants with a focus on primary root growth and the role of ethylene. We showed that excess Fe arrested primary root growth by decreasing both cell elongation and division, and principally resulteds from direct external Fe contact at the root tip. Pronounced ethylene, but not abscisic acid, evolution was associated with excess Fe exposure. Ethylene antagonists intensified root growth inhibition in the wild type, while the inhibition was significantly reduced in ethylene-overproduction mutants. We showed that ethylene plays a positive role in tissue Fe homeostasis, even in the absence of iron-plaque formation. Ethylene reduced Fe concentrations in the stele, xylem, and shoot. Furthermore, ethylene increased the expression of genes encoding Fe-sequestering ferritins. Additionally, ethylene significantly enhanced root K+ status and upregulated K+-transporter (HAK5) expression. Our findings highlight the important role of ethylene in tissue Fe and K homeostasis and primary root growth under Fe stress in Arabidopsis. PMID:25711703

  19. Ethylene is critical to the maintenance of primary root growth and Fe homeostasis under Fe stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangjie; Xu, Weifeng; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2015-04-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential microelement but is highly toxic when in excess. The response of plant roots to Fe toxicity and the nature of the regulatory pathways engaged are poorly understood. Here, we examined the response to excess Fe exposure in Arabidopsis wild type and ethylene mutants with a focus on primary root growth and the role of ethylene. We showed that excess Fe arrested primary root growth by decreasing both cell elongation and division, and principally resulteds from direct external Fe contact at the root tip. Pronounced ethylene, but not abscisic acid, evolution was associated with excess Fe exposure. Ethylene antagonists intensified root growth inhibition in the wild type, while the inhibition was significantly reduced in ethylene-overproduction mutants. We showed that ethylene plays a positive role in tissue Fe homeostasis, even in the absence of iron-plaque formation. Ethylene reduced Fe concentrations in the stele, xylem, and shoot. Furthermore, ethylene increased the expression of genes encoding Fe-sequestering ferritins. Additionally, ethylene significantly enhanced root K(+) status and upregulated K(+)-transporter (HAK5) expression. Our findings highlight the important role of ethylene in tissue Fe and K homeostasis and primary root growth under Fe stress in Arabidopsis.

  20. Characterization of a Selenate-Resistant Arabidopsis Mutant. Root Growth as a Potential Target for Selenate Toxicity1[OA

    PubMed Central

    El Kassis, Elie; Cathala, Nicole; Rouached, Hatem; Fourcroy, Pierre; Berthomieu, Pierre; Terry, Norman; Davidian, Jean-Claude

    2007-01-01

    Screening an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) T-DNA mutant library for selenate resistance enabled us to isolate a selenate-resistant mutant line (sel1-11). Molecular and genetic characterization showed that the mutant contained a lesion in the SULTR1;2 gene that encodes a high affinity root sulfate transporter. We showed that SULTR1;2 is the only gene among 13 mutated genes of the Arabidopsis sulfate transporter family whose mutation conferred selenate resistance to Arabidopsis. The selenate resistance phenotype of the sel1-11 mutant was mirrored by an 8-fold increase of root growth in the presence of selenate as shown by the calculated lethal concentration values. The impairment of SULTR1;2 activity in sel1-11 resulted in a reduced 35S-sulfate uptake capacity by both roots and calli and a reduced sulfate and selenate content in root, shoot, and calli. Comparing sulfate-to-selenate ratios instead of absolute sulfate and selenate contents in roots and shoots enabled us to gain better insight into the mechanism of selenate toxicity in Arabidopsis. Roots of the sel1-11 mutant line showed a higher sulfate to selenate ratio than that of wild-type roots, while there were no significant differences in sulfate to selenate ratios in shoots of wild-type and mutant lines. These results indicated that the mechanism that confers the selenate resistance phenotype to the sel1-11 line takes place rather in the roots. It might be in part the result of a lower selenate uptake and of a protective effect of sulfate against the toxic effects of selenate on root growth. These results revealed in plants a central and specific role of the transporter SULTR1;2 in selenate sensitivity; they further suggested that root growth and potentially the root tip activity might be a specific target of selenate toxicity in Arabidopsis. PMID:17208959

  1. [Effects of physical and chemical factors on hairy root growth and flavonoids biosynthesis in the cultures of Saussurea medusa Maxim hairy root].

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Fu, Chun-Xiang; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, De-Xiu

    2005-03-01

    The effects of different physical and chemical factors on hairy root growth and flavonoids production were studied in suspension culture of Saussurea medusa hairy root in 1/2 MS medium. The results showed that the following culture conditions, nitrogen concentratiaon (involved NH4+ and NO3-), 30 mmol/L; the ratio of ammonium to nitrate, 5:25; the combination of 2% sucrose and 3% glucose; 0.5 mg/L GA3; 0.5 mg/L IBA; initial pH 5.8; light cycle, 18 h/d (3500lx); temperature, 24 degrees C; shaker revolutions per minute, 100 r/min, were favourable to hairy root growth and flavonoids production. Under the above culture conditions, up to 12.8 g/L (DW) of hairy root and 1922 mg/L of flavonoids were obtained after 21 days of culture. The content of total flavonoids in hairy root was 15%, which was about 25 times as that in the wild plantlet.

  2. Serotonin modulates Arabidopsis root growth via changes in reactive oxygen species and jasmonic acid-ethylene signaling.

    PubMed

    Pelagio-Flores, Ramón; Ruiz-Herrera, León Francisco; López-Bucio, José

    2016-09-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is a bioactive indoleamine with neurotransmitter function in vertebrates, which represents an emerging signaling molecule in plants, playing key roles in the development and defense. In this study, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and jasmonic acid (JA)-ethylene (Et) signaling in root developmental alterations induced by serotonin was investigated. An Arabidopsis thaliana mutant defective at the RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1 (RCD1) locus was resistant to paraquat-induced ROS accumulation in primary roots and showed decreased inhibition or root growth in response to serotonin. A suite of JA- and Et-related mutants including coronatine insensitive1, jasmonic acid resistant1 (jar1), etr1, ein2 and ein3 showed tolerance to serotonin in the inhibition of primary root growth and ROS redistribution within the root tip when compared with wild-type (WT) seedlings. Competence assays between serotonin and AgNO3 , a well-known blocker of Et action, showed that primary root growth in medium supplemented with serotonin was normalized by AgNO3 , whereas roots of eto3, an Et overproducer mutant, were oversensitive to serotonin. Comparison of ROS levels in WT, etr1, jar1 and rcd1 primary root tips using the ROS-specific probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate and confocal imaging showed that serotonin inhibition of primary root growth likely occurs independently of its conversion into melatonin. Our results provide compelling evidence that serotonin affects ROS distribution in roots, involving RCD1 and components of the JA-Et signaling pathways.

  3. [Effects of nitrogen fertilization and root separation on the plant growth and grain yield of maize and its rhizosphere microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang-Qian; Huang, Guo-Qin; Bian, Xin-Min; Zhao, Qi-Guo

    2012-12-01

    A field experiment with root separation was conducted to study the effects of root interaction in maize-soybean intercropping system on the plant growth and grain yield of maize and its rhizosphere microorganisms under different nitrogen fertilization levels (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 g x kg(-1)). Root interaction and nitrogen fertilization had positive effects on the plant height, leaf length and width, and leaf chlorophyll content of maize. Less difference was observed in the root dry mass of maize at maturing stage between the treatments root separation and no root separation. However, as compared with root separation, no root separation under the nitrogen fertilization levels 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 g x kg(-1) increased the biomass per maize plant by 8.8%, 6.3%, 3.6%, and 0.7%, and the economic yield per maize plant by 17.7%, 10.0%, 8.2%, and 0.9%, respectively. No root separation increased the quantity of rhizosphere fungi and azotobacteria significantly, as compared with root separation. With increasing nitrogen fertilization level, the quantity of rhizosphere bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes presented an increasing trend, while that of rhizosphere azotobacteria decreased after an initial increase. The root-shoot ratio of maize at maturing stage was significantly negatively correlated with the quantity of rhizosphere bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes, but less correlated with the quantity of rhizosphere azotobacteria. It was suggested that the root interaction in maize-soybean intercropping system could improve the plant growth of maize and increase the maize yield and rhizosphere microbial quantity, but the effect would be decreased with increasing nitrogen fertilization level.

  4. Growth, root colonization and nutrient status of Helianthemum sessiliflorum Desf. inoculated with a desert truffle Terfezia boudieri Chatin.

    PubMed

    Slama, Awatef; Gorai, Mustapha; Fortas, Zohra; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Neffati, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of inoculation using Terfezia boudieri Chatin ascospores (ectomycorrhizal fungus) on growth, root colonization and nutrient status of Helianthemum sessiliflorum Desf. seedlings grown in pots on two-soil types (gypseous and sandy loam). Mycorrhizal seedlings had significantly increased their height and leaf number compared to non-mycorrhizal ones. Regardless of mycorrhizal inoculation treatments, the plants growing on gypseous soil showed higher growth as compared to sandy loam one. It appears that inoculation with T. boudieri changed root morphology, increasing branching of first-order lateral roots of H. sessiliflorum seedlings. The highest root mycorrhizal colonization was recorded in inoculated seedlings on sandy loam soil (89%) when compared to gypseous one (52%). N, P and K concentrations in mycorrhizal seedlings were significantly improved by fungal inoculation. It can be concluded that inoculation of H. sessiliflorum with T. boudieri increased growth attributes and improved plant nutritional status.

  5. Inhibition of Human Cervical Cancer Cell Growth by Ethanolic Extract of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. (Punarnava) Root

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Rakhi; Saluja, Daman; Dwarakanath, Bilikere S.; Chopra, Madhu

    2011-01-01

    In Indian traditional medicine, Boerhaavia diffusa (punarnava) roots have been widely used for the treatment of dyspepsia, jaundice, enlargement of spleen, abdominal pain and as an anti-stress agent. Pharmacological evaluation of the crude ethanolic extract of B. diffusa roots has been shown to possess antiproliferative and immunomodulatory properties. The extract of B. diffusa was studied for anti-proliferative effects on the growth of HeLa cells and for its effect on cell cycle. Bio-assays of extracts from B. diffusa root showed that a methanol : chloroform fraction (BDF 5) had an antiproliferative effect on HeLa cells. After 48 h of exposure, this fraction at a concentration of 200 μg mL−1 significantly reduced cell proliferation with visible morphological changes in HeLa cells. Cell cycle analysis suggests that antiproliferative effect of BDF 5 could be due to inhibition of DNA synthesis in S-phase of cell cycle in HeLa cells, whereas no significant change in cell cycle was detected in control cells. The fraction BDF 5 caused cell death via apoptosis as evident from DNA fragmentation and caspase-9 activation. Thus the extract has potential to be evaluated in detail to assess the molecular mechanism-mediated anticancer activities of this plant. PMID:21869896

  6. Differential wall growth in gravistimulated corn roots: Its timing and regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serlin, B. S.

    1985-01-01

    The experiments designed to document cell-wall level changes which occur as a result of their gravistimulation are described. The goal of this research is to elucidate the mechanism and time frame of differential growth following a controlled gravistimulation. To achieve this, rates of wall deposition will be determined by following the incorporation of radioactive monosaccharides into the wall. Complementing this experiment will be a freeze-etch study directed at revealing the spatial arrangment of both newly-deposited microfibrils and microfibrils that were present in the growing root prior to stimulation. The second phase of the proposed research will examine the roles ethylene and Ca(2+) have in the modulation of differential wall changes during gravitropism. Ethylene and Ca(2+) have both been implicated as regulators of the gravitropic response in roots and they have also been implicated as regulators of the gravitropic response in roots and they have also been reported to exert some control on the orientation of microfibrils. Both of these agents will be manipulated in such a way as to reveal whether they have a direct influence on cell wall deposition and microfibrillar alignment during the geotropic response.

  7. A Comparison of Oligogalacturonide- and Auxin-Induced Extracellular Alkalinization and Growth Responses in Roots of Intact Cucumber Seedlings1

    PubMed Central

    Spiro, Mark D.; Bowers, Jonathan F.; Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    Oligogalacturonic acid (OGA) affects plant growth and development in an antagonistic manner to that of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the mechanism by which remains to be determined. This study describes the relationship between IAA and OGA activity in intact cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings. Both OGA and IAA induced rapid and transient extracellular alkalinization; however, the characteristics of the OGA and IAA responses differed in their kinetics, magnitude, calcium dependence, and region of the root in which they induced their maximal response. IAA (1 μm) induced a saturating alkalinization response of approximately 0.2 pH unit and a rapid reduction (approximately 80%) in root growth that only partially recovered over 20 h. OGAs, specifically those with a degree of polymerization of 10 to 13, induced a maximal alkalinization response of 0.48 pH unit, but OGA treatment did not alter root growth. Saturating concentrations of OGA did not block IAA-induced alkalinization or the initial IAA-induced inhibition of root growth but allowed IAA-treated roots to recover their initial growth rate within 270 min. IAA-induced alkalinization occurs primarily in the growing apical region of the root, whereas OGA induced its maximal response in the basal region of the root. This study demonstrates that OGA and IAA act by distinct mechanisms and that OGA does not simply act by inhibition of IAA action. These results also suggest that IAA-induced extracellular alkalinization is not sufficient to account for the mechanism by which IAA inhibits root growth. PMID:12376654

  8. Root aeration improves growth and nitrogen accumulation in rice seedlings under low nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jingwen; Liang, Jing; Xu, Zhihui; Fan, Xiaorong; Zhou, Quansuo; Shen, Qirong; Xu, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    In wetland soils, changes in oxygen (O2) level in the rhizosphere are believed to influence the behaviour of nutrients and their usage by plants. However, the effect of aeration on nitrogen (N) acquisition under different N supply conditions remains largely unknown. In this study, the rice cultivars Yangdao 6 (YD6, with higher root aerenchyma abundance) and Nongken 57 (NK57, with lower root aerenchyma abundance) were used to evaluate the effects of aeration on rice growth and N accumulation. Our results showed that the number of adventitious roots and the root surface area increased significantly, and ethylene production and aerenchyma formation decreased in both cultivars after external aeration (EA). Five N treatments, including no N (−N), 0.125 mM NH4NO3 (LN), 1.25 mM Ca(NO3)2 (NO3-N), 1.25 mM (NH4)2SO4 (NH4-N) and 1.25 mM NH4NO3 (N/N), were applied to YD6 and NK57 for 2 days under internal aeration or EA conditions. External aeration increased the root biomass in both cultivars and the shoot biomass in NK57 by 18–50 %. The total N concentrations in roots of YD6 grown under −N and LN and of NK57 grown under NO3-N were increased by EA. Expression of OsPAD4, one of four putative genes regulating aerenchyma formation, showed a similar pattern alongside changes in the ethylene level in the EA-treated rice irrespective of the N treatments. Furthermore, expression of the high-affinity nitrate transporter gene OsNRT2.1 was increased by EA under −N, LN and NO3-N conditions. Our data provide evidence of an interaction between O2 and the supply of N in ethylene production, aerenchyma formation and N nutrition through modification of the expression of OsPAD4 and OsNRT2.1. PMID:26578743

  9. Radiosensitivity of different tissues from carrot root at different phases of growth in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Degani, N.; Pickholtz, D.

    1980-09-01

    The present work compares the effect of ..gamma..-radiation dose and time in culture on the growth of cambium and phloem carrot (Daucus carota) root explants. It was found that the phloem is more radiosensitive than the cambium and that both tissues were more radiosensitive when irradiated on excision at the G/sub 1/ phase rather than at the end of the lag phase on the ninth day of growth in culture when cells were predominantly at the G/sub 2/ phase. The nuclear volumes of cells from both tissues were similar but were larger at the end of the more radioresistant lag phase than those of the G/sub 1/ phase on excision. However, nuclear volume could not account for the differences in radiosensitivity between either the tissues or irradiation times in culture.

  10. Tall fescue cultivar and fungal endophyte combinations influence plant growth and root exudate composition

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jingqi; McCulley, Rebecca L.; McNear, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.)] is a cool-season perennial grass used in pastures throughout the Southeastern United States. The grass can harbor a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala) thought to provide the plant with enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Because alkaloids produced by the common variety of the endophyte cause severe animal health issues, focus has been on replacing the common-toxic strain with novel varieties that do not produce the mammal-toxic alkaloids but maintain abiotic and biotic stress tolerance benefits. Little attention has been given to the influence of the plant-fungal symbiosis on rhizosphere processes. Therefore, our objective was to study the influence of this relationship on plant biomass production and root exudate composition in tall fescue cultivars PDF and 97TF1, which were either not infected with the endophyte (E-), infected with the common toxic endophyte (CTE+) strain or with one of two novel endophytes (AR542E+, AR584E+). Plants were grown sterile for 3 weeks after which plant biomass, total organic carbon, total phenolic content and detailed chemical composition of root exudates were determined. Plant biomass production and exudate phenolic and organic carbon content were influenced by endophyte status, tall fescue cultivar, and their interaction. GC-TOF MS identified 132 compounds, including lipids, carbohydrates and carboxylic acids. Cluster analysis showed that the interaction between endophyte and cultivar resulted in unique exudate profiles. This is the first detailed study to assess how endophyte infection, notably with novel endophytes, and tall fescue cultivar interact to influence root exudate composition. Our results illustrate that tall fescue cultivar and endophyte status can influence plant growth and root exudate composition, which may help explain the observed influence of this symbiosis on rhizosphere biogeochemical processes. PMID:25914697

  11. The Garlic Allelochemical Diallyl Disulfide Affects Tomato Root Growth by Influencing Cell Division, Phytohormone Balance and Expansin Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Fang; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Tang, Xiangwei

    2016-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a volatile organosulfur compound derived from garlic (Allium sativum L.), and it is known as an allelochemical responsible for the strong allelopathic potential of garlic. The anticancer properties of DADS have been studied in experimental animals and various types of cancer cells, but to date, little is known about its mode of action as an allelochemical at the cytological level. The current research presents further studies on the effects of DADS on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seed germination, root growth, mitotic index, and cell size in root meristem, as well as the phytohormone levels and expression profile of auxin biosynthesis genes (FZYs), auxin transport genes (SlPINs), and expansin genes (EXPs) in tomato root. The results showed a biphasic, dose-dependent effect on tomato seed germination and root growth under different DADS concentrations. Lower concentrations (0.01–0.62 mM) of DADS significantly promoted root growth, whereas higher levels (6.20–20.67 mM) showed inhibitory effects. Cytological observations showed that the cell length of root meristem was increased and that the mitotic activity of meristematic cells in seedling root tips was enhanced at lower concentrations of DADS. In contrast, DADS at higher concentrations inhibited root growth by affecting both the length and division activity of meristematic cells. However, the cell width of the root meristem was not affected. Additionally, DADS increased the IAA and ZR contents of seedling roots in a dose-dependent manner. The influence on IAA content may be mediated by the up-regulation of FZYs and PINs. Further investigation into the underlying mechanism revealed that the expression levels of tomato EXPs were significantly affected by DADS. The expression levels of EXPB2 and beta-expansin precursor were increased after 3 d, and those of EXP1, EXPB3 and EXLB1 were increased after 5 d of DADS treatment (0.41 mM). This result suggests that tomato root growth may be

  12. Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Activity Regulates Tomato Root Growth via Effects on Secondary Cell Wall Production1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    van der Merwe, Margaretha J.; Osorio, Sonia; Araújo, Wagner L.; Balbo, Ilse; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Maximova, Eugenia; Carrari, Fernando; Bunik, Victoria I.; Persson, Staffan; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Moneymaker’) plants independently expressing fragments of various genes encoding enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in antisense orientation have previously been characterized as exhibiting altered root growth. In this study, we evaluate the rates of respiration of roots from these lines in addition to determining their total dry weight accumulation. Given that these features were highly correlated, we decided to carry out an evaluation of the cell wall composition in the transformants that revealed a substantial reduction in cellulose. Since the bulk of cellulose is associated with the secondary cell walls in roots, we reasoned that the transformants most likely were deficient in secondary wall cellulose production. Consistent with these findings, cross-sections of the root collar (approximately 15 mm from the junction between root and stem) displayed reduced lignified secondary cell walls for the transformants. In contrast, cell and cell wall patterning displayed no differences in elongating cells close to the root tip. To further characterize the modified cell wall metabolism, we performed feeding experiments in which we incubated excised root tips in [U-14C]glucose in the presence or absence of phosphonate inhibitors of the reaction catalyzed by 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase. Taken together, the combined results suggest that restriction of root respiration leads to a deficit in secondary cell wall synthesis. These data are discussed in the context of current models of biomass partitioning and plant growth. PMID:20118274

  13. Inhibition of root growth by narciclasine is caused by DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest in lettuce seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanfeng; Li, Jiaolong; Yang, Lijing; Nan, Wenbin; Cao, Xiaoping; Bi, Yurong

    2014-09-01

    Narciclasine (NCS) is an Amaryllidaceae alkaloid isolated from Narcissus tazetta bulbs. Its phytotoxic effects on plant growth were examined in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings. Results showed that high concentrations (0.5-5 μM) of NCS restricted the growth of lettuce roots in a dose-dependent manner. In NCS-treated lettuce seedlings, the following changes were detected: reduction of mitotic cells and cell elongation in the mature region, inhibition of proliferation of meristematic cells, and cell cycle. Moreover, comet assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay indicated that higher levels NCS (0.5-5 μM) induced DNA damage in root cells of lettuce. The decrease in meristematic cells and increase in DNA damage signals in lettuce roots in responses to NCS are in a dose-dependent manner. NCS-induced reactive oxygen species accumulation may explain an increase in DNA damage in lettuce roots. Thus, the restraint of root growth is due to cell cycle arrest which is caused by NCS-induced DNA damage. In addition, it was also found that NCS (0.5-5 μM) inhibited the root hair development of lettuce seedlings. Further investigations on the underlying mechanism revealed that both auxin and ethylene signaling pathways are involved in the response of root hairs to NCS.

  14. Syntaxin of plant proteins SYP123 and SYP132 mediate root hair tip growth in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Mie; Hirano, Tomoko; Enami, Kazuhiko; Fuselier, Taylor; Kato, Naohiro; Kwon, Chian; Voigt, Boris; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Baluška, František; Sato, Masa H

    2014-04-01

    Root hairs are fast-growing tubular protrusions on root epidermal cells that play important roles in water and nutrient uptake in plants. The tip-focused polarized growth of root hairs is accomplished by the secretion of newly synthesized materials to the tip via the polarized membrane trafficking mechanism. Here, we report the function of two different types of plasma membrane (PM) Qa-SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors), SYP123 and SYP132, in the growth of root hair in Arabidopsis. We found that SYP123, but not SYP132, localizes in the tip region of root hairs by recycling between the brefeldin A (BFA)-sensitive endosomes and the PM of the expanding tip in an F-actin-dependent manner. The vesicle-associated membrane proteins VAMP721/722/724 also exhibited tip-focused localization in root hairs and formed ternary SNARE complexes with both SYP123 and SYP132. These results demonstrate that SYP123 and SYP132 act in a coordinated fashion to mediate tip-focused membrane trafficking for root hair tip growth.

  15. Influence of copper on root growth and morphology of Pinus pinea L. and Pinus pinaster Ait. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Arduini, I; Godbold, D L; Onnis, A

    1995-06-01

    We assessed the effects of Cu on root growth and morphology of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) and maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) seedlings grown in culture solutions supplied with 0.012 (control), 0.1, 1 or 5 micro M CuSO(4). The presence of 5 micro M Cu in the nutrient solution completely inhibited root growth of both species within 3 days. In both species, taproot elongation was reduced in the presence of 1 micro M Cu, although partial growth recovery occurred after 7 days of treatment. The presence of 0.1 micro M Cu in the culture solution slightly enhanced root elongation in P. pinaster, but did not significantly influence root elongation in P. pinea. In both species, root weight per unit length increased in response to Cu exposure, and in P. pinaster, root diameter was significantly increased. The Cu treatments also affected lateral root number and length. In the presence of 1 micro M Cu, both species formed only short lateral primordia. The 1 micro M Cu treatment increased the lateral root index (number of roots per cm of root length) of P. pinaster, but decreased that of P. pinea, compared with control values. Neither the 0.1 nor 1 micro M Cu treatment had a significant effect on the mitotic index of either species. We conclude that cell elongation is more sensitive to Cu than cell division. Cell membrane damage, as indicated by Trypan blue staining, occurred after 10 days of exposure to 1 micro M Cu.

  16. Growth of the Maize Primary Root at Low Water Potentials 1

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Robert E.; Hsiao, Theodore C.; Silk, Wendy Kuhn

    1990-01-01

    Primary roots of maize (Zea mays L. cv WF9 × Mo17) seedlings growing in vermiculite at various water potentials exhibited substantial osmotic adjustment in the growing region. We have assessed quantitatively whether the osmotic adjustment was attributable to increased net solute deposition rates or to slower rates of water deposition associated with reduced volume expansion. Spatial distributions of total osmotica, soluble carbohydrates, potassium, and water were combined with published growth velocity distributions to calculate deposition rate profiles using the continuity equation. Low water potentials had no effect on the rate of total osmoticum deposition per unit length close to the apex, and caused decreased deposition rates in basal regions. However, rates of water deposition decreased more than osmoticum deposition. Consequently, osmoticum deposition rates per unit water volume were increased near the apex and osmotic potentials were lower throughout the growing region. Because the stressed roots were thinner, osmotic adjustment occurred without osmoticum accumulation per unit length. The effects of low water potential on hexose deposition were similar to those for total osmotica, and hexose made a major contribution to the osmotic adjustment in middle and basal regions. In contrast, potassium deposition decreased at low water potentials in close parallel with water deposition, and increases in potassium concentration were small. The results show that growth of the maize primary root at low water potentials involves a complex pattern of morphogenic and metabolic events. Although osmotic adjustment is largely the result of a greater inhibition of volume expansion and water deposition than solute deposition, the contrasting behavior of hexose and potassium deposition indicates that the adjustment is a highly regulated process. PMID:16667622

  17. Flexible Microsensor Array for the Root Zone Monitoring of Porous Tube Plant Growth System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sathyan, Sandeep; Kim, Chang-Soo; Porterfield, D. Marshall; Nagle, H. Troy; Brown, Christopher S.

    2004-01-01

    Control of oxygen and water in the root zone is vital to support plant growth in the microgravity environment. The ability to control these sometimes opposing parameters in the root zone is dependent upon the availability of sensors to detect these elements and provide feedback for control systems. In the present study we demonstrate the feasibility of using microsensor arrays on a flexible substrate for dissolved oxygen detection, and a 4-point impedance microprobe for surface wetness detection on the surface of a porous tube (PT) nutrient delivery system. The oxygen microsensor reported surface oxygen concentrations that correlated with the oxygen concentrations of the solution inside the PT when operated at positive pressures. At negative pressures the microsensor shows convergence to zero saturation (2.2 micro mol/L) values due to inadequate water film formation on porous tube surface. The 4-point microprobe is useful as a wetness detector as it provides a clear differentiation between dry and wet surfaces. The unique features of the dissolved oxygen microsensor array and 4-point microprobe include small and simple design, flexibility and multipoint sensing. The demonstrated technology is anticipated to provide low cost, and highly reliable sensor feedback monitoring plant growth nutrient delivery system in both terrestrial and microgravity environments.

  18. A capillary-driven root module for plant growth in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Jones, S B; Or, D

    1998-01-01

    A new capillary-driven root module design for growing plants in microgravity was developed which requires minimal external control. Unlike existing systems, the water supply to the capillary-driven system is passive and relies on root uptake and media properties to develop driving gradients which operate a suction-induced flow control valve. A collapsible reservoir supplies water to the porous membrane which functions to maintain hydraulic continuity. Sheet and tubular membranes consisting of nylon, polyester and sintered porous stainless steel were tested. While finer pore sized membranes allow greater range of operation, they also reduce liquid flux thereby constraining system efficiency. Membrane selection should consider both the maximum anticipated liquid uptake rate and maximum operating matric head (suction) of the system. Matching growth media water retention characteristics to the porous membrane characteristics is essential for supplying adequate liquid flux and gas exchange. A minimum of 10% air-filled porosity (AFP) was necessary for adequate aeration. The capillary-driven module maintained hydraulic continuity and proper gas exchange rates for more than 80 days in a plant growth experiment.

  19. Delayed soil thawing affects root and shoot functioning and growth in Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Repo, Tapani; Lehto, Tarja; Finér, Leena

    2008-10-01

    In boreal regions, soil can remain frozen after the start of the growing season. We compared relationships between root characteristics and water relations in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saplings subjected to soil frost treatments before and during the first week of the growing period in a controlled environment experiment. Delayed soil thawing delayed the onset of sap flow or totally blocked it if soil thawing lagged the start of the growing period by 7 days. This effect was reflected in the electrical impedance of needles and trunks and in the relative electrolyte leakage of needles. Prolonged soil frost reduced or completely inhibited root growth. In unfrozen soil, limited trunk sap flow was observed despite unfavorable aboveground growing conditions (low temperature, low irradiance, short photoperiod). Following the earliest soil thaw, sap flow varied during the growing season, depending on light and temperature conditions, phenological stage of the plant and the amount of live needles in the canopy. The results suggest that delayed soil thawing can reduce tree growth, and if prolonged, it can be lethal.

  20. Local and distal effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization on direct pathway Pi uptake and root growth in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Watts-Williams, Stephanie J; Jakobsen, Iver; Cavagnaro, Timothy R; Grønlund, Mette

    2015-07-01

    Two pathways exist for plant Pi uptake from soil: via root epidermal cells (direct pathway) or via associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and the two pathways interact in a complex manner. This study investigated distal and local effects of AM colonization on direct root Pi uptake and root growth, at different soil P levels. Medicago truncatula was grown at three soil P levels in split-pots with or without AM fungal inoculation and where one root half grew into soil labelled with (33)P. Plant genotypes included the A17 wild type and the mtpt4 mutant. The mtpt4 mutant, colonized by AM fungi, but with no functional mycorrhizal pathway for Pi uptake, was included to better understand effects of AM colonization per se. Colonization by AM fungi decreased expression of direct Pi transporter genes locally, but not distally in the wild type. In mtpt4 mutant plants, direct Pi transporter genes and the Pi starvation-induced gene Mt4 were more highly expressed than in wild-type roots. In wild-type plants, less Pi was taken up via the direct pathway by non-colonized roots when the other root half was colonized by AM fungi, compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. Colonization by AM fungi strongly influenced root growth locally and distally, and direct root Pi uptake activity locally, but had only a weak influence on distal direct pathway activity. The responses to AM colonization in the mtpt4 mutant suggested that in the wild type, the increased P concentration of colonized roots was a major factor driving the effects of AM colonization on direct root Pi uptake.

  1. Root and bacterial secretions regulate the interaction between plants and PGPR leading to distinct plant growth promotion effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have garnered interest in agriculture due to their ability to influence the growth and production of host plants. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play important roles in plant-microbe interactions by modulating plant root exudation. The present stu...

  2. Tall or short? Slender or thick? A plant strategy for regulating elongation growth of roots by low concentrations of gibberellin

    PubMed Central

    Tanimoto, Eiichi

    2012-01-01

    Background Since the plant hormone gibberellin (GA) was discovered as a fungal toxin that caused abnormal elongation of rice shoots, the physiological function of GA has mainly been investigated in relation to the regulation of plant height. However, an indispensable role for GA in root growth has been elucidated by using severely GA-depleted plants, either with a gene mutation in GA biosynthesis or which have been treated by an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis. The molecular sequence of GA signalling has also been studied to understand GA functions in root growth. Scope This review addresses research progress on the physiological functions of GA in root growth. Concentration-dependent stimulation of elongation growth by GA is important for the regulation of plant height and root length. Thus the endogenous level of GA and/or the GA sensitivity of shoots and roots plays a role in determining the shoot-to-root ratio of the plant body. Since the shoot-to-root ratio is an important parameter for agricultural production, control of GA production and GA sensitivity may provide a strategy for improving agricultural productivity. The sequence of GA signal transduction has recently been unveiled, and some component molecules are suggested as candidate in planta regulatory sites and as points for the artificial manipulation of GA-mediated growth control. Conclusions This paper reviews: (1) the breakthrough dose–response experiments that show that root growth is regulated by GA in a lower concentration range than is required for shoot growth; (2) research on the regulation of GA biosynthesis pathways that are known predominantly to control shoot growth; and (3) recent research on GA signalling pathways, including GA receptors, which have been suggested to participate in GA-mediated growth regulation. This provides useful information to suggest a possible strategy for the selective control of shoot and root growth, and to explain how GA plays a role in rosette and liana plants

  3. Protecting tree roots and subterranean infrastructure in urban areas by developing self-compacting flowable fills with root growth impeding properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felde, Vincent; Simon, Jana; Kimm-Friedenberg, Stefan; Peth, Stephan; Middendorf, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    In urban areas, the installation of cables and disposal lines is still done by open building method. Here, a ditch is being excavated, pipes and lines are laid and subsequently it is filled with and covered by bulk material (e.g. sand or gravel), which is then compacted. Due to the often times limited space that the roots have in the ground and the better supply of water and oxygen in the poorly compacted bulk material, these refilled ditches are areas of preferential root growth of urban trees. The entangling of the pipes and supply lines by these roots leads to severe damage of the tree when maintenance work on the lines is carried out and roots have to be cut. In order to reduce this competition between urban trees and urban subterranean infrastructure, the development of a self-compacting flowable fill with root growth resistance is mandatory. Physico-chemical properties, such as a very high pH-value and a low cation-exchange-capacity, a low root-penetrability, a high packing density and a low porosity, with a poorly connected pore system that impedes gas and water exchange are the characteristic aspects of this flowable fills that could help avoid undesired root penetration into supply lines. The flowable fills are supposed to sheath pipes and lines void-free and without any tension, in order to restrain the root growth in these areas. Trees are of crucial importance for urban ecosystems and are comprising 3% of the total stock of trees in the Federal Republic of Germany, which is why it is fundamental to conserve them. This work therefore targets not only at enabling a balanced coexistence of urban trees and subterranean infrastructure, but also at avoiding costly re-opening of ditches, tree harming cutting of roots and time consuming maintenance work. Further positive side effects are reduced costs for network providers and local municipalities, as well as reduced noise and dust emissions for passersby and local residents. To guarantee the root growth

  4. [Effects of 6-benzylaminopurine and α-naphthaleneacetic acid on growth and isoflavone contents of Pueraria phaseoloides hairy roots].

    PubMed

    He, Hanjie; Shi, Heping

    2014-10-01

    In order to study the effect of phytohormone on growth and isoflavones contents of Pueraria phaseoloides hairy roots, we cultured the hairy roots with different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) alone or in combination with α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Then we determined the effects of 6-BA alone or in combination with NAA on the growth and the contents of isoflavones compounds and levels of antioxidase activities of hairy roots by spectrophotometry. The results show that 6-BA inhibited the growth, and decreased biomass and total isoflavones compounds of P. phaseoloides hairy roots. Furthermore, the inhibition was increased with the concentrations of 6-BA. Compared with the controls, different concentrations of 6-BA in combination with NAA 2.0 mg/L could inhibit the growth of hairy roots and decrease the content of total isoflavone compounds, and also significantly enhanced the contents of soluble protein and levels of peroxidase (POD) activities, but decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD). DNA ladders detected by agarose gel electrophoresis can be observed after hairy roots of P. phaseoloides were cultured with 6-BA alone for 30 days, but can appear on the 20th day after culture with 6-BA in combination with NAA 2.0 mg/L. This result indicates that 6-BA or 6-BA in combination with NAA can both stimulate appearance of programmed cell death (PCD), and NAA may play a synergistic role on PCD.

  5. Root-synthesized cytokinins improve shoot growth and fruit yield in salinized tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Michel Edmond; Albacete, Alfonso; Smigocki, Ann C; Frébort, Ivo; Pospísilová, Hana; Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Acosta, Manuel; Sánchez-Bravo, José; Lutts, Stanley; Dodd, Ian C; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Salinity limits crop productivity, in part by decreasing shoot concentrations of the growth-promoting and senescence-delaying hormones cytokinins. Since constitutive cytokinin overproduction may have pleiotropic effects on plant development, two approaches assessed whether specific root-localized transgenic IPT (a key enzyme for cytokinin biosynthesis) gene expression could substantially improve tomato plant growth and yield under salinity: transient root IPT induction (HSP70::IPT) and grafting wild-type (WT) shoots onto a constitutive IPT-expressing rootstock (WT/35S::IPT). Transient root IPT induction increased root, xylem sap, and leaf bioactive cytokinin concentrations 2- to 3-fold without shoot IPT gene expression. Although IPT induction reduced root biomass (by 15%) in control (non-salinized) plants, in salinized plants (100 mM NaCl for 22 d), increased cytokinin concentrations delayed stomatal closure and leaf senescence and almost doubled shoot growth (compared with WT plants), with concomitant increases in the essential nutrient K(+) (20%) and decreases in the toxic ion Na(+) (by 30%) and abscisic acid (by 20-40%) concentrations in transpiring mature leaves. Similarly, WT/35S::IPT plants (scion/rootstock) grown with 75 mM NaCl for 90 d had higher fruit trans-zeatin concentrations (1.5- to 2-fold) and yielded 30% more than WT/non-transformed plants. Enhancing root cytokinin synthesis modified both shoot hormonal and ionic status, thus ameliorating salinity-induced decreases in growth and yield.

  6. Apical meristem organization and lack of establishment of the quiescent center in Cactaceae roots with determinate growth.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José Fernando; Shishkova, Svetlana; Napsucialy-Mendivil, Selene; Dubrovsky, Joseph G

    2003-10-01

    Some species of Cactaceae from the Sonoran Desert are characterized by a determinate growth pattern of the primary root, which is important for rapid lateral-root formation and seedling establishment. An analysis of the determinate root growth can be helpful for understanding the mechanism of meristem maintenance in plants in general. Stenocereus gummosus (Engelm.) Gibson & Horak and Pachycereus pringlei (S. Watson) Britton & Rose are characterized by an open type of root apical meristem. Immunohistochemical analysis of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation into S. gummosus showed that the percentage of cells passing through the S-phase in a 24-h period is the same within the zone where a population of relatively slowly proliferating cells could be established and above this zone in the meristem. This indicated the absence of the quiescent center (QC) in S. gummosus. During the second and the third days of growth, in the distal meristem portion of P. pringlei roots, a compact group of cells that had a cell cycle longer than in the proximal meristem was found, indicating the presence of the QC. However, later in development, the QC could not be detected in this species. These data suggest that during post-germination the absence of the establishment of the QC within the apical meristem and limited proliferative activity of initial cells are the main components of a determinate developmental program and that establishment of the QC is required for maintenance of the meristem and indeterminate root growth in plants.

  7. The ABA receptor PYL9 together with PYL8 plays an important role in regulating lateral root growth

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Lu; Zhao, Yang; Gao, Jinghui; Xiang, Chengbin; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid is a phytohormone regulating plant growth, development and stress responses. PYR1/PYL/RCAR proteins are ABA receptors that function by inhibiting PP2Cs to activate SnRK2s, resulting in phosphorylation of ABFs and other effectors of ABA response pathways. Exogenous ABA induces growth quiescence of lateral roots, which is prolonged by knockout of the ABA receptor PYL8. Among the 14 members of PYR1/PYL/RCAR protein family, PYL9 is a close relative of PYL8. Here we show that knockout of both PYL9 and PYL8 resulted in a longer ABA-induced quiescence on lateral root growth and a reduced sensitivity to ABA on primary root growth and lateral root formation compared to knockout of PYL8 alone. Induced overexpression of PYL9 promoted the lateral root elongation in the presence of ABA. The prolonged quiescent phase of the pyl8-1pyl9 double mutant was reversed by exogenous IAA. PYL9 may regulate auxin-responsive genes in vivo through direct interaction with MYB77 and MYB44. Thus, PYL9 and PYL8 are both responsible for recovery of lateral root from ABA inhibition via MYB transcription factors. PMID:27256015

  8. Induction of curvature in maize roots by calcium or by thigmostimulation: role of the postmitotic isodiametric growth zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the response of primary roots of maize (Zea mays L. cv Merit) to unilateral application of calcium with particular attention to the site of application, the dependence on growth rate, and possible contributions of thigmotropic stimulation during application. Unilateral application of agar to the root cap induced negative curvature whether or not the agar contained calcium. This apparent thigmotropic response was enhanced by including calcium in the agar. Curvature away from objects applied unilaterally to the extreme root tip occurred both in intact and detipped roots. When agar containing calcium chloride was applied to one side of the postmitotic isodiametric growth zone ( a region between the apical meristem and the elongation zone), the root curved toward the side of application. This response could not be induced by plain agar. We conclude that curvature away from calcium applied to the root tip results from a thigmotropic response to stimulation during application. In contrast, curvature toward the calcium applied to the postmitotic isodiametric growth zone results from direct calcium-induced inhibition of growth.

  9. The role of the root apoplast in aluminium-induced inhibition of root elongation and in aluminium resistance of plants: a review

    PubMed Central

    Horst, Walter J.; Wang, Yunxia; Eticha, Dejene

    2010-01-01

    Background Aluminium (Al) toxicity is the most important soil constraint for plant growth and development in acid soils. The mechanism of Al-induced inhibition of root elongation is still not well understood, and it is a matter of debate whether the primary lesions of Al toxicity are apoplastic or symplastic. Scope The present review focuses on the role of the apoplast in Al toxicity and resistance, summarizing evidence from our own experimental work and other evidence published since 1995. Conclusions The binding of Al in the cell wall particularly to the pectic matrix and to the apoplastic face of the plasma membrane in the most Al-sensitive root zone of the root apex thus impairing apoplastic and symplastic cell functions is a major factor leading to Al-induced inhibition of root elongation. Although symplastic lesions of Al toxicity cannot be excluded, the protection of the root apoplast appears to be a prerequisite for Al resistance in both Al-tolerant and Al-accumulating plant species. In many plant species the release of organic acid anions complexing Al, thus protecting the root apoplast from Al binding, is a most important Al resistance mechanism. However, there is increasing physiological, biochemical and, most recently also, molecular evidence showing that the modification of the binding properties of the root apoplast contributes to Al resistance. A further in-depth characterization of the Al-induced apoplastic reaction in the most Al-sensitive zone of the root apex is urgently required, particularly to understand the Al resistance of the most Al-resistant plant species. PMID:20237112

  10. Effects of chicory root powder on growth performance and histomorphometry of jejunum in broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Homan; Arshami, Javad; Golian, Abolghasem; Raji, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, chicory root powder (CRP) as growth promoter at 1% and 3% levels was supplemented in broilers’ diet to investigate the growth performance and histomorphometry of jejunum. One hundred twenty, one-day-old male broilers were used in a completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 treatments and 4 replicates (10 chicks per replicate). At the end of each period (0-10, 11-24 and 0-24 days), feed intake (FI), weight gain (WG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured. At the end of experiment (day 24), one bird per replicate was sacrificed for breast weight (BW), drumstick weight (DW), and jejunum length (JL) as a percentage of body weight, and histomorphometry of villus. The FI increased by 3% CRP in the 1st period (p < 0.01). The percentage of WG significantly increased at 1% during the 1st period and, in the 2nd and total periods, it increased only at 3% CRP (p < 0.05). The FCR decreased at 1% in the 1st (p < 0.04) and, at 3% in the 2nd (p < 0.01) and total periods (p < 0.05). The percentage of DW increased at 3% CRP (p < 0.05). The treatments increased the percentage of BW (p < 0.059) and, percentage of JL (p < 0.079) as well. The villus width and, crypt depth (CD) at 1% and 3% CRP and, villus surface at 3% reduced. The 3% CRP increased the villus length (VL) and villi number (p < 0.05) and, VL/CD (p < 0.01) and, villus surface area (p < 0.02). The percentage of leaf-like villi decreased in CRP treatments (p < 0.05). The number of goblet cells increased in CRP treatments (p < 0.01). In conclusion, chicory root powder can improve growth performance in broilers by enhancing food digestion and absorption through modification of jejunum histomorphometry. PMID:25653792

  11. Permeabilization and in situ adsorption studies during growth and coumarin production in hairy root cultures of Cichorium intybus L.

    PubMed

    Bais, H P; Sudha, G; Suresh, B; Ravishankar, G A

    2001-06-01

    Effect of addition of a permeabilizing agent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and a solid adsorbent, XAD -7, on growth and coumarin production in hairy root cultures of C. intybus was studied. Continuous permeabilization of the hairy root cultures of C. intybus with DMSO has been shown to be an effective strategy for enhanced release of coumarins while preserving the root viability. DMSO at 0.2% (v/v) level showed the maximum growth and coumarin production but was less as compared to control on day 28. Treatment of cells with increasing concentrations of DMSO (0.3 - 0.6 % v/v) to hairy root cultures of C. intybus, showed an inverse relationship with growth and coumarin production. Growth and production of coumarins increased with 1% media filtrate (MF) of cultures of Phytopthora parasitica var. nicotiana treatment. It was observed that treatment with DMSO (0.2% v/v) and 1% MF of P. parasitica showed the better growth and coumarin production with an increased release of coumarins as compared to the control and other treatments. It was observed that treatment of hairy root cultures with XAD-7 resulted in lesser growth and coumarin production as compared to control during the culture period. Addition of XAD-7 along with 1% MF of P. parasitica showed enhanced growth, coumarin production and increased adsorption as compared to control and lone XAD-7 treatment. Combined addition of DMSO/XAD-7 with fungal elicitor showed synergistic response in terms of biomass and coumarin production. Excretion of coumarins in both the cases was dependent on the presence of DMSO/XAD-7. These results showed that continuous permeabilization of hairy root cultures of C. intybus by using DMSO at 0.2% (v/v) level coupled with 1% MF of P. parasitica maintained viability of tissues and produced coumarins at higher level.

  12. Determinate primary root growth as an adaptation to aridity in Cactaceae: towards an understanding of the evolution and genetic control of the trait

    PubMed Central

    Shishkova, Svetlana; Las Peñas, María Laura; Napsucialy-Mendivil, Selene; Matvienko, Marta; Kozik, Alex; Montiel, Jesús; Patiño, Anallely; Dubrovsky, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Species of Cactaceae are well adapted to arid habitats. Determinate growth of the primary root, which involves early and complete root apical meristem (RAM) exhaustion and differentiation of cells at the root tip, has been reported for some Cactoideae species as a root adaptation to aridity. In this study, the primary root growth patterns of Cactaceae taxa from diverse habitats are classified as being determinate or indeterminate, and the molecular mechanisms underlying RAM maintenance in Cactaceae are explored. Genes that were induced in the primary root of Stenocereus gummosus before RAM exhaustion are identified. Methods Primary root growth was analysed in Cactaceae seedlings cultivated in vertically oriented Petri dishes. Differentially expressed transcripts were identified after reverse northern blots of clones from a suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA library. Key Results All species analysed from six tribes of the Cactoideae subfamily that inhabit arid and semi-arid regions exhibited determinate primary root growth. However, species from the Hylocereeae tribe, which inhabit mesic regions, exhibited mostly indeterminate primary root growth. Preliminary results suggest that seedlings of members of the Opuntioideae subfamily have mostly determinate primary root growth, whereas those of the Maihuenioideae and Pereskioideae subfamilies have mostly indeterminate primary root growth. Seven selected transcripts encoding homologues of heat stress transcription factor B4, histone deacetylase, fibrillarin, phosphoethanolamine methyltransferase, cytochrome P450 and gibberellin-regulated protein were upregulated in S. gummosus root tips during the initial growth phase. Conclusions Primary root growth in Cactoideae species matches their environment. The data imply that determinate growth of the primary root became fixed after separation of the Cactiodeae/Opuntioideae and Maihuenioideae/Pereskioideae lineages, and that the genetic regulation of

  13. Root Zone Cooling and Exogenous Spermidine Root-Pretreatment Promoting Lactuca sativa L. Growth and Photosynthesis in the High-temperature Season.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin; Lu, Na; Xu, Hongjia; Maruo, Toru; Guo, Shirong

    2016-01-01

    Root zone high-temperature stress is a major factor limiting hydroponic plant growth during the high-temperature season. The effects of root zone cooling (RZC; at 25°C) and exogenous spermidine (Spd) root-pretreatment (SRP, 0.1 mM) on growth, leaf photosynthetic traits, and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of hydroponic Lactuca sativa L. grown in a high-temperature season (average temperature > 30°C) were examined. Both treatments significantly promoted plant growth and photosynthesis in the high-temperature season, but the mechanisms of photosynthesis improvement in the hydroponic grown lettuce plants were different between the RZC and SRP treatments. The former improved plant photosynthesis by increasing stoma conductance (G s) to enhance CO2 supply, thus promoting photosynthetic electron transport activity and phosphorylation, which improved the level of the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII), rather than enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency. The latter improved plant photosynthesis by enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency, rather than stomatal regulation. Combination of RZC and SRP significantly improved P N of lettuce plants in a high-temperature season by both improvement of G s to enhance CO2 supply and enhancement of CO2 assimilation. The enhancement of photosynthetic efficiency in both treatments was independent of altering light-harvesting or excessive energy dissipation.

  14. Root Zone Cooling and Exogenous Spermidine Root-Pretreatment Promoting Lactuca sativa L. Growth and Photosynthesis in the High-temperature Season

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jin; Lu, Na; Xu, Hongjia; Maruo, Toru; Guo, Shirong

    2016-01-01

    Root zone high-temperature stress is a major factor limiting hydroponic plant growth during the high-temperature season. The effects of root zone cooling (RZC; at 25°C) and exogenous spermidine (Spd) root-pretreatment (SRP, 0.1 mM) on growth, leaf photosynthetic traits, and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of hydroponic Lactuca sativa L. grown in a high-temperature season (average temperature > 30°C) were examined. Both treatments significantly promoted plant growth and photosynthesis in the high-temperature season, but the mechanisms of photosynthesis improvement in the hydroponic grown lettuce plants were different between the RZC and SRP treatments. The former improved plant photosynthesis by increasing stoma conductance (Gs) to enhance CO2 supply, thus promoting photosynthetic electron transport activity and phosphorylation, which improved the level of the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII), rather than enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency. The latter improved plant photosynthesis by enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency, rather than stomatal regulation. Combination of RZC and SRP significantly improved PN of lettuce plants in a high-temperature season by both improvement of Gs to enhance CO2 supply and enhancement of CO2 assimilation. The enhancement of photosynthetic efficiency in both treatments was independent of altering light-harvesting or excessive energy dissipation. PMID:27047532

  15. Structural Sterols Are Involved in Both the Initiation and Tip Growth of Root Hairs in Arabidopsis thaliana[W

    PubMed Central

    Ovečka, Miroslav; Berson, Tobias; Beck, Martina; Derksen, Jan; Šamaj, Jozef; Baluška, František; Lichtscheidl, Irene K.

    2010-01-01

    Structural sterols are abundant in the plasma membrane of root apex cells in Arabidopsis thaliana. They specifically accumulate in trichoblasts during the prebulging and bulge stages and show a polar accumulation in the tip during root hair elongation but are distributed evenly in mature root hairs. Thus, structural sterols may serve as a marker for root hair initiation and growth. In addition, they may predict branching events in mutants with branching root hairs. Structural sterols were detected using the sterol complexing fluorochrome filipin. Application of filipin caused a rapid, concentration-dependent decrease in tip growth. Filipin-complexed sterols accumulated in globular structures that fused to larger FM4-64–positive aggregates in the tip, so-called filipin-induced apical compartments, which were closely associated with the plasma membrane. The plasma membrane appeared malformed and the cytoarchitecture of the tip zone was affected. Trans-Golgi network/early endosomal compartments containing molecular markers, such as small Rab GTPase RabA1d and SNARE Wave line 13 (VTI12), locally accumulated in these filipin-induced apical compartments, while late endosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, plastids, and cytosol were excluded from them. These data suggest that the local distribution and apical accumulation of structural sterols may regulate vesicular trafficking and plasma membrane properties during both initiation and tip growth of root hairs in Arabidopsis. PMID:20841426

  16. Effects of root morphology and leaf transpiration on Cd uptake and translocation in rice under different growth temperature.

    PubMed

    Ge, Liqiang; Cang, Long; Yang, Jie; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-12-01

    With growing concerns on cadmium (Cd) contamination of rice grain from the public, the mechanism about the uptake and translocation of Cd in rice plant has been widely studied in recent years. However, the study about the effects of future warming on rice Cd accumulation was almost neglected. In the paper, hydroponic experiments of Cd exposure in growth chambers under different growth temperature (asymmetric and symmetric warming) were conducted to investigate how warming influenced Cd uptake and translocation in rice seedlings (6 liangyou 9368). The results showed that warming significantly increased Cd accumulation in shoot and root by 62.7 to 122 % and 65.5 to 73.9 %, respectively. Moreover, symmetric warming boosted Cd translocation from root to shoot, while antitranspirant treatment inhibited it significantly. The possible mechanisms may be that warming increased the fine root (diameter ≤ 0.5 mm) surface area and enlarged the active sites on root surface by influencing root morphology growth, thus promoted Cd uptake by root. Meanwhile, warming increased leaf transpiration and boosted the xylem stream from nutrient solution to above organs, thus enhanced Cd translocation. This study may provide new understanding and possible explanations about Cd uptake and translocation in rice plant under future warming.

  17. Interactive effects of soil acidity and fluoride on soil solution aluminium chemistry and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) root growth.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, V; Loganathan, P; Tillman, R W; Parfitt, R L

    2007-02-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine if concentrations of fluoride (F), which would be added to acid soils via P fertilisers, were detrimental to barley root growth. Increasing rates of F additions to soil significantly increased the soil solution concentrations of aluminium (Al) and F irrespective of the initial adjusted soil pH, which ranged from 4.25 to 5.48. High rates of F addition severely restricted root growth; the effect was more pronounced in the strongly acidic soil. Speciation calculations demonstrated that increasing rates of F additions substantially increased the concentrations of Al-F complexes in the soil. Stepwise regression analysis showed that it was the combination of the activities of AlF2(1+) and AlF(2+) complexes that primarily controlled barley root growth. The results suggested that continuous input of F to soils, and increased soil acidification, may become an F risk issue in the future.

  18. Root features related to plant growth and nutrient removal of 35 wetland plants.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wen-Ling; Wang, Shu-Qiang; Peng, Chang-Lian; Chen, Zhang-He

    2011-07-01

    Morphological, structural, and eco-physiological features of roots, nutrient removal, and correlation between the indices were comparatively studied for 35 emergent wetland plants in small-scale wetlands for further investigation into the hypothesis of two types of wetland plant roots (Chen et al., 2004). Significant differences in root morphological, structural, and eco-physiological features were found among the 35 species. They were divided into two types: fibrous-root plants and thick-root plants. The fibrous-root plants had most or all roots of diameter (D) ≤ 1 mm. Roots of D > 1 mm also had many fine and long lateral roots of D ≤ 1 mm. The roots of these plants were long and had a thin epidermis and a low degree of lignification. The roots of the thick-root plants were almost all thicker than 1 mm, and generally had no further fine lateral roots. The roots were short, smooth, and fleshy, and had a thick epidermis. Root porosity of the fibrous-root plants was higher than that of the thick-root plants (p = 0.001). The aerenchyma of the fibrous-root plants was composed of large cavities which were formed from many small cavities, and distributed radially between the exodermis and vascular tissues. The aerenchyma of the thick-root plants had a large number of small cavities which were distributed in the mediopellis. The fibrous-root plants had a significantly larger root biomass of D ≤ 1 mm, of 1 mm < D < 3 mm, above-ground biomass, total biomass, and longer root system, but shorter root longevity than those of the thick-root plants (p = 0.003, 0.018, 0.020, 0.032, 0.042, 0.001). The fibrous-root plants also had significantly higher radial oxygen loss (ROL), root activity, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and removal rates of total nitrogen and total phosphorus than the thick-root plants (p = 0.001, 0.008, 0.010, 0.004, 0.020, 0.002). The results indicate that significantly different root morphological and structural features existed among different

  19. Ethylene's role in phosphate starvation signaling: more than just a root growth regulator.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Vinay K; Smith, Aaron P

    2012-02-01

    Phosphate (Pi) is a common limiter of plant growth due to its low availability in most soils. Plants have evolved elaborate mechanisms for sensing Pi deficiency and for initiating adaptive responses to low Pi conditions. Pi signaling pathways are modulated by both local and long-distance, or systemic, sensing mechanisms. Local sensing of low Pi initiates major root developmental changes aimed at enhancing Pi acquisition, whereas systemic sensing governs pathways that modulate expression of numerous genes encoding factors involved in Pi transport and distribution. The gaseous phytohormone ethylene has been shown to play an integral role in regulating local, root developmental responses to Pi deficiency. Comparatively, a role for ethylene in systemic Pi signaling has been more circumstantial. However, recent studies have revealed that ethylene acts to modulate a number of systemically controlled Pi starvation responses. Herein we highlight the findings from these studies and offer a model for how ethylene biosynthesis and responsiveness are integrated into both local and systemic Pi signaling pathways.

  20. Maize HSP101 Plays Important Roles in Both Induced and Basal Thermotolerance and Primary Root Growth

    PubMed Central

    Nieto-Sotelo, Jorge; Martínez, Luz María; Ponce, Georgina; Cassab, Gladys I.; Alagón, Alejandro; Meeley, Robert B.; Ribaut, Jean-Marcel; Yang, Runying

    2002-01-01

    HSP101 belongs to the ClpB protein subfamily whose members promote the renaturation of protein aggregates and are essential for the induction of thermotolerance. We found that maize HSP101 accumulated in mature kernels in the absence of heat stress. At optimal temperatures, HSP101 disappeared within the first 3 days after imbibition, although its levels increased in response to heat shock. In embryonic cells, HSP101 concentrated in the nucleus and in some nucleoli. Hsp101 maps near the umc132 and npi280 markers on chromosome 6. Five maize hsp101-m-::Mu1 alleles were isolated. Mutants were null for HSP101 and defective in both induced and basal thermotolerance. Moreover, during the first 3 days after imbibition, primary roots grew faster in the mutants at optimal temperature. Thus, HSP101 is a nucleus-localized protein that, in addition to its role in thermotolerance, negatively influences the growth rate of the primary root. HSP101 is dispensable for proper embryo and whole plant development in the absence of heat stress. PMID:12119379

  1. Effects of plant growth substances on rooting of Hedychium spicatum under different temperature regimes.

    PubMed

    Giri, Dinesh; Tamta, Sushma

    2013-03-01

    Present study was carried out to develop a simple and efficient vegetative propagation protocol by applying various treatments to rhizome cuttings with different test solutions of auxins and phenolic compound. These were alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), Indole Acetic Acid (IAA), phloroglucinol and coumarin. The concentrations for each treatment were 10.0, 50.0 and 100.0 microM. After treatments the rhizome cuttings were planted in polybags containing forest soil and kept under different temperature regimes i.e., inside polyhose (at 20-25 degrees C), inside mist chamber (at 15-20 degrees C) and under nethouse (nursery condition, at 14-18 degrees C). The maximum rooting percentage (74.06%) was achieved at 20-25 degrees C (inside polyhouse) by applying 50.0 microM IBA. Inside poly house condition, the various developmental parameters showed better responses compare to other conditions. On the basis of present study emphasizes that the temperature play a crucial role in rooting and further growth of the plants in this species. By using this simple and significant conventional method of propagation we could be propagate this vulnerable medicinal and aromatic species at large scale for commercial purpose.

  2. Growth and flowering responses of cut chrysanthemum grown under restricted root volume to irrigation frequency.

    PubMed

    Taweesak, Viyachai; Lee Abdullah, Thohirah; Hassan, Siti Aishah; Kamarulzaman, Nitty Hirawaty; Wan Yusoff, Wan Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Influences of irrigation frequency on the growth and flowering of chrysanthemum grown under restricted root volume were tested. Chrysanthemum cuttings (Chrysanthemum morifolium "Reagan White") were grown in seedling tray which contained coconut peat in volumes of 73 and 140 cm(3). Plants were irrigated with drip irrigation at irrigation frequencies of 4 (266 mL), 6 (400 mL), and 8 (533 mL) times/day to observe their growth and flowering performances. There was interaction between irrigation frequency and substrate volume on plant height of chrysanthemum. Plants grown in 140 cm(3) substrates and irrigated 6 times/day produced the tallest plant of 109.25 cm. Plants irrigated 6 and 8 times/day had significantly higher level of phosphorus content in their leaves than those plants irrigated 4 times/day. The total leaf area, number of internodes, leaf length, and leaf width of chrysanthemums grown in 140 cm(3) substrate were significantly higher than those grown in 73 cm(3) substrate. The numbers of flowers were affected by both irrigation frequencies and substrate volumes. Chrysanthemums irrigated 8 times/day had an average of 19.56 flowers while those irrigated 4 times/day had an average of 16.63 flowers. Increasing irrigation frequency can improve the growth and flowering of chrysanthemums in small substrate volumes.

  3. PHOTOPERIOD RESPONSE 1 (PHOR1)-like genes regulate shoot/root growth, starch accumulation, and wood formation in Populus.

    PubMed

    Zawaski, Christine; Ma, Cathleen; Strauss, Steven H; French, Darla; Meilan, Richard; Busov, Victor B

    2012-09-01

    This study describes functional characterization of two putative poplar PHOTOPERIOD RESPONSE 1 (PHOR1) orthologues. The expression and sequence analyses indicate that the two poplar genes diverged, at least partially, in function. PtPHOR1_1 is most highly expressed in roots and induced by short days, while PtPHOR1_2 is more uniformly expressed throughout plant tissues and is not responsive to short days. The two PHOR1 genes also had distinct effects on shoot and root growth when their expression was up- and downregulated transgenically. PtPHOR1_1 effects were restricted to roots while PtPHOR1_2 had similar effects on aerial and below-ground development. Nevertheless, both genes seemed to be upregulated in transgenic poplars that are gibberellin-deficient and gibberellin-insensitive, suggesting interplay with gibberellin signalling. PHOR1 suppression led to increased starch accumulation in both roots and stems. The effect of PHOR1 suppression on starch accumulation was coupled with growth-inhibiting effects in both roots and shoots, suggesting that PHOR1 is part of a mechanism that regulates the allocation of carbohydrate to growth or storage in poplar. PHOR1 downregulation led to significant reduction of xylem formation caused by smaller fibres and vessels suggesting that PHOR1 likely plays a role in the growth of xylem cells.

  4. Root growth inhibition and induction of DNA damage in soybean (Glycine max) by chlorobenzenes in contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Yang, Y S; Li, P; Zhou, Q; Sun, T

    2004-10-01

    The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB), chlorobenzene (CB), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) on root growth and DNA strand breakage damage of soybean nuclei in the test soil were studied using the comet assay. Results indicated that the root growth was significantly inhibited, and DNA strand breaks and the comet tail in the root tip nuclei were both induced after 48 h exposure with TCB concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 300 microg g(-1) in the soil. DNA strand breakage was more sensitive to the TCB than the root growth. There was a significant dose-response relationship between the TCB exposure and DNA strand breakage in the soybean nuclei. Thus it is possible for DNA strand breakage to be used as a biomarker of soybean exposed to TCB contamination. Significant cytotoxic threshold concentration of the TCB exposure on the root growth inhibition was determined as 61 microg g(-1) in the soil. The toxicity of 100-1,000 microg g(-1) CB and HCB to the soybean seedlings in the soil were not observed after 48 h or longer exposure.

  5. Bacteria in combination with fertilizers promote root and shoot growth of maize in saline-sodic soil.

    PubMed

    Zafar-Ul-Hye, Muhammad; Farooq, Hafiz Muhammad; Hussain, Mubshar

    2015-03-01

    Salinity is the leading abiotic stress hampering maize ( Zea mays L.) growth throughout the world, especially in Pakistan. During salinity stress, the endogenous ethylene level in plants increases, which retards proper root growth and consequent shoot growth of the plants. However, certain bacteria contain the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, which converts 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (an immediate precursor of ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants) into ammonia and α-ketobutyrate instead of ethylene. In the present study, two Pseudomonas bacterial strains containing ACC-deaminase were tested separately and in combinations with mineral fertilizers to determine their potential to minimize/undo the effects of salinity on maize plants grown under saline-sodic field conditions. The data recorded at 30, 50 and 70 days after sowing revealed that both the Pseudomonas bacterial strains improved root and shoot length, root and shoot fresh weight, and root and shoot dry weight up to 34, 43, 35, 71, 55 and 68%, respectively, when applied without chemical fertilizers: these parameter were enhanced up to 108, 95, 100, 131, 100 and 198%, respectively, when the strains were applied along with chemical fertilizers. It can be concluded that ACC-deaminase Pseudomonas bacterial strains applied alone and in conjunction with mineral fertilizers improved the root and shoot growth of maize seedlings grown in saline-sodic soil.

  6. Water Deficit and Abscisic Acid Cause Differential Inhibition of Shoot versus Root Growth in Soybean Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Creelman, Robert A.; Mason, Hugh S.; Bensen, Robert J.; Boyer, John S.; Mullet, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Roots often continue to elongate while shoot growth is inhibited in plants subjected to low-water potentials. The cause of this differential response to water deficit was investigated. We examined hypocotyl and root growth, polysome status and mRNA populations, and abscisic acid (ABA) content in etiolated soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Williams) seedlings whose growth was inhibited by transfer to low-water potential vermiculite or exogenous ABA. Both treatments affected growth and dry weight in a similar fashion. Maximum inhibition of hypocotyl growth occurred when internal ABA levels (modulated by ABA application) reached the endogenous level found in the elongating zone of seedlings grown in water-deficient vermiculite. Conversely, root growth was affected to only a slight extent in low-water potential seedlings and by most ABA treatments (in some, growth was promoted). In every seedling section examined, transfer of seedlings into low-water potential vermiculite caused ABA levels to increase approximately 5- to 10-fold over that found in well-watered seedlings. Changes in soluble sugar content, polysome status, and polysome mRNA translation products seen in low-water potential seedlings did not occur with ABA treatments sufficient to cause significant inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. These data suggest that both variation in endogenous ABA levels, and differing sensitivity to ABA in hypocotyls and roots can modulate root/shoot growth ratios. However, exogenous ABA did not induce changes in sugar accumulation, polysome status, and mRNA populations seen after transfer into low-water potential vermiculite. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:16667248

  7. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Gao, Jingwen; Liu, Yang; Tian, Zhongwei; Muhammad, Abid; Zhang, Yixuan; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+) conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive) and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant) with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN) as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3-) nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)) and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product) were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT). With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots, further

  8. Spatio-temporal sequence of cross-regulatory events in root meristem growth

    PubMed Central

    Scacchi, Emanuele; Salinas, Paula; Gujas, Bojan; Santuari, Luca; Krogan, Naden; Ragni, Laura; Berleth, Thomas; Hardtke, Christian S.

    2010-01-01

    A central question in developmental biology is how multicellular organisms coordinate cell division and differentiation to determine organ size. In Arabidopsis roots, this balance is controlled by cytokinin-induced expression of SHORT HYPOCOTYL 2 (SHY2) in the so-called transition zone of the meristem, where SHY2 negatively regulates auxin response factors (ARFs) by protein–protein interaction. The resulting down-regulation of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers is considered the key event in promoting differentiation of meristematic cells. Here we show that this regulation involves additional, intermediary factors and is spatio-temporally constrained. We found that the described cytokinin–auxin crosstalk antagonizes BREVIS RADIX (BRX) activity in the developing protophloem. BRX is an auxin-responsive target of the prototypical ARF MONOPTEROS (MP), a key promoter of vascular development, and transiently enhances PIN3 expression to promote meristem growth in young roots. At later stages, cytokinin induction of SHY2 in the vascular transition zone restricts BRX expression to down-regulate PIN3 and thus limit meristem growth. Interestingly, proper SHY2 expression requires BRX, which could reflect feedback on the auxin responsiveness of SHY2 because BRX protein can directly interact with MP, likely acting as a cofactor. Thus, cross-regulatory antagonism between BRX and SHY2 could determine ARF activity in the protophloem. Our data suggest a model in which the regulatory interactions favor BRX expression in the early proximal meristem and SHY2 prevails because of supplementary cytokinin induction in the later distal meristem. The complex equilibrium of this regulatory module might represent a universal switch in the transition toward differentiation in various developmental contexts. PMID:21149702

  9. Entomopathogenic nematodes, root weevil larvae, and dynamic interactions among soil texture, plant growth, herbivory, and predation.

    PubMed

    El-Borai, Fahiem E; Stuart, Robin J; Campos-Herrera, Raquel; Pathak, Ekta; Duncan, Larry W

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse experiments were conducted to assess the influence of soil texture on the persistence, efficacy and plant protection ability of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) applied to control larvae of the Diaprepes root weevil (DRW), Diaprepes abbreviatus, infesting potted citrus seedlings. Seedlings were grown in pots containing either coarse sand, fine sand, or sandy loam. Three DRW larvae were added to each of 80 pots of each soil type. 24 h later, 20 pots of each soil type that had received weevil larvae were inoculated with EPN infective juveniles (IJs) of one of the following species: Steinernema diaprepesi, Steinernema riobrave and Heterorhabditis indica. Pots of each soil without EPNs were established as controls with DRW and controls without DRWs. Subsequently, pots with larvae received three additional larvae monthly, and the experiment continued for 9 months. Plant root and top weights at the end of the experiment were affected by both soil (P≤0.0001) and nematodes (P≤0.0001), and nematode species protected plants differently in different soils (interaction P≤0.0001). Soil porosity was inversely related to plant damage by DRW, whether or not EPNs were present; and porosity was directly related to the level of plant protection by EPNs. Mortality of caged sentinel weevil larvae placed in pots near the end of the experiment was highest in pots treated with S. diaprepesi. In a second, similar experiment that included an additional undescribed steinernematid of the Steinernema glaseri-group, soil type affected root damage by DRW and root protection by EPNs in the same manner as in the first experiment. Final numbers of S. diaprepesi and Steinernema sp. as measured by real-time PCR were much greater than those of S. riobrave or H. indica in all soils. Across all treatments, the number of weevil larvae in soil at the end the experiment was inversely related to soil porosity. In all soils, fewer weevil larvae survived in soil treated with S. diaprepesi or

  10. Water Deficit and Abscisic Acid Cause Differential Inhibition of Shoot versus Root Growth in Soybean Seedlings : Analysis of Growth, Sugar Accumulation, and Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Creelman, R A; Mason, H S; Bensen, R J; Boyer, J S; Mullet, J E

    1990-01-01

    Roots often continue to elongate while shoot growth is inhibited in plants subjected to low-water potentials. The cause of this differential response to water deficit was investigated. We examined hypocotyl and root growth, polysome status and mRNA populations, and abscisic acid (ABA) content in etiolated soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Williams) seedlings whose growth was inhibited by transfer to low-water potential vermiculite or exogenous ABA. Both treatments affected growth and dry weight in a similar fashion. Maximum inhibition of hypocotyl growth occurred when internal ABA levels (modulated by ABA application) reached the endogenous level found in the elongating zone of seedlings grown in water-deficient vermiculite. Conversely, root growth was affected to only a slight extent in low-water potential seedlings and by most ABA treatments (in some, growth was promoted). In every seedling section examined, transfer of seedlings into low-water potential vermiculite caused ABA levels to increase approximately 5- to 10-fold over that found in well-watered seedlings. Changes in soluble sugar content, polysome status, and polysome mRNA translation products seen in low-water potential seedlings did not occur with ABA treatments sufficient to cause significant inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. These data suggest that both variation in endogenous ABA levels, and differing sensitivity to ABA in hypocotyls and roots can modulate root/shoot growth ratios. However, exogenous ABA did not induce changes in sugar accumulation, polysome status, and mRNA populations seen after transfer into low-water potential vermiculite.

  11. Gibberellin Is Involved in Inhibition of Cucumber Growth and Nitrogen Uptake at Suboptimal Root-Zone Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaocui; Yu, Xianchang

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal temperature stress often causes heavy yield losses of vegetables by suppressing plant growth during winter and early spring. Gibberellin acid (GA) has been reported to be involved in plant growth and acquisition of mineral nutrients. However, no studies have evaluated the role of GA in the regulation of growth and nutrient acquisition by vegetables under conditions of suboptimal temperatures in greenhouse. Here, we investigated the roles of GA in the regulation of growth and nitrate acquisition of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants under conditions of short-term suboptimal root-zone temperatures (Tr). Exposure of cucumber seedlings to a Tr of 16°C led to a significant reduction in root growth, and this inhibitory effect was reversed by exogenous application of GA. Expression patterns of several genes encoding key enzymes in GA metabolism were altered by suboptimal Tr treatment, and endogenous GA concentrations in cucumber roots were significantly reduced by exposure of cucumber plants to 16°C Tr, suggesting that inhibition of root growth by suboptimal Tr may result from disruption of endogenous GA homeostasis. To further explore the mechanism underlying the GA-dependent cucumber growth under suboptimal Tr, we studied the effect of suboptimal Tr and GA on nitrate uptake, and found that exposure of cucumber seedlings to 16°C Tr led to a significant reduction in nitrate uptake rate, and exogenous application GA can alleviate the down-regulation by up regulating the expression of genes associated with nitrate uptake. Finally, we demonstrated that N accumulation in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal Tr conditions was improved by exogenous application of GA due probably to both enhanced root growth and nitrate absorption activity. These results indicate that a reduction in endogenous GA concentrations in roots due to down-regulation of GA biosynthesis at transcriptional level may be a key event to underpin the suboptimal Tr-induced inhibition of root

  12. Gibberellin Is Involved in Inhibition of Cucumber Growth and Nitrogen Uptake at Suboptimal Root-Zone Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bai, Longqiang; Deng, Huihui; Zhang, Xiaocui; Yu, Xianchang; Li, Yansu

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal temperature stress often causes heavy yield losses of vegetables by suppressing plant growth during winter and early spring. Gibberellin acid (GA) has been reported to be involved in plant growth and acquisition of mineral nutrients. However, no studies have evaluated the role of GA in the regulation of growth and nutrient acquisition by vegetables under conditions of suboptimal temperatures in greenhouse. Here, we investigated the roles of GA in the regulation of growth and nitrate acquisition of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants under conditions of short-term suboptimal root-zone temperatures (Tr). Exposure of cucumber seedlings to a Tr of 16°C led to a significant reduction in root growth, and this inhibitory effect was reversed by exogenous application of GA. Expression patterns of several genes encoding key enzymes in GA metabolism were altered by suboptimal Tr treatment, and endogenous GA concentrations in cucumber roots were significantly reduced by exposure of cucumber plants to 16°C Tr, suggesting that inhibition of root growth by suboptimal Tr may result from disruption of endogenous GA homeostasis. To further explore the mechanism underlying the GA-dependent cucumber growth under suboptimal Tr, we studied the effect of suboptimal Tr and GA on nitrate uptake, and found that exposure of cucumber seedlings to 16°C Tr led to a significant reduction in nitrate uptake rate, and exogenous application GA can alleviate the down-regulation by up regulating the expression of genes associated with nitrate uptake. Finally, we demonstrated that N accumulation in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal Tr conditions was improved by exogenous application of GA due probably to both enhanced root growth and nitrate absorption activity. These results indicate that a reduction in endogenous GA concentrations in roots due to down-regulation of GA biosynthesis at transcriptional level may be a key event to underpin the suboptimal Tr-induced inhibition of root

  13. Effects of the plant steroidal hormone, 24-epibrassinolide, on the mitotic index and growth of onion (Allium cepa) root tips.

    PubMed

    Howell, W M; Keller, G E; Kirkpatrick, J D; Jenkins, R L; Hunsinger, R N; McLaughlin, E W

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of the steroidal plant hormone, 24-epibrassinolide (BL), on the mitotic index and growth of onion (Allium cepa) root tips. The classical Allium test was used to gather and quantify data on the rate of root growth, the stages of mitosis, and the number of mitoses in control and BL-treated groups of onions. Low doses of BL (0.005 ppm) nearly doubled the mean root length and the number of mitoses over that of controls. Intermediate doses of BL (0.05 ppm) also produced mean root lengths and number of mitoses that were significantly greater than those of the controls. The highest dose of BL (0.5 ppm) produced mean root lengths and number of mitoses that were less than control values, but the differences were not statistically significant. Examination of longitudinally sectioned root tips produced relatively similar results. This study confirms the suppositions of previous authors who have claimed that exogenously applied BL can increase the number of mitoses in plants, but failed to show cytogenetic data. This is the first report detailing the effects of BL on chromosomes and the cell cycle.

  14. Water stress drastically reduces root growth and inulin yield in Cichorium intybus (var. sativum) independently of photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Vandoorne, B.; Mathieu, A.-S.; Van den Ende, W.; Vergauwen, R.; Périlleux, C.; Javaux, M.; Lutts, S.

    2012-01-01

    Root chicory (Cichorium intybus var. sativum) is a cash crop cultivated for inulin production in Western Europe. This plant can be exposed to severe water stress during the last 3 months of its 6-month growing period. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of a progressive decline in water availability on plant growth, photosynthesis, and sugar metabolism and to determine its impact on inulin production. Water stress drastically decreased fresh and dry root weight, leaf number, total leaf area, and stomatal conductance. Stressed plants, however, increased their water-use efficiency and leaf soluble sugar concentration, decreased the shoot-to-root ratio and lowered their osmotic potential. Despite a decrease in photosynthetic pigments, the photosynthesis light phase remained unaffected under water stress. Water stress increased sucrose phosphate synthase activity in the leaves but not in the roots. Water stress inhibited sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase and fructan:fructan 1 fructosyltransferase after 19 weeks of culture and slightly increased fructan 1-exohydrolase activity. The root inulin concentration, expressed on a dry-weight basis, and the mean degree of polymerization of the inulin chain remained unaffected by water stress. Root chicory displayed resistance to water stress, but that resistance was obtained at the expense of growth, which in turn led to a significant decrease in inulin production. PMID:22577185

  15. Tomato growth as affected by root-zone temperature and the addition of gibberellic acid and kinetin to nutrient solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugbee, B.; White, J. W.; Salisbury, F. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The effect of root-zone temperature on young tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Heinz 1350) was evaluated in controlled environments using a recirculating solution culture system. Growth rates were measured at root-zone temperatures of 15 degrees, 20 degrees, 25 degrees, and 30 degrees C in a near optimum foliar environment. Optimum growth occurred at 25 degrees to 30 degrees during the first 4 weeks of growth and 20 degrees to 25 degrees during the 5th and 6th weeks. Growth was severely restricted at 15 degrees. Four concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3) and kinetin were added to the nutrient solution in a separate trial; root-zone temperature was maintained at 15 degrees and 25 degrees. Addition of 15 micromoles GA3 to solutions increased specific leaf area, total leaf area, and dry weight production of plants in both temperature treatments. GA3-induced growth stimulation was greater at 15 degrees than at 25 degrees. GA3 may promote growth by increasing leaf area, enhancing photosynthesis per unit leaf area, or both. Kinetic was not useful in promoting growth at either temperature.

  16. Effects of substrate water potential in root growth of Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck seedlings.

    PubMed

    Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia B; Sánchez-Urdaneta, Adriana B

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that root of maguey (Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck) seedlings reacts during the first 24 h to low substrate water potential (PsiW), by anatomical modifications. Three-4 cm root length seedlings were planted in vermiculite for 24 h at PsiW between -0.03 and -2.35 MPa. Root dimensions, proline content and anatomy were evaluated. Substrate PsiW between -0.65 and -2.35 MPa did not significantly affect longitudinal root growth. However, proline content significantly increased from 1.6 to 2.1 micromoles mg(-1). Significant reductions of transverse root area (41%), thickness of mucilage covering the epidermis (47%), thickness of epidermis (between 15 and 46%), area of the parenchyma (between 35 and 41%) and number of vessels (up to 28%) were observed with PsiW of -2.35 MPa. In contrast, thickness of xylem wall, diameter of xylem vessels and the number of cells of the cortex of the differentiation root region significantly increased (64, 17, and 97%, respectively). The anatomical changes associated with low substrate PsiW indicate a net increase of root apoplatic paths; structures involved in water conduction increased their diameter under low substrate PsiW conditions and anatomical changes occurred during the first 24 h of water stress.

  17. SDG2-mediated H3K4 methylation is required for proper Arabidopsis root growth and development.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiaozhen; Feng, Haiyang; Yu, Yu; Dong, Aiwu; Shen, Wen-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Trithorax group (TrxG) proteins are evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes and play critical roles in transcriptional activation via deposition of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) in chromatin. Several Arabidopsis TrxG members have been characterized, and among them SET DOMAIN GROUP 2 (SDG2) has been shown to be necessary for global genome-wide H3K4me3 deposition. Although pleiotropic phenotypes have been uncovered in the sdg2 mutants, SDG2 function in the regulation of stem cell activity has remained largely unclear. Here, we investigate the sdg2 mutant root phenotype and demonstrate that SDG2 is required for primary root stem cell niche (SCN) maintenance as well as for lateral root SCN establishment. Loss of SDG2 results in drastically reduced H3K4me3 levels in root SCN and differentiated cells and causes the loss of auxin gradient maximum in the root quiescent centre. Elevated DNA damage is detected in the sdg2 mutant, suggesting that impaired genome integrity may also have challenged the stem cell activity. Genetic interaction analysis reveals that SDG2 and CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY FACTOR-1 act synergistically in root SCN and genome integrity maintenance but not in telomere length maintenance. We conclude that SDG2-mediated H3K4me3 plays a distinctive role in the regulation of chromatin structure and genome integrity, which are key features in pluripotency of stem cells and crucial for root growth and development.

  18. Ethylene-induced inhibition of root growth requires abscisic acid function in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Ma, Biao; Yin, Cui-Cui; He, Si-Jie; Lu, Xiang; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Lu, Tie-Gang; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2014-10-01

    Ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) have a complicated interplay in many developmental processes. Their interaction in rice is largely unclear. Here, we characterized a rice ethylene-response mutant mhz4, which exhibited reduced ethylene-response in roots but enhanced ethylene-response in coleoptiles of etiolated seedlings. MHZ4 was identified through map-based cloning and encoded a chloroplast-localized membrane protein homologous to Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) ABA4, which is responsible for a branch of ABA biosynthesis. MHZ4 mutation reduced ABA level, but promoted ethylene production. Ethylene induced MHZ4 expression and promoted ABA accumulation in roots. MHZ4 overexpression resulted in enhanced and reduced ethylene response in roots and coleoptiles, respectively. In root, MHZ4-dependent ABA pathway acts at or downstream of ethylene receptors and positively regulates root ethylene response. This ethylene-ABA interaction mode is different from that reported in Arabidopsis, where ethylene-mediated root inhibition is independent of ABA function. In coleoptile, MHZ4-dependent ABA pathway acts at or upstream of OsEIN2 to negatively regulate coleoptile ethylene response, possibly by affecting OsEIN2 expression. At mature stage, mhz4 mutation affects branching and adventitious root formation on stem nodes of higher positions, as well as yield-related traits. Together, our findings reveal a novel mode of interplay between ethylene and ABA in control of rice growth and development.

  19. The distribution and growth of roots for four sugarcane cultivars irrigated by a subsurface drip irrigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukitaka Pessinatti Ohashi, Augusto; Barros de Oliveira Silva, André Luiz; Célia de Matos Pires, Regina; Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficit conditions or to reach high yield and to increase longevity of plants. The SDI allows improving the water use efficiency, due to the application of water and nutrients in the root zone plants. It is necessary knowledge of soil and plant parameters, such as root system to improve irrigation system use efficiency. However, despite of the agronomic importance, few studies of sugarcane roots have been performed. The use of root scanner is an alternative to the evaluation of the root system. The mentioned equipment enables the continuous study of the roots throughout the cycle and for many years, but data about the use of this method for sugarcane are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution and growth of roots for four sugarcane cultivars root system. The field experiment was carried out in Campinas SP Brazil, with IACSP95-5000, IACSP94-2094, IACSP94-2101 and SP79-1011 cultivars. The irrigation was performed by subsurface drip system and the soil moisture was monitored by capacitance probes. Three access tubes with 1.05 m-length were used for each cultivar. The images were caught with Root Scanner CI-600™ in two dates, 38 and 58 days after harvest (DAH) of cane-plant, in the second cycle (1st cane ratoon) in five depths and were analyzed by the software RootSnap! ™. The results show that, except for cultivar IACSP94-2094, more than 80% of root length was found in the first 0.40 m of soil profile. Until 38 DAH the root growth of cultivar IACSP94-2101 were approximately fourfold higher than other three ones in the 0 to 0.20 m layer, sevenfold higher to 0.20 to 0.40 m layer and threefold to 0.40 to 0.60 m soil profile layer. However, between 38 and 58 DAH the cultivar SP79-1011 presented higher growth taxes, being almost twofold higher than IACSP94-2101 at 0 to

  20. Radiobiological intercomparison of clinical neutron beams for growth inhibition in Vicia faba bean roots

    SciTech Connect

    Beauduin, M.; Gueulette, J.; Vynckier, S.; Wambersie, A.

    1989-02-01

    Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) values of different neutron beams produced at the variable energy cyclotron Cyclone of Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium) were determined. The neutrons were obtained by bombarding a beryllium target with 34-, 45-, 65-, or 75-MeV protons or with 50-MeV deuterons. The biological system was growth inhibition in Vicia faba bean roots. Taking the p(65) + Be neutron beam as a reference, RBE values were found equal to 1.36 +/- 0.2, 1.20 +/- 0.1, 1.00 (ref), 0.98 +/- 0.1, and 1.18 +/- 0.1, respectively; the doses corresponding to 50% growth inhibition were 0.39, 0.44, 0.53, 0.54, and 0.45 Gy. For the same beams, OER values were found equal to 1.55 +/- 0.1, 1.38 +/- 0.1, 1.29 +/- 0.1, 1.41 +/- 0.1, and 1.60 +/- 0.2, respectively.

  1. Radiobiological intercomparison of clinical neutron beams for growth inhibition in Vicia faba bean roots.

    PubMed

    Beauduin, M; Gueulette, J; Vynckier, S; Wambersie, A

    1989-02-01

    Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) values of different neutron beams produced at the variable energy cyclotron "Cyclone" of Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium) were determined. The neutrons were obtained by bombarding a beryllium target with 34-, 45-, 65-, or 75-MeV protons or with 50-MeV deuterons. The biological system was growth inhibition in Vicia faba bean roots. Taking the p(65) + Be neutron beam as a reference, RBE values were found equal to 1.36 +/- 0.2, 1.20 +/- 0.1, 1.00 (ref), 0.98 +/- 0.1, and 1.18 +/- 0.1, respectively; the doses corresponding to 50% growth inhibition were 0.39, 0.44, 0.53, 0.54, and 0.45 Gy. For the same beams, OER values were found equal to 1.55 +/- 0.1, 1.38 +/- 0.1, 1.29 +/- 0.1, 1.41 +/- 0.1, and 1.60 +/- 0.2, respectively.

  2. Analysis of the abilities of endophytic bacteria associated with banana tree roots to promote plant growth.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Leandro Fernandes; de Souza, Gleika Larisse Oliveira Dorasio; Nietsche, Silvia; Xavier, Adelica Aparecida; Costa, Marcia Regina; Cardoso, Acleide Maria Santos; Pereira, Marlon Cristian Toledo; Pereira, Débora Francine Gomes Silva

    2014-01-01

    A total of 40 endophytic bacterial isolates obtained from banana tree roots were characterized for their biotechnological potential for promoting banana tree growth. All isolates had at least one positive feature. Twenty isolates were likely diazotrophs and formed pellicles in nitrogen-free culture medium, and 67% of these isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus sp. The isolates EB-04, EB-169, EB-64, and EB-144 had N fixation abilities as measured by the Kjeldahl method and by an acetylene reduction activity assay. Among the 40 isolates, 37.5% were capable of solubilizing inorganic phosphate and the isolates EB-47 and EB-64 showed the highest solubilization capacity. The isolate EB-53 (Lysinibacillus sp.) had a high solubilization index, whereas 73% of the isolates had low solubilization indices. The synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in the presence of L-tryptophan was detected in 40% of the isolates. The isolate EB-40 (Bacillus sp.) produced the highest amount of IAA (47.88 μg/ml) in medium supplemented with L-tryptophan and was able to synthesize IAA in the absence of L-tryptophan. The isolates EB-126 (Bacillus subtilis) and EB-47 (Bacillus sp.) were able to simultaneously fix nitrogen, solubilize phosphate and produce IAA in vitro. The results of this study demonstrated that the isolates analyzed here had diverse abilities and all have the potential to be used as growth-promoting microbial inoculants for banana trees.

  3. Analysis of directional root growth patterns from corn and soybean seeds germinated in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, H.; Tynes, G.; Norwood, K.

    The JOSE (JASON Outreach Seed Experiment) payload was the first plant experiment conducted on the International Space Station (ISS). It consisted of having an on-orbit watering of eight transparent seed pouches each of which contained 6 individual seeds of either soybean (Glycine max cv McCall) or corn ( Zea mays ). The seeds were glued to a germination paper substrate using a 1.2% guar glue solution. The payload was launched on the Orbiter Endeavour (STS-97; ISS Flight 4A) on 11/30/00 and transferred to the ISS on 12/8/00. The eight seed pouches were each watered with 12 mL of distilled water on 1/5/01. Two pouches containing corn plus two pouches containing soybean seeds were maintained in the light after watering. Two additional seed pouches of each species were maintained in the dark after watering. Digital photography was used to document the growth of the germinating seedlings in space. The images were down-linked to a world wide web site for dissemination to students. "Within" species differences (between the light and dark grown seedlings) as well as "between" species differences (comparing corn and soybean) were observed. By day 4 (post-imbibition) there was a clear phototropic effect in the light-grown corn seedlings, each, possessing a green shoot which grew upward towards the light source. In contrast, the dark-grown corn shoots were neither green (since chlorophyll synthesis had not been induced by light) nor were they growing in a uniform direction. For day 4 soybean seedlings, the only difference evident between those germinated under the light vs dark conditions was a slight greening up of the seeds maintained in the presence of light. For both the corn and soybean seedlings, roots grew in a random fashion, with some moving in an upward direction and others progressing downward, reflecting the lack of a gravitropic response which is the primary (earth-based) mechanism controlling the direction of root growth. By day 7 the initial 12 mL of water

  4. Arabidopsis thaliana root elongation growth is sensitive to lunisolar tidal acceleration and may also be weakly correlated with geomagnetic variations

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Peter W.; Fisahn, Joachim; Yazdanbakhsh, Nima; Moraes, Thiago A.; Khabarova, Olga V.; Gallep, Cristiano M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Correlative evidence suggests a relationship between the lunisolar tidal acceleration and the elongation rate of arabidopsis roots grown under free-running conditions of constant low light. Methods Seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana were grown in a controlled-climate chamber maintained at a constant temperature and subjected to continuous low-level illumination from fluorescent tubes, conditions that approximate to a ‘free-running’ state in which most of the abiotic factors that entrain root growth rates are excluded. Elongation of evenly spaced, vertical primary roots was recorded continuously over periods of up to 14 d using high temporal- and spatial-resolution video imaging and were analysed in conjunction with geophysical variables. Key Results and Conclusions The results confirm the lunisolar tidal/root elongation relationship. Also presented are relationships between the hourly elongation rates and the contemporaneous variations in geomagnetic activity, as evaluated from the disturbance storm time and ap indices. On the basis of time series of root elongation rates that extend over ≥4 d and recorded at different seasons of the year, a provisional conclusion is that root elongation responds to variation in the lunisolar force and also appears to adjust in accordance with variations in the geomagnetic field. Thus, both lunisolar tidal acceleration and the geomagnetic field should be considered as modulators of root growth rate, alongside other, stronger and more well-known abiotic environmental regulators, and perhaps unexplored factors such as air ions. Major changes in atmospheric pressure are not considered to be a factor contributing to oscillations of root elongation rate. PMID:23532042

  5. Long-term habitat selection and chronic root herbivory: explaining the relationship between periodical cicada density and tree growth.

    PubMed

    Yang, Louie H; Karban, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) are insect herbivores that feed on host tree roots, but their distribution among hosts is determined largely by the oviposition of female cicadas in the previous generation. A pattern of decreasing tree growth rates with increasing cicada densities is predicted when considering the costs of chronic root herbivory, but the opposite pattern is expected when considering adaptive habitat selection. Here, we report observations indicating that the relationship between periodical cicada densities and host tree growth rates is hump shaped. We suggest that both herbivory and habitat selection are likely to be key processes explaining this pattern, resulting in regions of positive and negative correlation. These results suggest that the effects of cicada herbivory are most apparent at relatively high cicada densities, while habitat selection tends to distribute cicada herbivory on host trees that are able to compensate for cicada root herbivory up to threshold cicada densities.

  6. Larval growth of Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and resulting root injury to three citrus varieties in two soil types.

    PubMed

    Rogers, S; Mccoy, C W; Graham, J H

    2000-04-01

    Larval growth and intraspecific competition of Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) larvae and consequent root injury in container-grown citrus in the greenhouse were evaluated. Roots of Carrizo citrange, Citrus sinesis L. Osbeck x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.; Cleopatra mandarin, C. reticulata Blanco, and Swingle citrumelo, C. paradisi Macf. x P. trifoliata (L.) Raf. rootstock seedlings grown in Candler fine sand and potting soil were colonized with different populations of D. abbreviatus larvae. Larvae were exposed to the seedlings for 79 d. Larval growth and development increased steadily for approximately 70 d on all rootstock-soil combinations, at which time most larvae were instars 6-8. Most feeding injury occurred to roots when larvae were between instars 3 and 6. Larval weight reached a plateau at approximately 70 d, but often declined between 70 and 79 d. When larvae were small, injury to seedlings developed slowly, primarily on fibrous roots, then feeding increased rapidly, often resulting in total consumption of both fibrous root and bark tissue. Although not statistically significant, root injury developed slightly slower on Swingle citrumelo compared with Carrizo and Cleopatra rootstocks, but damage was comparable by 79 d. Little or no difference in consumptive benefit to the larvae was found between the rootstocks. Based on larval weight days, little feeding injury occurred during the first 21 d, but increased rapidly between 21 and 60 d. Soil type affected the rate of larval growth and development, with potting soil contributing to greater growth rates. Detritus in potting soil provided little or no nutritional resource, suggesting that the effect of potting soil on larval development was primarily physical. In addition, fewer inoculated larvae per seedling exhibited greater weight gains than higher infestation densities, suggesting that intraspecific competition for nutritional resources influenced larval development.

  7. Different parts, different stories: climate sensitivity of growth is stronger in root collars versus stems in tundra shrubs.

    PubMed

    Ropars, Pascale; Angers-Blondin, Sandra; Gagnon, Marianne; Myers-Smith, Isla H; Lévesque, Esther; Boudreau, Stéphane

    2017-01-20

    Shrub densification has been widely reported across the circumpolar arctic and subarctic biomes in recent years. Long-term analyses based on dendrochronological techniques applied to shrubs have linked this phenomenon to climate change. However, the multi-stemmed structure of shrubs makes them difficult to sample and therefore leads to non-uniform sampling protocols among shrub ecologists, who will favor either root collars or stems to conduct dendrochronological analyses. Through a comparative study of the use of root collars and stems of Betula glandulosa, a common North American shrub species, we evaluated the relative sensitivity of each plant part to climate variables, and assessed if this sensitivity is consistent across three different types of environments in northwestern Québec, Canada (terrace, hilltop and snowbed). We found that root collars had greater sensitivity to climate than stems, and that these differences were maintained across the three types of environment. Growth at the root collar was best explained by spring precipitation and summer temperature, whereas stem growth showed weak and inconsistent responses to climate variables. Moreover, sensitivity to climate was not consistent among plant parts, as individuals having climate sensitive root collars did not tend to have climate sensitive stems. These differences in sensitivity of shrub parts to climate highlight the complexity of resource allocation in multi-stemmed plants. Whereas stem initiation and growth are driven by micro-environmental variables such as light availability and competition, root collars integrate the growth of all plant parts instead, rendering them less affected by mechanisms such as competition and more responsive to signals of global change. Although further investigations are required to determine the degree to which these findings are generalizable across the tundra biome, our results indicate that consistency and caution in the choice of plant parts are a key

  8. Leaf N and P in different growth habits of peach: effects of root system morphology and transpiration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate mineral nutrition is critical for high fruit quality and sustained yield of fruit trees. In this experiment, peach [Prunus persica L. (Batch)] trees with different shoot and root growth habits were evaluated for leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations after fertilizer applicati...

  9. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO-2 AND N FERTILIZATION ON FINE ROOT DYNAMICS AND FUNGAL GROWTH IN SEEDLING PINUS PONDEROSA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of elevated CO-2 and N fertilization on fine root growth of Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws. C. Laws., grown in native soil in open-top field-exposure chambers at Placerville, CA, were monitored for a 2-year period using minirhizotrons. The experimental design was a...

  10. [Effects of water-fertilizer spatial coupling in root zone on winter wheat growth and yield].

    PubMed

    Li, Kai-feng; Zhang, Fu-cang; Qi, You-ling; Xing, Ying-ying; Li, Zhi-jun

    2010-12-01

    A soil column experiment was conducted to study the winter wheat growth and yield under effects of different soil wetting (overall wetting, upper part wetting, and lower part wetting) and fertilization (overall fertilization, upper part fertilization, and lower part fertilization). The plant height and leaf area at tillering stage decreased significantly under lower part fertilization, compared with those under upper part and overall soil fertilization, but had no significant differences under different soil wetting. At jointing stage, the plant height was higher when the soil wetting and fertilization were at same location than at different location, manifesting a synergistic coupling effect of water and fertilizer. Lower part soil wetting and lower part fertilization decreased the root-, shoot-, and total dry biomass significantly, upper part fertilization benefited the biomass accumulation of winter wheat, and upper part soil wetting combined with upper part fertilization had an obvious coupling effect on the shoot- and total dry biomass. Soil wetting and fertilization at same location induced a higher ratio of root to shoot, compared with soil wetting and fertilization at different location, and lower part soil wetting resulted in the maximum water use efficiency (WUE), compared with upper part and overall soil wetting. A higher WUE was observed in the soil wetting and fertilization at same location than at different location, but a lower WUE was induced by lower part fertilization. The grain number per spike under upper part and overall soil wetting was increased by 41.7% and 61.9%, respectively, compared with that under lower part soil wetting, and this yield component under upper part and overall soil fertilization was also higher, compared with that under lower part fertilization. Upper part soil wetting and fertilization had an obvious coupling effect of water-fertilizer on the yield and yield components (except for 1000-grain mass). Different soil wetting

  11. Evaluating the impact of groundwater on cotton growth and root zone water balance using Hydrus-ID coupled with a crop growth model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundwater is an important factor that needs to be considered when evaluating the water balance of the soil-plant-atmosphere system and the sustainable water management. However, the impact of shallow groundwater on the root zone water balance and cotton growth is not fully understood. In this stud...

  12. Involvement of 14-3-3 protein GRF9 in root growth and response under polyethylene glycol-induced water stress.

    PubMed

    He, Yuchi; Wu, Jingjing; Lv, Bing; Li, Jia; Gao, Zhiping; Xu, Weifeng; Baluška, František; Shi, Weiming; Shaw, Pang Chui; Zhang, Jianhua

    2015-04-01

    Plant 14-3-3 proteins are phosphoserine-binding proteins that regulate a wide array of targets via direct protein-protein interactions. In this study, the role of a 14-3-3 protein, GRF9, in plant response to water stress was investigated. Arabidopsis wild-type, GRF9-deficient mutant (grf9), and GRF9-overexpressing (OE) plants were treated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to induce mild water stress. OE plant showed better whole-plant growth and root growth than the wild type under normal or water stress conditions while the grf9 mutant showed worse growth. In OE plants, GRF9 favours the allocation of shoot carbon to roots. In addition, GRF9 enhanced proton extrusion, mainly in the root elongation zone and root hair zone, and maintained root growth under mild water stress. Grafting among the wild type, OE, and grf9 plants showed that when OE plants were used as the scion and GRF9 was overexpressed in the shoot, it enhanced sucrose transport into the root, and when OE plants were used as rootstock and GRF9 was overexpressed in the root, it caused more release of protons into the root surface under water stress. Taken together, the results suggest that under PEG-induced water stress, GRF9 is involved in allocating more carbon from the shoot to the root and enhancing proton secretion in the root growing zone, and this process is important for root response to mild water stress.

  13. QTL meta-analysis of root traits in Brassica napus under contrasting phosphorus supply in two growth systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Thomas, Catherine L.; Xiang, Jinxia; Long, Yan; Wang, Xiaohua; Zou, Jun; Luo, Ziliang; Ding, Guangda; Cai, Hongmei; Graham, Neil S.; Hammond, John P.; King, Graham J.; White, Philip J.; Xu, Fangsen; Broadley, Martin R.; Shi, Lei; Meng, Jinling

    2016-01-01

    A high-density SNP-based genetic linkage map was constructed and integrated with a previous map in the Tapidor x Ningyou7 (TNDH) Brassica napus population, giving a new map with a total of 2041 molecular markers and an average marker density which increased from 0.39 to 0.97 (0.82 SNP bin) per cM. Root and shoot traits were screened under low and ‘normal’ phosphate (Pi) supply using a ‘pouch and wick’ system, and had been screened previously in an agar based system. The P-efficient parent Ningyou7 had a shorter primary root length (PRL), greater lateral root density (LRD) and a greater shoot biomass than the P-inefficient parent Tapidor under both treatments and growth systems. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis identified a total of 131 QTL, and QTL meta-analysis found four integrated QTL across the growth systems. Integration reduced the confidence interval by ~41%. QTL for root and shoot biomass were co-located on chromosome A3 and for lateral root emergence were co-located on chromosomes A4/C4 and C8/C9. There was a major QTL for LRD on chromosome C9 explaining ~18% of the phenotypic variation. QTL underlying an increased LRD may be a useful breeding target for P uptake efficiency in Brassica. PMID:27624881

  14. Green revolution trees: semidwarfism transgenes modify gibberellins, promote root growth, enhance morphological diversity, and reduce competitiveness in hybrid poplar.

    PubMed

    Elias, Ani A; Busov, Victor B; Kosola, Kevin R; Ma, Cathleen; Etherington, Elizabeth; Shevchenko, Olga; Gandhi, Harish; Pearce, David W; Rood, Stewart B; Strauss, Steven H

    2012-10-01

    Semidwarfism has been used extensively in row crops and horticulture to promote yield, reduce lodging, and improve harvest index, and it might have similar benefits for trees for short-rotation forestry or energy plantations, reclamation, phytoremediation, or other applications. We studied the effects of the dominant semidwarfism transgenes GA Insensitive (GAI) and Repressor of GAI-Like, which affect gibberellin (GA) action, and the GA catabolic gene, GA 2-oxidase, in nursery beds and in 2-year-old high-density stands of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba). Twenty-nine traits were analyzed, including measures of growth, morphology, and physiology. Endogenous GA levels were modified in most transgenic events; GA(20) and GA(8), in particular, had strong inverse associations with tree height. Nearly all measured traits varied significantly among genotypes, and several traits interacted with planting density, including aboveground biomass, root-shoot ratio, root fraction, branch angle, and crown depth. Semidwarfism promoted biomass allocation to roots over shoots and substantially increased rooting efficiency with most genes tested. The increased root proportion and increased leaf chlorophyll levels were associated with changes in leaf carbon isotope discrimination, indicating altered water use efficiency. Semidwarf trees had dramatically reduced growth when in direct competition with wild-type trees, supporting the hypothesis that semidwarfism genes could be effective tools to mitigate the spread of exotic, hybrid, and transgenic plants in wild and feral populations.

  15. Abscisic Acid Regulation of Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Aquaporin Gene Expression Is Crucial to the Plant Shoot Growth Enhancement Caused by Rhizosphere Humic Acids.

    PubMed

    Olaetxea, Maite; Mora, Verónica; Bacaicoa, Eva; Garnica, María; Fuentes, Marta; Casanova, Esther; Zamarreño, Angel M; Iriarte, Juan C; Etayo, David; Ederra, Iñigo; Gonzalo, Ramón; Baigorri, Roberto; García-Mina, Jose M

    2015-12-01

    The physiological and metabolic mechanisms behind the humic acid-mediated plant growth enhancement are discussed in detail. Experiments using cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants show that the shoot growth enhancement caused by a structurally well-characterized humic acid with sedimentary origin is functionally associated with significant increases in abscisic acid (ABA) root concentration and root hydraulic conductivity. Complementary experiments involving a blocking agent of cell wall pores and water root transport (polyethylenglycol) show that increases in root hydraulic conductivity are essential in the shoot growth-promoting action of the model humic acid. Further experiments involving an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis in root and shoot (fluridone) show that the humic acid-mediated enhancement of both root hydraulic conductivity and shoot growth depended on ABA signaling pathways. These experiments also show that a significant increase in the gene expression of the main root plasma membrane aquaporins is associated with the increase of root hydraulic conductivity caused by the model humic acid. Finally, experimental data suggest that all of these actions of model humic acid on root functionality, which are linked to its beneficial action on plant shoot growth, are likely related to the conformational structure of humic acid in solution and its interaction with the cell wall at the root surface.

  16. Abscisic Acid Regulation of Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Aquaporin Gene Expression Is Crucial to the Plant Shoot Growth Enhancement Caused by Rhizosphere Humic Acids1

    PubMed Central

    Bacaicoa, Eva; Garnica, María; Fuentes, Marta; Casanova, Esther; Etayo, David; Ederra, Iñigo; Gonzalo, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and metabolic mechanisms behind the humic acid-mediated plant growth enhancement are discussed in detail. Experiments using cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants show that the shoot growth enhancement caused by a structurally well-characterized humic acid with sedimentary origin is functionally associated with significant increases in abscisic acid (ABA) root concentration and root hydraulic conductivity. Complementary experiments involving a blocking agent of cell wall pores and water root transport (polyethylenglycol) show that increases in root hydraulic conductivity are essential in the shoot growth-promoting action of the model humic acid. Further experiments involving an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis in root and shoot (fluridone) show that the humic acid-mediated enhancement of both root hydraulic conductivity and shoot growth depended on ABA signaling pathways. These experiments also show that a significant increase in the gene expression of the main root plasma membrane aquaporins is associated with the increase of root hydraulic conductivity caused by the model humic acid. Finally, experimental data suggest that all of these actions of model humic acid on root functionality, which are linked to its beneficial action on plant shoot growth, are likely related to the conformational structure of humic acid in solution and its interaction with the cell wall at the root surface. PMID:26450705

  17. Root growth and function of three Mojave Desert grasses in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yoder, C.K.; Vivin, P.; DeFalco, L.A.; Seemann, J.R.; Nowak, R.S.

    2000-01-01

    Root growth and physiological responses to elevated CO2 were investigated for three important Mojave Desert grasses: the C3 perennial Achnatherum hymenoides, the C4 perennial Pleuraphis rigida and the C3 annual Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens. Seeds of each species were grown at ambient (360 μl l−1) or elevated (1000 μl l−1) CO2 in a glasshouse and harvested at three phenological stages: vegetative, anthesis and seed fill. Because P. rigida did not flower during the course of this study, harvests for this species represent three vegetative stages. Primary productivity was increased in both C3 grasses in response to elevated CO2 (40 and 19% for A. hymenoides and B. rubens, respectively), but root biomass increased only in the C3 perennial grass. Neither above-ground nor below-ground biomass of the C4 perennial grass was significantly affected by the CO2 treatment. Elevated CO2 did not significantly affect root surface area for any species. Total plant nitrogen was also not statistically different between CO2treatments for any species, indicating no enhanced uptake of N under elevated CO2. Physiological uptake capacities for NO3 and NH4 were not affected by the CO2 treatment during the second harvest; measurements were not made for the first harvest. However, at the third harvest uptake capacity was significantly decreased in response to elevated CO2 for at least one N form in each species. NO3 uptake rates were lower in A. hymenoides and P. rigida, and NH4 uptake rates were lower in B. rubens at elevated CO2. Nitrogen uptake on a whole root-system basis (NO3+NH4uptake capacity × root biomass) was influenced positively by elevated CO2 only for A. hymenoidesafter anthesis. These results suggest that elevated CO2 may result in a competitive advantage forA. hymenoides relative to species that do not increase root-system N uptake capacity. Root respiration measurements normalized to 20 °C were not significantly affected by the CO2treatment. However, specific root

  18. Gene expression regulation in the plant growth promoting Bacillus atrophaeus UCMB-5137 stimulated by maize root exudates.

    PubMed

    Mwita, Liberata; Chan, Wai Yin; Pretorius, Theresa; Lyantagaye, Sylvester L; Lapa, Svitlana V; Avdeeva, Lilia V; Reva, Oleg N

    2016-09-15

    Despite successful use of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) in agriculture, little is known about specific mechanisms of gene regulation facilitating the effective communication between bacteria and plants during plant colonization. Active PGPR strain Bacillus atrophaeus UCMB-5137 was studied in this research. RNA sequencing profiles were generated in experiments where root exudate stimulations were used to mimic interactions between bacteria and plants. It was found that the gene regulation in B. atrophaeus UCMB-5137 in response to the root exudate stimuli differed from the reported gene regulation at similar conditions in B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42, which was considered as a paradigm PGPR. This difference was explained by hypersensitivity of UCMB-5137 to the root exudate stimuli impelling it to a sessile root colonization behavior through the CcpA-CodY-AbrB regulation. It was found that the transcriptional factor DegU also could play an important role in gene regulations during plant colonization. A significant stress caused by the root exudates on in vitro cultivated B. atrophaeus UCMB-5137 was noticed and discussed. Multiple cases of conflicted gene regulations showed scantiness of our knowledge on the regulatory network in Bacillus. Some of these conflicted regulations could be explained by interference of non-coding RNA (ncRNA). Search through differential expressed intergenic regions revealed 49 putative loci of ncRNA regulated by the root exudate stimuli. Possible target mRNA were predicted and a general regulatory network of B. atrophaeus UCMB-5137 genome was designed.

  19. Quantitative phosphoproteomics after auxin-stimulated lateral root induction identifies an SNX1 protein phosphorylation site required for growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongtao; Zhou, Houjiang; Berke, Lidija; Heck, Albert J R; Mohammed, Shabaz; Scheres, Ben; Menke, Frank L H

    2013-05-01

    Protein phosphorylation is instrumental to early signaling events. Studying system-wide phosphorylation in relation to processes under investigation requires a quantitative proteomics approach. In Arabidopsis, auxin application can induce pericycle cell divisions and lateral root formation. Initiation of lateral root formation requires transcriptional reprogramming following auxin-mediated degradation of transcriptional repressors. The immediate early signaling events prior to this derepression are virtually uncharacterized. To identify the signal molecules responding to auxin application, we used a lateral root-inducible system that was previously developed to trigger synchronous division of pericycle cells. To identify and quantify the early signaling events following this induction, we combined (15)N-based metabolic labeling and phosphopeptide enrichment and applied a mass spectrometry-based approach. In total, 3068 phosphopeptides were identified from auxin-treated root tissue. This root proteome dataset contains largely phosphopeptides not previously reported and represents one of the largest quantitative phosphoprotein datasets from Arabidopsis to date. Key proteins responding to auxin treatment included the multidrug resistance-like and PIN2 auxin carriers, auxin response factor2 (ARF2), suppressor of auxin resistance 3 (SAR3), and sorting nexin1 (SNX1). Mutational analysis of serine 16 of SNX1 showed that overexpression of the mutated forms of SNX1 led to retarded growth and reduction of lateral root formation due to the reduced outgrowth of the primordium, showing proof of principle for our approach.

  20. Engineering the expression level of cytosolic nucleoside diphosphate kinase in transgenic Solanum tuberosum roots alters growth, respiration and carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dorion, Sonia; Clendenning, Audrey; Rivoal, Jean

    2017-03-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) is a ubiquitous enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the γ-phosphate from a donor nucleoside triphosphate to an acceptor nucleoside diphosphate. In this study we used a targeted metabolomic approach and measurement of physiological parameters to report the effects of the genetic manipulation of cytosolic NDPK (NDPK1) expression on physiology and carbon metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum) roots. Sense and antisense NDPK1 constructs were introduced in potato using Agrobacterium rhizogenes to generate a population of root clones displaying a 40-fold difference in NDPK activity. Root growth, O2 uptake, flux of carbon between sucrose and CO2 , levels of reactive oxygen species and some tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates were positively correlated with levels of NDPK1 expression. In addition, NDPK1 levels positively affected UDP-glucose and cellulose contents. The activation state of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, a key enzyme in starch synthesis, was higher in antisense roots than in roots overexpressing NDPK1. Further analyses demonstrated that ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was more oxidized, and therefore less active, in sense clones than antisense clones. Consequently, antisense NDPK1 roots accumulated more starch and the starch to cellulose ratio was negatively affected by the level of NDPK1. These data support the idea that modulation of NDPK1 affects the distribution of carbon between starch and cellulose biosynthetic pathways.

  1. Initial net CO2 uptake responses and root growth for a CAM community placed in a closed environment.

    PubMed

    Nobel, Park S; Bobich, Edward G

    2002-11-01

    To help understand carbon balance between shoots and developing roots, 41 bare-root crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants native to the Sonoran Desert were studied in a glass-panelled sealable room at day/night air temperatures of 25/15 degrees C. Net CO(2) uptake by the community of Agave schottii, Carnegia gigantea, Cylindropuntia versicolor, Ferocactus wislizenii and Opuntia engelmannii occurred 3 weeks after watering. At 4 weeks, the net CO(2) uptake rate measured for south-east-facing younger parts of the shoots averaged 1.94 micro mol m(-2) s(-1) at night, considerably higher than the community-level nocturnal net CO(2) uptake averaged over the total shoot surface, primarily reflecting the influences of surface orientation on radiation interception (predicted net CO(2) uptake is twice as high for south-east-facing surfaces compared with all compass directions). Estimated growth plus maintenance respiration of the roots averaged 0.10 micro mol m(-2) s(-1) over the 13-week period, when the community had a net carbon gain from the atmosphere of 4 mol C while the structural C incorporated into the roots was 23 mol. Thus, these five CAM species diverted all net C uptake over the 13-week period plus some existing shoot C to newly developing roots. Only after sufficient roots develop to support shoot water and nutrient requirements will the plant community have net above-ground biomass gains.

  2. Analysis of effects of a new environmental pollutant, bisphenol A, on antioxidant systems in soybean roots at different growth stages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiazhi; Li, Xingyi; Zhou, Li; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-03-31

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial raw material. Because of its widespread use and increasing release into environment, BPA has become a new environmental pollutant. Previous studies about BPA's effects in plants focus on a certain growth stage. However, the plant's response to pollutants varies at different growth stages. Therefore, in this work, BPA's effects in soybean roots at different growth stages were investigated by determining the reactive oxygen species levels, membrane lipid fatty acid composition, membrane lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant systems. The results showed that low-dose BPA exposure slightly caused membrane lipid peroxidation but didn't activate antioxidant systems at the seedling stage, and this exposure did not affect above process at other growth stages; high-dose BPA increased reactive oxygen species levels and then caused membrane lipid peroxidation at all growth stages although it activated antioxidant systems, and these effects were weaker with prolonging the growth stages. The recovery degree after withdrawal of BPA exposure was negatively related to BPA dose, but was positively related to growth stage. Taken together, the effects of BPA on antioxidant systems in soybean roots were associated with BPA exposure dose and soybean growth stage.

  3. Analysis of effects of a new environmental pollutant, bisphenol A, on antioxidant systems in soybean roots at different growth stages

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiazhi; Li, Xingyi; Zhou, Li; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial raw material. Because of its widespread use and increasing release into environment, BPA has become a new environmental pollutant. Previous studies about BPA’s effects in plants focus on a certain growth stage. However, the plant’s response to pollutants varies at different growth stages. Therefore, in this work, BPA’s effects in soybean roots at different growth stages were investigated by determining the reactive oxygen species levels, membrane lipid fatty acid composition, membrane lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant systems. The results showed that low-dose BPA exposure slightly caused membrane lipid peroxidation but didn’t activate antioxidant systems at the seedling stage, and this exposure did not affect above process at other growth stages; high-dose BPA increased reactive oxygen species levels and then caused membrane lipid peroxidation at all growth stages although it activated antioxidant systems, and these effects were weaker with prolonging the growth stages. The recovery degree after withdrawal of BPA exposure was negatively related to BPA dose, but was positively related to growth stage. Taken together, the effects of BPA on antioxidant systems in soybean roots were associated with BPA exposure dose and soybean growth stage. PMID:27030053

  4. Analysis of effects of a new environmental pollutant, bisphenol A, on antioxidant systems in soybean roots at different growth stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiazhi; Li, Xingyi; Zhou, Li; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial raw material. Because of its widespread use and increasing release into environment, BPA has become a new environmental pollutant. Previous studies about BPA’s effects in plants focus on a certain growth stage. However, the plant’s response to pollutants varies at different growth stages. Therefore, in this work, BPA’s effects in soybean roots at different growth stages were investigated by determining the reactive oxygen species levels, membrane lipid fatty acid composition, membrane lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant systems. The results showed that low-dose BPA exposure slightly caused membrane lipid peroxidation but didn’t activate antioxidant systems at the seedling stage, and this exposure did not affect above process at other growth stages; high-dose BPA increased reactive oxygen species levels and then caused membrane lipid peroxidation at all growth stages although it activated antioxidant systems, and these effects were weaker with prolonging the growth stages. The recovery degree after withdrawal of BPA exposure was negatively related to BPA dose, but was positively related to growth stage. Taken together, the effects of BPA on antioxidant systems in soybean roots were associated with BPA exposure dose and soybean growth stage.

  5. Advanced nutrient root feeding system for conveyer-type cylindrical plant growth facilities developed for microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Smolyanina, Svetlana O.; Krivobok, Anna; Krivobok, Nikolay

    A new brand of cylindrical conveyer-type space plant growth facilities (PGF) has been created to improve of cosmonauts’ diet in the microgravity conditions. Up to date several ground prototypes of the space PGF have been made and tested: “Phytocycle”, “Vitacycle”, “Phytocycle-LED”, “Phytoconveyer”; now the space PGF “Vitacycle-T” for the Russian segment of the ISS is under developing. In the PGFs the ion-exchange salt-saturated fibrous artificial soil (AS) is used as a root medium. We have proposed the system for enrichment of irrigation water by nutrients to decrease of the AS store required for PGF working during the long space mission. The system includes root modules filled in fibrous ion-exchange AS, the enrichment column with crumble salt-saturation ion-exchange resin and the cassette with slow releasing fertilizer (SRF). Both substrates (ion-exchange resin and SRF) are necessary because of the SRF contains mostly N, P and K but another three essential elements S, Ca, Mg are provided by the ion-exchange resin. In the system water goes throw the enrichment column with ion-exchange resin fertilizing by the nutrients and comes into the mixer cell fertilize equipped with the electrical conductivity sensor. When the signal of the conductivity sensor is coming to the controller it turns on the pump directed the water flow throw the cassette with SRF until the electric conductivity of the solution in the mixer cell will reach the setpoint. The nutrient root feeding system was tested during 88 days when Chinese cabbage grew in PGF “Phytocycle-LED”. The crop has been continuously illuminated by red and blue LEDs in the PPF ratio 7 to 1; an integral PPF level has been (240 ± 10) µmol/(m2×s). There was no renewal of the used fibrous AS during the experiment. The PGF total electric power consumption was of 0,45 kW. The average fresh biomass productivity of the PGF during steady state working mode was equal 135×g/day per m2 of the illuminated

  6. Image Analysis of the Growth of Globodera pallida and Meloidogyne incognita on Transgenic Tomato Roots Expressing Cystatins

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, H. J.; Urwin, P. E.; Clarke, M. C.; McPherson, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    An approach based on image analysis that enables rapid collection and analysis of nematode size and shape during growth is reported. This technique has been applied to assess Meloidogyne incognita and Globodera pallida during their development over 35 and 42 days, respectively, on transgenic tomato roots expressing the wild-type rice cystatin Oc-I or an engineered variant, Oc-IAD86. Morphometric values were established that subdivided enlarged saccate females from other life stages. Analysis of this data subset indicates that the size of females and the frequency with which they parasitize roots expressing a cystatin are reduced. Results also demonstrate that cystatins can influence the growth of G. pallida prior to the adult stage. Similar image analysis procedures should be generally applicable to the study of host status or erivironmental factors that influence growth rates of plant-parasitic nematodes. PMID:19277136

  7. Enhancing cytokinin synthesis by overexpressing ipt alleviated drought inhibition of root growth through activating ROS-scavenging systems in Agrostis stolonifera

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Burgess, Patrick; Zhang, Xunzhong; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress limits root growth and inhibits cytokinin (CK) production. Increases in CK production through overexpression of isopentenyltransferase (ipt) alleviate drought damages to promote root growth. The objective of this study was to investigate whether CK-regulated root growth was involved in the alteration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and ROS scavenging capacity under drought stress. Wild-type (WT) creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L. ‘Penncross’) and a transgenic line (S41) overexpressing ipt ligated to a senescence-activated promoter (SAG12) were exposed to drought stress for 21 d in growth chambers. SAG12-ipt transgenic S41 developed a more extensive root system under drought stress compared to the WT. Root physiological analysis (electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation) showed that S41 roots exhibited less cellular damage compared to the WT under drought stress. Roots of SAG12-ipt transgenic S41 had significantly higher endogenous CK content than the WT roots under drought stress. ROS (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide) content was significantly lower and content of total and free ascorbate was significantly higher in S41 roots compared to the WT roots under drought stress. Enzymatic assays and transcript abundance analysis showed that superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and dehydroascorbate reductase were significantly higher in S41 roots compared to the WT roots under drought stress. S41 roots also maintained significantly higher alternative respiration rates compared to the WT under drought stress. The improved root growth of transgenic creeping bentgrass may be facilitated by CK-enhanced ROS scavenging through antioxidant accumulation and activation of antioxidant enzymes, as well as higher alternative respiration rates when soil water is limited. PMID:26889010

  8. Enhancing cytokinin synthesis by overexpressing ipt alleviated drought inhibition of root growth through activating ROS-scavenging systems in Agrostis stolonifera.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Burgess, Patrick; Zhang, Xunzhong; Huang, Bingru

    2016-03-01

    Drought stress limits root growth and inhibits cytokinin (CK) production. Increases in CK production through overexpression of isopentenyltransferase (ipt) alleviate drought damages to promote root growth. The objective of this study was to investigate whether CK-regulated root growth was involved in the alteration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and ROS scavenging capacity under drought stress. Wild-type (WT) creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L. 'Penncross') and a transgenic line (S41) overexpressing ipt ligated to a senescence-activated promoter (SAG12) were exposed to drought stress for 21 d in growth chambers. SAG12-ipt transgenic S41 developed a more extensive root system under drought stress compared to the WT. Root physiological analysis (electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation) showed that S41 roots exhibited less cellular damage compared to the WT under drought stress. Roots of SAG12-ipt transgenic S41 had significantly higher endogenous CK content than the WT roots under drought stress. ROS (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide) content was significantly lower and content of total and free ascorbate was significantly higher in S41 roots compared to the WT roots under drought stress. Enzymatic assays and transcript abundance analysis showed that superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and dehydroascorbate reductase were significantly higher in S41 roots compared to the WT roots under drought stress. S41 roots also maintained significantly higher alternative respiration rates compared to the WT under drought stress. The improved root growth of transgenic creeping bentgrass may be facilitated by CK-enhanced ROS scavenging through antioxidant accumulation and activation of antioxidant enzymes, as well as higher alternative respiration rates when soil water is limited.

  9. Growth Promotion-Related miRNAs in Oncidium Orchid Roots Colonized by the Endophytic Fungus Piriformospora indica

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuling; Chen, Peng-Jen; Xu, Xuming; Oelmüller, Ralf; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2014-01-01

    Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, colonizes the roots of a wide range of host plants and establishes various benefits for the plants. In this work, we describe miRNAs which are upregulated in Oncidium orchid roots after colonization by the fungus. Growth promotion and vigorous root development were observed in Oncidium hybrid orchid, while seedlings were colonized by P. indica. We performed a genome-wide expression profiling of small RNAs in Oncidium orchid roots either colonized or not-colonized by P. indica. After sequencing, 24,570,250 and 24744,141 clean reads were obtained from two libraries. 13,736 from 17,036,953 unique sequences showed homology to either 86 miRNA families described in 41 plant species, or to 46 potential novel miRNAs, or to 51 corresponding miRNA precursors. The predicted target genes of these miRNAs are mainly involved in auxin signal perception and transduction, transcription, development and plant defense. The expression analysis of miRNAs and target genes demonstrated the regulatory functions they may participate in. This study revealed that growth stimulation of the Oncidium orchid after colonization by P. indica includes an intricate network of miRNAs and their targets. The symbiotic function of P. indica on Oncidium orchid resembles previous findings on Chinese cabbage. This is the first study on growth regulation and development of Oncidium orchid by miRNAs induced by the symbiotic fungus P. indica. PMID:24409313

  10. Direct and legacy effects of long-term elevated CO₂ on fine root growth and plant-insect interactions.

    PubMed

    Stiling, Peter; Moon, Daniel; Rossi, Anthony; Forkner, Rebecca; Hungate, Bruce A; Day, Frank P; Schroeder, Rachel E; Drake, Bert

    2013-11-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO₂ concentrations alter leaf physiology, with effects that cascade to communities and ecosystems. Yet, responses over cycles of disturbance and recovery are not well known, because most experiments span limited ecological time. We examined the effects of CO₂ on root growth, herbivory and arthropod biodiversity in a woodland from 1996 to 2006, and the legacy of CO₂ enrichment on these processes during the year after the CO₂ treatment ceased. We used minirhizotrons to study root growth, leaf censuses to study herbivory and pitfall traps to determine the effects of elevated CO₂ on arthropod biodiversity. Elevated CO₂ increased fine root biomass, but decreased foliar nitrogen and herbivory on all plant species. Insect biodiversity was unchanged in elevated CO₂. Legacy effects of elevated CO₂ disappeared quickly as fine root growth, foliar nitrogen and herbivory levels recovered in the next growing season following the cessation of elevated CO₂. Although the effects of elevated CO₂ cascade through plants to herbivores, they do not reach other trophic levels, and biodiversity remains unchanged. The legacy of 10 yr of elevated CO₂ on plant-herbivore interactions in this system appear to be minimal, indicating that the effects of elevated CO₂ may not accumulate over cycles of disturbance and recovery.

  11. Can we improve heterosis for root growth of maize by selecting parental inbred lines with different temperature behaviour?

    PubMed Central

    Hund, Andreas; Reimer, Regina; Stamp, Peter; Walter, Achim

    2012-01-01

    Tolerance to high and low temperature is an important breeding aim for Central and Northern Europe, where temperature fluctuations are predicted to increase. However, the extent to which genotypes differ in their response to the whole range of possible temperatures is not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that the combination of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines with differing temperature optima for root growth would lead to superior hybrids. This hypothesis is based on the concept of ‘marginal overdominance’ in which the hybrid expresses higher relative fitness than its parents, summed over all situations. The elongation rates of axile and lateral roots of the reciprocal cross between two flint and two dent inbred lines were assessed at temperatures between 15°C and 40°C. Indeed, the cross between UH005 and UH250 with lateral root growth temperature optima at 34°C and 28°C, respectively, resulted in intermediate hybrids. At temperatures below and above 31°C, the hybrids' root growth was comparable to the better parent, respectively, thereby increasing temperature tolerance of the hybrid compared with its parents. The implications of and reasons for this heterosis effect are discussed in the context of breeding for abiotic stress tolerance and of putatively underlying molecular mechanisms. This finding paves the way for more detailed investigations of this phenomenon in future studies. PMID:22527401

  12. Growth promotion-related miRNAs in Oncidium orchid roots colonized by the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wei; Shen, Chin-Hui; Lin, Yuling; Chen, Peng-Jen; Xu, Xuming; Oelmüller, Ralf; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2014-01-01

    Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, colonizes the roots of a wide range of host plants and establishes various benefits for the plants. In this work, we describe miRNAs which are upregulated in Oncidium orchid roots after colonization by the fungus. Growth promotion and vigorous root development were observed in Oncidium hybrid orchid, while seedlings were colonized by P. indica. We performed a genome-wide expression profiling of small RNAs in Oncidium orchid roots either colonized or not-colonized by P. indica. After sequencing, 24,570,250 and 24744,141 clean reads were obtained from two libraries. 13,736 from 17,036,953 unique sequences showed homology to either 86 miRNA families described in 41 plant species, or to 46 potential novel miRNAs, or to 51 corresponding miRNA precursors. The predicted target genes of these miRNAs are mainly involved in auxin signal perception and transduction, transcription, development and plant defense. The expression analysis of miRNAs and target genes demonstrated the regulatory functions they may participate in. This study revealed that growth stimulation of the Oncidium orchid after colonization by P. indica includes an intricate network of miRNAs and their targets. The symbiotic function of P. indica on Oncidium orchid resembles previous findings on Chinese cabbage. This is the first study on growth regulation and development of Oncidium orchid by miRNAs induced by the symbiotic fungus P. indica.

  13. The Arabidopsis SKU5 gene encodes an extracellular glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein involved in directional root growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedbrook, John C.; Carroll, Kathleen L.; Hung, Kai F.; Masson, Patrick H.; Somerville, Chris R.

    2002-01-01

    To investigate how roots respond to directional cues, we characterized a T-DNA-tagged Arabidopsis mutant named sku5 in which the roots skewed and looped away from the normal downward direction of growth on inclined agar surfaces. sku5 roots and etiolated hypocotyls were slightly shorter than normal and exhibited a counterclockwise (left-handed) axial rotation bias. The surface-dependent skewing phenotype disappeared when the roots penetrated the agar surface, but the axial rotation defect persisted, revealing that these two directional growth processes are separable. The SKU5 gene belongs to a 19-member gene family designated SKS (SKU5 Similar) that is related structurally to the multiple-copper oxidases ascorbate oxidase and laccase. However, the SKS proteins lack several of the conserved copper binding motifs characteristic of copper oxidases, and no enzymatic function could be assigned to the SKU5 protein. Analysis of plants expressing SKU5 reporter constructs and protein gel blot analysis showed that SKU5 was expressed most strongly in expanding tissues. SKU5 was glycosylated and modified by glycosyl phosphatidylinositol and localized to both the plasma membrane and the cell wall. Our observations suggest that SKU5 affects two directional growth processes, possibly by participating in cell wall expansion.

  14. Can we improve heterosis for root growth of maize by selecting parental inbred lines with different temperature behaviour?

    PubMed

    Hund, Andreas; Reimer, Regina; Stamp, Peter; Walter, Achim

    2012-06-05

    Tolerance to high and low temperature is an important breeding aim for Central and Northern Europe, where temperature fluctuations are predicted to increase. However, the extent to which genotypes differ in their response to the whole range of possible temperatures is not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that the combination of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines with differing temperature optima for root growth would lead to superior hybrids. This hypothesis is based on the concept of 'marginal overdominance' in which the hybrid expresses higher relative fitness than its parents, summed over all situations. The elongation rates of axile and lateral roots of the reciprocal cross between two flint and two dent inbred lines were assessed at temperatures between 15°C and 40°C. Indeed, the cross between UH005 and UH250 with lateral root growth temperature optima at 34°C and 28°C, respectively, resulted in intermediate hybrids. At temperatures below and above 31°C, the hybrids' root growth was comparable to the better parent, respectively, thereby increasing temperature tolerance of the hybrid compared with its parents. The implications of and reasons for this heterosis effect are discussed in the context of breeding for abiotic stress tolerance and of putatively underlying molecular mechanisms. This finding paves the way for more detailed investigations of this phenomenon in future studies.

  15. Potassium, phosphorus, or nitrogen limit root allocation, tree growth, or litter production in a lowland tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Wright, S Joseph; Yavitt, Joseph B; Wurzburger, Nina; Turner, Benjamin L; Tanner, Edmund V J; Sayer, Emma J; Santiago, Louis S; Kaspari, Michael; Hedin, Lars O; Harms, Kyle E; Garcia, Milton N; Corre, Marife D

    2011-08-01

    We maintained a factorial nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) addition experiment for 11 years in a humid lowland forest growing on a relatively fertile soil in Panama to evaluate potential nutrient limitation of tree growth rates, fine-litter production, and fine-root biomass. We replicated the eight factorial treatments four times using 32 plots of 40 x 40 m each. The addition of K was associated with significant decreases in stand-level fine-root biomass and, in a companion study of seedlings, decreases in allocation to roots and increases in height growth rates. The addition of K and N together was associated with significant increases in growth rates of saplings and poles (1-10 cm in diameter at breast height) and a further marginally significant decrease in stand-level fine-root biomass. The addition of P was associated with a marginally significant (P = 0.058) increase in fine-litter production that was consistent across all litter fractions. Our experiment provides evidence that N, P, and K all limit forest plants growing on a relatively fertile soil in the lowland tropics, with the strongest evidence for limitation by K among seedlings, saplings, and poles.

  16. Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

    2014-10-01

    The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain, least (P < 0.05) hydrocyanide (HCN) intake and best (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio. Chicks fed with control and diet containing 100 g/kg peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) had the least (P < 0.05) feed cost per weight gain. Chicks fed with diet containing 100 g/kg cassava root meal had higher (P < 0.05) final liveweight and weight gain and reduced (P < 0.05) HCN intake than chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg cassava root meal. Dietary inclusion of peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) for broiler chicks resulted in increased final liveweight (P < 0.05), weight gain (P < 0.01) and feed intake (P < 0.01) when compared with birds fed with diet containing unpeeled cassava root meal (UCRM). The least (P < 0.01) final liveweight and weight gain and worst (P < 0.05) feed-to-gain ratio were obtained with chicks fed with diet containing 200 g/kg UCRM. Increased dietary inclusion levels of cassava root resulted in significant increase (P < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC) count, heterophil count and serum thiocyanate concentration. In comparison with chicks fed with diet containing UCRM, dietary inclusion of PCRM resulted in increased (P < 0.05) red blood cell (RBC) count and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and reduced (P < 0.05) white blood cell (WBC) count and serum

  17. Inhibition of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) root growth by cyanamide is not always accompanied with enhancement of ROS production

    PubMed Central

    Soltys, Dorota; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka; Bogatek, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Mode of action of allelochemicals in target plants is currently widely studied. Cyanamide is one of the newly discovered allelochemical, biosynthesized in hairy vetch. Recently, it has been recognized that cyanamide is plant growth inhibitor, which affects mitosis in root tip cells and causes,e.g., disorder in phytohormonal balance. We also demonstrated that CA may act as oxidative stress agent but it strictly depends on plant species, exposure time and doses. Roots of tomato seedling treated with water solution of 1.2 mM cyanamide did not exhibit elevated reactive oxygen species concentration during the whole culture period. PMID:23428892

  18. Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Radish Sprouts: Root Growth Reduction and Modifications in the Nutritional Value

    PubMed Central

    Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Armendariz, Raul; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2016-01-01

    Reports indicate that silver nanoparticles (nAg) are toxic to vegetation, but little is known about their effects in crop plants. This study examines the impacts of nAg on the physiology and nutritional quality of radish (Raphanus sativus) sprouts. Seeds were germinated and grown for 5 days in nAg suspensions at 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg/L. Seed germination and seedling growth were evaluated with traditional methodologies; the uptake of Ag and nutrients was quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and changes in macromolecules were analyzed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. None of the nAg concentrations reduced seed germination. However, the water content (% of the total weight) was reduced by 1.62, 1.65, and 2.54% with exposure to 125, 250, and 500 mg/L, respectively, compared with the control. At 500 mg/L, the root and shoot lengths were reduced by 47.7 and 40%, with respect to the control. The seedlings exposed to 500 mg/L had 901 ± 150 mg Ag/kg dry wt and significantly less Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Mn, and Zn, compared with the control. The infrared spectroscopy analysis showed changes in the bands corresponding to lipids (3000–2800 cm-1), proteins (1550–1530 cm-1), and structural components of plant cells such as lignin, pectin, and cellulose. These results suggest that nAg could significantly affect the growth, nutrient content and macromolecule conformation in radish sprouts, with unknown consequences for human health. PMID:26909084

  19. PERK–KIPK–KCBP signalling negatively regulates root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, Tania V.; Haasen, Katrina E.; Aldea-Brydges, May Grace; Sun, He; Zayed, Yara; Indriolo, Emily; Goring, Daphne R.

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis proline-rich, extensin-like receptor-like kinases (PERKs) are a small group of receptor-like kinases that are thought to act as sensors at the cell wall through their predicted proline-rich extracellular domains. In this study, we focused on the characterization of a subclade of three Arabidopsis predicted PERK genes, PERK8, -9, and -10, for which no functions were known. Yeast two-hybrid interaction studies were conducted with the PERK8,- 9, and -10 cytosolic kinase domains, and two members of the Arabidopsis AGC VIII kinase family were identified as interacting proteins: AGC1-9 and the closely related kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein (KCBP)-interacting protein kinase (KIPK). As KIPK has been identified previously as an interactor of KCBP, these interactions were also examined further and confirmed in this study. Finally, T-DNA mutants for each gene were screened for altered phenotypes under different conditions, and from these screens, a role for the PERK, KIPK, and KCBP genes in negatively regulating root growth was uncovered. PMID:25262228

  20. Biochemical and Cytological Changes Accompanying Growth and Differentiation in the Roots of Zea mays

    PubMed Central

    Lund, H. A.; Vatter, A. E.; Hanson, J. B.

    1958-01-01

    The apical meristem of the root affords an excellent material with which to study changes in cellular components accompanying growth and differentiation. The ontogeny of cytoplasmic particles can be followed, since the younger cells are constantly dividing and reforming new cytoplasm. Electron microscope pictures of these newly formed cells reveal a dense background of microsomal granules and small, thin walled vesicles of the endoplasmic reticulum. Two types of mitochondria are noted and, as the cells enlarge, mitochondria regarded as immature can no longer be seen, but only mitochondria with well developed cristae. The development of these cristae was found to be associated with an increase in respiration of the tissue as well as with increased rates of oxidation and phosphorylation of isolated mitochondria. As the cells grow and mature, the mitochondria make up an increasing percentage of the total cytoplasmic protein, and this increase probably accounts to a great extent for the increase in tissue respiration. Concomitantly, there is a decrease in microsomal granules. All these changes have been verified by electron microscope pictures of cells in situ, chemical analysis of isolated particulates, and metabolic studies of tissue and isolated fractions. PMID:13502433

  1. Understanding Trichoderma in the root system of Pinus radiata: associations between rhizosphere colonisation and growth promotion for commercially grown seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Pierre; Jones, E Eirian; Hill, Robert A; Stewart, Alison

    2011-08-01

    Two Trichoderma isolates (T. hamatum LU592 and T. atroviride LU132) were tested for their ability to promote the growth and health of commercially grown Pinus radiata seedlings. The colonisation behaviour of the two isolates was investigated to relate rhizosphere competence and root penetration to subsequent effects on plant performance. Trichoderma hamatum LU592 was shown to enhance several plant health and growth parameters. The isolate significantly reduced seedling mortality by up to 29%, and promoted the growth of shoots (e.g. height by up to 16%) and roots (e.g. dry weight by up to 31%). The introduction of LU592 as either seed coat or spray application equally improved seedling health and growth demonstrating the suitability of both application methods for pine nursery situations. However, clear differences in rhizosphere colonisation and root penetration between the two application methods highlighted the need for more research on the impact of inoculum densities. When spray-applied, LU592 was found to be the predominant Trichoderma strain in the plant root system, including bulk potting mix, rhizosphere and endorhizosphere. In contrast, T. atroviride LU132 was shown to colonise the root system poorly, and no biological impact on P. radiata seedlings was detected. This is the first report to demonstrate rhizosphere competence as a useful indicator for determining Trichoderma bio-inoculants for P. radiata. High indigenous Trichoderma populations with similar population dynamics to the introduced strains revealed the limitations of the dilution plating technique, but this constraint was alleviated to some extent by the use of techniques for morphological and molecular identification of the introduced isolates.

  2. Ascending migration of endophytic rhizobia, from roots to leaves, inside rice plants and assessment of benefits to rice growth physiology.

    PubMed

    Chi, Feng; Shen, Shi-Hua; Cheng, Hai-Ping; Jing, Yu-Xiang; Yanni, Youssef G; Dazzo, Frank B

    2005-11-01

    Rhizobia, the root-nodule endosymbionts of leguminous plants, also form natural endophytic associations with roots of important cereal plants. Despite its widespread occurrence, much remains unknown about colonization of cereals by rhizobia. We examined the infection, dissemination, and colonization of healthy rice plant tissues by four species of gfp-tagged rhizobia and their influence on the growth physiology of rice. The results indicated a dynamic infection process beginning with surface colonization of the rhizoplane (especially at lateral root emergence), followed by endophytic colonization within roots, and then ascending endophytic migration into the stem base, leaf sheath, and leaves where they developed high populations. In situ CMEIAS image analysis indicated local endophytic population densities reaching as high as 9 x 10(10) rhizobia per cm3 of infected host tissues, whereas plating experiments indicated rapid, transient or persistent growth depending on the rhizobial strain and rice tissue examined. Rice plants inoculated with certain test strains of gfp-tagged rhizobia produced significantly higher root and shoot biomass; increased their photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration velocity, water utilization efficiency, and flag leaf area (considered to possess the highest photosynthetic activity); and accumulated higher levels of indoleacetic acid and gibberellin growth-regulating phytohormones. Considered collectively, the results indicate that this endophytic plant-bacterium association is far more inclusive, invasive, and dynamic than previously thought, including dissemination in both below-ground and above-ground tissues and enhancement of growth physiology by several rhizobial species, therefore heightening its interest and potential value as a biofertilizer strategy for sustainable agriculture to produce the world's most important cereal crops.

  3. Decreasing methylation of pectin caused by nitric oxide leads to higher aluminium binding in cell walls and greater aluminium sensitivity of wheat roots.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chengliang; Lu, Lingli; Yu, Yan; Liu, Lijuan; Hu, Yan; Ye, Yiquan; Jin, Chongwei; Lin, Xianyong

    2016-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important bioactive molecule involved in cell wall metabolism, which has been recognized as a major target of aluminium (Al) toxicity. We have investigated the effects of Al-induced NO production on cell wall composition and the subsequent Al-binding capacity in roots of an Al-sensitive cultivar of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yang-5). We found that Al exposure induced NO accumulation in the root tips. Eliminating NO production with an NO scavenger (cPTIO) significantly alleviated the Al-induced inhibition of root growth and thus reduced Al accumulation. Elimination of NO, however, did not significantly affect malate efflux or rhizosphere pH changes under Al exposure. Levels of cell wall polysaccharides (pectin, hemicelluloses 1, and hemicelluloses 2) and pectin methylesterase activity, as well as pectin demethylation in the root apex, significantly increased under Al treatment. Exogenous cPTIO application significantly decreased pectin methylesterase activity and increased the degree of methylation of pectin in the root cell wall, thus decreasing the Al-binding capacity of pectin. These results suggest that the Al-induced enhanced production of NO decreases cell wall pectin methylation, thus increasing the Al-binding capacity of pectin and negatively regulating Al tolerance in wheat.

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Adventitious Root Growth Phenotypes in Carnation Stem Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Birlanga, Virginia; Villanova, Joan; Cano, Antonio; Cano, Emilio A.; Acosta, Manuel; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Carnation is one of the most important species on the worldwide market of cut flowers. Commercial carnation cultivars are vegetatively propagated from terminal stem cuttings that undergo a rooting and acclimation process. For some of the new cultivars that are being developed by ornamental breeders, poor adventitious root (AR) formation limits its commercial scaling-up, due to a significant increase in the production costs. We have initiated a genetical-genomics approach to determine the molecular basis of the differences found between carnation cultivars during adventitious rooting. The detailed characterization of AR formation in several carnation cultivars differing in their rooting losses has been performed (i) during commercial production at a breeders’ rooting station and (ii) on a defined media in a controlled environment. Our study reveals the phenotypic signatures that distinguishes the bad-rooting cultivars and provides the appropriate set-up for the molecular identification of the genes involved in AR development in this species. PMID:26230608

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Adventitious Root Growth Phenotypes in Carnation Stem Cuttings.

    PubMed

    Birlanga, Virginia; Villanova, Joan; Cano, Antonio; Cano, Emilio A; Acosta, Manuel; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Carnation is one of the most important species on the worldwide market of cut flowers. Commercial carnation cultivars are vegetatively propagated from terminal stem cuttings that undergo a rooting and acclimation process. For some of the new cultivars that are being developed by ornamental breeders, poor adventitious root (AR) formation limits its commercial scaling-up, due to a significant increase in the production costs. We have initiated a genetical-genomics approach to determine the molecular basis of the differences found between carnation cultivars during adventitious rooting. The detailed characterization of AR formation in several carnation cultivars differing in their rooting losses has been performed (i) during commercial production at a breeders' rooting station and (ii) on a defined media in a controlled environment. Our study reveals the phenotypic signatures that distinguishes the bad-rooting cultivars and provides the appropriate set-up for the molecular identification of the genes involved in AR development in this species.

  6. Effect of soil acidity, soil strength and macropores on root growth and morphology of perennial grass species differing in acid-soil resistance.

    PubMed

    Haling, Rebecca E; Simpson, Richard J; Culvenor, Richard A; Lambers, Hans; Richardson, Alan E

    2011-03-01

    It is unclear whether roots of acid-soil resistant plants have significant advantages, compared with acid-soil sensitive genotypes, when growing in high-strength, acid soils or in acid soils where macropores may allow the effects of soil acidity and strength to be avoided. The responses of root growth and morphology to soil acidity, soil strength and macropores by seedlings of five perennial grass genotypes differing in acid-soil resistance were determined, and the interaction of soil acidity and strength for growth and morphology of roots was investigated. Soil acidity and strength altered root length and architecture, root hair development, and deformed the root tip, especially in acid-soil sensitive genotypes. Root length was restricted to some extent by soil acidity in all genotypes, but the adverse impact of soil acidity on root growth by acid-soil resistant genotypes was greater at high levels of soil strength. Roots reacted to soil acidity when growing in macropores, but elongation through high-strength soil was improved. Soil strength can confound the effect of acidity on root growth, with the sensitivity of acid-resistant genotypes being greater in high-strength soils. This highlights the need to select for genotypes that resist both acidity and high soil strength.

  7. Preparation of Graphene Oxide and Its Mechanism in Promoting Tomato Roots Growth.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jingzhi; Cheng, Fan; Zhang, Xuekun; Xie, Lingli; Li, Zhiyang; Yuan, Chengfei; Xu, Benbo; Zhang, Liming

    2016-04-01

    Graphene oxide is a new kind of nanomaterial. The graphene oxide was prepared and its quality detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), for better understanding of effects of the nanomaterial on plants. Wild type. (WT) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) germplasm 'New Yorker' and corresponding transgenic plants (Prd29A::LeNCED1) were treated with prepared graphene oxide. 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) is a key gene for ABA biosynthesis and overexpression of the NCED resulted in ABA accumulation and higher drought tolerance. Seminal root length in the WT tomato was longer than that in the control samples when the seedlings were treated with 20 mg/L graphene oxide for 15 days. In contrast, the same treatment resulted in shorter seminal root length in the transgenic plants compared with control samples. The graphene oxide treatments led to lower Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Peroxidase (POD), Catalase (CAT) activity and Malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the WT and transgenic plants. 20 mg/L graphene oxide treatment also affected the transcript levels of IAA7, IAA4 and IAA10 but the effect on the wild type and corresponding transgenic plants was different. IAA4 transcription level decreased both in the WT and Prd29A::LeNCED1 transgenic plants while the IAA7 transcription level decreased in the transgenic plants and increased in the WT tomato. The IAA10 transcription level decreased in the WT tomato and increased in the Prd29A::LeNCED1 transgenic plants. Graphene oxide treatments resulted in higher transcription level of ABCG25 and ABCG40 in the WT plants but had no significant effect on transgenic plants. The transcription level of NCED in the WT and Prd29A::LeNCED1 transgenic plants treated with graphene oxide increased significantly, however, it was higher in the transgenic plants than in the WT tomato after 15 d treatment, indicating that the graphene oxide activated the rd29A promoter as does drought and salt. The HD

  8. Transcriptomic analysis reveals that reactive oxygen species and genes encoding lipid transfer protein are associated with tobacco hairy root growth and branch development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jung-Hao; Lin, Hsiao-Han; Liu, Chi-Te; Lin, Ta-Chung; Liu, Li-yu Daisy; Lee, Kung-Ta

    2014-07-01

    The hairy root, a specialized plant tissue that emerges from a cell transformed with transfer DNA (T-DNA) from Agrobacterium rhizogenes, can be used to study root biology and utilized in biotechnological applications. The rol genes are known to participate in the generation of hairy roots; however, the means by which the rol genes contribute to the initiation and the maintenance of hairy roots remains largely unknown. We demonstrated that tobacco hairy roots lacking either rolB or rolC exhibited fewer branch roots and lost their growth ability in long-term subculture. Additionally, a microarray analysis revealed that the expression of several genes encoding lipid transfer proteins (LTP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related genes was significantly suppressed in rolB- or rolC-deficient hairy roots. We found that hairy root clones that exhibited greater branching expressed higher levels of RolB or RolC and the genes encoding LTP identified from the microarray. When hairy roots were compared with intact roots, the expression levels of LTP-encoding genes were dramatically different. In addition, ROS were present at lower levels in rolB- and rolC-deficient hairy roots. We therefore suggest that upregulating LTP and increasing the level of ROS is important for hairy root growth.

  9. Effects of properties of metal-contaminated soils on bacterial bioluminescence activity, seed germination, and root and shoot growth.

    PubMed

    Kang, Il-Mo; Kong, In Chul

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of several factors (metal contents and soil properties) on bacterial bioluminescence activity, seed germination and root/shoot growth of Lactuca in metal-contaminated soils. Each bioassay showed different sensitivities to extractants of soil samples. Average sensitivities of the bioassay were in the following order: root growth > bioluminescence ≥ shoot growth ≥ seed germination. Both total and weak acid-extracted metal contents showed no observable correlations with the activity of any bioassays (r(2) < 0.279). However, reasonable correlations were observed between the bioluminescence activity and organics (r(2) = 0.7198) as well as between root growth and CEC (r(2) = 0.6676). Effects of soils were difficult to generalize since they were dependent on many factors, such as soil properties, metal contents, and the organism used in each test. Nonetheless, these results indicated that a battery of bioassays is an effective strategy for assessment of contaminated soils. Furthermore, specific soil factors were shown to more influence on soil toxicity, depending on the type of bioassay.

  10. Molecular genetic investigations of root gravitropism and other complex growth behaviors using Arabidopsis and Brachypodium as models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Patrick; Barker, Richard; Miller, Nathan; Su, Shih-Hao; Su, Shih-Heng

    2016-07-01

    When growing on hard surfaces, Arabidopsis roots tend to grown downward, as dictated by positive gravitropism. At the same time, surface-derived stimuli promote a wavy pattern of growth that is superimposed to a rightward root-skewing trend. This behavior is believed to facilitate obstacle avoidance in soil. To better understand these complex behaviors, we have isolated and characterized mutations that affect them. Some of these mutations were shown to affect gravitropism whereas others did not. Within the latter group, most of the mutations affected mechanisms that control anisotropic cell expansion. We have also characterized mutations that affect early steps of gravity signal transduction within the gravity-sensing columella cells of the root cap. Upon reorientation within the gravity field, starch-filled plastids sediment to the bottom-side of these cells, triggering a pathway that leads to re-localization of auxin efflux facilitators to the bottom membrane. Lateral auxin transport toward the bottom flank ensues, leading to gravitropic curvature. Several of the mutations we characterized affect genes that encode proteins associated with the vesicle trafficking pathway needed for this cell polarization. Other mutations were shown to affect components of the plastid outer envelope protein import complex (TOC). Their functional analysis suggests an active role for plastids in gravity signal transduction, beyond a simple contribution as sedimenting gravity susceptors. Because most cultivated crops are monocots, not dicots like Arabidopsis, we have also initiated studies of root-growth behavior with Brachypodium distachyon. When responding to a gravistimulus, the roots of Brachypodium seedlings develop a strong downward curvature that proceeds until the tip reaches a ~50-degree curvature. At that time, an oscillatory tip movement occurs while the root continues its downward reorientation. These root-tip oscillations also occur if roots are allowed to simply grow

  11. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Tian, Zhongwei; Muhammad, Abid; Zhang, Yixuan; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+) conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive) and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant) with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN) as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3-) nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)) and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product) were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT). With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots, further

  12. Root cortical aerenchyma enhances the growth of maize on soils with suboptimal availability of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.

    PubMed

    Postma, Johannes Auke; Lynch, Jonathan Paul

    2011-07-01

    Root cortical aerenchyma (RCA) is induced by hypoxia, drought, and several nutrient deficiencies. Previous research showed that RCA formation reduces the respiration and nutrient content of root tissue. We used SimRoot, a functional-structural model, to provide quantitative support for the hypothesis that RCA formation is a useful adaptation to suboptimal availability of phosphorus, nitrogen, and potassium by reducing the metabolic costs of soil exploration in maize (Zea mays). RCA increased the growth of simulated 40-d-old maize plants up to 55%, 54%, or 72% on low nitrogen, phosphorus, or potassium soil, respectively, and reduced critical fertility levels by 13%, 12%, or 7%, respectively. The greater utility of RCA on low-potassium soils is associated with the fact that root growth in potassium-deficient plants was more carbon limited than in phosphorus- and nitrogen-deficient plants. In contrast to potassium-deficient plants, phosphorus- and nitrogen-deficient plants allocate more carbon to the root system as the deficiency develops. The utility of RCA also depended on other root phenes and environmental factors. On low-phosphorus soils (7.5 μM), the utility of RCA was 2.9 times greater in plants with increased lateral branching density than in plants with normal branching. On low-nitrate soils, the utility of RCA formation was 56% greater in coarser soils with high nitrate leaching. Large genetic variation in RCA formation and the utility of RCA for a range of stresses position RCA as an interesting crop-breeding target for enhanced soil resource acquisition.

  13. Gentiana dinarica Beck hairy root cultures and evaluation of factors affecting growth and xanthone production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The induction and establishment of hairy root cultures of Gentiana dinarica using two strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes (A4M70GUS and 15834/PI) is reported for the first time. Hairy roots were formed from the shoots 25 days after inoculation, and strain 15834/PI had higher induction rate of hairy ...

  14. PATTERNS OF ROOT GROWTH, TURNOVER, AND DISTRIBUTION IN DIFFERENT AGED PONDEROSA PINE STANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this study are to examine the spatial distribution of roots in relation to canopy size and tree distribution, and to determine if rates of fine root production and turnover are similar in the different aged stands. During the fall of 1998, 54 clear plexiglass t...

  15. Root growth and uptake dynamics under different drip-irrigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, A.; Assouline, S.

    2009-04-01

    Root uptake of water and nutrients is a dominant and crucial component in the design of efficient irrigation and fertigation practices for applications ranging from conventional irrigation to highly-advanced high frequency irrigation practices, as well towards other unique uses of land and water resources. Nevertheless, root water and nutrient uptake is often ignored or oversimplified when simulating soil water flow and solute transport. This is primarily so because of the a-priori unknown dynamic processes of root uptake, especially when coupled with spatially heterogeneous soil water and nutrient distributions. In this research we investigate the spatial and temporal patterns of root water uptake, and the way these patterns are influenced by environmental conditions. We consider the soil-root system as continuum. Our greenhouse setup includes sweet bell pepper grown in sand under three different irrigation schemes, differing in the rate at which water is applied (high rate, small rate, and pulses). For each scheme we have two cylindrical growing chambers equipped with 96 ERT electrodes (one with and one without a plant), similar chambers with TDR probes, continuous weighting of chambers and of drainage, and 12 equal dimensions sacks for bi-weekly mapping of root presence. The experimental set-up enables the quantification of the dynamics of the root system, the total water uptake, the water regime within the growing medium, and the spatial and temporal distribution of the uptake function within the root zone by means of the ERT data.

  16. Induced carbon reallocation and compensatory growth as root herbivore tolerance mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Upon attack by leaf-herbivores, many plants reallocate photoassimilates below ground. However, little is known about how plants respond when the roots themselves come under attack. We investigated this aspect in maize seedlings infested by the specialist root herbivore Diabrotica virgifera. By using...

  17. ROOT GROWTH AND TURNOVER IN DIFFERENT AGED PONDEROSA PINE STANDS IN OREGON, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impacts of pollution and climate change on soil carbon dynamics are poorly understood, in part due to a lack of information regarding root production and turnover in natural ecosystems. In order to examine how root dynamics change with stand age in ponderosa pine forests (...

  18. Glucose inhibits root meristem growth via ABA INSENSITIVE 5, which represses PIN1 accumulation and auxin activity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ting-Ting; Xu, Heng-Hao; Zhang, Kun-Xiao; Guo, Ting-Ting; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2014-06-01

    Glucose functions as a hormone-like signalling molecule that modulates plant growth and development in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the role of glucose in root elongation remains elusive. Our study demonstrates that high concentrations of glucose reduce the size of the root meristem zone by repressing PIN1 accumulation and thereby reducing auxin levels. In addition, we verified the involvement of ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) in this process by showing that abi5-1 is less sensitive to glucose than the wild type, whereas glucose induces ABI5 expression and the inducible overexpression of ABI5 reduces the size of the root meristem zone. Furthermore, the inducible overexpression of ABI5 in PIN1::PIN1-GFP plants reduces the level of PIN1-GFP, but glucose reduces the level of PIN1-GFP to a lesser extent in abi5-1 PIN1::PIN1-GFP plants than in the PIN1::PIN1-GFP control, suggesting that ABI5 is involved in glucose-regulated PIN1 accumulation. Taken together, our data suggest that ABI5 functions in the glucose-mediated inhibition of the root meristem zone by repressing PIN1 accumulation, thus leading to reduced auxin levels in roots.

  19. Copper-induced root growth inhibition of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. involves disturbances in cell division and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Qin, Rong; Wang, Congyue; Chen, Da; Björn, Lars O; Li, Shaoshan

    2015-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is considered to be an indispensable microelement for plants. Excessive Cu, however, is toxic and disturbs several processes in the plant. The present study addressed the effects of ionic Cu (2.0 µM and 8.0 µM) on mitosis, the microtubule cytoskeleton, and DNA in root tip cells of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. to better understand Cu toxicity on plant root systems. The results indicated that Cu accumulated in roots and that root growth was inhibited dramatically in Cu treatment groups. Chromosomal aberrations (for example, C-mitosis, chromosome bridges, chromosome stickiness, and micronucleus) were observed, and the mitotic index decreased during Cu treatments at different concentrations. Microtubules were one of the target sites of Cu toxicity in root tip meristematic cells, and Cu exposure substantially impaired microtubule arrangements. The content of α-tubulin decreased following 36 h of exposure to 2.0 µM or 8.0 µM of Cu in comparison with the control group. Copper increased DNA damage and suppressed cell cycle progression. The above toxic effects became more serious with increasing Cu concentration and prolonged exposure time.

  20. Over-expression of mango (Mangifera indica L.) MiARF2 inhibits root and hypocotyl growth of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bei; Li, Yun-He; Wu, Jian-Yong; Chen, Qi-Zhu; Huang, Xia; Chen, Yun-Feng; Huang, Xue-Lin

    2011-06-01

    An auxin response factor 2 gene, MiARF2, was cloned in our previous study [1] from the cotyledon section of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zihua) during adventitious root formation, which shares an 84% amino acid sequence similarity to Arabidopsis ARF2. This study was to examine the effects of over-expression of the full-length MiARF2 open reading frame on the root and hypocotyl growth in Arabidopsis. Phenotype analysis showed that the T(3) transgenic lines had about 20-30% reduction in the length of hypocotyls and roots of the seedlings in comparison with the wild-type. The transcription levels of ANT and ARGOS genes which play a role in controlling organ size and cell proliferation in the transgenic seedlings also decreased. Therefore, the inhibited root and hypocotyl growth in the transgenic seedlings may be associated with the down-regulated transcription of ANT and ARGOS by the over-expression of MiARF2. This study also suggests that although MiARF2 only has a single DNA-binding domain (DBD), it can function as other ARF-like proteins containing complete DBD, middle region (MR) and carboxy-terminal dimerization domain (CTD).

  1. Influence of low air humidity and low root temperature on water uptake, growth and aquaporin expression in rice plants.

    PubMed

    Kuwagata, Tsuneo; Ishikawa-Sakurai, Junko; Hayashi, Hidehiro; Nagasuga, Kiyoshi; Fukushi, Keiko; Ahamed, Arifa; Takasugi, Katsuko; Katsuhara, Maki; Murai-Hatano, Mari

    2012-08-01

    The effects of low air humidity and low root temperature (LRT) on water uptake, growth and aquaporin gene expression were investigated in rice plants. The daily transpiration of the plants grown at low humidity was 1.5- to 2-fold higher than that at high humidity. LRT at 13°C reduced transpiration, and the extent was larger at lower humidity. LRT also reduced total dry matter production and leaf area expansion, and the extent was again larger at lower humidity. These observations suggest that the suppression of plant growth by LRT is associated with water stress due to decreased water uptake ability of the root. On the other hand, the net assimilation rate was not affected by low humidity and LRT, and water use efficiency was larger for LRT. We found that low humidity induced coordinated up-regulation of many PIP and TIP aquaporin genes in both the leaves and the roots. Expression levels of two root-specific aquaporin genes, OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;5, were increased significantly after 6 and 13 d of LRT exposure. Taken together, we discuss the possibility that aquaporins are part of an integrated response of this crop to low air humidity and LRT.

  2. A dynamic growth model of vegetative soya bean plants: model structure and behaviour under varying root temperature and nitrogen concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, J. T.; Wilkerson, G. G.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Gold, H. J.

    1990-01-01

    A differential equation model of vegetative growth of the soya bean plant (Glycine max (L.) Merrill cv. Ransom') was developed to account for plant growth in a phytotron system under variation of root temperature and nitrogen concentration in nutrient solution. The model was tested by comparing model outputs with data from four different experiments. Model predictions agreed fairly well with measured plant performance over a wide range of root temperatures and over a range of nitrogen concentrations in nutrient solution between 0.5 and 10.0 mmol NO3- in the phytotron environment. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the model was most sensitive to changes in parameters relating to carbohydrate concentration in the plant and nitrogen uptake rate.

  3. Environmental Response and Genomic Regions Correlated with Rice Root Growth and Yield under Drought in the OryzaSNP Panel across Multiple Study Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Len J.; Bartolome, Violeta; Mauleon, Ramil; Vasant, Vivek Deshmuck; Prabakar, Sumeet Mankar; Chelliah, Muthukumar; Kameoka, Emi; Nagendra, K.; Reddy, K. R. Kamalnath; Varma, C. Mohan Kumar; Patil, Kalmeshwar Gouda; Shrestha, Roshi; Al-Shugeairy, Zaniab; Al-Ogaidi, Faez; Munasinghe, Mayuri; Gowda, Veeresh; Semon, Mande; Suralta, Roel R.; Shenoy, Vinay; Vadez, Vincent; Serraj, Rachid; Shashidhar, H. E.; Yamauchi, Akira; Babu, Ranganathan Chandra; Price, Adam; McNally, Kenneth L.; Henry, Amelia

    2015-01-01

    The rapid progress in rice genotyping must be matched by advances in phenotyping. A better understanding of genetic variation in rice for drought response, root traits, and practical methods for studying them are needed. In this study, the OryzaSNP set (20 diverse genotypes that have been genotyped for SNP markers) was phenotyped in a range of field and container studies to study the diversity of rice root growth and response to drought. Of the root traits measured across more than 20 root experiments, root dry weight showed the most stable genotypic performance across studies. The environment (E) component had the strongest effect on yield and root traits. We identified genomic regions correlated with root dry weight, percent deep roots, maximum root depth, and grain yield based on a correlation analysis with the phenotypes and aus, indica, or japonica introgression regions using the SNP data. Two genomic regions were identified as hot spots in which root traits and grain yield were co-located; on chromosome 1 (39.7–40.7 Mb) and on chromosome 8 (20.3–21.9 Mb). Across experiments, the soil type/ growth medium showed more correlations with plant growth than the container dimensions. Although the correlations among studies and genetic co-location of root traits from a range of study systems points to their potential utility to represent responses in field studies, the best correlations were observed when the two setups had some similar properties. Due to the co-location of the identified genomic regions (from introgression block analysis) with QTL for a number of previously reported root and drought traits, these regions are good candidates for detailed characterization to contribute to understanding rice improvement for response to drought. This study also highlights the utility of characterizing a small set of 20 genotypes for root growth, drought response, and related genomic regions. PMID:25909711

  4. Aluminium-induced reduction of plant growth in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is mediated by interrupting auxin transport and accumulation in roots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengyin; Ren, Xiaoyan; Huang, Bingru; Wang, Ge; Zhou, Peng; An, Yuan

    2016-07-20

    The objective of this study was to investigate Al(3+)-induced IAA transport, distribution, and the relation of these two processes to Al(3+)-inhibition of root growth in alfalfa. Alfalfa seedlings with or without apical buds were exposed to 0 or 100 μM AlCl3 and were foliar sprayed with water or 6 mg L(-1) IAA. Aluminium stress resulted in disordered arrangement of cells, deformed cell shapes, altered cell structure, and a shorter length of the meristematic zone in root tips. Aluminium stress significantly decreased the IAA concentration in apical buds and root tips. The distribution of IAA fluorescence signals in root tips was disturbed, and the IAA transportation from shoot base to root tip was inhibited. The highest intensity of fluorescence signals was detected in the apical meristematic zone. Exogenous application of IAA markedly alleviated the Al(3+)-induced inhibition of root growth by increasing IAA accumulation and recovering the damaged cell structure in root tips. In addition, Al(3+) stress up-regulated expression of AUX1 and PIN2 genes. These results indicate that Al(3+)-induced reduction of root growth could be associated with the inhibitions of IAA synthesis in apical buds and IAA transportation in roots, as well as the imbalance of IAA distribution in root tips.

  5. Aluminium-induced reduction of plant growth in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is mediated by interrupting auxin transport and accumulation in roots

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shengyin; Ren, Xiaoyan; Huang, Bingru; Wang, Ge; Zhou, Peng; An, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate Al3+-induced IAA transport, distribution, and the relation of these two processes to Al3+-inhibition of root growth in alfalfa. Alfalfa seedlings with or without apical buds were exposed to 0 or 100 μM AlCl3 and were foliar sprayed with water or 6 mg L−1 IAA. Aluminium stress resulted in disordered arrangement of cells, deformed cell shapes, altered cell structure, and a shorter length of the meristematic zone in root tips. Aluminium stress significantly decreased the IAA concentration in apical buds and root tips. The distribution of IAA fluorescence signals in root tips was disturbed, and the IAA transportation from shoot base to root tip was inhibited. The highest intensity of fluorescence signals was detected in the apical meristematic zone. Exogenous application of IAA markedly alleviated the Al3+-induced inhibition of root growth by increasing IAA accumulation and recovering the damaged cell structure in root tips. In addition, Al3+ stress up-regulated expression of AUX1 and PIN2 genes. These results indicate that Al3+-induced reduction of root growth could be associated with the inhibitions of IAA synthesis in apical buds and IAA transportation in roots, as well as the imbalance of IAA distribution in root tips. PMID:27435109

  6. Root-zone temperatures affect phenology of bud break, flower cluster development, shoot extension growth and gas exchange of 'Braeburn' (Malus domestica) apple trees.

    PubMed

    Greer, Dennis H; Wünsche, Jens N; Norling, Cara L; Wiggins, Harry N

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of root-zone temperature on bud break, flowering, shoot growth and gas exchange of potted mature apple (Malus domestica (Borkh.)) trees with undisturbed roots. Soil respiration was also determined. Potted 'Braeburn' apple trees on M.9 rootstock were grown for 70 days in a constant day/night temperature regime (25/18 degrees C) and one of three constant root-zone temperatures (7, 15 and 25 degrees C). Both the proportion and timing of bud break were significantly enhanced as root-zone temperature increased. Rate of floral cluster opening was also markedly increased with increasing root-zone temperature. Shoot length increased but shoot girth growth declined as root-zone temperatures increased. Soil respiration and leaf photosynthesis generally increased as root-zone temperatures increased. Results indicate that apple trees growing in regions where root zone temperatures are < or = 15 degrees C have delayed bud break and up to 20% fewer clusters than apple trees exposed to root zone temperatures of > or = 15 degrees C. The effect of root-zone temperature on shoot performance may be mediated through the mobilization of root reserves, although the role of phytohormones cannot be discounted. Variation in leaf photosynthesis across the temperature treatments was inadequately explained by stomatal conductance. Given that root growth increases with increasing temperature, changes in sink activity induced by the root-zone temperature treatments provide a possible explanation for the non-stomatal effect on photosynthesis. Irrespective of underlying mechanisms, root-zone temperatures influence bud break and flowering in apple trees.

  7. Crop and Substrate Tests with Single Use Rooting "Pillows" for the VEGGIE Plant Growth Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia; Newsham, Gerard; Caro, Janicce; Stutte, Gary; Morrow, Robert; Wheeler, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    VEGGIE is a small plant production chamber built by ORBITEC. This chamber can be collapsed for easy stowage and deployed in orbit. It is designed for gravity independent operation, and provides 0.17 square m of crop growth area with three primary subsystems: an LED light panel, extendable transparent Teflon bellows to enclose the plants, and a wicking reservoir. VEGGIE would provide the capability for astronauts to grow fresh foods for dietary supplementation. Initial planting concepts tested with the VEGGIE included direct seeding or plug placement on the reservoir surface. These options had issues of salt accumulation and eventual toxicity if the reservoir was filled with nutrient solution, and hardware reuse was limited due to sanitation. In response a rooting packet or "pillow" concept was developed: single-use bags of media containing time release fertilizer with a wicking surface contacting the VEGGIE reservoir. Pillows being tested are small electrostatic bags with a Nitex nylon mesh side, each holding 100 mL of dry media. Six pillows fit in one VEGGIE unit; however pillow size could vary depending on crop selected. Seeds can be planted directly in pillows and planted pillows can be hydrated in space as desired. Our goals were to define optimal media and crops for an ISS mission scenario. Plant tests in pillows were performed in a controlled environment chamber set to habitat-relevant conditions, and capillary reservoir analogs were utilized. Media tested within pillows included: a commercial peat-based potting mix, arcillite (calcined clay), perlite: vermiculite, and peat-based: arcillite blends. Testing included 15 types of leafy greens, snow pea, radish, and herbs. Media performance was crop dependent, but generally plants showed the greatest growth in the peat-based: arcillite mixes. Crops with the best performance in pillows were identified, and testing is underway with select leafy greens examining plant and microbial load response to repeated harvest

  8. Towards systems biology of the gravity response of higher plants -multiscale analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana root growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palme, Klaus; Aubry, D.; Bensch, M.; Schmidt, T.; Ronneberger, O.; Neu, C.; Li, X.; Wang, H.; Santos, F.; Wang, B.; Paponov, I.; Ditengou, F. A.; Teale, W. T.; Volkmann, D.; Baluska, F.; Nonis, A.; Trevisan, S.; Ruperti, B.; Dovzhenko, A.

    Gravity plays a fundamental role in plant growth and development. Up to now, little is known about the molecular organisation of the signal transduction cascades and networks which co-ordinate gravity perception and response. By using an integrated systems biological approach, a systems analysis of gravity perception and the subsequent tightly-regulated growth response is planned in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. This approach will address questions such as: (i) what are the components of gravity signal transduction pathways? (ii) what are the dynamics of these components? (iii) what is their spatio-temporal regulation in different tis-sues? Using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model-we use root growth to obtain insights in the gravity response. New techniques enable identification of the individual genes affected by grav-ity and further integration of transcriptomics and proteomics data into interaction networks and cell communication events that operate during gravitropic curvature. Using systematic multiscale analysis we have identified regulatory networks consisting of transcription factors, the protein degradation machinery, vesicle trafficking and cellular signalling during the gravire-sponse. We developed approach allowing to incorporate key features of the root system across all relevant spatial and temporal scales to describe gene-expression patterns and correlate them with individual gene and protein functions. Combination of high-resolution microscopy and novel computational tools resulted in development of the root 3D model in which quantitative descriptions of cellular network properties and of multicellular interactions important in root growth and gravitropism can be integrated for the first time.

  9. Effects of soil type, fertilization and drought on carbon allocation to root growth and partitioning between secondary metabolism and ectomycorrhizae of Betula papyrifera.

    PubMed

    Kleczewski, Nathan M; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2010-07-01

    Paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh) seedlings were grown in a greenhouse in either subsoil or topsoil in factorial combination with two fertilization and drought regimes to investigate how different soil environments and nutrient availability drive belowground partitioning between growth, secondary metabolism and ectomycorrhizal (EM) associations, and impact drought tolerance of paper birch. Root and total seedling dry biomass, starch, soluble sugars, soluble phenolics, lignin and EM abundance were quantified. In unfertilized topsoil, total plant biomass and root biomass were approximately nine times higher than in unfertilized subsoil, but the root weight ratios did not differ between soils. Root soluble phenolics and lignin were higher in unfertilized subsoil than in unfertilized topsoil, whereas EM abundance was significantly higher in unfertilized topsoil than in unfertilized subsoil. In topsoil, fertilization decreased root biomass and EM abundance and increased root phenolics and lignin. In contrast, fertilization of subsoil increased root biomass but decreased root phenolics and lignin, while EM abundance was unaffected. In both soil types, fertilization reduced root weight ratios. Across soil types, EM abundance was negatively correlated with root soluble sugars, root phenolics and lignin, but this was driven mainly by the responses in the topsoil treatment. Our results show that soil fertility mediates carbon tradeoffs among defense, growth and EM associations.

  10. Reduced expression of the SHORT-ROOT gene increases the rates of growth and development in hybrid poplar and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiehua; Andersson-Gunnerås, Sara; Gaboreanu, Ioana; Hertzberg, Magnus; Tucker, Matthew R; Zheng, Bo; Leśniewska, Joanna; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Laux, Thomas; Sandberg, Göran; Jones, Brian

    2011-01-01

    SHORT-ROOT (SHR) is a well characterized regulator of cell division and cell fate determination in the Arabidopsis primary root. However, much less is known about the functions of SHR in the aerial parts of the plant. In this work, we cloned SHR gene from Populus trichocarpa (PtSHR1) as an AtSHR ortholog and down-regulated its expression in hybrid poplar (Populus tremula×P. tremuloides Michx-clone T89) in order to determine its physiological functions in shoot development. Sharing a 90% similarity to AtSHR at amino acid level, PtSHR1 was able to complement the Arabidopsis shr mutant. Down regulation of PtSHR1 led to a strong enhancement of primary (height) and secondary (girth) growth rates in the transgenic poplars. A similar approach in Arabidopsis showed a comparable accelerated growth and development phenotype. Our results suggest that the response to SHR could be dose-dependent and that a partial down-regulation of SHR could lead to enhanced meristem activity and a coordinated acceleration of plant growth in woody species. Therefore, SHR functions in plant growth and development as a regulator of cell division and meristem activity not only in the roots but also in the shoots. Reducing SHR expression in transgenic poplar was shown to lead to significant increases in primary and secondary growth rates. Given the current interest in bioenergy crops, SHR has a broader role as a key regulator of whole plant growth and development and SHR suppression has considerable potential for accelerating biomass accumulation in a variety of species.

  11. Reduced Expression of the SHORT-ROOT Gene Increases the Rates of Growth and Development in Hybrid Poplar and Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiehua; Andersson-Gunnerås, Sara; Gaboreanu, Ioana; Hertzberg, Magnus; Tucker, Matthew R.; Zheng, Bo; Leśniewska, Joanna; Mellerowicz, Ewa J.; Laux, Thomas; Sandberg, Göran; Jones, Brian

    2011-01-01

    SHORT-ROOT (SHR) is a well characterized regulator of cell division and cell fate determination in the Arabidopsis primary root. However, much less is known about the functions of SHR in the aerial parts of the plant. In this work, we cloned SHR gene from Populus trichocarpa (PtSHR1) as an AtSHR ortholog and down-regulated its expression in hybrid poplar (Populus tremula×P. tremuloides Michx-clone T89) in order to determine its physiological functions in shoot development. Sharing a 90% similarity to AtSHR at amino acid level, PtSHR1 was able to complement the Arabidopsis shr mutant. Down regulation of PtSHR1 led to a strong enhancement of primary (height) and secondary (girth) growth rates in the transgenic poplars. A similar approach in Arabidopsis showed a comparable accelerated growth and development phenotype. Our results suggest that the response to SHR could be dose-dependent and that a partial down-regulation of SHR could lead to enhanced meristem activity and a coordinated acceleration of plant growth in woody species. Therefore, SHR functions in plant growth and development as a regulator of cell division and meristem activity not only in the roots but also in the shoots. Reducing SHR expression in transgenic poplar was shown to lead to significant increases in primary and secondary growth rates. Given the current interest in bioenergy crops, SHR has a broader role as a key regulator of whole plant growth and development and SHR suppression has considerable potential for accelerating biomass accumulation in a variety of species. PMID:22194939

  12. Colonization and plant growth promoting characterization of endophytic Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain Zong1 isolated from Sophora alopecuroides root nodules.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Long Fei; Xu, Ya Jun; Ma, Zhan Qiang; Deng, Zhen Shan; Shan, Chang Juan; Wei, Ge Hong

    2013-01-01

    The endophytic strain Zong1 isolated from root nodules of the legume Sophora alopecuroides was characterized by conducting physiological and biochemical tests employing gfp-marking, observing their plant growth promoting characteristics (PGPC) and detecting plant growth parameters of inoculation assays under greenhouse conditions. Results showed that strain Zong1 had an effective growth at 28 ºC after placed at 4-60 ºC for 15 min, had a wide range pH tolerance of 6.0-11.0 and salt tolerance up to 5% of NaCl. Zong1 was resistant to the following antibiotics (μg/mL): Phosphonomycin (100), Penicillin (100) and Ampicillin (100). It could grow in the medium supplemented with 1.2 mmol/L Cu, 0.1% (w/v) methylene blue and 0.1-0.2% (w/v) methyl red, respectively. Zong1 is closely related to Pseudomonas chlororaphis based on analysis the sequence of 16S rRNA gene. Its expression of the gfp gene indicated that strain Zong1 may colonize in root or root nodules and verified by microscopic observation. Furthermore, co-inoculation with Zong1 and SQ1 (Mesorhizobium sp.) showed significant effects compared to single inoculation for the following PGPC parameters: siderophore production, phosphate solubilization, organic acid production, IAA production and antifungal activity in vitro. These results suggest strains P. chlororaphi Zong1 and Mesorhizobium sp. SQ1 have better synergistic or addictive effect. It was noteworthy that each growth index of co-inoculated Zong1+SQ1 in growth assays under greenhouse conditions is higher than those of single inoculation, and showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) when compared to a negative control. Therefore, as an endophyte P. chlororaphis Zong1 may play important roles as a potential plant-growth promoting agent.

  13. Isolation and characterization of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria from wheat roots by wheat germ agglutinin labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Liu, Jingyang; Meng, Liyuan; Ma, Zhongyou; Tang, Xinyun; Cao, Yuanyuan; Sun, Leni

    2012-04-01

    Thirty-two isolates were obtained from wheat rhizosphere by wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). Most isolates were able to produce indole acetic acid (65.6%) and siderophores (59.3%), as well as exhibited phosphate solubilization (96.8%). Fourteen isolates displayed three plant growth-promoting traits. Among these strains, two phosphate-dissolving ones, WS29 and WS31, were evaluated for their beneficial effects on the early growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum Wan33). Strain WS29 and WS31 significantly promoted the development of lateral roots by 34.9% and 27.6%, as well as increased the root dry weight by 25.0% and 25.6%, respectively, compared to those of the control. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons and phylogenetic positions, both isolates were determined to belong to the genus Bacillus. The proportion of isolates showing the properties of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) was higher than in previous reports. The efficiency of the isolation of PGPR strains was also greatly increased by WGA labeled with FITC. The present study indicated that WGA could be used as an effective tool for isolating PGPR strains with high affinity to host plants from wheat roots. The proposed approach could facilitate research on biofertilizers or biocontrol agents.

  14. Involvement of the plant antioxidative response in the differential growth sensitivity to salinity of leaves vs roots during cell development.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Nirit; Shoresh, Michal; Xu, Yan; Huang, Bingru

    2010-10-15

    Sensitivity to salinity varies between plant organs and between cells of different developmental stages within a single organ. The physiological and molecular bases for the differential responses are not known. Exposure of plants to salinity is known to induce formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are involved in damage mechanisms but also in cell growth processes. The objective of this study was to elucidate developmental-stage-specific and organ-specific involvement of oxidative defense in the plant response to salinity in maize (Zea mays L.). Plants were grown in nutrient solution containing 1mM NaCl (control) or 80mM NaCl. The oxidative stress response and damage symptoms along the cell developmental gradient in growing and mature tissue of leaves and roots were examined. Unlike leaves, roots did not suffer oxidative damage in either growing or mature cells and demonstrated reduced antioxidant response. This may reflect different requirements of ROS for growth mechanisms of leaf and root cells. In leaves, growing tissue demonstrated higher stimulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity under salinity than mature tissue, whereas mature tissue demonstrated higher stimulation of catalase. These results indicate differential roles for these ROS-scavenging enzymes at different cell developmental stages. Because ROS are required for cell expansion, the higher increase in SOD and APX activities in the growing leaf cells that resulted in reduction of ROS content under salinity could lead to the inhibition of cell growth under salinity.

  15. Root Growth and Uptake Dynamics Under Different Drip-irrigation Strategies: New Insights Using ERT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assouline, S.; Furman, A.

    2008-12-01

    Root uptake of water and nutrients is a dominant and crucial component in the design of efficient irrigation and fertigation practices for applications ranging from conventional irrigation to highly-advanced high frequency irrigation practices, as well towards other unique uses of land and water resources. Nevertheless, root water and nutrient uptake is often ignored or oversimplified when simulating soil water flow and solute transport. This is primarily so because of the a-priori unknown dynamic processes of root uptake, especially when coupled with spatially heterogeneous soil water and nutrient distributions. In this research we investigate the spatial and temporal patterns of root water uptake, and the way these patterns are influenced by environmental conditions. We consider the soil-root system as continuum. Our greenhouse setup includes bell pepper grown in sand under three different irrigation schemes, differing in the rate at which water is applied (high rate, small rate, and pulses). For each scheme we have two cylindrical growing chambers equipped with 96 ERT electrodes (one with and one without a plant), similar chambers with TDR probes, continuous weighting of chambers and of drainage, and 12 equal dimensions sacks for bi- weekly mapping of root presence. The experimental set-up enables the quantification of the dynamics of the root system, the total water uptake, the water regime within the growing medium, and the spatial and temporal distribution of the uptake function within the root zone by means of the ERT data, for each of the irrigation schemes. Preliminary results indicate significant difference in the root development and functionality for the different environmental conditions applied, up to 100 percents difference in uptake.

  16. Rhizoslides: paper-based growth system for non-destructive, high throughput phenotyping of root development by means of image analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A quantitative characterization of root system architecture is currently being attempted for various reasons. Non-destructive, rapid analyses of root system architecture are difficult to perform due to the hidden nature of the root. Hence, improved methods to measure root architecture are necessary to support knowledge-based plant breeding and to analyse root growth responses to environmental changes. Here, we report on the development of a novel method to reveal growth and architecture of maize root systems. Results The method is based on the cultivation of different root types within several layers of two-dimensional, large (50 × 60 cm) plates (rhizoslides). A central plexiglass screen stabilizes the system and is covered on both sides with germination paper providing water and nutrients for the developing root, followed by a transparent cover foil to prevent the roots from falling dry and to stabilize the system. The embryonic roots grow hidden between a Plexiglas surface and paper, whereas crown roots grow visible between paper and the transparent cover. Long cultivation with good image quality up to 20 days (four fully developed leaves) was enhanced by suppressing fungi with a fungicide. Based on hyperspectral microscopy imaging, the quality of different germination papers was tested and three provided sufficient contrast to distinguish between roots and background (segmentation). Illumination, image acquisition and segmentation were optimised to facilitate efficient root image analysis. Several software packages were evaluated with regard to their precision and the time investment needed to measure root system architecture. The software 'Smart Root’ allowed precise evaluation of root development but needed substantial user interference. 'GiaRoots’ provided the best segmentation method for batch processing in combination with a good analysis of global root characteristics but overestimated root length due to thinning artefacts. 'Whin

  17. Mitigation of antagonistic effects on plant growth due to root co-colonization by dark septate endophytes and ectomycorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Reininger, Vanessa; Sieber, Thomas N

    2013-12-01

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are very common root colonizers of woody plant species. Ascomycetes of the Phialocephala fortinii s.l.-Acephala applanata species complex (PAC) are the main representatives of DSE fungi in forest ecosystems. PAC and mycorrhizal fungi share the same habitat, but interactions among PAC, mycorrhizal fungi and plants are poorly understood. We compared the effects of single and dual inoculation of Norway spruce seedlings with PAC and the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus Hebeloma crustuliniforme on host growth, degree of mycorrhization and density of endophytic PAC biomass. Single colonization by H. crustuliniforme or PAC significantly reduced plant biomass. Dual colonization reduced or neutralized plant growth depression caused by single fungal colonization. The degree of mycorrhization was independent on PAC colonization, and mycorrhization significantly reduced endophytic PAC biomass. Plant biomass of dually colonized plants positively correlated with PAC biomass. These results demonstrate the ability of dual inoculation of PAC and H. crustuliniforme to neutralize plant growth depression caused by single fungal inoculation. Our explanations of enhanced plant growth in dually inoculated plants are the inhibition of PAC during root colonization by the ECM mantle and ECM-mediated access to plant growth-promoting nutrients resulting from the mineralization of the potting medium by PAC.

  18. Effect of altering the root-zone temperature on growth, translocation, carbon exchange rate, and leaf starch accumulation in the tomato.

    PubMed

    Hurewitz, J; Janes, H W

    1983-09-01

    Tomato seedlings (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Vendor) were grown hydroponically with their root systems maintained at a constant temperature for a 2-week period commencing with the appearance of the first true leaf. Based on fresh and dry weight and leaf area, the optimal root-zone temperature for seedling growth was 30 degrees C. The carbon exchange rate of the leaves was also found to increase with rising root-zone temperature up to 30 degrees C. However, a more complex relationship seems to exist between root-zone temperature and the accumulation of (14)C-labeled assimilates in the roots; inasmuch as there is no enhancement in this accumulation at the most growth promoting root-zone temperatures (22-30 degrees C).

  19. Biocontrol of Fusarium Crown and Root Rot and Promotion of Growth of Tomato by Paenibacillus Strains Isolated from Soil

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Sheng Jun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, bacterial strains were isolated from soils from 30 locations of Samcheok, Gangwon province. Of the isolated strains, seven showed potential plant growth promoting and antagonistic activities. Based on cultural and morphological characterization, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these strains were identified as Paenibacillus species. All seven strains produced ammonia, cellulase, hydrocyanic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, protease, phosphatase, and siderophores. They also inhibited the mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici in vitro. The seven Paenibacillus strains enhanced a range of growth parameters in tomato plants under greenhouse conditions, in comparison with non-inoculated control plants. Notably, treatment of tomato plants with one identified strain, P. polymyxa SC09-21, resulted in 80.0% suppression of fusarium crown and root rot under greenhouse conditions. The plant growth promoting and antifungal activity of P. polymyxa SC09-21 identified in this study highlight its potential suitability as a bioinoculant. PMID:25071385

  20. A root-specific wall-associated kinase gene, HvWAK1, regulates root growth and is highly divergent in barley and other cereals.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ravneet; Singh, Kashmir; Singh, Jaswinder

    2013-06-01

    Wall-associated receptor-like kinases (WAKs) are important candidates for directly linking the extracellular matrix with intracellular compartments and are involved in developmental processes and stress response. WAK gene family has been identified in plants such as Arabidopsis and rice. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the WAK1 gene from barley cv. Golden Promise, mapped to chromosome 5H. Three BAC clones corresponding to the WAK fragment were sequenced and the full-length WAK1 gene was characterized. The gene has three exons and two short introns with a coding region of 2,178 bp encoding a protein of 725 amino acids. A regulatory region was analyzed in -1,000 bp sequence upstream to start codon. Using conserved domains database and SMART, various conserved domains such as GUB WAK Bind, epidermal growth factor CA, and protein kinase C as well as other regions like signal peptides, active sites, and transmembrane domains were identified. The gene organization of HvWAK1 was compared with wheat (TaWAK1) and Arabidopsis (AtWAK1), suggesting that the WAK1 gene organization has remained highly conserved. Nonetheless, WAK1 was found to be highly divergent when compared with sequences available from barley cv. Haruna Nijo (50 %), rice (46 %), wheat (21 %), Arabidopsis (25 %), and maize (19 %). This divergence may have facilitated a better adaptation to surrounding environments due to its role in communication between the extracellular matrix, cell, and outer environment. Semiquantitative RT-PCR-based expression analysis indicates HvWAK1 expression is specific to roots. Significant differences in root growth between GP wild type and GP-Ds mutant seedlings were observed under control and salt stress conditions.